Sample records for bunker silos

  1. Sealing type effect on corn silage quality in bunker silos

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mikael Neumann; Guilherme Fernando Mattos Leão; Eloize Jaqueline Askel; Fabiano Marafon; Danúbia Nogueira Figueira; Mailson Poczynek

    .... Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of two sealing types on dry matter recovery rate, aerobic stability, nutritional composition, and in vitro digestibility of corn silage in bunker silos...

  2. Sealing type effect on corn silage quality in bunker silos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikael Neumann

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Forage conservation in silos depends on the efficiency of silo sealing, among other factors, to minimize aerobic deterioration and consequent qualitative and quantitative losses in silage. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of two sealing types on dry matter recovery rate, aerobic stability, nutritional composition, and in vitro digestibility of corn silage in bunker silos: 110-µm-thick double-sided polyethylene sealing (conventional sealing and110-µm-thick double-sided polyethylene sealing superimposed on 111-µm-thick translucent polyethylene sealing (double sealing. There were no significant differences in nutritional composition of silages between conventional and double sealing. However, the double sealing system was more efficient (P<0.05 in maintaining lower silo temperatures (30.48°C vs. 31.18°C, in dry matter recovery (88.79% vs. 85.64%, and increased in vitro neutral-detergent fiber digestibility (33.04% vs. 24.6%, when compared to the conventional version.

  3. Dry matter losses of grass, lucerne and maize silages in bunker silos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte Koehler


    Full Text Available An efficient feed management is important for a sustainable and economic agricultural production. One of the main points for improving the efficiency is the reduction of feed losses. In the present investigation the dry matter (DM losses of grass, lucerne and maize silages in farm scaled bunker silos were analysed. The method of determining DM losses was the total-in versus total-out DM mass flow of the silos, including the determination of DM content and other silage parameters via manual sampling. The results taken from 48 silos showed on average for all investigated crops 9–12% of DM losses. Density and feed out rate showed a negative correlation to DM losses in maize silages. According to the applied method for determining DM losses on farm scale, a guideline of 8% can be suggested for maximum DM losses in bunker silos for grass and maize silages. The described method seems to be applicable for improving the feed management by using largely automated measurements on the harvest and feeding side.

  4. A survey of fermentation products and bacterial communities in corn silage produced in a bunker silo in China. (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Han, Hongyan; Gu, Xueying; Yu, Zhu; Nishino, Naoki


    To evaluate the current practice of corn silage management in China, samples of bunker-made silage were collected from 14 farms within a 500-km radius of Beijing for the analysis of fermentation products and bacterial communities. Mean values for dry matter (DM) content were as low as 250 g/kg in both corn stover (St) and whole crop corn (Wc) silages, and pH values averaged 4.48 and 3.73, respectively. Only three of the 14 silages exhibited a lactic-to-acetic acid ratio > 1.0, indicating that the presence of acetic acid was predominant in fermentation. Although 1,2-propanediol content was marginal in most cases ( 25 g/kg DM. In contrast, 3 St silages had large amounts (> 10 g/kg DM) of butyric acid, and two of the three butyrate silages also had high concentrations of 1-propanol. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis demonstrated that the bacterial community appeared similar in 10 out of the 14 silage samples. Bands indicating Lactobacillus buchneri, L. acetotolerans and Acetobacter pasteurianus were found in both the St and Wc silages, accounting for the high acetic acid content found across silage samples. © 2013 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  5. Improving corn silage quality in the top layer of farm bunker silos through the use of a next-generation barrier film with high impermeability to oxygen. (United States)

    Borreani, G; Tabacco, E


    This study examined the effect on the fermentation, chemical, and microbiological quality of corn silage covered with a new-generation high oxygen barrier film (HOB) made with a special grade of ethylene-vinyl alcohol (EVOH) compared with a standard polyethylene film (PE). Two bunkers (farms 1 and 2) were divided into 2 parts lengthwise so that half of the silo would be covered with PE film and the other with HOB film. Plastic net bags with fresh chopped corn were buried in the upper layer (close to and far from the wall) and in the central part of the bunkers. During spring-summer consumption, the bags were unloaded, weighed, and subsampled to analyze the dry matter (DM) content, neutral detergent fiber and starch contents, pH, lactic and monocarboxylic acids, yeast and mold counts, aerobic and anaerobic spore-former counts, and aerobic stability. We also determined the economic benefit of applying the novel covering. The top layer of silage conserved under the HOB film had a higher lactic acid content and lower pH; lower counts of yeasts, molds, and aerobic and anaerobic spore-formers; higher aerobic stability; and lower DM losses than the silage conserved under the PE film. The use of the HOB film prevented almost all of the silage in the upper layer from spoiling; only 2 out of 32 samples had a mold count >6log10 cfu/g. This led to a net economic gain when the HOB film was used on both farms due to the increased DM recovery and reduced labor time required to clean the upper layer, even though the HOB film cost about 2.3 times more than the PE film. Furthermore, use of the HOB film, which ensures a longer shelf life of silage during consumption, reduced the detrimental effect of yeasts, molds, and aerobic and anaerobic spore-formers on the nutritional and microbiological quality of the unloaded silage. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Bunker purchasing with contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Christian Edinger Munk; Neergaard Jensen, Peter; Pisinger, David


    constraints such as capacity limits, reserve requirements and sulphur content. Contracts are often used for bunker purchasing, ensuring supply and often giving a discounted price. A contract can supply any vessel in a period and port, and is thus a shared resource between vessels, which must be distributed...... optimally to reduce overall costs. The Bunker Purchasing with Contracts Problem has been formulated as a mixed integer programme, which has been Dantzig-Wolfe decomposed. To solve it, a novel column generation algorithm has been developed. The algorithm has been run on a series of real-world instances...... with up to 500+ vessels and 500+ contracts, and provide near optimal solutions. This makes it possible for a major liner shipping company to plan bunker purchasing on a global level, and provides an efficient tool for assessing new contracts....

  7. From MARC silos to Linked Data silos?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osma Suominen


    Seit einiger Zeit stellen Bibliotheken ihre bibliografischen Metadadaten verstärkt offen in Form von Linked Data zur Verfügung. Dabei kommen jedoch ganz unterschiedliche Modelle für die Strukturierung der bibliografischen Daten zur Anwendung. Manche Bibliotheken verwenden ein auf FRBR basierendes Modell mit mehreren Schichten von Entitäten, während andere flache, am Datensatz orientierte Modelle nutzen. Der Wildwuchs bei den Datenmodellen erschwert die Nachnutzung der bibliografischen Daten. Im Ergebnis haben die Bibliotheken die früheren MARC-Silos nur mit zueinander inkompatiblen Linked-Data-Silos vertauscht. Deshalb ist es häufig schwierig, Datensets miteinander zu kombinieren und nachzunutzen. Kleinere Unterschiede in der Datenmodellierung lassen sich zwar durch Schema Mappings in den Griff bekommen, doch erscheint es fraglich, ob die Interoperabilität insgesamt zugenommen hat. Der Beitrag stellt die Ergebnisse einer Studie zu verschiedenen veröffentlichten Sets von bibliografischen Daten vor. Dabei werden auch die unterschiedlichen Modelle betrachtet, um bibliografische Daten als RDF darzustellen, sowie Werkzeuge zur Erzeugung von entsprechenden Daten aus dem MARC-Format. Abschließend wird der von der Finnischen Nationalbibliothek verfolgte Ansatz behandelt.

  8. Nuevo silo – Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt, W.


    Full Text Available The firm Waagner-Biro, collaborating with Farbwerke Hoechst, AG., of Frankfurt, and with assistance from the Austrian Government, has designed and produced a new type of silo, made of steel, intended for use in underdeveloped countries, in emergency areas, and in any zone where silos are needed which can be rapidly assembled and taken down, are light in weight and easy to transport. These silos can contain solids, liquids, and, with a special external treatment, also aggressive chemicals for agricultural purposes.La firma Waagner-Biro, en colaboración con la Farbwerke Hoechst AG de Frankfurt y bajo la eficaz promoción del Gobierno austríaco, fabrica este moderno silo de acero-trevira destinado a cubrir las necesidades de países en vía de desarrollo, de zonas catastróficas y, en general, de cualquier lugar donde se requiera gran rapidez de montaje y desmontaje, poco peso propio y facilidad subsiguiente de transporte y celeridad de entrega. Puede contener productos sólidos y líquidos y, aplicándole un recubrimiento especial, incluso materias químicas biológicamente agresivas.

  9. Silo para cereales. Bandholm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial, Equipo


    Full Text Available El silo de Bandholm, para cereales, construido en la isla de Lolland, tiene una capacidad de 13 a 14.000 toneladas. Esta estructura se ha subdividido en células individuales de unas 400 toneladas de capacidad cada una. La obra ha sido proyectada y construida por Christiani & Nielsen.

  10. Silo Storage Preconceptual Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephanie L. Austad; Patrick W. Bragassa; Kevin M Croft; David S Ferguson; Scott C Gladson; Annette L Shafer; John H Weathersby


    The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) has a need to develop and field a low-cost option for the long-term storage of a variety of radiological material. The storage option’s primary requirement is to provide both environmental and physical protection of the materials. Design criteria for this effort require a low initial cost and minimum maintenance over a 50-year design life. In 1999, Argonne National Laboratory-West was tasked with developing a dry silo storage option for the BN-350 Spent Fuel in Aktau Kazakhstan. Argon’s design consisted of a carbon steel cylinder approximately 16 ft long, 18 in. outside diameter and 0.375 in. wall thickness. The carbon steel silo was protected from corrosion by a duplex coating system consisting of zinc and epoxy. Although the study indicated that the duplex coating design would provide a design life well in excess of the required 50 years, the review board was concerned because of the novelty of the design and the lack of historical use. In 2012, NNSA tasked Idaho National Laboratory (INL) with reinvestigating the silo storage concept and development of alternative corrosion protection strategies. The 2012 study, “Silo Storage Concepts, Cathodic Protection Options Study” (INL/EST-12-26627), concludes that the option which best fits the design criterion is a passive cathotic protection scheme, consisting of a carbon steel tube coated with zinc or a zinc-aluminum alloy encapsulated in either concrete or a cement grout. The hot dipped zinc coating option was considered most efficient, but the flame-sprayed option could be used if a thicker zinc coating was determined to be necessary.

  11. Routing and Scheduling in Tramp Shipping - Integrating Bunker Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilhelmsen, Charlotte; Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper

    A tramp ship operator typically has some contracted cargoes that must be carried and seeks to maximize pro_t by carrying optional cargoes. Hence, tramp ships operate much like taxies following available cargoes and not according to a _xed route network and itinerary as liner ships. Marine fuel...... is referred to as bunker fuel or simply bunker and bunker costs constitute a signi_cant part of the daily operating costs. There can be great variations in bunker prices across bunker ports so it is important to carefully plan bunkering for each ship. As ships operate 24 hours a day, they must refuel during...... operations. Therefore, route and schedule decisions a_ect the options for bunkering. Current practice is, however, to separate the two planning problems by first constructing fleet schedules and then plan bunkering for these fixed schedules. In this paper we explore the effects of integrating bunker planning...

  12. Routing and Scheduling in Tramp Shipping - Integrating Bunker Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilhelmsen, Charlotte; Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper

    A tramp ship operator typically has some contracted cargoes that must be carried and seeks to maximize proFIt by carrying optional cargoes. Hence, tramp ships operate much like taxies following available cargoes and not according to a fixed route network and itinerary as liner ships. Marine fuel...... is referred to as bunker and bunker costs constitute a significant part of the daily operating costs. There can be great variations in bunker prices across bunker ports so it is important to carefully plan bunkering for each ship. As ships operate 24 hours a day, they must refuel during operations. Therefore......, route and schedule decisions affect the options for bunkering. Current practice is, however, to separate the two planning problems by first constructing fleet schedules and then plan bunkering for these fixed schedules. In this paper we explore the effects of integrating bunker planning in the routing...

  13. Tramp ship routing and scheduling with integrated bunker optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilhelmsen, Charlotte; Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper


    A tramp ship operator typically has some contracted cargoes that must be carried and seeks to maximize prot by carrying optional cargoes. Hence, tramp ships operate much like taxies following available cargoes and not according to a fixed route network and itinerary as liner ships. Marine fuel...... is referred to as bunker and bunker costs constitute a significant part of the daily operating costs. There can be great variations in bunker prices across bunker ports so it is important to carefully plan bunkering for each ship. As ships operate 24 hours a day, they must refuel during operations. Therefore......, route and schedule decisions affect the options for bunkering. Current practice is, however, to separate the two planning problems by first constructing fleet schedules and then plan bunkering for these fixed schedules. In this paper we explore the effects of integrating bunker planning in the routing...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Krsnik


    Full Text Available This paper represents the demolition of reinforced concrete silo by blasting. The loadbearing structure was blasted so that the weight of the silo itself done most of the felling (the paper is published in Croatian.

  15. Bunker Hill Sediment Characterization Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neal A. Yancey; Debby F. Bruhn


    The long history of mineral extraction in the Coeur d’Alene Basin has left a legacy of heavy metal laden mine tailings that have accumulated along the Coeur d’Alene River and its tributaries (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2001; Barton, 2002). Silver, lead and zinc were the primary metals of economic interest in the area, but the ores contained other elements that have become environmental hazards including zinc, cadmium, lead, arsenic, nickel, and copper. The metals have contaminated the water and sediments of Lake Coeur d’Alene, and continue to be transported downstream to Spokane Washington via the Spokane River. In 1983, the EPA listed the Bunker Hill Mining and Metallurgical Complex on the National Priorities List. Since that time, many of the most contaminated areas have been stabilized or isolated, however metal contaminants continue to migrate through the basin. Designation as a Superfund site causes significant problems for the economically depressed communities in the area. Identification of primary sources of contamination can help set priorities for cleanup and cleanup options, which can include source removal, water treatment or no action depending on knowledge about the mobility of contaminants relative to water flow. The mobility of contaminant mobility under natural or engineered conditions depends on multiple factors including the physical and chemical state (or speciation) of metals and the range of processes, some of which can be seasonal, that cause mobilization of metals. As a result, it is particularly important to understand metal speciation (National Research Council, 2005) and the link between speciation and the rates of metal migration and the impact of natural or engineered variations in flow, biological activity or water chemistry.

  16. Silo model tests with sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch-Andersen, Jørgen

    Tests have been carried out in a large silo model with Leighton Buzzard Sand. Normal pressures and shear stresses have been measured during tests carried out with inlet and outlet geometry. The filling method is a very important parameter for the strength of the mass and thereby the pressures...

  17. Impact resistance cryogenic bunker fuel tanks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voormeeren, L.O.; Atli-Veltin, B.; Vredeveldt, A.W.


    The increasing use of liquefied natural gas (LNG) as bunker fuel in ships, calls for an elaborate study regarding the risks involved. One particular issue is the vulnerability of cryogenic LNG storage tanks with respect to impact loadings, such as ship collisions and dropped objects. This requires

  18. Selection of demolition silo technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gligorić Miloš


    Full Text Available Demolition represents a sequence of operations that are referring to removal of the objects. Defect, damage or deformations of the objects are just some of the reasons why it accesses different demolition of building structures. The goal of demolition includes the construction of new objects or simply freeing up space for other purposes. For all these reasons, special emphasis should be placed on the technology of the performance of works. The most dominant technologies that are now successfully applied are demolition technology using explosives and demolition technology using mechanization. In this paper, we will try to select optimal demolition technology of silo that has a specific location.

  19. temperature fluctuation inside inert atmosphere silos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    TEMPERATURE FLUCTUATION INSIDE INERT ATMOSPHERE SILOS. E. S. Ajayi, et al. Nigerian Journal of Technology. Vol. 35, No. 3, July 2016. 643 also resist heat flow from solar radiation from outside. This is usually achieved by painting the silo wall with white paint. Some of the advantages of inert atmosphere storage ...

  20. temperature fluctuation inside inert atmosphere silos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    foreigners and involves the use of sophisticated gadgets that cannot be easily adopted by farmer [3]. The factors affecting temperature of grains in store includes the bin or silo size, wall insulation, shading of the bin or silo complex, heat generation by the grain and the surrounding, material of construction and grain agitation ...

  1. temperature fluctuation inside inert atmosphere silos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research was conducted to study temperature fluctuation inside the inert atmosphere silos loaded with wheat, compare the temperature fluctuation across the top, middle and bottom part of the silo in relation to the ambient temperature. Temperature readings of the ambient and at the top, middle and bottom part of the ...

  2. Beating the Bunker: The Effect of PETTLEP Imagery on Golf Bunker Shot Performance (United States)

    Smith, Dave; Wright, Caroline J.; Cantwell, Cara


    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of physical practice with PETTLEP-based (Physical, Environment, Task, Timing, Learning, Emotion and Perspective; Holmes & Collins, 2001) imagery and PETTLEP + physical practice interventions on golf bunker shot performance. Thirty-two male county- or international-level golfers were assigned to one…

  3. Characterization of Fernald Silo 3 Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C.A.


    This report summarizes characterization results for uranium residues from the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) Operable Unit (OU-4). These residues are currently stored in a one-million-gallon concrete silo, Silo 3, at the DOE Fernald Site, Ohio. Characterization of the Silo 3 waste is the first part of a three part study requested by Rocky Mountain Remedial Services (RMRS) through a Work for others Agreement, WFO-00-007, between the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) and RMRS. Parts 2 and 3 of this effort include bench- and pilot-scale testing.

  4. temperature fluctuation inside inert atmosphere silos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    This research was conducted to study temperature fluctuation inside the inert atmosphere silos loaded with wheat, compare ... gases most especially carbondioxide (CO2) is due to safety of ... even to agriculture and resistance of pests to some.

  5. Statistical analysis of silo wall pressures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Berntsen, Kasper Nikolaj


    Previously published silo wall pressure measurements during plug flow of barley in alarge concrete silo are re-analysed under the hypothesis that the wall pressures are gamma-distributed.The fits of the gamma distribution type to the local pressure data from each measuring cell are satisfactory.......However, the estimated parameters of the gamma distributions turn out to be significantly inhomogeneous overthe silo wall surface. This inhomogeneity is attributed to the geometrical imperfections of the silo wall.Motivated by the engineering importance of the problem a mathematical model for constructing astochastic...... gamma-type continuous pressure field is given. The model obeys the necessary equilibrium conditionsof the wall pressure field and reflects the spatial correlation properties as estimated from simultaneouslymeasured pressures at different locations along a horizontal perimeter....

  6. The four silo STK Powderhorn Tape Library

    CERN Document Server

    Patrice Loïez


    A view of the four silo Storage Tek (STK) Powderhorn Tape Library and its control area. Each silo can contain up to 6000 storage slots with cartridges of 10, 20, 25 or 50 GB capacity, reaching a data transfer rate of up to 12 Mbytes/sec. This will form part of the Grid system that will process the huge amounts of data produced at the LHC.

  7. The Tilt of the Elevator Shaft of Bunker Skutina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel KALENDA


    Full Text Available The measurement of deformations of the elevator shaft in the Skutina fortress between the 2nd floor and the depth of 33 m below the surface took place in 2009. These measurements showed that, in addition to the tides, the diurnal thermoelastic wave deforms the body of the bunker, particularly in the NS direction. The amplitude of this deformation depends mainly on the cloudiness (opposite to the irradiance. Morning and evening deformation curves depend mainly on the time of sunrise and the geometry of the body of the bunker (irradiance of the bunker walls and less of the outside temperature.

  8. Los empujes del material almacenado en silos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayuga, Francisco


    Full Text Available The design of silos has been the object of scientific and technical research for a whole century and this has led to great advances in the field. The results have not always been adequately disseminated among the technicians. The aim of this paper is to present the techniques for calculation of the loads of the materials stored in silos, inform about and comment on the standards, introduce the latest works carried out worldwide based on the finite elements method and, lastly, venture an opinion on the changes this may cause in the future.

    Durante un siglo el cálculo de silos ha sido objeto de investigación científica, técnica y aplicada y se han producido grandes avances. Todo este desarrollo no siempre ha sido bien dado a conocer entre los técnicos. El objeto de este artículo es precisamente presentar las técnicas de cálculo de acciones del material almacenado en silos, presentar y comentar la normativa, introducir los últimos trabajos que en el cálculo de silos se están haciendo en todo el mundo basados en la técnica de los elementos finitos y aventurar los cambios que esto va a suponer en un futuro.

  9. Ballistic Missile Silo Door Monitoring Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This paper compares the cost and effectiveness of several potential options that may be used to monitor silo-based ballistic missiles. Silo door monitoring can be used to verify that warheads removed to deactivate or download silo-based ballistic missiles have not been replaced. A precedent for monitoring warhead replacement using reentry vehicle on site inspections (RV-OSIs) and using satellites has been established by START-I and START-II. However, other monitoring options have the potential to be less expensive and more effective. Three options are the most promising if high verification confidence is desired: random monitoring using door sensors; random monitoring using manned or unmanned aircraft; and continuous remote monitoring using unattended door sensors.

  10. The valuation of commercial grain silos | Winckler | Acta Structilia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A grain silo is a unique form of real estate because of its construction, use and income generation. ... Silos are, in essence, income-producing properties, but because the tenant is the owner of grain and oilseed, the income produced by the silo fluctuates from year to year depending on the size of annual grain harvests.

  11. The valuation of commercial grain silos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The determination of income projections, capitalisation rates, discount rates and depreciation percentages in the three methods are virtually impossible to calculate, due to grain silos rarely being sold on the open market (Purnell, 2015). It is clear that one of the methods of valuation will have to be applied to the valuation of.

  12. 33 CFR 104.280 - Security measures for delivery of vessel stores and bunkers. (United States)


    ... vessel stores and bunkers. 104.280 Section 104.280 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 104.280 Security measures for delivery of vessel stores and bunkers. (a) General. The vessel owner or operator must ensure that security measures relating to the delivery of vessel stores and bunkers are...


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holten Sørensen, Thyge; Olsen, Kjeld Jørgen; Behrens, Claus Flensted


    A well-known but complex formalism for the calculation of the leakage dose at the entrance of the linac maze was considered and simplified. These simplifications were based partly on the literature and partly on the authors' own measurements. The authors have included photon scatter originating f...... from the irradiated patient in the formalism. A formalism for two different types of bunkers was developed, and the authors have obtained simple formulas to calculate the dose at the maze entrance for both bunker types....

  14. Time in a Timeless Environment My Life in a Bunker

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 3. Time in a Timeless Environment My Life in a Bunker. L Geetha. General Article Volume 1 Issue 3 March 1996 pp 66-77. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: ...

  15. Influence of particle size in silo discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gella Diego


    Full Text Available Recently Janda et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 248001 (2012] reported an experimental study where it was measured the velocity and volume fraction fields of 1 mm diameter stainless steel beads in the exit of a two-dimensional silo. In that work, they proposed a new expression to predict the flow of granular media in silos which does not explicitly include the particle size as a parameter. Here, we study if effectively, there is not such influence of the particle size in the flux equations as well as investigate any possible effect in the velocity and volume fraction fields. To this end, we have performed high speed motion measurements of these magnitudes in a two-dimensional silo filled with 4 mm diameter beads of stainless steel, the same material than the previous works. A developed tracking program has been implemented to obtain at the same time both, the velocity and volume fraction. The final objective of this work has been to extend and generalize the theoretical framework of Janda et al. for all sizes of particles. We have found that the obtained functionalities are the same than in the 1 mm case, but the exponents and other fitting parameters are different.

  16. Finite element analysis of CFRP reinforced silo structure design method (United States)

    Yuan, Long; Xu, Xinsheng


    Because of poor construction, there is a serious problem of concrete quality in the silo project, which seriously affects the safe use of the structure. Concrete quality problems are mainly seen in three aspects: concrete strength cannot meet the design requirements, concrete cracking phenomenon is serious, and the unreasonable concrete vibration leads to a lot of honeycombs and surface voids. Silos are usually reinforced by carbon fiber cloth in order to ensure the safe use of silos. By the example of an alumina silo in a fly ash plant in Binzhou, Shandong Province, the alumina silo project was tested and examined on site. According to filed test results, the actual concrete strength was determined, and the damage causes of the silo was analysed. Then, a finite element analysis model of this silo was established, the CFRP cloth reinforcement method was adopted to strengthen the silo, and other technology like additional reinforcement, rebar planting, carbon fiber bonding technology was also expounded. The research of this paper is of great significance to the design and construction of silo structure.

  17. Press tour Siloe CEA/GRENOBLE; Voyage de presse Siloe CEA/GRENOBLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The experimental reactor, Siloe, has been stopped the 23 december 1997. This paper of the Cea Grenoble, presents the historical aspects of this reactor and its missions. It gives then a global description of the stopping and dismantling procedure, with the planning, the financing and the human impacts of the operation. The wastes management is also takes into account. (A.L.B.)

  18. Carbon dioxide not suitable for extinguishment of smouldering silo fires: static electricity may cause silo explosion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedlund, Frank Huess


    Smouldering fires in wood pellet silos are not uncommon. The fires are often difficult to deal with and extinguishment is a lengthy process. Injection of inert gasses to prevent oxygen from reaching the smouldering fire zone and suppress combustion is a new firefighting strategy. This article arg...

  19. Efficacy of heat treatment for disinfestation of concrete grain silos (United States)

    Field experiments were conducted in 2007 and 2008 to evaluate heat treatment for disinfestations of empty concrete elevator silos. A Mobile Heat Treatment Unit was used to introduce heat into silos to attain target conditions of 50°C for at least 6 h. Ventilated plastic containers with a capacity of...

  20. Slip-stick excitation and travelling waves excite silo honking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warburton Katarzyna


    Full Text Available Silo honking is the harmonic sound generated by the discharge of a silo filled with a granular material. In industrial storage silos, the acoustic emission during discharge of PET-particles forms a nuisance for the environment and may ultimately result in structural failure. This work investigates the phenomenon experimentally using a laboratory-scale silo, and successfully correlates the frequency of the emitted sound with the periodicity of the mechanical motion of the grains. The key driver is the slip-stick interaction between the wall and the particles, characterized as a wave moving upwards through the silo. A quantitative correlation is established for the first time between the frequency of the sound, measured with an electret microphone, and the slip-frequency, measured with a high-speed camera. In the lower regions of the tube, both the slip-stick motion and the honking sound disappear.

  1. Silo outflow of soft frictionless spheres (United States)

    Ashour, Ahmed; Trittel, Torsten; Börzsönyi, Tamás; Stannarius, Ralf


    Outflow of granular materials from silos is a remarkably complex physical phenomenon that has been extensively studied with simple objects like monodisperse hard disks in two dimensions (2D) and hard spheres in 2D and 3D. For those materials, empirical equations were found that describe the discharge characteristics. Softness adds qualitatively new features to the dynamics and to the character of the flow. We report a study of the outflow of soft, practically frictionless hydrogel spheres from a quasi-2D bin. Prominent features are intermittent clogs, peculiar flow fields in the container, and a pronounced dependence of the flow rate and clogging statistics on the container fill height. The latter is a consequence of the ineffectiveness of Janssen's law: the pressure at the bottom of a bin containing hydrogel spheres grows linearly with the fill height.

  2. Long-Term Monitoring Network Optimization Evaluation for Operable Unit 2, Bunker Hill Mining and Metallurgical Complex Superfund Site, Idaho (United States)

    This report presents a description and evaluation of the ground water and surface water monitoring program associated with the Bunker Hill Mining and Metallurgical Complex Superfund Site (Bunker Hill) Operable Unit (OU) 2.

  3. Exploring the Impact of Silos in Achieving Brand Orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyrd-Jones, Richard I.; Helm, Clive; Munk, Jonas


    the achievement of brand orientation. Through inductive analysis of a case study of an organisation implementing a major brand-revitalisation strategy, this paper demonstrates how, despite a strong brand vision and high level of management commitment, functional silos associated with different mindsets......Brands are widely recognised as important sources of organisational value. Brand orientation describes the extent to which the organisation is orientated around the brand and around maximising brand potential. However, silos or divisions within the culture of an organisation can frustrate...... contributed to the failure of the new brand strategy. The paper concludes with recommendations for the brand platform to be implemented meaningfully and effectively within each silo....

  4. 33 CFR 105.270 - Security measures for delivery of vessel stores and bunkers. (United States)


    ... vessel stores and bunkers. 105.270 Section 105.270 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Requirements § 105.270 Security measures for delivery of vessel stores and bunkers. (a) General. The facility owner or operator must ensure that security measures relating to the delivery of vessel stores and...

  5. Development And Evaluation Of A Prototype Household Wooden Silo

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A prototype household wooden silo with 8 kg capacity for storing shelled maize was designed, constructed and evaluated for performance. The structure was rectangular in shape, of total height of 0.6 m and width of 0.3 m, with a conical top inclined at an angle of 30 º with 0.1 m height and 0.3 m width. The silo had a top ...

  6. Exploring the Impact of Silos in Achieving Brand Orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyrd-Jones, Richard; Helm, Clive; Munk, Jonas

    maximising brand potential. Whilst offering potential to improve our understanding of how brands can be effectively managed and offering practitioners a set of tool to this end, this concept is limited in both its empirical and theoretical foundations. Through a case study this paper documents how functional...... silos are associated with different mindsets that create barriers to the achievement of brand orientation. The case follows a medium sized manufacturing company in its efforts to introduce a brand revitalization strategy across the organization. Despite the strategy having top management full support......, the strategy was not successful due to conflicts in priorities across the functional silos of the organisation. The paper contributes to the literature by highlighting the barriers to the achievement of brand orientation through a focus on silos and mindsets. The paper concludes that the brand platform must...

  7. 30 CFR 57.16002 - Bins, hoppers, silos, tanks, and surge piles. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bins, hoppers, silos, tanks, and surge piles... NONMETAL MINES Materials Storage and Handling § 57.16002 Bins, hoppers, silos, tanks, and surge piles. (a) Bins, hoppers, silos, tanks, and surge piles, where loose unconsolidated materials are stored, handled...

  8. 30 CFR 56.16002 - Bins, hoppers, silos, tanks, and surge piles. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bins, hoppers, silos, tanks, and surge piles... MINES Materials Storage and Handling § 56.16002 Bins, hoppers, silos, tanks, and surge piles. (a) Bins, hoppers, silos, tanks, and surge piles, where loose unconsolidated materials are stored, handled or...

  9. Bunker Conversion and the Overcoming of Siege Mentality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Morgan


    Full Text Available Bunkers are concrete responses to threats, whether these be real or imagined. They are indicators of a defensive attitude and a siege mentality. My paper wishes to analyse specific sites of historical reinscription, where such constructions have undergone a process of cultural transformation which has converted them into places of creative experimentation, ludic activity and everyday use. Such initiatives in translation are important ways of reworking the past, addressing presents needs and projecting different- less reactive, and maybe more pacific- prospects for the future. A similar undertaking was proposed by Henri de Saint-Simon when he diverted the term “avant-garde” away from its military implementation towards more a progressive usage. The “avant-garde” became an experimental association of artists working together for the benefit of society as an evolving whole.In On Social Organisation Saint-Simon described the “avant-garde” as follows:They [the artists, the men of imagination] will lead the way in that great undertaking; they will proclaim the future of mankind; they will bring back the golden age from the past to enrich future generations; they will inspire society with enthusiasm for the increase of its well-being by laying before it a tempting picture of a new prosperity.Economic “prosperity” might well be an appealing prospect for “us”, especially in these times of “crisis” when “we” are made to feel that our day-to-day existence is precarious. However, when Saint-Simon employs the term “new prosperity”, he is envisaging social values that are largely incompatible with capitalist consumer “culture” and competitive “market forces”. His suggestion that new technologies should serve to nationalize “luxury” and internationalise peace would require a radically different approach to social organisation from that prevalent today. Likewise, the demilitarized bunkers I wish to analyse also figure

  10. Temporal evolution of the environmental dose remaining in a clinical irradiation bunker after the cessation of irradiation; Evolucion temporal de la Dosis ambiental remanente en un bunker de irradiacion clinica tras el cese de la irradiacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz Egea, E.; Sanchez Carrascal, M.; Torres Pozas, S.; Monja Ray, P. de la; Perez Molina, J. L.; Madan Rodriguez, C.; Luque Japon, L.; Morera Molina, A.; Hernandez Perez, A.; Barquero Bravo, Y.; Morengo Pedagna, I.; Oliva Gordillo, M. C.; Martin Olivar, R.


    In this paper we try to quantify the dose emitted by different radioactive processes that occur in the head of a clinical linear accelerator and the patient is irradiated, or walls of the bunker, converted into tertiary sources of radiation trying to establish the origin of the came in different parts of the bunker.

  11. Pioneers in Pediatric Psychology: Smashing Silos and Breaking Boundaries. (United States)

    Wertlieb, Donald


    As part of the Pioneers in Pediatric Psychology series, this article provides a brief personal account of my career as a pediatric psychologist. Educational and professional experiences often involved confrontations with silos and boundaries set by traditions limiting understanding and impact on children's healthy development. A pedigree in developmental psychology clashed with identity, guild, and loyalty dimensions of clinical psychology. A research emphasis challenged the emergent harmony of the scientist-practitioner models. The medical center and its silos collided with those of arts and sciences academia. Evolving as an applied developmental scientist specializing in pediatric psychology allowed for a gratifying and meaningful career with a range of scientific, pedagogical, and policy contributions. An abiding orientation toward human rights and social justice sustained progress and generativity. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  12. Use of maze in cyclotron hoppers; Utilizacao de labirinto em bunker de ciclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Fernando A.; Alves, Juliano S.; Fochesatto, Cintia; Cerioli, Luciane; Borges, Joao Alfredo; Gonzalez, Delfin; Silva, Daniel C., E-mail: [Delfin Farmacos e Derivados (Biofarmaco Marcadores Moleculares), Lauro de Freitas, BA (Brazil)


    Introduction: the increasing number of cyclotrons in Brazil due to constitutional amendment 49 /06 that enabled the production of radiopharmaceuticals with a short half - life by private companies. The radionuclides used for PET - CT require production centers near or within the diagnostic centers. In order to minimize maintenance and operating risks, gaining efficiency, our facility was the first in Brazil to use the access to a cyclotron bunker via maze, rather than armored door stopper type. Materials: the design calculations were based on the Monte Carlo method (MCNP5 - Monte Carlo N-Particletransportcode version 5). At the ends of the labyrinth are installed a door of polyethylene, for thermalization of neutrons, and other of wood for limiting access. Both legs of the maze have wall thickness of 100cm. In inspection Brazilian CNEN realize measures of dose rate for neutrons and gamma 9 points: 7 around the bunker, 1 over the bunker and 1 in the exhaust with the cyclotron operating with maximum load, double beam of 50uA for 2 hours. After commissioning were carried out around the bunker, the following measures: cumulative dose in three months with dosimeters for neutron rate dose with a gas proportional detector type filled with {sup 3}He and polyethylene neutron moderator and dose rate with a Geiger - Mueller detector for gamma radiation. Readings with neutron detectors were classified as background radiation and dose rates were always below the limits established in standard EN 3.01, and the calculation of the predicted regardless of the intensity of irradiation inside the bunker. Conclusion: the use of labyrinths as a way to access the bunkers cyclotron has been shown to be effective as the radiation shielding and efficient by allowing quick and easy access, virtually eliminating the maintenance.

  13. Estimating the Operational Effect of a Bunker Levy: The Case of Handymax Bulk Carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kapetanis, George N.; Gkonis, Konstantinos G.; Psaraftis, Harilaos N.

    tool developed within the Laboratory for Maritime Transport of the National Technical University of Athens, simulations will be performed for a specified Bulk carrier and the corresponding to its fleet segment. A bunker levy will be implemented in the program and its effects will be studied in terms...... of speed and transportation work. For this purpose the tool is run for both cases, i.e. single ship and fleet segment, and for two different years 2009 and 2010 with and without the bunker levy....


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengjun Tang


    Full Text Available The silos are widely used in bulk material in many fields such as agriculture, mining, chemical, electric power storage, etc. Thin metal cylindrical silo shells are vulnerable to buckling failure caused by the compressive wall friction force. In this paper, the structural analysis of two types of steel silo with cylindrical-wall bearing and profile-steel bearing is implemented by Abaqus finite element analysis. The results indicate that under the same loading conditions, steel silos with profile-steel bearing and cylindrical-Wall bearing have similar values in Mises stress, but the steel silo with profile-steel bearing has a smaller radial displacement and a better capability of buckling resistance. Meanwhile, the total steel volumes reduced 8.0% comparing to the steel silo with cylindrical-wall bearing. Therefore, steel soil with profile-steel bearing not only has a less steel volumes but also a good stability.

  15. Linear programming model for system optimization from bunker oil mixture; Modelo de programacao linear para otimizacao do sistema de mistura de oleo bunker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stebel, Sergio L.; Magatao, Leandro [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Neves Junior, Flavio; Arruda, L.V.R. de [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica do Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)


    In a refinery, small improvements in final product quality can lead to a significant reduction in production costs. The marine fuel (bunker) blending is an example. Bunker is achieved by blending fixed percentages of 'RASF' (asphalt residue) and 'LCO' (crack diesel fuel), from refining process with 'QUEROSENE' (kerosene) stored in tanks. Nowadays, these fixed percentages are computed from an ideal mixture realized in a laboratory. Considering that the physical/chemical component features vary in accordance with the change in crude oil inventory, this formula is not always valid, and produced bunker is often over specified or need some blending correction. In this work, a simple methodology based on linear programming techniques is develop to optimize these percentages. The resulting formula takes account the features of involved products available on a refinery database. As a result, a mixture is obtained respecting the product limit specifications and minimizing the costs. The application of the developed methodology will also allow an increase in the refinery operational flexibility as well as a reduction in the product stocks involved. (author)

  16. Mechanical Properties of Granular Materials and Their Impact on Load Distribution in Silo: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horabik J.


    Full Text Available Mechanical properties of granular materials and their impact on load distribution in storage silo were discussed with special focus on materials of biological origin. Granular materials classification was briefly outlined. The evolution of constitutive models of granular materials developed in the frame of mechanics of continuum was addressed. Analytical methods, Finite Element Methods (FEM, and Discrete Element Methods (DEM of estimation of silo pressure were discussed. Special attention was paid to the following issues: dynamic pressure switch in the first moment of silo discharge, asymmetry of loads due to eccentric discharge, and impact of uncontrolled increase of moisture content of grain on silo pressures.

  17. 75 FR 8395 - Bunker Hill Groundwater Basin, Riverside-Corona Feeder Project, San Bernardino and Riverside... (United States)


    ... Bureau of Reclamation Bunker Hill Groundwater Basin, Riverside-Corona Feeder Project, San Bernardino and.../EIR for the proposed Riverside-Corona Feeder Project. The public and agencies are invited to comment..., and construction of the Riverside-Corona Feeder Project including: (i) 20 groundwater wells; (ii...

  18. On the use of plate-type normal pressure cells in silos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramirez, Alvaro; Nielsen, Jørgen; Ayuga, F.


    Pressure cells are measuring devices commonly used in silo research to study loads exerted by a granular material stored against a silo wall. The design of normal pressure cells for use in an experimental silo research project is critical, mainly because measuring errors complicate the interpreta......Pressure cells are measuring devices commonly used in silo research to study loads exerted by a granular material stored against a silo wall. The design of normal pressure cells for use in an experimental silo research project is critical, mainly because measuring errors complicate...... the interpretation of results. Once the cells have been delivered from the manufacturer to the researcher, they should be calibrated and validated with reference to the measurement of pressure from a granular material against a silo wall. Two related papers deal with a specific plate-type normal pressure cell...... at a solid basis for the interpretation of the pressure measurements in the silo installation aforementioned. This paper presents calibration results from three investigated methods as well as results from a finite element analysis of the plate deflection of the pressure cell which were performed to evaluate...

  19. Extinguishing smouldering fires in silos. BRANDFORSK project 745-961

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuomisaari, M.; Baroudi, D.; Latva, R. [VTT Building Technology, Espoo (Finland). Building Physics, Building Services and Fire Technology


    Combustible, porous materials may self-ignite during their storage time in silos as a result of internal heating. The self-ignition process may be slow, and it results in smouldering fires that are extremely difficult to extinguish. Suitable means to fight the smouldering fire were studied both theoretically and experimentally. General heat and mass transfer equations for porous media subject to fires and suppression were written. The equations together with dimensional analysis revealed critical parameters, like the grain size and moisture content, affecting the combustion and suppression process, but they also revealed the complexity of the problem. Experimental results of over 50 tests with varying combustibles and suppression agents were used as the basis for proposed qualitative guidelines on how to fight a smouldering silo fire. Among the potential gaseous agents, CO{sub 2} was found to be the most efficient one. Low expansion foam was also found to be a potential candidate, but its applicability requires further confirmation. Quantifying the guidelines requires a whole new study on the detection of a smouldering fire. The same detection system should be capable of monitoring the suppression process and - most importantly - verifying the extinguishment. (orig.) 46 refs.

  20. Lernkonzepte im frühen Management. Die motion studies von Frank Bunker und Lillian Moller Gilbreth


    Althans, Birgit


    Die Autorin untersucht die managementbezogenen Lernkonzepte amerikanischer Industrie des frühen 20. Jahrhunderts am Beispiel des Ehepaars Frank Bunker und Lillian Moller Gilbreth. In einem ersten Schritt wird [Frank Bunker] Gilbreths Methode der motion studies in Differenz zu [Frederick Winslow] Taylors time studies präsentiert und verdeutlicht, warum die Praxis der Gilbreths die Einbeziehung und (Um-)Erziehung des Arbeiters verlangte. Zweitens wird gezeigt, wie diese Praxis in den Schriften ...

  1. Fire Safety Aspects of Polymeric Materials. Volume 10. Mines and Bunkers (United States)


    they are required by law for every mine) they are usually known by their Polish name as "canonical plans". They are, however, gaining increasing...qualitatively and, as far as possible, quantitatively the Polish engineer Budryk suggested the use of a so-called "closed 57 MINESAND BUNKERS schematic plan...system does not readily propa- gate a flame but can propagate fire by " punking " (glowing combustion). "Funking" can be overcome by use of various

  2. Potent phototoxicity of marine bunker oil to translucent herring embryos after prolonged weathering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P Incardona

    Full Text Available Pacific herring embryos (Clupea pallasi spawned three months following the Cosco Busan bunker oil spill in San Francisco Bay showed high rates of late embryonic mortality in the intertidal zone at oiled sites. Dead embryos developed to the hatching stage (e.g. fully pigmented eyes before suffering extensive tissue deterioration. In contrast, embryos incubated subtidally at oiled sites showed evidence of sublethal oil exposure (petroleum-induced cardiac toxicity with very low rates of mortality. These field findings suggested an enhancement of oil toxicity through an interaction between oil and another environmental stressor in the intertidal zone, such as higher levels of sunlight-derived ultraviolet (UV radiation. We tested this hypothesis by exposing herring embryos to both trace levels of weathered Cosco Busan bunker oil and sunlight, with and without protection from UV radiation. Cosco Busan oil and UV co-exposure were both necessary and sufficient to induce an acutely lethal necrotic syndrome in hatching stage embryos that closely mimicked the condition of dead embryos sampled from oiled sites. Tissue levels of known phototoxic polycyclic aromatic compounds were too low to explain the observed degree of phototoxicity, indicating the presence of other unidentified or unmeasured phototoxic compounds derived from bunker oil. These findings provide a parsimonious explanation for the unexpectedly high losses of intertidal herring spawn following the Cosco Busan spill. The chemical composition and associated toxicity of bunker oils should be more thoroughly evaluated to better understand and anticipate the ecological impacts of vessel-derived spills associated with an expanding global transportation network.

  3. SILOS, Reused Machine-Buildings: A Proposal for Its Transformation (United States)

    Garrido-Cifuentes, María; Santiago-Zaragoza, Juan Manuel; Lafuente-Bolívar, Francisco Javier


    Second half of the 20th century: The Spanish rural landscape changes with the imposing profile of Silos. In the urban edge, next to the railroad, they are risen competing in height with church steeples. Today they are inseparable elements of the image of many peoples of cereal geography of any region of Spain. They are consequence of the autarkic economy of that time (storage of grain and state control over distribution and price) Silos were the answer given by the engineering efficiency and economy of means: A type of store operated by screw-conveyor moved with electricity, transport grain to fill high slender square plant cells. Hydraulic push offset between cells that form a matrix-walled plates constructed of thin sheets of brick or concrete block, armed only horizontally. And huge vertical loads carried by thick foundation reinforced concrete pillars. The political regime change and the energy crisis of the late seventies caused these magnificent building-machines stopped being used. Its radical specialization led them to death. After years of neglect and transfer of ownership between administrations, a consciousness has emerged in Spain (National Plan of Industrial Heritage, 2000) that has prevented its demolition, and recognize the values they bring to the landscape and structural-construction of its own, as beautiful works of Engineering which are worth cataloguing / protection. Hence this proposal tries to intervene these giants through new uses, transforming, allowing their conservation. This process investigates various structural types and implements strict standards of construction resolved with efficient construction solutions. The result is returned to society by publishing their work, while stressing heritage values, demonstrates the new strength of these local systems.

  4. Impact of grain storage into silo bags on soil penetration resistance (United States)

    Hernández, Juan Pablo; Alé, Daniel; Sabattini, Rafael; Díaz, Eduardo; Lado, Marcos; González, Antonio Paz


    Big silo sacks or bags ("silo bolsas", in Spanish) are nowadays widely used in Argentina as an innovative technology for grain storage and conservation on the farm. Following the last harvest campaigns, 40.000.000 Toms of grains were stored in silo sacks. A standard silo sack, or silo bag, has a length of about 75 m and is 2.7 m in diameter; when laden with cereal grains, a pressure of 9.8 MPa is applied on the soil surface. Silo sacks are currently installed within agricultural fields, and, after the storage period has finished, the plot they occupied most commonly again is cultivated. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of silo sacks on soil penetration resistance (PR). Two field experiments were performed in sites located at the departments of Paraná and Nogoyá, Entre Ríos province, Argentina. The soils in both sites were classified as Vertisols and contained expansible smectite minerals, mainly montmorillonite. Soil PR was continuously recorded until 80 cm depth. The first experiment, conducted in Paraná department, involved three different treatments with five RP replicated measurements per treatment: a) a plot under a silo bag with regular machinery transit for grain uploading and downloading, and previously used as pasture for livestock, b) a plot under grassland used for mowing and without livestock transit, and c) a plot under woody native vegetation, locally called "Espinal". The second experiment, conducted at Nogoyá department consisted of two treatments, each with for PR replications: a) a plot under silo sack with machinery transit, and b) a control plot located in the neighbouring field. n the first site a significant increase in soil PR (PPR was not significantly different between treatments at the 0-5 cm depth, while significant differences in PR were recorded at the 5-10 cm depth (PPR measurements under silo bag provide information to assess the presence of compacted areas after the end of the storage period that might limit plant

  5. La vida de Santo Domingo de Silos: onirocrítica y semántica


    González, Javier Roberto


    We study the prophetic vision of Santo Domingo de Silos in Gonzalo de Berceo’s Vida de Santo Domingo de Silos, with the aim of: a) analysing the text according to categories of prophecy, vision and dream in medieval christian culture; b) analysing the configuration of oniric images as an allegorical discourse; c) given the limits of allegorical semantics, interpreting those symbolic images characterized by prophetical obscuritas in the light of Grimaldus’ Vita Beati Dominici, source of Berceo...

  6. Reflections on Bills of Lading and Silo Receipts Used in the South African Futures Market


    du Toit, Sarel F


    South African law, as a mixed jurisdiction, is based on both common law and civil law principles. Thelegal rules pertaining to the bill of lading illustrate how divergent legal systems are harmonised in South Africanlaw. Although neither the bill of lading nor the Safex silo receipt can be regarded as negotiable instruments, bothexhibit the characteristics of a document of title. Bulk cargo and grain stored in a silo, however, provide particulardifficulties with regard to effecting symbolical...

  7. Monitorización de las condiciones ambientales de almacenaje de grano en silos


    Portero Chavarria, Javier


    The grain crops stored in silos can be damaged due to bad environmental conditioning inside. This means several losses in the production and a very high cost for the producer. To avoid these problems, it‟s required to monitor the environmental parameters of the grain storage. These are temperature, moisture, and the silo filling level. Currently there are systems able of monitoring these parameters, but its price is high and the technology used is expensive. Not found any commercial system ab...

  8. The impact of silo mentality on team identity: An organisational case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans Cilliers


    Full Text Available Orientation: Organisational silos do not only refer to conscious structures, but also to an unconscious state of mind and mentality that takes on a life of its own. Silos result in the splitting of organisational artefacts and relationships, and impact negatively on relationship forming between individuals and within teams.Research purpose: The purpose of this research was to describe how the silo mentality impacts on team identity.Motivation for the study: During a recent organisational consultation the researchers realised that a so-called silo phenomenon had much more unexplained unconscious behaviour than was traditionally realised in terms of organisational development. It is hoped that findings from this qualitative study could give consultants entry into what happens below the surface in the silos’ unconscious.Research design, approach and method: A qualitative and descriptive research design using a case study strategy was used. Data gathering consisted of 25 narrative interviews. Using discourse analysis four themes manifested, integrated into four working hypotheses and a research hypothesis. Trustworthiness and ethical standards were ensured.Main findings: Themes that emerged were the physical environment and structure, intra-group relations, experiences of management, and intergroup relations.Practical/managerial implications: Consulting on silo behaviour as physical structures only may not be successful in changing organisational behaviour. The silo resembles an iceberg – the largest part is below the surface.Contribution/value-add: The findings evidenced silo behaviour to be an unconscious phenomenon influencing team identity negatively. Consultants are urged to study these manifestations towards understanding silos and their effect on team identity better.

  9. Bunker Cave stalagmites: an archive for central European Holocene climate variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Fohlmeister


    Full Text Available Holocene climate was characterised by variability on multi-centennial to multi-decadal time scales. In central Europe, these fluctuations were most pronounced during winter. Here we present a record of past winter climate variability for the last 10.8 ka based on four speleothems from Bunker Cave, western Germany. Due to its central European location, the cave site is particularly well suited to record changes in precipitation and temperature in response to changes in the North Atlantic realm. We present high-resolution records of δ18O, δ13C values and Mg/Ca ratios. Changes in the Mg/Ca ratio are attributed to past meteoric precipitation variability. The stable C isotope composition of the speleothems most likely reflects changes in vegetation and precipitation, and variations in the δ18O signal are interpreted as variations in meteoric precipitation and temperature. We found cold and dry periods between 8 and 7 ka, 6.5 and 5.5 ka, 4 and 3 ka as well as between 0.7 and 0.2 ka. The proxy signals in the Bunker Cave stalagmites compare well with other isotope records and, thus, seem representative for central European Holocene climate variability. The prominent 8.2 ka event and the Little Ice Age cold events are both recorded in the Bunker Cave record. However, these events show a contrasting relationship between climate and δ18O, which is explained by different causes underlying the two climate anomalies. Whereas the Little Ice Age is attributed to a pronounced negative phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation, the 8.2 ka event was triggered by cooler conditions in the North Atlantic due to a slowdown of the thermohaline circulation.

  10. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 214: Bunkers and Storage Areas, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration


    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 214 is located in Areas 5, 11, and 25 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). CAU 214 is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996) as ''Corrective Action Unit 214: Bunkers and Storage Areas,'' and is comprised of nine Corrective Action Sites (CASs): {sm_bullet} CAS 05-99-01, Fallout Shelters {sm_bullet} CAS 11-22-03, Drum {sm_bullet} CAS 25-23-01, Contaminated Materials {sm_bullet} CAS 25-23-19, Radioactive Material Storage {sm_bullet} CAS 25-34-03, Motor Dr/Gr Assembly (Bunker) {sm_bullet} CAS 25-34-04, Motor Dr/Gr Assembly (Bunker) {sm_bullet} CAS 25-34-05, Motor Dr/Gr Assembly (Bunker) {sm_bullet} CAS 25-99-12, Fly Ash Storage {sm_bullet} CAS 25-99-18, Storage Area The Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP)-approved corrective action alternative for CASs 11-22-03, 25-34-03, 25-34-04, 25-34-05, 25-99-12, and 25-99-18 is No Further Action. Closure activities included: {sm_bullet} Removing and disposing of the fly ash and surrounding wooden structure at CAS 25-99-12 as a best management practice The NDEP-approved corrective action alternative for CAS 05-99-01 in CAU 214 is Clean Closure. Closure activities included: {sm_bullet} Removing and disposing of soil contaminated with the pesticide dieldrin The NDEP-approved corrective action alternative for CASs 25-23-01 and 25-23-19 is Closure in Place with Administrative Controls. Closure activities included: {sm_bullet} Removing and disposing of soil contaminated with chromium and soil impacted with the pesticides chlordane and heptachlor {sm_bullet} Implementing use restrictions (UR) at both CASs as detailed in the CAU 214 Corrective Action Plan (CAP) (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office [NNSA/NSO], 2005) {sm_bullet} Posting UR warning signs around CASs 25-23-01 and 25-23-19 on the existing chain link fence

  11. Creating value: unifying silos into public health business intelligence. (United States)

    Davidson, Arthur J


    Through September 2014, federal investments in health information technology have been unprecedented, with more than 25 billion dollars in incentive funds distributed to eligible hospitals and providers. Over 85 percent of eligible United States hospitals and 60 percent of eligible providers have used certified electronic health record (EHR) technology and received Meaningful Use incentive funds (HITECH Act1). Certified EHR technology could create new public health (PH) value through novel and rapidly evolving data-use opportunities, never before experienced by PH. The long-standing "silo" approach to funding has fragmented PH programs and departments,2 but the components for integrated business intelligence (i.e., tools and applications to help users make informed decisions) and maximally reuse data are available now. Challenges faced by PH agencies on the road to integration are plentiful, but an emphasis on PH systems and services research (PHSSR) may identify gaps and solutions for the PH community to address. Technology and system approaches to leverage this information explosion to support a transformed health care system and population health are proposed. By optimizing this information opportunity, PH can play a greater role in the learning health system.

  12. Nutrient transport within three vegetative treatment areas receiving silage bunker runoff. (United States)

    Faulkner, Joshua W; Zhang, Wei; Geohring, Larry D; Steenhuis, Tammo S


    Silage bunker runoff can be a very polluting substance and is increasingly being treated by vegetative treatment areas (VTAs), but little information exists regarding nutrient removal performance of systems receiving this wastewater. Nutrient transport through the shallow subsurface of three VTAs (i.e. one VTA at Farm WNY and two VTAs at Farm CNY) in glaciated soils containing a restrictive layer (i.e., fragipan) was assessed using a mass balance approach. At Farm WNY, the mass removal of ammonium was 63%, nitrate was 0%, and soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) was 39%. At Farm CNY, the mass removal of ammonium was 79% in the West VTA, but nitrate and SRP increased by 200% and 533%, respectively. Mass removal of ammonium was 67% in the East VTA at Farm CNY; nitrate removal was 86% and SRP removal was 88%. The East VTA received a much higher nutrient loading, which was attributed to a malfunctioning low-flow collection apparatus within the settling basin. Results demonstrate that nutrient reduction mechanisms other than vegetative uptake can be significant within VTAs. Even though increases in nitrate mass were observed, concentrations in 1.65m deep wells indicated that groundwater impairment from leaching of nitrate was not likely. These results offer one of the first evaluations of VTAs treating silage bunker runoff, and highlight the importance of capturing concentrated low flows in VTA systems. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Bunker probe: A plasma potential probe almost insensitive to its orientation with the magnetic field. (United States)

    Costea, S; Fonda, B; Kovačič, J; Gyergyek, T; Schneider, B S; Schrittwieser, R; Ionita, C


    Due to their ability to suppress a large part of the electron current and thus measuring directly the plasma potential, ion sensitive probes have begun to be widely tested and used in fusion devices. For these probes to work, almost perfect alignment with the total magnetic field is necessary. This condition cannot always be fulfilled due to the curvature of magnetic fields, complex magnetic structure, or magnetic field reconnection. In this perspective, we have developed a plasma potential probe (named Bunker probe) based on the principle of the ion sensitive probe but almost insensitive to its orientation with the total magnetic field. Therefore it can be used to measure the plasma potential inside fusion devices, especially in regions with complex magnetic field topology. Experimental results are presented and compared with Ball-Pen probe measurements taken under identical conditions. We have observed that the floating potential of the Bunker probe is indeed little affected by its orientation with the magnetic field for angles ranging from 90° to 30°, in contrast to the Ball-Pen probe whose floating potential decreases towards that of a Langmuir probe if not properly aligned with the magnetic field.

  14. Discharge flow of granular media from silos with a lateral orifice and injection of air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aussillous Pascale


    Full Text Available Few studies concern the prediction of the mass flow rate of a granular media discharged from a silo with a lateral orifice. However, this situation can have pratical interest considering a tank of granular material with a leak on its side. We studied experimentally the discharge of a vertical silo filled by spherical glass beads. We consider rectangular silos with a rectangular orifice. The impact of size, aspect ratio and position of the orifice and the effect of an additional air flow were studied. The measured parameters are the mass flow rate and the pressure along the silo, whereas the controlled parameters are the size of particles, and the flow rate of air. We identified two regimes of discharge according to the aspect ratio (of width to height of the rectangular orifice. Increasing the air flow rate induces an increase of the granular media flow rate. Using a simple physical model to describe the grains and gas flow, we put in evidence the role played by the air pressure gradient at the outlet. Then we compared the experimental results with continuum Navier-Stokes simulations with the granular μ(I-rheology. We showed that the continuum μ(I-rheology describes well our discharge flow of granular media from silos, taking into account the effect of the position of the orifice as well as the coupling with the gas flow.

  15. 76 FR 21849 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Ships Bunkers Easy Acquisition (SEA) Card® and... (United States)


    ... market purchases and will not have a significant cost or administrative impact on contractors... to the price of aviation fuel and oil fuel tank capacities. Accordingly, the threshold for SF44/AIR... unique mission requirements are unable to use the Defense Logistics Agency energy bunkers contracts...

  16. Stochastic stresses in granular matter simulated by dripping identical ellipses into plane silo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berntsen, Kasper Nikolaj; Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager


    A two-dimensional silo pressure model-problem is investigated by molecular dynamics simulations. A plane silo container is filled by a granular matter consisting of congruent elliptic particles dropped one by one into the silo. A suitable energy absorbing contact force mechanism is activatedduring...... proposed by Janssen in 1895. The stochastic Janssen factor model is shown to be fairly consistentwith the observations from which the mean and the intensity of the white noise is estimated by the method of maximumlikelihood using the properties of the gamma-distribution. Two wall friction coefficients...... of the two fields. Thefirst is estimated by fitting the exponential expectation function for theaverage normal stress in the horizontal cross-sections to the observed sample function by the principle of least square.Knowing these, in total four, estimated parameter values, the stochastic model determines...

  17. Silos experimentais para avaliação da silagem de três genótipos de girassol (Helianthus annuus L. Evaluation of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. silage of three genotypes as affected by experimental silos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.G.R. Pereira


    Full Text Available Três tipos de silos experimentais foram utilizados para a avaliação das silagens de três genótipos de girassol: A silo padrão com válvula de Bunsen; B silo dotado de compartimento para efluentes e C silo com válvula de Bunsen e compartimento para efluentes. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 3×3 (genótipos × tipos de silos com três repetições. As características avaliadas foram: matéria seca (MS, densidade, proteína bruta (PB, nitrogênio amoniacal (N-NH3/N-T, pH, carboidratos solúveis (CHO, ácidos orgânicos, constituintes da parede celular, extrato etéreo (EE e digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS. As silagens obtidas nos silos B e C apresentaram os maiores valores de MS e menores de NH3/N-T. Os valores de pH se equivaleram nos três tipos de silos, enquanto os teores de CHO foram menores para as silagens obtidas nos silos B e C. Os silos dotados de compartimento para efluentes apresentaram os maiores valores de ácido láctico. As frações fibrosas, EE e DIVMS não sofreram influência dos tipos de silos. A presença ou ausência da válvula de Bunsen não influenciou os parâmetros avaliados. A presença do compartimento para efluentes afetou a qualidade e o valor nutritivo da silagem de girassol.A completely randomized design in a 3×3 factorial scheme was used to evaluate the effect of three genotypes and three types of silos on sunflower silage. The silos were: A- silo with Bunsen valve; B- silo with effluent-collecting equipment; and C- silo with both Bunsen valve and effluent-collecting equipment. The parameters evaluated were: dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, ammonia nitrogen (N-NH3/T-N, pH, soluble carbohydrates (CHO, organic acids, cell wall constituents, ether extract and in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD. The silage from silos B and C had higher values of DM and lower levels of N-NH3/T-N. The pH value was the same for all silos, while the CHO was the

  18. Bunker Levy Schemes for Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emission Reduction in International Shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosmas, Vasileios; Acciaro, Michele


    in the energy efficiency of the sector would be expected as a result of the regulation enforcement. The speed reduction in the unit-tax case depends on fuel prices and the tax amount, whereas in the ad-valorem case it relies upon the enforced tax percentage. Both schemes lead to industry profit decline......A fuel levy is one of the market-based measures (MBMs) currently under consideration at the International Maritime Organization. MBMs have been proposed to improve the energy efficiency of the shipping sector and reduce its emissions. This paper analyses the economic and environmental implications...... of two types of levy on shipping bunker fuels by means of an analytical model built on the cobweb theorem. A unit-tax per ton of fuel and an ad-valorem tax, enforced as a percentage of fuel prices, are examined. In both cases, a speed and fuel-consumption reduction equivalent to an improvement...

  19. Bunker Levy Schemes for Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emission Reduction in International Shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosmas, Vasileios; Acciaro, Michele


    A fuel levy is one of the market-based measures (MBMs) currently under consideration at the International Maritime Organization. MBMs have been proposed to improve the energy efficiency of the shipping sector and reduce its emissions. This paper analyses the economic and environmental implications...... of two types of levy on shipping bunker fuels by means of an analytical model built on the cobweb theorem. A unit-tax per ton of fuel and an ad-valorem tax, enforced as a percentage of fuel prices, are examined. In both cases, a speed and fuel-consumption reduction equivalent to an improvement...... in the energy efficiency of the sector would be expected as a result of the regulation enforcement. The speed reduction in the unit-tax case depends on fuel prices and the tax amount, whereas in the ad-valorem case it relies upon the enforced tax percentage. Both schemes lead to industry profit decline...

  20. Análise estrutural de silos metálicos prismáticos Structural analysis of prismatic metallic silos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Pinheiro Lopes Neto


    Full Text Available Nos últimos anos, o crescimento da agricultura brasileira tem forçado vários setores a se adequarem aos padrões produtivos com o intuito de se manterem competitivos, frente ao processo de globalização econômica. Nesse contexto, as fábricas de ração avícola tendem a buscar novas alternativas que favoreçam a produção e reduzam custos sem afetar a qualidade do produto final. Entre essas alternativas, destaca-se o uso de silos verticais por facilitar o processo de confecção das rações e eliminar os grandes depósitos horizontais. Diante dessa possibilidade, objetivou-se, com a presente pesquisa, estudar as tensões nas paredes em conformação ziguezague de um silo metálico prismático 2m x 1m e comparar os resultados obtidos com teorias e normas. Para o cálculo das tensões, utilizaram-se os métodos simplificados de Ravenet e Troitsky. Para a obtenção dos esforços reais nas paredes, utilizaram-se extensômetros elétricos. Dessa forma, conclui-se que, tanto a teoria de Ravenet quanto de Troistky, podem ser recomendadas para o dimensionamento de silos prismáticos por apresentarem boa aproximação com valores experimentais.Recently Brazil has undergone agricultural growth that has forced several sectors to adjust their business structure to maintain competitiveness within the process of economic globalization. In this context, the poultry production has focused on new alternatives to increase productivity and reduce costs without affecting the quality of the final product. Among these alternatives, the use of vertical silos due to their capacity and ease of accurate feed ingredient rationing and eliminate large horizontal warehouses. The present research has focused on the stresses in rectangular, hopper bottom bins with a unique zigzag corrugation. The model bin was 2m x 1m with a hopper and the stresses obtained were compared to theories and standards. The stresses were estimated using Ravenet and Troitsky's simplified


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Hauth


    Full Text Available The problems encountered with storage of agricultural products has warranted studies related to finding alternative methods of grain storage, thereby avoiding unnecessary losses. Stored grain deteriorates quickly at high temperatures. The moisture content of the grain influences the respiratory process; therefore, when at the recommended humidity of between 11 and 13%, this rate remains low, it prolongs maintenance of the product quality. The silo bag being airtight enables the grain mass to consume the entire internal O2 purse within it, and in that low or absent oxygen environment the grain mass saturates the CO2 atmosphere, inhibiting the multiplication of insects and fungi, thus providing a controlled environment. This study aims at simulating, using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD, the time it would take for the entire grain mass contained in a silo bag to reach thermal equilibrium with the environment and analyzes the feasibility of the technique employed here. The simulations were performed based on the data of the average air temperature in the region at each harvest time and the average storage temperature of the bean mass (60°C. The results obtained from the simulations reveal that after one month of silo storage the entire bag remains in thermal stabilization, and four months later when it hits the entire mass, all the beans are in thermal equilibrium. Therefore, maintaining stable temperature and humidity within the recommended silo bag preserves the grain quality well.

  2. Silo effect a prominence factor to decrease efficiency of pharmaceutical industry. (United States)

    Vatanpour, Hossein; Khorramnia, Atoosa; Forutan, Naghmeh


    To be sure, all the industries try to be involved in globalization with a constant trend to find out ways to increase productivity across different functions within an organization to maintain competitive advantage world. Pharmaceutical industries are not exceptional and further are based on fragmentation. So these kind of companies need to cope with several barriers such as silo mentality that may affect efficiency of their business activity. Due to eliminate a part of resources such as raw materials, new molecule developed, financial and human resources and so on, companies can gradually loss their competitive potentials in the market and increase their expenses. Furthermore, to avoid any business disturbances in financially connected companies due to silo effect, they should arrange their management to integrated organization form. Otherwise, actions taken by one business member of the chain can influence the profitability of all the other members in the chain. That is why recently supply chain has generated much interest in many business units. In this paper, it has been tried to investigate the different aspects of silo effect which can affect integrate supply chain. Finally, a fluent communication, high level of information exchange, fragmentation management, cross-functional control in a supply chain management format are needed to reduce or control silo effect within entire chain of the holding company by Supply chain management.

  3. Breaking down IT silos: a "connected" way to improve customer experience and the bottom line. (United States)

    Hallowell, Bruce; Turisco, Frances


    Hospitals can provide customer service like without purchasing new technology. Making technology interactive requires sharing patient data across applications and enhancing existing IT with decision support. Breaking down technology silos between hospital and outpatient care provider systems significantly improves efficiency, lowers costs, and speeds care delivery.

  4. CTE and the Common Core Can Address the Problem of Silos (United States)

    Pearson, Donna


    There is no doubt but that the education realm is replete with silos of experts of one discipline or another whose knowledge and teachings do not normally crossover into others. Yet the Common Core's call for career and college readiness virtually requires such subject integration--especially between the disciplines we consider academic and those…

  5. Persistence strategies of Bacillus cereus spores isolated from dairy silo tanks. (United States)

    Shaheen, Ranad; Svensson, Birgitta; Andersson, Maria A; Christiansson, Anders; Salkinoja-Salonen, Mirja


    Survival of Bacillus cereus spores of dairy silo tank origin was investigated under conditions simulating those in operational dairy silos. Twenty-three strains were selected to represent all B. cereus isolates (n = 457) with genotypes (RAPD-PCR) that frequently colonised the silo tanks of at least two of the sampled eight dairies. The spores were studied for survival when immersed in liquids used for cleaning-in-place (1.0% sodium hydroxide at pH 13.1, 75 degrees C; 0.9% nitric acid at pH 0.8, 65 degrees C), for adhesion onto nonliving surfaces at 4 degrees C and for germination and biofilm formation in milk. Four groups with different strategies for survival were identified. First, high survival (log 15 min kill hot-alkaline wash liquid. Second, efficient adherence of the spores to stainless steel from cold water. Third, a cereulide producing group with spores characterised by slow germination in rich medium and well preserved viability when exposed to heating at 90 degrees C. Fourth, spores capable of germinating at 8 degrees C and possessing the cspA gene. There were indications that spores highly resistant to hot 1% sodium hydroxide may be effectively inactivated by hot 0.9% nitric acid. Eight out of the 14 dairy silo tank isolates possessing hot-alkali resistant spores were capable of germinating and forming biofilm in whole milk, not previously reported for B. cereus. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Dealing with Organizational Silos with Communities of Practice and Human Resource Management (United States)

    Forsten-Astikainen, Riitta; Hurmelinna-Laukkanen, Pia; Lämsä, Tuija; Heilmann, Pia; Hyrkäs, Elina


    Purpose: Organizational silos that build on the existing organizational structures are often considered to have negative effects in the form of focus on private narrow objectives and organizational fragmentation. To avoid such harmful outcomes, competence management is called for, and in this, the human resources (HR) function takes a key role.…

  7. Methods of lab silos sealing and fermentation characteristics and aerobic stability of sugarcane silage treated with microbial additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Ortiz Novinski


    Full Text Available The present experimental assay evaluated the effect of lab silo sealing methods on the ensilage of the sugarcane, with or without microbial additives (Lactobacillus plantarum and Propionibacterium acidipropionici. Twenty-liter plastic buckets were used as experimental silos, which were sealed with either a polyethylene sheet (silo cover with a mesh size of 200 µm or an appropriate plastic lid equipped with Bunsen valve. Silos were stored for 30, 60, or 90 days. Fermentative losses, chemical composition, organic acids, ethanol and aerobic stability were evaluated. The sealing method employed did not influence most of evaluated variables, showing a small decrease of effluent production in silos covered with polyethylene sheet. The microbial additive did not avoid dry matter (DM fermentative losses in sugarcane silages (216 g kg-1, nor affected aerobic stability (44.6 hours. The levels of neutral and acid detergent fiber of fresh sugarcane increased after ensiling due to DM losses as gases and effluent. The ethanol content of silages was not influenced by treatments (mean 146 g kg-1 of DM. The sealing methods of experimental silos were not affected by the evaluated variables; polyethylene sheet and plastic lid show the same performance on the fermentative model and both methods represent well the conditions of large scale farm silos.

  8. Evaluation of clinically applied treatment beams with respect to bunker shielding parameters for a Cyberknife M6. (United States)

    Henzen, Dominik; Schmidhalter, Daniel; Zanella, Claudia Christina; Volken, Werner; Mackeprang, Paul-Henry; Malthaner, Marco; Fix, Michael Karl; Manser, Peter


    Compared to a conventional linear accelerator, the Cyberknife (CK) is a unique system with respect to radiation protection shielding and the variety and number of non-coplanar beams are two key components regarding this aspect. In this work, a framework to assess the direction distribution and modulation factor (MF) of clinically applied treatment beams of a CyberKnife M6 is developed. Database filtering options allow studying the influence of different parameters such as collimator types, treatment sites or different bunker sizes. A distribution of monitor units (MU) is generated by projecting treatment beams onto the walls, floor and ceiling of the CyberKnife bunker. This distribution is found to be highly heterogeneous and depending, among other parameters, on the bunker size. For our bunker design, 10%-13% of the MUs are delivered to the right and left wall, each. The floor receives more than 64% of the applied MUs, while the wall behind the patient's head is not hit by primary treatment beams. Between 0% and 5% of the total MUs are delivered to the wall at the patient's feet. This number highly depends on the treatment site, e.g., for extracranial patients no beams hit that wall. Collimator choice was found to have minor influence on the distribution of MUs. On the other hand, the MF depends on the collimator type as well as on the treatment site. The MFs (delivered MU/prescribed dose) for all treatments, all MLC treatments, cranial and extracranial treatments are 8.3, 6.4, 7.7, and 9.9 MU/cGy, respectively. The developed framework allows assessing and monitoring important parameters regarding radiation protection of a CK-M6 using the actually applied treatment beams. Furthermore, it enables evaluating different clinical and constructional situations using the filtering options. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  9. Effects of an experimental oil spill (bunker on seedling survival and growth rate of Laguncularia racemosa (Combretaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanoela Nardes


    Full Text Available The effects of bunker oil on survival and growth rate of Laguncularia racemosa were tested using 60 seedlings planted in small plastic bags (experimental unit. One of the six treatments was randomly assigned to each bag: 0 mL (control, 10 mL, 20 mL, 30 mL, 40 mL e 50 mL of bunker oil spilled in each bag. The experiment was monitored weekly for 20 weeks. The results were analyzed by repeated measure ANOVA and linear regression. In the first seven weeks, we observed chlorosis, loss of leafs and death rate significantly superior to plants of all treatments compared to the control group. Persistent effects like reduction of stem growth and leaf production was proportional to the initial oil concentration. The plants from control and 10 mL treatments were significantly superior to all remaining treatments in height, leaf number and healthy level. Results indicated that L. racemosa seedlings suffer both lethal and sublethal effects from exposition to bunker oil exposure.

  10. Degradation of Bunker C Fuel Oil by White-Rot Fungi in Sawdust Cultures Suggests Potential Applications in Bioremediation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darcy Young

    Full Text Available Fungal lignocellulolytic enzymes are promising agents for oxidizing pollutants. This study investigated degradation of Number 6 "Bunker C" fuel oil compounds by the white-rot fungi Irpex lacteus, Trichaptum biforme, Phlebia radiata, Trametes versicolor, and Pleurotus ostreatus (Basidiomycota, Agaricomycetes. Averaging across all studied species, 98.1%, 48.6%, and 76.4% of the initial Bunker C C10 alkane, C14 alkane, and phenanthrene, respectively were degraded after 180 days of fungal growth on pine media. This study also investigated whether Bunker C oil induces changes in gene expression in the white-rot fungus Punctularia strigosozonata, for which a complete reference genome is available. After 20 days of growth, a monokaryon P. strigosozonata strain degraded 99% of the initial C10 alkane in both pine and aspen media but did not affect the amounts of the C14 alkane or phenanthrene. Differential gene expression analysis identified 119 genes with ≥ log2(2-fold greater expression in one or more treatment comparisons. Six genes were significantly upregulated in media containing oil; these genes included three enzymes with potential roles in xenobiotic biotransformation. Carbohydrate metabolism genes showing differential expression significantly accumulated transcripts on aspen vs. pine substrates, perhaps reflecting white-rot adaptations to growth on hardwood substrates. The mechanisms by which P. strigosozonata may degrade complex oil compounds remain obscure, but degradation results of the 180-day cultures suggest that diverse white-rot fungi have promise for bioremediation of petroleum fuels.

  11. Focus on blends. An analysis of the bunker fuel chain; Blends in beeld. Een analyse van de bunkerolieketen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Buck, A.; Smit, M.E.; Faber, J.; Van Grinsven, A.


    Bunker oil is an important activity in the Dutch economy: annual more than 20,000 ships 'bunker' fuel oil in the port of Rotterdam. Because of a number of incidents there are questions about possible blending of hazardous waste into fuel oil. This report aims to provide insight into bunker oil, blend materials, parties involved in the chain and risks of blending hazardous waste. It was commissioned by the VROM Inspectorate, for its role as supervisor of waste flows in the Netherlands. [Dutch] Bunkerolie staat voor een belangrijke activiteit in de Nederlandse economie: jaarlijks 'bunkeren' meer dan 20.000 zeeschepen in de Rotterdamse haven stookolie. Vanwege een aantal incidenten zijn er vragen over mogelijke bijmenging van gevaarlijk afval in stookolie. Dit rapport beoogt inzicht te geven in bunkerolie, blendmaterialen, partijen in de keten en risico's op bijmenging van gevaarlijk afval. Het is opgesteld in opdracht van de VROM-Inspectie, ten behoeve van haar rol als toezichthouder op ketens van afvalstromen.

  12. Fire and fire extinguishment in silos. An experimental study[Storage of wood fuel pellets]; Brand och brandslaeckning i siloanlaeggningar. En experimentell studie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, Henry; Blomqvist, Per; Zhenghua Yan


    A series of four tests have been conducted with wood pellets stored in a reduced size silo. The tests were conducted in order to increase the knowledge on fire development, detection and extinction technique in silo fires. The project originated from a pre-study on the extinction of silo fires made for the Swedish Rescue Service Agency (SRV). The test silo was built of concrete rings, had a diameter of 1 m, and a height of almost 6 m, which gave a volume of 4.4 m{sup 3}. The silo was filled with wood pellets up to a height of 5 m. A local auto ignition was imitated by a coiled heating wire placed in the pellet bulk centrally in the silo and a self sustaining pyrolysis zone was established within one hour. The silo was instrumented with almost 100 thermocouples as a mean to follow the development of the pyrolysis zone and later the efficiency of the extinguishment. Gas analyses were further made, both in the top of the silo, and at four different levels in the pellet bulk. After 30 hours the extinguishment was initiated using nitrogen (N{sub 2}) and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), respectively. The gas was injected into the bottom of the silo. Two tests were also conducted where gas injection was combined foam application in the top of the silo. The tests showed that the pyrolysis zone preferably spreads downwards in the silo, while moisture and pyrolysis gases form a wave that slowly spreads upwards. It was difficult to detect the fire before the main 'gas wave' reached the pellet surface in the silo top, and detection time was about 20 hours in these tests. The spread of the pyrolysis zone, downward, was even slower. The slow development is probably an explanation of why real silo fires often are rather extensive once discovered. Inerting the silo with either nitrogen or carbon dioxide worked out well in the tests. The gas must be in gas phase and slowly introduced into the silo, as close to the bottom as possible. An efficient extinction implies an air

  13. High resolution pCO2 monitoring reveals ventilation of Bunker Cave (NW Germany) and its impact on speleothem growth (United States)

    Riechelmann, Sylvia; Breitenbach, Sebastian F. M.; Schröder-Ritzrau, Andrea; Immenhauser, Adrian


    Understanding the environmental processes that influence geochemical proxies archived in speleothems depends critically on detailed cave monitoring. Cave air pCO2 is one of the most important factors controlling speleothem growth. The pCO2 concentration of cave air depends on (i) the productivity of its source(s), (ii) CO2-transport dynamics through the epikarst and (iii) cave ventilation processes. We monitored the pCO2 concentration ca. 100 m from the lower entrance of the Bunker-Emst-Cave system (NW Germany) with a CORA CO2-logger at a two-hourly resolution between April 2012 and February 2014. Near-atmospheric minimum pCO2 concentrations of 408 ppm are observed in winter, while higher values up to 811 ppm are recorded in summer. Higher summer concentrations are due to increased plant and soil microbial activity, resulting in elevated CO2 in the soil, which is transferred to the cave with infiltrating water. Generally, the front passages of Bunker Cave are well ventilated. Besides the seasonal pattern, pCO2 concentrations vary at diurnal scale. Correlations of pCO2 with the temperature difference between surface and cave air are positive during summer and negative in winter, with no clear pattern for spring and autumn months. Thus, Bunker Cave ventilation is driven by temperature and density differences between cave and surface air, with two entrances at different elevations allowing dynamic ventilation. During summer, relatively cooler cave air flows from the upper to the lower entrance, while in winter this pattern is reversed due to ascending warm cave air. The situation is further complicated by preferential south/southwestern winds that point directly on the cave entrances. Thus, cave ventilation is frequently disturbed, especially during periods of higher wind speed. Modern ventilation systematics only developed when the two cave entrances were artificially opened (1863 and 1926). Before that, ventilation was restricted and cave pCO2 concentrations were

  14. Linking bottleneck clogging with flow kinematics in granular materials: The role of silo width (United States)

    Gella, D.; Maza, D.; Zuriguel, I.; Ashour, A.; Arévalo, R.; Stannarius, R.


    We demonstrate experimentally that clogging in a silo correlates with some features of the particle velocities in the outlet proximities. This finding, that links the formation of clogs with a kinematic property of the system, is obtained by looking at the effect that the position of the lateral walls of the silo has on the flow and clogging behavior. Surprisingly, the avalanche size depends nonmonotonically on the distance of the outlet from the lateral walls. Apart from evidencing the relevance of a parameter that has been traditionally overlooked in bottleneck flow, this nonmonotonicity supposes a benchmark with which to explore the correlation of clogging probability with different variables within the system. Among these, we find that the velocity of the particles above the outlet and their fluctuations seem to be behind the nonmonotonicity in the avalanche size versus wall distance curve.

  15. La vida de Santo Domingo de Silos: onirocrítica y semántica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González, Javier Roberto


    Full Text Available We study the prophetic vision of Santo Domingo de Silos in Gonzalo de Berceo’s Vida de Santo Domingo de Silos, with the aim of: a analysing the text according to categories of prophecy, vision and dream in medieval christian culture; b analysing the configuration of oniric images as an allegorical discourse; c given the limits of allegorical semantics, interpreting those symbolic images characterized by prophetical obscuritas in the light of Grimaldus’ Vita Beati Dominici, source of Berceo’s Vida, and also in the light of medieval tradition of Other World visions and general chromatic an arithmetical symbolism, in order to establish semantic innovations and the proper meanning of Berceo’s text.Estudiamos la visión profética de Santo Domingo de Silos en la Vida de Santo Domingo de Silos de Gonzalo de Berceo, con el objeto de: a analizar el texto según las categorías de profecía, visión y sueño vigentes en la cultura cristiana medieval; b analizar la configuración de las imágenes oníricas como discurso alegórico; c dados los límites de la semántica alegórica, interpretar aquellas imágenes simbólicas caracterizadas por la obscuritas profética a la luz de la Vita Beati Dominici de Grimaldo, fuente de la Vida de Berceo, y también a la luz de la tradición medieval de las visiones de trasmundo y del simbolismo general cromático y aritmético, en orden al establecimiento de las innovaciones semánticas y con ellas del recto sentido del texto de Berceo.

  16. Large-scale numerical simulations of polydisperse particle flow in a silo (United States)

    Rubio-Largo, S. M.; Maza, D.; Hidalgo, R. C.


    Very recently, we have examined experimentally and numerically the micro-mechanical details of monodisperse particle flows through an orifice placed at the bottom of a silo (Rubio-Largo et al. in Phys Rev Lett 114:238002, 2015). Our findings disentangled the paradoxical ideas associated to the free-fall arch concept, which has historically served to justify the dependence of the flow rate on the outlet size. In this work, we generalize those findings examining large-scale polydisperse particle flows in silos. In the range of studied apertures, both velocity and density profiles at the aperture are self-similar, and the obtained scaling functions confirm that the relevant scale of the problem is the size of the aperture. Moreover, we find that the contact stress monotonically decreases when the particles approach the exit and vanish at the outlet. The behavior of this magnitude is practically independent of the size of the orifice. However, the total and partial kinetic stress profiles suggest that the outlet size controls the propagation of the velocity fluctuations inside the silo. Examining this magnitude, we conclusively argue that indeed there is a well-defined transition region where the particle flow changes its nature. The general trend of the partial kinetic pressure profiles and the location of the transition region results the same for all particle types. We find that the partial kinetic stress is larger for bigger particles. However, the small particles carry a higher fraction of kinetic stress respect to their concentration, which suggest that the small particles have larger velocity fluctuations than the large ones and showing lower strength of correlation with the global flow. Our outcomes explain why the free-fall arch picture has served to describe the polydisperse flow rate in the discharge of silos.

  17. Votive deposit or destroyed necropolis?: the protohistoric silo of El Pontarró (La Secuita, Tarragona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Carme Belarte


    Full Text Available This work analyzes the materials recovered from the silo of ‘El Pontarró’, located in La Secuita (Tarragona, filled with debris dated to the end of the 5th century BC or the beginnings of the 4th century BC. Among them, a number of bronze ornaments and about 6,000 glass beads stand out, together with pottery, spindle whorls, querns, as well as faunal, malacological (mainly Cypraea and archaeobotanical remains. Most elements are rare and related to funerary or ritual practices. This supports the hypothesis that the filling of the silo could correspond to a ritual action, perhaps after the destruction of a necropolis. The accidental discovery of the silo as well as the altered field conditions that for the moment make further archaeological intervention impossible, prevent gaining more information about the context of the deposit. Nevertheless, its contents include the biggest assemblage of glass beads from the Protohistory of the the Iberian Peninsula and are thus.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Matejski


    Full Text Available The article presents relations of distribution of the low sulphur marine fuels as result of being in force the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL 73/78, especially the record establishing the region of the Baltic Sea and the North See as sulphur emission control areas (SECA. There are presented obligatory regulations and their influence on sale of the particular kinds of fuels in this region. There are also presented chosen procedures of care about cargo in relation bunker boat – harbour – ship, the delivery fuel procedures in relation bunker boat–ship and the quantitative analysis of distributed fuels on an example of chosen bunker boat.

  19. Effect of Size and Height of Storage of Sugar Beets on Weight and Sugar Loses in Silos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kh Behzad


    Full Text Available Abstract Previous studies have shown that weight and sugar content decrease during sugar beets storage in silos. Different parameter such as size of sugar beets and height of storage, can affect on changes of weight and sugar. These parameters arewere considered in this study. Therefore, random sampling was done from sugar beets that had been carried to Shirvan sugar beet factory silos. Samples were divided in 4 groups of size (large, medium, small and mixed. These groups were stored in 4 different heights in industrial Shirvan sugar beet factory silos and after 18 days, pol and weight of beets were measured and were compared with data obtained on first day (before storing. The results showed that during storage of sugar beets in silos, maximum weight and sugar loses belonged to small sugar beets with 5.54 to 6.97 and 3.86 to 4.13 percent decrease, respectively. Also minimum weight and sugar loses belonged to samples that were stored in floor of silos with 1.69 to 1.91percent decrease. Increasing of height of storage resulted to increase of weight lose, so maximum of weight lose belonged to sugar beets that were stored in 5 meter height (silos level and amount of it was 6.37 to 9.84 percent. Furthermore, results showed that maximum of sugar lose belonged to sugar beets that were stored in the lowest height in this study and amount of it was between 4.80 to 5.20 percent. Increasing the height of storage caused to decreasing of sugar loses, as sugar loses of sugar beets that was stored on the uppermost level were obtained between 1.77 to 2.20 percent. Keywords: Size of sugar beet, Height of storage, Weight lose, Sugar lose, Storage in silos

  20. Sandia National Laboratories, Tonopah Test Range Fire Control Bunker (Building 09-51): Photographs and Written Historical and Descriptive Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullrich, Rebecca A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Corporate Archives and History Program


    The Fire Control Bunker (Building 09-51) is a contributing element to the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Tonopah Test Range (TTR) Historic District. The SNL TTR Historic District played a significant role in U.S. Cold War history in the areas of stockpile surveillance and non-nuclear field testing of nuclear weapons design. The district covers approximately 179,200 acres and illustrates Cold War development testing of nuclear weapons components and systems. This report includes historical information, architectural information, sources of information, project information, maps, blueprints, and photographs.

  1. Batería de silos para la conservación del maíz, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guinand & Brillembourg, C. A., Ingenieros


    Full Text Available A factory for maize by products has been recently built at Encrucijada de Chivacoa, Yaracuy state. A special feature is the set of reinforced concrete silos, placed in a row. They have been built according to the standard methods normally adopted for this type of structure. It is planned to build finally 16 silos, each with a capacity of 2000 tons. There is a large site available, where ample room has been found for the workshops, services and offices. Both the row of silos and the nearby industrial buildings constitute a modem and attractive architectural feature.Recientemente se ha construido una fábrica de productos derivados del maíz en la Encrucijada de Chivacoa, estado de Yaracuy, en la que destaca la batería de cuatro silos, de hormigón armado, colocados en fila; para su construcción se han seguido los procedimientos tradicionales corrientemente empleados esta clase de obras. Se prevé una ampliación, basta totalizar 16 unidades de 2.000 cada una. Este conjunto industrial dispone de un gran solar, en el que se han colocado las instalaciones anexas, tales como talleres, servicios y oficinas. Tanto la batería de silos propiamente dicha como cada uno de los edificios del conjunto, presentan una línea arquitectónica moderna y agradable.

  2. In-situ grouting of the low-level radioactive waste disposal silos at ORNL`s Solid Waste Storage Area Six

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis, C.W.; Farmer, C.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (US); Stansfield, R.G. [Stansfield (Robert G.), Knoxville, TN (US)


    At Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), one method of solid low-level radioactive waste disposal has been disposed of in below-grade cylindrical concrete silos. Located in Solid Waste Storage Area 6 (SWSA 6), each silo measures 8 ft in diameter and 20 ft deep. Present day operations involve loading the silos with low-level radioactive waste and grouting the remaining void space with a particulate grout of low viscosity. Initial operations involving the disposal of wastes into the below-grade silos did not include the grouting process. Grouting was stated as a standard practice (in late 1988) after discovering that {approximately}75% of the silos accumulated water in the bottom of the silos in the {approximately}2 years after capping. Silo water (leachate) contained a wide range of types and concentrations of radionuclides. The migration of contaminated leachate out of the silo into adjoining soil and groundwater was considered to be a serious environmental concern. This report describes how a specially designed particulate-base grout was used to grout 54 silos previously filled with low-level radioactive waste. Grouting involved three steps: (1) silo preparation, (2) formulation and preparation of the grout mixture, and (3) injection of the grout into the silos. Thirty-five of the 54 silos grouted were equipped with a 3-in.-diam Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) pipe used to monitor water levels in the silos. A method for rupturing the bottom section of these PVC wells was developed so that grout could be pumped to the bottom of those silos. Holes (2-in. diam) were drilled through the {approximately}18 in. thick concrete to fill the remaining 19 wells without the PVC monitoring wells. The formulation of grout injected into the silos was based on a Portland Type I cement, flyash, sand, and silica fume admixture. Compressive strength of grout delivered to SWSA6 during grouting operations averaged 1,808 lb/in{sup 2} with a bulk density of 3,549 lb/yd{sup 3}.

  3. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No. 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Boehlecke


    The six bunkers included in CAU 204 were primarily used to monitor atmospheric testing or store munitions. The ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) for Corrective Action Unit 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site, Nevada'' (NNSA/NV, 2002a) provides information relating to the history, planning, and scope of the investigation; therefore, it will not be repeated in this CADD. This CADD identifies potential corrective action alternatives and provides a rationale for the selection of a recommended corrective action alternative for each CAS within CAU 204. The evaluation of corrective action alternatives is based on process knowledge and the results of investigative activities conducted in accordance with the CAIP (NNSA/NV, 2002a) that was approved prior to the start of the Corrective Action Investigation (CAI). Record of Technical Change (ROTC) No. 1 to the CAIP (approval pending) documents changes to the preliminary action levels (PALs) agreed to by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) and DOE, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). This ROTC specifically discusses the radiological PALs and their application to the findings of the CAU 204 corrective action investigation. The scope of this CADD consists of the following: (1) Develop corrective action objectives; (2) Identify corrective action alternative screening criteria; (3) Develop corrective action alternatives; (4) Perform detailed and comparative evaluations of corrective action alternatives in relation to corrective action objectives and screening criteria; and (5) Recommend and justify a preferred corrective action alternative for each CAS within CAU 204.

  4. Effects of Petroleum Bunkering Activities on the Socio-Cultural and Eco-Economics of Majidun River, Ikorodu, Nigeria (United States)

    Owodeinde, F. G.; Ndimele, P. E.; Aka, O. O.


    Crude oil bunkery is huge problem in Nigeria accounting for a loss of about 10% of total crude export in Nigeria. The occurrence of heavy metals (often associated with crude oil spillage) in water, sediments and a commercially important fish (Clarias gariepinus) from petroleum bunkering sites in Majidun River, Ikorodu, Nigeria were studied in order to assess the impacts of this illegal activity on humans using socio-cultural and eco-economic variables. The study was conducted over a period of 12 months (Jan, 2014 - December, 2014). The data showed high levels of metals (Cu, Zn, Fe, Cd, Pb and Mn) in different compartments of the ecosystem. Metal levels were all above the tolerable limits recommended by regulatory bodies (FAO and WHO). It was discovered that income generated by local fishers has reduced because of petroleum and heavy metal pollution. The study also revealed a drastic reduction in the delivery of such ecosystem services like food, water, socio-cultural festivities etc. Government intervention by enactment/enforcement of existing laws on crude oil bunkering is important to conserve biodiversity, prevent food insecurity and safe lives.

  5. Resfriamento artificial para o controle de Coleoptera em arroz armazenado em silo metálico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Maria Noemberg Lazzari


    Full Text Available Resfriamento artificial para o controle de Coleoptera em arroz armazenado em silo metálico. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar o efeito do resfriamento artificial de grãos de arroz para o controle de coleópteros-praga. O ar frio foi insuflado pelo sistema de aeração em um silo metálico com arroz-em-casca. A avaliação do tratamento foi feita quinzenalmente usando armadilhas caladores. As espécies de Coleoptera capturadas foram: Oryzaephilus surinamensis (60%; Cryptolestes ferrugineus (9%; Rhyzopertha dominica (16,5% e Sitophilus spp. (0,5%. Aos 28 dias, a temperatura média da massa de grãos era de 15ºC, e o número médio de insetos havia diminuído 76,8%. A aplicação de ar frio manteve as populações sob controle por aproximadamente 60 dias. Os resultados do monitoramento dos insetos e da temperatura indicaram que um novo ciclo de ar frio deveria ser aplicado nesse período para manter as populações sob controle. Também o manejo adequado da massa de grãos faz-se necessário para garantir resultados satisfatórios do resfriamento artificial.Artificial chilling to control Coleoptera in paddy rice stored in metallic silo. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of artificial chilling for the control of coleopterans in stored paddy rice. The cold air was insufflated through the aeration system of a metallic silo with paddy rice. Evaluation of insect number was made every 15 days using probe traps. The species of Coleoptera captured were: Oryzaephilus surinamensis (60%; Cryptolestes ferrugineus (9%; Rhyzopertha dominica (16.5% and Sitophilus spp. (0.5%. By the 28th day the average temperature of the grain mass was 15ºC, and the mean number of insects decreased 76.8%. The cold air application kept the insect populations under control for approximately 60 days. The results of temperature and insect monitoring indicated that a new cycle of cold air should be applied by that time to keep the populations under

  6. A differential equation for the flow rate during silo discharge: Beyond the Beverloo rule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madrid Marcos A.


    Full Text Available We present a differential equation for the flow rate of granular materials during the discharge of a silo. This is based in the energy balance of the variable mass system in contrast with the traditional derivations based on heuristic postulates such as the free fall arch. We show that this new equation is consistent with the well known Beverloo rule, providing an independent estimate for the universal Beverloo prefactor. We also find an analytic expression for the pressure under discharging conditions.

  7. Experiences in the emptying of waste silos containing solid nuclear waste from graphite- moderated reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, S.; Schwarz, T. [RWE NUKEM Limited, B7 Windscale, Seascale, Cumbria CA20 1PF (United Kingdom)


    Before reactor sites can be handed over for ultimate decommissioning, at some sites silos containing waste from operations need to be emptied. The form and physical condition of the waste demands sophisticated retrieval technologies taking into account the onsite situation in terms of infrastructure and silo geometry. Furthermore, in the case of graphite moderated reactors, this waste usually includes several tonnes of graphite waste requiring special HVAC and dust handling measures. RWE NUKEM Group has already performed several contracts dealing with such emptying tasks. Of particular interest for the upcoming decommissioning projects in France might be the activities at Vandellos, Spain and Trawsfynnyd, UK. Retrieval System for Vandellos NPP is discussed. Following an international competitive tender exercise, RWE NUKEM won the contract to provide a turn-key retrieval system. This involved the design, manufacture and installation of a system built around the modules of a 200 kg capacity version of the ARTISAN manipulator system. The ARTISAN 200 manipulator, with remote slave arm detach facility, was deployed on a telescopic mast inserted into the silos through the roof penetrations. The manipulator deployed a range of tools to gather the waste and load it into a transfer basket, deployed through an adjacent penetration. After commissioning, the system cleared the vaults in less than the scheduled period with no failures. At the Trawsfynnyd Magnox plants two types of intermediate level waste (ILW) accumulated on site; namely Miscellaneous Activated Components (MAC) and Fuel Element Debris (FED). MAC is predominantly components that have been activated by the reactor core and then discharged. FED mainly consists of fuel cladding produced when fuel elements were prepared for dispatch to the reprocessing facility. RWE NUKEM Ltd. was awarded a contract to design, supply, commission and operate equipment to retrieve, pack and immobilize the two waste streams. Major

  8. Fighting Smoldering Fires in Silos – A Cautionary Note on Using Carbon Dioxide to Inert

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedlund, Frank Huess


    This communication seeks to draw attention to the hazards of releasing liquid carbon dioxide into environments where an ignitable atmosphere may exist. Static discharges have sufficient energy to ignite flammable vapors and an internal explosion may result when fighting smoldering fires using...... this approach. A recent article in Biomass and Bioenergy examines an explosion in a Norwegian wood pellet silo when attempting to suppress a smoldering fire with CO₂. The article argues that the electrostatic hazard of CO₂ is widely under-appreciated and incidents like this are avoidable....

  9. Maize Storage in Termite Mound Clay, Concrete, and Steel Silos in the Humid Tropics: Comparison and Effect on Bacterial and Fungal Counts (United States)

    This study investigated the functional suitability of using the readily-available termite mound clay (TMC) for grain silo construction in comparison to conventional reinforced concrete (RC) and galvanized steel (GS) silos for maize storage in the humid tropics. The extent to which temperature and r...

  10. Silo semiesférico para clinker en Aboño, Asturias (España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quintana Loche, Félix


    Full Text Available This semispherical silo for clinker storage was built by the construction firm Huarte and Co., in the cement factory at Abono, Asturias. Designed under the supervision of the Technical Services of Ciment Lafarge of Paris, by Enterprise René Marion and Structures Davidaff, it constitutes a world innovation among clinker storage systems. The great heterogeneity of the quarries required the study and use of new means of sampling and statistical dosification, thus producing cement of exceptional evenness. The semispherical storage silo is destined to contain a clinker stock of 35,000 tons; feed and collection are done by means of rotary systems that revolve around a ve/tical axis in the centre of the silo. This feature determined the shape of the silo — a spherical dome, 63.50 m in diameter, of which the centre is situated 5 m below the ground. The design adopted required the use of prefabrication, and is a world innovation in its function, form and building procedure.El silo semiesférico para almacenamiento de clinker ha sido construido por la Empresa Constructora Huarte y Cia., en la Fábrica de Cementos del Cantábrico de Abono (Asturias. El proyecto, elaborado bajo la supervisión de los Servicios Técnicos de Ciments Lafarge de París, y por la Entreprise René Marion y Structures Oavidaff, constituye una novedad mundial dentro de los sistemas de almacenamiento de clinker. La gran heterogeneidad de las canteras ha exigido el estudio y la utilización de nuevos medios de muestreo y dosificación estadística, permitiendo fabricar un cemento de una regularidad excepcional. El silo de almacenamiento semiesférico está destinado a contener un stock de clinker de 35.000 t; la alimentación y recogida se hacen por medio de sistemas rotativos que giran alrededor de un eje vertical que pasa por el centro del silo. Esta característica ha determinado naturalmente la forma del silo: una cúpula esférica, de 63,50 m de diámetro, cuyo centro se

  11. Flow of magnetic repelling grains in a two-dimensional silo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffroy Lumay


    Full Text Available During a typical silo discharge, the material flow rate is determined by the contact forces between the grains. Here, we report an original study concerning the discharge of a two-dimensional silo filled with repelling magnetic grains. This non-contact interaction leads to a different dynamics from the one observed with conventional granular materials. We found that, although the flow rate dependence on the aperture size follows roughly the power-law with an exponent 3/2 found in non-repulsive systems, the density and velocity profiles during the discharge are totally different. New phenomena must be taken into account. Despite the absence of contacts, clogging and intermittence were also observed for apertures smaller than a critical size determined by the effective radius of the repulsive grains. Received: 10 July 2015, Accepted: 7 August 2015; Edited by: L. A. Pugnaloni; Reviewed by: J. R. Darias, Universidad Simón o Bolívar, Caracas, Venezuela; DOI: Cite as: G Lumay, J Schockmel, D Henández-Enríquez, S Dorbolo, N Vandewalle, F Pacheco-Vázquez, Papers in Physics 7, 070013 (2015

  12. Detection and enumeration of four foodborne pathogens in raw commingled silo milk in the United States. (United States)

    Jackson, Emily E; Erten, Edibe S; Maddi, Neeraj; Graham, Thomas E; Larkin, John W; Blodgett, Robert J; Schlesser, Joseph E; Reddy, Ravinder M


    A nationwide survey was conducted to obtain qualitative and quantitative data on bacterial contamination of raw commingled silo milk intended for pasteurization. The levels of total aerobic bacteria, total coliforms, Enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus were determined using the TEMPO system. The prevalence rates and levels of presumptive Bacillus cereus, E. coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella spp. were determined in 214 samples. B. cereus was detected in 8.91% of samples, at 3.0 to 93 CFU/ml. E. coli O157:H7 was detected in 3.79 to 9.05% of samples, at detected in 50.00% of samples, at detected with the TEMPO system and the presence or levels of any pathogen except E. coli O157:H7. A higher average log-transformed count of total viable bacteria was observed in samples positive for this organism. The high prevalence rates of target pathogens may be attributed to a variety of factors, including detection methods, sample size, and commingling of the milk in the silo. The effects of commingling likely contributed to the high prevalence rates and low levels of target pathogens because of the inclusion of milk from multiple bulk tanks. The high prevalence rates also may be the result of analysis of larger sample volumes using more sensitive detection methods. These quantitative data could be utilized to perform more accurate risk assessments and to better estimate the appropriate level of protection for dairy products and processing technologies.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Bochi da Silva Volk


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of artificial cooling associated with the use of diatomaceous earth to control insects in grains of wheat stored in concrete silos. We used two concrete silos, with a static capacity of 2.500 t (Silo A and the other with static capacity of 5.000 t (Silo B. The surface of the grain silos were treated with diatom earth with a commercial assay (1.0 kg / t of product. For the cooling of the grains, cold air was blown through the aeration system silos until the grains reach a temperature of 17 ° C between the layers. After cooling, it is the retention period of five months. The monitoring of insects in the Silo A was accomplished by collecting infested grain and / or insects with probes. In Silo B, the monitoring was done through the capture of insects with traps of the type calador. In The Silo, were not detected representative quantities of insects in grain up to 120 days, when the collections were made with probes in the layer below the grain treated with diatomaceous earth. In Silo B, where the collection of insects was performed with traps of the type calador, increased population of insects of the species O. surinamensis and R. dominica with the extension of storage. This increase in the number of insects was greater after 60 days of the early experiments. This is happening due to the presence of insects in grain mass before cooling. The use of cooling associated with the inert powder has an effective control of insects in grain mass.

  14. Measures neutronics with detector CZT for acceptance of the access to the bunker of a Linac 15 MV Radiotherapy; Medidas neutronicas con detector CZT para aceptacion del acceso al bunker de un LINAC de radioterapia de 15 MV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barquero Sanz, R.; Anton, D. A.; Iniguez de la Torre, P. L.; Castillo Belmonte, A. C. del; Alonso, D. A.; Miguel, D. M. de; Lopez Lara-Martin, F. L.


    After the construction of the bunker and any accelerator installation and prior to start up, be accept built shields from the treatment room to ensure adequate radiation protection during their operation. This acceptance includes the verification of the dose by voltammetry in operation of high energy (15MV) in the labyrinth of access to your computer. The acquisition by the hospital of a specific detector for neutrons represents a cost usually unacceptable, by what is often resort to external entities to obtain doses of the same. The solution in our case it has been using a spectrometer equipped with CZT detector acquired for measurement of Photonic fields, but that has been calibrated for measurement of thermal neutrons, which are those found in the access to the accelerator. In the work are presented the measures carried out and the results obtained. (Author)

  15. Distribution of static pressure of seeds in a shallow model silo (United States)

    Horabik, Józef; Molenda, Marek


    The influence of the filling method, the seed size and the aspect ratio on the radial distribution of the vertical pressure on the floor of a shallow model silo and radial distribution of tangent stress within the material was investigated. Three filling methods were applied: central, circumferential and distributed. Seeds of five varieties were used: horse bean, field pea, wheat, vetch, and rapeseed. Vertical pressure on the floor of a shallow bin was found to be influenced by the filling method and the seed size and aspect ratio. A significant dip of vertical pressure in the middle radial location was observed in all tests, except two: central and circumferential filling of rapeseed. Wall friction was mobilized in the highest degree in the case of the central filling, while the lowest was mobilization of friction in the case of the circumferential filling.

  16. Validity of the Janssen Model for Layered Structures in a Silo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Qadir


    Full Text Available Granular materials are found every where despite they are poorly understood at microscopic level. The main hindrance is how to connect the microscopic properties with the macroscopic behavior and propose a rigorous unified theory. One method is to test the existing theoretical models in various configurations. In this connection we have performed experiments in different configurations of granules in a silo to determine the validity of the Janssen model under such arrangements. Two and four layered structures of different bead diameters are prepared. The effective mass at the bottom of the container in such cases have been measured. Moreover, the investigation of layered structures reveals that such configurations also follow well the Janssen model. An interesting percolation phenomenon was observed when smaller beads were stacked on larger ones, despite the model remained valid. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that Janssen law holds for larger bead diameters.

  17. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0 with ROTC 1, 2, and Errata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wickline, Alfred


    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 204 Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE); and the U.S. Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). The NTS is approximately 65 miles (mi) north of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1). The Corrective Action Sites (CASs) within CAU 204 are located in Areas 1, 2, 3, and 5 of the NTS, in Nye County, Nevada (Figure 1-2). Corrective Action Unit 204 is comprised of the six CASs identified in Table 1-1. As shown in Table 1-1, the FFACO describes four of these CASs as bunkers one as chemical exchange storage and one as a blockhouse. Subsequent investigations have identified four of these structures as instrumentation bunkers (CASs 01-34-01, 02-34-01, 03-34-01, 05-33-01), one as an explosives storage bunker (CAS 05-99-02), and one as both (CAS 05-18-02). The six bunkers included in CAU 204 were primarily used to monitor atmospheric testing or store munitions. The ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) for Corrective Action Unit 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site, Nevada'' (NNSA/NV, 2002a) provides information relating to the history, planning, and scope of the investigation; therefore, it will not be repeated in this CADD. This CADD identifies potential corrective action alternatives and provides a rationale for the selection of a recommended corrective action alternative for each CAS within CAU 204. The evaluation of corrective action alternatives is based on process knowledge and the results of investigative activities conducted in accordance with the CAIP (NNSA/NV, 2002a) that was approved prior to the start of the Corrective Action Investigation (CAI). Record of Technical Change (ROTC) No. 1 to the CAIP (approval pending) documents changes to the preliminary action levels

  18. Silo busting: how to execute on the promise of customer focus. (United States)

    Gulati, Ranjay


    For many senior executives, shifting from selling products to selling solutions--packages of products and services--is a priority in today's increasingly commoditized markets. Companies, however, aren't always structured to make that shift. Knowledge and expertise often reside in silos, and many companies have trouble harnessing their resources across those boundaries in a way that customers value and are willing to pay for. Some companies--like GE Healthcare, Best Buy, and commercial real estate provider Jones Lang LaSalle (JLL)--have restructured themselves around customer needs to deliver true solutions. They did so by engaging in four sets of activities: COORDINATION: To deliver customer-focused solutions, three things must occur easily across boundaries: information sharing, division of labor, and decision making. Sometimes this involves replacing traditional silos with customer-focused ones, but more often it entails transcending existing boundaries. JLL has experimented with both approaches. COOPERATION: Customer-centric companies, such as Cisco Systems, develop metrics for customer satisfaction and incentives that reward customer-focused cooperation. Most also shake up the power structure so that people who are closest to customers have the authority to act on their behalf. CAPABILITY: Delivering customer-focused solutions requires some employees to be generalists instead of specialists. They need experience with more than one product or service, a deep knowledge of customer needs, and the ability to traverse internal boundaries. CONNECTION: By combining their offerings with those of a partner, companies can cut costs even as they create higher-value solutions, as Starbucks has found through its diverse partnerships. To stand out in a commoditized market, companies must understand what customers value. Ultimately, some customers may be better off purchasing products and services piecemeal.

  19. Knowledge silos: assessing knowledge sharing between specialties through the vestibular schwannoma literature. (United States)

    Schnurman, Zane; Golfinos, John G; Roland, J Thomas; Kondziolka, Douglas


    OBJECTIVE It is common for a medical disorder to be managed or researched by individuals who work within different specialties. It is known that both neurosurgeons and neurotologists manage vestibular schwannoma (VS) patients. While overlap in specialty focus has the potential to stimulate multidisciplinary collaboration and innovative thinking, there is a risk of specialties forming closed-communication loops, called knowledge silos, which may inhibit knowledge diffusion. This study quantitatively assessed knowledge sharing between neurosurgery and otolaryngology on the subject of VS. METHODS A broad Web of Science search was used to download details for 4439 articles related to VS through 2016. The publishing journal's specialty and the authors' specialties (based on author department) were determined for available articles. All 114,647 of the article references were categorized by journal specialty. The prevalence of several VS topics was assessed using keyword searches of titles. RESULTS For articles written by neurosurgeons, 44.0% of citations were from neurosurgery journal articles and 23.4% were from otolaryngology journals. The citations of otolaryngology authors included 11.6% neurosurgery journals and 56.5% otolaryngology journals. Both author specialty and journal specialty led to more citations of the same specialty, though author specialty had the largest effect. Comparing the specialties' literature, several VS topics had significantly different levels of coverage, including radiosurgery and hearing topics. Despite the availability of the Internet, there has been no change in the proportions of references for either specialty since 1997 (the year PubMed became publicly available). CONCLUSIONS Partial knowledge silos are observed between neurosurgery and otolaryngology on the topic of VS, based on the peer-reviewed literature. The increase in access provided by the Internet and searchable online databases has not decreased specialty reference bias

  20. Bunker glocal: configuração majoritária sutil do imaginário mediático contemporâneo e militarização imperceptível da vida cotidiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugênio Trivinho


    Full Text Available Bunker glocal – esta expressão heterodoxa – é o fundamento mediático do processo civilizatório contemporâneo. Sua análise no âmbito da teoria social e da comunicação apreende o principal aspecto de sua múltipla significação social-histórica: a militarização velada da existência humana no contexto civil da era digital. Ao materializar essa injunção teórica, o presente artigo detalha os vínculos inextricáveis entre processo de bunkerização ampliada, imaginário social e fenômeno glocal (além do global e do local, para, em conclusão, qualificar o bunker glocal como linguagem matricial de equivalência generalizada na cibercultura. Palavras-chave: Comunicação; cibercultura; bunker glocal; processo de bunkerização; militarização velada da vida social. ABSTRACT Glocal bunker – this heterodox expression – is the mediatic fundament of the contemporary civilizing process. Its analysis within the ambit of social and communication theory apprehends the principal aspects of its multiple social and historical meaning: the covert militarization of human existence in the civil context of the digital era. By materializing this theoretical injunction, this article details the inextricable links between the expanded bunkering process, the social imaginary and the glocal phenomenon (beyond the global and local, and concludes by qualifying the glocal bunker as a matricial language of generalized equivalence in cyberculture. Keywords: Communication; cyberculture; glocal bunker; bunkering process; covert militarization of social life.

  1. The Lack of Common Goals and Communication Within a Level I Trauma System: Assessing the Silo Effect Among Trauma Center Employees. (United States)

    Mace-Vadjunec, Daneen; Hileman, Barbara M; Melnykovich, M Ben; Hanes, Marina C; Chance, Elisha A; Emerick, Eric S


    We assessed our level I trauma center's employees' perception of inter- and intradepartmental relationships to determine whether employees who work less often with patients feel less involved-the silo effect. We prospectively evaluated employees who provide direct patient care using the Trauma System Survey tool. Of 1155 employees, 699 responded. Combined interdepartmental relationships showed that 93% believed their unit communicated well with other units, and 86% thought other units communicated well with their unit. However, 69% experienced miscommunication between units. To reduce silos, communication is key. Training and multiunit events may help reduce these silos further.

  2. Construcción de silos con encofrados deslizantes - Santa Cruz de Tenerife – España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrios Martínez, M.


    Full Text Available These cereal and oil-cake silos are made up of 10 exterior cylindrical cells, with an inner diameter of 6 m and a height of 31.88 m. The cells are joined together by means of walls whereby four additional octagonal cells are created. Out of these, three are subdivided into four cells and the fourth forms the central silo. Below this unit there is a corridor for the emptying of the silos. The work has been carried out with a travelling form with the following characteristics: mixed with regard to shape and materials; stiff, since the top platforms are connected; and it has a constant cross-section as the dimensions of the silos remain the same throughout the whole height. The form was lifted by means of elevation devices, controlled by a centralized hydraulic mechanism. In view of the characteristics of the travelling form, the concrete used ¡n the work had to fulfill several very special conditions, notably different from these applying to the concrete that is normally used for fixed forms. For this reason, it was submitted to a great number of studies and tests until the requirements had been met. The construction was finished in record time: in the first place, because a detailed programme had been worked out in advance, consisting of a diagram of bars and preference network and secondly, because continuous concreting was applied with day and night shifts, whebery the foreseen two and a half months for finishing the silos were reduced to 12 days.Estos silos, destinados a almacenamiento de cereales y borujo, están formados por 10 celdas exteriores cilíndricas, de 6 m de diámetro interior y 31,88 m de altura, que se unen entre sí por medio de muros, dando lugar a cuatro celdas adicionales de forma octogonal. De éstas, tres están subdivididas en cuatro interceldas, quedando la cuarta como silo central. Debajo del conjunto se ha dispuesto una galería para el vaciado de los silos. La obra se ha realizado con un encofrado deslizante

  3. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (December 2002, Revision No.: 0), Including Record of Technical Change No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 204 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 204 is located on the Nevada Test Site approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. This CAU is comprised of six Corrective Action Sites (CASs) which include: 01-34-01, Underground Instrument House Bunker; 02-34-01, Instrument Bunker; 03-34-01, Underground Bunker; 05-18-02, Chemical Explosives Storage; 05-33-01, Kay Blockhouse; 05-99-02, Explosive Storage Bunker. Based on site history, process knowledge, and previous field efforts, contaminants of potential concern for Corrective Action Unit 204 collectively include radionuclides, beryllium, high explosives, lead, polychlorinated biphenyls, total petroleum hydrocarbons, silver, warfarin, and zinc phosphide. The primary question for the investigation is: ''Are existing data sufficient to evaluate appropriate corrective actions?'' To address this question, resolution of two decision statements is required. Decision I is to ''Define the nature of contamination'' by identifying any contamination above preliminary action levels (PALs); Decision II is to ''Determine the extent of contamination identified above PALs. If PALs are not exceeded, the investigation is completed. If PALs are exceeded, then Decision II must be resolved. In addition, data will be obtained to support waste management decisions. Field activities will include radiological land area surveys, geophysical surveys to identify any subsurface metallic and nonmetallic debris, field screening for applicable contaminants of potential concern, collection and analysis of surface and subsurface soil samples from biased locations

  4. Dependence of the thermal neutron fluence at the size installations radiotherapy bunker; Dependencia de la fluencia termica de neutrones en el tamano del bunquer en instalaciones de radioterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Soto, X.; Amgarou, K.; Langares, J. L.; Exposito, M. R.; Gomez, F.; Domingo, C.; Sanchez-Doblado, F.


    The project aims to infer the dose deposited by neutrons in the patient treated by radiation therapy, from a measurement of the thermal neutron fluence at a selected point within the treatment room. These thermal neutrons are created when fast neutrons produced in the linac head are moderate, mainly in the walls of the bunker, and its yield depends on both the volume of the room and its geometry.

  5. Effect of Different Silage Storing Conditions on the Oxygen Concentration in the Silo and Fermentation Quality of Rice. (United States)

    Uegaki, Ryuichi; Kawano, Kazuo; Ohsawa, Ryo; Kimura, Toshiyuki; Yamamura, Kohji


    We investigated the effects of different silage storing conditions on the oxygen concentration in the silo and fermentation quality of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Forage rice was ensiled in bottles (with or without space at the bottlemouth, with solid or pinhole cap, and with oxygen scavenger, ethanol transpiration agent, oxygen scavenger and ethanol transpiration agent, or no adjuvant) and stored for 57 days. The oxygen concentration decreased with the addition of the oxygen scavenger and increased with that of the ethanol transpiration agent. The oxygen scavenger facilitated silage fermentation and fungus generation, whereas the ethanol transpiration agent suppressed silage fermentation and fungus generation. However, the combined use of the oxygen scavenger and ethanol transpiration agent facilitated silage fermentation and also suppressed fungus generation. Overall, this study revealed the negative effects of oxygen on the internal silo and the positive effects of the combined use of the oxygen scavenger and ethanol transpiration agent on silage fermentation quality.

  6. Feedback of the behaviour of a silo founded on a compressible soil improved by floating stone columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahar Ramdane


    Full Text Available The coastal city of Bejaia, located 250 kilometers east of the capital Algiers, Algeria, is characterized by soft soils. The residual grounds encountered on the first 40 meters usually have a low bearing capacity, high compressibility, insufficient strength, and subject to the risk of liquefaction. These unfavorable soil conditions require deep foundations or soil improvement. Since late 1990s, stone columns technique is used to improve the weak soils of the harbor area of the city. A shallow raft foundation on soft soil improved by stone columns was designed for a heavy storage steel silo and two towers. The improvement of 18m depth have not reached the substratum located at 39m depth. The stresses transmitted to the service limit state are variable 73 to 376 kPa. A rigorous and ongoing monitoring of the evolution of loads in the silo and settlements of the soil was carried out during 1400 days that is from the construction of foundations in 2008 to 2012. After the loading of the silo in 2010, settlement occurred affecting the stability of the towers due to excessive differential settlements. Consequently, the towers were inclined and damaged the transporter. This paper presents and discusses the experience feedback of the behavior of these structures. Numerical calculations by finite elements have been carried and the results are compared with the measurements.

  7. Photoneutron Flux Measurement via Neutron Activation Analysis in a Radiotherapy Bunker with an 18 MV Linear Accelerator

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    Çeçen Yiğit


    Full Text Available In cancer treatment, high energy X-rays are used which are produced by linear accelerators (LINACs. If the energy of these beams is over 8 MeV, photonuclear reactions occur between the bremsstrahlung photons and the metallic parts of the LINAC. As a result of these interactions, neutrons are also produced as secondary radiation products (γ,n which are called photoneutrons. The study aims to map the photoneutron flux distribution within the LINAC bunker via neutron activation analysis (NAA using indium-cadmium foils. Irradiations made at different gantry angles (0°, 90°, 180° and 270° with a total of 91 positions in the Philips SLI-25 linear accelerator treatment room and location-based distribution of thermal neutron flux was obtained. Gamma spectrum analysis was carried out with high purity germanium (HPGe detector. Results of the analysis showed that the maximum neutron flux in the room occurred at just above of the LINAC head (1.2x105 neutrons/cm2.s which is compatible with an americium-beryllium (Am-Be neutron source. There was a 90% decrease of flux at the walls and at the start of the maze with respect to the maximum neutron flux. And, just in front of the LINAC door, inside the room, neutron flux was measured less than 1% of the maximum.

  8. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site, Nevada: Revision 0, Including Errata Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office


    This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's corrective action alternative recommendation for each of the corrective action sites (CASs) within Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. An evaluation of analytical data from the corrective action investigation, review of current and future operations at each CAS, and a detailed comparative analysis of potential corrective action alternatives were used to determine the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. There are six CASs in CAU 204, which are all located between Areas 1, 2, 3, and 5 on the NTS. The No Further Action alternative was recommended for CASs 01-34-01, 02-34-01, 03-34-01, and 05-99-02; and a Closure in Place with Administrative Controls recommendation was the preferred corrective action for CASs 05-18-02 and 05-33-01. These alternatives were judged to meet all requirements for the technical components evaluated as well as applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the sites and will eliminate potential future exposure pathways to the contaminated media at CAU 204.

  9. Photoneutron Flux Measurement via Neutron Activation Analysis in a Radiotherapy Bunker with an 18 MV Linear Accelerator (United States)

    Çeçen, Yiğit; Gülümser, Tuğçe; Yazgan, Çağrı; Dapo, Haris; Üstün, Mahmut; Boztosun, Ismail


    In cancer treatment, high energy X-rays are used which are produced by linear accelerators (LINACs). If the energy of these beams is over 8 MeV, photonuclear reactions occur between the bremsstrahlung photons and the metallic parts of the LINAC. As a result of these interactions, neutrons are also produced as secondary radiation products (γ,n) which are called photoneutrons. The study aims to map the photoneutron flux distribution within the LINAC bunker via neutron activation analysis (NAA) using indium-cadmium foils. Irradiations made at different gantry angles (0°, 90°, 180° and 270°) with a total of 91 positions in the Philips SLI-25 linear accelerator treatment room and location-based distribution of thermal neutron flux was obtained. Gamma spectrum analysis was carried out with high purity germanium (HPGe) detector. Results of the analysis showed that the maximum neutron flux in the room occurred at just above of the LINAC head (1.2x105 neutrons/cm2.s) which is compatible with an americium-beryllium (Am-Be) neutron source. There was a 90% decrease of flux at the walls and at the start of the maze with respect to the maximum neutron flux. And, just in front of the LINAC door, inside the room, neutron flux was measured less than 1% of the maximum.

  10. MCNP6 unstructured mesh application to estimate the photoneutron distribution and induced activity inside a linac bunker (United States)

    Juste, B.; Morató, S.; Miró, R.; Verdú, G.; Díez, S.


    Unwanted neutrons in radiation therapy treatments are typically generated by photonuclear reactions. High-energy beams emitted by medical Linear Accelerators (LinAcs) interact with high atomic number materials situated in the accelerator head and release neutrons. Since neutrons have a high relative biological effectiveness, even low neutron doses may imply significant exposure of patients. It is also important to study radioactivity induced by these photoneutrons when interacting with the different materials and components of the treatment head facility and the shielding room walls, since persons not present during irradiation (e.g. medical staff) may be exposed to them even when the accelerator is not operating. These problems are studied in this work in order to contribute to challenge the radiation protection in these treatment locations. The work has been performed by simulation using the latest state of the art of Monte-Carlo computer code MCNP6. To that, a detailed model of particles transport inside the bunker and treatment head has been carried out using a meshed geometry model. The LinAc studied is an Elekta Precise accelerator with a treatment photon energy of 15 MeV used at the Hospital Clinic Universitari de Valencia, Spain.

  11. Control of quality and silo storage of sunflower seeds using near infrared technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Martin, I.; Vilaescusa-Garcia, V.; Lopez-Gonzalez, F.; Oiz-Jimenez, C.; Lobos-Ortega, I. A.; Gordillo, B.; Hernandez-Hierro, J. M.


    This work assesses the application of near infrared spectroscopy technology for the quality control of sunflower seeds direct from farmers and from a storage silo. The results show that the analytical method employing near infrared spectroscopy can be used as a rapid and non-destructive tool for the determination of moisture, fat and high/low oleic acid contents in samples of sunflower seeds. The ranges obtained were comparable to those reported for classic chemical methods, and were between 4.6-21.4% for moisture; 38.4-49.6% for fat, and 60.0-93.1% for oleic acid expressed as percentage of total fatty acids. A stepwise discriminant analysis was performed to determine the most useful wavelengths for classifying sunflower seeds in terms of their (high/low) oleic acid composition. The discriminant model allows the acid contents, with a prediction rate of 90.5% for internal validation and of 89.4% for cross-validation. (Author) 23 refs.

  12. The journey beyond silos. Teaching and learning interprofessional ethics at UTHealth. (United States)

    Flaitz, Catherine M; Carlin, Nathan; Shepherd, Boyd W; McWherter, Jayne A; Bebermeyer, Richard D; Walji, Muhammad F; Spike, Jeffrey


    Interprofessional education and ethics education are two educational programs that blend together well, and, moreover, they are a natural fit for teaching in an academic health science center. The purpose of this paper is to describe our recent journey of developing and implementing an interprofessional ethics curriculum across the six schools of UTHealth. We provide an overview of the goals of the Campus-wide Ethics Program, which is housed in the McGovern Center for Humanities and Ethics, and we highlight certain innovative developments that are the result of the collaborative work of faculty and administrators from all six schools of UTHealth. In addition, a brief synopsis of the specific didactic and clinical courses in which ethics is a significant component is outlined for both the dental and the dental hygiene curricula. Lastly, we describe some of the recent scholarly activities that are a product of this new program. We are excited about our evolving efforts and the potential benefits of weaving interprofessional ethics within our school and across our campus. This article tells the story of our journey beyond "the silos" that are common among academic health science centers.

  13. Cracked reinforced concrete walls of chimneys, silos and cooling towers as result of using formworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maj Marek


    Full Text Available There are presented in this paper some problems connected with reinforced concrete shell objects operation in the aggressive environment and built in method of formworks. Reinforced concrete chimneys, cooling towers, silos and other shells were built for decades. Durability of cracked shells are one of the most important parameters during process of designing, construction and exploitation of shells. Some reasons of appearance of horizontal and vertical cracks as temperature, pressure of stored material, live loads e.g. dynamic character of wind, moisture, influence of construction joints, thermal insulation, chemistry active environmental etc. reduce the carrying capacity of the walls. Formworks, as is occurred recently, are the reason for technological joints with leaking connection, imperfections of flexible formworks slabs and as result can initiate cracks. Cracked surface of this constructions causes decreasing capacity and lower the state of reliability. Horizontal, vertical cracks can caused corrosion of concrete and steel bars, decreasing stiffness of contraction, increasing of deflection and carbonation of concrete cover. Local and global imperfactions of concrete shells are increasing according to greater number of cracks...

  14. Fluxo de ração avícola em silos prismáticos com tremonha excêntrica Flow of poultry ration in prismatic silos with excentric hopper

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    Marcilene V. da Nóbrega


    Full Text Available Na avicultura atual, o uso de silos verticais para armazenagem de ração avícola nas fábricas e nas granjas, é fator fundamental, pois garantem produto de qualidade e rapidez no processo de descarga; entretanto, são detectados diversos problemas no armazenamento e no processo de escoamento da ração, devido às falhas no projeto dos silos, tendo em vista serem negligenciadas as propriedades de fluxo dos produtos, como conseqüência do não conhecimento da teoria de fluxo. Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, analisar o tipo de fluxo em silo prismático com descarga excêntrica para dois tipos de ração avícola. Determinaram-se as propriedades físicas (teor de gordura, teor de umidade e granulometria e as de fluxo (ângulo de atrito interno, efetivo ângulo de atrito interno, ângulo de atrito do produto com a parede, densidade em função da consolidação, função fluxo e fator fluxo. A análise do fluxo foi feita visualmente e através de seqüências fotográficas, variando a seção transversal de descarga, relação altura/lado e tempo de armazenamento. Com os resultados, verificou-se que a tremonha tronco piramidal com descarga excêntrica proporciona fluxo de massa para as rações analisadas.In the current poultry industry, the use of vertical silos for storage of avian poultry ration in the factories and in the farms is a fundamental factor, since they guarantee quality of product and rapid ness in the discharge process. However, several problems are detected in the storage and in the discharge of the ration due to the flaws in the project of silos, in which the flow properties of the products are neglected as a consequence of lack of knowledge of the flow theory. The objective of this work was to analyse the type of flow in prismatic silo with exentric discharge for two types of rations. The physical properties (fat content, moisture content and granulometry and flow properties of (angle of internal friction, effective angle of

  15. Influence of the initial guess spectrum in the unfolding of Bss data obtained inside a bunker of a PET cyclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benavente C, J. A.; Lacerda, M. A. S.; Guimaraes, A. M.; Da Silva, T. A. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear, Programa de Pos-graduacao em Ciencias e Tecnicas Nucleares, Pte. Antonio Carlos 6627, Belo Horizonte 31270-901, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Vega C, H. R. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98060 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico)


    In a cyclotron facility is strongly advised the use of spectrometry techniques to support workplace neutron dosimetry. Bonner sphere spectrometer (Bss) is the most used for radiation protection applications. Bss data must be unfolded to determine the spectral particle fluence. Some computer codes have been utilized for this purpose. These codes allow unfolding the spectrum from the Bss count rates through different algorithms. Some iterative routines need an initial guess spectrum to start the unfolding. The adequate choice of this initial spectrum is a critical part of the process and can affect the final solution. In this work, we evaluate the influence of the initial guess spectrum in the unfolding of Bss data obtained in four points inside the bunker of a PET cyclotron. The measurements were done utilizing a modified Bss system with thermoluminescent detectors (TLDs). Codes BUNKIUT and NSDUAZ were utilized to unfold the Bss data. For the NSDUAZ the starting spectrum is automatically obtained from a library initial guess spectra. For the BUNKIUT code were utilized two different initial guess spectra: (a) a Maxwellian spectrum with temperature of 1.4 MeV and shape factor of 0.1, created with the MAXIET algorithm and; (b) the spectra obtained through simulation with the MCNPX code version 2.7. Spectra obtained with both unfold codes and with the different initial guess spectra presented epithermal and thermal neutrons due to room-return effects. However, the contribution of the fast neutron to the total fluence were quite different for the different cases studied. These differences highlight the importance of an appropriate choice of an initial guess spectra for the quality of the results. (Author)

  16. Chip-scale fluorescence microscope based on a silo-filter complementary metal-oxide semiconductor image sensor. (United States)

    Ah Lee, Seung; Ou, Xiaoze; Lee, J Eugene; Yang, Changhuei


    We demonstrate a silo-filter (SF) complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensor for a chip-scale fluorescence microscope. The extruded pixel design with metal walls between neighboring pixels guides fluorescence emission through the thick absorptive filter to the photodiode of a pixel. Our prototype device achieves 13 μm resolution over a wide field of view (4.8 mm × 4.4 mm). We demonstrate bright-field and fluorescence longitudinal imaging of living cells in a compact, low-cost configuration.

  17. Control of quality and silo storage of sunflower seeds using near infrared technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González-Martín, I.


    Full Text Available This work assesses the application of near infrared spectroscopy technology for the quality control of sunflower seeds direct from farmers and from a storage silo. The results show that the analytical method employing near infrared spectroscopy can be used as a rapid and non-destructive tool for the determination of moisture, fat and high/low oleic acid contents in samples of sunflower seeds. The ranges obtained were comparable to those reported for classic chemical methods, and were between 4.6-21.4% for moisture; 38.4-49.6% for fat, and 60.0-93.1% for oleic acid expressed as percentage of total fatty acids. A stepwise discriminant analysis was performed to determine the most useful wavelengths for classifying sunflower seeds in terms of their (high/low oleic acid composition. The discriminant model allows the classification of sunflower seeds with high or low oleic acid contents, with a prediction rate of 90.5% for internal validation and of 89.4% for cross-validation.

    En este trabajo se evalúa la espectroscopía de infrarrojo cercano para su uso en el control de calidad y almacenamiento de semillas de girasol. Los resultados indican que el método analítico empleado puede utilizarse como método de determinación rápida de humedad, grasa y contenidos altos/bajos de ácido oleico. Los rangos de aplicación son comparables con los valores que se han determinado mediante métodos clásicos de análisis, encontrándose entre 4.6-21.4% la humedad, 38.4-49.6% la grasa y 60.0- 93.1% de ácido oleico del total de los ácidos grasos. Además se ha utilizado un análisis discriminarte lineal por pasos determinando las longitudes de onda más adecuadas para la clasificación de semillas de girasol en los grupos alto/bajo oleico. El modelo generado permitió la clasificación de semillas de girasol en los grupos alto y bajo oleico con unos porcentajes de muestras correctamente clasificadas de un 90.5% en validación interna y de un 89.4% en

  18. Alterações químicas e microbiológicas nas silagens de capim-Tifton 85 após a abertura dos silos Chemical and microbiological changes of Tifton 85 grass silage after silos opening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rúben Pablo Schocken-Iturrino


    Full Text Available O trabalho foi conduzido para avaliação da presença de Listeria sp. e de fungos nas silagens de capim-Tifton 85 sem emurchecimento, com emurchecimento por uma e duas horas e sem emurchecimento com adição ou não de polpa cítrica (5,0% do peso verde. As amostragens foram efetuadas no momento da abertura do silo (80 dias da ensilagem, aos 15 e 30 dias após exposição ao ar, para avaliar os teores de matéria seca (MS, as alterações químicas (pH, N amoniacal, ácidos orgânicos e a ocorrência de Listeria sp. e de fungos. Os dados foram analisados segundo o delineamento em blocos casualizados, em esquema de parcelas subdivididas (nas parcelas foram avaliadas as silagens submetidas aos tratamentos e nas subparcelas, os períodos de exposição ao ar, com quatro repetições. Observaram-se baixos teores de ácidos orgânicos e de N amoniacal decorrentes dos altos valores de MS, o que acarretou baixa formação de produtos fermentados e elevação do pH. A presença de Listeria sp. foi observada em 65,6% das amostras no momento da abertura dos silos e, destas, 10% foram positivas para Listeria monocytogenes. As silagens apresentaram baixa estabilidade aeróbia, tendo sido registrado aumento na ocorrência dos fungos Penicillium, Fusarium e Pithomyces com o prolongamento do período de exposição ao ar.The experiment was carried out to evaluate the fermentation characteristics, Listeria sp. and molds occurrence on Tifton 85 silage no wilted, wilted for one and two hours and no wilted with or without citrus pulp (5.0 % of fresh forage. The samplings were taken at the opening of the silos (80 days after ensiling, 15, and 30 days after air exposition to evaluated dry matter (DM content, chemical changes (pH, ammonia N, organic acids and Listeria sp., and molds occurrence. Data were analyzed according to a randomized block design in split plot scheme, considering the silage on the plots, and periods of air exposure on the split plot, with four

  19. Advice about the safety of graphite storage silos of Saint Laurent des Eaux facility; Avis sur la surete des silos de stockage de graphite de Saint Laurent des Eaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This document is the safety analysis made by the national association of the local commissions of information about nuclear activities (ANCLI), about the safety of graphite storage silos of Saint Laurent des Eaux nuclear facility. The analysis covers: the operation safety and the accident hypothesis, the monitoring of indoor and outdoor contamination in routine situation, the geotechnical characteristics of the site environment, the isotopic inventory and the estimation of radioactivity in routine and accidental situation, the estimation of doses received by the population in accidental situation and the internal emergency plan. After examination of these different points, the scientific committee of the ANCLI considers that a new global evaluation of risks, which integrates more recent exposure data, has to be carried out. (J.S.)

  20. Expert voices for change: bridging the silos-towards healthy and sustainable settings for the 21st century. (United States)

    Dooris, Mark


    The settings approach to health promotion, first advocated in the 1986 Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion, was introduced as an expression of the 'new public health', generating both acclaim and critical discourse. Reflecting an ecological model, a systems perspective and whole system thinking, the approach has been applied in a wide range of geographical and organisational contexts. This paper reports on a qualitative study undertaken through in-depth interviews with key individuals widely acknowledged to have been the architects and pilots of the settings movement. Exploring the development of the settings approach, policy and practice integration, and connectedness 'outwards', 'upwards' and 'beyond health', it concludes that the settings approach has much to offer-but will only realise its potential impact on the wellbeing of people, places and the planet if it builds bridges between silos and reconfigures itself for the globalised 21st century. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Aplicación de la norma EN 14491:2006 a los silos de acero cilíndricos para la protección frente a explosiones de polvo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tascón, A.


    Full Text Available Dust explosions represent a serious hazard in industries and silo facilities that handle combustible materials. Venting devices are commonly used to try to mitigate the damage caused by any dust explosion. To calculate vent area size, the recommendations given in European standard EN 14491:2006 can be used. However, the protection of silos is not always simple, and frequently the installation of vents becomes technically difficult and costly. The aim of the present work was to analyse the application of standard EN 14491:2006 to cylindrical steel silos, remarking the existing difficulties and limitations and explaining some critical points in order to understand the aforementioned standard. In addition, the cost of protection by venting in silos was studied. Finally, the authors have provided some suggestions to solve the protection of silos, alternative methods to calculate vent areas and expected future trends in this field.

    Las explosiones de polvo representan un serio peligro en aquellas industrias y silos en los que se manejan materiales combustibles. Para mitigar los efectos de una posible explosión generalmente se utilizan dispositivos de venteo, que pueden dimensionarse siguiendo la norma europea EN 14491:2006. Sin embargo, frecuentemente surgen complicaciones que hacen que la instalación de venteos sea técnicamente complicada y muy costosa. El objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar la aplicación de la norma EN 14491:2006 a los silos metálicos cilíndricos, remarcando las dificultades y limitaciones existentes y explicando sus aspectos clave para poder aplicarla correctamente. También se ha calculado el coste que puede suponer la protección de silos mediante venteos. Finalmente, se proporcionan algunas sugerencias para afrontar la protección de silos, información sobre métodos alternativos de cálculo de venteos y tendencias de futuro en este campo.

  2. Laboratory silo type and inoculation effects on nutritional composition, fermentation, and bacterial and fungal communities of oat silage. (United States)

    Romero, J J; Zhao, Y; Balseca-Paredes, M A; Tiezzi, F; Gutierrez-Rodriguez, E; Castillo, M S


    The objectives were to evaluate (1) the use of 2 types of experimental silos (S) to characterize whole-crop oat (Avena sativa L.) silage with or without addition of an inoculant (I), and (2) the effect of inoculation on the microbial community structure of oats ensiled using only plastic bucket silos (BKT). From each of 6 sections in a field, oats were harvested, treated (INO) or not (CON) with inoculant, packed into 19-L BKT or vacuum bags (BG), and ensiled for 217 d. The inoculant added contained Lactobacillus buchneri and Pediococcus pentosaceus (4 × 105 and 1 × 105 cfu/g of fresh oats, respectively). The experimental design was a complete randomized design replicated 6 times. Treatment design was the factorial combination of 2 S × 2 I. Some differences existed between BG versus BKT at silo opening (217 d), including a decreased CP (7.73 vs. 7.04 ± 0.247% of DM) and ethanol (1.93 vs. 1.55 ± 0.155) and increased lactic acid (4.28 vs. 3.65 ± 0.241), respectively. Also, WSC and mold counts were reduced in BG versus BKT for CON (1.78 vs. 2.70 ± 0.162% of DM and 0.8 vs. 2.82 ± 0.409 log cfu/fresh g) but not for INO (∼1.53 and 1.55), respectively. Application of INO increased DM recovery (96.1 vs. 92.9 ± 0.63%), aerobic stability (565 vs. 133 ± 29.2 h), acetic acid (2.38 vs. 1.22 ± 0.116% of DM), and reduced NDF (65.0 vs. 67.0 ± 0.57), ADF (36.7 vs. 38.1 ± 0.60), ethanol (0.63 vs. 2.85 ± 0.155), and yeast counts (1.10 vs. 4.13 ± 0.484 log cfu/fresh g) in INO versus CON, respectively. At d 0, no differences were found for S and I on the nutritional composition and background microbial counts. Leuconostocaceae (82.9 ± 4.27%) and Enterobacteriaceae (15.2 ± 3.52) were the predominant bacterial families and unidentified sequences were predominant for fungi. A higher relative abundance of the Davidiellaceae fungal family (34.3 vs. 19.6 ± 4.47) was observed in INO versus CON. At opening (217 d), INO had a lower relative abundance of Leuconostocaceae (42

  3. Eco-Homestay: Development Concept On Rural Tourism-Based Conservation Model (Study Case of Sidomulyo Village, Silo District, Jember Regency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvan Sidiq Asbullah


    Full Text Available The purposes of this research were to assess the concept of Eco-Homestay in conservation-based tourism in rural area. A case study was set up at Sidomulyo Village, Silo District, Jember. A qualitative method in the form of in-depth interviews was performed as a tool to generate models. Informants in this study included the staff of the Department of Forestry and Plantation, lecturer of the Faculty of Agriculture and Polytechnic of Jember, State University of Jember, and Sidomulyo community in Silo Districts, Jember. The result showed that the purposes of eco-homestay can be reached by managing the structure of integrated development, structure of organizational management, structure of financial management, marketing strategies, operational strategies and physical building. Keywords: conservation, eco-homestay, rural tourism, Sidomulyo

  4. Effect of harvest time on fermentation profiles of maize ensiled in laboratory silos and determination of drying losses at 60°C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tina Skau; Kristensen, Niels Bastian; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis


    The objectives were to investigate the effect of premature ensiling of maize on alcohol fermentation in laboratory silos and the loss of fermentation products and glucose in silage following drying at 60°C for 48 h. During four consecutive weeks maize was harvested and ensiled for 60 days in vacuum......-sealed laboratory silos. The content of DM in silage increased (psilage...... harvested the second week compared with the other harvest times (40.9 vs. 66-69 g/kg DM). Overall, silage pH was negatively correlated with L-lactate (r=-0.93). Drying increased pH, butyrate and valerate, although the numerical effect was small. A major portion of acetate was lost in drying, and the D...

  5. Diseño de un silo cilíndrico de fondo plano para almacenamiento de maíz con capacidad de 50 toneladas


    Castillo Román, Andrea Elizabeth


    El presente proyecto está orientado al diseño estructural de un silo cilíndrico metálico de fondo plano para almacenamiento de maíz con capacidad de 50 toneladas. El proyecto se divide en cinco capítulos detallados a continuación. En el capítulo 1 ANTECEDENTES, se encuentra el planteamiento del problema, los objetivos y alcance de éste proyecto. En el capítulo 2 FUNDAMENTOS TEÓRICOS, se recopila información necesaria para el diseño del silo desde la estructura del grano de maíz y sus...

  6. Estimating Children’s Soil/Dust Ingestion Rates through Retrospective Analyses of Blood Lead Biomonitoring from the Bunker Hill Superfund Site in Idaho (United States)

    von Lindern, Ian; Spalinger, Susan; Stifelman, Marc L.; Stanek, Lindsay Wichers; Bartrem, Casey


    Background: Soil/dust ingestion rates are important variables in assessing children’s health risks in contaminated environments. Current estimates are based largely on soil tracer methodology, which is limited by analytical uncertainty, small sample size, and short study duration. Objectives: The objective was to estimate site-specific soil/dust ingestion rates through reevaluation of the lead absorption dose–response relationship using new bioavailability data from the Bunker Hill Mining and Metallurgical Complex Superfund Site (BHSS) in Idaho, USA. Methods: The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in vitro bioavailability methodology was applied to archived BHSS soil and dust samples. Using age-specific biokinetic slope factors, we related bioavailable lead from these sources to children’s blood lead levels (BLLs) monitored during cleanup from 1988 through 2002. Quantitative regression analyses and exposure assessment guidance were used to develop candidate soil/dust source partition scenarios estimating lead intake, allowing estimation of age-specific soil/dust ingestion rates. These ingestion rate and bioavailability estimates were simultaneously applied to the U.S. EPA Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic Model for Lead in Children to determine those combinations best approximating observed BLLs. Results: Absolute soil and house dust bioavailability averaged 33% (SD ± 4%) and 28% (SD ± 6%), respectively. Estimated BHSS age-specific soil/dust ingestion rates are 86–94 mg/day for 6-month- to 2-year-old children and 51–67 mg/day for 2- to 9-year-old children. Conclusions: Soil/dust ingestion rate estimates for 1- to 9-year-old children at the BHSS are lower than those commonly used in human health risk assessment. A substantial component of children’s exposure comes from sources beyond the immediate home environment. Citation: von Lindern I, Spalinger S, Stifelman ML, Stanek LW, Bartrem C. 2016. Estimating children’s soil/dust ingestion

  7. ¹H NMR-based metabolomics approach to assess toxicity of bunker a heavy oil to freshwater carp, Cyprinus carpio. (United States)

    Kokushi, Emiko; Uno, Seiichi; Harada, Tomotaka; Koyama, Jiro


    Using a ¹H NMR metabolomics approach, the effects of dietary exposure of bunker A heavy oil (0.01, 0.1, 1, and 5% in diet) on freshwater carp, Cyprinus carpio, were examined. Statistical analysis by PCA score plots showed that the amount of metabolites in exposure groups 0.1, 1, and 5% differed from those in the control group. Although no discernible effects on metabolites were noted in the 0.1% exposure group as well as in the lowest concentration (0.01%) group, several metabolites such as amino acid (e.g., leucine, isoleucine, valine, glutamine, histidine, proline, and methionine), 3-D-hydroxybutyrate, and glycerol were elevated, while another metabolite such as formate was reduced in 1 and 5% groups. These changes in the metabolites associated with the tri-carboxylic-acid (TCA) cycle suggest that oil exposure resulted in the disturbance of the TCA cycle in the liver of the carp. Isobutyrate, a marker of anoxia, was also increased in 1 and 5% exposures groups and was directly related to low hemoglobin concentrations leading to reduced oxygen transport by blood. In addition, significant elevation of creatinine in the plasma of carps exposed to 5% heavy oil suggests disturbance in kidney function. Thus, metabolomics approach can detect toxic effects of hazardous pollutants on fish. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. El Eurocódigo 1993-1-6 en el cálculo de pandeo de silos agrícolas metálicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguado Rodríguez, Pedro J.


    Full Text Available Nowadays numerous applications exist in agricultural, farm and industrial processing which use contention structures for their productions. This type of structures present many problems for its design with the lack of a national standard that guides on the calculation of actions for silaged material, the appearance of the last versions of Eurocode 1-4 partially covers this paucity. The recent appearance of Eurocode 1993- 1-6 and Eurocode 1993-4-1 fries to cover the lack of normative for calculation of silos, proposing the use of numeric methods for a correct design and indicating the different limits states that should be considered. Numerous previous studies have demonstrated the utility of numeric methods, and specially the Finite Element Method for calculation of pressures on agricultura1 silos in different states. One of the most common failures in these structures is buckling of barrels due to friction exerted by stored materials. The object of this paper is to compare the calculation methods proposed by new ENV 1993-1-6 and 1993-4-1 with a global model calculated by the Finite Element Method, obtaining conclusions about silo behavior and forces which can provoke buckling and determining the stress state exerted on the structure.Existen en la actualidad numerosas aplicaciones a nivel agrícola, ganadero e industrial que se sirven de estructuras de contención para sus fines productivos. Este tipo de estructuras presentan una problemática propia en cuanto a su diseño, no existiendo a nivel nacional normativa que oriente sobre el cálculo de acciones para materiales ensilados; la aparición de las últimas versiones del Eurocódigo 1-4 cubre parcialmente este vacío. La reciente aparición del Eurocódigo 1993-1-6 y Eurocódigo 1993-4-1 viene a paliar la ausencia de normativa referente al cálculo de silos metálicos, proponiendo la utilización de métodos numéricos para un óptimo diseño de los mismos e indicando los distintos estados l

  9. Dismantling the Justice Silos: avoiding the pitfalls and reaping the benefits of information-sharing between forensic science, medicine and law. (United States)

    Kelty, Sally F; Julian, Roberta; Ross, Alastair


    Forensic science is increasingly relied on by police and the courts to exonerate the innocent and to establish links to crime. With this increased reliance the potential for unjust outcomes increases, especially in serious matters for two reasons. The more serious the matter, the more likely that evidence mishandling can lead to wrongful imprisonment, and the more likely the personnel involved will be multi-disciplinary (police, medicine, law, forensic science), and multi-organisational (Health, Justice, private legal/medical, police). The importance of identifying effective multi-organisational interactions was highlighted in the recent wrongful imprisonment of an Australian male for a sexual assault he did not commit. One factor that led to this unjust outcome was the justice silo effect: where forensic practitioners from different agencies operate in isolation (rarely communicating or sharing information/knowledge). In this paper we discuss findings from the Interfaces Project designed to assess the extent of the justice silos within Australia. We interviewed 103 police, forensic scientists, lawyers, judges, coroners, pathologists and forensic physicians Australian-wide. Five main themes were identified in the data: the silo effect was only partial and in each jurisdiction some form of inter-agency communication was actively occurring; inter-agency meetings were more common in homicide than sexual assault cases; forensic physicians were semi-invisible; there had been considerable momentum over the past ten years for practice improvement groups, and; practitioners gain more benefits than pitfalls from inter-agency information-sharing. Based on these findings, five recommendations are made for improving practice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Dismantling the justice silos: Flowcharting the role and expertise of forensic science, forensic medicine and allied health in adult sexual assault investigations. (United States)

    Kelty, Sally F; Julian, Roberta; Bruenisholz, Eva; Wilson-Wilde, Linzi


    Forensic science is increasingly used to help exonerate the innocent and establishing links between individuals and criminal activities. With increased reliance on scientific services provided by multi-disciplinary (police, medicine, law, forensic science), and multi-organisational in the private and government sectors (health, justice, legal, police) practitioners, the potential for miscommunication resulting unjust outcomes increases. The importance of identifying effective multi-organisational information sharing is to prevent the 'justice silo effect'; where practitioners from different organisations operate in isolation with minimal or no interaction. This paper presents the findings from the second part of the Interfaces Project, an Australia-wide study designed to assess the extent of the justice silos. We interviewed 121 police, forensic scientists, lawyers, judges, coroners, pathologists and forensic physicians. The first paper published in 2013 presented two key findings: first investigative meetings were rare in adult sexual assault cases; second many medical practitioners were semi-invisible in case decision-making with this low level of visibility being due to lawyers, forensic scientists or police not being aware of the role/expertise medical practitioners offer. These findings led to the development of a flowchart model for adult sexual assault that highlights the range of agencies and practitioners typically involved in sexual assault. The rationale for the flowchart is to produce a visual representation of a typical sexual assault investigative process highlighting where and who plays a role in order to minimise the risk of justice silos. This is the second paper in a series of two. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Professor Antonio Austregésilo: o pioneiro da neurologia e do estudo dos distúrbios do movimento no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available O Professor Antonio Austregésilo foi o pioneiro da neurologia brasileira, criando a primeira escola neurológica no Rio de Janeiro em 1912. Ele foi também o primeiro a estudar os distúrbios do movimento no Brasil, tendo publicado vários artigos nesta área, particularmente nas consagradas revistas "Revue Neurologique" e "L'Encephale", incluindo a descrição de um sinal sucedâneo de Babinski e a primeira descrição mundial de distonia pós-traumática.

  12. Reconstruction of drip-water δ18O based on calcite oxygen and clumped isotopes of speleothems from Bunker Cave (Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kluge


    Full Text Available The geochemical signature of many speleothems used for reconstruction of past continental climates is affected by kinetic isotope fractionation. This limits quantitative paleoclimate reconstruction and, in cases where the kinetic fractionation varies with time, also affects relative paleoclimate interpretations. In carbonate archive research, clumped isotope thermometry is typically used as proxy for absolute temperatures. In the case of speleothems, however, clumped isotopes provide a sensitive indicator for disequilibrium effects. The extent of kinetic fractionation co-varies in Δ47 and δ18O so that it can be used to account for disequilibrium in δ18O and to extract the past drip-water composition. Here we apply this approach to stalagmites from Bunker Cave (Germany and calculate drip-water δ18Ow values for the Eemian, MIS3, and the Holocene, relying on independent temperature estimates and accounting for disequilibrium. Applying the co-variation method to modern calcite precipitates yields drip-water δ18Ow values in agreement with modern cave drip-water δ18Ow of −7.9 ± 0.3‰, despite large and variable disequilibrium effects in both calcite δ18Oc and Δ47. Reconstructed paleo-drip-water δ18Ow values are lower during colder periods (e.g., MIS3: −8.6 ± 0.4‰ and the early Holocene at 11 ka: −9.7 ± 0.2‰ and show higher values during warmer climatic periods (e.g., the Eemian: −7.6 ± 0.2‰ and the Holocene Climatic Optimum: −7.2 ± 0.3‰. This new approach offers a unique possibility for quantitative climate reconstruction including the assessment of past hydrological conditions while accounting for disequilibrium effects.

  13. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 214: Bunkers and Storage Areas Nevada Test Site, Nevada: Revision 0, Including Record of Technical Change No. 1 and No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office


    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 214 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Areas 5, 11, and 25 of the Nevada Test Site, CAU 214 consists of nine Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 05-99-01, Fallout Shelters; 11-22-03, Drum; 25-99-12, Fly Ash Storage; 25-23-01, Contaminated Materials; 25-23-19, Radioactive Material Storage; 25-99-18, Storage Area; 25-34-03, Motor Dr/Gr Assembly (Bunker); 25-34-04, Motor Dr/Gr Assembly (Bunker); and 25-34-05, Motor Dr/Gr Assembly (Bunker). These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives (CAAs). The suspected contaminants and critical analyte s for CAU 214 include oil (total petroleum hydrocarbons-diesel-range organics [TPH-DRO], polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs]), pesticides (chlordane, heptachlor, 4,4-DDT), barium, cadmium, chronium, lubricants (TPH-DRO, TPH-gasoline-range organics [GRO]), and fly ash (arsenic). The land-use zones where CAU 214 CASs are located dictate that future land uses will be limited to nonresidential (i.e., industrial) activities. The results of this field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the corrective action decision document.

  14. Análisis instrumental del recubrimiento de las paredes internas de dos estructuras negativas de tipo silo de la ocupación neolítica postcardial de Benàmer


    Martínez Mira, Isidro; Vilaplana-Ortego, Eduardo; Such-Basañez, Ion; García del Cura, María Ángeles


    Análisis instrumental mediante diferentes técnicas (ATR-IR, DRX, TG, SEM, MO, FRX, etc..) del recubrimiento de la pared interna de dos estructuras negativas (silos)del yacimiento Neolítico-Mesolítico de Cantera Benàmer (Muro d'Alcoi, Alicante).

  15. Chemical and microbiological changes and aerobic stability of marandu grass silages after silo opening Alterações químicas e microbiológicas de silagens de capim-marandu após a abertura dos silos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Fernandes Bernardes


    Full Text Available This trial had the objective of characterizing the microbial population and evaluating the aerobic stability of Marandu grass silages with pelleted citrus pulp (PCP. The collected forage was submitted to the following treatments: Silage of Marandu grass; silage of Marandu grass + 50 g/kg PCP and silage of Marandu grass + 100 g/kg PCP on natural matter basis. Metal cylindrical containers with 80 cm of height and 50 cm of diameter were used as silos during assays of microbiological dynamics and chemical changes of silages in anaerobiosis. Evaluations were performed on days 0, 2, 4 and 6 after silos were opened. The aerobic stability was evaluated by change in temperature, using approximately three kilograms of silage inside styrofoam boxes that were placed inside a climatic chamber. A completely randomized experimental design and split plot arrangement were used in the two assays, with five replications. Treatments were the plots and time was the subplots. Bacillus and enterobacteria were present on the Marandu grass silages with 0 g/kg PCP, which also showed pH increase throughout the feedout phase. Yeast was detected on the silages that were added with PCP. A trend of increasing temperature with extension of the aeration time was observed mainly in the silages containing 100 g/kg PCP. Isolated yeast strains showed lactate assimilation. Silages were found to be unstable due to the silo opening, both by bacterial or yeast development, which reduced the nutritional value.Esta pesquisa foi realizada com os objetivos de caracterizar a microbiologia e avaliar a estabilidade aeróbia de silagens de capim-marandu contendo polpa cítrica peletizada (PCP. A forragem colhida foi submetida aos seguintes tratamentos: silagem de capim-marandu; silagem de capim-marandu + 5% PCP e silagem do capim-marandu + 10% de PCP com base na matéria natural. As alterações químicas e microbiológicas foram feitas aos 0, 2, 4 e 6 dias após a abertura dos silos (tambores

  16. Bunker glocal: configuração majoritária sutil do imaginário mediático contemporâneo e militarização imperceptível da vida cotidiana


    Trivinho, Eugênio; PUC-SP


    Bunker glocal – esta expressão heterodoxa – é o fundamento mediático do processo civilizatório contemporâneo. Sua análise no âmbito da teoria social e da comunicação apreende o principal aspecto de sua múltipla significação social-histórica: a militarização velada da existência humana no contexto civil da era digital. Ao materializar essa injunção teórica, o presente artigo detalha os vínculos inextricáveis entre processo de bunkerização ampliada, imaginário social e fenômeno glocal (além ...

  17. DG Connect Funded Projects on Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) for Old Age People: Beyond Silos, CareWell and SmartCare. (United States)

    Keijser, W; de Manuel-Keenoy, E; d'Angelantonio, M; Stafylas, P; Hobson, P; Apuzzo, G; Hurtado, M; Oates, J; Bousquet, J; Senn, A


    Information and communication technologies (ICT) are promising for the long-term care of older and frequently frail people. These innovations can improve health outcomes, quality of life and efficiency of care processes, while supporting independent living. However, they may be disruptive innovations. As all European member states are facing an increasing complexity of health and social care, good practices in ICT should be identified and evaluated. Three projects funded by DG CNECT are related to Active and Healthy Ageing (AHA) and frailty: (i) BeyondSilos, dealing with independent living and integrated services, (ii) CareWell, providing integrated care coordination, patient empowerment and home support and (iii) SmartCare, proposing a common set of standard functional specifications for an ICT platform enabling the delivery of integrated care to older patients. The three projects described in this paper provide a unique pan-European research field to further study implementation efforts and outcomes of new technologies. Below, based on a description of the projects, the authors display four domains that are in their views fundamental for in-depth exploration of heterogeneity in the European context: 1. Definition of easily transferable, high level pathways with solid evidence-base; 2. Change management in implementing ICT enabled integrated care; 3. Evaluation and data collection methodologies based on existing experience with MAST and MEDAL methodologies; and 4. Construction of new models for delivery of health and social care. Understanding complementarity, synergies and differences between the three unique projects can help to identify a more effective roll out of best practices within a varying European context.

  18. Alternative methods for dispoal of low-level radioactive wastes. Task 1. Description of methods and assessment of criteria. [Alternative methods are belowground vaults, aboveground vaults; earth mounded concrete bunkers, mined cavities, augered holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, R.D.; Miller, W.O.; Warriner, J.B.; Malone, P.G.; McAneny, C.C.


    The study reported herein contains the results of Task 1 of a four-task study entitled Criteria for Evaluating Engineered Facilities. The overall objective of this study is to ensure that the criteria needed to evaluate five alternative low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal methods are available to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Agreement States. The alternative methods considered are belowground vaults, aboveground vaults, earth mounded concrete bunkers, mined cavities, and augered holes. Each of these alternatives is either being used by other countries for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal or is being considered by other countries or US agencies. In this report the performance requirements are listed, each alternative is described, the experience gained with its use is discussed, and the performance capabilities of each method are addressed. Next, the existing 10 CFR Part 61 Subpart D criteria with respect to paragraphs 61.50 through 61.53, pertaining to site suitability, design, operations and closure, and monitoring are assessed for applicability to evaluation of each alternative. Preliminary conclusions and recommendations are offered on each method's suitability as an LLW disposal alternative, the applicability of the criteria, and the need for supplemental or modified criteria.

  19. Análisis de la distribución de presiones estáticas en silos cilíndricos con tolva excéntrica mediante el M. E. F. Influencia de la excentricidad y comparación con el Eurocódigo 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidal López, Pablo


    Full Text Available At the European level, silos are considered under the European Standards (Eurocode 1, Part 4. Actions in si/os and tanks, with no proposed method of calculation in the case of an eccentric outlet. The guidelines include a brief mention that eccentricity should not exceed 25% of the silo diameter and that in the future, attempts will be made to cover large eccentricities. We have developed an analysis of static pressure distributions in grain silos with eccentric outlets. To this end, silos were modelled using ANSYS 5.5. According to the F.E.M. maximum normal pressures on the silo wall correspond to the si/o-hopper junction. on the opposite side to the displacement of the outlet for any eccentricity, increasing at this point as hopper eccentricity rises. Compared to the Eurocode, static pressures are proposed when the hopper is centered and considered to be valid up to an eccentricity limit of 0.25 times the diameter , their redistribution at the hopper wall when this is eccentric may be observed by means of the FE.M. increasing on the opposite side to the outlet and decreasing on the same side with respect to the central hopper. This leads us to conclude that a more conservative method of calculation should be used in the Eurocode for normal pressures on the hopper wall when centered, and coefficients drawn up to include the variations produced in the static state when it is off-center.En Europa las acciones en silos se recogen en la Norma Europea (ENV 1991-4. Eurocode l. Part 4: Actions on silos and tanks., sin proponer método alguno de cálculo cuando la boca de salida es excéntrica, limitándose a mencionar que la excentricidad de ésta no debe de ser mayor del 25% del diámetro y mencionando que en un futuro se intentará que cubra las grandes excentricidades. En este artículo realizamos un análisis de la distribución de presiones estáticas en silos cilíndricos con tolva excéntrica. Para ello hemos usado el programa ANSYS 5.5. con

  20. Variação da temperatura e umidade de grãos armazenados em silos com aeração Variations of temperature and moisture content of grains stored in bins with aeration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivano A. Devilla


    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, estudou-se a variação de temperatura e de umidade em uma massa de grãos de milho armazenada em um silo, durante a aeração do produto, determinando-se o tempo de aeração requerido para se obter uma diferença de temperatura de 3 ºC entre a massa de grãos e o ambiente externo do silo. Inicialmente, os grãos de milho armazenados foram aquecidos utilizando-se equipamentos para aquecimento e umidificação do ar insuflado na massa. O processo de aeração foi realizado com fluxo de ar de 0,0157 m³ s-1 m-2 e, com o auxílio de um sistema de aquisição de dados e termopares, registraram-se as temperaturas em diversos pontos da massa de grãos, localizados radialmente a diferentes distâncias horizontais e verticais nas direções norte, sul, leste, oeste. Amostras do produto foram retiradas periodicamente, durante o resfriamento, para determinação da umidade. A redução de temperatura na massa de grãos dependeu da localização do produto no interior do silo, enquanto as maiores reduções de temperatura foram detectadas no produto localizado nas regiões sul e leste, e as menores, nas regiões norte e oeste que, de início, continham o produto em temperaturas mais baixas. A maior redução na temperatura da massa de grãos ocorreu entre 24 e 48 h de aeração. Um tempo de aeração de aproximadamente 70 h, foi necessário para que a diferença de temperatura entre a massa de grãos e o ambiente externo ao silo fosse igual a 3 ºC.The temperature and moisture content variations in corn kernels stored in a bin during an aeration process are presented in this work. The aeration time requirements were determined to obtain a temperature difference of 3 ºC between the mass of grains and the external environment. The temperature of the stored grains was increased by submitting the product to a forced flow of moist and pre-heated air before the aeration. Airflow of 0.0157 m³ s-1 m-2 was used in the aeration process

  1. Effects of Bacterial Inoculants and Absorbents on Fermentation Properties and Chemical Composition of Fresh Sugar Beet Pulp Silage Using Laboratory silos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Seidali Dolat-Abad


    treatment after mixing the fresh sugar beet pulp with absorbents or inoculants. Ensilages were filled in laboratory silos and packed and then were kept for 90 d in room temperature at dark. After opening the concentration of volatile and non-volatile fatty acids, crude protein, fibers, total and ammonia-N and the values of pH were measured in final produced silages. Results and Discussion In the experiment 1, concentration of dry matter (DM, neutral detergent insoluble fibers (NDF and acid detergent insoluble fibers were higher in absorbents treated silage (P>0.01 when compared with untreated one. Application of absorbents resulted in silages with lower seepages (P>0.01 production compared to the control. However, application of the absorbents to the beet pulp produced silages with lower in vitro DM digestibility (P>0.05. Straw treated silage had the highest NDF concentration and the lowest apparent and true in vitro DM digestibility. Application of absorbents produced silages with lower lactic acid (P>0.01 and higher pH (P> 0.05 and ammonia-N (P>0.01 concentration. Adding straw to sugar beet pulp produced silages with higher acetate concentration, total volatile fatty acids concentrations (VFA (P> 0.01, the ratio of ammonia-N from total N (P>0.01 but lower ratios of lactate to acetate (P>0.01, lactate to acetate + propionate (P>0.01 and lactate to VFA (P>0.05 when compared with control group. In contrast, adding pith to sugar beet pulp produced silages with lower acetate concentration (P>0.01, propionate concentration (P>0.01, total VFA (P> 0.01 but higher ratios of lactate to acetate (P> 0.01, lactate to acetate + propionate (P> 0.01 and lactate to VFA (P>0.05 when compared with control group. The Fleig point was not affected by the different treatments. Application of bacterial inoculant resulted in silages with higher DM concentration (P>0.01, water soluble carbohydrates concentration (P> 0.01 and in vitro DM digestibility (P>0.05 but lower crude protein concentration

  2. Magnesium oxychloride cement concrete

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    ting. It is used in industrial floorings, ship decks, railway passenger coach floorings, hospital floors, ammunition factory floors, missile silos and underground armament factories and bunkers. Recently, concrete of high compres- sive and tensile strength prepared with magnesium oxy- chloride cement and recycled rubber ...

  3. Crushing data silos with ownCloud

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    More and more people store their personal files and documents in cloud services like Dropbox, Google Drive, Skydrive or iCloud. The reason is that they provide convenient features to sync your files between devices and share them with others. We are heading full speed into a future where a huge piece of the personal information of the world is stored in very few centralized services. Questions emerge what the impact on user privacy, surveillance, lawfulness of content and storage cost will be in in the long run. I don't think that a world where most of the personal data of the world is stored on servers of a hand full companies is a good one. This talk will discuss the problems of a future with centralized cloud file sync and share services and will present ownCloud as a possible solution. ownCloud is a free software project that offers a decentralized alternative to proprietary cloud services where everybody can run an own cloud service comparable with Dropbox but on own hardware and with full ...

  4. Inherent Controls on Ready Mix Cement Silos (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  5. Storage Tank or Silo Locations - USACE IENC (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — These inland electronic Navigational charts (IENCs) were developed from available data used in maintenance of Navigation channels. Users of these IENCs should be...

  6. Security report on Siloe - the descriptive part. (1963); Rapport de surete de Siloe - partie descriptive (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ageron, P.; Chatoux, J.; Denielou, G.; Jacquemain, M.; Mitault, G.; Robien, E. de; Rossillon, F. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    This report is a full description of the site, the reactor, the building and the experimental facilities. It gives the nuclear, thermodynamic and hydrodynamic characteristics of the core. (authors) [French] Ce rapport decrit completement le site, le reacteur, les batiments et les installations experimentales. Il donne les caracteristiques nucleaires, thermodynamiques et hydrodynamiques du coeur. (auteurs)

  7. Shielding simulation of the CDTN cyclotron bunker using MCNP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalle, Hugo M.; Campolina, Daniel de A.M., E-mail: dallehm@cdtn.b, E-mail: campolina@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Div. de Reatores e Radiacoes


    The Nuclear Technology Development Centre (CDTN/CNEN) has contracted services from General Electric in order to install a cyclotron for radioisotopes production and PET radiopharmaceutical synthesis. The Monte Carlo code MCNP5 was used to determine the TVL (tenth value layer) of the concrete and verify shielding calculations performed by GE. The simulations results show values of equivalent dose rates in agreement with those calculated using the methodology adopted by GE, the NCRP-144 and the NCRP-51. (author)

  8. Explotación de 100 vacas para la producción de leche, en régimen de estabulación libre con cubículos, en Villamuriel de Cerrato (Palencia)


    Antón Jiménez, Sergio


    Explotación para 100 vacas de leche y 40 novillas en Villamuriel de Cerrato, con la construcción de una nave ganadera, con cubículos, lecheria, sala de ordeño y espera y oficina , fosas de purines 3 silos tipo bunker , almacén de materías primas y hénil Grado en Ingeniería Agrícola y del Medio Rural

  9. Quality of Brazil nuts stored in forced aeration silos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Aquino da Costa


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The traditional system of collection and storage of Brazil nut compromises seriously the quality of these almonds as it contributes to the high incidence of contaminants, like fungi of the genus Aspergillus, which can produce aflatoxins. In this study, the objective was to evaluate the influence of the storage period in studied conditions, on the physicochemical characteristics and on the microbiological contamination of Brazil nuts. The experimental was designed as completely randomized, considering as treatments the storage period (0 - control, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 days with four replicates of 3 kg of Brazil nuts each. The samples were submitted to physicochemical and microbiological analysis. It was observed that almonds submitted to the storage had their moisture content reduced by 78.2% at 150 days of storage, however, this reduction was not fast enough to avoid surface contamination by filamentous and potentially aflatoxins producing fungi. The critical period of contamination occurred on the first 30 days of storage when there was an increase of the studied fungi, as well as B1 and total aflatoxin. The studied storage conditions were four times more effective in reducing the product moisture content than the traditional methods, however, pre-drying is necessary to avoid contamination of the product.

  10. MDA DS COI Spiral 3 - NOA, SILO and ABAC (United States)


    Continued) KML Keyhole Markup Language LAS Local Attribute Store LDAP Lightweight Directory Access Protocol LEA Law Enforcement Agency MAGNet...Directory Access Protocol ( LDAP ) database in addition to an external attribute store. Additionally, the services would provide a library to the Web

  11. Breaking Down the Siloes: Developing Effective Multidisciplinary HIV Research Teams. (United States)

    Magnus, Manya; Castel, Amanda


    As the HIV epidemic passes its 35 years mark, the role of multidisciplinary approaches to HIV research has become increasingly important. Development of diverse, cross-cutting research teams has been found to be key to engaging and retaining participants in population-based studies; it is also a crucial component of designing studies capable of examining the sensitive and nuanced issues that surround HIV related risk and adherence behavior. Expanding our understanding of these issues is central to being able to overcome them and ultimately to the development of best practices for translation of research discovery into improvements in prevention and care. The objectives of this paper are to characterize the importance of multidisciplinary teams in HIV research where they are critical to gaining information that can have a positive impact on the epidemic and to propose specific methods for creating teams to conduct research with optimal public health impact.

  12. Toppling Disciplinary Silos: One Suggestion for Accounting and Management. (United States)

    Thorne, Daniel; Davig, William


    The topic of managing diversity is presented as a way to combine management and accounting to enable students to understand different accounting standards and cultural differences internationally. (SK)

  13. Analysis of effect of harvest corn plant in different stages of reproductive and processing of grain on the quality of silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Marafon


    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted at the Department of Animal Production (NUPRAN State University Midwest (UNICENTRO, with the objective of evaluate the effect of harvesting the maize plant at different reproductive stages and with different grains process on dry matter digestibility, neutral detergent fiber digestibility and animal performance. The experimental design was completely randomized, with four treatments and four replications, where each replication consisted of a pen with two steers, totaling sixteen experimental units. During the silage confection, homogeneous and representative samples from processed plants were collected, part intended for chemical analyses and inserted part in “bags” silo, putting these in the profile of each bunker silo, being considered as experimental units. The experiment lasted 84 days after opining de bunker silos, being 14 days for adaption, followed by 4 periods of 21 days. Thus, silage harvested at dough stage showed higher values of in vitro digestibility of dry matter and neutral detergent fiber. The use of corn silage harvested at R5 stage facilitated better animal performance with consequent transformation of dry matter consumed in daily weight gain.

  14. Microbial status, aerobic stability and fermentation of maize silage sealed with an oxygen barrier film or standard polyethylene film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szilvia Orosz


    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to compare a bunker silo sealing system comprising an oxygen barrier film (OB: 45μm thickness with protective woven polypropylene with one comprising standard black polyethylene film (S; 125μm thickness with protective tyres. Analysis of samples taken to 30 cm depth after 365 days of storage showed no differences in pH or lactic acid between the two sealing systems. There were no differences in aerobic bacterial count between silages. Whilst 2.56 log10 CFU moulds g-1 fresh weight were found in samples of silage sealed with S, no moulds were found in samples of silage sealed with OB. Aerobic stability, averaged 249 hours and 184 hours for OB and S, respectively. The OB system probably inhibited the development of the micro-organisms responsible for the initiation of aerobic deterioration to a greater extent than the standard silo sealing system.  

  15. Estimation of activity of air in the cyclotron bunker for PET diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voskanjan Karen Varuzhanovich


    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the estimation of air activation by argon-41 induced by accelerated protons in 18 MeV Cyclotron. It has been demonstrated that activity of air is below significant minimum at proton current of 150 microamps.

  16. Status Survey of Bunkers 738A and 825A at Spangdahlem AB, Germany (United States)


    AB, Germany 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) SSgt Emily Arceo 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e... Germany . Laboratory analysis of swipe samples showed that residual removable activity did not exceed the derived concentration guideline level (DCGL) of... Germany 1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: At the request ofthe United States Air Force Radioisotope Committee Secretariat, the United States Air Force School of


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The purpose of this Closure Report is to document that the closure of CAU 214 complied with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection-approved Corrective Action Plan closure requirements. The closure activities specified in the Corrective Action Plan were based on the approved corrective action alternatives presented in the CAU 214 Corrective Action Decision Document.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 330 consists of four Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 6, 22, and 23 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The unit is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996) as CAU 330: Areas 6, 22, and 23 Tanks and Spill Sites. CAU 330 consists of the following CASs: CAS 06-02-04, Underground Storage Tank (UST) and Piping CAS 22-99-06, Fuel Spill CAS 23-01-02, Large Aboveground Storage Tank (AST) Farm CAS 23-25-05, Asphalt Oil Spill/Tar Release

  19. 76 FR 3655 - Bunker Hill Groundwater Basin, Riverside-Corona Feeder Project, San Bernardino and Riverside... (United States)


    ...: Pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA... prepared a Supplemental Draft Environmental Impact Report and a Draft Environmental Impact Statement (SDEIR... on the SDEIR/DEIS. The Federal action will provide funds for a proposed aquifer storage and recovery...

  20. Beyond the Education Silo? Tackling Adolescent Secondary Education in Rural India (United States)

    Kelly, Orla; Bhabha, Jacqueline


    In this paper we examine the factors contributing to gender inequality in secondary schooling in India by critically reviewing the government's secondary education policy. Drawing on the findings of a study in rural Gujarat, we couple this analysis with an examination of the gendered dynamics that restrict girls' ability to fully benefit from the…

  1. “One Health” or Three? Publication Silos Among the One Health Disciplines (United States)

    Craft, Meggan E.; Joseph, Maxwell B.; Miller, Ryan S.; Nol, Pauline; Patyk, Kelly A.; O’Brien, Daniel; Walsh, Daniel P.; Cross, Paul C.


    The One Health initiative is a global effort fostering interdisciplinary collaborations to address challenges in human, animal, and environmental health. While One Health has received considerable press, its benefits remain unclear because its effects have not been quantitatively described. We systematically surveyed the published literature and used social network analysis to measure interdisciplinarity in One Health studies constructing dynamic pathogen transmission models. The number of publications fulfilling our search criteria increased by 14.6% per year, which is faster than growth rates for life sciences as a whole and for most biology subdisciplines. Surveyed publications clustered into three communities: one used by ecologists, one used by veterinarians, and a third diverse-authorship community used by population biologists, mathematicians, epidemiologists, and experts in human health. Overlap between these communities increased through time in terms of author number, diversity of co-author affiliations, and diversity of citations. However, communities continue to differ in the systems studied, questions asked, and methods employed. While the infectious disease research community has made significant progress toward integrating its participating disciplines, some segregation—especially along the veterinary/ecological research interface—remains. PMID:27100532


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Kachurenko


    Full Text Available Purpose. The paper aims: 1 qualitative assessment of the nature of the container corrugated wall deformation caused by the load from bulk materials. 2 determination of the horizontal pressure redistribution scheme for each individual corrugation plate and the calculation method that is closer to the real situation. 3 obtaining the quantitativedeformation indicators to compare them with the calculated ones produced by means of mathematical model simulation. Methodology.To achieve this purpose the different types of capacitive structure profiles were investigated and the values of total vertical displacement under load were obtained. The computational experiment used the design computer system Structure CAD for Windows. In addition, the laboratory experiment was conducted, the analysis of which is important to confirm the correctness of pre-made computer models. Findings. The conducted experiment allowed receiving the confirmation of the FEM calculated data, namely qualitatively and quantitatively the deformation direction and nature completely repeated the design situation in SCAD. Thework ofcorrugatedprofile was analysedfordifferenttheoreticallypossibleload schemesanddifferentcalculation methods. Alsotheworkcontainstherecommendationsfortherealcalculationusingcomputersimulation. During a joint study the authors obtained the data that allow for more accurate assessment of the corrugated profile performance under the pressure from bulk materials. Originality. The conducted research and experimental tests explain and clarify the ways for possible redistribution of bulk material pressure on each corrugation plate, while there is no such information in the existing recommendation literature and regulatory framework concerning the capacitive structure design. Practical value.The use of the proposed solutions is useful for correct design of containers with corrugated walls during further calculations and search of new directions for future research.

  3. Diversity without Silos: The Confluence of the Social and Scientific Teaching of Diversity (United States)

    Page, Scott E.


    Students drink from two separate streams. When studying "diversity" in political science, sociology, and history, they learn about demographic trends, changing notions of identity, and attempts to overcome historical injustices. They learn to view human differences through historical, legal, moral, and ethical lenses. These teachings…

  4. Sistema de monitoramento da temperatura e umidade em silos graneleiros via radiofrequencia


    Ferrasa, Marcelo [UNESP; Biaggioni, Marco Antônio Martin [UNESP; Dias,Ariangelo Hauer


    The use of Information and Communication Technology has grown in most agricultural activities. As a consequence, it has changed the way of thinking and acting of the farmer who wants to establish a more and more competitive market. However, the high costs of acquisition and maintenance of those technologies may be a factor which can inhibit its spread and acceptance, mainly to a large number of small grain Brazilian farmers. In this context, there is a need for innovative solutions that are p...

  5. Breaking down silos: engaging students to help fix the US health care system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumarasamy MA


    Full Text Available Mathu A Kumarasamy,1 Fred P Sanfilippo1–3 1Emory–Georgia Tech Healthcare Innovation Program, 2Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, School of Medicine, 3Department of Health Policy and Management, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA Problem: The field of health care is becoming a team effort as patient care becomes increasingly complex and multifaceted. Despite the need for multidisciplinary education, there persists a lack of student engagement and collaboration among health care disciplines, which presents a growing concern as students join the workforce. Approach: In October 2013, the Emory–Georgia Tech Healthcare Innovation Program organized a student driven symposium entitled “US Healthcare: What's Broken and How to Fix It: The Student Perspective”. The symposium engaged students from multiple disciplines to work together in addressing problems associated with US health care delivery. The symposium was organized and carried out by a diverse group of student leaders from local institutions who adopted a multidisciplinary approach throughout the planning process. Outcomes: The innovative planning process leading up to the symposium revealed that many of the student-discipline groups lacked an understanding of one another's role in health care, and that students were interested in learning how to work together to leverage each other's profession. The symposium was widely attended and positively received by students and faculty from the Atlanta metropolitan area, and has since helped to promote interdepartmental collaboration and multidisciplinary education across institutions. Next steps: The student symposium will become an annual event and incorporate broader discipline representation, as well as a patient perspective. Proposals for additional institution-wide, multidisciplinary educational offerings are being addressed with the help of faculty and health care providers across the network. Accordingly, the implementation of student-driven symposia to engage students and stimulate institution-wide changes may be a beneficial and cost-effective means for academic health centers looking to facilitate multidisciplinary health care education.Keywords: multidisciplinary health care education, multidisciplinary student engagement, multidisciplinary team-based learning

  6. Numerical simulations in granular matter: The discharge of a 2D silo

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    One final ingredient needs to be added: representing static friction with a fic- titious spring has the disadvantage of introducing tangential oscillations in the system. In order to damp them one needs to put some dissipation in this tangential interaction. Following the linear-spring dash-pot model one needs to add to (22).

  7. Final Environmental Impact Statement, Peacekeeper in Minuteman Silos, F.E. Warren AFB, Wyoming. Volume 1. (United States)


    the late Victorian era or evidencing other important stylistic features. F.E. Warren AFB itself contains a designated Historic District/Landmark...resident, 35.8 years in 1980, was considerably higher than the County’s median age of 28.1 years. In 1981, marriage and divorce rates for Laramie County...and the State of Wyoming were considerably higher than the national rates and, although no firm conclusions can be drawn, higher marriage and divorce

  8. Seeing beyond Silos: How State Education Agencies Spend Federal Education Dollars and Why (United States)

    Hanna, Robert


    Historically, state departments of education, or SEAs, have--for the most part--been compliance-focused organizations that managed federal education policy. Over the past several decades, these agencies have been education policy implementation entities. Today, while their compliance responsibilities have remained, they are taking on more…

  9. Obstacle-shape effect in a two-dimensional granular silo flow field (United States)

    Endo, K.; Reddy, K. Anki; Katsuragi, H.


    We conduct a simple experiment and numerical simulation of two-dimensional granular discharge flow driven by gravity under the influence of an obstacle. According to previous work [Zuriguel et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 278001 (2011), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.107.278001], the clogging of granular discharge flow can be suppressed by putting a circular obstacle at a proper position. In order to investigate the details of the obstacle effect in granular flow, we focus on particle dynamics in this study. From the experimental and numerical data, we find that the obstacle remarkably affects the horizontal-velocity distribution and packing fraction in the vicinity of the exit. In addition to the circular obstacle, we utilize triangular, inverted-triangular, and horizontal-bar obstacles to discuss the obstacle-shape effect in granular discharge flow. Based on the investigation of dynamical quantities such as velocity distributions, granular temperature, and volume fraction, we find that the triangular obstacle or horizontal bar could be very effective in preventing the clogging. From the result obtained, we consider that the detouring of particles around the obstacle and resultant low packing fraction at the exit region effectively prevent the clogging in a certain class of granular discharge flow.

  10. Integrative medicine: Breaking down silos of knowledge and practice an epigenetic approach. (United States)

    McEwen, Bruce S


    The future of medicine is discussed in the context of epigenetic influences during the entire life course and the lived experiences of each person, avoiding as much as possible the "medicalization" of the individual and taking a more humanistic view. The reciprocal communication between brain and body via the neuroendocrine, autonomic, metabolic and immune systems and the plasticity of brain architecture provide the basis for devising better "top down" interventions that engage the whole person in working towards his or her welfare. The life course perspective emphasizes the importance of intervening early in life to prevent adverse early life experiences, including the effects of poverty, that can have lifelong consequences, referred to as "biological embedding". In the spirit of integrative, humanistic medicine, treatments that "open windows of plasticity" allow targeted behavioral interventions to redirect brain and body functions and behavior in healthier directions. Policies of government and the private sector, particularly at the local, community level, can create a supporting environment for such interventions. See "Common Ground for Health: Personalized, Precision and Social Medicine McEwen & Getz - Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Working in Separate Silos? What Citation Patterns Reveal about Higher Education Research Internationally (United States)

    Tight, Malcolm


    Higher education research is a growing, inter-disciplinary and increasingly international field of study. This article examines the citation patterns of articles published in six leading higher education journals--three published in the United States and three published elsewhere in the world--for what they reveal about the development of this…

  12. “One Health” or three? Publication silos among the One Health disciplines (United States)

    Manlove, Kezia; Walker, Josephine G; Craft, Meggan E.; Huyvaert, Kathryn P.; Joseph, Maxwell B.; Miller, Ryan S.; Nol, Pauline; Patyk, Kelly A.; O'Brian, Daniel; Walsh, Daniel P.; Cross, Paul C.


    The One Health initiative is a global effort fostering interdisciplinary collaborations to address challenges in human, animal, and environmental health. While One Health has received considerable press, its benefits remain unclear because its effects have not been quantitatively described. We systematically surveyed the published literature and used social network analysis to measure interdisciplinarity in One Health studies constructing dynamic pathogen transmission models. The number of publications fulfilling our search criteria increased by 14.6% per year, which is faster than growth rates for life sciences as a whole and for most biology subdisciplines. Surveyed publications clustered into three communities: one used by ecologists, one used by veterinarians, and a third diverse-authorship community used by population biologists, mathematicians, epidemiologists, and experts in human health. Overlap between these communities increased through time in terms of author number, diversity of co-author affiliations, and diversity of citations. However, communities continue to differ in the systems studied, questions asked, and methods employed. While the infectious disease research community has made significant progress toward integrating its participating disciplines, some segregation—especially along the veterinary/ecological research interface—remains.

  13. Silo-stored pistachios at varying humidity levels produce distinct volatile biomarkers (United States)

    Aflatoxin contamination in California tree nuts results in millions of dollars of lost product annually. The current method for detection of aflatoxin is destructive, expensive and time-intensive. Previous studies have demonstrated that volatile profiles of fungal-contaminated tissues are different ...

  14. Lactic acid bacteria active during the fermentation of wheat silage in small scale silos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, N.J.; Moon, L.C.; Ely, L.O.; Parker, J.A.


    Wheat was ensiled and periodically analyzed for lactic acid bacteria present. Initially Lactobacillus plantarum, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactobacillus cellobiosus and Streptococcus lactis predominated. After two to four days enterococci including S. faecium and S. bovis were present in high populations as well as Lactobacillus plantarum. It was concluded that mixed populations of enterococci and L. plantarum are active in the successful fermentation of wheat silage. (Refs. 5).

  15. Lactic acid bacteria active during the fermentation of wheat silage in small scale silos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, N.J.; Parker, J.A.; Moon, L.C.; Ely, L.O.


    Wheat was ensiled and periodically analyzed for lactic acid bacteria present. Initially Lactobacillus plantarum, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactobacillus cellobiosus and Streptococcus lactis predominated. After two to four days enterococci including S. faecium and S. bovis were present in high populations as well as Lactobacillus plantarum. It was concluded that mixed populations of enterococci and L. plantarum are active in the successful fermentation of wheat silage.

  16. Monitoring for vertical creep in concrete in two silos at Wivenhoe pumped storage hydro power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, M.W. [Queensland Univ. of Technology, Brisbane (Australia). School of Surveying


    The need for structural monitoring is generated by expected or unexpected (newly discovered in the life of the structure) behaviour. Due to the long vertical driveshafts involved at Wivenhoe the phenomenon of `concrete creep` which, if it is occurring, could contribute to shaft misalignment and unscheduled bearing wear or failure, was used as a motivation to establish a vertical monitoring system. The particular system developed for this site is traceable, replaceable, expandable and inexpensive. Measurements are obtained by precise levelling and the use of specially calibrated vertically suspended tapes. The analysis of the vertical loops is performed using constrained variance estimation and `robust` inter-epoch comparison. (orig.)

  17. Estimated doses related to {sup 222}Rn concentration in bunker for radiotherapy and storage of radioisotopes; Dosis estimada por concentraciones de {sup 222}Rn en bunker de radioterapia y de almacenamiento de isotopos radiactivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mestre, Freddy; Carrizales-Silva, Lila, E-mail:, E-mail: [Instituto Venezolano de lnvestigaciones Cientificas, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Sajo-Bohus, Laszlo, E-mail: [Universidad Simon Bolivar, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of). Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear; Diaz, Cruz, E-mail: [Universidad Pedagogica Experimental Libertador, Barquisimeto (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of). Instituto Pedagogico


    It was done a survey in radiotherapy services underground hospitals and clinics of Venezuela and Paraguay in order to estimate the concentrations of radon and its possible consequences on worker occupational exposure. Passive dosimeters were used to assess nuclear traces (NTD type CR-39 Registered-Sign ). The concentration of {sup 222}Rn is determined based on the density of traces using the calibration coefficient of 1 tr/cm{sup 2} equivalent to 0,434 Bqm{sup -3} per month of exposure. Assuming the most likely environmental conditions and the dose conversion factor equal to 9.0 x 10{sup -6} mSv h {sup -1} by Bqm{sup -3}, it was determined the average values and estimated the possible risks to health that are on average 3.0 mSva{sup -1} and 150 micro risk cancer.

  18. Measurements of thermal neutron fluence in the bunker of a cyclotron for PET isotope production; Medidas de fluencia de neutrones termicos en el bunker de un ciclotron de produccion de isotopos para PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez Villafane, R.; Sansoloni florit, F.; Lagares gonzalez, J. L.; Llop Roig, J.; Guerrero Araque, J. E.; Muniz Gutierrez, J. L.; Perez Morales, J. M.


    To measure the neutron spectrum has been used spectrometry system based on Bonner spheres with Au flakes as thermal neutron detector at its center while the results are still pending and will be analyzing another job.

  19. A Semiotic Analysis of Visual Elements Particular to the Medium of Comics in Alan Ford by Max Bunker and Magnus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrvoje Gržina


    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a semiotic analysis of visual elements characteristic for the medium of comic books applied to the first seventy-five issues of the Croatian edition of Alan Ford. After a description of the cultural and historical framework, it analyzes individual signs in comics and different elements specific for expression in comic books in Western culture with the aim of exploring which of these signs are present in Alan Ford, and to what extent. The results show that the analyzed comic book is deeply rooted in the visual and literary Western tradition, and that it contains virtually all the characteristic elements of representation in comic books. However, the paper also concludes that certain iconic elements of the vocabulary of comics – i.e. onomatopoeic neologisms – are to a certain extent specific and typical only for Alan Ford.

  20. El presente como desafío del investigador: Hábitats, trincheras y bunkers ante las emergencias sociales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heber Delgado Ruiz


    Full Text Available Este trabajo abre una discusión en torno a las disciplinas y sus capacidades para atender las emergencias del presente. El artículo parte del análisis de las temáticas planteadas en diversas reuniones académicas [especialmente congresos de sociología, metodología de la investigación científica, etc.] entre los años 2009 y 2011 en América Latina. Observadas en su conjunto, el trabajo realiza un diagnóstico de la capacidad de las disciplinas y de los campos de estudios más constituidos para acercarse al tratamiento de los problemas de época, proponiendo una redefinición de las ciencias sociales a partir de la lectura de estos indicadores del estado actual y de los desafíos de las ciencias sociales de Latinoamérica

  1. 76 FR 58149 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Ships Bunkers Easy Acquisition (SEA) Card® and... (United States)


    ... micro-purchase threshold due to the price of aviation fuel and oil fuel tank capacities. Previously, the... because of their smaller size and unique mission requirements are unable to use the Defense Logistics... their merchant agreement. The rule facilitates open market purchases, benefits merchants by making it...

  2. Effects of enzyme-inoculant systems on preservation and nutritive value of haycrop and corn silages. (United States)

    Chen, J; Stokes, M R; Wallace, C R


    Third-crop mixed grass-legume forage and corn were ensiled in 70-tonne bunker silos to evaluate the effects of a commercial carbohydrase enzyme-inoculant mixture (220 ml/tonne) and an experimental enzyme-inoculant mixture (264 ml/tonne) on silage fermentation and composition, ruminal degradation, and milk production. Twelve Jersey and 24 Holstein early lactation cows were fed one of four TMR at 32.5:32.5:35.0 haycrop silage:corn silage:concentrate (DM basis) containing a combination of treated and untreated silages from d 2 to 100 of lactation. Bunker silages were incubated twice in situ in fistulated cows in each dietary treatment to determine rates of DM and NDF degradation. Treatment of haycrop silage significantly reduced silage pH and acetic acid concentration and increased titratable acidity, lactic acid concentration, lactate: acetate ratio, and DM and NDF disappearances after 24 h of ruminal incubation. Treated haycrop silage increased DMI:BW ratio and daily production of milk, milk protein, and SNF of early lactation cows. Application of the experimental mixture to corn silage did not change silage fermentation or composition, except that the concentration of NH3 was reduced. Enxyme-treated corn silage did not improve DMI and slightly reduced daily milk production in early lactation cows.

  3. Demanda energética nas operações mecanizadas na silagem de milho no sistema de "silo bag" Energy demand in the mechanized operations in the corn silage in the silo bag system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André S. Seki


    Full Text Available Foi avaliado o consumo energético das operações mecanizadas envolvidas na produção de silagem de planta inteira e silagem de "grão úmido" de milho, tendo como referência o processamento seco desse cereal. O ensaio foi conduzido na Fazenda Experimental Lageado, pertencente à Faculdade de Ciências Agronômicas, e nas instalações da Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia - UNESP, localizada no município de Botucatu - SP. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, com parcelas subdivididas no tempo (três épocas de colheita: silagem de planta inteira, silagem de "grão úmido" e colheita de grãos secos, com 10 repetições. As análises estatísticas foram realizadas por meio do programa ESTAT, pelo teste de média de Tukey, a 5% de probabilidade. A silagem de planta inteira teve o maior consumo de combustível por área. A secagem dos grãos de 15,5% para 13% foi responsável por 87% do gasto de energia por área. A silagem de "grão úmido" demandou o menor uso de energia por área nas operações mecanizadas.This work aims to evaluate the energy consumption of the mechanized operations involved in the silage production of entire plant and silage of humid maize, having as reference the dry processing of this cereal. The experiment was on Lageado Experimental Farm of the Agronomy School, and the Education Research and Production Farm, of the Veterinary School of - UNESP - São Paulo State University - Botucatu Campus. The experiment design was in randomized blocks with parts subdivided in time (three times of harvest: silage of entire plant, silage of humid grains and harvest of dry grains, with 10 repetitions. The statistical analyses were performed with ESTAT software, and Tukey test at 5% of probability. The highest fuel consumption per area was reported for the ensilage of entire plant. The highest energy demand per area was reported for the processing of dry grain, as drying is responsible for 87% of the energy expense. The ensilage of humid grain demanded the lesser use of energy per area in the mechanized operations.

  4. It’s hard to play ball: A qualitative study of knowledge exchange and silo effects in public health


    Johnson, Rebecca; Grove, Amy; Clarke, Aileen


    Background Partnerships in public health form an important component of commissioning and implementing services, in England and internationally. In this research, we examine the views of staff involved in a City-wide health improvement programme which ran from 2009 to 2013 in England. We examine the practicalities of partnership work in community settings, and we describe some of barriers faced when implementing a large, multi-organisation health improvement programme. Methods Qualitative, se...

  5. Environmental Assessment, Minuteman III and Peacekeeper Silo Elimination, Malmstrom AFB, Montana; F. E. Warren AFB, Wyoming; and Vandenberg AFB, California (United States)


    Gaviota tarplant Deinandra increscens ssp. villosa E E Beach spectaclepod Dithyrea maritima -- T E = endangered T = threatened Source: Vandenberg AFB... Political Science, Georgia State University, Atlanta M.Sc. Urban Planning, University of Arizona, Tucson Graduate Certificate, Geographic Information

  6. THE Interoperability Challenge for the Geosciences: Stepping up from Interoperability between Disciplinary Siloes to Creating Transdisciplinary Data Platforms. (United States)

    Wyborn, L. A.; Evans, B. J. K.; Trenham, C.; Druken, K. A.; Wang, J.


    The National Computational Infrastructure (NCI) at the Australian National University (ANU) has collocated over 10 PB of national and international data assets within a HPC facility to create the National Environmental Research Data Interoperability Platform (NERDIP). The data span a wide range of fields from the earth systems and environment (climate, coasts, oceans, and geophysics) through to astronomy, bioinformatics, and the social sciences. These diverse data collections are collocated on a major data storage node that is linked to a Petascale HPC and Cloud facility. Users can search across all of the collections and either log in and access the data directly, or they can access the data via standards-based web services. These collocated petascale data collections are theoretically a massive resource for interdisciplinary science at scales and resolutions never hitherto possible. But once collocated, multiple barriers became apparent that make cross-domain data integration very difficult and often so time consuming, that either less ambitious research goals are attempted or the project is abandoned. Incompatible content is only one half of the problem: other showstoppers are differing access models, licences and issues of ownership of derived products. Brokers can enable interdisciplinary research but in reality are we just delaying the inevitable? A call to action is required adopt a transdiciplinary approach at the conception of development of new multi-disciplinary systems whereby those across all the scientific domains, the humanities, social sciences and beyond work together to create a unity of informatics plaforms that interoperate horizontally across the multiple discipline boundaries, and also operate vertically to enable a diversity of people to access data from high end researchers, to undergraduate, school students and the general public. Once we master such a transdisciplinary approach to our vast global information assets, we will then achieve THE interoperability challenge for the geosciences and made geoscience data and information accessible to all domains and to all peoples.

  7. Final Environmental Impact Statement, Peacekeeper in Minuteman Silos, F. E. Warren AFB, Wyoming. Volume 2. Public Comments. (United States)


    apearsdiotrbtse an. 3 ersinagatn asoo tnial reae that the researtoers hane netted gilt weekly toaters fry. the total ester of er ma ed the best fit of the...Josephine Portat 9fmot. I cuoos, toato Are o me thisgs this af tatoon ta da.t Sued -y feedback of My cmets just sa. but 9 that hat.a ot heen

  8. Burning Down the Silos: Integrating new perspectives from the social sciences into human behavior in fire research. (United States)

    Kuligowski, Erica


    The traditional social science disciplines can provide many benefits to the field of human behavior in fire (HBiF). First, the social sciences delve further into insights only marginally examined by HBiF researchers, in turn, expanding the depth of HBiF research. In this paper, I present examples of studies from the fields of social psychology and sociology that would expand HBiF research into non-engineering or "unobservable" aspects of behavior during a fire event. Second, the social sciences can provide insight into new areas of research; in turn, expanding the scope of HBiF research. In this section, I introduce pre- and post-fire studies and explore potential research questions that fall outside of the response period of a fire, the phase upon which most focus is currently placed. Third, the social sciences elucidate the value of research methods available to study human behavior. Qualitative research methods are specifically highlighted. These three benefits will allow HBiF researchers to collect a wider range of data, further develop and expand current behavioral knowledge, and increase the impact of this research for both social and engineering applications. Finally, I end with a discussion on possible ways to better integrate the social sciences within human behavior in fire.

  9. Method of aeration disinfecting and drying grain in bulk and pretreating seeds and a transverse blow silo grain dryer therefor (United States)

    Danchenko, Vitaliy G [Dnipropetrovsk, UA; Noyes, Ronald T [Stillwater, OK; Potapovych, Larysa P [Dnipropetrovsk, UA


    Aeration drying and disinfecting grain crops in bulk and pretreating seeds includes passing through a bulk of grain crops and seeds disinfecting and drying agents including an ozone and air mixture and surrounding air, subdividing the disinfecting and drying agents into a plurality of streams spaced from one another in a vertical direction, and passing the streams at different heights through levels located at corresponding heights of the bulk of grain crops and seeds transversely in a substantially horizontal direction.

  10. Relationship between proteolysis in the silo and efficiency of utilization of dietary protein by lactating dairy cows (United States)

    Ensiling is used widely to conserve forages for feeding to dairy cows. However, the protein in hay-crop silages is particularly susceptible to microbial breakdown in the rumen, and utilization of protein in alfalfa and grass silages by dairy cows is particularly poor. Dependent on maturity, hay-crop...

  11. Silos and Social Identity: The Social Identity Approach as a Framework for Understanding and Overcoming Divisions in Health Care (United States)

    Kreindler, Sara A; Dowd, Damien A; Dana Star, Noah; Gottschalk, Tania


    Context One of health care's foremost challenges is the achievement of integration and collaboration among the groups providing care. Yet this fundamentally group-related issue is typically discussed in terms of interpersonal relations or operational issues, not group processes. Methods We conducted a systematic search for literature offering a group-based analysis and examined it through the lens of the social identity approach (SIA). Founded in the insight that group memberships form an important part of the self-concept, the SIA encompasses five dimensions: social identity, social structure, identity content, strength of identification, and context. Findings Our search yielded 348 reports, 114 of which cited social identity. However, SIA-citing reports varied in both compatibility with the SIA's metatheoretical paradigm and applied relevance to health care; conversely, some non-SIA-citers offered SIA-congruent analyses. We analyzed the various combinations and interpretations of the five SIA dimensions, identifying ten major conceptual currents. Examining these in the light of the SIA yielded a cohesive, multifaceted picture of (inter)group relations in health care. Conclusions The SIA offers a coherent framework for integrating a diverse, far-flung literature on health care groups. Further research should take advantage of the full depth and complexity of the approach, remain sensitive to the unique features of the health care context, and devote particular attention to identity mobilization and context change as key drivers of system transformation. Our article concludes with a set of “guiding questions” to help health care leaders recognize the group dimension of organizational problems, identify mechanisms for change, and move forward by working with and through social identities, not against them. PMID:22709391

  12. Draft Environmental Impact Statement. Peacekeeper in Minuteman Silos, 90th Strategic MIssile Wing, F. E. Warren Air Force Base (United States)


    Laramie County is in the Cheyenne Urbanized Area. The remainder is in the small communities of Albin , Burns, and Pine Bluffs, and on scattered farms...pheasant, grouse, and quail. Game Fish: fish species generally found on the higher end of the food chain that are considered sport fishes by anglers...that are generally found near the lower end of the food chain and are not considered as sport fishes by anglers. Normal Fault: a fault in which the

  13. Study on the practices of silage production and utilization on Brazilian dairy farms. (United States)

    Bernardes, T F; do Rêgo, A C


    Dairy farmers across Brazil were invited to participate in a study on silage production and utilization practices. Two hundred sixty farmers filled out a questionnaire, which was made available on a website. The questionnaire consisted of 14 questions, including information about the characteristics of the herd (n=3), the crop(s) used in the ensiling process, the use of additives, the harvest (n=3), the type of silo (n=1), aspects related to sealing (n=2), and management practices applied during feed-out (n=3). Farmers were also asked a final question about the main barriers they faced when producing and using silage. The main dairy-producing regions of Brazil had a strong influence on the number of participants. The profiles of farmers were heterogeneous and divided into 5 groups, which was considered a positive attribute of the study, allowing better analysis and assessment of current circumstances. Corn was the most widely grown crop for silage. Sorghum, tropical grasses, and sugarcane were the other species most cited. Additives were used by a small number of farmers (27.7%). Approximately 40% of farmers still depended on loaned equipment or outsourced services. The pull-type forage harvester was the main piece of equipment used on dairy farms (90.4%). Only 54.6% of respondents answered that they sharpen their harvester knives daily. Horizontal silos (bunker and stack) were the structures most commonly used to store silage. Most farmers sealed silos with double-sided plastic film (black-on-white) and with soil. However, almost one-fifth of all farmers still use black plastic. Manual removal of silage from the silos was practiced at most farms (i.e., the lack of equipment was also reflected in the stage of silage utilization). Disposal of spoiled silage before inclusion in the livestock feed was not a common practice on the farms. The main barriers encountered on the farms were lack of equipment, lack of manpower, and climatic variations. The results of this

  14. Bunker culturel : la régénération du patrimoine militaire urbain à Saint-Nazaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renzo Lecardane


    Full Text Available Au cours des deux dernières décennies Saint-Nazaire a relancé son développement sans se référer nécessairement aux modèles des métropoles européennes. Concentrées autour de la zone portuaire, près de la base sous-marine allemande, les nouvelles opérations urbaines ont contribué à définir un important projet touristique et culturel. La spécificité symbolique et la valorisation du patrimoine militaire ont permis à Saint-Nazaire de montrer que l’identité d’une ville pouvait activer sa croissance.Over the last two decades, the port city of Saint-Nazaire has encouraged urban redevelopment without necessarily following the models suggested by other European cities. An important cultural and tourist centre has been developed around the port zone, close to the German submarine base dating from the Second World War. The symbolic specificity and the interpretation of this military heritage have shown, at Saint-Nazaire, how a town's special identity can foster growth.

  15. Recommendations to the NRC (Nuclear Regulatory Commission) for Review Criteria for Alternative Methods of Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal. Task 2B. Earth-Mounded Concrete Bunkers (United States)


    2.6-15 I 0 Remedial Action Plan ........................ 2.6-15 Periodic Inspections ........................ 2.6-15 2.7 Filter...other concerns. a. ASTM documents* (ASTM 1986a) (1) D 3786 Test Method for Hydraulic Bursting Strength of Knotted Goods and Nonwoven Fabrics: Diaphragm...for rejection, etc. d. Proposed remedial action. e. Corrective actions taken. Documentation records should cover both conforming and defective or____

  16. Effects of an enzyme mixture, an inoculant, and their interaction on silage fermentation and dairy production. (United States)

    Stokes, M R


    Second-crop, mixed grass-legume forage was ensiled in four bunker silos either untreated or after application at the forage harvester of an enzyme mixture containing cellulase, xylanase, cellobiase, and glucose oxidase, a commercial inoculant, or both additives combined. Sixteen multiparous midlactation Holstein cows in a 4 x 4 Latin square design received each silage in a 50:50 forage: concentrate diet to determine effects of silage additives on milk production and composition. Enzyme treatment reduced silage pH, concentrations of xylose and total sugars, and concentration and proportion of cell-wall arabinose. Titratable acidity, buffering capacity, concentration of residual water-soluble carbohydrate, and digestibility of DM in vitro were increased, and levels of silage structural carbohydrates were reduced. Inoculation, both alone and in the combined treatment, reduced silage pH compared with control, but inoculation alone was more effective than the combination. Enzyme treatment increased DMI and production of milk, FCM, SCM, milk protein, and milk SNF. The two silage additives were antagonistic when combined and did not improve silage fermentation, nutritional value, or animal performance, and enzyme degradation of forage structural carbohydrates was reduced. Inoculation also reduced silage aerobic stability. Combination of enzyme systems with inoculants requires careful evaluation to avoid antagonistic interactions.

  17. Beyond the Silo Approach: Using Group Support Systems in Organizational Behavior Classes to Facilitate Student Understanding of Individual and Group Behavior in Electronic Meetings (United States)

    Ready, Kathryn J.; Hostager, Todd J.; Lester, Scott; Bergmann, Marilyn


    In this article we show how management faculty have successfully incorporated teaching and research to better acquaint their students in organizational behavior classes with how groupware actually works in organizations and how to think through the ramifications of the groupware process in organizational decision making. The exercise is conducted…

  18. DG connect funded projects on information and communication technologies (ICT) for old age people: Beyond Silos, CareWell and SmartCare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijser, Wouter Alexander; de Manuel-Keenoy, E.; D'Angelantonio, M.; Stafylas, P.; Hobson, P.; Apuzzo, G.; Hurtado, M.; Oates, J.


    Information and communication technologies (ICT) are promising for the long-term care of older and frequently frail people. These innovations can improve health outcomes, quality of life and efficiency of care processes, while supporting independent living. However, they may be disruptive

  19. The effect of organic acid mixture and bacterial inoculant on fermentation in laboratory silos of climper high moisture maize grain corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Václav Pyrochta


    Full Text Available In the experiment, the effect of chemical (A and biological (B additiva on the fermentation quality of climper high moisture maize grain corn was examined, compared with the untreated control (K. The chemical means contained propionic, formic and benzoic acids and ammonium formate as effective substances. As effective substances of bacterial water–soluble inoculants, selected were bacterial strains of Propionibacterium shermanii JS and Lactobacillus casei LC-705. Both conservative preservatives were added equally to the ensilaged material. The addition of chemical additivum under conditions of our experiment increased statistically significantly (P<0.01 the contents of acetic acid (7.66±0.95 g/kg DM, ethanol (11.22±0.65 g/kg DM and pH values (4.33±0.02 in experimental silages. Simultaneously, a statistically significant (P<0.01 inhibition of lactic acid formation (15.17±2.75 g/kg DM and of total content of all fermentation acids (22.33±2.38 g/kg DM occurred. The bacterial inoculant increased significantly (P<0.05 the content of lactic acid (26.78±2.63 g/kg DM and the total acid content (32.87±2.88 g/kg DM in inoculated silages. The inoculation positive effect was demonstrated highly significantly (P<0.01 in reduction of ethanol amount (2.14±0.40 g/kg DM and of totat acidification. The pH value (4.21±0.02 was significantly lower (P<0.05 than that in the control silage (4.24±0.02. The fermentation characteristics in the inoculated silages by us were more favourable. The addition of organic acid mixture in the used concentration of 3.5 L/t did not confirm the positive effect on climper maize grain corn quality as expected.

  20. Studying ancient crop provenance: implications from δ(13)C and δ(15)N values of charred barley in a Middle Bronze Age silo at Ebla(NW Syria). (United States)

    Fiorentino, Girolamo; Caracuta, Valentina; Casiello, Grazia; Longobardi, Francesco; Sacco, Antonio


    The discovery of a storeroom full of barley and other cereals (L.9512) in the proto-historic site of Ebla has provided a unique opportunity to study the centralized storage system of the early city-state from a different perspective. Epigraphic evidence available within the site reveals a complex system of taxation which included gathering grain tributes from satellite sites and redistributing semi-finished products such as flour. In this paper, we intend to explore the possibilities of a combined approach to studying the storage system, based on estimated barley grain volumes and δ(13)C-δ(15)N analyses. This approach is used to distinguish between grain from different harvesting sites and to identify any grain cultivated using special agricultural practices (e.g. manuring or irrigation). The basic assumption for this kind of analysis is that the growth-site conditions, natural or anthropogenic, of harvested cereals are reflected in their grain size and δ(13)C-δ(15)N values. Since the remains found in the storeroom were charred, the first task was to evaluate the effect of carbonization on the δ(13)C-δ(15)N and the size of the grains. Thus, the effect of charring was tested on modern samples of Syrian barley landraces. Once it had been ascertained that fresh grains reduced to charred remains retain their original biometric and isotopic traits, the ancient material was examined. Thirteen groups were identified, each characterized by a specific average volume and specific carbon and nitrogen values. The analysis revealed that what had first appeared to be a homogeneous concentration of grain was in fact an assemblage of barley harvested from different sites. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Formerly utilized MED/AEC Sites Remedial Action Program. Final report. [Used to store pitchblende ore in 1940s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Results of a radiological survey of the Seneca Army Depot, Romulus, New York, are presented in this report. For a short period in the early 1940s, eleven munition bunkers on this site were used for storage of approximately 2000 barrels of pitchblende ore. The survey was undertaken to characterize the radiological status of the bunkers and to determine the extent of contamination in the area surrounding the bunkers, in the surface waters in the vicinity of the bunkers, and along a rail spur leading into the area. It appears from the survey results that residual radioactivity resulting from the storage of the uranium ore is confined almost entirely to the interiors of eight of the bunkers and to the outdoor areas near the entrances to these bunkers.

  2. Uus mure - sööt rikneb lehma ees / Olav Kärt ; kommenteerinud Ahto Vili

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kärt, Olav, 1948-


    Kvaliteetne silo ei tohiks pärast hoidla avamist kokkupuutel õhuga kuumeneda. Kui silosse pääseb õhk kas hoidlast silo väljalaadimise käigus või silo valmistamise ja säilitamise ajal, on kuumenemise peamiseks põhjuseks pärmseened

  3. Santo Domingo de la Calzada - Silos - Compostela. Las representaciones del «Árbol de Jesé» en el tardorrománico hispano: particularidades iconográficas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poza Yagüe, Marta


    Full Text Available Hace ya algunos años, y al retirar para su restauración el magnífico retablo de Damián Forment que presidía el altar mayor de la catedral de Santo Domingo de la Calzada, aparecieron decorando los frentes de los cuatro soportes centrales de la girola una serie de placas relivarias de fines del siglo XII que, siguiendo el trazado de las aristas del polígono del presbiterio, se elevan desde la base de las pilastras hasta traspasar la línea de imposta que marca la transición entre el cuerpo de ventanas y la zona de la tribuna. La decoración de estas placas alterna los motivos vegetales en las pilastras primera y tercera con la talla de figuras monumentales en la segunda y cuarta. El descubrimiento es de vital importancia no sólo por la elevada calidad técnica de las esculturas, sino por las particularidades iconográficas que presenta el tema allí representado.…

  4. Proyecto de desarrollo agricola: implementación de silos para almacenar productos de ciclo corto en 10 comunidades de los cantones de mocache, puebloviejo y ventanas de la provincia de los ríos


    Diaz Quichimbo, Mercy Paola; Onofre Salazar, Jessenia Mercedes; Romero Montoya, Maria Elena


    El presente proyecto es de carácter netamente social, debido a que mide el impacto que tiene el almacenar granos en el ingreso de 10 comunidades de Mocache, Puebloviejo y Ventanas; al existir un incremento en el ingreso, los beneficiarios tendrán la oportunidad de mejorar su calidad de vida, esto es acceder a mejores servicios tales como: salud, educación, alimentación, etc. El proyecto está dirigido a esta zona debido a que los cantones antes mencionados, son los principales productores de ...

  5. Final Jurisdictional Environmental Planning Technical Report. Peacekeeper in Minuteman Silos, 90th Strategic Missile Wing, F. E. Warren Air Force Base. Volume 1. Section 1.0 through 5.0 (United States)


    building. Adjacent to this room, in what used to be the bank vault , is the Department’s two-cell jail. A third cell, usually used for female or juvenile...swimming lessons, diving, gymnastics , baseball, softball, volleyball, basketball, tennis, and arts and crafts classes. Although no activity... gymnastics , basketball, and arts and crafts classes). The School District also provides an adult education program to residents. Budgetary expenditures for

  6. Final Jurisdictional Environmental Planning Technical Report. Peacekeeper in Minuteman Silos, 90th Strategic Missile Wing, F. E. Warren Air Force Base. Volume 2. Section 6.0 through 10.0 (United States)


    Deeds, Treasurer, auto registration, vaults , civil defense, Handi-Man/Handi-Bus, open storage, Extension Agent, and Superintendents/of Schools, Health...added to the parks and recreation system as funds become available. 8-22 Jogging Trackg Gymnastics Area i Campground Ice Skating-Out . - Golf Holes I...county shops. The total area of the Administration Building, including the basement, is 8,500 square feet. Building uses include office space; vault

  7. Effects of Three Different Additives and Two Different Bulk Densities on Maize Silage Characteristics, Temperature Profiles, CO2 and O2–Dynamics in Small Scale Silos during Aerobic Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Helena Jungbluth


    Full Text Available Silage quality and aerobic stability are sometimes insufficient. If management requirements are not met, or to improve silage quality, additives are often used. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of different factors on silage during aerobic conditions. Whole-crop forage maize was harvested and 24 buckets (65 L were filled and assigned to one of four treatment groups: (1 control (no treatment; (2 chemical additive (sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate, sodium acetate; (3 a mixed biological inoculant containing Lactobacillus buchneri, L. plantarum, and Pediococcus acidilacti; and (4 a mixed biological inoculant containing L. buchneri, L. plantarum, and L. rhamnosus. An untreated variation was also ensiled. Two different densities were adjusted during ensiling. After opening, the temperature was measured for seven days and O2 and CO2 concentrations were analysed. The findings show that the chemical additive very effectively prevented silage from reheating and deteriorating. Aerobic reheating of silage was also successfully inhibited through biological additives and high density.

  8. Estado térmico de produtos armazenados em silos com sistema de aeração: estudo teórico e experimental Thermal state of stored products in storage bins with aeration system: experimental-theoretical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane A. de Oliveira


    Full Text Available O resfriamento de grãos por ventilação de ar ambiente aplica-se amplamente nas etapas finais de secagem e para controle posterior da temperatura de grãos armazenados. O objetivo deste trabalho é realizar estudo teórico-experimental sobre o estado térmico de massa de grãos de soja sujeita à aeração. Foram obtidos dados experimentais sobre a dinâmica de resfriamento de massa pré-aquecida de grãos de soja para diferentes alturas da coluna de grãos e velocidades do ar. A análise dos resultados mostrou que a taxa de resfriamento varia significativamente durante todo o processo e em todo o domínio e a difusividade térmica das camadas não poderia ser considerada constante. Para simular a dinâmica de resfriamento, foram apresentados dois modelos matemáticos. No primeiro modelo, o domínio de resfriamento foi dividido pela fronteira móvel em duas zonas, representadas por diferentes difusividades térmicas (análogo de problema de Stefan. No outro modelo, todo o domínio foi dividido hipoteticamente em pequenas camadas e foi considerado que o processo de equilíbrio térmico entre o ar e a massa de grãos para essas camadas é atingido instantaneamente ("reatores homogêneos". Os resultados de simulações mostraram concordância satisfatória com os dados experimentais.The cooling of grains by ventilation with ambient air applies widely in the final stages of drying and for the subsequent temperature control of stored grains. The objective of this work is to carry out an experimental-theoretical study on the thermal state of a soybean mass, subject to the aeration. The experimental data on cooling dynamics of preheated soybean mass were obtained for different heights of the grain column and air velocities. The analysis of the results showed that the cooling rate varies significantly during all process in all domains and the thermal diffusivity of the layers cannot be considered as a constant. To simulate the cooling dynamics two mathematical models were introduced. In the first model the cooling domain was divided by means of the movable frontier in two zones represented by different coefficients of thermal diffusivity (analogous of Stefan's problem. In another model all the domain was divided hypothetically in small layers and was considered that the thermal balance between the air and the mass of grains for these layers is reached instantly ("homogeneous reactors". The results of simulations showed a satisfactory agreement with the experimental data.

  9. Low permeability to oxygen of a new barrier film prevents butyric acid bacteria spore formation in farm corn silage. (United States)

    Borreani, G; Tabacco, E


    The outgrowth of Clostridium spore-forming bacteria causes late blowing in cheeses. Recently, the role of air diffusion during storage and feed-out and the role of aerobic deterioration has been shown to indirectly favor butyric acid bacteria (BAB) growth and to determine the presence of high concentrations of BAB spores in farm tank milk. A new oxygen barrier (OB) film was tested and compared with conventional polyethylene (ST). The objective was to verify whether the OB film could prevent BAB spore formation in whole-crop corn silage during storage on 2 commercial farms with different potential silage spoilage risks. Two bunkers (farms 1 and 2) were divided into 2 parts along the length so that half the feed-out face would be covered with ST film and the other half with OB film. Plastic net bags with freshly chopped corn were buried in the upper layer and in the central part (CORE) of the bunkers. The silos were opened in summer and fed out at different removal rates (19 vs. 33 cm/d). Herbage at ensiling, silage at unloading, and silage after air exposure (6 and 15 d) were analyzed for pH, nitrate, BAB spores, yeasts, and molds. The BAB spores in herbages at ensiling were 2.84 log(10) most probable number (MPN)/g, with no differences between treatments or farms. Nitrate was below the detection limit on farm 1 and exceeded 2,300 mg/kg of fresh matter on farm 2. At unloading, the BAB spores in the ST silage on farm 1 were greater than 5 log(10) MPN/g, whereas in the CORE and the OB silages, they were approximately 2 log(10) MPN/g. The ST silage had the greatest pH (5.89), the greatest mold count (5.07 log(10) cfu/g), and the greatest difference between silage temperature and ambient temperature (dT(section-ambient)). On farm 2, the ST silage had the greatest concentration of BAB spores (2.19 log(10) MPN/g), the greatest pH (4.05), and the least nitrate concentration compared with the CORE and the OB silages. Pooled data on BAB spores collected from aerobically

  10. De verspreiding van het Grimmietum orbicularis (Allorge 1922) Marstaller 1980 in Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greven, H.C.


    Grimmia orbicularis is a saxicolous moss species. In 1990 it was discovered on free standing, concrete bunkers in the western part of the Netherlands. These bunkers were built in 1939 as part of the Dutch war defence. The species was growing on south-west to south-east facing, slanting roofs. Nearly

  11. 75 FR 38487 - Order Finding That the Fuel Oil-180 Singapore Swap Contract Traded on the... (United States)


    ... includes inland hauling charges, customs clearance, origin documentation charges, demurrage (if any), and origin port handling charges--in this case Singapore). After crude oil is extracted from the ground and... in; in the days of steam they were coal bunkers but now they are bunker-fuel tanks. The Australian...

  12. An evaluation of the endocrine disruptive potential of crude oil water accommodated fractions and crude oil contaminated surface water to freshwater organisms using in vitro and in vivo approaches

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Truter, JC


    Full Text Available laevis, tadpoles and juvenile Mozambique tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus, exposed to weathered bunker and unweathered refinery crude oil water accommodated fractions (WAFs). In addition, the expression of the aforementioned genes was quantified in X...

  13. Report of findings: Kodiak National Wildlife Refuge contaminants study (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — During World War II, the Kodiak Naval Reservation (Figures 1 and 2) was rapidly expanded to thwart threats of a Japanese invasion. Bunkers, fuel tanks, and...

  14. Talking About Defense: Leathernecks in Lab Coats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilson, George


    .... Anderson is not the typical bunker-charging, poster-boy Marine. An internationally known authority on new kinds of warfare, Anderson more resembles a militarized Thomas Edison, an experimenter in the science of war...

  15. 05 Vreyx

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    maritime terrorism, piracy, illegal oil bunkering, criminality and unsettled maritime ... relationship with or impact upon land is ignored.5 Against the former backdrop .... Africa enters the global economy as an attractive investment destination and.

  16. 29 CFR 782.8 - Special classes of carriers. (United States)


    ... Commission consistently maintained that transportation with a State of consumable goods (such as food, coal... Coal Co. v. Secretary of War, 69 I.C.C. 389; Bunker Coal from Alabama to Gulf Ports, 227 I.C.C. 485...

  17. 46 CFR 171.010 - Definitions. (United States)


    ... permitted by the applicable subdivision requirements in this part. (c) Equivalent plane bulkhead means a... machinery. (2) Each space containing propulsion boilers. (3) Each space containing permanent coal bunkers...

  18. Installation of the Gbar LINAC

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien, Brice


    Installation of the GBAR linac in its shielding bunker. The electrons accelerated to 10 MeV toward a target will produce the positrons that are necessary to form anti hydrogen with the antiprotons coming from the ELENA decelerator.

  19. Combustion of refuse-derived fuels in the GAVI-VAM system at Wijster; Verbrennung von RDF - Ersterfahrungen aus der GAVI-VAM (Wijster)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wandschneider, J.; Warnek, J.; Klitzbe, H.J.


    The GAVI-VAM system consists of a sorting stage followed by a RDF combustion plant. The two parts are directly connected by an RDF bunker (24 h). The contribution presents a detailed description of the plant. (orig./AKF)

  20. Spatial dependence and origin of the ambient dose due to neutron activation processes in linear accelerators; Dependencia espacial y origen de la dosis ambiental debeda a procesos de activacion neutronica en aceleradores lineales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz Egea, E.; Sanchez Carrascal, M.; Torres Pozas, S.; Monja Ray, P. de la; Perez Molina, J. L.; Madan Rodriguez, C.; Luque Japon, L.; Morera Molina, A.; Hernandez Perez, A.; Barquero Bravo, Y.; Morengo Pedagna, I.; Oliva Gordillo, M. C.; Martin Olivar, R.


    In order to try to determine the high dose in the bunker of a Linear Accelerator clinical use trying to measure the spatial dependence of the same from the isocenter to gateway to the board cheeking to establish the origin of it. This dose measurements performed with an ionization chamber at different locations inside the bunker after an irradiation of 400 Monitor Units verifying the dose rate per minute for an hour, and accumulating the dose received during that period of time.

  1. Evaluation of the Kerma at the entrance of the labyrin thin in facilities with Co-60 HDR brachytherapy; Evaluacion del Kerma en la entrada del laberinto en instalaciones de braquiterapia de HDR con Co-60

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pujades, M. C.; Granero, D.; Ballester, F.; Perez-Calatayud, J.; Vijande, J.


    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the kerma's collision at the entrance of the labyrinth adapting the methodology of the NCRP-151 to a bunker of brachytherapy with Co-60, similar to the one carried out in a previous work with HDR Ir-192. To validate the result is simulated using techniques Monte Carlo (MC) two typical designs of HDR with Co-60 bunker. (Author)


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The grass was picked-up and chopped with a forage harvester and ensiled into an above-ground bunker. The chop length was set at 6 cms. No preservatives were added and the bunkers were sealed with plastic sheeting. Table I. Feed regimes, lbed intakes and moss changes of animals. Tr. 1 n=72. Tr.2 n=1 3. Tr. 3 n=I3.

  3. Sustainable Communities: A Lens for Envisioning and Achieving a Community-Based Culture of Social and Ecological Peace (United States)

    Verhagen, Frans C.


    One of the obstacles to dealing with the social and ecological crises that obstruct the achievement of a culture of peace is silo thinking in global governance. A unidimensional mode of planning, silo thinking leads to decisions based on the area of expertise of a particular agency or intergovernmental organization and fails to recognize linkages…

  4. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (sealed storage, traditional mud-straw-cowdung silo “tua”, C, chinensis and stored for three months under ambient pod storage and storage of split ... 1 The traditional mud-straw silo "tua" used for. (taken using a Boerner divider) the .... sealed drums (Caswell, 1975) and sealed plastic bags with gunny bag storage than in ...

  5. EMBA Integration: From Rhetoric to Practice (United States)

    Scott, Charles; Derrick, Frederick; Hoadley, Ellen


    For the modern business world, business education needs to molt from the cocoon of discipline silos to the integrated business education model to train the next generation of managers. Upper management problems are rarely silo specific. Managers do things right, but leaders do the right things; and executive programs exist to build business…

  6. Selenium concentration of maize grain in South Africa and possible ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 896 maize grain samples were obtained from all the maize silos throughout South Africa (231 silos) and analysed for selenium (Se) content. This information was used to compile a regional distribution map of the Se content of maize grain in South Africa. Of the samples analysed, 94% contained below 50 μg ...

  7. Selenium concentration of maize grain in South Africa and possible ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Casey W

    Abstract. A total of 896 maize grain samples were obtained from all the maize silos throughout South Africa. (231 silos) and analysed for selenium (Se) content. This information was used to compile a regional distribution map of the Se content of maize grain in South Africa. Of the samples analysed, 94% contained below 50 ...

  8. Experimental research on friction coefficient between grain bulk and bamboo clappers (United States)

    Tang, Gan; Sun, Ping; Zhao, Yanqi; Yin, Lingfeng; Zhuang, Hong


    A silo is an important piece of storage equipment, especially in the grain industry. The internal friction angle and the friction coefficient between the grain and the silo wall are the main parameters needed for calculating the lateral pressure of the silo wall. Bamboo is used in silo walls, but there are no provisions about the friction coefficient between bulk grain and bamboo clappers in existing codes. In this paper, the material of the silo wall is bamboo. The internal friction of five types of grain and the friction coefficient between the grain and the bamboo clappers were measured with an equal-strain direct shear apparatus. By comparing the experimental result values with the code values, the friction coefficient between the grain bulk and bamboo clappers is lower than that between grain and steel wall and that between grain and concrete wall. The differences in value are 0.21 and 0.09, respectively.

  9. Inoculants for ensiling low-dry matter corn crop: a midlactation cow perspective. (United States)

    Nikkhah, A; Ghaempour, A; Khorvash, M; Ghorbani, G R


    In many regions, optimum dry matter (DM) content of corn crop pre-ensilage cannot be ensured for management, agronomical and climatic reasons. Under such conditions, corn crops are harvested at low DM, and are easily exposed to unfavourable fermentation pathways and plant spoilage and wastage. Thus, it is a major question for dairy agriculturists whether certain microbial inoculants application to low-DM corn crop pre-ensilage affects silage quality and cow performance. The objective was to determine effects of adding microbial inoculants to low-DM corn crop at ensiling on silage quality, rumen fermentation and milk production of eight Holstein cows fed the treated silages. Whole corn plant was harvested at milk stage of maturity with 204 g DM/kg of fresh crop, cut to a theoretical particle length of 2 cm, filled in 60 t bunker silos, and treated layer by layer with either no inoculant (control), inoculant 'E' (100 000 cfu/g of fresh crop) containing mainly Lactobacillus plantarum, inoculant 'B' (100 000 cfu) containing mainly Pediococcus pentosanus, Lactobacillus plantarum and Propionibacter freudenreichii or a mixture of inoculants 'E' and 'B' (200,000 cfu). Inoculants were mixed with water and sprayed on thin layers of corn chops layer by layer followed by rolling to ensure proper oxygen outage and even microbial distribution throughout the plants. Eight multiparous lactating Holstein cows at 100 ± 20.5 days in milk were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with four 20-day periods including 14 days of adaptation and 6 days of sampling. Dietary treatments were mixed rations containing corn silages with or without the inoculants. The basal diet contained 32.9% corn silage, 14.3% alfalfa hay and 52.8% concentrate on a DM basis. Inoculants did not affect silage pH or content of DM, CP, lactate, acetate, ash and total volatile fatty acids (VFA). Applying 'B' to corn crop resulted in higher water soluble carbohydrates (47.7 g/kg vs 29.8 g/kg) and lower

  10. Evaluation of sugarcane laboratory ensiling and analysis techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André de Faria Pedroso


    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the effects of laboratory-silo type and method of silage extract production, respectively, on sugarcane silage fermentation and recovery of fermentation products. Sugarcane was mechanically harvested and ensiled in three different types of laboratory silos (five replicates: 9.7 × 30 cm PVC tubes with tight lids, equipped or unequipped with Bunsen valves, and 20 L plastic buckets with tight lids and Bunsen valves. Three methods were used to produce silage extracts for pH, ethanol, acetic and lactic acids determination: extraction of silage juice by a hydraulic press and production of water extracts using a stomacher or a blender. Total dry matter loss (231 g/kg DM was not affected by silo type. No interactions between silo type and method of silage extract production were observed for ethanol and organic acids contents in the silages. Interaction between silo type and method of silage extract preparation was detected for pH. Silo type affected ethanol content but did not affect lactic and acetic acids concentration in the silages. Dry matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber and ash were not affected by silo type. The method used to produce silage extracts affected the recovery of all fermentation products analyzed in the silages. Recovery of ethanol and acetic acid was higher when silage extracts were produced using a blender. For lactic acid recovery, the hydraulic press method was superior to the other two methods. Silage fermentation pattern is not affected by silo type, but the method used to produce silage extracts and some characteristics of silos affect the recovery of volatile fermentation products.

  11. Effects of an oil spill in a harbor assessed using biomarkers of exposure in eelpout. (United States)

    Sturve, Joachim; Balk, Lennart; Liewenborg, Birgitta; Adolfsson-Erici, Margaretha; Förlin, Lars; Carney Almroth, Bethanie


    Oil spills occur commonly, and chemical compounds originating from oil spills are widespread in the aquatic environment. In order to monitor effects of a bunker oil spill on the aquatic environment, biomarker responses were measured in eelpout (Zoarces viviparus) sampled along a gradient in Göteborg harbor where the oil spill occurred and at a reference site, 2 weeks after the oil spill. Eelpout were also exposed to the bunker oil in a laboratory study to validate field data. The results show that eelpout from the Göteborg harbor are influenced by contaminants, especially polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), also during "normal" conditions. The bunker oil spill strongly enhanced the biomarker responses. Results show elevated ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activities in all exposed sites, but, closest to the oil spill, the EROD activity was partly inhibited, possibly by PAHs. Elevated DNA adduct levels were also observed after the bunker oil spill. Chemical analyses of bile revealed high concentrations of PAH metabolites in the eelpout exposed to the oil, and the same PAH metabolite profile was evident both in eelpout sampled in the harbor and in the eelpout exposed to the bunker oil in the laboratory study.

  12. Flow of wet natural pozzolana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medici, M E; Benegas, O A; Aguirre, F; Baudino, M R [Departamento de Mineria, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, 5700 San Luis (Argentina); Unac, R O; Vidales, A M [INFAP-CONICET, Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, 5700 San Luis (Argentina); Ippolito, I, E-mail: [GMP, CONICET y Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad de Buenos Aires, 1063 Buenos Aires (Argentina)


    We present experimental results on the flow and stability conditions for natural pozzolana, a natural volcanic sand widely used in concrete production. We measured different angles involved in equilibrium conditions for sand piles and relate them to the flux parameters necessary to produce a silo evacuation. We vary some of the geometrical parameters in the silo to inspect the different flux responses of the system. Results are showed as a function of humidity present in the system. In this way, we related critical angles with flux conditions through a silo under different geometric setups and different humidity degrees, thus setting up a basic phase diagram for flux.

  13. Oil and related toxicant effects on mallard immune defenses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocke, T.E.; Yuill, T.M.; Hinsdill, R.D.


    A crude oil, a petroleum distillate, and chemically dispersed oil were tested for their effects on resistance to bacterial infection and the immune response in waterfowl. Sublethal oral doses for mallards were determined for South Louisiana crude oil, Bunker C fuel oil a dispersant-Corexit 9527, and oil/Corexit combinations by gizzard intubation. Resistance to bacterial challange (Pasteurella multocida) was significantly lowered in mallards receiving 2.5 or 4.0 ml/kg of Bunker C fuel oil, 4.0 ml/kg of South Louisiana crude oil, and 4.0 ml/kg of a 50:1 Bunker C fuel oil/Corexit mixture daily for 28 days. Ingestion of oil or oil/Corexit mixtures had no effect on mallard antibody-producing capability as measured by the direct spleen plaque-forming assay.

  14. Simulated European stalagmite record and its relation to a quasi-decadal climate mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Lohmann


    Full Text Available A synthetic stalagmite δ18O record for the Bunker Cave (51° N, 7° E is constructed using a combined climate–stalagmite modelling approach where we combine an atmospheric circulation model equipped with water isotopes and a model simulating stalagmite calcite δ18O values. Mixing processes in the soil and karst above the cave represent a natural low-pass filter of the speleothem climate archive. Stalagmite δ18O values at Bunker Cave lag the regional surface climate by 3–4 yr. The power spectrum of the simulated speleothem calcite δ18O record has a pronounced peak at quasi-decadal time scale, which is associated with a large-scale climate variability pattern in the North Atlantic. Our modelling study suggests that stalagmite records from Bunker Cave are representative for large-scale teleconnections and can be used to obtain information about the North Atlantic and its decadal variability.

  15. Developing a High-efficiency Operating Room for Total Joint Arthroplasty in an Academic Setting

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Attarian, David E; Wahl, Jennie E; Wellman, Samuel S; Bolognesi, Michael P


    Developing a high-efficiency operating room (OR) for total joint arthroplasty (TJA) in an academic setting is challenging given the preexisting work cultures, bureaucratic road blocks, and departmental silo mentalities...

  16. Determination of parameters used to prevent ignition of stored materials and to protect against explosions in food industries. (United States)

    Ramírez, Alvaro; García-Torrent, Javier; Aguado, Pedro J


    There are always risks associated with silos when the stored material has been characterized as prone to self-ignition or explosion. Further research focused on the characterization of agricultural materials stored in silos is needed due to the lack of data found in the literature. The aim of this study was to determine the ignitability and explosive parameters of several agricultural products commonly stored in silos in order to assess the risk of ignition and dust explosion. Minimum Ignition Temperature, with dust forming a cloud and deposited in a layer, Lower Explosive Limit, Minimum Ignition Energy, Maximum Explosion Pressure and Maximum Explosion Pressure Rise were determined for seven agricultural materials: icing sugar, maize, wheat and barley grain dust, alfalfa, bread-making wheat and soybean dust. Following characterization, these were found to be prone to producing self-ignition when stored in silos under certain conditions.

  17. Buildings-to-Grid Technical Opportunities: From the Buildings Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiliccote, Sila [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Piette, Mary Ann [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)


    This paper describes technologies and systems needed to transform buildings from the current state of siloed resources into transparent, reliable resources that participate in and benefit from an integrated "transactive energy" system.

  18. Smart roadside initiative gap analysis : trucking technology literature review. (United States)


    The Smart Roadside Initiative (SRI) was designed to breakdown information silos at the roadside in order to improve : motor carrier safety and mobility, as well as the operational efficiency of motor carriers and the public-sector agencies : that reg...

  19. Integration into Big Data: First Steps to Support Reuse of Comprehensive Toxicity Model Modules (SOT) (United States)

    Data surrounding the needs of human disease and toxicity modeling are largely siloed limiting the ability to extend and reuse modules across knowledge domains. Using an infrastructure that supports integration across knowledge domains (animal toxicology, high-throughput screening...

  20. Adaptive and compliant policy implementation : Creating administrative processes using semantic web services and business rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gong, Y.; Janssen, M.


    Adapting to and complying with frequently changing policy against low costs requires flexible business processes. Yet, existing systems are unrelated, consist of operating silos, involve many human translation tasks and policies are hardcoded in business processes. From a technology perspective,

  1. An Analysis of the Competitiveness of Major Liner Shipping Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeong Seok Ha, Professor


    Full Text Available This paper investigated if differences of the profits of the Korean and other global shipping companies were affected by the shipping route specialization. A panel data model was applied to nine shipping companies during the 2009-2015 period, to determine to what extent freight rate, bunker fuel prices, scale economies and chartered vessel ratios affected the profits. The results showed freight rate exerted a significant positive impact and bunker fuel price a significant negative effect on the profits. However, scale economies’ effects and chartered vessel ratios were insignificant or at best obscure, thus requiring a more in-depth study in this direction.

  2. Capacity modelling of the coal value chain at Sasol Coal Supply

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Harmse, M


    Full Text Available for Applications (VBA©) is a component of the Arena© software and VBA© subroutines are used for the calculation of space to build a new heap. 3.4. Reclaimers There are three reclaimers at each plant, one per live stockpile yard. Two reclaimers must... bunkers at the plant. It is essential to keep the levels of these bunkers full to keep the plants working. VBA© subroutines are used to schedule the reclaimers. If two reclaimers cannot be scheduled at the same time, coal is transported directly from...

  3. Combustion of high-rank light fraction. First experiences with GAVI/VAM; Verbrennung von heizwertreicher Leichtfraktion. Erste Erfahrungen aus der GAVI-VAM (Wijster)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wandschneider, J. [Goepfert, Reimer und Partner Ingenieurgesellschaft mbH, Hamburg (Germany)


    GAVI/VAM consists of a sorting plant which is topped by an RDF combustion plant. These two plant components are directly linked with each other via an RDF bunker (24 h). The present contribution addresses the main components of the combustion plant individually and points out its special features as compared with crude waste combustion. [Deutsch] Die GAVI/VAM besteht aus einer Sortieranlage mit nachgeschalteter RDF-Verbrennungsanlage, beide Anlagenteile sind durch einen RDF-Bunker (24 h) unmittelbar miteinander verbunden. Nachfolgend werden die wesentlichen Komponenten der Verbrennungsanlage einzeln angesprochen und die Besonderheiten im Vergleich zur Rohmuellverbrennung dargestellt. (orig./SR)

  4. Tebuconazole Regulates Fatty Acid Composition of Etiolated Winter Wheat Seedlings


    A.V. Korsukova; T.G. Gornostai; O.I. Grabelnych; N.V. Dorofeev; T.P. Pobezhimova; N.A. Sokolova; L.V. Dudareva; V.K. Voinikov


    The fatty acid composition of shoots of unhardened and hardened to cold etiolated winter wheat seedlings grown from seeds treated with tebuconazole-based protectant «Bunker» (content of tebuconazole 60 grams per liter, g/L), and the seedlings frost resistance has been studied. It is shown that treatment of winter wheat seeds by «Bunker» preparation (1,5 microliter per gram of seeds, µl/g) is accompanied by an increase of the fatty acids unsaturation in the shoots and increase of the seedlings...

  5. Fuel oil and kerosene sales 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales 1997 report provides information, illustrations and state-level statistical data on end-use sales of kerosene; No. 1, No. 2, and No. 4 distillate fuel oil; and residual fuel oil. State-level kerosene sales include volumes for residential, commercial, industrial, farm, and all other uses. State-level distillate sales include volumes for residential, commercial, industrial, oil company, railroad, vessel bunkering, military, electric utility, farm, on-highway, off highway construction, and other uses. State-level residual fuel sales include volumes for commercial, industrial, oil company, vessel bunkering, military, electric utility, and other uses. 24 tabs.

  6. Isokinetic sampler; Amostrador isocinetico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Luis Cesar C. de; Santos, Antonio Carlos dos [PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Barrio, Lara B.A. del [AZ Armaturen do Brasil Ltda., Itatiba, SP (Brazil); Silva, Claudio B. da C. e; Silva, Ricardo R. da [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas


    The Center of Research Leopoldo A. Miguez de Melo - CENPES - in association with AZ Armaturen Company do Brasil and TRANSPETRO developed and tested an Isokinetic sampler. This work presents the sampling principles and the results and performance of the tests realized in the 'Sitio de Testes de Atalaia' and in one of the terminals of bunker transfer of TRANSPETRO - 'Terminal Aquaviario da Baia de Guanabara'. In the 'Sitio de Testes' the products used were oil and water with BSW from 5% to 97% and in the terminal were tested samplings of bunker with ranges viscosities between (MF 180 to 380). (author)

  7. The effect of treating whole-plant barley with Lactobacillus buchneri 40788 on silage fermentation, aerobic stability, and nutritive value for dairy cows. (United States)

    Taylor, C C; Ranjit, N J; Mills, J A; Neylon, J M; Kung, L


    Chopped barley forage was ensiled untreated or treated with several doses (1 x 10(5) to 1 x 10(6) cfu/g of fresh forage) of Lactobacillus buchneri 40788 in laboratory silos and untreated or treated (4 x 10(5) cfu/g) in a farm silo. Silage from the farm silos was fed to lactating cows. In the laboratory silo, the effects of inoculation on fermentation and aerobic stability were also compared to silage treated with a commercial inoculant and a buffered propionic acid additive. Inoculation with L. buchneri 40788 decreased the final concentrations of lactic acid but increased concentrations of acetic acid and ethanol in silage from laboratory and farm silos. Silages stored in laboratory silos did not heat after exposure to air for 7 d and were then mixed with alfalfa silage and a concentrate to form total mixed rations (TMR) that were further exposed to air. The TMR containing silages treated with L. buchneri 40788 or a buffered propionic-acid-based additive took longer to heat and spoil than the TMR containing untreated silage or silagetreated with the commercial inoculant. Silage stored in a farm silo and treated with L. buchneri 40788 had fewer yeasts and molds than did untreated silage. Aerobic stability was greater in treated silage alone and in a TMR containing treated silage. Dry matter intake (18.6 kg/d), milk production (25.7 kg/d), and milk composition did not differ between cows fed a TMR containinguntreated or treated silage. These findings show that L. buchneri can improve the aerobic stability of barley silage in laboratory and farm silos and that feeding treated silage had no negative effect on intake or performance.

  8. Effects of Different Storage Conditions on the Nutritional Qualities of Barley and Maize


    POLAT, Havva Eylem


    The effects of different types of storage on nutritional quality values of barley and maize are examined. For this purpose, 3 different storage types, including horizontal-reinforced concrete storage, vertical-reinforced concrete silo and verticalsteel silo were taken into consideration. Nutritional quality values (dry matter, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, crudeash, and metabolizable energy) of samples were analyzed in the laboratory in four replicates. Total of 438 samples were coll...

  9. Forage polyphenol oxidase and ruminant livestock nutrition


    Michael Richard F. Lee


    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) is predominately associated with the detrimental effect of browning fruit and vegetables, however, interest within PPO containing forage crops (crops to be fed to animals) has grown since the browning reaction was associated with reduced nitrogen (N) losses in silo and the rumen. The reduction in protein breakdown in silo of red clover (high PPO forage) increased the quality of protein, improving N-use efficiency [feed N into product N (e.g., Milk): NUE] when fed to r...

  10. Optimization of a methodology for the simultaneous determination of deltamethrin, permethrin and malathion in stored wheat samples using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction with solidification of floating organic drop and HPLC-UV. (United States)

    Pirsaheb, Meghdad; Rezaei, Mansour; Fattahi, Nazir; Karami, Mohammad; Sharafi, Kiomars; Ghaffari, Hamid R


    The purpose of this study was to investigate common pesticides in stored wheat at Kermanshah province's silos in Iran. A simple, inexpensive, reliable and environmentally friendly method based on dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction with solidification of floating organic drop was developed. The analytical characteristics of the method were determined. Also, various parameters such as the materials of the silos, types of ownerships of the silos, geographic orientation of silo locations and climatic conditions of silo locations on pesticide residues in studied wheat samples were investigated. Among all the studied parameters, the climatic conditions of silo locations showed the highest influence on pesticide residues in wheat samples. Generally, 61.2% of the samples had pesticide levels below the method detection limits and 38.8% of the total samples had at least one of the understudied pesticides. Also, 13.9% of the samples had deltamethrin residues, 16.7% of the samples had permethrin, 22.2% of the samples had malathion, 11.1% of the samples had both permethrin and malathion and 2.8% of the samples had both deltamethrin and malathion. The results revealed that the residues of deltamethrin and malathion were lower than the standard level announced by European Union regulation and only three samples contained permethrin higher than Europe standard level.

  11. Power generation from wind turbines in a solar chimney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foote, Tudor [Graduate Student, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Washington University in St. Louis, Jolley Hall, Campus Box 1185, One Brookings Drive, St. Louis, Missouri, 63130 (United States); Agarwal, Ramesh K. [William Palm Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Washington University in St. Louis, Jolley Hall, Campus Box 1185, One Brookings Drive, St. Louis, Missouri, 63130 (United States)


    Recent studies have shown that shrouded wind turbines can generate greater power compared to bare turbines. A solar chimney generates an upward draft of wind inside a tower and a shroud around the wind turbine. There are numerous empty silos on farms in the U.S. that can be converted to solar chimneys with minor modifications at modest cost. The objective of this study is to determine the potential of these silos/chimneys for generating wind power. The study is conducted through analytical/computational approach by employing the commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software. Computations are performed for five different geometric configurations consisting of a turbine, a cylindrical silo, and/or a venturi and/or a diffuser using the dimensions of typical silos and assuming Class 3 wind velocity. The incompressible Navier-Stokes equations with the Boussinesq approximation and a two equation realizable {kappa}-{epsilon} model are employed in the calculations, and the turbine is modeled as an actuator disk. The power coefficient (Cp) and generated power are calculated for the five cases. Consistent with recent literature, it was found that the silos with diffusers increase the Cp beyond Betz’s limit significantly and thus the generated power. It should be noted that Cp is calculated by normalizing it by the turbine area swept by the wind. This study shows the potential of using abandoned silos in the mid-west and other parts of the country for localized wind power generation.

  12. Sobrepresiones de vaciado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reimbert, Marcel


    Full Text Available No. 78 of Informes de la Construcción published a paper by Mr. Reimbert, in which a study was made of the turbulences in the suction currents which are used in wheat storing silos. The present paper, which is a continuation of the previous one, gives practical methods for calculating the strength of silo structures. These methods are based on the idea of introducing a perforated tube into the mass of material stored in the silo. The tube makes it possible to reduce the emptying overpressures. It is possible to find a coefficient to determine the true emptying pressure. This also enables the calculation of the thickness and amount of reinforcement of the silo structure, which is usually cellular and cylindrical in shape. Another aspect discussed in this paper is that dealing with accidents and repairs of the cracks which arise due to overpressures during the process of emptying. The conclusions and recommendations developed in this study are applicable both to reinforced concrete and metal silos.En el número 78 de Informes de la Construcción se publicó un artículo, del autor que figura en primer lugar en este trabajo, en el cual se estudiaba el régimen turbulento que aparece en las corrientes de vaciado de los silos destinados al almacenamiento de cereales. En el presente artículo, continuación del anterior, se proponen los procedimientos prácticos para el cálculo estable y resistente de las estructuras de los silos. La base de estos cálculos, parte del principio de introducir un tubo perforado en el seno de la masa ensilada. Este tubo tiene por objeto reducir las sobrepresiones de vaciado y, por tanto, se puede hallar un coeficiente para determinar la verdadera presión de vaciado y, con ello, el espesor y armaduras del silo corrientemente celular y cilíndrico. Otro de los aspectos tratados son los accidentes y reparaciones de los agrietamientos que se producen en los silos por causa de las sobrepresiones que aparecen en el per

  13. revisiting African maritime security

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    critical stance that entails more than anti-piracy. Perceptions and realities of maritime terrorism, piracy, illegal oil bunkering, criminality and unsettled maritime boundaries increasingly complicate traditional African threats and vulnerabilities on land. The growing range of threats requires a framework to explain events taking.

  14. legal and institutional framework for promoting oil pipeline security ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    The hacking into pipelines to steal crude oil to refine later and sell abroad is illegal bunkering. Pipeline vandalism is the intentional destruction of pipelines, platforms loading barge and other facilities for selfish .... of funnels, drilling tools and plastic hoses to syphon the products. Also, only a few cases of vandalism occurred.

  15. Sustainability in Inland Shipping: The use of LNG as Marine Fuel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Consuegra, S.C.; Paalvast, M.S.M.


    LNG has the potential to reduce echaust gas emissions from vessels. The report explains the basics of LNG: what is it, what are the technical challenges of using LNG as marine fuel, which infrastructure is needed to bunker it and what is the impact on the costs. The report concludes with some

  16. 75 FR 63888 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting (United States)


    ... maritime accident --Implementation of the International Convention on Civil Liability for Bunker Oil Pollution Damage, 2001 --Consideration of a proposal to amend the limits of liability of the 1996 Protocol... Protocol to the International Convention on Liability and Compensation for Damage in Connection with the...

  17. La generación de electricidad a partir de eucalipto en ingenios azucareros en Nicaragua

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, R. van den; Wijk, A. van


    Se hace una comparación entre la generación de electricidad a partir de plantaciones de eucalipto mediante ingenios azucareros durante la no-zafra y la generación de electricidad a partir de bunker (fueloil) en Nicaragua. Se comparan los costes y los efectos socioeconómicos y medioambientales de

  18. Concrete Memories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegand, Frauke Katharina


    and poetic appropriations and inscriptions of the bunker site are depicted. Ranging between overlooked side presences and an overwhelming visibility, the concrete remains of fascist war architecture are involved in and motivate different sensuous experiences and mnemonic appropriations. The article meets...

  19. AngelStow: A Commercial Optimization-Based Decision Support Tool for Stowage Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delgado-Ortegon, Alberto; Jensen, Rune Møller; Guilbert, Nicolas

    save port fees, optimize use of vessel capacity, and reduce bunker consumption. Stowage Coordinators (SCs) produce these plans manually with the help of graphical tools, but high-quality SPs are hard to generate with the limited support they provide. In this abstract, we introduce AngelStow which...

  20. An Ethnobotanical Survey on Fuel Wood and Timber plant Species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Dec 19, 2011 ... importance of gymnosperms in nature and human life. The people of the research area live a semi-nomadic life style and their houses varied according to the existing condition and duration of stay. For example the houses in the villages were mostly made of mud and stones wall having bunkers inside.

  1. Materials handling equipment and systems from Krupp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The article reviews the full range of equipment available from the manufacturer Krupp Foerdertechnik. It includes: stockyard systems (scraper type reclaimers and blending beds, bucket wheels, stackers, conveyor systems, bunkers and loading systems); strip loaders and unloaders; cranes; mining systems and components. The company also offers a customised service to meet special requirements. 8 photos.

  2. Evaluation of Short-Term Bioassays to Predict Functional Impairment, Development of Neurobehavioral Bioassays in Laboratory Animals, Directory of Institutions/Individuals. (United States)



  3. Get ready to enter a new DIMENSION

    CERN Multimedia

    Graham-Rowe, Duncan


    "Deep in an underground bunker, experts have built the world's largest science experiment. It has the potential to open new dimensins, help us look into the past and the future, and explain the mysteries of the space. There's also a chance it could create a black hole that devours the universe..."

  4. Competitive Liner Shipping Network Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsten, Christian Vad; Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Pisinger, David


    leg are used to balance sailing speed against operational costs, hence ensuring that the found network is competitive on both transit time and cost. We present a matheuristic for the problem where a MIP is used to select which ports should be inserted or removed on a route. Computational results...... on fluctuations in bunker price which confirms the applicability of the algorithm....

  5. Speed Optimization in Liner Shipping Network Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Karsten, Christian Vad; Pisinger, David

    for the bunker consumption in the network as well as the transit time of cargo. Speed optimization has been considered for tramp shipping showing significant reductions in fuel consumption. However, variable speeds has not been considered for post optimization of the LSNDP, where speed optimization could result...

  6. 46 CFR 171.068 - Special considerations for Type I subdivision for vessels on short international voyages. (United States)


    ... tanks of coal or oil fuel bunkers, chain lockers, fresh water tanks, and of all spaces that, in the full load condition, normally contain stores, baggage, mail, cargo, or provisions. If cargo holds are not... line of all spaces that, in the full load condition, normally contain no cargo, baggage, stores...

  7. Israel: Background and Relations with the United States (United States)


    led missions. In December 2008, Israel and NATO agreed to strengthen the program. Then NATO Secretary General Jaap de Hoop Scheffer said that the...Yaakov Katz, “Israel Slated to Buy 1,000 ‘Bunker-Buster’ Bombs from US,” Jerusalem Post, September 15, 2008, Andrea Shalal-Esa, “U.S. Approves $330

  8. Evaluation of different methods to overcome in vitro seed dormancy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Sep 3, 2014 ... Seeds from yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims) present dormancy imposed by the seed-coat. The present study ... seeds in absolute ethanol for 5, 10 and 25 min; physical scarification with wood sandpaper (no. 125); and total .... and seed coat fracture or fermenting seed with cytase. (Morley-Bunker ...

  9. AD-7/GBAR status report for the 2017 CERN SPSC

    CERN Document Server

    Lunney, D


    The first components of the GBAR (Gravitational Behavior of Antimatter at Rest) experiment will arrive at CERN in early 2017 for installation on the ELENA extraction line LNE50 and inside the newly constructed bunker in the AD hall. We report the installation plan and progress of all GBAR components.

  10. Improvement of the temperature control system for quenched coke in the unloading facility of the equipment for dry quenching of coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ereskovskii, O.S.; Grishchenko, A.I.


    An analysis of the existing methods of measuring the temperature of quenched coke is presented. A method for determining the weighted mean temperature of the coke in the intermediate bunker of the equipment for dry quenching of coke is proposed. Recommendations are given in respect to technical realization of the proposed method.

  11. Looking for 'God'

    CERN Multimedia

    Henderson, M


    "Scientists seeking the God particle that is thought to shape the universe, have hollowed out a concrete bunker bigger than the nave of Canterbury Cathedral to study a beam of energy a quarter of the thickness of a human hair" (1 page).


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Boko Haram menace in the Northern region and high profile kidnappings in the. Niger Delta parts of the country .... in the region has not totally stopped kidnapping and illegal oil bunkering. Resource control (crude oil) ... highest number of casualties in which 160 innocent lives including children and women, Muslims and ...

  13. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Sep 10, 2017 ... The usage of EPS as recycled material does not only provide lightweight fill solution, but also ... In other words, the recycled EPS granules is proven to be able to reduce the volumetric shrinkage ... shredded EPS-sand mixture are used as lightweight material for ammunition concrete bunker. The explosion ...

  14. La generación de electricidad a partir de eucalipto y bagazo en ingenios azucareros en Nicaragua: costes, aspectos macroeconómicos y medioambientales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, R. van den; Wijk, A. van


    Se hace una comparación entre la generación de electricidad a partir de bagazo y eucalipto mediante ingenios azucareros y la generación de electricidad a partir de bunker (fueloil) en Nicaragua. El combustible utilizado por los ingenios es bagazo durante la zafra y eucalipto de plantaciones

  15. Human Factors Issues in the Use of Virtual and Augmented Reality for Military Purposes - USA (United States)


    Environment Exposure: Expected time-course of symptoms and potential readaptation mechanisms. Manuscript under review. Stanney, K.M., Chen, J.L., and funding incorporation of the objective individual combat weapon (OICW) and the shoulder -launched multipurpose assault weapon/bunker-defeat

  16. 46 CFR 42.09-30 - Additional survey requirements for steel-hull vessels. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional survey requirements for steel-hull vessels...-30 Additional survey requirements for steel-hull vessels. (a) In addition to the requirements in § 42..., peaks, bilges, machinery spaces, and bunkers shall be examined to determine the condition of the framing...

  17. Fistula‑in‑Ano Complicated by Fournier's Gangrene Our Experience ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hughes E, Cuthberston AM, Killinback MK. Anorectal suppuration II, anal fistula. Colorectal Surgery, 1st ed. Medical. Division of Longman Group Limited, Robert Stevenson House,. 1 – 3 Baxter's place, Leith Walk, Edinburgh EH1 3AF: Publisher. Churchill Livingstone; 1983. p. 142‑62. 2. Smith GL, Bunker CB, Dinneen MD.

  18. En middelalderdronning og en tysk bunkersoldat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mikkel Kirkedahl Lysholm; Ringskou, Christian


    challenging myths, respectively about a Danish medieval queen and a German nazi soldier fortified in a bunker in Denmark. This unfolds perspectives on how museums both add to myth as well as putting myths into perspective, which again points to the role of the museum as places where narratives are constructed...

  19. What is that we were worried about?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bedir, M.; Ince, A.


    “What is it that you were worried about” is an art video3 where an energy rebalancing coach heals and cleans the unsettling energies of spaces by putting them into a holographic energy scan. Two artists draw our attention to an old bunker in a Bosnian Town, which used to be Tito’s atomic bomb

  20. The Coast Artillery Journal. Volume 80, Number 4, July-August 1937 (United States)


    Stripped of its legend, the saga of Bunker Hill loses Prescott’s effortsto control the fire. much of its epic quality. But even after the amateur?r Of...accompanied by an illustration. Ruscelli’s mind always ranged over a wide field. He wrote many books, on subjects as widely sepa- rated as poetry and

  1. Tale of the Harmattan: environmental rights discourse in Ojaide's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Poverty breeds prostitution, gas flaring breeds cancer and respiratory diseases, while lack of commensurate duty of care, compensation or corporate responsibility by the multinational oil companies, breed 'bunkering' and further oil spillage, unemployment and youth crisis, arm proliferation and hostage-taking of indigenous ...

  2. Looking back : Wonderful adventures in a millionaire's dream

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalders, J.; Wouda, A.; Van der Toolen, A.


    An abandoned monument to wastefulness. An accidental storage dump. A hiding-place for uranium and resistance fighters. A bunker for an indifferent executive board. And now, TU Delft's main building will become a luxury apartment complex for premium living. From an empty shell to a national monument:

  3. Bunkerovotshnõi biznes pod davlenijem Tintrade / Artur Tooman

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tooman, Artur, 1971-


    Laevade punkerdusega tegelevad firmad on kaotanud aastaga kokku üle 100 miljoni krooni, firmade käive on vähenenud ligi kaks korda, turul tegutseb praegu 7 ettevõtet, turuliidriks on OÜ Baltic Sea Bunkering. Tabel: Laevade punkerdusega tegelevate firmade majandusnäitajad

  4. Pilot study risk assessment for selected problems at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, L.D.; Meinhold, A.F.; Baxter, S.L.; Holtzman, S.; Morris, S.C.; Pardi, R.; Rowe, M.D.; Sun, C. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Anspaugh, L.; Layton, D. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States))


    Two important environmental problems at the USDOE Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) facility in Fernald, Ohio were studied in this human health risk assessment. The problems studied were radon emissions from the K-65 waste silos, and offsite contamination of ground water with uranium. Waste from the processing of pitchblende ore is stored in the K-65 silos at the FEMP. Radium-226 in the waste decays to radon gas which escapes to the outside atmosphere. The concern is for an increase in lung cancer risk for nearby residents associated with radon exposure. Monitoring data and a gaussian plume transport model were used to develop a source term and predict exposure and risk to fenceline residents, residents within 1 and 5 miles of the silos, and residents of Hamilton and Cincinnati, Ohio. Two release scenarios were studied: the routine release of radon from the silos and an accidental loss of one silo dome integrity. Exposure parameters and risk factors were described as distributions. Risks associated with natural background radon concentrations were also estimated.

  5. [Participation of dental auxiliary personnel in local health systems]. (United States)

    Frazão, P; Castellanos, R A


    Though numerous local health systems (sistemas locales de salud, or SILOS) in Brazil employ dental assistants, there is little information on the contributions these workers make to oral health programs. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of such workers in 10 SILOS in five municipalities in the state of São Paulo. Of the 325 dental assistants and dental hygienists employed in those systems, 245 (75.4%) answered a questionnaire that had been prepared. The results showed variations in the degree to which dental assistants participated in oral health promotion activities in the SILOS studied. In some SILOS, these workers devoted more time to dental health promotion activities than to helping perform dental tasks with individual patients. The most frequent oral health promotion activities were fluoride rinses, plaque detection followed by supervised brushing, and educational activities at basic health units and schools. In all cases, dental assistants working in the SILOS played a significant role in helping transform the practice of dentistry within the sphere of public health.

  6. The Tebuconazole-based Protectant of Seeds “Bunker” Induces the Synthesis of Dehydrins During Cold Hardening and Increases the Frost Resistance of Wheat Seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Korsukova


    Full Text Available Triazole derivatives are widely used in agriculture for seed protectant of cereals against seed and soil infection. Triazole derivatives can have an effect on the biochemical and physiological functions of plants. The tebuconazole-based protectant of seeds «Bunker» (content of tebuconazole 60 grams per liter, g/L is a systemic fungicide of preventive and therapeutic action. The effect of the seed treatment by «Bunker» preparation on the shoot growth and cell viability coleoptile, synthesis of dehydrins in shoots and frost resistance etiolated winter and spring wheat seedlings has been studied. It has been shown that treatment of winter and spring wheat seed by «Bunker» preparation induces similar concentration-dependent inhibition of the coleoptiles length. At the recommended dose (0,5 liter per tonne of seeds, L/t growth inhibition was 28 - 30%, at a concentration of 1 L/t – 33 - 36%, at a concentration of 1,5 L/t – 40 - 42%, at a concentration of 3 L/t – 43 - 47%, at a concentration of 4 L/t – 48 - 51% and at 5 L/t – 53 - 56%. The treatment of wheat seed by «Bunker» preparation had no phytotoxic effect on coleoptile cells in any of the studied concentrations, on the contrary, with increasing concentration of preparation observed the increase in cell viability, as measured by recovery of 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride. We can assume that having retardant properties, tebuconazole not only inhibits the growth of plants, but also delays their aging. The treatment of seed protectant at a concentration of 1.5 L/t induced synthesis of the dehydrins with molecular masses about 19, 21, 22, 25 and 27 kD in winter wheat shoots and 18,6, 27 and 28,5 kD in spring wheat shoots during cold hardening. Among identified dehydrins the dehydrin of 27 kD is most significantly induced both in winter and spring wheat. The treatment of seed protectant «Bunker» in the same concentration increased the frost resistance of winter and spring wheat

  7. ICBM vulnerability: Calculations, predictions, and error bars (United States)

    Hobson, Art


    The theory of intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) silo vulnerability is reviewed, and the present and probable future (mid-1990s) vulnerability of US silos is analyzed. The analysis emphasizes methodology, sources of information, and uncertainties. US ICBMs might still be survivable today but they will certainly be vulnerable to ICBM attack, and perhaps even to submarine-launched ballistic missile attack, by the mid-1990s. These calculations are presented not only for their immediate importance but also to introduce other physicists to some of the quantitative methods that can be used to analyze international security topics.

  8. User`s Manual for the SOURCE1 and SOURCE2 Computer Codes: Models for Evaluating Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility Source Terms (Version 2.0)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Icenhour, A.S.; Tharp, M.L.


    The SOURCE1 and SOURCE2 computer codes calculate source terms (i.e. radionuclide release rates) for performance assessments of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facilities. SOURCE1 is used to simulate radionuclide releases from tumulus-type facilities. SOURCE2 is used to simulate releases from silo-, well-, well-in-silo-, and trench-type disposal facilities. The SOURCE codes (a) simulate the degradation of engineered barriers and (b) provide an estimate of the source term for LLW disposal facilities. This manual summarizes the major changes that have been effected since the codes were originally developed.

  9. Environmental Assessment for Malmstrom Minuteman III Deactivation (United States)


    kind, of electrical and communication panels and panel wires 6. Inspection of the track that moves the maintenance cover over the LF A-06 launch...a 1.4 acre fenced area. Surface facilities on site consist of a large concrete slab covering the top of the silo and a 100-ton blast door that is...there drilled a 15 foot diameter shaft down to the 94 foot level. Then, a 62 foot high prefabricated rebar- ringed steel silo liner was lowered

  10. Use of composite mesh in gastroschisis: A unique approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishesh K Dikshit


    Full Text Available Gastroschisis is a congenital defect of the abdominal wall involving evisceration of abdominal contents. Initial surgical treatment of this condition depends on the size of the defect, size of the abdominal cavity and amount of bowel exposed. Various techniques described are primary closure, use of the skin flap and silo bag application, followed by fascial closure. Here we present a case wherein even after 7 days of silo bag application, fascial closure was not possible, and a composite mesh was used to cover the bowel until further repair could be attempted.

  11. Simulation and evaluation of GM and non-GM segregation management strategies among European grain merchants


    Coléno, François,


    International audience; Considering the European regulations, a product need to be labelled as containing GM when the adventitious presence of GM material exceed 0.9%. During collection, crops from many fields are combined to fill a silo. Three management strategies to avoid the risk of mixing GM and non-GM crops were identified by a descriptive work based on cases studies in various region of France: defining GM and non-GM silos and production zones; specifying the timing of GM and non-GM cr...

  12. Prevalence and Fingerprinting of Listeria monocytogenes Strains Isolated from Raw Whole Milk in Farm Bulk Tanks and in Dairy Plant Receiving Tanks


    Waak, Elisabet; Tham, Wilhelm; Danielsson-Tham, Marie-Louise


    The incidence of Listeria species in raw whole milk from farm bulk tanks and from raw milk in storage at a Swedish dairy plant was studied. Listeria monocytogenes was found in 1.0% and Listeria innocua was found in 2.3% of the 294 farm bulk tank (farm tank) milk specimens. One farm tank specimen contained 60 CFU of L. monocytogenes ml−1. L. monocytogenes was detected in 19.6% and L. innocua was detected in 8.5% of the milk specimens from the silo receiving tanks at the dairy (dairy silos). Mo...

  13. Outflow and clogging of shape-anisotropic grains in hoppers (United States)

    Stannarius, Ralf; Ashour, Ahmed; Wegner, Sandra; BöRzsöNyi, Tamas

    Silos have been in use in human history for millennia, but still today, the discharge of grains from silos is a process with potential risks and imponderabilities. Models and quantitative predictions have been developed almost exclusively for spherical grains shapes. We study the discharge and clogging processes of shape-anisotropic grains in hoppers, and describe the peculiarities of these materials both in their dynamical properties and in the observed clogging structures. An attempt is made to adapt the well-known equations for spherical material to describe anisometric particles. Funding by DAAD and M\\x96B is acknowledged. A. A. acknowledges a scholarship from Future University, Egypt.

  14. The LHC goes in for an X-ray

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Vernède


    For the past two years, a radiography laboratory has been operating in a "bunker" where it can X-ray materials in complete safety. The primary function of the radiography laboratory, run by Jean-Michel Dalin and Aline Piguiet, is to inspect welds and LHC components.   Technicians Jean-Michel Dalin and Aline Piguiet, from the EN department,  with the scanner used for digital radiography. In the basement of Building 112 lies a bunker heavily protected against radiation leaks and housing a laboratory that employs high-tech apparatus capable of detecting the slightest fault in materials without destroying or damaging them. "It's the principle of Non-Destructive Testing (NDT). In our laboratory we essentially use two methods, tomography and digital radiography," explains Jean-Michel Dalin, who is a NDT radiography technician in the EN Department's MM Section. It was he who designed the laboratory in collaboration with CERN's radiation protection service, wh...

  15. Decontamination and decommissioning plan for processing contaminated NaK at the INEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaRue, D.M.; Dolenc, M.R.


    This decontamination and decommissioning (D D) plan describes the work elements and project management plan for processing four containers of contaminated sodium/potassium (NaK) and returning the Army Reentry Vehicle Facility Site (ARVFS) to a reusable condition. The document reflects the management plan for this project before finalizing the conceptual design and preliminary prototype tests of the reaction kinetics. As a result, the safety, environmental, and accident analyses are addressed as preliminary assessments before completion at a later date. ARVFS contains an earth-covered bunker, a cylindrical test pit and metal shed, and a cable trench connecting the two items. The bunker currently stores the four containers of NaK from the meltdown of the EBR-1 Mark II core. The D D project addressed in this plan involves processing the contaminated NaK and returning the ARVFS to potential reuse after cleanup.

  16. Decontamination and decommissioning plan for processing contaminated NaK at the INEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaRue, D.M.; Dolenc, M.R.


    This decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) plan describes the work elements and project management plan for processing four containers of contaminated sodium/potassium (NaK) and returning the Army Reentry Vehicle Facility Site (ARVFS) to a reusable condition. The document reflects the management plan for this project before finalizing the conceptual design and preliminary prototype tests of the reaction kinetics. As a result, the safety, environmental, and accident analyses are addressed as preliminary assessments before completion at a later date. ARVFS contains an earth-covered bunker, a cylindrical test pit and metal shed, and a cable trench connecting the two items. The bunker currently stores the four containers of NaK from the meltdown of the EBR-1 Mark II core. The D&D project addressed in this plan involves processing the contaminated NaK and returning the ARVFS to potential reuse after cleanup.

  17. Fuelling car production with coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholze, U. [FAM Foerderanlagen, Magdeburg (Germany)


    FAM Foerderanlagen Magdeburg Group was commissioned by SKO-Energo Fin s.r.o. to supply, erect and commission a complete coaling plant with stockyard for the latter's thermal power station, to be built on the premises of the Skoda works at Mlada Boleslav in the Czech Republic. Coal from rail wagons is unloaded into an underground bunker and is moved from the stockpile with chain and inclined conveyors into a processing building for screening, crushing and blending, using an FAM PHM 1214 MRVD impact hammer. From the processing plant coal is conveyed to the coal bunker of the power plant which has two boilers with circulating atmospheric fluidized beds. The coaling plant is controlled from an independent coaling control room. It achieves low emissions of SO{sub 2}, NOx, Co and dust. 4 figs.

  18. Hans sidste ønske var et pas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sodemann, Morten


    Selv med svære sygdomme, bunker af lægeerklæringer, ekspertvurderinger og værdig stædighed opnår flygtninge ikke at få et dansk pas. Justitsministeriet bagatelliserer lægernes oplysninger og holder ansøgere hen med ligegyldigheder, indtil de dør åndeligt eller fysisk......Selv med svære sygdomme, bunker af lægeerklæringer, ekspertvurderinger og værdig stædighed opnår flygtninge ikke at få et dansk pas. Justitsministeriet bagatelliserer lægernes oplysninger og holder ansøgere hen med ligegyldigheder, indtil de dør åndeligt eller fysisk...

  19. Hans sidste ønske var et dansk pas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sodemann, Morten


    Selv med svære sygdomme, bunker af lægeerklæringer, ekspertvurderinger og værdig stædighed opnår flygtninge ikke at få et dansk pas. Justitsministeriet bagatelliserer lægernes oplysninger og holder ansøgere hen med ligegyldigheder, indtil de dør åndeligt eller fysisk......Selv med svære sygdomme, bunker af lægeerklæringer, ekspertvurderinger og værdig stædighed opnår flygtninge ikke at få et dansk pas. Justitsministeriet bagatelliserer lægernes oplysninger og holder ansøgere hen med ligegyldigheder, indtil de dør åndeligt eller fysisk...

  20. Improvement of loading and transport bodies of tunneling machines (United States)

    Nosenko, A. S.; Isakov, V. S.; Domnitskiy, A. A.; Shemshura, E. A.; Zubov, V. V.


    The article discusses the use of sets of equipment for mining and construction of road tunnels with the use of a self-propelled vehicle and bunker loaders to transport the mined rock. A patented design of the tunneling combine loading body, which allows adjusting its performance and power consumption in the loading mode, is considered. Reducing stress in extreme situations will make it possible to avoid overloading the drive and increase the reliability of the combine as a whole. The scheme of one of the most promising variants of the wedge bunker loader with variable geometry of the conveying elements is presented. The proposed design solves the problem of “locking” the material in narrow parts of the conveying body or in places where loading and transport bodies of different width are connected, as well as in the blast-and-heap mode of the loader.

  1. Impact of oil spill and posterior clean-up activities on wrack-living talitrid amphipods on estuarine beaches


    Borzone,Carlos A.; Rosa,Leonardo C.


    A geomorphological and faunistic seasonal study of six estuarine beaches on Paranaguá Bay, Brazil, was abruptly interrupted when the Chilean ship "Vicuña" exploded and sank, spilling 291 tons of bunker fuel oil. The beaches sampled twice before the accident were affected by the oil spill deposition and the posterior clean-up activities. Neither drastic reduction in abundances nor occurrences of oil-covered individuals were registered. Significant variation in both amount of debris and talitri...

  2. Afghan National Security Forces: Actions Needed to Improve Weapons Accountability (United States)


    including CoreIMS. As for weapons provided to the Afghan National Police ( ANP ), there is no standardized or automated system to account for them...Instead, the ANP uses a combination of hard copy documents, handwritten records, and some Microsoft Excel spreadsheets to maintain inventory records. To...At the ANP 22 Bunkers Depot—the national depot for the ANP — SIGAR was unable to conduct a fully inclusive inventory test; however, SIGAR’s limited

  3. The impact of military activities on the concentration of mercury in soils of military training grounds and marine sediments


    G?bka, Karolina; Be?dowski, Jacek; Be?dowska, Magdalena


    Military activities have been conducted on land and at sea. Both during conflicts and in peace time, some regions served as a military training ground which included firing positions and bunkers. Mercury fulminate has been used in ammunition primers and detonators. Certain amount of ammunition was dumped into the Baltic Sea after the Second World War. Because of corroded containers, mercury can be released into the marine environment. The soil and sediment samples were taken from military tra...

  4. Military Adaptation in War (United States)


    services to measure the size of the fires by the number of appliances required to control the blaze; and one de- manding thirty pumps is generally...where the British would possess the room to maneuver their convoys and where intelligence would become more and more a cru- cial player in the battle...following terms: “I had to fight my way through scores of male and female soldiers crowded in [Southern Command’s] bunker and its corridors. Some were

  5. Medical Aspects of Disaster Preparedness and Response: A System Overview of Civil and Military Resources and New Potential (United States)


    primary care facilities, necessitating the establishment of surge capacity sub-acute treatment in nursing homes, retirement homes, school gymnasiums and...occurs in virtually all weather and manmade disasters, as the fear of contagion grips the citizenry and causes widespread “bunkering,” which is a type... emotional impact for those most severely affected could not possibly be met in the worse cases scenarios. And even long afterward, an estimated “11-15

  6. Computation of Weapons Systems Effectiveness (United States)


    Probability of Damage, Weapon Trajectory, Weapon Accuracy 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 175 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF REPORT the single weapon unitary target module as the damage function for area targets is in the form of a rectangle cookie cutter instead of a Carleton...specific target types such as bridges, underground bunkers and tunnels, some of which require the usage of advanced penetrator weapons. Another area

  7. Defense Logistics Agency Energy Needs to Improve Oversight of the Aviation Into Plane Reimbursement Card Program (REDACTED) (United States)


    Systems Enterprise Server (FES). However, AIR Card transaction data are provided electronically to FES by KHI. Program officials stated that FES...KHI to negotiate, obtain, and pass on fuel discounts or savings, but KHI “shall never act or presume [ sic ] the responsibilities of pricing or...Fuels Automated Systems Enterprise Server KHI Kropp Holdings, Inc. MSC Multi Service Corporation SEA Ship Bunkers Easy Acquisition FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

  8. From Russia with love: US cloud data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawler, A.


    Plumes of hazardous wastes, leached from fuel dumps and other sites at a military base, are moving underground on Cape Cod, threatening contamination of drinking water supplies. An experimental `wall` decontamination system will be built as a possible way of eliminating toxic chemicals. This reactive wall will be a bunker of iron filings intended to react with the toxic molecules of trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene and other chemicals in the plumes.

  9. Augmentation of coal handling plant for Nasik Thermal Power Station, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thakkar, M.C.; Bandhu, K.K.; Vyas, M.R.


    The augmentation of the coal handling plant at Nasik Thermal Power Station, India, was necessary, because the volume of coal to be handled increased due to the poor coal quality. The Maharashtra State Electricity Board therefore decided to install an additional conveying system consisting of a rotary-type wagon tippler (car dumper), a three-stage crushing plant, stacking and reclaiming equipment, and a motorized tripper bunkering system. 5 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Enhancing Joint Warfighting Readiness Through Conduct of Foreign Disaster Relief Operations (United States)


    flights starting on 11 January. 33 When the tsunami struck, the Bonhomme Richard Expeditionary Strike Group ( ESG ) was conducting operations near...Guam. The ESG , including the USS Bonhomme Richard (LHD 6), USS Rushmore (LSD 47), USS Milius (DDG 69), USS Bunker Hill (CG 52), USS Thach (FFG 43), a...with LCACs, arrived on 18 January, taking over the functions of the Bonhomme Richard ESG and allowing it to depart the area. During the same

  11. Renewable energy sources and their contribution to the gross domestic energy consumption in Italy in the year 1994; Censimento per il territorio italiano dei dati relativi alle fonti rinnovabili di energia ed al loro contributo al bilancio energetico per l`anno 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menna, P.; Manzo, R. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Portici, Naples (Italy). Dip. Energia


    The gross domestic energy consumption in 1994 (including bunkers) decreased to 165.8 Mtoe from the 1993 figure of 166.6 Mtoe. At the same time the overall electricity demand reached 253.6 TWh from 246.6 TWh, closely reflecting the 2 contribution of renewable energy sources (hydroelectricity, geothermal, biomasses, solar, wind) to the national energy consumption has been 9 1994. It represented more than 34% of the domestic energy production.

  12. Renewable energy sources and their contribution to gross domestic energy consumption in Italy in years 1992 and 1993; Censimento per il territorio italiano dei dati relativi alle fonti rinnovabili di energia ed al loro contributo al bilancio energetico per gli anni 1992 e 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menna, P. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche, Portici (Italy). Dip. Energia


    In 1992, the gross domestic energy consumption in Italy was 167.5 MTOE (including bunkers) while in 1993 it decreased to 165.9 MTOE. The overall electricity demand passed from 244.8 TWh in 1992 to 246.6 TWh in 1993. In the same period, the overall contribution from Renewable Energy Sources (RES) kept almost constant at 5.y consumption. The RES contribution represented a share larger than gross National production of energy in 1992.

  13. The Proceedings of the Conference on Assessment of Ecological Impacts of Oil Spills Held 14-17 Jun 1978, Keystone, Colorado. (United States)


    la contaminacion producida por ci B/T Metula en ci Estrecho de Magailanes. In Preservacion Del Medio Ambiente Marino. F. Orrego Ed. Pub. Instituto the ambient temperature) or even for 1 week, to extrapolate effects from the laboratory test. Young cod larvae in the test were likewise susceptible...DAYS AFTER SPILL Figure 8. Losses from a Bunker C oil at the surface of Los Angeles Harbor under ambient environmental conditions. The simulation

  14. The Coast Guard Proceedings of the Marine Safety and Security Council. Waterways. Summer 2016 (United States)


    Photo courtesy of the Port of New Orleans. 47Summer 2016 reducing the overall carbon footprint . The 12-acre the river system, potentially requiring more anchorage space as well as vessel services such as bunkering and stores, which also have a footprint ...from raw vegetable oil or animal fats and produced through a chemical process called transesterification. In the most common type of

  15. Vasketøjssortering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enggaard, Helle; Moselund, Lene

    teknologiske løsning er udviklet af Bunker43 og består af chips med RFID (radio Frequency Identification), en scanner der kører på UHF-frekvenser (Ultra High Frequences) og en tablet med android Linux styresystem, som styrer processen med identifikation af vasketøj. Projektet har haft til formål at undersøge...

  16. Investing In The Army Organic Industrial Base To Operate And Win In A Complex And Austere Environment (United States)


    known as the GBU-28, or more commonly, as the “bunker busting” bomb, to support the warfighter on 1 Carlo Kopp, “Raytheon/ Texas Instruments GBU-28...maintenance and repair workload outsourced to non-DOD contracts. § 2466 protects government-owned maintenance depots with a stable workload. Arsenals...been a success for WVA, but Electralloy also benefits from outsourcing specialized skilled labor that improves its lead time in producing materials

  17. Relationship Between Socioeconomic Status and Body Mass Index ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Brooks, B. (2006) Obesity as a Culture-bound Syndrome: the impacts of socioeconomics and body image. Bunker, C.H., Ukoli, F.A., Nwankwo, M.U., Omene, J.A.,. Currier, G.W., Holifield-Kennedy, L., Freeman, D.T.,. Vergis., E.N, Yeh, L.L. and Kuller, L.H. (1992) Factors associated with hypertension in Nigerian civil servants.

  18. Cognitive Impairment in MS Linked to Structural and Functional Connectivity (United States)


    Langone’s School of Medicine, while maintaining voluntary faculty positions at Stony Brook Univeristy. After multiple discussions with Ms. Aimee Bunker, Dr...AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most...performance over time. This is a sensitive indicator of cognitive impairment in individuals with neurological disorders including MS. Multiple types of

  19. Survival of sea anemones in Bunder C fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wicksten, M.K.


    Sea anemones (Anthopleura elegantissima) can withstand submersion in Bunker C fuel oil for up to 1 h without visible adverse effects. The wet, mucus-covered tissues of the sea anemones may repel oil. During recovery, the sea anemones expand the column, evert the tentacles and reattach. A dahlia anemone (Tealia lofotensis) withstood immersion in oil for 15 min. The ability to withstand immersion in oil may confer an ecological advantage to sea anemones in contaminated areas. 5 references, 8 figures, 1 tables.

  20. Special Report on Lessons Learned (1985-2011). Volume 2: Handbook of Recommended Design Practices (Fire Protection and Life Safety Design Guidelines for Special Purpose Underground Structures) (United States)


    that are not shock isolated depend on how the tunnel was excavated and reinforced as well as the geology and the specific magnitude of ground motion...Fire in tunnels and their effect on rock”, a review by Kristina Larsson, published by Lulea University of Technology, Sweden in 2006 and available...rock and concrete are not well understood by the tunnel or UGF community. Neither concrete nor rock transmit heat well which means that bunkers and

  1. Neutron dosimetry in solid water phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benites-Rengifo, Jorge Luis, E-mail: [Centro Estatal de Cancerologia de Nayarit, Calzada de la Cruz 118 Sur, Tepic Nayarit, Mexico and Instituto Tecnico Superior de Radiologia, ITEC, Calle Leon 129, Tepic Nayarit (Mexico); Vega-Carrillo, Hector Rene, E-mail: [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Apdo. postal 336, 98000, Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico)


    The neutron spectra, the Kerma and the absorbed dose due to neutrons were estimated along the incoming beam in a solid water phantom. Calculations were carried out with the MCNP5 code, where the bunker, the phantom and the model of the15 MV LINAC head were modeled. As the incoming beam goes into the phantom the neutron spectrum is modified and the dosimetric values are reduced.

  2. Blast Overpressure Studies with Animals and Man: Biological Response to Complex Blast Waves (United States)


    multiple transmural contusions with mucosal ulcerations encompassing more than 10 cm2 surface area, and extensive for large areas of transmural contusions...respiratory tract and G.I. tract injury at all ranges for the bunker sheep and generally more 1 extensive than that seen in the subjects exposed outdoors...freefield. The two animals exposed to the 1361-g explosion sustained extensive amounts of injury and were killed by the blast. The lung/body weight percent

  3. Natural gas for ship propulsion in Denmark - Possibilities for using LNG and CNG on ferry and cargo routes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuer-Lauridsen, F.; Nielsen, Jesper B. (LITEHAUZ, Copenhagen (Denmark)); Odgaard, T.; Birkeland, M. (IncentivePartners, Birkeroed (Denmark)); Winter Graugaard, C.; Blikom, L.P. (DNV, Copenhagen (Denmark)); Muro-Sun, N.; Andersen, Morten; OEvlisen, F. (Ramboell Oil and Gas, Esbjerg (Denmark))


    The project's main task was to review logistical, technical and economic feasibility for using Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) and Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) as fuel for ship propulsion and the supply of LNG or CNG to Danish ports from existing natural gas lines, trucks or by ship. The following key findings are related to the use of natural gas as fuel for ships in Denmark: Natural gas as propulsion fuel in ships: 1) Advantages: Provide solution to present air emission challenges 2) Barriers: Capital investments large 3) Synergies: Developments in Norway and Baltic Sea area 4) Economy: Positive case for operation for large consumers 5) Future: Develop bunkering options for short sea shipping LNG: 6) Propulsion technology in ships is mature and proven 7) Distribution network not yet developed for use in ships 8) Safety concerns are demanding but manageable 9) Can enter existing bunkering value chain CNG: 10) Well developed for land based transport, not yet for shipping 11) Distribution network for natural gas exists in Denmark 12) Safety concerns are demanding but manageable 13) No seaborne CNG value chains in operation An immediate focus on the ferry sector in Denmark will reap benefits on a relatively short time scale. For the short sea shipping sector away to promote the conversion to natural gas is to support the development of storage and bunkering facilities in main ports. Given the general expectations in the shipping community LNG will presumably be the de facto choice at least for the 5-10 years ahead and the demand for facilities and bunkers will be for LNG. (LN)

  4. The Quality-Volume Relationship: Comparing Civilian and MHS Practice (United States)


    Bariatric surgery o There is a strong correlation between the average number of bariatric surgeries a surgeon performs annually and his or her level... bariatric surgery . The Leapfrog surgeon and hospital volume targets for all eight procedures are given in Table 1. 15 State...rates after bariatric surgery .” N Engl J Med 369 (15): 1434-42. doi: 10.1056/NEJMsa1300625. NLM. [3] Luft, H. S., J. P. Bunker, and A. C. Enthoven

  5. Order-of-Magnitude Estimate of Fast Neutron Recoil Rates in Proposed Neutrino Detector at SNS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iverson, Erik B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    Yuri Efremenko (UT-K) and Kate Scholberg (Duke) indicated, during discussions on 12 January 2006 with the SNS Neutronics Team, interest in a new type of neutrino detector to be placed within the proposed neutrino bunker at SNS, near beam-line 18, against the RTBT. The successful operation of this detector and its associated experiments would require fast-neutron recoil rates of approximately one event per day of operation or less. To this end, the author has attempted the following order-of-magnitude estimate of this recoil rate in order to judge whether or not a full calculation effort is needed or justified. For the purposes of this estimate, the author considers a one-dimensional slab geometry, in which fast and high-energy neutrons making up the general background in the target building are incident upon one side of an irbon slab. This iron slab represents the neutrino bunker walls. If we assume that a significant fraction of the dose rate throughout the target building is due to fast or high-energy neutrons, we can estimate the flux of such neutrons based upon existing shielding calculations performed for radiation protection purposes. In general, the dose rates within the target building are controlled to be less than 0.25 mrem per hour. A variety of calculations have indicated that these dose rates have significant fast and high-energy neutron components. Thus they can estimate the fast neutron flux incident on the neutrino bunker, and thereby the fast neutron flux inside that bunker. Finally, they can estimate the neutron recoil rate within a nominal detector volume. Such an estimate is outlined in Table 1.

  6. Freedom: A Promise of Possibility. (United States)

    Bunkers, Sandra Schmidt


    The idea of freedom as a promise of possibility is explored in this column. The core concepts from a research study on considering tomorrow (Bunkers, 1998) coupled with humanbecoming community change processes (Parse, 2003) are used to illuminate this notion. The importance of intentionality in human freedom is discussed from both a human science and a natural science perspective. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Radiation protection in large linear accelerators; Seguranca radiologica de aceleradores lineares de grande porte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliva, Jose de Jesus Rivero, E-mail: [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear; Sousa, Fernando Nuno Carneiro de, E-mail: [Aceletron Irradiacao lndustrial, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    The electron linear accelerators can be used in industrial applications that require powerful sources of ionizing radiation. They have the important characteristic of not representing a radiation hazard when the accelerators remain electrically disconnected. With the plant in operation, a high reliability defense in depth reduces the risk of radiological accidents to extremely small levels. It is practically impossible that a person could enter into the radiation bunker with the accelerators connected. Aceletron Irradiacao Industrial, located in Rio de Janeiro, offers services of irradiation by means of two powerful electron linear accelerators, with 15 kW power and 10 MeV electron energy. Despite the high level of existing radiation safety, a simplified risk study is underway to identify possible sequences of radiological accidents. The study is based on the combined application of the event and fault trees techniques. Preliminary results confirm that there is a very small risk of entering into the irradiation bunker with the accelerators in operation, but the risk of an operator entering into the bunker during a process interruption and remaining there without notice after the accelerators were restarted may be considerably larger. Based on these results the Company is considering alternatives to reduce the likelihood of human error of this type that could lead to a radiological accident. The paper describes the defense in depth of the irradiation process in Aceletron Irradiacao Industrial, as well as the models and preliminary results of the ongoing risk analysis, including the additional safety measures which are being evaluated. (author)

  8. Legal Research Methodology and the Dream of Interdisciplinarity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There are increasing calls for academics to abandon "traditional" disciplinary research and to engage in multi-, inter- and transdisciplinary research. The argument is that this will serve to break down working in "silos" and somehow lead to more innovative research. This article examines the concepts of multidisciplinary, ...

  9. USSR Report Machine Tools and Metalworking Equipment (United States)


    robots and robot equipment, programing, pneumatic and hydraulic devices, biotechnologies and bioequipment. Small and medium-size enterprises are being...Mastering and introducing widely biotechnology facilitates, to a great degree, the reequipment of the national economy. Therefore, the problem of...agricultural products (silos for storing grain, transportation devices, equipment for flour grinding, the canning and cheese -making industries, and

  10. Changes in pig diet particle size profile and nutrient content during on-farm storage and distribution to the feeders. (United States)

    Cools, An; Maes, Dominiek; Du Laing, Gijs; Janssens, Geert P J


    The present study assessed the effect of silo emptying and feed transport by conveyor systems on particle size and nutrient content of the feed delivered to the pigs. Experiment 1 sampled feed from four feeders along the conveyor system of two barns. Samples were taken immediately after filling the feed silo (Begin) and when the silo was almost empty (End). In Experiment 2, three barns with drag-type conveyors, three with auger-type conveyors and two with spiral-type conveyors were sampled. Along the different conveyors, samples at 10, 20, 50 and 85 m distance from the feed silo were taken from the feeders. In each barn, sampling was repeated for two subsequent batches of feed delivered. In all samples, particle size profile was determined and nutrient content was analysed. In Experiment 2, mineral content was also determined. In Experiment 1, the size of the different particle fractions decreased from Begin to End. An interaction (p particles. In Experiment 2, an effect of sampling time on the 10% largest particles was detected (p particle size profile and nutrient content. The potential impact of these changes on pig performance requires further investigation.

  11. La bronchopneumopathie chronique obstructive professionnelle : une maladie méconnue

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ameille, J; Dalphin, J.C; Descatha, A; Pairon, J.C


    ..., la fonderie et la sidérurgie, le textile, le milieu céréalier (ouvriers des silos), la production laitière et l’élevage des porcs. Les principales nui- sances à l’origine des BP...

  12. A Business Intelligence Framework for Sustainability Information Management in Higher Education (United States)

    Scholtz, Brenda; Calitz, Andre; Haupt, Ross


    Purpose: Higher education institutions (HEIs) face a number of challenges in effectively managing and reporting on sustainability information, such as siloes of data and a limited distribution of information. Business intelligence (BI) can assist in addressing the challenges faced by organisations. The purpose of this study was to propose a BI…

  13. From a SoAp Box (United States)

    Gunn, Cathy


    Various discussions at the March 2010 Scholarship of Teaching and Learning (SoTL) Commons in Statesboro, GA, led this author to reflect on the relationship between academic development, e-learning, and SoTL. Throughout the conference, she felt a nagging suspicion that each professional community may have created a silo, with a discourse so tightly…

  14. A Harassing Climate? Sexual Harassment and Campus Racial Climate Research (United States)

    Lundy-Wagner, Valerie; Winkle-Wagner, Rachelle


    In this conceptual paper, the authors discuss how research about sexual harassment and campus racial climates for undergraduate students is relegated to separate silos. Drawing on intersectionality and critical race feminist frameworks, the authors juxtapose these strands of research with attention to ethnicity/race and gender, highlighting how…

  15. Future trends and needs in stored product entomology-pest management (United States)

    Insect pest management in stored products, and in particular the concept of integrated pest management (IPM), has different meanings depending on one's viewpoint of IPM. One of the difficulties in stored products is adequately sampling large bulk bins or silos of raw stored grain or large milling an...

  16. What is Happening in Supply Chain Management? From Push to Pull through Best Value Thinking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santema, S.C.


    In this paper we take a closer look at developments in supply management. The main change in this discipline seems to be (2011) that cooperation and risk management are taking over the classical silo based way of looking at business. Companies start to learn that transactions block the profits

  17. Ultrafine Cohesive Powders: From Interparticle Contacts to Continuum Behaviour.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tykhoniuk, Rostyslav; Tomas, Jürgen; Luding, Stefan; Kappl, Michael; Heim, Lars; Butt, Hans-Jürgen


    Continuum mechanical models and appropriate measuring methods to determine the material parameters are available to describe the flow behaviour of cohesive powders. These methods are successfully applied to design process equipment as silos. In addition, “microscopic” studies on the particle

  18. The Resource. Fall 2003 (United States)


    Channel storage area network (SAN), and three StorageTek robotic tape silos; and (2) a remote management system (RMS) consisting of a single Sun server...and Training RANS Reynolds Average Navier Stokes RMS Remote Management System SAIC Science Applications International Corporation SAME Society of

  19. The Bonds of Social-Emotional Learning (United States)

    Reilly, Nadja N.


    To better support students with conditions like depression, schools must take steps to shift away from a silo approach in which academics and emotional health are seen as separate. To illustrate, Nadja N. Reilly outlines an integrated approach to social-emotional learning accommodates both students and teachers' needs for emotional safety and…

  20. Anghel Saligny : Omul şi Monumentul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia Băjenaru


    Full Text Available Anghel Saligny was a remarcable engineer, world wide predecessor of metal building science and reinforced concrete, creator of multiple inventions and of unique solutions in designing and building bridges, industrial constructions, for the foundation of port piers and docks, as well as grain silos through the use of precast concrete, all of these in world premiere.

  1. How an Entry-Level, Interdisciplinary Sustainability Course Revealed the Benefits and Challenges of a University-Wide Initiative for Sustainability Education (United States)

    Coops, Nicholas C.; Marcus, Jean; Construt, Ileana; Frank, Erica; Kellett, Ron; Mazzi, Eric; Munro, Alison; Nesbit, Susan; Riseman, Andrew; Robinson, John; Schultz, Anneliese; Sipos, Yona


    Purpose: Delivery of sustainability-related curriculum to undergraduate students can be problematic due to the traditional "siloing" of curriculum by faculties along disciplinary lines. In addition, while there is often a ready availability of courses focused on sustainability issues in the later years of students' programs, few early…


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the construction of roads, water tanks, silos for chemical storage, b1JI1kersand nuclear reactors. Despite its long history of use, our understanding of concrete has only really developed in very recent times, particularly with respect to its durability, and as a result""'"of the continuing engineering and scientific developments on ...

  3. Architecting New Library Frameworks (United States)

    Breeding, Marshall


    People live in an era of social, enterprise-oriented, and increasingly cloud-based technology; a dramatic shift away from stand-alone isolated silos that previously dominated. Computing systems can flourish today only when built to easily exchange data and services. An application that stands alone may provide practical functionality but may not…

  4. Homo Sapiens, All Too Homo Sapiens: Wise Man, All Too Human (United States)

    Ketcham, Amaris


    The emphasis on STEM education should not be interpreted as an omen of the death of humanities; art, literature, history, and philosophy can inform and enlighten STEM studies if the walls of academic silos are broken down and taught in combination. Where the physical universe collides with the fanciful and flawed human experience of life, there is…


    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marring, E.; Hoffmann, A.C; Janssen, L.P.B.M.


    The influence of applying simultaneous aeration and vibration on the discharge of cohesive powders from a laboratory scale cylindrical silo has been studied experimentally. The powders investigated were batches of potato starch powder of different moisture contents and therefore different degrees of

  6. "Maastik just sinule" / Aljona Galazan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Galazan, Aljona


    25.-27. septembrini 2014.a. toimus Barcelonas kaheksas rahvusvaheline maastikuarhitektuuri biennaal. Ettekannetes kõlasid sotsiaalsed teemad nagu kodanikualgatus ja sotsiaalne disain ning globaalsed keskkonnamuutused ja metropolide probleemid. Rosa Barba nimelise preemia pälvis Aucklandi sadamaala projekt Uus-Meremaalt: North Wharf`i promenaad ja Silo park

  7. Volatile organic compound emissions from silage systems (United States)

    As a precursor to smog, emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to the atmosphere is an environmental concern in some regions. The major source from farms is silage, with emissions coming from the silo face, mixing wagon, and feed bunk. The major compounds emitted are alcohols with other impor...

  8. E2eUberIM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wac, Katarzyna; Cummings, Mark; Dey, Jayanta


    networking (SDN) have been proposed. However, different vendors of these solutions continue to deploy proprietary interfaces that are not interoperable with the new technology systems nor with legacy systems, thus further increasing the number of operational silos. To leverage existing efforts to provide new...

  9. Assessing the land resource-food price nexus of the Sustainable Development Goals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Obersteiner, Michael; Walsh, Brian; Frank, Stefan; Havlík, Petr; Cantele, Matthew; Liu, Junguo; Palazzo, Amanda; Herrero, Mario; Lu, Yonglong; Mosnier, Aline; Valin, Hugo; Riahi, Keywan; Kraxner, Florian; Fritz, Steffen; van Vuuren, Detlef

    The 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) call for a comprehensive new approach to development rooted in planetary boundaries, equity, and inclusivity. The wide scope of the SDGs will necessitate unprecedented integration of siloed policy portfolios to work at international, regional, and national

  10. Fermentation characteristics and nutritive value of low moisture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mini-silos of dimension 10.16 cm × 35.56 cm with PVC pipes and rubber caps on each end were used. In the first experiment, switchgrass and bermudagrass were ensiled separately in combination with four percentages of alfalfa (0%, 25%, 50% and 75 %) on fresh weight basis. In the second experiment, switchgrass and ...

  11. Ensilage Of Sugarcane Tops Using Urea And Broiler Litter Additives ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sugarcane tops (SCT) constitute a source of readily available and cheap agroindustrial by-product for ruminant feeding in Mauritius. Its nutritional constraints are its low digestibility, and low crude protein (CP) content. Wilted SCT (50% DM) was ensiled in the laboratory using a SemiMicro technique with PVC silos.

  12. (Pennisetum clandestinum Hochst) silage.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Small-scale laboratory silos were used to study the fermentation process of Kikuyu (Pennisetum clandestinum Hochst) silage prepared from grass containing 25% and 40% dry matter. Silage made from grass containing 40% dry matter was found to be better preserved and of better quality than silage made from wetter grass ...

  13. The effect of nitrogen fertilization on the quality of Kikuyu silage. | M ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Small-scale laboratory silos were used to study the fermentation process of Kikuyu (Pennisetum clandestinum Hochst) silage prepared from grass grown at three nitrogen fertilizer levels (300, 400 and 500 kg N/ha/year). Kikuyu grass was cut at three and six weeks growth stages. High nitrogen levels appeared to improve ...

  14. Should Omphaloceles be Re-classified? | Adeniran | East and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Omphaloceles are presently classified into 'minor' and 'major' categories depending on the diameter of the umbilical defect. In developed countries most 'major' cases are treated with silo, parenteral nutrition and progressive compression. In developing countries most cases are managed conservatively with ...

  15. 76 FR 71332 - Notice of Intent (Noi) To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for Minuteman III and Peacekeeper... (United States)


    ... deactivated 400th Missile Squadron and 5 MAFs), and Vandenberg AFB (3 Test LFs). The treaty identified three possible methods for dismantlement including implosion, excavation, and backfill. The Treaty requires... and Peacekeeper silos is required by the new Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START) (February 5, 2011...

  16. Fermentation characteristics and nutrient composition of browses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fermentation characteristics and nutrient composition of browses ensiled with maize fodder. ... Key words: Animal nutrition, chemical composition, dry matter ... 30, 40 et 50% sur base de la matière sèche et était fermenté en triplet de 2 kg dans un sachet en plastic qui acta comme silo et permit de fermenter pour 30 jours.

  17. Prensas para la elaboración de aceite en el establecimiento rural ibérico de Saus (Gerona. Notas sobre la explotación del campo en el territorio de Emporion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casas Genover, Josep


    Full Text Available The archaeological excavations carried out in 2007 and 2008 at the Iberian site of Saus, formed by 38 silos, have attested to document the existence of an agricultural farmstead functioning from the late 6th century to the early of 4th century BC combined the farming of cereals with the elaboration of oil during its last occupation phase or at least from the late second half of 5th century BC, as it is inferred from the discovery of four oil presses bases in the abandonment levels of several silos.Las campañas de excavación llevadas a cabo durante 2007 y 2008 en el yacimiento ibérico de Saus, constituido por 38 silos, han permitido documentar la existencia de una explotación agrícola activa desde finales del siglo VI hasta inicios del siglo IV a.C., que compaginó el cultivo de cereal con la elaboración de aceite durante su última etapa de ocupación o, como mínimo, desde la segunda mitad avanzada del siglo V a.C., según se desprende a partir del hallazgo de cuatro bases de prensa en los niveles de amortización de diversos silos.

  18. Vectorial Cellular Automaton for the Stress in Granular Media (United States)

    Hemmingsson, Jan; Herrmann, Hans J.; Roux, Stéphane


    We introduce a simple cellular automaton to model the force distribution in a gravity-loaded granular medium. Two test cases are considered: the sand heap, and the silo geometry. The model gives results consistent with established observations. For the heap, the normal stress on the base plane displays a pronounced depression underneath the apex. In the silo geometry, the model reproduces the correct scaling for the approach to a stationary (depth-independent) stress state. Nous introduisons un modèle simple d'automate cellulaire pour rendre compte des contraintes dans un milieu granulaire soumis à la gravité. Deux géométries test sont considérées: un simple tas et un silo. Les résultats du modèle sont cohérents avec les caractéristiques connues de ces deux situations. En particulier, pour le tas, la contrainte normale sur le plan de base montre une dépression prononcée sous le sommet. Dans la géométries du silo, le modèle rend compte correctement de l'approche vers une répartition de contrainte indépendante de la profondeur.

  19. The Learning Thermometer: Closing the Loop between Teaching, Learning, Wellbeing and Support in Universities (United States)

    Stallman, Helen M.; King, Sharron


    The increasing awareness and impact of mental health problems in university students in addition to a need for objective measures of teaching quality provide the impetus for a new approach to supporting students. There is a need for more effective tools that integrate the institutional silos of teaching, learning, support, and wellbeing to help…

  20. Interoperability of Web Archives and Digital Libraries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalb, Hendrik; Lazaridou, Paraskevi; Pinsent, Edward


    The interoperability of web archives and digital libraries is crucial to avoid silos of preserved data and content. While various researches focus on specfic facets of the challenge to interoperate, there is a lack of empirical work about the overall situation of actual challenges. We conduct...

  1. Evolution of management of gastroschisis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to amniotic fluid and compression of the mesenteric blood supply at the defect. The incidence of .... and another due to ischemia of the foregut because of vascular insufficiency at the level of the abdominal wall, .... is bowel ischemia at the inferior portion of the silo during reduction through small openings that can serve as a.

  2. Knowledge and Policy: Research and Knowledge Transfer (United States)

    Ozga, Jenny


    Knowledge transfer (KT) is the emergent "third sector" of higher education activity--alongside research and teaching. Its commercialization origins are evidenced in its concerns to extract maximum value from research, and in the policy push to make research-based knowledge trapped in disciplinary silos more responsive to the growing…

  3. Field Evaluation Of A Novel Exposure Assessment Strategy Using Respirable Coal Dust Exposures During Heat Plant Coal Receiving Operations (United States)


    backup. Coal drawn from the silos is much drier and dustier than coal delivered by truck or from the storage mound. Note that Figure 2 designations...random number generated was selected as the single representative sample. Each sample was replicated 10 times with a new batch of random numbers

  4. Curing TB with open science. (United States)

    Ekins, Sean; Williams, Antony J


    There are many funded efforts going on focused on tuberculosis research and drug or vaccine development. There is little if any global coordination or collaboration and subsequently there are likely to be huge data silos and duplication of efforts. We now propose steps to remedy this by fostering more open science in TB research. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Omphalocoele and gastroschisis: management in a developing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Of these, 14 had primary fascial closure, 8 had skin closure, and 4 had improvised silo. All neonates with gastroschisis had primary fascial closure at presentation. A total of 22 neonates died: eighteen omphalocoele (11 of them managed surgically) and 4 gastroschisis. Conclusion: The management of neonates with ...

  6. 30 CFR 77.211 - Draw-off tunnels; stockpiling and reclaiming operations; general. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Draw-off tunnels; stockpiling and reclaiming... WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.211 Draw-off tunnels; stockpiling and reclaiming operations; general. (a) Tunnels located below stockpiles, surge piles, and coal storage silos...

  7. Big data analytics for mitigating carbon emissions in smart cities : opportunities and challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giest, S.N.


    The paper addresses the growing scepticism around big data use in the context of smart cities. Big data is said to transform city governments into being more efficient, effective and evidence-based. However, critics point towards the limited capacity of government to overcome the siloed structure of

  8. Key Institutions in Business and Management Education Research (United States)

    Fornaciari, Charles J.; Arbaugh, J. B.; Asarta, Carlos J.; Bento, Regina F.; Hwang, Alvin; Lund Dean, Kathy


    The authors investigate institutional productivity in business and management education (BME) research based on the analysis of 4,464 articles published by 7,210 authors across 17 BME journals over a 10-year period, involving approximately 1,900 schools worldwide. Departing from traditional disciplinary silos, they examine the BME research field…

  9. Removing Barriers to Public Transport Fare Intergration in Poland: Key Directions and Change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monsalve, M.C.; van de Velde, D.M.; Wolanski, M.P.; Mazur, B.M.; Klatka, J.S.; Czapski, R.


    The need for more sustainable and integrative planning processes as a way of dealing with the complexity of urban mobility has been widely recognized. Within the European Union (EU) there has been an enhanced focus on urban mobility solutions where local authorities move away from past ‘silo

  10. Apples and Oranges Mean a New Fruit Crop: New Business Plan Competition Model Integrates Economic and Community Development (United States)

    Feldman, Jacqueline; Oden, Lisa Derby


    Mount Wachusett Community College Entrepreneurial Resource Center Business Plan Competition brings together stakeholders across all economic sectors to bolster the regional economy. It also highlights entrepreneurs as a viable career choice. The competition disintegrates existing silos, provides education to all entrants, and gives business…

  11. School Libraries and Innovation (United States)

    McGrath, Kevin G.


    School library programs have measured success by improved test scores. But how do next-generation school libraries demonstrate success as they strive to be centers of innovation and creativity? These libraries offer solutions for school leaders who struggle to restructure existing systems built around traditional silos of learning (subjects and…

  12. The science of firescapes: Achieving fire-resilient communities (United States)

    Alistair M. S. Smith; Crystal A. Kolden; Travis B. Paveglio; Mark A. Cochrane; David MJS Bowman; Max A. Moritz; Andrew D. Kliskey; Lilian Alessa; Andrew T. Hudak; Chad M. Hoffman; James A. Lutz; Lloyd P. Queen; Scott J. Goetz; Philip E. Higuera; Luigi Boschetti; Mike Flannigan; Kara M. Yedinak; Adam C. Watts; Eva K. Strand; Jan W. van Wagtendonk; John W. Anderson; Brian J. Stocks; John T. Abatzoglou


    Wildland fire management has reached a crossroads. Current perspectives are not capable of answering interdisciplinary adaptation and mitigation challenges posed by increases in wildfire risk to human populations and the need to reintegrate fire as a vital landscape process. Fire science has been, and continues to be, performed in isolated "silos," including...

  13. Regulation for innovativeness or regulation of innovation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larouche, Pierre; Butenko, Anna


    The legal literature concerning the interplay between innovation and law is split between two streams: law and economics (broadly defined) and law and technology. They seem to exist in parallel and largely non-intersecting inter-disciplinary silos. This paper attempts to reconcile these two streams

  14. Calidad microbiológica de leche y quesos según el suministro de diferentes silajes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Etchevers


    Full Text Available El objetivo del estudio que se expone fue determinar cómo influye el consumo de forrajes ensilados, debidamente caracterizados, en la calidad microbiológica de la leche producida y su aptitud para la elaboración de quesos pasta dura. La producción de las vacas se controló durante dos años, en períodos quincenales, variando la alimentación para cada tratamiento; se extrajeron muestras de leche para analizar su calidad y se elaboraron quesos tipo "Reggianito". Los resultados mostraron que en silos de maíz "pasados" existe mayor contaminación de esporas que en silos de maíz "óptimos", en tanto que los silos de pulpa de citrus presentan contaminación mínima. No se observó correlación entre el nivel de esporas en leche y en silos. El recuento de microorganismos esporulados en los quesos no guarda relación proporcional con los encontrados en la leche utilizada como materia prima, por los cual los quesos no evidenciaron problemas durante la maduración.

  15. New spaces for researching postgraduate Education research in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The second space is the electronic bibliographic database of the archive. It is an abstract space that defies traditional shelving arrangements. We argue that this national project broke down the apartheid-era silos that separated the postgraduate Education research of the different higher education institutions in South Africa.

  16. Leadership Education Is Not Enough: Advancing an Integrated Model of Student-Athlete Development (United States)

    DiPaolo, Donald G.


    This article advocates a new approach to how we work with the millions of student-athletes in schools by examining a more holistic model of player development. Rather than assisting students in separate silos and initiatives, the argument is made for integrating the areas of leadership education, performance psychology, and personal development…

  17. 2010 Homeland Security Symposium and Exhibition Held in Arlington, Virginia on September 28-29, 2010 (United States)


    video survellance through fog, snow, sand and other atmospheric penomena. See what’s REALLY there! SILOSMASHERS Booth# 27 SiloSmashers delivers...Lopez URS Corporation Mr. Neil Lovering Intelligent Waves, LLC Mr. Mark Luker Vectronix, Inc. Ms. Leigh McCook Georgia Tech Research Institute Mr

  18. Evolution of fungal populations in corn silage conserved under polyethylene or biodegradable films. (United States)

    Spadaro, D; Bustos-Lopez, M P; Gullino, M L; Piano, S; Tabacco, E; Borreani, G


    To identify cultivable filamentous fungi before ensiling, after silage conservation, in farm-silos covered with two different plastic films (polyethylene (PE) vs biodegradable (MB)), as well as after aerobic exposure of whole-crop corn silage. Molecular techniques coupled with traditional microbial counting were utilized to identify the predominant fungal species. The cultivable fungal population changed remarkably from harvesting to silo opening. Anaerobiosis and low pH reduced mould count and the presence of Fusarium species both under PE and MB film. However, in the peripheral areas of the silo, where air penetration could not be completely prevented, the fungal population did not decrease. The predominant fungal species after aerobic exposure of silage was Aspergillus fumigatus, without differences between the two plastic films. Maintenance of anaerobiosis and a low pH also in the upper layer of the silo reduce the risk of mould growth during corn silage feed-out. Even if the new MB plastic film did not completely maintain the anaerobiosis in the upper layer of silage, the overall silage quality was not compromised and was similar to that observed under PE, indicating that the development and use of MB film to cover silage is promising, but needs some improvement. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  19. Climate Change Series: Federal, State, and Local Policy Recommendations for Creating a Positive School Climate (United States)

    Cardichon, Jessica; Roc, Martens


    Too frequently, education reform takes a siloed view that focuses on an individual issue instead of a broader and more comprehensive perspective. For example, students' lack of access to challenging and rigorous course work and their lack of access to experienced, engaging, and effective teachers are often discussed as separate issues rather than…

  20. On the Shortcomings of Our Organisational Forms: With Implications for Educational Change and School Improvement (United States)

    Waite, Duncan


    This article informs school improvement and educational change from a radically different perspective. Building upon work done recently in neural psychology, primatology and ethology, the article examines four common and general types of organisational form: the cell, the silo, the pyramidal, and the network types of organisational structures.…

  1. Original Research Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    in dark color in processing and also prevents excessive loss of moisture, development of rots and excessive sprout growth. Therefore storage in mud blocket, above ground storage (circular form of mat) and simple silo of land constructed above the ground (investigated by. Holeta Research Center) can be used to prevent ...

  2. Theoretical considerations about Innovation in the Public Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, Laia

    in most Western countries with the purpose of reforming the public sector. However, the mechanisms of these modernising reforms do not provide governments the solutions required to the existing problems. Among other reasons for the silo and competitive thinking embedded in NPM. New and creative ideas...

  3. Ensiling quality of maize as influenced by the addition of wet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Feb 9, 2016 ... There was a steady decrease in dry matter (DM) concentration of silage with increasing WDGS ... fibre (NDF) and IVDOM (in vitro digestible organic matter) did not differ at the time of ensiling among treatments. ... The mini-silos were then stored in a dark room at room temperature (20 - 25 ºC) until sub ...

  4. Many diseases, one model of care?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albreht, T.; Dyakova, M.; Schellevis, F.G.; Broucke, S. van den


    Patients with multiple chronic conditions (multimorbidity) have complex and extensive health and social care needs that are not well served by current silo-based models of care. A lack of integration between care providers often leads to fragmented, incomplete, and ineffective care, leaving many

  5. Differential Equation of Equilibrium

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    differential equation of equilibrium, comparable to that of beam on elastic foundation, was derived from static principles on the ... tedious and more time saving than the classical method in the solution of the aforementioned differential equation. ... silos, pipelines, bridge arches or wind turbine towers [3]. The objective of this ...

  6. static analysis of circular cylindrical shell under hydrostatic and ring ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    elastic foundation, was obtained from static principles on the assumptions of P. L. Pasternak. The initial value method was used to solve the obtained fourth order differential equation for both cases of hydrostatic and ring forces. ... silos, pipelines, bridge arches or wind turbine towers (Winterstetter et al, 2002). This work is.

  7. Fire Fighters’ Ability and Willingness to Participate in a Pandemic (United States)


    16. 93 scope of responsibility ( Susskind & Cruikshank, 1987).135 The silo effect equates to self protection. Fundamentally, jurisdictions and...consider the NCR as one community, it will require a new type of leader. 135 Leonard J. Marcus...Efforts. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, November 10, 2005. Marcus, Leonard J., Barry A. Dorn, and Joseph M. Henderson. "Meta

  8. (CultiAF) Reducing maize-based aflatoxin contamination and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    tight metal storage silos or thick plastic 'super bags' in which to store their grain. The control households will continue using traditional storage techniques. Researchers will assess the ex- tent of aflatoxin contamination in grain stored by both groups and levels of exposure in mothers and children. If found to be effective, the ...

  9. Staged Closure of Giant Omphalocele using Synthetic Mesh


    Lalit Parida; Kamalesh Pal; Hussah Al Buainain; Hossam Elshafei


    Giant omphalocele is difficult to manage and is associated with a poor outcome. A male newborn presented to our hospital with a giant omphalocele. We performed a staged closure of giant omphalocele using synthetic mesh to construct a silo and then mesh abdominoplasty in the neonatal period that led to a successful outcome within a reasonable period of hospital stay.

  10. Promoting interdisciplinarity through an intensive entrepreneurship education post-graduate workshop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McDonald, Sharyn; Gertsen, Frank; Rosenstand, Claus Andreas Foss


    Purpose – While creativity and innovation are found within many disciplines, the opportunity to develop a tangible skill set and share ideas with contemporaries can be limited within the siloed structure of many tertiary institutions. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate a model that addresse...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the temperature at different depths of the stack silo and strata front profile before and after the removal of silage. Also, the pH values in the upper and lower profile and the silage density of the fresh materials (FM and dry matter (DM in pearl millet silages with particle sizes of 5 or 20 mm, with or without inoculant, were assessed, using corn silage as controls. There was an interaction (P<0.05 silage × stratum profile and silage × depth profile for the temperatures before the removal of silage, and the pearl millet silages had lower temperatures in the upper stratum compared to corn. The temperature gradient between the silage and environment pearl millet and corn silos were smaller in the lower stratum profile. The temperature gradient after the removal of the silage was less than 50 cm deep at all the pearl millet silos. There were no differences in the densities of the FM and DM of the studied silages. The pH values of the silages before their removal were higher in the upper stratum and lower stratum in the bottom of all the pearl millet silages, in contrast with corn silage. The pearl millet silos had lower pH values in the lower stratum of the silo. Silages with 5 mm particle size provide lower temperatures in the middle portion of the panel before the removal of the silage. The use of bacterial inoculant in this study did not change the characteristics evaluated.

  12. Effects of Lactobacillus buchneri inoculation or 1-propanol supplementation to corn silage on the performance of lactating Holstein cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janielen da Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective was to evaluate the effects of corn silage supplemented with 1-propanol or inoculated with L. buchneri on the ruminal fermentation profile, digestibility, and production traits of lactating Holstein cows. Whole-corn plants were harvested at 350 g/kg dry matter (DM and packed in nine bag silos (13 t/silo. At ensiling, two treatments were applied: control (no additive; six silos and L. buchneri inoculation with 1 × 105 cfu/g (three silos. Feeding started after 247 days of storage; one L. buchneri and two control silos were opened in each experimental period. Twenty-one multiparous Holstein cows (~33 kg/day of milk were allocated to seven balanced 3 × 3 Latin squares with 21-day periods (14 days of adaptation. The experimental diets contained (DM basis: 80 g/kg cottonseed, 95 g/kg citrus pulp, 180 g/kg soybean meal, 90 g/kg corn grain (ground, 25 g/kg minerals and vitamins premix, and 530 g/kg of corn silage. Source of corn silage was the only difference between experimental treatments: control, L. buchneri, or control silage supplemented with 1-propanol (10 g/kg of diet DM. The 1-propanol was dissolved in water (1:1 and sprinkled onto the ration during mixing, immediately before each feeding. Dry matter intake, nutrient digestibility, milk yield, and composition were not affected by treatments. Cows fed 1-propanol had greater concentrations of 1-propanol in the rumen fluid, higher concentration of glucose, and lower concentration of non-esterified fatty acids in blood plasma. Corn silage inoculated with L. buchneri at 1 × 105 cfu/g does not affect silage fermentation, ruminal fermentation profile, or milk production. Supplementation of 1-propanol at 10 g/kg affects the ruminal fermentation profile without affecting feed intake and milk production of mid-lactating dairy cows.

  13. Geoelectrical monitoring of simulated subsurface leakage to support high-hazard nuclear decommissioning at the Sellafield Site, UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuras, Oliver, E-mail: [British Geological Survey, Keyworth, Nottingham NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); Wilkinson, Paul B.; Meldrum, Philip I.; Oxby, Lucy S. [British Geological Survey, Keyworth, Nottingham NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); Uhlemann, Sebastian [British Geological Survey, Keyworth, Nottingham NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); ETH-Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Institute of Geophysics, Sonneggstr. 5, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Chambers, Jonathan E. [British Geological Survey, Keyworth, Nottingham NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); Binley, Andrew [Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom); Graham, James [National Nuclear Laboratory, Central Laboratory, Sellafield, Seascale, Cumbria CA20 1PG (United Kingdom); Smith, Nicholas T. [National Nuclear Laboratory, Central Laboratory, Sellafield, Seascale, Cumbria CA20 1PG (United Kingdom); School of Earth, Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences, Williamson Building, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Atherton, Nick [Sellafield Ltd, Albion Square, Swingpump Lane, Whitehaven CA28 7NE (United Kingdom)


    A full-scale field experiment applying 4D (3D time-lapse) cross-borehole Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) to the monitoring of simulated subsurface leakage was undertaken at a legacy nuclear waste silo at the Sellafield Site, UK. The experiment constituted the first application of geoelectrical monitoring in support of decommissioning work at a UK nuclear licensed site. Images of resistivity changes occurring since a baseline date prior to the simulated leaks revealed likely preferential pathways of silo liquor simulant flow in the vadose zone and upper groundwater system. Geophysical evidence was found to be compatible with historic contamination detected in permeable facies in sediment cores retrieved from the ERT boreholes. Results indicate that laterally discontinuous till units forming localized hydraulic barriers substantially affect flow patterns and contaminant transport in the shallow subsurface at Sellafield. We conclude that only geophysical imaging of the kind presented here has the potential to provide the detailed spatial and temporal information at the (sub-)meter scale needed to reduce the uncertainty in models of subsurface processes at nuclear sites. - Graphical abstract: 3D fractional resistivity change (resistivity change Δρ divided by baseline resistivity ρ{sub 0}) image showing results of Stage 1 silo liquor simulant injection. The black line delineates the preferential flow path; green cylinders show regions of historic contamination found in sediment cores from ERT boreholes. - Highlights: • 4D geoelectrical monitoring at Sellafield detected and tracked simulated silo leaks. • ERT revealed likely pathways of silo liquor simulant flow in the subsurface. • The method can reduce uncertainty in subsurface process models at nuclear sites. • Has been applied in this form at a UK nuclear licensed site for the first time • Study demonstrates value of 4D geophysics for nuclear decommissioning.

  14. The role of carbon chain length in the attachment between microbubbles and aqueous solutions of ionic liquid. (United States)

    Chew, E K; Lee, K Y; Lau, E V


    The effects of varying carbon chain lengths (CCLs) and concentrations of aqueous solutions of imidazolium based ionic liquids on bubble particle attachment (BPA) will provide a better understanding in catering for the varying degrees of surface activities in the application of the flotation technology. The general trends of this study should also be applicable to homologous series of other cationic surfactants and ionic liquids. Zeta potentials of small air bubbles and bunker oil drops dispersed in aqueous solutions of n-methylimidazolium chloride ionic liquids (n=0, 2, 3, 6, 8, 10, 12) of concentrations ranging from 1000PPM to 8000PPM, as were interfacial tensions of these solutions with bunker oil (180cst) and contact angles made by air bubbles at interfaces between these solutions and thin layers of bunker oil on flat solid surfaces were investigated. Finally, interparticle forces analysis using the Derjaguin-Landau, Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory is also included. Analysis using the DLVO theory showed attractive forces between the oil particles and micro-bubbles are significantly more prevalent in short CCLs solutions of imidazolium-based ILs in low concentrations, namely [C0mim][Cl] and [C2mim][Cl] at a maximum zeta potential difference of 75.3mV. The results from CA measurements follows similarly whereby low concentrations of ILs with short CCLs were in favor for the bubble-particle attachment process with angles ranging between 93.95° for [C0mim][Cl] and 97.28° for [C2mim][Cl]. IFT which is important in reducing coalescence for the preferential BPA process to occur in flotation decreases with an increase of CCL and concentration of IL. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effective bioremediation strategy for rapid in situ cleanup of anoxic marine sediments in mesocosm oil spill simulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eGenovese


    Full Text Available The purpose of present study was the simulation of an oil spill accompanied by burial of significant amount of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHs in coastal sediments. Approximately 1,000 kg of sediments collected in Messina harbor were spiked with Bunker C furnace fuel oil (6,500 ppm. The rapid consumption of oxygen by aerobic heterotrophs created highly reduced conditions in the sediments with subsequent recession of biodegradation rates. As follows, after three months of ageing, the anaerobic sediments did not exhibit any significant levels of biodegradation and more than 80% of added Bunker C fuel oil remained buried. Anaerobic microbial community exhibited a strong enrichment in sulfate-reducing PHs-degrading and PHs-associated Deltaproteobacteria. As an effective bioremediation strategy to clean up these contaminated sediments, we applied a Modular Slurry System (MSS allowing the containment of sediments and their physical-chemical treatment, e.g. aeration. Aeration for three months has increased the removal of main PHs contaminants up to 98%. As revealed by CARD-FISH, qPCR and 16S rRNA gene clone library analyses, addition of Bunker C fuel oil initially affected the activity of autochthonous aerobic obligate marine hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria (OMHCB, and after one month more than the third of microbial population was represented by Alcanivorax-, Cycloclasticus- and Marinobacter-related organisms. In the end of the experiment, the microbial community composition has returned to a status typically observed in pristine marine ecosystems with no detectable OMHCB present. Eco-toxicological bioassay revealed that the toxicity of sediments after treatment was substantially decreased. Thus, our studies demonstrated that petroleum-contaminated anaerobic marine sediments could efficiently be cleaned through an in situ oxygenation which stimulates their self-cleaning potential due to reawakening of allochtonous aerobic OMHCB.

  16. An evaluation of the endocrine disruptive potential of crude oil water accommodated fractions and crude oil contaminated surface water to freshwater organisms using in vitro and in vivo approaches. (United States)

    Truter, J Christoff; van Wyk, Johannes H; Oberholster, Paul J; Botha, Anna-Maria; Mokwena, Lucky M


    Knowledge regarding the potential impacts of crude oil on endocrine signaling in freshwater aquatic vertebrates is limited. The expression of selected genes as biomarkers for altered endocrine signaling was studied in African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis, tadpoles and juvenile Mozambique tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus, exposed to weathered bunker and unweathered refinery crude oil water accommodated fractions (WAFs). In addition, the expression of the aforementioned genes was quantified in X. laevis tadpoles exposed to surface water collected from the proximity of an underground oil bunker. The (anti)estrogenicity and (anti)androgenicity of crude oil, crude oil WAFs, and surface water were furthermore evaluated using recombinant yeast. Thyroid hormone receptor beta expression was significantly down-regulated in X. laevis in response to both oil WAF types, whereas a further thyroid linked gene, type 2 deiodinase, was up-regulated in O. mossambicus exposed to a high concentration of bunker oil WAF. In addition, both WAFs altered the expression of the adipogenesis-linked peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma in X. laevis. The crude oil and WAFs exhibited antiestrogenic and antiandrogenic activity in vitro. However, O. mossambicus androgen receptor 2 was the only gene, representing the reproductive system, significantly affected by WAF exposure. Estrogenicity, antiestrogenicity, and antiandrogenicity were detected in surface water samples; however, no significant changes were observed in the expression of any of the genes evaluated in X. laevis exposed to surface water. The responses varied among the 2 model organisms used, as well as among the 2 types of crude oil. Nonetheless, the data provide evidence that crude oil pollution may lead to adverse health effects in freshwater fish and amphibians as a result of altered endocrine signaling. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:1330-1342. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  17. Using social media to facilitate knowledge transfer in complex engineering environments: a primer for educators (United States)

    Murphy, Glen; Salomone, Sonia


    While highly cohesive groups are potentially advantageous they are also often correlated with the emergence of knowledge and information silos based around those same functional or occupational clusters. Consequently, an essential challenge for engineering organisations wishing to overcome informational silos is to implement mechanisms that facilitate, encourage and sustain interactions between otherwise disconnected groups. This paper acts as a primer for those seeking to gain an understanding of the design, functionality and utility of a suite of software tools generically termed social media technologies in the context of optimising the management of tacit engineering knowledge. Underpinned by knowledge management theory and using detailed case examples, this paper explores how social media technologies achieve such goals, allowing for the transfer of knowledge by tapping into the tacit and explicit knowledge of disparate groups in complex engineering environments.

  18. Decompressive Abdominal Laparotomy for Abdominal Compartment Syndrome in an Unengrafted Bone Marrow Recipient with Septic Shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derrick J. N. Dauplaise


    Full Text Available Objective. To describe a profoundly immunocompromised (panleukopenia child with septic shock who developed abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS and was successfully treated with surgical decompression. Design. Individual case report. Setting. Pediatric intensive care unit of a tertiary children's hospital. Patient. A 32-month-old male with Fanconi anemia who underwent bone marrow transplantation (BMT 5 days prior to developing septic shock secondary to Streptococcus viridans and Escherichia coli ACS developed after massive fluid resuscitation, leading to cardiopulmonary instability. Interventions. Emergent surgical bedside laparotomy and silo placement. Measurements and Main Results. The patient's cardiopulmonary status stabilized after decompressive laparotomy. The abdomen was closed and the patient survived to hospital discharge without cardiac, respiratory, or renal dysfunction. Conclusions. The use of laparotomy and silo placement in an unengrafted BMT patient with ACS and septic shock did not result in additional complications. Surgical intervention for ACS is a reasonable option for high risk, profoundly immunocompromised patients.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fisun Koc


    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the effects of actic acid bacterial inoculant on the fermentation and aerobic stability of sunflower silages. Sunflower was harvested at the milk stage. Inoculant-1174 (Pioneer®,USA was used as homofermentative lactic acid bacterial inoculant. Inoculant was applied 6.00 log10 cfu/g silage levels. Silages with no additive served as controls. After treatment, the chopped sunflower was ensiled in the PVC type laboratory silos. Three silos for each group were sampled for chemical and microbiological analysis on days 2, 4, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 56 after ensiling. At the end of the ensiling period, all silages were subjected to an aerobic stability test for 14 days. Neither inoculant improved the fermentation parameters of sunflower silages. At the end of the ensiling period, inoculant increased lactic acid bacteria (LAB and decreased yeast and mould numbers of silages. Inoculant treatment did not affect aerobic stability of silages.

  20. Mesquite pod meal in elephant grass silages - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v35i3.12506

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otávio Rodrigues Machado Neto


    Full Text Available This study evaluated the chemical composition and in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD of elephant grass silages at different growth stages (70, 90 and 110 days, with the addition (0, 5, 10 and 15%, on a fresh matter basis of mesquite pod meal. A completely randomized design (CRD was used in a factorial arrangement with four replications. PVC pipes 100 mm in diameter were used as experimental silos. After 30 days of ensilage, samples were taken from the open silos to determine chemical composition and IVDMD. The inclusion of mesquite pod meal (MPM increased (p 0.01 was detected between MPM concentrations and elephant grass cutting age for DM, CP and NDF contents in the silages. A decrease (p  

  1. The Impact of Cultural Divisions within Organizations in Implementing Brand Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyrd-Jones, Richard I.; Helm, Clive

    in the management literature but is conspicuous in its absence in the brand management literature. With increased focus on auditing brand touchpoints to managing the total customer brand experience lack any attempt to understand the barriers to achieving orientation across the organisation represent a major...... to the failure of the new strategy. The paper suggests that managers should focus on the three areas of: silos mindsets, incentive systems and brand touchpoint processes to governing customer brand experience.......Whilst there has been enormous focus in the literature on developing strong brand positioning, identity and personality, there has been much less on utilising brands as strategic assets and achieving brand orientation across the organisation. Decision-making across function silos is widely explored...

  2. Metafier - a Tool for Annotating and Structuring Building Metadata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmegaard, Emil; Johansen, Aslak; Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun


    in achieving this goal, but often they work as silos. Improving at scale the energy performance of buildings depends on applications breaking these silos and being portable among buildings. To enable portable building applications, the building instrumentation should be supported by a metadata layer......, describing the instrumentation of the building. We have created Metafier, a tool for annotating and structuring metadata for buildings. Metafier optimizes the workflow of establishing metadata for buildings by enabling a human-in-the-loop to validate, search and group points. We have evaluated Metafier...... for two buildings, with different sizes, locations, ages and purposes. The evaluation was performed as a user test with three subjects with different backgrounds. The evaluation results indicates that the tool enabled the users to validate, search and group points while annotating metadata. One challenge...

  3. Engineering education research in European Journal of Engineering Education and Journal of Engineering Education: citation and reference discipline analysis (United States)

    Wankat, Phillip C.; Williams, Bill; Neto, Pedro


    The authors, citations and content of European Journal of Engineering Education (EJEE) and Journal of Engineering Education (JEE) in 1973 (JEE, 1975 EJEE), 1983, 1993, 2003, and available 2013 issues were analysed. Both journals transitioned from house organs to become engineering education research (EER) journals, although JEE transitioned first. In this process the number of citations rose, particularly of education and psychology sources; the percentage of research articles increased markedly as did the number of reference disciplines. The number of papers per issue, the number of single author papers, and the citations of science and engineering sources decreased. EJEE has a very broad geographic spread of authors while JEE authors are mainly US based. A 'silo' mentality where general engineering education researchers do not communicate with EER researchers in different engineering disciplines is evident. There is some danger that EER may develop into a silo that does not communicate with technically oriented engineering professors.

  4. Uso primário da membrana amniótica na redução de onfaloceles gigantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Prieto Velhote

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Demonstrar a eficiência da redução de grandes onfaloceles utilizando o âmnio como "silo". MÉTODO: Doze pacientes com onfaloceles gigantes submetidos à redução progressiva pela inversão do âmnio. RESULTADOS: Obtida redução completa entre cinco e dez dias, sem necessidade de prótese, em dez pacientes. Foram colocados dois "silos" por ruptura do âmnio durante a redução, com um óbito por septicemia. CONCLUSÕES: Apesar da casuística ser pequena, o método se mostrou confiável e eficaz no tratamento definitivo das grandes onfaloceles.

  5. Model Of Navigational Safety Of Fishing Vessels In Polish EEZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przywarty Marcin


    Full Text Available The paper presents the assumptions of a simulation model for assessing the navigational safety of fishing vessels. The model consist of submodels of merchant and fishing vessels traffic, submodel of external condition and submodel of accident consequences. Paper present also a results of simulation experiment which was carried out for Polish EEZ. Model takes into account all Polish fishing vessels operating in the Polish EEZ with length more than 15 meters and the merchant vessels traffic in South Baltic Sea area. As a results positions of simulated collisions of fishing and merchant vessels, positions and sizes of simulated bunker spills and the positions of losses of fishing equipment were achieved.

  6. Modelización 3D del Aeródromo de Talamanca del Jarama.


    Iniesta Plaza, Víctor


    El objetivo principal de este Trabajo Fin de Grado es analizar, planear y diseñar la captura de datos del aeródromo de Talamanca del Jarama, con la finalidad de obtener documentación cartografica de las casetas y del bunker. Este espacio es de gran interés histórico y cultural puesto que realizó una función importante en el desarrollo de la Guerra Civil Española. Para ello se empleará un instrumental novedoso, conocido como Tablet EyesMap, cuya tecnología se basa en una tableta con gran ca...

  7. Reproducibility Distinguishability and Correlation of Fireball and Shockwave Dynamics in Explosive Munitions Detonations (United States)


    completion. I would also like to thank the members of my committee, Dr. Ron Tuttle and Dr. Dave Bunker, for their time and guidance. I am appreciative of...firearm barrel. All rounds were fired from a .45 caliber semi-automatic held stationary in a Ransom Rest approximately three feet off the ground. The...airport/KNYL/2005/11/18/DailyHistory.html?req _city=NA&req_state=NA&req_statename=NA 32. L. E. Fried, W. M. Howard , P. C. Souers, and P.A. Vitello

  8. The multi-port berth allocation problem with speed optimization and emission considerations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venturini, Giada; Iris, Cagatay; Kontovas, Christos A.


    achieve a sustainable supply chain, and on the other side, the optimization of operations and sailing times leads to reductions in bunker consumption and, thus, to fuel cost and air emissions reductions. To that effect, there is an increasing need to address the integration opportunities and environmental...... issues related to container shipping through optimization. This paper focuses on the well known Berth Allocation Problem (BAP), an optimization problem assigning berthing times and positions to vessels in container terminals. We introduce a novel mathematical formulation that extends the classical BAP...

  9. The odontological identification of Eva Braun Hitler. (United States)

    Keiser-Nielsen, S; Strøm, F


    On May 7th-9th, 1945, a team of Russian pathologists autopsied several bodies found in and near the Fuehrer Bunker in Berlin; among them, a female body (No. 13) was later identified as that of Eva Braun Hitler (EBH), mainly by means of a gold bridge from the lower right jaw. A postmortem photograph of this bridge also shows a separate gold filling. Data now available on the dental treatment of EBH have permitted the present authors to substantiate that this gold filling also came from the mouth of EBH. Further speculation about the fate of EBH would henceforth seem professionally unfounded.

  10. Evaluation of Contracting and Production Activities at: The Defense Logistics Agency’s Defense Supply Centers. Volume 4. Defense Fuel Supply Center Review. (United States)


    somewhat equally among buyers, depenu:mng on xnmFex=cy, collir amount, ana competition anticipated. An auto- matea b:L is used to solicit sources througn...million. Typically, PH contracts pro- vide for aircraft into-plane services at approximately 140 aomes- tic and 5k) overseas locations; ships’ bunkers...NECOTT4TED ACTIONS PD PE 1 r P11 P , P REVIEW LEVEL DTO c rn0 P77, 1C’ I Mr -A--. TIC $100,OOO,000 and Over X X 10,000,000 and Over X , ’, 1i 5,000,000

  11. FY10 Defense Environmental Programs Annual Report to Congress (United States)


    0 FORT BAKER / DC39799F973900 $010 $0 FORT BAYARD / DC39799F974000 $010 $0 FORT BUNKER HILL / DC39799F974100 $010 $0 FORT CHAPLIN / DC39799F974200...Progress Fort McClellan completed an interim removal action on 240 acres in the Charlie Area. Plan of Action Plan of action items for Fort McClellan...Ranges in FY11-FY12. MMRP 0 Complete the engineering evaluation and cost analysis for the Charlie Area in FY11-FY12. F-67 Army

  12. Camp Sherman, Ohio: History of a World War I Training Camp (United States)


    t.t.’T !tC.AL.t: O r MILl:, " · t CO ... TRUCTION OIVI.ION WA R OEJOT. WASH INGTON. D. C CAMP jHE12.MAN , OHIO KEY ~1AP OF PROPERTY .10e No 6...the rear of the bunker. It was an all-day assignment and at noon a cook’s truck arrived with some unsavory victuals with cold coffee slopped for training purposes, but the OHARNG took full control of the land in 1971. 114 The rifle range was likely used for troop training in

  13. How Greece handles Europe's worst lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Mainland Greece receives 71% of its electricity from lignite-firing. Although the lignite is some of the poorest-quality coal found in Europe, these power stations have found ways to successfully burn this fuel. The article profiles the St. Dimitrios and Megalopolis power stations, and in particular their technology for successful lignite combustion. Aspects covered include: water-washing lances to remove large deposits of ash from the air heater; warm air blowers and heating coils in bunkers to overcome winter freezing; cooling system-corrosion; and planned pollution control equipment e.g. low-NO[sub x] burners and lime injection downstream of the furnace. 1 fig., 6 photos.

  14. Environmental Assessment for Construction of the United States Air Force Technical Application Center (AFTAC) on Patrick Air Force Base, Florida (Amended) (United States)


    Florida, south of the City of Cocoa Beach, and covers approximately 1,937 acres bounded by the Atlantic Ocean on the east and the Banana River on the...of fill required to cover the bunkers to protect the munitions contents and prevent propagation of an explosion should it occur in an adjacent...County 0.012 0.012 0.012 Ozone (O3) 1-hour Highest Cocoa Beach, Brevard County 0.106 0.095 0.099 1-hour Highest Winter Park, Orange County 0.109

  15. The Vessel Schedule Recovery Problem (VSRP) – A MIP model for handling disruptions in liner shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Dirksen, Jakob; Pisinger, David


    Containerized transport by liner shipping companies is a multi billion dollar industry carrying a major part of the world trade between suppliers and customers. The liner shipping industry has come under stress in the last few years due to the economic crisis, increasing fuel costs, and capacity...... or even omitting one. We present the Vessel Schedule Recovery Problem (VSRP) to evaluate a given disruption scenario and to select a recovery action balancing the trade off between increased bunker consumption and the impact on cargo in the remaining network and the customer service level. It is proven...

  16. Development of a system for passive spectrometry characterization neutron of a cyclotron; Desarrollo de un sistema de espectrometria pasivo para la caracterizacion neutronica de un ciclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez, R.; Guerrero, J. E.; Lagares, J. I.; Sansaloni, F.; Perez, J. M.; Llop, J.; Kralik, M.


    The most widely used for Neutron spectrometry system is formed by the Bonner spheres with an active sensor sensitive to thermal neutrons in its Center. But, the presence of strong electromagnetic fields and the hold character around a cyclotron radiation detectors active employment make unviable so it is necessary to replace it with other liabilities. In this case it has resorted to the use of Au foils such as thermal neutron detectors, found the matrix the new spectrometer response and has been validated with a source of {sup 2}52Cf for later measurements in the interior of the bunker of a cyclotron production of radioisotopes for PET. (Author)

  17. La libéralisation des échanges aggrave-t-elle la pauvreté ? | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    31 janv. 2011 ... Ce sont les images qu'évoquent les négociations commerciales à l'échelle mondiale : les rues sont le théâtre de combats, et les centres de conférences se muent en bunkers. Chacun de son côté de la barricade campe sur ses positions. Ce qui a étouffé le débat sur la place publique. Le tiers monde est-il ...

  18. Waterproofing Underground Concrete Structures (United States)


    their explosive potential, were required to be hardened earth covered concrete structures . Because the water table was located only one foot below the... concrete structures such as utility tunnels, communication vaults, I basements, elevator pits, missile silos, and control rooms. *|2 1.2 Reasons for...underground concrete structures which are usually surrounded by moisture the need to keep the water out is critical. Probably the most common example of

  19. In situ degradability of elephant grass ensiled with increasing levels of pineapple agro-industrial by-product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Holanda Ferreira


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the in situ degradability of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, and hemicellulose of elephant grass (Pennisetumpurpureum, Schum. with increasing levels (0; 35.0; 70.0, 105.0, and 140.0 g kg-1 of dried pineapple (Ananascomosus, L. by-product (DPBP. The experimental silos consisted of plastic drums with 210 L capacity. After weighing and homogenizing the elephant grass with the DABP, the material was inserted in the silos (126 kg silage, at a density of 600 kg m-3 and compressed. After 45 days of ensilage, silos were opened and samples of the silages were collected for the trial. The study of degradability in situ was conducted using a rumen-fistulated male cattle. The animal was fed with corn silage supplemented with 1 kg concentrate daily. Five levels of addition of the by-product were tested, with three replicates and five times of incubation with an animal. The experimental design was completely randomized with split plots, in which the proportions of DPBP were the treatments (plots, the different silos were the replicates, and the incubation times were the subplots. The levels of inclusion of DPBP provided an increase (P < 0.05 in disappearance of DM and CP and in the effective degradability of DM, NDF, ADF, and hemicellulose. The dried pineapple by-product is a potential alternative to be used as additive in the ensilage of elephant grass, as it provides an increase in the rumen degradability parameters.

  20. Additive containing homo and heterolactic bacteria on the fermentation quality of maize silage - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v35i4.18833

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Junges


    Full Text Available This trial evaluated the addition of Lactobacillus plantarum, L. brevis and Enterococcus faecium combo additive against a control treatment. The silages were made in laboratory silos that were stored for 30, 60, 90 or 120 days before opening. We evaluated the chemical composition of the forage before and after ensiling and the fermentative losses of silages. The additive decreased (p -1 compared to control silage (14.0 kg ton-1, but it increased (p  

  1. Building API manufacturing in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Loots, Glaudina


    Full Text Available advantage • Waste elimination, recycling, re-use • Contract research and process development • Engineering and commercial focused Current academic program (Universities) • Basic synthetic chemistry • Drug discovery • Drug delivery • Therapeutic.... • Lack of national API focus – needs to demonstrate capability in either producing new/modern APIs cost competitively or achieves radical innovation in existing high demand APIs – silo approach by researchers (own publications, patents or pet...

  2. Multidisciplinary in-hospital teams improve patient outcomes: A review


    Epstein, Nancy E.


    Background: The use of multidisciplinary in-hospital teams limits adverse events (AE), improves outcomes, and adds to patient and employee satisfaction. Methods: Acting like "well-oiled machines," multidisciplinary in-hospital teams include "staff" from different levels of the treatment pyramid (e.g. staff including nurses′ aids, surgical technicians, nurses, anesthesiologists, attending physicians, and others). Their enhanced teamwork counters the "silo effect" by enhancing communication...

  3. PRISM: Special Operations in a Chaotic World. Volume 6, Number 3 (United States)


    Help Yourself to Title 100. Hell , Take Some Title 200 While You’re At It BY JAMES Q. ROBERTS As we strive to confront enemies operating in the Gray...ment it is essential to break down barriers to integration and collaboration, especially in organizations that are divided into functional silos...around because it is so big. Just 25 years ago, just being big was good enough, because size and scale created barriers to entry. But one after

  4. Air Force Studies Board Block 00 Studies (United States)


    provided, coupled with a discussion on investment gaps and barriers to success. BOX 2-2 Lockheed Martin Mission Systems and Training Rick Boggs...professionals, the UT-IISC is utilizing a convergence of advanced simulation technology to help break down barriers (stove pipes/silos) between...2004. Cumulative deterrence and the war on terrorism. Parameters (Winter):4-19. Fursenko, A.A., and T.J. Naftali. 1997. One Hell of a Gamble: Khrushchev

  5. Characterization of cohesive powders for bulk handling and DEM modelling


    Thakur, S.C.; Imole, Olukayode Isaiah; Wojtkowski, Mateusz Bronislaw; Magnanimo, Vanessa; Montes, E.C.; Ramaioli, Marco; Ahmadian, H.; Ooi, J.Y.; Bischoff, M; Ramm, E.; Onate, E.; Owen, R; Wriggers, P.


    The flow behaviour of granular materials is relevant for many industrial applications including the pharmaceutical, chemical, consumer goods and food industries. A key issue is the accurate characterisation of these powders under different loading conditions and flow regimes, for example in mixers, pneumatic conveyors and silo filling and discharge. This paper explores the experimental aspects of cohesive powder handling at different compaction levels and flow regimes, namely inertial and qua...

  6. Collaborative Point Paper on Active Protection Systems (United States)


    support for the Chameleon ECM CIED System. Under the teaming agreement, MES, Plexus Corp. Neenah, WI and Applied Marine Technology, Inc. Hanahan, SC...power mode is used at the general direction of the threat, in a search pattern designed to locate the target’s optics. Once locked on a target, the... locking onto target 7.8- 10.06m from tank; after processing data computer selects countermunition (CM)- protective ammunition housed in 20 silos around

  7. Virtual Platform for Land-mine Detection


    Ramírez, Adriana; García Armada, Elena; González de Santos, Pablo


    Summary. This work presents a virtual platform created for the SILO6, a sixlegged walking robot focused on the localization of antipersonnel landmines. The virtual platform is a Java-based module which includes the new concepts about human - machine interfaces design, and it’s main purpose is to satisfy three basic requirements: the robot’s state monitoring, the robot’s task definition and monitoring and the robot teleoperation.

  8. Modeling and management of usage-aware distributed datasets for global Smart City Application Ecosystems


    Johannes M. Schleicher; Michael Vögler; Christian Inzinger; Schahram Dustdar


    The ever-growing amount of data produced by and in today’s smart cities offers significant potential for novel applications created by city stakeholders as well as third parties. Current smart city application models mostly assume that data is exclusively managed by and bound to its original application and location. We argue that smart city data must not be constrained to such data silos so that future smart city applications can seamlessly access and integrate data from multiple sources acr...

  9. Network biology methods integrating biological data for translational science


    Bebek, Gurkan; Koyutürk, Mehmet; Price, Nathan D.; Chance, Mark R.


    The explosion of biomedical data, both on the genomic and proteomic side as well as clinical data, will require complex integration and analysis to provide new molecular variables to better understand the molecular basis of phenotype. Currently, much data exist in silos and is not analyzed in frameworks where all data are brought to bear in the development of biomarkers and novel functional targets. This is beginning to change. Network biology approaches, which emphasize the interactions betw...

  10. Why Information Literacy Is Invisible


    William Badke


    Despite the many information literacy programs on higher education campuses, the literature of information literacy and the concept of information literacy as a viable academic subject remain hidden to most professors and academic administrators. Information literacy is invisible to academia because it is misunderstood, academic administrators have not put it on their institutions' agendas, the literature of information literacy remains in the library silo, there is a false belief that infor...

  11. Diseño de ampliación de maquinaria en Terminal Portuaria de Graneles Sólidos


    Millán Barba, Josué


    Se trata de realizar la ampliación de maquinaria de una terminal portuaria de graneles sólidos donde se diseñara una línea de proceso. En la cual el material llegara al puerto en los buques graneleros, se descargara y transportara el grano hasta un silo de almacenaje y posteriormente cuando sea necesario se expeditará el granel mediante camiones.

  12. Justice Is the Missing Link in One Health: Results of a Mixed Methods Study in an Urban City State


    Lysaght, T; Capps, B.; Bailey, M.; Bickford, D; Coker, R.; Lederman, Z; Watson, S.; Tambyah, PA


    Background One Health (OH) is an interdisciplinary collaborative approach to human and animal health that aims to break down conventional research and policy ?silos?. OH has been used to develop strategies for zoonotic Emerging Infectious Diseases (EID). However, the ethical case for OH as an alternative to more traditional public health approaches is largely absent from the discourse. To study the ethics of OH, we examined perceptions of the human health and ecological priorities for the man...

  13. “Lemzeiet” : Traditional couscous manufacture from fermented wheat (Algeria): process and technological and nutritional quality


    Bekhouche, Farida; Merabti, Ryma; Bailly, Jean-Denis


    Couscous “Lemzeiet” was made from fermented wheat using a traditional process specific to the region of Constantine (North East of Algeria). This study involved the valorisation of traditional fermentation techniques of wheat in an underground silo called “Matmor” and manufacture of couscous “Lemzeiet”. The first part of this study consisted in a survey conducted in the city of Constantine. The 229 participants were from the east of Algeria: Constantine (191), Sigus (22) and Mila (16). The ag...

  14. Clinical data warehousing for evidence based decision making. (United States)

    Narra, Lekha; Sahama, Tony; Stapleton, Peta


    Large volumes of heterogeneous health data silos pose a big challenge when exploring for information to allow for evidence based decision making and ensuring quality outcomes. In this paper, we present a proof of concept for adopting data warehousing technology to aggregate and analyse disparate health data in order to understand the impact various lifestyle factors on obesity. We present a practical model for data warehousing with detailed explanation which can be adopted similarly for studying various other health issues.

  15. Crowds, not Drones: Modeling Human Factors in Interactive Crowdsourcing


    Basu Roy, Senjuti; Lykourentzou, Ioanna; Thirumuruganathan, Saravanan; Amer-Yahia, Sihem; Das, Gautam


    International audience; In this vision paper, we propose SmartCrowd, an intelligent and adaptive crowdsourcing framework. Contrary to existing crowdsourcing systems, where the process of hiring workers (crowd), learning their skills, and evaluating the accuracy of tasks they perform are fragmented, siloed, and often ad-hoc, SmartCrowd foresees a paradigm shift in that process, considering unpredictability of human nature, namely human factors. SmartCrowd offers opportunities in making crowdso...

  16. Return to Roots: How I Learned to Teach Music to Kids in Public Schools (United States)

    Doherty, Brian


    This is a story about a return to roots. A decade ago, the author was a rock drummer, playing for They Might Be Giants, XTC, the Silos, and many others. But he needed a change. He needed a calling and a greater purpose. His heart and soul led him to become a public school teacher. In this article, the author describes how he learned to teach music…

  17. Metabolite Profiles of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Grass Silage▿


    Broberg, Anders; Jacobsson, Karin; Ström, Katrin; Schnürer, Johan


    The metabolite production of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on silage was investigated. The aim was to compare the production of antifungal metabolites in silage with the production in liquid cultures previously studied in our laboratory. The following metabolites were found to be present at elevated concentrations in silos inoculated with LAB strains: 3-hydroxydecanoic acid, 2-hydroxy-4-methylpentanoic acid, benzoic acid, catechol, hydrocinnamic acid, salicylic acid, 3-phenyllactic acid, 4-hydro...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio Henrique Vilela


    Full Text Available Sugar cane silage is widely used in livestock production. Nevertheless, it presents a drawback which is alcoholic fermentation caused by yeasts and which can reduce its nutritional value. In this sense, the aim of this work was to evaluate the use of either doses of salt or urea in the ensiling of sugar cane with the objective of producing silages of better quality. For this purpose, an experiment consisted of completely randomized design with seven treatments and three replications was performed. The treatments consisted of the ensiling of sugar cane without the use of additives (control and ensiling utilizing 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% of either salt or urea. Sugar cane was ensiled with 31.8% of DM in experimental PVC silos, which remained closed for 202 days. After this period, the silos were opened and a part of the central silage of each silo was utilized for evaluation of potential of hydrogen (pH and of the percentages of dry matter (DM, for crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, lignin and hemicellulose. By utilizing the weights of the silos, the production of effluents was also computed. The data were submitted to the analysis of variance and the means compared by the Skott-Knott test at 5% de significance. The percentage of DM (29.5% and lignin (9.9% as well as the effluent production (43.8 kg/t of natural matter were not influenced (P>0.05 by the treatments. Increased pH values (P

  19. Forage Polyphenol Oxidase and Ruminant Livestock Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Richard F. Lee


    Full Text Available Polyphenol oxidase (PPO is associated with the detrimental effect of browning fruit and vegetables, however interest within PPO containing forage crops has grown since the brownng reaction was associated with reduced nitrogen (N losses in silo and the rumen. The reduction in protein breakdown in silo of red clover (high PPO forage increased the quality of protein, improving N-use efficiency (NUE when fed to ruminants. A further benefit of red clover silage feeding is a significant reduction in lipolysis in silo and an increase in the deposition of beneficial C18 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA in animal products, which has also been linked to PPO activity. PPOs protection of plant protein and glycerol based-PUFA in silo is related to the deactivation of plant proteases and lipases. This deactivation occurs through PPO catalysing the conversion of diphenols to quinones which bind with cellular nucleophiles such as protein reforming a protein-bound phenol (PBP. If the protein is an enzyme the complexing denatures the enzyme. However, PPO is inactive in the anaerobic rumen and therefore any subsequent protection of plant protein and glycerol based-PUFA in the rumen must be as a result of events that occurred to the forage pre-ingestion. Reduced activity of plant proteases and lipases would have little effect on NUE and glycerol based-PUFA in the rumen due to the greater concentration of rumen microbial proteases and lipases. The mechanism for PPOs protection of plant protein in the rumen is a consequence of complexing plant protein, rather than protease deactivation per se. These complexed proteins reduce protein digestibility in the rumen and subsequently increase un-degraded dietary protein flow to the small intestine. The mechanism for protecting glycerol-based PUFA has yet to be fully elucidated but may be associated with entrapment within PBP reducing access to microbial lipases or differences in rumen digestion kinetics of red clover.

  20. Knowledge management in support of enterprise risk management


    Rodriguez, Eduardo; Edwards, John S.


    Risk management and knowledge management have so far been studied almost independently. The evolution of risk management to the holistic view of Enterprise Risk Management requires the destruction of barriers between organizational silos and the exchange and application of knowledge from different risk management areas. However, knowledge management has received little or no attention in risk management. This paper examines possible relationships between knowledge management constructs relate...

  1. Towards Interoperable IoT Deployments inSmart Cities - How project VITAL enables smart, secure and cost- effective cities


    Schiele, Gregor; Soldatos, John; Mitton, Nathalie


    International audience; IoT-based deployments in smart cities raise several challenges, especially in terms of interoperability. In this paper, we illustrate semantic interoperability solutions for IoT systems. Based on these solutions, we describe how the FP7 VITAL project aims to bridge numerous silo IoT deployments in smart cities through repurposing and reusing sensors and data streams across multiple applications without carelessly compromising citizens’ security and privacy. This approa...

  2. Adição de inoculantes microbianos sobre a composição química e perfil fermentativo da silagem de capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum, Schum - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v25i2.2080 Microbial inoculants addition on chemical composition and fermentation characteristics of elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum, Schum silage - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v25i2.2080

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos de Sousa Lucci


    Full Text Available Foram estudados os efeitos de dois inoculantes microbianos e 1 inoculante enzimo-microbiano no capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum, Schum, ensilado em 16 silos experimentais e confeccionados a partir de baldes plásticos portando válvulas. O capim foi cortado aos 97 dias de crescimento, homogeneizado e submetido a tratamentos com 4 repetições: controle, Sil-All® (Streptococcus faecium, Pediococcus acidilactici, Lactobacillus plantarum, amilase, hemicelulase e celulase, Silobac® (L. plantarum, S. faecium e Lactobacillus sp. e Pioneer 1174® (S. faecium e L. plantarum. Os silos foram abertos após 120 dias para análise da composição bromatológica, perfil fermentativo e estabilidade aeróbia. Embora de magnitude pequena, o Sil-All® aumentou a MS, o Pioneer aumentou as concentrações de NIDA e o Silobac® aumentou a FDA e a celulose. Em comparação com o tratamento-controle, o Pioneer e o Silobac melhoraram consideravelmente a relação lático:acético, o Pioneer baixou o pH e melhorou a estabilidade aeróbia.Elephant grass was harvested at 97th day and ensiled in 16 plastic experimental silos, consisting of 4 treatments: control, Sil-All® (Streptococcus faecium, Pediococcus acidilactici, Lactobacillus plantarum, amylase, hemicellulase, and cellulase, Silobac® (L. plantarum, S. faecium, and Lactobacillus sp., and Pioneer 1174® (S. faecium and L. plantarum. Silos were opened 120 days after ensiling and sampled to proceede chemical analyses. Sil-All increased DM, Pioneer increased ADIN concentration and Silobac increased ADF and cellulose contents of silage. Comparing to control Pioneer and Silobac improved consistently the lactic:acetic ratio, Pioneer decreased pH and improved aerobic stability.

  3. The Core and Seasonal Microbiota of Raw Bovine Milk in Tanker Trucks and the Impact of Transfer to a Milk Processing Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary E. Kable


    Full Text Available Currently, the bacterial composition of raw milk in tanker trucks and the outcomes of transfer and storage of that milk at commercial processing facilities are not well understood. We set out to identify the bacteria in raw milk collected for large-scale dairy product manufacturing. Raw bovine milk samples from 899 tanker trucks arriving at two dairy processors in San Joaquin Valley of California during three seasons (spring, summer, and fall were analyzed by community 16S rRNA gene sequencing. This analysis revealed highly diverse bacterial populations, which exhibited seasonal differences. Raw milk collected in the spring contained the most diverse bacterial communities, with the highest total cell numbers and highest proportions being those of Actinobacteria. Even with this complexity, a core microbiota was present, consisting of 29 taxonomic groups and high proportions of Streptococcus and Staphylococcus and unidentified members of Clostridiales. Milk samples were also collected from five large-volume silos and from 13 to 25 tankers whose contents were unloaded into each of them during 2 days in the summer. Transfer of the milk to storage silos resulted in two community types. One group of silos contained a high proportion of Streptococcus spp. and was similar in that respect to the tankers that filled them. The community found in the other group of silos was distinct and dominated by Acinetobacter. Overall, despite highly diverse tanker milk community structures, distinct milk bacterial communities were selected within the processing facility environment. This knowledge can inform the development of new sanitation procedures and process controls to ensure the consistent production of safe and high-quality dairy products on a global scale.





    The quantitative and qualitative mycological assements in roughages and silo feeds display a tight corelation betwen the organoleptic characteres and the number of fungi per gram of feed, thus, Lays and high quality silage, or medium quality silage, contain below 8x10 5 fungi/g feed in contrast with the inferior ones in wich the mycotic load7g, feed excudes several times, the above mentioned value. The ubiguitous presence of Aspergillus, penicillium, mucor, Stachybotzra and fusarium in hays a...

  5. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, USSR: Life Sciences. (United States)


    this applied only to age-old human activities like bread- baking, cheese - and wine-making, fodder-siloing, etc. Today, biotechnology deals with...valuable substances from whey. Some time ago, cheese was in short supply caused by both increased demand and the shortage of calf rennet. Recently...Glu and its analogues . Preliminary evaluation of the neuron properties of other brain segments (striatum, medulla oblongata and cerebellum) showed



    Organizational Culture and Leadership , 4th ed. (San Francisco, CA: Jossey- Bass , 2010) 236. Schein lists six primary mechanisms leaders use to embed...a new organization under AF/HC focused upon organizational transformation would be best to implement this endeavor. 79 Costin, “A Leadership ...a Team: A Leadership Fable. San Francisco, CA: Jossey- Bass , 2002. Lencioni, Patrick. Silos, Politics and Turf Wars: A Leadership Fable about

  7. Liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor plant system (United States)

    Hunsbedt, Anstein; Boardman, Charles E.


    A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting for fuel decay during reactor shutdown, or heat produced during a mishap. The reactor system is enhanced with sealing means for excluding external air from contact with the liquid metal coolant leaking from the reactor vessel during an accident. The invention also includes a silo structure which resists attack by leaking liquid metal coolant, and an added unique cooling means.

  8. Design of Particle-Based Thermal Energy Storage for a Concentrating Solar Power System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Zhiwen [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhang, Ruichong [Colorado School of Mines; Sawaged, Fadi [Colorado School of Mines


    Solid particles can operate at higher temperature than current molten salt or oil, and they can be a heat-transfer and storage medium in a concentrating solar power (CSP) system. By using inexpensive solid particles and containment material for thermal energy storage (TES), the particle-TES cost can be significantly lower than other TES methods such as a nitrate-salt system. The particle-TES system can hold hot particles at more than 800 degrees C with high thermal performance. The high particle temperatures increase the temperature difference between the hot and cold particles, and they improve the TES capacity. The particle-based CSP system is able to support high-efficiency power generation, such as the supercritical carbon-dioxide Brayton power cycle, to achieve >50% thermal-electric conversion efficiency. This paper describes a solid particle-TES system that integrates into a CSP plant. The hot particles discharge to a heat exchanger to drive the power cycle. The returning cold particles circulate through a particle receiver to absorb solar heat and charge the TES. This paper shows the design of a particle-TES system including containment silos, foundation, silo insulation, and particle materials. The analysis provides results for four TES capacities and two silo configurations. The design analysis indicates that the system can achieve high thermal efficiency, storage effectiveness (i.e., percentage usage of the hot particles), and exergetic efficiency. An insulation method for the hot silo was considered. The particle-TES system can achieve high performance and low cost, and it holds potential for next-generation CSP technology.

  9. Who collaborates and why: Assessment and diagnostic of governance network integration for salmon restoration in Puget Sound, USA. (United States)

    Sayles, Jesse S; Baggio, Jacopo A


    Governance silos are settings in which different organizations work in isolation and avoid sharing information and strategies. Siloes are a fundamental challenge for environmental planning and problem solving, which generally requires collaboration. Siloes can be overcome by creating governance networks. Studying the structure and function of these networks is important for understanding how to create institutional arrangements that can respond to the biophysical dynamics of a specific natural resource system (i.e., social-ecological, or institutional fit). Using the case of salmon restoration in a sub-basin of Puget Sound, USA, we assess network integration, considering three different reasons for network collaborations (i.e., mandated, funded, and shared interest relationships) and analyze how these different collaboration types relate to productivity based on practitioner's assessments. We also illustrate how specific and targeted network interventions might enhance the network. To do so, we use a mixed methods approach that combines quantitative social network analysis (SNA) and qualitative interview analysis. Overall, the sub-basin's governance network is fairly well integrated, but several concerning gaps exist. Funded, mandated, and shared interest relationships lead to different network patterns. Mandated relationships are associated with lower productivity than shared interest relationships, highlighting the benefit of genuine collaboration in collaborative watershed governance. Lastly, quantitative and qualitative data comparisons strengthen recent calls to incorporate geographic space and the role of individual actors versus organizational culture into natural resource governance research using SNA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Ensilage of cardboard and date palm leaves. (United States)

    Baroon, Z; El-Nawawy, A S; Al-Othman, A


    Eight treatments of cardboard (CB) and date palm leaves (DPL) with or without alkali treatments plus molasses, dates, and ammonium sulfate were ensiled in laboratory silos. Latobacillus plantarum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae inoculants were added at an application rate of 10(5) cfu/g of silage to study their possible influence on the fermentation process. Silos were sealed and incubated at 30 degrees C. The anaerobic ensiling was evaluated for chemical and microbiological variables by opening the silos after 30, 60, and 90 days. After 90 days, significantly low pH values (5.2-3.5) were obtained. The percentages of hemicellulose, cellulose, lignin, and ash were determined. Concentrations of reducing sugars, ether extract, and crude protein tended to be acceptable among treatments. Silages showed a significantly high lactic acid concentration (up to 4.3%) and only traces of butyric acid (below 1%). Also changes in acetic and propionic acids concentrations were determined. Lactobacillus populations remained almost static while yeast and molds populations tended to be lower after 90 days of ensilage. Neither alkali treatment nor microbial inoculants showed a relationship with the ensiling process. Thus, overall, it was concluded that CB and DPL can be effectively ensiled and the resultant silages are acceptable to merit their use as ruminant feed in arid regions.

  11. A Proof-of-Concept for Semantically Interoperable Federation of IoT Experimentation Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Lanza


    Full Text Available The Internet-of-Things (IoT is unanimously identified as one of the main pillars of future smart scenarios. The potential of IoT technologies and deployments has been already demonstrated in a number of different application areas, including transport, energy, safety and healthcare. However, despite the growing number of IoT deployments, the majority of IoT applications tend to be self-contained, thereby forming application silos. A lightweight data centric integration and combination of these silos presents several challenges that still need to be addressed. Indeed, the ability to combine and synthesize data streams and services from diverse IoT platforms and testbeds, holds the promise to increase the potentiality of smart applications in terms of size, scope and targeted business context. In this article, a proof-of-concept implementation that federates two different IoT experimentation facilities by means of semantic-based technologies will be described. The specification and design of the implemented system and information models will be described together with the practical details of the developments carried out and its integration with the existing IoT platforms supporting the aforementioned testbeds. Overall, the system described in this paper demonstrates that it is possible to open new horizons in the development of IoT applications and experiments at a global scale, that transcend the (silo boundaries of individual deployments, based on the semantic interconnection and interoperability of diverse IoT platforms and testbeds.

  12. The future of research in understanding and controlling work-related low back disorders. (United States)

    Marras, W S


    Our knowledge of low back disorder (LBD) causation has progressed well over the years with in-depth understanding accelerating in the traditional disciplines of biomechanics, psychology, psychophysics, psychosocial, physiology, genetics, organizational psychology and rehabilitation. However, each of these disciplines has studied LBD causality in isolation of other disciplines. The underlying assumption is that each discipline can fully explain causality and each discipline is treated as if it were mutually exclusive and exhaustive of the other disciplines. Hence, the body of knowledge has progressed along research silos where we have in-depth knowledge along given research tracks that are defined by the boundaries of the discipline. Furthermore, a wealth of knowledge has been amassed within each of these research silos. How can they all be correct if they are indeed mutually exclusive and exhaustive? The answer is: they cannot be. This brief review of the state-of-the art in LBD research applied to ergonomics, suggests that instead of observing LBD through the myopic lens of each discipline, we need to begin to view LBD causality as a system. Recent work attempting to understand the interaction between these traditional disciplines has demonstrated that many of the findings along these silos are really interrelated and can be explained in terms of changes in the biomechanical loading at the tissue level. It is argued that further efforts to understand these interactions represent the next level of understanding causality of LBDs.

  13. Complication risks associated with lower versus upper extremity peripherally inserted central venous catheters in neonates with gastroschisis. (United States)

    Ma, Meiyun; Garingo, Arlene; Jensen, Aaron R; Bliss, David; Friedlich, Philippe


    To compare the complication rates of lower extremity (LE) and upper extremity (UE) peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) in neonates with gastroschisis. In this retrospective comparative study, neonates with gastroschisis admitted to a level IIId NICU between 2004 and 2013 were identified. Catheter dwell time and complication rates (infiltration, phlebitis, occlusion, migration, infection and thrombosis) between the initial UE and LE PICCs were compared. Forty (31%) and eighty-nine (69%) neonates with gastroschisis had their initial PICCs placed from their LE and UE, respectively. Complication rates were significantly higher when PICCs were inserted from LE, especially during silo-reduction and within 5 days after abdominal closure (LE: 20% vs. UE: 3.4%, pcomplications than UE PICCs (OR 95% CI: 1.2-21.5) during this time period. In particular LE PICCs had significantly higher rates of infiltration (LE: 11.5% vs. UE: 1.4%; p=0.025) and phlebitis (LE: 11.5% vs. UE: 0%; p<0.01) in patients who underwent silo-reduction. LE PICCs are associated with significantly increased risks of infiltration and phlebitis in neonates with gastroschisis during silo-reduction and within 5 days after abdominal closure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Relationships between stable fly infestation with some physical facility characteristics and sanitation practices in several dairy farms in the State of Aguascalientes, Mexico. (United States)

    Cruz-Vázquez, C; Ramos-Parra, M; Vitela-Mendoza, I; García-Vázquez, Z; Quintero-Martínez, M T


    The possible relationships between stable fly infestation with dairy farm facilities and sanitation practices were studied using path analysis. Twelve dairies located in four counties of Aguascalientes dairy region were selected. The dairies were monitored from May to November 2003. In each occasion, fly infestation, individual physical facility characteristics, and sanitation practices were recorded. In all, 11 independent variables were involved in the study and related variables were grouped together and analyzed in two blocks by path analysis for each one of five population events (begin of fly season, first peak, fluctuation, second peak and decrease). There were significant regression coefficients only in the second peak for two variables, the distance to the silos and the distance to the dung heap (r(2)=0.96 for the full model). Among the 11 variables examined in the study, none had a statistical significant indirect contribution to fly infestation; direct contribution was observed for distance to the silos and for distance to the dung heap variables. However, only the distance to the silos variable was significantly related to stable fly Infestation.

  15. Chemical composition and fermentation characteristics of sugar cane silage enriched with detoxified castor bean meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. Oliveira


    Full Text Available This experiment was designed to evaluate the effects of the inclusion of detoxified castor bean meal (CM content on the chemical-bromatological composition, as well as the fermentation characteristics and dry matter losses of sugarcane silage. The treatments consisted of four levels (0, 7, 14 and 21% natural matter of addition of castor bean meal. The design was completely randomized, with five replicates. The material was ensiled in PVC silos of 50-cm in height and 10-cm in diameter, which were opened after 60 days. The density of fodder maintained in the silos was equal to 750kg of natural matter/m3. In order to quantify the gas and effluent losses, the silos were weighed at the beginning and at the end of the experiment. The addition of castor bean meal has increased the levels of DM and crude protein and reduced the levels of neutral detergent fiber, N-NH3, ethanol, and gas and effluent losses from silages, but did not affect pH values. During ensiling, alcoholic fermentation was controlled with the inclusion of the additive.

  16. Taking a Snapshot: Four Bibliometric Indicators to Track Engineering Education Research Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Williams


    Full Text Available In recent years, as engineering education research has evolved as an area of study, questions of its disciplinary status, global reach and diffusion of educational innovation have been raised. Bibliometric analysis, mainly employing author affiliation data and citation analysis, has been shown to be effective in gathering relevant data on these issues. In this paper we broaden the scope of previous analyses by introducing reference discipline as an indicator. Our study presents data on 169 articles published in seven EER journals in 2011 based on the use of four indicators: citation analysis, reference discipline, author geographical location and author disciplinary field data. In addition, to demonstrate the value of this approach in establishing benchmarks for longitudinal research, we compare the citation analysis data for the 7 journals in 2011 with a similar sample from the same journals in 2009. The portrait that emerges is rich and complex one and it shows the existence of some silos - disciplinary silos and to a lesser extent geographical silos.

  17. An Ethnographic Study of Health Information Technology Use in Three Intensive Care Units. (United States)

    Leslie, Myles; Paradis, Elise; Gropper, Michael A; Kitto, Simon; Reeves, Scott; Pronovost, Peter


    To identify the impact of a full suite of health information technology (HIT) on the relationships that support safety and quality among intensive care unit (ICU) clinicians. A year-long comparative ethnographic study of three academic ICUs was carried out. A total of 446 hours of observational data was collected in the form of field notes. A subset of these observations-134 hours-was devoted to job-shadowing individual clinicians and conducting a time study of their HIT usage. Significant variation in HIT implementation rates and usage was noted. Average HIT use on the two "high-use" ICUs was 49 percent. On the "low-use" ICU, it was 10 percent. Clinicians on the high-use ICUs experienced "silo" effects with potential safety and quality implications. HIT work was associated with spatial, data, and social silos that separated ICU clinicians from one another and their patients. Situational awareness, communication, and patient satisfaction were negatively affected by this siloing. HIT has the potential to accentuate social and professional divisions as clinical communications shift from being in-person to electronically mediated. Socio-technically informed usability testing is recommended for those hospitals that have yet to implement HIT. For those hospitals already implementing HIT, we suggest rapid, locally driven qualitative assessments focused on developing solutions to identified gaps between HIT usage patterns and organizational quality goals. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  18. A strategy for treatment of giant omphalocele. (United States)

    Sönmez, Kaan; Onal, Esra; Karabulut, Ramazan; Turan, Ozden; Türkyilmaz, Zafer; Hirfanoğlu, Ibrahim; Kapisiz, Alparslan; Başaklar, Abdullah C


    The management of giant omphalocele (GO) presents a major challenge to pediatric surgeons. Current treatment modalities may result in wound infection, fascial separation, and abdominal domain loss. We report a GO infant who required a delayed closure and was managed using sterile incision drape and polypropylene mesh. A 3080 g full-term female infant was born with a GO. The skin was dissected from the fascia circumferentially without opening the amniotic sac and the peritoneum. Subsequently, two polypropylene meshes of 10 x 10 cm in diameter were sutured to each other. Inner surface of the mesh silo was covered with sterile incision drape. This texture was sutured to the fascial margin. Then, the skin was sutured to the mesh and the silo was closed from the side and above. On the 4th day the reduction was started using thick sutures without anesthesia. This procedure was repeated on every 3rd day. When it came closer to the skin margins, constriction was performed using right angle clamps, each time placed 2 cm proximally to the previous sutures in a circular manner. Silo was removed easily and the skin, subcutaneous layers, and fascia were then approximated on the 42nd day. The postoperative course was uneventful and the infant was well with left inguinal hernia repaired in the 3rd month. The method we used can be performed at bedside and without the application of anesthesia, but should be tried on more patients to determine its effect.

  19. A Proof-of-Concept for Semantically Interoperable Federation of IoT Experimentation Facilities. (United States)

    Lanza, Jorge; Sanchez, Luis; Gomez, David; Elsaleh, Tarek; Steinke, Ronald; Cirillo, Flavio


    The Internet-of-Things (IoT) is unanimously identified as one of the main pillars of future smart scenarios. The potential of IoT technologies and deployments has been already demonstrated in a number of different application areas, including transport, energy, safety and healthcare. However, despite the growing number of IoT deployments, the majority of IoT applications tend to be self-contained, thereby forming application silos. A lightweight data centric integration and combination of these silos presents several challenges that still need to be addressed. Indeed, the ability to combine and synthesize data streams and services from diverse IoT platforms and testbeds, holds the promise to increase the potentiality of smart applications in terms of size, scope and targeted business context. In this article, a proof-of-concept implementation that federates two different IoT experimentation facilities by means of semantic-based technologies will be described. The specification and design of the implemented system and information models will be described together with the practical details of the developments carried out and its integration with the existing IoT platforms supporting the aforementioned testbeds. Overall, the system described in this paper demonstrates that it is possible to open new horizons in the development of IoT applications and experiments at a global scale, that transcend the (silo) boundaries of individual deployments, based on the semantic interconnection and interoperability of diverse IoT platforms and testbeds.

  20. The Core and Seasonal Microbiota of Raw Bovine Milk in Tanker Trucks and the Impact of Transfer to a Milk Processing Facility. (United States)

    Kable, Mary E; Srisengfa, Yanin; Laird, Miles; Zaragoza, Jose; McLeod, Jeremy; Heidenreich, Jessie; Marco, Maria L


    Currently, the bacterial composition of raw milk in tanker trucks and the outcomes of transfer and storage of that milk at commercial processing facilities are not well understood. We set out to identify the bacteria in raw milk collected for large-scale dairy product manufacturing. Raw bovine milk samples from 899 tanker trucks arriving at two dairy processors in San Joaquin Valley of California during three seasons (spring, summer, and fall) were analyzed by community 16S rRNA gene sequencing. This analysis revealed highly diverse bacterial populations, which exhibited seasonal differences. Raw milk collected in the spring contained the most diverse bacterial communities, with the highest total cell numbers and highest proportions being those of Actinobacteria Even with this complexity, a core microbiota was present, consisting of 29 taxonomic groups and high proportions of Streptococcus and Staphylococcus and unidentified members of Clostridiales Milk samples were also collected from five large-volume silos and from 13 to 25 tankers whose contents were unloaded into each of them during 2 days in the summer. Transfer of the milk to storage silos resulted in two community types. One group of silos contained a high proportion of Streptococcus spp. and was similar in that respect to the tankers that filled them. The community found in the other group of silos was distinct and dominated by Acinetobacter Overall, despite highly diverse tanker milk community structures, distinct milk bacterial communities were selected within the processing facility environment. This knowledge can inform the development of new sanitation procedures and process controls to ensure the consistent production of safe and high-quality dairy products on a global scale. Raw milk harbors diverse bacteria that are crucial determinants of the quality and safety of fluid milk and (fermented) dairy products. These bacteria enter farm milk during transport, storage, and processing. Although

  1. Características fermentativas da silagem do capim Marandu manejado em diferentes alturas de dossel Marandu grass silage fermentative characteristic managed under different sward heights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgílio Jamir Gonçalves Mota


    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar as características fermentativas da silagem de Brachiaria brizantha (Hochst ex. Rich Stapf cv. Marandu manejada em diferentes alturas de dossel. Utilizou-se o delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com quatro alturas de dossel (30; 45; 60 e 75cm em cinco blocos, totalizando 20 unidades experimentais. A gramínea foi ensilada em silos experimentais de PVC, com peso conhecido. A abertura dos silos foi realizada aos 56 dias após a ensilagem. Momentos antes da abertura, os silos foram pesados para avaliar as perdas por gases, e em seguida, abertos para retirada da silagem e quantificação das perdas por efluentes. Foram determinados os valores de pH, nitrogênio amoniacal, teores de ácidos orgânicos (lático, acético e butírico e matéria seca. Os dados coletados foram submetidos à análise de variância, e quando significativa, as médias de tratamentos foram submetidas ao estudo de regressão. A gramínea manejada a 30 e a 45cm de dossel resultou em silagens com melhores características fermentativas, com maior conteúdo de ácido lático, menores conteúdos de ácido butírico e nitrogênio amoniacal, e menores perdas durante a fermentação. A gramínea manejada a 60 e a 75cm apresentou processo fermentativo totalmente inadequado à conservação da forragem, portanto classificada como de péssima qualidade. Conclui-se que a altura de dossel de 30 e de 45cm do capim Marandu resultou em silagem com melhores características fermentativas, quando comparada com as silagens das demais alturas avaliadas, porém não atingiu um nível de qualidade desejada.The objective of this study was to evaluate the fermentation characteristics of Brachiaria brizantha Hochst ex. Rich Stapf cv. Marandu managed under different sward heights. We used a complete randomized block delimitation layout, with four sward heights (30; 45; 60 and 75cm in 5 blocks totaling 20 experimental units. The grass was packed and weighted in PVC silos. The silos

  2. Ceiling art in a radiation therapy department: its effect on patient treatment experience. (United States)

    Bonett, Jotham


    A new initiative has been implemented at the Sunshine Hospital Radiation Therapy Centre, to provide a calming and comforting environment for patients attending radiation therapy treatment. As part of this initiative, the department's computed tomography (CT) room and radiation therapy bunkers were designed to incorporate ceiling art that replicates a number of different visual scenes. The study was undertaken to determine if ceiling art in the radiation therapy treatment CT and treatment bunkers had an effect on a patient's experience during treatment at the department. Additionally, the study aimed to identify which of the visuals in the ceiling art were most preferred by patients. Patients were requested to complete a 12-question survey. The survey solicited a patient's opinion/perception on the unit's unique ceiling display with emphasis on aesthetic appeal, patient treatment experience and the patient's engagement due to the ceiling display. The responses were dichotomised to 'positive' or 'negative'. Every sixth patient who completed the survey was invited to have a general face-to-face discussion to provide further information about their thoughts on the displays. The results demonstrate that the ceiling artwork solicited a positive reaction in 89.8% of patients surveyed. This score indicates that ceiling artwork contributed positively to patients' experiences during radiation therapy treatment. The study suggests that ceiling artwork in the department has a positive effect on patient experience during their radiation therapy treatment at the department.

  3. The first neutron beam hits EAR2

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso


    On 25 July 2014, about a year after construction work began, the Experimental Area 2 (EAR2) of CERN’s neutron facility n_TOF recorded its first beam. Unique in many aspects, EAR2 will start its rich programme of experimental physics this autumn.   The last part of the EAR2 beamline: the neutrons come from the underground target and reach the top of the beamline, where they hit the samples. Built about 20 metres above the neutron production target, EAR2 is in fact a bunker connected to the n_TOF underground facilities via a duct 80 cm in diameter, where the beamline is installed. The feet of the bunker support pillars are located on the concrete structure of the n_TOF tunnel and part of the structure lies above the old ISR building. A beam dump located on the roof of the building completes the structure. Neutrons are used by physicists to study neutron-induced reactions with applications in a number of fields, including nuclear waste transmutation, nuclear technology, nuclear astrop...

  4. June 2017 Ancho Canyon RF Collects: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junor, William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Layne, John Preston [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Goglio, Joshua Henry [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Quintana, Bobby Arthur [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Snelson-Gerlicher, Catherine Mary [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Goorley, John Timothy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    We report the results from the June 8, 2017, Ancho Canyon RF collection. While bright, electromagnetic signals were seen close to the firing point, there were no detections of signals from the explosively-fired fuse (EFF) at a collection point about 600m distant on the East Mesa. The East Mesa site was unable to collect data because the uninterruptible power supply (UPS) was exhausted by the time of the shot. We did see signals from the EFF at the Bunker 57 antennas, about 123m distant from the Point 88 firing point. The strength of these signals is consistent with our limited knowledge of the collection antenna performance and the use of the standard model to predict the electric field strength. From our knowledge of the geometry of the EFF loop and the current in the loop in this test, and from measurements at the Bunker 57 site, we predict that we would have seen signals of about 50mV at 3.67MHz in a 100 kHz channel on the Rohde & Schwarz HE010 antennas at the East Mesa location. The noise oor there is about 0.113mV (based on the March 2017 collects). Thus we would have had an SNR of 53 dB from the collect, had the data collection system been running.

  5. Comparison between steel and lead shieldings for radiotherapy rooms regarding neutron doses to patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, M.G.; Rebello, W.F.; Andrade, E.R.; Medeiros, M.P.C.; Mendes, R.M.S.; Braga, K.L.; Gomes, R.G., E-mail:, E-mail: [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Secao de Engenharia Nuclear; Silva, A.X., E-mail: [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    The NCRP Report No. 151, Structural Shielding Design and Evaluation for Megavoltage X- and Gamma-Ray Radiotherapy Facilities, considers, in shielding calculations for radiotherapy rooms, the use of lead and/or steel to be applied on bunker walls. The NCRP Report calculations were performed foreseeing a better protection of people outside the radiotherapy room. However, contribution of lead and steel to patient dose should be taken into account for radioprotection purposes. This work presents calculations performed by MCNPX code in analyzing the Ambient Dose Equivalent due to neutron, H *(10){sub n}, within a radiotherapy room, in the patients area, considering the use of additional shielding of 1 TVL of lead or 1 TVL of steel, positioned at the inner faces of walls and ceiling of a bunker. The head of the linear accelerator Varian 2100/2300 C/D was modeled working at 18MeV, with 5 x 5 cm{sup 2}, 10 x 10 cm{sup 2}, 20 x 20 cm{sup 2}, 30 x 30 cm{sup 2} and 40 x 40 cm{sup 2} openings for jaws and MLC and operating in eight gantry's angles. This study shows that the use of lead generates an average value of H *(10){sub n} at patients area, 8.02% higher than the expected when using steel. Further studies should be performed based on experimental data for comparison with those from MCNPX simulation. (author)

  6. Inventory of China's Energy-Related CO2 Emissions in 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina; Qin, Yining


    Although China became the world's largest emitter of energy-related CO{sub 2} emissions in 2007, China does not publish annual estimates of CO{sub 2} emissions and most published estimates of China's emissions have been done by other international organizations. Undertaken at the request of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the US Department of Energy, this study examines the feasibility of applying the EIA emissions inventory methodology to estimate China's emissions from published Chinese data. Besides serving as a proof of concept, this study also helps develop a consistent and transparent method for estimating China's CO{sub 2} emissions using an Excel model and identified China-specific data issues and areas for improvement. This study takes a core set of data from the energy balances published in the China Energy Statistical Yearbook 2009 and China Petrochemical Corporation Yearbook 2009 and applies the EIA's eight-step methodology to estimate China's 2008 CO{sub 2} emissions. First, China's primary and secondary fuel types and consumption by end use are determined with slight discrepancies identified between the two data sources and inconsistencies in product categorization with the EIA. Second, energy consumption data are adjusted to eliminate double counting in the four potential areas identified by EIA; consumption data from China's Special Administrative Regions are not included. Physical fuel units are then converted to energy equivalents using China's standard energy measure of coal equivalent (1 kilogram = 29.27 MJ) and IPCC carbon emissions coefficients are used to calculate each fuel's carbon content. Next, carbon sequestration is estimated following EIA conventions for other petroleum products and non-energy use of secondary fuels. Emissions from international bunker fuels are also subtracted under the 'reference' calculation of estimating apparent energy consumption by fuel

  7. Hydro and geothermal electricity as an alternative for industrial petroleum consumption in Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendis, M.; Park, W.; Sabadell, A.; Talib, A.


    This report assesses the potential for substitution of electricity for petroleum in the industrial/agro-industrial sector of Costa Rica. The study includes a preliminary estimate of the process energy needs in this sector, a survey of the principal petroleum consuming industries in Costa Rica, an assessment of the electrical technologies appropriate for substitution, and an analysis of the cost trade offs of alternative fuels and technologies. The report summarizes the total substitution potential both by technical feasibility and by cost effectiveness under varying fuel price scenarios and identifies major institutional constraints to the introduction of electric based technologies. Recommendations to the Government of Costa Rica are presented. The key to the success of a Costa Rican program for substitution of electricity for petroleum in industry rests in energy pricing policy. The report shows that if Costa Rica Bunker C prices are increased to compare equitably with Caribbean Bunker C prices, and increase at 3 percent per annum relative to a special industrial electricity rate structure, the entire substitution program, including both industrial and national electric investment, would be cost effective. The definition of these pricing structures and their potential impacts need to be assessed in depth.

  8. The use of steel and lead shieldings in radiotherapy rooms and its comparison with respect to neutrons doses at patients; Comparacao de blindagens de aco e de chumbo usadas em salas de radioterapia quanto a dose devido a neutrons depositada em pacientes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, M.G.; Rebello, W.F.; Andrade, E.R.; Medeiros, M.P.C.; Mendes, R.M.S.; Braga, K.L.; Gomes, R.G., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Santos, R.F.G., E-mail: [Centro Universitario Anhanguera, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia; Silva, Ademir X., E-mail: [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    The NCRP Report No. 151, Structural Shielding Design and Evaluation for Megavoltage X- and Gamma-Ray Radiotherapy Facilities, considers, in shielding calculations for radiotherapy rooms, the use of lead and/or steel to be applied on bunker walls. The NCRP Report calculations were performed foreseeing a better protection of people outside the radiotherapy room. However, contribution of lead and steel to patient dose should be taken into account for radioprotection purposes. This work presents calculations performed by MCNPX code in analyzing the Ambient Dose Equivalent due to neutron, H*(10){sub n}, within a radiotherapy room, in the patients area, considering the use of additional shielding of 1 TVL of lead or 1 TVL of steel, positioned at the inner faces of walls and ceiling of a bunker. The head of the linear accelerator Varian 2100/2300 C/D was modeled working at 18MeV, with 5x5cm{sup 2}, 10x10cm{sup 2}, 20x20cm{sup 2}, 30x30cm{sup 2} and 40x40cm{sup 2} openings for jaws and MLC and operating in eight gantry's angles. This study shows that the use of lead generates an average value of H*(10){sub n} at patients area, 8.02% higher than the expected when using steel. Further studies should be performed based on experimental data for comparison with those from MCNPX simulation.

  9. A laboratory approach for determining the effect of oils and dispersants on mangroves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baca, B.J.


    An experimental approach was developed and applied to testing the effects of oil and dispersant combinations on the growth of mangrove seedlings (trees of the intertidal tropics). A controlled growth chamber was employed to test the effects of different oils and dispersed oils in an array of dosages applied to different parts of the plants. Preliminary test results are reported for two species of mangroves collected from five localities, including both oiled and unoiled estuaries. Differences occurred between species, substances, dosages, the part of the plant dosed, and the presence of chronic oil pollution at localities from which the stocks were collected. Avicennia germinans (L.) L. (black mangrove) was more sensitive than Rhizophora mangle L. (red mangrove) when exposed to almost all substances tested. Light Arabian crude oil (LA) and light Arabian crude oil dispersed (LAD) were the most toxic substances tested. No. 2 fuel oil (N2) and No. 2 fuel oil dispersed (N2D) were as toxic as LA and LAD, except for an increase (an enhancement effect) in foliage and stem growth in Avicennia at lower dosages. Bunker C oil (BC) was the least toxic of the oils tested, resulting in the reduction of foliage and stem growth only at the highest dosage tested in Avicennia. Bunker C oil dispersed (BCD) failed to show effects in either species at any dosage tested. The leaves of Rhizophora were the most sensitive part of the plant tested.

  10. Trends in oil spills from tanker ships 1995-2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huijer, K. [International Tanker Owners Pollution Federation, London (United Kingdom)


    The trends in oil spills around the world over from 1995 to 2004 were examined and analyzed for possible influences on spill volumes and frequencies for incidents of 3 spill size classes. The International Tanker Owners Pollution Federation (ITOPF) has maintained a database since 1974 of all oil spills from tankers, combined carriers and barges. The number of oil spills has decreased significantly in the last 30 years despite a steady increase in maritime oil trade since the 1980s. The recent trends were identified by causes, locations, oil type, and shipping legislation. The causes include ship loading/discharging, bunkering, collisions, groundings, hull failures and fires. The types of oil spilt include bunker, crude, cargo fuel, white product and some unknowns. It was concluded that the decline in oil spills is due to a range of initiatives taken by governments and the shipping industry rather than any one factor. Some notable influences towards reduced number of spills include: the international convention for the prevention of pollution from ships of 1972, as modified by the Protocol of 1978; the international convention for the safety of life at sea of 1974; and the Oil Pollution Act of 1990. Results of investigations into the causes of spills serve the purpose of informing the international process to further prevent and reduce marine oil pollution due to tankers. 7 refs., 5 tabs., 12 figs.

  11. Tebuconazole Regulates Fatty Acid Composition of Etiolated Winter Wheat Seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Korsukova


    Full Text Available The fatty acid composition of shoots of unhardened and hardened to cold etiolated winter wheat seedlings grown from seeds treated with tebuconazole-based protectant «Bunker» (content of tebuconazole 60 grams per liter, g/L, and the seedlings frost resistance has been studied. It is shown that treatment of winter wheat seeds by «Bunker» preparation (1,5 microliter per gram of seeds, µl/g is accompanied by an increase of the fatty acids unsaturation in the shoots and increase of the seedlings frost resistance (–8°C, 24 h. The most pronounced decrease in the content of saturated palmitic acid and increase in the content of unsaturated α-linolenic acid were observed during cold hardening of winter wheat seedlings grown from seeds treated by tebuconazole-based protectant. It is concluded that the seeds treatment with tebuconazole-based protectant causes changes of fatty acid composition of winter wheat seedlings to increase their frost resistance.

  12. Natureza rica, povos pobres? - questões conceituais e analíticas sobre o papel dos recursos naturais na prosperidade contemporânea Rich nature, poor people? Conceptual and analytical questions on the role of natural resources for contemporary prosperity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Augusto Drummond


    Full Text Available Este artigo questionaa tendência atual de se igualar a riqueza de recursos naturais de uma região à prosperidade e ao bem-estar dos seus habitantes. Discute formulações clássicas da "sociologia do desenvolvimento" de Prebisch e Hirschman e os seus desdobramentos nas obras mais recentes de Bunker e Freudenburg. Todos esses autores ressaltam que regiões e atividades intensivas em recursos naturais têm sérias desvantagens desenvolvimentistas quando comparadas a regiões e atividades transformadoras de recursos naturais ou intensivas em tecnologia e informação.This article questions the current trend which supposes that the rich natural resource endowment of a region leads to the prosperity or weel-being of its inhabitants. It discusses classic statements by Prebisch and Hirschman as well as more contemporary ones by Bunker and Freudenburg. These authors stress the idea that regions and activities intensive in natural resources have serious developmental handicaps when compared to regions and activities intensive in industrial transformation of natural resources or in technology and information.

  13. Flexible production and logistics of wood chips; Joustava hakkeen valmistus ja logistiikka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haemaelaeinen, M.; Pankakari, P. [Metsaeenergia Meter Ky, Louhi (Finland)


    The target of the project was to develop a multi-purpose chipper-lorry (MOHA), which could be used both as chipping and transportation unit. MOHA is capable of chipping trees directly from the lot, so the size of the storage plays no role. Even though the MOHA-unit can be used as an individual transportation unit, it can also be used for feeding any further dispatch unit equipped with interchangeable container system e.g. when the transportation distances are long and the ordered volumes of wood chips are large. Previous projects concerning chipping-logistics are based on various intermediate storage models, but the MOHA delivers the chips strait from the lot to the site of utilization. The raw material short-distance haulage is reduced from previous 150 - 250 m to 1 - 50 m. In this new delivery model chips are bunkered only at largest heating plants. At smaller heating plants no bunker storages are needed. MOHA collects self the load, delivers it, brings, if controlled properly, back-haul, and delivers it to another site of utilization

  14. Aplicação da alvenaria estrutural em sistemas de armazenamento de produtos agrícolas a granel Applying structural masonry for granular material storage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José F. de A Marques Neto


    Full Text Available O armazenamento de produtos agrícolas cumpre um papel importante no agronegócio. Observa-se uma tendência cada vez maior em se trabalhar com produtos a granel, em grandes volumes. Visando a uma concepção construtiva racional e econômica, o presente trabalho propõe um sistema misto em concreto armado e alvenaria estrutural aplicado a silos para armazenagem de produto agrícola a granel. No projeto proposto, o silo é composto de células em alvenaria estrutural, geminadas duas a duas na largura e com um número variável de células no comprimento, em função do volume desejado de armazenagem. Esse sistema simétrico favorece a racionalidade operacional, garantindo a continuidade entre os fluxos de recebimento e de expedição. O fundo da célula é em forma de tremonha dupla troncopiramidal, com saída central, construída em painéis treliçados pré-moldados. A sustentação das células e das tremonhas é feita através de vigas e de pilares de concreto armado. O isolamento térmico necessário para que a qualidade do produto armazenado seja garantida é estabelecido pela utilização de telhas trapezoidais de aço galvanizado, tanto na cobertura como nos fechamentos laterais. A fim de ilustrar o presente trabalho, um exemplo de silo utilizando o sistema proposto é apresentado, e a viabilidade da concepção construtiva adotada é analisada.The storage of granular materials has had an important role in the agribusiness. Storing granular materials in silos, instead of in bags or big-bags, has been an increase tendency. Aiming at an economic and rational solution for storing granular materials this paper presents an alternative design: a multi-cell silo group composed of reinforced masonry rectangular cells coupled two by two in width, and a variable number of cells in length according to the volume of desired storage. Such symmetrical system benefits the loading and the unloading operations, and guarantees the continuity between the

  15. Análise de vinte genótipos de sorgo (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench, de portes médio e alto, pertencentes ao ensaio nacional Analysis of twenty genotypes of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench of medium and high status from the national assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingos Marcelo Cenachi Pesce


    Full Text Available Os vinte genótipos de sorgo estudados foram cultivados e ensilados aos 104 dias de idade, em estádio de grão pastoso, em silos de laboratório de "PVC", com 10 cm de diâmetro e 40 cm de comprimento. Os silos foram abertos aos 150 dias após a ensilagem. O delineamento adotado foi o inteiramente casualizado. No material estudado (verde e ensilado, foram determinados os valores de fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, fibra em detergente ácido (FDA, hemicelulose, celulose, lignina, cinzas totais, matéria seca (MS, proteína bruta (PB e carboidratos solúveis em álcool, que apresentaram valores médios de 61,8; 34,2; 27,5; 29,5; 4,6; 3,8; 25,7; 7,7; e 8,5% no material original e de 55,9; 32,6; 23,3; 28,5; 3,9; 4,0; 27,5; 8,6; e 0,8% nas silagens, respectivamente. Os valores de hemicelulose e celulose diminuíram com a ensilagem, indicando que tais frações forneceram carboidratos adicionais para a fermentação. Os teores de carboidratos solúveis do material original foram altos para todos os genótipos, sendo intensamente consumidos no silo, garantindo bom padrão de fermentação. Nas silagens, os valores de pH foram, em média, 3,5 e os teores de nitrogênio amoniacal, inferiores a 8%, em todos os genótipos. As silagens estudadas apresentaram-se iguais para todas as características pesquisadas.The twenty studied genotypes of sorghum were cultivated and ensiled at 104 days of age, at dough grain phase, using "PVC" lab silos, presenting 10 cm diameter and 40 cm length. The silos were opened at 150 days after ensiling. A completely randomized experimental design was used. In the studied material (fresh and ensiled the values of neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, hemicellulose, cellulose, lignin, total ash, dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP and alcool soluble carbohydrates were determined. The mean values were of 61.8, 34.2, 27.5, 29.5, 4.6, 3.8, 25.7, 7.7 and 8.5% in the fresh matter and of 55.9, 32.6, 23.3, 28.5, 3.9, 4

  16. Characterization of the neutron spectra at the final of the installations labyrinth with medical accelerators; Caracterizacion del espectro de neutrones al final del laberinto de instalaciones con aceleradores medicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carelli, J.; Cruzate, J.A.; Gregori, B.; Papadopulos, S.; Discacciatti, A. [Autoridad Reguladora Nuclear, Av. del Libertador 8250, Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. e-mail:


    A linear electron accelerator for medical use is an equipment dedicated to the production of collimated beams of electrons and/or photons. In an accelerator of a bigger potential or equal to 6 MV, are produced neutrons starting from the reaction (gamma, n) due to the interaction of the photons with the materials that compose the headset and the target. In this work the theoretical and experimental studies carried out to characterize the neutron spectra to the exit of the labyrinth of three bunkers of different geometry with accelerators of 15 MV, with the purpose of evaluating the effective dose of the occupationally exposure personnel are presented. It was carried out the simulation of the neutron transport with the MCNPX code and the ENDF/B - VI library. With the objective of analyzing the variables that affect the spectral distribution the bunkers of two existent facilities in Argentina were modeled. It was considered a isotropic punctual source located in the supposed position of the target. The spectra of {sup 252} Cf and of Watt of 1.8 MeV of half energy were simulated. The election of the sources was based on published works that suppose initial neutron sources with half energy between 1.8 and 2.3 MeV for accelerators of 15 at 25 MV. Its were considered headsets of different dimensions, with and without phantom of water disperser in the patient's position and several field dimensions in the isocenter. The spectral distribution doesn't present significant differences in the different modeling situations. Its were carried out measurements, with the multisphere spectrometric system based on twelve polyethylene spheres and a spherical detector of {sup 3} He, to the exit of each one of the bunkers. It was carried out the convolution of the spectrum using the MXD{sub F}C33 code (of the UMG33 set), considering as initial spectrum that of the fission type (inverse of the energy). The obtained spectra and the environmental equivalent dose rate in each case

  17. Radiation doses inside industrial irradiation installation with linear electron accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Alexandre R., E-mail: [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pelegrineli, Samuel Q.; Alo, Gabriel F., E-mail:, E-mail: [Aceletron Irradiacao Industrial, Aceletrica Comercio e Representacoes Ltda, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silva, Francisco C.A. Da, E-mail: [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    Aceletron Industrial Irradiation Company is the unique installation in South America to provide industrial irradiation service using two linear electron accelerators of 18 kW and 10 MeV energy. The electron beam technology allows using electrons to irradiate many goods and materials, such as hospital and medical equipment, cosmetics, herbal products, polymers, peat, gemstones and food. Aceletron Company uses a concrete bunker with 3.66 m of thickness to provide the necessary occupational and environmental radiation protection of X-rays produced. The bunker is divided in main four areas: irradiation room, maze, tower and pit. Inside the irradiation room the x-rays radiation rates are measured in two ways: direct beam and 90 deg C. The rates produced in the conveyor system using 10 MeV energy are 500 Gy/min/mA and 15 Gy/min/mA, respectively. For a 1.8 mA current, the rates produced are 900 Gy/min and 27 Gy/min, respectively. Outside the bunker the radiation rate is at background level, but in the tower door and modulation room the radiation rate is 10 μSv/h. In 2014, during a routine operation, an effective dose of 30.90 mSv was recorded in a monthly individual dosimeter. After the investigation, it was concluded that the dose was only in the dosimeter because it felt inside the irradiation room. As Aceletron Company follows the principles of safety culture, it was decided to perform the radiation isodose curves, inside the four areas of the installation, to know exactly the hotspots positions, exposure times and radiation doses. Five hotspots were chosen taking into account worker's routes and possible operational places. The first experiment was done using a package with three TLD and OSLD dosimeters to obtain better statistical results. The first results for the five hotspots near the accelerator machine showed that the radiation dose rates were between 26 Gy/h and 31 Gy/h. The final measurements were performed using a package with one TLD and one OSLD

  18. SU-E-J-200: Operation of An Electron Accelerator On An Integrated MR-Linac System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harasimowicz, J; Roberts, D; Shinton, I; Sund, S [Elekta Limited, Crawley (United Kingdom); Kok, J [University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Overweg, J [Philips Innovative Technologies, Hamburg, DE (Germany); Wang, H; Zhong, M [Elekta Beijing Medical Systems, Beijing (China)


    Purpose: An integrated MRI guided radiotherapy system poses a challenge of operating a linear accelerator in the presence of a magnetic field as the magnetic force acting on the electrons could Result in radiation source displacement and subsequent reduction of dose output. It was the purpose of this work to test the performance of a linac in the presence of a 1.5T MRI system. Methods: The first experimental MRI guided radiotherapy system at UMC-Utrecht consisting of an Elekta linac rotating around a 1.5T Magnex magnet was examined. A passive magnetic shield was simulated, designed and installed to reduce the influence of the MRI magnet stray field on the electron beamline. The B field inside the shield was measured as a function of gantry angle and measurements of dose rate constancy upon gantry rotation were performed. Results: The magnitude of the magnetic field on the electron beam path without the shield was as high as 70G. It varied by up to 15G with gantry rotation due to the presence of metal beams in the bunker floor which resulted in dose output drop of up to 70% at certain gantry angles. With the prototype shield, field magnitude was reduced to well below 0.5G everywhere along the electron beam path. Field variation with gantry rotation was decreased to below 0.2G and enabled dose output of the linac to be recovered at all gantry angles. The homogeneity of the field inside the MRI magnet has not been compromised. Conclusion: It was demonstrated that the influence of the 1.5T magnet and the bunker design on the linac operation has been minimised. The performance will be further improved on the Elekta Atlantic system which incorporates a newly developed and optimised Philips magnet design and bunker construction. J Harasimowicz, D Roberts, I Shinton and S Sund are employed by Elekta Limited Crawley, H Wang and M Zhong are employed by Elekta Beijing Medical Systems Co. Ltd., J Overweg is employed by Philips Technologie GmbH Forschungslaboratorien.

  19. Measuring neutron spectra in radiotherapy using the nested neutron spectrometer. (United States)

    Maglieri, Robert; Licea, Angel; Evans, Michael; Seuntjens, Jan; Kildea, John


    Out-of-field neutron doses resulting from photonuclear interactions in the head of a linear accelerator pose an iatrogenic risk to patients and an occupational risk to personnel during radiotherapy. To quantify neutron production, in-room measurements have traditionally been carried out using Bonner sphere systems (BSS) with activation foils and TLDs. In this work, a recently developed active detector, the nested neutron spectrometer (NNS), was tested in radiotherapy bunkers. The NNS is designed for easy handling and is more practical than the traditional BSS. Operated in current-mode, the problem of pulse pileup due to high dose-rates is overcome by measuring current, similar to an ionization chamber. In a bunker housing a Varian Clinac 21EX, the performance of the NNS was evaluated in terms of reproducibility, linearity, and dose-rate effects. Using a custom maximum-likelihood expectation-maximization algorithm, measured neutron spectra at various locations inside the bunker were then compared to Monte Carlo simulations of an identical setup. In terms of dose, neutron ambient dose equivalents were calculated from the measured spectra and compared to bubble detector neutron dose equivalent measurements. The NNS-measured spectra for neutrons at various locations in a treatment room were found to be consistent with expectations for both relative shape and absolute magnitude. Neutron fluence-rate decreased with distance from the source and the shape of the spectrum changed from a dominant fast neutron peak near the Linac head to a dominant thermal neutron peak in the moderating conditions of the maze. Monte Carlo data and NNS-measured spectra agreed within 30% at all locations except in the maze where the deviation was a maximum of 40%. Neutron ambient dose equivalents calculated from the authors' measured spectra were consistent (one standard deviation) with bubble detector measurements in the treatment room. The NNS may be used to reliably measure the neutron

  20. Asociación de las incidencias de hepatoma, las cirrosis y la hepatitis B en Cali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge H. Rojas


    Full Text Available El propósito de la investigación fue medir y comparar las incidencias del hepatoma (carcinoma hepatocelular, CHC, la cirrosis hepatocelular y la hepatitis B en la ciudad de Cali y clasificar las comunas de la ciudad según el riesgo de infección y sus complicaciones crónicas, para así establecer prioridades para las comunas más vulnerables y orientar eficientemente las acciones de promoción y prevención. No había estudios similares que expresaran la correlación y dinámica entre estos tres eventos en la región de las Américas. Se revisaron !as bases de datos del registro de población de cáncer y de mortalidad de la Secretaría de Salud Pública de Cali correspondientes a 1994; además, la de Vigilancia Epidemiológíca del Programa Ampliado de lnmunizaciones de Cali y del Laboratorio de Salud Pública de Cali de 1996. Se calcularon las incidencias de las enfermedades objeto de estudio según edad, sexo, comuna y Sistema Local de Salud (SILOS y el coeficiente de correlación de Pearson (r entre ellas, según comunas y silos. Los r fueron altos y significativos estadísticamente según silos, asi: CHC-CIRROSIS, r=0.82; IC: 0.03-0.98 y P