WorldWideScience

Sample records for bunker silos

  1. The Utility of Silos and Bunkers in the Evolution of Kinesiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretchmar, R. Scott

    2008-01-01

    Silos and bunkers have been allies in the development of kinesiology for nearly 50 years. Silos of specialization allow us to go toe-to-toe with researchers in parent disciplines, compete for grants, and otherwise spread our academic wings. The bunkers of utility and generic movement provide an important degree of legitimacy for a subject matter…

  2. Temporal and spatial assessment of microbial communities in commercial silages from bunker silos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraut-Cohen, J; Tripathi, V; Chen, Y; Gatica, J; Volchinski, V; Sela, S; Weinberg, Z; Cytryn, E

    2016-08-01

    Ensiling is a feed preservation method of moist forage crops that generally depends on naturally developing lactic acid bacteria to convert water-soluble carbohydrates into organic acids. While bacterial community dynamics have been previously assessed in bench-scale and pilot ensiling facilities, almost no studies have assessed the microbiomes of large-scale silage facilities. This study analyzed bacterial community composition in mature silage from bunker silos in three commercial production centers as related to pH, organic matter, volatile fatty acid composition, and spatial distribution within the ensiling bunker. It revealed significant physicochemical differences between "preserved" regions situated in the center and along the walls of the silage bunkers that were characterized by high concentrations of lactic acid and other volatiles and pH values below 5, and "spoiled" regions in the corners (shoulders) of the bunkers that had low lactic acid concentrations and high pH values. Preserved silage was dominated (>90 %) by lactic acid bacteria and characterized by high similarity and low taxonomic diversity, whereas spoiled silage had highly diverse microbiomes with low abundances of lactic acid bacteria (<5 %) that were sometimes characterized by high levels of Enterobacteriaceae. Spatial position had a much stronger impact on the microbial community composition than feedstock type, sampling date, or production center location supporting previous studies demonstrating that ecology and not geography is a major driver of environmental microbiomes.

  3. Developing a Penetrometer-Based Mapping System for Visualizing Silage Bulk Density from the Bunker Silo Face

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Menghua; Jungbluth, Kerstin H.; Sun, Yurui; Cheng, Qiang; Maack, Christian; Buescher, Wolfgang; Lin, Jianhui; Zhou, Haiyang; Wang, Zhongyi

    2016-01-01

    For silage production, high bulk density (BD) is critical to minimize aerobic deterioration facilitated by oxygen intrusion. To precisely assess packing quality for bunker silos, there is a desire to visualize the BD distribution within the silage. In this study, a penetrometer-based mapping system was developed. The data processing included filtering of the penetration friction component (PFC) out of the penetration resistance (PR), transfer of the corrected penetration resistance (PRc) to BD, incorporation of Kriged interpolation for data expansion and map generation. The experiment was conducted in a maize bunker silo (width: 8 m, middle height: 3 m). The BD distributions near the bunker silo face were represented using two map groups, one related to horizontal- and the other to vertical-density distribution patterns. We also presented a comparison between the map-based BD results and core sampling data. Agreement between the two measurement approaches (RMSE = 19.175 kg·m−3) demonstrates that the developed penetrometer mapping system may be beneficial for rapid assessment of aerobic deterioration potential in bunker silos. PMID:27399703

  4. Developing a Penetrometer-Based Mapping System for Visualizing Silage Bulk Density from the Bunker Silo Face

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menghua Li

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available For silage production, high bulk density (BD is critical to minimize aerobic deterioration facilitated by oxygen intrusion. To precisely assess packing quality for bunker silos, there is a desire to visualize the BD distribution within the silage. In this study, a penetrometer-based mapping system was developed. The data processing included filtering of the penetration friction component (PFC out of the penetration resistance (PR, transfer of the corrected penetration resistance (PRc to BD, incorporation of Kriged interpolation for data expansion and map generation. The experiment was conducted in a maize bunker silo (width: 8 m, middle height: 3 m. The BD distributions near the bunker silo face were represented using two map groups, one related to horizontal- and the other to vertical-density distribution patterns. We also presented a comparison between the map-based BD results and core sampling data. Agreement between the two measurement approaches (RMSE = 19.175 kg·m−3 demonstrates that the developed penetrometer mapping system may be beneficial for rapid assessment of aerobic deterioration potential in bunker silos.

  5. Developing a Penetrometer-Based Mapping System for Visualizing Silage Bulk Density from the Bunker Silo Face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Menghua; Jungbluth, Kerstin H; Sun, Yurui; Cheng, Qiang; Maack, Christian; Buescher, Wolfgang; Lin, Jianhui; Zhou, Haiyang; Wang, Zhongyi

    2016-07-05

    For silage production, high bulk density (BD) is critical to minimize aerobic deterioration facilitated by oxygen intrusion. To precisely assess packing quality for bunker silos, there is a desire to visualize the BD distribution within the silage. In this study, a penetrometer-based mapping system was developed. The data processing included filtering of the penetration friction component (PFC) out of the penetration resistance (PR), transfer of the corrected penetration resistance (PRc) to BD, incorporation of Kriged interpolation for data expansion and map generation. The experiment was conducted in a maize bunker silo (width: 8 m, middle height: 3 m). The BD distributions near the bunker silo face were represented using two map groups, one related to horizontal- and the other to vertical-density distribution patterns. We also presented a comparison between the map-based BD results and core sampling data. Agreement between the two measurement approaches (RMSE = 19.175 kg·m(-3)) demonstrates that the developed penetrometer mapping system may be beneficial for rapid assessment of aerobic deterioration potential in bunker silos.

  6. BUNKER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard Nielsen, Anders; Diaz, Pauline; Aagaard, Tine

    2011-01-01

    This book demonstrates how the WWII bunkers can serve as an important study object for students of Architecture. The presented assignment is for 1. year students at the Aarhus school of Architecture. The overall scheme of the book falls in two categories. One being the documentations of the bunkers...

  7. Improving corn silage quality in the top layer of farm bunker silos through the use of a next-generation barrier film with high impermeability to oxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borreani, G; Tabacco, E

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effect on the fermentation, chemical, and microbiological quality of corn silage covered with a new-generation high oxygen barrier film (HOB) made with a special grade of ethylene-vinyl alcohol (EVOH) compared with a standard polyethylene film (PE). Two bunkers (farms 1 and 2) were divided into 2 parts lengthwise so that half of the silo would be covered with PE film and the other with HOB film. Plastic net bags with fresh chopped corn were buried in the upper layer (close to and far from the wall) and in the central part of the bunkers. During spring-summer consumption, the bags were unloaded, weighed, and subsampled to analyze the dry matter (DM) content, neutral detergent fiber and starch contents, pH, lactic and monocarboxylic acids, yeast and mold counts, aerobic and anaerobic spore-former counts, and aerobic stability. We also determined the economic benefit of applying the novel covering. The top layer of silage conserved under the HOB film had a higher lactic acid content and lower pH; lower counts of yeasts, molds, and aerobic and anaerobic spore-formers; higher aerobic stability; and lower DM losses than the silage conserved under the PE film. The use of the HOB film prevented almost all of the silage in the upper layer from spoiling; only 2 out of 32 samples had a mold count >6log10 cfu/g. This led to a net economic gain when the HOB film was used on both farms due to the increased DM recovery and reduced labor time required to clean the upper layer, even though the HOB film cost about 2.3 times more than the PE film. Furthermore, use of the HOB film, which ensures a longer shelf life of silage during consumption, reduced the detrimental effect of yeasts, molds, and aerobic and anaerobic spore-formers on the nutritional and microbiological quality of the unloaded silage.

  8. Packing Bunker and Pile Silos to Minimize Porosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    This article discusses the issue of porosity (i.e., the portion of volume filled with gas) in silages. As porosity increases, the silage is subject to greater losses. Porosity can be reduced by adequately packing the crop at ensiling. To keep porosity below 40% a minimum bulk density of 44 lbs./cu. ...

  9. Influence of Cover Type on Silage Quality in Bunker Silos

    Science.gov (United States)

    The quality of silage under reduced oxygen-permeability plastic film systems vs. standard white polyethylene film and tires was evaluated. In six trials (four in whole-plant corn, two in alfalfa), the Silostop two-step covering system (oxygen-barrier film on the side walls and top, woven plastic tar...

  10. Bunker purchasing with contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Christian Edinger Munk; Neergaard Jensen, Peter; Pisinger, David

    2014-01-01

    constraints such as capacity limits, reserve requirements and sulphur content. Contracts are often used for bunker purchasing, ensuring supply and often giving a discounted price. A contract can supply any vessel in a period and port, and is thus a shared resource between vessels, which must be distributed...

  11. Nuevo silo – Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt, W.

    1971-11-01

    Full Text Available The firm Waagner-Biro, collaborating with Farbwerke Hoechst, AG., of Frankfurt, and with assistance from the Austrian Government, has designed and produced a new type of silo, made of steel, intended for use in underdeveloped countries, in emergency areas, and in any zone where silos are needed which can be rapidly assembled and taken down, are light in weight and easy to transport. These silos can contain solids, liquids, and, with a special external treatment, also aggressive chemicals for agricultural purposes.La firma Waagner-Biro, en colaboración con la Farbwerke Hoechst AG de Frankfurt y bajo la eficaz promoción del Gobierno austríaco, fabrica este moderno silo de acero-trevira destinado a cubrir las necesidades de países en vía de desarrollo, de zonas catastróficas y, en general, de cualquier lugar donde se requiera gran rapidez de montaje y desmontaje, poco peso propio y facilidad subsiguiente de transporte y celeridad de entrega. Puede contener productos sólidos y líquidos y, aplicándole un recubrimiento especial, incluso materias químicas biológicamente agresivas.

  12. 49 CFR 176.154 - Fueling (bunkering).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fueling (bunkering). 176.154 Section 176.154... (bunkering). (a) Class 1 (explosive) materials, except those in compatibility group S, may not be loaded or unloaded when fueling (bunkering) is in progress except with the prior authorization of the COTP, and...

  13. Collaboration across clinical silos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohler, M Jane

    2013-01-01

    We face significant challenges to healthcare integration as well as tremendous opportunities to advance healthcare reform as we endeavor to provide a coordinated continuum of high-value services to defined populations for which we are clinically and fiscally accountable. As we move away from fee-for-service and poorly coordinated care toward value-based and bundled care, systems such as UnityPoint Health and clinical entities such as Piedmont Heart are leading the way, breaking down their clinical silos, improving value and access, and gaining patient loyalty. Evidence points us to sound principles that can inform the clinical integration process. Health systems must reinvent themselves, reengineer clinical operations, and streamline processes, all of which require collaboration across traditional silos, both inside our organizations and outside into our wider communities, to ensure that our patients receive the safe, high-value care they deserve.

  14. Silo Storage Preconceptual Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephanie L. Austad; Patrick W. Bragassa; Kevin M Croft; David S Ferguson; Scott C Gladson; Annette L Shafer; John H Weathersby

    2012-09-01

    The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) has a need to develop and field a low-cost option for the long-term storage of a variety of radiological material. The storage option’s primary requirement is to provide both environmental and physical protection of the materials. Design criteria for this effort require a low initial cost and minimum maintenance over a 50-year design life. In 1999, Argonne National Laboratory-West was tasked with developing a dry silo storage option for the BN-350 Spent Fuel in Aktau Kazakhstan. Argon’s design consisted of a carbon steel cylinder approximately 16 ft long, 18 in. outside diameter and 0.375 in. wall thickness. The carbon steel silo was protected from corrosion by a duplex coating system consisting of zinc and epoxy. Although the study indicated that the duplex coating design would provide a design life well in excess of the required 50 years, the review board was concerned because of the novelty of the design and the lack of historical use. In 2012, NNSA tasked Idaho National Laboratory (INL) with reinvestigating the silo storage concept and development of alternative corrosion protection strategies. The 2012 study, “Silo Storage Concepts, Cathodic Protection Options Study” (INL/EST-12-26627), concludes that the option which best fits the design criterion is a passive cathotic protection scheme, consisting of a carbon steel tube coated with zinc or a zinc-aluminum alloy encapsulated in either concrete or a cement grout. The hot dipped zinc coating option was considered most efficient, but the flame-sprayed option could be used if a thicker zinc coating was determined to be necessary.

  15. Monitoring of bunker fuel consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faber, J.; Nelissen, D.; Smit, M.

    2013-03-15

    Monitoring of fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions from international shipping is currently under discussion at the EU level as well as at the IMO (International Maritime Organization). There are several approaches to monitoring, each with different characteristics. Based on a survey of the literature and information from equipment suppliers, this report analyses the four main methods for monitoring emissions: (1) Bunker delivery notes (i.e. a note provided by the bunker fuel supplier specifying, inter alia, the amount of fuel bunkered); (2) Tank sounding (i.e. systems for measuring the amount of fuel in the fuel tanks); (3) Fuel flow meters (i.e. systems for measuring the amount of fuel supplied to the engines, generators or boilers); and (4) Direct emissions monitoring (i.e. measuring the exhaust emissions in the stack). The report finds that bunker delivery notes and tank soundings have the lowest investment cost. However, unless tank sounding is automated, these systems have higher operational costs than fuel flow meters or direct emissions monitoring because manual readings have to be entered in monitoring systems. Fuel flow meters have the highest potential accuracy. Depending on the technology selected, their accuracy can be an order of magnitude better than the other systems, which typically have errors of a few percent. By providing real-time feed-back on fuel use or emissions, fuel flow meters and direct emissions monitoring provide ship operators with the means to train their crew to adopt fuel-efficient sailing methods and to optimise their maintenance and hull cleaning schedules. Except for bunker delivery notes, all systems allow for both time-based and route-based (or otherwise geographically delineated) systems.

  16. RESEARCH AND IMPROVEMENT OF SPIRAL BUNKER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董正筑; 曹璎珞; 王启广

    1996-01-01

    A great attention has been paid to slowing the degradation of coal nowadays. The spiral bunker is the main measure to lower the degradation. In this paper the application and research of spiral bunker are introduced. And two non-normal spiral chutes are discussed. One is in the tangential direction of the inner wall of the bunker, another is in the direction of the diameter of the bunker. Mathematical models of the non-normal spiral chutes are set up to optimize the geometrical parameters of the spiral curved surface, which would ensure that coal travels smoothly to the bottom of the bunker. The results would be useful for designing and retrofitting the spiral bunker.

  17. Silo model tests with sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch-Andersen, Jørgen

    Tests have been carried out in a large silo model with Leighton Buzzard Sand. Normal pressures and shear stresses have been measured during tests carried out with inlet and outlet geometry. The filling method is a very important parameter for the strength of the mass and thereby the pressures...... as well as the flow pattern during discharge of the silo. During discharge a mixed flow pattern has been identified...

  18. Estudo comparativo de diferentes tipos de silos sobre a composição bromatológica e perfil fermentativo da silagem de milho Comparative studies on chemical composition and fermentation characteristics of corn silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laércio Melotti

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Três diferentes tipos de silos de laboratório, confeccionados a partir de baldes plásticos, sacos plásticos e manilhas de concreto com revestimento plástico, em dois diferentes graus de compactação (400 ou 600 kg de silagem/m3, foram comparados com o silo comercial tipo trincheira amostrado a 0, 50 e 100 cm da sua superfície. A planta de milho (27,3% de MS e 8,4% de PB foi picada, homogeneizada e utilizada para encher quatro silos por tratamento. Depois de abertos, estes foram amostrados para análise da composição bromatológica e perfil fermentativo. Os teores de MS e PB variaram entre os diferentes extratos do silo comercial e foram intermediários nos silos laboratoriais, indicando maior translocação de água e nutrientes naquele do que nestes. Os silos laboratoriais representaram bem os comerciais, quanto aos componentes da parede celular, amido, carboidratos solúveis e DIVMS. O pH foi menor na silagem obtida no extrato médio, intermediário no profundo e maior na superfície do silo comercial. Silagens obtidas no extrato médio também apresentaram maiores teores de nitrogênio amoniacal e ácido lático, enquanto que as obtidas no extrato profundo apresentaram as concentrações mais elevadas de ácido acético. De forma geral, os silos laboratoriais representaram bem o perfil de fermentação dos silos comerciais (pH, concentração de etanol, acético, propiônico, butírico, lático e N amoniacal, já que a maior variabilidade de resposta foi observada entre os extratos do silo comercialA commercial bunker silo and three types of experimental silos were used for determination of chemical composition and fermentation characteristics of corn silage (27.3% DM and 8.4% CP ensiled in two different densities (400 or 600kg of silage/m3: 1 commercial bunker silo sampled at 0, 50 and 100 cm from the top; 2 plastic silo with bulsen valve; 3 plastic bag; and 4 concrete pipe. Dry matter and CP concentration showed larger variation

  19. 31 CFR 560.529 - Bunkering and emergency repairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bunkering and emergency repairs. 560..., Authorizations and Statements of Licensing Policy § 560.529 Bunkering and emergency repairs. Goods or services... permissible if they are: (a) Bunkers or bunkering services; (b) Supplied or performed in the course...

  20. LNG Bunkering Operations: Establish probabilistic safety distances for LNG bunkering operations.

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The environmental and economical advantages of using LNG as marine fuel have been recognized by the industry. In response to increasing demand, construction of LNG bunkering infrastructure is under rapid development. Several ports are preparing to supply LNG, but uncertainties concerning the bunkering process and operational safety still exist. Recently, much work has been done to standardize LNG bunkering solutions, including a launch of an ISO guideline and a Recommended Practice (RP) by DN...

  1. Routing and Scheduling in Tramp Shipping - Integrating Bunker Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilhelmsen, Charlotte; Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper

    , route and schedule decisions affect the options for bunkering. Current practice is, however, to separate the two planning problems by first constructing fleet schedules and then plan bunkering for these fixed schedules. In this paper we explore the effects of integrating bunker planning in the routing...... and scheduling phase and present a mixed integer programming formulation for the integrated problem of optimally routing, scheduling and bunkering a tramp fleet. Aside from the integration of bunker, this model also extends standard tramp formulations by using load dependent costs, speed and bunker consumption...

  2. Tramp ship routing and scheduling with integrated bunker optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilhelmsen, Charlotte; Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    , route and schedule decisions affect the options for bunkering. Current practice is, however, to separate the two planning problems by first constructing fleet schedules and then plan bunkering for these fixed schedules. In this paper we explore the effects of integrating bunker planning in the routing...... and scheduling phase and present a mixed integer programming formulation for the integrated problem of optimally routing, scheduling and bunkering a tramp fleet. Aside from the integration of bunker, this model also extends standard tramp formulations by using load dependent costs, speed and bunker consumption...

  3. Bunker C. fuel oil reduces mallard egg hatchability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szaro, R.C.

    1979-01-01

    Assessment of the effect of Bunker C fuel oil on artificially-incubated mallard eggs. Eggshell applications of 5-50 ul of Bunker C fuel oil were made on day 8 of incubation; measured hatching success.

  4. Parametric study of silo-material interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanain, G. S.

    1981-06-01

    The methods for determination of pressures and the analysis of silos for storage of granular materials are reviewed. A finite element procedure for linear analysis and an initial-strain analysis of hoop forces and horizontal bending moments in circular concrete silos with bisymmetric outlets is presented, and these methods are compared with the hoop steel areas obtained using current practice. A concrete coal silo is designed by these methods and compared with one designed by standard methods.

  5. Bunker Hill Sediment Characterization Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neal A. Yancey; Debby F. Bruhn

    2009-12-01

    The long history of mineral extraction in the Coeur d’Alene Basin has left a legacy of heavy metal laden mine tailings that have accumulated along the Coeur d’Alene River and its tributaries (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2001; Barton, 2002). Silver, lead and zinc were the primary metals of economic interest in the area, but the ores contained other elements that have become environmental hazards including zinc, cadmium, lead, arsenic, nickel, and copper. The metals have contaminated the water and sediments of Lake Coeur d’Alene, and continue to be transported downstream to Spokane Washington via the Spokane River. In 1983, the EPA listed the Bunker Hill Mining and Metallurgical Complex on the National Priorities List. Since that time, many of the most contaminated areas have been stabilized or isolated, however metal contaminants continue to migrate through the basin. Designation as a Superfund site causes significant problems for the economically depressed communities in the area. Identification of primary sources of contamination can help set priorities for cleanup and cleanup options, which can include source removal, water treatment or no action depending on knowledge about the mobility of contaminants relative to water flow. The mobility of contaminant mobility under natural or engineered conditions depends on multiple factors including the physical and chemical state (or speciation) of metals and the range of processes, some of which can be seasonal, that cause mobilization of metals. As a result, it is particularly important to understand metal speciation (National Research Council, 2005) and the link between speciation and the rates of metal migration and the impact of natural or engineered variations in flow, biological activity or water chemistry.

  6. Routing and Scheduling in Tramp Shipping - Integrating Bunker Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilhelmsen, Charlotte; Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper

    operations. Therefore, route and schedule decisions a_ect the options for bunkering. Current practice is, however, to separate the two planning problems by first constructing fleet schedules and then plan bunkering for these fixed schedules. In this paper we explore the effects of integrating bunker planning...... in the routing and scheduling phase and present a mixed integer programming formulation for the integrated problem of optimally routing, scheduling and bunkering a tramp fleet. Aside from the integration of bunker, this model also extends standard tramp formulations by using load dependent costs, speed...

  7. Aerated bunker discharge of fine dilating powders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouwerkerk, C.E.D.; Molenaar, H.J.; Frank, M.J.W.

    1992-01-01

    The discharge rate of coarse powders (mean particle size 500 ¿m) from bunkers without aeration can be described by both empirical relations and theoretical models. In the case of small particles the discharge rate is largely overestimated. As the powder dilates during flow a negative pressure gradie

  8. Impact resistance cryogenic bunker fuel tanks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voormeeren, L.O.; Atli-Veltin, B.; Vredeveldt, A.W.

    2014-01-01

    The increasing use of liquefied natural gas (LNG) as bunker fuel in ships, calls for an elaborate study regarding the risks involved. One particular issue is the vulnerability of cryogenic LNG storage tanks with respect to impact loadings, such as ship collisions and dropped objects. This requires a

  9. Statistical analysis of silo wall pressures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Berntsen, Kasper Nikolaj

    1998-01-01

    Previously published silo wall pressure measurements during plug flow of barley in alarge concrete silo are re-analysed under the hypothesis that the wall pressures are gamma-distributed.The fits of the gamma distribution type to the local pressure data from each measuring cell are satisfactory...

  10. Modeling ventilation time in forage tower silos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahloul, A; Chavez, M; Reggio, M; Roberge, B; Goyer, N

    2012-10-01

    The fermentation process in forage tower silos produces a significant amount of gases, which can easily reach dangerous concentrations and constitute a hazard for silo operators. To maintain a non-toxic environment, silo ventilation is applied. Literature reviews show that the fermentation gases reach high concentrations in the headspace of a silo and flow down the silo from the chute door to the feed room. In this article, a detailed parametric analysis of forced ventilation scenarios built via numerical simulation was performed. The methodology is based on the solution of the Navier-Stokes equations, coupled with transport equations for the gas concentrations. Validation was achieved by comparing the numerical results with experimental data obtained from a scale model silo using the tracer gas testing method for O2 and CO2 concentrations. Good agreement was found between the experimental and numerical results. The set of numerical simulations made it possible to establish a simple analytical model to predict the minimum time required to ventilate a silo to make it safe to enter. This ventilation time takes into account the headspace above the forage, the airflow rate, and the initial concentrations of O2 and CO2. The final analytical model was validated with available results from the literature.

  11. 19 CFR 10.62 - Bunker fuel oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bunker fuel oil. 10.62 Section 10.62 Customs... Equipment for Vessels § 10.62 Bunker fuel oil. (a) Withdrawal under section 309, Tariff Act of 1930, as... section 309, Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (19 U.S.C. 1309), when all the bunker fuel oil in a...

  12. Characterization of Fernald Silo 3 Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C.A.

    2001-04-04

    This report summarizes characterization results for uranium residues from the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) Operable Unit (OU-4). These residues are currently stored in a one-million-gallon concrete silo, Silo 3, at the DOE Fernald Site, Ohio. Characterization of the Silo 3 waste is the first part of a three part study requested by Rocky Mountain Remedial Services (RMRS) through a Work for others Agreement, WFO-00-007, between the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) and RMRS. Parts 2 and 3 of this effort include bench- and pilot-scale testing.

  13. The four silo STK Powderhorn Tape Library

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2001-01-01

    A view of the four silo Storage Tek (STK) Powderhorn Tape Library and its control area. Each silo can contain up to 6000 storage slots with cartridges of 10, 20, 25 or 50 GB capacity, reaching a data transfer rate of up to 12 Mbytes/sec. This will form part of the Grid system that will process the huge amounts of data produced at the LHC.

  14. Oil Bunkering Activities in the Niger Delta "The Way Forward"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orijialurechi Boniface

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Bunkeringis the practice and business whereby duly licensed operators stores petroleum products in tanks and subsequently provide fuels, water and lubricants (bunkering services for marine services on request. It could be likened to establishing a floating fuel service station on the high seas or at coastal jetties to supply fuel and provisions of water to ships. The Niger Delta is a host to Nigeria’s proved Oil and Gas reserves. In this study, the history of Bunker oïl and the various types of bunkers were examined; Bunker trade, transportation of bunker fuel and the various types of vessels used were also analyzed. The study provides accurate information on how the bunkering business could be managed using world best practices for the economic benefit of the Nigerian economy thereby creating jobs for citizens and income for the gouvernement. Also, this research gives a guide line on how to re-orient Nigerian citizens on the legitimacy and the economic potential for the bunkering business in Niger Delta. The results showed that an organized bunker trade would add positively to the GDP of Nigeria

  15. Beating the Bunker: The Effect of PETTLEP Imagery on Golf Bunker Shot Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Dave; Wright, Caroline J.; Cantwell, Cara

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of physical practice with PETTLEP-based (Physical, Environment, Task, Timing, Learning, Emotion and Perspective; Holmes & Collins, 2001) imagery and PETTLEP + physical practice interventions on golf bunker shot performance. Thirty-two male county- or international-level golfers were assigned to one…

  16. Silo Collapse under Granular Discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, G.; Colonnello, C.; Boltenhagen, P.; Darias, J. R.; Peralta-Fabi, R.; Brau, F.; Clément, E.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate, at a laboratory scale, the collapse of cylindrical shells of radius R and thickness t induced by a granular discharge. We measure the critical filling height for which the structure fails upon discharge. We observe that the silos sustain filling heights significantly above an estimation obtained by coupling standard shell-buckling and granular stress distribution theories. Two effects contribute to stabilize the structure: (i) below the critical filling height, a dynamical stabilization due to granular wall friction prevents the localized shell-buckling modes to grow irreversibly; (ii) above the critical filling height, collapse occurs before the downward sliding motion of the whole granular column sets in, such that only a partial friction mobilization is at play. However, we notice also that the critical filling height is reduced as the grain size d increases. The importance of grain size contribution is controlled by the ratio d /√{R t }. We rationalize these antagonist effects with a novel fluid-structure theory both accounting for the actual status of granular friction at the wall and the inherent shell imperfections mediated by the grains. This theory yields new scaling predictions which are compared with the experimental results.

  17. Prediction of silo-vibrations using a modified lambdameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäckel, Stefan; Schünemann, Ralf; Mütze, Thomas; Peuker, Urs A.

    2013-06-01

    Predicting silo-vibrations is not yet universally possible but only to a very limited extent. A mechanism of excitation of silo vibrations can be found in oscillating shear stresses between the bulk solid and the inner silo wall, the so-called "wall-stick-slip" effect. So if this wall-stick-slip occurs during shear experiments in shear testers, the probability of silo-vibrations in silos will be high. However if there is no slip-stick effect observed, this will not consequently exclude silo-vibrations. The influences on a stable stick-slip were studied in wall friction experiments with a rotational shear tester and in a specially developed silo model based on a lambdameter. The examined parameters are normal stress, shear velocity, wall roughness and particle shape. Plastic pellets which are known to honk (PET, PA) and plastic pellets that do not honk (PE) are considered [1]. It is shown that the silo model based on a lambdameter is more suitable for initiation and measurement of stable wall-stick-slip of granular media than the conventional rotational shear tester. The industrial experiences in respect of silo vibrations are proved in the silo model for all tested types of plastic pellets. So, if the origin of silo vibrations is wall-stick-slip, the silo model based on a lambdameter gives a better opportunity for predicting silo vibrations. This paper gives a summary on the results obtained with the new method.

  18. Los empujes del material almacenado en silos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayuga, Francisco

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available The design of silos has been the object of scientific and technical research for a whole century and this has led to great advances in the field. The results have not always been adequately disseminated among the technicians. The aim of this paper is to present the techniques for calculation of the loads of the materials stored in silos, inform about and comment on the standards, introduce the latest works carried out worldwide based on the finite elements method and, lastly, venture an opinion on the changes this may cause in the future.

    Durante un siglo el cálculo de silos ha sido objeto de investigación científica, técnica y aplicada y se han producido grandes avances. Todo este desarrollo no siempre ha sido bien dado a conocer entre los técnicos. El objeto de este artículo es precisamente presentar las técnicas de cálculo de acciones del material almacenado en silos, presentar y comentar la normativa, introducir los últimos trabajos que en el cálculo de silos se están haciendo en todo el mundo basados en la técnica de los elementos finitos y aventurar los cambios que esto va a suponer en un futuro.

  19. Silo with a Corrugated Sheet Wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Németh, Csaba; Brodniansky, Ján

    2013-09-01

    Silos and tanks are currently being used to create reserves of stored materials. Their importance is based on balancing the production and consumption of bulk materials to establish an adequate reserve throughout the year. The case study introduced within the framework of this paper focuses on thin-walled silos made of corrugated sheets and on an approach for designing these types of structures. The storage of bulk materials causes compression or tensile stresses in the walls of a silo structure. The effect of a frictional force in the silo walls creates an additional bending moment in a wave, which ultimately affects the resulting bending moments. Several mathematical and physical models were used in order to examine various types of loading and their effects on a structure. Subsequently, the accuracy of the computational models was verified by experimental measurements on a grain silo in Bojničky, Slovakia. A comparison of the experimental and mathematical models shows a reasonable match and confirms the load specifications, while indicating that the mathematical model was correct.

  20. Ballistic Missile Silo Door Monitoring Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EDENBURN,MICHAEL W.; TROST,LAWRENCE C.

    2000-01-01

    This paper compares the cost and effectiveness of several potential options that may be used to monitor silo-based ballistic missiles. Silo door monitoring can be used to verify that warheads removed to deactivate or download silo-based ballistic missiles have not been replaced. A precedent for monitoring warhead replacement using reentry vehicle on site inspections (RV-OSIs) and using satellites has been established by START-I and START-II. However, other monitoring options have the potential to be less expensive and more effective. Three options are the most promising if high verification confidence is desired: random monitoring using door sensors; random monitoring using manned or unmanned aircraft; and continuous remote monitoring using unattended door sensors.

  1. The Tilt of the Elevator Shaft of Bunker Skutina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel KALENDA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of deformations of the elevator shaft in the Skutina fortress between the 2nd floor and the depth of 33 m below the surface took place in 2009. These measurements showed that, in addition to the tides, the diurnal thermoelastic wave deforms the body of the bunker, particularly in the NS direction. The amplitude of this deformation depends mainly on the cloudiness (opposite to the irradiance. Morning and evening deformation curves depend mainly on the time of sunrise and the geometry of the body of the bunker (irradiance of the bunker walls and less of the outside temperature.

  2. A study the degree of concentration of the Spanish bunkering

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This paper shows the Gini Coefficient of the Spanish bunkering, for the Spanish Port System 1960 to the year 2010 with the aim to describe the Spanish bunkering in these periods and propose future strategies. The stage of bunkering must change due to new regulations of marine fuels but to predict the future you must know the past On December 17 came into force on community standard marine fuels. After a complicated negotiation with the industry moves forward a project that is fully compliant ...

  3. Application of electrostatic prevention technology on polyethylene silos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Hong; Liu, Quanzhen; Tan, Fenggui; Zhang, Yunpeng

    2013-03-01

    The main reasons of static electric explosion accidents in polyolefin plant silos were analyzed in this paper, and the study finds that the reasons include control failure of flammable gas content in the feed, high electrification caused by the wind supply, and frequent electrostatic discharge in silos. The electrostatic-reducing technologies of polyolefin powder were introduced, and its application performance in polyolefin plant silos was also clarified. In addition, the methods including FDCS and DGES for evaluation of electrostatic explosion in polyolefin plant silo were proposed. In the end, the risk of electrostatic explosion in PE plant blended silo was evaluated before and after application of electrostatic reducing technology.

  4. Forced Vibrations of Silos Leading to Buckling

    Science.gov (United States)

    FLORES, FERNANDO G.; GODOY, LUIS A.

    1999-07-01

    The large-amplitude force vibrations of steel thin-walled silos when empty are investigated. The basic geometry configuration modelled is a cylinder clamped at the bottom with a top conical roof. Wind pressure distributions are assumed as non-axisymmetric in the circumferential direction and with a rectangular impulse or step distribution in time. Instability is identified from finite-element computations of the time response of the shell using a criterion due to Budianski and Roth. Results are computed for silos made with plain as well as with corrugated sheets, and the influences of geometric imperfections and the stiffening due to the roof are included in the analysis. The problems are also modelled with static pressures using both continuation techniques and bifurcation analysis from a linear fundamental path. Additional results have been obtained to estimate the dynamic buckling load for step loading using energy procedures. All results are computed using finite-element codes developed by the authors.

  5. Development of coal store and transportation technology using horizontal coal bunker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Jian-sheng; CHEN Qing-shu

    2005-01-01

    Discussed the necessity of setting up the coal bunker in mining, introduced the development of coal bunker technology, combining the mining characteristic of the high yield and high-efficient working face in China at present, and point out that the type of horizontal coal bunker, is a kind of security, high-efficient coal store and transportation technology of suiting the modern production need of the colliery, is the developing direction of technology of store and transportation of coal bunker.

  6. A Lagrangian heuristic for determining the speed and bunkering port of a ship

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This study addresses the problem of determining the ship speed and bunkering ports in a ship route. All of the previous research has investigated the ship speed optimization issues by assuming that the ship navigates at constant speed or by ignoring the bunkering port decision. In this study, the problem of determining the variable speed and bunkering port is formulated mathematically with a nonlinear program in order to minimize the bunker fuel, ship time costs, and carbon tax imposed on gre...

  7. THE STUDY OF ALLOCATION OF SURGE BUNKER IN MINE HAULAGE SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王喜富; 张幼蒂; 张达贤

    1997-01-01

    Based on the function analysis of surge bunker in mine haulage system, the authors raise the calculation methods of the total output of a mine haulage system. Taking the maximum of system's total throughput as a objective, the method of determining the surge bunker's rational size is put forward. Also, the problems of rational position of surge bunker are analysesed.

  8. RADIATION PROTECTION OF LINAC BUNKERS. A USER-FRIENDLY APPROACH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holten Sørensen, Thyge; Olsen, Kjeld Jørgen; Behrens, Claus Flensted

    2015-01-01

    A well-known but complex formalism for the calculation of the leakage dose at the entrance of the linac maze was considered and simplified. These simplifications were based partly on the literature and partly on the authors' own measurements. The authors have included photon scatter originating f...... from the irradiated patient in the formalism. A formalism for two different types of bunkers was developed, and the authors have obtained simple formulas to calculate the dose at the maze entrance for both bunker types....

  9. Oil Bunkering Activities in the Niger Delta "The Way Forward"

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Bunkeringis the practice and business whereby duly licensed operators stores petroleum products in tanks and subsequently provide fuels, water and lubricants (bunkering services) for marine services on request. It could be likened to establishing a floating fuel service station on the high seas or at coastal jetties to supply fuel and provisions of water to ships. The Niger Delta is a host to Nigeria’s proved Oil and Gas reserves. In this study, the history of Bunker oïl and the v...

  10. Integrated hedging and network planning for container shipping's bunker fuel management

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoyu Wang; Chee-Chong Teo

    2013-01-01

    Bunker fuel costs could account for 50–60 per cent of a ship's total operating cost in times of high fuel prices. The volatility of the bunker market over recent years has contributed to significant instability of cash flows for shipping lines. In this study, we consider two of the bunker fuel risk management measures employed by container shipping companies to reduce bunker fuel price risk – re-planning of network configuration and financial hedging of bunker fuel prices. The current industr...

  11. Large-scale Homogenization of Bulk Materials in Mammoth Silos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schott, D.L.

    2004-01-01

    This doctoral thesis concerns the large-scale homogenization of bulk materials in mammoth silos. The objective of this research was to determine the best stacking and reclaiming method for homogenization in mammoth silos. For this purpose a simulation program was developed to estimate the homogeniza

  12. Efficacy of heat treatment for disinfestation of concrete grain silos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field experiments were conducted in 2007 and 2008 to evaluate heat treatment for disinfestations of empty concrete elevator silos. A Mobile Heat Treatment Unit was used to introduce heat into silos to attain target conditions of 50°C for at least 6 h. Ventilated plastic containers with a capacity of...

  13. Exploring the Impact of Silos in Achieving Brand Orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyrd-Jones, Richard I.; Helm, Clive; Munk, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    the achievement of brand orientation. Through inductive analysis of a case study of an organisation implementing a major brand-revitalisation strategy, this paper demonstrates how, despite a strong brand vision and high level of management commitment, functional silos associated with different mindsets......Brands are widely recognised as important sources of organisational value. Brand orientation describes the extent to which the organisation is orientated around the brand and around maximising brand potential. However, silos or divisions within the culture of an organisation can frustrate...... contributed to the failure of the new brand strategy. The paper concludes with recommendations for the brand platform to be implemented meaningfully and effectively within each silo....

  14. Design criteria for structural design of silage silo walls

    OpenAIRE

    von Wachenfelt, Hans; Nilsson, Christer; Östergaard, Göran; Olofsson, Anders; Karlsson, Marie

    2014-01-01

    Existing Swedish design guidelines (JBR) cover silo wall heights up to about 3 m. These guidelines presumably overestimate the forces and pressures exerted by silage juice when silo walls are more than 3 m high, which could result in over-sizing, material waste and increased capital costs. This study determined silage physical properties in terms of horizontal wall pressure and evaluated silage juice levels in silos with a wall height of 3 m or more.Wall pressure was measured by transducers m...

  15. Merging silos: collaborating for information literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Louise C; Jones, Barbara B; Graves, Rebecca S; Sievert, Maryellen Cullinan

    2010-06-01

    Collaborating across disciplines can create additive teaching-learning benefits by bringing together expertise, knowledge, and training from various perspectives. However, there are challenges to effective collaboration that need to be articulated and understood by the partners to develop a useful learning product. In this project, nurse educators and health sciences librarians developed workshops for nurses practicing in community settings. Issues that surfaced reflected a division of content and presentation style along discipline lines. Bringing together expertise involved identifying basic content to present and eliminating extra details, setting the context for learners using a practice example, and alternating handoffs to cover content and practice applications. Effective collaboration requires mutual understanding of discipline-specific information "silos" and shared negotiation of teaching and learning goals.

  16. Fernald Silos 1 & 2 Accelerated Waste Retrieval Program Surrogate Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullen, O Dennis; Erian, Fadel F.

    2002-09-01

    Whitepaper describing the rationale and methodology for development of surrogates to be used for testing retrieval and processing systems for the DOE Fernald Silos 1 & 2 wastes. One significant updating/revision is expected.

  17. Erfaringerne fra OW Bunkers bestyrelsessammensætning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Caspar

    2016-01-01

    Det er helt forståeligt, at en sag om en tidligere ukendt olievirksomhed med en enorm omsætning, der føres på børsen, og som krakker efter et halvt år, trækker overskrifter. I OW Bunkers tilfælde, ville det således have været relevant, hvis et bestyrelsesmedlem havde haft en specifik CFO-baggrund...

  18. FUZZY CONTROLLED AUTOMATION SYSTEM FOR THE MAIN COAL BUNKER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵良杉; 叶景楼; 付华

    1997-01-01

    A fuzzy control scheme is presented according to the coal quantity in the main coal bunker, this method has a good dynamic response characteristic and is suited for complex nonlinear systems. The designation of self-adopting fuzzy controller, the working principle and functions of this system are also proposed, with the hardware and the main flow diagram of this system introduced in this paper.

  19. Analysis of steel silo structures on discrete supports

    OpenAIRE

    Li,Hongyu

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to broaden current knowledge of the strength and buckling/collapse of shells, with special reference to steel silo structures on discrete supports, and thus to provide design guidance of practical value for future silo design and construction and to develop new research aspects for further investigation. A linear elastic solution of the cylindrical shell bending equations is presented for local loadings, with special attention to local longitudinal distri...

  20. Horizontal Bulk Material Pressure in Silo Subjected to Impulsive Load

    OpenAIRE

    Radosław Tatko; Sylwester Kobielak

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes laboratory tests carried out in the steel flat-bottomed silo model filled with sand, subjected to external dynamic loads. The model was placed on a system of springs, which represent subsoil. The loads in the form of horizontal impulses were applied to the bottom plate of the silo. Horizontal pressure-time courses were used to analyze the influence of subsoil vibrations on the distribution changes of these pressures. Basic conclusion: (1) the subsoil vibrations cause two ...

  1. Silos. Un milenio. Actas del congreso Internacional sobre la Abadía de Santo Domingo de Silos. [Reseña

    OpenAIRE

    Labarga-García, F. (Fermín)

    2005-01-01

    Reseña de: Saturnino LÓPEZ SANTIDRIÁN, Silos. Un milenio. Actas del congreso Internacional sobre la Abadía de Santo Domingo de Silos, Universidad de Burgos-Abadía de Silos («Studia Silensia» XXV, I: Espiritualidad), Burgos 2003, 542 pp.

  2. Armazenamento de soja em silos tipo bolsa Soybean storage in bag type silos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lêda R. A. Faroni

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se as principais alterações qualitativas de soja armazenada em silos tipo bolsa e do óleo bruto extraído de soja com teores de água de 17,4% e 13,3%, armazenada em dois silos tipo bolsa, por 180 dias. Realizaram-se amostragens no dia do enchimento das bolsas, aos 30; 90 e 180 dias de armazenamento. Analisaram-se o teor de água, a condutividade elétrica, o percentual de germinação, a massa específica aparente da soja, além do teor de ácidos graxos livres e o índice de peróxido do óleo bruto extraído dela. Os teores de água da soja armazenada úmida e seca mantiveram-se próximos dos valores obtidos no início do período de armazenamento. Observou-se tendência de elevação da condutividade elétrica e decréscimo do percentual de germinação somente na soja úmida, principalmente após 90 dias de armazenamento. Não foi verificado decréscimo da massa específica aparente do material armazenado úmido e seco. Com relação aos parâmetros qualitativos do óleo bruto, observou-se que os valores obtidos se mantiveram abaixo do limite máximo exigido pela legislação para a comercialização de óleo bruto de soja. Pode-se concluir que os silos tipo bolsa representam alternativa viável do ponto de vista qualitativo para armazenagem de soja, e esse tipo de estrutura não ocasiona alterações qualitativas significativas no óleo bruto obtido desse material, em condições similares àquelas deste estudo.This study reports major qualitative changes in the soybean grains and the extracted crude oil when stored in bag type silos. Grains with moisture content of 17.4 or 13.3% were stored in two bag type silos. Samples were taken 30, 90 and 180 days of storage , to determine moisture content, electric conductivity of the grain leachate, germination percentage, apparent specific grain mass, and free fatty acid content, and peroxide index of the crude oil extracted from these grains. The wet and dry grains remained with

  3. On the use of plate-type normal pressure cells in silos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramirez, Alvaro; Nielsen, Jørgen; Ayuga, F.

    2010-01-01

    for use in an installation of three full-scale steel silos with different hopper eccentricities (concentric, half-eccentric and full-eccentric) as part of a silo research project. It was found to be necessary to validate the performance of the cells when measuring pressures in the silos in order to arrive......Pressure cells are measuring devices commonly used in silo research to study loads exerted by a granular material stored against a silo wall. The design of normal pressure cells for use in an experimental silo research project is critical, mainly because measuring errors complicate...

  4. Efficacy of heat treatment for disinfestation of concrete grain silos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opit, G P; Arthur, F H; Bonjour, E L; Jones, C L; Phillips, T W

    2011-08-01

    Field experiments were conducted in 2007 and 2008 to evaluate heat treatment for disinfestations of empty concrete elevator silos. A Mobile Heat Treatment Unit was used to introduce heat into silos to attain target conditions of 50 degrees C for at least 6 h. Ventilated plastic containers with a capacity of 100 g of wheat, Triticum aestivum L., held Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Polyvinyl chloride containers with a capacity of 300 g of wheat held adults of Liposcelis corrodens (Heymons) (Psocoptera: Liposcelididae) and Liposcelis decolor (Pearman), which were contained in 35-mm Petri dishes within the grain. Containers were fastened to a rope suspended from the top of the silo at depths of 0 m (just under the top manhole), 10 m, 20 m, and 30 m (silo floor). When the highest temperature achieved was approximately 50 degrees C for 6 h, parental mortality ofR. dominica and T. castaneum, and both psocid species was 98-100%. Progeny production of R. dominica occurred when there was parental survival, but in general R. dominica seemed less impacted by the heat treatment than T. castaneum. There was 100% mortality of L. corrodens at all depths in the heat treatments but only 92.5% mortality for L. decolor, with most survivors located in the bioassay containers at the top of the silo. Results show wheat kernels may have an insulating effect and heat treatment might be more effective when used in conjunction with sanitation and cleaning procedures.

  5. Steel silos for particulate solid materials : part 2 - membrane forces at filling and discharge.

    OpenAIRE

    Petrovčič, Simon; Guggenberger, Werner; Brank, Boštjan

    2009-01-01

    In the paper, the expressions for membrane forces in an axisymmetric steel silo structure at filling and discharge with a particulate solid material are presented. Graphical plots of these expressions are given. They can be used for a quick and easy estimate of membrane forces distribution in all parts of a silo structure. The plots are valid for any silo geometry and for any material stored. The influence of silo geometry and stored material properties on the size and distribution of membran...

  6. Steel silos for particulate solid materials. Part 1, Actions at filling and discharge.

    OpenAIRE

    Petrovčič, Simon; Guggenberger, Werner; Brank, Boštjan

    2009-01-01

    In the paper, the expressions for membrane forces in an axisymmetric steel silo structure at filling and discharge with a particulate solid material are presented. Graphical plots of these expressions are given. They can be used for a quick and easy estimate of membrane forces distribution in all parts of a silo structure. The plots are valid for any silo geometry and for any material stored. The influence of silo geometry and stored material properties on the size and distribution of membran...

  7. The Investigation with ANSYS of Stress Changes on Silo Wall According to Different Standards

    OpenAIRE

    KİBAR, Hakan; Öztürk,Turgut

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the optimal dimensions of the silo were investigated for barrel-type cylinder, conical outlet, steel construction silo which used in Tombul hazelnut storage in the Giresun province conditions. 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15 ve 20 mm wall thickness for 1635 tons storage capacity silo were examined in the study. For this purpose, pressure loads acting on the silo wall surface (vertical, horizontal, friction traction pressure load) using Eurocode 1 and Australian standards were calculated...

  8. THE STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF STEEL SILOS WITH CYLINDRICAL-WALL BEARING AND PROFILE-STEEL BEARING

    OpenAIRE

    Zhengjun Tang; Daibiao Zhou; Chenwei Peng; Wenping Wu

    2015-01-01

    The silos are widely used in bulk material in many fields such as agriculture, mining, chemical, electric power storage, etc. Thin metal cylindrical silo shells are vulnerable to buckling failure caused by the compressive wall friction force. In this paper, the structural analysis of two types of steel silo with cylindrical-wall bearing and profile-steel bearing is implemented by Abaqus finite element analysis. The results indicate that under the same loading conditions, steel silos with prof...

  9. Exploring the Impact of Silos in Achieving Brand Orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyrd-Jones, Richard; Helm, Clive; Munk, Jonas

    silos are associated with different mindsets that create barriers to the achievement of brand orientation. The case follows a medium sized manufacturing company in its efforts to introduce a brand revitalization strategy across the organization. Despite the strategy having top management full support......, the strategy was not successful due to conflicts in priorities across the functional silos of the organisation. The paper contributes to the literature by highlighting the barriers to the achievement of brand orientation through a focus on silos and mindsets. The paper concludes that the brand platform must......Brands are widely recognised as important sources of competitive advantage. The newly emerged concept of brand orientation has be used to assess the extent to which the whole organisation is orientated around the brand and thus the extent to which organisational resources are focused around...

  10. Horizontal Bulk Material Pressure in Silo Subjected to Impulsive Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosław Tatko

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes laboratory tests carried out in the steel flat-bottomed silo model filled with sand, subjected to external dynamic loads. The model was placed on a system of springs, which represent subsoil. The loads in the form of horizontal impulses were applied to the bottom plate of the silo. Horizontal pressure-time courses were used to analyze the influence of subsoil vibrations on the distribution changes of these pressures. Basic conclusion: (1 the subsoil vibrations cause two types of changes of the horizontal pressures: stable changes which are observed when the model vibrations finish and cyclic of short duration (brief changes; (2 the subsoil vibrations either generate stable increase or stable decrease of the pressures from before vibrations or do not generate any essential stable change; (3 the cyclic dynamic changes of the horizontal pressures depend on the direction of the silo wall displacements and they are the function of the values of these displacements.

  11. 30 CFR 57.16002 - Bins, hoppers, silos, tanks, and surge piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bins, hoppers, silos, tanks, and surge piles... NONMETAL MINES Materials Storage and Handling § 57.16002 Bins, hoppers, silos, tanks, and surge piles. (a) Bins, hoppers, silos, tanks, and surge piles, where loose unconsolidated materials are stored,...

  12. 30 CFR 56.16002 - Bins, hoppers, silos, tanks, and surge piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bins, hoppers, silos, tanks, and surge piles... MINES Materials Storage and Handling § 56.16002 Bins, hoppers, silos, tanks, and surge piles. (a) Bins, hoppers, silos, tanks, and surge piles, where loose unconsolidated materials are stored, handled...

  13. Earth-mounded concrete bunker PLAP technical approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eng, R.

    1989-11-01

    Under the US DOE Prototype License Application Project (PLAP), Ebasco Services Incorporated was commissioned to develop a preliminary design of the Earth-Mounded Concrete Bunker (EMCB) concept for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal. The EMCB disposal concept is of great interest because it represents the only engineered LLW disposal technology currently in use in the commercial sector. By definition, the EMCB disposal structure is located partially below grade and partially above grade. The concrete bunker is an engineered structure designed to be structurally stable for the prerequisite time horizon. The basic design parameters of the disposal facility were stipulated by US DOE, a northeast site location, representative waste, 30 year operational life, and a 250,000 ft{sup 3}/year disposal capacity. The design was developed to satisfy only US NRC Part 61 disposal requirements, not individual state requirements that may go beyond Part 61 requirements. The technical safety analysis of the preliminary design was documented according to the format specifications of NUREG-1199, to the extent practicable with quite limited resources.

  14. Victims, villains or heroes? : the local community perception of oil bunkering in the Niger delta

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Grounded on a political ecology approach, this study sheds light on oil bunkering activity that is done by local militants in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. Such oil bunkering is used as a euphemism for oil theft in Nigeria. The purpose of this thesis is to investigate the perception of oil bunkering that is done by groups (militants) of the local communities of the Niger Delta. By collecting and comparing the narratives of the three actors linked to so-called illegal oil b...

  15. Promoting Interdisciplinary Collaboration: Trainees Addressing Siloed Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitts, Robert Li; Christodoulou, Joanna; Goldman, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Professional siloing within medical institutions has been identified as a problem in medical education, including resident training. The authors discuss how trainees from different disciplines can collaborate to address this problem. Method: A group of trainees from psychiatry, developmental medicine, neurology, and education came…

  16. Destination Attractiveness of the Silos and Smokestacks National Heritage Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Puyong

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the characteristics of destination attractiveness of the Silos and Smokestacks National Heritage Area (SSNHA) in Iowa using the relative attractiveness and importance of the 15 attributes identified by Gearing, Swart, and Var's (1974) scale and 3 attributes identified by Hu and Ritchie (1993). These…

  17. Laser triangulation measurement of the level in a coal silo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Jiping; Jiang Jing

    2011-01-01

    Laser triangulation theory was used to develop a novel contact-free method for measuring the coal level in a silo under harsh environmental conditions found in coal mines,such as the presence of dense dust,high humidity,and low illumination.A laser source and a camera were mounted at the top of the silo.The laser spot projected into the silo was imaged by the camera.The pinhole imaging principle allows the level to be found from the lateral shift of the spot image on the sensor.A pre-calibrated look-up table of the coal depth versus spot position was used to obtain the depth.The measurement accuracy depends on the step size used during pre-calibration.The actual application of a device designed according to these principles shows that it is easy to implement.The detection of the coal level in a silo at the low illumination level found in coal mines is demonstrated.

  18. Empirically based gamma-distributed random wall pressure field in silo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Berntsen, Kasper Nikolaj

    1999-01-01

    Measurements show that silo wall pressures exhibit large fluctuations in time and space during discharge of the silo. This observation is important for the design of the silowall because spatial pressure variations may impose substantial bending moments in the silo wall that otherwise may be small...... or vanishing do to the carrying ability of the membrane forces in the silo wall. Information about the stochastic properties of this pressure variation cannot be obtained from any existing continuum model for the silo medium flowing within the confinement of the silo walls. Therefore the modeling must...... presently be tied to statistical analysis of the empirical evidence combined with simple mechanical rinciples. It is shown that an explicitely constructed gamma distribution type of field in equilibrium with itself fits well to themeasurements made in the Swedish Karpalund silo....

  19. Silo and method for the stacking of material into and reclaiming of material from such a silo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Seters, S.M.; Gerstel, A.W.

    1998-01-01

    The invention relates to a silo comprising a vertical wall (1), a roof (2), a central column (4) and a freely rotatable intermediate bin (3) between the roof and the central column, the intermediate bin being equipped with a feeder screw (5), and also a telescopic chute (ef) which is positioned on t

  20. Fermentation characteristics of corn forage ensiled in mini-silos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherney, D J R; Cherney, J H; Cox, W J

    2004-12-01

    To evaluate numerous experimental variables and their interactions involving different corn (Zea mays, L.) silage hybrids, scaled down mini-silos are necessary. Objectives of this study were to evaluate the influence of sample size on pH, NH3, and volatile fatty acid profile of 8 corn silage hybrids, selected to vary in fiber digestibility and ensiled in vacuum-sealed polyethylene bags for 90 d, and to assess the suitability of these mini-silos for detecting differences among corn silage samples. Hybrids were grown at the Cornell Teaching and Research Center located near Harford, NY, and harvested at a dry matter content of about 32% in the fall of 2002. Samples from 3 field replications of each hybrid were chipper-shredder chopped and vacuum-ensiled in bags with sample sizes of 50, 100, 200, 400, and 600 g. Increasing sample size resulted in decreased lactic acid, acetic acid, total acids, and NH3. Most of the difference among sample sizes occurred between the 50- and 100-g sample sizes. Lactic acid:acetic acid ratio (3.1 +/- 0.13) and pH (3.9 +/-0.08) did not vary among sample sizes. There was no detectable butyric acid in the samples. Fermentation characteristics suggested that all samples were well ensiled but that the fermentation profile of the 50-g samples differed the most from other sample sizes. Hybrids did vary in lactic acid, acetic acid, lactic acid:acetic acid, and pH. Differences among hybrids were also noted for dry matter and crude protein. Field-chopped corn hybrids that were ensiled using mini-silos had higher acids than corresponding field-chopped corn hybrids ensiled in Ag-bags, in part due to no effluent escaping from the mini-silos. It is possible to use vacuum-sealed plastic bags to ensile corn, with samples as small as 200 g, and to use these mini-silos to assess differences among corn silage samples. Caution should be used when extrapolating mini-silo data to field-scale ensiling.

  1. CONVERSE STAR CHEVRON Silo Mid%活力典范

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    铁铁

    2011-01-01

    匡威最新推出滑板鞋款STAR CHEVRON Silo Mid。STAR CHEVRON Silo Mid拥有多款时尚配色,雅致含蓄的橙红加灰还是石青配白?遵从自己性格惯性还是来—次审美习惯的颠覆?摇滚死忠肯定不能放过黑红这一经典组合,神秘凝重的黑色加上妖娆热情的暗红,霸气外露。无论是路人还是滑手都能体会到它所彰显出的活力,那股躁动的气息也将时刻刺激你的每—处感官。

  2. Extension of silo discharge model based on discrete element method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oldal, Istvan; Safranyil, Ferenc [Szent Istvan University, Goedoelloe (Hungary)

    2015-09-15

    Silos are containers used by almost all fields of industry for storing granular materials and generally classified in two types: mass flow and funnel flow. One of the most important design parameter of these equipment is the discharge rate which depends on the flow mode. There are high numbers of analytical and empirical models used for determine this parameter, however none of them is suitable for both flow modes; moreover the accuracy of mass flow models is not acceptable. Recently a few numerical discharge models are made for certain geometries; but the applicability of these models in case of different flow modes was not examined. Aim of our work is the creation of an experimentally validated numerical discharge model based on others work and examination of this in term of different flow modes. We prove that our modified model is suitable for determine silos discharge rate independently from flow mode.

  3. Silo clogging reduction by placing an obstacle above the outlet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, C.; Zuriguel, I.; Janda, A.; Garcimartín, A.; Arévalo, R.; Maza, D.

    2013-06-01

    We present an experimental study of the effect that an obstacle above the outlet of a silo has on the clogging probability. Both, the size of the orifice and the obstacle position are varied for a chosen obstacle size and shape. If the position of the obstacle is properly selected the clogging probability can be importantly reduced. Indeed, as the outlet size is increased - and we approach the critical size above which there is not clogging - the obstacle effect is enhanced. For the largest outlet size studied, the clogging probability is reduced by a factor of more than one hundred. We will show, using numerical simulations, that the physical parameter behind the reduction of the silo clogging seems to be the decrease of the vertical pressure at the outlet proximities.

  4. Temperature and air velocity effects on ethanol emission from corn silage with the characteristics of an exposed silo face

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, Felipe; Hafner, Sasha D.; Rotz, C. Alan; Mitloehner, Frank M.

    2010-05-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from agricultural sources are believed to be an important contributor to tropospheric ozone in some locations. Recent research suggests that silage is a major source of VOCs emitted from agriculture, but only limited data exist on silage emissions. Ethanol is the most abundant VOC emitted from corn silage; therefore, ethanol was used as a representative compound to characterize the pattern of emission over time and to quantify the effect of air velocity and temperature on emission rate. Ethanol emission was measured from corn silage samples removed intact from a bunker silo. Emission rate was monitored over 12 h for a range in air velocity (0.05, 0.5, and 5 m s -1) and temperature (5, 20, and 35 °C) using a wind tunnel system. Ethanol flux ranged from 0.47 to 210 g m -2 h -1 and 12 h cumulative emission ranged from 8.5 to 260 g m -2. Ethanol flux was highly dependent on exposure time, declining rapidly over the first hour and then continuing to decline more slowly over the duration of the 12 h trials. The 12 h cumulative emission increased by a factor of three with a 30 °C increase in temperature and by a factor of nine with a 100-fold increase in air velocity. Effects of air velocity, temperature, and air-filled porosity were generally consistent with a conceptual model of VOC emission from silage. Exposure duration, temperature, and air velocity should be taken into consideration when measuring emission rates of VOCs from silage, so emission rate data obtained from studies that utilize low air flow methods are not likely representative of field conditions.

  5. THE STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF STEEL SILOS WITH CYLINDRICAL-WALL BEARING AND PROFILE-STEEL BEARING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengjun Tang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The silos are widely used in bulk material in many fields such as agriculture, mining, chemical, electric power storage, etc. Thin metal cylindrical silo shells are vulnerable to buckling failure caused by the compressive wall friction force. In this paper, the structural analysis of two types of steel silo with cylindrical-wall bearing and profile-steel bearing is implemented by Abaqus finite element analysis. The results indicate that under the same loading conditions, steel silos with profile-steel bearing and cylindrical-Wall bearing have similar values in Mises stress, but the steel silo with profile-steel bearing has a smaller radial displacement and a better capability of buckling resistance. Meanwhile, the total steel volumes reduced 8.0% comparing to the steel silo with cylindrical-wall bearing. Therefore, steel soil with profile-steel bearing not only has a less steel volumes but also a good stability.

  6. An Experimental Study on Distribution of Vertical Stress in a Silo with a Central Inner Downcomer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    景山; 易江林; 王金福; 汪展文; 金涌

    2002-01-01

    The distribution of vertical stress for both active and passive state in the silo with a central innerdowncomer is reported in this paper. Experimental measurement of the axial distribution of vertical stress for bothactive and passive state in the silo are in good agreement with that predicted by theoretical analysis. The meanaxial stress is reduced due to the presence of the inner downcomer in the silo.

  7. Silos Strength Calculation Analysis%料仓强度计算分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林杰

    2012-01-01

    对料仓强度计算过程及塔式容器计算差异进行了分析,并对当前料仓强度计算常用的两个标准进行了比较.%The process and contents of strength calculation for silos were analyzed. It also com pared strength calculation for silos with calculation for column. In the end, the difference between two main codes for silos designing was goven.

  8. On the complexity/criticality of Jamming during the discharge of granular matter from a silo

    CERN Document Server

    Evesque, P

    2011-01-01

    This paper is aimed at pursuing a recent discussion about the comparison between Self-Organised Criticality, the jamming process and the percolation theory in the problem of a silo discharge [I. Zuriguel, A. Garcimartin, D. Maza, L.A.Pugnaloni, J.M.Pastor, "Jamming during the discharge of granular matter from a silo", Phys.Rev.E 71, 051303 (2005)]. Statistics of blocking a silo is investigated from different models: percolation, self organised criticality..

  9. Illustrated Postcards: a look at the silos of the district of Portalegre

    OpenAIRE

    Palmeiro, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    A colecção de Postais ilustrados com vistas dos silos assume-se como um olhar sobre os silos do distrito de Portalegre. Os silos da EPAC são edifícios francamente distintos. Detentores de uma envergadura que reclama um estatuto, inserem-se na paisagem como monumentos e são pertença do colectivo e da identidade local.

  10. Bunker Conversion and the Overcoming of Siege Mentality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Morgan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Bunkers are concrete responses to threats, whether these be real or imagined. They are indicators of a defensive attitude and a siege mentality. My paper wishes to analyse specific sites of historical reinscription, where such constructions have undergone a process of cultural transformation which has converted them into places of creative experimentation, ludic activity and everyday use. Such initiatives in translation are important ways of reworking the past, addressing presents needs and projecting different- less reactive, and maybe more pacific- prospects for the future. A similar undertaking was proposed by Henri de Saint-Simon when he diverted the term “avant-garde” away from its military implementation towards more a progressive usage. The “avant-garde” became an experimental association of artists working together for the benefit of society as an evolving whole.In On Social Organisation Saint-Simon described the “avant-garde” as follows:They [the artists, the men of imagination] will lead the way in that great undertaking; they will proclaim the future of mankind; they will bring back the golden age from the past to enrich future generations; they will inspire society with enthusiasm for the increase of its well-being by laying before it a tempting picture of a new prosperity.Economic “prosperity” might well be an appealing prospect for “us”, especially in these times of “crisis” when “we” are made to feel that our day-to-day existence is precarious. However, when Saint-Simon employs the term “new prosperity”, he is envisaging social values that are largely incompatible with capitalist consumer “culture” and competitive “market forces”. His suggestion that new technologies should serve to nationalize “luxury” and internationalise peace would require a radically different approach to social organisation from that prevalent today. Likewise, the demilitarized bunkers I wish to analyse also figure

  11. 仓顶对筒仓计算结果的影响分析%Analysis of the effect of silo roof on calculation results of silo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭洪盛; 盛宏玉

    2012-01-01

    Cylindrical silos are widely used in industry architecture. Because of the lack of complete and practical methods for calculating the internal force in consideration of the edge effect, the film internal force of most silos is calculated according to the non-moment theory, and the internal forces near the edge are checked. During the design and research, many scholars ignore the influence of silo roof on the calculation results of the silo. In this paper, the silo was simulated by using the finite element software ANSYS. The results reveal that the circumferential stress and normal displacement are reduced when taking the silo roof in the form of girder truss into consideration, but its effect is very little. So in regard to the analysis and design of the silo, the influence of silo roof on the internal force of silo wall can be ignored.%目前在筒仓设计过程中没有一套完整和实用的能考虑边缘效应的内力计算方法,大部分圆形筒仓均按无矩理论计算薄膜内力,并对边缘附近进行内力验算.在设计和研究时,许多学者忽略仓顶对筒仓计算结果的影响.文章采用有限元计算软件ANSYS对筒仓进行模拟分析,结果表明:对桁架梁形式的筒仓,考虑仓顶时能减少仓壁的环向应力和法向位移,但影响幅度不大,故在筒仓设计和分析时可以忽略仓顶对仓壁内力的影响.

  12. Temporal evolution of the environmental dose remaining in a clinical irradiation bunker after the cessation of irradiation; Evolucion temporal de la Dosis ambiental remanente en un bunker de irradiacion clinica tras el cese de la irradiacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz Egea, E.; Sanchez Carrascal, M.; Torres Pozas, S.; Monja Ray, P. de la; Perez Molina, J. L.; Madan Rodriguez, C.; Luque Japon, L.; Morera Molina, A.; Hernandez Perez, A.; Barquero Bravo, Y.; Morengo Pedagna, I.; Oliva Gordillo, M. C.; Martin Olivar, R.

    2011-07-01

    In this paper we try to quantify the dose emitted by different radioactive processes that occur in the head of a clinical linear accelerator and the patient is irradiated, or walls of the bunker, converted into tertiary sources of radiation trying to establish the origin of the came in different parts of the bunker.

  13. 31 CFR 515.558 - Bunkering of Cuban vessels and fueling of Cuban aircraft by American-owned or controlled foreign...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bunkering of Cuban vessels and... Licensing Policy § 515.558 Bunkering of Cuban vessels and fueling of Cuban aircraft by American-owned or... in transactions ordinarily incident to the bunkering of vessels and to the fueling of aircraft...

  14. Construction Method of Bunker Rapid Repair%快速修复区段煤仓的施工方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷林林

    2011-01-01

    本文通过朱仙庄煤矿煤仓修复的实例.给类似该条件下煤仓的修复提供切实可行的方案。%Through the instance of Zhuxianzhuang coal mine bunker repair, provide feasible scheme for bunker repair in the similar condition.

  15. Parametric design of silo steel framework of concrete mixing station based on the finite element method and MATLAB

    OpenAIRE

    Long Hui; Huang Changzheng; Li Jing; Liu Feng

    2016-01-01

    When the structure of the silo steel framework of concrete mixing station is designed, In most cases, the dimension parameters, shape parameters and position parameters of silo steel framework beams are changed as the productivity adjustment of the concrete mixing station, but the structure types of silo steel framework will remain the same. In order to acquire strength of silo steel framework rapidly and efficiently, it is need to provide specialized parametric strength computational softwar...

  16. Use of maze in cyclotron hoppers; Utilizacao de labirinto em bunker de ciclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Fernando A.; Alves, Juliano S.; Fochesatto, Cintia; Cerioli, Luciane; Borges, Joao Alfredo; Gonzalez, Delfin; Silva, Daniel C., E-mail: fernandofernandes@biofarmaco.com.br [Delfin Farmacos e Derivados (Biofarmaco Marcadores Moleculares), Lauro de Freitas, BA (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Introduction: the increasing number of cyclotrons in Brazil due to constitutional amendment 49 /06 that enabled the production of radiopharmaceuticals with a short half - life by private companies. The radionuclides used for PET - CT require production centers near or within the diagnostic centers. In order to minimize maintenance and operating risks, gaining efficiency, our facility was the first in Brazil to use the access to a cyclotron bunker via maze, rather than armored door stopper type. Materials: the design calculations were based on the Monte Carlo method (MCNP5 - Monte Carlo N-Particletransportcode version 5). At the ends of the labyrinth are installed a door of polyethylene, for thermalization of neutrons, and other of wood for limiting access. Both legs of the maze have wall thickness of 100cm. In inspection Brazilian CNEN realize measures of dose rate for neutrons and gamma 9 points: 7 around the bunker, 1 over the bunker and 1 in the exhaust with the cyclotron operating with maximum load, double beam of 50uA for 2 hours. After commissioning were carried out around the bunker, the following measures: cumulative dose in three months with dosimeters for neutron rate dose with a gas proportional detector type filled with {sup 3}He and polyethylene neutron moderator and dose rate with a Geiger - Mueller detector for gamma radiation. Readings with neutron detectors were classified as background radiation and dose rates were always below the limits established in standard EN 3.01, and the calculation of the predicted regardless of the intensity of irradiation inside the bunker. Conclusion: the use of labyrinths as a way to access the bunkers cyclotron has been shown to be effective as the radiation shielding and efficient by allowing quick and easy access, virtually eliminating the maintenance.

  17. Discharge flow of a bidisperse granular media from a silo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benyamine, M.; Djermane, M.; Dalloz-Dubrujeaud, B.; Aussillous, P.

    2014-09-01

    The discharge flow in a cylindrical and a rectangular silo using both monodisperse and bidisperse mixtures of spherical glass beads is studied experimentally. The flow rate is measured using a precision balance for a large range of particle diameters, size ratios, and outlet diameters. A simple physical model is proposed to describe the flow of bidisperse mixtures. It gives an expression for the flow rate and predicts that the bulk velocity follows a simple mixture law. This model implies that a mixture diameter cannot be simply defined. Moreover it is shown that bidisperse granular media allow for the transport of coarse particles below their jamming conditions.

  18. Interdisciplinary evidence-based practice: moving from silos to synergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newhouse, Robin P; Spring, Bonnie

    2010-01-01

    Despite the assumption that health care providers work synergistically in practice, professions have tended to be more exclusive than inclusive when it comes to educating students in a collaborative approach to interdisciplinary evidence-based practice (EBP). This article explores the state of academic and clinical training regarding interdisciplinary EBP, describes efforts to foster interdisciplinary EBP, and suggests strategies to accelerate the translation of EBP across disciplines. Moving from silos to synergy in interdisciplinary EBP will require a paradigm shift. Changes can be leveraged professionally and politically using national initiatives currently in place on improving quality and health care reform.

  19. Overview of the earth mounded concrete bunker prototype license application project: Objectives and approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, J.E. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering Lab.

    1989-11-01

    This paper presents an overview of the objectives and approach taken in developing the Earth-mounded Concrete Bunker Prototype License Application Project. The Prototype License Application Project was initiated by the Department of Energy`s National Low-Level Waste Management Program in early 1987 and completed in November 1988. As part of this project a prototype safety analysis report was developed. The safety analysis report evaluates the licensibility of an earth-mounded concrete bunker for a low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facility located on a hypothetical site in the northeastern United States. The project required approximately five person-years and twenty months to develop.

  20. Vitrification of Simulated Fernald K-65 Silo Waste at Low Temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, C.M.

    1999-03-15

    Vitrification is the technology that has been chosen to solidify approximately 18,000 tons of geologic mill tailings at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) in Fernald, Ohio. The geologic mill tailings are residues from the processing of pitchlende ore during 1949-1958. These waste residues are contained in silos in Operable Unit 4 (OU4) at the FEMP facility. Operable Unit 4 is one of five operable units at the FEMP. Operable Unit 4 is one of five operable units at the FEMP. Operating Unit 4 consists of four concrete storage silos and their contents. Silos 1 and 2 contain K-65 mill tailing residues and a bentonite cap, Silo 3 contains non-radioactive metal oxides, and Silo 4 is empty.

  1. Sobrepresiones en las paredes de los silos debidas al vaciado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravenet, J.

    1975-07-01

    Full Text Available Chronologically the author analyzes the theories and experiences published by the main world specialists on the subject of silos. Further, some of the most important Norms used In various countries are being studied. The compression curves by each author and Norm are drawn, applied to a standard cell. In a diagram all the curves are superimposed and a dispersion of 215% is obtained. This dispersion is due to the fact that many authors leave out the dynamic phenomena produced during the outlet and which have caused so many cracks, deformations and irregularities.El autor analiza cronológicamente las teorías y experiencias emitidas por los principales especialistas mundiales en materia de silos. Se estudian igualmente algunas de las más importantes Normas utilizadas en diversos países. Se trazan las curvas de presiones de cada autor y Norma, aplicadas a una celda estándar. En un gráfico se superponen todas las curvas obtenidas, apareciendo una dispersión del 215%. Esta dispersión se debe a que muchos autores omiten los fenómenos dinámicos producidos durante el vaciado y que tantas grietas, deformaciones y accidentes han ocasionado.

  2. Models for grains and gas ejection dynamics from a silo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yixian; Aussillous, Pascale; Ruyer, Pierre; Iusti/Gep Team; Semia/Limar Team

    2015-11-01

    In the hypothetical conditions of a reactivity initiated accident in a nuclear power plant, some of the fuel rods could break. If fuel fragmentation occurs, hot fuel particles and pressurized gas could interact with the surrounding fluid. The violence of this interaction depends on the discharge rate toward the fluid. In the present work, we study the discharge dynamics and identify the parameters governing this flow. In this paper, we focus on the experimental study of the discharge of a silo composed of spherical glass beads, with an orifice either lateral or at the bottom, with or without air flow. The measured parameters are the mass flow rate and the pressure along the silo, whereas the controlled parameters are the size of particles, the size of orifices, and the flow rate of air. For the case without air flow we found that the flow rate of particles ejected from the bottom orifice is 3 times greater than from the lateral orifice. For the case of a lateral orifice, when the form of the orifice is rectangular with width W and height D, we identify two regimes which depend on the ratio of width to height W / D . For the case with air flow, we found that the flow rate increases with the air flow. A simple physical model is proposed to describe the grains and gas ejection.

  3. Extinguishing smouldering fires in silos. BRANDFORSK project 745-961

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuomisaari, M.; Baroudi, D.; Latva, R. [VTT Building Technology, Espoo (Finland). Building Physics, Building Services and Fire Technology

    1998-11-01

    Combustible, porous materials may self-ignite during their storage time in silos as a result of internal heating. The self-ignition process may be slow, and it results in smouldering fires that are extremely difficult to extinguish. Suitable means to fight the smouldering fire were studied both theoretically and experimentally. General heat and mass transfer equations for porous media subject to fires and suppression were written. The equations together with dimensional analysis revealed critical parameters, like the grain size and moisture content, affecting the combustion and suppression process, but they also revealed the complexity of the problem. Experimental results of over 50 tests with varying combustibles and suppression agents were used as the basis for proposed qualitative guidelines on how to fight a smouldering silo fire. Among the potential gaseous agents, CO{sub 2} was found to be the most efficient one. Low expansion foam was also found to be a potential candidate, but its applicability requires further confirmation. Quantifying the guidelines requires a whole new study on the detection of a smouldering fire. The same detection system should be capable of monitoring the suppression process and - most importantly - verifying the extinguishment. (orig.) 46 refs.

  4. 75 FR 8395 - Bunker Hill Groundwater Basin, Riverside-Corona Feeder Project, San Bernardino and Riverside...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Bunker Hill Groundwater Basin, Riverside-Corona Feeder Project, San Bernardino and.../EIR for the proposed Riverside-Corona Feeder Project. The public and agencies are invited to comment..., and construction of the Riverside-Corona Feeder Project including: (i) 20 groundwater wells;...

  5. 76 FR 3655 - Bunker Hill Groundwater Basin, Riverside-Corona Feeder Project, San Bernardino and Riverside...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Bunker Hill Groundwater Basin, Riverside-Corona Feeder Project, San Bernardino and.../DEIS) for the proposed Riverside-Corona Feeder (RCF) Project. Interested parties are invited to comment..., 555 West 6th Street, San Bernardino, California 92410 Corona Public Library, 650 South Main...

  6. Qualidade de grãos de milho armazenados em silos bolsa Quality of corn grain stored in silo bags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Rodrigues da Costa

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de bolsas seladas hermeticamente é uma alternativa aos métodos tradicionais de armazenagem de grãos em nível de fazenda. Em vista disso, objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a qualidade de milho armazenado hermeticamente em silos bolsa. O produto, com teores de água de 14,5 e 18,0% b.u, foi acondicionado em mini-bolsas devidamente seladas nas temperaturas de 25; 30 e 35 ºC. Foram realizadas análises de teor de água, de classificação dos grãos, de massa específica aparente, de percentual de germinação e de condutividade elétrica, no início do armazenamento e após 30; 60; 90; 135 e 180 dias. Verificou-se que não houve variação do teor de água dos grãos de milho armazenados nos silos bolsa. Os grãos de milho foram classificados como Tipo 1 ao longo do período de armazenamento, exceto para os com 18,0% (b.u. de teor de água na temperatura de 35 ºC. Não houve decréscimo significativo da massa especifica aparente do produto ao longo do armazenamento. Em geral, ocorreu decréscimo do percentual de germinação dos grãos de milho armazenados úmidos e secos e acréscimo da condutividade elétrica da solução que continha os grãos, exceto para os armazenados com 14,5% nas temperaturas de 25 e 30 ºC. Conclui-se que é possível armazenar milho em silos bolsa, durante 180 dias, grãos com teor de água de 14,5% (b.u. nas temperaturas de 25; 30 e 35 ºC e grãos com teor de água de 18,0% por 180 dias nas temperaturas de 25 e 30 ºC.Airtight storage in sealed bags provides an alternative to traditional methods for on-farm grain storage. The objective of this work was therefore to evaluate the quality of corn stored in airtight sealed bags. Grain with moisture content (m.c. of about 14.5 and 18.0% (w.b. was properly stored in sealed mini-bags at 25; 30; and 35 ºC. Analyses included moisture content, grain classification, apparent specific mass, percentage of germination and electrical conductivity at the

  7. Dependence of effective screening length in granular columns on bead and silo sizes and their ratio

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdul Qadir; Madad Ali Shah; Saeed Ahmed Khan

    2013-01-01

    Apparent mass measurements at the bottom of silos have been carried out.An important parameter in the Janssen model known as the effective screening length has been investigated for different bead and silo diameters as well as of their ratios.It is found that the effective screening length augments with the grain diameter d in addition to the granular column size.It is also revealed that λ exhibits stronger correlation with the bead diameter than that of the silo.This phenomenon is attributed to the reduced-shielding of the vertical stresses to the horizontal ones.

  8. Dependence of effective screening length in granular columns on bead and silo sizes and their ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul, Qadir; Madad, Ali Shah; Saeed, Ahmed Khan

    2013-05-01

    Apparent mass measurements at the bottom of silos have been carried out. An important parameter in the Janssen model known as the effective screening length has been investigated for different bead and silo diameters as well as of their ratios. It is found that the effective screening length augments with the grain diameter d in addition to the granular column size. It is also revealed that λ exhibits stronger correlation with the bead diameter than that of the silo. This phenomenon is attributed to the reduced-shielding of the vertical stresses to the horizontal ones.

  9. Slip-stick excitation and travelling waves excite silo honking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vriend, Nathalie; Warburton, Kasia; Porte, Elze

    2016-11-01

    Industrial storage silos filled with PET-particles can create a sound upon discharge. The sound forms a nuisance for the environment when the structure starts to act as a loudspeaker and may ultimately result in structural failure. This work investigates the phenomenon experimentally-the deployment of a microphone, an accelerometer and high-speed imaging on a laboratory set-up reveal the driving mechanism for the structural resonance: stick-slip at the wall. Particle image velocimetry shows an asymmetric, upwards travelling wave (at 50 m/s) which contains the dynamic "slip"-region. The frequency of the mechanical motion of the grains is successfully correlated to the frequency of the emitted sound. Friction models are explored to describe and quantify the frictional interaction between the grains and the wall.

  10. Confined granular flow in silos experimental and numerical investigations

    CERN Document Server

    Tejchman, Jacek

    2013-01-01

      During confined flow of bulk solids in silos some characteristic phenomena can be created, such as: —         sudden and significant increase of wall stresses, —         different flow patterns, —         formation and propagation of wall and interior shear zones, —         fluctuation of pressures and, —         strong autogenous dynamic effects. These phenomena have not been described or explained in detail yet. The main intention of the experimental and theoretical research presented in this book is to explain the above mentioned phenomena in granular bulk solids and to describe them with numerical FE models verified by experimental results.

  11. 浅谈煤矿地面煤仓管理%Discussion on the management of ground coal bunker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金波

    2014-01-01

    如果地面煤仓储量大,地面煤仓内的煤炭可能会释放瓦斯,造成煤仓内瓦斯积聚,且煤仓的空间相对封闭,该空间内的煤尘达到一定浓度也容易引发安全事故,本文就如何做好煤仓管理,消除安全隐患,进行探讨。%If the reserves of the ground coal bunker is large, the coal stored in the ground coal bunker may release a large amount of gas, and result the gas accumulation in the coal bunker, at the same time as the bunker is a relatively closed space. When coal dust concentration reaches a certain degree in the space , it is also easy to cause safety accidents.

  12. The impact of silo mentality on team identity: An organisational case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans Cilliers

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Organisational silos do not only refer to conscious structures, but also to an unconscious state of mind and mentality that takes on a life of its own. Silos result in the splitting of organisational artefacts and relationships, and impact negatively on relationship forming between individuals and within teams.Research purpose: The purpose of this research was to describe how the silo mentality impacts on team identity.Motivation for the study: During a recent organisational consultation the researchers realised that a so-called silo phenomenon had much more unexplained unconscious behaviour than was traditionally realised in terms of organisational development. It is hoped that findings from this qualitative study could give consultants entry into what happens below the surface in the silos’ unconscious.Research design, approach and method: A qualitative and descriptive research design using a case study strategy was used. Data gathering consisted of 25 narrative interviews. Using discourse analysis four themes manifested, integrated into four working hypotheses and a research hypothesis. Trustworthiness and ethical standards were ensured.Main findings: Themes that emerged were the physical environment and structure, intra-group relations, experiences of management, and intergroup relations.Practical/managerial implications: Consulting on silo behaviour as physical structures only may not be successful in changing organisational behaviour. The silo resembles an iceberg – the largest part is below the surface.Contribution/value-add: The findings evidenced silo behaviour to be an unconscious phenomenon influencing team identity negatively. Consultants are urged to study these manifestations towards understanding silos and their effect on team identity better.

  13. Lateral Pressure of RC Silos with Static and Dynamic Granular Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lingkai Meng

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims at analyzing material⁃induced lateral pressure of RC cylinder silo in both static and dynamic condition using the finite element method (FEM).In the finite element software ABAQUS, concrete material is modeled by concrete damaged plasticity model, and stored materials in silo is modeled by the hypoplastic theory.In terms of numerical model, shell elements (S4R) and solid elements (C3D8) are applied for model silo wall and stored materials respectively. The interaction between silo wall and stored materials is simulated by Coulomb friction model and penalty contact constrain provided by ABAQUS.The numerical results are verified with the existing experimental data that are designed to ensure the validation of such numerical model using FEM and it obtains good agreements between numerical results and experimental data. Then the material parameters are analyzed in both static and dynamic condition.According to the analysis, it is clear that critical friction angle, initial void ratio and minimum void ratio have an obvious effect on static lateral pressure while all the material parameters affect dynamic lateral pressure at different levels. In addition, differences of silo wall between elastic and plastic state are analyzed in dynamic condition. The numerical results show that it contributes to increasing dynamic pressure when silo wall enters into the plastic state. Finally, this paper discusses the time⁃history lateral pressure at different heights along silo wall, and analytical results indicate that larger acceleration values play main roles in producing the maximum lateral pressure at higher part of the silo wall.

  14. Persistence, biodegradation and biological impact of Bunker C residues in Black Duck Cove, Nova Scotia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K.; Wohlgeschaffen, G. D.; Tremblay, G. H. [Dept. of Fisheries and Oceans of Canada, Inst. Maurice-Lamontagne, Mont Joli, PQ (Canada); Vandermeulen, D. C.; Mossman, K. G. [Dept. of Fisheries and Oceans of Canada, Bedford Inst. of Oceanography, Dartmouth, NS (Canada); Doe, K. G.; Jackman, P. M. [Environment Canada, Environmental Science Center, Moncton, NB (Canada); Prince, R. C.; Garrett, R. M.; Haith, C. E. [Exxon Research and Engineering Company, Annandale, NJ (United States)

    1998-12-31

    In 1970, approximately 2,045 cubic metres of Bunker C oil impacted on 300 km of Nova Scotia`s coastline following the grounding of the tanker `Arrow`. Only 10 per cent of the coastline was subjected to cleanup, the remainder was left to degrade naturally. Samples of sediments were collected in 1993 and 1997 in order to assess the attenuation processes on the reduction of toxicity within sediments and interstitial waters at Black Duck Cove, one of the untreated sites where residual oil was clearly evident. Detailed chemical analyses showed that the Bunker C oil at this site has undergone substantial biodegradation. Over the 20 plus years since the oil spill the toxicity of the residual oil has been significantly reduced and there is substantial evidence of habitat recovery.

  15. Persistence, biodegradation and biological impact of Bunker C residues in Black Duck Cove, Nova Scotia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K.; Wohlgeschaffen, G. D.; Tremblay, G. H. [Dept. of Fisheries and Oceans of Canada, Inst. Maurice-Lamontagne, Mont Joli, PQ (Canada); Vandermeulen, D. C.; Mossman, K. G. [Dept. of Fisheries and Oceans of Canada, Bedford Inst. of Oceanography, Dartmouth, NS (Canada); Doe, K. G.; Jackman, P. M. [Environment Canada, Environmental Science Center, Moncton, NB (Canada); Prince, R. C.; Garrett, R. M.; Haith, C. E. [Exxon Research and Engineering Company, Annandale, NJ (United States)

    1998-07-01

    In 1970, approximately 2,045 cubic metres of Bunker C oil impacted on 300 km of Nova Scotia's coastline following the grounding of the tanker 'Arrow'. Only 10 per cent of the coastline was subjected to cleanup, the remainder was left to degrade naturally. Samples of sediments were collected in 1993 and 1997 in order to assess the attenuation processes on the reduction of toxicity within sediments and interstitial waters at Black Duck Cove, one of the untreated sites where residual oil was clearly evident. Detailed chemical analyses showed that the Bunker C oil at this site has undergone substantial biodegradation. Over the 20 plus years since the oil spill the toxicity of the residual oil has been significantly reduced and there is substantial evidence of habitat recovery.

  16. Integrated maritime bunker management with stochastic fuel prices and new emission regulations

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Yewen; Stein W. Wallace; Wang, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Maritime bunker management (MBM) controls the procurement and consumption of the fuels used on board and therefore manages one of the most important cost drivers in the shipping industry. At the operational level, a shipping company needs to manage its fuel consumption by making optimal routing and speed decisions for each voyage. But since fuel prices are highly volatile, a shipping company sometimes also needs to do tactical fuel hedging in the forward market to control risk and cost volati...

  17. Potent phototoxicity of marine bunker oil to translucent herring embryos after prolonged weathering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P Incardona

    Full Text Available Pacific herring embryos (Clupea pallasi spawned three months following the Cosco Busan bunker oil spill in San Francisco Bay showed high rates of late embryonic mortality in the intertidal zone at oiled sites. Dead embryos developed to the hatching stage (e.g. fully pigmented eyes before suffering extensive tissue deterioration. In contrast, embryos incubated subtidally at oiled sites showed evidence of sublethal oil exposure (petroleum-induced cardiac toxicity with very low rates of mortality. These field findings suggested an enhancement of oil toxicity through an interaction between oil and another environmental stressor in the intertidal zone, such as higher levels of sunlight-derived ultraviolet (UV radiation. We tested this hypothesis by exposing herring embryos to both trace levels of weathered Cosco Busan bunker oil and sunlight, with and without protection from UV radiation. Cosco Busan oil and UV co-exposure were both necessary and sufficient to induce an acutely lethal necrotic syndrome in hatching stage embryos that closely mimicked the condition of dead embryos sampled from oiled sites. Tissue levels of known phototoxic polycyclic aromatic compounds were too low to explain the observed degree of phototoxicity, indicating the presence of other unidentified or unmeasured phototoxic compounds derived from bunker oil. These findings provide a parsimonious explanation for the unexpectedly high losses of intertidal herring spawn following the Cosco Busan spill. The chemical composition and associated toxicity of bunker oils should be more thoroughly evaluated to better understand and anticipate the ecological impacts of vessel-derived spills associated with an expanding global transportation network.

  18. A study on leakage radiation dose at ELV-4 electron accelerator bunker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chulan, Mohd Rizal Md; Yahaya, Redzuwan; Ghazali, Abu BakarMhd

    2014-09-01

    Shielding is an important aspect in the safety of an accelerator and the most important aspects of a bunker shielding is the door. The bunker's door should be designed properly to minimize the leakage radiation and shall not exceed the permitted limit of 2.5μSv/hr. In determining the leakage radiation dose that passed through the door and gaps between the door and the wall, 2-dimensional manual calculations are often used. This method is hard to perform because visual 2-dimensional is limited and is also very difficult in the real situation. Therefore estimation values are normally performed. In doing so, the construction cost would be higher because of overestimate or underestimate which require costly modification to the bunker. Therefore in this study, two methods are introduced to overcome the problem such as simulation using MCNPX Version 2.6.0 software and manual calculation using 3-dimensional model from Autodesk Inventor 2010 software. The values from the two methods were eventually compared to the real values from direct measurements using Ludlum Model 3 with Model 44-9 probe survey meter.

  19. Construction Method of Coal Bunker in Vertical Shaft%立井煤仓施工法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周乐平

    2014-01-01

    Coal bunker construction is difficult in the cavern of a project ,in which raised -shaft method-concrete support is frequently applied under the conditions of stable strata at workface without gas and water gushing . Taking the 300-meter coal bunker with No .2 belt in Xianting Colliery as an example ,the author expounds the application of general raised -shaft method in the construction of coal bunker in vertical shaft under certain con-ditions ,which provides the reference for similar roadway construction .%煤仓是煤矿硐室中施工难度较大的一项工程,在工作面岩层稳定、无瓦斯和涌水的情况下,施工直立式煤仓多采用普通反井法---混凝土支护。本文以仙亭煤矿2#皮带+300 m煤仓为例阐述了普通反井法在特定条件下立井煤仓中的应用,为该类巷道施工提供经验借鉴。

  20. 浅谈钢板仓的安全管理%Introduction to safety management of the steel silo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李辉如

    2015-01-01

    介绍了钢板仓的类型,根据钢板仓的使用经验,分析了影响钢板仓安全使用的因素,对钢板的安全使用及安全管理措施进行了探讨.%this paper introduces the types of steel silo, according to the experience of the use of steel silo, analyses the factors affecting the safe use of steel silo, safe use and safety management measures of steel silo are discussed in this paper.

  1. Health information exchange, system size and information silos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Amalia R; Tucker, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    There are many technology platforms that bring benefits only when users share data. In healthcare, this is a key policy issue, because of the potential cost savings and quality improvements from 'big data' in the form of sharing electronic patient data across medical providers. Indeed, one criterion used for federal subsidies for healthcare information technology is whether the software has the capability to share data. We find empirically that larger hospital systems are more likely to exchange electronic patient information internally, but are less likely to exchange patient information externally with other hospitals. This pattern is driven by instances where there may be a commercial cost to sharing data with other hospitals. Our results suggest that the common strategy of using 'marquee' large users to kick-start a platform technology has an important drawback of potentially creating information silos. This suggests that federal subsidies for health data technologies based on 'meaningful use' criteria, that are based simply on the capability to share data rather than actual sharing of data, may be misplaced.

  2. Análise de pressões em silo vertical de alvenaria de tijolos Analysis of pressures in vertical silo of masonry of bricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marineide J. Diniz

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetiva-se com este trabalho, determinar as pressões verticais e horizontais nas paredes e no fundo de um silo cilíndrico, com altura/diâmetro igual a 1 e comparar as pressões teóricas obtidas através de normas internacionais. O silo foi construído em alvenaria de tijolos de 8 furos, fixando-lhe externamente nove cintas de aço. A metodologia e as técnicas aplicadas foram as indicadas pelas normas, com as devidas adaptações necessárias. Determinaram-se as propriedades de fluxo do produto na Máquina de Cisalhamento Direto Translacional (Jenike Shear Cell. Calcularam-se as pressões teóricas, de acordo com as recomendações das normas DIN 1055, ACI 313 e ISO 11697. O produto utilizado nos ensaios foi a areia, em razão da sua densidade ser aproximadamente duas vezes maior à maioria dos cereais. Para medição das pressões o silo foi instrumentado com 6 células de pressão, das quais 4 fixadas na parede e 2 no fundo do silo, além de conectadas a um sistema de aquisição de dados. Através da análise dos dados obtidos de forma experimental, juntamente com o conhecimento das propriedades do produto, conclui-se que o tipo de silo estudado apresenta potencial que permite a sua utilização para armazenamento de grãos nas propriedades rurais.The objective of this research was to determine the vertical and horizontal pressures on the walls and at the bottom of a cylindrical silo with height/diameter equal to 1 and to compare the obtained theoretical pressures through international rules. The silo was built in masonry of bricks, with 8 holes fixing externally nine steel braces. The applied methodology and techniques had been the ones as indicated by the rules with the necessary adaptations. The stream properties of the product were determined in the shearing machine translational direct Jenike Shear Cell. The theoretical pressures were calculated in agreement with the recommendations of the rules DIN 1055, ACI 313 and ISO 11697. The

  3. Silos experimentais para avaliação da silagem de três genótipos de girassol (Helianthus annuus L. Evaluation of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. silage of three genotypes as affected by experimental silos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.G.R. Pereira

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Três tipos de silos experimentais foram utilizados para a avaliação das silagens de três genótipos de girassol: A silo padrão com válvula de Bunsen; B silo dotado de compartimento para efluentes e C silo com válvula de Bunsen e compartimento para efluentes. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 3×3 (genótipos × tipos de silos com três repetições. As características avaliadas foram: matéria seca (MS, densidade, proteína bruta (PB, nitrogênio amoniacal (N-NH3/N-T, pH, carboidratos solúveis (CHO, ácidos orgânicos, constituintes da parede celular, extrato etéreo (EE e digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS. As silagens obtidas nos silos B e C apresentaram os maiores valores de MS e menores de NH3/N-T. Os valores de pH se equivaleram nos três tipos de silos, enquanto os teores de CHO foram menores para as silagens obtidas nos silos B e C. Os silos dotados de compartimento para efluentes apresentaram os maiores valores de ácido láctico. As frações fibrosas, EE e DIVMS não sofreram influência dos tipos de silos. A presença ou ausência da válvula de Bunsen não influenciou os parâmetros avaliados. A presença do compartimento para efluentes afetou a qualidade e o valor nutritivo da silagem de girassol.A completely randomized design in a 3×3 factorial scheme was used to evaluate the effect of three genotypes and three types of silos on sunflower silage. The silos were: A- silo with Bunsen valve; B- silo with effluent-collecting equipment; and C- silo with both Bunsen valve and effluent-collecting equipment. The parameters evaluated were: dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, ammonia nitrogen (N-NH3/T-N, pH, soluble carbohydrates (CHO, organic acids, cell wall constituents, ether extract and in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD. The silage from silos B and C had higher values of DM and lower levels of N-NH3/T-N. The pH value was the same for all silos, while the CHO was the

  4. 阻旋式料位计在电石料仓上的应用%Application of damped rotation material level meter in calcium carbide bunker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李天鹏

    2012-01-01

    Thc requirements of type of matcrial level meter for calcium carbide bunker were intro- duced as well as the application of damped rotation material level meter in calcium carbide bunker.%介绍了电石料仓料位计的选型要求及阻旋式料位计在电石料仓的应用情况。

  5. Flow of granular matter in a silo with multiple exit orifices: Jamming to mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamath, Sandesh; Kunte, Amit; Doshi, Pankaj; Orpe, Ashish V.

    2014-12-01

    We investigate the mixing characteristics of dry granular material while draining down a silo with multiple exit orifices. The mixing in the silo, which otherwise consists of noninteracting stagnant and flowing regions, is observed to improve significantly when the flow through specific orifices is stopped intermittently. This momentary stoppage of flow through the orifice is either controlled manually or is chosen by the system itself when the orifice width is small enough to cause spontaneous jamming and unjamming. We observe that the overall mixing behavior shows a systematic dependence on the frequency of closing and opening of specific orifices. In particular, the silo configuration employing random jamming and unjamming of any of the orifices shows early evidence of chaotic mixing. When operated in a multipass mode, the system exhibits a practical and efficient way of mixing particles.

  6. Should the scope of human mixture risk assessment span legislative/regulatory silos for chemicals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Richard M; Martin, Olwenn V; Faust, Michael; Kortenkamp, Andreas

    2016-02-01

    Current chemicals regulation operates almost exclusively on a chemical-by-chemical basis, however there is concern that this approach may not be sufficiently protective if two or more chemicals have the same toxic effect. Humans are indisputably exposed to more than one chemical at a time, for example to the multiple chemicals found in food, air and drinking water, and in household and consumer products, and in cosmetics. Assessment of cumulative risk to human health and/or the environment from multiple chemicals and routes can be done in a mixture risk assessment (MRA). Whilst there is a broad consensus on the basic science of mixture toxicology, the path to regulatory implementation of MRA within chemical risk assessment is less clear. In this discussion piece we pose an open question: should the scope of human MRA cross legislative remits or 'silos'? We define silos as, for instance, legislation that defines risk assessment practice for a subset of chemicals, usually on the basis of substance/product, media or process orientation. Currently any form of legal mandate for human MRA in the EU is limited to only a few pieces of legislation. We describe two lines of evidence, illustrated with selected examples, that are particularly pertinent to this question: 1) evidence that mixture effects have been shown for chemicals regulated in different silos and 2) evidence that humans are co-exposed to chemicals from different silos. We substantiate the position that, because there is no reason why chemicals allocated to specific regulatory silos would have non-overlapping risk profiles, then there is also no reason to expect that MRA limited only to chemicals within one silo can fully capture the risk that may be present to human consumers. Finally, we discuss possible options for implementation of MRA and we hope to prompt wider discussion of this issue.

  7. Discussion on Silo Flow aid Measures%刍议料仓的助流措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈兰武

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses on the standing problems during design of silo for glass batch preparation. Some proper measures for flow-aid should be taken so as to get mass flow in the silo and stabilize float glass production.%分析介绍了玻璃配料系统料仓设计中存在的问题,需要采取合适的助流措施,以实现料仓中的物料整体流,确保浮法玻璃生产稳定。

  8. PARAMETRIC ANALYSIS OF THE BUCKLING RESISTANCE OF THE SILO STEEL WALL

    OpenAIRE

    Skejić, Davor; Cavor, Marija

    2015-01-01

    The latest final draft amendment EN 1993-4-1:2007/FprA1 brings many changes that will likely soon become valid. In this article, we assess the issue of designing steel silo walls from perspective of the proposed changes related to assessing their buckling resistance. We performed a parametric analysis, comparing the current standard, HRN EN 1993-4-1, to the proposed amendment, EN 1993-4-1:2007/FprA1, accounting for the silo fabrication quality parameter as well as variations in steel quality,...

  9. Presión en medios granulares en silos: experimentos para un curso de fluidos

    OpenAIRE

    Saulo Hernández López; Tadeo Peña Moreno; Heriberto Acuña Campa; Francisco Montes Barajas; Laura L. Yeomans Reyna.

    2015-01-01

    Se presentan las experiencias obtenidas en el análisis del comportamiento estático de un medio granular en un silo. Haciendo uso de un dispositivo experimental construido para tal fin, se explora el comportamiento de la presión ejercida sobre el fondo de un silo cuando sobre él descansa una columna de medio granular (maíz) sobrecargado y se compara con el de un líquido. Se utiliza el modelo teórico de Janssen para describir el comportamiento de la presión, obteniendo resultados satisfactorios...

  10. Innovaciones en la construcción de silos – Suiza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huonder, A.

    1971-08-01

    Full Text Available This article gives details on sizes, construction, features, method of sealing joints, formwork, erection, etc. about these silos, which are totally prefabricated. They are a significant advance in construction time, quality of finish and total cost.Se describen en el artículo las características, dimensiones, sistemas constructivos, sellado de juntas, encofrados, montaje, etc., de estos silos totalmente prefabricados, que constituyen una novedad destacada en cuanto a rapidez de ejecución, perfección de acabado y gran economía.

  11. Bunker Cave stalagmites: an archive for central European Holocene climate variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Fohlmeister

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Holocene climate was characterised by variability on multi-centennial to multi-decadal time scales. In central Europe, these fluctuations were most pronounced during winter. Here we present a record of past winter climate variability for the last 10.8 ka based on four speleothems from Bunker Cave, western Germany. Due to its central European location, the cave site is particularly well suited to record changes in precipitation and temperature in response to changes in the North Atlantic realm. We present high-resolution records of δ18O, δ13C values and Mg/Ca ratios. Changes in the Mg/Ca ratio are attributed to past meteoric precipitation variability. The stable C isotope composition of the speleothems most likely reflects changes in vegetation and precipitation, and variations in the δ18O signal are interpreted as variations in meteoric precipitation and temperature. We found cold and dry periods between 8 and 7 ka, 6.5 and 5.5 ka, 4 and 3 ka as well as between 0.7 and 0.2 ka. The proxy signals in the Bunker Cave stalagmites compare well with other isotope records and, thus, seem representative for central European Holocene climate variability. The prominent 8.2 ka event and the Little Ice Age cold events are both recorded in the Bunker Cave record. However, these events show a contrasting relationship between climate and δ18O, which is explained by different causes underlying the two climate anomalies. Whereas the Little Ice Age is attributed to a pronounced negative phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation, the 8.2 ka event was triggered by cooler conditions in the North Atlantic due to a slowdown of the thermohaline circulation.

  12. Appraisal of ground-water quality in the Bunker Hill Basin of San Bernardino Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duell, L.F.; Schroeder, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    Water samples were collected from 47 wells and analyzed for concentration of major inorganic ions, nitrogen species, and volatile (purgeable) organic priority pollutants to assess groundwater quality in the Bunker Hill basin, California. Data were supplemented with additional analysis of nitrate, tetrachloroethylene, and trichloroethylene made by other agencies. The organic quality of groundwater in the basin generally is suitable for most uses, although fluoride concentration exceeded the California public drinking water standard of 1.4 mg/L in water from 5 of 47 wells. Nitrate (as nitrogen) concentration equaled or exceeded the public drinking water standard of 10 mg/L in water from 13 of 47 wells sampled for this study and in an additional 19 of 120 samples analyzed by other agencies. Concentration generally decreased with increasing depth below land surface. Twenty-four of the 33 volatile organic priority pollutants were detected in water from wells sampled during this study. When supplemental data from other agencies are included, tetrachloroethylene concentration exceeded the standard of 5 micrograms/L in water from 49 of 128 wells. No basinwide relation between contamination by these two chemicals and well depth or land use was discerned. A network of 11 observation wells that could be sampled twice a year would enhance the monitoring of changes groundwater quality in the Bunker Hill basin. (USGS)

  13. Marine fuel bunkering : environmental and economic consequences of low sulfur fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitch, J.B.; Vossoughi, S. [Kansas Univ., Lawrence, KS (United States)

    2009-07-01

    The marine fuel bunkering industry sells fuel to ships. The 3 most common products purchased by the industry include heavy fuel oil (HFO); marine diesel oil (MDO) and marine gas oil (MGO). Use of the petroleum products drives the global economy (GNP) while emitting millions of tonnes of air pollution. This paper discussed a recent initiative involving 164 nations that has been formed to control emissions related to shipping. The International Maritime Organization (IMO) has mandated that shipping not be allowed to operate within specified sulphur emission control areas (SECA) unless the sulphur content of marine fuels is less than 1.5 per cent. Deadlines have also been set for all member states to meet and maintain sulphur limits of 4.5 per cent on marine fuel bunkers. It is hoped that the restrictions will cause the world's fleets to demand an increased availability of lower sulphur fuels. It was concluded that the restrictions will reduce sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emissions by over 500,000 tonnes per year. 22 refs., 3 tabs., 7 figs.

  14. A study on leakage radiation dose at ELV-4 electron accelerator bunker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chulan, Mohd Rizal Md, E-mail: rizal@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my, E-mail: redzuwan@ukm.my; Yahaya, Redzuwan, E-mail: rizal@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my, E-mail: redzuwan@ukm.my [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (Malaysia); Ghazali, Abu BakarMhd [Department of Electronic and Communication, College of Engineering, Universiti Tenaga Nasional (Malaysia)

    2014-09-03

    Shielding is an important aspect in the safety of an accelerator and the most important aspects of a bunker shielding is the door. The bunker’s door should be designed properly to minimize the leakage radiation and shall not exceed the permitted limit of 2.5μSv/hr. In determining the leakage radiation dose that passed through the door and gaps between the door and the wall, 2-dimensional manual calculations are often used. This method is hard to perform because visual 2-dimensional is limited and is also very difficult in the real situation. Therefore estimation values are normally performed. In doing so, the construction cost would be higher because of overestimate or underestimate which require costly modification to the bunker. Therefore in this study, two methods are introduced to overcome the problem such as simulation using MCNPX Version 2.6.0 software and manual calculation using 3-dimensional model from Autodesk Inventor 2010 software. The values from the two methods were eventually compared to the real values from direct measurements using Ludlum Model 3 with Model 44-9 probe survey meter.

  15. Who's worried about turkeys? How 'organisational silos' impede zoonotic disease surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerolmack, Colin

    2013-02-01

    Though emerging infectious diseases ignore boundaries between species, the agencies that respond to them do not. Based on interviews with state and federal epidemiologists, veterinarians, and physicians and on case studies of disease events, this article examines how the jurisdictional and cultural divides that exist among human and animal health agencies hinder efforts to successfully contain species-jumping diseases (zoonoses). I argue that newly emergent zoonoses make these agencies' organisational cultures function as silos because the institutionalised thinking and practices developed to address the diseases that traditionally concerned each agency constrain members from building the inter-organisational bridges required to manage the latest 'hybrid' diseases. The silo effect is evident both across the human-animal health divide and within the landscape of animal health, as agencies that monitor livestock and wildlife follow distinct and sometimes competing agendas. The article also touches on moments of inter-agency cooperation in order to specify how health practitioners can begin making connections between 'organisational silos'. This article encourages sociologists of health to explore the crucial link between animal and human health; and it introduces the concept of organisational silos to capture the relational dilemmas that arise when a 'hybrid' problem systemically links agencies with disparate organisational cultures.

  16. CTE and the Common Core Can Address the Problem of Silos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Donna

    2015-01-01

    There is no doubt but that the education realm is replete with silos of experts of one discipline or another whose knowledge and teachings do not normally crossover into others. Yet the Common Core's call for career and college readiness virtually requires such subject integration--especially between the disciplines we consider academic and those…

  17. The granular silo as a continuum plastic flow: the hour-glass vs the clepsydra

    CERN Document Server

    Staron, Lydie; Popinet, Stéphane; 10.1063/1.4757390

    2012-01-01

    The granular silo is one of the many interesting illustrations of the thixotropic property of granular matter: a rapid flow develops at the outlet, propagating upwards through a dense shear flow while material at the bottom corners of the container remains static. For large enough outlets, the discharge flow is continuous; however, by contrast with the clepsydra for which the flow velocity depends on the height of fluid left in the container, the discharge rate of granular silos is constant. Implementing a plastic rheology in a 2D Navier-Stokes solver (following the mu(I)-rheology or a constant friction), we simulate the continuum counterpart of the granular silo. Doing so, we obtain a constant flow rate during the discharge and recover the Beverloo scaling independently of the initial filling height of the silo. We show that lowering the value of the coefficient of friction leads to a transition toward a different behavior, similar to that of a viscous fluid, and where the filling height becomes active in th...

  18. Packing, alignment and flow of shape-anisotropic grains in a 3D silo experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Börzsönyi, Tamás; Somfai, Ellák; Szabó, Balázs; Wegner, Sandra; Mier, Pascal; Rose, Georg; Stannarius, Ralf

    2016-09-01

    Granular material flowing through bottlenecks, like the openings of silos, tend to clog and thus inhibit further flow. We study this phenomenon in a three-dimensional hopper for spherical and shape-anisotropic particles by means of x-ray tomography. The x-ray tomograms provide information on the bulk of the granular filling, and allows us to determine the particle positions and orientations inside the silo. In addition, it allows us to calculate local packing densities in different parts of the container. We find that in the flowing zone of the silo particles show a preferred orientation and thereby a higher order. Similarly to simple shear flows, the average orientation of the particles is not parallel to the streamlines but encloses a certain angle with it. In most parts of the hopper, the angular distribution of the particles did not reach the one corresponding to stationary shear flow, thus the average orientation angle in the hopper deviates more from the streamlines than in stationary shear flows. In the flowing parts of the silo, shear induced dilation is observed, which is more pronounced for elongated grains than for nearly spherical particles. The clogged state is characterized by a dome, i.e. the geometry of the layer of grains blocking the outflow. The shape of the dome depends on the particle shape.

  19. Persistence strategies of Bacillus cereus spores isolated from dairy silo tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, Ranad; Svensson, Birgitta; Andersson, Maria A; Christiansson, Anders; Salkinoja-Salonen, Mirja

    2010-05-01

    Survival of Bacillus cereus spores of dairy silo tank origin was investigated under conditions simulating those in operational dairy silos. Twenty-three strains were selected to represent all B. cereus isolates (n = 457) with genotypes (RAPD-PCR) that frequently colonised the silo tanks of at least two of the sampled eight dairies. The spores were studied for survival when immersed in liquids used for cleaning-in-place (1.0% sodium hydroxide at pH 13.1, 75 degrees C; 0.9% nitric acid at pH 0.8, 65 degrees C), for adhesion onto nonliving surfaces at 4 degrees C and for germination and biofilm formation in milk. Four groups with different strategies for survival were identified. First, high survival (log 15 min kill steel from cold water. Third, a cereulide producing group with spores characterised by slow germination in rich medium and well preserved viability when exposed to heating at 90 degrees C. Fourth, spores capable of germinating at 8 degrees C and possessing the cspA gene. There were indications that spores highly resistant to hot 1% sodium hydroxide may be effectively inactivated by hot 0.9% nitric acid. Eight out of the 14 dairy silo tank isolates possessing hot-alkali resistant spores were capable of germinating and forming biofilm in whole milk, not previously reported for B. cereus.

  20. Numerical simulations in granular matter: The discharge of a 2D silo

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gabriel Pérez

    2008-06-01

    In this paper I give a short and elementary review of numerical simulations in granular assemblies, giving the process of discharge of a 2D silo as an example. The strengths and limitations of different approaches are discussed, together with some comments on the specific issues related to the numerics of discontinuous dissipative collisions.

  1. Breaking down IT silos: a "connected" way to improve customer experience and the bottom line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallowell, Bruce; Turisco, Frances

    2009-03-01

    Hospitals can provide customer service like Amazon.com without purchasing new technology. Making technology interactive requires sharing patient data across applications and enhancing existing IT with decision support. Breaking down technology silos between hospital and outpatient care provider systems significantly improves efficiency, lowers costs, and speeds care delivery.

  2. SIMULATION OF A MATHEMATICAL MODEL FOR THE TEMPERATURE PROFILE IN A SILO BAG FOR BEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Hauth

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The problems encountered with storage of agricultural products has warranted studies related to finding alternative methods of grain storage, thereby avoiding unnecessary losses. Stored grain deteriorates quickly at high temperatures. The moisture content of the grain influences the respiratory process; therefore, when at the recommended humidity of between 11 and 13%, this rate remains low, it prolongs maintenance of the product quality. The silo bag being airtight enables the grain mass to consume the entire internal O2 purse within it, and in that low or absent oxygen environment the grain mass saturates the CO2 atmosphere, inhibiting the multiplication of insects and fungi, thus providing a controlled environment. This study aims at simulating, using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD, the time it would take for the entire grain mass contained in a silo bag to reach thermal equilibrium with the environment and analyzes the feasibility of the technique employed here. The simulations were performed based on the data of the average air temperature in the region at each harvest time and the average storage temperature of the bean mass (60°C. The results obtained from the simulations reveal that after one month of silo storage the entire bag remains in thermal stabilization, and four months later when it hits the entire mass, all the beans are in thermal equilibrium. Therefore, maintaining stable temperature and humidity within the recommended silo bag preserves the grain quality well.

  3. The granular silo as a continuum plastic flow: The hour-glass vs the clepsydra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staron, L.; Lagrée, P.-Y.; Popinet, S.

    2012-10-01

    The granular silo is one of the many interesting illustrations of the thixotropic property of granular matter: a rapid flow develops at the outlet, propagating upwards through a dense shear flow while material at the bottom corners of the container remains static. For large enough outlets, the discharge flow is continuous; however, by contrast with the clepsydra for which the flow velocity depends on the height of fluid left in the container, the discharge rate of granular silos is constant. Implementing a plastic rheology in a 2D Navier-Stokes solver (following the μ(I)-rheology or a constant friction), we simulate the continuum counterpart of the granular silo. Doing so, we obtain a constant flow rate during the discharge and recover the Beverloo scaling independently of the initial filling height of the silo. We show that lowering the value of the coefficient of friction leads to a transition toward a different behavior, similar to that of a viscous fluid, and where the filling height becomes active in the discharge process. The pressure field shows that large enough values of the coefficient of friction (≃0.3) allow for a low-pressure cavity to form above the outlet, and can thus explain the Beverloo scaling. In conclusion, the difference between the discharge of a hourglass and a clepsydra seems to reside in the existence or not of a plastic yield stress.

  4. The discharge of fine silica sand in a silo under different ambient air pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiau, Shu-San; Liao, Chun-Chung; Lee, Jie-Hsien

    2012-04-01

    Silos are widely used for the industrial scale handling and transportation of powdered and granular materials. The process of discharging powder in a silo involves the flow of both solid particles and an interstitial fluid, usually air. In this study, we experimentally investigate the effects of particle size and ambient pressure on the discharge process in open- and closed-top silos. The discharge rate, pressure drop, and pressure recovery rate are measured and discussed. The results show that the particle size, the diameter of the orifice, and the ambient pressure significantly influence the process of discharge. The effect of air flow is stronger on fine-powdered flow in a closed-top silo. The results indicate that the effects of air flow could be reduced by lowering the ambient pressure. In addition, a normalized critical pressure can be defined beyond which the discharge rate increases dramatically. With reduced ambient pressure, this normalized critical pressure decreases with increasing particle size. Finally, the experimental results are compared with results calculated using the Beverloo equation and Darcy's law.

  5. Análise estrutural de silos metálicos prismáticos Structural analysis of prismatic metallic silos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Pinheiro Lopes Neto

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Nos últimos anos, o crescimento da agricultura brasileira tem forçado vários setores a se adequarem aos padrões produtivos com o intuito de se manterem competitivos, frente ao processo de globalização econômica. Nesse contexto, as fábricas de ração avícola tendem a buscar novas alternativas que favoreçam a produção e reduzam custos sem afetar a qualidade do produto final. Entre essas alternativas, destaca-se o uso de silos verticais por facilitar o processo de confecção das rações e eliminar os grandes depósitos horizontais. Diante dessa possibilidade, objetivou-se, com a presente pesquisa, estudar as tensões nas paredes em conformação ziguezague de um silo metálico prismático 2m x 1m e comparar os resultados obtidos com teorias e normas. Para o cálculo das tensões, utilizaram-se os métodos simplificados de Ravenet e Troitsky. Para a obtenção dos esforços reais nas paredes, utilizaram-se extensômetros elétricos. Dessa forma, conclui-se que, tanto a teoria de Ravenet quanto de Troistky, podem ser recomendadas para o dimensionamento de silos prismáticos por apresentarem boa aproximação com valores experimentais.Recently Brazil has undergone agricultural growth that has forced several sectors to adjust their business structure to maintain competitiveness within the process of economic globalization. In this context, the poultry production has focused on new alternatives to increase productivity and reduce costs without affecting the quality of the final product. Among these alternatives, the use of vertical silos due to their capacity and ease of accurate feed ingredient rationing and eliminate large horizontal warehouses. The present research has focused on the stresses in rectangular, hopper bottom bins with a unique zigzag corrugation. The model bin was 2m x 1m with a hopper and the stresses obtained were compared to theories and standards. The stresses were estimated using Ravenet and Troitsky's simplified

  6. Methods of lab silos sealing and fermentation characteristics and aerobic stability of sugarcane silage treated with microbial additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Ortiz Novinski

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The present experimental assay evaluated the effect of lab silo sealing methods on the ensilage of the sugarcane, with or without microbial additives (Lactobacillus plantarum and Propionibacterium acidipropionici. Twenty-liter plastic buckets were used as experimental silos, which were sealed with either a polyethylene sheet (silo cover with a mesh size of 200 µm or an appropriate plastic lid equipped with Bunsen valve. Silos were stored for 30, 60, or 90 days. Fermentative losses, chemical composition, organic acids, ethanol and aerobic stability were evaluated. The sealing method employed did not influence most of evaluated variables, showing a small decrease of effluent production in silos covered with polyethylene sheet. The microbial additive did not avoid dry matter (DM fermentative losses in sugarcane silages (216 g kg-1, nor affected aerobic stability (44.6 hours. The levels of neutral and acid detergent fiber of fresh sugarcane increased after ensiling due to DM losses as gases and effluent. The ethanol content of silages was not influenced by treatments (mean 146 g kg-1 of DM. The sealing methods of experimental silos were not affected by the evaluated variables; polyethylene sheet and plastic lid show the same performance on the fermentative model and both methods represent well the conditions of large scale farm silos.

  7. Drivers, Options and Approaches for Two Seaport Authorities on the Joint Reduction of Bunker Oil Related Emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stikkelman, R.M.; Minnée, M.G.; Prinssen, M.M.W.J.; Correljé, A.F.

    2012-01-01

    The international agreements, made by International Maritime Organization in 2008 are an encouraging start to reduce the SO2 emissions caused by the use of bunker oil. Port authorities are confronted with a dilemma. From an environmental point of view, a proactive attitude is preferred. However, a u

  8. Fire and fire extinguishment in silos. An experimental study[Storage of wood fuel pellets]; Brand och brandslaeckning i siloanlaeggningar. En experimentell studie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, Henry; Blomqvist, Per; Zhenghua Yan

    2007-01-15

    A series of four tests have been conducted with wood pellets stored in a reduced size silo. The tests were conducted in order to increase the knowledge on fire development, detection and extinction technique in silo fires. The project originated from a pre-study on the extinction of silo fires made for the Swedish Rescue Service Agency (SRV). The test silo was built of concrete rings, had a diameter of 1 m, and a height of almost 6 m, which gave a volume of 4.4 m{sup 3}. The silo was filled with wood pellets up to a height of 5 m. A local auto ignition was imitated by a coiled heating wire placed in the pellet bulk centrally in the silo and a self sustaining pyrolysis zone was established within one hour. The silo was instrumented with almost 100 thermocouples as a mean to follow the development of the pyrolysis zone and later the efficiency of the extinguishment. Gas analyses were further made, both in the top of the silo, and at four different levels in the pellet bulk. After 30 hours the extinguishment was initiated using nitrogen (N{sub 2}) and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), respectively. The gas was injected into the bottom of the silo. Two tests were also conducted where gas injection was combined foam application in the top of the silo. The tests showed that the pyrolysis zone preferably spreads downwards in the silo, while moisture and pyrolysis gases form a wave that slowly spreads upwards. It was difficult to detect the fire before the main 'gas wave' reached the pellet surface in the silo top, and detection time was about 20 hours in these tests. The spread of the pyrolysis zone, downward, was even slower. The slow development is probably an explanation of why real silo fires often are rather extensive once discovered. Inerting the silo with either nitrogen or carbon dioxide worked out well in the tests. The gas must be in gas phase and slowly introduced into the silo, as close to the bottom as possible. An efficient extinction implies an air

  9. 天然气燃料动力船燃料加注模式研究%Research on Bunkering Mode of Natural Gas-fuelled Ship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石国政; 张晖; 范洪军

    2013-01-01

    针对天然气燃料加注方案,分析国内外船舶天然气燃料加注的现状、主要加注模式及其特点。结合我国内河水域的特点,提出适合我国天然气燃料动力船加注模式的建议。%The bunkering modes for natural gas fuel were taken as the research object .The bunkering situation on the do-mestic and international ships was analyzed , as well as the current principal bunkering modes and their features .Some sugges-tions on the bunkering modes applying to Chinese natural gas fuelled ships were put forward in light of the special features of Chi -nese inland waterways .

  10. World War I chemical weapons bunker engineering evaluation and cost analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig, C.A.; Crotteau, A.

    1995-12-31

    This paper provides a review of the US Army Corps of Engineers development and execution of a CERCLA chemical weapons and soil removal from two World War 1 underground test bunkers. The non-time critical removal action was completed from October 1994 to January 1995 in conjunction with Operation Safe Removal, Spring Valley, Washington, D.C. On January 5, 1993, a startled backhoe operator unearthed three 75mm artillery shells, exposing the legacy of a World War 1 (WWI) chemical weapons test facility in the midst of the nation`s capitol. That discovery, made in an exclusive residential neighborhood, prompted an intensive two year environmental cleanup. The Army immediately responded to the chemical ordnance threat, initiating Operation Safe Removal, a $20 million emergency response action and remedial investigation.

  11. Bunker Cave stalagmites: an archive for central European Holocene climate variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Fohlmeister

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Holocene climate was characterised by variability on multi-centennial to multi-decadal time scales. In central Europe, these fluctuations were most pronounced during winter. Here we present a new record of past winter climate variability for the last 10.8 ka based on four speleothems from Bunker Cave, Western Germany. Due to its central European location, the cave site is particularly well suited to record changes in precipitation and temperature in response to changes in the North Atlantic realm. We present high resolution records of δ18O, δ13C values and Mg/Ca ratios. We attribute changes in the Mg/Ca ratio to variations in the meteoric precipitation. The stable C isotope composition of the speleothems most likely reflects changes in vegetation and precipitation and variations in the δ18O signal are interpreted as variations in meteoric precipitation and temperature. We found cold and dry periods between 9 and 7 ka, 6.5 and 5.5 ka, 4 and 3 ka as well as between 0.7 to 0.2 ka. The proxy signals in our stalagmites compare well with other isotope records and, thus, seem representative for central European Holocene climate variability. The prominent 8.2 ka event and the Little Ice Age cold events are both recorded in the Bunker cave record. However, these events show a contrasting relationship between climate and δ18O, which is explained by different causes underlying the two climate anomalies. Whereas the Little Ice Age is attributed to a pronounced negative phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation, the 8.2 ka event was triggered by cooler conditions in the North Atlantic due to a slowdown of the Thermohaline Circulation.

  12. Parametric design of silo steel framework of concrete mixing station based on the finite element method and MATLAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Hui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available When the structure of the silo steel framework of concrete mixing station is designed, In most cases, the dimension parameters, shape parameters and position parameters of silo steel framework beams are changed as the productivity adjustment of the concrete mixing station, but the structure types of silo steel framework will remain the same. In order to acquire strength of silo steel framework rapidly and efficiently, it is need to provide specialized parametric strength computational software for engineering staff who does not understand the three-dimensional software such as PROE and finite element analysis software. By the finite element methods(FEM, the parametric stress calculation modal of the silo steel framework of concrete mixing station is established, which includes dimension parameters, shape parameters, position parameters and applied load parameters of each beams, and then the parametric calculation program is written with MATLAB. The stress equations reflect the internal relationship between the stress of the silo steel frames with the dimension parameters, shape parameters, position parameters and load parameters. Finally, an example is presented, the calculation results show the stress of all members and the size and location of the maximum stress, which agrees well with realistic cases.

  13. Presión en medios granulares en silos: experimentos para un curso de fluidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulo Hernández López

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan las experiencias obtenidas en el análisis del comportamiento estático de un medio granular en un silo. Haciendo uso de un dispositivo experimental construido para tal fin, se explora el comportamiento de la presión ejercida sobre el fondo de un silo cuando sobre él descansa una columna de medio granular (maíz sobrecargado y se compara con el de un líquido. Se utiliza el modelo teórico de Janssen para describir el comportamiento de la presión, obteniendo resultados satisfactorios. Este trabajo podrá servir de base en la elaboración de protocolos de prácticas para los laboratorios de los cursos de física clásica que se imparten en los programas de licenciatura en ciencias e ingeniería.

  14. Analysis and Research of Ocean LNG Bunkering Ship%远洋LNG燃料加注船分析与研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于成龙; 田东方; 于婷婷

    2015-01-01

    Compare a variety of LNG fuel bunkering ways, thinking the LNG bunker ship is optimum for large ocean LNG powered ship. According to fuel value calculation and heating value analysis of several cur-rent typical ships, determine the capacity of the LNG bunkering ship. Referencing the experience of fuel bunkering, LNG bunkering requirements are put forward. Finally, analyzing the type of bunkering ship and connection methods.%比较多种LNG燃料加注方式,提出加注船为大型远洋LNG动力船舶最佳加注形式.选取当前典型船舶进行燃料计算与热值分析,确定加注船的容量,并借鉴燃油加注经验,提出相关LNG加注要求.最后,针对加注船的类型和连接方式,进行选择性分析.

  15. La vida de Santo Domingo de Silos: onirocrítica y semántica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González, Javier Roberto

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available We study the prophetic vision of Santo Domingo de Silos in Gonzalo de Berceo’s Vida de Santo Domingo de Silos, with the aim of: a analysing the text according to categories of prophecy, vision and dream in medieval christian culture; b analysing the configuration of oniric images as an allegorical discourse; c given the limits of allegorical semantics, interpreting those symbolic images characterized by prophetical obscuritas in the light of Grimaldus’ Vita Beati Dominici, source of Berceo’s Vida, and also in the light of medieval tradition of Other World visions and general chromatic an arithmetical symbolism, in order to establish semantic innovations and the proper meanning of Berceo’s text.Estudiamos la visión profética de Santo Domingo de Silos en la Vida de Santo Domingo de Silos de Gonzalo de Berceo, con el objeto de: a analizar el texto según las categorías de profecía, visión y sueño vigentes en la cultura cristiana medieval; b analizar la configuración de las imágenes oníricas como discurso alegórico; c dados los límites de la semántica alegórica, interpretar aquellas imágenes simbólicas caracterizadas por la obscuritas profética a la luz de la Vita Beati Dominici de Grimaldo, fuente de la Vida de Berceo, y también a la luz de la tradición medieval de las visiones de trasmundo y del simbolismo general cromático y aritmético, en orden al establecimiento de las innovaciones semánticas y con ellas del recto sentido del texto de Berceo.

  16. Large-scale numerical simulations of polydisperse particle flow in a silo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Largo, S. M.; Maza, D.; Hidalgo, R. C.

    2016-09-01

    Very recently, we have examined experimentally and numerically the micro-mechanical details of monodisperse particle flows through an orifice placed at the bottom of a silo (Rubio-Largo et al. in Phys Rev Lett 114:238002, 2015). Our findings disentangled the paradoxical ideas associated to the free-fall arch concept, which has historically served to justify the dependence of the flow rate on the outlet size. In this work, we generalize those findings examining large-scale polydisperse particle flows in silos. In the range of studied apertures, both velocity and density profiles at the aperture are self-similar, and the obtained scaling functions confirm that the relevant scale of the problem is the size of the aperture. Moreover, we find that the contact stress monotonically decreases when the particles approach the exit and vanish at the outlet. The behavior of this magnitude is practically independent of the size of the orifice. However, the total and partial kinetic stress profiles suggest that the outlet size controls the propagation of the velocity fluctuations inside the silo. Examining this magnitude, we conclusively argue that indeed there is a well-defined transition region where the particle flow changes its nature. The general trend of the partial kinetic pressure profiles and the location of the transition region results the same for all particle types. We find that the partial kinetic stress is larger for bigger particles. However, the small particles carry a higher fraction of kinetic stress respect to their concentration, which suggest that the small particles have larger velocity fluctuations than the large ones and showing lower strength of correlation with the global flow. Our outcomes explain why the free-fall arch picture has served to describe the polydisperse flow rate in the discharge of silos.

  17. A differential equation for the flow rate during silo discharge: Beyond the Beverloo rule

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    We present a differential equation for the flow rate of granular materials during the discharge of a silo. This is based in the energy balance of the variable mass system in contrast with the traditional derivations based on heuristic postulates such as the free fall arch. We show that this new equation is consistent with the well known Beverloo rule, providing an independent estimate for the universal Beverloo prefactor. We also find an analytic expression for the pressure under discharging ...

  18. Mechanics of sequential jamming and unjamming phenomena in a multi-exit orifice silo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunte, Amit; Orpe, Ashish; Doshi, Pankaj

    2013-11-01

    We have investigated the flow of a two dimensional granular assembly draining through a flat bottomed silo having multiple exit orifices using DEM simulations. The width of the central orifice of the silo is fixed at 3 . 5 d which is small enough to cause jamming (or no-flow) through the orifice. Here d is the mean particle diameter. The width of the other nearby orifices is kept much more than 3 . 5 d , thus, ensuring continuous flow of particles through them. Interestingly, this continuous flow of particles in the vicinity interacts with the assembly of jammed particles above the central orifice causing rearrangements and ultimately unjamming the assembly leading to a smooth flow. During the entire drainage of the silo, the central orifice undergoes this sequence of jamming-unjamming event several times, the frequency of which depends on its proximity to the nearby orifices. We focus primarily on understanding this jamming-unjamming transition by investigating the contact force network and the normal force distributions. Our preliminary results show that the tails of the force distributions in the jammed region decay slower than those for the flowing regions. This qualitative behaviour is found to be independent of any prior rearrangement history. Department of Science and Technology, India, (Grant No. SR/S3/CE/037/2009).

  19. Mechanical properties of some granular agricultural materials used in silo design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, M.; Aguado, P. J.; Ayuga, F.

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this research was to provide values for different material properties considered in either traditional or more recent numerical silo design methods. Different samples of granular agricultural materials commonly stored in silos were tested. Common geotechnical devices have been used in order to make the replications easier. Based on these experiments it was determined that the different material properties were not affected by the test velocity, except in the case of Poisson ratio. From a practical point of view, the test velocity correlates well with the sliding velocity of grain during discharge. The values obtained for material properties considered in traditional silo design methods were similar to those reported by other authors. No significant differences were observed in the results obtained when using either the square shear box or the circular shear cell. The same conclusion was reached when comparing the results from direct shear tests with preconsolidated and unconsolidated samples. This means that simplified devices and procedures can be used in agricultural grains against other products. Finally, a table with the recommended values for the different parameters determined for each sample tested was provided in this work.

  20. Experimental study on detection of electrostatic discharges generated by polymer granules inside a metal silo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kwangseok; Mogami, Tomofumi; Suzuki, Teruo

    2014-04-01

    To detect electrostatic discharges generated by polymer granules within a metal silo, we developed a novel and simple electrostatic discharge detector that utilizes a photosensor. The novel detector consists of a photosensor module in a metal cylinder, an optical band-pass filter, a quartz glass, a power supply, an amplifier for the photosensor module, and a digital oscilloscope. In this study, we conducted experiments at a real pneumatic powder transport facility that includes a metal silo to evaluate the novel detector using polypropylene granules. To determine the performance of the novel detector, we observed the electrostatic discharge within the metal silo using a conventional image intensifier system. The results obtained from the experiments show that the novel detector worked well in this study. The signals obtained with the novel detector were identical to the electrostatic discharges obtained with the conventional image intensifier system. The greatest advantage of this novel detector is that it is effective even when placed under external lights. In addition, the influence of various optical band-pass filters on the performance of the novel detector was discussed. Our study confirmed that an optical band-pass filter with a center wavelength of λ 330 nm (λ1/2: 315-345 nm) was the best performer among the optical band-pass filters used in this study.

  1. Sound of silo's: An experimental investigation into sound emissions from granular flows in a vertical tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porte, Elze; Masen, Marc; Vriend, Nathalie; de Boer, Andre

    2015-11-01

    When large storage silo's containing granular material are discharged, a loud sound emits from the silo. The noise causes disturbances for people working on site and for nearby residential areas. Insufficient knowledge exists to solve the problem efficiently and adequately. An experimental study using a scaled silo setup shows that the particle flow dynamics and system characteristics are both actors in determining the occurrence of the sound and its frequency. The extensive use of frequency analysis provides new insights into the complexity of the related parameters. The particle flow and tube characteristics are manipulated by changing the outflow rate, bulk material, wall material, wall pressure and tube dimensions. Frequency analysis of the recorded sound shows that the frequency depends on both the externally forced parameter changes and internal changes during flow. The latter indicates that during the flow, characteristic properties such as the packing fraction and sound speed change. As a result, the frequency changes as well. However, the external parameters that are manipulated as an initial condition are equally important in describing the frequency response.

  2. ECT Image Analysis Methods for Shear Zone Measurements during Silo Discharging Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Krzysztof Grudzien; Zbigniew Chaniecki; Andrzej Romanowski; Maciej Niedostatkiewicz; Dominik Sankowski

    2012-01-01

    The paper covers the electrical capacitance tomography(ECT) data analysis on shear zones formed during silo discharging process.This is due to the ECT aptitude for detection of slight changes of material concentration.On the basis of ECT visualisations,wall-adjacent shear zone profiles are analysed for different wall roughness parameters.The analysis on changes of material concentration,based on ECT images,enables the calculation for the characteristic parameters of shear zones-size and material concentration inside the shear zone in a dynamic process of silo discharging.In order to verify the methodology a series of experiments on gravitational flow of bulk solids under various conditions were conducted with different initial granular material packing densities and silo wall roughness.The investigation shows that the increase in container wall roughness is an effective method for reducing the dynamic effects during the material discharging,since these effects are resulted from the resonance between hopper construction and trembling material.Such effects will damage industrial equipment in practical applications and need further investigation.

  3. Cemented backfilling technology with unclassified tailings based on vertical sand silo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A new technology characterized by rapidly non-mechanical settlement of unclassified tailings was developed based on a large number of tests,and dynamic settlement and continual slurry preparation without hardening in vertical sand silo were eventually realized by the addition of an effective flocculating agent (NPA).The results show that the sedimentation velocity of interface between unclassified tailings and water after the addition of NPA increases by 10-20 times,the sedimentation mass fraction of unclassified tailings at the bottom of vertical sand silo is up to 64%,the solid particle content of waste water meets the national standard,and the side influences of NPA can be removed by the addition of fly ash.The industrial test result shows that the system,the addition manner and the equipments are rational,and the vertical sand silo is used efficiently.This developed system is simple with large throughput,and the processing cost is 2.2 yuan(RMB)/m3,only 10%-20% of that by mechanical settlement.

  4. 利用反井钻机施工组合煤仓%Application of Raise Boring Machine to Construction of Combined Coal Bunker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘国申

    2014-01-01

    A middle coal bunker in Ji4 Mining Block of No.5 Mine in Pingdingshan Tian’an Coal Com pany Limited was a combined coal bunker with a vertical bunker and a high inclined bunker. A de signed depth of the vertical bunker was 42.5m. The vertical bunker was a round cross section. The net diameter of the vertical bunker was 4m and the excavation diameter was 4.8m. A designed length of the inclined bunker was 23.1m with an inclination of 65° and the bunker was a round cross section with a net diameter of 3m and excavation diameter of 3.8m. In the constructions of the vertical bunker and the inclined bunker,a raise boring machine was first applied to the pilot drilling and to the pilot borehole reaming. Then a conventional drilling and blasting method was applied to the reaming of the bunker. A bolt and steel mesh was applied to the temporary support of the bunker,a reinforced con crete was applied to the permanent support of the bunker and the short section excavation and lining method was applied. A total construction period of the combined coal bunker was 85 days,the con struction mission was completed on schedule,the project quality was excellent and a good evaluation was made by the project owner.%平顶山天安煤业股份有限公司五矿己四采区中部煤仓,是由立仓和大倾角斜仓构成的组合煤仓。立仓设计深度42•5m ,圆形断面,净直径4m ,荒径4•8m。斜仓设计长度23•1m ,倾角65°,仓身亦为圆形断面,净直径3m ,荒径3•8m。立仓和斜仓施工中,均先利用反井钻机进行导孔和扩孔钻进,形成反井井孔;再用普通钻爆法刷大,锚网临时支护,钢筋混凝土永久支护,短段掘砌。该组合煤仓实际总工期为85d ,按期完成了施工任务,工程质量优良,受到了业主好评。

  5. Monitoring of Olympic National Park Beaches to determine fate and effects of spilled bunker C fuel oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strand, J.A.; Cullinan, V.I.; Crecelius, E.A.; Fortman, T.J.; Citterman, R.J.; Fleischmann, M.L.

    1990-10-01

    On December 23, 1988, the barge Nestucca was accidentally struck by its tow, a Souse Brothers Towing Company tug, releasing approximately 230,000 gallons of Bunker C fuel oil and fouling beaches from Grays Harbor north to Vancouver Island. Affected beaches in Washington included a 40-mile-long strip that has been recently added to Olympic National Park. The purpose of the monitoring program documented in this report was to determine the fate of spilled Bunker C fuel oil on selected Washington coastal beaches. We sought to determine (1) how much oil remained in intertidal and shallow subtidal habitats following clean-up and weathering, (2) to what extent intertidal and/or shallow subtidal biotic assemblages have been contaminated, and (3) how rapidly the oil has left the ecosystem. 45 refs., 18 figs., 8 tabs.

  6. 双出口新型煤斗设计探讨%Design of Double Outlets New Bunker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎大胜; 沈鸿彪

    2013-01-01

    双出口的新型煤斗整体呈“裤型”,外形变化复杂,结构设计的难度相当大,该煤斗设计的关键是要处理好“裆”部的应力和变形问题,设置中间竖向钢板能很好的起到控制应力和变形的作用。%the Double Outlets New Bunker looks like a trousers with a complex shape. It is hard to design such a bunker. The key point in designing is to control the stress and deformation in the crotch area, setting a vertical steel plate is a good way to solve the problem.

  7. Degradation of Bunker C Fuel Oil by White-Rot Fungi in Sawdust Cultures Suggests Potential Applications in Bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Darcy; Rice, James; Martin, Rachael; Lindquist, Erika; Lipzen, Anna; Grigoriev, Igor; Hibbett, David

    2015-01-01

    Fungal lignocellulolytic enzymes are promising agents for oxidizing pollutants. This study investigated degradation of Number 6 "Bunker C" fuel oil compounds by the white-rot fungi Irpex lacteus, Trichaptum biforme, Phlebia radiata, Trametes versicolor, and Pleurotus ostreatus (Basidiomycota, Agaricomycetes). Averaging across all studied species, 98.1%, 48.6%, and 76.4% of the initial Bunker C C10 alkane, C14 alkane, and phenanthrene, respectively were degraded after 180 days of fungal growth on pine media. This study also investigated whether Bunker C oil induces changes in gene expression in the white-rot fungus Punctularia strigosozonata, for which a complete reference genome is available. After 20 days of growth, a monokaryon P. strigosozonata strain degraded 99% of the initial C10 alkane in both pine and aspen media but did not affect the amounts of the C14 alkane or phenanthrene. Differential gene expression analysis identified 119 genes with ≥ log2(2-fold) greater expression in one or more treatment comparisons. Six genes were significantly upregulated in media containing oil; these genes included three enzymes with potential roles in xenobiotic biotransformation. Carbohydrate metabolism genes showing differential expression significantly accumulated transcripts on aspen vs. pine substrates, perhaps reflecting white-rot adaptations to growth on hardwood substrates. The mechanisms by which P. strigosozonata may degrade complex oil compounds remain obscure, but degradation results of the 180-day cultures suggest that diverse white-rot fungi have promise for bioremediation of petroleum fuels.

  8. Degradation of Bunker C Fuel Oil by White-Rot Fungi in Sawdust Cultures Suggests Potential Applications in Bioremediation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darcy Young

    Full Text Available Fungal lignocellulolytic enzymes are promising agents for oxidizing pollutants. This study investigated degradation of Number 6 "Bunker C" fuel oil compounds by the white-rot fungi Irpex lacteus, Trichaptum biforme, Phlebia radiata, Trametes versicolor, and Pleurotus ostreatus (Basidiomycota, Agaricomycetes. Averaging across all studied species, 98.1%, 48.6%, and 76.4% of the initial Bunker C C10 alkane, C14 alkane, and phenanthrene, respectively were degraded after 180 days of fungal growth on pine media. This study also investigated whether Bunker C oil induces changes in gene expression in the white-rot fungus Punctularia strigosozonata, for which a complete reference genome is available. After 20 days of growth, a monokaryon P. strigosozonata strain degraded 99% of the initial C10 alkane in both pine and aspen media but did not affect the amounts of the C14 alkane or phenanthrene. Differential gene expression analysis identified 119 genes with ≥ log2(2-fold greater expression in one or more treatment comparisons. Six genes were significantly upregulated in media containing oil; these genes included three enzymes with potential roles in xenobiotic biotransformation. Carbohydrate metabolism genes showing differential expression significantly accumulated transcripts on aspen vs. pine substrates, perhaps reflecting white-rot adaptations to growth on hardwood substrates. The mechanisms by which P. strigosozonata may degrade complex oil compounds remain obscure, but degradation results of the 180-day cultures suggest that diverse white-rot fungi have promise for bioremediation of petroleum fuels.

  9. A Novel Boil-Off Gas Re-Liquefaction Using a Spray Recondenser for Liquefied Natural-Gas Bunkering Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiheon Ryu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the design of a novel boil-off gas (BOG re-liquefaction technology using a BOG recondenser system. The BOG recondenser system targets the liquefied natural gas (LNG bunkering operation, in which the BOG phase transition occurs in a pressure vessel instead of a heat exchanger. The BOG that is generated during LNG bunkering operation is characterized as an intermittent flow with various peak loads. The system was designed to temporarily store the transient BOG inflow, condense it with subcooled LNG and store the condensed liquid. The superiority of the system was verified by comparing it with the most extensively employed conventional re-liquefaction system in terms of consumption energy and via an exergy analysis. Static simulations were conducted for three compositions; the results indicated that the proposed system provided 0 to 6.9% higher efficiencies. The exergy analysis indicates that the useful work of the conventional system is 24.9%, and the useful work of the proposed system is 26.0%. Process dynamic simulations of six cases were also performed to verify the behaviour of the BOG recondenser system. The results show that the pressure of the holdup in the recondenser vessel increased during the BOG inflow mode and decreased during the initialization mode. The maximum pressure of one of the bunkering cases was 3.45 bar. The system encountered a challenge during repetitive operations due to overpressurizing of the BOG recondenser vessel.

  10. Effects of an experimental oil spill (bunker on seedling survival and growth rate of Laguncularia racemosa (Combretaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanoela Nardes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of bunker oil on survival and growth rate of Laguncularia racemosa were tested using 60 seedlings planted in small plastic bags (experimental unit. One of the six treatments was randomly assigned to each bag: 0 mL (control, 10 mL, 20 mL, 30 mL, 40 mL e 50 mL of bunker oil spilled in each bag. The experiment was monitored weekly for 20 weeks. The results were analyzed by repeated measure ANOVA and linear regression. In the first seven weeks, we observed chlorosis, loss of leafs and death rate significantly superior to plants of all treatments compared to the control group. Persistent effects like reduction of stem growth and leaf production was proportional to the initial oil concentration. The plants from control and 10 mL treatments were significantly superior to all remaining treatments in height, leaf number and healthy level. Results indicated that L. racemosa seedlings suffer both lethal and sublethal effects from exposition to bunker oil exposure.

  11. Comportamento aerodinâmico e efeito de enrijecimento externo em silos cilíndricos sob a ação do vento Aerodynamic behaviour and external stiffening effect in cylindrical silos under wind action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano J. de Andrade Júnior

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Os silos metálicos, quando vazios, são suscetíveis ao amassamento das chapas do corpo cilíndrico pela ação do vento. Este trabalho compara os efeitos do enrijecimento interno e externo com colunas, no comportamento aerodinâmico de silos cilíndricos com telhado cônico. Os estudos teóricos conduziram a ensaios em túnel de vento, que foram realizados em dois tipos de modelos reduzidos: um com superfície lisa (enrijecimento interno e o outro com superfície nervurada (enrijecimento externo, ambos em duas relações geométricas de altura/diâmetro do cilindro (0,5 e 1,0 e inclinação da cobertura cônica de 27º. Com base nos ensaios, foram obtidos os coeficientes de pressão externa e os coeficientes de arrasto nos cilindros, bem como os coeficientes de arrasto e de sustentação na cobertura. Com isso, identificou-se o melhor tipo de enrijecimento ao projeto otimizado de silos para resistir adequadamente à ação do vento. O resultado final é um conjunto de dados atualizado, oriundo de ensaios com características de semelhança geométrica e aerodinâmica definidas, que é aplicável a qualquer tipo de silo cilíndrico.Steel cylindrical silos, when empty, are susceptible to the crumpling of the sheeting of the cylinder by the wind action. This paper compares the effects of internal and external stiffening with columns on the aerodynamic behavior of cylindrical silos with conical roof. The theoretical studies leaded to wind tunnel experiments, which have been carried out on two types of scaled silo models, one with smooth surface (internal stiffening, the other with ribbed surface (external stiffening, both with two geometric height/diameter ratio of cylinder (0.5 and 1.0 and a conical roof pitch equal to 27º. Based on the information gained during these experiments, external coefficients of pressure and drag and lift coefficients are derived for the cylinders, as well as the drag and lift coefficients for the conical roofs. With

  12. In-situ grouting of the low-level radioactive waste disposal silos at ORNL`s Solid Waste Storage Area Six

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis, C.W.; Farmer, C.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (US); Stansfield, R.G. [Stansfield (Robert G.), Knoxville, TN (US)

    1993-07-01

    At Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), one method of solid low-level radioactive waste disposal has been disposed of in below-grade cylindrical concrete silos. Located in Solid Waste Storage Area 6 (SWSA 6), each silo measures 8 ft in diameter and 20 ft deep. Present day operations involve loading the silos with low-level radioactive waste and grouting the remaining void space with a particulate grout of low viscosity. Initial operations involving the disposal of wastes into the below-grade silos did not include the grouting process. Grouting was stated as a standard practice (in late 1988) after discovering that {approximately}75% of the silos accumulated water in the bottom of the silos in the {approximately}2 years after capping. Silo water (leachate) contained a wide range of types and concentrations of radionuclides. The migration of contaminated leachate out of the silo into adjoining soil and groundwater was considered to be a serious environmental concern. This report describes how a specially designed particulate-base grout was used to grout 54 silos previously filled with low-level radioactive waste. Grouting involved three steps: (1) silo preparation, (2) formulation and preparation of the grout mixture, and (3) injection of the grout into the silos. Thirty-five of the 54 silos grouted were equipped with a 3-in.-diam Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) pipe used to monitor water levels in the silos. A method for rupturing the bottom section of these PVC wells was developed so that grout could be pumped to the bottom of those silos. Holes (2-in. diam) were drilled through the {approximately}18 in. thick concrete to fill the remaining 19 wells without the PVC monitoring wells. The formulation of grout injected into the silos was based on a Portland Type I cement, flyash, sand, and silica fume admixture. Compressive strength of grout delivered to SWSA6 during grouting operations averaged 1,808 lb/in{sup 2} with a bulk density of 3,549 lb/yd{sup 3}.

  13. Batería de silos para la conservación del maíz, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guinand & Brillembourg, C. A., Ingenieros

    1966-02-01

    Full Text Available A factory for maize by products has been recently built at Encrucijada de Chivacoa, Yaracuy state. A special feature is the set of reinforced concrete silos, placed in a row. They have been built according to the standard methods normally adopted for this type of structure. It is planned to build finally 16 silos, each with a capacity of 2000 tons. There is a large site available, where ample room has been found for the workshops, services and offices. Both the row of silos and the nearby industrial buildings constitute a modem and attractive architectural feature.Recientemente se ha construido una fábrica de productos derivados del maíz en la Encrucijada de Chivacoa, estado de Yaracuy, en la que destaca la batería de cuatro silos, de hormigón armado, colocados en fila; para su construcción se han seguido los procedimientos tradicionales corrientemente empleados esta clase de obras. Se prevé una ampliación, basta totalizar 16 unidades de 2.000 cada una. Este conjunto industrial dispone de un gran solar, en el que se han colocado las instalaciones anexas, tales como talleres, servicios y oficinas. Tanto la batería de silos propiamente dicha como cada uno de los edificios del conjunto, presentan una línea arquitectónica moderna y agradable.

  14. Análise estrutural de silos metálicos prismáticos Structural analysis of prismatic metallic silos

    OpenAIRE

    José Pinheiro Lopes Neto; José Wallace Barbosa do Nascimento; Carlito Calil Junior

    2008-01-01

    Nos últimos anos, o crescimento da agricultura brasileira tem forçado vários setores a se adequarem aos padrões produtivos com o intuito de se manterem competitivos, frente ao processo de globalização econômica. Nesse contexto, as fábricas de ração avícola tendem a buscar novas alternativas que favoreçam a produção e reduzam custos sem afetar a qualidade do produto final. Entre essas alternativas, destaca-se o uso de silos verticais por facilitar o processo de confecção das rações e eliminar ...

  15. Performance evaluation of termite-mound clay, concrete and steel silos for the storage of maize grains in the humid tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inadequate storage facilities have contributed to severe maize postharvest losses in many developing countries. This study determined the potential of termite mound clay (TMC), a readily-available material in Nigeria, as a construction material for storage silos. The performance of the TMC silo was ...

  16. Maize Storage in Termite Mound Clay, Concrete, and Steel Silos in the Humid Tropics: Comparison and Effect on Bacterial and Fungal Counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study investigated the functional suitability of using the readily-available termite mound clay (TMC) for grain silo construction in comparison to conventional reinforced concrete (RC) and galvanized steel (GS) silos for maize storage in the humid tropics. The extent to which temperature and r...

  17. Sub-storage type coal bunker in coal mine%分储式煤仓在煤矿的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈刚; 李晓波; 杨春杰

    2014-01-01

    分储式煤仓主要适用于薄煤层及地质条件复杂的中厚煤层,比传统的单仓或双仓(煤仓和矸石仓)更具灵活性和实用性,解决了单仓煤矸混存和双仓运输环节复杂的弊端,从根本上实现煤矸分离,增加经济效益,%Sub-storage type coal bunker is mainly suitable for the thin coal seam and medium-thickness coal seam with complicated geological conditions, than the traditional single bunker or double bunker (bunker and gangue warehouse) more lfexible and practical, solved the defects of the single mixed coal with gangue and the double bunker with complex transport link, realized the separation of coal with gangue from the root, and increased the economic beneift.

  18. Discharge of a granular silo as a visco-plastic flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staron, L.; Lagrée, P.-Y.; Popinet, S.

    2013-06-01

    Implementing a plastic rheology (using the μ(I)-rheology [5]) in a 2D Navier-Stokes solver, we simulate the continuum counterpart of the granular silo. Doing so, we observe a constant flow rate during the discharge and recover the Beverloo scaling. The results suggest that the constant discharge rate is due to the existence of a friction-dependent yield stress. Discrete simulations are performed using the contact dynamics algorithm. Systematic comparison of the velocity field and the inner deformations shows a good agreement between the two approaches.

  19. 18m钢筋混凝土筒仓设计分析%On design for 18 m reinforced concrete silo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马瑞斌

    2016-01-01

    Combining with the engineering examples,the paper illustrates the design methods for the 18 m reinforced concrete silo from the silo foundation,silo support structure,silo support funnel,and silo wall design,and sums up the precautions in the design process,so as to ensure the structural design to meet the demands of the use.%结合工程实例,从筒仓基础、仓底支承结构、仓底漏斗、仓壁设计等方面,阐述了18 m钢筋混凝土筒仓的设计方法,总结了设计过程中的注意事项,使筒仓的结构设计满足使用要求。

  20. Discussion on structure type and structure of rebar concrete silo%钢筋混凝土筒仓的结构选型和构造探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘瑞军

    2014-01-01

    对钢筋混凝土筒仓的仓上建筑、仓顶、仓壁、仓底、仓下支承结构及基础六部分的选型原则及相应的构造要求进行了论述,以期通过合理的设计,提高结构的安全性及经济性,保证工程设计质量达到规范的要求。%This paper discussed the type selection principle and corresponding structure requirements of building above silo,silo top,silo wall, silo bottom,silo below support structure and foundation six parts,in order to through the reasonably design,improved the safety and economic of structure,ensured the engineering design quality reached the standard requirements.

  1. Silo semiesférico para clinker en Aboño, Asturias (España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quintana Loche, Félix

    1972-09-01

    Full Text Available This semispherical silo for clinker storage was built by the construction firm Huarte and Co., in the cement factory at Abono, Asturias. Designed under the supervision of the Technical Services of Ciment Lafarge of Paris, by Enterprise René Marion and Structures Davidaff, it constitutes a world innovation among clinker storage systems. The great heterogeneity of the quarries required the study and use of new means of sampling and statistical dosification, thus producing cement of exceptional evenness. The semispherical storage silo is destined to contain a clinker stock of 35,000 tons; feed and collection are done by means of rotary systems that revolve around a ve/tical axis in the centre of the silo. This feature determined the shape of the silo — a spherical dome, 63.50 m in diameter, of which the centre is situated 5 m below the ground. The design adopted required the use of prefabrication, and is a world innovation in its function, form and building procedure.El silo semiesférico para almacenamiento de clinker ha sido construido por la Empresa Constructora Huarte y Cia., en la Fábrica de Cementos del Cantábrico de Abono (Asturias. El proyecto, elaborado bajo la supervisión de los Servicios Técnicos de Ciments Lafarge de París, y por la Entreprise René Marion y Structures Oavidaff, constituye una novedad mundial dentro de los sistemas de almacenamiento de clinker. La gran heterogeneidad de las canteras ha exigido el estudio y la utilización de nuevos medios de muestreo y dosificación estadística, permitiendo fabricar un cemento de una regularidad excepcional. El silo de almacenamiento semiesférico está destinado a contener un stock de clinker de 35.000 t; la alimentación y recogida se hacen por medio de sistemas rotativos que giran alrededor de un eje vertical que pasa por el centro del silo. Esta característica ha determinado naturalmente la forma del silo: una cúpula esférica, de 63,50 m de diámetro, cuyo centro se

  2. Design Of The Grain Silo Substation%谈粮食筒库变电所的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王自良; 谢志强

    2012-01-01

    According to the characteristics of the grain silo equipments and the power supply requirements, this article expounded the location and forms for the grain silo substation, in the request of architecture, fire fighting & hvac.professional.%根据粮食筒库的设备特点及供电要求,阐述了筒库变电所的选址、形式以及对建筑、防火、暖通专业的要求。

  3. 论陈化库设计与设备选择%Design of aging silo and choice of equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦成峰

    2013-01-01

      重点介绍了陈化库设计需要考虑的因素以及库容量的计算;如何选择陈化设备更合理、更经济,为企业确定陈化方案提供参考。%The design factors of aging silo and the calculation of silo volume, and how to choose the more reasonable aging equipment are described in the paper, which provides the reference for the enterprise to determine the aging scheme.

  4. ELEMENTOS PRÉ-MOLDADOS DE CONCRETO ARMADO, PARA SILOS QUADRADOS VERTICAIS, MODULARES, PARA ARMAZENAMENTO DE GRÃOS

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Teixeira da Silva; Wesley Jorge Freire; Carlito Calil Júnior

    1998-01-01

    RESUMO Este trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de fornecer subsídios técnicos para projetos de silos multicelulares em concreto armado, pré-moldados, com forma quadrada, para atender a pequenos e médios produtores, com capacidade de 60t, sendo 15t de milho por célula. Foram realizadas análises teóricas e experimentais em um modelo de elemento construtivo a fim de se avaliar o comportamento estrutural do elemento isolado e do encaixado, em escala natural, que formaram as paredes de silos...

  5. Application of Moving Bunker in Mining in Steeply-inclined Seam%移动煤仓在急倾斜煤层开采中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹相证; 王守安; 张迎新

    2011-01-01

    简要阐述了移动式煤仓的设计,分析了原有急倾斜煤层走向长壁后退式分带仰斜采煤工作面在煤仓设计中的不足,结合生产实际,提出移动煤仓在实际生产中与原有设计相比的长处及具体的施工操作步骤。%By analysis of the disadvantages of original bunker design in retreating longwall rise mining face with steeply-inclined seam,the paper elaborates the design of moving bunker,and introduces the advantages of moving bunker compared with the old design and its concrete construction operating steps in actual production.

  6. RELATIONS OF DISTRIBUTION OF THE LOW SULPHUR SHIPPING FUELS IN REGION OF THE BALTIC SEA IN THE BUNKERING BOAT-SHIP SUPPLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Matejski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents relations of distribution of the low sulphur marine fuels as result of being in force the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL 73/78, especially the record establishing the region of the Baltic Sea and the North See as sulphur emission control areas (SECA. There are presented obligatory regulations and their influence on sale of the particular kinds of fuels in this region. There are also presented chosen procedures of care about cargo in relation bunker boat – harbour – ship, the delivery fuel procedures in relation bunker boat–ship and the quantitative analysis of distributed fuels on an example of chosen bunker boat.

  7. Experience of Electrical Design of Super Bunker of Coal Preparation Plant%选煤厂特大型煤仓电气设计经验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨丰伟

    2011-01-01

    In view of problem of hidden danger of coal bunker, taking super products bunker of one coal preparation plant as example, the paper introduced design methods in term of electrical safety prevention, electrical energy-saving and modular design of the bunker. The actual application showed that the design methods ensure safe and continuous production of coal preparation plant.%针对煤仓安全隐患问题,以某选煤厂特大型产品仓为例,介绍了其在电气安全防范、电气节能和模块化设计等方面的设计方法.实际应用表明,该设计方法确保了选煤厂的安全持续生产.

  8. Stress profile in a two-dimensional silo: Effects induced by friction mobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivanco, Francisco; Mercado, José; Santibáñez, Francisco; Melo, Francisco

    2016-08-01

    The effects of friction mobilization on the stress profile within a two-dimensional silo are investigated via simulations of discrete elements. Friction mobilization is driven by cyclic vertical displacement of the sidewalls. Two regimes have been observed for small filling height, with stress profiles identified as saturated (Janssen's profile) and exponentially growing. The transition between these regimes is denoted by an almost linear stress profile, similar to that of a hydrostatic system, with a significantly greater characteristic height compared to the height of the column of grains. For tall columns, the process of friction inversion is more complex. A partial inversion of friction mobilization is observed when the motion is reversed from upward to downward, which results in two coexisting zones of opposite mobilization. These zones are separated by a wide compaction front with a gradual upward progression sustained by the displacement of the walls. Conversely, if the motion is reversed, the two opposing friction mobilization zones retract, the transition zone becomes smooth, and the system rapidly transforms from two coexisting mobilization states to a Janssen-like regime. In both regimes, the general characteristics from the resulting stress profiles are depicted by generalizing Janssen's equation to include partial mobilization through the varying effective friction coefficient along the silo walls.

  9. Stress profile in a two-dimensional silo: Effects induced by friction mobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivanco, Francisco; Mercado, José; Santibáñez, Francisco; Melo, Francisco

    2016-08-01

    The effects of friction mobilization on the stress profile within a two-dimensional silo are investigated via simulations of discrete elements. Friction mobilization is driven by cyclic vertical displacement of the sidewalls. Two regimes have been observed for small filling height, with stress profiles identified as saturated (Janssen's profile) and exponentially growing. The transition between these regimes is denoted by an almost linear stress profile, similar to that of a hydrostatic system, with a significantly greater characteristic height compared to the height of the column of grains. For tall columns, the process of friction inversion is more complex. A partial inversion of friction mobilization is observed when the motion is reversed from upward to downward, which results in two coexisting zones of opposite mobilization. These zones are separated by a wide compaction front with a gradual upward progression sustained by the displacement of the walls. Conversely, if the motion is reversed, the two opposing friction mobilization zones retract, the transition zone becomes smooth, and the system rapidly transforms from two coexisting mobilization states to a Janssen-like regime. In both regimes, the general characteristics from the resulting stress profiles are depicted by generalizing Janssen's equation to include partial mobilization through the varying effective friction coefficient along the silo walls.

  10. 煤仓快速修复技术实例分析%Case Analysis of Bunker Rapid Restoration Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜喜林

    2014-01-01

    Coal bunker plays a particularly important role in the process of storage and transportation to maintain the continuous production in collieries ,but it is often damaged by the formation pressure .Aiming at the difficul-ty in restoration due to the geological mechanical conditions and special excavating form ,the author discusses the construction technology and technical measures of shotcrete -and -wholly -grouted -anchor support to in-crease the stability of the surrounding rock and achieve the bunker restoration ,w hich provides a reference for other coal bunker restoration project .%矿井煤仓作为煤炭储运过程中一个重要的环节,在煤矿生产建设过程中起着特别重要的作用,对矿井连续生产意义重大,但井下煤仓往往由于地层压力的作用出现破坏,由于地质力学环境及煤仓开凿形式特殊,修复困难。通过采用锚网喷+全长注浆锚索支护技术控制围岩,增强围岩稳定性,来实现煤仓的修复,确保了煤仓的安全使用。本文对施工工艺及技术措施进行了总结性论述,为其它煤仓修复工程提供借鉴经验。

  11. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 214: Bunkers and Storage Areas, Nevada Test Site, Nevada - Revision 0 - March 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Site Office; Bechtel Nevada

    2005-03-01

    Corrective Action Unit 214, Bunkers and Storage Areas, is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order of 1996. Corrective Action Unit 214 consists of nine Corrective Action Sites located in Areas 5, 11, and 25 of the Nevada Test Site. The Nevada Test Site is located approximately 105 kilometers (65 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, in Nye County. Corrective Action Unit 214 was previously characterized in 2004, and results were presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document for 214. Site characterization indicated that soil and/or debris exceeded clean-up criteria for Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons, pesticides, metals, and radiological contamination.

  12. STS-103 crew instructed about bunker equipment at Pad 39B

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Inside a bunker at Launch Pad 39B, the STS-103 crew are instructed about use of the equipment. From left (in their astronaut uniforms) are Mission Specialist C. Michael Foale (Ph.D.), Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Mission Specialists Claude Nicollier of Switzerland, Steven L. Smith, John M. Grunsfeld (Ph.D.), and Pilot Steven J. Kelly. Not shown in the photo is Mission Specialist Jean-Frangois Clervoy of France. Nicollier and Clervoy are both with the European Space Agency. As a preparation for launch, the crew have been participating in Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT) activities at KSC. The TCDT provides the crew with emergency egress training, opportunities to inspect their mission payloads in the orbiter's payload bay, and simulated countdown exercises. STS-103 is a 'call-up' mission due to the need to replace and repair portions of the Hubble Space Telescope, including the gyroscopes that allow the telescope to point at stars, galaxies and planets. The STS-103 crew will be replacing a Fine Guidance Sensor, an older computer with a new enhanced model, an older data tape recorder with a solid-state digital recorder, a failed spare transmitter with a new one, and degraded insulation on the telescope with new thermal insulation. The crew will also install a Battery Voltage/Temperature Improvement Kit to protect the spacecraft batteries from overcharging and overheating when the telescope goes into a safe mode. Four EVA's are planned to make the necessary repairs and replacements on the telescope. The mission is targeted for launch Dec. 6 at 2:37 a.m. EST.

  13. 基于Petri网的井下煤仓可靠性分析%Analysis of Bunker Reliability Based on Petri Nets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王毅; 刘志河; 李剑刚

    2001-01-01

    采用Petri网原理,针对矿井运输系统中柔性部件——煤仓,建立其Petri网模型,并通过随机过程理论计算了煤仓的有效度,从而给出了计算煤仓有效度的一个新的方法。%Petri nets is a new way in calculating bunker availability. The author designs petri nets model and analyses reliability of flexible units (i.e bunker) of mining transport system.Petri nets model with reliability theory model is presented.

  14. 粉矿仓结构设计探讨%Probing into the Structural Design of Fine Ore Silo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄明; 赵广强

    2014-01-01

    粉矿仓作为一种短期贮存生产散料的工业构筑物,仓顶进料,仓底卸料,经常用于冶金工业中。其结构形式不同于一般的梁板结构,又被称为特种结构,其设计和计算都比较复杂。文章结合工程实例,介绍了粉矿仓设计中涉及的问题,特别是9度区的注意问题,对以后相关的设计给以借鉴。%Fine ore silo as a short-term storage of bulk production of industrial structure, the silo top feed and the silo bottom discharge are often used in the metallurgical industry. Its structure is different from the beam slab structure, also known as the special structure, and its design and calculation are complex. Combined with engineering practice, this paper describes the problems involved in the design of fine ore silo, especially pays attention to the problem of 9 degree zone, providing references for the related design.

  15. Reasons analysis and measures for PTA large storage silo deformation%PTA大料仓变形的原因及措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍建明; 任兰英

    2015-01-01

    介绍了PTA大料仓结构,合纤公司及洛阳分公司下料、送料方式,分析了聚酯装置3台PTA大料仓变形的原因。A,B料仓变形原因为PTA架桥,大料仓氮气补充设备故障,料仓顶部呼吸阀不动作或动作不及时,C料仓变形原因是PTA架桥。对A,B和C料仓分别采取相应的措施。%The structure of PTA large storage silo,the feeding and conveying way of synthetic fiber comPany and Luoyang Petrochemical ComPany was introduced. The deformation reasons for the three PTA large storage silo of PET Plant were analysed. The deformation reasons for A,B storage silo were PTA bridging,large storage silo nitrogen suPPlement facility failure,the breathing valve on toP of the storage silo not action or action not timely. The deforma﹣tion reason for C storage silo was PTA bridging. APProPriate measures were taken for A,B and C storage silo.

  16. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No. 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Boehlecke

    2004-04-01

    The six bunkers included in CAU 204 were primarily used to monitor atmospheric testing or store munitions. The ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) for Corrective Action Unit 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site, Nevada'' (NNSA/NV, 2002a) provides information relating to the history, planning, and scope of the investigation; therefore, it will not be repeated in this CADD. This CADD identifies potential corrective action alternatives and provides a rationale for the selection of a recommended corrective action alternative for each CAS within CAU 204. The evaluation of corrective action alternatives is based on process knowledge and the results of investigative activities conducted in accordance with the CAIP (NNSA/NV, 2002a) that was approved prior to the start of the Corrective Action Investigation (CAI). Record of Technical Change (ROTC) No. 1 to the CAIP (approval pending) documents changes to the preliminary action levels (PALs) agreed to by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) and DOE, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). This ROTC specifically discusses the radiological PALs and their application to the findings of the CAU 204 corrective action investigation. The scope of this CADD consists of the following: (1) Develop corrective action objectives; (2) Identify corrective action alternative screening criteria; (3) Develop corrective action alternatives; (4) Perform detailed and comparative evaluations of corrective action alternatives in relation to corrective action objectives and screening criteria; and (5) Recommend and justify a preferred corrective action alternative for each CAS within CAU 204.

  17. 浅议 PTA 料仓装车系统的设计%The Design of PTA Buck Silo & Truck Loading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭荣杰

    2013-01-01

    The paper mainly introduced the design of PTA buck silo & truck loading .In order to better grasp the technology of PTA buck silo & truck loading, The principle of PTA buck silo & truck loading was analyzed and discussed.%  文章主要介绍了 PTA 料仓装车系统的的设计。通过对装车系统设计的一些设计原则进行了分析和探讨,以便于更好地掌握和改进PTA 料仓装车系统的技术。

  18. Assessing the Feasibility of Interrogating Nuclear Waste Storage Silos using Cosmic-ray Muons

    CERN Document Server

    Ambrosino, F; Cimmino, L; D'Alessandro, R; Ireland, D G; Kaiser, R; Mahon, D F; Mori, N; Noli, P; Saracino, G; Shearer, C; Viliani, L; Yang, G

    2014-01-01

    Muon radiography is a fast growing field in applied scientific research. In recent years, many detector technologies and imaging techniques using the Coulomb scattering and absorption properties of cosmic-ray muons have been developed for the non-destructive assay of various structures across a wide range of applications. This work presents the first results that assess the feasibility of using muons to interrogate waste silos within the UK Nuclear Industry. Two such approaches, using different techniques that exploit each of these properties, have previously been published, and show promising results from both simulation and experimental data for the detection of shielded high-Z materials and density variations from volcanic assay. Both detector systems are based on scintillator and photomultiplier technologies. Results from dedicated simulation studies using both these technologies and image reconstruction techniques are presented for an intermediate-sized nuclear waste storage facility filled with concrete...

  19. Análise estrutural de silos metálicos prismáticos

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes Neto,José Pinheiro; Nascimento,José Wallace Barbosa do; Calil Junior,Carlito

    2008-01-01

    Nos últimos anos, o crescimento da agricultura brasileira tem forçado vários setores a se adequarem aos padrões produtivos com o intuito de se manterem competitivos, frente ao processo de globalização econômica. Nesse contexto, as fábricas de ração avícola tendem a buscar novas alternativas que favoreçam a produção e reduzam custos sem afetar a qualidade do produto final. Entre essas alternativas, destaca-se o uso de silos verticais por facilitar o processo de confecção das rações e eliminar ...

  20. Stochastic stresses in granular matter simulated by dripping identical ellipses into plane silo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berntsen, Kasper Nikolaj; Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager

    2000-01-01

    the granular matter in the silo are compared to thesolution of a stochastic equilibrium differential equation. In this equation the stochasticity source is a homogeneouswhite noise gamma-distributed side pressure factor field along the walls. This is a generalization of the deterministic side pressure factor...... proposed by Janssen in 1895. The stochastic Janssen factor model is shown to be fairly consistentwith the observations from which the mean and the intensity of the white noise is estimated by the method of maximumlikelihood using the properties of the gamma-distribution. Two wall friction coefficients...... are determined, one for transforming the expectation and the other for transforming theintensity of the transverse stress factor into the mean and the intensity of the vertical white noise shear stress factorfield along the walls. The latter is determined by the observed ratio of the standard deviations...

  1. Dense bubble flow in a silo: An unusual flow of a dispersed medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertho, Yann; Becco, Christophe; Vandewalle, Nicolas

    2006-05-01

    The dense flow of air bubbles in a two-dimensional silo (through an aperture D ) filled with a liquid is studied experimentally. A particle tracking technique has been used to bring out the main properties of the flow: displacements of the bubbles, transverse, and axial velocities. The behavior of the air bubbles is observed to present similarities with nondeformable solid grains in a granular flow. Nevertheless, a correlation between the bubble velocities and their deformations has been evidenced. Moreover, a new discharge law (Beverloo like) must be considered for such a system, where the flow rate is observed to vary as D1/2 and depends on the deformability of the particles.

  2. Flow Rate in the Discharge of a Two-dimensional Silo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuriguel, I.; Janda, A.; Garcimartín, A.; Maza, D.

    2009-06-01

    We present an experimental study of the flow rate in the discharge of a flat bottomed two-dimensional silo. The results of the flow rate dependence on the size of the orifice evidence that the Beverloo expression is not valid for small outlet sizes. This behavior is related with the properties of the flow rate which has been found to fluctuate in a gaussian like form for large orifices. On the contrary, for small orifices extreme events appear at zero flow rates causing a significant slow down of the average flow rate. These events are explained in terms of the existence of arches that block the outlet instantaneously but are unstable to permanently halt the flow.

  3. Detection and enumeration of four foodborne pathogens in raw commingled silo milk in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Emily E; Erten, Edibe S; Maddi, Neeraj; Graham, Thomas E; Larkin, John W; Blodgett, Robert J; Schlesser, Joseph E; Reddy, Ravinder M

    2012-08-01

    A nationwide survey was conducted to obtain qualitative and quantitative data on bacterial contamination of raw commingled silo milk intended for pasteurization. The levels of total aerobic bacteria, total coliforms, Enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus were determined using the TEMPO system. The prevalence rates and levels of presumptive Bacillus cereus, E. coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella spp. were determined in 214 samples. B. cereus was detected in 8.91% of samples, at 3.0 to 93 CFU/ml. E. coli O157:H7 was detected in 3.79 to 9.05% of samples, at bacteria were slightly lower in samples containing no pathogens. No correlation was observed between the levels of organisms detected with the TEMPO system and the presence or levels of any pathogen except E. coli O157:H7. A higher average log-transformed count of total viable bacteria was observed in samples positive for this organism. The high prevalence rates of target pathogens may be attributed to a variety of factors, including detection methods, sample size, and commingling of the milk in the silo. The effects of commingling likely contributed to the high prevalence rates and low levels of target pathogens because of the inclusion of milk from multiple bulk tanks. The high prevalence rates also may be the result of analysis of larger sample volumes using more sensitive detection methods. These quantitative data could be utilized to perform more accurate risk assessments and to better estimate the appropriate level of protection for dairy products and processing technologies.

  4. Identification of fungal diseases associated with imported wheat in Iranian silos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okhovvat, S M; Zakeri, Z

    2003-01-01

    In this study, imported wheat varieties used for cookies and bread making were evaluated for the presence of fungal diseases in the silos. Grain samples were taken and cultured on nutrient agar medium and sterile papers impregnated with nutrient. The results showed the presence of pathogenic fungi such as Ulocladium sp., Cladosporium sp., Alternaria sp., Rhizopus nigricans, Penicillium sp. and Trichothecium sp. in varieties from Australian, Mucor sp., R. nigricans, Fusarium sp., A. triticum, Helminthosporium sp. and Penicillium sp. from Argentina, Alternaria sp., Ulocladium sp., Penicillium sp., Aspergillus sp., Mucor mucedo, R. nigricans, Fusorium sp., Curvularia triticola, U. clamydosporium and C. tritici from Kazakistan varieties stored in Karaj silos or unloading trains. It is noteworthy to mention that Fusarium sp., Helminthosporium sp., Alternaria sp., A. tritici, A. triticola and U. clamydosporium are phytopathogenic fungi that often cause serious diseases on crops, produce lots of spores that are widely disseminated across the field and grow and reproduce in plant residues and diseased or wounded plant tissues and mature grains particularly under moist conditions. If in case, farmers try to use contaminated wheat grains that are distributed among them for flour, for cultivation purposes, it is highly probable that new fungal strains and species will be introduced in the areas where wheat production has never been threatened before. Fungal disease such as Indian smut or rusts is not native to Iran but are considered quarantine diseases. In addition, high incidence of contamination due to the presence of mycotoxins produced by Penicillium sp. and Aspergillus sp. in foreign wheat cultivars, could result in serious toxicity and illness in humans and birds.

  5. Silo busting: how to execute on the promise of customer focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulati, Ranjay

    2007-05-01

    For many senior executives, shifting from selling products to selling solutions--packages of products and services--is a priority in today's increasingly commoditized markets. Companies, however, aren't always structured to make that shift. Knowledge and expertise often reside in silos, and many companies have trouble harnessing their resources across those boundaries in a way that customers value and are willing to pay for. Some companies--like GE Healthcare, Best Buy, and commercial real estate provider Jones Lang LaSalle (JLL)--have restructured themselves around customer needs to deliver true solutions. They did so by engaging in four sets of activities: COORDINATION: To deliver customer-focused solutions, three things must occur easily across boundaries: information sharing, division of labor, and decision making. Sometimes this involves replacing traditional silos with customer-focused ones, but more often it entails transcending existing boundaries. JLL has experimented with both approaches. COOPERATION: Customer-centric companies, such as Cisco Systems, develop metrics for customer satisfaction and incentives that reward customer-focused cooperation. Most also shake up the power structure so that people who are closest to customers have the authority to act on their behalf. CAPABILITY: Delivering customer-focused solutions requires some employees to be generalists instead of specialists. They need experience with more than one product or service, a deep knowledge of customer needs, and the ability to traverse internal boundaries. CONNECTION: By combining their offerings with those of a partner, companies can cut costs even as they create higher-value solutions, as Starbucks has found through its diverse partnerships. To stand out in a commoditized market, companies must understand what customers value. Ultimately, some customers may be better off purchasing products and services piecemeal.

  6. 新型壁挂式煤仓设计及施工技术%Design and construction technology of a new wall-mounted bunker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王兴开; 霍小泉; 谢文兵; 臧龙; 张乾龙

    2016-01-01

    为解决下石节煤矿214煤仓装载硐室底板遇水强烈膨胀而多次失稳破坏的难题,设计了新型壁挂式煤仓。该煤仓采用工字钢托梁、工字钢仓体托架及其固定锚索、自锁承重锚索等构建煤仓自承载系统,利用煤仓围岩承担煤仓的全部重量,去掉了煤仓下口给煤硐室承载结构。同时,采用了电渣压力焊、高强抗冲击耐磨材料等先进工艺和新材料,提高了壁挂式煤仓整体工艺水平,缩短了煤仓的建设时间,减少了给煤硐室的建设与维护费用。现场实践表明,新型煤仓稳定可靠,技术经济效益良好,在类似的地质条件下具有很好的推广应用价值。%Aiming at the intense expansion of coal feeding chamber floor for 214 coal bunker affected by water in Xiashijie Coal Mine, the wall-mounted bunker was designed. The self-bearing system of wall-mounted bunker that was composed by I-beam joists, steel joist bracket of bunker body with fixed anchors and self-locking bearing anchors, bearing the full weight of coal bunker on the surrounding rock and dislodging the bearing structure at the bottom of coal feeding chamber. While using electroslag pressure welding, high-strength impact resistant materials and other advanced technology and new materials, the overall process of bunker wall-mounted was improved, the construction time of bunker was shorten, and the cost of construction and maintenance for coal feeding chamber also was reduced. Field test proved the reliability, obviously technical and economical benefits.

  7. Construcción de silos con encofrados deslizantes - Santa Cruz de Tenerife – España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrios Martínez, M.

    1976-10-01

    Full Text Available These cereal and oil-cake silos are made up of 10 exterior cylindrical cells, with an inner diameter of 6 m and a height of 31.88 m. The cells are joined together by means of walls whereby four additional octagonal cells are created. Out of these, three are subdivided into four cells and the fourth forms the central silo. Below this unit there is a corridor for the emptying of the silos. The work has been carried out with a travelling form with the following characteristics: mixed with regard to shape and materials; stiff, since the top platforms are connected; and it has a constant cross-section as the dimensions of the silos remain the same throughout the whole height. The form was lifted by means of elevation devices, controlled by a centralized hydraulic mechanism. In view of the characteristics of the travelling form, the concrete used ¡n the work had to fulfill several very special conditions, notably different from these applying to the concrete that is normally used for fixed forms. For this reason, it was submitted to a great number of studies and tests until the requirements had been met. The construction was finished in record time: in the first place, because a detailed programme had been worked out in advance, consisting of a diagram of bars and preference network and secondly, because continuous concreting was applied with day and night shifts, whebery the foreseen two and a half months for finishing the silos were reduced to 12 days.Estos silos, destinados a almacenamiento de cereales y borujo, están formados por 10 celdas exteriores cilíndricas, de 6 m de diámetro interior y 31,88 m de altura, que se unen entre sí por medio de muros, dando lugar a cuatro celdas adicionales de forma octogonal. De éstas, tres están subdivididas en cuatro interceldas, quedando la cuarta como silo central. Debajo del conjunto se ha dispuesto una galería para el vaciado de los silos. La obra se ha realizado con un encofrado deslizante

  8. Design and construction technology of coal bunker at the intersection%交岔点处煤仓设计与施工技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王传振; 公维宽; 王伟强

    2015-01-01

    -1100m level transfer bunker is located in the intersection of-1100m belt blind incline shaft and-1100m transshipment roadway, upper opening began-1100m belt blind incline shaft, the below is located in-1100m transshipment roadway. If using incline coal bunker, the distance between the below opening and-1100m transshipment roadway is 2m, the space to install reproduced belt is insufficient, if taken using vertical coal bunker, the below opening is located in the intersection of-1100m belt blind incline shaft and-1100m transshipment roadway, to reduce-1100m level transfer bunker construction difficulty, improve the construction strength of the intersection, by constructed the integrated load-bearing walls in the intersection, strengthen the supporting of the below opening, which ensure the bearing ability and service life of large section of vertical coal bunker.%-1100 m水平转载仓位于-1100 m皮带暗斜井及-1100 m转载巷交岔处,上缩口始于-1100 m皮带暗斜井,下口位于-1100 m转载巷,若采用倾斜煤仓,下缩口将距-1100 m转载巷端头2 m,转载皮带安装空间不足,若采用垂直煤仓,下缩口将位于转载巷与通道的交岔点处.为降低-1100 m转载仓施工难度、提高交岔点处施工强度,在交岔点处构筑一体化承重墙,强化煤仓下缩口处支护设计,保证了大断面垂直煤仓的承载能力和服务年限.

  9. The Present Situation and Design Advice of the Steel Silo%粮食钢板仓技术状况及设计建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋红领; 段君峰; 薛晨曦

    2016-01-01

    The article generally describes the development and situation of the steel silo in China, and the technology of grain storage of the steel silo was been analysed. Based on the characteristics of the steel silo, the effcient methods and measures to improve performance of the steel silo have been proposed.%简述了钢板仓在我国的发展历程及现状,分析了钢板仓在粮食储藏行业存在的技术和安全问题,针对钢板仓的特点,探讨了提高钢板仓储粮技术性能的措施和方法。

  10. Construction of the silo wall with the diameter of 15 m%直径15m筒仓仓壁的施工

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜德友

    2012-01-01

    结合我单位总承包的煤矿地面生产系统中原煤筒仓的施工实例,对仓壁的施工方案进行了具体的介绍,并提出了仓壁施工过程中应注意的问题,为今后同类筒仓施工提供了参考和借鉴。%Combining with the original coal silo construction example of the coal mine grounding production system generally contracted by our unit, the paper introduces the specific construction scheme of the silo wall, and puts forward matters needing attention in silo wall construction, which has provided certain guidance and reference for similar silo wall construction in future.

  11. On seismic role of large floor-stand steel silo%大型落地式钢板仓地震作用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘振华; 付迎娟; 王涛; 张震

    2016-01-01

    结合某落地式水泥钢板筒仓工程为例,利用有限元软件ABAQUS建立了三维筒仓模型,采用时程分析法,对钢板仓进行了地震作用分析,根据钢筒仓设计规范,探讨了钢筒仓的抗震性能,为落地式钢板筒仓的抗震设计提供了参考依据.%Combining with some floor-stand cement steel silo project,the paper adopts the finite element software ABAQUS to establish the three-dimension silo model,adopts the time-procedure method to undertakes the seismic analysis on the steel silo,and explores the anti-seismic per-formance of the steel silo according to the design regulations of the steel silo,so as to provide some reference for the anti-seismic design of the floor-stand steel silo.

  12. Connection joint construction technology of super-high-rise silo structure bearing plate and silo structure%超高层框筒结构楼承板与筒体连接节点施工工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程爱珍

    2015-01-01

    The paper introduces the joint connection technology principles of super-high-rise silo bearing plate and silo structure,and describes its construction technology procedures and operation points,and summarizes its construction quality,safety and environment protection measures, which guarantees the joint stress performance of bearing plate and silo connection. Therefore,it has wide application prospect in high-rise build-ing construction.%介绍了超高层框筒结构楼承板与筒体连接节点的衔接工艺原理,阐述了其施工工艺流程及操作要点,总结了施工中的质量、安全、环保措施,指出该技术保证了楼承板与筒体连接节点的受力性能,在高层建筑施工中有广泛的应用前景。

  13. Calculation analysis of silo raft foundation%筒仓筏板基础计算分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵咏庆; 高峰

    2012-01-01

    以工程实例为背景,采用有限元软件SAP2000建立分析模型,对筒仓筏板基础进行了计算分析,模拟真实环境下可能出现影响结构安全的荷载最不利情况,为筒仓基础设计提供了依据。%Taking the engineering case as the background,using finite element software SAP2000 to establish analysis model,the paper carries out the calculation analysis on silo raft foundation,and simulates the most unfavorable loading conditions influencing the structural security under the real environment,which has provided certain basis for silo foundation design.

  14. Remanence Preservation In Burnt Silos During Pre-christian Age Fire In A Galician Castro (nw Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, K.; Rey, D.; Méndez, G.; Evans, M. E.

    Archaeomagnetic studies are usually based on measurements made on pottery or buildings that have achieved high temperatures because the results obtained are com- monly of better quality. In this study three burnt grain silos from the recently disap- peared Castro de As Laias located in Ourense (NW Spain) have provided a successful date of a pre-Christian fire. AF and thermal demagnetization were carried out to iso- late the characteristic component of magnetization. Hysteresis and IRM acquisition experiments were carried out to characterise the magnetic minerals responsible of the remanence Additionally, XRD analyses and observations under the SEM were also performed to support the magnetic data. The characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM) has shown that two of the three studied silos burnt at the same time. Radio- carbon dating on charcoal gives an age of 181+/-61. These results also contribute to a better definition of a Secular Variation Curve (SVC) for the early Christian Age in Iberia.

  15. Cylinder coal bunker loading and leveling coal device%圆筒煤仓装车平煤装置

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩顺佳

    2016-01-01

    by the analysis of the loading process of the cylinder bunker, put forward the existing in the traditional loading way that the loading process is cumbersome, the control is not accurate, the requirements on the operation of the workers is higher, through the research and design of coal leveling device, to achieve the precise control of the loading process, improve the process and the efifciency.%通过对圆筒煤仓下口装车过程的分析,提出传统装车方式存在的过程繁琐、控制不准确、对操作工人要求高等问题,通过研究设计平煤装置,实现对装车过程精准控制,改进工艺,提高效率。

  16. The house of the Miradores by Diego de Siloe: a viewing box on the main square of Granada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Barrios Rozúa

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available By order of the local council of Granada, the arquitect Diego de Siloe designed the house of the Miradores on Bibarrambla square, one of the most harmonious examples of its kind. This article tries to complete our vision of this remarkable example of Spanish Renaissance civil architecture by providing descriptive details, unpublished images, the analysis of its compositional origins and the history of its transformations and uses.

  17. Bunker glocal: configuração majoritária sutil do imaginário mediático contemporâneo e militarização imperceptível da vida cotidiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugênio Trivinho

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Bunker glocal – esta expressão heterodoxa – é o fundamento mediático do processo civilizatório contemporâneo. Sua análise no âmbito da teoria social e da comunicação apreende o principal aspecto de sua múltipla significação social-histórica: a militarização velada da existência humana no contexto civil da era digital. Ao materializar essa injunção teórica, o presente artigo detalha os vínculos inextricáveis entre processo de bunkerização ampliada, imaginário social e fenômeno glocal (além do global e do local, para, em conclusão, qualificar o bunker glocal como linguagem matricial de equivalência generalizada na cibercultura. Palavras-chave: Comunicação; cibercultura; bunker glocal; processo de bunkerização; militarização velada da vida social. ABSTRACT Glocal bunker – this heterodox expression – is the mediatic fundament of the contemporary civilizing process. Its analysis within the ambit of social and communication theory apprehends the principal aspects of its multiple social and historical meaning: the covert militarization of human existence in the civil context of the digital era. By materializing this theoretical injunction, this article details the inextricable links between the expanded bunkering process, the social imaginary and the glocal phenomenon (beyond the global and local, and concludes by qualifying the glocal bunker as a matricial language of generalized equivalence in cyberculture. Keywords: Communication; cyberculture; glocal bunker; bunkering process; covert militarization of social life.

  18. Coping with information silos: an examination of the medication management process in residential aged care facilities (RACFs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariq, Amina; Georgiou, Andrew; Westbrook, Johanna

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the actions of geographically dispersed process stakeholders (doctors, community pharmacists and RACFs) in order to cope with the information silos that exist within and across different settings. The study setting involved three metropolitan RACFs in Sydney, Australia and employed a qualitative approach using semi-structured interviews, non-participant observations and artefact analysis. Findings showed that medication information was stored in silos which required specific actions by each setting to translate this information to fit their local requirements. A salient example of this was the way in which community pharmacists used the RACF medication charts to prepare residents' pharmaceutical records. This translation of medication information across settings was often accompanied by telephone or face-to-face conversations to cross-check, validate or obtain new information. Findings highlighted that technological interventions that work in silos can negatively impact the quality of medication management processes in RACF settings. The implementation of commercial software applications like electronic medication charts need to be appropriately integrated to satisfy the collaborative information requirements of the RACF medication process.

  19. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0 with ROTC 1, 2, and Errata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wickline, Alfred

    2004-04-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 204 Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE); and the U.S. Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). The NTS is approximately 65 miles (mi) north of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1). The Corrective Action Sites (CASs) within CAU 204 are located in Areas 1, 2, 3, and 5 of the NTS, in Nye County, Nevada (Figure 1-2). Corrective Action Unit 204 is comprised of the six CASs identified in Table 1-1. As shown in Table 1-1, the FFACO describes four of these CASs as bunkers one as chemical exchange storage and one as a blockhouse. Subsequent investigations have identified four of these structures as instrumentation bunkers (CASs 01-34-01, 02-34-01, 03-34-01, 05-33-01), one as an explosives storage bunker (CAS 05-99-02), and one as both (CAS 05-18-02). The six bunkers included in CAU 204 were primarily used to monitor atmospheric testing or store munitions. The ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) for Corrective Action Unit 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site, Nevada'' (NNSA/NV, 2002a) provides information relating to the history, planning, and scope of the investigation; therefore, it will not be repeated in this CADD. This CADD identifies potential corrective action alternatives and provides a rationale for the selection of a recommended corrective action alternative for each CAS within CAU 204. The evaluation of corrective action alternatives is based on process knowledge and the results of investigative activities conducted in accordance with the CAIP (NNSA/NV, 2002a) that was approved prior to the start of the Corrective Action Investigation (CAI). Record of Technical Change (ROTC) No. 1 to the CAIP (approval pending) documents changes to the preliminary action levels

  20. 土堤仓储藏小麦的品质变化研究%Research on quality variation of wheat stored in bunker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙慧

    2014-01-01

    为了研究土堤仓的储粮性能,探讨土堤仓储粮是否在国家规定的粮油正常储存年限内适宜储存,对土堤仓中的小麦在储藏期间的各项品质指标及其变化规律进行了测试分析。结果表明:储存量10000 t 以上的大型土堤仓整仓的小麦各项储存品质指标下降速度与高大平房仓相比差别不大,甚至有些仓的下降速度慢于高大平房仓;储存3~5年后,其色泽和气味正常,品尝评分值在70分以上,面筋吸水量大于180%,小麦适宜继续储存。但小型土堤仓储粮品质下降速度快于高大平房仓,个别指标检测为轻度不宜存,应尽快轮换处理。%Quality indexes and the variations of the wheat in bunker during storage were tested to research the grain storage performance of the bunker,and investigate the suitability of the bunker storage in the grain and oil normal storage age limit regulated by the state.The research showed:there was no signifi-cant difference in the storage quality indexes'decline rate between the bunker with the capacity above 10 000 t and large warehouse,even the decline rate in some bunkers were lower than that in large ware-house;after storage for 3 ~5 years,both of the wheat's color and smell were normal,the tasting score was above 70 points,and the gluten water absorption was higher than 180%,which meant the wheat was suitable for longer storage.However,the grain quality declined faster in small bunker than that in large warehouse.A few indexes were tested to find that it was slightly unsuitable to store any longer and should be delivered as soon as possible.

  1. Control of quality and silo storage of sunflower seeds using near infrared technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Martin, I.; Vilaescusa-Garcia, V.; Lopez-Gonzalez, F.; Oiz-Jimenez, C.; Lobos-Ortega, I. A.; Gordillo, B.; Hernandez-Hierro, J. M.

    2013-05-01

    This work assesses the application of near infrared spectroscopy technology for the quality control of sunflower seeds direct from farmers and from a storage silo. The results show that the analytical method employing near infrared spectroscopy can be used as a rapid and non-destructive tool for the determination of moisture, fat and high/low oleic acid contents in samples of sunflower seeds. The ranges obtained were comparable to those reported for classic chemical methods, and were between 4.6-21.4% for moisture; 38.4-49.6% for fat, and 60.0-93.1% for oleic acid expressed as percentage of total fatty acids. A stepwise discriminant analysis was performed to determine the most useful wavelengths for classifying sunflower seeds in terms of their (high/low) oleic acid composition. The discriminant model allows the acid contents, with a prediction rate of 90.5% for internal validation and of 89.4% for cross-validation. (Author) 23 refs.

  2. Generation of 3-D surface maps in waste storage silos using a structured light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burks, B. L.; Rowe, J. C.; Dinkins, M. A.; Christensen, B.; Selleck, C.; Jacoboski, D.; Markus, R.

    1992-01-01

    Surface contours inside the large waste storage tanks typical of the Department of Energy (DOE) complex are, in general, highly irregular. In addition to pipes and other pieces of equipment in the tanks, the surfaces may have features such as mounds, fissures, crystalline structures, and mixed solid and liquid forms. Prior to remediation activities, it will be necessary to characterize the waste to determine the most effective remediation approaches. Surface contour data will be required both prior to and during remediation. The use is described of a structured light source to generate 3-D surface contour maps of the interior of waste storage silos at the Feed Materials Production Center at Fernald, OH. The landscape inside these large waste storage tanks bears a strong resemblance to some of the landscapes that might be encountered during lunar or planetary exploration. Hence, these terrestrial 3-D mapping techniques may be directly applicable to extraterrestrial exploration. In further development, it will be demonstrated that these 3-D data can be used for robotic task planning just as 3-D surface contour data of a satellite could be used to plan maintenance tasks for a space-based servicing robot.

  3. Educational silos in nursing education: a critical review of practical nurse education in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butcher, Diane L; MacKinnon, Karen A

    2015-09-01

    Changes to practical nurse education (with expanded scopes of practice) align with the increasing need for nurses and assistive personnel in global acute care contexts. A case in point is this critical exploration of Canadian practical nursing literature, undertaken to reveal predominating discourses and relationships to nursing disciplinary knowledge. The objectives of this poststructural critical review were to identify dominant discourses in practical nurse education literature and to analyze these discourses to uncover underlying beliefs, constructed truths, assumptions, ambiguities and sources of knowledge within the discursive landscape. Predominant themes in the discourses surrounding practical nurse education included conversations about the nurse shortage, expanded roles, collaboration, evidence-based practice, role confusion, cost/efficiency, the history of practical nurse education and employer interests. The complex relationships between practical nursing and the disciplinary landscape of nursing are revealed in the analysis of discourses related to the purpose(s) of practical nurse education, curricula/educational programming, relationships between RN and PN education and the role of nursing knowledge. Power dynamics related to employer needs and interests, as well as educational silos and the nature of women's work, are also revealed within the intersection of various discourses.

  4. Degradation of tocopherols during rapeseed storage in simulated conditions of industrial silos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawrysiak-Witulska, Marzena; Siger, Aleksander; Rusinek, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The investigations consisted in laboratory simulation of conditions prevailing in the real ecosystem in an industrial rapeseed storage facility. The aim of the study was to assess the impact of temperature, moisture, and static pressure on degradation of tocopherols contained in rapeseed. Rapeseed varieties with high oil content were analysed in the investigations. Samples of seeds with 7, 10, 13, and 16% moisture levels were stored at a temperature of 25, 30, and 35°C in specially designed airtight pressure silos for storage in controlled conditions. During the storage, the seeds were subjected to overpressure in the range of 20-60 kPa. The seeds were stored in these conditions for 28 days. It was demonstrated that primarily moisture induced the greatest loss of the total content of tocopherol and its α-T and γ-T homologues, followed by temperature and, to a lesser extent, pressure. In addition, the results obtained showed that, in the case of seeds characterised by higher moisture levels (13 and 16%), an increase in the storage temperature in the range of 25-30°C rather than 30-35°C intensified tocopherol loss more efficiently.

  5. Breaking down the silos to decrease internal diversions and patient flow delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Molly; Tobis, Kristen; Gurka, David; Serafin, Frederick; Carlson, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Hospitals strive to admit patients to the units where caregiver competencies align with the patient's condition. When the hospital's census peaks, internal diversions and the associated risks increase, which are intensified when silos exist, as segregated care negatively impacts collaboration and patient safety. In this study, a 600+-bed academic, tertiary care specialty hospital experienced an increase in internal diversions. Within the neuroscience service line, emergent neuroscience transfers from outside hospitals had been declined or internally diverted because of capacity limitations. Formalized processes for improving collaboration between health care providers related to capacity issues were required to decrease internal diversions and improve patient flow and patient safety. A pilot project was conducted on neuroscience units during a process improvement initiative. A hospital-wide internal diversion plan was developed, identifying primary and secondary placement options for all patients requiring hospitalization to support patient flow and patient safety. Forecasting tools were developed to provide units' leadership with current information on expected admissions. Daily capacity huddles were instituted to increase collaboration between patient care units. The interventions trialed during the pilot decreased internal diversions and improved patient flow. The improved collaboration resulted in an 80% decrease in declinations of emergent intensive care unit transfers from outside hospitals due to capacity limitations and a 50% decrease in the number of these patients being internally diverted to alternate intensive care units. The interventions implemented minimized internal diversions and improved patient flow. The transparency of the patient placement process led to an increased collaboration between all participants.

  6. The journey beyond silos. Teaching and learning interprofessional ethics at UTHealth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaitz, Catherine M; Carlin, Nathan; Shepherd, Boyd W; McWherter, Jayne A; Bebermeyer, Richard D; Walji, Muhammad F; Spike, Jeffrey

    2011-08-01

    Interprofessional education and ethics education are two educational programs that blend together well, and, moreover, they are a natural fit for teaching in an academic health science center. The purpose of this paper is to describe our recent journey of developing and implementing an interprofessional ethics curriculum across the six schools of UTHealth. We provide an overview of the goals of the Campus-wide Ethics Program, which is housed in the McGovern Center for Humanities and Ethics, and we highlight certain innovative developments that are the result of the collaborative work of faculty and administrators from all six schools of UTHealth. In addition, a brief synopsis of the specific didactic and clinical courses in which ethics is a significant component is outlined for both the dental and the dental hygiene curricula. Lastly, we describe some of the recent scholarly activities that are a product of this new program. We are excited about our evolving efforts and the potential benefits of weaving interprofessional ethics within our school and across our campus. This article tells the story of our journey beyond "the silos" that are common among academic health science centers.

  7. Case studies from three states: breaking down silos between health care and criminal justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechelli, Matthew J; Caudy, Michael; Gardner, Tracie M; Huber, Alice; Mancuso, David; Samuels, Paul; Shah, Tanya; Venters, Homer D

    2014-03-01

    The jail-involved population-people with a history of arrest in the previous year-has high rates of illness, which leads to high costs for society. A significant percentage of jail-involved people are estimated to become newly eligible for coverage through the Affordable Care Act's expansion of Medicaid, including coverage of substance abuse treatment and mental health care. In this article we explore the need to break down the current policy silos between health care and criminal justice, to benefit both sectors and reduce unnecessary costs resulting from lack of coordination. To draw attention to the hidden costs of the current system, we review three case studies, from Washington State, Los Angeles County in California, and New York City. Each case study addresses different aspects of care needed by or provided to the jail-involved population, including mental health and substance abuse, emergency care, and coordination of care transitions. Ultimately, bending the cost curve for health care and criminal justice will require greater integration of the two systems.

  8. 煤仓滑模工程施工质量控制%Construction quality control of bunker slip form engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李维华

    2012-01-01

    结合马家岩煤矿煤仓项目工程筒壁及附壁的滑模施工实例,对钢筋、预埋件、支撑杆、混凝土、模板的滑升、混凝土的脱模与养护、滑模施工的精度控制等过程进行了质量控制,确保了煤仓滑模的施工质量。%Combining with the slip form construction example of cylinder and attached arm of Majiayan coal mine bunker project engineering, the thesis seriously controls the construction quality of steel, embed members, bearing pile, concrete and formwork slip, concrete demoulding and maintenance and slip form construction accuracy and so on. As a result, it ensures the construction quality of the bunker slip form.

  9. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon body residues and lysosomal membrane destabilization in mussels exposed to the Dubai Star bunker fuel oil (intermediate fuel oil 380) spill in San Francisco Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Hyun-Min; Stanton, Beckye; McBride, Toby; Anderson, Michael J

    2014-05-01

    Following the spill of bunker fuel oil (intermediate fuel oil 380, approximately 1500-3000 L) into San Francisco Bay in October 2009, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in mussels from moderately oiled areas increased up to 87 554 ng/g (dry wt) and, 3 mo later, decreased to concentrations found in mussels collected prior to oiling, with a biological half-life of approximately 16 d. Lysosomal membrane destabilization increased in mussels with higher PAH body burdens.

  10. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (December 2002, Revision No.: 0), Including Record of Technical Change No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NNSA/NSO

    2002-12-12

    The Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 204 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 204 is located on the Nevada Test Site approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. This CAU is comprised of six Corrective Action Sites (CASs) which include: 01-34-01, Underground Instrument House Bunker; 02-34-01, Instrument Bunker; 03-34-01, Underground Bunker; 05-18-02, Chemical Explosives Storage; 05-33-01, Kay Blockhouse; 05-99-02, Explosive Storage Bunker. Based on site history, process knowledge, and previous field efforts, contaminants of potential concern for Corrective Action Unit 204 collectively include radionuclides, beryllium, high explosives, lead, polychlorinated biphenyls, total petroleum hydrocarbons, silver, warfarin, and zinc phosphide. The primary question for the investigation is: ''Are existing data sufficient to evaluate appropriate corrective actions?'' To address this question, resolution of two decision statements is required. Decision I is to ''Define the nature of contamination'' by identifying any contamination above preliminary action levels (PALs); Decision II is to ''Determine the extent of contamination identified above PALs. If PALs are not exceeded, the investigation is completed. If PALs are exceeded, then Decision II must be resolved. In addition, data will be obtained to support waste management decisions. Field activities will include radiological land area surveys, geophysical surveys to identify any subsurface metallic and nonmetallic debris, field screening for applicable contaminants of potential concern, collection and analysis of surface and subsurface soil samples from biased locations

  11. 1500 m3立式圆筒形煤仓有限元计算%Finite Element Calculation of 1 500 m3 Vertical Cylindrical Bunker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪志福; 陶保林; 孙文红

    2015-01-01

    Large cylindrical bunker is widely used in oil fired steam injection station project.An analysis of stress strength for the design of a 1 500 m3 vertical cylindrical bunker is given.A large general finite element software ANSYS is used to establish a actual size of the finite element nu-merical model,which connected with a coal bunker tank top,tank walls,bearing,cone bottom, consistent with steel support columns,using powerful border simulation and all kinds of applied load function,in a state filled with water + wind + snow + load cases,to calculate and check the various structural parts of coal bunker.The calculated results show that it has sufficient safe-ty margin and reliability.%大型圆筒式煤仓在油田燃煤注汽站工程中应用广泛,对某1500 m3立式圆筒形煤仓进行了应力强度分析。运用有限元软件 ANSYS 建立了与煤仓罐顶、罐壁、支座连接、锥底、支撑钢架以及立柱实际尺寸相一致的有限元数值计算模型,利用软件的边界模拟和各种荷载施加功能,针对煤仓各结构部分,在充水状态+风载荷+雪载荷+地震载荷工况下进行了应力计算和校核,结果表明,此煤仓具有足够的安全裕度及可靠性。

  12. The Round Coal Bunker Underground Corridor Design of Thermal Power Plants%浅谈火电厂圆煤仓地下廊道的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺红漫

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author takes a power plant as an example, overview the design methods and main points of the round coal bunker underground corridor structure of the large thermal power plant.%  本文以某电厂为例,概述大型火力发电厂圆煤仓地下廊道结构设计方法及要点。

  13. Study on the coal bunker design with large diameter%大直径井底煤仓设计研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    封金权

    2015-01-01

    针对河南省赵家寨煤矿井底煤仓直径大、煤仓高度比较高,且煤质黏性大,易堵仓等特点,为掌握仓内装煤情况,解决堵仓问题,设计在煤仓两侧分别设置一个观察立眼和观察孔,同时结合布置的空气炮[1],成功地解决了大直径、高煤仓堵仓问题。观察立眼、观察孔与空气炮的联合使用,在国内甚至在国际上尚属首次,该设计为以后煤仓堵仓问题的解决提供了一定的参考意义。%aiming at the character of large diameter and height of the bottom coal bunker in Zhaojiazhai coal mine in Henan Province, and the viscosity of coal is big, and easy to block warehouse etc., to grasp the situation of coal bin, solve the problems of the blocking coal bunker designed a vertical eye observation and observation hole in two sides of coal bunker, combined with the layout of the air cannon, the successful solution of the problem of blocking coal bunker with large diameter, and large height, the combined using of observe vertical eye, observation hole and air guns, even in the world for the ifrst time, provide some reference for the design to solve the problem after the coal warehouse stopping.

  14. Dependence of the thermal neutron fluence at the size installations radiotherapy bunker; Dependencia de la fluencia termica de neutrones en el tamano del bunquer en instalaciones de radioterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Soto, X.; Amgarou, K.; Langares, J. L.; Exposito, M. R.; Gomez, F.; Domingo, C.; Sanchez-Doblado, F.

    2011-07-01

    The project aims to infer the dose deposited by neutrons in the patient treated by radiation therapy, from a measurement of the thermal neutron fluence at a selected point within the treatment room. These thermal neutrons are created when fast neutrons produced in the linac head are moderate, mainly in the walls of the bunker, and its yield depends on both the volume of the room and its geometry.

  15. 鲁阳发电厂原煤仓下煤不畅的治理%Treatment of Bunker Blocking in Luyang Power Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵世伟; 刁润丽; 刘嘉; 许飞

    2016-01-01

    燃煤发电厂原煤仓下煤不畅会造成给煤机断煤,使锅炉燃烧情况恶化,甚至灭火。根据鲁阳发电厂的实际情况,采取了改造原煤仓、加装旋转清堵机、合理使用空气炮等多项应对措施,取得了良好的效果,基本解决了因原煤仓下煤不畅造成的给煤机频繁断煤问题。%In coal-fired power plants, supply cut of coal feeder due to bunker blocking may result in combustion deterioration or even extinguish. According to the practical situation of Luyang Power Plant, sev-eral solutions such as coal bunker transformation, equipping rotary blocking cleaner and reasonable adoption of air cannon are adopted and satisfying effect is achieved; frequent supply cut of coal feeder due to bunker blocking is basically handled.

  16. The 303 District bunker design and construction practice%303盘区煤仓设计与施工实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡方涛; 康德先; 罗建忠

    2014-01-01

    according to Wang Ping production status of coal mine equipment technology, and introduces 303 panel design and construction technology of coal bunker. a stack of disc driving bunker back well, then the smooth blasting technology to make coal bunker brush to the design section, realizing the safe, efficient,fast objective. Provided reference significance for the other panel coal mine design and construction.%根据王坪煤矿设备技术生产现状,介绍了303盘区煤仓的设计与施工工艺。通过垛盘法掘进煤仓反井,然后采用光面爆破技术使煤仓刷大至设计断面,实现了安全、高效、快速的目的,对本矿其他盘区煤仓的设计与施工提供了借鉴意义。

  17. 煤矿集中煤仓维修物料提升系统应用技术%Bunker Maintenance Technology and Practice in Coal Mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜强; 童帅

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the present situation of coal mine concentration coal bunker maintenance, expounds the preparation work be-fore construction and maintenance, concrete repair methods and processes, through the south a hoisting system of the concentration of coal material, effectively solve the sloping bunker down, the security of the lifting materials, reduce the homework personnel to sloping bunker down, improve the strength of the material operation and construction of the adverse risk factors, to make full use of tools, increase work effi-ciency and reduce labor intensity.%阐述了煤矿集中煤仓维修概况,施工维修前的准备工作、具体维修方法及流程,通过集中煤仓物料提升系统,有效解决倾斜煤仓下放、提升物料的安全性,减少作业人员对倾斜煤仓下放、提升物料的作业的强度和施工的不利危险因素,达到充分利用设备工具、增加工作效率、降低人员劳动强度的目的。

  18. 大断面煤仓分段掘砌作业法%Sectional Excavation and Masonry in Large Section Coal Bunker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段红民

    2015-01-01

    煤矿井下煤仓通常采用混凝土支护方式,为了保证混凝土体质量,在反井钻机施工导孔并扩孔的基础上,提出了分段掘砌作业法,即将整个煤仓分成上、下两段,上分段由上向下刷扩,由下向上砌筑;下分段由下向上刷扩并砌筑。采用该方法,不仅能够保证混凝土体质量,降低了施工风险,而且可提高施工速度,减轻劳动强度,是一种新型快速煤仓施工组织方式。%Coal bunker in mines usually adopts concrete support. To ensure concrete quality, sectional excavation and masonry working method was used on feeding hole and expanding hole with a raise-boring machine. The whole bunker was divided into two sections:upper and lower. The upper section used downward brush expansion and upward masonry and the lower section used upward brush expansion and masonry. The method could ensure the concrete quality, reduce construction risk, speed up construction process, reduce labor intensity, which is a new and fast construction method for the coal bunker.

  19. Large-scale coal bunker engineering practice in deep shaft%深井大型煤仓工程实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马伟锋; 陈金锁; 赵金超

    2012-01-01

    以口孜东矿主井井底煤仓工程为例,介绍了深井大型煤仓施工工艺,分别介绍了支护参数,相关材料及施工步骤,着重阐述了防坠保护系统的操作要点,并提出了相应的质量保证措施,以期指导今后同类煤仓工程施工。%Taking the coal bunker engineering at the bottom of major shaft of east coal in Kouzi as an example, this article introduces the construction technology of large-scale coal bunker in deep shaft, respectively describes supporting parameters, relevant materials, and construction procedures, and mainly expounds operation points of anti-dropping protect system, and puts forward corresponding quality guarantee measures, so as to guide similar coal bunker engineering construction in future.

  20. Talking about the Usage and Management of the Steel Plate Silo%浅谈钢板筒仓的使用与管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张滨海; 吴立胜

    2011-01-01

    The silo has been used wider and wider in the bulk cargo terminal of the port for its advantage of small space occupancy,large capacity and higher mechanization . This paper introduces the status of steel plate silo used by Rizhao Port Yulang Terminal Co.,Ltd.,and the composition of the steel plate silo . Emphatically it states the operation demands in 5 stages of using the silo and items should be paid attention to. Meanwhile it introduces a few effective methods for managing the steel plate silo .%立筒仓以其占地小、储量大、机械化程序高等优点,越来越广泛地应用于港口散货码头。介绍了日照港裕廓码头有限公司现有钢板筒仓的概况和钢板筒仓的组成。着重阐述了筒仓使用5个阶段的操作要求和注意事项。并介绍了搞好钢板筒仓管理的一些行之有效的做法。

  1. Fluxo de ração avícola em silos prismáticos com tremonha excêntrica Flow of poultry ration in prismatic silos with excentric hopper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcilene V. da Nóbrega

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Na avicultura atual, o uso de silos verticais para armazenagem de ração avícola nas fábricas e nas granjas, é fator fundamental, pois garantem produto de qualidade e rapidez no processo de descarga; entretanto, são detectados diversos problemas no armazenamento e no processo de escoamento da ração, devido às falhas no projeto dos silos, tendo em vista serem negligenciadas as propriedades de fluxo dos produtos, como conseqüência do não conhecimento da teoria de fluxo. Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, analisar o tipo de fluxo em silo prismático com descarga excêntrica para dois tipos de ração avícola. Determinaram-se as propriedades físicas (teor de gordura, teor de umidade e granulometria e as de fluxo (ângulo de atrito interno, efetivo ângulo de atrito interno, ângulo de atrito do produto com a parede, densidade em função da consolidação, função fluxo e fator fluxo. A análise do fluxo foi feita visualmente e através de seqüências fotográficas, variando a seção transversal de descarga, relação altura/lado e tempo de armazenamento. Com os resultados, verificou-se que a tremonha tronco piramidal com descarga excêntrica proporciona fluxo de massa para as rações analisadas.In the current poultry industry, the use of vertical silos for storage of avian poultry ration in the factories and in the farms is a fundamental factor, since they guarantee quality of product and rapid ness in the discharge process. However, several problems are detected in the storage and in the discharge of the ration due to the flaws in the project of silos, in which the flow properties of the products are neglected as a consequence of lack of knowledge of the flow theory. The objective of this work was to analyse the type of flow in prismatic silo with exentric discharge for two types of rations. The physical properties (fat content, moisture content and granulometry and flow properties of (angle of internal friction, effective angle of

  2. Application of Air Gun in Coal Bunker of Coke Oven%空气炮在焦炉煤仓的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓琴; 曹春娟; 王昆鹏

    2011-01-01

    To solve the bad influence caused by the coal blockage in coal bunker of coke oven during coals' falling on coking process, the installation methods and application of air gun in coal bunker was put forward according to aerodynamics principle. It was proposed that air gun was added in the coal bunker of coke oven and made use of potential energy that compressed air (0. 4~0. 8 Mpa) released abruptly to produce the powerful shock-wave. As a result, the arching and the cohering coal materials were recovered gravity flow. These methods made the blockage disappear and achieved a continuous operation for coal loading. Air gun should be designed and installed as spirals in each coal bunker and the specific demand during the operation was introduced as well. The result shows that the application of air gun in coal bunker of coke oven can not only reduce labor intensity,protect equipment, improve coke quality, but also achieve a safe production.%针对焦炉煤仓在下煤时出现的易堵塞现象对焦炉生产造成的诸多不利影响,根据空气动力学原理,提出了在焦炉1煤仓增设空气炮,利用压缩空气(0.4~0.8 MPa)突然释放的势能,产生强烈冲击波,使起拱的或粘着的煤料再次恢复重力流动,使堵塞消除,实现装煤连续作业.介绍了每个煤仓应按螺旋上升布置空气炮的安装要求,以及空气炮在使用过程中的具体要求.结果表明:在焦炉煤仓使用空气炮不仅可以降低操作人员的劳动强度,保护设备,而且可以改善焦炭质量,并实现焦炉安全生产.

  3. Assessing the feasibility of interrogating nuclear waste storage silos using cosmic-ray muons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosino, F.; Bonechi, L.; Cimmino, L.; D'Alessandro, R.; Ireland, D. G.; Kaiser, R.; Mahon, D. F.; Mori, N.; Noli, P.; Saracino, G.; Shearer, C.; Viliani, L.; Yang, G.

    2015-06-01

    Muon radiography is a fast growing field in applied scientific research. In recent years, many detector technologies and imaging techniques using the Coulomb scattering and absorption properties of cosmic-ray muons have been developed for the non-destructive assay of various structures across a wide range of applications. This work presents the first results that assess the feasibility of using muon radiography to interrogate waste silos within the U.K. Nuclear Industry. Two such approaches, using different techniques that exploit each of these properties, have previously been published, and show promising results from both simulation and experimental data for the detection of shielded high-Z materials and density variations from volcanic assay. Both detection systems used are based on scintillator and photomultiplier technologies. Results from dedicated simulation studies using both these proven technologies and image reconstruction techniques are presented for an intermediate-sized legacy nuclear waste storage facility filled with concrete and an array of uranium samples. Both results highlight the potential to identify uranium objects of varying thicknesses greater than 5 cm within real-time durations of several weeks. Increased contributions from Coulomb scattering within the concrete matrix of the structure hinder the ability of both approaches to resolve similar objects of 2 cm dimensions even with increased statistics. These results are all dependent on both the position of the objects within the facility and the locations of the detectors. Results for differing thicknesses of concrete, which reflect the non-standard composition of these complex, legacy structures under interrogation, are also presented alongside studies performed for a series of data collection durations. It is anticipated that with further research and optimisation of detector technologies and geometries, muon radiography in one, or both of these forms, will play a key role in future

  4. Brief Introduction of LOW/CF-Silo Control%LOW/CF-SILO控制简介

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高永华; 王晋举

    2001-01-01

    @@埃塞俄比亚麦塞博水泥厂的生料储库采用了史密斯公司设计的CF型库,用于均化和储存生料粉,并通过库底的卸料装置向水泥窑系统实施连续喂料,与之配套的控制系统叫做LOW/CF-Silo失重连续喂料控制系统。1 系统概述LOW/CF-Silo控制系统由两部分组成,即连续流量CF-Silo(Continuous Flow)控制系统和失重喂料LOW(Loss of Weight)控制系统(图1)。1.1 LOW/CF-Silo控制系统的组成1个电动翻板阀;1套称重设备(包括3台申克称重传感器);4台恒压器;2个音叉料位计;2台气动截止阀;2台电动流量调节阀;56个电磁阀;7个接近开关;2台控制箱(箱内各装有1台LOW控制器);1台控制柜(柜内装有1台PLC5-80E控制器)。

  5. Coeficiente de transferência de carga nas fundações de silos verticais cilíndricos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marivone Z. Fank

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOO dimensionamento das estruturas armazenadoras de grãos carece de uma norma brasileira que prescreva sobre seus projetos e ações; contudo, existem muitas lacunas no estado atual do conhecimento sendo imprescindíveis pesquisas adicionais sobre o tema. Com o objetivo de determinar a distribuição das cargas nas fundações dos silos foram instrumentadas, por meio de células de carga, quatro estacas localizadas sob o anel de um silo protótipo. O experimento ocorreu durante o período de agosto a dezembro de 2009 em Palotina, PR. As leituras das células foram realizadas por sistema automático de aquisição de dados durante o carregamento de grãos de milho e, a partir dos resultados, pode-se destacar um coeficiente de transferência médio de 0,30 para o anel até o carregamento de 44% do silo, a partir do qual ocorreu um incremento na taxa de transferência. As cargas máximas atuantes nas estacas instrumentadas foram de 800, 845, 520 e 600 kN, correspondentes a coeficientes de transferência de 0,48; 0,51; 0,31 e 0,36, respectivamente. Assim, o coeficiente regionalmente adotado de 0,30 para o dimensionamento das fundações do anel está subestimado fazendo-se necessária uma análise mais criteriosa nas taxas de transferência.

  6. Diseño de un silo cilíndrico metálico atornillado para el almacenamiento de productos granulares

    OpenAIRE

    Ravenet Regales, Juan Ignacio

    2004-01-01

    El objeto de este proyecto pretende el diseño, cálculo y construcción de un silo cilíndrico metálico para el almacenamiento de los productos de la limpia del maíz. En dicho proyecto se realiza el estudio de un silo, aplicando las teorías más destacadas que se han dedicado al cálculo, diseño y resolución de problemas aparecidos en silos. Se exponen las normas, teorías y códigos de los principales especialistas mundiales extraído de diversa bibliografía. Se estudian aspectos como...

  7. Reverse Tissue Expansion in Gastroschisis: What to do if the Defect is too large to close after Silo Removal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boma T Adikibi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A female baby with an antenatal diagnosis of gastroschisis was transferred to our institution. The defect was large but the bowel was in good condition and a silo was placed. After successful reduction of the bowel the abdominal wall defect was too large to allow fascial or even skin closure. We utilised a Gore-tex patch with two prolene purse string sutures placed concentrically to enable the diameter of the patch to be sequentially reduced. This enabled gradual stretching of the tissues with a progressive reduction in the size of the defect. The patch was removed after 8 days and a delayed fascial closure was achieved.

  8. 筒仓下活化给料机安装工艺%Installation Process of Uncoaler Feeder under Silo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于鹏; 韩伯涛

    2013-01-01

    The silo technology in Huanghua Port Phase III Project is used in our country for the first time. Each silo bottom sets six holes for coal decline. An uncoaler feeder is set under each hole. The pouring of silo has been completed when the installa-tion of uncoaler feeder starts. Moreover, the space at the lower part of the silo is narrow and small with poor conditions. Those factors cause difficulties to the installation of uncoaler feeder, especially the device taking its position under silo. The most dif-ficult point is the transportation of the main part of the device to the inside of silo. The method is adopted that the main parts of uncoaler feeder slip from the hole to the position, which greatly reduces construction time, improves construction efficiency, and ensure the construction period.%黄骅港三期工程在国内首次采用筒仓工艺,每座筒仓底设置6个洞口,筒仓下部6个落煤口设置活化给料机,每个洞口布置1台活化给料机,活化给料机安装时筒仓已经浇筑完成,且筒仓下部空间狭小,条件恶劣,对设备本体进入筒仓落煤口下就位造成一定难度。活化给料机安装难点在于本体如何进入筒仓内,故采用从洞口滑入方式进行安装,大大减少了施工时间,提高施工效率,保证了工期。

  9. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site, Nevada: Revision 0, Including Errata Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2004-04-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's corrective action alternative recommendation for each of the corrective action sites (CASs) within Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. An evaluation of analytical data from the corrective action investigation, review of current and future operations at each CAS, and a detailed comparative analysis of potential corrective action alternatives were used to determine the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. There are six CASs in CAU 204, which are all located between Areas 1, 2, 3, and 5 on the NTS. The No Further Action alternative was recommended for CASs 01-34-01, 02-34-01, 03-34-01, and 05-99-02; and a Closure in Place with Administrative Controls recommendation was the preferred corrective action for CASs 05-18-02 and 05-33-01. These alternatives were judged to meet all requirements for the technical components evaluated as well as applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the sites and will eliminate potential future exposure pathways to the contaminated media at CAU 204.

  10. Amoebas as mimivirus bunkers: increased resistance to UV light, heat and chemical biocides when viruses are carried by amoeba hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boratto, Paulo V M; Dornas, Fábio P; Andrade, Kétyllen R; Rodrigues, Rodrigo; Peixoto, Felipe; Silva, Lorena C F; La Scola, Bernard; Costa, Adriana Oliveira; de Almeida, Gabriel Magno Freitas; Kroon, Erna G; Abrahão, Jônatas S

    2014-05-01

    Amoebas of the genus Acanthamoeba are protists that are associated with human disease and represent a public health concern. They can harbor pathogenic microorganisms, acting as a platform for pathogen replication. Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus (APMV), the type species of the genus Mimivirus, family Mimiviridae, represents the largest group of amoeba-associated viruses that has been described to date. Recent studies have demonstrated that APMV and other giant viruses may cause pneumonia. Amoebas can survive in most environments and tolerate various adverse conditions, including UV light irradiation, high concentrations of disinfectants, and a broad range of temperatures. However, it is unknown how the amoebal intracellular environment influences APMV stability and resistance to adverse conditions. Therefore, in this work, we evaluated the stability of APMV, either purified or carried by the amoeba host, under extreme conditions, including UV irradiation, heat and exposure to six different chemical biocides. After each treatment, the virus was titrated in amoebas using the TCID50 method. APMV was more stable in all resistance tests performed when located inside its host. Our results demonstrate that Acanthamoeba acts as a natural bunker for APMV, increasing viral resistance to extreme physical and chemical conditions. The data raise new questions regarding the survival of APMV in nature and in hospital environments.

  11. Well-response model of the confined area, Bunker Hill ground-water basin, San Bernardino County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durbin, Timothy J.; Morgan, Charles O.

    1978-01-01

    The Bunker Hill ground-water basin, in the vicinity of San Bernardino, Calif., is being artificially recharged with imported water. Current and future artificial recharge of the basin may cause the potentiometric surface in an area of confined ground water to rise above land surface and water to flow from uncapped and unplugged wells. This could cause damage to structures where the soil becomes waterlogged and where buried wells begin to flow beneath the structures. A well-response model was used to generate a series of water-level hydrographs representing the response of the ground-water basin to six possible combinations of conditions for each well; one pumping rate, two artificial-recharge rate, and three natural-recharge rates. Inflow to the ground-water basin exceeds outflow for all tested combinations. According to model predictions, the accumulation of stored ground water resulting from the excess of inflow is sufficient to cause the water level in the selected wells to rise above land surface for all but one of the combinations of conditions tested. Water levels in wells are predicted to rise above the land surface as early as 1981 for the combination with the greatest excess of inflow. (Woodard-USGS)

  12. Application of Transportation Process of Mountain Tower Silos in Mining%山体圆筒仓运输工艺在矿山的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯丽平

    2013-01-01

    According to the form of silos, the article puts forward the design idea of mountain tower silos and transportation technology, better solves the transportation of coal in mountain coal mine. The operation practice shows that the system is stable and reliable.%根据圆筒仓形式,提出了山体圆筒仓及运输工艺设计的思路,较好地解决了在山区矿井的煤炭外运问题.多年来的运行实践表明,系统是稳定可靠的.

  13. 新型圆形陈化库及应用%A new kind of cylindrical ageing silo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      介绍了新开发的圆形陈化库,主要由库体、布料机构、卸料机构及料位检测器等部分组成,彻底解决了传统陈化库物料水分易蒸发,布料不均匀,无法做到先进先出,扬尘不易收集处理等问题,可充分保证砖瓦生产企业的原料陈化效果。%A new kind of cylindrical ageing silo is introduced, which consists of the base body, distributing mechanism, discharge mechanism and material level detector. It solves the problems of material easy to moisture evaporation, uneven material distribution, unable to realize FIFO, not easy to collect and treat the dust of traditional silo, and guarantee the ageing effect of the raw materials.

  14. ELEMENTOS PRÉ-MOLDADOS DE CONCRETO ARMADO, PARA SILOS QUADRADOS VERTICAIS, MODULARES, PARA ARMAZENAMENTO DE GRÃOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Teixeira da Silva

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Este trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de fornecer subsídios técnicos para projetos de silos multicelulares em concreto armado, pré-moldados, com forma quadrada, para atender a pequenos e médios produtores, com capacidade de 60t, sendo 15t de milho por célula. Foram realizadas análises teóricas e experimentais em um modelo de elemento construtivo a fim de se avaliar o comportamento estrutural do elemento isolado e do encaixado, em escala natural, que formaram as paredes de silos quadrados modulares. Com base nas análises experimentais realizadas, concluiu-se que o modelo de encaixe utilizado entre dois elementos (tipo macho-fêmea comportou-se de maneira positiva, conferindo maior rigidez à região entre os elementos. As tensões calculadas pelo método simplificado Ravenet (1992 e teoria de vigas bi-articuladas, subestimam as tensões experimentais. Os deslocamentos medidos apresentam comportamento similar, porém superiores aos deslocamentos calculados pela flecha máxima e flecha no meio do vão.

  15. 新建矿井取消井底煤仓的利与弊%Advantages and Disadvantages of New Mine Cancel Shaft Bottom Coal Bunker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵志儒

    2015-01-01

    随着现代化矿井建设的不断推进,优化矿井设计,简化煤炭运输环节是减少煤矿事故的有效方法。本文从采煤工艺、掘进工艺、带式输送机现代化技术装备和安全的角度,分析了取消井底煤仓的原因,在减少煤炭运输环节的基础上,保证了矿井运煤系统的连续性,有利于矿井建设,避免了施工和使用井底煤仓过程中发生的安全事故,同时减少了矿建工程量和投资成本。指出对地质条件复杂和运输环节复杂的小型矿井不建议取消井底煤仓。%With the advancement of modern mine construction, effective methods of reducing coal mine acci-dents are optimizing mine design and simplifying coal transportation links.Analyzes the reasons of cancel shaft bottom coal bunker from coal mining technology, advancing technique, modern technology equipment of conveyor and safety. On the basis of decrease coal transportation links, ensures the continuity of coal mine transportation system.It is in favour of coal mine construction, aviods the accident on construction and using shaft bottom coal bunker, at the same time reduces the quantity and investment cost on construction.Points out that it is not to suggest that cancel shaft bot-tom coal bunker to small coal mine of complicated geological condition and transport links.

  16. Illegal Oil Bunkering, Violence and Criminal Offences in Nigeria’s Territorial Waters and the Niger Delta Environs: Proposing Extension of Informed Policymaking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard INGWE

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available While it illegal oil bunkering has gone on around the Niger Delta for about 30 years, it escalated more recently (2012 to present thereby poses serious implications on many facets of in Nigeria economy, society, and environment. Government’s plan to eliminate it or drastically curb the crime has been hampered by inadequate knowledge of the scale of its occurrence in terms of the patterns expressed by its varying intensities or magnitude of its aspects over space, time, and structure. To achieve the objective of highlighting the recent escalation of illegal oil bunkering in the Niger Delta, this article examined issues helpful issues. It briefly reflected on recent studies of the phenomenal crime, its attendant geopolitical and geo-economic consequences on multinational economies and societies: Nigeria, UK, nations located close to the foregoing: European countries –on the one hand; Nigeria’s neighbors; Gulf of Guinea region- on the other. Other aspects that are briefly examined are: contextual explanation of Nigeria’s political economy, society, and related histories. Considering and comparing the recent estimation of the history of illegal oil bunkering of over 30 years with a recent study of the phenomenon over less than ten years (2002-2008, it is proposed that a study that extends the temporal scale of the analysis, preferably covering the entire life-span of the phenomenon is necessary. It is concluded that reckoning that the result of the shorter term spatial-temporal analyses study was robust, findings of the longer-term study promises to provide valuable information for strengthening public policy/programs for reducing oil theft in the region. Some aspects of the proposed study are outlined.

  17. The Reclaim Screw in Mammoth Silos Operating on a Free Surface: Comparison Between Horizontal and Inclined Operation on Free Flowing Bulk Solids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhuis, Ekke; Schott, Dingena; Wijk, van Arjen

    2004-01-01

    Although the screw conveyor, operating on a free surface, has been used for years as reclaim and storage equipment in mammoth silos, there is no documented knowledge about its spill characteristics. Research at Delft University of Technology together with ESI Eurosilo B.V. on the inclined use of the

  18. 中欧钢筋混凝土筒仓设计规范比较%Comparison of concrete silo design standard of China and Europe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝振兴; 朱建平; 曹勇; 吴宏; 王振波; 张红松

    2013-01-01

    By real project case, Eurocode(Eurocode 1-Actions on structures-Part 4:Silos and tanks)(EN 1991-4:2006)and China standard《Code for design of reinforced concrete silos》(EN 1991-4:2006)were contrasted in calculation of the horizontal pressure,verti-cal pressure and friction of silo wall. Wish it can guide the silo design.%  通过实际工程案例,对比分析采用欧洲规范《Eurocode 1-Actions on structures-Part 4:Silos and tanks》(EN 1991-4:2006)和中国规范《钢筋混凝土筒仓设计规范》(GB 50077-2003)计算钢筋混凝土筒仓结构时,贮料水平压力、竖向压力、仓壁上单位周长上总摩擦力的差别,以期指导工程设计。

  19. Illegal Oil Bunkering, Violence and Criminal Offences in Nigeria’s Territorial Waters and the Niger Delta Environs: Proposing Extension of Informed Policymaking

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    While it illegal oil bunkering has gone on around the Niger Delta for about 30 years, it escalated more recently (2012 to present) thereby poses serious implications on many facets of in Nigeria economy, society, and environment. Government’s plan to eliminate it or drastically curb the crime has been hampered by inadequate knowledge of the scale of its occurrence in terms of the patterns expressed by its varying intensities or magnitude of its aspects over space, time, and structure. To ac...

  20. Influence of the initial guess spectrum in the unfolding of Bss data obtained inside a bunker of a PET cyclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benavente C, J. A.; Lacerda, M. A. S.; Guimaraes, A. M.; Da Silva, T. A. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear, Programa de Pos-graduacao em Ciencias e Tecnicas Nucleares, Pte. Antonio Carlos 6627, Belo Horizonte 31270-901, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Vega C, H. R. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98060 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico)

    2015-10-15

    In a cyclotron facility is strongly advised the use of spectrometry techniques to support workplace neutron dosimetry. Bonner sphere spectrometer (Bss) is the most used for radiation protection applications. Bss data must be unfolded to determine the spectral particle fluence. Some computer codes have been utilized for this purpose. These codes allow unfolding the spectrum from the Bss count rates through different algorithms. Some iterative routines need an initial guess spectrum to start the unfolding. The adequate choice of this initial spectrum is a critical part of the process and can affect the final solution. In this work, we evaluate the influence of the initial guess spectrum in the unfolding of Bss data obtained in four points inside the bunker of a PET cyclotron. The measurements were done utilizing a modified Bss system with thermoluminescent detectors (TLDs). Codes BUNKIUT and NSDUAZ were utilized to unfold the Bss data. For the NSDUAZ the starting spectrum is automatically obtained from a library initial guess spectra. For the BUNKIUT code were utilized two different initial guess spectra: (a) a Maxwellian spectrum with temperature of 1.4 MeV and shape factor of 0.1, created with the MAXIET algorithm and; (b) the spectra obtained through simulation with the MCNPX code version 2.7. Spectra obtained with both unfold codes and with the different initial guess spectra presented epithermal and thermal neutrons due to room-return effects. However, the contribution of the fast neutron to the total fluence were quite different for the different cases studied. These differences highlight the importance of an appropriate choice of an initial guess spectra for the quality of the results. (Author)

  1. Aplicación de la norma EN 14491:2006 a los silos de acero cilíndricos para la protección frente a explosiones de polvo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tascón, A.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Dust explosions represent a serious hazard in industries and silo facilities that handle combustible materials. Venting devices are commonly used to try to mitigate the damage caused by any dust explosion. To calculate vent area size, the recommendations given in European standard EN 14491:2006 can be used. However, the protection of silos is not always simple, and frequently the installation of vents becomes technically difficult and costly. The aim of the present work was to analyse the application of standard EN 14491:2006 to cylindrical steel silos, remarking the existing difficulties and limitations and explaining some critical points in order to understand the aforementioned standard. In addition, the cost of protection by venting in silos was studied. Finally, the authors have provided some suggestions to solve the protection of silos, alternative methods to calculate vent areas and expected future trends in this field.

    Las explosiones de polvo representan un serio peligro en aquellas industrias y silos en los que se manejan materiales combustibles. Para mitigar los efectos de una posible explosión generalmente se utilizan dispositivos de venteo, que pueden dimensionarse siguiendo la norma europea EN 14491:2006. Sin embargo, frecuentemente surgen complicaciones que hacen que la instalación de venteos sea técnicamente complicada y muy costosa. El objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar la aplicación de la norma EN 14491:2006 a los silos metálicos cilíndricos, remarcando las dificultades y limitaciones existentes y explicando sus aspectos clave para poder aplicarla correctamente. También se ha calculado el coste que puede suponer la protección de silos mediante venteos. Finalmente, se proporcionan algunas sugerencias para afrontar la protección de silos, información sobre métodos alternativos de cálculo de venteos y tendencias de futuro en este campo.

  2. Advice about the safety of graphite storage silos of Saint Laurent des Eaux facility; Avis sur la surete des silos de stockage de graphite de Saint Laurent des Eaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This document is the safety analysis made by the national association of the local commissions of information about nuclear activities (ANCLI), about the safety of graphite storage silos of Saint Laurent des Eaux nuclear facility. The analysis covers: the operation safety and the accident hypothesis, the monitoring of indoor and outdoor contamination in routine situation, the geotechnical characteristics of the site environment, the isotopic inventory and the estimation of radioactivity in routine and accidental situation, the estimation of doses received by the population in accidental situation and the internal emergency plan. After examination of these different points, the scientific committee of the ANCLI considers that a new global evaluation of risks, which integrates more recent exposure data, has to be carried out. (J.S.)

  3. Alterações químicas e microbiológicas nas silagens de capim-Tifton 85 após a abertura dos silos Chemical and microbiological changes of Tifton 85 grass silage after silos opening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rúben Pablo Schocken-Iturrino

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi conduzido para avaliação da presença de Listeria sp. e de fungos nas silagens de capim-Tifton 85 sem emurchecimento, com emurchecimento por uma e duas horas e sem emurchecimento com adição ou não de polpa cítrica (5,0% do peso verde. As amostragens foram efetuadas no momento da abertura do silo (80 dias da ensilagem, aos 15 e 30 dias após exposição ao ar, para avaliar os teores de matéria seca (MS, as alterações químicas (pH, N amoniacal, ácidos orgânicos e a ocorrência de Listeria sp. e de fungos. Os dados foram analisados segundo o delineamento em blocos casualizados, em esquema de parcelas subdivididas (nas parcelas foram avaliadas as silagens submetidas aos tratamentos e nas subparcelas, os períodos de exposição ao ar, com quatro repetições. Observaram-se baixos teores de ácidos orgânicos e de N amoniacal decorrentes dos altos valores de MS, o que acarretou baixa formação de produtos fermentados e elevação do pH. A presença de Listeria sp. foi observada em 65,6% das amostras no momento da abertura dos silos e, destas, 10% foram positivas para Listeria monocytogenes. As silagens apresentaram baixa estabilidade aeróbia, tendo sido registrado aumento na ocorrência dos fungos Penicillium, Fusarium e Pithomyces com o prolongamento do período de exposição ao ar.The experiment was carried out to evaluate the fermentation characteristics, Listeria sp. and molds occurrence on Tifton 85 silage no wilted, wilted for one and two hours and no wilted with or without citrus pulp (5.0 % of fresh forage. The samplings were taken at the opening of the silos (80 days after ensiling, 15, and 30 days after air exposition to evaluated dry matter (DM content, chemical changes (pH, ammonia N, organic acids and Listeria sp., and molds occurrence. Data were analyzed according to a randomized block design in split plot scheme, considering the silage on the plots, and periods of air exposure on the split plot, with four

  4. Expert voices for change: bridging the silos-towards healthy and sustainable settings for the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooris, Mark

    2013-03-01

    The settings approach to health promotion, first advocated in the 1986 Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion, was introduced as an expression of the 'new public health', generating both acclaim and critical discourse. Reflecting an ecological model, a systems perspective and whole system thinking, the approach has been applied in a wide range of geographical and organisational contexts. This paper reports on a qualitative study undertaken through in-depth interviews with key individuals widely acknowledged to have been the architects and pilots of the settings movement. Exploring the development of the settings approach, policy and practice integration, and connectedness 'outwards', 'upwards' and 'beyond health', it concludes that the settings approach has much to offer-but will only realise its potential impact on the wellbeing of people, places and the planet if it builds bridges between silos and reconfigures itself for the globalised 21st century.

  5. On slope stability evaluation of underground trough and bunker in mountainous areas%山区地下槽仓边坡稳定性评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鹏飞

    2012-01-01

    针对平朔东露天煤矿产品煤槽仓岩土特征,利用极限平衡法对开挖后的边坡按天然、降雨、地震以及地震和降雨同时作用的四种工况进行了模拟,并进行稳定性评价,从而为槽仓边坡的治理及合理监测方案的制定提供了依据。%According to the rock features of the product coal troughs and bunkers of Ping-Shou Eastern Open-pit Coal Mine, the paper under- takes the simulation for the four situations of the slopes affected by natural influence, the rainfall, the earthquake and the common influence of the earthquake and rainfall by adopting the limit equilibrium method, and has the stability evaluation, so as to provide the reference for the treat- ment of slopes with the trough and bunker and the reasonable establishment of the supervision schemes.

  6. Quantitative Determination of Aflatoxin by High Performance Liquid Chromatography in Wheat Silos in Golestan Province, North of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    NAMJOO, Mohadeseh; SALAMAT, Faezeh; RAJABLI, Niloofar; HAJIHOSEEINI, Reza; NIKNEJAD, Farhad; KOHSAR, Faramarz; JOSHAGHANI, Hamidreza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Aflatoxins are the most common mycotoxins that contaminate crops. They are produced by fungi such as Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. Wheat (Tricitumaestivum) is one of the most important staple foods used in Iran, and the environmental conditions in the north of Iran are favorable to fungal growth. This study was designed in order to determine the aflatoxin concentration in wheat samples from silos in Golestan Province north of Iran. Methods: Samples were collected from three silos of Golestan province. First, aflatoxins were isolated using immunoaffinity chromatography. Then the aflatoxin concentrations were determined by High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method and fluorescence detector. Results: Ten out of 34 samples (29.4% of samples) were contaminated by aflatoxins.No concentration was found above permitted aflatoxin levels in Iran (15 ng/g). In one sample (2.9%), aflatoxin B1 was seen over the permissible limits in Iran. The highest level found in samples for total aflatoxin, aflatoxin B1, aflatoxin B2, aflatoxin G1 and aflatoxin G2 were 7.08 ng/g, 6.91 ng/g, 0.29 ng/g, 1.37 ng/g and 0.23 ng/g, respectively. No correlation was found between humidity levels in wheat samples contained aflatoxin and wheat samples without aflatoxin. Conclusion: Despite the total aflatoxins determined in samples were below the permissible limits in Iran, the 29% aflatoxin contamination rate can negatively affect health factors and it should not be neglected. So, it is predictable that if the storage duration of samples increases, the aflatoxin contamination levels will increase. PMID:27516997

  7. Modelling the mitigation of hydrogen deflagrations in a nuclear waste silo ullage by depleting the oxygen concentration with nitrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holborn, P.G., E-mail: holborpg@lsbu.ac.uk; Battersby, P.; Ingram, J.M.; Averill, A.F.; Nolan, P.F.

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • Examine the effect of reduced O{sub 2} on H{sub 2} burning velocity. • Model the effect of reduced oxygen level on overpressure for a transient H{sub 2} release. • Low O{sub 2} levels significantly reduce H{sub 2} burning velocity and explosion overpressure. -- Abstract: It is expected that significant transient releases of hydrogen could occur during the decommissioning of a nuclear waste storage plant that would result in a transient flammable atmosphere. Interest has been expressed in the use of nitrogen dilution in a vented silo ullage space in order to reduce the oxygen level and thereby mitigate the overpressure rise should a hydrogen–air deflagration occur. In the work presented here the data characterising the influence of oxygen depletion via nitrogen dilution upon the burning velocity of hydrogen–air mixtures have been obtained using the COSILAB code (and also compared with experimental test data). These data have then been used with the FLACS-HYDROGEN CFD-tool to try to predict the potential explosion overpressure reduction that might be achieved using oxygen depletion (via nitrogen dilution), for a transient hydrogen bubble sudden gaseous release (SGR) scenario occurring in a silo ullage type geometry. The simulation results suggest that using nitrogen dilution to deplete the oxygen levels to 12.5% or 9.9% would produce only a relatively modest reduction in the predicted peak overpressure. However, with an oxygen depletion level of 7%, the rate of pressure rise is more substantially slowed and the predicted maximum pressure rise is significantly reduced.

  8. 300MW锅炉原煤仓堵煤原因分析及改造%The analysis and reform plan of coal jamming in coal bunker of 300MW thermal generator units's boiler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    骆大华; 王翔

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzed the cause of the frequent, serious coal jamming in boiler's coal bunker of 4 generators (300MW) thermal generator unit of guizhou Yaxi power plant. To solve the serious problem of coal jamming in coal bunker,the power plant adopted different methods at different stages ,such as replaced the ultra- high- molecular- poiyethylene's lining in coal bunker, increased the coal loose machines, increased poking -coal hole for the wokers to poke coal,until reformed the original structure of the coal bunker,which ultimately solved the major knotty problems and obtained significant effects.%针对贵州鸭溪电厂4×300MW火力发电机组锅炉原煤仓存在的频繁、严重的堵煤情况进行了原因分析。针对原煤仓堵煤这一严重问题,电厂在不同阶段采取了更换煤仓内衬的超高分子聚乙烯衬板、增加煤仓疏松机、煤仓增设捅煤孔进行人工捅煤,直至对原煤仓结构进行改造等方法,最终解决了原煤仓堵煤的重大疑难问题,取得了明显的效果。

  9. Effect of outlet diameter of cone-in-cone insert on silo flow pattern%锥形改流体下部孔径对筒仓卸料流态的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭援强; 肖湘武; 郑军辉; 姜胜强; 高伟

    2016-01-01

    为了获取锥形改流体(cone-in-cone)下部孔径对筒仓内卸料流态和仓壁压力的影响,实现中心流筒仓内物料流态从中心流到整体流的转变,改善筒仓内物料流动环境,建立模型,用试验验证模型是正确的,该文采用离散元法对三维筒仓中ABS球卸料过程进行了数值模拟。数值模拟结果表明:筒仓卸料口尺寸不变时,减小锥形改流体下部孔径,整体流系数增大,筒仓内物料流态能够从中心流转变为整体流,筒仓壁峰值压力减小且峰值压力位置上移。改流体倾角为120°、135°时,当锥形改流体距筒仓锥形壁面的距离与锥形改流体下部孔径的比值大于等于1时,能实现从中心流到整体流的转变。该研究基于数值模拟结果提出了锥形改流体的设计标准,可为工程上确定改流体结构、位置参数提供参考。%In the food, chemical, pharmaceutical and other industrial engineering field, about 50% of the products and 75% of raw materials are usually stored in the form of particles in the silo. The silo flow pattern can be divided into the mass flow and the funnel flow. In the process of silo design, the mass flow pattern is preferred. With the appropriate presence of cone-in-cone insert, the funnel flow pattern can be changed into mass flow pattern in funnel flow silo. In order to understand the effect of structure and position parameters of cone-in-cone insert on the flow pattern and develop a theory model to design them properly, the discharging processes of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene copolymer (ABS) beads in scale-down funnel flow silo were simulated using the discrete element method (DEM). The validity of the DEM simulations was confirmed by comparing with the experimental results. Mass flow index (MFI) was used to judge silo flow pattern. Firstly, the effects of the height of cone-in-cone insert, the distance between outlet of cone-in-cone insert and discharge

  10. Discussion on improvement measures of large diameter raw silo coal appearance quality%超大直径原煤筒仓外观质量的改善措施探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱晓丁

    2015-01-01

    Taking the technical renovation project of raw coal silo of coal preparation plant as an example, through the analysis on the causes in-fluence of silo quality problems, introduced the difficulties of silo in construction, combining with each difficult briefly discussed how to improve the appearance quality of raw coal silo, and gave specific implementation measures.%以选煤厂原煤筒仓技改工程为例,通过分析影响筒仓质量问题的原因,对该筒仓施工中的难点作了介绍,结合各难点问题对如何改进原煤筒仓的外观质量作了简要探讨,并给出了具体的实施对策。

  11. 超大型储煤筒仓在煤炭装卸港口中的创新应用%Innovative application of extra-large coal silo in the loading and unloading port

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张延军; 李刚; 许宁

    2012-01-01

    黄骅港三期工程中堆场采用了超大型筒仓储煤,介绍了筒仓流程和工艺,提出了筒仓安全运营面临的问题,着重介绍了储煤筒仓安全监测装置的选用和布置.%The extra-large coal silo is adopted in the storage yard of phase III project of Huanghua Port. The paper introduces the process and technology of such silo, proposes problems encountered during the silo operation, and emphasizes the selection and layout of the safety monitoring device for the coal silo.

  12. 望峰岗选煤厂堵仓原因及解决方法探索%Reason for coal bunker jam in Wangfenggang Coal Preparation Plant and relevant solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹道; 刘雨苗; 桂洋洋; 陈立龙

    2016-01-01

    为了解决望峰岗选煤厂原煤挂仓问题,分析了挂仓原因。由于原煤煤泥量大,煤仓结构不合理,根据煤质和煤仓结构研制了新型水力清仓系统,介绍了其工作原理、具体实施方法,分析了水力清仓技术在望峰岗选煤厂的使用情况。结果表明:通过设计和使用新型原煤仓水力清仓装置,2号煤仓挂壁的原煤由7000 t 降低至1000 t,大大提高了煤仓的储存能力,为选煤厂、矿井和铁路运输部门的原煤衔接提供更大的缓冲空间,该水力清仓技术可在矿井、火力发电厂、焦化厂、钢铁厂等推广应用。%To solve the problem of raw coal hanging bunker in Wangfenggang Coal Preparation Plant,the reason for raw coal hanging bunker was analysed.Due to the large amount of slime,coal bunker structure is not reasonable,so according to the coal bunker structure and coal quality,a new type of hydraulic cleaning system was developed.Introduced its working principle,implementation method,the actual usage of the hydraulic cleaning technology in Wangfenggang Coal Preparation Plant was also analysed.The results show that,ac-cording to the design and use of hydraulic device of coal bunker clearance,the quantity of raw coal hanging bunker in No.2 coal bunker was reduced from 7 000 tons to 1 000 tons,the coal storage capacity was also improved greatly,which can provide a buffer for more coal mines and railway transportation of coal rank,and hydraulic cleaning technology can be used in mine and the thermal power plant,co-king plant,steel plant.

  13. Stress Analysis and Strengthening Scheme for an Assemblage Grain Steel Silo with a Large Bin Gate%带大仓门装配式粮食钢板筒仓应力分析与增强方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王振清; 尚豫才; 周春雷; 段军

    2012-01-01

    "Code for design of grain steel silos" (GB 50322-2001) and ANSYSTM were utilized to analysis stress for an assemblage steel silo with a large bin gate. The conclusion was determined that in addition to the bottom of silo, larger stress was appeared around the opening in silo wall and the changed cross-section of silo wall and rib stiffener. Therefore the opening in silo wall and the changed cross-section of silo wall and rib stiffener could be the vulnerable points in the silo. According to the vulnerable points listed above, the specific strengthening program is determined.%以实际工程装配式钢板筒仓BC2425为研究对象,分别根据《粮食钢板筒仓设计规范》(GB 50322-2001)和通用有限元软件ANSYSTM对开洞满仓工况下的钢板筒仓进行了应力分析,结果表明:仓体的较大应力不仅出现在仓体底部,还出现在仓壁开口处、仓壁与加劲肋的截面改变处.仓壁开口处和仓壁与加劲肋的截面改变处可能成为筒仓的薄弱部位.针对上述薄弱部位,通过数值分析确定了具体的增强方案.

  14. 浅议某项目中2000m3PTA料仓的设计%Discuss on the Design of 2000m3PTA Silo in A Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李静波

    2012-01-01

    结合了一项设计施工完成并已经投产使用的料仓工程,对该料仓的结构特点和设计方法进行探讨。%Combined a silo design construction which had been completed and put into use, to discussing the silo's structural characteristics and the design method.

  15. 高应力松软围岩煤仓失稳分析及联合支护技术%High Stress Soft Surrounding Rock Coal Bunker Instability Analysis and Combined Support Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鹏

    2015-01-01

    Aiming at the supporting problem of coal bunker instability under high stress soft surrounding rock, studies the mechanism of coal bunker damage under complicated conditions through theory analysis,puts forward the combined supporting technology,which includes first high -strength anchor net spray support and secondary structure reinforcement,and carries out the engineering application and surrounding rock deformation monitoring.The results show that by adopting the recovery technique for support,the surrounding rock deformation of coal bunker is effective-ly controlled,the supporting result is well,and safety and normal use of coal bunker is ensured.It provides an effec-tive support method for coal bunker soft surrounding rock supporting under the similar condition.%针对高应力松软围岩煤仓失稳破坏面临的支护难题,通过理论分析,研究了复杂条件下煤仓破坏的机理,提出了“一次高强锚网喷支护+二次结构补强”的联合支护技术,并进行了工程应用和围岩变形量监测。结果表明,采用该支护修复技术后,煤仓围岩变形得到有效控制,支护效果良好,保障了煤仓正常安全使用。为类似条件下煤仓软弱围岩支护提供了一种有效的支护方法。

  16. The problems existed in bunkering operation control and the relevant maritime control strategies thereof%船舶油料供受作业监管中存在问题及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱奇; 徐玲江

    2012-01-01

      随着世界航运业的快速发展,我国海域内船舶油料供受业务的不断发展,由于船舶油料供受作业存在较大的污染风险,因此,如何加强船舶油料供受作业监管是海事管理机构必须考虑的问题。文中首先介绍了我国目前船舶油料供受作业监管的法律规定,然后分析了目前船舶油料供受作业监管中存在的主要问题,最后提出了加强船舶油料供受作业海事监管的几点策略。%  With the fast development of world shipping industry,the bunkering operation in China coastal waters is also increasing.Because of the high pollution risk relating to the bunkering operation,how to effectively control and manage such operation is an important issue we must consider.This paper firstly introduces the relevant laws and regulations for the supervision and control of the bunkering operations in China,then analyzes the main problems existed in the control of the bunkering operations,and finally provides some suggestions about the maritime control strategies to strength the supervision over the bunkering operations.

  17. 聚丙烯料仓脱气压降算法研究%Research of Calculation Method for Pressure Drop in Purging of Polypropylene Silo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪洋; 邢桂坤

    2015-01-01

    料仓脱气可以有效减少聚丙烯料仓闪爆事故的发生。介绍了聚丙烯粒料料仓脱气的工艺流程,着重论述了在颗粒床层的实际环境中料仓脱气压降的计算方法,并通过实际工程案例对该方法进行验证。%Purging in silo can efficiently avoid the occurrence possibility of explosion in polypropylene silo. In this paper, the flow process of purging in polypropylene silo was introduced. The calculation of pressure drop in purging process under the condition of pellet bed was emphatically described, and with practical example this method was verified.

  18. Eco-Homestay: Development Concept On Rural Tourism-Based Conservation Model (Study Case of Sidomulyo Village, Silo District, Jember Regency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvan Sidiq Asbullah

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this research were to assess the concept of Eco-Homestay in conservation-based tourism in rural area. A case study was set up at Sidomulyo Village, Silo District, Jember. A qualitative method in the form of in-depth interviews was performed as a tool to generate models. Informants in this study included the staff of the Department of Forestry and Plantation, lecturer of the Faculty of Agriculture and Polytechnic of Jember, State University of Jember, and Sidomulyo community in Silo Districts, Jember. The result showed that the purposes of eco-homestay can be reached by managing the structure of integrated development, structure of organizational management, structure of financial management, marketing strategies, operational strategies and physical building. Keywords: conservation, eco-homestay, rural tourism, Sidomulyo

  19. Effect of harvest time on fermentation profiles of maize ensiled in laboratory silos and determination of drying losses at 60°C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tina Skau; Kristensen, Niels Bastian; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2007-01-01

    The objectives were to investigate the effect of premature ensiling of maize on alcohol fermentation in laboratory silos and the loss of fermentation products and glucose in silage following drying at 60°C for 48 h. During four consecutive weeks maize was harvested and ensiled for 60 days in vacuum......-sealed laboratory silos. The content of DM in silage increased (psilage...... harvested the second week compared with the other harvest times (40.9 vs. 66-69 g/kg DM). Overall, silage pH was negatively correlated with L-lactate (r=-0.93). Drying increased pH, butyrate and valerate, although the numerical effect was small. A major portion of acetate was lost in drying, and the D...

  20. 谈悬空钢梁平台支模筒仓顶板的施工%Discussion on the construction of suspended steel platform formwork silo roof

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝晓华

    2014-01-01

    结合工程实例,介绍了悬空支模浇筑筒仓顶板的施工工艺,并阐述了钢梁承重体系制作、安装、拆除的操作要点,同时对施工特点进行了总结,从而完善了仓顶支模施工方法,对类似项目施工有一定借鉴意义。%Combining with the engineering example,this paper introduced the construction technology of suspended branches casting silo roof, and elaborated the operation key points of making,installation,demolition of steel bearing system,at the same time summarized the construction characteristics,in order to improve the construction method of silo roof formwork,had certain reference significance to similar project construction.

  1. The application of radiation hard platform in silo sliding mode%辐射硬平台在筒仓滑模中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张安平

    2015-01-01

    Based on end coal silo engineering of a mining area,this paper discussed the advantages and background of radiation hard platform in silo sliding mode construction,researched mainly the matters needing attention of radiation hard platform in specific construction,pointed out that radiation hard platform in sliding mode construction with cost saving,quality and reliable and other advantages.%以某矿区末煤筒仓工程为依托,论述了辐射硬平台在筒仓滑模施工中的优势以及产生背景,主要对辐射硬平台在具体施工中的注意事项进行了研究,指出辐射硬平台在滑模施工中具有节约成本、质量可靠等优点。

  2. 影响大型筒仓配煤精度的因素探讨%Factors affecting coal blending precision in large coal silo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙兵; 段衍泉

    2013-01-01

      介绍了沙钢焦化厂大型筒仓的使用情况。导致配煤误差的原因主要是筒仓悬料、计量皮带称故障、称量皮带黏煤。对悬料的原因及采取的处理办法作了详细的介绍。%The application of large coal silo for coking plant of Zhangjiagang Hongfa Group Co .Ltd. has been introduced in this paper where reasons of coal blending error are found ,i.e.coal silo bridg-ing,belt scale failure and coal sticking to the belt and the causes to bridging and relevant solution are also given.

  3. 欧洲筒仓荷载规范解析%Commentary on Eurocode 1 — Actions on structures—Part 4: Silos and tanks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段君峰; 李坤由

    2013-01-01

    本文通过对欧洲筒仓荷载规范Eurocode 1-Actions on structures-Part 4:Silos and tank(EN 1991-4:2006)体系的介绍,并以细长筒仓为例进行了内力计算,希望对业内同仁得以借鉴和参考.

  4. Temperature profile data collected using XBTs from the SEAPAC BUNKER HILL and other platforms from the Pacific Ocean during the Thermal Structure Monitoring Program in the Pacific (TRANSPAC) project, 1979-07-29 to 1983-05-23 (NCEI Accession 8600158)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using bathythermograph (BT/XBT) casts from SEAPAC BUNKER HILL and other platforms in the Pacific Ocean from July 29, 1979 to...

  5. Temperature profile data collected using XBTs from the SEAPAC BUNKER HILL and other platforms from the Pacific Ocean during the International Decade of Ocean Exploration / North Pacific Experiment (IDOE/NORPAX) project, 1981-01-05 to 1982-02-01 (NCEI Accession 8800054)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using bathythermograph (BT/XBT) casts from SEAPAC BUNKER HILL and other platforms in the Pacific Ocean from January 5, 1981...

  6. KGU5B矿用超声物位仪在井下煤仓中的应用%Application of KGU5B Mining Ultrasonic Level Instrument in Shaft Coal Bunker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纵文军; 蒋守平; 陈汉凤

    2012-01-01

    Providing raw coal stored material transportation of three blasting mining face,688 coal bunker,684 coal bunker,65 coal bunker and surge coal bunker are raw coal bunker used underground in Baishan Colliery.With the improvement of raw coal transportation automation in China,all kinds of parameters for raw coal transportation have higher requirements in recent years in Baishan Colliery,especially the accuracy of material level of underground stored material coal bunker.After long-term using,the factor such as complex internal structure of shaft stored material coal bunker,different traditional feed-in method of coal bunker,different feed-in method for belt conveyor and scraper conveyor,different measured medium,specific gravity and granularity,etc.,brings great difficulty to measuring.Selected to use in 2009,KGU5B Mining Ultrasonic Level Instrument has been reliably used in the measuring of solid particle and bulk material and has been recognized,which has played an irreplaceable role in coal bunker level and controlling crushed lump coal,etc..%百善煤矿现井下使用的原煤煤仓有688煤仓、684煤仓、65煤仓、缓冲煤仓,提供三个炮采面的原煤运输贮料任务。随着我国原煤运输自动化的不断提高,百善煤矿原煤运输对于各类参数近几年以来有了更高的要求,尤其是井下贮料煤仓料位的准确性,要求比以往更加严格。井下贮料煤仓经过长期使用,内部结构相对复杂,再加上传统的煤仓进料方式又有所不同,其中皮带输送机进料、刮板运输机进料方式的不同,及被测介质也各不相同,比重,颗粒度等给测量带来很大困难。在2009年度选型投入使用的KGU5B矿用超声物位仪在固体颗粒和块状物料的测量中已经被可靠采用,并且得到了认可,在煤仓煤位、控制块煤破碎等方面发挥了不可替代的作用。

  7. Analysis of pulling performance for QCL03 bunker-cleaner%QCL03清仓机牵引性能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王桂梅; 杨富贵; 李士永

    2001-01-01

    以QCL03清仓机为例,论述了以防爆电机为动力装置的全液压驱动车辆的牵引特性定性分析方法,在获得了电机的实际特性曲线后,将有关数据带入公式即可进行牵引特性的定量分析。%By making example of QCL03 bunker-cleaner,this paper proposes thequalitative analysis methods on the pulling performance of full hydraulic-driving vehicles whose power installation is explosion-proof electric motor and gains the practical performance curves of the real electric motor,then makes substitution of the formulas to make a quantitative analysis on the pulling performance.

  8. Recommendations to the NRC for review criteria for alternative methods of low-level radioactive waste disposal: Task 2b: Earth-mounded concrete bunkers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denson, R.H.; Bennett, R.D.; Wamsley, R.M.; Bean, D.L.; Ainsworth, D.L.

    1988-01-01

    The US Army Engineers Waterways Experiment Station (WES) and US Army Engineer Division, Huntsville (HNDED) have developed general design criteria and specific design review criteria for the earth-mounded concrete bunker (EMCB) alternative method of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal. An EMCB is generally described as a reinforced concrete vault placed below grade, underneath a tumulus, surrounded by filter-blanket and drainage zones. The tumulus is covered over with a low permeability cover layer and top soil with vegetation. Eight major review criteria categories have been developed ranging from the loads imposed on the EMCB structure through material quality and durability considerations. Specific design review criteria have been developed in detail for each of the eight major categories. 63 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. 谈滑模施工在混凝土结构仓体中的应用%On application of slipform construction in bunker of concrete structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石芥欣

    2012-01-01

    The study briefly indicates the definition of slipform construction, sums up the advantages of the climbing form consgtruction, intro- duces the application of the application of slipform construction in bunker of concrete structure, and sums up the process for the slipform construction and its technical points, so as to provide some direction for the spreading of the slipform craft.%简单叙述了滑模施工的含义,归纳了滑升模板施工的优点,详细介绍了滑模施工在混凝土仓体结构中的应用,同时总结了滑模施工过程及技术要点,为滑模工艺的推广应用提供了指导。

  10. Application of Slipform in Coal Bunker in Deshun Mine%滑模技术在德顺煤业煤仓仓体中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王聪明

    2015-01-01

    Project features of cylinder structure for coal bunker and selection of slipform construction plan are briefly analyzed in the paper, focused on the presentation of design and assembling of the slipform project. Especially, the article discusses the techniques and emphasizes the construction at tunnel face and of embedded parts.%简要分析了筒体煤仓的工程特点及滑模施工方案的选择情况,重点对滑模施工的设计、组装进行阐述,尤其对工艺措施进行了探讨,强调了对施工洞口及预埋件的施工方法等。

  11. 某储煤仓的理论与实测变形分析%The Analysis of Theory and the Measured Deformation for a Storage Bunker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢宇; 孔军

    2012-01-01

      Aimed at the larger settlement phenomenon for co-al product warehouse, the paper make a compare of the theor-etical calculation and the measured data of the set lement of two phase of storage bunker of composite foundation before reinforcement and in store coal, and analysis of the error caus-es of the theoretical calculation and the measured data of the set lement.%  针对某储煤产品仓沉降较大的现象,比较储煤仓加固前施工与储煤两个阶段的理论计算与实测数据的沉降量,分析复合地基的理论计算与实测数据的沉降量误差产生的原因。

  12. Spiral underground bunker bypass design and construction technology%螺旋式井下煤仓绕道设计及施工技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何冰; 崔树彬; 杨瑞

    2015-01-01

    螺旋式井下煤仓绕道设计及施工技术,颠覆传统煤仓通道设计理念,通过研究弧形爆破工艺、大坡度多拐弯连续化高效喷浆技术,实现大坡度巷道安全、高效、快速施工;同时减少传统设计多施工辅助通道产生的无效进尺。%Spiral underground bunker bypass design and construction technology subvert the traditional coal channel design concept, by studying the arc blasting technology, big slope curve continuous efifcient spray technology, realize the large slope roadway safety and efifciency, while reducing invalid penetration caused by traditional design more construction auxiliary channel.

  13. Acute Toxicity of Water-Accommodated Fraction and Chemically Enhanced WAF of Bunker C Oil and Dispersant to a Microalga Tetraselmis tetrathele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santander-Avanceña, Sheryll S; Sadaba, Resurreccion B; Taberna, Hilario S; Tayo, Gilma T; Koyama, Jiro

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the toxicity of water-accommodated fraction (WAF) and chemically enhanced WAF (CEWAF) of bunker C oil and dispersant (DISP) to a microalga, Tetraselmis tetrathele. The 72-h median effective concentration (72-h EC50) of CEWAF and DISP were determined at 3.30% and 2.40%, respectively. The no observed effect concentration (NOEC) of CEWAF to T. tetrathele was at 2.0% and lowest observed effect concentration (LOEC) was at 3.0% while NOEC and LOEC of DISP to T. tetrathele were determined at 1.0% and 2.0%, respectively. The addition of dispersant to oil increased the amount of total PAH present in the CEWAF test solutions. DISP alone was highly toxic, and the toxicity of CEWAF was primarily caused by the presence of dispersant.

  14. Strength and stability analysis of surge bunker in skip loading system%箕斗定量装载系统缓冲仓的强度和稳定性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王囡囡; 胡志鹏; 王积永

    2014-01-01

    缓冲仓是箕斗定量装载系统中的关键部件,物料的不同载荷作用将导致缓冲仓发生破坏。文章根据承载能力极限状态和壳体薄膜理论研究缓冲仓的强度和稳定性条件,通过 ANSYS Workbench 研究缓冲仓的应力分布状态,利用 Linear Bucking 模块对缓冲仓进行线性屈曲分析。结果表明:缓冲仓的最大等效应力并不是位于筒仓最底部与环梁相接处,而是距离环梁约1.8 m 处,此处引起仓壁应力的急剧变化,产生“象腿”破坏现象;缓冲仓发生结构屈曲破坏主要由径向大变形引起,随着储料载荷的增大,结构在发生屈曲破坏前已出现强度破坏,缓冲仓的主要破坏形式为强度破坏。%In traditional skip weight-fixed loading system,in order to improve the coal-stagnating and the coal's impact effect on skip,a surge bunker is designed on top of hopper.Surge bunker is a key component in skip loading system,and different loads from materials will lead to structural damage. Therefore,according to limit status of bearing capability and membrane theory of shells,strength calculation and stability analysis of surge bunker is studied.Thereafter,bunker's stress distributing state is conducted with ANSYS Workbench,and based on the results,the linear buckling analysis is carried out by employing the linear bucking module.The results show that the maximum stress of bunker has certain distance from ring beam which is not located in the joint of bottom and ring beam, and the rapidly change of stress leads to the “elephant foot”damage.The yield bending damage is caused by radial deformation,and with the increase of load,the strength destroy has produced before yield bending damage,which identify the major failure of surge bunker is strength failure.

  15. 高尔夫球场沙坑排水系统的改建以及效果%Reconstruction of drainage system and its effect on bunkers of golf course

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙超; 韩烈保; 信金娜

    2013-01-01

    沙坑是高尔夫球场必不可少的组成元素,其独特的造型和景观给球场带来了活力,但是沙子的污染、流失以及沙坑的排水一直是难以解决的问题。由于受到降水、大风等自然因素的影响,球场每年会损失大量沙子;而沙坑积水又会给打球带来很大不便,也会给球场造成一定的经济损失。美国双鹰高尔夫俱乐部,针对球场所面临的沙坑排水不良的实际情况,球场对沙坑进行了改建。改建之后,沙坑的排水能力得到了充分地改善,可以应对暴雨的冲刷,解决了之前的难题。改建沙坑的费用不高,成效显著,改建之后减少了对沙坑的日常养护成本。%Bunker is the indispensable component of golf course,showing the vigor with its unique formation and scenery.However,some problems including the pollution,loss of sand and the drainage of bunker are still unsolved.The sand in bunkers is losing annually due to the natural factors such as rainfall and gale,and this will result in inconvenience to golfers as well as financial loss to the golf club.The Double Eagle Golf Club is also fa-cing the problem in bunker drainage system.After reconstruction,the drainage ability of the bunker has been dramatically improved,the system can survive from the heavy erosion of storm,and the problem is solved.The budget of reconstruction the bunker is comparatively low but the effect is quite significant.The cost of mainte-nance is decreased after the reconstruction.

  16. Vertical Extraction Process Implemented at the 118-K-1 Burial Ground for Removal of Irradiated Reactor Debris from Silo Structures - 12431

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teachout, Douglas B. [Vista Engineering Technologies, LLC, Richland, Washington, 99352 (United States); Adamson, Clinton J.; Zacharias, Ames [Washington Closure Hanford, LLC, Richland, Washington, 99352 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The primary objective of a remediation project is the safe extraction and disposition of diverse waste forms and materials. Remediation of a solid waste burial ground containing reactor hardware and irradiated debris involves handling waste with the potential to expose workers to significantly elevated dose rates. Therefore, a major challenge confronted by any remediation project is developing work processes that facilitate compliant waste management practices while at the same time implementing controls to protect personnel. Traditional burial ground remediation is accomplished using standard excavators to remove materials from trenches and other excavation configurations often times with minimal knowledge of waste that will be encountered at a specific location. In the case of the 118-K-1 burial ground the isotopic activity postulated in historic documents to be contained in vertical cylindrical silos was sufficient to create the potential for a significant radiation hazard to project personnel. Additionally, certain reported waste forms posed an unacceptably high potential to contaminate the surrounding environment and/or workers. Based on process knowledge, waste management requirements, historic document review, and a lack of characterization data it was determined that traditional excavation techniques applied to remediation of vertical silos would expose workers to unacceptable risk. The challenging task for the 118-K-1 burial ground remediation project team then became defining an acceptable replacement technology or modification of an existing technology to complete the silo remediation. Early characterization data provided a good tool for evaluating the location of potential high exposure rate items in the silos. Quantitative characterization was a different case and proved difficult because of the large diameter of the silos and the potential for variable density of attenuating soils and waste forms in the silo. Consequently, the most relevant

  17. Three-dimensional finite element simulation of static granular material pressure for steel silos%钢筒仓散料静态压力的三维有限元模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨鸿; 杨代恒; 赵阳

    2011-01-01

    为考察所储存散料对钢简仓仓壁的静态压力,建立考虑散料与仓壁相互作用的钢筒仓静态散料压力三维有限元分析模型.散料假定为各向同性,塑性阶段采用Drucker-Prager塑性模型,散料与仓壁之间的接触效应采用刚柔接触模型和面面接触方法进行模拟.利用所建立的有限元模型对平底钢筒仓(浅仓和深仓)及锥底钢筒仓的散料压力进行数值模拟,并将数值结果与欧洲钢筒仓规范、我国粮食钢板简仓设计规范进行对比分析.文中还对平底钢筒仓散料的泊松比、内摩擦角、膨胀角和摩擦系数进行参数分析,结果表明泊松比和内摩擦角的影响较大.%In order to simulate the static pressures from stored granular materials, a three-dimensional finite element model accounting for the interaction between the granular material and the silo wall was established. The stored granular material was considered to follow a law of behavior of isotropic elastic material with the Drucker-Prager plasticity criterion in the plastic range, and the interaction between the stored material and the silo wall was simulated by the rigid-flexible contact model and the face-to-face contact method. Granular material pressures for both flat-bottomed steel silos (shallow silos and deep silos) and conical-bottomed steel silos were simulated employing the proposed FE model, and the results were compared with those of the Eurocode for steel silos and the Chinese design code for grain steel silos. A parametric analysis on flat-bottomed steel silos was also carried out to study the effects of granular material's Poisson's ratio, internal friction angle, dilatancy angle and friction coefficient, and it is found that the effects of the Poisson's ratio and internal friction angle are obvious.

  18. Coal bunker level monitoring alarm device in Coal Production%煤仓料位监测报警装置在选煤生产中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洪一

    2012-01-01

    Coal Bunker bit install automatic monitoring devices, timely and accurate material level control bunker in order to better control the location of coal and coal storage materials Falling equipment warehouse, the warehouse situation, and use of monitoring devices of sound and light alarm signals, to avoid expected to take positions in coal accidents and reduce the unnecessary loss of business.%通过煤仓料位自动监测装置安装,及时准确掌握煤仓料位,从而更好掌握仓中落煤位置和煤料装仓、出仓状况,并利用监测装置的声光报警信号,避免了煤料冒仓事故的发生,减少企业的不必要损失。

  19. 山钢集团3200m3高炉矿槽皮带上料最优控制%Optimised Bunker Charging Control for Belt Conveyor of shD Laiwu Steel Group Ltd.3200m3 BF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张林; 王庆光; 闫新宏

    2013-01-01

    Thesy stem adopts optimized type control,successfully realized 400m main charging belt driving,automatically proportioning below bunker,bunker weighing hopper of the mixed control ,feed flow simulating model,FIFO type burden profile control model,image identification,fault self detecting functions etc,Thus it is well worthy of promotion and application.%  本系统采用最优控制,成功实现了上料主皮带驱动、槽下自动配料、矿石称量斗的混装控制、仿真料流模型、FIFO式料型控制模型、图像识别、故障自诊断等功能,具有广泛的推广及应用价值。

  20. Research of pouring the coal bunker quickly with long-distance pumping concrete%远距离泵送混凝土快速浇筑煤仓研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周冬峰

    2014-01-01

    结合九龙矿北一煤仓的浇筑整修工程,简述了远距离泵送混凝土在浇筑煤仓实例中的施工技术,指出利用该技术节约了成本,缩短了工期,掘进和回采工作面提前恢复了生产,施工效率和经济效益明显。%Based on a repaired Beiyi coal bunker of Jiulong mine, this paper briefly describes the long-distance pumping concrete application in the pouring of coal bunker, points out the technology saving the cost and shorten the time limit for a project, excavation and stoping face resumed production in advance, the construction efficiency and economic benefit is obvious.

  1. 小型常压煤粉仓惰性气体保护系统设计及应用%Design and Application of Inert Gas Protection System to Small-Scale Atmospheric Pressure Pulverized Coal Bunker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐尧; 王乃继; 肖翠微

    2012-01-01

    According to the fuel safety storage requirements of the pulverized coal-fired industrial boiler, in order to solve the coal spon- taneous combustion problems caused by CO content and the temperature increased in the coal bunker, with the related national standards and overseas design handbook, the design calculation method and system control plan of the inert gas protection system was provided for the small-scale atmospheric pressure pulverized coal bunker. According to the two coal bunkers with volume of 40 m^3 , an inert gas pro- tection system of the small-scale atmospheric pressure pulverized coal bunker was designed. When the CO content in the pulverized coal bunker reached at 1 200×10^-6 or the temperature at the any location of the bunker was over 70 ℃, the inert gas protection system would have a protection to the coal bunker with the automatic start, manual start or mechanical emergency start. The project cases were applied to verify the inert gas protection system. The result showed that when the storage value of the protective gas CO2 would be 355 kg, the low pressure CO2 inerting system applied to the protection of the pulverized coal bunker could remarkably reduce the risks of the pulverized coal spontaneous combustion.%为解决煤粉仓CO浓度或温度增高导致的自燃问题,根据煤粉工业锅炉系统燃料安全储存需求,参照相关国家标准和国外设计手册,提出了小型常压煤粉仓惰性气体保护系统设计计算方法和系统控制方案。针对2台容积40m^3的煤粉仓设计了小型常压煤粉仓惰性气体保护系统,当检测到煤粉仓内CO体积分数达1200×10^-6或任意一处温度高于70℃时,系统可通过自动启动、手动启动、机械应急启动3种方式对煤粉仓保护,结合工程实例对该系统予以验证。结果表明:采用低压CO2惰化系统对煤粉仓实施保护,当保护气体CO2的储存量为355kg,可明显降低煤粉自燃的风险。

  2. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND ENERGY ESTIMATION FROM ENSILED CASSAVA MASS WITH WHEAT MEAL IN EXPERIMENTAL SILOS CARACTERIZAÇÃO BROMATOLÓGICA E ESTIMATIVAS DE ENERGIA DA MASSA DE MANDIOCA ENSILADA COM FARELO DE TRIGO EM SILOS LABORATORIAIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elieldo Lameira Brito

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The experiment was conducted in order to evaluate the pH, chemical composition, fractions which constitute the total carbohydrates (CHT and energy values of cassava mass silage with wheat meal in PVC silos with capacity for 12 kg, randomly distributed in three replications. The samples had been taken at 0, 6, 18, 25, 45 and 60 days after ensilage. The dry matter (DM, ether extract (EE, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, non-fiber carbohydrates (NFC, lignin contents and pH, CHT fraction and energy were analyzed. There was linear effect (P<0.05 for pH values, that decreased with the ensilage time, and positive quadratic effect (P<0.05 for DM concentration. The CP, EE, NDF, ADF, lignin, CHT texts of PB, EE, FDN, FDA, lignin, CHT, CNF, total fractions of CHT, total digestible nutrients and energy contents were  constant (P>0.05 in function of the ensilage time. In func-tion of the results, the cassava silage is showed as alternative source of energy concentrate for ruminants feeding.

    KEY-WORDS: Animal nutrition, byproducts, conservation, energy.

    Objetivou-se avaliar os valores de pH e a composi-ção bromatológica, quantificar as frações que constituem os carboidratos totais (CHT e estimar os valores energéticos da silagem da massa de mandioca enriquecida com 4% de farelo de trigo, em silos laboratoriais de PVC com capaci-dade para 12 kg, distribuídos ao acaso com três repetições por tratamento. As amostras foram tomadas aos 0, 6, 18, 25, 45 e 60 dias após a ensilagem. Analisaram-se os teores de matéria seca (MS, de extrato etéreo (EE, de proteína bruta (PB, de fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, de fibra em detergente ácido (FDA, de lignina, de valores de pH e estimativas da fração de CHT e de energia. Houve efeito linear (P<0,05 para os valores de pH, que decresceram com o tempo de ensilagem, e feito quadrático positivo (P<0,05 para os teores de MS. Os teores de PB, de EE, de

  3. Discussion on Dust Explosion Protection Partition of Coal Silo Area in Huanghua Port Phase-3 Project%关于黄骅港三期工程储煤筒仓防爆分区划分的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘璠; 魏美芳

    2016-01-01

    Huanghua Port phase-3 project is the first domestic project that stores a mass of coal by using silos. So far there is no available standard for the dust explosion protection partition of coal silos. An introduction has been given to the program of using silos to store coal. By comparing the natures of coal and grain, it is found that those two substances are similar. Therefore coal silo area can be partitioned according to dust-explosion-protection partition standard of grain silos.%黄骅港三期工程是国内首个在港口大规模使用筒仓储煤的工程,储煤筒仓的防爆分区划分无现成规范可循。文中介绍了筒仓储煤方案,通过对比煤炭与粮食的性质,认为该两种物质存在一定相似性。提出储煤筒仓的防爆分区可参照有明确规范规定的粮食筒仓进行划分。

  4. Calculation for structure of steel storage and distribution silo with multi-discharge outlets%钢结构多出料口给配料仓结构计算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴位民; 马魁文; 李勇

    2012-01-01

    During the structural design of steel storage and distribution silo with multi-discharge outlets, the load computational formula for silo materials is researched according to granular mechanics, the characteristics of such silo are analyzed, the design theory for multi-discharge outlet steel silo is put forward, and computational analysis for its structure is performed by the finite element software, which provides significant guidance to structural design of large steel silo.%在对钢结构多出料口给配料仓结构设计过程中,根据散体力学理论研究了料仓物料的载荷计算公式,分析了多出料口给配料仓的特点,提出了针对多出料口钢仓的设计理念,并利用有限元软件对结构进行了计算分析.对大型钢料仓结构设计具有重要的指导意义.

  5. 钢筋混凝土筒仓仓壁强度有限元分析%STRENGTH ANALYSIS OF REINFORCED CONCRETE SILO WALL BASED ON FINITE ELEMENT METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付明堂; 梁醒培; 李恒

    2011-01-01

    采用有限元法对钢筋混凝土筒仓仓壁受力进行了静力有限元计算,得到了仓壁的详细应力分布情况,以及钢筋和混凝土共同受力时各自承担的环向拉力.基于计算结果对仓壁受力进行了分析,结果表明:我国的《混凝土筒仓设计规范》能够满足仓壁的静力强度要求.%The static stress of reinforced concrete silo wall was calculated using finite element method. The detailed stress distribution of the silo wall and the circumferential tensile forces respectively applied on the steel bar and concrete were obtained when the steel bar and concrete bore force together. Based on the calculation results, the article analyzed the force condition of the silo wall, and the results showed that the Code for design of reinforced concrete silos could meet the requirement for the static strength of the silo wall.

  6. Finite element analysis of silo considering the interaction of wall-basis-foundation%考虑仓壁-基础-地基相互作用时筒仓结构的有限元分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马瑞挺; 孟云芳

    2012-01-01

    In order to calculate interaction force from wall-basis-foundation of silo,it is analyzed with ANSYS software under different conditions,rigid foundation or elastic foundation,shallow or deep silo,and axial symmetry load.The results of analysis show that the internal force of silo placed on elastic foundation is more rational than that of silo placed on rigid foundation.Notable problems are listed with silo design examples according to No Moment theory of design in"Code for design of reinforced concrete silos".%为了计算仓壁-基础-地基的相互作用,利用有限元软件ANSYS对分别放置于弹性地基和刚性地基上受轴对称荷载的浅仓和深仓进行地基-基础-结构共同作用的分析.分析结果表明,将筒仓放置于弹性地基上比放置于刚性地基上,其结构内部受力更为合理,并结合具体算例提出了在筒仓结构计算中按《钢筋混凝土筒仓设计规范》提供的无矩理论计算时应注意的问题.

  7. 锅炉原煤仓自燃预警与惰化防火装置%Device of spontaneous combustion warning and fire protection for boiler coal bunker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李岸然

    2014-01-01

    原煤仓存煤自燃是电站锅炉安全运行的重要隐患,长时间以来缺少有效监测和控制手段。通过PLC模块对原煤仓仓壁敏感区域进行连续测温,辅以CO传感器和烟气感应器信号联合判断自燃趋势,避免了人工测量判断的主观误差的弊端。监测信号达到阈值时,自动控制电磁阀喷CO2灭火,实现全过程自动监测和灭火。对于未发生自燃的原煤仓也可自动定期进行气体惰化防火,降低存煤自燃概率,提高了整个系统的安全性。%Lack of effective monitoring and control ing methods makes coal bunker spontaneous combustion into a big risk facor for the power boiler safety operation in a long time. By continuously measuring coal bunker wal sensitive regions temperature,and assisted with CO sensor and gas sensor signals,the PLC module can accu-rately judge the spontaneous combusiton tendency,which avoids the disadvantages of the human subjective er-ror. Once the monitoring signals reach a threshold,the PLC contorl er automatical y opens the solenoid valve to spray CO2 into coal bunker to extinguish fire,and the whole process realizes the automatic control. For unspon-taneous combustion coal bunker,the device can also set program to conduct CO2 inert at fixed intervals,which reduces the probability of spontaneous combustion and improves the security of the whole system.

  8. 航天炉粉煤贮罐过滤器堵煤原因分析及对策%Analysis of Causes for Coal Blocking in Filter of Pulverized Coal Storage Bunker of Hangtian Gasifier and Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童维风; 郭兴建; 黄保才

    2012-01-01

    在航天炉从试车投产至稳定运行期间,多次出现粉煤贮罐过滤器锥部堵煤现象.经过逐一排查分析,发现是由于氮气吹扫管线风量较大、防雨罩结构不合理、贮罐内外温差较大导致粉煤贮罐过滤器锥部的堵煤.采取了有效的预防和整改措施后,解决了堵煤问题,保证了煤粉加压输送系统的长周期稳定运行.%In the period of the Hangtian gasifier from test run and commissioning up to stable running, coal blocks up the cone part of the filter in the bunker several times. After examination and analysis one by one it is found that the volume of nitrogen gas sweeping the pipeline is too large, the structure of the rain-proof cover is irrational, and the temperature difference between the inside and outside of the bunker is great, thus leading to coal blocking in the cone part of the filter in the bunker. Efficient prevention and rectification and reform measures are taken, the blocking is eliminated, thus guaranteeing the stable an long period operation of the pulverized coal conveyer.

  9. Reinforcement and Rectification for the Coal Bunker Foundation by Composite Grouting Method%复合注浆法在煤仓地基加固纠偏中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯旭海; 李生生

    2014-01-01

    大荷载煤仓因为地基土承载力不够而产生不均匀沉降和倾斜,需要进行加固和纠偏处理。复合注浆法综合利用注浆的加固和抬升效应,进行地基加固和构筑物沉降控制。以大荷载煤仓地基加固为例,对注浆设计与施工进行了介绍,实现了提高地基承载力和降低沉降差的目的。%A coal bunker with large loads is easy to appear uneven settlement and tilt because of lack of ground bearing capacity. The foundation needs to be reinforced and the coal bunker needs to be rectified for use. The composite grouting method can reinforce the foundation and control the sedimentation of structures by utilizing the compaction and jacking effects of grouting. Taking a large load bunker foundation’ s reinforcement for example, the paper introduced the design and construction of the composite grouting method to improve the bearing capacity and reduce differential settlement.

  10. 阻旋料位开关在细粉分离器料仓中的应用%The application of a level control by rotary paddle in the fine powder separator bunker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄毅; 朱建国; 李诗媛; 吕清刚; 包绍麟

    2012-01-01

    描述了阻旋料位开关的工作原理及在细粉分离器料仓中的应用,测试表明,在粉尘浓度大、颗粒粒度细的料仓内,阻旋料位开关可准确监测料仓料位,为料位的控制提供了可靠保障,提高了细粉分离器的分离效率,减少了物料逃逸量,有利于杭州七格100 t/d污泥焚烧工程的连续运行.%A level control by rotary paddle is applied in the fine powder separator bunker to monitor material position. Its principle is also described in this paper. The operation results prove that the material position with high dust concentration and fine particles in the bunker can be rightly monitored by this level control. As a result, the instrument of rotary paddle provides reliable technology for the level control, which is profitable to increase the separation efficiency and lessen the particle escape rate. The application of such kind of level control in the fine powder separator bunker is effective to keep the continuous operation of the sewage sludge incineration project in Qige of Hangzhou.

  11. Características da fermentação da silagem obtida em diferentes tipos de silos sob efeito do tamanho de partícula e da altura de colheita das plantas de milho Characteristics fermentative obtained of the different silos type silage a effect of particle size and cutting height of corn plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikael Neumann

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido no Núcleo de Produção Animal da Universidade Estadual do Centro Oeste do Paraná (UNICENTRO e teve como objetivo avaliar a qualidade das silagens obtidas e o nível de perdas de matéria seca (MS, de proteína bruta (PB e de fibra em detergente neutro (FDN ocorridas durante o processo fermentativo em dois tipos de silo (experimental de PVC e semitrincheira, bem como avaliar a eficiência de compactação (densidade do material ensilado. A forrageira utilizada foi a planta inteira de milho, que foi triturada em dois tamanhos de partícula (pequena: entre 0,2 e 0,6cm, ou grande: entre 1,0 e 2,0cm e cortada a duas alturas da superfície (baixo: 15cm, ou alto: 39cm, utilizando-se de três repetições (tipo de silo para cada silagem, compondo-se oito tratamentos num esquema fatorial 2 x 2 x 2. Os teores de MS e PB das silagens não foram afetados (P>0,05 pelo tamanho de partícula, pela altura de colheita e pelo tipo de silo utilizado. Por outro lado, as silagens produzidas nos dois tipos de silo diferiram quanto aos teores de matéria orgânica, FDN e N amoniacal em relação ao teor de N total, como também diferiram quanto ao grau de acidez (pH, densidade e perdas de PB e FDN. A densidade também foi afetada (PThe experiment was conducted at the Núcleo de Produção Animal of the Universidade Estadual do Centro Oeste do Paraná (UNICENTRO. It was aimed at evaluating the silage obtained quality and dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP and neutral detergent fiber (NDF losses occurred during fermentative process on two silos type (PVC type and commercial type as well as evaluate the compact efficiency of silage. The forage used was corn plant harvested of the different particle sizes (small: between 0.2 and 0.6cm or large: between 1.0 and 2.0cm and cutting heights (low cut: 15cm or high cut: 39cm, using three replication (silos type for every silage, contained eight treatments in factorial scheme 2 x 2 x 2. The values of

  12. 经溜槽装入筒仓的玉米减损效果试验%The Effect of Detract of Corn into the Silo from Chute

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐福元; 冯家畅; 严晓婕; 杨文生; 程绪铎; 温吉华; 杨大明; 单贺年

    2015-01-01

    Corn of different moisture content (11.64%,13.54%,15.43%,16.43 %w.b.)went into a silo starting from the top of the silo.One condition was that corn flow through the straight chute and the spiral chute into the silo,impacting against bottom of the silo.Other condition was that corn start from the top of the silo,free falling and impacting against bottom of the silo.The broken ratios of impact of corn were measured.The corns of without im-pact and yet impact were compressed by Texture analyzer to determine the destructive force and destructive energy of the corn.The experimental results showed that after the collision broken ratio of corn increase as moisture content of corn decrease,broken ratio of corn flowing through the chute was 3.84% but that of corn free falling was 7.65%, broken ratio of corn flowing through the chute significantly less than that of corn free falling;the average value of de-structive force of corn flowing through the chute was 234.96 N,and the average value of destructive energy of corn was 49.71 mJ;the average value of destructive force of corn free falling was 219.09 N,and the average value of de-structive energy of corn was 42.43 mJ.The destructive force and destructive energy of corn flowing through the chute significantly was bigger than that of corn free falling.The experimental results showed that the chute to buffer the col-lision effect.The effect of detract of the chute was obvious.%不同含水率(11.64%、13.54%、15.43%、16.43%w.b.)的玉米从仓顶入仓,一种工况是玉米经直溜槽与螺旋溜槽流入筒仓与仓底碰撞;另一种工况是玉米从仓顶自由下落与仓底碰撞。测定2种工况下落碰撞的玉米籽粒破碎率,并使用质构仪测定2种碰撞后的玉米籽粒及未碰撞的玉米籽粒的破坏力和破坏能。结果表明:玉米的含水率越大,经过碰撞后破碎率越小;不同含水率的玉米,经过溜槽下落碰撞的平均破碎率是3.84

  13. Dismantling the Justice Silos: avoiding the pitfalls and reaping the benefits of information-sharing between forensic science, medicine and law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelty, Sally F; Julian, Roberta; Ross, Alastair

    2013-07-10

    Forensic science is increasingly relied on by police and the courts to exonerate the innocent and to establish links to crime. With this increased reliance the potential for unjust outcomes increases, especially in serious matters for two reasons. The more serious the matter, the more likely that evidence mishandling can lead to wrongful imprisonment, and the more likely the personnel involved will be multi-disciplinary (police, medicine, law, forensic science), and multi-organisational (Health, Justice, private legal/medical, police). The importance of identifying effective multi-organisational interactions was highlighted in the recent wrongful imprisonment of an Australian male for a sexual assault he did not commit. One factor that led to this unjust outcome was the justice silo effect: where forensic practitioners from different agencies operate in isolation (rarely communicating or sharing information/knowledge). In this paper we discuss findings from the Interfaces Project designed to assess the extent of the justice silos within Australia. We interviewed 103 police, forensic scientists, lawyers, judges, coroners, pathologists and forensic physicians Australian-wide. Five main themes were identified in the data: the silo effect was only partial and in each jurisdiction some form of inter-agency communication was actively occurring; inter-agency meetings were more common in homicide than sexual assault cases; forensic physicians were semi-invisible; there had been considerable momentum over the past ten years for practice improvement groups, and; practitioners gain more benefits than pitfalls from inter-agency information-sharing. Based on these findings, five recommendations are made for improving practice.

  14. 立筒仓机械通风安全储粮技术应用%APPLICATION OF MECHANICAL VENTILATION SAFETY STORAGE TECHNOLOGY IN SILOS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢维治; 黄思华; 何育通

    2012-01-01

    The height of the grain in silos is 10 meters high above, storage performance Inferior to house type warehouse, poor stability, quality changes of obvious characteristics such as, even Easy to have "hang wall" phenomenon, especially in the southern coastal regions of high temperature and high humidity, summer long and winter short, without snow and frost free. So it is a problem for southern grain storage staffs how to reduce grain temperature quickly in the limited low temperature period to ensure the safety of stored grain in silos for the winter. By using 3 kW of local ventilator aspirating ventilation technology, corn safe storage in silos is realized.%针对立筒仓堆高十几米以上,储粮性能不如房式仓理想,稳定性较差,品质变化明显等特点,甚至容易出现“挂壁”现象,特别在南方沿海高温高湿地区,夏长冬短,无雪无霜,如何在有限的低温期快速降低粮温,确保立筒仓储粮安全过冬更是南方地区粮食储藏工作者面临的难题。广东省储备粮管理总公司珠海直属库通过立筒仓储存玉米生产性应用试验,运用3kW的局部处理通风机吸出式通风技术实现了立筒仓安全储存玉米的目的。

  15. Professor Antonio Austregésilo: o pioneiro da neurologia e do estudo dos distúrbios do movimento no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TEIVE HÉLIO A G.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available O Professor Antonio Austregésilo foi o pioneiro da neurologia brasileira, criando a primeira escola neurológica no Rio de Janeiro em 1912. Ele foi também o primeiro a estudar os distúrbios do movimento no Brasil, tendo publicado vários artigos nesta área, particularmente nas consagradas revistas "Revue Neurologique" e "L'Encephale", incluindo a descrição de um sinal sucedâneo de Babinski e a primeira descrição mundial de distonia pós-traumática.

  16. 采区特大型垂直煤仓高效施工技术%Efifcient construction technique of large vertical coal bunker of mining area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚刚

    2015-01-01

    aiming at the problem of unsafe factors and mining large vertical coal bunker construction, taking a number of measures of constructing the holes by the raise-boring machine for slipping the gangue and ventilation, and then top-down excavation, the installation of special winch lifting personnel, material and installation of the lock beam, and effectively solve the above problems. The construction technology is safe, efifcient, economic and reasonable, and has higher popularization value.%针对采区特大型垂直煤仓施工存在的不安全因素和难题,采取反井钻机施工溜矸、通风孔再自上而下掘进,安装专用绞车提放人员、物料及安装锁口钢梁等多项措施。此施工技术安全、高效、经济合理,具有较高的推广价值。

  17. 筒仓内散体静态屈服的研究%Study of Static Yield of Granular Media in Silo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In this paper,the granular media in storage is supposed to be elastic-perfectly plastic behaviour material submitting to Mohr-Coulomb yield criterion,and friction effect between granular media and silo wall is supposed to be Coulomb friction contact problem.The factors influencing the yield state of static graunlar media in rigid silo are studied,a method is proposed which is using granular media critical internal friction angle to identify whether the static granular media is in yield state,and the problems are simulated numerically with finite element method.%认为仓贮散体为服从Mohr—Coulomb屈服准则的理想弹塑性材料,散体与仓壁之间的摩擦属于Coulomb摩擦接触问题。就刚性筒仓讨论研究了静态时影响散体进入屈服状态的有关因素,提出了一种由散体临界内摩擦角来判断静态散体是否进入屈服状态的方法,并用有限元法做了数值模拟。

  18. Fate of Escherichia coli O26 in Corn Silage Experimentally Contaminated at Ensiling, at Silo Opening, or after Aerobic Exposure, and Protective Effect of Various Bacterial Inoculants▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunière, Lysiane; Gleizal, Audrey; Chaucheyras-Durand, Frédérique; Chevallier, Isabelle; Thévenot-Sergentet, Delphine

    2011-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains are responsible for human illness. Ruminants are recognized as a major reservoir of STEC, and animal feeds, such as silages, have been pointed out as a possible vehicle for the spread of STEC. The present study aimed to monitor the fate of pathogenic E. coli O26 strains in corn material experimentally inoculated (105 CFU/g) during ensiling, just after silo opening, and after several days of aerobic exposure. The addition of 3 bacterial inoculants, Propionibacterium sp., Lactobacillus buchneri, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides (106 CFU/g), was evaluated for their abilities to control these pathogens. The results showed that E. coli O26 could not survive in corn silage 5 days postensiling, and the 3 inoculants tested did not modify the fate of pathogen survival during ensiling. In the case of direct contamination at silo opening, E. coli O26 could be totally eradicated from corn silage previously inoculated with Leuconostoc mesenteroides. The combination of proper ensiling techniques and the utilization of selected bacterial inoculants appears to represent a good strategy to guarantee nutritional qualities of cattle feed while at the same time limiting the entry of pathogenic E. coli into the epidemiological cycle to improve the microbial safety of the food chain. PMID:21984243

  19. 块煤仓螺旋溜槽防破碎方案研究%Plan Design of Shatterproof Spiral Chute for Lump Coal Silo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付丽明

    2015-01-01

    防破碎螺旋溜槽主要用于防止运输和储存环节块煤的破碎.介绍了块煤的破碎原因、螺旋溜槽的结构及仓体内螺旋溜槽的布置形式 ,阐述了块煤筒仓内螺旋溜槽防破碎的功效.并通过对筒仓内螺旋溜槽安装形式的改进 ,进一步强化了螺旋溜槽的稳定性.%Shatterproof spiral chutes are mainly used to prevent the breakage of coal in transportation and storage link .This paper analyzes the reason for the breakage of lump coal ,designs a shatterproof spiral chute for lump coal silo ,and introduces the working principle ,main structure and the layout form of the chute .The chute is installed inside the silo ,which can futherly strengthen the stability of the spiral chute .

  20. 无粘结预应力技术在圆形混凝土筒仓中的应用%The Application of the Prestressing-Without-Bond Technique to the R.C.Cylindrical Silo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晶

    2001-01-01

    论述了无粘结预应力技术应用于大直径、大容量圆形钢筋混凝土筒仓的结构设计及施工工艺中的技术要点。工程实践证明,在保证钢筋混凝土构筑物耐久性、整体性、抗震性等方面该技术优于传统技术,特别是在防止混凝土裂缝和变形及减小仓壁厚度等方面得到良好效果。%When the prestressing-without-bond technique is applied to a large-diameter and large-volume R.C.cylindrical silo,the silo wall is prestressed to hold the circumferential tension with high-strength steel.This paper gives an outline of this technique in design and construction.Engineering practice demonstrates its advantages over the traditional technique.The prestressing-without-bond technique makes R.C structure highly durable,integrated and aseismatic,and especially it helps to prevent the silo wall form cracking and deforming,and reduce the thickness of the silo wall.

  1. On thermal analysis of temperature derating at high-temperatuer cement clinker silo%高温水泥熟料筒仓进行热分析温度折减探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许志争

    2016-01-01

    以某水泥熟料筒仓为例,对仓壁稳态传热和仓顶散热两种温度传递过程进行了研究探讨,在现有算法的基础上,结合有限元的计算结果,提出了一种可行的温度折减解决方案,确保筒仓设计的安全性和经济性。%Taking some cement clinker silo as the example,the paper researches the temperature transmission process of the silo steady-state heat transfer and silo top heat dissipation,and puts forward the feasible the temperature derating solution by combining with the calculation results of the finite element based on the current calculation method,so as to ensure the safety and money-saving of the silo design.

  2. 某带隔板联体钢筋混凝土筒仓裂缝成因分析%The Reason Analysis on the Induced Crack of Conioined Reinforced Concrete Silos with Cross Wall

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾银枝; 潘立

    2011-01-01

    某联体筒仓由三仓组成,中仓带隔板,在使用期间仓壁出现多条明显裂缝.本文通过对该联体排仓进行有限元模拟计算,对不同工况的贮料荷载引起仓壁和隔板的应力变化进行了分析,将计算裂缝宽度和配筋与实际情况进行了对比,给出了仓壁裂缝的形成原因和技术说明.%One conjoined reinforced concrete cement silo is made up of 3 single silos, and the cross wall is set in the middle one. In this paper, the model of conjoined silos was computed by finite element method, and the element stress under the different load conditions was researched. At the same time, the calculated crack width and amount of reinforcing bars were compared with practical situation. At last, the reason on the induced crack in the silo walls is analyzed and explained.

  3. Super-size Solid Waste Silo Structure Design Research and Its Application%超大型固废筒仓结构设计探讨及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄维健

    2011-01-01

    超大型固废筒仓的设计和制作在引入公路加筋土设计理念后可以做到构造非常简单和廉价,可广泛应用于各种固废治理和生物质能源利用领域.本文将对该筒仓体的结构强度和刚度进行受力分析,并提出确保筒仓体结构安全的解决方案.%The design and fabriaction of super-size solid waste silo can be simply obtained with low cost by introducing the concept of adding reinforcement element in roadway design. Super-size solid waste silos have broad applications in various solid waste treatment areas and also in bio-materials energy utilizing areas. The analysis on both structural intensity and stiffness of super-size solid waste silos was introduced in this article, and a solution to guarantee the silo body structure safety was presented finally.

  4. Construction technique of large-diameter silo center ring radiation derrick platform hydraulic slipform%大直径筒仓中心井架环式平台滑模施工技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦永强

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, Xishan coal and electricity group Zhenchengdi mine coal storage silo projects for instance, describes the construction technique of large-diameter silo center ring radiation derrick platform hydraulic slipform. For large-diameter silo engineering characteristics of the existing sliding construction process has been improved to not only meet the operating requirements silo slipform construction, but also to solve the warehouse roof structure construction problems.%以西山煤电集团镇城底矿储煤筒仓工程为例,介绍了大直径筒仓中心井架环式辐射操作平台液压滑模施工技术。针对大直径筒仓工程特点,对现有滑模施工工艺进行了改进,使其既满足筒仓滑模施工操作要求,又解决了仓顶结构施工难题。

  5. 立筒仓环流熏蒸和机械通风技术改造与储粮试验%TECHNICAL TRANSFORMATION OF MECHANICAL VENTILATION AND RECIRCULATION FUMIGATION IN SILOS AND GRAIN STORAGE TEST

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹立新; 周栋; 杨曙光; 邓智雄; 陆壮雄; 葛小明

    2011-01-01

    By technical transformation of silo storage, the airtightness of silo has been improved phosphine, and the problems of difficulty to temperature decrease by ventilation, poor effect of fumigation have also been solved effectively. The test showed that the mortality of insects reached 100% at the dose of 3 g/m3 in the silos after technical transformation, and the unit energy consumption of mechanical ventilation reduced to 0. 03 kW ? H/t - ℃. All of these indexes were lower than the corresponding number of horizontal bins and the anticipated effect has been achieved. The technique accumulated experiences for technical transformation of silos in South China.%立筒仓通过仓储技术升级改造,提高了筒仓气密性,有效地解决了通风降温难、熏蒸效果差等技术难题.试验结果表明,改造后的筒仓杀虫率达100%,单位用药量3 g/m3,机械通风降温单位能耗0.03 kW·h/t·℃均低于平房仓的相应数值,达到了筒仓改造的预期效果,为南方地区筒仓改造积累了成功经验.

  6. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 214: Bunkers and Storage Areas Nevada Test Site, Nevada: Revision 0, Including Record of Technical Change No. 1 and No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2003-05-16

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 214 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Areas 5, 11, and 25 of the Nevada Test Site, CAU 214 consists of nine Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 05-99-01, Fallout Shelters; 11-22-03, Drum; 25-99-12, Fly Ash Storage; 25-23-01, Contaminated Materials; 25-23-19, Radioactive Material Storage; 25-99-18, Storage Area; 25-34-03, Motor Dr/Gr Assembly (Bunker); 25-34-04, Motor Dr/Gr Assembly (Bunker); and 25-34-05, Motor Dr/Gr Assembly (Bunker). These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives (CAAs). The suspected contaminants and critical analyte s for CAU 214 include oil (total petroleum hydrocarbons-diesel-range organics [TPH-DRO], polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs]), pesticides (chlordane, heptachlor, 4,4-DDT), barium, cadmium, chronium, lubricants (TPH-DRO, TPH-gasoline-range organics [GRO]), and fly ash (arsenic). The land-use zones where CAU 214 CASs are located dictate that future land uses will be limited to nonresidential (i.e., industrial) activities. The results of this field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the corrective action decision document.

  7. Research and practice of coal pillar storage bunker protection on the loess slope%黄土坡体上储煤仓保护煤柱的留设研究与实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张峰

    2014-01-01

    在黄土丘陵地区进行煤炭开采,常常会引起山体滑坡、崩塌等次生灾害,本文以位于黄土坡体顶部储煤仓保护煤柱留设的实践为例,针对储煤仓区域地形特征、煤炭开采条件,对坡体地表受煤炭开采影响的移动、变形特征进行了对比分析,提出了储煤仓保安煤柱加坡体防滑煤柱的联合防护方法,采用开采影响移动角法确定了防滑煤柱尺寸,开采实践证明受护坡体未产生滑坡且储煤仓保持了安全正常使用,留设坡体防滑煤柱的方法是有效的。%Coal Mining in loess hilly area ,often can cause secondary disasters ,collapse ,landslide ,based on the practice in the loess slope top coal storage bunker protective coal pillar set as an example ,according to the coal storage area of terrain features ,coal mining conditions ,comparison ,analysis on slope surface characteristics effects of coal mining ,the protection method of storage bunker security coal pillar and pillar slope slip ,slip the size of coal pillar is determined by the mining influence mobile angle method ,mining practice proved by the slope body not produce landslides and storage bunker maintaining safe and normal use ,the method of slope slip of the coal pillar is effective .

  8. Chemical and microbiological changes and aerobic stability of marandu grass silages after silo opening Alterações químicas e microbiológicas de silagens de capim-marandu após a abertura dos silos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Fernandes Bernardes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This trial had the objective of characterizing the microbial population and evaluating the aerobic stability of Marandu grass silages with pelleted citrus pulp (PCP. The collected forage was submitted to the following treatments: Silage of Marandu grass; silage of Marandu grass + 50 g/kg PCP and silage of Marandu grass + 100 g/kg PCP on natural matter basis. Metal cylindrical containers with 80 cm of height and 50 cm of diameter were used as silos during assays of microbiological dynamics and chemical changes of silages in anaerobiosis. Evaluations were performed on days 0, 2, 4 and 6 after silos were opened. The aerobic stability was evaluated by change in temperature, using approximately three kilograms of silage inside styrofoam boxes that were placed inside a climatic chamber. A completely randomized experimental design and split plot arrangement were used in the two assays, with five replications. Treatments were the plots and time was the subplots. Bacillus and enterobacteria were present on the Marandu grass silages with 0 g/kg PCP, which also showed pH increase throughout the feedout phase. Yeast was detected on the silages that were added with PCP. A trend of increasing temperature with extension of the aeration time was observed mainly in the silages containing 100 g/kg PCP. Isolated yeast strains showed lactate assimilation. Silages were found to be unstable due to the silo opening, both by bacterial or yeast development, which reduced the nutritional value.Esta pesquisa foi realizada com os objetivos de caracterizar a microbiologia e avaliar a estabilidade aeróbia de silagens de capim-marandu contendo polpa cítrica peletizada (PCP. A forragem colhida foi submetida aos seguintes tratamentos: silagem de capim-marandu; silagem de capim-marandu + 5% PCP e silagem do capim-marandu + 10% de PCP com base na matéria natural. As alterações químicas e microbiológicas foram feitas aos 0, 2, 4 e 6 dias após a abertura dos silos (tambores

  9. Application of Coal Silos in Coal Terminal Phase-3 Project of Huanghua Port%浅谈黄骅港煤码头三期工程中储煤筒仓的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢军; 刘仲松

    2012-01-01

    根据神华集团“矿—路—港—船—厂”五位一体的运作特点,结合黄骅港煤炭码头三期工程的实例,分析在煤炭输出港建设以筒仓为主的储煤设施应具备的基本条件.从煤炭装卸系统工艺流程、筒仓仓型与参数选择、筒仓工艺系统设计与设备选型、筒仓桩基、筒仓结构和安全运行设施等方面,详细阐述本工程总平面和装卸工艺的设计要点,可供其他同类工程参考与借鉴.%According to the integrated operating characteristics of mine, road, port, ship and plant of Shenhua Group Corporation Limited, based on Coal Terminal Phase-3 Project of Huanghua Port, analysis is made for the basic condition to construct coal export port with coal silos. In addition, the detailed description is made for the characteristics of general layout design and handling process design in the aspects of coal handling process, selection of silo types and parameters, the design and equipment selection of silo process system, pile foundation of silo, silo structure and safety operating facilities, which will provide references for similar projects.

  10. Analysis of Dynamic Characteristics for Cylinder Reinforced Concrete Silo Supported by Columns-cylinder%某筒-柱支承式钢筋混凝土圆形筒仓结构动力特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋华; 谢海舰; 张薇

    2012-01-01

    以都江堰某筒-柱支承式钢筋混凝土圆形筒仓结构为例,对筒-柱支承式混凝土筒仓动力特性进行分析.研究表明:筒-柱支承式筒仓的底部筒-柱结构的开口削弱程度介于柱承式和筒承式之间,其侧移刚度与动力特性也介于二者之间,在频率较低时其运动状态体现为平动为主,达到一定频率时体现为扭转为主.研究结果可作为筒-柱支承式混凝土筒仓动力分析与工程实际应用的参考和借鉴.%The tube column supporting type reinforced concrete circular silo structure in Dujiangyan is taken as an example for the analysis of dynamic characteristics of tube-column supporting type concrete silos. The research indicates that the silo supported by columns-cylinder is weakened, and the weakening degree is between that of the silo supported by columns and silo supported by cylinder. Therefore, its stiffness and dynamic characteristics are between that of them. And its movement state is mainly horizontal when the natu-. Ral frequency is lower while its movement state is mainly twisting when the natural frequency is higher. The conclusion can be used as a reference for seismic response analysis and application in engineering.

  11. Reconstruction of drip-water δ18O based on calcite oxygen and clumped isotopes of speleothems from Bunker Cave (Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kluge

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The geochemical signature of many speleothems used for reconstruction of past continental climates is affected by kinetic isotope fractionation. This limits quantitative paleoclimate reconstruction and, in cases where the kinetic fractionation varies with time, also affects relative paleoclimate interpretations. In carbonate archive research, clumped isotope thermometry is typically used as proxy for absolute temperatures. In the case of speleothems, however, clumped isotopes provide a sensitive indicator for disequilibrium effects. The extent of kinetic fractionation co-varies in Δ47 and δ18O so that it can be used to account for disequilibrium in δ18O and to extract the past drip-water composition. Here we apply this approach to stalagmites from Bunker Cave (Germany and calculate drip-water δ18Ow values for the Eemian, MIS3, and the Holocene, relying on independent temperature estimates and accounting for disequilibrium. Applying the co-variation method to modern calcite precipitates yields drip-water δ18Ow values in agreement with modern cave drip-water δ18Ow of −7.9 ± 0.3‰, despite large and variable disequilibrium effects in both calcite δ18Oc and Δ47. Reconstructed paleo-drip-water δ18Ow values are lower during colder periods (e.g., MIS3: −8.6 ± 0.4‰ and the early Holocene at 11 ka: −9.7 ± 0.2‰ and show higher values during warmer climatic periods (e.g., the Eemian: −7.6 ± 0.2‰ and the Holocene Climatic Optimum: −7.2 ± 0.3‰. This new approach offers a unique possibility for quantitative climate reconstruction including the assessment of past hydrological conditions while accounting for disequilibrium effects.

  12. Reconstruction of drip-water δ18O based on calcite oxygen and clumped isotopes of speleothems from Bunker Cave (Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Wackerbarth

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The geochemical signature of many speleothems used for reconstruction of past continental climates is affected by kinetic isotope fractionation. This limits quantitative paleoclimate reconstruction and, in cases where the kinetic fractionation varies with time, also affects relative paleoclimate interpretations. In carbonate archive research, clumped isotope thermometry is typically used as proxy for absolute temperatures. In the case of speleothems, however, clumped isotopes provide a sensitive indicator for disequilibrium effects. The extent of kinetic fractionation co-varies in Δ47 and δ18O so that it can be used to account for disequilibrium in δ18O and to extract the past drip-water composition. Here we apply this approach to stalagmites from Bunker Cave (Germany and calculate drip-water δ18Ow values for the Eemian, Marine Isotope Stage (MIS 3, and the Holocene, relying on independent temperature estimates and accounting for disequilibrium. Applying the co-variation method to modern calcite precipitates yields drip-water δ18Ow values in agreement with modern cave drip-water δ18Ow of −7.9 ± 0.3‰, despite large and variable disequilibrium effects in both calcite δ18Oc and Δ47. Reconstructed paleo-drip-water δ18Ow values are lower during colder periods (e.g., MIS 3: −8.5 ± 0.4‰ and the early Holocene at 11 kyr: −9.3 ± 0.1‰ and show higher values during warmer climatic periods (e.g., the Eemian: −7.5 ± 0.2‰ and the Holocene Climatic Optimum: −7.2 ± 0.3‰. This new approach offers a unique possibility for quantitative climate reconstruction including the assessment of past hydrological conditions while accounting for disequilibrium effects.

  13. Static contact statuses between conical silos and granular materials and its influential factors%散料在锥仓中的静压接触状态与影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王学文; Qin Yi; 李娟莉; Tian Yankang; 杨兆建

    2015-01-01

    Finite element models, which employ the Drucker-Prager yield criterion, have been developed to simulate the static contact statuses between conical silos and granular materials in 3 forms:the near contact, the sliding contact and the sticking contact. Contact conditions are established when 2 separated surfaces touch at normal direction while maintaining tangential relative movement. In general physical meaning, the surfaces in contact status have the following characteristics: 1) No penetration between each other;2) The normal pressure and the tangent friction force may be transferred during contact;3) Generally the normal pulling force cannot be transferred when surface separation occurs. Due to the symmetric property of conical structures, simplified two-dimensional contacting simulations are carried out in this paper, nonlinear finite element software ANSYS is used and the contacting surfaces between granular materials and conical silos are defined with rigid-to-flexible surface-to-surface contact pair. The target surfaces of conical silos are modeled with TARGE169 element and the contact surfaces of granular materials are modeled with CONTA171 element. During finite element analysis, conical silos and granular materials are meshed with two-dimensional solid element, PLANE42. The static contact statuses are investigated with conical silos containing different granular materials. The silo geometries vary at a dip angle of 20°, 33.7° and 45°. Sunflower seeds, corn, coal, rounded gravel and wheat are selected as the granular materials. Results show that the mechanical properties of granular materials (including bulk density, elastic modulus, Poisson's ratio, dilation angle, internal friction angle, cohesion) and silo designs (especially dip angle) have significant effects on the contact statuses at the interface between conical silos and granular materials:1) For various granular material, 3 contact statuses, i.e. the form of near contact, sliding contact and

  14. Experimental determination of self-heating and self-ignition risks associated with the dusts of agricultural materials commonly stored in silos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Alvaro; García-Torrent, Javier; Tascón, Alberto

    2010-03-15

    Agricultural products stored in silos, and their dusts, can undergo oxidation and self-heating, increasing the risk of self-ignition and therefore of fires and explosions. The aim of the present work was to determine the thermal susceptibility (as reflected by the Maciejasz index, the temperature of the emission of flammable volatile substances and the combined information provided by the apparent activation energy and the oxidation temperature) of icing sugar, bread-making flour, maize, wheat, barley, alfalfa, and soybean dusts, using experimental methods for the characterisation of different types of coal (no standardised procedure exists for characterising the thermal susceptibility of either coal or agricultural products). In addition, the thermal stability of wheat, i.e., the risk of self-ignition determined as a function of sample volume, ignition temperature and storage time, was determined using the methods outlined in standard EN 15188:2007. The advantages and drawbacks of the different methods used are discussed.

  15. Short communication: An evaluation of the effectiveness of Lactobacillus buchneri 40788 to alter fermentation and improve the aerobic stability of corn silage in farm silos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mari, L J; Schmidt, R J; Nussio, L G; Hallada, C M; Kung, L

    2009-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if the effects of inoculation with Lactobacillus buchneri 40788 were detectable when applied to whole-plant corn stored in farm silos. Corn silage was randomly sampled from farms in Wisconsin, Minnesota, and Pennsylvania, and was untreated (n = 15) or treated with an inoculant (n = 16) containing L. buchneri 40788 alone or this organism combined with Pediococcus pentosaceus during May and June 2007. Corn silage that was removed from the silo face during the morning feeding was sampled, vacuum-packed, and heat sealed in polyethylene bags and shipped immediately to the University of Delaware for analyses. Silage samples were analyzed for dry matter (DM), nutrient composition, fermentation end-products, aerobic stability, and microbial populations. The population of L. buchneri in silages was determined using a real-time quantitative PCR method. Aerobic stability was measured as the time after exposure to air that it took for a 2 degrees C increase above an ambient temperature. The DM and concentrations of lactic and acetic acids were 35.6 and 34.5, 4.17 and 4.85, and 2.24 and 2.41%, respectively, for untreated and inoculated silages and were not different between treatments. The concentration of 1,2-propanediol was greater in inoculated silages (1.26 vs. 0.29%). Numbers of lactic acid bacteria determined on selective agar were not different between treatments. However, the numbers of L. buchneri based on measurements using real-time quantitative PCR analysis were greater and averaged 6.46 log cfu-equivalents/g compared with 4.89 log cfu-equivalent for inoculated silages. There were fewer yeasts and aerobic stability was greater in inoculated silages (4.75 log cfu/g and 74 h of stability) than in untreated silages (5.55 log cfu/g and 46 h of stability). This study supports the effectiveness of L. buchneri 40788 on dairy farms.

  16. 煤仓上口硐室及锁口施工技术研究与应用%The research and application on the construction technology of the upper chamber and locker of coal bunker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤占令; 杜习成

    2015-01-01

    This article introduces the construction technology of the upper chamber and locker of the coal bunker of the fourth mining area in XingCun coal mine. The construction of the upper chamber’s cross section of the bunker has been done without increasing the span and enlargement.It not only reduced the engineering quantity,speeded up the construction progress and improved the reliability of the process,but also save lots of manpower resources and achieved good results.At the same time it has some promotion and reference value.%该文介绍了星村煤矿四采区煤仓上口硐室及锁口施工工艺。四采区煤仓上口硐室断面不扩刷、不增加跨度的情况下进行煤仓上口的施工,减少了工程量,加快了施工进度,提高了工艺的可靠性,节省了大量的人力物力,取得了良好的效果,具有一定的推广和借鉴价值。

  17. The Method to Improve Pouring Speed of Coal Bunker in the Complex Transportation System%复杂运输系统中提高煤仓浇筑速度的方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许光元; 王刚; 卢大政

    2015-01-01

    Guanwen Mine is one of the key projects after disaster in Sichuan Prouince ,the mining area coal bunker is a key project near completion stage ,w hich has large amount of pouring engineering. T he transportation systems and terrain is complex. Labor input using of artificial pouring large and having long construction time.Combined with field experience ,the mine overcomes the complex transporta‐tion system in coal bunker pouring speed slow construction problems by using special casting process.%四川观文煤矿为灾后重点工程,其采区煤仓是工程临近收尾阶段的重节点工程,该煤仓浇筑工程量大,运输系统及地形复杂,采用人工浇筑劳动力投入大,施工时间长,结合现场经验,采用特殊的浇筑工艺,克服了在复杂运输系统下煤仓浇筑速度慢的施工难题。

  18. The practice of closed full pressure exhaust gas equipment under the bunker%煤仓下口封闭式全风压排瓦斯装置实践研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晋隆; 韩剑

    2015-01-01

    成庄矿井下东、西主煤仓给煤机同时给煤时,放煤口及下风侧瓦斯与粉尘浓度往往超限.通过分析现场瓦斯及粉尘参数,结合现场条件,实践了"封闭式全风压排瓦斯装置"方案,成功解决了煤仓下口瓦斯及粉尘超限问题,确保了矿井安全高效生产.%In ChengZhuang Coal Mining,When the east and west main bunkers underground put coal in the same time, gas and dust concentration often over limited in the putting coal port and downwind . By analyzing the gas and dust parameters with the conditions, practice a "closed full pressure exhaust gas equipment",successfully resolved the problems of gas and dust over limited at coal bunker, to ensure the safe and efficient production.

  19. 储煤仓高边坡加筋土数值模拟%Numerical simulation of high slope reinforced earth of coal storage bunker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶祥令; 常桂芳; 李佳

    2012-01-01

    针对黄土区储煤仓高边坡回填土稳定性较差的情况,利用非限性有限元法建立加筋边坡稳定性计算模型,分析高边坡加筋土土体强度、坡背面板及筋带空间位置与安全系数的关系。结果表明,对高边坡回填土进行加筋带加固显著增大了边坡的承载能力和安全系数;土体强度(土体摩擦角和黏聚力)增加,边坡稳定性明显增大;加筋层数增加边坡的稳定性增大,但存在适当范围;坡背面板的加入增加了边坡的稳定性,但工程造价也随之增加。该研究为高边坡加筋土的有效利用提供了参考。%Aimed at eliminating the less stable backfill in high slope of coal storage bunker in loess area, this paper introduces the development of the stability calculation model of reinforced soil slopes by using nonlinear finite element method and the analysis of the relationship of soil strength by high slope re- inforced soil, back slope, the space position of reinforced band and the safety factor. The results show that the reinforced bands leads to significant increases in the bearing capacity and the safety factor of slope, definite increases in soil strength ( soil friction angle and cohesive force) , and remarkable increase in slope stability. The increasing stability of the slope results from the increasing reinforced layers, but with appropriate range and the greater slope stability due to adding back slope concrete panel is offset by a increasing the project cost. The study could provide a reference for the effective use of the high slope reinforced earth.

  20. Study on safety analysis and evaluation of wet formed sulfur bunker based on FTA and SPA%基于 FTA 与 SPA 方法的湿法成型硫磺料仓安全分析与评价研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙莉; 樊建春; 于艳秋; 代濠源; 张恒伟; 范红

    2015-01-01

    In order to control the risk and evaluate the safety state of wet formed sulfur bunker, the method of fault tree analysis was applied to analysis the reasons of fire and explosion accidents in the bunker.By using the least cut-set and the least path-set, the possible ways of accidents were analyzed, and the optimal controlling scheme was determined to be controlling the gathering of combustible dust and gas.Aiming at the characteristics of uncertainty and dynamic in influence factors on safety state of sulfur bunker, the set pair analysis with multivariate connection number was introduced into the hazard assessment of sulfur bunker.An index system for hazard assessment of sulfur bunker was established, and the hazard situation of bunker was judged comprehensively.The evaluation results were comparatively in accord with the field practical situation.It provides an idea for the safety evaluation of wet formed sulfur bunker, as well as a reference for the formulation of risk control measures.%为了控制湿法成型硫磺料仓风险,评估硫磺料仓安全状态,采用事故树方法分析了硫磺料仓发生火灾爆炸事故的原因,并利用最小割集和最小径集分析了事故的可能途径,确定了最佳控制方案为控制可燃粉尘和气体的聚集。针对硫磺料仓安全状态影响因素的不确定性和动态性的特点,将多元联系数集对分析法引入硫磺料仓危险性评价中,建立了料仓危险性评价指标体系,综合判断了料仓危险性态势。评价结果与现场实际情况较符合,为湿法成型硫磺料仓的安全评价工作提供了思路,为其风险控制措施的制定提供了参考。

  1. 钢筋混凝土筒仓顶板悬空支模施工设计与实践%Construction Design and Practice of Suspension Supporting Formwork of the Roof of Reinforced Concrete Silo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟

    2014-01-01

    该工程为徐州矿务集团有限公司150万t/年甲醇项目首期60万t/年甲醇工程/煤储运系统/筒仓,共六个筒仓一字型排开,总长为155.94 m,宽为26.17 m,檐口标高为+52 m。%The project is the initial project of the methanol storage 600,000 t/year of the methanol storage 1.5 mil ion t/y-ear of the transportation systems of coal storage silo of Xuzhou coal mining group. The six silo are in shaped line, with a total length of 155.94 m, 26.17 m wide and the height of cornice is+52 m.

  2. Packaging Design and Marketing Break up the Silos%包装设计与市场销售的完美结合打破"垂直竖井式"樊篱

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓文雷

    2006-01-01

    @@ 序言 宝洁公司技术部主管戴夫·查培尔(Dave Chappell)说:"'垂直竖井式(Silos)'指的是那些负责自动化加工的技术人员的想法与负责自动化包装的技术人员的想法完全不同.

  3. 弯矩作用下筒仓孔口应力集中的计算%Stress concentration calculation of silo wall opening subjected to out-plane moment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马瑞挺

    2012-01-01

    为了了解筒仓洞口在弯矩作用下的应力分布,利用平板理论结合复变函数和保角映射技术,研究了筒仓开孔的孔口应力集中问题,通过将仓壁孔口的应力计算简化成平面问题,求出了孔口的应力,得出在平面外弯矩作用下,弯曲应力集中主要发生在和弯矩作用方向垂直的边.%In order to understand stress distribution of silo wall opening under moment, using plate theory, complex variable function and conformal mapping technique, the problem of orifice stress concentration in silo opening is studied through silo wall opening is simplified as plane problem in stress calculation, and then, the stress concentration of opening is obtained. Moreover, when it is subjected to out-plane moment, bending stress concentration mainly exists in perpendicular side of bending direction.

  4. Effect of a dual-purpose inoculant on the quality and nutrient losses from corn silage produced in farm-scale silos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, O C M; Adesogan, A T; Arriola, K G; Queiroz, M F S

    2012-06-01

    This project aimed to determine effects of applying an inoculant containing homofermentative and heterofermentative bacteria on the fermentation, nutritive value, aerobic stability, and nutrient losses from corn silage produced in farm-scale silos. Corn forage was harvested at 34% dry matter (DM) and treated without (control) or with 5 × 10⁵ cfu/g of Lactobacillus buchneri and Pediococcus pentosaceus. The inoculant was sprayed on alternate 8-row-wide swaths of forage, and the untreated and inoculated forages were alternately packed into 3.6-m-wide bag silos. Forty-five tonnes of corn forage were packed into each of 4 replicate bags per treatment and ensiled for 166 d. Silage removed from the bags (500 kg/d) was separated into good and spoiled (visibly moldy or darker) silage portions, and weighed for 35 d. Weekly composites were analyzed for chemical composition, aerobic stability, and fungal counts. Aerobic stability was measured using data loggers that recorded sample and ambient temperature every 30 min for 7 d. Inoculation did not affect the chemical composition of the spoiled or good silage but decreased the quantity (5.7 vs. 12.9 kg/d) and percentage (3.4 vs. 7.8) of spoiled silage in the bags by over 50%. Losses of crude protein (0.28 vs. 0.92 kg/d), gross energy (6.0 × 10⁴ vs. 1.8 × 10⁵ kJ/d), and neutral detergent fiber (1.34 vs. 4.12 kg/d) in spoiled silage were less in inoculated versus control silages. Inoculated silages had lower pH (3.91 vs. 3.99), lactate concentration (7.63 vs. 7.86%), lactate:acetate ratio (1.58 vs. 2.53%), and a greater acetate (5.11 vs. 3.56%) concentration than the control silage. Inoculated silages tended to have fewer yeasts (2.59 vs. 4.62 log cfu/g) than control silages, but aerobic stability was not different across treatments (14.7 vs. 9.5 h). Applying the inoculant made the fermentation more heterolactic, inhibited the growth of yeasts, and substantially reduced the amount of spoilage and the associated energy and

  5. On the Comparison of the Slip-form and Support-form Construction in Coal Bunker%在煤仓仓体中对比滑模与支模

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王聪明

    2015-01-01

    The differences of slip-form and support-form construction in coal bunker were described in this paper by contrast, and their respective advantages and disadvantages were pointed out. Advantages and disadvantages of slip-form construction were explained in detail, so as to provide help for future work.%采用对比方式阐述了滑模施工与支模施工在煤仓仓体中的差异,指出各自利弊。对滑模施工优点、缺点进行详细说明,以期为今后工作提供帮助。

  6. The fire protection design on the bunker/hod of the coal disposal system%燃煤处理系统煤仓/煤斗的消防保护设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴丽萍

    2009-01-01

    综合、和NFPA 850等相关规范的规定,以系统工程应用研究为基础,结合惰性气体灭火系统产品特点,对采用低压二氧化碳灭火系统的火力发电厂燃煤处理系统的煤仓/煤斗消防保护进行了设计思路的研究和探讨.%Refer to the related criterion numbered GB50229-2006, GB50193-1993,NFPA850 and so on, the design method of applying the low voltage carbon dioxide fire-extinguishing system to the bunker/hod fire protection for the coal disposal system in the fuel electric plant was studied based on the existing system engineering research results and the characteristics of the inert gases fire-extinguishing system.

  7. 谈煤仓仓顶板混凝土结构模板支撑体系的施工%On construction of support system in bin roof plate concrete structure models of coal bunkers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙萍

    2011-01-01

    According to the engineering examples,the paper sums up the construction craft of the support system in bin roof plate concrete structure models of coal bunkers,points out the technical requirements,and provides the construction safety measure,so as to improve the construction methods of the bin roof plate support models and enhance the application of the craft.%通过列举工程实例,总结了煤仓仓顶板混凝土结构模板支撑体系的施工工艺,提出了技术要求,并给出施工安全措施,从而完善仓顶高支模施工方法,同时进一步推广该工艺的应用。

  8. 东露天选煤厂槽仓高边坡稳定性与变形分析%Stability and deformation analysis of high slope for tank-type of bunker at Donglutian coal mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜海波; 宫守才; 刘庆雪

    2012-01-01

    平朔东露天槽仓为目前亚洲最大规模的储煤槽仓.采用极限平衡方法和有限元法,开展了边坡在支护前后不同工况下的稳定性计算和应力与变形分析.结果表明,边坡支护前无法达到使用要求,斜壁与直壁转角处和仓底坡脚处为应力集中和变形最大处,是加固的重点部位.边坡采用土钉墙复合结构和灌注桩+钢内撑复合结构支护后,稳定性满足使用要求,变形在正常范围内,该支护方案非常适合该边坡.%The tank-type bunker is the largest coal bunker in Asia currently. In this paper, the stability calculation and deformation analysis of excavation slope under different conditions are made, using the limit equilibrium method and the finite element method. The results indicate that the slope support requirements can not be met before reinforcement, and the place of stress concentration and maximum displacement is located at nook of diagonal corner and straight wall where is the reinforcement of key positions. Reinforcement was applied in the slope, by method of composite soil nail wall and bored piles + entry cupporting complex structures. The stability and deformation are satisfied with operational requirement, and the layout of reinforcement is suitable for the slope.

  9. 香港昂船洲污水处理厂地下连续墙泥浆筒仓设计及施工%Design and Construction of Mud Silo for Diaphragm Wall in Angchuanzhou Sewage Treatment Plant in Hong Kong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴兵; 沈伟梁

    2011-01-01

    Mud silo is adopted in Angchuanzhou Sewage Treatment Plant in Hong Kong for diaphragm wall construction. Integral plate reinforced concrete foundation is designed for the mud silo. Key factors for design of the mud silo are introduced including loads, structural treatment and static calculation. Construction controlling are pointed out. The using of integral plate foundation shortens the preparing time of diaphragm wall construction and the mud silo can be completed conveniently. The monitoring results show that the stress and deformation of mud silo can meet requirements.%香港昂船洲污水处理厂采用泥浆筒仓储存地下连续墙施工用泥浆.该泥浆筒仓采用整体板式钢筋混凝土基础.详细介绍了泥浆筒仓结构荷载作用、构造要求、静力计算等设计要点,并指出施工控制措施.整体板式基础缩短了地下连续墙施工准备时间,泥浆筒仓施工方便.监测结果证明泥浆筒仓受力和变形均满足要求.

  10. Dynamic Analysis of Interaction between Steel Coal Bunker and Main Building under Condition of Earthquake%地震作用下火力发电厂钢煤斗与主厂房的动力相互作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄君宁; 刘晶

    2014-01-01

    3D integral ifnite element model building is established to analysis the dynamic interaction between steel coal bunker and main building. Through the time history method to analysis the seismic response of the ifnite element model, the result show that the inlfuence of dynamic interaction between steel coal bunker and main building can’t be neglected.%运用有限元方法建立钢煤斗与主厂房的三维整体模型,采用时程分析的方法对模型进行地震响应分析,分析了不同工况下煤斗对主厂房的影响,结果表明煤斗与主厂房的动力相互作用对结构有显著的影响,在结构设计中要予以考虑。

  11. ANALYSIS ON EARTHQUAKE RESPONSE OF COLUMN-SUPPORTED CONCRETE COAL BUNKER STRUCTURE BASED ON SOIL-STRUCTURE INTERACTION%基于土-结构相互作用的柱承式混凝土煤仓结构地震响应分析∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛志成; 姜博文; 张林; 裴强

    2016-01-01

    The modal analysis of a column-supported concrete bunker structure was carried out,the characteristics of the mode shapes and frequencies were obtained. At the same time, based on the soil-structure interaction,the time history analysis of earthquake response of the concrete bunker structure was also done; through the input of three kinds of earthquake waves (El Centro, Taft wave and artificial wave),a time history of the displacement of coal bunker structure node and its maximum displacement were got,and the weak parts of the structure were determined, which provided a reference to the seismic design and identification of such sort of coal bunker structure.%对柱承式混凝土煤仓结构进行模态分析,得到其振型和频率的特点。同时,基于土-结构相互作用,进行柱承式混凝土煤仓结构的地震反应时程分析,通过输入3种地震波( El Centro波、Taft波和人工波),分析得到不同工况下煤仓结构节点的位移时程和最大位移值,确定出结构的薄弱部位,为柱承式混凝土煤仓结构的抗震设计和鉴定提供参考。

  12. 四位配料机料仓及支架的应力分析%Stress Analysis of Material Silo and Frame Rack for Four Positioned Batching Machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵文英; 戚晓利; 冯建有; 唐润秋; 李芃; 汪敏

    2012-01-01

    以KQ系列四位配料机作为研究对象,参照贮仓散体力学方面的经典Janssen理论,推导出用于计算配料机储料仓粉体法向静压力分布的解析公式;利用SolidWorks软件建立四位配料机的三维整体模型,并导入ANSYS施加当量载荷和相关约束后进行求解.计算结果表明,四位配料机除计量吊耳处米赛斯应力较大,超过了材料的屈服极限外,其余部件均满足设计要求.本研究为四位配料机储料仓的优化设计提供了理论依据,具有一定的参考价值.%A KQ scries 4-positioned batching machine was taken as the study object by referring to classic Janssen theory of mechanics of granular media in the silo to have deduced interpretive formulas to be used to compute normal static pressure distribution of granular media in the batcher's silo. We utilized SolidWorks software to have constructed a 3-D integral model for the 4-positioned batcher while gathering ANSYS to apply an equivalent load and relevant constraints thereto for a solution. Computation results tells desirable stresses as the design requires except for high von Mises stress at the measuring pivots of the 4-positioned batcher that exceeds yield limits of the material. Therefore, the study can provide theoretical bases for designing 4-positioned batcher silo in the future in terms of optimized design for the purpose, thus having got a certain value of reference.

  13. 基于Silo的科学计算结果数据的管理与可视化%Management and Visualization of Result Data in Scientific Computation Based on Silo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王延红; 田传艳; 杨平利; 黄少华

    2011-01-01

    The unified management and visualization of result data with different formats are needed during the development of some visualization software of numerical simulation. Silo data file is adopted to manage the numerical results and imported into VisIt, a popular visualization tool. The numerical simulation results such as curve, mesh and associated scalar and vector variables received by programs of MCNP, FDTD, Fluent, as examples, are extracted and written into Silo data files,and their visualization effect in VisIt are given. The results show that the different types of result data can be managed comprehensively with Silo data file and get effective visualization in VisIt.%在某数值模拟可视化软件研制中,为了对不同类型的数值模拟结果进行统一管理和可视化,采用Silo格式文件管理数值结果,并将其应用于可视化工具VisIt中.对MCNP,FDTD,Fluent等数值模拟程序计算结果中的曲线、网格及相关联的标量、矢量等数据进行提取,写为Silo格式文件,并给出了其在VisIt中的可视化效果.结果表明:不同类型的数值模拟结果数据可通过Silo格式文件进行综合管理,并可在VisIt中得到高效的可视化.

  14. RESULTS OF USING MOBILE AIR CONDITIONER TO CONTROL CORN TEMPERATUER IN SILO IN SOUTH OF CHINA%南方立筒仓应用移动空调控温储存玉米研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄启迪

    2012-01-01

    对立筒仓的玉米应用移动空调进行控温储存试验,试验表明通过空调间歇性控温能确保玉米安全度夏储存安全,降低粮食保管费用.%Mobile air conditioner was used to control corn temperature in silo. The results showed that intermittent ventilation by using air conditioner can ensure corn stored safely in summer, it also can reduce storage costs.

  15. 自制免缝Silo袋分期修补治疗新生儿腹裂%Neonatal gastroschisis treated with staged repair by home -made silastic spring-loaded Silo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈卫兵; 王寿青; 夏顺林; 李炳

    2012-01-01

    目的:介绍自制免缝Silo袋分期修补治疗新生儿腹裂的应用与体会.方法:选择2005年5月~2010年10月14例新生儿腹裂患儿,其中7例采取了自制免缝Silo袋进行分期腹壁修补.结果:7例中,1例因合并多发性肠闭锁、短肠综合征,1例因重度颅内出血放弃治疗,手术成功5例并获得随访,随访时间为2月~5年.随访的5例中,1例2月内反复发生肠梗阻家长放弃治疗,失随访,1例于2岁时因右侧腹股沟斜疝行右侧疝囊高位结扎术,恢复良好,其余3例均生长发育良好.结论:对于无法修复的腹裂可以采取自制免缝Silo袋分期修补,同时自制免缝Silo袋也适用于腹裂患儿的转运.%Objective; To recommend the application and experience of home - made silastic spring - loaded Silo in staged repair of neonatal gastroschisis. Methods; Fourteen neonates with gastroschisis were selected from May 2005 to October 2010, and seven neonates were treated with staged repair by home - made silastic spring - loaded Silo. Results: Among seven neonates, two neonates gave up treatment because of multiple intestinal atresia combined with short bowel syndrome and severe intracranial bleeding, respectively. The operation was successfully completed for the other five neonates, and they were followed up, the time of follow - up was from two months to five years. A-mong the five neonates, one neonate gave up treatment because of recurrent intestinal obstruction within two months, then the neonate was lost to followup; one neonate underwent high ligation of hernial sac of right side because of inguinal hernia of right side when the neonate was two years, the recovery was good; the growth and development of the other three neonates were good. Conclusion; For the neonates with unrepaired gastroschisis, home - made silastic spring - loaded Silo can be adopted, and home - made silastic spring - loaded Silo is suitable for transport of neonates with gastroschisis.

  16. Análisis de la distribución de presiones estáticas en silos cilíndricos con tolva excéntrica mediante el M. E. F. Influencia de la excentricidad y comparación con el Eurocódigo 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidal López, Pablo

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available At the European level, silos are considered under the European Standards (Eurocode 1, Part 4. Actions in si/os and tanks, with no proposed method of calculation in the case of an eccentric outlet. The guidelines include a brief mention that eccentricity should not exceed 25% of the silo diameter and that in the future, attempts will be made to cover large eccentricities. We have developed an analysis of static pressure distributions in grain silos with eccentric outlets. To this end, silos were modelled using ANSYS 5.5. According to the F.E.M. maximum normal pressures on the silo wall correspond to the si/o-hopper junction. on the opposite side to the displacement of the outlet for any eccentricity, increasing at this point as hopper eccentricity rises. Compared to the Eurocode, static pressures are proposed when the hopper is centered and considered to be valid up to an eccentricity limit of 0.25 times the diameter , their redistribution at the hopper wall when this is eccentric may be observed by means of the FE.M. increasing on the opposite side to the outlet and decreasing on the same side with respect to the central hopper. This leads us to conclude that a more conservative method of calculation should be used in the Eurocode for normal pressures on the hopper wall when centered, and coefficients drawn up to include the variations produced in the static state when it is off-center.En Europa las acciones en silos se recogen en la Norma Europea (ENV 1991-4. Eurocode l. Part 4: Actions on silos and tanks., sin proponer método alguno de cálculo cuando la boca de salida es excéntrica, limitándose a mencionar que la excentricidad de ésta no debe de ser mayor del 25% del diámetro y mencionando que en un futuro se intentará que cubra las grandes excentricidades. En este artículo realizamos un análisis de la distribución de presiones estáticas en silos cilíndricos con tolva excéntrica. Para ello hemos usado el programa ANSYS 5.5. con

  17. The Role Of Grain Spreader In Stratification Of Anti And Research In Squat Silo%布粮器在浅圆仓入粮防分级中的研究与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张峻岭; 陈艺; 张卓青

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a new type device for stratification of anti in squat silo grain spreader. Based on dynamic principle, the dynamic equations of granular materials in the process through the grain spreader were built. The theoretical calculation, won the grain spreader speed, thrown distance and the relationship between the material divide, as the basis for the trial operation. The test results show that, using variable speed grain spreader is slow impurities gathered more ideal measures in squat silo.%介绍了一种新型浅圆仓入粮防分级设备——布粮器,依据动力学原理,建立了物料通过布粮器作用后各过程的动力方程。通过理论计算,获得了布粮器转速、抛掷距离与物料落差的关系,作为试验运行的依据。试验结果表明,使用变速布粮器装仓入粮是减缓仓内粮食杂质聚集的一种比较理想的措施。

  18. 大直径筒仓仓顶房滑模托带施工方案%Construction scheme of sliding-mode girdle of the warehouse-top house of large diameter silo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张继忠; 胡孝平

    2012-01-01

    Taking the large diameter silo engineering of the harbor in Hebei province as an example, this paper introduces the construction scheme of sliding-mode girdle of the warehouse-top house of large diameter silo, respectively expounds the determination of relevant parameters, machine selection, installation technology, quality check:, and technological measures and so on. Comparing to conventional construction scheme, the construction scheme of sliding-mode girdle can speed up the schedule and save cost.%以河北省某港口大直径筒仓工程为例,介绍了大直径筒仓仓顶房滑模托带施工方案,分别阐述了相关参数的确定,机具选择,安装工艺,质量检查及技术措施等内容,指出相对于常规施工方案,滑模托带施工方案能加快进度,节约成本。

  19. Design and Construction of the High Template of the Ring Beam of the Coal Bunker Roof%煤仓顶环梁高支模的设计与施工

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柯潮彬

    2014-01-01

    高大模板是工程实践中的重点和难度,也是工程质量和安全控制的重点。本文主要结合广州某电厂煤仓顶环梁的施工,介绍了高支模的设计和施工管理的措施,确保了高支模结构具有足够的承载力、刚度和稳定性。%Tal template is the focus and difficulty in en- gineering practice and it is also the important point of the quality and safety control in engineering. Combined with the construction of the ring beam of a power plant coal bunker in Guangzhou, this paper mainly introduced the design and co- nstruction management measures of the tal template , ensuring the tal template structure has enough bearing capacity, rigidity and stability.

  20. Research and application of coal bunker rapid construction technology%一采区9煤煤仓快速施工技术研究与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜炳友; 元庆平

    2015-01-01

    该文介绍了内蒙古沙章图矿井一采区9煤煤仓快速施工技术。施工中采用分层、分段施工法,采用科学合理的爆破新技术,科学先进的支护工艺,人工和耙装机装岩出矸方式,取得良好的施工速度和效果,具有一定的推广和借鉴价值。%This paper introduced the coal bunker rapid construction technology of mining area in Inner Mongolia Shazhangtu mine. in the construction, using layered, segmental construction method, using the scientific and reasonable new blasting technology , scientiifc and advanced support technology, loading gangue by artiifcial and the scraper, made good the construction speed and effect, which has the certain reference and promotion value.

  1. Alternative methods for dispoal of low-level radioactive wastes. Task 1. Description of methods and assessment of criteria. [Alternative methods are belowground vaults, aboveground vaults; earth mounded concrete bunkers, mined cavities, augered holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, R.D.; Miller, W.O.; Warriner, J.B.; Malone, P.G.; McAneny, C.C.

    1984-04-01

    The study reported herein contains the results of Task 1 of a four-task study entitled Criteria for Evaluating Engineered Facilities. The overall objective of this study is to ensure that the criteria needed to evaluate five alternative low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal methods are available to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Agreement States. The alternative methods considered are belowground vaults, aboveground vaults, earth mounded concrete bunkers, mined cavities, and augered holes. Each of these alternatives is either being used by other countries for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal or is being considered by other countries or US agencies. In this report the performance requirements are listed, each alternative is described, the experience gained with its use is discussed, and the performance capabilities of each method are addressed. Next, the existing 10 CFR Part 61 Subpart D criteria with respect to paragraphs 61.50 through 61.53, pertaining to site suitability, design, operations and closure, and monitoring are assessed for applicability to evaluation of each alternative. Preliminary conclusions and recommendations are offered on each method's suitability as an LLW disposal alternative, the applicability of the criteria, and the need for supplemental or modified criteria.

  2. 反井钻机联合钻爆法在大断面煤仓施工中的研究与应用%Study and Application of Raise Boring Machine with Drilling and Blasting Method to Construction of Mine Large Cross Section Coal Bunker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许传峰

    2013-01-01

    According to the large cross section,high difficult construction,low safety coefficient and other features of the coal bunker at the-318m level mine shaft bottom,with the comparison analysis,a raise boring machine combined with the drilling and blasting construction was determined and applied.From the blind shaft construction,reaming of the coal bunker,concrete lining support and others,the paper introduced the rapid construction technology.The results showed that the application of the raise boring machine combined with the drilling and blasting method to the construction of the coal bunker at the mine shaft bottom would have high mechanized degree,low labor intensity,safety,rapid construction speed,high efficiency and series advantages and would be a value to be promoted.%针对-318m水平井底煤仓断面大、施工难度大,安全系数低等特点,通过对比分析,决定采用反井钻机联合钻爆法施工,并从溜矸井施工、煤仓刷大、混凝土砌碹支护等方面介绍了快速施工技术,结果表明,采用反井钻机联合钻爆法施工井底煤仓,具有机械化程度高、劳动强度低、安全、施工速度快、效率高等一系列优点,值得推广应用.

  3. Variação da temperatura e umidade de grãos armazenados em silos com aeração Variations of temperature and moisture content of grains stored in bins with aeration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivano A. Devilla

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, estudou-se a variação de temperatura e de umidade em uma massa de grãos de milho armazenada em um silo, durante a aeração do produto, determinando-se o tempo de aeração requerido para se obter uma diferença de temperatura de 3 ºC entre a massa de grãos e o ambiente externo do silo. Inicialmente, os grãos de milho armazenados foram aquecidos utilizando-se equipamentos para aquecimento e umidificação do ar insuflado na massa. O processo de aeração foi realizado com fluxo de ar de 0,0157 m³ s-1 m-2 e, com o auxílio de um sistema de aquisição de dados e termopares, registraram-se as temperaturas em diversos pontos da massa de grãos, localizados radialmente a diferentes distâncias horizontais e verticais nas direções norte, sul, leste, oeste. Amostras do produto foram retiradas periodicamente, durante o resfriamento, para determinação da umidade. A redução de temperatura na massa de grãos dependeu da localização do produto no interior do silo, enquanto as maiores reduções de temperatura foram detectadas no produto localizado nas regiões sul e leste, e as menores, nas regiões norte e oeste que, de início, continham o produto em temperaturas mais baixas. A maior redução na temperatura da massa de grãos ocorreu entre 24 e 48 h de aeração. Um tempo de aeração de aproximadamente 70 h, foi necessário para que a diferença de temperatura entre a massa de grãos e o ambiente externo ao silo fosse igual a 3 ºC.The temperature and moisture content variations in corn kernels stored in a bin during an aeration process are presented in this work. The aeration time requirements were determined to obtain a temperature difference of 3 ºC between the mass of grains and the external environment. The temperature of the stored grains was increased by submitting the product to a forced flow of moist and pre-heated air before the aeration. Airflow of 0.0157 m³ s-1 m-2 was used in the aeration process

  4. Desenvolvimento e avaliação de um secador solar para grãos, associado a silo subterrâneo Development and evaluation of a solar drier for grains associated to underground bin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. da S. Braga

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Um secador com aquecimento solar, tipo barcaça, com sistema mecânico de descarregamento, foi testado na secagem de grãos de feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris, L.. Em comparação com o sistema tradicional (secagem em terreiro, foram alcançadas reduções de: 83%, no tempo de secagem; 76% na área necessária à operação e 95% no tempo de descarregamento do secador e enchimento do silo respectivo.A batch-type, solar-heated air drier with mechanical system of unloading was tested in drying edible beans (Phaseolus vulgaris, L.. Reductions in drying time and area, reached 83 and 76%, respectively, as compared with the natural drying process. A hand-driven mechanical unloading system incorporated allows 95% reduction in unloading time.

  5. Trends in concentrations of nitrate and total dissolved solids in public supply wells of the Bunker Hill, Lytle, Rialto, and Colton groundwater subbasins, San Bernardino County, California: influence of legacy land use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Robert; Landon, Matthew K

    2013-05-01

    Concentrations and temporal changes in concentrations of nitrate and total dissolved solids (TDS) in groundwater of the Bunker Hill, Lytle, Rialto, and Colton groundwater subbasins of the Upper Santa Ana Valley Groundwater Basin were evaluated to identify trends and factors that may be affecting trends. One hundred, thirty-one public-supply wells were selected for analysis based on the availability of data spanning at least 11 years between the late 1980s and the 2000s. Forty-one of the 131 wells (31%) had a significant (pwells (11%) had a significant decrease in nitrate. For TDS, 46 wells (35%) had a significant increase and 8 wells (6%) had a significant decrease. Slopes for the observed significant trends ranged from -0.44 to 0.91 mg/L/yr for nitrate (as N) and -8 to 13 mg/L/yr for TDS. Increasing nitrate trends were associated with greater well depth, higher percentage of agricultural land use, and being closer to the distal end of the flow system. Decreasing nitrate trends were associated with the occurrence of volatile organic compounds (VOCs); VOC occurrence decreases with increasing depth. The relations of nitrate trends to depth, lateral position, and VOCs imply that increasing nitrate concentrations are associated with nitrate loading from historical agricultural land use and that more recent urban land use is generally associated with lower nitrate concentrations and greater VOC occurrence. Increasing TDS trends were associated with relatively greater current nitrate concentrations and relatively greater amounts of urban land. Decreasing TDS trends were associated with relatively greater amounts of natural land use. Trends in TDS concentrations were not related to depth, lateral position, or VOC occurrence, reflecting more complex factors affecting TDS than nitrate in the study area.

  6. Trends in concentrations of nitrate and total dissolved solids in public supply wells of the Bunker Hill, Lytle, Rialto, and Colton groundwater subbasins, San Bernardino County, California: Influence of legacy land use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Robert; Landon, Matthew K.

    2013-01-01

    Concentrations and temporal changes in concentrations of nitrate and total dissolved solids (TDS) in groundwater of the Bunker Hill, Lytle, Rialto, and Colton groundwater subbasins of the Upper Santa Ana Valley Groundwater Basin were evaluated to identify trends and factors that may be affecting trends. One hundred, thirty-one public-supply wells were selected for analysis based on the availability of data spanning at least 11 years between the late 1980s and the 2000s. Forty-one of the 131 wells (31%) had a significant (p < 0.10) increase in nitrate and 14 wells (11%) had a significant decrease in nitrate. For TDS, 46 wells (35%) had a significant increase and 8 wells (6%) had a significant decrease. Slopes for the observed significant trends ranged from − 0.44 to 0.91 mg/L/yr for nitrate (as N) and − 8 to 13 mg/L/yr for TDS. Increasing nitrate trends were associated with greater well depth, higher percentage of agricultural land use, and being closer to the distal end of the flow system. Decreasing nitrate trends were associated with the occurrence of volatile organic compounds (VOCs); VOC occurrence decreases with increasing depth. The relations of nitrate trends to depth, lateral position, and VOCs imply that increasing nitrate concentrations are associated with nitrate loading from historical agricultural land use and that more recent urban land use is generally associated with lower nitrate concentrations and greater VOC occurrence. Increasing TDS trends were associated with relatively greater current nitrate concentrations and relatively greater amounts of urban land. Decreasing TDS trends were associated with relatively greater amounts of natural land use. Trends in TDS concentrations were not related to depth, lateral position, or VOC occurrence, reflecting more complex factors affecting TDS than nitrate in the study area.

  7. Efeitos da adição de inoculantes microbianos sobre a composição bromatológica e perfil fermentativo da silagem de sorgo produzida em silos experimentais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigues Paulo Henrique Mazza

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados os efeitos de três inoculantes microbianos, na silagem de sorgo (Agroceres 2005, em 16 silos experimentais, confeccionados a partir de baldes plásticos portando válvulas. O sorgo, cortado aos 97 dias de crescimento (35,9% de MS, foi homogeneizado e submetido a quatro tratamentos, com quatro repetições: controle, Sil-All (Streptococcus faecium, Pediococcus acidilactici, Lactobacillus plantarum, amilase, hemicelulase e celulase, Silobac (L. plantarum, S. faecium e Lactobacillus sp e Pioneer 1174 (S. faecium e L. plantarum. Os silos foram abertos após 120 dias para análise da composição bromatológica e perfil fermentativo. Os três inoculantes diminuíram o teor de MS e aumentaram a concentração de etanol e as perdas de MS, em relação ao grupo controle. O Sil-All aumentou o teor de FDN, em relação ao grupo controle, e diminuiu a concentração de amido, em relação ao Silobac, enquanto que o Pioneer 1174 diminuiu a estabilidade aeróbia, em relação ao grupo controle. Não foram observados efeitos sobre os teores de PB, NIDA, carboidratos solúveis, FDA, lignina, hemicelulose, celulose, a digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca, o poder tampão e as concentrações dos ácidos acético, propiônico, butírico e lático, bem como sobre o pH ou sobre as concentrações de nitrogênio amoniacal.

  8. Efeitos da Adição de Inoculantes Microbianos sobre a Composição Bromatológica e sobre a Fermentação da Silagem de Girassol Produzida em Silos Experimentais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigues Paulo Henrique Mazza

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados os efeitos de três inoculantes microbiológicos na ensilagem do girassol em 16 silos de laboratório confeccionados a partir de baldes plásticos portando válvulas. O girassol, cortado aos 123 dias de crescimento (20,0% de MS e 10,0% de PB, foi homogeneizado e submetido a quatro tratamentos com quatro repetições: controle, Sil-All (S. faecium, P. acidilactici, L. plantarum, amilase, hemicelulase e celulase, Silobac (L. plantarum, S. faecium e Lactobacillus sp. e Pioneer 1174 (S. faecium e L. plantarum. Os silos foram abertos após 125 dias para análise da composição bromatológica e fermentação. O Pioneer aumentou a concentração de carboidratos solúveis, a concentração de etanol e o poder tampão, diminuiu a concentração de nitrogênio amoniacal, a concentração de ácido acético e o pH, em relação ao grupo controle. Este produto também aumentou a concentração de amido em relação ao grupo controle, enquanto o Sil-All diminuiu. Não foram observados efeitos dos inoculantes sobre a MS, PB, NIDA, FDN, FDA, lignina, digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca, perdas de matéria seca, estabilidade aeróbia ou sobre as concentrações dos ácidos propiônico, butírico e lático.

  9. 华南地区浅圆仓储藏进口大豆方法的初探%Study of Storage Conditions for Imported Soybeans in Squat Silos in South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李林杰; 麦静珠

    2012-01-01

    华南地区高温高湿的储粮生态气候特热点,对粮食储备非常不利.近年随着国家储备战略的需要,华南地区的大豆储备规模激增,如何实现大豆的安全储藏,是仓储企业的当务之急.自2008年2月第一批进口储备大豆进库开始,新沙粮库围绕大豆安全储藏已经开展了大量生产性试验,通过多角度分析大豆入库的质量状况、储存品质状况、仓房条件,对比常规储藏、高浓度熏蒸储藏、控温储藏三种大豆储藏方式,初步总结出一套比较适合华南地区浅圆仓安全储藏大豆的方法和思路.%The reserve capacity became increasing with the strategic needs in national grain reserves. However, the eco-climate conditions for grain reserve in South China, such as high temperature and humidity, were unfavorable for grain reserves. For the safe storage of soybean, the initial quality, storage characteristics in squat silos and storage conditions for soybean samples imported from Feb, 2008, were analyzed The effects of three methods (traditional storage, high-concentration phosphine fumigation and temperature-control storage) on soybean reserve were discussed in order to develop a new method for the safe storage of imported soybean in squat silos in South China.

  10. 黄骅港储煤筒仓群超大钢结构高空整体安装技术%Technology for Overhead Integral Installation of Oversized Steel Structures for Coal Silos in Huanghua Port

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵振海; 李祯; 刘鹏; 常绍杰

    2013-01-01

    神华黄骅港三期工程储煤筒仓群仓顶钢结构单个最大重量350 t,钢结构高空整体安装是难点和关键。针对钢结构重量大、吊装高度高、场地条件限制、施工工期、安全等方面,对储煤筒仓群超大钢结构高空安装技术进行方案比选,并对钢结构整体吊装时的受力采用Midas软件进行模拟分析,确定合理的吊点,保证整体吊装的稳定性。文章介绍了筒仓群超大钢结构的吊装工施工方法,其施工技术的成功应用可为类似工程提供参考。%The maximum weight of a steel roof structure of coal storage silos is 350 ton for the third-phase of Shenhua Huanghua Port. Altitude overall installation of the steel structures is difficult and critical. In the light of the large weight of the steel members,high lifting height,limitations on site, tight construction period,and safety, and other aspects of the instal-lation works,different installation technologies were compared and the stress on the steel structure when being integrally lifted was modeled and analyzed with MIDAS to determine the rational lifting points to ensure the overall stability of the steel struc-ture when being integrally lifted and installed. The paper introduces the technology and methods for lifting and installation of oversized steel structures for grouped storage silos,the successful application of which may provide a reference for similar pro-jects.

  11. Explotación de 100 vacas para la producción de leche, en régimen de estabulación libre con cubículos, en Villamuriel de Cerrato (Palencia)

    OpenAIRE

    Antón Jiménez, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    Explotación para 100 vacas de leche y 40 novillas en Villamuriel de Cerrato, con la construcción de una nave ganadera, con cubículos, lecheria, sala de ordeño y espera y oficina , fosas de purines 3 silos tipo bunker , almacén de materías primas y hénil

  12. 基于模糊控制的立筒仓清理机器人转动调节研究*%Fuzzy control-based adjuster design on rotational motion for silo cleaning robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    For the control of silo cleaning robot, such a flexible under actuated system alike, a control algorithm based on fuzzy logic was proposed in the paper. Firstly, the environments and the mechanism of the cleaning robot were presented;then the mechanical changes of the robot in its rotation and the modeling method were briefly introduced as well. To address the issues of under actuated features and variable structure, fuzzy algorithm was adopted, and the modeling process was depicted in detail. Finally, the computer simulations and experiments with the Matlab/Simulink and MSC.ADAMS verified the efficiency of the proposed method on the robot mechanism and its controller.%  针对立筒仓清理机器人这一典型的柔性欠驱动机械系统的控制问题,提出了一种基于模糊原理的控制算法。本文首先给出了机器人工作环境和基本结构,简要介绍了机器人转动过程中结构的变化和相应的建模方法。针对机器人柔性欠驱动的特点和变结构运动问题,采用了基于模糊算法的控制器,并详细的讨论了算法的构建过程。最后通过Matlab/Simulink与MSC.ADAMS软件对建模与控制过程进行了仿真与分析,说明了系统建模与控制算法的有效性。

  13. Efeitos da adição de inoculantes microbianos sobre a composição bromatológica e perfil fermentativo da silagem de sorgo produzida em silos experimentais Effects of microbial inoculants on chemical composition and fermentation characteristics of sorghum silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique Mazza Rodrigues

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados os efeitos de três inoculantes microbianos, na silagem de sorgo (Agroceres 2005, em 16 silos experimentais, confeccionados a partir de baldes plásticos portando válvulas. O sorgo, cortado aos 97 dias de crescimento (35,9% de MS, foi homogeneizado e submetido a quatro tratamentos, com quatro repetições: controle, Sil-All (Streptococcus faecium, Pediococcus acidilactici, Lactobacillus plantarum, amilase, hemicelulase e celulase, Silobac (L. plantarum, S. faecium e Lactobacillus sp e Pioneer 1174 (S. faecium e L. plantarum. Os silos foram abertos após 120 dias para análise da composição bromatológica e perfil fermentativo. Os três inoculantes diminuíram o teor de MS e aumentaram a concentração de etanol e as perdas de MS, em relação ao grupo controle. O Sil-All aumentou o teor de FDN, em relação ao grupo controle, e diminuiu a concentração de amido, em relação ao Silobac, enquanto que o Pioneer 1174 diminuiu a estabilidade aeróbia, em relação ao grupo controle. Não foram observados efeitos sobre os teores de PB, NIDA, carboidratos solúveis, FDA, lignina, hemicelulose, celulose, a digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca, o poder tampão e as concentrações dos ácidos acético, propiônico, butírico e lático, bem como sobre o pH ou sobre as concentrações de nitrogênio amoniacal.Sorghum Agroceres 2005 (35.9% DM was ensiled in 16 plastic experimental silos, forming four treatments: control, Sil-All (Streptococcus faecium, Pediococcus acidilactici, Lactobacillus plantarum, amylase, hemicellulase, and cellulase, Silobac (L. plantarum, S. faecium, and Lactobacillus sp, and Pioneer 1174 (S. faecium and L. plantarum. Silos were opened 120 days after ensiling and silage was sampled to proceed chemical analyses. Sil-All, Silobac and Pioneer decreased dry matter content and increased ethylic alcohol concentration and DM losses compared to control. Sil-All increased NDF content compared to control and

  14. Análisis de cálculo de las cargas térmicas en silos metálicos mediante el Eurocódigo 1, los métodos clásicos y el método de los elementos finitos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguado, Pedro J.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Thermal loads cause important increases in the pressures exerted by granular material stored in silos. The Eurocode 1, part 4, establishes their importance, but it does not propose any calculation method that allows their quantification. In this work the authors try to overcome this difficulty analyzing and comparing different classic methods of calculation of thermal loads and models developed by the authors using the Finite Element Method.Las cargas térmicas provocan importantes aumentos en las presiones que ejerce el material granular almacenado en los silos; el Eurocódigo 1 parte 4, establece su importancia, pero no propone ningún método de cálculo que permita su cuantificación. En este trabajo se van a analizar y comparar diversos métodos clásicos de cálculo de cargas térmicas y modelos desarrollados por los autores usando el Método de los Elementos Finitos.

  15. Evaluation of Fume against Stored Grain Insect Pests in Empty Silo%4种烟剂对空仓储粮害虫成虫的药效试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张涛; 张洪清; 曹阳; 李燕羽; 赵会义; 高鹤; 张金贵

    2012-01-01

    Since the insecticides that used in empty silo have many problems, such as poor insecticidal effect, application of operational problems, and harm to operators, four fume of insecticides, Propoxur, Trichlorfon, Delta-methrin and Beta cypermethrin were applied on six major species of stored grain pests which were Rhizopertha domini-ca( Fabricius) ,Sitophilus oryzae(Linne) ,Tribolium castaneum( Herbest) , Cryptolestes ferrugineus( Stephens) ,Oryza-ephilus surinamensis ( Linn6), and liposcelis bostrychophia ( Badonnel). The results showed that the best fume was 2. 5% deltamethrin,and kill all of six major species of stored grain pests adult. The fume of 2% beta cypermethrin was take second place,the mortality rate of adult up to 99. 3%. The fume of 20% propoxur control effect was lower than fume of 2.5% deltamethrin and 2% beta cypermethrin, and the mortality rate of Red flour bettles adults up to 85% . The poor fume was 30% trichlorfon, the mortality rate of Lesser grain borer and rusty grain beetle above 85% .%针对目前用于防治储粮害虫的空仓杀虫剂杀虫效果差,施用操作麻烦,杀虫剂对操作人员身体危害大等问题,在空仓环境内,进行了残杀威、敌百虫、溴氰菊酯及高效氯氰菊酯4种烟剂对谷蠹、米象、赤拟谷盗、锈赤扁谷盗、锯谷盗和嗜卷书虱等6种储粮害虫成虫的防治效果测试.结果表明,2.5%溴氰菊酯烟刺杀虫效果最好,100%杀死试虫;2%高效氯氰菊酯烟剂杀虫效果次之,试虫死亡率在99.3%以上;20%残杀威的触杀效果较溴氰菊酯、高效氯氰菊酯差一些,赤拟谷盗试虫死亡率85%以上;30%敌百虫烟剂的触杀作用较差,谷蠹和锈赤扁谷盗试虫的死亡率在85%以上.

  16. Crushing data silos with ownCloud

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    More and more people store their personal files and documents in cloud services like Dropbox, Google Drive, Skydrive or iCloud. The reason is that they provide convenient features to sync your files between devices and share them with others. We are heading full speed into a future where a huge piece of the personal information of the world is stored in very few centralized services. Questions emerge what the impact on user privacy, surveillance, lawfulness of content and storage cost will be in in the long run. I don't think that a world where most of the personal data of the world is stored on servers of a hand full companies is a good one. This talk will discuss the problems of a future with centralized cloud file sync and share services and will present ownCloud as a possible solution. ownCloud is a free software project that offers a decentralized alternative to proprietary cloud services where everybody can run an own cloud service comparable with Dropbox but on own hardware and with full ...

  17. Breaking the Silos: The art Documentation Suite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutschke, Robert K.

    2015-12-01

    The art event-processing framework is used by almost all new experiments at Fermilab, and by several outside of Fermilab. All use art as an external product in the same sense that the compiler, ROOT, Geant4, CLHEP and boost are external products. The art team has embarked on a campaign to document art and develop training materials for new users. Many new users of art have little or no knowledge of C++, software engineering, build systems or the many external packages used by art or their experiments, such as ROOT, CLHEP, HEPPDT, and boost. To effectively teach art requires that the training materials include appropriate introductions to these topics as they are encountered. Experience has shown that simply referring readers to the existing native documentation does not work; too often a simple idea that they need to understand is described in a context that presumes prerequisites that are unimportant for a beginning user of art. There is the additional complication that the training materials must be presented in a way that does not presume knowledge of any of the experiments using art. Finally, new users of art arrive at random times throughout the year and the training materials must allow them to start to learn art at any time. This presentation will explain the strategies adopted by the art team to develop a documentation suite that complies with these boundary conditions. It will also show the present status of the documentation suite, including feedback the art team has received from pilot users.

  18. Transcending Silos, Developing Synergies: Libraries and Archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Gillian

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Very little research crosses the institutional boundaries of libraries and archives, and theres appears to be little predisposition to look for areas of common interest. However, practitioners in these settings have much to learn from each other. Purpose: This paper argues that practitioners' understanding of information management…

  19. Storage Tank or Silo Locations - USACE IENC

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — These inland electronic Navigational charts (IENCs) were developed from available data used in maintenance of Navigation channels. Users of these IENCs should be...

  20. Storage Tank or Silo Areas - USACE IENC

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — These inland electronic Navigational charts (IENCs) were developed from available data used in maintenance of Navigation channels. Users of these IENCs should be...

  1. Inherent Controls on Ready Mix Cement Silos

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  2. Silos of Academe Thwart Diversity on Campuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Juan E.

    2008-01-01

    Although the author is a computer scientist, he has been involved with issues of diversity for many years. He developed an online gamelike environment to teach inner-city kids algebra, using culturally relevant learning technologies, and he has applied data-mining techniques to help universities admit diverse classes without relying on just one…

  3. Clogging Tranistion in a Tilted Silo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Charles; Durian, Douglas

    2010-03-01

    Granular media flow freely from large horizontal holes at the bottom of a container. However, if the hole is too small, or tilted too far from horizontal, a clog will eventually form at the exit and halt the flow. The number of beads which exit before a clog forms follows an exponential distribution. The average of this distribution increases with increasing hole size and with decreasing angle from horizontal, diverging above a critical hole size. We measure these hole sizes at different angles. The critical hole size as a function of angle constitutes the system's phase transition on a clogging phase diagram. In comparison, the hole sizes where the Beverloo equation predicts the flux to vanish are less than half these critical hole sizes.

  4. Avaliação da composição química de milho seco e armazenado em silo tipo alambrado com ar natural forçado Evaluation of chemical composition of corn dried and stored with forced natural air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Gutkoski

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho objetivou estudar o efeito da umidade de colheita e do tempo de armazenamento em grãos de milho secos e armazenados em silos com ar natural forçado. Grãos de milho colhidos com 17,8; 18,9 e 20,5% de água foram acondicionados em silos tipo alambrado com fundo falso perfurado e com ventiladores ligados ininterruptamente até a secagem. Amostras de milho foram coletadas nos tempos zero, 4, 8, 22 e 112 dias, em seis alturas de camada de cada silo (10, 60, 110, 160, 210 e 260 cm. A composição química foi determinada pelo uso de Espectrofotômetro do Infravermelho Proximal (NIR e os resultados expressos em porcentagem e em base seca. Os dados foram analisados estatisticamente (Anova e nas interações significativas, elaborados os gráficos de regressão. Nas determinações de proteínas, lipídios, matéria seca e fibra em detergente neutro as interações foram significativas ao nível de 5% de probabilidade de erro, enquanto que em cinzas, umidade e carboidratos não foram verificadas diferenças significativas. A aeração natural forçada é capaz de reduzir a umidade do milho para 13%, sendo tecnicamente viável em propriedades familiares.The aim of this work was to study the effects of moisture at harvest and time of storage upon grains of corn dried and stored in bins with forced natural air. Grains of corn harvested with 17.8; 18.9, and 20.5% of water were stored in drying bins with false floor with fans working full-time until drying. Samples of corn were collected at zero, 4, 8, 22, and 112 days from six different heights in each bin (10, 60, 110, 160, 210 and 260 cm. The chemical composition was determined through Near-Infrared Spectrophotometer (NIR and the results were expressed in percentage at dry basis. The data were statistically analyzed (Anova and for the significant interactions graphics of regression were provided. In the process of determination of protein, fat, dry matter, and neutral detergent fiber the

  5. 烟草柜式喂料机出柜自动调速系统的设计%Design of Automatic Discharge Speed Adjusting System for Silo Type Tobacco Feeder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张梓泳

    2014-01-01

    To reduce labor intensity and avoid tobacco jam,tobacco flow interruption and frequent start/stop operation in manual operation of the discharge from the silo type tobacco feeder,an automatic discharge speed adjusting system was designed with industrial Ethernet and distributed programmable control technology. The system was mainly composed of a programmable logic controller, frequency converters, motors and photoelectric switches. By monitoring the status of photoelectric switches installed on the high,middle and low levels of metering tube,the running frequencies of bottom belt and elevating belt were adjusted. The results showed that the automatic system reduced manual adjusting from 26 to 3 times/batch,tobacco jam,tobacco flow interruption and start/stop of equipment decreased from 3.4 to 0.2,from 2 to 0.2,and from 182 to 36 times/batch,respectively. It ensured the consistent tobacco flow supplying to the downstream equipment.%为解决烟草柜式喂料机出柜控制过程中存在的操作人员劳动强度大、堵料、断料及设备启停频繁等问题,利用工业以太网和分布式可编程控制技术设计了烟草柜式喂料机出柜自动调速系统。系统主要由可编程控制器、变频器、电机和对射式光电开关等组成,信号通过对喂料机底带电机和提升带电机运行频率构建控制模型,循环检测限量管高、中、低料位光电开关的遮挡状态,并根据光电开关不同状态组合,分别对底带电机和提升带电机的运行频率进行调整。结果表明:系统实现了物料出柜的快速自动调速,人工调节频次由26次/批次减少为3次/批次,堵料情况由3.4次/批次减少为0.2次/批次,断料情况由2次/批次减少为0.2次/批次,设备启停次数由182次/批次降低为36次/批次。改进后系统为后序加工设备提供了稳定的物料流量,保证了卷烟产品的工艺品质。

  6. ПРИВАТНЕ РІШЕННЯ ОПТИМІЗАЦІЇ ГЕОМЕТРИЧНОЇ ФОРМИ БУНКЕРІВ І СИЛОСІВ

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    In the paper analytical solutions for optimization of external geometrical shape according to criteria of massminimum of bunker and silo capacities for granular materials are presented. The special case of two-parted construction with the vertical upper part was considered. The method of transformation to the problem with one unknown symbol was used. The given solutions are compared with solutions, which were obtained by the author according to the Lagrange method of uncertain multiplies.

  7. Security report on Siloe - the descriptive part. (1963); Rapport de surete de Siloe - partie descriptive (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ageron, P.; Chatoux, J.; Denielou, G.; Jacquemain, M.; Mitault, G.; Robien, E. de; Rossillon, F. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    This report is a full description of the site, the reactor, the building and the experimental facilities. It gives the nuclear, thermodynamic and hydrodynamic characteristics of the core. (authors) [French] Ce rapport decrit completement le site, le reacteur, les batiments et les installations experimentales. Il donne les caracteristiques nucleaires, thermodynamiques et hydrodynamiques du coeur. (auteurs)

  8. Gemini Residence:Fr(o)silo%双子公寓Fr(o)silo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ 在欧洲,大部分旧港口区域都被改造成高质量的居住区.美丽的景观、水岸、毗邻市中心、原始的海岸生活等特点都让这些改造快速获得成功,而其中最吸引人的是综合了现代生活方式的由仓库改建的公寓.

  9. Design and Validation of Modular, Reinforced Concrete Bunkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    modification. 1. Assessment of the effect of entrance geometry on shielding of fragments generated by near - miss hits, and 2. Assessment of the ERDC...bunker’s response to the effects of an array of indirect fire weapons under direct hit and near miss conditions. 5 Round 1 3.1 Entrance...geometry effects on fragment intrusion The first round was located at an angle to the entrance to simulate a near miss contact detonation. The round

  10. 滑模法与逆作法结合在煤仓施工中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐敦典

    2011-01-01

    某矿三联原煤仓,采用滑升模板“顺作法”施工仓壁;利用滑升平台“逆作法”施工仓顶及平台。本文详细介绍了滑升模板、仓顶、煤仓平台的施工工艺。采用滑模法与逆作法相结合的方法施工,为煤仓施工开辟了一种新的途径。可为类似工程施工提供参考。%The silo wall of a triple coal bunker was built by "excavation method" using the sliding template, while the roof and platform of the bunker were built by " topdown construction method" using sliding platform. The construction process of the sliding template, bunker rool, coal bunker platform were infroduced in details in this article. It opened up a new way for construction of coal bunker by combining with excavation method and topdown construction method, which could provide a reference for the construction of similar projects.

  11. Sensor Based Effective Monitoring of Coal Handling System (CHS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuttalakkani.M

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Coal level detection is an important aspect to assess the performance of a coal-fired power plant. Coal has to be transported, via a coal handling system. The fuel in a coal-fired power plant is stored in silos, bunkers or stock piles. Coal is stored in silos in a small plant, Bunkers for handling a day’s operation and Stock piling methods for large plants. So, fuel handling had to done efficiently. To accurately sense the coal height, Real-time feedback is deployed within the bunker or stock pile. The real time range information is then fedback to the control system. Of the different types of ranging sensors, radar based system is used. Also a real-time temperature monitoring system is developed to protect the coal. The range and temperature data from sensors are sent to the main system through GSM modem by means of SMS. The range information is used to start the conveyor belt to draw the coal from coal yard. If the temperature exceeds the limit, the SMS will be sent through the software or it will call the respective person to monitor the process. A fire sensor is also used to extinguish the fire by initiating the water spraying system. A PIC Microcontroller is interfaced all the sensors for effective handling of thermal power plant.

  12. Breaking Down the Siloes: Developing Effective Multidisciplinary HIV Research Teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnus, Manya; Castel, Amanda

    2016-09-01

    As the HIV epidemic passes its 35 years mark, the role of multidisciplinary approaches to HIV research has become increasingly important. Development of diverse, cross-cutting research teams has been found to be key to engaging and retaining participants in population-based studies; it is also a crucial component of designing studies capable of examining the sensitive and nuanced issues that surround HIV related risk and adherence behavior. Expanding our understanding of these issues is central to being able to overcome them and ultimately to the development of best practices for translation of research discovery into improvements in prevention and care. The objectives of this paper are to characterize the importance of multidisciplinary teams in HIV research where they are critical to gaining information that can have a positive impact on the epidemic and to propose specific methods for creating teams to conduct research with optimal public health impact.

  13. Quality of Brazil nuts stored in forced aeration silos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Aquino da Costa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The traditional system of collection and storage of Brazil nut compromises seriously the quality of these almonds as it contributes to the high incidence of contaminants, like fungi of the genus Aspergillus, which can produce aflatoxins. In this study, the objective was to evaluate the influence of the storage period in studied conditions, on the physicochemical characteristics and on the microbiological contamination of Brazil nuts. The experimental was designed as completely randomized, considering as treatments the storage period (0 - control, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 days with four replicates of 3 kg of Brazil nuts each. The samples were submitted to physicochemical and microbiological analysis. It was observed that almonds submitted to the storage had their moisture content reduced by 78.2% at 150 days of storage, however, this reduction was not fast enough to avoid surface contamination by filamentous and potentially aflatoxins producing fungi. The critical period of contamination occurred on the first 30 days of storage when there was an increase of the studied fungi, as well as B1 and total aflatoxin. The studied storage conditions were four times more effective in reducing the product moisture content than the traditional methods, however, pre-drying is necessary to avoid contamination of the product.

  14. Silos to Symphonies? Hopes and Challenges Implementing Multicultural Programme Infusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Laura B.; Milman, Natalie B.

    2013-01-01

    The need to infuse multicultural education (ME) across teacher preparation programmes is well documented by research, yet institutions are at very different stages in this endeavour. While most programmes demonstrate a segregated approach to ME, confining diversity to specialty courses, ME programme infusion places diversity, equity and social…

  15. Breaking Down the Silos: An Interprofessional Approach to Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glossenger, Audrey; Bennett, Doris; Ferren, Melora; Sageser, Paul E

    2016-01-01

    An interprofessional practice gap was identified in relation to discharge care provided to patients with tracheostomies or laryngectomies. Using a case study method, this article presents an approach that administrators of educational programs can take to develop an instructive strategy to address the practice gap and improve patient care.

  16. Leading across Boundaries and Silos in a Single Bound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Higher education is built on a long history of tradition, which, in many ways, has been impervious to outside pressures and influences. Despite having served as change agents for society, colleges and universities have resisted change for decades. Amid unprecedented pressure and scrutiny from outside stakeholders and dwindling state and federal…

  17. From silos to systems: an integrated approach to neuroscience innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuss, Donald T

    2015-05-01

    The Ontario Brain Institute manages a network of partnerships among researchers, clinicians, industry representatives and patients to maximize their collective impact on developing better treatment and care for those living with brain disorders.

  18. The Troubled Student and Campus Violence: Connecting Academic "Silos"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Six months after the carnage at Virginia Tech last year, the author relates that she studied the steps colleges have since taken to try to prevent suicide and homicide on campus. Here, she discusses some of the observations she gathered from her study. She describes that some faculty members are indifferent, oblivious, or even nasty to their…

  19. Motion Control of Siro: The Silo Cleaning Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinan Dandan

    2015-12-01

    A scaled prototype of the robot has been implemented and tested to prove the concept, in order to make certain that the mechanical design suits the main functions of the robotic system, to realize the robot’s design in an industrial version and to test it in a realistic environment.

  20. Influence of physical properties of solid biomass fuels on the design and cost of storage installations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Fernández, Roberto; Pizarro García, Consuelo; Gutiérrez Lavín, Antonio; Bueno de Las Heras, Julio L; Pis, José Juan

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this work consists on determining biomass fuels properties and studying their relation with fixed and variable costs of stores and handling systems. To do that, dimensions (length and diameter), bulk density, particle density and durability of several brands and batches of wood pellets and briquettes were tested, according to international standards. Obtained results were compared with those in literature. Bulk density tests were applied for several other biomass fuels too, and later used to determinate which ones of all the biomass-fuels tested are economically more profitable for a typical transport/store system made of a screw conveyor and a concrete bunker silo.

  1. Status Survey of Bunkers 738A and 825A at Spangdahlem AB, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-02

    88ABW-2015-4768, 2 Oct 2015 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14 . ABSTRACT The United States Air Force School of Aerospace Medicine, Consultative...USAFSAM/OEC d. Personnel Contacted: (1) Lt Col Scott Steige1wald, Flight Commander, 52 AMDS /SGPB (2) Mr. Craig Refosco, Health Physicist, AFMSA/SG3PB...C’. vf . Duo Date: P\\!·2;s K~Z7 oz-~ar-aa 3217 L.ucnum 500-1 10!𔃻)2 4 IJhC M!4 T c-99 MU658 30-S&.rC4 29751 !\\1~ 111 S11r11t :tf\\1, • n’ klot

  2. Vergeten linies: Antwerpse bunkers en loopgraven door de lens van Leutnant Zimmermann (1918)

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Onderzoek van de Universiteit Gent in het Koninklijk Legermuseum (KLM) in Brussel bracht in 2007 een reeks van 46 onbekende luchtfoto’s aan het licht. De foto’s dateren van januari 1918 en zijn van Duitse origine. Ze dragen het opschrift Kaiserliche Fortifikation Antwerpen en werden genomen door de tot dan toe onbekende luitenant Zimmermann. Het was direct duidelijk dat de foto’s een schat aan historische informatie bevatten. Het provinciebestuur van Antwerpen liet ze grondig analyseren om er...

  3. Fire Safety Aspects of Polymeric Materials. Volume 10. Mines and Bunkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Corporation, New York. JOHN M. BUTLER, Manager, Organic and Polymer Synthesis, Monsanto Research Corp., Dayton, Ohio. RAYMOND FRIEDMAN, Vice President...1973, Bayer AG, Institut fur Toxikologie, Werk Wup- pertal, Germany. 182 APPENDIX G Most of the mortalities can be related to the combined action

  4. 78 FR 35314 - Availability of Final Environmental Impact Statement; Bunker Hill Groundwater Basin, Riverside...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Federal action will provide funds for a proposed aquifer storage and recovery... reservoir storage tank. The project is intended to improve the reliability of Western's water supply through managed storage, extraction and distribution of local and imported water supplies, using...

  5. CLOSURE REPORT FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT 204: STORAGE BUNKERS, NEVADA TEST SITE, NEVADA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-04-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 330 consists of four Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 6, 22, and 23 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The unit is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996) as CAU 330: Areas 6, 22, and 23 Tanks and Spill Sites. CAU 330 consists of the following CASs: CAS 06-02-04, Underground Storage Tank (UST) and Piping CAS 22-99-06, Fuel Spill CAS 23-01-02, Large Aboveground Storage Tank (AST) Farm CAS 23-25-05, Asphalt Oil Spill/Tar Release

  6. Boeing Michigan Aeronautical Research Center (BOMARC) Missile Shelters and Bunkers Scoping Survey Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    Burley 1990), as was the case of the BOMARC WGP. PuO2 has a high melting point (2240 oC), a high chemical stability , and is highly insoluble in water...Ridge, plutonium in a holdup pond was released when a dike broke. At Rocky Flats, cutting oil contaminated with metallic plutonium was released from...factor of five. It is a moot issue for shelter 204, which was completely dismantled in 2002, and everything but the concrete floors of shelters 202

  7. From Bunker to Building: Results from the 2010 Chief Human Resource Officer Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Patrick M.; Stewart, Mark

    2011-01-01

    In 2009, the researchers, with funding from the Center for Advanced Human Resource Studies (CAHRS), began conducting the annual Chief Human Resource Officers (CHRO) Survey. The 2009 survey was sent to CHROs at the U.S. Fortune 150 companies, as well as to ten other CHROs at CAHRS partner companies. That survey focused on understanding how CHROs…

  8. Efeito do tempo de armazenagem de rações avícolas no dimensionamento de silos Effect of time storage of poultry rations for silos design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José P. Lopes Neto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Dentre os fatores que afetam o fluxo de produtos sólidos, o tempo de armazenagem destaca-se por favorecer a formação de arcos coesivos. Dessa forma, esta pesquisa teve como objetivo determinar as propriedades de duas rações avícolas, classificá-las quanto à escoabilidade em função do tempo de consolidação e analisar seus efeitos em tremonhas metálicas. Para isso, foram utilizados aparelho de cisalhamento direto "Jenike Shear Cell", bancada de consolidação e duas superfícies de parede. Para o índice de fluxo e diâmetro mínimo do orifício de descarga, adotou-se a metodologia de Jenike. Para o ângulo da tremonha cônica, recorreu-se à metodologia de Enstad. Pode-se afirmar que as duas rações possuem fluxo do tipo fácil, sem variação para os tempos de armazenagem estudados. A rugosidade das paredes apenas afetou a inclinação da tremonha, enquanto os resultados de orifício de descarga não foram afetados pela variação das propriedades das rações nas paredes e nos tempos analisados.Among the factors that affect the flow of solid products, the storage time stands out being responsible for promoting the appearance of cohesive arches. Thus, the present research had as objective to determine the properties of two poultry types of ration, classifying them through the flowability depending on the consolidation time and analyzing their effects in metallic hoppers. For this purpose, a direct shear apparatus known as Jenike Shear Cell', a consolidation bench and two wall surfaces were used. For the index flow and minimum diameter of the discharge hole, it was used the Jenike's methodology. For conical hopper angle the Enstad's methodology was adopted. It can be affirmed that the two types of ration presented easy flow, not depending on the storage period. The roughness walls affected only the hopper slope, while the results of the discharge hole were not affected by the variation of the properties of the types of ration on the wall surfaces and elapsed times studied.

  9. Breaking down silos: engaging students to help fix the US health care system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumarasamy MA

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Mathu A Kumarasamy,1 Fred P Sanfilippo1–3 1Emory–Georgia Tech Healthcare Innovation Program, 2Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, School of Medicine, 3Department of Health Policy and Management, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA Problem: The field of health care is becoming a team effort as patient care becomes increasingly complex and multifaceted. Despite the need for multidisciplinary education, there persists a lack of student engagement and collaboration among health care disciplines, which presents a growing concern as students join the workforce. Approach: In October 2013, the Emory–Georgia Tech Healthcare Innovation Program organized a student driven symposium entitled “US Healthcare: What's Broken and How to Fix It: The Student Perspective”. The symposium engaged students from multiple disciplines to work together in addressing problems associated with US health care delivery. The symposium was organized and carried out by a diverse group of student leaders from local institutions who adopted a multidisciplinary approach throughout the planning process. Outcomes: The innovative planning process leading up to the symposium revealed that many of the student-discipline groups lacked an understanding of one another's role in health care, and that students were interested in learning how to work together to leverage each other's profession. The symposium was widely attended and positively received by students and faculty from the Atlanta metropolitan area, and has since helped to promote interdepartmental collaboration and multidisciplinary education across institutions. Next steps: The student symposium will become an annual event and incorporate broader discipline representation, as well as a patient perspective. Proposals for additional institution-wide, multidisciplinary educational offerings are being addressed with the help of faculty and health care providers across the network. Accordingly, the implementation of student-driven symposia to engage students and stimulate institution-wide changes may be a beneficial and cost-effective means for academic health centers looking to facilitate multidisciplinary health care education.Keywords: multidisciplinary health care education, multidisciplinary student engagement, multidisciplinary team-based learning

  10. Energy demand in the mechanized operations in the corn silage in the silo bag system

    OpenAIRE

    André S. Seki; Sérgio H. Benez; Silva,Paulo R. A.; Élcio H. Yano; Mello, Luiz M. M. De [UNESP

    2009-01-01

    Foi avaliado o consumo energético das operações mecanizadas envolvidas na produção de silagem de planta inteira e silagem de "grão úmido" de milho, tendo como referência o processamento seco desse cereal. O ensaio foi conduzido na Fazenda Experimental Lageado, pertencente à Faculdade de Ciências Agronômicas, e nas instalações da Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia - UNESP, localizada no município de Botucatu - SP. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, com parcelas subd...

  11. Final Environmental Impact Statement, Peacekeeper in Minuteman Silos, F.E. Warren AFB, Wyoming. Volume 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    integration of newcomers. An example of such a program was developed by the Nida Training & Development Group in Novato, California. It specializes in...Mrs. Norris Leafdale Carl Van Pelt Don Lease Carol Walker Bill Lyon Chuck Warren Marjorie Mandujano Anneliese Weisz Donald Mal Eugene White Hawk Rusty...Gary Michael Larson, Visual Resources Analyst, URS-Berger N B.L.A., 1977, Landscape Architecture, University of Oregon, Eugene Years of Experience: 4

  12. Monitoring for vertical creep in concrete in two silos at Wivenhoe pumped storage hydro power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, M.W. [Queensland Univ. of Technology, Brisbane (Australia). School of Surveying

    1996-12-31

    The need for structural monitoring is generated by expected or unexpected (newly discovered in the life of the structure) behaviour. Due to the long vertical driveshafts involved at Wivenhoe the phenomenon of `concrete creep` which, if it is occurring, could contribute to shaft misalignment and unscheduled bearing wear or failure, was used as a motivation to establish a vertical monitoring system. The particular system developed for this site is traceable, replaceable, expandable and inexpensive. Measurements are obtained by precise levelling and the use of specially calibrated vertically suspended tapes. The analysis of the vertical loops is performed using constrained variance estimation and `robust` inter-epoch comparison. (orig.)

  13. Small ICBM Area Narrowing Report. Volume 3: Hard Silo in Patterned Array Basing Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    mission. Existing peak electrical power usage is 50 percent below a maximum rated capacity of 12.5 MW. Heating is provided primarily by fuel oil, but the...ACTIVITY NAVY 5 FL JACKSONVILLE FUEL DEPOT NAVY 5 FL JACKSONVILLE NAVAL AIR STATION NAVY 5 FL KEY WEST NAVAL AIR STATION NAVY 4 FL MACDILL’ AIR FORCE BASE...Maximize Main Operating Base Effectiveness OBJECTIVE 2.3.4: Consider Transportation Availabilty LEVEL OF APPLICATION: B - Area Evaluative CRITERION

  14. “One Health” or three? Publication silos among the One Health disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manlove, Kezia; Walker, Josephine G; Craft, Meggan E.; Huyvaert, Kathryn P.; Joseph, Maxwell B.; Miller, Ryan S.; Nol, Pauline; Patyk, Kelly A.; O'Brian, Daniel; Walsh, Daniel P.; Cross, Paul C.

    2016-01-01

    The One Health initiative is a global effort fostering interdisciplinary collaborations to address challenges in human, animal, and environmental health. While One Health has received considerable press, its benefits remain unclear because its effects have not been quantitatively described. We systematically surveyed the published literature and used social network analysis to measure interdisciplinarity in One Health studies constructing dynamic pathogen transmission models. The number of publications fulfilling our search criteria increased by 14.6% per year, which is faster than growth rates for life sciences as a whole and for most biology subdisciplines. Surveyed publications clustered into three communities: one used by ecologists, one used by veterinarians, and a third diverse-authorship community used by population biologists, mathematicians, epidemiologists, and experts in human health. Overlap between these communities increased through time in terms of author number, diversity of co-author affiliations, and diversity of citations. However, communities continue to differ in the systems studied, questions asked, and methods employed. While the infectious disease research community has made significant progress toward integrating its participating disciplines, some segregation—especially along the veterinary/ecological research interface—remains.

  15. Moving from silos to teamwork: integration of interprofessional trainees into a medical home model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Theodore; Dann, Sarah; Wolff, Marissa Lynn; Brienza, Rebecca S

    2014-09-01

    As the United States faces an impending shortage in the primary care workforce, interprofessional teamwork training to improve clinic efficiency and health outcomes is becoming increasingly important. Currently there is limited integration of interprofessional training in educational models for health professionals. The implementation of Patient Aligned Care Teams at the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) has provided an opportunity for interprofessional collaboration among trainee and faculty providers within the VA system. However, integration of interprofessional education is also necessary to train future providers in order to provide effective team-based care. We describe a transportable educational model for health professional collaboration from our experience as a VA Center of Excellence in Primary Care Education, including a complementary novel one-year post-Master's adult nurse practitioner interprofessional clinical fellowship. With growing recognition that interprofessional care can improve efficiency and outcomes, there is an increasing need for programs that train future providers in collaboration and team-based care.

  16. Beyond the Education Silo? Tackling Adolescent Secondary Education in Rural India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Orla; Bhabha, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we examine the factors contributing to gender inequality in secondary schooling in India by critically reviewing the government's secondary education policy. Drawing on the findings of a study in rural Gujarat, we couple this analysis with an examination of the gendered dynamics that restrict girls' ability to fully benefit from the…

  17. Interoperability: the key to breaking down information silos in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, John

    2011-11-01

    In health care, interoperability--the ability of healthcare information systems to work together and share information within and across organizational boundaries--involves: Data exchange, Infrastructure interoperability, User interface interoperability, Process interoperability.

  18. Bridging Silos: Novices Partner with Veteran Teachers on the Path to Board Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilrein, Erin; Wolfe, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    To stem the tide of new professionals leaving teaching, the Oceanside School District in New York created a program that sees teaching as a six-year career ladder beginning with an internship and ending with National Board Certification, with board-certified teachers supporting new interns and residents.

  19. An Experimental Study on Gravity Blending Silo with an Inner Downcomer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A novel gravity blender with an inner downcomer was experimentallystudied in this work. The flow characteristics of solid through thedowncomer with branch pipes and the influence of the number of intakeopenings and their axial position along the downcomer on blendingefficiency were investigated. The results of tracer experiments showthat better blending quality can be obtained if the intake openingsalong the downcomer are designated according to the equal time intervalprinciple. More intake openings are beneficial for blending efficiency,and the solids flow rate through the branch pipes along the downcomercan be predicted by the Beverloo equation.

  20. Clinical research and development of tuberculosis diagnostics: moving from silos to synergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahid, Payam; Kim, Peter S; Evans, Carlton A; Alland, David; Barer, Michael; Diefenbach, Jane; Ellner, Jerrold; Hafner, Richard; Hamilton, Carol Dukes; Iademarco, Michael F; Ireton, Gregory; Kimerling, Michael E; Lienhardt, Christian; MacKenzie, William R; Murray, Megan; Perkins, Mark D; Posey, Jamie E; Roberts, Teri; Sizemore, Christine; Stevens, Wendy S; Via, Laura; Williams, Sharon D; Yew, Wing W; Swindells, Susan

    2012-05-15

    The development, evaluation, and implementation of new and improved diagnostics have been identified as critical needs by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and tuberculosis researchers and clinicians alike. These needs exist in international and domestic settings and in adult and pediatric populations. Experts in tuberculosis and HIV care, researchers, healthcare providers, public health experts, and industry representatives, as well as representatives of pertinent US federal agencies (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Food and Drug Administration, National Institutes of Health, United States Agency for International Development) assembled at a workshop proposed by the Diagnostics Working Group of the Federal Tuberculosis Taskforce to review the state of tuberculosis diagnostics development in adult and pediatric populations.

  1. Breaking down silos: mapping growth of cross-disciplinary collaboration in a translational science initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, Douglas A; Carothers, Bobbi J; Dhand, Amar; Bell, Ryan A; Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Sarli, Cathy C; Evanoff, Bradley A

    2015-04-01

    The importance of transdisciplinary collaboration is growing, though not much is known about how to measure collaboration patterns. The purpose of this paper is to present multiple ways of mapping and evaluating the growth of cross-disciplinary partnerships over time. Social network analysis was used to examine the impact of a Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) on collaboration patterns. Grant submissions from 2007 through 2010 and publications from 2007 through 2011 of Institute of Clinical and Translational Sciences (ICTS) members were examined. A Cohort Model examining the first-year ICTS members demonstrated an overall increase in collaborations on grants and publications, as well as an increase in cross-discipline collaboration as compared to within-discipline. A Growth Model that included additional members over time demonstrated the same pattern for grant submissions, but a decrease in cross-discipline collaboration as compared to within-discipline collaboration for publications. ICTS members generally became more cross-disciplinary in their collaborations during the CTSA. The exception of publications for the Growth Model may be due to the time lag between funding and publication, as well as pressure for younger scientists to publish in their own fields. Network analysis serves as a valuable tool for evaluating changes in scientific collaboration.

  2. "One Health" or Three? Publication Silos Among the One Health Disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manlove, Kezia R; Walker, Josephine G; Craft, Meggan E; Huyvaert, Kathryn P; Joseph, Maxwell B; Miller, Ryan S; Nol, Pauline; Patyk, Kelly A; O'Brien, Daniel; Walsh, Daniel P; Cross, Paul C

    2016-04-01

    The One Health initiative is a global effort fostering interdisciplinary collaborations to address challenges in human, animal, and environmental health. While One Health has received considerable press, its benefits remain unclear because its effects have not been quantitatively described. We systematically surveyed the published literature and used social network analysis to measure interdisciplinarity in One Health studies constructing dynamic pathogen transmission models. The number of publications fulfilling our search criteria increased by 14.6% per year, which is faster than growth rates for life sciences as a whole and for most biology subdisciplines. Surveyed publications clustered into three communities: one used by ecologists, one used by veterinarians, and a third diverse-authorship community used by population biologists, mathematicians, epidemiologists, and experts in human health. Overlap between these communities increased through time in terms of author number, diversity of co-author affiliations, and diversity of citations. However, communities continue to differ in the systems studied, questions asked, and methods employed. While the infectious disease research community has made significant progress toward integrating its participating disciplines, some segregation--especially along the veterinary/ecological research interface--remains.

  3. Seeing beyond Silos: How State Education Agencies Spend Federal Education Dollars and Why

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Historically, state departments of education, or SEAs, have--for the most part--been compliance-focused organizations that managed federal education policy. Over the past several decades, these agencies have been education policy implementation entities. Today, while their compliance responsibilities have remained, they are taking on more…

  4. Chelation therapy and cardiovascular disease: connecting scientific silos to benefit cardiac patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peguero, Julio G; Arenas, Ivan; Lamas, Gervasio A

    2014-08-01

    Medical practitioners have treated atherosclerotic disease with chelation therapy for over 50 years. Lack of strong of evidence led conventional practitioners to abandon its use in the 1960s and 1970s. This relegated chelation therapy to complementary and alternative medicine practitioners, who reported good anecdotal results. Concurrently, the epidemiologic evidence linking xenobiotic metals with cardiovascular disease and mortality gradually accumulated, suggesting a plausible role for chelation therapy. On the basis of the continued use of chelation therapy without an evidence base, the National Institutes of Health released a Request for Applications for a definitive trial of chelation therapy. The Trial to Assess Chelation Therapy (TACT) was formulated as a 2 × 2 factorial randomized controlled trial of intravenous EDTA-based chelation vs. placebo and high-dose oral multivitamins and multiminerals vs. oral placebo. The composite primary endpoint was death, reinfarction, stroke, coronary revascularization, or hospitalization for angina. A total of 1708 post-MI patients who were 50 years or older with a creatinine of 2.0 or less were enrolled and received 55,222 infusions of disodium EDTA or placebo with a median follow-up of 55 months. Patients were on evidence-based post-MI medications including statins. EDTA proved to be safe. EDTA chelation therapy reduced cardiovascular events by 18%, with a 5-year number needed to treat (NNT) of 18. Prespecified subgroup analysis revealed a robust benefit in patients with diabetes mellitus with a 41% reduction in the primary endpoint (5-year NNT = 6.5), and a 43% 5-year relative risk reduction in all-cause mortality (5-year NNT = 12). The magnitude of benefit is such that it suggests urgency in replication and implementation, which could, due to the excellent safety record, occur simultaneously.

  5. Engaging with nature to promote health: bridging research silos to examine the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen-Ketchum, Patricia A; Halpenny, Elizabeth A

    2011-03-01

    While there is considerable research on environmental contamination and degradation, there is equally credible evidence on the healthful qualities of the environment. Being in and caring for nature can be health promoting for individuals, families, communities, ecosystems and the planet. In this paper, we use a conceptual model for nature-based health promotion and a socio-ecological model of health promotion to guide the scope, organization and critique of relevant literature on nature-based health promotion in several fields and generate recommendations for practice, policy and research. We conclude that participatory community-based research is needed to build local knowledge and create systemic change in practice and policy to support healthy living for people and the planet.

  6. Limited Out-of-State Data Needed to Produce Robust Indicators. Breaking down State Silos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data Quality Campaign, 2012

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing demand on the education sector to produce high-quality, actionable information to inform decisions aimed at improving student achievement. Unfortunately, every state currently lacks the out-of-state data necessary to follow individuals systemically and efficiently across state lines. The absence of appropriate out-of-state data…

  7. Mass flow rate of granular material in silos with lateral exit holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Abraham; Serrano, Armando; Sanchez, Florencio

    2014-11-01

    In this work we have analyzed experimentally the mass flow rate, m', of the lateral outflow of cohesionless granular material through circular orifices of diameter D and rectangular and triangular slots of hydraulic diameter DH made in vertical walls of bins. Experiments were made in order to determine also the influence of the wall thickness of the bin, w. Geometrical and physical arguments, are given to get a general correlation for m' embracing both quantities, D (DH) and w. The angle of repose is also an important factor characterizing these flows.

  8. Silo-stored pistachios at varying humidity levels produce distinct volatile biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aflatoxin contamination in California tree nuts results in millions of dollars of lost product annually. The current method for detection of aflatoxin is destructive, expensive and time-intensive. Previous studies have demonstrated that volatile profiles of fungal-contaminated tissues are different ...

  9. Anomalous Increase of Apparent Mass in a Silo due to Percolation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ram Chand; Abdul Qadir; SHI Qing-Fan; ZHENG Ning; SUN Gang

    2011-01-01

    The apparent mass at the bottom of a granular pile confined in a vertical tube decreases for denser granular packing. We report that the denser granular packing comprising two different diameters of granules augments the apparent mass instead. This anomalous behavior occurs when small granules are stacked on the large ones. In the case of anomalous increase, a percolation effect is found and correlated with the augment of apparent mass at the bottom of the granular column. Finally, the results are qualitatively explained by using the Janssen model.%@@ The apparent mass at the bottom of a granular pile confined in a vertical tube decreases for denser granular packing.We report that the denser granular packing comprising two different diameters of granules augments the apparent mass instead.This anomalous behavior occurs when small granules are stacked on the large ones.In the case of anomalous increase,a percolation effect is found and correlated with the augment of apparent mass at the bottom of the granular column.Finally,the results are qualitatively explained by using the Janssen model.

  10. An Experimental Study on Gravity Blending Silo with an Inner Downcomer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易江林; 景山; 陈银飞; 郭艳; 金涌

    2000-01-01

    A novel gravity blender with an inner downcomer was experimentally studied in this work. The flow characteristics of solid through the downcomer with branch pipes and the influence of the number of intake openings and their axial position along the downcomer on blending efficiency were investigated. The results of tracer experi-ments show that better blending quality can be obtained if the intake openings along the downcomer are designated according to the equal time interval principle. More intake openings are beneficial for blending efficiency, and the solids flow rate through the branch pipes along the downcomer can be predicted by the Beverloo equation.

  11. Lactic acid bacteria active during the fermentation of wheat silage in small scale silos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, N.J.; Moon, L.C.; Ely, L.O.; Parker, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    Wheat was ensiled and periodically analyzed for lactic acid bacteria present. Initially Lactobacillus plantarum, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactobacillus cellobiosus and Streptococcus lactis predominated. After two to four days enterococci including S. faecium and S. bovis were present in high populations as well as Lactobacillus plantarum. It was concluded that mixed populations of enterococci and L. plantarum are active in the successful fermentation of wheat silage. (Refs. 5).

  12. Lactic acid bacteria active during the fermentation of wheat silage in small scale silos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, N.J.; Parker, J.A.; Moon, L.C.; Ely, L.O.

    1981-01-01

    Wheat was ensiled and periodically analyzed for lactic acid bacteria present. Initially Lactobacillus plantarum, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactobacillus cellobiosus and Streptococcus lactis predominated. After two to four days enterococci including S. faecium and S. bovis were present in high populations as well as Lactobacillus plantarum. It was concluded that mixed populations of enterococci and L. plantarum are active in the successful fermentation of wheat silage.

  13. Working in Separate Silos? What Citation Patterns Reveal about Higher Education Research Internationally

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tight, Malcolm

    2014-01-01

    Higher education research is a growing, inter-disciplinary and increasingly international field of study. This article examines the citation patterns of articles published in six leading higher education journals--three published in the United States and three published elsewhere in the world--for what they reveal about the development of this…

  14. Measurements of thermal neutron fluence in the bunker of a cyclotron for PET isotope production; Medidas de fluencia de neutrones termicos en el bunker de un ciclotron de produccion de isotopos para PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez Villafane, R.; Sansoloni florit, F.; Lagares gonzalez, J. L.; Llop Roig, J.; Guerrero Araque, J. E.; Muniz Gutierrez, J. L.; Perez Morales, J. M.

    2011-07-01

    To measure the neutron spectrum has been used spectrometry system based on Bonner spheres with Au flakes as thermal neutron detector at its center while the results are still pending and will be analyzing another job.

  15. Estimated doses related to {sup 222}Rn concentration in bunker for radiotherapy and storage of radioisotopes; Dosis estimada por concentraciones de {sup 222}Rn en bunker de radioterapia y de almacenamiento de isotopos radiactivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mestre, Freddy; Carrizales-Silva, Lila, E-mail: freddymest@gmail.com, E-mail: lcarriza@ivic.gob.ve [Instituto Venezolano de lnvestigaciones Cientificas, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Sajo-Bohus, Laszlo, E-mail: sajobohus@gmail.com [Universidad Simon Bolivar, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of). Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear; Diaz, Cruz, E-mail: cruzediaZ@gmail.com [Universidad Pedagogica Experimental Libertador, Barquisimeto (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of). Instituto Pedagogico

    2013-07-01

    It was done a survey in radiotherapy services underground hospitals and clinics of Venezuela and Paraguay in order to estimate the concentrations of radon and its possible consequences on worker occupational exposure. Passive dosimeters were used to assess nuclear traces (NTD type CR-39 Registered-Sign ). The concentration of {sup 222}Rn is determined based on the density of traces using the calibration coefficient of 1 tr/cm{sup 2} equivalent to 0,434 Bqm{sup -3} per month of exposure. Assuming the most likely environmental conditions and the dose conversion factor equal to 9.0 x 10{sup -6} mSv h {sup -1} by Bqm{sup -3}, it was determined the average values and estimated the possible risks to health that are on average 3.0 mSva{sup -1} and 150 micro risk cancer.

  16. 76 FR 58149 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Ships Bunkers Easy Acquisition (SEA) Card® and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-20

    ... Supplement to allow the use of U.S. Government fuel cards in lieu of a Purchase Order-Invoice-Voucher for... of the SF 44, Purchase Order-Invoice-Voucher. Additionally, this section is revised to include... permit the use of U.S. Government fuel cards in lieu of an SF 44, Purchase Order-Invoice- Voucher,...

  17. 76 FR 21849 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Ships Bunkers Easy Acquisition (SEA) Card® and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-19

    ... (DFARS) to allow the use of U.S. Government fuel cards in lieu of a Purchase Order-Invoice-Voucher for... Acquisition (SEA) ] Card in lieu of the SF 44, Purchase Order-Invoice-Voucher, up to the simplified... U.S. Government fuel cards in lieu of a Purchase Order-Invoice-Voucher for fuel, oil, and...

  18. Adsorption Isotherms: North Caroline Apatite Induced Precipitation of Lead, Zinc, Manganese, and Cadmium from the Bunker Hill 4000 Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-05-01

    Using the MINTEQ -A2 geochemical model, thermodynamic predictions for ^f0™«0™0? pyromorphytes (Pb5(POJ3 (OH, Cl)), hopeite (Zn3(POJ2 4H20...VERIFICATION OF PRECIPITATED METALS USING MINTEQ -A2 13 2.3.1 Experimental 2.3.2 Results ... 19 3.0 CONCLUSIONS 20 4.0...precipitated Pb-P04 complexes will be illustrated as sharp downward deviations from linearity of the adsorption isotherms, as predicted by MINTEQ -A2

  19. A Semiotic Analysis of Visual Elements Particular to the Medium of Comics in Alan Ford by Max Bunker and Magnus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrvoje Gržina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a semiotic analysis of visual elements characteristic for the medium of comic books applied to the first seventy-five issues of the Croatian edition of Alan Ford. After a description of the cultural and historical framework, it analyzes individual signs in comics and different elements specific for expression in comic books in Western culture with the aim of exploring which of these signs are present in Alan Ford, and to what extent. The results show that the analyzed comic book is deeply rooted in the visual and literary Western tradition, and that it contains virtually all the characteristic elements of representation in comic books. However, the paper also concludes that certain iconic elements of the vocabulary of comics – i.e. onomatopoeic neologisms – are to a certain extent specific and typical only for Alan Ford.

  20. International marine and aviation bunker fuel: trends, ranking of countries and comparison with national CO2 emission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olivier JGJ; Peters JAHW; LAE

    1999-01-01

    In dit rapport worden het brandstofgebruik en de CO2-emissies van internationaal transport samengevat en geanalyseerd. Deze analyse is gebaseerd op de best-beschikbare gegevens uit internationale energiestatistieken, die verzameld zijn door het International Energy Agency (IEA). Met deze gegeven

  1. El presente como desafío del investigador: Hábitats, trincheras y bunkers ante las emergencias sociales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heber Delgado Ruiz

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo abre una discusión en torno a las disciplinas y sus capacidades para atender las emergencias del presente. El artículo parte del análisis de las temáticas planteadas en diversas reuniones académicas [especialmente congresos de sociología, metodología de la investigación científica, etc.] entre los años 2009 y 2011 en América Latina. Observadas en su conjunto, el trabajo realiza un diagnóstico de la capacidad de las disciplinas y de los campos de estudios más constituidos para acercarse al tratamiento de los problemas de época, proponiendo una redefinición de las ciencias sociales a partir de la lectura de estos indicadores del estado actual y de los desafíos de las ciencias sociales de Latinoamérica

  2. Atlantvolden i Danmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus Bundgård

    2014-01-01

    Anmeldelse af Lulu Anne Hansen & Martin Rheinheimer (red.): Bunkers. Atlantvoldens perspektiver i Danmark.......Anmeldelse af Lulu Anne Hansen & Martin Rheinheimer (red.): Bunkers. Atlantvoldens perspektiver i Danmark....

  3. Demanda energética nas operações mecanizadas na silagem de milho no sistema de "silo bag" Energy demand in the mechanized operations in the corn silage in the silo bag system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André S. Seki

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliado o consumo energético das operações mecanizadas envolvidas na produção de silagem de planta inteira e silagem de "grão úmido" de milho, tendo como referência o processamento seco desse cereal. O ensaio foi conduzido na Fazenda Experimental Lageado, pertencente à Faculdade de Ciências Agronômicas, e nas instalações da Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia - UNESP, localizada no município de Botucatu - SP. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, com parcelas subdivididas no tempo (três épocas de colheita: silagem de planta inteira, silagem de "grão úmido" e colheita de grãos secos, com 10 repetições. As análises estatísticas foram realizadas por meio do programa ESTAT, pelo teste de média de Tukey, a 5% de probabilidade. A silagem de planta inteira teve o maior consumo de combustível por área. A secagem dos grãos de 15,5% para 13% foi responsável por 87% do gasto de energia por área. A silagem de "grão úmido" demandou o menor uso de energia por área nas operações mecanizadas.This work aims to evaluate the energy consumption of the mechanized operations involved in the silage production of entire plant and silage of humid maize, having as reference the dry processing of this cereal. The experiment was on Lageado Experimental Farm of the Agronomy School, and the Education Research and Production Farm, of the Veterinary School of - UNESP - São Paulo State University - Botucatu Campus. The experiment design was in randomized blocks with parts subdivided in time (three times of harvest: silage of entire plant, silage of humid grains and harvest of dry grains, with 10 repetitions. The statistical analyses were performed with ESTAT software, and Tukey test at 5% of probability. The highest fuel consumption per area was reported for the ensilage of entire plant. The highest energy demand per area was reported for the processing of dry grain, as drying is responsible for 87% of the energy expense. The ensilage of humid grain demanded the lesser use of energy per area in the mechanized operations.

  4. Relationship between proteolysis in the silo and efficiency of utilization of dietary protein by lactating dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensiling is used widely to conserve forages for feeding to dairy cows. However, the protein in hay-crop silages is particularly susceptible to microbial breakdown in the rumen, and utilization of protein in alfalfa and grass silages by dairy cows is particularly poor. Dependent on maturity, hay-crop...

  5. Final Environmental Impact Statement, Peacekeeper in Minuteman Silos, F. E. Warren AFB, Wyoming. Volume 2. Public Comments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    aith you. 2. Tabla 7.2.1-2 5... ooloant 00 It.. 1. There ahould .me o 0440dded 829 "Itiaai1 Airoort dothinyl’. Th. uuthoricy :a. odenrata 1-.L1 cory...C..0 L * .-- 0..’LSV1-- 0.- 00 .00-0 * s*LLb XII >% -0.0 C UC 4L C C UC0 Ci ’A10SCC. L-.>. U a- 04- A 13: 0C LIt010 10 CO 4 60 Q--- >z 0 C 4-4 0- 0 V0

  6. Environmental Assessment, Minuteman III and Peacekeeper Silo Elimination, Malmstrom AFB, Montana; F. E. Warren AFB, Wyoming; and Vandenberg AFB, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    acres in size and are enclosed with a security fence (Figure 2-3). Outside of the MAF fenced area is a helicopter pad and a sewage lagoon (enclosed...enclosed by a security fence, except for a sewage lagoon, helicopter pad , and a buried antenna consisting of two intersecting rings (each about four feet...adjacent buildings to determine whether bats are roosting. If bats are present, passive exclusion would be conducted (prior to start of maternity

  7. Meeting Policymakers' Education Responsibilities Requires Cross-State Data Collaboration, Sharing, and Comparability. Breaking down State Silos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data Quality Campaign, 2012

    2012-01-01

    States have responsibilities to ensure that transferring students receive uninterrupted education and services, produce indicators that provide a complete picture, and ensure that information is comparable across states. However, states' and districts' ability to meet these responsibilities requires data capacity that can be undermined due to…

  8. Breaking Out of Surveillance Silos: Integrative Geospatial Data Collection for Child Injury Risk and Active School Transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuch, Laura; Curtis, Jacqueline W; Curtis, Andrew; Hudson, Courtney; Wuensch, Heather; Sampsell, Malinda; Wiles, Erika; Infantino, Mary; Davis, Andrew J

    2016-02-01

    The preponderance of active school transport (AST) and child injury research has occurred independently, yet they are inherently related. This is particularly true in urban areas where the environmental context of AST may pose risks to safety. However, it can be difficult to make these connections due to the often segregated nature in which these veins of research operate. Spatial video presents a geospatial approach for simultaneous data collection related to both issues. This article reports on a multi-sector pilot project among researchers, a children's hospital, and a police department, using spatial video to map child AST behaviors; a geographic information system (GIS) is used to analyze these data in the environmental context of child pedestrian injury and community violence.

  9. Explosion technology for silo cleaning in cement plant%水泥厂清库中的爆破技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于宝池

    2002-01-01

    @@ 0引言 水泥厂的生料库和水泥库在使用一定时间后,因库内物料被压实和板结会造成下料不畅,严重时将影响正常生产,并直接影响企业的经济效益.因此,必须经常清库.

  10. Method of aeration disinfecting and drying grain in bulk and pretreating seeds and a transverse blow silo grain dryer therefor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danchenko, Vitaliy G.; Noyes, Ronald T.; Potapovych, Larysa P.

    2012-02-28

    Aeration drying and disinfecting grain crops in bulk and pretreating seeds includes passing through a bulk of grain crops and seeds disinfecting and drying agents including an ozone and air mixture and surrounding air, subdividing the disinfecting and drying agents into a plurality of streams spaced from one another in a vertical direction, and passing the streams at different heights through levels located at corresponding heights of the bulk of grain crops and seeds transversely in a substantially horizontal direction.

  11. THE Interoperability Challenge for the Geosciences: Stepping up from Interoperability between Disciplinary Siloes to Creating Transdisciplinary Data Platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyborn, L. A.; Evans, B. J. K.; Trenham, C.; Druken, K. A.; Wang, J.

    2015-12-01

    The National Computational Infrastructure (NCI) at the Australian National University (ANU) has collocated over 10 PB of national and international data assets within a HPC facility to create the National Environmental Research Data Interoperability Platform (NERDIP). The data span a wide range of fields from the earth systems and environment (climate, coasts, oceans, and geophysics) through to astronomy, bioinformatics, and the social sciences. These diverse data collections are collocated on a major data storage node that is linked to a Petascale HPC and Cloud facility. Users can search across all of the collections and either log in and access the data directly, or they can access the data via standards-based web services. These collocated petascale data collections are theoretically a massive resource for interdisciplinary science at scales and resolutions never hitherto possible. But once collocated, multiple barriers became apparent that make cross-domain data integration very difficult and often so time consuming, that either less ambitious research goals are attempted or the project is abandoned. Incompatible content is only one half of the problem: other showstoppers are differing access models, licences and issues of ownership of derived products. Brokers can enable interdisciplinary research but in reality are we just delaying the inevitable? A call to action is required adopt a transdiciplinary approach at the conception of development of new multi-disciplinary systems whereby those across all the scientific domains, the humanities, social sciences and beyond work together to create a unity of informatics plaforms that interoperate horizontally across the multiple discipline boundaries, and also operate vertically to enable a diversity of people to access data from high end researchers, to undergraduate, school students and the general public. Once we master such a transdisciplinary approach to our vast global information assets, we will then achieve THE interoperability challenge for the geosciences and made geoscience data and information accessible to all domains and to all peoples.

  12. Draft Environmental Impact Statement. Peacekeeper in Minuteman Silos, 90th Strategic MIssile Wing, F. E. Warren Air Force Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-01

    Vt C’.) C’.) IS -L 4) C’) m. �) 0L) .4 -I S-CL. - S- 4-3 S- tu EU 060. tO 0 L, (D " IO (A >4 ECC )I CD 0)S 0) -0).-’ IM 0 060 EU 1.. In .CC E- 34 -c...by the rise of Homo sapiens. Holocene Period: the time since the end of the Pleistocene, characterized by absence of large continental or Cordilleran

  13. Mercury reduction by coal blending : effects of boiler configuration and blending on mercury speciation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyng, R. [Ontario Power Generation Nanticoke Generating Station, Nanticoke, ON (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Ontario Power Generation has explored the potential of reducing mercury emissions through fuel blending on full-scale operating units at its 8 x 500 MW Nanticoke coal-fired generating station. This presentation addressed the issue of unit configuration on mercury speciation. It outlined full scale testing of mercury emissions in 2004 and the potential for mercury control suggested by the test data. Mercury emissions were measured for the firing of various eastern US bituminous and western US sub-bituminous Powder River Basin (PRB) coal blends. Three blends of up to 84 per cent sub-bituminous coal were tested. Two methods of coal blending, selective bunkering and silo or field blending were also tested. Mercury emissions under boiler configurations with and without selective catalytic reduction (SCR) and over-fire air were compared. This paper included the results from semi-continuous monitoring (SCM) data collected during the test period. A high mercury oxidation was observed over chlorine concentration ranges of 0.3 to 0.1 per cent. It was noted that feeding dedicated fuels to mills, rather than yard blends of bituminous PRB, results in higher levels of mercury capture, particularly at higher than 16:84 blend. A consistently high level of oxidation was noted across the SCR demonstrated for all blends tested. It was noted that Over Fire Air (OFA) advanced combustion technology systems appeared to increase mercury oxidation. tabs., figs.

  14. Analysis of the radiation shielding of the bunker of a 230MeV proton cyclotron therapy facility; comparison of analytical and Monte Carlo techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunil, C

    2016-04-01

    The neutron ambient dose equivalent outside the radiation shield of a proton therapy cyclotron vault is estimated using the unshielded dose equivalent rates and the attenuation lengths obtained from the literature and by simulations carried out with the FLUKA Monte Carlo radiation transport code. The source terms derived from the literature and that obtained from the FLUKA calculations differ by a factor of 2-3, while the attenuation lengths obtained from the literature differ by 20-40%. The instantaneous dose equivalent rates outside the shield differ by a few orders of magnitude, not only in comparison with the Monte Carlo simulation results, but also with the results obtained by line of sight attenuation calculations with the different parameters obtained from the literature. The attenuation of neutrons caused by the presence of bulk iron, such as magnet yokes is expected to reduce the dose equivalent by as much as a couple of orders of magnitude outside the shield walls.

  15. Recommendations to the NRC (Nuclear Regulatory Commission) for Review Criteria for Alternative Methods of Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal. Task 2B. Earth-Mounded Concrete Bunkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    even . under extremely large hydraulic gradients (Winterkorn and Fang 1975; Bertram 1940; Cedergren 1967; and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers 1941...Department of the Army Technical Manual TM 5-818-5, "Dewatering and Groundwater Control" (November 1983)and by Cedergren (1967). 2.7-3 e /.~\\ ~J.. . . , ,I I... Cedergren , 1967, Seepage, Drainage and Flow Nets, 2nd Edition,: , John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 3-I Code of Federal Regulations, 1987, Title 10

  16. PHOSPHINE RECIRCULATION FUMIGATION OF WHEAT STORED IN BUNKER%土堤仓储粮磷化氢环流熏蒸工艺与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范磊; 张兴梅

    2008-01-01

    在堆高7 m、容量1858万千克的大型储藏小麦的土堤仓内和土堤仓底设置PVC磷化氢环流管道,采用外设环流风机环流促使仓内磷化氢均匀分布,检测浓度分布情况、杀虫效果和粮食品质变化.结果表明,仓内磷化氢浓度最低保持在300 mL/m3以上的时间可达25 d,浓度在250 mL/m3以上的时间迭34 d,粮堆中发生的书虱、锈赤扁谷盗等害虫均被完全杀死,试验的熏蒸工艺对粮食品质及粮堆内温度影响很小.

  17. 33 CFR 165.510 - Delaware Bay and River, Salem River, Christina River and Schuylkill River-Regulated Navigation Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... otherwise authorized by the COTP, no vessel to vessel oil transfer operations, excluding bunkering, may be... with COTP permission; (4) Not transfer dangerous cargo while the vessel is at anchor or bunkering;...

  18. 75 FR 22323 - Anchorage Regulations; Port of New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... grounds. The Coast Guard proposes to add a requirement that any vessel conducting lightering or bunkering... conducting lightering or bunkering operations shall display by day a red flag (Pub 102; International Code...

  19. 粉体同轴圆柱料仓放电物理模型%Physical model of powder discharge inside concentric cylindrical silos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李学文; 孙立富; 张婷婷

    2010-01-01

    为消除柱形金属料仓灌充粉体时料仓中粉体电荷的累积,提出采取在金属料仓中装设电晕导线、利用柱形同轴电极结构消除进入料仓的粉体荷电等方法;基于泊松方程,建立同轴圆柱料仓电晕放电物理模型;根据柱形料仓的等效电容和影响料仓粉体荷电的因素,推导出柱型电极电压与电晕电流之间的精确关系;通过分析粉体料仓电晕放电的条件和同轴圆柱导线半径大小对电晕电流的影响,解决消除粉体料仓的电荷累积问题.

  20. Predicción numérica de los campos de tensiones durante el llenado y la descarga de silos de almacenamiento de materiales granulares

    OpenAIRE

    Pernich, Adriana

    2010-01-01

    Tesis (DCI)--FCEFN-UNC, 2010 Estudia la implementación de un elemento finito de deformación plana - axil-simetría y de una relación constitutiva elastoplástica para materiales friccionales en un programa de elementos finito explícito. Para el elemento de deformación plana - axilsimetría se ha adoptado una formulación lagrangeana actualizada formulando las ecuaciones respecto de un sistema corrotacional

  1. Final Jurisdictional Environmental Planning Technical Report. Peacekeeper in Minuteman Silos, 90th Strategic Missile Wing, F. E. Warren Air Force Base. Volume 3. Appendices A through C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    resources, especially labor, available in the project area is what leads to the need for inmigration . The general economic impact methodology is to determine...resource utilization relative to local availability, then to determine what inmigration will need to take place in order to meet project excess demand...The economic impact is generally measured in terms of employment and specifically in terms of local and inmigrant employment. The first step in

  2. Executive Summary. Draft Environmental Impact Statement. Peacekeeper in Minuteman Silos, 90th Strategic Missile Wing, F. E. Warren Air Force Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-01

    inmigration of workers and their families. Employment Demand analysis indicates a short and long-term beneficial effect on the City of Cheyenne and the...approximately 3,800 persons. In addition, it will cause approximately 1,600 persons to inmigrate in 1987 associated with indirect employment...result of inadequate local public and pri ’ate resources available to deal with the inmigration of population and the associated social adjustment and

  3. Trouble-Analysis of Receiving Scale in Silo Zhang Jianjun%立筒库原粮接收秤故障的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建军

    2003-01-01

    @@ 濮阳中粮面业有限公司立筒库原粮接收秤由瑞士布勒公司制造.在原粮接收过程中,原粮接收秤不时出现称量斗阀门不关闭,而缓冲料斗又向称量斗卸料的现象,致使原粮接收秤变成了直通溜管,不再称量.

  4. DG connect funded projects on information and communication technologies (ICT) for old age people: Beyond Silos, CareWell and SmartCare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijser, W.A.; Manuel-Keenoy, de E.; D'Angelantonio, M.; Stafylas, P.; Hobson, P.; Apuzzo, G.; Hurtado, M.; Oates, J.

    2016-01-01

    Information and communication technologies (ICT) are promising for the long-term care of older and frequently frail people. These innovations can improve health outcomes, quality of life and efficiency of care processes, while supporting independent living. However, they may be disruptive innovation

  5. Moving beyond silos: How do we provide distributed personalized medicine to pregnant women everywhere at scale? Insights from PRE-EMPT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Dadelszen, Peter; Magee, Laura A; Payne, Beth A; Dunsmuir, Dustin T; Drebit, Sharla; Dumont, Guy A; Miller, Suellen; Norman, Jane; Pyne-Mercier, Lee; Shennan, Andrew H; Donnay, France; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Ansermino, J Mark

    2015-10-01

    While we believe that pre-eclampsia matters-because it remains a leading cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide-we are convinced that the time has come to look beyond single clinical entities (e.g. pre-eclampsia, postpartum hemorrhage, obstetric sepsis) and to look for an integrated approach that will provide evidence-based personalized care to women wherever they encounter the health system. Accurate outcome prediction models are a powerful way to identify individuals at incrementally increased (and decreased) risks associated with a given condition. Integrating models with decision algorithms into mobile health (mHealth) applications could support community and first level facility healthcare providers to identify those women, fetuses, and newborns most at need of facility-based care, and to initiate lifesaving interventions in their communities prior to transportation. In our opinion, this offers the greatest opportunity to provide distributed individualized care at scale, and soon.

  6. Simulation Development for Silo Test Program (STP). Volume 2. Detonation Characterization of NA/NP (Aqueous Nitric Acid/Nitropropane) and NPN (Nitropropane Nitrate).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-03-31

    for advice and information on NPN; and Dr. Roland Franzen, Ford Laboratories, Inc., for discussions on NPN. Within SRI, we thank Mr. Darwin R. Henley...for constructing the targets, Mr. Daniel F. Walter for operating electronic instrumentation, Mssrs. Hugh E. Hanna, George S. Cartwright , and Kennard E

  7. Analysis of Edge Effected Bending Moment in Silo Funnel%圆筒仓圆锥漏斗的边缘效应弯矩分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘琳

    2001-01-01

    提出了"边缘效应弯矩"的概念,并列出了具体计算公式.尽管在大多数情况下,边缘效应弯矩可以忽略不计,但当环梁的支撑点较少(刚度较小)时,其引起的不良反应必须引起足够的重视.

  8. STUDY ON SILO RECIRCULATION FUMIGATION MODEL OF PHOSPHINE IN CHINA%立筒库磷化氢环流熏蒸模型的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张立力; 霍洪媛; 赵志永; 宋福太

    2000-01-01

    采用曲线分段拟合方法,把我国立筒库磷化氢环流熏蒸过程中释放与降解的变化规律进行数学建模,并在IBM-PC486电子计算机上利用Mathematica 2.0版本建模、求解、绘图、修匀,然后对求得的模型进行分析和检验.结果表明:函数模型(Ⅰ、Ⅱ、Ⅲ)具有良好的预测功能,能分别预测磷化氢环流熏蒸中的浓度峰值,磷化氢降解到无效低浓度熏蒸需要的时间和害虫的磷化氢熏蒸临界浓度.

  9. 浅圆仓储粮应用磷化氢熏蒸的建议%SOME SUGGESTIONS ON PHOSPHINE FUMIGATION OF STORED GRAIN IN SQUAT SILO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王殿轩; 高希武; 庞文渌

    2004-01-01

    本文对浅圆仓储粮中需要进行磷化氢熏蒸时的几种情况进行了讨论,包括粮堆基本均温时的熏蒸处理、冬后负温差粮的熏蒸、空间与表层的熏蒸、局部或深层部位的害虫熏蒸等,并对这几种情况下可采用的措施和应注意的问题提出了建议.

  10. 浅圆仓PH3熏蒸方法的研究%The Study of the Phosphine Fumigating Method for Shallow Silos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘萼华; 刘述安; 尹海燕; 何伟辉

    2002-01-01

    在浅圆仓中进行了PH3熏蒸试验,粮堆内的储粮害虫均被杀死,取得了良好的杀虫效果,达到了环流熏蒸的技术要求.研究表明在浅圆仓内,借助环流装置用AlP粮面施药法是一种经济实用的害虫防治方法.

  11. 浅圆仓磷化氢环流熏蒸生产性试验%The Productive Test on Phosphine Recirculation Fumigation in the Squat Silo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏立新; 徐杰; 陈志刚; 李雪松; 周丹

    2006-01-01

    本文主要介绍了浅圆仓磷化氢环流熏蒸生产性试验的过程和效果,分析并讨论了熏蒸方式、毒气浓度及气密性等问题.该技术具有杀虫快速彻底、使用安全可靠和低药剂的特点,克服了常规熏蒸法毒气分子分布不均匀、高剂量和杀虫不彻底的缺点,同时也减少了环境污染,它是目前厚粮堆中较为理想的一种杀虫熏蒸技术.试验结果表明合理的用药量、用药比例和良好的气密性是保证熏蒸效果的关键.

  12. 磷化氢环流熏蒸在立筒仓中的生产性试验%FIELD TEST OF PHOSPHINE RECIRCULATION FUMIGATION IN SILO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石春光; 辛玉红

    2002-01-01

    在不同容量、不同形状的立筒仓安装环流熏蒸系统,并对筒仓进行密闭处理,采用磷化铝分装在小袋中仓底投药,间歇通风,环流熏蒸的技术.熏蒸期间测定磷化氢浓度,熏蒸后扦样发现所有的成虫均死亡;试样培养30天后检查没有成虫出现,取得较好的杀虫效果.试验结果表明,磷化氢环流熏蒸具有快速、安全、简便、经济的特点,是目前筒仓较为理想的一种熏蒸杀虫技术.

  13. 75 FR 76275 - Anchorage Regulations; Long Island Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... anchored vessel that is conducting bunkering or lightering operations. Anchored vessels conducting bunkering or lightering operations are readily identified as they must display a red flag as required by 46... conducting bunkering or lightering operations. The revised provision is clearer, and preserves...

  14. 77 FR 21359 - MARPOL Annex I Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-09

    ... recordkeeping requirements prescribing entries in the Oil Record Book for bunkering of fuel or bulk lubricating... requirements, to record the bunkering of oil, any failures of oil filtering equipment, and failures of the oil... the bunkering of fuel or bulk lubricating oil. This additional entry would help to track the use...

  15. Prediction of the Nutritive Value of Pasture Silage by Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS Predicción del Valor Nutritivo de Ensilaje de Pasturas Mediante Espectrofotometría en el Infrarrojo Cercano (NIRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto A Restaino

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the use of near infrared reflectance (NIRS spectroscopy to predict the nutritive value of silages from pastures and to assess the effect of silage structure type (e.g. bunker and bag silos on the NIRS predictions. Samples (n = 120 were sourced from commercial farms and analyzed in a NIRS monochromator instrument (NIR Systems, Silver Spring, Maryland, USA using wavelengths between 400 and 2500 nm in reflectance. Calibration models were developed between chemical and NIRS spectral data using partial least squares (PLS regression. The coefficients of determination in calibration (R² and the standard error in cross validation (SECV were 0.73 (SECV: 1.2%, 0.81 (SECV: 2.0%, 0.75 (SECV: 6.6%, 0.80 (SECV: 6.7%, 0.80 (SECV: 4.0%, 0.60 (SECV: 3.6% and 0.70 (SECV: 0.34 for ash, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, dry matter (DM, acid detergent fiber (ADF, in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD and pH, respectively. The results showed the potential of NIRS to analyze DM, ADF and CP in silage samples from pastures.El objetivo de este trabajo fue investigar el uso de la espectrofotometría de reflectancia en el infrarrojo cercano (NIRS para predecir el valor nutritivo en ensilaje de pasturas y evaluar el tipo de estructura de silo (silo bolsa y trinchera en las predicciones NIRS. Muestras (n = 120 provenientes de granjas comerciales fueron leídas en un equipo monocromador NIRS (NIR Systems, Silver Spring, Maryland, USA en el rango de longitudes de onda de 400 a 2500 nm, en reflectancia. Modelos de calibración entre los datos químicos y los espectros NIRS fueron desarrollados usando el método de los cuadrados mínimos parciales. Los coeficientes de determinación en calibración (R² y el error estándar de la validación cruzada (SEVC fueron 0,73 (SECV: 1,2%, 0,81 (SECV: 2,0%, 0,75 (SECV: 6,6%, 0,80 (SECV: 6,7%, 0,80 (SECV: 4,0%, 0,60 (SECV: 3,6% and 0,70 (SECV: 0,34 para cenizas, proteína cruda

  16. 从宙斯轮案论燃油清污费用的责任限制问题%On the Limitation of Liability of Clean -up Costs of Bunker based on Zeus Case

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞凯华

    2015-01-01

    Maritime safety administration of sinking, killed, stranded ship compulsory clean-up measures to produce fuel oil clean-up costs, after the Supreme Court Zeus rounds a case as a nonrestrictive creditor' s rights, it is conform to the law, but also to ensure the maritime safety administration in the practice of sewage disposal cost of pay of full specified amount. For fuel oil clean-up fees shall apply for maritime claims limit judicial interpretation from the supreme people' s court "the 17th paragraph 1 and the oil from the supreme people' s court judicial interpretation" stipulated in article 20 as unrestricted claims. Take effect at the same time soon the Nairobi convention on international debris removal has important significance for China' s leg-islation.%海事局对沉没、遇难、搁浅船舶采取强制清污措施产生的燃油清污费用,最高院在宙斯轮一案中认定为非限制性债权.此举既符合法律规定,同时也保障了实践中海事局清污费用的足额偿付.对于燃油清污费用应适用《最高院海事赔偿限制司法解释》第17条1款和《最高院油污司法解释》第20条规定认定为非限制性债权.同时生效不久的《内罗毕国际残骸清除公约》对于我国立法具有重要借鉴意义.

  17. Uus mure - sööt rikneb lehma ees / Olav Kärt ; kommenteerinud Ahto Vili

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kärt, Olav, 1948-

    2015-01-01

    Kvaliteetne silo ei tohiks pärast hoidla avamist kokkupuutel õhuga kuumeneda. Kui silosse pääseb õhk kas hoidlast silo väljalaadimise käigus või silo valmistamise ja säilitamise ajal, on kuumenemise peamiseks põhjuseks pärmseened

  18. The use of fuel oil by the shipping sector; Zeevaart verbruikt meer stookolie door wereldhandel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-05-15

    The supply of fuel oil for the international shipping sector (bunkering) increased considerably since 1990 (9 million ton). Between 2003 and 2006 bunkering increased to 16 million ton, mainly due to the increased world trade. [Dutch] De levering van stookolie voor de internationale scheepvaart (bunkering) blijft sterk toenemen (1990: 9 miljoen ton; 2000: bijna 12 miljoen ton). Tussen 2003 en 2006 is de bunkering toegenomen naar een recordwaarde van ruim 16 miljoen ton. De stijging hangt nauw samen met de sterke toename van de wereldhandel.

  19. Reconstruction of Space Steel Constructions

    OpenAIRE

    BRODNIANSKY, Jan; AGOCS, Zoltan; AROCH, Rudolf; SLIVANSKY, Milos

    2010-01-01

    p. 1328-1337 Reconstruction of some special types of constructions - silos, timber roof structure and a winter stadium are described. The silos are cylindrical with a diameter of 36.0m with a total height of 50.5m. The silo shell is made from steel plates of variable thickness. Capacity of the silo is 60 000t. Gradually, during more than 30 years of operation, local deformations and distinctive 6000mm high cracks in the bottom part of the shells of the silos developed. On the basis o...

  20. Estado térmico de produtos armazenados em silos com sistema de aeração: estudo teórico e experimental Thermal state of stored products in storage bins with aeration system: experimental-theoretical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane A. de Oliveira

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O resfriamento de grãos por ventilação de ar ambiente aplica-se amplamente nas etapas finais de secagem e para controle posterior da temperatura de grãos armazenados. O objetivo deste trabalho é realizar estudo teórico-experimental sobre o estado térmico de massa de grãos de soja sujeita à aeração. Foram obtidos dados experimentais sobre a dinâmica de resfriamento de massa pré-aquecida de grãos de soja para diferentes alturas da coluna de grãos e velocidades do ar. A análise dos resultados mostrou que a taxa de resfriamento varia significativamente durante todo o processo e em todo o domínio e a difusividade térmica das camadas não poderia ser considerada constante. Para simular a dinâmica de resfriamento, foram apresentados dois modelos matemáticos. No primeiro modelo, o domínio de resfriamento foi dividido pela fronteira móvel em duas zonas, representadas por diferentes difusividades térmicas (análogo de problema de Stefan. No outro modelo, todo o domínio foi dividido hipoteticamente em pequenas camadas e foi considerado que o processo de equilíbrio térmico entre o ar e a massa de grãos para essas camadas é atingido instantaneamente ("reatores homogêneos". Os resultados de simulações mostraram concordância satisfatória com os dados experimentais.The cooling of grains by ventilation with ambient air applies widely in the final stages of drying and for the subsequent temperature control of stored grains. The objective of this work is to carry out an experimental-theoretical study on the thermal state of a soybean mass, subject to the aeration. The experimental data on cooling dynamics of preheated soybean mass were obtained for different heights of the grain column and air velocities. The analysis of the results showed that the cooling rate varies significantly during all process in all domains and the thermal diffusivity of the layers cannot be considered as a constant. To simulate the cooling dynamics two mathematical models were introduced. In the first model the cooling domain was divided by means of the movable frontier in two zones represented by different coefficients of thermal diffusivity (analogous of Stefan's problem. In another model all the domain was divided hypothetically in small layers and was considered that the thermal balance between the air and the mass of grains for these layers is reached instantly ("homogeneous reactors". The results of simulations showed a satisfactory agreement with the experimental data.

  1. SECAGEM DE SEMENTES DE SOJA EM SILO COM DISTRIBUIÇÃO RADIAL DO FLUXO DE AR: I. MONITORAMENTO FÍSICO DRYING OF SOYBEAN SEEDS IN A RADIAL AIR FLOW DRYER: I. PHYSICAL MONITORING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUIZ CARLOS MIRANDA

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de avaliar a evolução física do processo de remoção de água das sementes em secador estacionário, com cilindro central perfurado e distribuição radical de ar. A pesquisa foi conduzida com sementes de soja, variando o fluxo (26,9, 28,4 e 33,2 m³/minuto/t e a temperatura do ar insuflado (42, 46 e 50ºC, considerando a posição das sementes (17, 34 e 51 cm em relação ao cilindro de insuflação e o tempo de secagem (zero a doze horas, com intervalos de duas horas. Foram caracterizados o ar ambiente, o ar insuflado, as temperaturas e os teores de água da massa, as velocidades e curvas de secagem. As avaliações realizadas destacaram vantagens físicas operacionais da combinação de 28,4 m³/minuto/t com 46ºC e o contrário, com a combinação de 26,9 m³/minuto/t com 42ºC.The purpose of this research was to study several physical parameters of soybean seed drying submitted to stationary process with radial air distribution by combining different air flows (26.9, 28.4 and 33.2 m³/minute/ton and temperatures (42, 46 and 50ºC, considering seed positions in the seed mass (17, 34 and 51 cm in relation to the insuflation cylinder and drying periods (zero to twelve hours with two-hour intervals. Environmental air, insuflation air, seed temperatures, moisture content of seeds, drying speed and drying curves were characterized. Considering the evaluated parameters during the drying process, the physical advantages of the combination of 28.4 m³/minute/ton with 46ºC, and the desadvantage of the combination of 26.9 m³/minute/ton with 42ºC were observed.

  2. Final Jurisdictional Environmental Planning Technical Report. Peacekeeper in Minuteman Silos, 90th Strategic Missile Wing, F. E. Warren Air Force Base. Volume 2. Section 6.0 through 10.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Oil Company Caballo Rojo Coal Mine, Gillette, Wyoming. The Caballo Rojo Coal Mine program, which has not yet been instituted, emphasizes wildlife...spotlights and other type of equipment for hunting; o Off-road vehicle usage; and o Trespassing laws. In Caballo Rojo’s program, all the topics are...10.4.4.2.1 Sponsor-Determined Evaluation: Mobil Oil Company Caballo Rojo Coal Mine, Gillette, Wyoming. The elements outlined in Caballo Rojo’s program are all

  3. El diseño de un plan estratégico en sistemas de información en el Servicio de Odontología del Centro de Salud de Siloé, Cali.

    OpenAIRE

    Jairo Corchuelo

    2009-01-01

    Se presenta la aplicación de una herramienta de la administración de los sistemas de información en uno de los servicios ofrecidos por un centro de salud dependiente de la Secretaría de Salud Pública Municipal de Cali, como el servicio de odontología, empleando como metodología la tecnología BSP/SA (Business System Planning for Strategical Alignment) que identifican las estrategias corporativas y aportan elementos para el diseño de un plan estratégico permanente en sistemas de información y t...

  4. Research on Quality of the Macadamia Nut-in-shell by Silo Drying Method%用筒仓干燥方法对带壳澳洲坚果质量的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄克昌; 徐荣; 郭刚军; 邹建云

    2011-01-01

    采用二步干燥过程,即风机强制风干(〈38℃)和热风干燥(50℃~60℃)为一体的筒仓来研究新鲜带壳澳洲坚果的干燥规律。根据含水量、颜色褐变、还原糖含量和过氧化值,评估被干燥的带壳澳洲坚果的质量。结果表明:筒仓干燥带壳澳洲坚果适合的条件是先采用30℃风机强制风干72h,含水量降到8%~10%,然后采用50℃热风干燥72h,含水量降低到干燥标准要求的1.5%以下;干燥后的带壳澳洲坚果的褐变率为2.3%,还原糖含量为0.04%,过氧化值为1.1300meq/kg;与传统网筛干燥方法相比,风机强制风干和热风组合的筒仓干燥,显著地缩短了带壳澳洲坚果的干燥时间,提高了品质。%Drying process, namely, the use of heat pump drying (38 ℃) followed by hot air drying (50 ℃~60 ℃) was chosen to investigate its feasibility to dry fresh macadamia nut-in-shell.The quality of dried macadamia nut-in-shell was assessed in terms of the moisture content, color, reducing sugar content and peroxide value. The results showed that the suitable drying conditions for macadamia nut-in-shell are the use of heat pump drying at 30 ℃(72 h)to decrease the moisture content to 8%~10%; this should be followed by hot air drying at 50 ℃(72 h)until the moisture content was reduced down to 1.5%. After dried macadamia nut-in-shell, the browning rate was 2.3%, reducing sugar content was 0.04%, peroxide value was 1.1300 meq/kg. Based on the comparison between conventional net screen drying and combined heat pump and hot air drying,it significantly save the drying time and improve quality of macadamia nut.

  5. Final Jurisdictional Environmental Planning Technical Report. Peacekeeper in Minuteman Silos, 90th Strategic Missile Wing, F. E. Warren Air Force Base. Volume 1. Section 1.0 through 5.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    VARIOUS FREQUENCIES AND STORM DURATIONS - CHEYENNE, WYOMING Storm Recurrence Interval Duration 2-Year 5-Year 10-Year 25-Year 50-Year 100-Year 5 Min...hour storm inflows for 2 and 10-year recurrence intervals (derived from 3-hour rainfall patterns used by engineers in the Denver-Cheyenne region for...County, 39 in Cheyenne and 1 in Pine Bluffs. A full range of dental and orthodontic services is available in the county. 3.10.2.2 Projected Baseline

  6. 浅圆仓环流熏蒸磷化氢气体在粮堆内分布规律的研究%PHOSPHINE DISTRIBUTION RULES IN GRAIN BULKS DURING FUMIGATION IN SQUAT SILO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祁正亚; 姚亚东; 李应祥; 袁宝友; 冷逸林

    2009-01-01

    通过对较大型浅圆仓环流熏蒸后,粮堆内不同深度的磷化氢气体浓度的跟踪监测,了解磷化氢气体在粮堆内不同部位的浓度分布及变化特征,分析造成磷化氢气体在粮堆内的不同部位浓度不均的原因,从而为浅圆仓环流熏蒸提供依据.

  7. El diseño de un plan estratégico en sistemas de información en el Servicio de Odontología del Centro de Salud de Siloé, Cali.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Corchuelo

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta la aplicación de una herramienta de la administración de los sistemas de información en uno de los servicios ofrecidos por un centro de salud dependiente de la Secretaría de Salud Pública Municipal de Cali, como el servicio de odontología, empleando como metodología la tecnología BSP/SA (Business System Planning for Strategical Alignment que identifican las estrategias corporativas y aportan elementos para el diseño de un plan estratégico permanente en sistemas de información y tecnología informática. La aplicación de la herramienta facilita el entendimiento de los procesos que hacen parte de la prestación de los servicios de salud como el servicio de odontología y genera salidas que facilitan la toma de decisiones.

  8. EVALUATON OF EFFECT TO CONTROL INSECT PESTS IN STORED WHEAT MIXED WITH DIA TOMACEOUS EARTH IN VERTICAL SILOS%立筒仓应用硅藻土防虫杀虫剂的防治效果评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭叶; 陈明伟; 郑超杰; 周晓军; 唐浩; 王萌辉; 申丽荣; 林建; 曹阳

    2003-01-01

    采用常规和波纹纸板诱捕器的检查方法,检查立筒仓内小麦粮堆表层的储粮害虫,根据检查和诱捕害虫的数量,评价以400 mg/kg的剂量处理粮堆表层和5 g/m2的剂量处理空间结构的硅藻土防虫杀虫剂Protect-It的防虫杀虫效果.常规检查发现,原来有害虫活动的Protect-It处理仓,从5月中旬到7月底,锈赤扁谷盗(Cryptolestes ferruginesus)、玉米象(Sitophilus zeamais)等害虫数量明显减少;而原来无虫的空白对照仓,这些害虫的数量明显增多.从7月底到8月底,诱捕到的嗜虫书虱(Liposcelis entomophila)和无色书虱(L.decolor)的平均数量,处理仓的明显比对照仓的少(P<0.05);诱捕到赤拟谷盗(Tribolium castaneum)、锈赤扁谷盗(Cryptolestes ferruginesus)和印度谷螟(Plodia interpunctella)的平均数量与书虱的结果相同.研究结果表明Protect-It对储粮书虱、赤拟谷盗和锈赤扁谷盗等害虫具有非常明显防治效果.由于硅藻土防虫杀虫剂防治效果好,对人安全无毒,对环境无污染,因此,在储粮害虫防治领域应用前景广阔.

  9. 应用免缝SILO袋分期治疗新生儿腹裂临床研究%Silastic spring-loaded SILO in closure of neonatal gastroschisis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴晔明; Donald C Liu

    2004-01-01

    目的介绍应用免缝SILO袋分期治疗新生儿腹裂.方法收集芝加哥大学儿童医院1998年1月至2002年7月应用免缝SILO袋分期治疗15例腹裂患儿.患儿体重2.1~3.5kg,根据腹壁缺损大小选择环口直径3~5cm的SILO袋.脏器回纳腹腔后择期关闭腹壁.结果 15例患儿全部顺利分期关闭腹壁缺损.2例(13.3%)SILO袋在使用中滑出腹壁,立即于床边重新放置SILO袋.SILO袋平均使用天数为3.7d,完全经口进食平均为22d.1例患儿伴有小肠闭锁做肠吻合后再安置SILO袋.随访3个月至4年,15例全部存活.结论应用免缝SILO袋分期关闭腹壁缺损是一种安全、可靠、有效的方法.

  10. 钢板仓在沙特SCC等水泥厂中的应用及计算分析%Application and Calculation Analysis of Steel Silo in Some Cement Plants Such as Saudi Arabian SCC Cement Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任和

    2015-01-01

    用钢板焊接或卷制而成的钢板仓是近年来引进国外先进技术发展的新技术.由于国内钢板仓的应用在水泥行业历史较短,钢板仓的研究与国际先进水平相比还存在一定的差距.同时,钢板仓结构也有许多问题有待进一步解决.

  11. 数字式粮情测控系统在散粮筒仓上的应用%The Application of Digital Temperature Measurement and Control System in Bulk Grain Silo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马飞

    2012-01-01

    随着现代企业的不断进步和发展,竞争日益激烈化,服务质量成了竞争最大的关键,我公司以散粮筒仓为主要货场,粮食的存放质量是最重要的问题.文中主要介绍测温系统的工作原理、系统弊端及改进,并介绍了该系统功能、性能特点,以及对RTU集中管理的优势,最后阐述了在散粮筒仓应用该系统的重大意义.

  12. Research on Transportation Process of Hoisting Machine of Mine Silo%矿山竖井提升机运输过程的视频监视研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢霞; 王挺有; 余国瑞

    2012-01-01

    The development and realization of video monitor software are mainly by using Visual C+ + 6. 0 to get monitor interface, software and communication software with Visual C+ + 6. 0, realizing receiving signals from PLC, real -time monitoring and sent alarm according fault signals and alerting operators for relative treatment through the communication of host computer with PLC. At the same time, host computers do real-time video monitoring to ports through receiving signals sent by optical fiber, photoelectric converters and video collectors.%视频监视软件的开发与实现主要是利用Visual C++6.0进行监控界面、视频监视软件的开发及PLC与Visual C++6.0通信软件的开发,通过上位机和PLC的通信[1-2],实现接收PLC传送的监控信号,对提升机的运行进行实时监控和根据故障信号发出报警,提示操作员作出相应的处理;同时,上位机接收通过光纤、光电转换器、视频采集卡传送的视频信号,对巷口进行实时视频监视.

  13. Parameter identification of silo using neural network and Kalman filter algorithms%基于神经网络和滤波技术的贮仓结构参数识别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董清华; 黄义

    2005-01-01

    利用神经网络和Kalman滤波技术,提出了一种直接识别结构物理参数的方法,用Kalman滤波技术训练网络.在贮仓振动台实验的基础上,用贮仓在动载作用下的位移、速度作为网络的输入,激振加速度和响应加速度作为网络的输出.仿真计算表明,本文方法是可行的.

  14. Santo Domingo de la Calzada - Silos - Compostela. Las representaciones del «Árbol de Jesé» en el tardorrománico hispano: particularidades iconográficas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poza Yagüe, Marta

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Hace ya algunos años, y al retirar para su restauración el magnífico retablo de Damián Forment que presidía el altar mayor de la catedral de Santo Domingo de la Calzada, aparecieron decorando los frentes de los cuatro soportes centrales de la girola una serie de placas relivarias de fines del siglo XII que, siguiendo el trazado de las aristas del polígono del presbiterio, se elevan desde la base de las pilastras hasta traspasar la línea de imposta que marca la transición entre el cuerpo de ventanas y la zona de la tribuna. La decoración de estas placas alterna los motivos vegetales en las pilastras primera y tercera con la talla de figuras monumentales en la segunda y cuarta. El descubrimiento es de vital importancia no sólo por la elevada calidad técnica de las esculturas, sino por las particularidades iconográficas que presenta el tema allí representado.…

  15. Effect of Siloguard additives on the quality of Medicago sativa silages in silage silo%无机盐添加剂对窖贮紫花苜蓿品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘振宇; 玉柱; 刘忠宽; 黄欣颖; 王宇通; 邵新庆

    2010-01-01

    以第2茬紫花首蓿(Medicago sativa)为原料,采用窖贮的方式,用青贮卫士(Siloguard)添加剂进行处理,设4个质量分数0、0.05%、0.1%和0.2%,探讨紫花苜蓿窖贮的可行性及添加剂的最佳质量分数,为大规模生产实践提供科学依据.试验结果表明:Siloguard添加剂对改善青贮料的感官、降低pH值、提高乳酸含童均有作用,但由于所加入添加剂的质量分数不同,窖贮后效果不一,以添加0.1% Siloguard效果最佳;加入添加剂后,青贮料的可溶性糖(WSC)含量显著提高,显著改善了紫花首蓿青贮料的品质.综合分析认为,青贮窖越深,青贮料发酵品质越好;窖贮添加Siloguard能改善青贮饲料的品质,推荐生产最佳添加质量分数为0.1%.

  16. STUDY ON THE INSECTS KILLING TECHNOLOGY OF PHOSPHINE CIRCULATING FUMIGATION IN ONE-STORY TALL SILO%高大平房仓磷化氢环流熏蒸杀虫技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程兰萍

    2001-01-01

    选择新建高大平房仓进行了不同磷化氢浓度、不同间歇方式、不同密闭时间进行环流熏蒸杀虫试验,从中探索了高大平房仓仓内磷化氢浓度衰减规律、粮堆内磷化氢气体分布的均匀性、最佳熏蒸剂量、最佳间歇方式、密闭时间及最佳熏蒸效果和环流熏蒸对粮温的影响等.

  17. 储粮熏蒸过程中磷化氢浓度的分布模型及验证研究%The Model and Validation of Phosphine Fumigation in Stored Grains in Silos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王远成; Graham R Thorpe; 赵会义; 曹阳; 魏雷

    2015-01-01

    谷物在长期储存过程中会受到害虫的侵扰,通常需要使用诸如磷化氢等适量的熏蒸剂对仓储粮食进行熏蒸,从而杀死害虫,同时又要避免害虫产生耐药性和熏蒸剂的残留.本研究首先建立和验证了熏蒸剂(磷化氢)的对流扩散和吸附模型,并采用计算流体动力学方法对圆筒仓内谷物熏蒸过程中磷化氢质量浓度进行了数值预测,分析了熏蒸过程中磷化氢的质量浓度分布规律,得出熏蒸过程中磷化氢质量浓度分布是不均匀的,并且受到谷物吸附和不可逆化学反应的双重影响.

  18. 33 CFR 158.120 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... in this part: Bunker oil means oil loaded into bunker tanks for use as fuel. Captain of the Port... facilities required under the Act and MARPOL 73/78, and has Form A, Form B, or Form C attached. Clean ballast... liquid form from cargo tanks and cargo pump room bilges, including but not limited to,...

  19. Uddannnelsesboom. Kina går sine egne veje

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søborg, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    Kina uddanner bunker af innovative medarbejdere i disse år. Men de er kreative og innovative på en anden måde en danske medarbejdere.......Kina uddanner bunker af innovative medarbejdere i disse år. Men de er kreative og innovative på en anden måde en danske medarbejdere....

  20. Kollapset under præstationspresset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Martin Jes

    2014-01-01

    OW Bunkers konkurs afspejler nogle af vor tids største problemer: Medarbejderstress og organisatorisk overbelastning. KRONIK - Det spektakulære kollaps i OW Bunker skriver sig direkte ind blandt dansk erhvervshistories største skandaler. Når presset for vækst bliver for hårdt springer...