WorldWideScience

Sample records for bunker silos

  1. Dry matter losses of grass, lucerne and maize silages in bunker silos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte Koehler

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available An efficient feed management is important for a sustainable and economic agricultural production. One of the main points for improving the efficiency is the reduction of feed losses. In the present investigation the dry matter (DM losses of grass, lucerne and maize silages in farm scaled bunker silos were analysed. The method of determining DM losses was the total-in versus total-out DM mass flow of the silos, including the determination of DM content and other silage parameters via manual sampling. The results taken from 48 silos showed on average for all investigated crops 9–12% of DM losses. Density and feed out rate showed a negative correlation to DM losses in maize silages. According to the applied method for determining DM losses on farm scale, a guideline of 8% can be suggested for maximum DM losses in bunker silos for grass and maize silages. The described method seems to be applicable for improving the feed management by using largely automated measurements on the harvest and feeding side.

  2. Composição bromatológica e perfil fermentativo da silagem de capim-elefante obtida em diferentes tipos de silos experimentais e no silo tipo trincheira Chemical composition and fermentation characteristics of elephantgrass silage obtained in different experimental and bunker silos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique Mazza Rodrigues

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Três diferentes tipos de silos experimentais, confeccionados a partir de baldes plásticos, sacos plásticos e manilhas de concreto não impermeabilizadas, foram comparados com o silo comercial tipo trincheira, amostrado a 30 e 60 cm da sua superfície, para a ensilagem do capim-elefante (cv. Napier. Utilizaram-se, ainda, dois diferentes graus de compactação, correspondentes a 400 ou 600 kg de silagem/m³. O capim (33,0% de MS e 4,2% de PB foi homogeneizado e utilizado para encher quatro silos por tratamento, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado. Depois de abertos, estes foram amostrados, para análise da composição bromatológica e do perfil fermentativo. Silagens produzidas em manilhas de concreto não impermeabilizadas apresentaram altos valores de pH, NIDA e lignina, baixas concentrações de ácido lático e nitrogênio amoniacal, baixo poder tampão e baixa digestibilidade in vitro. Silagens produzidas em silos experimentais apresentaram qualidade superior, quanto aos parâmetros amido, carboidratos solúveis, concentração de nitrogênio amoniacal, poder tampão, ácidos acético, propiônico, butírico e lático, do que aquelas produzidas no silo comercial. Silagens obtidas dos diferentes extratos do silo comercial apresentaram maior variabilidade para os parâmetros de fermentação do que aquelas obtidas entre diferentes tipos de silos experimentais.One type of commercial silo and three types of experimental silos were used for determination of chemical composition and fermentation characteristics of elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum (33.0% DM and 4.2% CP ensiled in two different densities (400 or 600 kg of silage/m³: 1 commercial bunker silo sampled at 30 (top and 60 (deep cm from the top; 2 plastic silo with bulsen valve; 3 plastic bag; and 4 concrete pipe. A completely randomized design was used. The concrete pipe silo produced silage with higher pH, ADIN and lignin values, as well as lower in vitro

  3. Fighting fire with gas. CO{sub 2} extinguishes smouldering fires in biomass silos and waste bunkers; Effizientes Feuerwehr-Gas. CO{sub 2} loescht Schwelbraende in Biomasse-Silos und Abfallbunkern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2011-07-01

    Organic materials are a great source of energy and so biomass is in big demand. But wherever large amounts of wood, waste and straw are stored in huge silos, there is also a risk of smouldering fires and even explosions. Conventional methods are relatively ineffective at extinguishing fires such as these. But a new extinguishing system from Linde uses CO{sub 2} to effectively fight smouldering fires at the source. (orig.)

  4. Bunker purchasing with contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Christian Edinger Munk; Neergaard Jensen, Peter; Pisinger, David

    2014-01-01

    The cost for bunker fuel represents a major part of the daily running costs of liner shipping vessels. The vessels, sailing on a fixed roundtrip of ports, can lift bunker at these ports, having differing and fluctuating prices. The stock of bunker on a vessel is subject to a number of operational...... optimally to reduce overall costs. The Bunker Purchasing with Contracts Problem has been formulated as a mixed integer programme, which has been Dantzig-Wolfe decomposed. To solve it, a novel column generation algorithm has been developed. The algorithm has been run on a series of real-world instances...

  5. Bioremediation of bunker C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emery, D.D.

    1992-01-01

    Bioremediation works extremely well for most common hydrocarbons including aviation fuel, heating oil and diesel oil. Bunker C, a high boiling point distillate, is the most recalcitrant hydrocarbon for treatment and is the topic of this paper. Bioremediation, Inc. has had an opportunity to perform two projects involving soil contaminated with bunker C. One was at a bulk terminal site which involved predominantly diesel, but also had bunker C contamination; the other was a paper-mill site which had exclusively bunker C contamination. This paper will address the authors' experiences at the paper-mill site. Bunker C lives up to its reputation of being a very recalcitrant hydrocarbon to biodegrade. They have demonstrated, however, that the soil matrix standards at industrial sites in Washington and Oregon can be achieved using new bioremediation techniques. These techniques are necessary over those typically used to biodegrade jet fuel, heating oil and diesel oil. These extra steps, as discussed later, have been developed for their own use in their treatability laboratory

  6. Bioremediation of Bunker C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emery, D.D.

    1992-01-01

    In the states of Washington and Oregon, the highest priority for waste management is now given to recycling, reuse and permanent solutions as opposed to landfill disposal. Bioremediation is recognized as a treatment of choice over other technologies that do not provide permanent solutions. From a business point of view, it is usually the most cost-effective. Bioremediation works extremely well for most common hydrocarbons including aviation fuel, heating oil and diesel oil. Bunker C, a high boiling point distillate, is the most recalcitrant hydrocarbon for treatment and is the topic of this paper. Bunker C lives up to its reputation of being a very recalcitrant hydrocarbon to biodegrade. The authors have demonstrated, however, that the soil matrix standards at industrial sites in Washington and Oregon can be achieved using new bioremediation techniques. These techniques are necessary over those typically used to biodegrade jet fuel, heating oil and diesel oil. These extra steps have been developed for our own use in our treatability laboratory

  7. New frontier in silo technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1923-01-01

    This paper reviews recent developments in the design of silo walls and discharge systems. The Eurosilo and Coal shell systems are described, briefly. The use of tapered concrete sidewalls in silo construction is discussed. The application of computer aided design to silo walls is considered.

  8. Nuevo silo – Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt, W.

    1971-11-01

    Full Text Available The firm Waagner-Biro, collaborating with Farbwerke Hoechst, AG., of Frankfurt, and with assistance from the Austrian Government, has designed and produced a new type of silo, made of steel, intended for use in underdeveloped countries, in emergency areas, and in any zone where silos are needed which can be rapidly assembled and taken down, are light in weight and easy to transport. These silos can contain solids, liquids, and, with a special external treatment, also aggressive chemicals for agricultural purposes.La firma Waagner-Biro, en colaboración con la Farbwerke Hoechst AG de Frankfurt y bajo la eficaz promoción del Gobierno austríaco, fabrica este moderno silo de acero-trevira destinado a cubrir las necesidades de países en vía de desarrollo, de zonas catastróficas y, en general, de cualquier lugar donde se requiera gran rapidez de montaje y desmontaje, poco peso propio y facilidad subsiguiente de transporte y celeridad de entrega. Puede contener productos sólidos y líquidos y, aplicándole un recubrimiento especial, incluso materias químicas biológicamente agresivas.

  9. Monitoring of bunker fuel consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faber, J.; Nelissen, D.; Smit, M.

    2013-03-15

    Monitoring of fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions from international shipping is currently under discussion at the EU level as well as at the IMO (International Maritime Organization). There are several approaches to monitoring, each with different characteristics. Based on a survey of the literature and information from equipment suppliers, this report analyses the four main methods for monitoring emissions: (1) Bunker delivery notes (i.e. a note provided by the bunker fuel supplier specifying, inter alia, the amount of fuel bunkered); (2) Tank sounding (i.e. systems for measuring the amount of fuel in the fuel tanks); (3) Fuel flow meters (i.e. systems for measuring the amount of fuel supplied to the engines, generators or boilers); and (4) Direct emissions monitoring (i.e. measuring the exhaust emissions in the stack). The report finds that bunker delivery notes and tank soundings have the lowest investment cost. However, unless tank sounding is automated, these systems have higher operational costs than fuel flow meters or direct emissions monitoring because manual readings have to be entered in monitoring systems. Fuel flow meters have the highest potential accuracy. Depending on the technology selected, their accuracy can be an order of magnitude better than the other systems, which typically have errors of a few percent. By providing real-time feed-back on fuel use or emissions, fuel flow meters and direct emissions monitoring provide ship operators with the means to train their crew to adopt fuel-efficient sailing methods and to optimise their maintenance and hull cleaning schedules. Except for bunker delivery notes, all systems allow for both time-based and route-based (or otherwise geographically delineated) systems.

  10. Silo Storage Preconceptual Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephanie L. Austad; Patrick W. Bragassa; Kevin M Croft; David S Ferguson; Scott C Gladson; Annette L Shafer; John H Weathersby

    2012-09-01

    The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) has a need to develop and field a low-cost option for the long-term storage of a variety of radiological material. The storage option’s primary requirement is to provide both environmental and physical protection of the materials. Design criteria for this effort require a low initial cost and minimum maintenance over a 50-year design life. In 1999, Argonne National Laboratory-West was tasked with developing a dry silo storage option for the BN-350 Spent Fuel in Aktau Kazakhstan. Argon’s design consisted of a carbon steel cylinder approximately 16 ft long, 18 in. outside diameter and 0.375 in. wall thickness. The carbon steel silo was protected from corrosion by a duplex coating system consisting of zinc and epoxy. Although the study indicated that the duplex coating design would provide a design life well in excess of the required 50 years, the review board was concerned because of the novelty of the design and the lack of historical use. In 2012, NNSA tasked Idaho National Laboratory (INL) with reinvestigating the silo storage concept and development of alternative corrosion protection strategies. The 2012 study, “Silo Storage Concepts, Cathodic Protection Options Study” (INL/EST-12-26627), concludes that the option which best fits the design criterion is a passive cathotic protection scheme, consisting of a carbon steel tube coated with zinc or a zinc-aluminum alloy encapsulated in either concrete or a cement grout. The hot dipped zinc coating option was considered most efficient, but the flame-sprayed option could be used if a thicker zinc coating was determined to be necessary.

  11. Lining bunker walls with oxygen barrier film reduces nutrient losses in corn silages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, L M; Dos Santos, J P; Casagrande, D R; Ávila, C L S; Lara, M S; Bernardes, T F

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate 2 systems for covering corn silage in bunker silos. The first system consisted of a sheet of 45-μm-thick oxygen barrier film (OB, polyethylene + ethylene-vinyl alcohol) placed along the length of the sidewall before filling. After filling, the excess film was pulled over the wall on top of the silage, and a sheet of polyethylene was placed on top. The second system involved using a standard sheet (ST) of 180-μm-thick polyethylene film. Eight commercial bunker silos were divided into 2 parts lengthwise so that one-half of the silo was covered with OB and the other half with a ST system. During the filling, 3 net bags with chopped corn were buried in the central part (halfway between the top and bottom of the silo) of the bunkers (CCOR) in 3 sections 10 m apart. After filling, 18 net bags (9 per covering system) were buried 40 cm below the top surface of the 3 sections. These bags were placed at 3 distances from the bunker walls (0 to 50 cm, 51 to 100 cm, and 101 to 150 cm). During unloading, the bags were removed from the silos to determine the dry matter (DM) losses, fermentation end products, and nutritive value. The Milk2006 spreadsheet was used to estimate milk per tonne of DM. The model included the fixed effect of treatment (7 different locations in the bunker) and the random effect of the silo. Two contrasts were tested to compare silages in the top laterals (shoulders) with that in the CCOR (CCOR vs. OB and CCOR vs. ST). Three contrasts compared the corresponding distances of the silage covered by the 2 systems (OB50 vs. ST50, OB100 vs. ST100 and OB150 vs. ST150). Variables were analyzed with the PROC MIXED procedure of the SAS at the 5% level. The OB method produced well-fermented silages, which were similar to CCOR, whereas the OB system showed less lactic acid and greater pH and mold counts compared with CCOR. The ST method had 116.2 kg of milk/t less than the CCOR, as the OB system and the CCOR were similar

  12. Siloette, Siloe mock-up; Siloette, modele nucleaire de siloe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delcroix, V; Jeanne, G; Mitault, G; Schulhof, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    Siloette is the Siloe mock-up. The main installations are described: various tanks, building, auxiliaries, control systems... Precis ions are given about precautions taken for using spent fuel elements. (authors) [French] Siloette est le modele nucleaire de SILOE. On decrit ses diverses installations: bassins, batiments, auxiliaires, controle... Des precisions sont donnees sur les precautions prises pour y utiliser des elements uses. (auteurs)

  13. Tramp ship routing and scheduling with integrated bunker optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilhelmsen, Charlotte; Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    is referred to as bunker and bunker costs constitute a significant part of the daily operating costs. There can be great variations in bunker prices across bunker ports so it is important to carefully plan bunkering for each ship. As ships operate 24 hours a day, they must refuel during operations. Therefore...... and scheduling phase and present a mixed integer programming formulation for the integrated problem of optimally routing, scheduling and bunkering a tramp fleet. Aside from the integration of bunker, this model also extends standard tramp formulations by using load dependent costs, speed and bunker consumption...

  14. Siloette, Siloe mock-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delcroix, V.; Jeanne, G.; Mitault, G.; Schulhof, P.

    1964-01-01

    Siloette is the Siloe mock-up. The main installations are described: various tanks, building, auxiliaries, control systems... Precis ions are given about precautions taken for using spent fuel elements. (authors) [fr

  15. temperature fluctuation inside inert atmosphere silos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    significant difference in the mean temperature at different position or sections of the silos and as well between the two silos. ... environment since the constituents are present normally in ... fungi, thereby reducing the production of mycotoxins;.

  16. Estudo comparativo de diferentes tipos de silos sobre a composição bromatológica e perfil fermentativo da silagem de milho Comparative studies on chemical composition and fermentation characteristics of corn silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laércio Melotti

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Três diferentes tipos de silos de laboratório, confeccionados a partir de baldes plásticos, sacos plásticos e manilhas de concreto com revestimento plástico, em dois diferentes graus de compactação (400 ou 600 kg de silagem/m3, foram comparados com o silo comercial tipo trincheira amostrado a 0, 50 e 100 cm da sua superfície. A planta de milho (27,3% de MS e 8,4% de PB foi picada, homogeneizada e utilizada para encher quatro silos por tratamento. Depois de abertos, estes foram amostrados para análise da composição bromatológica e perfil fermentativo. Os teores de MS e PB variaram entre os diferentes extratos do silo comercial e foram intermediários nos silos laboratoriais, indicando maior translocação de água e nutrientes naquele do que nestes. Os silos laboratoriais representaram bem os comerciais, quanto aos componentes da parede celular, amido, carboidratos solúveis e DIVMS. O pH foi menor na silagem obtida no extrato médio, intermediário no profundo e maior na superfície do silo comercial. Silagens obtidas no extrato médio também apresentaram maiores teores de nitrogênio amoniacal e ácido lático, enquanto que as obtidas no extrato profundo apresentaram as concentrações mais elevadas de ácido acético. De forma geral, os silos laboratoriais representaram bem o perfil de fermentação dos silos comerciais (pH, concentração de etanol, acético, propiônico, butírico, lático e N amoniacal, já que a maior variabilidade de resposta foi observada entre os extratos do silo comercialA commercial bunker silo and three types of experimental silos were used for determination of chemical composition and fermentation characteristics of corn silage (27.3% DM and 8.4% CP ensiled in two different densities (400 or 600kg of silage/m3: 1 commercial bunker silo sampled at 0, 50 and 100 cm from the top; 2 plastic silo with bulsen valve; 3 plastic bag; and 4 concrete pipe. Dry matter and CP concentration showed larger variation

  17. Bunker Hill Sediment Characterization Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neal A. Yancey; Debby F. Bruhn

    2009-12-01

    The long history of mineral extraction in the Coeur d’Alene Basin has left a legacy of heavy metal laden mine tailings that have accumulated along the Coeur d’Alene River and its tributaries (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2001; Barton, 2002). Silver, lead and zinc were the primary metals of economic interest in the area, but the ores contained other elements that have become environmental hazards including zinc, cadmium, lead, arsenic, nickel, and copper. The metals have contaminated the water and sediments of Lake Coeur d’Alene, and continue to be transported downstream to Spokane Washington via the Spokane River. In 1983, the EPA listed the Bunker Hill Mining and Metallurgical Complex on the National Priorities List. Since that time, many of the most contaminated areas have been stabilized or isolated, however metal contaminants continue to migrate through the basin. Designation as a Superfund site causes significant problems for the economically depressed communities in the area. Identification of primary sources of contamination can help set priorities for cleanup and cleanup options, which can include source removal, water treatment or no action depending on knowledge about the mobility of contaminants relative to water flow. The mobility of contaminant mobility under natural or engineered conditions depends on multiple factors including the physical and chemical state (or speciation) of metals and the range of processes, some of which can be seasonal, that cause mobilization of metals. As a result, it is particularly important to understand metal speciation (National Research Council, 2005) and the link between speciation and the rates of metal migration and the impact of natural or engineered variations in flow, biological activity or water chemistry.

  18. Impact resistance cryogenic bunker fuel tanks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voormeeren, L.O.; Atli-Veltin, B.; Vredeveldt, A.W.

    2014-01-01

    The increasing use of liquefied natural gas (LNG) as bunker fuel in ships, calls for an elaborate study regarding the risks involved. One particular issue is the vulnerability of cryogenic LNG storage tanks with respect to impact loadings, such as ship collisions and dropped objects. This requires

  19. Silos. Optimisation of underground storages' management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Formaggio, M.

    1997-01-01

    The operation of Silos in the optimization of storages' management at Snam is presented, together with an assessment of the benefits obtained through closer attention and higher commitment of the staff, as well as better communication between Dispatching and other organizational functions. Silos has proven to be a useful decision-making tool, while applying traditional risk-assessment methods. (au)

  20. temperature fluctuation inside inert atmosphere silos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the two silos for twenty-eight (28) months of storage were recorded in order to monitor temperature fluctuation at different sections inside the inert atmosphere silos loaded with two varieties of wheat namely LACRIWHT-2 (Cettia) and LACRIWHT-4 (Atilla-Gan-Atilla) from Lake Chad Research Institute, Maiduguri, Nigeria.

  1. 19 CFR 10.62 - Bunker fuel oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bunker fuel oil. 10.62 Section 10.62 Customs... Equipment for Vessels § 10.62 Bunker fuel oil. (a) Withdrawal under section 309, Tariff Act of 1930, as... section 309, Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (19 U.S.C. 1309), when all the bunker fuel oil in a Customs...

  2. Characterization of Fernald Silo 3 Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C.A.

    2001-04-04

    This report summarizes characterization results for uranium residues from the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) Operable Unit (OU-4). These residues are currently stored in a one-million-gallon concrete silo, Silo 3, at the DOE Fernald Site, Ohio. Characterization of the Silo 3 waste is the first part of a three part study requested by Rocky Mountain Remedial Services (RMRS) through a Work for others Agreement, WFO-00-007, between the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) and RMRS. Parts 2 and 3 of this effort include bench- and pilot-scale testing.

  3. The valuation of commercial grain silos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The valuation of grain silos is a complex exercise when one considers all the variables that affect their ... their grains, larger grain-processing companies, traders, importers or exporters that have ..... 2015: personal interview). The percentages ...

  4. Statistical analysis of silo wall pressures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Berntsen, Kasper Nikolaj

    1998-01-01

    Previously published silo wall pressure measurements during plug flow of barley in alarge concrete silo are re-analysed under the hypothesis that the wall pressures are gamma-distributed.The fits of the gamma distribution type to the local pressure data from each measuring cell are satisfactory.......However, the estimated parameters of the gamma distributions turn out to be significantly inhomogeneous overthe silo wall surface. This inhomogeneity is attributed to the geometrical imperfections of the silo wall.Motivated by the engineering importance of the problem a mathematical model for constructing astochastic...... gamma-type continuous pressure field is given. The model obeys the necessary equilibrium conditionsof the wall pressure field and reflects the spatial correlation properties as estimated from simultaneouslymeasured pressures at different locations along a horizontal perimeter....

  5. The four silo STK Powderhorn Tape Library

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2001-01-01

    A view of the four silo Storage Tek (STK) Powderhorn Tape Library and its control area. Each silo can contain up to 6000 storage slots with cartridges of 10, 20, 25 or 50 GB capacity, reaching a data transfer rate of up to 12 Mbytes/sec. This will form part of the Grid system that will process the huge amounts of data produced at the LHC.

  6. The Tilt of the Elevator Shaft of Bunker Skutina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel KALENDA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of deformations of the elevator shaft in the Skutina fortress between the 2nd floor and the depth of 33 m below the surface took place in 2009. These measurements showed that, in addition to the tides, the diurnal thermoelastic wave deforms the body of the bunker, particularly in the NS direction. The amplitude of this deformation depends mainly on the cloudiness (opposite to the irradiance. Morning and evening deformation curves depend mainly on the time of sunrise and the geometry of the body of the bunker (irradiance of the bunker walls and less of the outside temperature.

  7. Bunker C tank cars derailment in remote region of Labrador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinto, I.; Preziosi, L.

    1995-01-01

    Methods of cleaning up following a 1994 train derailment involving six Bunker C tank cars in a remote region of Labrador were described. 345,000 litres of Bunker C spilled in a ditch, through a culvert and into a section of the Summit River. Methods used in the reclamation of the bunker oil from the tank cars, from inside the culvert, and from the bottom of the Summit River were also reviewed.Principal problems encountered in the clean-up included severe winter conditions, remoteness of the spill site, and the onset of spring breakup. 3 figs., 3 tabs

  8. Los empujes del material almacenado en silos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayuga, Francisco

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available The design of silos has been the object of scientific and technical research for a whole century and this has led to great advances in the field. The results have not always been adequately disseminated among the technicians. The aim of this paper is to present the techniques for calculation of the loads of the materials stored in silos, inform about and comment on the standards, introduce the latest works carried out worldwide based on the finite elements method and, lastly, venture an opinion on the changes this may cause in the future.

    Durante un siglo el cálculo de silos ha sido objeto de investigación científica, técnica y aplicada y se han producido grandes avances. Todo este desarrollo no siempre ha sido bien dado a conocer entre los técnicos. El objeto de este artículo es precisamente presentar las técnicas de cálculo de acciones del material almacenado en silos, presentar y comentar la normativa, introducir los últimos trabajos que en el cálculo de silos se están haciendo en todo el mundo basados en la técnica de los elementos finitos y aventurar los cambios que esto va a suponer en un futuro.

  9. Fernald Silo Remote Retrieval Tool Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varma, V.K.

    2004-01-01

    A long-reach tool was developed to remove discrete objects from the silos at the Fernald Environmental Management Project in Ohio. If they are not removed, these objects can potentially cause problems during the retrieval and transfer of waste from the silos. Most of the objects are on top of the Bentogrout cap inside the silos at or near the primary opening into the tank and will therefore require only vertical lifting. The objects are located about 20 ft from the top of the silo. Although most of the objects can be retrieved from 20 ft, the long-reach tool was designed to for a reach up to 40 ft in case objects roll towards the walls of the tank or need to be removed during heel retrieval operations. This report provides a detailed description of the tool that was developed, tested, and demonstrated at the Tanks Technology Cold Test Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Scaffolding was erected over two experimental cells to simulate the 40-ft maximum working depth anticipated in the silos at Fernald. Plastic bottles and plastic sheeting simulated the debris that could be encountered during waste retrieval operations

  10. Stress distribution in two-dimensional silos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Rodríguez, Rodolfo; Pérez-Ángel, Gabriel

    2018-01-01

    Simulations of a polydispersed two-dimensional silo were performed using molecular dynamics, with different numbers of grains reaching up to 64 000, verifying numerically the model derived by Janssen and also the main assumption that the walls carry part of the weight due to the static friction between grains with themselves and those with the silo's walls. We vary the friction coefficient, the radii dispersity, the silo width, and the size of grains. We find that the Janssen's model becomes less relevant as the the silo width increases since the behavior of the stresses becomes more hydrostatic. Likewise, we get the normal and tangential stress distribution on the walls evidencing the existence of points of maximum stress. We also obtained the stress matrix with which we observe zones of concentration of load, located always at a height around two thirds of the granular columns. Finally, we observe that the size of the grains affects the distribution of stresses, increasing the weight on the bottom and reducing the normal stress on the walls, as the grains are made smaller (for the same total mass of the granulate), giving again a more hydrostatic and therefore less Janssen-type behavior for the weight of the column.

  11. Application of electrostatic prevention technology on polyethylene silos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, Hong; Liu, Quanzhen; Tan, Fenggui; Zhang, Yunpeng

    2013-01-01

    The main reasons of static electric explosion accidents in polyolefin plant silos were analyzed in this paper, and the study finds that the reasons include control failure of flammable gas content in the feed, high electrification caused by the wind supply, and frequent electrostatic discharge in silos. The electrostatic-reducing technologies of polyolefin powder were introduced, and its application performance in polyolefin plant silos was also clarified. In addition, the methods including FDCS and DGES for evaluation of electrostatic explosion in polyolefin plant silo were proposed. In the end, the risk of electrostatic explosion in PE plant blended silo was evaluated before and after application of electrostatic reducing technology.

  12. Bunker door interlock limit issues of K-130 cyclotron, VECC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srihari, K.; Ravishankar, R.; Mitra, M.S.; Mishra, S.K.; Bandyopadhyay, T.; Sarkar, P.K.

    2011-01-01

    The K-130 cyclotron is in operation at VECC, Kolkata. Recently modernization of the cyclotron has taken place. Central region modification has increased reasonable internal beam current. During the tuning of the projectiles, loss of beam is unavoidable and projectiles hitting different parts of the machine inside the vacuum chamber . These interactions produce prompt radiation comprising neutron and gamma. However machine bunker is not accessible during the operation of the machine. The induced activity produced because of interactions of the primary and secondary radiation a radiation hazardous environment during the shut down for the related maintenance work. Area radiation monitors placed at machine bunker room have the interlock with massive shield door of the bunker. Area radiation monitors are set to specified limiting value, lower than that will allow to open the shield door in normal condition. As, the internal beam current being increased and the probability of beam spread being more. Consequently generation of induced activity is also high leading to delay in machine bunker door opening because of the interlock settings. Radiation dose mapping after a long operation of the machine was done for the different strategic points (The locations mainly people access immediate after shut down). Different consequences and remedial measures being presented in paper to raise the dose rate limit level for the interlocks between the area radiation monitors with machine bunker door, keeping in mind of the regulatory requirements. Raising the limit of dose rate limiting value will minimize the waiting time to access the machine bunker which will increase the duty factor of the machine. (author)

  13. Granular Silo collapse: an experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Eric; Gutierriez, Gustavo; Boltenhagen, Philippe; Lanuza, Jose

    2008-03-01

    We present an experimental work that develop some basic insight into the pre-buckling behavior and the buckling transition toward plastic collapse of a granular silo. We study different patterns of deformation generated on thin paper cylindrical shells during granular discharge. We study the collapse threshold for different bed height, flow rates and grain sizes. We compare the patterns that appear during the discharge of spherical beads, with those obtained in the axially compressed cylindrical shells. When the height of the granular column is close to the collapse threshold, we describe a ladder like pattern that rises around the cylinder surface in a spiral path of diamond shaped localizations, and develops into a plastic collapsing fold that grows around the collapsing silo.

  14. Routing and Scheduling in Tramp Shipping - Integrating Bunker Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilhelmsen, Charlotte; Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper

    A tramp ship operator typically has some contracted cargoes that must be carried and seeks to maximize pro_t by carrying optional cargoes. Hence, tramp ships operate much like taxies following available cargoes and not according to a _xed route network and itinerary as liner ships. Marine fuel...... and bunker consumption. We devise a solution method based on column generation with a dynamic programming algorithm to generate columns. The method is heuristic mainly due to a discretization of the continuous bunker purchase variables. We show that the integrated planning approach can increase pro...

  15. Influence of particle size in silo discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gella Diego

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently Janda et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 248001 (2012] reported an experimental study where it was measured the velocity and volume fraction fields of 1 mm diameter stainless steel beads in the exit of a two-dimensional silo. In that work, they proposed a new expression to predict the flow of granular media in silos which does not explicitly include the particle size as a parameter. Here, we study if effectively, there is not such influence of the particle size in the flux equations as well as investigate any possible effect in the velocity and volume fraction fields. To this end, we have performed high speed motion measurements of these magnitudes in a two-dimensional silo filled with 4 mm diameter beads of stainless steel, the same material than the previous works. A developed tracking program has been implemented to obtain at the same time both, the velocity and volume fraction. The final objective of this work has been to extend and generalize the theoretical framework of Janda et al. for all sizes of particles. We have found that the obtained functionalities are the same than in the 1 mm case, but the exponents and other fitting parameters are different.

  16. Time in a Timeless Environment My Life in a Bunker

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 3. Time in a Timeless Environment My Life in a Bunker. L Geetha. General Article Volume 1 Issue 3 March 1996 pp 66-77. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/001/03/0066-0077 ...

  17. Finite element analysis of CFRP reinforced silo structure design method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Long; Xu, Xinsheng

    2017-11-01

    Because of poor construction, there is a serious problem of concrete quality in the silo project, which seriously affects the safe use of the structure. Concrete quality problems are mainly seen in three aspects: concrete strength cannot meet the design requirements, concrete cracking phenomenon is serious, and the unreasonable concrete vibration leads to a lot of honeycombs and surface voids. Silos are usually reinforced by carbon fiber cloth in order to ensure the safe use of silos. By the example of an alumina silo in a fly ash plant in Binzhou, Shandong Province, the alumina silo project was tested and examined on site. According to filed test results, the actual concrete strength was determined, and the damage causes of the silo was analysed. Then, a finite element analysis model of this silo was established, the CFRP cloth reinforcement method was adopted to strengthen the silo, and other technology like additional reinforcement, rebar planting, carbon fiber bonding technology was also expounded. The research of this paper is of great significance to the design and construction of silo structure.

  18. Press tour Siloe CEA/GRENOBLE; Voyage de presse Siloe CEA/GRENOBLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    The experimental reactor, Siloe, has been stopped the 23 december 1997. This paper of the Cea Grenoble, presents the historical aspects of this reactor and its missions. It gives then a global description of the stopping and dismantling procedure, with the planning, the financing and the human impacts of the operation. The wastes management is also takes into account. (A.L.B.)

  19. Large-scale Homogenization of Bulk Materials in Mammoth Silos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schott, D.L.

    2004-01-01

    This doctoral thesis concerns the large-scale homogenization of bulk materials in mammoth silos. The objective of this research was to determine the best stacking and reclaiming method for homogenization in mammoth silos. For this purpose a simulation program was developed to estimate the

  20. Efficacy of heat treatment for disinfestation of concrete grain silos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field experiments were conducted in 2007 and 2008 to evaluate heat treatment for disinfestations of empty concrete elevator silos. A Mobile Heat Treatment Unit was used to introduce heat into silos to attain target conditions of 50°C for at least 6 h. Ventilated plastic containers with a capacity of...

  1. Slip-stick excitation and travelling waves excite silo honking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warburton Katarzyna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Silo honking is the harmonic sound generated by the discharge of a silo filled with a granular material. In industrial storage silos, the acoustic emission during discharge of PET-particles forms a nuisance for the environment and may ultimately result in structural failure. This work investigates the phenomenon experimentally using a laboratory-scale silo, and successfully correlates the frequency of the emitted sound with the periodicity of the mechanical motion of the grains. The key driver is the slip-stick interaction between the wall and the particles, characterized as a wave moving upwards through the silo. A quantitative correlation is established for the first time between the frequency of the sound, measured with an electret microphone, and the slip-frequency, measured with a high-speed camera. In the lower regions of the tube, both the slip-stick motion and the honking sound disappear.

  2. Slip-stick excitation and travelling waves excite silo honking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburton, Katarzyna; Porte, Elze; Vriend, Nathalie

    2017-06-01

    Silo honking is the harmonic sound generated by the discharge of a silo filled with a granular material. In industrial storage silos, the acoustic emission during discharge of PET-particles forms a nuisance for the environment and may ultimately result in structural failure. This work investigates the phenomenon experimentally using a laboratory-scale silo, and successfully correlates the frequency of the emitted sound with the periodicity of the mechanical motion of the grains. The key driver is the slip-stick interaction between the wall and the particles, characterized as a wave moving upwards through the silo. A quantitative correlation is established for the first time between the frequency of the sound, measured with an electret microphone, and the slip-frequency, measured with a high-speed camera. In the lower regions of the tube, both the slip-stick motion and the honking sound disappear.

  3. Carbon dioxide not suitable for extinguishment of smouldering silo fires: static electricity may cause silo explosion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedlund, Frank Huess

    2018-01-01

    argues that injection of inert carbon dioxide into the silo headspace is unsafe. Carbon dioxide is generally available as a liquid under high pressure. When discharged, small particles of dry ice are formed. The rapid flow of particles can generate considerable amounts of static electricity, which can...... act as a source of ignition if ignitable pyrolysis gasses are present. This article discusses a serious wood pellet smouldering fire and silo explosion in Norway in 2010, which took place when firefighters discharged portable CO2 fire extinguishers into the headspace. The attempt to suppress the fire...... may have ignited pyrolysis gasses. The article examines selected guidelines, standards, popular wood pellet handbooks and other literature and argues that the electrostatic hazard is widely under-appreciated. In the past, major explosions have been attributed to electrostatic ignition of flammable...

  4. Solar grain drier associated with underground silo; Secador solar para graos associado a silo subterraneo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braga, C.A.S.; Armond, G.; Oliveira, G.M. da; Correa, H.G.; Moreira, C.A.; Martins, F.P.

    1992-12-31

    This paper refers to the design and test of a system including a drier with solar heating and an underground silo for grain storage intend for small farms. The tests showed good performance of the system. Three tons of moist corn were dried. Drying time and area were reduced by 14 and 90% respectively when compared with the traditional drying on brick flat surfaces. (author) 8 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Silo outflow of soft frictionless spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashour, Ahmed; Trittel, Torsten; Börzsönyi, Tamás; Stannarius, Ralf

    2017-12-01

    Outflow of granular materials from silos is a remarkably complex physical phenomenon that has been extensively studied with simple objects like monodisperse hard disks in two dimensions (2D) and hard spheres in 2D and 3D. For those materials, empirical equations were found that describe the discharge characteristics. Softness adds qualitatively new features to the dynamics and to the character of the flow. We report a study of the outflow of soft, practically frictionless hydrogel spheres from a quasi-2D bin. Prominent features are intermittent clogs, peculiar flow fields in the container, and a pronounced dependence of the flow rate and clogging statistics on the container fill height. The latter is a consequence of the ineffectiveness of Janssen's law: the pressure at the bottom of a bin containing hydrogel spheres grows linearly with the fill height.

  6. De portadas y retablos: Siloe y Vandelvira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz de Ulierte Vázquez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Partiendo de Siloe y su portada del Perdón de la Catedral de Granada, Andrés de Vandelvira realiza con ciertas diferencias la principal del Salvador de Úbeda, convirtiéndola en una portada-retablo. La obra será punto de partida para una serie de portadas giennenses y para la introducción del lenguaje del retablo como arquitectura en la provincia de Jaén. En la de Granada, aparte de en Guadahortuna, la del Perdón no tendrá descendencia directa: el paradigma para las parroquiales de la provincia será el tipo de otras portadas de su Catedral, y sus retablos se convertirán al lenguaje arquitectónico algo más tardíamente.

  7. Exploring the Impact of Silos in Achieving Brand Orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyrd-Jones, Richard I.; Helm, Clive; Munk, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    the achievement of brand orientation. Through inductive analysis of a case study of an organisation implementing a major brand-revitalisation strategy, this paper demonstrates how, despite a strong brand vision and high level of management commitment, functional silos associated with different mindsets......Brands are widely recognised as important sources of organisational value. Brand orientation describes the extent to which the organisation is orientated around the brand and around maximising brand potential. However, silos or divisions within the culture of an organisation can frustrate...... contributed to the failure of the new brand strategy. The paper concludes with recommendations for the brand platform to be implemented meaningfully and effectively within each silo....

  8. Development And Evaluation Of A Prototype Household Wooden Silo

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A prototype household wooden silo with 8 kg capacity for storing shelled maize was designed, constructed and evaluated for performance. The structure was rectangular in shape, of total height of 0.6 m and width of 0.3 m, with a conical top inclined at an angle of 30 º with 0.1 m height and 0.3 m width. The silo had a top ...

  9. Armazenamento de soja em silos tipo bolsa Soybean storage in bag type silos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lêda R. A. Faroni

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se as principais alterações qualitativas de soja armazenada em silos tipo bolsa e do óleo bruto extraído de soja com teores de água de 17,4% e 13,3%, armazenada em dois silos tipo bolsa, por 180 dias. Realizaram-se amostragens no dia do enchimento das bolsas, aos 30; 90 e 180 dias de armazenamento. Analisaram-se o teor de água, a condutividade elétrica, o percentual de germinação, a massa específica aparente da soja, além do teor de ácidos graxos livres e o índice de peróxido do óleo bruto extraído dela. Os teores de água da soja armazenada úmida e seca mantiveram-se próximos dos valores obtidos no início do período de armazenamento. Observou-se tendência de elevação da condutividade elétrica e decréscimo do percentual de germinação somente na soja úmida, principalmente após 90 dias de armazenamento. Não foi verificado decréscimo da massa específica aparente do material armazenado úmido e seco. Com relação aos parâmetros qualitativos do óleo bruto, observou-se que os valores obtidos se mantiveram abaixo do limite máximo exigido pela legislação para a comercialização de óleo bruto de soja. Pode-se concluir que os silos tipo bolsa representam alternativa viável do ponto de vista qualitativo para armazenagem de soja, e esse tipo de estrutura não ocasiona alterações qualitativas significativas no óleo bruto obtido desse material, em condições similares àquelas deste estudo.This study reports major qualitative changes in the soybean grains and the extracted crude oil when stored in bag type silos. Grains with moisture content of 17.4 or 13.3% were stored in two bag type silos. Samples were taken 30, 90 and 180 days of storage , to determine moisture content, electric conductivity of the grain leachate, germination percentage, apparent specific grain mass, and free fatty acid content, and peroxide index of the crude oil extracted from these grains. The wet and dry grains remained with

  10. Routing and Scheduling in Tramp Shipping - Integrating Bunker Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilhelmsen, Charlotte; Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper

    A tramp ship operator typically has some contracted cargoes that must be carried and seeks to maximize proFIt by carrying optional cargoes. Hence, tramp ships operate much like taxies following available cargoes and not according to a fixed route network and itinerary as liner ships. Marine fuel....... We devise a solution method based on column generation with a dynamic programming algorithm to generate columns. The method is heuristic mainly due to a discretization of the continuous bunker purchase variables. We show that the integrated planning approach can increase profits and that the decision...

  11. Analysis of Cylindrical Granular Material Silos under Seismic Excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Butenweg

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Silos generally work as storage structures between supply and demand for various goods, and their structural safety has long been of interest to the civil engineering profession. This is especially true for dynamically loaded silos, e.g., in case of seismic excitation. Particularly thin-walled cylindrical silos are highly vulnerable to seismic induced pressures, which can cause critical buckling phenomena of the silo shell. The analysis of silos can be carried out in two different ways. In the first, the seismic loading is modeled through statically equivalent loads acting on the shell. Alternatively, a time history analysis might be carried out, in which nonlinear phenomena due to the filling as well as the interaction between the shell and the granular material are taken into account. The paper presents a comparison of these approaches. The model used for the nonlinear time history analysis considers the granular material by means of the intergranular strain approach for hypoplasticity theory. The interaction effects between the granular material and the shell is represented by contact elements. Additionally, soil–structure interaction effects are taken into account.

  12. Degradation modelling for the concrete silo in TVO's VLJ repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcorn, S.R.; Christian-Frear, T.L.; Wallace, M.

    1991-05-01

    Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO) is currendy construcing in Finland an underground repository (the VLJ repository) for storage of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes generated at the Olkiluoto (TVO I and TVO II) nuclear power plant. Intermediate level wastes will be emplaced inside a large concrete silo, which is the principal engineered barrier in the repository. The primary objective of the investigation is to develop an estimate of the length of time it will take for the silo to degrade due to interaction with groundwater to the point that it fails to perform as designed. A secondary objective is to develop a methodology to estimate the length of time required for radio nuclides to migrate from the region inside the silo through the silo wall and floor to the accessible environment as a function of cement and concrete properties. Chemical modeling techniques using the codes EQ3NR/EQ6 were employed to model the degradation of the repository concrete due to interaction with groundwater, and porous flow and diffusion modeling approaches were taken to: (1) estimate the time it would take groundwater and ions to travel into and out of the silo concrete, and (2) determine how these travel times change as the concrete degrades. The results of the investigation suggest that the hydraulic conductivity of the concrete will decrease over time because of the considerable net volume increase (net porosity decrease) from the chemical interactions. Therefore, it appears likely, based on the geochemical and mass transport models, that the silo win perform as required for at least its 500-year design life, and possibly much longer

  13. 30 CFR 56.16002 - Bins, hoppers, silos, tanks, and surge piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bins, hoppers, silos, tanks, and surge piles... MINES Materials Storage and Handling § 56.16002 Bins, hoppers, silos, tanks, and surge piles. (a) Bins, hoppers, silos, tanks, and surge piles, where loose unconsolidated materials are stored, handled or...

  14. 30 CFR 57.16002 - Bins, hoppers, silos, tanks, and surge piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bins, hoppers, silos, tanks, and surge piles... NONMETAL MINES Materials Storage and Handling § 57.16002 Bins, hoppers, silos, tanks, and surge piles. (a) Bins, hoppers, silos, tanks, and surge piles, where loose unconsolidated materials are stored, handled...

  15. Neutron area monitoring at storage bunkers of density/moisture gauges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Fuste, M.J. [Grup de Fisica de les Radiacions. Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (UAB), Edifici Cc, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Amgarou, K., E-mail: khalil.amgarou@uab.ca [Grup de Fisica de les Radiacions. Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (UAB), Edifici Cc, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Garcia-Orellana, J.; Domingo, C. [Grup de Fisica de les Radiacions. Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (UAB), Edifici Cc, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain)

    2010-12-15

    Previous studies remarked the need of performing neutron personal dosimetry, together with gamma dosimetry, when using portable density/moisture gauges that are normally equipped with gamma and neutron sources. The convenience of our Poly-Allyl-Diglycol-Carbonate (PADC) based neutron dosimeter to perform long-term routine survey of all workers involved in the transport, maintenance and usage of these gauges was also corroborated in the past. This complete dosimetric control offers the possibility to quantify simultaneously individual neutron and gamma doses of workers operating such devices, especially in the most frequent cleaning and maintenance (shutter lubrication) operations of the gauges or in emergency situations that may lead to radiological risk of the persons involved. Another aspect to be considered, from the radioprotection point of view, is the optimization of the occupational and public exposure in the storage bunkers of the gauges. In this work, three storage bunkers, located at three different factories of the PAYMA Cotas S.A.U company, have been monitored for three months using several units of our PADC based neutron dosimeter. Special care has been taken to study also offices near the bunkers with high occupancy rates and passage zones, such as toilets and access areas. Results for all monitored points inside and around the three storage bunkers are presented. Neutron doses inside the bunkers could be relatively high depending on the specific conditions (geometry configuration, localization and shielding composition) of the considered bunker and the number of portable gauges stored.

  16. Neutron area monitoring at storage bunkers of density/moisture gauges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Fuste, M.J.; Amgarou, K.; Garcia-Orellana, J.; Domingo, C.

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies remarked the need of performing neutron personal dosimetry, together with gamma dosimetry, when using portable density/moisture gauges that are normally equipped with gamma and neutron sources. The convenience of our Poly-Allyl-Diglycol-Carbonate (PADC) based neutron dosimeter to perform long-term routine survey of all workers involved in the transport, maintenance and usage of these gauges was also corroborated in the past. This complete dosimetric control offers the possibility to quantify simultaneously individual neutron and gamma doses of workers operating such devices, especially in the most frequent cleaning and maintenance (shutter lubrication) operations of the gauges or in emergency situations that may lead to radiological risk of the persons involved. Another aspect to be considered, from the radioprotection point of view, is the optimization of the occupational and public exposure in the storage bunkers of the gauges. In this work, three storage bunkers, located at three different factories of the PAYMA Cotas S.A.U company, have been monitored for three months using several units of our PADC based neutron dosimeter. Special care has been taken to study also offices near the bunkers with high occupancy rates and passage zones, such as toilets and access areas. Results for all monitored points inside and around the three storage bunkers are presented. Neutron doses inside the bunkers could be relatively high depending on the specific conditions (geometry configuration, localization and shielding composition) of the considered bunker and the number of portable gauges stored.

  17. Natural phenomena hazards evaluation of concrete silos 1, 2, 3 and 4 at Fernald, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Char, C.V.; Shiner, T.J.

    1995-08-01

    Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) is a United States Department of Energy (DOE) site located near Cincinnati, Ohio. FEMP was formerly established as the Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC) in 1951 under the Atomic Energy Commission. FEMP is currently undergoing site wide environmental remediation. This paper addresses four concrete silos built during the 1950s and located in Operable Unit 4 (OU-4). Silos 1 and 2 known as K-65 Silos contain residues from Uranium Ore processing. Silo 3 contains metal oxides in powder form. Silo 4 is empty. The Silos are categorized as low hazard facilities and the Natural Phenomena Hazards (NPH) performance category is PC-2, based on a recently completed safety analysis report. This paper describes the structural evaluation of concrete Silos 1, 2, 3 and 4 for NPH. Non Destructive Tests (NDT) were conducted to establish the current conditions of the silos. Analytical and computer methods were used to evaluate the stresses and displacements for different silo configurations and different loading combinations. Finite element models were developed to uniquely represent each silo, and analyzed using SAP90 computer program. The SAPLOT post processor was used for rapid determination of critical areas of concern for critical loading combinations and for varying silo configurations

  18. BKE: The catalogue of Bunker-Est Vesuvian station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarao, A.; Peresan, A.; Vaccari, F.; De Natale, G.; Mariano, A.

    2002-06-01

    A catalogue of 9003 earthquakes associated to the Vesuvian volcano activity as recorded at Bunker Est station (BKE), located on Mt. Vesuvius and operated by the Osservatorio Vesuviano (OV), is presented here. The aim of this catalogue is to integrate the information collected in the catalogue compiled by OV that contains the volcanic earthquakes recorded at station OVO (OVO catalogue) since February 1972. A brief statistical description of the data included in the catalogue BKE and of the empirical relations used for the estimate of the magnitude MBKE from the duration is provided, together with the essential information about the catalogue source. A complete list of the events reported in the catalogue BKE and a description of its format is given in the Appendix. The catalogue BKE has been realized with the cooperation of the University of Trieste - Department of Earth Sciences, the International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) - Structure and Non-linear Dynamics of the earth (SAND) Group, and the Osservatorio Vesuviano of Naples in the framework of the project 'Eruptive Scenarios from Physical Modeling and Experimental Volcanology' funded by INGV. (author)

  19. Seismic Base Isolators For A Silo Supporting Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bîtcă Daniel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A 3000 tones capacity silo, located in a seismic area with ground acceleration ag = 0,20g and TC =1,0s, was designed in a classical solution The supporting structure has an octagonal shape in planview, and columns with “Maltese cross sections”. The main lateral resisting system is made up of centric bracings with cross-section class I.

  20. Temporal evolution of the environmental dose remaining in a clinical irradiation bunker after the cessation of irradiation; Evolucion temporal de la Dosis ambiental remanente en un bunker de irradiacion clinica tras el cese de la irradiacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz Egea, E.; Sanchez Carrascal, M.; Torres Pozas, S.; Monja Ray, P. de la; Perez Molina, J. L.; Madan Rodriguez, C.; Luque Japon, L.; Morera Molina, A.; Hernandez Perez, A.; Barquero Bravo, Y.; Morengo Pedagna, I.; Oliva Gordillo, M. C.; Martin Olivar, R.

    2011-07-01

    In this paper we try to quantify the dose emitted by different radioactive processes that occur in the head of a clinical linear accelerator and the patient is irradiated, or walls of the bunker, converted into tertiary sources of radiation trying to establish the origin of the came in different parts of the bunker.

  1. Risks attached to container- and bunker-storage of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jager, D. de

    1987-12-01

    The results are presented of a literature study into the risks attached to the two dry-storage options selected by the Dutch Central Organization For Radioactive Waste (COVRA): the container- and the bunker-storage for irradiated nuclear-fuel elements and nuclear waste. Since the COVRA does not make it clear how these concepts should have to be realized, the experiences abroad with dry interim-storage are considered. In particular the Castor-container-storage and the bunker storage proposed in the committee MINSK (Possibilities of Interim-storage in the Netherlands of Irradiated nuclear-fuel elements and Nuclear waste) are studied further in depth. The committee MINSK has performed a study into the technical realizability of various interim-storage facilities, among which a storage in bunkers. (author). 75 refs.; 14 figs.; 16 tabs

  2. Ultrasound-assisted oxidative desulfurization of bunker-C oil using tert-butyl hydroperoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qiong; Lin, Song; Cheng, Ying; Liu, Sujun; Xiong, Jun-Ru

    2013-09-01

    This work investigated the ultrasonic assisted oxidative desulfurization of bunker-C oil with TBHP/MoO3 system. The operational parameters for the desulfurization procedure such as ultrasonic irradiation time, ultrasonic wave amplitude, catalyst initial concentration and oxidation agent initial concentration were studied. The experimental results show that the present oxidation system was very efficient for the desulfurization of bunker-C oil and ~35% sulfur was removed which was dependent on operational parameters. The application of ultrasonic irradiation allowed sulfur removal in a shorter time. The stronger the solvent polarity is, the higher the sulfur removal rate, but the recovery rate of oil is lower. The sulfur compounds in bunker-C oil reacted with TBHP to produce corresponding sulfoxide, and further oxidation produced the corresponding sulfone. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Temporal evolution of the environmental doce remaining in a clinical irradiation bunker after the cessation of irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz Egea, E.; Sanchez Carrascal, M.; Torres Pozas, S.; Monja Ray, P. de la; Perez Molina, J. L.; Madan Rodriguez, C.; Luque Japon, L.; Morera Molina, A.; Hernandez Perez, A.; Barquero Bravo, Y.; Morengo Pedagna, I.; Oliva Gordillo, M. C.; Martin Olivar, R.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we try to quantify tite doce emitted by different radioactive processes that occur in the head of a clinica. Linear accelerator and the patient is irradiated, or wallc of the bunker, converted into tertiary sources of radiation trying to ectablish tite origin of the came in different parts of the bunker.

  4. Use of maze in cyclotron hoppers; Utilizacao de labirinto em bunker de ciclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Fernando A.; Alves, Juliano S.; Fochesatto, Cintia; Cerioli, Luciane; Borges, Joao Alfredo; Gonzalez, Delfin; Silva, Daniel C., E-mail: fernandofernandes@biofarmaco.com.br [Delfin Farmacos e Derivados (Biofarmaco Marcadores Moleculares), Lauro de Freitas, BA (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Introduction: the increasing number of cyclotrons in Brazil due to constitutional amendment 49 /06 that enabled the production of radiopharmaceuticals with a short half - life by private companies. The radionuclides used for PET - CT require production centers near or within the diagnostic centers. In order to minimize maintenance and operating risks, gaining efficiency, our facility was the first in Brazil to use the access to a cyclotron bunker via maze, rather than armored door stopper type. Materials: the design calculations were based on the Monte Carlo method (MCNP5 - Monte Carlo N-Particletransportcode version 5). At the ends of the labyrinth are installed a door of polyethylene, for thermalization of neutrons, and other of wood for limiting access. Both legs of the maze have wall thickness of 100cm. In inspection Brazilian CNEN realize measures of dose rate for neutrons and gamma 9 points: 7 around the bunker, 1 over the bunker and 1 in the exhaust with the cyclotron operating with maximum load, double beam of 50uA for 2 hours. After commissioning were carried out around the bunker, the following measures: cumulative dose in three months with dosimeters for neutron rate dose with a gas proportional detector type filled with {sup 3}He and polyethylene neutron moderator and dose rate with a Geiger - Mueller detector for gamma radiation. Readings with neutron detectors were classified as background radiation and dose rates were always below the limits established in standard EN 3.01, and the calculation of the predicted regardless of the intensity of irradiation inside the bunker. Conclusion: the use of labyrinths as a way to access the bunkers cyclotron has been shown to be effective as the radiation shielding and efficient by allowing quick and easy access, virtually eliminating the maintenance.

  5. Development of the automated bunker door by using a microcontroller-system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, M. A.; Leo, K. W.; Mohamad, G. H. P.; Ahmad, A.; Hashim, S. A.; Chulan, R. M.; Baijan, A. H.

    2018-01-01

    The new low energy electron beam accelerator bunker was designed and built locally to allocate a 500 keV electron beam accelerator at Block 43T in Malaysian Nuclear Agency. This bunker is equipped with a locally made radiation shielding door of 10 tons. Originally, this door is moving manually by a wheel and fitted with a gear system. However, it is still heavy and need longer time to operate it manually. To overcome those issues, a new automated control system has been designed and developed. In this paper, the complete steps and design of automated control system based on the microcontroller (PIC16F84A) is described.

  6. Experimental silo-dryer-aerator for the storage of soybean grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo C. Coradi

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to verify the capacity of silo-dryer-aerator prototype equipment operating as a silo-storage-aerator for soybean quality analysis. Soybeans with water content of 17% (wet basis – w.b. were dried and stored in a silo-dryer-aerator system that was designed using a drying chamber, four independent storage cells, and a static capacity of 164 kg. Another batch of grains was stored in a silo-storage-aerator with a capacity of 1,200 kg. The experiment was set up in a completely randomized factorial 5 × 4 experimental design including five grain batches stored after being dried at 30, 40, and 50 °C (mixed grains were dried at three temperatures in the silo-dryer-aerator cells and one mixed grain batch stored in the silo-storage-aerator system under ambient air conditions for four storage times (zero, one, two, and three months. There was no difference between the grains stored in the silo-dryer-aerator and silo-storage-aerator at the end of the three-month storage in terms of the physico-chemical quality. The storage time associated with drying at 50 °C caused a reduction in the physical-chemical quality of the grains. The silo-dryer-aerator system was presented as a possible alternative to store soybean (Glycine max L. grains.

  7. The Psychological Effect of Television Characters: The Case of Archie Bunker and Authoritarian Viewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surlin, Stuart H.; Bowden, Elizabeth

    Reference group theory suggests that a perceived similarity between interacting individuals leads to future interaction, increased source credibility, and more frequent agreement on specific issues. This study shows how the reference group theory applies to the authoritarian television character Archie Bunker and television viewers that watch…

  8. Lawrence Livermore Laboratory's beryllium control program for high-explosive test firing bunkers and tables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.S.

    1978-01-01

    This detailed report on Lawrence Livermore Laboratory's control program to minimize beryllium levels in Laboratory workplaces includes an outline of beryllium surface, soil, and air levels and an 11-y summary of sampling results from two high-use, high-explosive test firing bunkers. These sampling data and other studies demonstrate that the beryllium control program is funcioning effectively

  9. Lawrence Livermore Laboratory's beryllium control program for high-explosive test firing bunkers and tables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.S.

    1980-01-01

    This report on the control program to minimize beryllium levels in Laboratory workplaces includes an outline of beryllium surface, soil, and air levels and an 11-y summary of sampling results from two high-use, high-explosive test firing bunkers. These sampling data and other studies demonstrate that the beryllium control program is functioning effectively

  10. 76 FR 3655 - Bunker Hill Groundwater Basin, Riverside-Corona Feeder Project, San Bernardino and Riverside...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... proposed aquifer storage and recovery project, including new groundwater wells and a 28- mile water... reliability of Western's water supply through managed storage, extraction and distribution of local and... groundwater wells in the Bunker Hill Groundwater Basin, San Bernardino County, California. Existing recharge...

  11. Investigation of the influence of wall stiffness on the stress ratio in mammoth silos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwenstijn, P.L.L.; van Leeuwenstijn, P.L.L.; van Wijk, L.A.; van Wijk, L.A.; Haaker, G.

    1994-01-01

    To calculate the stresses on the walls of silos, it is necessary to have a good estimate of the ratio of horizontal to vertical stress. This ratio however is not known precisely, especially in cases of static stress as found in a mammoth silo. In this paper the influence of the wall stiffness on the

  12. Extinguishing smouldering fires in silos. BRANDFORSK project 745-961

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuomisaari, M.; Baroudi, D.; Latva, R. [VTT Building Technology, Espoo (Finland). Building Physics, Building Services and Fire Technology

    1998-11-01

    Combustible, porous materials may self-ignite during their storage time in silos as a result of internal heating. The self-ignition process may be slow, and it results in smouldering fires that are extremely difficult to extinguish. Suitable means to fight the smouldering fire were studied both theoretically and experimentally. General heat and mass transfer equations for porous media subject to fires and suppression were written. The equations together with dimensional analysis revealed critical parameters, like the grain size and moisture content, affecting the combustion and suppression process, but they also revealed the complexity of the problem. Experimental results of over 50 tests with varying combustibles and suppression agents were used as the basis for proposed qualitative guidelines on how to fight a smouldering silo fire. Among the potential gaseous agents, CO{sub 2} was found to be the most efficient one. Low expansion foam was also found to be a potential candidate, but its applicability requires further confirmation. Quantifying the guidelines requires a whole new study on the detection of a smouldering fire. The same detection system should be capable of monitoring the suppression process and - most importantly - verifying the extinguishment. (orig.) 46 refs.

  13. Vitrification of Simulated Fernald K-65 Silo Waste at Low Temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jantzen, C.M.

    1999-01-01

    Vitrification is the technology that has been chosen to solidify approximately 18,000 tons of geologic mill tailings at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) in Fernald, Ohio. The geologic mill tailings are residues from the processing of pitchlende ore during 1949-1958. These waste residues are contained in silos in Operable Unit 4 (OU4) at the FEMP facility. Operable Unit 4 is one of five operable units at the FEMP. Operable Unit 4 is one of five operable units at the FEMP. Operating Unit 4 consists of four concrete storage silos and their contents. Silos 1 and 2 contain K-65 mill tailing residues and a bentonite cap, Silo 3 contains non-radioactive metal oxides, and Silo 4 is empty

  14. On the use of plate-type normal pressure cells in silos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramirez, Alvaro; Nielsen, Jørgen; Ayuga, F.

    2010-01-01

    the interpretation of results. Once the cells have been delivered from the manufacturer to the researcher, they should be calibrated and validated with reference to the measurement of pressure from a granular material against a silo wall. Two related papers deal with a specific plate-type normal pressure cell...... for use in an installation of three full-scale steel silos with different hopper eccentricities (concentric, half-eccentric and full-eccentric) as part of a silo research project. It was found to be necessary to validate the performance of the cells when measuring pressures in the silos in order to arrive...... at a solid basis for the interpretation of the pressure measurements in the silo installation aforementioned. This paper presents calibration results from three investigated methods as well as results from a finite element analysis of the plate deflection of the pressure cell which were performed to evaluate...

  15. Confined granular flow in silos experimental and numerical investigations

    CERN Document Server

    Tejchman, Jacek

    2013-01-01

      During confined flow of bulk solids in silos some characteristic phenomena can be created, such as: —         sudden and significant increase of wall stresses, —         different flow patterns, —         formation and propagation of wall and interior shear zones, —         fluctuation of pressures and, —         strong autogenous dynamic effects. These phenomena have not been described or explained in detail yet. The main intention of the experimental and theoretical research presented in this book is to explain the above mentioned phenomena in granular bulk solids and to describe them with numerical FE models verified by experimental results.

  16. Exploring the Impact of Silos in Achieving Brand Orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyrd-Jones, Richard; Helm, Clive; Munk, Jonas

    silos are associated with different mindsets that create barriers to the achievement of brand orientation. The case follows a medium sized manufacturing company in its efforts to introduce a brand revitalization strategy across the organization. Despite the strategy having top management full support......Brands are widely recognised as important sources of competitive advantage. The newly emerged concept of brand orientation has be used to assess the extent to which the whole organisation is orientated around the brand and thus the extent to which organisational resources are focused around...... maximising brand potential. Whilst offering potential to improve our understanding of how brands can be effectively managed and offering practitioners a set of tool to this end, this concept is limited in both its empirical and theoretical foundations. Through a case study this paper documents how functional...

  17. SILOS, Reused Machine-Buildings: A Proposal for Its Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido-Cifuentes, María; Santiago-Zaragoza, Juan Manuel; Lafuente-Bolívar, Francisco Javier

    2017-10-01

    Second half of the 20th century: The Spanish rural landscape changes with the imposing profile of Silos. In the urban edge, next to the railroad, they are risen competing in height with church steeples. Today they are inseparable elements of the image of many peoples of cereal geography of any region of Spain. They are consequence of the autarkic economy of that time (storage of grain and state control over distribution and price) Silos were the answer given by the engineering efficiency and economy of means: A type of store operated by screw-conveyor moved with electricity, transport grain to fill high slender square plant cells. Hydraulic push offset between cells that form a matrix-walled plates constructed of thin sheets of brick or concrete block, armed only horizontally. And huge vertical loads carried by thick foundation reinforced concrete pillars. The political regime change and the energy crisis of the late seventies caused these magnificent building-machines stopped being used. Its radical specialization led them to death. After years of neglect and transfer of ownership between administrations, a consciousness has emerged in Spain (National Plan of Industrial Heritage, 2000) that has prevented its demolition, and recognize the values they bring to the landscape and structural-construction of its own, as beautiful works of Engineering which are worth cataloguing / protection. Hence this proposal tries to intervene these giants through new uses, transforming, allowing their conservation. This process investigates various structural types and implements strict standards of construction resolved with efficient construction solutions. The result is returned to society by publishing their work, while stressing heritage values, demonstrates the new strength of these local systems.

  18. Persistence, biodegradation and biological impact of Bunker C residues in Black Duck Cove, Nova Scotia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K.; Wohlgeschaffen, G. D.; Tremblay, G. H. [Dept. of Fisheries and Oceans of Canada, Inst. Maurice-Lamontagne, Mont Joli, PQ (Canada); Vandermeulen, D. C.; Mossman, K. G. [Dept. of Fisheries and Oceans of Canada, Bedford Inst. of Oceanography, Dartmouth, NS (Canada); Doe, K. G.; Jackman, P. M. [Environment Canada, Environmental Science Center, Moncton, NB (Canada); Prince, R. C.; Garrett, R. M.; Haith, C. E. [Exxon Research and Engineering Company, Annandale, NJ (United States)

    1998-12-31

    In 1970, approximately 2,045 cubic metres of Bunker C oil impacted on 300 km of Nova Scotia`s coastline following the grounding of the tanker `Arrow`. Only 10 per cent of the coastline was subjected to cleanup, the remainder was left to degrade naturally. Samples of sediments were collected in 1993 and 1997 in order to assess the attenuation processes on the reduction of toxicity within sediments and interstitial waters at Black Duck Cove, one of the untreated sites where residual oil was clearly evident. Detailed chemical analyses showed that the Bunker C oil at this site has undergone substantial biodegradation. Over the 20 plus years since the oil spill the toxicity of the residual oil has been significantly reduced and there is substantial evidence of habitat recovery.

  19. Persistence, biodegradation and biological impact of Bunker C residues in Black Duck Cove, Nova Scotia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K.; Wohlgeschaffen, G. D.; Tremblay, G. H. [Dept. of Fisheries and Oceans of Canada, Inst. Maurice-Lamontagne, Mont Joli, PQ (Canada); Vandermeulen, D. C.; Mossman, K. G. [Dept. of Fisheries and Oceans of Canada, Bedford Inst. of Oceanography, Dartmouth, NS (Canada); Doe, K. G.; Jackman, P. M. [Environment Canada, Environmental Science Center, Moncton, NB (Canada); Prince, R. C.; Garrett, R. M.; Haith, C. E. [Exxon Research and Engineering Company, Annandale, NJ (United States)

    1998-07-01

    In 1970, approximately 2,045 cubic metres of Bunker C oil impacted on 300 km of Nova Scotia's coastline following the grounding of the tanker 'Arrow'. Only 10 per cent of the coastline was subjected to cleanup, the remainder was left to degrade naturally. Samples of sediments were collected in 1993 and 1997 in order to assess the attenuation processes on the reduction of toxicity within sediments and interstitial waters at Black Duck Cove, one of the untreated sites where residual oil was clearly evident. Detailed chemical analyses showed that the Bunker C oil at this site has undergone substantial biodegradation. Over the 20 plus years since the oil spill the toxicity of the residual oil has been significantly reduced and there is substantial evidence of habitat recovery.

  20. Shielding calculations for neutron calibration bunker using Monte Carlo code MCNP-4C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suman, H.; Kharita, M. H.; Yousef, S.

    2008-02-01

    In this work, the dose arising from an Am-Be source of 10 8 neutron/sec strength located inside the newly constructed neutron calibration bunker in the National Radiation Metrology Laboratories, was calculated using MCNP-4C code. It was found that the shielding of the neutron calibration bunker is sufficient. As the calculated dose is not expected to exceed in inhabited areas 0.183 μSv/hr, which is 10 times smaller than the regulatory dose constraints. Hence, it can be concluded that the calibration bunker can house - from the external exposure point of view - an Am-Be neutron source of 10 9 neutron/sec strength. It turned out that the neutron dose from the source is few times greater than the photon dose. The sky shine was found to contribute significantly to the total dose. This contribution was estimated to be 60% of the neutron dose and 10% of the photon dose. The systematic uncertainties due to various factors have been assessed and was found to be between 4 and 10% due to concrete density variations; 15% due to the dose estimation method; 4 -10% due to weather variations (temperature and moisture). The calculated dose was highly sensitive to the changes in source spectra. The uncertainty due to the use of two different neutron spectra is about 70%.(author)

  1. A study on leakage radiation dose at ELV-4 electron accelerator bunker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chulan, Mohd Rizal Md; Yahaya, Redzuwan; Ghazali, Abu BakarMhd

    2014-09-01

    Shielding is an important aspect in the safety of an accelerator and the most important aspects of a bunker shielding is the door. The bunker's door should be designed properly to minimize the leakage radiation and shall not exceed the permitted limit of 2.5μSv/hr. In determining the leakage radiation dose that passed through the door and gaps between the door and the wall, 2-dimensional manual calculations are often used. This method is hard to perform because visual 2-dimensional is limited and is also very difficult in the real situation. Therefore estimation values are normally performed. In doing so, the construction cost would be higher because of overestimate or underestimate which require costly modification to the bunker. Therefore in this study, two methods are introduced to overcome the problem such as simulation using MCNPX Version 2.6.0 software and manual calculation using 3-dimensional model from Autodesk Inventor 2010 software. The values from the two methods were eventually compared to the real values from direct measurements using Ludlum Model 3 with Model 44-9 probe survey meter.

  2. Systemic model for the aid for operating of the reactor Siloe; Modelisation systeme pour l`aide a l`exploitation du reacteur de recherche Siloe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Royer, J.C.; Moulin, V.; Monge, F. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Grenoble, 38 (France). Direction des Reacteurs Nucleaires; Baradel, C. [ITMI APTOR, 38 - Meylan (France)

    1995-12-31

    The Service of the Reactor Siloe (CEA/DRN/DRE/SRS), fully aware of the abilities and knowledge of his teams in the field of research reactor operating, has undertaken a project of knowledge engineering in this domain. The following aims have been defined: knowledge capitalization for the installation in order to insure its perenniality and valorization, elaboration of a project for the aid of the reactor operators. This article deals with the different actions by the SRS to reach the aims: realization of a technical model for the operation of the Siloe reactor, development of a knowledge-based system for the aid for operating. These actions based on a knowledge engineering methodology, SAGACE, and using industrial tools will lead to an amelioration of the security and the operating of the Siloe reactor. (authors). 13 refs., 7 figs.

  3. Stochastic stresses in granular matter simulated by dripping identical ellipses into plane silo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berntsen, Kasper Nikolaj; Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager

    2000-01-01

    A two-dimensional silo pressure model-problem is investigated by molecular dynamics simulations. A plane silo container is filled by a granular matter consisting of congruent elliptic particles dropped one by one into the silo. A suitable energy absorbing contact force mechanism is activatedduring...... the granular matter in the silo are compared to thesolution of a stochastic equilibrium differential equation. In this equation the stochasticity source is a homogeneouswhite noise gamma-distributed side pressure factor field along the walls. This is a generalization of the deterministic side pressure factor...... proposed by Janssen in 1895. The stochastic Janssen factor model is shown to be fairly consistentwith the observations from which the mean and the intensity of the white noise is estimated by the method of maximumlikelihood using the properties of the gamma-distribution. Two wall friction coefficients...

  4. An assessment of temperature history on concrete silo dry storage system for CANDU spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong-Gyu; Sung, Nak-Hoon; Park, Jea-Ho; Chung, Sung-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We performed thermal analysis to predict the temperature distribution in the concrete silo. • Thermal analysis of the concrete silo was based on CFD code. • Temperature distribution and history for storage period was presented. • Thermal analysis results and test results agreed well. • The correlations can predict the maximum fuel temperature over storage period. - Abstract: Concrete silo is a dry storage system for spent fuel generated from CANDU reactors. The silo is designed to remove passively the decay heat from spent fuel, as well as to secure the integrity of spent fuel during storage period. Dominant heat transfer mechanisms must be characterized and validated for the thermal analysis model of the silo, and the temperature history along storage period could be determined by using the validated thermal analysis model. Heat transfer characteristics on the interior and exterior of fuel basket in the silo were assessed to determine the temperature history of silo, which is necessary for evaluating the long-term degradation behavior of CANDU spent fuel stored in the silo. Also a methodology to evaluate the temperature history during dry storage period was proposed in this study. A CFD model of fuel basket including fuel bundles was suggested and temperature difference correlation between fuel bundles and silo’s internal member, as a function of decay heat of fuel basket considering natural convection and radiation heat transfer, was deduced. Temperature difference between silo’s internal cavity and ambient air was determined by using a concept of thermal resistance, which was validated by CFD analysis. Fuel temperature was expressed as a function of ambient temperature and decay heat of fuel basket in the correlation, and fuel temperature along storage period was determined. Therefore, it could be used to assess the degradation behavior of spent fuel by applying the degradation mechanism expressed as a function of spent fuel

  5. The impact of silo mentality on team identity: An organisational case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans Cilliers

    2012-03-01

    Research purpose: The purpose of this research was to describe how the silo mentality impacts on team identity. Motivation for the study: During a recent organisational consultation the researchers realised that a so-called silo phenomenon had much more unexplained unconscious behaviour than was traditionally realised in terms of organisational development. It is hoped that findings from this qualitative study could give consultants entry into what happens below the surface in the silos’ unconscious. Research design, approach and method: A qualitative and descriptive research design using a case study strategy was used. Data gathering consisted of 25 narrative interviews. Using discourse analysis four themes manifested, integrated into four working hypotheses and a research hypothesis. Trustworthiness and ethical standards were ensured. Main findings: Themes that emerged were the physical environment and structure, intra-group relations, experiences of management, and intergroup relations. Practical/managerial implications: Consulting on silo behaviour as physical structures only may not be successful in changing organisational behaviour. The silo resembles an iceberg – the largest part is below the surface. Contribution/value-add: The findings evidenced silo behaviour to be an unconscious phenomenon influencing team identity negatively. Consultants are urged to study these manifestations towards understanding silos and their effect on team identity better.

  6. The simultaneous discharge of liquid and grains from a silo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes-Álvarez, A. M.; Hidalgo-Caballero, S.; Pacheco-Vázquez, F.

    2018-04-01

    The flow rate of water through an orifice at the bottom of a container depends on the hydrostatic pressure whereas for a dry granular material it is nearly constant. But what happens during the simultaneous discharge of grains and liquid from a silo? By measuring the flow rate as a function of time, we found that (i) different regimes appear, going from the constant flow rate to a hydrostatic-like discharge depending on the aperture size and grain diameter, (ii) the mixed material is always discharged faster than dry grains but slower than liquid, (iii) for the mixture, the liquid level drops faster than the grain level, but they are always linearly proportional to one another, and (iv) a sudden growth in the flow rate happens during the transition from a biphasic discharge to a single phase discharge. These results are associated to the competition between the decrease in hydrostatic pressure above the granular bed and the hydrodynamic resistance. A model combining Darcy's law with Bernoulli and mass conservation equations is proposed, and the numerical results are in good agreement with experiments.

  7. Creating value: unifying silos into public health business intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Arthur J

    2014-01-01

    Through September 2014, federal investments in health information technology have been unprecedented, with more than 25 billion dollars in incentive funds distributed to eligible hospitals and providers. Over 85 percent of eligible United States hospitals and 60 percent of eligible providers have used certified electronic health record (EHR) technology and received Meaningful Use incentive funds (HITECH Act1). Certified EHR technology could create new public health (PH) value through novel and rapidly evolving data-use opportunities, never before experienced by PH. The long-standing "silo" approach to funding has fragmented PH programs and departments,2 but the components for integrated business intelligence (i.e., tools and applications to help users make informed decisions) and maximally reuse data are available now. Challenges faced by PH agencies on the road to integration are plentiful, but an emphasis on PH systems and services research (PHSSR) may identify gaps and solutions for the PH community to address. Technology and system approaches to leverage this information explosion to support a transformed health care system and population health are proposed. By optimizing this information opportunity, PH can play a greater role in the learning health system.

  8. Design, construction and performance of the clay-based isolation of the SFR silo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pusch, Roland [Geodevelopment AB, Lund (Sweden)

    2003-09-01

    The report describes the host rock performance, recording systems, silo movement, and performance of the wall filling and recording systems. Recommendations for future performance checking are given as well. The measurements of rock movements show that creep is very limited but that instantaneous block movements may have taken place soon after the excavation. Such movements may occur in future as a result of creep-induced stress accumulation, or generated by earthquakes. One cannot draw safe conclusions concerning the magnitude and direction of the vertical component of the strain of the cavern wall, which largely determines the accuracy of silo settlement recordings made by use of reference bolts anchored in the walls. However, it is reasonable to believe that the net movement is directed downwards and amounts at a couple of hundred micrometers to date. The initial settlement of the silo was somewhat faster than predicted while there is rather good agreement between actual and predicted settlement of the silo top for the period 1991 to 1997 when the waste loading rate was slightly below the assumed lower limit. From 1997 the annual waste loading rate dropped by about 50 % of this limit and gave a theoretical overestimation of the settlement by about 15 %. Considering the uncertainties and conservatism in selecting parameter values for the calculations it can be stated that the agreement between the predicted and actual subsidence of the silo top is acceptable. Major conclusions from the analysis are that the dominant part of the silo top settlement is caused by compression of the bottom bed and that this compression and the silo top subsidence are within the initially assumed ranges. The analysis can be taken as a basis of the design of the future top fill with respect to the desired continuity of the silo/top fill/rock system. The pressure of the wall fill on the silo and rock has reached a maximum value of 100 kPa, which equals the lower limit for highly

  9. Design, construction and performance of the clay-based isolation of the SFR silo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pusch, Roland

    2003-09-01

    The report describes the host rock performance, recording systems, silo movement, and performance of the wall filling and recording systems. Recommendations for future performance checking are given as well. The measurements of rock movements show that creep is very limited but that instantaneous block movements may have taken place soon after the excavation. Such movements may occur in future as a result of creep-induced stress accumulation, or generated by earthquakes. One cannot draw safe conclusions concerning the magnitude and direction of the vertical component of the strain of the cavern wall, which largely determines the accuracy of silo settlement recordings made by use of reference bolts anchored in the walls. However, it is reasonable to believe that the net movement is directed downwards and amounts at a couple of hundred micrometers to date. The initial settlement of the silo was somewhat faster than predicted while there is rather good agreement between actual and predicted settlement of the silo top for the period 1991 to 1997 when the waste loading rate was slightly below the assumed lower limit. From 1997 the annual waste loading rate dropped by about 50 % of this limit and gave a theoretical overestimation of the settlement by about 15 %. Considering the uncertainties and conservatism in selecting parameter values for the calculations it can be stated that the agreement between the predicted and actual subsidence of the silo top is acceptable. Major conclusions from the analysis are that the dominant part of the silo top settlement is caused by compression of the bottom bed and that this compression and the silo top subsidence are within the initially assumed ranges. The analysis can be taken as a basis of the design of the future top fill with respect to the desired continuity of the silo/top fill/rock system. The pressure of the wall fill on the silo and rock has reached a maximum value of 100 kPa, which equals the lower limit for highly

  10. Implementing 10 CFR 830 at the FEMP Silos: Nuclear Health and Safety Plans as Documented Safety Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisk, Patricia; Rutherford, Lavon

    2003-01-01

    The objective of the Silos Project at the Fernald Closure Project (FCP) is to safely remediate high-grade uranium ore residues (Silos 1 and 2) and metal oxide residues (Silo 3). The evolution of Documented Safety Analyses (DSAs) for these facilities has reflected the changes in remediation processes. The final stage in silos DSAs is an interpretation of 10 CFR 830 Safe Harbor Requirements that combines a Health and Safety Plan with nuclear safety requirements. This paper will address the development of a Nuclear Health and Safety Plan, or N-HASP

  11. International marine and aviation bunker fuel. Trends, ranking of countries and comparison with national CO2 emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivier, J.G.J.; Peters, J.A.H.W.

    1999-01-01

    This report summarises and characterises fuel consumption and associated CO2 emissions from international transport based on energy statistics compiled by the International Energy Agency (IEA). Shares in 1990 and 1970-1995 trends in national and global bunker fuel consumption and associated CO2 emissions are analysed for marine and air transport. Also, the global total of international transport emissions are compared with national emissions and domestic transport emissions. During the last 25 years the average global annual increase was for marine bunkers about 0.8% and for aviation emissions about 3.3%. Annual variations per country of marine bunker fuel use larger than of aviation fuel use, sometimes more than 50%. However, the distinction between fuel use for domestic and for international aviation is more difficult to monitor. The dominant fuel in marine bunker fuel consumption is residual fuel oil ('heavy fuel oil'). The share of diesel oil has slowly increased from 11% in 1970 to 20% in 1990. Aviation fuels sold are predominantly jet fuel ('jet kerosene'). The small share of aviation gasoline is slowly decreasing: from about 4% in 1970 to 1.3% in 1990. Carbon dioxide emissions from combustion of international marine bunker fuels and aviation contributed in 1990 globally about 1.8% and 2.4% expressed as percentage of global total anthropogenic emissions (excluding deforestation). However, aviation emissions include an unknown part of domestic aviation. When comparing with total transport emissions, then international transport has a share of 20%. For both marine and aviation bunker fuel, the Top-10 of largest consuming countries account for about 2/3 of the global total; the Top-25 countries cover already 85% or more of global total CO2 emissions

  12. Cleanup Progress on High Hazard Legacy Facilities at Sellafield: Pile Fuel Cladding Silo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skilbeck, D.

    2006-01-01

    This facility was constructed in the 1940's as the original dry storage silo for Intermediate Level Waste (ILW) arising from the Windscale Pile Reactors. Subsequently it was used as the main storage facility for all ILW arising from the Sellafield operation. It was operated until it became full and the Magnox Swarf Storage Silos were constructed in the mid 1960's. A systematic and As Low As Reasonably Practicable (ALARP) risk reduction approach has been adopted at Sellafield to address issues in order of risk magnitude. Prior to being in a position to retrieve stored wastes it has been necessary to improve the overall safety performance of the silo. This has involved installing new fire prevention systems, improving structural integrity, clearing waste from the Transfer Tunnel, and improving overall seismic performance. A major step towards reducing the overall risk profile of this facility has been to seal the six charge holes in the Transfer Tunnel, that were used for tipping the waste into the silo compartments during operations. This also enabled the silo Transfer Tunnel to be removed. Overall this work has proved that significant cleanup can be performed safely and successfully, in one of the most hazardous environments at Sellafield. (authors)

  13. Estimate of induced stress during filling and discharge of metallic silos for cement storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilmer Bayona-Carvajal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo describe el análisis estructural realizado a un silo metálico que almacena cemento por medio de un modelo paramétrico desarrollado en el software de elementos finitos ANSYS APDL, las presiones de llenado y vaciado que el material ejerce sobre las paredes del silo se determinan basados en la normativa del Eurocódigo EN 1991-4. El modelo se realiza con elementos tipos cáscara permitiendo que su estructura se ajuste que la geometría cilíndrica y cónica del silo. Se explica cada una de las fases involucradas en el desarrollo del modelo y se hace un análisis detallado de los resultados arrojados por el software, se evalúan diferentes modelos variando los espesores de lámina con el fin de seleccionar el más adecuado. También se analizan los resultados obtenidos cuando la tolva del silo cambia su ángulo de inclinación y se revisa el comportamiento que tiene el silo cuando es analizado en conjunto con su estructura soporte.

  14. In-situ grouting of the low-level radioactive waste disposal silos at ORNL's Solid Waste Storage Area Six

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, C.W.; Farmer, C.D.; Stansfield, R.G.

    1993-07-01

    At Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), one method of solid low-level radioactive waste disposal has been disposed of in below-grade cylindrical concrete silos. Located in Solid Waste Storage Area 6 (SWSA 6), each silo measures 8 ft in diameter and 20 ft deep. Present day operations involve loading the silos with low-level radioactive waste and grouting the remaining void space with a particulate grout of low viscosity. Initial operations involving the disposal of wastes into the below-grade silos did not include the grouting process. Grouting was stated as a standard practice (in late 1988) after discovering that ∼75% of the silos accumulated water in the bottom of the silos in the ∼2 years after capping. Silo water (leachate) contained a wide range of types and concentrations of radionuclides. The migration of contaminated leachate out of the silo into adjoining soil and groundwater was considered to be a serious environmental concern. This report describes how a specially designed particulate-base grout was used to grout 54 silos previously filled with low-level radioactive waste. Grouting involved three steps: (1) silo preparation, (2) formulation and preparation of the grout mixture, and (3) injection of the grout into the silos. Thirty-five of the 54 silos grouted were equipped with a 3-in.-diam Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) pipe used to monitor water levels in the silos. A method for rupturing the bottom section of these PVC wells was developed so that grout could be pumped to the bottom of those silos. Holes (2-in. diam) were drilled through the ∼18 in. thick concrete to fill the remaining 19 wells without the PVC monitoring wells. The formulation of grout injected into the silos was based on a Portland Type I cement, flyash, sand, and silica fume admixture. Compressive strength of grout delivered to SWSA6 during grouting operations averaged 1,808 lb/in 2 with a bulk density of 3,549 lb/yd 3

  15. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehlecke, Robert

    2004-01-01

    The six bunkers included in CAU 204 were primarily used to monitor atmospheric testing or store munitions. The 'Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) for Corrective Action Unit 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site, Nevada' (NNSA/NV, 2002a) provides information relating to the history, planning, and scope of the investigation; therefore, it will not be repeated in this CADD. This CADD identifies potential corrective action alternatives and provides a rationale for the selection of a recommended corrective action alternative for each CAS within CAU 204. The evaluation of corrective action alternatives is based on process knowledge and the results of investigative activities conducted in accordance with the CAIP (NNSA/NV, 2002a) that was approved prior to the start of the Corrective Action Investigation (CAI). Record of Technical Change (ROTC) No. 1 to the CAIP (approval pending) documents changes to the preliminary action levels (PALs) agreed to by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) and DOE, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). This ROTC specifically discusses the radiological PALs and their application to the findings of the CAU 204 corrective action investigation. The scope of this CADD consists of the following: (1) Develop corrective action objectives; (2) Identify corrective action alternative screening criteria; (3) Develop corrective action alternatives; (4) Perform detailed and comparative evaluations of corrective action alternatives in relation to corrective action objectives and screening criteria; and (5) Recommend and justify a preferred corrective action alternative for each CAS within CAU 204

  16. A study on leakage radiation dose at ELV-4 electron accelerator bunker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chulan, Mohd Rizal Md, E-mail: rizal@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my, E-mail: redzuwan@ukm.my; Yahaya, Redzuwan, E-mail: rizal@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my, E-mail: redzuwan@ukm.my [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (Malaysia); Ghazali, Abu BakarMhd [Department of Electronic and Communication, College of Engineering, Universiti Tenaga Nasional (Malaysia)

    2014-09-03

    Shielding is an important aspect in the safety of an accelerator and the most important aspects of a bunker shielding is the door. The bunker’s door should be designed properly to minimize the leakage radiation and shall not exceed the permitted limit of 2.5μSv/hr. In determining the leakage radiation dose that passed through the door and gaps between the door and the wall, 2-dimensional manual calculations are often used. This method is hard to perform because visual 2-dimensional is limited and is also very difficult in the real situation. Therefore estimation values are normally performed. In doing so, the construction cost would be higher because of overestimate or underestimate which require costly modification to the bunker. Therefore in this study, two methods are introduced to overcome the problem such as simulation using MCNPX Version 2.6.0 software and manual calculation using 3-dimensional model from Autodesk Inventor 2010 software. The values from the two methods were eventually compared to the real values from direct measurements using Ludlum Model 3 with Model 44-9 probe survey meter.

  17. A study on leakage radiation dose at ELV-4 electron accelerator bunker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chulan, Mohd Rizal Md; Yahaya, Redzuwan; Ghazali, Abu BakarMhd

    2014-01-01

    Shielding is an important aspect in the safety of an accelerator and the most important aspects of a bunker shielding is the door. The bunker’s door should be designed properly to minimize the leakage radiation and shall not exceed the permitted limit of 2.5μSv/hr. In determining the leakage radiation dose that passed through the door and gaps between the door and the wall, 2-dimensional manual calculations are often used. This method is hard to perform because visual 2-dimensional is limited and is also very difficult in the real situation. Therefore estimation values are normally performed. In doing so, the construction cost would be higher because of overestimate or underestimate which require costly modification to the bunker. Therefore in this study, two methods are introduced to overcome the problem such as simulation using MCNPX Version 2.6.0 software and manual calculation using 3-dimensional model from Autodesk Inventor 2010 software. The values from the two methods were eventually compared to the real values from direct measurements using Ludlum Model 3 with Model 44-9 probe survey meter

  18. Shielding provision in an old 6MV bunker for a new 18MV linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howlett, S.J.; Ebert, M.A.; Kenny, W.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: In October 2003 the Newcastle Mater Hospital commenced clinical use of a new Varian 21EX which replaced it's 14 year old Varian Clinac l800. The 1800 had only been enabled for 6MV X-ray beam for most of its clinical use but was enabled for 18MV for a period in 2000. This was to make up for the loss of an 18MV beam from another Clinac 1800 which was being replaced in a bunker designed for that higher energy. The new 21EX would provide both 6MV and 18MV beams for routine clinical use. The original bunker had been designed for the lower energy and hence additional shielding was required to meet radiation dose limits recommended in ICRP 60 and adopted in ARPANSA RPS6. A general radiation survey was conducted around the bunker area when the 18MV beam was available on the older linear accelerator. This rather unique situation provided data which would normally be impossible to obtain. Photon activation in the neutron door was a source of increased dose levels in the control area. Commercial design was contracted for the additional barrier calculations and supply. Additional shielding was required on one primary barrier and the neutron door. Post installation surveys were conducted and the R and V system was used for usage figures. Using dose constraints for public and occupational exposure, various survey points were measured around the bunker. This data was assessed in terms of calculated requirements, actual requirements and the ALARA principle for radiation shielding design. Review of staff dose histories was also performed. The final survey calculations showed the additional shielding more than adequate for the usage of 18MV and 6MV photon beams. The availability of the R and V data gives supporting evidence for design of barriers to be adjusted on usage values as has been reported in an earlier work at this centre. The issue of occupancy arises in this work as dose histories indicate. Typically barrier design is always conservative and survey results on

  19. Simulation study of the discharge characteristics of silos with cohesive particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hund, David; Weis, Dominik; Hesse, Robert; Antonyuk, Sergiy

    2017-06-01

    In many industrial applications the silo for bulk materials is an important part of an overall process. Silos are used for instance to buffer intermediate products to ensure a continuous supply for the next process step. This study deals with the discharging behaviour of silos containing cohesive bulk solids with particle sizes in the range of 100-500 μm. In this contribution the TOMAS [1,2] model developed for stationary and non-stationary discharging of a convergent hopper is verified with experiments and simulations using the Discrete Element Method. Moreover the influence of the cohesion of the bulk solids on the discharge behaviour is analysed by the simulation. The simulation results showed a qualitative agreement with the analytical model of TOMAS.

  20. Systemic model for the aid for operating of the reactor Siloe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royer, J.C.; Moulin, V.; Monge, F.

    1995-01-01

    The Service of the Reactor Siloe (CEA/DRN/DRE/SRS), fully aware of the abilities and knowledge of his teams in the field of research reactor operating, has undertaken a project of knowledge engineering in this domain. The following aims have been defined: knowledge capitalization for the installation in order to insure its perenniality and valorization, elaboration of a project for the aid of the reactor operators. This article deals with the different actions by the SRS to reach the aims: realization of a technical model for the operation of the Siloe reactor, development of a knowledge-based system for the aid for operating. These actions based on a knowledge engineering methodology, SAGACE, and using industrial tools will lead to an amelioration of the security and the operating of the Siloe reactor. (authors). 13 refs., 7 figs

  1. Should the scope of human mixture risk assessment span legislative/regulatory silos for chemicals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Richard M; Martin, Olwenn V; Faust, Michael; Kortenkamp, Andreas

    2016-02-01

    Current chemicals regulation operates almost exclusively on a chemical-by-chemical basis, however there is concern that this approach may not be sufficiently protective if two or more chemicals have the same toxic effect. Humans are indisputably exposed to more than one chemical at a time, for example to the multiple chemicals found in food, air and drinking water, and in household and consumer products, and in cosmetics. Assessment of cumulative risk to human health and/or the environment from multiple chemicals and routes can be done in a mixture risk assessment (MRA). Whilst there is a broad consensus on the basic science of mixture toxicology, the path to regulatory implementation of MRA within chemical risk assessment is less clear. In this discussion piece we pose an open question: should the scope of human MRA cross legislative remits or 'silos'? We define silos as, for instance, legislation that defines risk assessment practice for a subset of chemicals, usually on the basis of substance/product, media or process orientation. Currently any form of legal mandate for human MRA in the EU is limited to only a few pieces of legislation. We describe two lines of evidence, illustrated with selected examples, that are particularly pertinent to this question: 1) evidence that mixture effects have been shown for chemicals regulated in different silos and 2) evidence that humans are co-exposed to chemicals from different silos. We substantiate the position that, because there is no reason why chemicals allocated to specific regulatory silos would have non-overlapping risk profiles, then there is also no reason to expect that MRA limited only to chemicals within one silo can fully capture the risk that may be present to human consumers. Finally, we discuss possible options for implementation of MRA and we hope to prompt wider discussion of this issue. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Optimization Review: Bunker Hill Mining and Metallurgical Complex Superfund Site, Central Treatment Plant (CTP), Kellogg, Shoshone County, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Bunker Hill Mining and Metallurgical Complex Superfund Site includes all areas of the Coeur d’Alene Basin where mining-related contamination occurred and encompasses a 21-square mile “Box” along Interstate 90 surrounding the former smelter complex.

  3. Drivers, Options and Approaches for Two Seaport Authorities on the Joint Reduction of Bunker Oil Related Emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stikkelman, R.M.; Minnée, M.G.; Prinssen, M.M.W.J.; Correljé, A.F.

    2012-01-01

    The international agreements, made by International Maritime Organization in 2008 are an encouraging start to reduce the SO2 emissions caused by the use of bunker oil. Port authorities are confronted with a dilemma. From an environmental point of view, a proactive attitude is preferred. However, a

  4. PRELIMINARY NOTE ON FODDER PLANT CONSERVATION IN TRENCH TYPE SILOS NOTAS PRELIMINARES SOBRE CONSERVAÇÃO DE FORRAGENS EM SILOS DO TIPO TRINCHEIRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoly Kravchenko

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    This study has the objective of evaluating the quality of silage (Napier, 60%; sorghum, 30%; and sugar-cane, 10% conserved in trench-silos. The silos were built with side and back walls made of bricks, with no waterproof or revetment process. The floor was in direct contact with the soil, and the forage was distributed in 25cm-layers and compressed with the use of a tire tractor. The biggest losses, caused by ascetic and butyric fermentation, harmful to the cattle, took place close to the walls, due to a lack of compactness and a direct contact between the forage and the soil. The poor roof also allowed the penetration of water and other agents responsible for the formation of butyric acid. It was concluded that the waterproof process is the main factor in the desirable fermentation and conservation of the silage.

    Este trabalho tem como objetivo avaliar a qualidade da silagem - Napier (60%, sorgo (30% e cana (10% - conservada em silos tipo trincheira. Os silos foram construídos com paredes de tijolos nas laterais e no fundo, sem impermeabilização ou revestimento. O piso ficou em contato direto com o solo. A forragem foi distribuída em camadas de 25 cm e comprimida com trator de pneu. As perdas maiores, decorrentes das fermentações acética e butírica, prejudiciais ao rebanho, ocorreram junto às paredes, por falta de compactação e pelo contato direto da forragem com o solo. A má cobertura também favoreceu a penetração de água e os agentes formadores de ácido butírico. Concluiu-se que a impermeabilização é o fator principal para uma fermentação e conservação desejável da silagem.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Silo; forragem; Sorgum; Penisetum.

  5. Estimating the Operational Effect of a Bunker Levy: The Case of Handymax Bulk Carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kapetanis, George N.; Gkonis, Konstantinos G.; Psaraftis, Harilaos N.

    penalty for the existing ships. In this paper the proposal for a Global Emissions fund will be presented and discussed as the most appropriate, easy to implement and flexible solution for an enforcement of a market based measure. At a second stage and using the emissions calculation and speed optimisation...... tool developed within the Laboratory for Maritime Transport of the National Technical University of Athens, simulations will be performed for a specified Bulk carrier and the corresponding to its fleet segment. A bunker levy will be implemented in the program and its effects will be studied in terms......Market based measures concerning air emissions from ships are very likely to be introduced in the next years, in an effort to cap Greenhouse Gas Emissions from ships. A lot of countries have presented their proposals to IMO and practically the majority of them are based on a form of a fuel price...

  6. Numerical simulations in granular matter: The discharge of a 2D silo

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... short and elementary review of numerical simulations in granular assemblies, giving the process of discharge of a 2D silo as an example. The strengths and limitations of different approaches are discussed, together with some comments on the specific issues related to the numerics of discontinuous dissipative collisions.

  7. Who's worried about turkeys? How 'organisational silos' impede zoonotic disease surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerolmack, Colin

    2013-02-01

    Though emerging infectious diseases ignore boundaries between species, the agencies that respond to them do not. Based on interviews with state and federal epidemiologists, veterinarians, and physicians and on case studies of disease events, this article examines how the jurisdictional and cultural divides that exist among human and animal health agencies hinder efforts to successfully contain species-jumping diseases (zoonoses). I argue that newly emergent zoonoses make these agencies' organisational cultures function as silos because the institutionalised thinking and practices developed to address the diseases that traditionally concerned each agency constrain members from building the inter-organisational bridges required to manage the latest 'hybrid' diseases. The silo effect is evident both across the human-animal health divide and within the landscape of animal health, as agencies that monitor livestock and wildlife follow distinct and sometimes competing agendas. The article also touches on moments of inter-agency cooperation in order to specify how health practitioners can begin making connections between 'organisational silos'. This article encourages sociologists of health to explore the crucial link between animal and human health; and it introduces the concept of organisational silos to capture the relational dilemmas that arise when a 'hybrid' problem systemically links agencies with disparate organisational cultures. © 2012 The Author. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2012 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. SIMULATION OF A MATHEMATICAL MODEL FOR THE TEMPERATURE PROFILE IN A SILO BAG FOR BEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Hauth

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The problems encountered with storage of agricultural products has warranted studies related to finding alternative methods of grain storage, thereby avoiding unnecessary losses. Stored grain deteriorates quickly at high temperatures. The moisture content of the grain influences the respiratory process; therefore, when at the recommended humidity of between 11 and 13%, this rate remains low, it prolongs maintenance of the product quality. The silo bag being airtight enables the grain mass to consume the entire internal O2 purse within it, and in that low or absent oxygen environment the grain mass saturates the CO2 atmosphere, inhibiting the multiplication of insects and fungi, thus providing a controlled environment. This study aims at simulating, using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD, the time it would take for the entire grain mass contained in a silo bag to reach thermal equilibrium with the environment and analyzes the feasibility of the technique employed here. The simulations were performed based on the data of the average air temperature in the region at each harvest time and the average storage temperature of the bean mass (60°C. The results obtained from the simulations reveal that after one month of silo storage the entire bag remains in thermal stabilization, and four months later when it hits the entire mass, all the beans are in thermal equilibrium. Therefore, maintaining stable temperature and humidity within the recommended silo bag preserves the grain quality well.

  9. Magnox Swarf Storage Silo Liquor Effluent Management -Sellafield Site, Cumbria, UK - Legacy radioactive waste storage - 59271

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Clere, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The Sellafield Magnox Swarf Storage Silo (MSSS) was constructed to provide an underwater storage facility for irradiated magnox cladding metal Swarf, as well as miscellaneous beta-gamma waste from several sources. Liquid effluent arisings from hazard reduction activities at this facility represent the toughest effluent treatment challenge within the company's Legacy Ponds and Silos portfolio. The key requirement for hazard reduction has generated many substantial challenges as the facility is readied for decommissioning. This has demanded the production of carefully thought out strategies for managing, and overcoming, the key difficulties to be encountered as hazard reduction progresses. The complexity associated with preparing for waste retrievals from the Magnox Swarf Storage Silo, has also generated the demand for a mix of creativity and perseverance to meet the challenges and make progress. Challenging the status quo and willingness to accept change is not easy and the road to overall hazard reduction for the high hazard MSSS facility will demand the skills and investment of individuals, teams, and entire facility work-forces. The first steps on this road have been taken with the successful introduction of liquor management operations, however much more is yet to be achieved. Clear communication, investing in stakeholder management, perseverance in the face of difficulty and a structured yet flexible programme delivery approach, will ensure the continued success of tackling the complex challenges of treating liquid effluent from a legacy fuel storage silo at the Sellafield Site. (authors)

  10. Breaking down IT silos: a "connected" way to improve customer experience and the bottom line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallowell, Bruce; Turisco, Frances

    2009-03-01

    Hospitals can provide customer service like Amazon.com without purchasing new technology. Making technology interactive requires sharing patient data across applications and enhancing existing IT with decision support. Breaking down technology silos between hospital and outpatient care provider systems significantly improves efficiency, lowers costs, and speeds care delivery.

  11. Silo effect a prominence factor to decrease efficiency of pharmaceutical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatanpour, Hossein; Khorramnia, Atoosa; Forutan, Naghmeh

    2013-01-01

    To be sure, all the industries try to be involved in globalization with a constant trend to find out ways to increase productivity across different functions within an organization to maintain competitive advantage world. Pharmaceutical industries are not exceptional and further are based on fragmentation. So these kind of companies need to cope with several barriers such as silo mentality that may affect efficiency of their business activity. Due to eliminate a part of resources such as raw materials, new molecule developed, financial and human resources and so on, companies can gradually loss their competitive potentials in the market and increase their expenses. Furthermore, to avoid any business disturbances in financially connected companies due to silo effect, they should arrange their management to integrated organization form. Otherwise, actions taken by one business member of the chain can influence the profitability of all the other members in the chain. That is why recently supply chain has generated much interest in many business units. In this paper, it has been tried to investigate the different aspects of silo effect which can affect integrate supply chain. Finally, a fluent communication, high level of information exchange, fragmentation management, cross-functional control in a supply chain management format are needed to reduce or control silo effect within entire chain of the holding company by Supply chain management.

  12. Dealing with Organizational Silos with Communities of Practice and Human Resource Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsten-Astikainen, Riitta; Hurmelinna-Laukkanen, Pia; Lämsä, Tuija; Heilmann, Pia; Hyrkäs, Elina

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Organizational silos that build on the existing organizational structures are often considered to have negative effects in the form of focus on private narrow objectives and organizational fragmentation. To avoid such harmful outcomes, competence management is called for, and in this, the human resources (HR) function takes a key role.…

  13. How to Move Away from the Silos of Business Management Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisula, Karoliina; Pekkola, Samuli

    2018-01-01

    Business management education is criticized for being too theoretical and fractional. Despite the numerous efforts to build integrated and experiential business curricula, learning is still organized in disciplinary silos. The curriculum integration efforts are carried out in separate sections of the curriculum rather than the core. There are…

  14. FEM investigation of concrete silos damaged and reinforced externally with CFRP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kermiche, Sihem; Boussaid, Ouzine; Redjel, Bachir; Amirat, Abdelaziz

    2018-03-01

    The present work investigates the reinforcement of concrete wheat-grain silos under initial damage. The reinforcement is achieved by mounting bands of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) on the external walls of the silo. 4 modes of reinforcement are adapted according to the width of the band, the gap between two bands, the height of reinforcement and the number of layers achieved through banding. Analytical analyses were conducted using the Reimbert method and the Eurocode 1 Part 4 method, as well as numerically through the finite element software Abaqus. Results show that the normal pressure reaches a peak value when approaching the silo hopper. Initial damage in a concrete silo was first determined using a 3D geometrical model, while the damage analyses were conducted to optimize the CFRP reinforcement by mounting 2 CFRP bands close together above and below the cylinder-hopper joint. Increasing the number of banding layers could produce better performance as the damage was slightly decreased from 0.161 to 0.152 for 1 and 4 layers respectively.

  15. Monitoring of Olympic National Park Beaches to determine fate and effects of spilled bunker C fuel oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strand, J.A.; Cullinan, V.I.; Crecelius, E.A.; Fortman, T.J.; Citterman, R.J.; Fleischmann, M.L.

    1990-10-01

    On December 23, 1988, the barge Nestucca was accidentally struck by its tow, a Souse Brothers Towing Company tug, releasing approximately 230,000 gallons of Bunker C fuel oil and fouling beaches from Grays Harbor north to Vancouver Island. Affected beaches in Washington included a 40-mile-long strip that has been recently added to Olympic National Park. The purpose of the monitoring program documented in this report was to determine the fate of spilled Bunker C fuel oil on selected Washington coastal beaches. We sought to determine (1) how much oil remained in intertidal and shallow subtidal habitats following clean-up and weathering, (2) to what extent intertidal and/or shallow subtidal biotic assemblages have been contaminated, and (3) how rapidly the oil has left the ecosystem. 45 refs., 18 figs., 8 tabs.

  16. Evaluation of clinically applied treatment beams with respect to bunker shielding parameters for a Cyberknife M6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henzen, Dominik; Schmidhalter, Daniel; Zanella, Claudia Christina; Volken, Werner; Mackeprang, Paul-Henry; Malthaner, Marco; Fix, Michael Karl; Manser, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Compared to a conventional linear accelerator, the Cyberknife (CK) is a unique system with respect to radiation protection shielding and the variety and number of non-coplanar beams are two key components regarding this aspect. In this work, a framework to assess the direction distribution and modulation factor (MF) of clinically applied treatment beams of a CyberKnife M6 is developed. Database filtering options allow studying the influence of different parameters such as collimator types, treatment sites or different bunker sizes. A distribution of monitor units (MU) is generated by projecting treatment beams onto the walls, floor and ceiling of the CyberKnife bunker. This distribution is found to be highly heterogeneous and depending, among other parameters, on the bunker size. For our bunker design, 10%-13% of the MUs are delivered to the right and left wall, each. The floor receives more than 64% of the applied MUs, while the wall behind the patient's head is not hit by primary treatment beams. Between 0% and 5% of the total MUs are delivered to the wall at the patient's feet. This number highly depends on the treatment site, e.g., for extracranial patients no beams hit that wall. Collimator choice was found to have minor influence on the distribution of MUs. On the other hand, the MF depends on the collimator type as well as on the treatment site. The MFs (delivered MU/prescribed dose) for all treatments, all MLC treatments, cranial and extracranial treatments are 8.3, 6.4, 7.7, and 9.9 MU/cGy, respectively. The developed framework allows assessing and monitoring important parameters regarding radiation protection of a CK-M6 using the actually applied treatment beams. Furthermore, it enables evaluating different clinical and constructional situations using the filtering options. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  17. A Novel Boil-Off Gas Re-Liquefaction Using a Spray Recondenser for Liquefied Natural-Gas Bunkering Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiheon Ryu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the design of a novel boil-off gas (BOG re-liquefaction technology using a BOG recondenser system. The BOG recondenser system targets the liquefied natural gas (LNG bunkering operation, in which the BOG phase transition occurs in a pressure vessel instead of a heat exchanger. The BOG that is generated during LNG bunkering operation is characterized as an intermittent flow with various peak loads. The system was designed to temporarily store the transient BOG inflow, condense it with subcooled LNG and store the condensed liquid. The superiority of the system was verified by comparing it with the most extensively employed conventional re-liquefaction system in terms of consumption energy and via an exergy analysis. Static simulations were conducted for three compositions; the results indicated that the proposed system provided 0 to 6.9% higher efficiencies. The exergy analysis indicates that the useful work of the conventional system is 24.9%, and the useful work of the proposed system is 26.0%. Process dynamic simulations of six cases were also performed to verify the behaviour of the BOG recondenser system. The results show that the pressure of the holdup in the recondenser vessel increased during the BOG inflow mode and decreased during the initialization mode. The maximum pressure of one of the bunkering cases was 3.45 bar. The system encountered a challenge during repetitive operations due to overpressurizing of the BOG recondenser vessel.

  18. An Evaluation on Radiation Shielding and Activation Properties of ISOL-bunker Structural Materials for Radiation Safety in RAON Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Do Hyun; Kim, Song Hyun; Woo, Myeong Hyeon; Lee, Jae Yong; Kim, Jong Woo; Shin, Chang Ho [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Shin Woo [Institute for Basic Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    RAON heavy ion accelerator has been designed by the Institute for Basic Science (IBS). ISOL is one of RAON facilities to generate and separate rare isotopes. For generating rare isotopes, high intensity proton beam, which has 70 MeV energy, is induced into UCx target. From this reaction, lots of neutrons are concomitantly generated. To meet our design goal, it was required that the structural material of ISOL-bunker should be carefully selected. In this study, to select the structural material which has lower activation property with higher performance for radiation shielding, following aspects were evaluated: (i) residual dose, (ii) radioactive wastes, and (iii) shielding performance in ISOL-bunker. In this study, to effectively design the radiation shielding of the RAON ISOL-bunker, two methods were proposed. No.1 strategy is a method to replace the normal concrete to specific concretes. No.2 strategy is to design dual-layer radiation shields that a specific shielding material is located inner side of the normal concrete. Using the strategies, performance evaluations were evaluated for three aspects, which are residual dose, radioactive waste, and prompt radiation. The results show that the residual radiation can be effectively reduced using B{sub 4}C, borated polyethylene and polyethylene with No.2 strategy. Also, the colemanite concrete and B{sub 4}C shielding give a good ability to reduce the radioactive wastes.

  19. Sci-Sat AM: Brachy - 04: Neutron production around a radiation therapy linac bunker - monte carlo simulations and physical measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatchadourian, R; Davis, S; Evans, M; Licea, A; Seuntjens, J; Kildea, J

    2012-07-01

    Photoneutrons are a major component of the equivalent dose in the maze and near the door of linac bunkers. Physical measurements and Monte Carlo (MC) calculations of neutron dose are key for validating bunker design with respect to health regulations. We attempted to use bubble detectors and a 3 He neutron spectrometer to measure neutron equivalent dose and neutron spectra in the maze and near the door of one of our bunkers. We also ran MC simulations with MCNP5 to measure the neutron fluence in the same region. Using a point source of neutrons, a Clinac 1800 linac operating at 10 MV was simulated and the fluence measured at various locations of interest. We describe the challenges faced when measuring dose with bubble detectors in the maze and the complexity of photoneutron spectrometry with linacs operating in pulsed mode. Finally, we report on the development of a userfriendly GUI for shielding calculations based on the NCRP 151 formalism. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  20. Fire and fire extinguishment in silos. An experimental study[Storage of wood fuel pellets]; Brand och brandslaeckning i siloanlaeggningar. En experimentell studie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, Henry; Blomqvist, Per; Zhenghua Yan

    2007-01-15

    A series of four tests have been conducted with wood pellets stored in a reduced size silo. The tests were conducted in order to increase the knowledge on fire development, detection and extinction technique in silo fires. The project originated from a pre-study on the extinction of silo fires made for the Swedish Rescue Service Agency (SRV). The test silo was built of concrete rings, had a diameter of 1 m, and a height of almost 6 m, which gave a volume of 4.4 m{sup 3}. The silo was filled with wood pellets up to a height of 5 m. A local auto ignition was imitated by a coiled heating wire placed in the pellet bulk centrally in the silo and a self sustaining pyrolysis zone was established within one hour. The silo was instrumented with almost 100 thermocouples as a mean to follow the development of the pyrolysis zone and later the efficiency of the extinguishment. Gas analyses were further made, both in the top of the silo, and at four different levels in the pellet bulk. After 30 hours the extinguishment was initiated using nitrogen (N{sub 2}) and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), respectively. The gas was injected into the bottom of the silo. Two tests were also conducted where gas injection was combined foam application in the top of the silo. The tests showed that the pyrolysis zone preferably spreads downwards in the silo, while moisture and pyrolysis gases form a wave that slowly spreads upwards. It was difficult to detect the fire before the main 'gas wave' reached the pellet surface in the silo top, and detection time was about 20 hours in these tests. The spread of the pyrolysis zone, downward, was even slower. The slow development is probably an explanation of why real silo fires often are rather extensive once discovered. Inerting the silo with either nitrogen or carbon dioxide worked out well in the tests. The gas must be in gas phase and slowly introduced into the silo, as close to the bottom as possible. An efficient extinction implies an air

  1. Facility design to apply cover material over radioactive residue in storage silos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fekete, L.J.; Emerson, R.J. Jr.; Heckendorn, L.A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the BentoGrout application system designed by Parsons under contract to the US Department of Energy (DOE) for the Environmental Remedial Action (ERA) Project, Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) Fernald, Ohio, as cleaned by the K-65 removal action work plan prepared by Theta Technologies, Inc. and Westinghouse Environmental Management Company of Ohio (WEMCO) with the objectives to reduce radon emissions from the silos. The paper discusses support activities undertaken to develop the design basis and design criteria for the K-65 Silos BentoGrout Covering System. The development and execution of an application demonstration program is described with presentation of the results. Also addressed is the design of the full-scale application system and the philosophy of operational control. The instrumentation and monitoring subsystems are illustrated on system schematics. The paper concludes with an evaluation of the above activities in achieving the purpose and objectives set forth in the Removal Action Work Plan

  2. Exerimental study on the water permeability of a reinforced concrete silo for radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iriya, K.; Itoh, Y.; Hosoda, M.; Fujiwara, A.; Tsuji, Y.

    1992-01-01

    A low permeable conrete structure is required in a shallow land disposal system in order to isolate radioactive waste from the biosphere. Two model silos (7.25 m dia., 5.25 m height, 1.50 m wall thickness) will be constructed to demonstrate the performance of the concrete structure constructed by the two concepts. One concept is called the improved grouting method. We intend to inject cementitious material to the defective zone such as a crack after its construction by an ordinary construction method. The other concept is called the improved constructing method. We intend to minimize the defective zone, which influences the permeability, during the construction by an improved constructing method. The permeability of the concrete structure as a whole structure will be assessed by two large-scale-model-silos until 1992. The design, objectives, and preliminary results of this experiment are mainly described in this paper. (orig.)

  3. Presión en medios granulares en silos: experimentos para un curso de fluidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulo Hernández López

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan las experiencias obtenidas en el análisis del comportamiento estático de un medio granular en un silo. Haciendo uso de un dispositivo experimental construido para tal fin, se explora el comportamiento de la presión ejercida sobre el fondo de un silo cuando sobre él descansa una columna de medio granular (maíz sobrecargado y se compara con el de un líquido. Se utiliza el modelo teórico de Janssen para describir el comportamiento de la presión, obteniendo resultados satisfactorios. Este trabajo podrá servir de base en la elaboración de protocolos de prácticas para los laboratorios de los cursos de física clásica que se imparten en los programas de licenciatura en ciencias e ingeniería.

  4. Vitrification of Simulated Fernald K-65 Silo Waste at Low Temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jantzen, C.M.; Pickett, J.B.

    1998-01-01

    Vitrification is the technology that has been chosen to solidify approximately 15,500 tons of geologic mill tailings at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) in Fernald, Ohio. The geologic mill tailings are residues from the processing of pitchlende ore during 1949-1958. These waste residues are contained in silos in Operable Unit 4 (OU4) at the FEMP facility. Operable Unit 4 is one of five operable units at the FEMP. Operating Unit 4 consists of four concrete storage silos and their contents. Silos 1 and 2 contain K-65 mill tailing residues and a bentonite cap, Silo 3 contains non-radioactive metal oxides, and Silo 4 is empty. The K-65 residues contain radium, uranium, uranium daughter products, and heavy metals such as lead and barium.The K-65 waste leaches lead at greater than 100 times the allowable Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Resource, Conservation, and Recovery Act (RCRA) concentration limits when tested by the Toxic Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). Vitrification was chosen by FEMP as the preferred technology for the Silos 1, 2, 3 wastes because the final waste form met the following criteria: controls radon emanation, eliminates the potential for hazardous or radioactive constituents to migrate to the aquifer below FEMP, controls the spread of radioactive particulates, reduces leachability of metals and radiological constituents, reduces volume of final wasteform for disposal, silo waste composition is favorable to vitrification, will meet current and proposed RCRA TCLP leaching criteria Glasses that melt at 1350 degrees C were developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and glasses that melt between 1150-1350 degrees C were developed by the Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) for the K-65 silo wastes. Both crucible studies and pilot scale vitrification studies were conducted by PNNL and VSL. Subsequently, a Vitrification Pilot Plant (VPP) was constructed at FEMP capable of operating at temperatures up to 1450

  5. Non-linear thermal and structural analysis of a typical spent fuel silo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, L.M.; Mancini, G.R.; Spina, O.A.F.; Sala, G.; Paglia, F.

    1993-01-01

    A numerical method for the non-linear structural analysis of a typical reinforced concrete spent fuel silo under thermal loads is proposed. The numerical time integration was performed by means of a time explicit axisymmetric finite-difference numerical operator. An analysis was made of influences by heat, viscoelasticity and cracking upon the concrete behaviour between concrete pouring stage and the first period of the silo's normal operation. The following parameters were considered for the heat generation and transmission process: Heat generated during the concrete's hardening stage, Solar radiation effects, Natural convection, Spent-fuel heat generation. For the modelling of the reinforced concrete behaviour, use was made of a simplified formulation of: Visco-elastic effects, Thermal cracking, Steel reinforcement. A comparison between some experimental temperature characteristic values obtained from the numerical integration process and empirical data obtained from a 1:1 scaled prototype was also carried out. (author)

  6. La vida de Santo Domingo de Silos: onirocrítica y semántica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González, Javier Roberto

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available We study the prophetic vision of Santo Domingo de Silos in Gonzalo de Berceo’s Vida de Santo Domingo de Silos, with the aim of: a analysing the text according to categories of prophecy, vision and dream in medieval christian culture; b analysing the configuration of oniric images as an allegorical discourse; c given the limits of allegorical semantics, interpreting those symbolic images characterized by prophetical obscuritas in the light of Grimaldus’ Vita Beati Dominici, source of Berceo’s Vida, and also in the light of medieval tradition of Other World visions and general chromatic an arithmetical symbolism, in order to establish semantic innovations and the proper meanning of Berceo’s text.Estudiamos la visión profética de Santo Domingo de Silos en la Vida de Santo Domingo de Silos de Gonzalo de Berceo, con el objeto de: a analizar el texto según las categorías de profecía, visión y sueño vigentes en la cultura cristiana medieval; b analizar la configuración de las imágenes oníricas como discurso alegórico; c dados los límites de la semántica alegórica, interpretar aquellas imágenes simbólicas caracterizadas por la obscuritas profética a la luz de la Vita Beati Dominici de Grimaldo, fuente de la Vida de Berceo, y también a la luz de la tradición medieval de las visiones de trasmundo y del simbolismo general cromático y aritmético, en orden al establecimiento de las innovaciones semánticas y con ellas del recto sentido del texto de Berceo.

  7. Parametric design of silo steel framework of concrete mixing station based on the finite element method and MATLAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Hui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available When the structure of the silo steel framework of concrete mixing station is designed, In most cases, the dimension parameters, shape parameters and position parameters of silo steel framework beams are changed as the productivity adjustment of the concrete mixing station, but the structure types of silo steel framework will remain the same. In order to acquire strength of silo steel framework rapidly and efficiently, it is need to provide specialized parametric strength computational software for engineering staff who does not understand the three-dimensional software such as PROE and finite element analysis software. By the finite element methods(FEM, the parametric stress calculation modal of the silo steel framework of concrete mixing station is established, which includes dimension parameters, shape parameters, position parameters and applied load parameters of each beams, and then the parametric calculation program is written with MATLAB. The stress equations reflect the internal relationship between the stress of the silo steel frames with the dimension parameters, shape parameters, position parameters and load parameters. Finally, an example is presented, the calculation results show the stress of all members and the size and location of the maximum stress, which agrees well with realistic cases.

  8. An improved system to verify CANDU spent fuel elements in dry storage silos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Gevaldo L. de; Soares, Milton G.; Filho, Anizio M.; Martorelli, Daniel S.; Fonseca, Manoel

    2000-01-01

    An improved system to verify CANDU spent fuel elements stored in dry storage silos was developed. It is constituted by a mechanical device which moves a semi-conductor detector along a vertical verification pipe incorporated to the silo, and a modified portable multi-channel analyzer. The mechanical device contains a winding drum accommodating a cable hanging the detector, in such a way that the drum rotates as the detector goes down due to its own weight. The detector is coupled to the multi-channel analyzer operating in the multi-scaler mode, generating therefore a spectrum of total counts against time. To assure a linear transformation of time into detector position, the mechanical device dictating the detector speed is controlled by the multi-channel analyzer. This control is performed via a clock type escapement device activated by a solenoid. Whenever the multi-channel analyzer shifts to the next channel, the associated pulse is amplified, powering the solenoid causing the drum to rotate a fixed angle. Spectra taken in laboratory, using radioactive sources, have shown a good reproducibility. This qualify the system to be used as an equipment to get a fingerprint of the overall distribution of the fuel elements along the silo axis, and hence, to verify possible diversion of the nuclear material by comparing spectra taken at consecutive safeguards inspections. All the system is battery operated, being thus capable to operate in the field where no power supply is available. (author)

  9. New perspectives on the "silo effect": initial comparisons of network structures across public health collaboratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevc, Christine A; Retrum, Jessica H; Varda, Danielle M

    2015-04-01

    We explored to what extent "silos" (preferential partnering) persist in interorganizational boundaries despite advances in working across boundaries. We focused on organizational homophily and resulting silo effects within networks that might both facilitate and impede success in public health collaboratives (PHCs). We analyzed data from 162 PHCs with a series of exponential random graph models to determine the influence of uniform and differential homophily among organizations and to identify the propensity for partnerships with similar organizations. The results demonstrated a low presence (8%) of uniform homophily among networks, whereas a greater number (30%) of PHCs contained varying levels of differential homophily by 1 or more types of organization. We noted that the higher frequency among law enforcement, nonprofits, and public health organizations demonstrated a partner preference with similar organizations. Although we identified only a modest occurrence of partner preference in PHCs, overall success in efforts to work across boundaries might be problematic when public health members (often leaders of PHCs) exhibit the tendency to form silos.

  10. Votive deposit or destroyed necropolis?: the protohistoric silo of El Pontarró (La Secuita, Tarragona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Carme Belarte

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This work analyzes the materials recovered from the silo of ‘El Pontarró’, located in La Secuita (Tarragona, filled with debris dated to the end of the 5th century BC or the beginnings of the 4th century BC. Among them, a number of bronze ornaments and about 6,000 glass beads stand out, together with pottery, spindle whorls, querns, as well as faunal, malacological (mainly Cypraea and archaeobotanical remains. Most elements are rare and related to funerary or ritual practices. This supports the hypothesis that the filling of the silo could correspond to a ritual action, perhaps after the destruction of a necropolis. The accidental discovery of the silo as well as the altered field conditions that for the moment make further archaeological intervention impossible, prevent gaining more information about the context of the deposit. Nevertheless, its contents include the biggest assemblage of glass beads from the Protohistory of the the Iberian Peninsula and are thus.

  11. An improved system to verify CANDU spent fuel elements in dry storage silos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Gevaldo L. de; Soares, Milton G.; Filho, Anizio M.; Martorelli, Daniel S.; Fonseca, Manoel [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2000-07-01

    An improved system to verify CANDU spent fuel elements stored in dry storage silos was developed. It is constituted by a mechanical device which moves a semi-conductor detector along a vertical verification pipe incorporated to the silo, and a modified portable multi-channel analyzer. The mechanical device contains a winding drum accommodating a cable hanging the detector, in such a way that the drum rotates as the detector goes down due to its own weight. The detector is coupled to the multi-channel analyzer operating in the multi-scaler mode, generating therefore a spectrum of total counts against time. To assure a linear transformation of time into detector position, the mechanical device dictating the detector speed is controlled by the multi-channel analyzer. This control is performed via a clock type escapement device activated by a solenoid. Whenever the multi-channel analyzer shifts to the next channel, the associated pulse is amplified, powering the solenoid causing the drum to rotate a fixed angle. Spectra taken in laboratory, using radioactive sources, have shown a good reproducibility. This qualify the system to be used as an equipment to get a fingerprint of the overall distribution of the fuel elements along the silo axis, and hence, to verify possible diversion of the nuclear material by comparing spectra taken at consecutive safeguards inspections. All the system is battery operated, being thus capable to operate in the field where no power supply is available. (author)

  12. Experimental study on detection of electrostatic discharges generated by polymer granules inside a metal silo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kwangseok; Mogami, Tomofumi; Suzuki, Teruo

    2014-04-01

    To detect electrostatic discharges generated by polymer granules within a metal silo, we developed a novel and simple electrostatic discharge detector that utilizes a photosensor. The novel detector consists of a photosensor module in a metal cylinder, an optical band-pass filter, a quartz glass, a power supply, an amplifier for the photosensor module, and a digital oscilloscope. In this study, we conducted experiments at a real pneumatic powder transport facility that includes a metal silo to evaluate the novel detector using polypropylene granules. To determine the performance of the novel detector, we observed the electrostatic discharge within the metal silo using a conventional image intensifier system. The results obtained from the experiments show that the novel detector worked well in this study. The signals obtained with the novel detector were identical to the electrostatic discharges obtained with the conventional image intensifier system. The greatest advantage of this novel detector is that it is effective even when placed under external lights. In addition, the influence of various optical band-pass filters on the performance of the novel detector was discussed. Our study confirmed that an optical band-pass filter with a center wavelength of λ 330 nm (λ1/2: 315-345 nm) was the best performer among the optical band-pass filters used in this study.

  13. Waste-surface mapping of the Fernald K-65 silos using a structured light measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burks, B.L.; DePiero, F.W.; Dinkins, M.A.; Rowe, J.C.; Selleck, C.B.; Jacoboski, D.L.

    1992-10-01

    A remotely operated surface-mapping measurement system was developed by the Robotics ampersand Process Systems Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for use in the K-65 waste-storage silos at Fernald, Ohio. The mapping system used three infrared line-generating laser diodes as illumination sources and three high-resolution, low-lux, calibrated, black-and-white, charge-coupled-device video cameras as receivers. These components were combined to form structured light source range and direction sensors with six different possible emitter-receiver pairs. A technology demonstration and predeployment tests were performed at Fernald using the empty Silo 4 into which was placed rectangular objects of known dimensions. These objects were scanned by the structured light sources to demonstrate functionality and verify that the system was giving sufficiently accurate range data in three dimensions. The structured light sources were deployed in Silos 1 and 2 to scan the waste surfaces. The resulting data were merged to create three-dimensional maps of those surfaces. A bentonite clay cap was placed over the waste surfaces and surface maps were obtained. The change in surface height before and after bentonite addition was utilized as a measure of clay cap thickness

  14. Optimization and decision-making radiation protection in gamma radiography facilities 192 Ir - with roof bunker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonio Filho, Joao

    2001-01-01

    To determine optimized dose limits for workers, a study was undertaken of radiation protection optimization in gamma radiography facilities, using the Multi-Attribute Utility Analysis technique. A total of 66 protection options, distributed in 6 irradiation configurations in a closed installation, with roof, type 'bunker', were analyzed. In the determination of the optimized dose limit, the following attributes were considered: cost of the protection, cost of the detriment for different alpha values, cost of the isolation area, individual equivalent doses and collective dose. The variables considered in the evaluation included: effective work load, type and activity of the radiation sources, source-operator distance, and type and thickness of the material used in the protection shielding. Other parameters analyzed included the quality of the radiographic image and the technical procedures employed. The optimal analytic solutions obtained that resulted in the optimized dose limit were determined by means of a sensitivity analysis and by direct and logical evaluations. Thus, independent of the values of the monetary coefficient attributed to the detriment, the annual interests applied to the protection cost, and the type of installation studied, it was concluded that the primary limit of annual dose for workers, 50 mSv, can be easily reduced to an optimized annual dose limit of 5 mSv. (author)

  15. NOTE: Monte Carlo evaluation of kerma in an HDR brachytherapy bunker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Calatayud, J.; Granero, D.; Ballester, F.; Casal, E.; Crispin, V.; Puchades, V.; León, A.; Verdú, G.

    2004-12-01

    In recent years, the use of high dose rate (HDR) after-loader machines has greatly increased due to the shift from traditional Cs-137/Ir-192 low dose rate (LDR) to HDR brachytherapy. The method used to calculate the required concrete and, where appropriate, lead shielding in the door is based on analytical methods provided by documents published by the ICRP, the IAEA and the NCRP. The purpose of this study is to perform a more realistic kerma evaluation at the entrance maze door of an HDR bunker using the Monte Carlo code GEANT4. The Monte Carlo results were validated experimentally. The spectrum at the maze entrance door, obtained with Monte Carlo, has an average energy of about 110 keV, maintaining a similar value along the length of the maze. The comparison of results from the aforementioned values with the Monte Carlo ones shows that results obtained using the albedo coefficient from the ICRP document more closely match those given by the Monte Carlo method, although the maximum value given by MC calculations is 30% greater.

  16. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 214: Bunkers and Storage Areas Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 214 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Areas 5, 11, and 25 of the Nevada Test Site, CAU 214 consists of nine Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 05-99-01, Fallout Shelters; 11-22-03, Drum; 25-99-12, Fly Ash Storage; 25-23-01, Contaminated Materials; 25-23-19, Radioactive Material Storage; 25-99-18, Storage Area; 25-34-03, Motor Dr/Gr Assembly (Bunker); 25-34-04, Motor Dr/Gr Assembly (Bunker); and 25-34-05, Motor Dr/Gr Assembly (Bunker). These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives (CAAs). The suspected contaminants and critical analyte s for CAU 214 include oil (total petroleum hydrocarbons-diesel-range organics [TPH-DRO], polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs]), pesticides (chlordane, heptachlor, 4,4-DDT), barium, cadmium, chronium, lubricants (TPH-DRO, TPH-gasoline-range organics [GRO]), and fly ash (arsenic). The land-use zones where CAU 214 CASs are located dictate that future land uses will be limited to nonresidential (i.e., industrial) activities. The results of this field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the corrective action decision document

  17. Design Considerations and Validation of Tenth Value Layer Used for a Medical Linear Accelerator Bunker Using High Density Concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peet, Deborah; Horton, Patrick; Jones, Matthew; Ramsdale, Malcolm

    2006-01-01

    A bunker for the containment and medical use of 10 MV and 6 MV X-rays from a linear accelerator was designed to be added on to four existing bunkers. Space was limited and the walls of the bunker were built using Magnadense, a high density aggregate mined in Sweden and imported into the UK by Minelco Minerals Ltd. The density was specified by the user to be a minimum of 3800 kg/m 3 . This reduced the thickness of primary and secondary shielding over that required using standard concrete. Standard concrete (density 2350 kg/m 3 ) was used for the roof of the bunker. No published data for the tenth value layer (T.V.L.) of the high density concrete were available and values of T.V.L. were derived from those for standard concrete using the ratio of density. Calculations of wall thickness along established principles using normal assumptions and dose constraints resulted in a design with minimum primary wall barriers of 1500 mm and secondary barriers of between 800 mm and 1000 mm of high density concrete. Following construction, measurements were made of the dose rates outside the shielding thereby allowing estimates of the T.V.L. of the material for 6 and 10 MV X-rays. The instantaneous dose rates outside the primary barrier walls were calculated to be less than 6 x 10 -6 Sv/hr but on measurement were found to be more than a factor of 4 times lower than this. Calculations were reviewed and the T.V.L. was found to be 12% greater than that required to achieve the measured dose rate. On the roof, the instantaneous dose rate at the primary barrier was measured to be within 3% of that predicted using the published values of T.V.L. for standard concrete. Sample cubes of standard and high density concrete poured during construction showed that the density of the standard concrete in the roof was close to that used in the design whereas the physical density of Magnadense concrete was on average 5% higher than that specified. In conclusion, values of T.V.L. for the high density

  18. Sandia National Laboratories, Tonopah Test Range Fire Control Bunker (Building 09-51): Photographs and Written Historical and Descriptive Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullrich, Rebecca A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Corporate Archives and History Program

    2017-08-01

    The Fire Control Bunker (Building 09-51) is a contributing element to the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Tonopah Test Range (TTR) Historic District. The SNL TTR Historic District played a significant role in U.S. Cold War history in the areas of stockpile surveillance and non-nuclear field testing of nuclear weapons design. The district covers approximately 179,200 acres and illustrates Cold War development testing of nuclear weapons components and systems. This report includes historical information, architectural information, sources of information, project information, maps, blueprints, and photographs.

  19. RELATIONS OF DISTRIBUTION OF THE LOW SULPHUR SHIPPING FUELS IN REGION OF THE BALTIC SEA IN THE BUNKERING BOAT-SHIP SUPPLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Matejski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents relations of distribution of the low sulphur marine fuels as result of being in force the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL 73/78, especially the record establishing the region of the Baltic Sea and the North See as sulphur emission control areas (SECA. There are presented obligatory regulations and their influence on sale of the particular kinds of fuels in this region. There are also presented chosen procedures of care about cargo in relation bunker boat – harbour – ship, the delivery fuel procedures in relation bunker boat–ship and the quantitative analysis of distributed fuels on an example of chosen bunker boat.

  20. When is a soil remediated? Comparison of biopiled and windrowed soils contaminated with bunker-fuel in a full-scale trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coulon, Frederic [Centre for Resource Management and Efficiency, Sustainable Systems Department, School of Applied Sciences, Cranfield University, Cranfield MK43 0AL (United Kingdom); Al Awadi, Mohammed; Cowie, William [Institute of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Cruickshank Building, St Machar Drive, Aberdeen AB24 3UU (United Kingdom); Mardlin, David [Institute of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Cruickshank Building, St Machar Drive, Aberdeen AB24 3UU (United Kingdom); Remedios Limited, Campus 3, Unit E2, Aberdeen Science and Technology Park, Aberdeen AB22 8GW (United Kingdom); Pollard, Simon [Centre for Resource Management and Efficiency, Sustainable Systems Department, School of Applied Sciences, Cranfield University, Cranfield MK43 0AL (United Kingdom); Cunningham, Colin [CLARRC, John Muir Building, The Kings Buildings, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3LJ (United Kingdom); Risdon, Graeme [TES Bretby, Bretby Business Park, Ashby Road, Burton upon Trent DE15 0YZ (United Kingdom); Arthur, Paul [Remedios Limited, Campus 3, Unit E2, Aberdeen Science and Technology Park, Aberdeen AB22 8GW (United Kingdom); Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom); Semple, Kirk T., E-mail: k.semple@lancaster.ac.u [Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom); Paton, Graeme I. [Institute of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Cruickshank Building, St Machar Drive, Aberdeen AB24 3UU (United Kingdom); Remedios Limited, Campus 3, Unit E2, Aberdeen Science and Technology Park, Aberdeen AB22 8GW (United Kingdom)

    2010-10-15

    A six month field scale study was carried out to compare windrow turning and biopile techniques for the remediation of soil contaminated with bunker C fuel oil. End-point clean-up targets were defined by human risk assessment and ecotoxicological hazard assessment approaches. Replicate windrows and biopiles were amended with either nutrients and inocula, nutrients alone or no amendment. In addition to fractionated hydrocarbon analysis, culturable microbial characterisation and soil ecotoxicological assays were performed. This particular soil, heavy in texture and historically contaminated with bunker fuel was more effectively remediated by windrowing, but coarser textures may be more amendable to biopiling. This trial reveals the benefit of developing risk and hazard based approaches in defining end-point bioremediation of heavy hydrocarbons when engineered biopile or windrow are proposed as treatment option. - Windrows outperform biopiles in the bioremediation of bunker oil contaminated soils.

  1. When is a soil remediated? Comparison of biopiled and windrowed soils contaminated with bunker-fuel in a full-scale trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulon, Frederic; Al Awadi, Mohammed; Cowie, William; Mardlin, David; Pollard, Simon; Cunningham, Colin; Risdon, Graeme; Arthur, Paul; Semple, Kirk T.; Paton, Graeme I.

    2010-01-01

    A six month field scale study was carried out to compare windrow turning and biopile techniques for the remediation of soil contaminated with bunker C fuel oil. End-point clean-up targets were defined by human risk assessment and ecotoxicological hazard assessment approaches. Replicate windrows and biopiles were amended with either nutrients and inocula, nutrients alone or no amendment. In addition to fractionated hydrocarbon analysis, culturable microbial characterisation and soil ecotoxicological assays were performed. This particular soil, heavy in texture and historically contaminated with bunker fuel was more effectively remediated by windrowing, but coarser textures may be more amendable to biopiling. This trial reveals the benefit of developing risk and hazard based approaches in defining end-point bioremediation of heavy hydrocarbons when engineered biopile or windrow are proposed as treatment option. - Windrows outperform biopiles in the bioremediation of bunker oil contaminated soils.

  2. Irradiation testing of LEU fuels in the SILOE Reactor - Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merchie, Francis; Baas, Claude; Martel, Patrick

    1985-01-01

    Irradiation of uranium-silicide fuels has continued in the SILOE reactor during the past year. Thickness vs. fission density data from four U 3 Si plates containing 5.5 and 6.0 g U/cm 3 have been analyzed, and the results are presented. The irradiation of a full 60 g U/cm 3 U 3 Si element has begun. In addition, four U 3 Si 2 plates containing 20 to 54 g U/cm 3 are now being irradiated. These irradiations and future plans are discussed in the paper. (author)

  3. Salida de campo a Santo Domingo de Silos, en Burgos, el 14 de septiembre de 1953

    OpenAIRE

    Valverde Gómez, José Antonio, 1926-2003

    2008-01-01

    Salida de campo a Santo Domingo de Silos, en Burgos, el 14 de septiembre de 1953, de la que se anotaron observaciones sobre cangrejos, los siguientes peces: "Foxinellus sp." y Trucha (Salmo trutta o Oncorhynchus mykiss), los siguientes mamíferos: Bos taurus (Vaca), Capra aegagrus hircus (Cabra doméstica) y Galemys pyrenaicus (Desmán pirenaico), y las siguientes aves: Aquila sp. (Águila), Carduelis cannabina (Pardillo común, llamada Colorín y Acanthis cannabina por el autor), Carduelis carduel...

  4. The 'SILOE' reactor at Grenoble, France and associated hot cell facilities. Information sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardt, P. von der; Roettger, H.

    1981-01-01

    Technical information is given on the SILOE reactor and associated hot cell facilities, with the main emphasis on experimental irradiation facilities, specialized irradiation devices (loops and capsules) and possibilities for post-irradiation examinations of samples. The information is presented in the form of eight information sheets under the headings: main characteristics of the reactor; utilization and specialization of the reactor; experimental facilities; neutron spectra; main characteristics of specialized irradiation devices; main characteristics of hot cell facilities; equipment and techniques available for post-irradiation examinations; utilization and specialization of the hot cell facilities

  5. Experiences in the emptying of waste silos containing solid nuclear waste from graphite- moderated reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wall, S.; Schwarz, T.

    2003-01-01

    Before reactor sites can be handed over for ultimate decommissioning, at some sites silos containing waste from operations need to be emptied. The form and physical condition of the waste demands sophisticated retrieval technologies taking into account the onsite situation in terms of infrastructure and silo geometry. Furthermore, in the case of graphite moderated reactors, this waste usually includes several tonnes of graphite waste requiring special HVAC and dust handling measures. RWE NUKEM Group has already performed several contracts dealing with such emptying tasks. Of particular interest for the upcoming decommissioning projects in France might be the activities at Vandellos, Spain and Trawsfynnyd, UK. Retrieval System for Vandellos NPP is discussed. Following an international competitive tender exercise, RWE NUKEM won the contract to provide a turn-key retrieval system. This involved the design, manufacture and installation of a system built around the modules of a 200 kg capacity version of the ARTISAN manipulator system. The ARTISAN 200 manipulator, with remote slave arm detach facility, was deployed on a telescopic mast inserted into the silos through the roof penetrations. The manipulator deployed a range of tools to gather the waste and load it into a transfer basket, deployed through an adjacent penetration. After commissioning, the system cleared the vaults in less than the scheduled period with no failures. At the Trawsfynnyd Magnox plants two types of intermediate level waste (ILW) accumulated on site; namely Miscellaneous Activated Components (MAC) and Fuel Element Debris (FED). MAC is predominantly components that have been activated by the reactor core and then discharged. FED mainly consists of fuel cladding produced when fuel elements were prepared for dispatch to the reprocessing facility. RWE NUKEM Ltd. was awarded a contract to design, supply, commission and operate equipment to retrieve, pack and immobilize the two waste streams. Major

  6. Two dimensional neutron transport calculation system for plate-reactors: experimental design and qualification with SILOE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roussos, N.

    1982-01-01

    The main objective of this work is to create a neutronic calculations system for the SILOE-SILOETTE reactors, adaptable to other types of plate reactors. The author presents the methodology and the development of the APOLLO 1D (99 gr.) calculations for the creation of cross sections libraries. After a recall of the Discrete Ordinate Method (DOT), the method accuracy is studied in order to optimize the spatial discretization of the calculations; calculations of DOT 3.5 and of SILOETTE core are conducted and their convergence and costs are examined. DOT calculations of SILOETTE and experimental tests results are then compared [fr

  7. Fighting Smoldering Fires in Silos – A Cautionary Note on Using Carbon Dioxide to Inert

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedlund, Frank Huess

    2017-01-01

    This communication seeks to draw attention to the hazards of releasing liquid carbon dioxide into environments where an ignitable atmosphere may exist. Static discharges have sufficient energy to ignite flammable vapors and an internal explosion may result when fighting smoldering fires using...... this approach. A recent article in Biomass and Bioenergy examines an explosion in a Norwegian wood pellet silo when attempting to suppress a smoldering fire with CO₂. The article argues that the electrostatic hazard of CO₂ is widely under-appreciated and incidents like this are avoidable....

  8. Overview of Remote Retrieval Equipment and the Strategy for removal of Radon Bearing Waste from Silos 1 and 2 at the Fernald Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinker, Michael W.; Samuel, Todd J.

    2001-01-01

    This document provides an overview of the remote retrieval equipment and strategy for the retrieval of waste from Silos 1 and 2 at the Department of Energy's Fernald site in southwestern Ohio. The scope of this paper is limited to general descriptions of remote equipment specifically related in-silo retrieval. The retrieval strategy describes how the contractor team is planning to utilize the various remote subsystems to efficiently remove the waste from the silos from a philosophical standpoint as opposed to a procedural and operational standpoint. The retrieval strategy and approach is based upon the successful tank retrieval operations conducted at DOE's Oak Ridge and Hanford Sites. Lessons learned from these previous operations have been utilized in planning an approach for the Fernald Silo Retrieval Project. The equipment overview includes discussion of the retrieval system configurations together with descriptions of the robotic arm and retrieval end effectors, the conditioning and transfer pumping system, the sluicer and sluicing pump, as well as the debris retrieval system. A unique challenge being addressed as part of this project is the waste contents. Silos 1 and 2 contain two distinct layers of material that need to be retrieved. The first layer is a Bentonite (trade name BentogroutTM) cap that was placed in the silos to prevent radon migration into the dome space and out of the silos. The Bentonite layer varies, but in general it is approximately six inches deep in the center of the silo and thirty-six inches near the silo walls. The material may have dried out on the surface, and may still be wetted near the bottom of the bentonite layer. The K-65 ore tailings, which were slurried into the silos, are the remainder of the waste that is over 20' in depth. This paper provides an overview of the retrieval strategies, technologies, and techniques that will be used to safely and efficiently retrieve the waste from the Fernald Silos

  9. Formulation and evaluation of gas release scenarios for the silo in Swedish Final Repository for Radioactive Waste (SFR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, J.; Moreno, L.

    1992-01-01

    The Swedish Final Repository for Radioactive Waste (SFR) has been in operation since 1988 and is located in the crystalline rock, 60 m below the Baltic Sea. In the licensing procedure for the SFR the safety assessment has been complemented with a detailed scenario analysis of the performance of the repository. The scenarios include the influence on radionuclide release by gas formation and gas transport processes in the silo. The overall conclusion is that the release of most radionuclides from the silo is only marginally affected by the formation and release of gas, even for scenarios considering unexpected events. The largest effects were found for short-lived radionuclides and radionuclides that have no or low sorption ability. Except for very extreme scenarios for the silo the overall impact from repository on the environment is by far dominated by the release of radionuclides from the rock vaults. 10 refs., 6 figs

  10. Maize Storage in Termite Mound Clay, Concrete, and Steel Silos in the Humid Tropics: Comparison and Effect on Bacterial and Fungal Counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study investigated the functional suitability of using the readily-available termite mound clay (TMC) for grain silo construction in comparison to conventional reinforced concrete (RC) and galvanized steel (GS) silos for maize storage in the humid tropics. The extent to which temperature and r...

  11. Performance evaluation of termite-mound clay, concrete and steel silos for the storage of maize grains in the humid tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inadequate storage facilities have contributed to severe maize postharvest losses in many developing countries. This study determined the potential of termite mound clay (TMC), a readily-available material in Nigeria, as a construction material for storage silos. The performance of the TMC silo was ...

  12. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No. 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Boehlecke

    2004-04-01

    The six bunkers included in CAU 204 were primarily used to monitor atmospheric testing or store munitions. The ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) for Corrective Action Unit 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site, Nevada'' (NNSA/NV, 2002a) provides information relating to the history, planning, and scope of the investigation; therefore, it will not be repeated in this CADD. This CADD identifies potential corrective action alternatives and provides a rationale for the selection of a recommended corrective action alternative for each CAS within CAU 204. The evaluation of corrective action alternatives is based on process knowledge and the results of investigative activities conducted in accordance with the CAIP (NNSA/NV, 2002a) that was approved prior to the start of the Corrective Action Investigation (CAI). Record of Technical Change (ROTC) No. 1 to the CAIP (approval pending) documents changes to the preliminary action levels (PALs) agreed to by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) and DOE, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). This ROTC specifically discusses the radiological PALs and their application to the findings of the CAU 204 corrective action investigation. The scope of this CADD consists of the following: (1) Develop corrective action objectives; (2) Identify corrective action alternative screening criteria; (3) Develop corrective action alternatives; (4) Perform detailed and comparative evaluations of corrective action alternatives in relation to corrective action objectives and screening criteria; and (5) Recommend and justify a preferred corrective action alternative for each CAS within CAU 204.

  13. Siloe, Osiris, and the future perspective of swimming-pool reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatoux, J.; Denielou, G.; Lerouge, B.

    1964-01-01

    Siloe and Osiris are two new general purpose research reactors of the 'Commissariat a l'energie Atomique'. Siloe, located within the 'Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires' of Grenoble is a swimming pool reactor of the same type as Melusine and Triton. It operates, at a nominal power of 15 MW thermal and has reached the peak power of 20 MW thermal with two thirds of its cooling system working. The fast flux above 1 MeV, which is maximum at the center of the core at 15 MW thermal is 1,2. 10 14 . The core, quite open, is downward cooled. Average specific power is 159 kW/l. Osiris is under construction at Saclay. Designed for 50 MW thermal, this reactor is upward cooled. The fast flux at the center of the core above 1 MeV is calculated to be 2, 5.10 14 . The average designed specific power is 280 kW/l. A fixed zircaloy gamma shield makes a box round the core. Future perspectives open to non-pressurised swimming-pool reactors are examined. Ways are suggested for neutronic; thermal and shielding modifications which make possible further improvements in the performances and economy of these devices. (authors) [fr

  14. Effect of Nitrogen Fertilizers on the Lysine Synthesis in Silo-Maize

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cencelj, J.; Jelenic, Dj. [Institute for the Application of Nuclear Energy in Agriculture, Veterinary Medicine and Forestry, Belgrade, Yugoslavia (Serbia)

    1968-07-01

    In investigations on amino acids of silo-maize, different nitrogen fertilizers were studied to determine their effect on amino acid composition and variation during the growth period. The experiment was carried out with silo-maize, hybrid W 464A, grown on sandy soil, which had not been treated for six years with either fertilizers or manure. Before cultivation phosphorus and potassium fertilizers were applied, and the nitrogen fertilizers, ammonium sulphate, ammonium nitrate, calcium cyanamide and urea, were applied at the most appropriate time of application. The first samples were taken at the time of flowering, the second after flowering, and the third, fourth and fifth in the lactic, wax, and full maturity phases, respectively. The percentages of crude protein of the maize gradually decreased while the nitrogen-free extraction matter increased during this period. The protein content of the maize was highest with sodium nitrate and urea fertilization and lowest when calcium cyanamide was used. Investigations to determine whether or not an increase in crude protein content was correlated with an increased content of lysine have shown that there is a correlation when plants are fertilized with calcium cyanamide. The content of essential amino acids was more satisfactory in plants fertilized with urea than with sodium nitrate. According to the statistical analysis, the best improvement in lysine content was obtained with urea (0.23%), the least satisfactory with calcium cyanamide (0.17%), and PK fertilizers without nitrogen (0.15%). (author)

  15. RESFRIAMENTO ARTIFICIAL E USO DE TERRA DE DIATOMÁCEA PARA O CONTROLE DE INSETOS EM GRÃOS DE TRIGO ARMAZENADOS EM SILOS DE CONCRETO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Bochi da Silva Volk

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of artificial cooling associated with the use of diatomaceous earth to control insects in grains of wheat stored in concrete silos. We used two concrete silos, with a static capacity of 2.500 t (Silo A and the other with static capacity of 5.000 t (Silo B. The surface of the grain silos were treated with diatom earth with a commercial assay (1.0 kg / t of product. For the cooling of the grains, cold air was blown through the aeration system silos until the grains reach a temperature of 17 ° C between the layers. After cooling, it is the retention period of five months. The monitoring of insects in the Silo A was accomplished by collecting infested grain and / or insects with probes. In Silo B, the monitoring was done through the capture of insects with traps of the type calador. In The Silo, were not detected representative quantities of insects in grain up to 120 days, when the collections were made with probes in the layer below the grain treated with diatomaceous earth. In Silo B, where the collection of insects was performed with traps of the type calador, increased population of insects of the species O. surinamensis and R. dominica with the extension of storage. This increase in the number of insects was greater after 60 days of the early experiments. This is happening due to the presence of insects in grain mass before cooling. The use of cooling associated with the inert powder has an effective control of insects in grain mass.

  16. The cryogenic installations for irradiation in the reactors Melusine and Siloe; Les installations cryogeniques pour irradiations des reacteurs Melusine et Siloe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bochirol, L; Le Calvez, J; Doulat, J; Verdier, J; Lacaze, A; Weil, L [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    The study of defects created in solids by irradiation is of considerable fundamental and practical interest. Low temperature irradiation allows defects to be obtained in their simplest 'primary' state, not being then annihilated or rearranged by thermal motion. In-pile irradiation at low temperature raises a number of technical problems connected to 1) the necessary refrigeration power which may be considerable, 2) chemical processes which may occur under irradiation, 3) the lack of space in a reactor. Furthermore the necessity that all the irradiation and subsequent measurements be done without reheating the samples demands continuous and reliable working of the irradiation device and its being designed so as to permit removal of the samples in the cold condition or their measurement and controlled annealing 'in situ'. The way in which these problems have been solved in Grenoble for irradiation devices at 78 deg. K, 28 deg. K and 4 deg. K in the swimming-pool reactors Melusine and Siloe is described. Some operation results are given about the liquid nitrogen rig, called mark A, which has worked for several years in Melusine. In particular certain observations about chemical reactions which may occur in impure liquid nitrogen under radiation are made. The liquid nitrogen rig, called mark B, which has just been installed in the Siloe reactor, is described with some detail. The essential features of this apparatus are that irradiation can be performed in higher fluxes with it than with the former one, and that its operation is made much easier by a design which allows the samples to be introduced and removed without any disconnection of the apparatus. A liquid hydrogen loop, which has worked for one year in the Melusine reactor, is then analysed. An entirely closed hydrogen refrigerating circuit provides the coldness to the irradiation enclosure, which contains neon. Owing to this solution, the samples may be recovered in the cold condition without hydrogen being

  17. PENGEMBANGAN PRODUK OLAHAN KOPI DI DESA SIDOMULYO KECAMATAN SILO KABUPATEN JEMBER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuli Hariyati

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAKKopi (Coffea spp. L. merupakan komoditi perkebunan yang strategis. Kopi rakyat tersebar di beberapa kecamatan di Kabupaten Jember, terutama di Kalisat dan Silo. Adanya faktor pendorong dan faktor penghambat pada pengolahan produk olahan kopi dapat dirumuskan suatu rekomendasi kebijakan pengembangan produk olahan kopi, dimana meningkatkan faktor pendorong dan meminimalisir faktor penghambat. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui rekomendasi kebijakan pada pengembangan pengolahan kopi di Desa Sidomulyo Kecamatan Silo Kabupaten Jember. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah metode deskriptif dan metode analitis. Analisis data yang digunakan adalah analisis medan kekuatan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa faktor pendorong tertinggi adalah motivasi petani yang tinggi dengan nilai faktor urgensi sebesar 1,74, sedangkan faktor penghambat tertinggi adalah bahan baku yang diolah terbatas dengan nilai faktor urgensi sebesar 1,42. Rekomendasi yang sebaiknya diterapkan untuk mendukung faktor pendorong adalah melakukan penyuluhan secara berkesinambungan, sedangkan rekomendasi sebagai solusi faktor penghambat adalah menjalin kerja sama dengan petani olah basah yang belum melakukan olah basah untuk melakukan olah basah  guna menjaga ketersediaan kopi olah basah dan menambah modal bagi unit usaha produksi pada koperasi ABSTRACTCoffee (Coffea spp. L. is one of a strategic commodity. The coffee public plantation is spread out to some sub-districts in Jember, especially in Kalisat and Silo. The existence of factors driving and inhibiting factors in the processing of coffee processed products can be formulated a policy recommendation development of processed coffee products, which enhance the driving factors and minimize the inhibiting factors. This study aims to determine policy recommendations on the development of coffee cultivation in the village of Shiloh Sidomulyo Jember District. The method used is descriptive method and analytical methods

  18. Control program of the neutron four-circle-diffractometer P32 at the SILOE reactor/CEN Grenoble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guth, H.; Paulus, H.; Reimers, W.; Heger, G.

    1983-09-01

    The four-circle diffractometer P32 for elastic neutron scattering on single crystals was installed at the SILOE reactor/CEN Grenoble in 1981. The control program, presented here, is a new update of the former program versions used at the FR2 reactor/Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe. Important improvements concerning reliability and handling of the diffractometer are added. (orig.) [de

  19. Long-Term Performance of Silo Concrete in Low- and Intermediate-Level Waste (LILW) Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Hae Ryong; Kwon, Ki Jung; Lee, Seung Hyun; Lee, Sung Bok; Jeong, Yi Yeong; Yoon, Eui Sik; Kim, Do Gyeum

    2012-01-01

    Concrete has been considered one of the engineered barriers in the geological disposal facility for low- and intermediate-level wastes (LILW). The concrete plays major role as structural support, groundwater infiltration barrier, and transport barrier of radionuclides dissolved from radioactive wastes. It also works as a chemical barrier due to its high pH condition. However, the performance of the concrete structure decrease over a period of time because of several physical and chemical processes. After a long period of time in the future, the concrete would lose its effectiveness as a barrier against groundwater inflow and the release of radionuclides. An subsurface environment below the frost depth should be favorable for concrete longevity as temperature and moisture variation should be minimal, significantly reducing the potential of cracking due to drying shrinkage and thermal expansion and contraction. Therefore, the concrete structures of LILW disposal facilities below groundwater table are expected to have relatively longer service life than those of near-surface or surface concrete structures. LILW in Korea is considered to be disposed of in the Wolsong LILW Disposal Center which is under construction in geological formation. 100,000 waste packages are expected to be disposed in the 6 concrete silos below EL -80m in the Wolsong LILW Disposal Center as first stage. The concrete silo has been considered the main engineered barrier which plays a role to inhibit water inflow and the release of radionuclides to the environments. Although a number of processes are responsible for the degradation of the silo concrete, it is concluded that a reinforcing steel corrosion cause the failure of the silo concrete. Therefore, a concrete silo failure time is calculated based on a corrosion initiation time which takes for chloride ions to penetrate through the concrete cover, and a corrosion propagation time. This paper aims to analyze the concrete failure time in the

  20. Long-Term Performance of Silo Concrete in Low- and Intermediate-Level Waste (LILW) Disposal Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Hae Ryong; Kwon, Ki Jung; Lee, Seung Hyun; Lee, Sung Bok; Jeong, Yi Yeong [Korea Radioactive-waste Management Corporation, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Eui Sik [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Do Gyeum [Korea Institute of Construction Technology, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Concrete has been considered one of the engineered barriers in the geological disposal facility for low- and intermediate-level wastes (LILW). The concrete plays major role as structural support, groundwater infiltration barrier, and transport barrier of radionuclides dissolved from radioactive wastes. It also works as a chemical barrier due to its high pH condition. However, the performance of the concrete structure decrease over a period of time because of several physical and chemical processes. After a long period of time in the future, the concrete would lose its effectiveness as a barrier against groundwater inflow and the release of radionuclides. An subsurface environment below the frost depth should be favorable for concrete longevity as temperature and moisture variation should be minimal, significantly reducing the potential of cracking due to drying shrinkage and thermal expansion and contraction. Therefore, the concrete structures of LILW disposal facilities below groundwater table are expected to have relatively longer service life than those of near-surface or surface concrete structures. LILW in Korea is considered to be disposed of in the Wolsong LILW Disposal Center which is under construction in geological formation. 100,000 waste packages are expected to be disposed in the 6 concrete silos below EL -80m in the Wolsong LILW Disposal Center as first stage. The concrete silo has been considered the main engineered barrier which plays a role to inhibit water inflow and the release of radionuclides to the environments. Although a number of processes are responsible for the degradation of the silo concrete, it is concluded that a reinforcing steel corrosion cause the failure of the silo concrete. Therefore, a concrete silo failure time is calculated based on a corrosion initiation time which takes for chloride ions to penetrate through the concrete cover, and a corrosion propagation time. This paper aims to analyze the concrete failure time in the

  1. Making the Paradigm Shift from Siloed Population Health Management to an Enterprise-Wide Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Marc R; Miller, Claudia; Stroebel, Robert J; Bunkers, Kari S

    2017-08-01

    Health systems across the United States have started their journeys toward population health management and the future of accountable care. Models of population health management include patient-centered medical homes and private sector accountable care organizations (ACOs). Other models include public sector efforts, such as Physician Group Practice Transition Demonstrations, Medicare Health Care Quality Demonstration Programs, Beacon Communities, Medicare Shared Savings Program, and Pioneer ACOs. As a result, health care organizations often have pockets of population health initiatives that lack an enterprise-wide strategy. The next steps are to build on these efforts, leverage the learnings from these experiences, and incorporate the initiatives into an overarching framework and a road map for the future. This paper describes the current challenge many organizations face to implement an enterprise solution, describes how to transition from existing siloed initiatives, and shares a case study of how Mayo Clinic launched its Mayo Model of Community Care.

  2. Gravity-driven granular flow in a silo: Characterizing local forces and rearrangements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thackray Emma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available While the gravity-driven flow of a granular material in a silo geometry can be modeled by the Beverloo equation, the mesoscale-level particle rearrangements and interactions that drive this flow are not wellunderstood. We have constructed a quasi-two-dimensional system of bidisperse, millimeter-scale disks with photoelastic properties that make force networks within the material visible. The system is contained in an acrylic box with an adjustable bottom opening. We can approach the clogging transition by adjusting this opening. By placing the system between cross-polarizers, we can obtain high-speed video of this system during flow, and extract intensity signals that can be used to identify and quantify localized, otherwise indeterminate forces. We can simultaneously track individual particle motions, which can be used to identify shear transformation zones in the system. In this paper, we present our results thus far.

  3. Advice about the safety of graphite storage silos of Saint Laurent des Eaux facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This document is the safety analysis made by the national association of the local commissions of information about nuclear activities (ANCLI), about the safety of graphite storage silos of Saint Laurent des Eaux nuclear facility. The analysis covers: the operation safety and the accident hypothesis, the monitoring of indoor and outdoor contamination in routine situation, the geotechnical characteristics of the site environment, the isotopic inventory and the estimation of radioactivity in routine and accidental situation, the estimation of doses received by the population in accidental situation and the internal emergency plan. After examination of these different points, the scientific committee of the ANCLI considers that a new global evaluation of risks, which integrates more recent exposure data, has to be carried out. (J.S.)

  4. Knowledge silos: assessing knowledge sharing between specialties through the vestibular schwannoma literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnurman, Zane; Golfinos, John G; Roland, J Thomas; Kondziolka, Douglas

    2017-12-01

    OBJECTIVE It is common for a medical disorder to be managed or researched by individuals who work within different specialties. It is known that both neurosurgeons and neurotologists manage vestibular schwannoma (VS) patients. While overlap in specialty focus has the potential to stimulate multidisciplinary collaboration and innovative thinking, there is a risk of specialties forming closed-communication loops, called knowledge silos, which may inhibit knowledge diffusion. This study quantitatively assessed knowledge sharing between neurosurgery and otolaryngology on the subject of VS. METHODS A broad Web of Science search was used to download details for 4439 articles related to VS through 2016. The publishing journal's specialty and the authors' specialties (based on author department) were determined for available articles. All 114,647 of the article references were categorized by journal specialty. The prevalence of several VS topics was assessed using keyword searches of titles. RESULTS For articles written by neurosurgeons, 44.0% of citations were from neurosurgery journal articles and 23.4% were from otolaryngology journals. The citations of otolaryngology authors included 11.6% neurosurgery journals and 56.5% otolaryngology journals. Both author specialty and journal specialty led to more citations of the same specialty, though author specialty had the largest effect. Comparing the specialties' literature, several VS topics had significantly different levels of coverage, including radiosurgery and hearing topics. Despite the availability of the Internet, there has been no change in the proportions of references for either specialty since 1997 (the year PubMed became publicly available). CONCLUSIONS Partial knowledge silos are observed between neurosurgery and otolaryngology on the topic of VS, based on the peer-reviewed literature. The increase in access provided by the Internet and searchable online databases has not decreased specialty reference bias

  5. Silo busting: how to execute on the promise of customer focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulati, Ranjay

    2007-05-01

    For many senior executives, shifting from selling products to selling solutions--packages of products and services--is a priority in today's increasingly commoditized markets. Companies, however, aren't always structured to make that shift. Knowledge and expertise often reside in silos, and many companies have trouble harnessing their resources across those boundaries in a way that customers value and are willing to pay for. Some companies--like GE Healthcare, Best Buy, and commercial real estate provider Jones Lang LaSalle (JLL)--have restructured themselves around customer needs to deliver true solutions. They did so by engaging in four sets of activities: COORDINATION: To deliver customer-focused solutions, three things must occur easily across boundaries: information sharing, division of labor, and decision making. Sometimes this involves replacing traditional silos with customer-focused ones, but more often it entails transcending existing boundaries. JLL has experimented with both approaches. COOPERATION: Customer-centric companies, such as Cisco Systems, develop metrics for customer satisfaction and incentives that reward customer-focused cooperation. Most also shake up the power structure so that people who are closest to customers have the authority to act on their behalf. CAPABILITY: Delivering customer-focused solutions requires some employees to be generalists instead of specialists. They need experience with more than one product or service, a deep knowledge of customer needs, and the ability to traverse internal boundaries. CONNECTION: By combining their offerings with those of a partner, companies can cut costs even as they create higher-value solutions, as Starbucks has found through its diverse partnerships. To stand out in a commoditized market, companies must understand what customers value. Ultimately, some customers may be better off purchasing products and services piecemeal.

  6. Senate report on the bill authorizing joining the 2001 International Convention on Civil Liability for Bunker Oil Pollution Damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This report recalls the different texts concerning the law of the sea: United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) of 1982 which was ratified by France in 1996, the International Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution of 1992, the creation of the International Oil Pollution Compensation Funds, and the International Convention on Liability and Compensation for Damage in Connection with the Carriage of Hazardous and Noxious Substances by sea (HNS) in 1996. While evoking some recent examples of wrecks and pollutions and some already existing French and European initiatives, it describes the implications and consequences of this convention on the French law and for its enforcement, provided that this new treaty is designed to take bunker oil into account as it may induce a significant pollution of the marine environment

  7. Construcción de silos con encofrados deslizantes - Santa Cruz de Tenerife – España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrios Martínez, M.

    1976-10-01

    Full Text Available These cereal and oil-cake silos are made up of 10 exterior cylindrical cells, with an inner diameter of 6 m and a height of 31.88 m. The cells are joined together by means of walls whereby four additional octagonal cells are created. Out of these, three are subdivided into four cells and the fourth forms the central silo. Below this unit there is a corridor for the emptying of the silos. The work has been carried out with a travelling form with the following characteristics: mixed with regard to shape and materials; stiff, since the top platforms are connected; and it has a constant cross-section as the dimensions of the silos remain the same throughout the whole height. The form was lifted by means of elevation devices, controlled by a centralized hydraulic mechanism. In view of the characteristics of the travelling form, the concrete used ¡n the work had to fulfill several very special conditions, notably different from these applying to the concrete that is normally used for fixed forms. For this reason, it was submitted to a great number of studies and tests until the requirements had been met. The construction was finished in record time: in the first place, because a detailed programme had been worked out in advance, consisting of a diagram of bars and preference network and secondly, because continuous concreting was applied with day and night shifts, whebery the foreseen two and a half months for finishing the silos were reduced to 12 days.Estos silos, destinados a almacenamiento de cereales y borujo, están formados por 10 celdas exteriores cilíndricas, de 6 m de diámetro interior y 31,88 m de altura, que se unen entre sí por medio de muros, dando lugar a cuatro celdas adicionales de forma octogonal. De éstas, tres están subdivididas en cuatro interceldas, quedando la cuarta como silo central. Debajo del conjunto se ha dispuesto una galería para el vaciado de los silos. La obra se ha realizado con un encofrado deslizante

  8. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0 with ROTC 1, 2, and Errata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wickline, Alfred

    2004-04-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 204 Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE); and the U.S. Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). The NTS is approximately 65 miles (mi) north of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1). The Corrective Action Sites (CASs) within CAU 204 are located in Areas 1, 2, 3, and 5 of the NTS, in Nye County, Nevada (Figure 1-2). Corrective Action Unit 204 is comprised of the six CASs identified in Table 1-1. As shown in Table 1-1, the FFACO describes four of these CASs as bunkers one as chemical exchange storage and one as a blockhouse. Subsequent investigations have identified four of these structures as instrumentation bunkers (CASs 01-34-01, 02-34-01, 03-34-01, 05-33-01), one as an explosives storage bunker (CAS 05-99-02), and one as both (CAS 05-18-02). The six bunkers included in CAU 204 were primarily used to monitor atmospheric testing or store munitions. The ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) for Corrective Action Unit 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site, Nevada'' (NNSA/NV, 2002a) provides information relating to the history, planning, and scope of the investigation; therefore, it will not be repeated in this CADD. This CADD identifies potential corrective action alternatives and provides a rationale for the selection of a recommended corrective action alternative for each CAS within CAU 204. The evaluation of corrective action alternatives is based on process knowledge and the results of investigative activities conducted in accordance with the CAIP (NNSA/NV, 2002a) that was approved prior to the start of the Corrective Action Investigation (CAI). Record of Technical Change (ROTC) No. 1 to the CAIP (approval pending) documents changes to the preliminary action levels

  9. Navigating the Murky Waters of Foreign Maritime Liens: How effective is a US choice of law in a bunker supply contract between the supplier and time charterer for obtaining a necessaries lien?

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, Sylvie Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Recent developments, such as the OW Bunker litigation and the furore surrounding the Australian decision in the Sam Hawk, have made it particularly necessary to re-examine the tenuous relationships and terms which underpin bunker transactions. This thesis is concerned with one aspect which has caused particular concern for suppliers and shipowners; the ability of the supplier to access security in the vessel by way of a US choice of law clause when the time charterer has failed to pay for the...

  10. Bunker glocal: configuração majoritária sutil do imaginário mediático contemporâneo e militarização imperceptível da vida cotidiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugênio Trivinho

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Bunker glocal – esta expressão heterodoxa – é o fundamento mediático do processo civilizatório contemporâneo. Sua análise no âmbito da teoria social e da comunicação apreende o principal aspecto de sua múltipla significação social-histórica: a militarização velada da existência humana no contexto civil da era digital. Ao materializar essa injunção teórica, o presente artigo detalha os vínculos inextricáveis entre processo de bunkerização ampliada, imaginário social e fenômeno glocal (além do global e do local, para, em conclusão, qualificar o bunker glocal como linguagem matricial de equivalência generalizada na cibercultura. Palavras-chave: Comunicação; cibercultura; bunker glocal; processo de bunkerização; militarização velada da vida social. ABSTRACT Glocal bunker – this heterodox expression – is the mediatic fundament of the contemporary civilizing process. Its analysis within the ambit of social and communication theory apprehends the principal aspects of its multiple social and historical meaning: the covert militarization of human existence in the civil context of the digital era. By materializing this theoretical injunction, this article details the inextricable links between the expanded bunkering process, the social imaginary and the glocal phenomenon (beyond the global and local, and concludes by qualifying the glocal bunker as a matricial language of generalized equivalence in cyberculture. Keywords: Communication; cyberculture; glocal bunker; bunkering process; covert militarization of social life.

  11. Case study: evaluation of continuos blending silos in the cement industry, by the aid of tracer techniques; Caso de estudio: Evaluacion de silos continuos de homogenizacion en la industria del cemento, utilizando tecnicas de radiotrazadores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sebastian, C; Maghella, G; Mamani, E [Direccion de Aplicaciones. Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear, Lima (Peru)

    2000-12-01

    Besides the actual burning process in cement manufacture, particular importance is attached to raw material preparation and homogenization, not only because of the quality of the kiln fed and therefore of the produced cement, but also because of the economy of the kiln operation, which significantly depends on the uniformity of the chemical composition of the material. As a result, the blending process of the cement raw material, before burning, is a basic stage of cement technology production. In this case, the pneumatic homogenization process is studied in a silo with a great storing and processing capacity. The objective is to evaluate the parameters which influence in the continuos operation. The method allows us to determine the optimal blending parameters, through the observation of the movement and distribution of the different fractions of fine dust raw meal, labelled with La-140 as tracer. Changes in blending according to time are discussed as well as the influence of the silo design on the degree of homogenization. It was showed that the silo blending operation has a strong influence on the production of good-quality cement as well as the implications on energy saving.

  12. El tabernáculo de la Catedral de Granada: de Diego de Siloe a Navas Parejo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Peinado Guzmán

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Uno de los elementos más olvidados en los estudios acerca de la Catedral de Granada, ha sido, históricamente, el tabernáculo de su Capilla Mayor. El ideado por Diego de Siloe en 1561, supuso la creación de un elemento innovador dentro del ornato de su presbiterio. Este ciborio, venía a completar un programa iconográfico-teológico cargado de simbolismos. El paso del tiempo hizo que tuviese que ser sustituido por otros. Tras el de Siloe, tenemos referencias de la adquisición de uno en 1648 con forma de «Carro de Ezequiel», otro provisional en 1804 y, finalmente, el actual, hecho por Navas Parejo entre 1924-1929.

  13. When is a soil remediated? Comparison of biopiled and windrowed soils contaminated with bunker-fuel in a full-scale trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulon, Frédéric; Al Awadi, Mohammed; Cowie, William; Mardlin, David; Pollard, Simon; Cunningham, Colin; Risdon, Graeme; Arthur, Paul; Semple, Kirk T; Paton, Graeme I

    2010-10-01

    A six month field scale study was carried out to compare windrow turning and biopile techniques for the remediation of soil contaminated with bunker C fuel oil. End-point clean-up targets were defined by human risk assessment and ecotoxicological hazard assessment approaches. Replicate windrows and biopiles were amended with either nutrients and inocula, nutrients alone or no amendment. In addition to fractionated hydrocarbon analysis, culturable microbial characterisation and soil ecotoxicological assays were performed. This particular soil, heavy in texture and historically contaminated with bunker fuel was more effectively remediated by windrowing, but coarser textures may be more amendable to biopiling. This trial reveals the benefit of developing risk and hazard based approaches in defining end-point bioremediation of heavy hydrocarbons when engineered biopile or windrow are proposed as treatment option. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Safe bunker designing for the 18 MV Varian 2100 Clinac: a comparison between Monte Carlo simulation based upon data and new protocol recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beigi, Manije; Afarande, Fatemeh; Ghiasi, Hosein

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare two bunkers designed by only protocols recommendations and Monte Carlo (MC) based upon data derived for an 18 MV Varian 2100Clinac accelerator. High energy radiation therapy is associated with fast and thermal photoneutrons. Adequate shielding against the contaminant neutron has been recommended by IAEA and NCRP new protocols. The latest protocols released by the IAEA (safety report No. 47) and NCRP report No. 151 were used for the bunker designing calculations. MC method based upon data was also derived. Two bunkers using protocols and MC upon data were designed and discussed. From designed door's thickness, the door designed by the MC simulation and Wu-McGinley analytical method was closer in both BPE and lead thickness. In the case of the primary and secondary barriers, MC simulation resulted in 440.11 mm for the ordinary concrete, total concrete thickness of 1709 mm was required. Calculating the same parameters value with the recommended analytical methods resulted in 1762 mm for the required thickness using 445 mm as recommended by TVL for the concrete. Additionally, for the secondary barrier the thickness of 752.05 mm was obtained. Our results showed MC simulation and the followed protocols recommendations in dose calculation are in good agreement in the radiation contamination dose calculation. Difference between the two analytical and MC simulation methods revealed that the application of only one method for the bunker design may lead to underestimation or overestimation in dose and shielding calculations.

  15. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (December 2002, Revision No.: 0), Including Record of Technical Change No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NNSA/NSO

    2002-12-12

    The Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 204 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 204 is located on the Nevada Test Site approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. This CAU is comprised of six Corrective Action Sites (CASs) which include: 01-34-01, Underground Instrument House Bunker; 02-34-01, Instrument Bunker; 03-34-01, Underground Bunker; 05-18-02, Chemical Explosives Storage; 05-33-01, Kay Blockhouse; 05-99-02, Explosive Storage Bunker. Based on site history, process knowledge, and previous field efforts, contaminants of potential concern for Corrective Action Unit 204 collectively include radionuclides, beryllium, high explosives, lead, polychlorinated biphenyls, total petroleum hydrocarbons, silver, warfarin, and zinc phosphide. The primary question for the investigation is: ''Are existing data sufficient to evaluate appropriate corrective actions?'' To address this question, resolution of two decision statements is required. Decision I is to ''Define the nature of contamination'' by identifying any contamination above preliminary action levels (PALs); Decision II is to ''Determine the extent of contamination identified above PALs. If PALs are not exceeded, the investigation is completed. If PALs are exceeded, then Decision II must be resolved. In addition, data will be obtained to support waste management decisions. Field activities will include radiological land area surveys, geophysical surveys to identify any subsurface metallic and nonmetallic debris, field screening for applicable contaminants of potential concern, collection and analysis of surface and subsurface soil samples from biased locations

  16. Feedback of the behaviour of a silo founded on a compressible soil improved by floating stone columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahar Ramdane

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The coastal city of Bejaia, located 250 kilometers east of the capital Algiers, Algeria, is characterized by soft soils. The residual grounds encountered on the first 40 meters usually have a low bearing capacity, high compressibility, insufficient strength, and subject to the risk of liquefaction. These unfavorable soil conditions require deep foundations or soil improvement. Since late 1990s, stone columns technique is used to improve the weak soils of the harbor area of the city. A shallow raft foundation on soft soil improved by stone columns was designed for a heavy storage steel silo and two towers. The improvement of 18m depth have not reached the substratum located at 39m depth. The stresses transmitted to the service limit state are variable 73 to 376 kPa. A rigorous and ongoing monitoring of the evolution of loads in the silo and settlements of the soil was carried out during 1400 days that is from the construction of foundations in 2008 to 2012. After the loading of the silo in 2010, settlement occurred affecting the stability of the towers due to excessive differential settlements. Consequently, the towers were inclined and damaged the transporter. This paper presents and discusses the experience feedback of the behavior of these structures. Numerical calculations by finite elements have been carried and the results are compared with the measurements.

  17. Case study: evaluation of continuos blending silos in the cement industry, by the aid of tracer techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebastian, C.; Maghella, G.; Mamani, E.

    2000-12-01

    Besides the actual burning process in cement manufacture, particular importance is attached to raw material preparation and homogenization, not only because of the quality of the kiln fed and therefore of the produced cement, but also because of the economy of the kiln operation, which significantly depends on the uniformity of the chemical composition of the material. As a result, the blending process of the cement raw material, before burning, is a basic stage of cement technology production. In this case, the pneumatic homogenization process is studied in a silo with a great storing and processing capacity. The objective is to evaluate the parameters which influence in the continuos operation. The method allows us to determine the optimal blending parameters, through the observation of the movement and distribution of the different fractions of fine dust raw meal, labelled with La-140 as tracer. Changes in blending according to time are discussed as well as the influence of the silo design on the degree of homogenization. It was showed that the silo blending operation has a strong influence on the production of good-quality cement as well as the implications on energy saving

  18. Breaking down the silos to decrease internal diversions and patient flow delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Molly; Tobis, Kristen; Gurka, David; Serafin, Frederick; Carlson, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Hospitals strive to admit patients to the units where caregiver competencies align with the patient's condition. When the hospital's census peaks, internal diversions and the associated risks increase, which are intensified when silos exist, as segregated care negatively impacts collaboration and patient safety. In this study, a 600+-bed academic, tertiary care specialty hospital experienced an increase in internal diversions. Within the neuroscience service line, emergent neuroscience transfers from outside hospitals had been declined or internally diverted because of capacity limitations. Formalized processes for improving collaboration between health care providers related to capacity issues were required to decrease internal diversions and improve patient flow and patient safety. A pilot project was conducted on neuroscience units during a process improvement initiative. A hospital-wide internal diversion plan was developed, identifying primary and secondary placement options for all patients requiring hospitalization to support patient flow and patient safety. Forecasting tools were developed to provide units' leadership with current information on expected admissions. Daily capacity huddles were instituted to increase collaboration between patient care units. The interventions trialed during the pilot decreased internal diversions and improved patient flow. The improved collaboration resulted in an 80% decrease in declinations of emergent intensive care unit transfers from outside hospitals due to capacity limitations and a 50% decrease in the number of these patients being internally diverted to alternate intensive care units. The interventions implemented minimized internal diversions and improved patient flow. The transparency of the patient placement process led to an increased collaboration between all participants.

  19. Cracked reinforced concrete walls of chimneys, silos and cooling towers as result of using formworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maj Marek

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available There are presented in this paper some problems connected with reinforced concrete shell objects operation in the aggressive environment and built in method of formworks. Reinforced concrete chimneys, cooling towers, silos and other shells were built for decades. Durability of cracked shells are one of the most important parameters during process of designing, construction and exploitation of shells. Some reasons of appearance of horizontal and vertical cracks as temperature, pressure of stored material, live loads e.g. dynamic character of wind, moisture, influence of construction joints, thermal insulation, chemistry active environmental etc. reduce the carrying capacity of the walls. Formworks, as is occurred recently, are the reason for technological joints with leaking connection, imperfections of flexible formworks slabs and as result can initiate cracks. Cracked surface of this constructions causes decreasing capacity and lower the state of reliability. Horizontal, vertical cracks can caused corrosion of concrete and steel bars, decreasing stiffness of contraction, increasing of deflection and carbonation of concrete cover. Local and global imperfactions of concrete shells are increasing according to greater number of cracks...

  20. Control of quality and silo storage of sunflower seeds using near infrared technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Martin, I.; Vilaescusa-Garcia, V.; Lopez-Gonzalez, F.; Oiz-Jimenez, C.; Lobos-Ortega, I. A.; Gordillo, B.; Hernandez-Hierro, J. M.

    2013-05-01

    This work assesses the application of near infrared spectroscopy technology for the quality control of sunflower seeds direct from farmers and from a storage silo. The results show that the analytical method employing near infrared spectroscopy can be used as a rapid and non-destructive tool for the determination of moisture, fat and high/low oleic acid contents in samples of sunflower seeds. The ranges obtained were comparable to those reported for classic chemical methods, and were between 4.6-21.4% for moisture; 38.4-49.6% for fat, and 60.0-93.1% for oleic acid expressed as percentage of total fatty acids. A stepwise discriminant analysis was performed to determine the most useful wavelengths for classifying sunflower seeds in terms of their (high/low) oleic acid composition. The discriminant model allows the acid contents, with a prediction rate of 90.5% for internal validation and of 89.4% for cross-validation. (Author) 23 refs.

  1. Control of quality and silo storage of sunflower seeds using near infrared technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Martin, I.; Vilaescusa-Garcia, V.; Lopez-Gonzalez, F.; Oiz-Jimenez, C.; Lobos-Ortega, I. A.; Gordillo, B.; Hernandez-Hierro, J. M.

    2013-01-01

    This work assesses the application of near infrared spectroscopy technology for the quality control of sunflower seeds direct from farmers and from a storage silo. The results show that the analytical method employing near infrared spectroscopy can be used as a rapid and non-destructive tool for the determination of moisture, fat and high/low oleic acid contents in samples of sunflower seeds. The ranges obtained were comparable to those reported for classic chemical methods, and were between 4.6-21.4% for moisture; 38.4-49.6% for fat, and 60.0-93.1% for oleic acid expressed as percentage of total fatty acids. A stepwise discriminant analysis was performed to determine the most useful wavelengths for classifying sunflower seeds in terms of their (high/low) oleic acid composition. The discriminant model allows the acid contents, with a prediction rate of 90.5% for internal validation and of 89.4% for cross-validation. (Author) 23 refs.

  2. National security. Nuclear silo counterforce: calculating the Soviet--U.S. balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    In recent months the nuclear counterforce work of Kosta Tsipis of the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology has gained wide circulation. His arguments are grounded on comparing, for the Soviet Union and the U. S., the lethality (or K factor), rather than numbers of missiles or throw weight. The latter parameters, he claims, are irrelevant to a counterforce capability against ICBM silos, whereas K, which is a function of yield and accuracy, is a valid measure of potential counterforce performance. Using K factors, he reaches a number of conclusions indicating that the U. S. has and will continue to have counterforce superiority over the U.S.S.R. We have analyzed the counterforce situation also using K factors, but taking into account several parameters and arguments not included by Dr. Tsipis. Although some of the conclusions of our analysis agree with his, there are significant differences. In particular, we find that by 1985 the Soviet Union could equal the U. S. in counterforce lethality and could have a first-strike countersilo capability. (auth)

  3. MCNP6 unstructured mesh application to estimate the photoneutron distribution and induced activity inside a linac bunker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juste, B.; Morató, S.; Miró, R.; Verdú, G.; Díez, S.

    2017-08-01

    Unwanted neutrons in radiation therapy treatments are typically generated by photonuclear reactions. High-energy beams emitted by medical Linear Accelerators (LinAcs) interact with high atomic number materials situated in the accelerator head and release neutrons. Since neutrons have a high relative biological effectiveness, even low neutron doses may imply significant exposure of patients. It is also important to study radioactivity induced by these photoneutrons when interacting with the different materials and components of the treatment head facility and the shielding room walls, since persons not present during irradiation (e.g. medical staff) may be exposed to them even when the accelerator is not operating. These problems are studied in this work in order to contribute to challenge the radiation protection in these treatment locations. The work has been performed by simulation using the latest state of the art of Monte-Carlo computer code MCNP6. To that, a detailed model of particles transport inside the bunker and treatment head has been carried out using a meshed geometry model. The LinAc studied is an Elekta Precise accelerator with a treatment photon energy of 15 MeV used at the Hospital Clinic Universitari de Valencia, Spain.

  4. Photoneutron Flux Measurement via Neutron Activation Analysis in a Radiotherapy Bunker with an 18 MV Linear Accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çeçen, Yiğit; Gülümser, Tuğçe; Yazgan, Çağrı; Dapo, Haris; Üstün, Mahmut; Boztosun, Ismail

    2017-09-01

    In cancer treatment, high energy X-rays are used which are produced by linear accelerators (LINACs). If the energy of these beams is over 8 MeV, photonuclear reactions occur between the bremsstrahlung photons and the metallic parts of the LINAC. As a result of these interactions, neutrons are also produced as secondary radiation products (γ,n) which are called photoneutrons. The study aims to map the photoneutron flux distribution within the LINAC bunker via neutron activation analysis (NAA) using indium-cadmium foils. Irradiations made at different gantry angles (0°, 90°, 180° and 270°) with a total of 91 positions in the Philips SLI-25 linear accelerator treatment room and location-based distribution of thermal neutron flux was obtained. Gamma spectrum analysis was carried out with high purity germanium (HPGe) detector. Results of the analysis showed that the maximum neutron flux in the room occurred at just above of the LINAC head (1.2x105 neutrons/cm2.s) which is compatible with an americium-beryllium (Am-Be) neutron source. There was a 90% decrease of flux at the walls and at the start of the maze with respect to the maximum neutron flux. And, just in front of the LINAC door, inside the room, neutron flux was measured less than 1% of the maximum.

  5. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site, Nevada: Revision 0, Including Errata Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2004-04-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's corrective action alternative recommendation for each of the corrective action sites (CASs) within Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. An evaluation of analytical data from the corrective action investigation, review of current and future operations at each CAS, and a detailed comparative analysis of potential corrective action alternatives were used to determine the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. There are six CASs in CAU 204, which are all located between Areas 1, 2, 3, and 5 on the NTS. The No Further Action alternative was recommended for CASs 01-34-01, 02-34-01, 03-34-01, and 05-99-02; and a Closure in Place with Administrative Controls recommendation was the preferred corrective action for CASs 05-18-02 and 05-33-01. These alternatives were judged to meet all requirements for the technical components evaluated as well as applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the sites and will eliminate potential future exposure pathways to the contaminated media at CAU 204.

  6. Photoneutron Flux Measurement via Neutron Activation Analysis in a Radiotherapy Bunker with an 18 MV Linear Accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çeçen Yiğit

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In cancer treatment, high energy X-rays are used which are produced by linear accelerators (LINACs. If the energy of these beams is over 8 MeV, photonuclear reactions occur between the bremsstrahlung photons and the metallic parts of the LINAC. As a result of these interactions, neutrons are also produced as secondary radiation products (γ,n which are called photoneutrons. The study aims to map the photoneutron flux distribution within the LINAC bunker via neutron activation analysis (NAA using indium-cadmium foils. Irradiations made at different gantry angles (0°, 90°, 180° and 270° with a total of 91 positions in the Philips SLI-25 linear accelerator treatment room and location-based distribution of thermal neutron flux was obtained. Gamma spectrum analysis was carried out with high purity germanium (HPGe detector. Results of the analysis showed that the maximum neutron flux in the room occurred at just above of the LINAC head (1.2x105 neutrons/cm2.s which is compatible with an americium-beryllium (Am-Be neutron source. There was a 90% decrease of flux at the walls and at the start of the maze with respect to the maximum neutron flux. And, just in front of the LINAC door, inside the room, neutron flux was measured less than 1% of the maximum.

  7. Coeficiente de transferência de carga nas fundações de silos verticais cilíndricos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marivone Z. Fank

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOO dimensionamento das estruturas armazenadoras de grãos carece de uma norma brasileira que prescreva sobre seus projetos e ações; contudo, existem muitas lacunas no estado atual do conhecimento sendo imprescindíveis pesquisas adicionais sobre o tema. Com o objetivo de determinar a distribuição das cargas nas fundações dos silos foram instrumentadas, por meio de células de carga, quatro estacas localizadas sob o anel de um silo protótipo. O experimento ocorreu durante o período de agosto a dezembro de 2009 em Palotina, PR. As leituras das células foram realizadas por sistema automático de aquisição de dados durante o carregamento de grãos de milho e, a partir dos resultados, pode-se destacar um coeficiente de transferência médio de 0,30 para o anel até o carregamento de 44% do silo, a partir do qual ocorreu um incremento na taxa de transferência. As cargas máximas atuantes nas estacas instrumentadas foram de 800, 845, 520 e 600 kN, correspondentes a coeficientes de transferência de 0,48; 0,51; 0,31 e 0,36, respectivamente. Assim, o coeficiente regionalmente adotado de 0,30 para o dimensionamento das fundações do anel está subestimado fazendo-se necessária uma análise mais criteriosa nas taxas de transferência.

  8. Chip-scale fluorescence microscope based on a silo-filter complementary metal-oxide semiconductor image sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ah Lee, Seung; Ou, Xiaoze; Lee, J Eugene; Yang, Changhuei

    2013-06-01

    We demonstrate a silo-filter (SF) complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensor for a chip-scale fluorescence microscope. The extruded pixel design with metal walls between neighboring pixels guides fluorescence emission through the thick absorptive filter to the photodiode of a pixel. Our prototype device achieves 13 μm resolution over a wide field of view (4.8 mm × 4.4 mm). We demonstrate bright-field and fluorescence longitudinal imaging of living cells in a compact, low-cost configuration.

  9. It's hard to play ball: A qualitative study of knowledge exchange and silo effects in public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Rebecca; Grove, Amy; Clarke, Aileen

    2018-01-02

    Partnerships in public health form an important component of commissioning and implementing services, in England and internationally. In this research, we examine the views of staff involved in a City-wide health improvement programme which ran from 2009 to 2013 in England. We examine the practicalities of partnership work in community settings, and we describe some of barriers faced when implementing a large, multi-organisation health improvement programme. Qualitative, semi-structured interviews were performed. Purposive sampling was used to identify potential participants in the programme: programme board of directors, programme and project managers and intervention managers. Interviews were conducted one-to-one. We conducted a thematic analysis using the 'one sheet of paper' technique. This involved analysing data deductively, moving from initial to axial coding, developing categories and then identifying emerging themes. Fifteen interviews were completed. Three themes were identified. The first theme reflects how poor communication approaches hindered the ability of partnerships to deliver their aims and objectives in a range of ways and for a range of reasons. Our second theme reflects how a lack of appropriate knowledge exchange hindered decision-making, affected trust and contributed to protectionist approaches to working. This lack of shared, and communicated, understanding of what type of knowledge is most appropriate and in which circumstance made meaningful knowledge exchange challenging for decision-making and partnership-working in the City-wide health improvement programme. Theme three demonstrates how perceptions about silos in partnership-working could be problematic, but silos themselves were at times beneficial to partnerships. This revealed a mismatch between rhetoric and a realistic understanding of what components of the programme were functional and which were more hindrance than help. There were high expectations placed on the concept of

  10. Influence of the initial guess spectrum in the unfolding of Bss data obtained inside a bunker of a PET cyclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benavente C, J. A.; Lacerda, M. A. S.; Guimaraes, A. M.; Da Silva, T. A. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear, Programa de Pos-graduacao em Ciencias e Tecnicas Nucleares, Pte. Antonio Carlos 6627, Belo Horizonte 31270-901, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Vega C, H. R. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98060 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico)

    2015-10-15

    In a cyclotron facility is strongly advised the use of spectrometry techniques to support workplace neutron dosimetry. Bonner sphere spectrometer (Bss) is the most used for radiation protection applications. Bss data must be unfolded to determine the spectral particle fluence. Some computer codes have been utilized for this purpose. These codes allow unfolding the spectrum from the Bss count rates through different algorithms. Some iterative routines need an initial guess spectrum to start the unfolding. The adequate choice of this initial spectrum is a critical part of the process and can affect the final solution. In this work, we evaluate the influence of the initial guess spectrum in the unfolding of Bss data obtained in four points inside the bunker of a PET cyclotron. The measurements were done utilizing a modified Bss system with thermoluminescent detectors (TLDs). Codes BUNKIUT and NSDUAZ were utilized to unfold the Bss data. For the NSDUAZ the starting spectrum is automatically obtained from a library initial guess spectra. For the BUNKIUT code were utilized two different initial guess spectra: (a) a Maxwellian spectrum with temperature of 1.4 MeV and shape factor of 0.1, created with the MAXIET algorithm and; (b) the spectra obtained through simulation with the MCNPX code version 2.7. Spectra obtained with both unfold codes and with the different initial guess spectra presented epithermal and thermal neutrons due to room-return effects. However, the contribution of the fast neutron to the total fluence were quite different for the different cases studied. These differences highlight the importance of an appropriate choice of an initial guess spectra for the quality of the results. (Author)

  11. Influence of the initial guess spectrum in the unfolding of Bss data obtained inside a bunker of a PET cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benavente C, J. A.; Lacerda, M. A. S.; Guimaraes, A. M.; Da Silva, T. A.; Vega C, H. R.

    2015-10-01

    In a cyclotron facility is strongly advised the use of spectrometry techniques to support workplace neutron dosimetry. Bonner sphere spectrometer (Bss) is the most used for radiation protection applications. Bss data must be unfolded to determine the spectral particle fluence. Some computer codes have been utilized for this purpose. These codes allow unfolding the spectrum from the Bss count rates through different algorithms. Some iterative routines need an initial guess spectrum to start the unfolding. The adequate choice of this initial spectrum is a critical part of the process and can affect the final solution. In this work, we evaluate the influence of the initial guess spectrum in the unfolding of Bss data obtained in four points inside the bunker of a PET cyclotron. The measurements were done utilizing a modified Bss system with thermoluminescent detectors (TLDs). Codes BUNKIUT and NSDUAZ were utilized to unfold the Bss data. For the NSDUAZ the starting spectrum is automatically obtained from a library initial guess spectra. For the BUNKIUT code were utilized two different initial guess spectra: (a) a Maxwellian spectrum with temperature of 1.4 MeV and shape factor of 0.1, created with the MAXIET algorithm and; (b) the spectra obtained through simulation with the MCNPX code version 2.7. Spectra obtained with both unfold codes and with the different initial guess spectra presented epithermal and thermal neutrons due to room-return effects. However, the contribution of the fast neutron to the total fluence were quite different for the different cases studied. These differences highlight the importance of an appropriate choice of an initial guess spectra for the quality of the results. (Author)

  12. New Perspectives on the “Silo Effect”: Initial Comparisons of Network Structures Across Public Health Collaboratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Retrum, Jessica; M. Varda, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We explored to what extent “silos” (preferential partnering) persist in interorganizational boundaries despite advances in working across boundaries. We focused on organizational homophily and resulting silo effects within networks that might both facilitate and impede success in public health collaboratives (PHCs). Methods. We analyzed data from 162 PHCs with a series of exponential random graph models to determine the influence of uniform and differential homophily among organizations and to identify the propensity for partnerships with similar organizations. Results. The results demonstrated a low presence (8%) of uniform homophily among networks, whereas a greater number (30%) of PHCs contained varying levels of differential homophily by 1 or more types of organization. We noted that the higher frequency among law enforcement, nonprofits, and public health organizations demonstrated a partner preference with similar organizations. Conclusions. Although we identified only a modest occurrence of partner preference in PHCs, overall success in efforts to work across boundaries might be problematic when public health members (often leaders of PHCs) exhibit the tendency to form silos. PMID:25689195

  13. Discharge flow of a granular media from a silo: effect of the packing fraction and of the hopper angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benyamine, Mebirika; Aussillous, Pascale; Dalloz-Dubrujeaud, Blanche

    2017-06-01

    Silos are widely used in the industry. While empirical predictions of the flow rate, based on scaling laws, have existed for more than a century (Hagen 1852, translated in [1] - Beverloo et al. [2]), recent advances have be made on the understanding of the control parameters of the flow. In particular, using continuous modeling together with a mu(I) granular rheology seem to be successful in predicting the flow rate for large numbers of beads at the aperture (Staron et al.[3], [4]). Moreover Janda et al.[5] have shown that the packing fraction at the outlet plays an important role when the number of beads at the apeture decreases. Based on these considerations, we have studied experimentally the discharge flow of a granular media from a rectangular silo. We have varied two main parameters: the angle of the hopper, and the bulk packing fraction of the granular material by using bidisperse mixtures. We propose a simple physical model to describe the effect of these parameters, considering a continuous granular media with a dilatancy law at the outlet. This model predicts well the dependance of the flow rate on the hopper angle as well as the dependance of the flow rate on the fine mass fraction of a bidisperse mixture.

  14. Advice about the safety of graphite storage silos of Saint Laurent des Eaux facility; Avis sur la surete des silos de stockage de graphite de Saint Laurent des Eaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This document is the safety analysis made by the national association of the local commissions of information about nuclear activities (ANCLI), about the safety of graphite storage silos of Saint Laurent des Eaux nuclear facility. The analysis covers: the operation safety and the accident hypothesis, the monitoring of indoor and outdoor contamination in routine situation, the geotechnical characteristics of the site environment, the isotopic inventory and the estimation of radioactivity in routine and accidental situation, the estimation of doses received by the population in accidental situation and the internal emergency plan. After examination of these different points, the scientific committee of the ANCLI considers that a new global evaluation of risks, which integrates more recent exposure data, has to be carried out. (J.S.)

  15. Alterações químicas e microbiológicas nas silagens de capim-Tifton 85 após a abertura dos silos Chemical and microbiological changes of Tifton 85 grass silage after silos opening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rúben Pablo Schocken-Iturrino

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi conduzido para avaliação da presença de Listeria sp. e de fungos nas silagens de capim-Tifton 85 sem emurchecimento, com emurchecimento por uma e duas horas e sem emurchecimento com adição ou não de polpa cítrica (5,0% do peso verde. As amostragens foram efetuadas no momento da abertura do silo (80 dias da ensilagem, aos 15 e 30 dias após exposição ao ar, para avaliar os teores de matéria seca (MS, as alterações químicas (pH, N amoniacal, ácidos orgânicos e a ocorrência de Listeria sp. e de fungos. Os dados foram analisados segundo o delineamento em blocos casualizados, em esquema de parcelas subdivididas (nas parcelas foram avaliadas as silagens submetidas aos tratamentos e nas subparcelas, os períodos de exposição ao ar, com quatro repetições. Observaram-se baixos teores de ácidos orgânicos e de N amoniacal decorrentes dos altos valores de MS, o que acarretou baixa formação de produtos fermentados e elevação do pH. A presença de Listeria sp. foi observada em 65,6% das amostras no momento da abertura dos silos e, destas, 10% foram positivas para Listeria monocytogenes. As silagens apresentaram baixa estabilidade aeróbia, tendo sido registrado aumento na ocorrência dos fungos Penicillium, Fusarium e Pithomyces com o prolongamento do período de exposição ao ar.The experiment was carried out to evaluate the fermentation characteristics, Listeria sp. and molds occurrence on Tifton 85 silage no wilted, wilted for one and two hours and no wilted with or without citrus pulp (5.0 % of fresh forage. The samplings were taken at the opening of the silos (80 days after ensiling, 15, and 30 days after air exposition to evaluated dry matter (DM content, chemical changes (pH, ammonia N, organic acids and Listeria sp., and molds occurrence. Data were analyzed according to a randomized block design in split plot scheme, considering the silage on the plots, and periods of air exposure on the split plot, with four

  16. The Reclaim Screw in Mammoth Silos Operating on a Free Surface: Comparison Between Horizontal and Inclined Operation on Free Flowing Bulk Solids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhuis, E.J.; Schott, Dingena; van Wijk, Arjen

    2004-01-01

    Although the screw conveyor, operating on a free surface, has been used for years as reclaim and storage equipment in mammoth silos, there is no documented knowledge about its spill characteristics. Research at Delft University of Technology together with ESI Eurosilo B.V. on the inclined use of the

  17. Effect of harvest time on fermentation profiles of maize ensiled in laboratory silos and determination of drying losses at 60°C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tina Skau; Kristensen, Niels Bastian; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2007-01-01

    The objectives were to investigate the effect of premature ensiling of maize on alcohol fermentation in laboratory silos and the loss of fermentation products and glucose in silage following drying at 60°C for 48 h. During four consecutive weeks maize was harvested and ensiled for 60 days in vacuum-sealed...

  18. : The glocal bunker and its paradox: operational dialetic between "reclosure" and "openness" in advanced mediatic civilization. O bunker glocal e seu paradoxo: dialética operacional entre "refechamento" e "abertura" na civilização mediática avançada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugênio Trivinho

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available in advanced mediatic civilization — In this article, the author reflects upon the sociohistorical signification of the glocal bunker today — the mediatic bunker of cyberculture (cyberspace, which, extending beyond the global and the local, within the very fabric of planetary glocaliza- tion, culturally rearticulates and reinforces the process of obliterated militarization of social life. His discussion dissects an autopoietic sociophenomenological and fundamental filigrain of the material and subjective experience of this bunker: a paradoxical intra-operational movement which simultaneously encompasses "reclosure" and "openness" in relation to the world, and particularly to alterity. This peculiar paradox conceals the way in which the collective and indi- vidual appropriation by the majority of digital networks is expressed in the sociohistorical and in quotidian life. In effect, internationally established cyber-overoptimistic discourse promotes the "openness" brought about by interactivity as the only fact worthy of attention in the current stage of the productive forces. The material and subjective "reclosure" it also represents is discarded as a mere historical exception, accident or minor inconvenience. The present study examines the naiveté of this epochal fallacy. "Openness" can only be understood if in inter-remission with the tendency for "reclosure". If, in cyberculture, there is no confinement or total atomization of the subject, neither is there an unquestionable horizon absolutely free to him. O artigo desdobra a reflexão do autor sobre a significação social-histórica do bunker glocal na atualidade — bunker mediático da cibercultura (o cyberspace que, vigorando para além do global e do local, já no tecido próprio da glocalização planetária, rearticula e reforça, cul- turalmente, o processo de militarização obliterada da vida social. A argumentação disseca uma

  19. Aplicación de la norma EN 14491:2006 a los silos de acero cilíndricos para la protección frente a explosiones de polvo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tascón, A.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Dust explosions represent a serious hazard in industries and silo facilities that handle combustible materials. Venting devices are commonly used to try to mitigate the damage caused by any dust explosion. To calculate vent area size, the recommendations given in European standard EN 14491:2006 can be used. However, the protection of silos is not always simple, and frequently the installation of vents becomes technically difficult and costly. The aim of the present work was to analyse the application of standard EN 14491:2006 to cylindrical steel silos, remarking the existing difficulties and limitations and explaining some critical points in order to understand the aforementioned standard. In addition, the cost of protection by venting in silos was studied. Finally, the authors have provided some suggestions to solve the protection of silos, alternative methods to calculate vent areas and expected future trends in this field.

    Las explosiones de polvo representan un serio peligro en aquellas industrias y silos en los que se manejan materiales combustibles. Para mitigar los efectos de una posible explosión generalmente se utilizan dispositivos de venteo, que pueden dimensionarse siguiendo la norma europea EN 14491:2006. Sin embargo, frecuentemente surgen complicaciones que hacen que la instalación de venteos sea técnicamente complicada y muy costosa. El objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar la aplicación de la norma EN 14491:2006 a los silos metálicos cilíndricos, remarcando las dificultades y limitaciones existentes y explicando sus aspectos clave para poder aplicarla correctamente. También se ha calculado el coste que puede suponer la protección de silos mediante venteos. Finalmente, se proporcionan algunas sugerencias para afrontar la protección de silos, información sobre métodos alternativos de cálculo de venteos y tendencias de futuro en este campo.

  20. Recommendations to the NRC for review criteria for alternative methods of low-level radioactive waste disposal: Task 2b: Earth-mounded concrete bunkers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denson, R.H.; Bennett, R.D.; Wamsley, R.M.; Bean, D.L.; Ainsworth, D.L.

    1988-01-01

    The US Army Engineers Waterways Experiment Station (WES) and US Army Engineer Division, Huntsville (HNDED) have developed general design criteria and specific design review criteria for the earth-mounded concrete bunker (EMCB) alternative method of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal. An EMCB is generally described as a reinforced concrete vault placed below grade, underneath a tumulus, surrounded by filter-blanket and drainage zones. The tumulus is covered over with a low permeability cover layer and top soil with vegetation. Eight major review criteria categories have been developed ranging from the loads imposed on the EMCB structure through material quality and durability considerations. Specific design review criteria have been developed in detail for each of the eight major categories. 63 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs

  1. Alternative methods for disposal of low-level radioactive wastes. Task 2c: technical requirements for earth mounded concrete bunker disposal of low-level radioactive waste. Volume 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, W.O.; Bennett, R.D.

    1985-10-01

    The study reported herein contains the results of Task 2c (Technical Requirements for Earth Mounded Concrete Bunker Disposal of Low-Level Radioactive Waste) of a four-task study entitled ''Criteria for Evaluating Engineered Facilities''. The overall objective of this study is to ensure that the criteria needed to evaluate five alternative low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal methods are available to potential license applicants. The earth mounded concrete bunker disposal alternative is one of several methods that may be proposed for disposal of low-level radioactive waste. The name of this alternative is descriptive of the disposal method used in France at the Centre de la Manche. Experience gained with this method at the Centre is described, including unit operations and features and components. Some improvements to the French system are recommended herein, including the use of previous backfill around monoliths and extending the limits of a low permeability surface layer. The applicability of existing criteria developed for near-surface disposal (10 CFR Part 61 Subpart D) to the earth mounded concrete bunker disposal method, as assessed in Task 1, are reassessed herein. With minor qualifications, these criteria were found to be applicable in the reassessment. These conclusions differ slightly from the Task 1 findings

  2. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND ENERGY ESTIMATION FROM ENSILED CASSAVA MASS WITH WHEAT MEAL IN EXPERIMENTAL SILOS CARACTERIZAÇÃO BROMATOLÓGICA E ESTIMATIVAS DE ENERGIA DA MASSA DE MANDIOCA ENSILADA COM FARELO DE TRIGO EM SILOS LABORATORIAIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elieldo Lameira Brito

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The experiment was conducted in order to evaluate the pH, chemical composition, fractions which constitute the total carbohydrates (CHT and energy values of cassava mass silage with wheat meal in PVC silos with capacity for 12 kg, randomly distributed in three replications. The samples had been taken at 0, 6, 18, 25, 45 and 60 days after ensilage. The dry matter (DM, ether extract (EE, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, non-fiber carbohydrates (NFC, lignin contents and pH, CHT fraction and energy were analyzed. There was linear effect (P<0.05 for pH values, that decreased with the ensilage time, and positive quadratic effect (P<0.05 for DM concentration. The CP, EE, NDF, ADF, lignin, CHT texts of PB, EE, FDN, FDA, lignin, CHT, CNF, total fractions of CHT, total digestible nutrients and energy contents were  constant (P>0.05 in function of the ensilage time. In func-tion of the results, the cassava silage is showed as alternative source of energy concentrate for ruminants feeding.

    KEY-WORDS: Animal nutrition, byproducts, conservation, energy.

    Objetivou-se avaliar os valores de pH e a composi-ção bromatológica, quantificar as frações que constituem os carboidratos totais (CHT e estimar os valores energéticos da silagem da massa de mandioca enriquecida com 4% de farelo de trigo, em silos laboratoriais de PVC com capaci-dade para 12 kg, distribuídos ao acaso com três repetições por tratamento. As amostras foram tomadas aos 0, 6, 18, 25, 45 e 60 dias após a ensilagem. Analisaram-se os teores de matéria seca (MS, de extrato etéreo (EE, de proteína bruta (PB, de fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, de fibra em detergente ácido (FDA, de lignina, de valores de pH e estimativas da fração de CHT e de energia. Houve efeito linear (P<0,05 para os valores de pH, que decresceram com o tempo de ensilagem, e feito quadrático positivo (P<0,05 para os teores de MS. Os teores de PB, de EE, de

  3. Dismantling the Justice Silos: avoiding the pitfalls and reaping the benefits of information-sharing between forensic science, medicine and law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelty, Sally F; Julian, Roberta; Ross, Alastair

    2013-07-10

    Forensic science is increasingly relied on by police and the courts to exonerate the innocent and to establish links to crime. With this increased reliance the potential for unjust outcomes increases, especially in serious matters for two reasons. The more serious the matter, the more likely that evidence mishandling can lead to wrongful imprisonment, and the more likely the personnel involved will be multi-disciplinary (police, medicine, law, forensic science), and multi-organisational (Health, Justice, private legal/medical, police). The importance of identifying effective multi-organisational interactions was highlighted in the recent wrongful imprisonment of an Australian male for a sexual assault he did not commit. One factor that led to this unjust outcome was the justice silo effect: where forensic practitioners from different agencies operate in isolation (rarely communicating or sharing information/knowledge). In this paper we discuss findings from the Interfaces Project designed to assess the extent of the justice silos within Australia. We interviewed 103 police, forensic scientists, lawyers, judges, coroners, pathologists and forensic physicians Australian-wide. Five main themes were identified in the data: the silo effect was only partial and in each jurisdiction some form of inter-agency communication was actively occurring; inter-agency meetings were more common in homicide than sexual assault cases; forensic physicians were semi-invisible; there had been considerable momentum over the past ten years for practice improvement groups, and; practitioners gain more benefits than pitfalls from inter-agency information-sharing. Based on these findings, five recommendations are made for improving practice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Dismantling the justice silos: Flowcharting the role and expertise of forensic science, forensic medicine and allied health in adult sexual assault investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelty, Sally F; Julian, Roberta; Bruenisholz, Eva; Wilson-Wilde, Linzi

    2018-04-01

    Forensic science is increasingly used to help exonerate the innocent and establishing links between individuals and criminal activities. With increased reliance on scientific services provided by multi-disciplinary (police, medicine, law, forensic science), and multi-organisational in the private and government sectors (health, justice, legal, police) practitioners, the potential for miscommunication resulting unjust outcomes increases. The importance of identifying effective multi-organisational information sharing is to prevent the 'justice silo effect'; where practitioners from different organisations operate in isolation with minimal or no interaction. This paper presents the findings from the second part of the Interfaces Project, an Australia-wide study designed to assess the extent of the justice silos. We interviewed 121 police, forensic scientists, lawyers, judges, coroners, pathologists and forensic physicians. The first paper published in 2013 presented two key findings: first investigative meetings were rare in adult sexual assault cases; second many medical practitioners were semi-invisible in case decision-making with this low level of visibility being due to lawyers, forensic scientists or police not being aware of the role/expertise medical practitioners offer. These findings led to the development of a flowchart model for adult sexual assault that highlights the range of agencies and practitioners typically involved in sexual assault. The rationale for the flowchart is to produce a visual representation of a typical sexual assault investigative process highlighting where and who plays a role in order to minimise the risk of justice silos. This is the second paper in a series of two. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Reconstruction of drip-water δ18O based on calcite oxygen and clumped isotopes of speleothems from Bunker Cave (Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kluge

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The geochemical signature of many speleothems used for reconstruction of past continental climates is affected by kinetic isotope fractionation. This limits quantitative paleoclimate reconstruction and, in cases where the kinetic fractionation varies with time, also affects relative paleoclimate interpretations. In carbonate archive research, clumped isotope thermometry is typically used as proxy for absolute temperatures. In the case of speleothems, however, clumped isotopes provide a sensitive indicator for disequilibrium effects. The extent of kinetic fractionation co-varies in Δ47 and δ18O so that it can be used to account for disequilibrium in δ18O and to extract the past drip-water composition. Here we apply this approach to stalagmites from Bunker Cave (Germany and calculate drip-water δ18Ow values for the Eemian, MIS3, and the Holocene, relying on independent temperature estimates and accounting for disequilibrium. Applying the co-variation method to modern calcite precipitates yields drip-water δ18Ow values in agreement with modern cave drip-water δ18Ow of −7.9 ± 0.3‰, despite large and variable disequilibrium effects in both calcite δ18Oc and Δ47. Reconstructed paleo-drip-water δ18Ow values are lower during colder periods (e.g., MIS3: −8.6 ± 0.4‰ and the early Holocene at 11 ka: −9.7 ± 0.2‰ and show higher values during warmer climatic periods (e.g., the Eemian: −7.6 ± 0.2‰ and the Holocene Climatic Optimum: −7.2 ± 0.3‰. This new approach offers a unique possibility for quantitative climate reconstruction including the assessment of past hydrological conditions while accounting for disequilibrium effects.

  6. Cultural noise and the night-day asymmetry of the seismic activity recorded at the Bunker-East (BKE) Vesuvian Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scafetta, Nicola; Mazzarella, Adriano

    2018-01-01

    Mazzarella and Scafetta (2016) showed that the seismic activity recorded at the Bunker-East (BKE) Vesuvian station from 1999 to 2014 suggests a higher nocturnal seismic activity. However, this station is located at about 50 m from the main road to the volcano's crater and since 2009 its seismograms also record a significant diurnal cultural noise due mostly to tourist tours to Mt. Vesuvius. Herein, we investigate whether the different seismic frequency between day and night times could be an artifact of the peculiar cultural noise that affects this station mostly from 9:00 am to 5:00 pm from spring to fall. This time-distributed cultural noise should evidently reduce the possibility to detect low magnitude earthquakes during those hours but not high magnitude events. Using hourly distributions referring to different magnitude thresholds from M = 0.2 to M = 2.0, the Gutenberg-Richter magnitude-frequency diagram applied to the day and night-time sub-catalogs and Montecarlo statistical modeling, we demonstrate that the day-night asymmetry persists despite an evident disruption induced by cultural noise during day-hours. In particular, for the period 1999-2017, and for earthquakes with M ≥ 2 we found a Gutenberg-Richter exponent b = 1.66 ± 0.07 for the night-time events and b = 2.06 ± 0.07 for day-time events. Moreover, we repeat the analysis also for an older BKE catalog covering the period from 1992 to 2000 when cultural noise was not present. The analysis confirms a higher seismic nocturnal activity that is also characterized by a smaller Gutenberg-Richter exponent b for M ≥ 2 earthquakes relative to the day-time activity. Thus, the found night-day seismic asymmetric behavior is likely due to a real physical feature affecting Mt. Vesuvius.

  7. Chronic fuel oil toxicity in American mink (Mustela vison): systemic and hematological effects of ingestion of a low-concentration of bunker C fuel oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, Julie A.; Aldridge, Brian M.; Lasley, Bill L.; Snyder, Paul W.; Stott, Jeff L.; Mohr, F. Charles

    2004-01-01

    Petroleum oil enters the coastal marine environment through various sources; marine mammals such as sea otters that inhabit this environment may be exposed to low concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons through ingestion of contaminated prey. The inability to perform controlled studies in free-ranging animals hinders investigations of the effects of chronic petroleum oil exposure on sea otter morbidity and mortality, necessitating the development of a reliable laboratory model. We examined the effects of oral exposure to 500 ppm bunker C fuel oil over 113-118 days on American mink, a species phylogenetically related to the sea otter. Hematological parameters and organs were examined for fuel oil-associated changes. Hepatic cytochrome P4501A1 mRNA expression and fecal cortisol concentrations were also measured. Ingestion of fuel oil was associated with a decrease in erythrocyte count, hemoglobin concentration (Hgb), hematocrit (HCT), and an increase in mean corpuscular volume (MCV). Total leukocytes were elevated in the fuel oil group from increases in neutrophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes. Significant interactions between fuel oil and antigen challenge were found for erythrocyte parameters, monocyte and lymphocyte counts. Liver and adrenal weights were increased although mesenteric lymph node weights were decreased in the fuel oil group. Hepatic cytochrome P4501A1 mRNA was elevated in the fuel oil group. Fecal cortisol concentration did not vary between the two groups. Our findings show that fuel oil exposure alters circulating leukocyte numbers, erythrocyte homeostasis, hepatic metabolism and adrenal physiology and establish a framework to use mink as a model for sea otters in studying the systemic effects of marine contaminants

  8. Fate of Escherichia coli O26 in Corn Silage Experimentally Contaminated at Ensiling, at Silo Opening, or after Aerobic Exposure, and Protective Effect of Various Bacterial Inoculants▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunière, Lysiane; Gleizal, Audrey; Chaucheyras-Durand, Frédérique; Chevallier, Isabelle; Thévenot-Sergentet, Delphine

    2011-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains are responsible for human illness. Ruminants are recognized as a major reservoir of STEC, and animal feeds, such as silages, have been pointed out as a possible vehicle for the spread of STEC. The present study aimed to monitor the fate of pathogenic E. coli O26 strains in corn material experimentally inoculated (105 CFU/g) during ensiling, just after silo opening, and after several days of aerobic exposure. The addition of 3 bacterial inoculants, Propionibacterium sp., Lactobacillus buchneri, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides (106 CFU/g), was evaluated for their abilities to control these pathogens. The results showed that E. coli O26 could not survive in corn silage 5 days postensiling, and the 3 inoculants tested did not modify the fate of pathogen survival during ensiling. In the case of direct contamination at silo opening, E. coli O26 could be totally eradicated from corn silage previously inoculated with Leuconostoc mesenteroides. The combination of proper ensiling techniques and the utilization of selected bacterial inoculants appears to represent a good strategy to guarantee nutritional qualities of cattle feed while at the same time limiting the entry of pathogenic E. coli into the epidemiological cycle to improve the microbial safety of the food chain. PMID:21984243

  9. Microbial processes in the final repository, the silo part. Theoretical approach and preliminary experiments on the biodegradation of bitumen. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roffey, R.; Hjalmarsson, K.

    1984-01-01

    On Commission of SKBF/KBS the microbial processes that are likely to occur in the silo part of SFR, the final repository for medium- and low-level nuclear wastes, have been put together. The experimental studies concerning microbial degradation of bitumen are described. From a microbial point of view it is the biodegradation of bitumen that constitutes the greatest risk in the silo part of SFR. The degradation, aerobic as well as anaerobic, leads to production of carbon dioxide which might cause a decrease in pH to such an extent that hydrogen-gas producing corrosion of metal could occur. This production of gas can cause an increase in internal pressure of the repository. A culture of bacteria able to degrade bitumen aerobically has been enriched. Uptil now no culture degrading bitumen under anaerobic conditions have been obtained. When making a risk assessment of the SFR at the present time it is not possible to completely disregard the microbial activity. An account is also given for some international contacts in this area. 11 references

  10. From silos to synergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treadwell, Janet; Levermann, Laurie; Soffar, Gail; Giardino, Angelo

    2007-08-01

    Texas Children's Health Plan (TCHP) redesigned its approach to care management in an effort to provide support for member-centric care and the medical home. The changes in process and structure focused on connecting information and programs to promote care for members in a collaborative manner and taking advantage of the synergy between staff, programming, and the physician practices serving health plan membership. The results brought about an improvement in job satisfaction, positive change in the medical-loss ratio, and new innovations to support preventive and chronic care service delivery needs of the TCHP membership.

  11. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 214: Bunkers and Storage Areas Nevada Test Site, Nevada: Revision 0, Including Record of Technical Change No. 1 and No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2003-05-16

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 214 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Areas 5, 11, and 25 of the Nevada Test Site, CAU 214 consists of nine Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 05-99-01, Fallout Shelters; 11-22-03, Drum; 25-99-12, Fly Ash Storage; 25-23-01, Contaminated Materials; 25-23-19, Radioactive Material Storage; 25-99-18, Storage Area; 25-34-03, Motor Dr/Gr Assembly (Bunker); 25-34-04, Motor Dr/Gr Assembly (Bunker); and 25-34-05, Motor Dr/Gr Assembly (Bunker). These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives (CAAs). The suspected contaminants and critical analyte s for CAU 214 include oil (total petroleum hydrocarbons-diesel-range organics [TPH-DRO], polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs]), pesticides (chlordane, heptachlor, 4,4-DDT), barium, cadmium, chronium, lubricants (TPH-DRO, TPH-gasoline-range organics [GRO]), and fly ash (arsenic). The land-use zones where CAU 214 CASs are located dictate that future land uses will be limited to nonresidential (i.e., industrial) activities. The results of this field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the corrective action decision document.

  12. Ventilation system design for control of radioactive airborne particulates during the decontamination and dismantlement (D&D) of the plant one ore silos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, J.E. III [Parsons Environmental Services, Inc., Fairfield, OH (United States)

    1995-02-01

    The Fernald facility is a 1,050-acre site located in southwest Ohio. In July 1989, production was discontinued. The Fernald site has completed its site wide Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS). In the RI/FS, a variety of response actions where identified for various Operable Unit (OU) area at the FEMP. Of the many response actions in progress at the FEMP, removal action No.17 (in OU-3), known as the Decontamination & Dismantlement (D&D) of the Plant One Ore Silos, exemplifies a state of the art nuclear air cleaning system. Constructed in 1953, Plant 1 was the Sampling Plant for the FEMP site and the receiving point for incoming ores and residues to be processed for the production of uranium metal. The contents were removed except for small amounts of residue. The objective of the removal action is to mitigate the potential for release of contaminants or potential hazards presented by the Plant One Ore Silos until total remediation of the OU-3 area is performed. All D&D work activity is controlled to prevent the release of contamination. The work areas are isolated with physical barriers and a ventilated containment system. The containment for the silo structures consists of scaffolding and polyethylene fabric sheeting (area containment). The containment material is flame-retardant and corrosion resistant in compliance with DOE Order 6430.1A. Ventilation air is filtered through portable air cleaning devices equipped with pre-filters and High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters and monitored before discharge to the atmosphere. This paper will illustrate the design of the ventilation in compliance with ASME codes AG-1, N509, N510, and DOE order 6430.1A. The materials of construction and design of the ductwork, stack, portable nuclear air cleaning units, and the type of air sampler used will be addressed. Also, this paper will describe the phase approach to dismantlement and ventilation that resulted in reduced costs and waste minimization.

  13. Specific effects of small doses of 60Co-γ-radiation applied to the seeds before sowing on the yield of silo maize (small and large plot field experiments)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degner, W.; Schacht, W.; Koepp, R.

    1975-01-01

    Dry seeds of silo maize were cultivated under outside conditions after fractionated irradiation with low radiation doses. The yields of irradiated and unirradiated seeds were compared. The resistance of irradiated and unirradiated plants and ensilage were also studied and compared. The findings are discussed. (GSE/AK) [de

  14. Decree no. 2005-78 from January 26, 2005, authorizing the Atomic Energy Commission to proceed to the definitive shutdown and dismantling operations of the nuclear facility no.20, named Siloe reactor, in the Grenoble city territory (Isere)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-02-01

    On March 19, 2003, the French atomic energy commission (CEA) addressed an authorization demand for the definitive shutdown and dismantling of the Siloe reactor. After a technical and administrative instruction of this demand by the French nuclear safety authority (ASN), a project of decree has been presented on July 6, 2004 at the permanent section of the inter-ministry commission of basic nuclear facilities. The commission gave its favourable judgment which is the object of this decree. (J.S.)

  15. Experimental determination of self-heating and self-ignition risks associated with the dusts of agricultural materials commonly stored in silos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Alvaro; García-Torrent, Javier; Tascón, Alberto

    2010-03-15

    Agricultural products stored in silos, and their dusts, can undergo oxidation and self-heating, increasing the risk of self-ignition and therefore of fires and explosions. The aim of the present work was to determine the thermal susceptibility (as reflected by the Maciejasz index, the temperature of the emission of flammable volatile substances and the combined information provided by the apparent activation energy and the oxidation temperature) of icing sugar, bread-making flour, maize, wheat, barley, alfalfa, and soybean dusts, using experimental methods for the characterisation of different types of coal (no standardised procedure exists for characterising the thermal susceptibility of either coal or agricultural products). In addition, the thermal stability of wheat, i.e., the risk of self-ignition determined as a function of sample volume, ignition temperature and storage time, was determined using the methods outlined in standard EN 15188:2007. The advantages and drawbacks of the different methods used are discussed. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. DG Connect Funded Projects on Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) for Old Age People: Beyond Silos, CareWell and SmartCare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keijser, W; de Manuel-Keenoy, E; d'Angelantonio, M; Stafylas, P; Hobson, P; Apuzzo, G; Hurtado, M; Oates, J; Bousquet, J; Senn, A

    2016-01-01

    Information and communication technologies (ICT) are promising for the long-term care of older and frequently frail people. These innovations can improve health outcomes, quality of life and efficiency of care processes, while supporting independent living. However, they may be disruptive innovations. As all European member states are facing an increasing complexity of health and social care, good practices in ICT should be identified and evaluated. Three projects funded by DG CNECT are related to Active and Healthy Ageing (AHA) and frailty: (i) BeyondSilos, dealing with independent living and integrated services, (ii) CareWell, providing integrated care coordination, patient empowerment and home support and (iii) SmartCare, proposing a common set of standard functional specifications for an ICT platform enabling the delivery of integrated care to older patients. The three projects described in this paper provide a unique pan-European research field to further study implementation efforts and outcomes of new technologies. Below, based on a description of the projects, the authors display four domains that are in their views fundamental for in-depth exploration of heterogeneity in the European context: 1. Definition of easily transferable, high level pathways with solid evidence-base; 2. Change management in implementing ICT enabled integrated care; 3. Evaluation and data collection methodologies based on existing experience with MAST and MEDAL methodologies; and 4. Construction of new models for delivery of health and social care. Understanding complementarity, synergies and differences between the three unique projects can help to identify a more effective roll out of best practices within a varying European context.

  17. Trends in concentrations of nitrate and total dissolved solids in public supply wells of the Bunker Hill, Lytle, Rialto, and Colton groundwater subbasins, San Bernardino County, California: Influence of legacy land use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Robert; Landon, Matthew K.

    2013-01-01

    Concentrations and temporal changes in concentrations of nitrate and total dissolved solids (TDS) in groundwater of the Bunker Hill, Lytle, Rialto, and Colton groundwater subbasins of the Upper Santa Ana Valley Groundwater Basin were evaluated to identify trends and factors that may be affecting trends. One hundred, thirty-one public-supply wells were selected for analysis based on the availability of data spanning at least 11 years between the late 1980s and the 2000s. Forty-one of the 131 wells (31%) had a significant (p relations of nitrate trends to depth, lateral position, and VOCs imply that increasing nitrate concentrations are associated with nitrate loading from historical agricultural land use and that more recent urban land use is generally associated with lower nitrate concentrations and greater VOC occurrence. Increasing TDS trends were associated with relatively greater current nitrate concentrations and relatively greater amounts of urban land. Decreasing TDS trends were associated with relatively greater amounts of natural land use. Trends in TDS concentrations were not related to depth, lateral position, or VOC occurrence, reflecting more complex factors affecting TDS than nitrate in the study area.

  18. Achievement of 900kgf/cm[sup 2] super workable high strength concrete with belite Portland cement (elevator building of cement silo in Chichibu cement). 2. ; Application to the actual structure. Ko belite kei cement de 900kgf/cm[sup 2] wo tassei (Chichibu cement cement silo no elevator to). 2. ; Jitsukozobutsu eno tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoda, K.; Sakuramoto, F. (Kajima Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1993-08-01

    For the purpose of rationalization of concrete works, the super workable high strength concrete was applied to the underground part of elevator building of cement silo in the Kumagaya Works, Chichibu Cement, and was successfully put into practice. Quality control values of the super workable high strength concrete were 65[plus minus]5cm in the slump flow and 900kgf/cm[sup 2] in the compressive strength at the age of 28 days. Addition of the admixture was 1.25% of the unit cement amount. Based on the linear correlation between the slump flow and mixer load immediately before discharge, the slump flow was controlled by the mixer load. Property of the fresh concrete, fluidity, compacting property, material segregation resistance property, and strength property were examined by using a sidewall test model. For all tests, satisfactory properties were obtained. Subsequently, the actual structure was successfully constructed. As a result, laborsaving and improvement of productivity were confirmed for the super workable high strength concrete work. 3 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Stakeholder participation for the legacy ponds and legacy silos (LP and LS) facility at Sellafield, Cumbria. UK: the nature and effectiveness of the dialogue - 16030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitton, John

    2009-01-01

    The Legacy Ponds and Silos (LP and S) facilities are part of the UK nuclear legacy located at the Sellafield Site, Cumbria. There are four individual facilities containing nuclear wastes that have accumulated over a period of approximately 50 years. Waste retrieval and conditioning, in preparation for decommissioning, is currently being carried out by the site operator. LP and S have recently proposed a re-engagement with stakeholders following the initial engagement in December 2005. This paper reviews this earlier engagement in terms of the nature of dialogue that was carried out when compared against definitions of deliberation provided in the literature. The aim of this paper is to provide those planning future engagement with a better understanding of how the nature of dialogue can vary and uses participation and deliberation as indicators of effective engagement. A concern of those working towards a programme of effective stakeholder participation in 2005 was how to ensure genuine dialogue and stakeholder representation in such a strictly controlled and regulated environment with a technical complexity that challenges technical specialist and lay person alike. LP and S recognised that effective dialogue with stakeholders on the available technical options and their associated societal impacts would form a significant part of this process if options were to prove resilient. However, the challenge presented to LP and S was how to engage stakeholders on a variety of projects, whilst ensuring the output could be used by the projects as part of their technical decision making. Initial contact was made with stakeholders in December 2005, as part of a 'Baseline' Best Practicable Environmental Option (BPEO) study. A BPEO study leads to decisions on waste management based on an integrated assessment of alternative options, on the basis of factors such as the occupational and environmental risks, the environmental impacts, costs and social implications of the options

  20. Contabilidad, información y control en un contexto de actividades económicas diversificadas en la edad moderna: el Monasterio de Silos y su sofisticado sistema contable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Maté Sadornil

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El artículo permite observar el complejo sistema contable utilizado por los monjes benedictinos del Monasterio de Silos (Burgos, España durante la Edad Moderna, así como mostrar su utilidad para el registro y control de las variadas actividades económicas que de forma eficiente llevó a cabo. La riqueza documental del Archivo del Monasterio de Silos, en cuanto a Libros de Cuentas se refiere, ha permitido el análisis, cuantificación e interpretación de dicha actividad. Se obtienen resultados globales acerca de la importancia absoluta y relativa del conjunto de aportaciones que contribuyeron al desarrollo económico del Monasterio y su entorno desde finales del siglo XVII hasta principios del XIX. El trabajo incluye el desglose de los diferentes tipos de ingresos existentes, tanto los procedentes de la administración y gestión económica de los bienes propiedad del Monasterio: rentas de los censos, rentas de las tierras cedidas en explotación y productos de tierras y ganados obtenidos mediante la explotación directa, como los procedentes de su condición eclesiástica y actividad religiosa: diezmos, sacristía y extraordinarios. Igualmente, se analizan las aplicaciones a las que fueron destinados los flujos financieros procedentes de los ingresos y se vierte la síntesis de los resultados obtenidos.

  1. Análisis de la distribución de presiones estáticas en silos cilíndricos con tolva excéntrica mediante el M. E. F. Influencia de la excentricidad y comparación con el Eurocódigo 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidal López, Pablo

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available At the European level, silos are considered under the European Standards (Eurocode 1, Part 4. Actions in si/os and tanks, with no proposed method of calculation in the case of an eccentric outlet. The guidelines include a brief mention that eccentricity should not exceed 25% of the silo diameter and that in the future, attempts will be made to cover large eccentricities. We have developed an analysis of static pressure distributions in grain silos with eccentric outlets. To this end, silos were modelled using ANSYS 5.5. According to the F.E.M. maximum normal pressures on the silo wall correspond to the si/o-hopper junction. on the opposite side to the displacement of the outlet for any eccentricity, increasing at this point as hopper eccentricity rises. Compared to the Eurocode, static pressures are proposed when the hopper is centered and considered to be valid up to an eccentricity limit of 0.25 times the diameter , their redistribution at the hopper wall when this is eccentric may be observed by means of the FE.M. increasing on the opposite side to the outlet and decreasing on the same side with respect to the central hopper. This leads us to conclude that a more conservative method of calculation should be used in the Eurocode for normal pressures on the hopper wall when centered, and coefficients drawn up to include the variations produced in the static state when it is off-center.En Europa las acciones en silos se recogen en la Norma Europea (ENV 1991-4. Eurocode l. Part 4: Actions on silos and tanks., sin proponer método alguno de cálculo cuando la boca de salida es excéntrica, limitándose a mencionar que la excentricidad de ésta no debe de ser mayor del 25% del diámetro y mencionando que en un futuro se intentará que cubra las grandes excentricidades. En este artículo realizamos un análisis de la distribución de presiones estáticas en silos cilíndricos con tolva excéntrica. Para ello hemos usado el programa ANSYS 5.5. con

  2. Trends in concentrations of nitrate and total dissolved solids in public supply wells of the Bunker Hill, Lytle, Rialto, and Colton groundwater subbasins, San Bernardino County, California: influence of legacy land use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Robert; Landon, Matthew K

    2013-05-01

    Concentrations and temporal changes in concentrations of nitrate and total dissolved solids (TDS) in groundwater of the Bunker Hill, Lytle, Rialto, and Colton groundwater subbasins of the Upper Santa Ana Valley Groundwater Basin were evaluated to identify trends and factors that may be affecting trends. One hundred, thirty-one public-supply wells were selected for analysis based on the availability of data spanning at least 11 years between the late 1980s and the 2000s. Forty-one of the 131 wells (31%) had a significant (p<0.10) increase in nitrate and 14 wells (11%) had a significant decrease in nitrate. For TDS, 46 wells (35%) had a significant increase and 8 wells (6%) had a significant decrease. Slopes for the observed significant trends ranged from -0.44 to 0.91 mg/L/yr for nitrate (as N) and -8 to 13 mg/L/yr for TDS. Increasing nitrate trends were associated with greater well depth, higher percentage of agricultural land use, and being closer to the distal end of the flow system. Decreasing nitrate trends were associated with the occurrence of volatile organic compounds (VOCs); VOC occurrence decreases with increasing depth. The relations of nitrate trends to depth, lateral position, and VOCs imply that increasing nitrate concentrations are associated with nitrate loading from historical agricultural land use and that more recent urban land use is generally associated with lower nitrate concentrations and greater VOC occurrence. Increasing TDS trends were associated with relatively greater current nitrate concentrations and relatively greater amounts of urban land. Decreasing TDS trends were associated with relatively greater amounts of natural land use. Trends in TDS concentrations were not related to depth, lateral position, or VOC occurrence, reflecting more complex factors affecting TDS than nitrate in the study area. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Desenvolvimento e avaliação de um secador solar para grãos, associado a silo subterrâneo Development and evaluation of a solar drier for grains associated to underground bin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. da S. Braga

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Um secador com aquecimento solar, tipo barcaça, com sistema mecânico de descarregamento, foi testado na secagem de grãos de feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris, L.. Em comparação com o sistema tradicional (secagem em terreiro, foram alcançadas reduções de: 83%, no tempo de secagem; 76% na área necessária à operação e 95% no tempo de descarregamento do secador e enchimento do silo respectivo.A batch-type, solar-heated air drier with mechanical system of unloading was tested in drying edible beans (Phaseolus vulgaris, L.. Reductions in drying time and area, reached 83 and 76%, respectively, as compared with the natural drying process. A hand-driven mechanical unloading system incorporated allows 95% reduction in unloading time.

  4. Software para cálculo de fluxo e pressões em silos cilíndricos metálicos para armazenamento de produtos agrícolas e industriais

    OpenAIRE

    Licia Carvalho Coelho

    2016-01-01

    Este trabalho apresenta o desenvolvimento e exemplos de aplicação de um software para cálculo de fluxo e pressões em silos cilíndricos metálicos de produtos agrícolas e industriais. As propriedades dos produtos a granel variam amplamente, e consequentemente suas pressões, tanto em grandeza e distribuição. Esses cálculos são importantes para prever picos de pressões imprevisíveis que podem causar sérios danos. O software está desenvolvido em linguagem Python com embasamento nas formulações do ...

  5. Decree no. 2005-78 from January 26, 2005, authorizing the Atomic Energy Commission to proceed to the definitive shutdown and dismantling operations of the nuclear facility no.20, named Siloe reactor, in the Grenoble city territory (Isere); Decret no. 2005-78 du 26 janvier 2005, autorisant le Commissariat a l'energie atomique a proceder aux operations de mise a l'arret definitif et de demantelement de l'installation nucleaire de base no.20 denommee reacteur Siloe sur le territoire de la commune de Grenoble (Isere)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-02-15

    On March 19, 2003, the French atomic energy commission (CEA) addressed an authorization demand for the definitive shutdown and dismantling of the Siloe reactor. After a technical and administrative instruction of this demand by the French nuclear safety authority (ASN), a project of decree has been presented on July 6, 2004 at the permanent section of the inter-ministry commission of basic nuclear facilities. The commission gave its favourable judgment which is the object of this decree. (J.S.)

  6. Effects of Bacterial Inoculants and Absorbents on Fermentation Properties and Chemical Composition of Fresh Sugar Beet Pulp Silage Using Laboratory silos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Seidali Dolat-Abad

    2016-04-01

    treatment after mixing the fresh sugar beet pulp with absorbents or inoculants. Ensilages were filled in laboratory silos and packed and then were kept for 90 d in room temperature at dark. After opening the concentration of volatile and non-volatile fatty acids, crude protein, fibers, total and ammonia-N and the values of pH were measured in final produced silages. Results and Discussion In the experiment 1, concentration of dry matter (DM, neutral detergent insoluble fibers (NDF and acid detergent insoluble fibers were higher in absorbents treated silage (P>0.01 when compared with untreated one. Application of absorbents resulted in silages with lower seepages (P>0.01 production compared to the control. However, application of the absorbents to the beet pulp produced silages with lower in vitro DM digestibility (P>0.05. Straw treated silage had the highest NDF concentration and the lowest apparent and true in vitro DM digestibility. Application of absorbents produced silages with lower lactic acid (P>0.01 and higher pH (P> 0.05 and ammonia-N (P>0.01 concentration. Adding straw to sugar beet pulp produced silages with higher acetate concentration, total volatile fatty acids concentrations (VFA (P> 0.01, the ratio of ammonia-N from total N (P>0.01 but lower ratios of lactate to acetate (P>0.01, lactate to acetate + propionate (P>0.01 and lactate to VFA (P>0.05 when compared with control group. In contrast, adding pith to sugar beet pulp produced silages with lower acetate concentration (P>0.01, propionate concentration (P>0.01, total VFA (P> 0.01 but higher ratios of lactate to acetate (P> 0.01, lactate to acetate + propionate (P> 0.01 and lactate to VFA (P>0.05 when compared with control group. The Fleig point was not affected by the different treatments. Application of bacterial inoculant resulted in silages with higher DM concentration (P>0.01, water soluble carbohydrates concentration (P> 0.01 and in vitro DM digestibility (P>0.05 but lower crude protein concentration

  7. Large protective bunker for ABC weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grebner, F.

    1983-01-01

    A cylindrical concrete jacket standing vertically in the earth has a steel ring similar to a cutter and is lowered into the ground under its own weight. Ceilings for storeys made of prefabricated parts are built into the concrete cylinder and it is divided into individual rooms by walls. In the centre of the cylinder there is a lift with a staircase. All internal parts are lowered into the cylinder, which is later closed by a dome-shaped dome 3-5 m thick. The rate of work at the manufacturer is such that first class protective rooms for about 400 people can be produced per month. (orig./HP) [de

  8. A possible Echinococcus granulosus calcified cyst found in a medieval adult female from the churchyard of Santo Domingo de Silos (Prádena del Rincón, Madrid, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge Calleja, Álvaro M; Sarkic, Natasa; López, Jesus Herrerín; Antunes, Wilson D T; Pereira, Manuel F C; Matos, António Pedro Alves de; Santos, Ana Luísa

    2017-03-01

    Calcification, or mineralisation, can occur as part of a natural process, or by pathological processes. The purpose of this work is to examine an unidentified semi-spherical and perforate hollow mass, found near the pelvis of an adult female, dated 12th-13th century AD, exhumed of the Church of Santo Domingo de Silos (Prádena del Ricón, Madrid, Spain). The mass was examined by SEM and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy. These procedures revealed a heterogeneous inner surface with both smooth and irregular areas. A larger spherical and several smaller crescent-shaped perforations were noticed. X-ray microanalysis revealed the presence of the elements C, K, P, Ca, Al, Si, Fe, and Mg. The co-localisation of Ca and P suggests that they may be combined in a mineral matrix, likely formed in vivo. Other minerals probably came from the soil, although Fe could be related to the presence of blood. The macroscopic and microscopic appearances, chemical composition, and location of the calcified mass point to a possible hydatid cyst from Echinococcus granulosus, common in agricultural populations. This study used a suite of analytical techniques that are useful in the diagnosis of unknown calcified masses and can, therefore, be recommended for use in future analytical work. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The formation of volatile N-nitrosamines in kikuYl grass silage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sorbed into the blood of the ruminant and transferred to the milk (Juszkiewicz ... precision chopped and ensiled in a bunker silo at a dry mat- ter content of 3090 ... one purple spot (Rf 0,83) on the silica gel G plate, indicating the presence of a ...

  10. Crushing data silos with ownCloud

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    More and more people store their personal files and documents in cloud services like Dropbox, Google Drive, Skydrive or iCloud. The reason is that they provide convenient features to sync your files between devices and share them with others. We are heading full speed into a future where a huge piece of the personal information of the world is stored in very few centralized services. Questions emerge what the impact on user privacy, surveillance, lawfulness of content and storage cost will be in in the long run. I don't think that a world where most of the personal data of the world is stored on servers of a hand full companies is a good one. This talk will discuss the problems of a future with centralized cloud file sync and share services and will present ownCloud as a possible solution. ownCloud is a free software project that offers a decentralized alternative to proprietary cloud services where everybody can run an own cloud service comparable with Dropbox but on own hardware and with full ...

  11. Storage Tank or Silo Locations - USACE IENC

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — These inland electronic Navigational charts (IENCs) were developed from available data used in maintenance of Navigation channels. Users of these IENCs should be...

  12. The principal construction problems of Siloe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatoux, J.

    1975-06-01

    A discussion is given of a number of problems that arose during the various stages of design and construction which could be divided into two main categories: 1) technical administrative and organisational problems which involved the personnel, 2) purely technical problems. (R.L.)

  13. Inherent Controls on Ready Mix Cement Silos

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  14. Storage Tank or Silo Areas - USACE IENC

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — These inland electronic Navigational charts (IENCs) were developed from available data used in maintenance of Navigation channels. Users of these IENCs should be...

  15. Senate report on the bill authorizing joining the 2001 International Convention on Civil Liability for Bunker Oil Pollution Damage; Rapport fait au nom de la commission des affaires etrangeres, de la defense et des forces armees (1) sur le projet de loi, Adopte par l'Assemblee Nationale, autorisant l'adhesion a la convention internationale de 2001 sur la responsabilite civile pour les dommages dus a la pollution par les hydrocarbures de soute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This report recalls the different texts concerning the law of the sea: United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) of 1982 which was ratified by France in 1996, the International Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution of 1992, the creation of the International Oil Pollution Compensation Funds, and the International Convention on Liability and Compensation for Damage in Connection with the Carriage of Hazardous and Noxious Substances by sea (HNS) in 1996. While evoking some recent examples of wrecks and pollutions and some already existing French and European initiatives, it describes the implications and consequences of this convention on the French law and for its enforcement, provided that this new treaty is designed to take bunker oil into account as it may induce a significant pollution of the marine environment

  16. Avaliação da composição química de milho seco e armazenado em silo tipo alambrado com ar natural forçado Evaluation of chemical composition of corn dried and stored with forced natural air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Gutkoski

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho objetivou estudar o efeito da umidade de colheita e do tempo de armazenamento em grãos de milho secos e armazenados em silos com ar natural forçado. Grãos de milho colhidos com 17,8; 18,9 e 20,5% de água foram acondicionados em silos tipo alambrado com fundo falso perfurado e com ventiladores ligados ininterruptamente até a secagem. Amostras de milho foram coletadas nos tempos zero, 4, 8, 22 e 112 dias, em seis alturas de camada de cada silo (10, 60, 110, 160, 210 e 260 cm. A composição química foi determinada pelo uso de Espectrofotômetro do Infravermelho Proximal (NIR e os resultados expressos em porcentagem e em base seca. Os dados foram analisados estatisticamente (Anova e nas interações significativas, elaborados os gráficos de regressão. Nas determinações de proteínas, lipídios, matéria seca e fibra em detergente neutro as interações foram significativas ao nível de 5% de probabilidade de erro, enquanto que em cinzas, umidade e carboidratos não foram verificadas diferenças significativas. A aeração natural forçada é capaz de reduzir a umidade do milho para 13%, sendo tecnicamente viável em propriedades familiares.The aim of this work was to study the effects of moisture at harvest and time of storage upon grains of corn dried and stored in bins with forced natural air. Grains of corn harvested with 17.8; 18.9, and 20.5% of water were stored in drying bins with false floor with fans working full-time until drying. Samples of corn were collected at zero, 4, 8, 22, and 112 days from six different heights in each bin (10, 60, 110, 160, 210 and 260 cm. The chemical composition was determined through Near-Infrared Spectrophotometer (NIR and the results were expressed in percentage at dry basis. The data were statistically analyzed (Anova and for the significant interactions graphics of regression were provided. In the process of determination of protein, fat, dry matter, and neutral detergent fiber the

  17. Security report on Siloe - the descriptive part. (1963); Rapport de surete de Siloe - partie descriptive (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ageron, P; Chatoux, J; Denielou, G; Jacquemain, M; Mitault, G; Robien, E de; Rossillon, F [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    This report is a full description of the site, the reactor, the building and the experimental facilities. It gives the nuclear, thermodynamic and hydrodynamic characteristics of the core. (authors) [French] Ce rapport decrit completement le site, le reacteur, les batiments et les installations experimentales. Il donne les caracteristiques nucleaires, thermodynamiques et hydrodynamiques du coeur. (auteurs)

  18. Incident of inadvertent radiation exposure in a linac bunker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aerts, M.G.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Implementation of a new Biomedical Equipment and service database poses special challenges. This paper describes the challenges and solutions during implementation of BEIMS (Mercury Computers) at RPAH and other sites within SSWAHS. During implementation we faced challenges of Code/Label design, workflow redesign, and data cleanup. Considerable time and effort went into the design of descriptive codes for breakdowns, tests, equipment types, meta-categories and the like. Some of the codes are explored and described to allow adoption by other entities if desired. Workflow redesign required us to include considerations of biomedical Technicians and Nurse Requestors. A simplified document was created for the self-education of Requestors and a full user manual (complete with screen shots) was created for Biomeds. More work remains, including simplification of standardised reports and ability to generate KPI's. The result is a system with improved utility compared to the old system and a flexible design enabling future improvements. (author)

  19. Leadership in crisis situations: merging the interdisciplinary silos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquin, Hugo; Bank, Ilana; Young, Meredith; Nguyen, Lily H P; Fisher, Rachel; Nugus, Peter

    2018-02-05

    Purpose Complex clinical situations, involving multiple medical specialists, create potential for tension or lack of clarity over leadership roles and may result in miscommunication, errors and poor patient outcomes. Even though copresence has been shown to overcome some differences among team members, the coordination literature provides little guidance on the relationship between coordination and leadership in highly specialized health settings. The purpose of this paper is to determine how different specialties involved in critical medical situations perceive the role of a leader and its contribution to effective crisis management, to better define leadership and improve interdisciplinary leadership and education. Design/methodology/approach A qualitative study was conducted featuring purposively sampled, semi-structured interviews with 27 physicians, from three different specialties involved in crisis resource management in pediatric centers across Canada: Pediatric Emergency Medicine, Otolaryngology and Anesthesia. A total of three researchers independently organized participant responses into categories. The categories were further refined into conceptual themes through iterative negotiation among the researchers. Findings Relatively "structured" (predictable) cases were amenable to concrete distributed leadership - the performance by micro-teams of specialized tasks with relative independence from each other. In contrast, relatively "unstructured" (unpredictable) cases required higher-level coordinative leadership - the overall management of the context and allocations of priorities by a designated individual. Originality/value Crisis medicine relies on designated leadership over highly differentiated personnel and unpredictable events. This challenges the notion of organic coordination and upholds the validity of a concept of leadership for crisis medicine that is not reducible to simple coordination. The intersection of predictability of cases with types of leadership can be incorporated into medical simulation training to develop non-technical skills crisis management and adaptive leaderships skills.

  20. Security report on Siloe - the descriptive part. (1963)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ageron, P.; Chatoux, J.; Denielou, G.; Jacquemain, M.; Mitault, G.; Robien, E. de; Rossillon, F.

    1963-01-01

    This report is a full description of the site, the reactor, the building and the experimental facilities. It gives the nuclear, thermodynamic and hydrodynamic characteristics of the core. (authors) [fr

  1. Climate Change and Health: Transcending Silos to Find Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machalaba, Catherine; Romanelli, Cristina; Stoett, Peter; Baum, Sarah E; Bouley, Timothy A; Daszak, Peter; Karesh, William B

    2015-01-01

    Climate change has myriad implications for the health of humans, our ecosystems, and the ecological processes that sustain them. Projections of rising greenhouse gas emissions suggest increasing direct and indirect burden of infectious and noninfectious disease, effects on food and water security, and other societal disruptions. As the effects of climate change cannot be isolated from social and ecological determinants of disease that will mitigate or exacerbate forecasted health outcomes, multidisciplinary collaboration is critically needed. The aim of this article was to review the links between climate change and its upstream drivers (ie, processes leading to greenhouse gas emissions) and health outcomes, and identify existing opportunities to leverage more integrated global health and climate actions to prevent, prepare for, and respond to anthropogenic pressures. We conducted a literature review of current and projected health outcomes associated with climate change, drawing on findings and our collective expertise to review opportunities for adaptation and mitigation across disciplines. Health outcomes related to climate change affect a wide range of stakeholders, providing ready collaborative opportunities for interventions, which can be differentiated by addressing the upstream drivers leading to climate change or the downstream effects of climate change itself. Although health professionals are challenged with risks from climate change and its drivers, the adverse health outcomes cannot be resolved by the public health community alone. A phase change in global health is needed to move from a passive responder in partnership with other societal sectors to drive innovative alternatives. It is essential for global health to step outside of its traditional boundaries to engage with other stakeholders to develop policy and practical solutions to mitigate disease burden of climate change and its drivers; this will also yield compound benefits that help address other health, environmental, and societal challenges. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Quality of Brazil nuts stored in forced aeration silos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Aquino da Costa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The traditional system of collection and storage of Brazil nut compromises seriously the quality of these almonds as it contributes to the high incidence of contaminants, like fungi of the genus Aspergillus, which can produce aflatoxins. In this study, the objective was to evaluate the influence of the storage period in studied conditions, on the physicochemical characteristics and on the microbiological contamination of Brazil nuts. The experimental was designed as completely randomized, considering as treatments the storage period (0 - control, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 days with four replicates of 3 kg of Brazil nuts each. The samples were submitted to physicochemical and microbiological analysis. It was observed that almonds submitted to the storage had their moisture content reduced by 78.2% at 150 days of storage, however, this reduction was not fast enough to avoid surface contamination by filamentous and potentially aflatoxins producing fungi. The critical period of contamination occurred on the first 30 days of storage when there was an increase of the studied fungi, as well as B1 and total aflatoxin. The studied storage conditions were four times more effective in reducing the product moisture content than the traditional methods, however, pre-drying is necessary to avoid contamination of the product.

  3. Microbial status, aerobic stability and fermentation of maize silage sealed with an oxygen barrier film or standard polyethylene film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szilvia Orosz

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to compare a bunker silo sealing system comprising an oxygen barrier film (OB: 45μm thickness with protective woven polypropylene with one comprising standard black polyethylene film (S; 125μm thickness with protective tyres. Analysis of samples taken to 30 cm depth after 365 days of storage showed no differences in pH or lactic acid between the two sealing systems. There were no differences in aerobic bacterial count between silages. Whilst 2.56 log10 CFU moulds g-1 fresh weight were found in samples of silage sealed with S, no moulds were found in samples of silage sealed with OB. Aerobic stability, averaged 249 hours and 184 hours for OB and S, respectively. The OB system probably inhibited the development of the micro-organisms responsible for the initiation of aerobic deterioration to a greater extent than the standard silo sealing system.  

  4. Estimated doses related to 222Rn concentration in bunker for radiotherapy and storage of radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mestre, Freddy; Carrizales-Silva, Lila; Sajo-Bohus, Laszlo; Diaz, Cruz

    2013-01-01

    It was done a survey in radiotherapy services underground hospitals and clinics of Venezuela and Paraguay in order to estimate the concentrations of radon and its possible consequences on worker occupational exposure. Passive dosimeters were used to assess nuclear traces (NTD type CR-39®). The concentration of 222 Rn is determined based on the density of traces using the calibration coefficient of 1 tr/cm 2 equivalent to 0,434 Bqm -3 per month of exposure. Assuming the most likely environmental conditions and the dose conversion factor equal to 9.0 x 10 -6 mSv h -1 by Bqm -3 , it was determined the average values and estimated the possible risks to health that are on average 3.0 mSva -1 and 150 micro risk cancer

  5. CLOSURE REPORT FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT 204: STORAGE BUNKERS, NEVADA TEST SITE, NEVADA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 330 consists of four Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 6, 22, and 23 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The unit is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996) as CAU 330: Areas 6, 22, and 23 Tanks and Spill Sites. CAU 330 consists of the following CASs: CAS 06-02-04, Underground Storage Tank (UST) and Piping CAS 22-99-06, Fuel Spill CAS 23-01-02, Large Aboveground Storage Tank (AST) Farm CAS 23-25-05, Asphalt Oil Spill/Tar Release

  6. The Evaluation of Dogmatic Television Characters by Dogmatic Viewers: "Is Archie Bunker a Credible Source?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surlin, Stuart H.

    The highly rated television program series, "All in the Family," was used to test the relationship between attitudes espoused by televised characters and attitudes held by viewers of this type of television programing. On the basis of survey questionnaires, it was condluded that people who hold dogmatic and, especially, racist beliefs find…

  7. Bunker Levy Schemes for Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emission Reduction in International Shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosmas, Vasileios; Acciaro, Michele

    2017-01-01

    , the extent of which depend on the structure of the levy and market conditions. Since there is concern that the costs resulting from the policy will be passed from shipping companies to their customers along the supply chain, the paper dwells on how the costs arising from the enforcement of the levy...

  8. Photon dose evaluation at the entrance of radiotherapy bunkers without maze

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facure, Alessandro; Salata, Camila

    2017-01-01

    Radiation protection has become an important field of study, as the use of ionizing radiation for diagnosis and therapy increased along the years. According to the ALARA principles, shielding is one of the most efficient ways to minimize radiation exposure. Linear accelerators for radiotherapy treatment can lead to a considerable risk due to radiation for public and workers if proper shielding is not calculated. Mazeless rooms for LINACS are becoming more usual, as they need less space to be constructed, but, on the other hand they are more expensive. The doors of those kinds of rooms are an important point, as they will have to be thicker in mazelles room to proper shield the radiation. The NCRP 151 lays out the general considerations for the shielding calculation of standard rooms, with mazes, but there are no specific recommendations for mazeless rooms on literature. The work herein presented evaluated the absorbed dose in a room model without maze, which will be constructed soon in Brazil. The applicant calculated the thickness of the door as if it was a room with maze, and the authors used computational simulation wit MCNP code to simulate the same room, and calculated the door thickness as if it was a secondary barrier. The dose limit considered was for public occupation, 1 mSv/sem, and the energy beam was of 6 MeV. The simulated results showed that the applicant calculation thickness for the door was underestimated in 88%. The obtained results are important to establish a better methodology for shielding calculation of mazeless radiotherapy rooms that are becoming more common in Brazil. (author)

  9. Experimental determination of ideal concrete density used for applications in bunkers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bitelli, T.; Coelho, G.M.

    1988-01-01

    Comparisons between barite concrete of different densities and exactly equal measures, subjected to gamma irradiation of 192 Ir source, with changeless measure of geometry are presented. The experimental results and the applied statistics with 95% of trust, confirm that the barite added supplies a significant increase of irradiation attenuation. (C.M.) [pt

  10. Photon dose evaluation at the entrance of radiotherapy bunkers without maze

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Facure, Alessandro; Salata, Camila, E-mail: facure@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: camila.salata@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Radiation protection has become an important field of study, as the use of ionizing radiation for diagnosis and therapy increased along the years. According to the ALARA principles, shielding is one of the most efficient ways to minimize radiation exposure. Linear accelerators for radiotherapy treatment can lead to a considerable risk due to radiation for public and workers if proper shielding is not calculated. Mazeless rooms for LINACS are becoming more usual, as they need less space to be constructed, but, on the other hand they are more expensive. The doors of those kinds of rooms are an important point, as they will have to be thicker in mazelles room to proper shield the radiation. The NCRP 151 lays out the general considerations for the shielding calculation of standard rooms, with mazes, but there are no specific recommendations for mazeless rooms on literature. The work herein presented evaluated the absorbed dose in a room model without maze, which will be constructed soon in Brazil. The applicant calculated the thickness of the door as if it was a room with maze, and the authors used computational simulation wit MCNP code to simulate the same room, and calculated the door thickness as if it was a secondary barrier. The dose limit considered was for public occupation, 1 mSv/sem, and the energy beam was of 6 MeV. The simulated results showed that the applicant calculation thickness for the door was underestimated in 88%. The obtained results are important to establish a better methodology for shielding calculation of mazeless radiotherapy rooms that are becoming more common in Brazil. (author)

  11. Status Survey of Bunkers 738A and 825A at Spangdahlem AB, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-02

    cpm ), to activity in units of dpm...lnl’lt R~dvul. 1.500 V - 2% AANGE REFERENCE ".~S FOUND" CORRECT E) MUI.TI?t. ER CAl POINT READING READING :< 1000 400 CPM 400,000 CPM 400,0 0Q CPM ...1000 100 CPM 100.000 CPM 100,0 00 CPM X 100 400 CPM 40,0(•0 CPM 40,000 CPM )( 100 100 CPM 10 .0GO CPM 10 .000 CPM X 10 400 CPM 4 ,000

  12. Incineration of sewage sludge. Self-heating in storage silo; Incineration de boues d'epuration. Auto-echauffement dans les silos de stockage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poffet, M.

    2008-07-01

    Elimination of urban sewage sludge occurs exclusively by incineration in Switzerland, because recycling as fertilizer in agriculture is banned since October 2006. This new elimination route is hampered, however, by the tendency of dried sewage granules to self-heating and by occasional thermal runaway ending up in fire. The presented research project deals with the investigation of the characteristics of this waste material and the possible reasons for the observed self-heating phenomenon. It was found that a cascade of reactions is responsible for the thermal runaway such as oxidation of ferrous (Fe{sup 2+}) and sulfides (S{sup 2-}) compounds and exothermic hydration which triggers the initial temperature raise. (author) $$$ continuer ici $$.

  13. Preliminary Studies on Irradiation of Some Common Stored-Grain Insects in Pakistan; Etudes preliminaires sur l'irradiation de certaines especes communes d'insectes nuisibles aux cereales engrangees au Pakistan; Predvaritel'noe izuchenie rezul'tatov oblucheniya nekotorykh obychnykh ambarnykh nasekomykh v Pakistane; Estudios preliminares sobre los efectos de la irradiacion en algunas de las plagas insectiles de los silos mas comunes en el Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huque, Heshamul [Department of Plant Protection, Ministry of Food and Agriculture, Karachi (Pakistan)

    1963-09-15

    , en 26 j. Une dose maximum de 250 000 g a entraine une mort instantanee dans tous les cas; mais, outre le fait qu'elle est trop elevee, cette dose nuit a la conservation des cereales. Toutefois, la valeur nutritive des cereales ne s'en trouvant pas affectee, on pourrait appliquer des doses de cette intensite lorsqu'on veut rapidement desinsectiser des grains comestibles qui ne sont pas destines a la semence. Des oeufs de Bruchus quadrumaculatus exposes a une dose de 2500 r ne sont pas parvenus a eclosion. On poursuit les etudes sur des insectes a d'autres stades de leur developpement et pour des doses differentes. (author) [Spanish] El autor ha estudiado loe. efectos que en algunas de las principales plagas insectiles de los silos ejercen diversas dosis de irradiacion aplicadas con una fuente de {sup 60}Co que puso a su disposicion la Comision de Energia Atomica del Pakistan. Una dosis de 20 000 r causo ai cabo de 11 d una mortalidad del 100% entre los Rhizopertha dominica y Tribolium castaneum adultos. Una dosis de 10 000 r produjo los mismoe resultados al cabo de 23 d. El Sitophilus granarius adulto acuso una sensibilidad relativamente mucho mas elevada, pues con una dosis de 10 000 g se obtuvo una mortalidad del. 100% en solo 7 d. Las larvas de Trogoderma granarium demostraron ser las mas resistentes; con dosis inferiores no acusaron efecto alguno y su exterminio total exigio 25000 r y 26 d. Una dosis maxima de 250 000 r produjo inmediatamente efectos letales en todos los insectos, pero aparte de ser demasiado elevada resulto perjudicial para la vitalidad de los granos. Ahora bien, como no altera su poder nutritivo, se puede emplear cuando se quiera lograr la desinsectacion inmediata de granes comestibles que no sean para la siembra. Los huevecillos de Bruchus quadrumaculatus dejan de desarrollarse cuando sufren una irradiacion de 2500 r. El autor esta estudiando los efectos de otras dosis en otras fases de la metamorfosis. (author) [Russian] Byli izucheny otvetnye

  14. Final Environmental Impact Statement, Peacekeeper in Minuteman Silos, F.E. Warren AFB, Wyoming. Volume 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Services and Facilities • .......... Uti I .ties. . % ? Energy Resources - - 0 Transportati on * 0) • ::::: ’:’::::’ ::::: Land Use - - :::~: i...RNs, 31 LPNs, 31 nurses aides, 3 pharmacists , 2 dieticians, 3 physical therapists, and 18 specialized technicians. The physician staff levels of

  15. Silo-stored pistachios at varying humidity levels produce distinct volatile biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aflatoxin contamination in California tree nuts results in millions of dollars of lost product annually. The current method for detection of aflatoxin is destructive, expensive and time-intensive. Previous studies have demonstrated that volatile profiles of fungal-contaminated tissues are different ...

  16. Hacking the Silos: Eliminating Information Barriers Between Public Health and Law Enforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-01

    Organization, is “a state of complete physical , mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.”6 Public health , on the...has been reluctance on the part of our health sector partners to “ physically ” place any of their personnel in the fusion center—even on a temporary...incorporate at least a part-time physical presence with public health in this center. Steps were taken several years ago, with a person from public

  17. Monitoring for vertical creep in concrete in two silos at Wivenhoe pumped storage hydro power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, M W [Queensland Univ. of Technology, Brisbane (Australia). School of Surveying

    1997-12-31

    The need for structural monitoring is generated by expected or unexpected (newly discovered in the life of the structure) behaviour. Due to the long vertical driveshafts involved at Wivenhoe the phenomenon of `concrete creep` which, if it is occurring, could contribute to shaft misalignment and unscheduled bearing wear or failure, was used as a motivation to establish a vertical monitoring system. The particular system developed for this site is traceable, replaceable, expandable and inexpensive. Measurements are obtained by precise levelling and the use of specially calibrated vertically suspended tapes. The analysis of the vertical loops is performed using constrained variance estimation and `robust` inter-epoch comparison. (orig.)

  18. Breaking down silos: engaging students to help fix the US health care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumarasamy, Mathu A; Sanfilippo, Fred P

    2015-01-01

    The field of health care is becoming a team effort as patient care becomes increasingly complex and multifaceted. Despite the need for multidisciplinary education, there persists a lack of student engagement and collaboration among health care disciplines, which presents a growing concern as students join the workforce. In October 2013, the Emory-Georgia Tech Healthcare Innovation Program organized a student driven symposium entitled "US Healthcare: What's Broken and How to Fix It: The Student Perspective". The symposium engaged students from multiple disciplines to work together in addressing problems associated with US health care delivery. The symposium was organized and carried out by a diverse group of student leaders from local institutions who adopted a multidisciplinary approach throughout the planning process. The innovative planning process leading up to the symposium revealed that many of the student-discipline groups lacked an understanding of one another's role in health care, and that students were interested in learning how to work together to leverage each other's profession. The symposium was widely attended and positively received by students and faculty from the Atlanta metropolitan area, and has since helped to promote interdepartmental collaboration and multidisciplinary education across institutions. The student symposium will become an annual event and incorporate broader discipline representation, as well as a patient perspective. Proposals for additional institution-wide, multidisciplinary educational offerings are being addressed with the help of faculty and health care providers across the network. Accordingly, the implementation of student-driven symposia to engage students and stimulate institution-wide changes may be a beneficial and cost-effective means for academic health centers looking to facilitate multidisciplinary health care education.

  19. Breaking down silos: engaging students to help fix the US health care system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumarasamy MA

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Mathu A Kumarasamy,1 Fred P Sanfilippo1–3 1Emory–Georgia Tech Healthcare Innovation Program, 2Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, School of Medicine, 3Department of Health Policy and Management, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA Problem: The field of health care is becoming a team effort as patient care becomes increasingly complex and multifaceted. Despite the need for multidisciplinary education, there persists a lack of student engagement and collaboration among health care disciplines, which presents a growing concern as students join the workforce. Approach: In October 2013, the Emory–Georgia Tech Healthcare Innovation Program organized a student driven symposium entitled “US Healthcare: What's Broken and How to Fix It: The Student Perspective”. The symposium engaged students from multiple disciplines to work together in addressing problems associated with US health care delivery. The symposium was organized and carried out by a diverse group of student leaders from local institutions who adopted a multidisciplinary approach throughout the planning process. Outcomes: The innovative planning process leading up to the symposium revealed that many of the student-discipline groups lacked an understanding of one another's role in health care, and that students were interested in learning how to work together to leverage each other's profession. The symposium was widely attended and positively received by students and faculty from the Atlanta metropolitan area, and has since helped to promote interdepartmental collaboration and multidisciplinary education across institutions. Next steps: The student symposium will become an annual event and incorporate broader discipline representation, as well as a patient perspective. Proposals for additional institution-wide, multidisciplinary educational offerings are being addressed with the help of faculty and health care providers across the network. Accordingly, the implementation of student-driven symposia to engage students and stimulate institution-wide changes may be a beneficial and cost-effective means for academic health centers looking to facilitate multidisciplinary health care education.Keywords: multidisciplinary health care education, multidisciplinary student engagement, multidisciplinary team-based learning

  20. Beyond the Education Silo? Tackling Adolescent Secondary Education in Rural India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Orla; Bhabha, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we examine the factors contributing to gender inequality in secondary schooling in India by critically reviewing the government's secondary education policy. Drawing on the findings of a study in rural Gujarat, we couple this analysis with an examination of the gendered dynamics that restrict girls' ability to fully benefit from the…

  1. Integrative medicine: Breaking down silos of knowledge and practice an epigenetic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, Bruce S

    2017-04-01

    The future of medicine is discussed in the context of epigenetic influences during the entire life course and the lived experiences of each person, avoiding as much as possible the "medicalization" of the individual and taking a more humanistic view. The reciprocal communication between brain and body via the neuroendocrine, autonomic, metabolic and immune systems and the plasticity of brain architecture provide the basis for devising better "top down" interventions that engage the whole person in working towards his or her welfare. The life course perspective emphasizes the importance of intervening early in life to prevent adverse early life experiences, including the effects of poverty, that can have lifelong consequences, referred to as "biological embedding". In the spirit of integrative, humanistic medicine, treatments that "open windows of plasticity" allow targeted behavioral interventions to redirect brain and body functions and behavior in healthier directions. Policies of government and the private sector, particularly at the local, community level, can create a supporting environment for such interventions. See "Common Ground for Health: Personalized, Precision and Social Medicine McEwen & Getz - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IRy_uUWyrEw. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Lactic acid bacteria active during the fermentation of wheat silage in small scale silos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, N.J.; Parker, J.A.; Moon, L.C.; Ely, L.O.

    1981-01-01

    Wheat was ensiled and periodically analyzed for lactic acid bacteria present. Initially Lactobacillus plantarum, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactobacillus cellobiosus and Streptococcus lactis predominated. After two to four days enterococci including S. faecium and S. bovis were present in high populations as well as Lactobacillus plantarum. It was concluded that mixed populations of enterococci and L. plantarum are active in the successful fermentation of wheat silage.

  3. Lactic acid bacteria active during the fermentation of wheat silage in small scale silos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, N.J.; Moon, L.C.; Ely, L.O.; Parker, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    Wheat was ensiled and periodically analyzed for lactic acid bacteria present. Initially Lactobacillus plantarum, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactobacillus cellobiosus and Streptococcus lactis predominated. After two to four days enterococci including S. faecium and S. bovis were present in high populations as well as Lactobacillus plantarum. It was concluded that mixed populations of enterococci and L. plantarum are active in the successful fermentation of wheat silage. (Refs. 5).

  4. Working in Separate Silos? What Citation Patterns Reveal about Higher Education Research Internationally

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tight, Malcolm

    2014-01-01

    Higher education research is a growing, inter-disciplinary and increasingly international field of study. This article examines the citation patterns of articles published in six leading higher education journals--three published in the United States and three published elsewhere in the world--for what they reveal about the development of this…

  5. Bridging the Water Policy and Management Silos: An Opportunity for Leveraged Capacity Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, D. L.

    2017-12-01

    The global community is challenged by increasing demand and decreasing water supplies. Historically nations have focused on local or regional water development projects that meet specific needs, often without consideration of the impact on downstream transboundary water users or the watershed itself. Often these decisions have been based on small sets of project specific data with little assessment on river basin impacts. In the United States this disjointed approach to water has resulted in 26 federal agencies having roles in water management or regulation, 50 states addressing water rights and compliance, and a multitude of tribal and local entities intersecting the water process. This approach often manifests itself in a convoluted, disjointed and time-consuming approach. The last systematic and comprehensive review of nationwide water policy was the 1973 National Water Commission Report. A need exists for capacity building collaborative and integrative leadership and dialogue. NASA's Western Water Applications Office (WWAO) provides a unique opportunity to leverage water and terrain data with water agencies and policy makers. A supported WWAO can provide bridges between federal and state water agencies; provide consistent integrated hydrologic and terrain based data set acquired from multiple earth orbiting satellites and airborne platforms; provide data sets leveraged with academic and research based entities to develop specific integrative predictive tools; and evaluate hydrology information across multiple boundaries. It is the author's conclusion that the Western Water Applications Office can provide a value-added approach that will help translate transboundary water and earth terrain information to national policy decisions through education, increased efficiency, increased connectivity, improved coordination, and increased communication. To be effective the WWAO should embrace five objectives: (1) be technically and scientifically valid; (2) administratively supported; (3) financially sustainable; (4) politically achievable; and (5) focus on integration of innovative remote sensing and data analysis tools.

  6. Simulated Disaster Day: Benefit From Lessons Learned Through Years of Transformation From Silos to Interprofessional Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Laura L; West, Courtney A; Livingston, Jerry L; Landry, Karen A; Watzak, Bree C; Graham, Lori L

    2016-08-01

    Disaster Day is a simulation event that began in the College of Nursing and has increased exponentially in size and popularity for the last 8 years. The evolution has been the direct result of reflective practice and dedicated leadership in the form of students, faculty, and administration. Its development and expansion into a robust interprofessional education activity are noteworthy because it gives health care professions students an opportunity to work in teams to provide care in a disaster setting. The "authentic" learning situation has enhanced student knowledge of roles and responsibilities and seems to increase collaborative efforts with other disciplines. The lessons learned and modifications made in our Disaster Day planning, implementation, and evaluation processes are shared in an effort to facilitate best practices for other institutions interested in a similar activity.

  7. Chelation therapy and cardiovascular disease: connecting scientific silos to benefit cardiac patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peguero, Julio G; Arenas, Ivan; Lamas, Gervasio A

    2014-08-01

    Medical practitioners have treated atherosclerotic disease with chelation therapy for over 50 years. Lack of strong of evidence led conventional practitioners to abandon its use in the 1960s and 1970s. This relegated chelation therapy to complementary and alternative medicine practitioners, who reported good anecdotal results. Concurrently, the epidemiologic evidence linking xenobiotic metals with cardiovascular disease and mortality gradually accumulated, suggesting a plausible role for chelation therapy. On the basis of the continued use of chelation therapy without an evidence base, the National Institutes of Health released a Request for Applications for a definitive trial of chelation therapy. The Trial to Assess Chelation Therapy (TACT) was formulated as a 2 × 2 factorial randomized controlled trial of intravenous EDTA-based chelation vs. placebo and high-dose oral multivitamins and multiminerals vs. oral placebo. The composite primary endpoint was death, reinfarction, stroke, coronary revascularization, or hospitalization for angina. A total of 1708 post-MI patients who were 50 years or older with a creatinine of 2.0 or less were enrolled and received 55,222 infusions of disodium EDTA or placebo with a median follow-up of 55 months. Patients were on evidence-based post-MI medications including statins. EDTA proved to be safe. EDTA chelation therapy reduced cardiovascular events by 18%, with a 5-year number needed to treat (NNT) of 18. Prespecified subgroup analysis revealed a robust benefit in patients with diabetes mellitus with a 41% reduction in the primary endpoint (5-year NNT = 6.5), and a 43% 5-year relative risk reduction in all-cause mortality (5-year NNT = 12). The magnitude of benefit is such that it suggests urgency in replication and implementation, which could, due to the excellent safety record, occur simultaneously. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Monitoring for vertical creep in concrete in two silos at Wivenhoe pumped storage hydro power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, M.W. [Queensland Univ. of Technology, Brisbane (Australia). School of Surveying

    1996-12-31

    The need for structural monitoring is generated by expected or unexpected (newly discovered in the life of the structure) behaviour. Due to the long vertical driveshafts involved at Wivenhoe the phenomenon of `concrete creep` which, if it is occurring, could contribute to shaft misalignment and unscheduled bearing wear or failure, was used as a motivation to establish a vertical monitoring system. The particular system developed for this site is traceable, replaceable, expandable and inexpensive. Measurements are obtained by precise levelling and the use of specially calibrated vertically suspended tapes. The analysis of the vertical loops is performed using constrained variance estimation and `robust` inter-epoch comparison. (orig.)

  9. Measurements of thermal neutron fluence in the bunker of a cyclotron for PET isotope production; Medidas de fluencia de neutrones termicos en el bunker de un ciclotron de produccion de isotopos para PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez Villafane, R.; Sansoloni florit, F.; Lagares gonzalez, J. L.; Llop Roig, J.; Guerrero Araque, J. E.; Muniz Gutierrez, J. L.; Perez Morales, J. M.

    2011-07-01

    To measure the neutron spectrum has been used spectrometry system based on Bonner spheres with Au flakes as thermal neutron detector at its center while the results are still pending and will be analyzing another job.

  10. Estimated doses related to {sup 222}Rn concentration in bunker for radiotherapy and storage of radioisotopes; Dosis estimada por concentraciones de {sup 222}Rn en bunker de radioterapia y de almacenamiento de isotopos radiactivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mestre, Freddy; Carrizales-Silva, Lila, E-mail: freddymest@gmail.com, E-mail: lcarriza@ivic.gob.ve [Instituto Venezolano de lnvestigaciones Cientificas, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Sajo-Bohus, Laszlo, E-mail: sajobohus@gmail.com [Universidad Simon Bolivar, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of). Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear; Diaz, Cruz, E-mail: cruzediaZ@gmail.com [Universidad Pedagogica Experimental Libertador, Barquisimeto (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of). Instituto Pedagogico

    2013-07-01

    It was done a survey in radiotherapy services underground hospitals and clinics of Venezuela and Paraguay in order to estimate the concentrations of radon and its possible consequences on worker occupational exposure. Passive dosimeters were used to assess nuclear traces (NTD type CR-39 Registered-Sign ). The concentration of {sup 222}Rn is determined based on the density of traces using the calibration coefficient of 1 tr/cm{sup 2} equivalent to 0,434 Bqm{sup -3} per month of exposure. Assuming the most likely environmental conditions and the dose conversion factor equal to 9.0 x 10{sup -6} mSv h {sup -1} by Bqm{sup -3}, it was determined the average values and estimated the possible risks to health that are on average 3.0 mSva{sup -1} and 150 micro risk cancer.

  11. Cool computers in a bunker. 10 000 kW of cold demand for 160 000 internet computers; Coole Rechner im Bunker. 10 000 kW Kaeltebedarf fuer 160 000 Internetrechner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, S. [Combitherm GmbH, Stuttgart-Fellbach (Germany)

    2007-06-15

    In 2005, Combitherm GmbH of Stuttgart-Fellbach, a producer of refrigerators and heat pumps specializing in customized solutions, was given an unusual order as 1 and 1 Internet AG, one of the world's biggest internet providers, was looking for a cooling concept for their new central computer system near Baden-Baden, which was to become a central node in international data transmission. Combitherm already had experience with cold water units and free cooling elements in the 5000 kW range for a big computer center. The tasks were defined in close cooperation with the customer and with a Karlsruhe bureau of engineering consultants, and a refrigerating concept was developed. (orig.)

  12. A Semiotic Analysis of Visual Elements Particular to the Medium of Comics in Alan Ford by Max Bunker and Magnus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrvoje Gržina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a semiotic analysis of visual elements characteristic for the medium of comic books applied to the first seventy-five issues of the Croatian edition of Alan Ford. After a description of the cultural and historical framework, it analyzes individual signs in comics and different elements specific for expression in comic books in Western culture with the aim of exploring which of these signs are present in Alan Ford, and to what extent. The results show that the analyzed comic book is deeply rooted in the visual and literary Western tradition, and that it contains virtually all the characteristic elements of representation in comic books. However, the paper also concludes that certain iconic elements of the vocabulary of comics – i.e. onomatopoeic neologisms – are to a certain extent specific and typical only for Alan Ford.

  13. Artificial neural network for the determination of neutron spectra in the bunker of a Linac of 18 MV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banuelos F, A.; Borja H, C. G.; Valero L, C.; Guzman G, K. A.; Hernandez D, V. M.; Vega C, H. R.

    2011-11-01

    The neutron spectrum and equivalent of environmental dose H(10) were calculated for a radiotherapy room in 16 punctual detectors, 15 inside of and 1 outside of the same one. The calculations were carried out with the Monte Carlo method and with the code MCNP5 for a generic room model with a Linac of 18 MV, obtaining this way 16 spectra with 47 intervals of energy class, starting from these spectra the values of H(10) were calculated. On the other hand, an artificial neural network was designed and trained to determine the spectra by neutrons in 15 different locations inside the radiotherapy room starting from the value of H(10) in the detector 16 located in the exterior of the room, using as training data the spectra and calculated dose by neutrons, of which a medium quadratic error was obtained (m se) in the adjustment between the objective data and the exit data of m se=1E(-8). The results demonstrate that the use of the artificial intelligence as technique is an useful tool in the spectrometry and dosimetry of neutrons, since it simplifies the characterization process of neutron fields in radiotherapy rooms without the use of spectrometry systems, and that once the energy distribution of the neutrons produced by the Linac is known and the corresponding doses be calculated H(10), they can take the appropriate cautions for the security patient in treatment as well as for the personnel in the room. (Author)

  14. National Assembly report on the bill authorizing joining the 2001 International Convention on Civil Liability for Bunker Oil Pollution Damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This report first gives an overview of the progressive implementation of measures and international convention to prevent pollution by ships: the Oilpol convention (Convention for the Prevention of Pollution of the Sea by Oil), the Marpol convention (Marine Pollution), and the different international conventions on liability and compensation (International Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution, International Convention on Liability and Compensation for Damage in Connection with the Carriage of Hazardous and Noxious Substances by Sea, convention on other damages). It also describes the French system to struggle against marine pollution. Then, it presents the main arrangements of the 2001 Convention (liability, mandatory insurance and certificate, and so on), expresses some reserves on the chosen arrangement, and comments the impact of this convention

  15. 76 FR 58149 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Ships Bunkers Easy Acquisition (SEA) Card® and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-20

    ..., was not subject to review under Section 6(b) of Executive Order 12866, Regulatory Planning and Review... 80% of ``marina-type merchants'' are considered small businesses. Marina-type merchants accepting the SEA Card[reg] will pay a normal fee to the banking institution or processing center, similar to VISA...

  16. 76 FR 21849 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Ships Bunkers Easy Acquisition (SEA) Card® and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-19

    ..., therefore, was not subject to review under Section 6(b) of Executive Order 12866, Regulatory Planning and... their home station. Approximately 80% of ``marina-type merchants'' are considered small businesses. Marina-type merchants accepting the SEA Card[supreg] will pay a normal fee to the banking institution or...

  17. Propriedade de fluxo e característica de escoabilidade de rações avícolas para dimensionamento de silos Flow properties and flowability characteristics of poultry rations for design of silos

    OpenAIRE

    José Pinheiro Lopes Neto; José Wallace Barbosa do Nascimento; Valneide Rodrigues da Silva; Fernanda Fernandes de Melo Lopes

    2007-01-01

    O conhecimento das propriedades físicas e de fluxo dos produtos é de extrema importância no que se refere ao seu manuseio e processamento. Com a correta aplicação desses conhecimentos, é possível dimensionar de forma racional os sistemas de transporte e armazenagem utilizados, prevendo, assim, o tipo de fluxo ideal para cada operação. Este trabalho teve como objetivo determinar as propriedades físicas e de fluxo de três diferentes rações avícolas e avaliar suas influências nas características...

  18. Propriedade de fluxo e característica de escoabilidade de rações avícolas para dimensionamento de silos Flow properties and flowability characteristics of poultry rations for design of silos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Pinheiro Lopes Neto

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento das propriedades físicas e de fluxo dos produtos é de extrema importância no que se refere ao seu manuseio e processamento. Com a correta aplicação desses conhecimentos, é possível dimensionar de forma racional os sistemas de transporte e armazenagem utilizados, prevendo, assim, o tipo de fluxo ideal para cada operação. Este trabalho teve como objetivo determinar as propriedades físicas e de fluxo de três diferentes rações avícolas e avaliar suas influências nas características geométricas de tremonhas. Na obtenção dos dados, foi utilizado o aparelho de cisalhamento direto de translação (célula de cisalhamento de Jenike e duas superfícies de parede: aço liso e rugoso. Para determinar o índice de fluxo (ff c e o diâmetro mínimo do orifício de descarga (D, adotou-se a metodologia de Jenike enquanto que para o ângulo mínimo de inclinação da tremonha cônica, utilizou-se a metodologia de Enstad. Com base nos resultados obtidos, conclui-se que as Rações A e B foram classificadas como produtos coesivos enquanto que a Ração C apresentou os menores ângulos de inclinação da tremonha e maiores diâmetros de orifício de descarga.The knowledge about the physical and flow properties of industrial powders is very important to their handling and processing. With the right application of this information, it's possible to design conveyors and storage systems to predict the ideal kind of flow for each operation. This work had the objective to determinate the physical and flow properties of different kinds of poultry rations and to evaluate their influences on geometric characteristics of hoppers. For that, it was used the direct shear apparatus based on Jenike shear cell and two friction surfaces: smooth and rough steel walls. To determinate the index flow (ff c and minimum hopper opening diameter (D, was used the Jenike's methodology. For the minimum conical hopper angle, was used the mathematical method advised by British Standard BMHB. With the basis on obtained results, it's possible to affirm that A and B poultry rations were classified as cohesive flow while the B poultry ration had the minors conical hopper angle and the higher hopper opening diameter.

  19. Atlantvolden i Danmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus Bundgård

    2014-01-01

    Anmeldelse af Lulu Anne Hansen & Martin Rheinheimer (red.): Bunkers. Atlantvoldens perspektiver i Danmark.......Anmeldelse af Lulu Anne Hansen & Martin Rheinheimer (red.): Bunkers. Atlantvoldens perspektiver i Danmark....

  20. It’s hard to play ball: A qualitative study of knowledge exchange and silo effects in public health

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Rebecca; Grove, Amy; Clarke, Aileen

    2018-01-01

    Background\\ud Partnerships in public health form an important component of commissioning and implementing services, in England and internationally. In this research, we examine the views of staff involved in a City-wide health improvement programme which ran from 2009 to 2013 in England. We examine the practicalities of partnership work in community settings, and we describe some of barriers faced when implementing a large, multi-organisation health improvement programme.\\ud \\ud Methods\\ud Qu...

  1. The cost of a knowledge silo: a systematic re-review of water, sanitation and hygiene interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loevinsohn, Michael; Mehta, Lyla; Cuming, Katie; Nicol, Alan; Cumming, Oliver; Ensink, Jeroen H J

    2015-01-01

    Divisions between communities, disciplinary and practice, impede understanding of how complex interventions in health and other sectors actually work and slow the development and spread of more effective ones. We test this hypothesis by re-reviewing a Cochrane-standard systematic review (SR) of water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) interventions’ impact on child diarrhoea morbidity: can greater understanding of impacts and how they are achieved be gained when the same papers are reviewed jointly from health and development perspectives? Using realist review methods, researchers examined the 27 papers for evidence of other impact pathways operating than assumed in the papers and SR. Evidence relating to four questions was judged on a scale of likelihood. At the ‘more than possible’ or ‘likely’ level, 22% of interventions were judged to involve substantially more actions than the SR’s label indicated; 37% resulted in substantial additional impacts, beyond reduced diarrhoea morbidity; and unforeseen actions by individuals, households or communities substantially contributed to the impacts in 48% of studies. In 44%, it was judged that these additional impacts and actions would have substantially affected the intervention’s effect on diarrhoea morbidity. The prevalence of these impacts and actions might well be found greater in studies not so narrowly selected. We identify six impact pathways suggested by these studies that were not considered by the SR: these are tentative, given the limitations of the literature we reviewed, but may help stimulate wider review and primary evaluation efforts. This re-review offers a fuller understanding of the impacts of these interventions and how they are produced, pointing to several ways in which investments might enhance health and wellbeing. It suggests that some conclusions of the SR and earlier reviews should be reconsidered. Moreover, it contributes important experience to the continuing debate on appropriate methods to evaluate and synthesize evidence on complex interventions. PMID:24876076

  2. Conceptual design of a joule-heated ceramic melter for the DOE Fernald silos 1, 2, and 3 wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, R.A.; Janke, D.S.; Peters, R.; Fekete, L.

    1992-06-01

    Vitrification of nuclear wastes has been under investigation since the mid-1950s. Most of the international communities experience has been with vitrification of high level nuclear wastes. In the US, this technology was developed by Battelle scientists at the DOEs Pacific Northwest Laboratories located at their Hanford site. Based on Laboratory and pilot-scale testing conducted at Hanford in the early 1970s, the DOE has constructed high level nuclear waste vitrification facilities at both Savannah River, South Carolina, and West Valley, New York, and is finalizing the design of a similar treatment facility at Hanford. Although these systems were designed to be fully remote due to the extreme radioactive hazards associated with this type of nuclear waste, technology transfer was successfully applied to the design of a vitrification process for the K-65 and uranium metal oxide wastes in a semi-remote operation at Fernald. This paper describes a conceptual design of a joule-heated, slurry-fed ceramic melter that was developed for vitrification of the DOE K-65 and metal oxide low level wastes at Fernald, Ohio

  3. Environmental Assessment, Minuteman III and Peacekeeper Silo Elimination, Malmstrom AFB, Montana; F. E. Warren AFB, Wyoming; and Vandenberg AFB, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Baccharis pilularis), California sagebrush (Artemisia californica), and poison hemlock ( Conium maculatum ) are common species in the area (Vandenberg AFB...spotted bat (Euderma maculatum ) and Preble’s shrew (Sorex preblei). Habitat for the spotted bat is most often in rough, rocky, semiarid, and arid

  4. La actividad financiera del Monasterio de Silos en el siglo XVIII a la luz de sus libros de cuentas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Begoña Prieto

    2006-12-01

    argumentan las razones que podrían justificar la permanencia de la actividad financiera en esta institución eclesiástica, así como las causas que pudieran explicar la necesidad de endeudamiento de los campesinos.

  5. Method of aeration disinfecting and drying grain in bulk and pretreating seeds and a transverse blow silo grain dryer therefor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danchenko, Vitaliy G [Dnipropetrovsk, UA; Noyes, Ronald T [Stillwater, OK; Potapovych, Larysa P [Dnipropetrovsk, UA

    2012-02-28

    Aeration drying and disinfecting grain crops in bulk and pretreating seeds includes passing through a bulk of grain crops and seeds disinfecting and drying agents including an ozone and air mixture and surrounding air, subdividing the disinfecting and drying agents into a plurality of streams spaced from one another in a vertical direction, and passing the streams at different heights through levels located at corresponding heights of the bulk of grain crops and seeds transversely in a substantially horizontal direction.

  6. Collaborate across silos: Perceived barriers to integration of care for the elderly from the perspectives of service providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Janice Ying-Chui; Wong, Eliza Lai-Yi; Chung, Roger Y; Law, Stephen C K; Threapleton, Diane; Kiang, Nicole; Chau, Patsy; Wong, Samuel Y S; Woo, Jean; Yeoh, Eng-Kiong

    2018-04-27

    To examine the barriers that hinder collaboration between health care and social care services and to report recommendations for effective collaboration to meet the growing support and care needs of our ageing population. Data for this qualitative study were obtained from interviews with 7 key informants (n = 42) and 22 focus groups (n = 117) consisting of service providers who were from the health care or social care sectors and supporting elderly patients with multiple chronic diseases or long-term care needs. Data collection was conducted from 2015 to 2016. The data were analysed using an inductive approach on the basis of thematic analysis. Qualitative analysis reviewed a number of factors that play a significant role in setting up barriers at the operational level, including fragmentation and lack of sustainability of discharge programmes provided by non-governmental organisations, lack of capacity of homes for the elderly, limitation of time and resources, and variation of roles in supporting end-of-life care decisions between the medical and social sectors. Other barriers are those of communication to be found at the structural level and perceptual ones that exist between professionals. Of these, perceptual barriers affect attitudes and create mistrust and interprofessional stereotypes and a hierarchy between the health care and social care sectors. Health care and social care service providers recognise the need for collaborative work to enhance continuity of care and ageing in place; however, their efforts are hindered by the identified barriers that need to be dealt with in practical terms and by a change of policy. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Deposited power in a complex device by gamma radiation of test reactors; experiments and calculations carried out at SILOE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petitcolas, H.; Besson, A.; Bevilacqua, A.; Cosoli, G.

    1984-09-01

    Eight samples, which represent different materials used in testing reactors, were irradiated in the device ''CYRANO'' placed in the water reflector at different distances from the reactor core. The power dissipated in the device was measured by the ''CYRANO'' equipment itself, whereas the calorimeter juxtaposed served to monitor the gamma flux. Parallel to each experiment, the power deposited in the samples, the device materials and the calorimeter was calculated by the code MERCURE 4. The measured values were compared with the calculated ones, both in relative and in absolute values, for each sample and for each distance in the reflector. The comparison shows very good agreement [fr

  8. Final Environmental Impact Statement, Peacekeeper in Minuteman Silos, F. E. Warren AFB, Wyoming. Volume 2. Public Comments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    n t g w qs I c:am ar n’l ot lisyt odown *As to. woume of unemployed wpAwaao nooos toot -mtosro hw isiu.j 4261 paermas ris ed- thns 0 .1 mon popiswt...PEREN OP TM! U.S. NUCLEAR ARESENAL WHER IT IS DUE TO ALCOHOL OR DRUG ABUSE OR TO S1IWIICAAM PSYCHICAL 0R CONFIRTM IN 1989. TEA? $27.6 BILLION WOULD HE3...nearly half of the mental 10 some services and shortchanging other.. 1 health center’s clients are unemployed persons. The 11 Th* 218 should recommend that

  9. Draft Environmental Impact Statement. Peacekeeper in Minuteman Silos, 90th Strategic MIssile Wing, F. E. Warren Air Force Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-01

    P. Miles Kathleen Talgoom Kimball, NE Green River, WY Paul A. Moyer Joann Tall Timnath, CO Porcupine , SD Diana Savoy-Marcos Frances Towner Wheatland...during more than one season, but is most important to the herd during winter. Big Game Winter-Yearlong Habitat: habitat occupied by animals during...more than one season, but is most important to the herd during winter. Big Game Yearlong Habitat: includes areas where all or part of a herd is found

  10. Design and heat transfer calculations of burial-bunker for one-stage melting converter for vitrification of high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pioro, L.S.; P'Yanykh, K.E.; Pioro, I.L.

    2001-01-01

    Widespread application of radioactive materials in different branches of industry, particularly in power engineering, has created a global problem in the area of ecological-disposal of radioactive waste (RAW). In general, three methods for reprocessing and disposal of RAW with high-level radionuclides are used: reservoir storage; burial in boreholes; and vitrification (solidification into glass blocks). Analysis of the recent methods of high level RAW (HLRAW) localization has shown that the most reliable method for long-term storage is vitrification. Vitrification allows to decrease by more than one order of magnitude the volume of HLRAW which is intended for long-term storage, and also to decrease leaching rates by 3-4 orders. This method includes incorporation of waste into physicochemical conglomerates during glass processing from active nuclides and neutral charging materials. Usually, this method consists of multistage processes. One-stage vitrification methods are seldom considered. (author)

  11. Bunker culturel : la régénération du patrimoine militaire urbain à Saint-Nazaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renzo Lecardane

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Au cours des deux dernières décennies Saint-Nazaire a relancé son développement sans se référer nécessairement aux modèles des métropoles européennes. Concentrées autour de la zone portuaire, près de la base sous-marine allemande, les nouvelles opérations urbaines ont contribué à définir un important projet touristique et culturel. La spécificité symbolique et la valorisation du patrimoine militaire ont permis à Saint-Nazaire de montrer que l’identité d’une ville pouvait activer sa croissance.Over the last two decades, the port city of Saint-Nazaire has encouraged urban redevelopment without necessarily following the models suggested by other European cities. An important cultural and tourist centre has been developed around the port zone, close to the German submarine base dating from the Second World War. The symbolic specificity and the interpretation of this military heritage have shown, at Saint-Nazaire, how a town's special identity can foster growth.

  12. Granular Materials and Risks In ISRU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behringer, Robert P.; Wilkinson, R. Allen

    2004-01-01

    Working with soil, sand, powders, ores, cement and sintered bricks, excavating, grading construction sites, driving off-road, transporting granules in chutes and pipes, sifting gravel, separating solids from gases, and using hoppers are so routine that it seems straightforward to execute these operations on the Moon and Mars as we do on Earth. We discuss how little these processes are understood and point out the nature of trial-and-error practices that are used in today's massive over-design. Nevertheless, such designs have a high failure rate. Implementation and extensive incremental scaling up of industrial processes are routine because of the inadequate predictive tools for design. We present a number of pragmatic scenarios where granular materials play a role, the risks involved, what some of the basic issues are, and what understanding is needed to greatly reduce the risks. This talk will focus on a particular class of granular flow issues, those that pertain to dense materials, their physics, and the failure problems associated with them. In particular, key issues where basic predictability is lacking include stability of soils for the support of vehicles and facilities, ability to control the flow of dense materials (jamming and flooding/unjamming at the wrong time), the ability to predict stress profiles (hence create reliable designs) for containers such as bunkers or silos. In particular, stress fluctuations, which are not accounted for in standard granular design models, can be very large as granular materials flows, and one result is frequent catastrophic failure of granular devices.

  13. On-site installation and shielding of a mobile electron accelerator for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catana, D.; Panaitescu, J.; Axinescu, S.; Manolache, D.; Matei, C.; Corcodel, C.; Ulmeanu, M..; Bestea, V.

    1995-01-01

    The development of radiation processing of some bulk products, e.g. grains or potatoes, would be sustained if the irradiation had been carried out at the place of storage, i.e. silo. A promising solution is proposed consisting of a mobile electron accelerator, installed on a couple of trucks and traveling from one customer to another. The energy of the accelerated electrons was chosen at 5 MeV, with 10 to 50 kW beam power. The irradiation is possible either with electrons or with bremsstrahlung. A major problem of the above solution is the provision of adequate shielding at the customer, with a minimum investment cost. Plans for a bunker are presented, which houses the truck carrying the radiation head. The beam is vertical downwards, through the truck floor, through a transport pipe and a scanning horn. The irradiation takes place in a pit, where the products are transported through a belt. The belt path is so chosen as to minimize openings in the shielding. Shielding calculations are presented supposing a working regime with 5 MeV bremsstrahlung. Leakage and scattered radiation are taken into account. (orig.)

  14. On-site installation and shielding of a mobile electron accelerator for radiation processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catana, D. [Institutul de Fizica Atomica, Bucharest (Romania); Panaitescu, J. [Institutul de Fizica Atomica, Bucharest (Romania); Axinescu, S. [Institutul de Fizica Atomica, Bucharest (Romania); Manolache, D. [Institutul de Fizica Atomica, Bucharest (Romania); Matei, C. [Institutul de Fizica Atomica, Bucharest (Romania); Corcodel, C. [Institutul de Fizica Atomica, Bucharest (Romania); Ulmeanu, M.. [Institutul de Fizica Atomica, Bucharest (Romania); Bestea, V. [Institutul de Fizica Atomica, Bucharest (Romania)

    1995-05-01

    The development of radiation processing of some bulk products, e.g. grains or potatoes, would be sustained if the irradiation had been carried out at the place of storage, i.e. silo. A promising solution is proposed consisting of a mobile electron accelerator, installed on a couple of trucks and traveling from one customer to another. The energy of the accelerated electrons was chosen at 5 MeV, with 10 to 50 kW beam power. The irradiation is possible either with electrons or with bremsstrahlung. A major problem of the above solution is the provision of adequate shielding at the customer, with a minimum investment cost. Plans for a bunker are presented, which houses the truck carrying the radiation head. The beam is vertical downwards, through the truck floor, through a transport pipe and a scanning horn. The irradiation takes place in a pit, where the products are transported through a belt. The belt path is so chosen as to minimize openings in the shielding. Shielding calculations are presented supposing a working regime with 5 MeV bremsstrahlung. Leakage and scattered radiation are taken into account. (orig.).

  15. Cylinder with differential piston for mass measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bordeaşu, I.; Bălăşoiu, V. [Universitatea Politehnica din Timişoara, Timosoara (Romania); Hadă, A. [UniversitateaPolitehnicaBucureşti, Bucureşti (Romania); Popoviciu, M. [Academy of Romanian ScientistsTimişoara Branch (Romania)

    2007-07-01

    The paper presents a cylinder with differential piston, adapted for measuring the weight of fixed objects such as: fuel tanks (regardless of their capacity), bunkers and silos for all kind of materials, or mobile objects such as: automobiles, trucks, locomotives and railway cars. Although, the cylinder with differential piston is used on a large scale in hydraulic drive or hydraulic control circuits, till now it was not used as constituent part for weight measurements devices. The novelty of the present paper is precisely the use of the device for such purposes. Based on a computation algorithm, the paper presents the general design (assembly), of the device used for weighing important masses (1…. 100 tones). The fundamental idea consist in the fact that, a mass over 10 tones may be weighted with a helicoidally spring subjected to an axial force between 0 and 3000 N, with a deflection of about 30 mm. Simultaneously with the mechanical part, the electronic recording system is also described. The great advantage of the presented device consist in the fact that it can be used in heavy polluted atmosphere or difficult topographic conditions as a result of both the small dimensions and the protection systems adopted. Keywords: cylinder hydraulic with differential piston, hydrostatic pressure, measuring devices.

  16. Calorimetric measurements of the dose absorbed to graphite in the research reactors Melusine (8MWth) and Siloe (35MWth), and in the power reactor Bugey 1 (1900 MWth)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petitcolas, H.; Bonnin, J.J.; Chenavas, P.

    1975-01-01

    The TM calorimeter (Melusine type) developed in the CEN/Grenoble research reactors allows measurement of dose-rates over the range 10 -3 to 10 W/g. Simple and of small volume, the calorimeter causes minimum perturbation of the radiation field in which the measurement is to be made; it adapts easily to the specific requirements of the irradiation loops for which it is primarily designed. The operation is simple: measurement of temperature difference and time constants at various equilibrium positions. The results compare very favourably with those obtained by other methods, (eg. ionisation chambers) and by other workers. The calorimeter will operate for several years under irradiation and under the severe conditions of pressure, temperature etc., occurring in certain power reactors [fr

  17. DG connect funded projects on information and communication technologies (ICT) for old age people: Beyond Silos, CareWell and SmartCare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijser, Wouter Alexander; de Manuel-Keenoy, E.; D'Angelantonio, M.; Stafylas, P.; Hobson, P.; Apuzzo, G.; Hurtado, M.; Oates, J.

    2016-01-01

    Information and communication technologies (ICT) are promising for the long-term care of older and frequently frail people. These innovations can improve health outcomes, quality of life and efficiency of care processes, while supporting independent living. However, they may be disruptive

  18. Fixing the game: are between-silo differences in funding arrangements handicapping some interventions and giving others a head-start?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Leonie; Dalziel, Kim; Mortimer, Duncan

    2010-04-01

    Given resource scarcity, not all potentially beneficial health services can be funded. Choices are made, if not explicitly, implicitly as some health services are funded and others are not. But what are the primary influences on those choices? We sought to test whether funding decisions are linked to cost effectiveness and to quantify the influence of funding arrangements and community values arguments. We tested this via empirical analysis of 245 Australian health-care interventions for which cost-effectiveness estimates had been published. The likelihood of government funding was modelled as a function of cost effectiveness, patient/target group characteristics, intervention characteristics and publication characteristics, using multiple regression analysis. We found that higher cost effectiveness ratios were a significant predictor of funding rejection, but that cost effectiveness was not related to the level of funding. Intervention characteristics linked to funding and delivery arrangements and community values arguments were significant predictors of funding outcomes. Our analysis supports the hypothesis that funding and delivery arrangements influence both whether an intervention is funded and funding level; even after controlling for community values and cost effectiveness. It suggests that adopting partial priority setting processes without regard to opportunity cost can have the perverse effect of compounding allocative inefficiencies. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Desarrollo de un software para el análisis y diseño térmico de calderas pirotubulares horizontales con quemadores a diesel y bunker

    OpenAIRE

    Quiñonez, N.; Adum, V.; Pindo, J.

    2009-01-01

    El presente proyecto está enfocado en desarrollar un modelo que considere de una manera bastante cercana a la realidad los fenómenos implicados en el comportamiento térmico de las calderas pirotubulares horizontales para luego, incorporarlo en un software y determinar parámetros de salida que servirán para evaluar si un diseño en particular estará dentro de las condiciones normales de operación. El modelo planteado en este proyecto se inicia mediante un análisis termodinámico en el cual se es...

  20. An evaluation of NCRP report 151--radiation shielding design for radiotherapy facilities, and a feasibility study for 6 MV open-door treatments in an existing high-energy radiation therapy bunker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kildea, John

    This thesis describes a study of shielding design techniques used for radiation therapy facilities that employ megavoltage linear accelerators. Specifically, an evaluation of the shielding design formalism described in NCRP report 151 was undertaken and a feasibility study for open-door 6 MV radiation therapy treatments in existing 6 MV, 18 MV treatment rooms at the Montreal General Hospital (MGH) was conducted. To evaluate the shielding design formalism of NCRP 151, barrier-attenuated equivalent doses were measured for several of the treatment rooms at the MGH and compared with expectations from NCRP 151 calculations. It was found that, while the insight and recommendations of NCRP 151 are very valuable, its dose predictions are not always correct. As such, the NCRP 151 methodology is best used in conjunction with physical measurements. The feasibility study for 6 MV open-door treatments made use of the NCRP 151 formalism, together with physical measurements for realistic 6 MV workloads. The results suggest that, dosimetrically, 6 MV open door treatments are feasible. A conservative estimate for the increased dose at the door arising from such treatments is 0.1 mSv, with a 1/8 occupancy factor, as recommended in NCRP 151, included.

  1. Wood pellets in a power plant - mixed combustion of coal and wood pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nupponen, M.

    2001-01-01

    The author reviews in his presentation the development of Turku Energia, the organization of the company, the key figures of the company in 2000, as well as the purchase of energy in 2000. He also presents the purchase of basic heat load, the energy production plants of the company, the sales of heat in 2000, the emissions of the plants, and the fuel consumption of the plants in 2000. The operating experiences of the plants are also presented. The experiences gained in Turku Energia on mixed combustion of coal and wood pellets show that the mixing ratios, used at the plants, have no effect on the burning properties of the boiler, and the use of wood pellets with coal reduce the SO 2 and NO x emissions slightly. Simultaneously the CO 2 share of the wood pellets is removed from the emissions calculations. Several positive effects were observed, including the disappearance of the coal smell of the bunker, positive publicity of the utilization of wood pellets, and the subsidies for utilization of indigenous fuels in power generation. The problems seen include the tendency of wood pellets to arc the silos, especially when the pellets include high quantities of dust, and the loading of the trucks and the pneumatic unloading of the trucks break the pellets. Additionally the wood pellets bounce on the conveyor so they drop easily from the conveyor, the screw conveyors designed for conveying grain are too weak and they get stuck easily, and static electricity is easily generated in the plastic pipe used as the discharge pipe for wood pellet (sparkling tendency). This disadvantage has been overcome by using metal net and grounding

  2. Final Jurisdictional Environmental Planning Technical Report. Peacekeeper in Minuteman Silos, 90th Strategic Missile Wing, F. E. Warren Air Force Base. Volume 1. Section 1.0 through 5.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Junior High School and East High School (which are at capacity currently) and/or putting a bakery at a central location. 3.8.1.2.5 Post-Secondary Education...Junior High School and East High School and/or establish a central bakery . In 1982 44 percent of the elementary students and 30 percent of the secondary...operations, accounting for 897 rooms (44% of total) and 1,389 beds (43% of total). The 8 franchised hotels, though amounting to only 28 percent of the

  3. Effects of Three Different Additives and Two Different Bulk Densities on Maize Silage Characteristics, Temperature Profiles, CO2 and O2–Dynamics in Small Scale Silos during Aerobic Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Helena Jungbluth

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Silage quality and aerobic stability are sometimes insufficient. If management requirements are not met, or to improve silage quality, additives are often used. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of different factors on silage during aerobic conditions. Whole-crop forage maize was harvested and 24 buckets (65 L were filled and assigned to one of four treatment groups: (1 control (no treatment; (2 chemical additive (sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate, sodium acetate; (3 a mixed biological inoculant containing Lactobacillus buchneri, L. plantarum, and Pediococcus acidilacti; and (4 a mixed biological inoculant containing L. buchneri, L. plantarum, and L. rhamnosus. An untreated variation was also ensiled. Two different densities were adjusted during ensiling. After opening, the temperature was measured for seven days and O2 and CO2 concentrations were analysed. The findings show that the chemical additive very effectively prevented silage from reheating and deteriorating. Aerobic reheating of silage was also successfully inhibited through biological additives and high density.

  4. Santo Domingo de la Calzada - Silos - Compostela. Las representaciones del «Árbol de Jesé» en el tardorrománico hispano: particularidades iconográficas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poza Yagüe, Marta

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Hace ya algunos años, y al retirar para su restauración el magnífico retablo de Damián Forment que presidía el altar mayor de la catedral de Santo Domingo de la Calzada, aparecieron decorando los frentes de los cuatro soportes centrales de la girola una serie de placas relivarias de fines del siglo XII que, siguiendo el trazado de las aristas del polígono del presbiterio, se elevan desde la base de las pilastras hasta traspasar la línea de imposta que marca la transición entre el cuerpo de ventanas y la zona de la tribuna. La decoración de estas placas alterna los motivos vegetales en las pilastras primera y tercera con la talla de figuras monumentales en la segunda y cuarta. El descubrimiento es de vital importancia no sólo por la elevada calidad técnica de las esculturas, sino por las particularidades iconográficas que presenta el tema allí representado.…

  5. SECAGEM DE SEMENTES DE SOJA EM SILO COM DISTRIBUIÇÃO RADIAL DO FLUXO DE AR: I. MONITORAMENTO FÍSICO DRYING OF SOYBEAN SEEDS IN A RADIAL AIR FLOW DRYER: I. PHYSICAL MONITORING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUIZ CARLOS MIRANDA

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de avaliar a evolução física do processo de remoção de água das sementes em secador estacionário, com cilindro central perfurado e distribuição radical de ar. A pesquisa foi conduzida com sementes de soja, variando o fluxo (26,9, 28,4 e 33,2 m³/minuto/t e a temperatura do ar insuflado (42, 46 e 50ºC, considerando a posição das sementes (17, 34 e 51 cm em relação ao cilindro de insuflação e o tempo de secagem (zero a doze horas, com intervalos de duas horas. Foram caracterizados o ar ambiente, o ar insuflado, as temperaturas e os teores de água da massa, as velocidades e curvas de secagem. As avaliações realizadas destacaram vantagens físicas operacionais da combinação de 28,4 m³/minuto/t com 46ºC e o contrário, com a combinação de 26,9 m³/minuto/t com 42ºC.The purpose of this research was to study several physical parameters of soybean seed drying submitted to stationary process with radial air distribution by combining different air flows (26.9, 28.4 and 33.2 m³/minute/ton and temperatures (42, 46 and 50ºC, considering seed positions in the seed mass (17, 34 and 51 cm in relation to the insuflation cylinder and drying periods (zero to twelve hours with two-hour intervals. Environmental air, insuflation air, seed temperatures, moisture content of seeds, drying speed and drying curves were characterized. Considering the evaluated parameters during the drying process, the physical advantages of the combination of 28.4 m³/minute/ton with 46ºC, and the desadvantage of the combination of 26.9 m³/minute/ton with 42ºC were observed.

  6. 33 CFR 158.120 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., sludge, oil refuse, oil residue, and refined products, and, without limiting the generality of the... animal and vegetable based oil or noxious liquid substances (NLS) designated under Annex II of MARPOL 73... in this part: Bunker oil means oil loaded into bunker tanks for use as fuel. Captain of the Port...

  7. A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Viewer Agreement with Opinionated Television Characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Eugene D.; Surlin, Stuart H.

    This study was conducted to test the relationship between dogmatism and agreement with the television character Archie Bunker among adult Canadians. It was hypothesized that highly dogmatic Canadians would demonstrate the same identification with Archie Bunker that highly dogmatic viewers from the U. S. demonstrate, and it was also hypothesized…

  8. National Assembly report on the bill authorizing joining the 2001 International Convention on Civil Liability for Bunker Oil Pollution Damage; Rapport fait au nom de la Commission des Affaires Etrangeres sur le Projet de Loi n.1792, autorisant l'adhesion a la convention internationale de 2001 sur la responsabilite civile pour les dommages dus a la pollution par les hydrocarbures de soute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This report first gives an overview of the progressive implementation of measures and international convention to prevent pollution by ships: the Oilpol convention (Convention for the Prevention of Pollution of the Sea by Oil), the Marpol convention (Marine Pollution), and the different international conventions on liability and compensation (International Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution, International Convention on Liability and Compensation for Damage in Connection with the Carriage of Hazardous and Noxious Substances by Sea, convention on other damages). It also describes the French system to struggle against marine pollution. Then, it presents the main arrangements of the 2001 Convention (liability, mandatory insurance and certificate, and so on), expresses some reserves on the chosen arrangement, and comments the impact of this convention

  9. Shock Isolation Elements Testing for High Input Loadings. Volume II. Foam Shock Isolation Elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SHOCK ABSORBERS ), (*GUIDED MISSILE SILOS, SHOCK ABSORBERS ), (*EXPANDED PLASTICS, (*SHOCK(MECHANICS), REDUCTION), TEST METHODS, SHOCK WAVES, STRAIN(MECHANICS), LOADS(FORCES), MATHEMATICAL MODELS, NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS, HARDENING.

  10. Shock Isolation Elements Testing for High Input Loadings. Volume III. Mechanical Shock Isolation Elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SHOCK ABSORBERS ), (*GUIDED MISSILE SILOS, SHOCK ABSORBERS ), (*SPRINGS, (*SHOCK(MECHANICS), REDUCTION), TORSION BARS, ELASTOMERS, DAMPING, EQUATIONS OF MOTION, MODEL TESTS, TEST METHODS, NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS, HARDENING.

  11. Installation of the Gbar LINAC

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien, Brice

    2017-01-01

    Installation of the GBAR linac in its shielding bunker. The electrons accelerated to 10 MeV toward a target will produce the positrons that are necessary to form anti hydrogen with the antiprotons coming from the ELENA decelerator.

  12. Talking About Defense: Leathernecks in Lab Coats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilson, George

    2002-01-01

    .... Anderson is not the typical bunker-charging, poster-boy Marine. An internationally known authority on new kinds of warfare, Anderson more resembles a militarized Thomas Edison, an experimenter in the science of war...

  13. Spatial dependence and origin of the ambient dose due to neutron activation processes in linear accelerators; Dependencia espacial y origen de la dosis ambiental debeda a procesos de activacion neutronica en aceleradores lineales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz Egea, E.; Sanchez Carrascal, M.; Torres Pozas, S.; Monja Ray, P. de la; Perez Molina, J. L.; Madan Rodriguez, C.; Luque Japon, L.; Morera Molina, A.; Hernandez Perez, A.; Barquero Bravo, Y.; Morengo Pedagna, I.; Oliva Gordillo, M. C.; Martin Olivar, R.

    2011-07-01

    In order to try to determine the high dose in the bunker of a Linear Accelerator clinical use trying to measure the spatial dependence of the same from the isocenter to gateway to the board cheeking to establish the origin of it. This dose measurements performed with an ionization chamber at different locations inside the bunker after an irradiation of 400 Monitor Units verifying the dose rate per minute for an hour, and accumulating the dose received during that period of time.

  14. Evaluation of the Kerma at the entrance of the labyrin thin in facilities with Co-60 HDR brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pujades, M. C.; Granero, D.; Ballester, F.; Perez-Calatayud, J.; Vijande, J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the kerma's collision at the entrance of the labyrinth adapting the methodology of the NCRP-151 to a bunker of brachytherapy with Co-60, similar to the one carried out in a previous work with HDR Ir-192. To validate the result is simulated using techniques Monte Carlo (MC) two typical designs of HDR with Co-60 bunker. (Author)

  15. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Rrr of... - Summary of Operating Requirements for New and Existing Affected Sources and Emission Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... in accordance with Industrial Ventilation: A Handbook of Recommended Practice; operate in accordance...-flowing lime in the feed hopper or silo at all times for continuous injection systems; maintain feeder... plan. b Lime injection rate Maintain free-flowing lime in the feed hopper or silo at all times for...

  16. EMBA Integration: From Rhetoric to Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Charles; Derrick, Frederick; Hoadley, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    For the modern business world, business education needs to molt from the cocoon of discipline silos to the integrated business education model to train the next generation of managers. Upper management problems are rarely silo specific. Managers do things right, but leaders do the right things; and executive programs exist to build business…

  17. Using Social Media to Facilitate Knowledge Transfer in Complex Engineering Environments: A Primer for Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Glen; Salomone, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    While highly cohesive groups are potentially advantageous they are also often correlated with the emergence of knowledge and information silos based around those same functional or occupational clusters. Consequently, an essential challenge for engineering organisations wishing to overcome informational silos is to implement mechanisms that…

  18. Sustainable Communities: A Lens for Envisioning and Achieving a Community-Based Culture of Social and Ecological Peace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhagen, Frans C.

    2014-01-01

    One of the obstacles to dealing with the social and ecological crises that obstruct the achievement of a culture of peace is silo thinking in global governance. A unidimensional mode of planning, silo thinking leads to decisions based on the area of expertise of a particular agency or intergovernmental organization and fails to recognize linkages…

  19. Microbial inoculant effects on silage and in vitro ruminal fermentation, and microbial biomass estimation for alfalfa, bmr corn, and corn silages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Third cut alfalfa, brown mid-rib (bmr) corn, and corn were chopped and inoculated with one of four different strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Uninoculated silage was the control treatment. For each crop, four mini-silos 1-L glass jars were ensiled per treatment. All silos were fermented for 60...

  20. Isolation of a Lactobacillus plantarum strain used for obtaining a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An important problem in the field of animal nutrition is the preservation of fodder, which is done in silos for maintaining the nutritive value of the fodders. In anaerobic conditions, the lactic bacteria ferment the glucosides in the silo, leading to the formation of lactic acid and acetic acid, which cause the pH to decrease and ...

  1. Lactobacillus plantarum effects on silage fermentation and in vitro microbial yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four alfalfa trials, one corn, and one bmr corn were treated with no inoculant (Control), Lactobacillus plantarum (MTD/1) and formic acid (FA), ensiled in 1-L mini-silos, and fermented for 60 d at room temperature (22 C). Mini-silos were opened and analyzed for fermentation characteristics and solub...

  2. Metafier - a Tool for Annotating and Structuring Building Metadata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmegaard, Emil; Johansen, Aslak; Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun

    2017-01-01

    in achieving this goal, but often they work as silos. Improving at scale the energy performance of buildings depends on applications breaking these silos and being portable among buildings. To enable portable building applications, the building instrumentation should be supported by a metadata layer...

  3. Stability of fatty acids in grass and maize silages after exposure to air during the feed out period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, N.A.; Cone, J.W.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2009-01-01

    Lipids in forages are extensively hydrolysed in the silo with a concomitant increase in the level of free fatty acids (FFA). After opening of the silo, exposure of the FFA to air and light with, a concomitant increase in pH and microbial growth, could induce oxidization. The present study

  4. Radiological protection for spent fuel dry storage at Embalse NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carballo, Carlos; Melo, Rodolfo

    2008-01-01

    Embalse NPP dry-stores used fuel elements in concrete silos inside the premises: The fuel elements are kept for at least 6 years in pools located in the controlled area , before being moved into the silos. This paper describes the radiological protection for the different stages of the process, i.e., when the used fuel elements are moved from the pools into the silos, and while they are kept in the concrete silos. The occupational exposure of the personnel operating this system at each stage is showed, as well as the environmental dose rates around the silos, and the dose rate in the shields used during the transfer. These environmental dose rates are assessed with portable instruments and with TLD dosimeters placed around the silos. This paper also describes the periodical routine control performed every two years in the atmosphere inside the silo, the moisture control and the detection of possible aerosols (in some cases, traces of krypton 85 were detected). It is important to point out that the maximum equivalent environmental dose rate H* (10) detected at approximately 20 metres from the silos is overly low: (0.35 micro sievert / hour). Our experience demonstrates that dry storage is totally compatible with the environment and with the ALARA criterion for personnel's doses. (author)

  5. Experimental research on friction coefficient between grain bulk and bamboo clappers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Gan; Sun, Ping; Zhao, Yanqi; Yin, Lingfeng; Zhuang, Hong

    2017-12-01

    A silo is an important piece of storage equipment, especially in the grain industry. The internal friction angle and the friction coefficient between the grain and the silo wall are the main parameters needed for calculating the lateral pressure of the silo wall. Bamboo is used in silo walls, but there are no provisions about the friction coefficient between bulk grain and bamboo clappers in existing codes. In this paper, the material of the silo wall is bamboo. The internal friction of five types of grain and the friction coefficient between the grain and the bamboo clappers were measured with an equal-strain direct shear apparatus. By comparing the experimental result values with the code values, the friction coefficient between the grain bulk and bamboo clappers is lower than that between grain and steel wall and that between grain and concrete wall. The differences in value are 0.21 and 0.09, respectively.

  6. Study over problems related to fuel and ash handling systems; Probleminventering braensle- och askhantering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Njurell, Rolf; Wikman, Karin [AaF-Energi och Miljoe AB, Stockhom (Sweden)

    2003-10-01

    There have been a lot of problems related to fuel and ash handling systems since the combustion of different types of biofuels started in the 70s. Many measures have been taken to solve some of the problems, but others have become part of the daily work. The purpose of this study has been to do a compilation of the fuel and ash handling problems that exist at different types of heat and power plants. The study over problems related to fuel and ash handling systems has been carried out through a questionnaire via the Internet. Directors at about 150 energy production plants were contacted by phone or e-mail in the beginning of the project and asked to participate in the study. 72 of these plants accepted to fill in the questionnaire. After several reminders by e-mails and phone calls there were in the end 32 plants that completed the form. Together they reported about 25 problems related to fuel handling and 27 problems related to ash handling. In general each of the plants reported one problem of each kind. Even if the material from the questionnaire is not enough to make statistical analysis a few conclusions can be made about the most common problems, the cause of the problems and where they appear. Fuel handling problems that occur at several plants are stoppage in the conveying equipment, bridging in the boiler silo or the tipping bunker and problems with the sieve for separation. The distribution of the fuel handling problems is almost equal for all equipment parts (receiving, separation, transport etc.). For the ash handling systems problems with transport of dry bottom ash dominate, followed by and the moistening of fly ash and transport of wet bottom ash. Most of the problems related to fuel handling are caused by the fuel quality. For example several plants have reported that bark is a fuel that is hard to handle. Nevertheless the quality for a specific fuel is not always bad when it is delivered to the plant but the fuel quality might change during

  7. WET SOLIDS FLOW ENHANCEMENT; SEMIANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hugo S. Caram; Natalie Foster

    1997-01-01

    The objective was to visualize the flow of granular materials in flat bottomed silo. This was done by for dry materials introducing mustard seeds and poppy seeds as tracer particles and imaging them using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. The region sampled was a cylinder 25 mm in diameter and 40 mm in length. Eight slices containing 128*128 to 256*256 pixels were generated for each image. The size of the silo was limited by the size of the high resolution NMR imager available. Cross-sections of 150mm flat bottomed silos, with the tracer layers immobilized by a gel, showed similar qualitative patterns for both dry and wet granular solids

  8. Flow of wet natural pozzolana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medici, M E; Benegas, O A; Aguirre, F; Baudino, M R [Departamento de Mineria, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, 5700 San Luis (Argentina); Unac, R O; Vidales, A M [INFAP-CONICET, Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, 5700 San Luis (Argentina); Ippolito, I, E-mail: avidales@unsl.edu.a [GMP, CONICET y Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad de Buenos Aires, 1063 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2009-05-01

    We present experimental results on the flow and stability conditions for natural pozzolana, a natural volcanic sand widely used in concrete production. We measured different angles involved in equilibrium conditions for sand piles and relate them to the flux parameters necessary to produce a silo evacuation. We vary some of the geometrical parameters in the silo to inspect the different flux responses of the system. Results are showed as a function of humidity present in the system. In this way, we related critical angles with flux conditions through a silo under different geometric setups and different humidity degrees, thus setting up a basic phase diagram for flux.

  9. Concrete Memories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegand, Frauke Katharina

    2015-01-01

    This article traces the presence of Atlantikwall bunkers in amateur holiday snapshots and discusses the ambiguous role of the bunker site in visual cultural memory. Departing from my family’s private photo collection from twenty years of vacationing at the Danish West coast, the different mundane...... and poetic appropriations and inscriptions of the bunker site are depicted. Ranging between overlooked side presences and an overwhelming visibility, the concrete remains of fascist war architecture are involved in and motivate different sensuous experiences and mnemonic appropriations. The article meets...... the bunkers’ changing visuality and the cultural topography they both actively transform and are being transformed by through juxtaposing different acts and objects of memory over time and in different visual articulations....

  10. Potency of Education Historical Tourismof World War II Japanese Cavesand Bunkersin Coastal Banyuwangi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmi, Miftahul; Qiram, Ikhwanul

    2018-05-01

    Banyuwangi district has some Japanese caves and bunkers of World War II. The location of the objects are along the Banyuwangi coast as a maritime defense during the war. This structures can be used as education historical tourism object. There are many similar structures in other area that have been neglected and do not get enough preservation attention. This research is aimed to identify the potency of education historical tourism of Japanese caves and bunker in Banyuwangi. The research is done by field research for the observation of objects physical condition. It is also done by interviewing local government, historical actors and surrounding community. The result shows that the caves and bunker have a great potency but have not been used as education historical object.

  11. Simulated European stalagmite record and its relation to a quasi-decadal climate mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Lohmann

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A synthetic stalagmite δ18O record for the Bunker Cave (51° N, 7° E is constructed using a combined climate–stalagmite modelling approach where we combine an atmospheric circulation model equipped with water isotopes and a model simulating stalagmite calcite δ18O values. Mixing processes in the soil and karst above the cave represent a natural low-pass filter of the speleothem climate archive. Stalagmite δ18O values at Bunker Cave lag the regional surface climate by 3–4 yr. The power spectrum of the simulated speleothem calcite δ18O record has a pronounced peak at quasi-decadal time scale, which is associated with a large-scale climate variability pattern in the North Atlantic. Our modelling study suggests that stalagmite records from Bunker Cave are representative for large-scale teleconnections and can be used to obtain information about the North Atlantic and its decadal variability.

  12. Carbon Nanostructure of Diesel Soot Particles Emitted from 2 and 4 Stroke Marine Engines Burning Different Fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Won-Ju; Park, Seul-Hyun; Jang, Se-Hyun; Kim, Hwajin; Choi, Sung Kuk; Cho, Kwon-Hae; Cho, Ik-Soon; Lee, Sang-Min; Choi, Jae-Hyuk

    2018-03-01

    Diesel soot particles were sampled from 2-stroke and 4-stroke engines that burned two different fuels (Bunker A and C, respectively), and the effects of the engine and fuel types on the structural characteristics of the soot particle were analyzed. The carbon nanostructures of the sampled particles were characterized using various techniques. The results showed that the soot sample collected from the 4-stroke engine, which burned Bunker C, has a higher degree of order of the carbon nanostructure than the sample collected from the 2-stroke engine, which burned Bunker A. Furthermore, the difference in the exhaust gas temperatures originating from the different engine and fuel types can affect the nanostructure of the soot emitted from marine diesel engines.

  13. Storage facility for solid medium level waste at Eurochemic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balseyro-Castro, M.

    1976-01-01

    An engineered surface storage facility is described; it will serve for the interim storage of solid and solidified medium-level waste resulting from the reprocessing of irradiated fuels. Up till now, two storage bunkers have been constructed. Each of them is 64 m long, 12 m wide and 8 m high and can take up to about 5,000 drums of 220 1 volume. The drums are stored in a vertical position and in four layers. The waste product drums are transported by a wagon to the entrance of the bunkers from where they are transferred in to the bunker by an overhead crane which is remotely controlled by high-frequency modulated laser beams. A closed-circuit camera is used to watch the handling operations. The waste stored is fully retrievable, either by means of an overhead crane of a lift-truck and can then be transported to an ultimate storage site

  14. Optimization of Container Line Networks with Flexible Demands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Christian Edinger Munk

    on real world problem instances of 500+ vessels and 500+ contracts. The method allows a global liner carrier to efficiently plan bunker purchases for their vessels, using a large number of bunker contracts to lower costs. Container vessels operate on tight schedules to meet the customers transit time...... is investigated and models supporting decision making is developed, with the aim of reducing costs, bunker consumption and increasing the revenue and service levels of a liner shipping company. These problems are complex, dealing with millions of containers traveling on hundreds of vessels calling hundreds...... aspects where important and relevant to include. To alleviate this a thorough description of the domain of liner shipping is given, explaining the industry in the words of an operations researcher. At the same time a set of benchmark instances LINER-LIB 2012 is introduced. It is the hope...

  15. Sustainable Water Systems for the City of Tomorrow—A Conceptual Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban water systems are an example of complex, dynamic human-environment coupled systems, which exhibit emergent behaviors that transcends individual scientific disciplines. While previous siloed approaches to water services (i.e., water resources, drinking water, wastewater, and...

  16. AFRREV STECH, Vol. 3(1) February, 2014

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toshiba

    2014-02-06

    Feb 6, 2014 ... the nutritional status of Nigerians household food security and food prices. .... soil condition is acidic, organic and inorganic fertilizers are used yearly to ..... rooms, silos as well as fish processing factory for Onitsha and.

  17. Camellia sinensis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-16

    May 16, 2008 ... 1Department of Applied Microbiology and Brewing, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, P. M. B 5025, Awka, Nigeria. ... It is isolated from silo, vegetable, dairy foods, red meat ... organism is recognized as a food-borne pathogen. The.

  18. Smart roadside initiative gap analysis : trucking technology literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    The Smart Roadside Initiative (SRI) was designed to breakdown information silos at the roadside in order to improve : motor carrier safety and mobility, as well as the operational efficiency of motor carriers and the public-sector agencies : that reg...

  19. Buildings-to-Grid Technical Opportunities: From the Buildings Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiliccote, Sila [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Piette, Mary Ann [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-03-28

    This paper describes technologies and systems needed to transform buildings from the current state of siloed resources into transparent, reliable resources that participate in and benefit from an integrated "transactive energy" system.

  20. ISSN 2070-0083

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    study employs data from primary and secondary sources and use facility model and ... ports and foot paths); Storage facilities (Silos, Warehouse, cribs, open air .... Hospital, Ado, Dental Headquarters, Ado and Hospital Management Board.

  1. DOE looks to clean up with vitrification technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobsenz, G.

    1994-01-01

    This article describes the vitrification and waste retrieval facility being built by US DOE, designed to handle a mixture of low-level radioactive wastes stored in structurally shaky silos at the Fernald weapons plant

  2. The Grenoble CEA Center: dismantled and rehabilitated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2013-01-01

    The denuclearization program of the CEA center in Grenoble was launched in 2001. It involves 6 nuclear facilities (3 research reactors: Melusine, Siloette, and Siloe, and 1 laboratory (LAMA) and 2 units for processing wastes). The dismantling works were finished at the end of 2012 and the 2013 program concerns: the demolition of the buildings homing Melusine and Siloe reactors, the final rehabilitation of the Siloe raft, and the final rehabilitation of the laboratory and of the waste processing units. The budget is 117*10 6 euros for Siloe, 28*10 6 euros for Melusine, 6*10 6 euros for Siloette, 70*10 6 euros for the LAMA, and 90*10 6 euros for the 2 waste processing units. (A.C.)

  3. Integration into Big Data: First Steps to Support Reuse of Comprehensive Toxicity Model Modules (SOT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data surrounding the needs of human disease and toxicity modeling are largely siloed limiting the ability to extend and reuse modules across knowledge domains. Using an infrastructure that supports integration across knowledge domains (animal toxicology, high-throughput screening...

  4. 77 FR 60901 - Safety Zone; Battle of Queenston Heights Bicentennial, Niagara River, Lewiston, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-05

    ..., Docket Operations, telephone 202-366-9826. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of... Lower Niagara River near the Silo Restaurant, Lewiston, NY. The Captain of the Port Buffalo has...

  5. Determination of parameters used to prevent ignition of stored materials and to protect against explosions in food industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Alvaro; García-Torrent, Javier; Aguado, Pedro J

    2009-08-30

    There are always risks associated with silos when the stored material has been characterized as prone to self-ignition or explosion. Further research focused on the characterization of agricultural materials stored in silos is needed due to the lack of data found in the literature. The aim of this study was to determine the ignitability and explosive parameters of several agricultural products commonly stored in silos in order to assess the risk of ignition and dust explosion. Minimum Ignition Temperature, with dust forming a cloud and deposited in a layer, Lower Explosive Limit, Minimum Ignition Energy, Maximum Explosion Pressure and Maximum Explosion Pressure Rise were determined for seven agricultural materials: icing sugar, maize, wheat and barley grain dust, alfalfa, bread-making wheat and soybean dust. Following characterization, these were found to be prone to producing self-ignition when stored in silos under certain conditions.

  6. NREL Workshop Convenes Industry Experts on Cybersecurity and an Evolving

    Science.gov (United States)

    silos in a field that demands greater collaboration, and the benefits of systemic security architecture groups to identify possible solutions to the challenges in securing DERs-from a technology, business, and

  7. Use of maze in cyclotron hoppers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, Fernando A.; Alves, Juliano S.; Fochesatto, Cintia; Cerioli, Luciane; Borges, Joao Alfredo; Gonzalez, Delfin; Silva, Daniel C.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: the increasing number of cyclotrons in Brazil due to constitutional amendment 49 /06 that enabled the production of radiopharmaceuticals with a short half - life by private companies. The radionuclides used for PET - CT require production centers near or within the diagnostic centers. In order to minimize maintenance and operating risks, gaining efficiency, our facility was the first in Brazil to use the access to a cyclotron bunker via maze, rather than armored door stopper type. Materials: the design calculations were based on the Monte Carlo method (MCNP5 - Monte Carlo N-Particletransportcode version 5). At the ends of the labyrinth are installed a door of polyethylene, for thermalization of neutrons, and other of wood for limiting access. Both legs of the maze have wall thickness of 100cm. In inspection Brazilian CNEN realize measures of dose rate for neutrons and gamma 9 points: 7 around the bunker, 1 over the bunker and 1 in the exhaust with the cyclotron operating with maximum load, double beam of 50uA for 2 hours. After commissioning were carried out around the bunker, the following measures: cumulative dose in three months with dosimeters for neutron rate dose with a gas proportional detector type filled with 3 He and polyethylene neutron moderator and dose rate with a Geiger - Mueller detector for gamma radiation. Readings with neutron detectors were classified as background radiation and dose rates were always below the limits established in standard EN 3.01, and the calculation of the predicted regardless of the intensity of irradiation inside the bunker. Conclusion: the use of labyrinths as a way to access the bunkers cyclotron has been shown to be effective as the radiation shielding and efficient by allowing quick and easy access, virtually eliminating the maintenance

  8. Radium bearing waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tope, W.G.; Nixon, D.A.; Smith, M.L.; Stone, T.J.; Vogel, R.A.; Schofield, W.D.

    1995-01-01

    Fernald radium bearing ore residue waste, stored within Silos 1 and 2 (K-65) and Silo 3, will be vitrified for disposal at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). A comprehensive, parametric evaluation of waste form, packaging, and transportation alternatives was completed to identify the most cost-effective approach. The impacts of waste loading, waste form, regulatory requirements, NTS waste acceptance criteria, as-low-as-reasonably-achievable principles, and material handling costs were factored into the recommended approach

  9. Combustion of high-rank light fraction. First experiences with GAVI/VAM; Verbrennung von heizwertreicher Leichtfraktion. Erste Erfahrungen aus der GAVI-VAM (Wijster)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wandschneider, J. [Goepfert, Reimer und Partner Ingenieurgesellschaft mbH, Hamburg (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    GAVI/VAM consists of a sorting plant which is topped by an RDF combustion plant. These two plant components are directly linked with each other via an RDF bunker (24 h). The present contribution addresses the main components of the combustion plant individually and points out its special features as compared with crude waste combustion. [Deutsch] Die GAVI/VAM besteht aus einer Sortieranlage mit nachgeschalteter RDF-Verbrennungsanlage, beide Anlagenteile sind durch einen RDF-Bunker (24 h) unmittelbar miteinander verbunden. Nachfolgend werden die wesentlichen Komponenten der Verbrennungsanlage einzeln angesprochen und die Besonderheiten im Vergleich zur Rohmuellverbrennung dargestellt. (orig./SR)

  10. Fuel oil and kerosene sales 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-08-01

    The Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales 1997 report provides information, illustrations and state-level statistical data on end-use sales of kerosene; No. 1, No. 2, and No. 4 distillate fuel oil; and residual fuel oil. State-level kerosene sales include volumes for residential, commercial, industrial, farm, and all other uses. State-level distillate sales include volumes for residential, commercial, industrial, oil company, railroad, vessel bunkering, military, electric utility, farm, on-highway, off highway construction, and other uses. State-level residual fuel sales include volumes for commercial, industrial, oil company, vessel bunkering, military, electric utility, and other uses. 24 tabs

  11. Fuel oil and kerosene sales 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    The Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales 1997 report provides information, illustrations and state-level statistical data on end-use sales of kerosene; No. 1, No. 2, and No. 4 distillate fuel oil; and residual fuel oil. State-level kerosene sales include volumes for residential, commercial, industrial, farm, and all other uses. State-level distillate sales include volumes for residential, commercial, industrial, oil company, railroad, vessel bunkering, military, electric utility, farm, on-highway, off highway construction, and other uses. State-level residual fuel sales include volumes for commercial, industrial, oil company, vessel bunkering, military, electric utility, and other uses. 24 tabs.

  12. Spatial dependence and origin of the ambient doce due to neutron activation processes in linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz Egea, E.; Sanchez Carrascal, M.; Torres Pozas, S.; Monja Ray, P. de la; Perez Molina, J. L.; Madan Rodriguez, C.; Luque Japon, L.; Morera Molina, A.; Hernandez Perez, A.; Barquero Bravo, Y.; Morengo Pedagna, I.; Oliva Gordillo, M. C.; Martin Olivar, R.

    2011-01-01

    In order to try to determine the high dose in the bunker of a Linear Accelerator clinical use trying to measure the spatial dependence of the sane f ron the isocenter to tite gateway to the Board ceeking to establich the origin of it. This doce measurements performed with an ionization charober at different locations incide the bunker after an irradiation of 400 Monitor Units verifying the doce rate per minute for an hour, and accumulating the doce received during that period of time.

  13. Isokinetic sampler; Amostrador isocinetico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Luis Cesar C. de; Santos, Antonio Carlos dos [PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Barrio, Lara B.A. del [AZ Armaturen do Brasil Ltda., Itatiba, SP (Brazil); Silva, Claudio B. da C. e; Silva, Ricardo R. da [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas

    2005-07-01

    The Center of Research Leopoldo A. Miguez de Melo - CENPES - in association with AZ Armaturen Company do Brasil and TRANSPETRO developed and tested an Isokinetic sampler. This work presents the sampling principles and the results and performance of the tests realized in the 'Sitio de Testes de Atalaia' and in one of the terminals of bunker transfer of TRANSPETRO - 'Terminal Aquaviario da Baia de Guanabara'. In the 'Sitio de Testes' the products used were oil and water with BSW from 5% to 97% and in the terminal were tested samplings of bunker with ranges viscosities between (MF 180 to 380). (author)

  14. Achievement of 900kgf/cm[sup 2] super workable high strength concrete with belite portland cement. (elevator building of cement silo in Chichibu cement). Part 1. ; Development of cement for super workable high strength concrete. Ko belite kei cement de 900kgf/cm[sup 2] wo tassei (Chichibu cement cement sairo no elevaor to). 1. ; Koryudo kokyodo concrete yo no cement no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, M.; Fukaya, Y.; Nawa, T. (Chichibu Cement Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1993-08-01

    This paper describes the features of high belite Portland cement which can make the super workable high strength concrete, and the properties of concrete using this. The super workable concrete is required an excellent segregation resistance property as well as high flow property. Since the high belite Portland cement contains a small amount of C[sub 3]S in the clinker, the amounts of C[sub 3]A and C[sub 4]AF can be reduced without hindering the calcination of clinker. Additionally, since it contains a large amount of C[sub 2]S with low heat of hydration, an increase in the temperature of members can be suppressed. 'Chichibu High Flow Cement' having characteristics of this high belite Portland cement was developed for the super workable high strength concrete. The concrete using the High Flow Cement exhibited the maximum flow value of 70cm. It also exhibited the strength of 1,075 kgf/cm[sup 2] at the age of 91 days, and 1,100 kgf/cm[sup 2] at the age of 14 days under insulating. 4 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Development of techniques for storing rough rice in cold regions, 1: Storage of rough rice at country elevator with natural heat radiation in winter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takekura, K.; Kawamura, S.; Itoh, K.

    2003-01-01

    An on-farm experiment in which 361 metric tons of rough rice was stored in a silo from November until July was conducted at a country elevator in Hokkaido to develop new techniques for storing rough rice in cold regions. The temperature of the rough rice near the inner silo wall decreased to below ice point (-5°C) due to natural heat radiation in winter, which the temperature of the rough rice in the center of the silo was maintained at almost the same temperature as that at the beginning of storage (5°C). Ventilation in the upper vacant space of the silo prevented moisture condensation on the inside surface of the silo during storage. When the cold rough rice was unloaded from the silo in summer, an unheated forced-air drier was used to increase the temperature of rough rice to above the dew point temperature of surrounding air. During the unloading and rewarming process, the moisture content of the rough rice increased due to moisture condensation on the grain from the air. However, the husks first absorbed the condensation and then the moisture slowly permeated into the brown rice kernel. Thus the rewarming process didn't cause any fissures in the brown rice. The results of the experiment indicate that condensation on rough rice doesn't give rise to any problems

  16. Innovative systems for mixed waste retrieval and/or treatment in confined spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fekete, L.J.; Ghusn, A.E.

    1993-03-01

    Fernald established operations in 1951 and produced uranium and other metals for use at other DOE facilities. A part of the sitewide remediation effort is the removal, treatment, and disposal of the K-65 wastes from Silos 1 and 2. These silos contain radium-bearing residues from the processing of pitchblende ore. An Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis was prepared to evaluate the removal action alternatives using the preliminary characterization data and select a preferred alternative. The selected alternative consisted of covering the K-65 residues and the silo dome. The remediation of the K-65 wastes consists of the retrieval and treatment of the wastes prior to final disposal, which has not yet been determined. Treatment will be performed in a new facility to be built adjacent to the silos. The wastes must be retrieved from silos in an efficient and reliable way and delivered to the treatment facility. The first challenge of covering the wastes with bentonite has been successfully met. The second phase of retrieving the wastes from the silos is not due for a few years. However, conceptual design and configuration of the retrieval system have been developed as part of the Conceptual Design Report. The system is based on the utilization of hydraulic mining techniques, and is based on similar successful applications. This report describes the emplacement of the bentonite grant and the design for the slurry retrieval system

  17. Power generation from wind turbines in a solar chimney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foote, Tudor [Graduate Student, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Washington University in St. Louis, Jolley Hall, Campus Box 1185, One Brookings Drive, St. Louis, Missouri, 63130 (United States); Agarwal, Ramesh K. [William Palm Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Washington University in St. Louis, Jolley Hall, Campus Box 1185, One Brookings Drive, St. Louis, Missouri, 63130 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Recent studies have shown that shrouded wind turbines can generate greater power compared to bare turbines. A solar chimney generates an upward draft of wind inside a tower and a shroud around the wind turbine. There are numerous empty silos on farms in the U.S. that can be converted to solar chimneys with minor modifications at modest cost. The objective of this study is to determine the potential of these silos/chimneys for generating wind power. The study is conducted through analytical/computational approach by employing the commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software. Computations are performed for five different geometric configurations consisting of a turbine, a cylindrical silo, and/or a venturi and/or a diffuser using the dimensions of typical silos and assuming Class 3 wind velocity. The incompressible Navier-Stokes equations with the Boussinesq approximation and a two equation realizable {kappa}-{epsilon} model are employed in the calculations, and the turbine is modeled as an actuator disk. The power coefficient (Cp) and generated power are calculated for the five cases. Consistent with recent literature, it was found that the silos with diffusers increase the Cp beyond Betz’s limit significantly and thus the generated power. It should be noted that Cp is calculated by normalizing it by the turbine area swept by the wind. This study shows the potential of using abandoned silos in the mid-west and other parts of the country for localized wind power generation.

  18. En middelalderdronning og en tysk bunkersoldat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mikkel Kirkedahl Lysholm; Ringskou, Christian

    2013-01-01

    challenging myths, respectively about a Danish medieval queen and a German nazi soldier fortified in a bunker in Denmark. This unfolds perspectives on how museums both add to myth as well as putting myths into perspective, which again points to the role of the museum as places where narratives are constructed...

  19. OPAL shield design performance assessment. Comparison of measured dose rates against the corresponding design calculated values. A designer perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brizuela, Martin; Albornoz, Felipe [INVAP SE, Av. Cmte. Piedrabuena, Bariloche (Argentina)

    2012-03-15

    A comparison of OPAL shielding calculations against measurements carried out during Commissioning, is presented for relevant structures such as the reactor block, primary shutters, neutron guide bunker, etc. All the results obtained agree very well with the measured values and contribute to establish the confidence on the calculation tools (MCNP4, DORT, etc.) and methodology used for shielding design. (author)

  20. Looking for 'God'

    CERN Multimedia

    Henderson, M

    2003-01-01

    "Scientists seeking the God particle that is thought to shape the universe, have hollowed out a concrete bunker bigger than the nave of Canterbury Cathedral to study a beam of energy a quarter of the thickness of a human hair" (1 page).

  1. What is that we were worried about?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bedir, M.; Ince, A.

    2014-01-01

    “What is it that you were worried about” is an art video3 where an energy rebalancing coach heals and cleans the unsettling energies of spaces by putting them into a holographic energy scan. Two artists draw our attention to an old bunker in a Bosnian Town, which used to be Tito’s atomic bomb

  2. 78 FR 3965 - Actions on Special Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-17

    ...--Motor vehicle, 2--Rail freight, 3--Cargo vessel, 4--Cargo aircraft only, 5--Passenger-carrying [[Page...) 15690-N......... Duke Energy 49 CFR 171.8; To authorize the Corp. 172.300; transportation in Charlotte... Louis, MO. unapproved fireworks from Dayton, OH to an approved storage bunker in Illiopolis, IL by motor...

  3. Conditions of efficient vibrodischarge of rock materials in modern mining and processing technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenson, SYa; Gendlina, LI; Kulikova, EG

    2018-03-01

    The paper reviews vibration feeders used to discharge storage reservoirs in mineral mining. In spotlight are vibrofeeders equipped with an active member of low flexural rigidity developed at Chinakal Institute of Mining. The authors present the results of the physical and numerical studies on vibratory discharge of cohesive rocks from a bunker.

  4. 46 CFR 111.40-7 - Location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Location. 111.40-7 Section 111.40-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Panelboards § 111.40-7 Location. Each panelboard must be accessible but not in a bunker or a cargo hold...

  5. Calculation of fuel, currency, and inland freight price adjustment factors for military marine shipping

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    This report describes the refreshing of the USTRANSCOM Economic Price Adjustment (EPA) factors for use in the USC-7 contract. The three EPA factors developed by Volpe in 2009 are the starting point for this update, and these are the Bunker Fuel Adjus...

  6. 76 FR 19829 - Clean Alternative Fuel Vehicle and Engine Conversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-08

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: Amy Bunker, Compliance and Innovative Strategies Division, U.S. Environmental Protection... Vehicle/Engine Selection D. Mixed-Fuel and Dual-Fuel Conversions E. Vehicle/Engine Labels, Packaging Labels, and Marketing F. Compliance 1. Emission Standards a. Light-Duty and Heavy-Duty Chassis Certified...

  7. 15 CFR 30.37 - Miscellaneous exemptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., but are first entered for consumption or for warehousing in the United States, the EEI shall be filed... departing vessels, planes, or other carriers, including usual and reasonable kinds and quantities of bunker... supplies, food stores, slop chest articles, and saloon stores or supplies for use or consumption on board...

  8. Get ready to enter a new DIMENSION

    CERN Multimedia

    Graham-Rowe, Duncan

    2008-01-01

    "Deep in an underground bunker, experts have built the world's largest science experiment. It has the potential to open new dimensins, help us look into the past and the future, and explain the mysteries of the space. There's also a chance it could create a black hole that devours the universe..."

  9. Propagation and Interactions of Ultrahigh Power Light: Relativistic Nonlinear Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    force of the ROS causes the bucket to constantly expand, trapping copious unwanted electrons, polluting the electron spectrum with a high-charge, low...Laser Wakefield Accelerator,” Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Pacific Rim , C1094, Optical Society of America (2011). 19. Bunkers, K., Kalmykov

  10. TGfU--Would You Know It if You Saw It? Benchmarks from the Tacit Knowledge of the Founders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Joy

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the tacit expert knowledge and understanding about games curriculum and pedagogy of three men, Len Almond, David Bunker, and Rod Thorpe, credited as the founders of the Teaching Games for Understanding (TGfU) model. The model emerged from teacher practice in the late 1970s and was little theorized at the time, apart from a…

  11. The Game TV Plays: Or, Why an English Teacher Came to Hate Barnaby Jones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Patrick W.

    The message of current popular television shows in which the hero is, or appears to be, a dumb clod (e.g., Archie Bunker, Fred Sanford, Columbo, and Barnaby Jones), apparently is that corruption may be equated with articulation, wealth, and education, while virtue may be equated with poverty and, often, illiteracy. Unfortunately, the effect of…

  12. L Geetha

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    L Geetha. Articles written in Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Volume 1 Issue 3 March 1996 pp 66-77 General Article. Time in a Timeless Environment My Life in a Bunker · L Geetha · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 1 Issue 6 June 1996 pp 58-60 General Article. Colin S. Pittendrigh: An Appreciation The life of ...

  13. Crime Trend Prediction Using Regression Models for Salinas, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    2 1. History of Violence in Salinas ................................................. 2 2. Current and Past Efforts to...BACKGROUND 1. History of Violence in Salinas Small tribes of Native Americans inhabited the City of Salinas until around 1822. In 1822, Mexico...In the 1920s, sugar beets and beans gave way to the farming of lettuce because of the ice bunkered railroad, allowing fresh produce shipment

  14. AD-7/GBAR status report for the 2017 CERN SPSC

    CERN Document Server

    Lunney, D

    2017-01-01

    The first components of the GBAR (Gravitational Behavior of Antimatter at Rest) experiment will arrive at CERN in early 2017 for installation on the ELENA extraction line LNE50 and inside the newly constructed bunker in the AD hall. We report the installation plan and progress of all GBAR components.

  15. BioRadBase: A database for bioremediation of radioactive waste

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Windows User

    2012-05-01

    May 1, 2012 ... 16(3): 254-260. Llyod JR, Chesnes J, Glasauer S, Bunker DJ, Livens FR, Lovely DR ... Macaskie LE, Lloyd JR, Thomas RAP, Tolley MR (1996). The use of ... Carroll S, He Z, Gu B, Luo J, Criddle CS, Watson DB, Jardine PM,.

  16. Functional and operational design requirements for decontamination and decommissioning of the EBR-I Mark-II NaK: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, B.W.; Crandall, D.L.; Dafoe, R.E.; Dolenc, M.R.; LaRue, D.M.

    1987-09-01

    Approximately 180 gal of sodium/potassium (NaK) eutectic liquid metal were severely radioactively contaminated during a meltdown of the Mark-II core of the Experimental Breeder Reactor-I (EBR-I) in November 1955. This contaminated NaK, which is contained in four vessels, is currently stored in an underground bunker located at the Army Reentry Vehicle Facility Site (ARVFS) located approximately at the center of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). This document presents the Functional and Operational Requirements (F and ORs) for the D and D of the contaminated NaK and the ARVFS bunker site. This project will chemically deactivate the NaK; dispose of the radioactively contaminated product at a designated burial site; chemically deactivate any residual NaK in the containers, and dispose of the containers at a designated burial site; decontaminate and decommission any contaminated process equipment used in these operations, and decontaminate and decommission the ARVFS bunker site. Completion of the above technical objectives will allow for the effective disposition of the NaK, and will return the ARFVS bunker and immediate area to a reusable condition. Upon completion, the ARVFS NaK, which is now considered a significant potential hazard, will be removed from the Surplus Facilities Management Program priority listing of projects. 33 refs., 8 figs

  17. La generación de electricidad a partir de eucalipto en ingenios azucareros en Nicaragua

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, R. van den; Wijk, A. van

    1997-01-01

    Se hace una comparación entre la generación de electricidad a partir de plantaciones de eucalipto mediante ingenios azucareros durante la no-zafra y la generación de electricidad a partir de bunker (fueloil) en Nicaragua. Se comparan los costes y los efectos socioeconómicos y medioambientales de

  18. La generación de electricidad a partir de eucalipto y bagazo en ingenios azucareros en Nicaragua: costes, aspectos macroeconómicos y medioambientales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, R. van den; Wijk, A. van

    1998-01-01

    Se hace una comparación entre la generación de electricidad a partir de bagazo y eucalipto mediante ingenios azucareros y la generación de electricidad a partir de bunker (fueloil) en Nicaragua. El combustible utilizado por los ingenios es bagazo durante la zafra y eucalipto de plantaciones

  19. 33 CFR 151.26 - Shipboard oil pollution emergency plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pollution incident has occurred or is likely to occur. The plan contains all information and operational... the plan must contain a discussion of procedures to address the following scenarios: (i) Operational... transferring cargo or bunkers to empty or slack tanks, or readying pumps to transfer the excess ashore; (C...

  20. An evaluation of the endocrine disruptive potential of crude oil water accommodated fractions and crude oil contaminated surface water to freshwater organisms using in vitro and in vivo approaches

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Truter, JC

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available hormone receptor beta expression was significantly down-regulated in X. laevis in response to both oil WAF types, whereas a further thyroid linked gene, type 2 deiodinase, was up-regulated in O. mossambicus exposed to a high concentration of bunker oil WAF...

  1. Implementing a Tactical Approach through Action Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubacs-Collins, Klara

    2007-01-01

    Background: Influenced by the original observations of Bunker and Thorpe, physical education theorists began to question the effectiveness of a traditional model for teaching games and have increasingly begun to believe that concentrating only on specific motor responses (techniques) fails to take into account the contextual nature of games. Games…

  2. Evaluation of crushed aggregate and sand-bentonite mixtures for application to sealing of the final repository for reactor waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaajasaari, M.; Saari, K.; Wang Zhen

    1986-09-01

    The Industrial Power Company Ltd (TVO) is planning to dispose the low- and intermediate level waste from the reactors of the Olkiluoto Nuclear Power Station into the bedrock of Olkiluoto at a depth of approximately 50-100 meters. In the TVO concept the reactor waste is disposed in silo shaped rock caverns. The bituminized waste is packed into steel drums, which are laid into a concrete silo inside the rock cavern. In this study the properties of sands, crushed aggregate and their mixtures with bentonite are reviewed. The applicability of these materials for use as a buffer on the top of the concrete silo is evaluated. This study is based on earlier experimental studies of the materials mentioned before and available literature. Gas production in the silo after disposal is estimated. General concepts of gas conductivity and gas migration in saturated soil are reviewed. The results of this study suggest that crushed aggregate and sand-bentonite mixtures are possible sealing materials for the silo in concern. But the need for further experimental study of their physical and mechanical properties and the gas migration processes through the saturated barrier is emphasized. A program for testing of these properties is presented

  3. Pilot study risk assessment for selected problems at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, L.D.; Meinhold, A.F.; Baxter, S.L.; Holtzman, S.; Morris, S.C.; Pardi, R.; Rowe, M.D.; Sun, C. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Anspaugh, L.; Layton, D. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States))

    1993-03-01

    Two important environmental problems at the USDOE Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) facility in Fernald, Ohio were studied in this human health risk assessment. The problems studied were radon emissions from the K-65 waste silos, and offsite contamination of ground water with uranium. Waste from the processing of pitchblende ore is stored in the K-65 silos at the FEMP. Radium-226 in the waste decays to radon gas which escapes to the outside atmosphere. The concern is for an increase in lung cancer risk for nearby residents associated with radon exposure. Monitoring data and a gaussian plume transport model were used to develop a source term and predict exposure and risk to fenceline residents, residents within 1 and 5 miles of the silos, and residents of Hamilton and Cincinnati, Ohio. Two release scenarios were studied: the routine release of radon from the silos and an accidental loss of one silo dome integrity. Exposure parameters and risk factors were described as distributions. Risks associated with natural background radon concentrations were also estimated.

  4. Pilot study risk assessment for selected problems at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, L.D.; Meinhold, A.F.; Baxter, S.L.; Holtzman, S.; Morris, S.C.; Pardi, R.; Rowe, M.D.; Sun, C.; Anspaugh, L.; Layton, D.

    1993-03-01

    Two important environmental problems at the USDOE Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) facility in Fernald, Ohio were studied in this human health risk assessment. The problems studied were radon emissions from the K-65 waste silos, and offsite contamination of ground water with uranium. Waste from the processing of pitchblende ore is stored in the K-65 silos at the FEMP. Radium-226 in the waste decays to radon gas which escapes to the outside atmosphere. The concern is for an increase in lung cancer risk for nearby residents associated with radon exposure. Monitoring data and a gaussian plume transport model were used to develop a source term and predict exposure and risk to fenceline residents, residents within 1 and 5 miles of the silos, and residents of Hamilton and Cincinnati, Ohio. Two release scenarios were studied: the routine release of radon from the silos and an accidental loss of one silo dome integrity. Exposure parameters and risk factors were described as distributions. Risks associated with natural background radon concentrations were also estimated

  5. Design perspectives for the low and intermediate level radioactive waste repository in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Ki; Koh, Kwang Hoon; Lee, Sang Sun; Lee, Byung Sik; Choi, Gi Won

    2007-01-01

    The underground waste repository is located at Gyeongju and is designed for the disposal of all the Low- and Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste(LILW). It is scheduled to commence operations in the beginning of 2009. The repository, with a disposal capacity of 800,000 drums, will be constructed in granite rock near the seashore at the Gyeongju site. The repository will be designed to be constructed in phases to reach its final capacity 800,000 drums. In the first phase of construction, the repository will have a capacity to store 100,000 drums. The repository will house all LILW generated in the Republic of Korea. The first phase of the repository design consists of an assess shaft, a construction tunnel, an operating tunnel, an unloading tunnel, and six(6) silos. The silos are located at 80 to 130 meters below Mean Sea level (MSL), in bedrock. Each silo is 24.8m in diameter and 52.4m in height. The silo will be reinforced with concrete lining for rock supports which will also act aas an engineered barrier in limiting radioactive nuclide release aft closure. After serving its intended function the repository will be filled and sealed. The primary objective of filling and sealing is to prevent ground water flow into the silo through the tunnel system and to prevent inadvertent intrusion into the repository after closure

  6. Analysis of Gas Vent System in Overseas LILW Disposal Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ju Yub; Kim, Ju Youl [FNC Technology Co., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Hae Ryong; Ha, Jae Chul [Korea Radioactive Waste Management Corporation, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    A Low- and Intermediate-Level Radioactive Waste (LILW) disposal facility is currently under construction in Korea. It is located in the aquifer, 80{approx}130 m below the ground surface. Thus, it is expected that disposal facility will be saturated after closure and various gases will be generated from metal corrosion, microbial degradation of organic materials and radiolysis. Generated gases will move up to the upper part of the silo, and it will increase the pressure of the silo. Since the integrity of the engineered barrier could be damaged, development of effective gas vent system which can prevent the gas accumulation in the silo is essential. In order to obtain basic data needed to develop site-specific gas vent system, gas vent systems of Sweden, Finland and Switzerland, which have the disposal concept of underground facility, were analyzed

  7. The Science of Firescapes: Achieving Fire-Resilient Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Alistair M S; Kolden, Crystal A; Paveglio, Travis B; Cochrane, Mark A; Bowman, David Mjs; Moritz, Max A; Kliskey, Andrew D; Alessa, Lilian; Hudak, Andrew T; Hoffman, Chad M; Lutz, James A; Queen, Lloyd P; Goetz, Scott J; Higuera, Philip E; Boschetti, Luigi; Flannigan, Mike; Yedinak, Kara M; Watts, Adam C; Strand, Eva K; van Wagtendonk, Jan W; Anderson, John W; Stocks, Brian J; Abatzoglou, John T

    2016-02-01

    Wildland fire management has reached a crossroads. Current perspectives are not capable of answering interdisciplinary adaptation and mitigation challenges posed by increases in wildfire risk to human populations and the need to reintegrate fire as a vital landscape process. Fire science has been, and continues to be, performed in isolated "silos," including institutions (e.g., agencies versus universities), organizational structures (e.g., federal agency mandates versus local and state procedures for responding to fire), and research foci (e.g., physical science, natural science, and social science). These silos tend to promote research, management, and policy that focus only on targeted aspects of the "wicked" wildfire problem. In this article, we provide guiding principles to bridge diverse fire science efforts to advance an integrated agenda of wildfire research that can help overcome disciplinary silos and provide insight on how to build fire-resilient communities.

  8. Closing the door on environmental pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, K.

    1999-05-01

    Enclosed bulk conveying and storage systems, the latter often with automated load and discharge equipment, have been utilised for the bulk handling of free flowing and powdery bulks for many years. Today, however, it has become increasingly desirable, indeed often mandatory, for dry bulk materials in all industry sectors to be contained in fully enclosed conveying and storage systems for reasons of environmental protection. The article outline the advantages of enclosed storage, and gives advice on selection of systems. It then describes the mammoth silo available from Spaans Babcock which is becoming an attractive option for temporary storage at coal-fired power stations. Two units are in use at the Aalborg Nordkraft power station in Denmark. One silo is to be converted to store fly ash. Advantages of mammoth silos are discussed. 2 figs., 1 photo.

  9. Use of the model of the pile Siloette

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meunier, C.

    1964-01-01

    The nuclear model Siloette, which was temporarily installed at the rear of the swimming pool of the first reactor at the Grenoble Nuclear Research Centre (Melusine) and which was then called Melusine II. has made it possible to choose and to study the first core design for Siloe during its construction. We have gathered together the essential results concerning the various designs tried out for determining their minimum critical size, for calibrating the control rods, for comparing the different types of rod and for measuring the thermal and fast fluxes. We have in particular concentrated on the rod calibration methods in order to show the advantages of the method which was finally applied to Siloe. Finally each time that it is possible, we compare the results obtained from Melusine II with those which were afterwards obtained from Siloe itself. (author) [fr

  10. Use of the model of the pile Siloette; Utilisation de la maquette de pile siloette

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meunier, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    The nuclear model Siloette, which was temporarily installed at the rear of the swimming pool of the first reactor at the Grenoble Nuclear Research Centre (Melusine) and which was then called Melusine II. has made it possible to choose and to study the first core design for Siloe during its construction. We have gathered together the essential results concerning the various designs tried out for determining their minimum critical size, for calibrating the control rods, for comparing the different types of rod and for measuring the thermal and fast fluxes. We have in particular concentrated on the rod calibration methods in order to show the advantages of the method which was finally applied to Siloe. Finally each time that it is possible, we compare the results obtained from Melusine II with those which were afterwards obtained from Siloe itself. (author) [French] Installe provisoirement a l'arriere de la piscine de MELUSINE, premier reacteur du CEN-G, le modele nucleaire SILOETTE, alors appele MELUSINE II, a permis de choisir et d'etudier la premiere configuration du coeur de SILOE pendant sa construction. Nous avons regroupe l'essentiel des resultats obtenus sur les diverses configurations essayees en ce qui concerne la determination de leur taille critique minimum, l'etalonnage des barres de controle, la comparaison de differents types de barres, et la mesure des flux thermique et rapide. Nous avons plus particulierement insiste sur les methodes d'etalonnage des barres afin de montrer les avantages de celle qui a ete finalement appliquee dans SILOE. Enfin, chaque fois que cela est possible, nous comparons les resultats de MELUSINE II avec ceux qui ont ete ensuite obtenus dans SILOE elle-meme. (auteur)

  11. Statistical analysis of real-time, enviromental radon monitoring results at the Fernald Enviromental Management Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Ning; Spitz, H.B.; Tomezak, L.

    1996-01-01

    A comprehensive real-time, environmental radon monitoring program is being conducted at the Fernald Environmental Management Project, where a large quantity of radium-bearing residues have been stored in two covered earth-bermed silos. Statistical analyses was conducted to determine what impact radon emitted by the radium bearing materials contained in the silos has on the ambient radon concentration at the Fernald Environmental Management Project site. The distribution that best describes the outdoor radon monitoring data was determined before statistical analyses were conducted. Random effects associated with the selection of radon monitoring locations were accommodated by using nested and nested factorial classification models. The Project site was divided into four general areas according to their characteristics and functions: (1) the silo area, where the radium-bearing waste is stored; (2) the production/administration area; (3) the perimeter area, or fence-line, of the Fernald Environmental Management Project site; and (4) a background area, located approximately 13 km from the Fernald Environmental Management Project site, representing the naturally-occurring radon concentration. A total of 15 continuous, hourly readout radon monitors were installed to measure the outdoor radon concentration. Measurement results from each individual monitor were found to be log-normally distributed. A series of contrast tests, which take random effects into account, were performed to compare the radon concentration between different areas of the site. These comparisons demonstrate that the radon concentrations in the production/administration area and the perimeter area are statistically equal to the natural background, whereas the silo area is significantly higher than background. The study also showed that the radon concentration in the silo area was significantly reduced after a sealant barrier was applied to the contents of the silos. 10 refs., 6 figs., 8 tabs

  12. Gas generation and release from the VLJ repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieno, T.; Valkiainen, M.

    1992-01-01

    The VLJ repository is an underground disposal facility located at the Olkiluoto nuclear power plant site on the west coast of Finland. The repository will house low (LLW) and intermediate level radioactive wastes (MLW) from the TVO I and TVO II BWR's and the spent fuel interim store at Olkiluoto. The disposal rooms have been excavated at a depth of 60... 100 meters in the crystalline bedrock. They consist of two rock silos - one for the LLW and the other for MLW. Low level waste is usually packed in steel drums and steel boxes. Medium level wastes consists of bituminized resins in steel drums. Wastes packages are emplaced in concrete boxes before transportation into the repository. Low level wastes are emplaced in the shotcreted rock silo where no backfilling will used. For medium level wastes, a separate silo of reinforced concrete has been constructed inside the rock silo. No backfilling will be used inside the concrete silo and an opening will be made in the lid of the concrete silo for gas release. The microbial degradation of low level wastes is the principle gas generation process in the repository. The gas transport though the bedrock covering the repository is evaluated with the help of ground water flow study. It is recommended that the shotcrete lining on the ceiling of the repository cavern is partly removed before the final sealing of the repository. Provided that dissipation of gases from the disposal cavern into the rock can been assured, the overall effects of gas generation on the long-term safety of the repository are insignificant. 10 refs., 6 figs

  13. The Tebuconazole-based Protectant of Seeds “Bunker” Induces the Synthesis of Dehydrins During Cold Hardening and Increases the Frost Resistance of Wheat Seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Korsukova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Triazole derivatives are widely used in agriculture for seed protectant of cereals against seed and soil infection. Triazole derivatives can have an effect on the biochemical and physiological functions of plants. The tebuconazole-based protectant of seeds «Bunker» (content of tebuconazole 60 grams per liter, g/L is a systemic fungicide of preventive and therapeutic action. The effect of the seed treatment by «Bunker» preparation on the shoot growth and cell viability coleoptile, synthesis of dehydrins in shoots and frost resistance etiolated winter and spring wheat seedlings has been studied. It has been shown that treatment of winter and spring wheat seed by «Bunker» preparation induces similar concentration-dependent inhibition of the coleoptiles length. At the recommended dose (0,5 liter per tonne of seeds, L/t growth inhibition was 28 - 30%, at a concentration of 1 L/t – 33 - 36%, at a concentration of 1,5 L/t – 40 - 42%, at a concentration of 3 L/t – 43 - 47%, at a concentration of 4 L/t – 48 - 51% and at 5 L/t – 53 - 56%. The treatment of wheat seed by «Bunker» preparation had no phytotoxic effect on coleoptile cells in any of the studied concentrations, on the contrary, with increasing concentration of preparation observed the increase in cell viability, as measured by recovery of 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride. We can assume that having retardant properties, tebuconazole not only inhibits the growth of plants, but also delays their aging. The treatment of seed protectant at a concentration of 1.5 L/t induced synthesis of the dehydrins with molecular masses about 19, 21, 22, 25 and 27 kD in winter wheat shoots and 18,6, 27 and 28,5 kD in spring wheat shoots during cold hardening. Among identified dehydrins the dehydrin of 27 kD is most significantly induced both in winter and spring wheat. The treatment of seed protectant «Bunker» in the same concentration increased the frost resistance of winter and spring wheat

  14. Storage and discharge of a granular fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco-Martinez, Hector; van Gerner, Henk Jan; Ruiz-Suárez, J C

    2008-02-01

    Experiments and computational simulations are carried out to study the behavior of a granular column in a silo whose walls are able to vibrate horizontally. The column is brought to a steady fluidized state and it behaves similar to a hydrostatic system. We study the dynamics of the granular discharge through openings at the bottom of the silo in order to search for a Torricelli-like behavior. We show that the flow rate scales with the wall induced shear rate, and at high rates, the granular bed indeed discharges similar to a viscous fluid.

  15. Auditable safety analysis and final hazard classification for Buildings 1310-N and 1314-N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloster, G.L.

    1997-05-01

    This document is a graded auditable safety analysis (ASA) of the deactivation activities planned for the 100-N facility segment comprised of the Building 1310-N pump silo (part of the Liquid Radioactive Waste Treatment Facility) and 1314-N Building (Liquid Waste Disposal Building).The ASA describes the hazards within the facility and evaluates the adequacy of the measures taken to reduce, control, or mitigate the identified hazards. This document also serves as the Final Hazard Classification (FHC) for the 1310-N pump silo and 1314-N Building segment. The FHC is radiological based on the Preliminary Hazard Classification and the total inventory of radioactive and hazardous materials in the segment

  16. Outflow and clogging of shape-anisotropic grains in hoppers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stannarius, Ralf; Ashour, Ahmed; Wegner, Sandra; BöRzsöNyi, Tamas

    Silos have been in use in human history for millennia, but still today, the discharge of grains from silos is a process with potential risks and imponderabilities. Models and quantitative predictions have been developed almost exclusively for spherical grains shapes. We study the discharge and clogging processes of shape-anisotropic grains in hoppers, and describe the peculiarities of these materials both in their dynamical properties and in the observed clogging structures. An attempt is made to adapt the well-known equations for spherical material to describe anisometric particles. Funding by DAAD and M\\x96B is acknowledged. A. A. acknowledges a scholarship from Future University, Egypt.

  17. Streamlined approach for environmental restoration closure report for Corrective Action Unit 464: Historical underground storage tank release sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-04-01

    This report addresses the site characterization of two historical underground storage tank petroleum hydrocarbon release sites identified by Corrective Action Site (CAS) Numbers 02-02-03 and 09-02-01. The sites are located at the Nevada Test Site in Areas 2 and 9 and are concrete bunker complexes (Bunker 2-300, and 9-300). Characterization was completed using drilling equipment to delineate the extent of petroleum hydrocarbons at release site 2-300-1 (CAS 02-02-03). Based on site observations, the low hydrocarbon concentrations detected, and the delineation of the vertical and lateral extent of subsurface hydrocarbons, an ''A through K'' evaluation was completed to support a request for an Administrative Closure of the site

  18. Streamlined approach for environmental restoration closure report for Corrective Action Unit 464: Historical underground storage tank release sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    This report addresses the site characterization of two historical underground storage tank petroleum hydrocarbon release sites identified by Corrective Action Site (CAS) Numbers 02-02-03 and 09-02-01. The sites are located at the Nevada Test Site in Areas 2 and 9 and are concrete bunker complexes (Bunker 2-300, and 9-300). Characterization was completed using drilling equipment to delineate the extent of petroleum hydrocarbons at release site 2-300-1 (CAS 02-02-03). Based on site observations, the low hydrocarbon concentrations detected, and the delineation of the vertical and lateral extent of subsurface hydrocarbons, an ``A through K`` evaluation was completed to support a request for an Administrative Closure of the site.

  19. The Vessel Schedule Recovery Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Plum, Christian Edinger Munk; Vaaben, Bo

    Maritime transportation is the backbone of world trade and is accountable for around 3% of the worlds CO2 emissions. We present the Vessel Schedule Recovery Problem (VSRP) to evaluate a given disruption scenario and to select a recovery action balancing the trade off between increased bunker cons...... consumption and the impact on the remaining network and the customer service level. The model is applied to 4 real cases from Maersk Line. Solutions are comparable or superior to those chosen by operations managers. Cost savings of up to 58% may be achieved.......Maritime transportation is the backbone of world trade and is accountable for around 3% of the worlds CO2 emissions. We present the Vessel Schedule Recovery Problem (VSRP) to evaluate a given disruption scenario and to select a recovery action balancing the trade off between increased bunker...

  20. Experience in ultimate storage of radwaste, illustrated by the information on geomechanics gained in the Asse storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, M.W.

    1981-01-01

    Among the numerous variants of storing radioactive waste in the deep geological underground the storage in appropriate mineral salt formations has a couple of particular advantages. In order to effect research- and development works with regard to a safe secular storage of radioactive wastes, the former mineral salt deposit ASSE was assigned to the GSF in the year 1965. At this test plant storage technologies are developed, tested and the operational efficiency of according technical facilities is demonstrated. As a part of these duties several technical and natural scientific fields like nuclear engineering, mining, geomechanics, geochemistry or hydrogeology are worked in interdisciplinarily. Departing from the existing mine building of the shaft ASSE storage bunkers for low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes (LAW/MAW) are presented. Accompanying geotechnical investigations are explained. An outlook alludes to an eventually possible development potential of the storage bunker arrangement from the geomechanic view. (orig./HP) [de

  1. The LHC goes in for an X-ray

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Vernède

    2011-01-01

    For the past two years, a radiography laboratory has been operating in a "bunker" where it can X-ray materials in complete safety. The primary function of the radiography laboratory, run by Jean-Michel Dalin and Aline Piguiet, is to inspect welds and LHC components.   Technicians Jean-Michel Dalin and Aline Piguiet, from the EN department,  with the scanner used for digital radiography. In the basement of Building 112 lies a bunker heavily protected against radiation leaks and housing a laboratory that employs high-tech apparatus capable of detecting the slightest fault in materials without destroying or damaging them. "It's the principle of Non-Destructive Testing (NDT). In our laboratory we essentially use two methods, tomography and digital radiography," explains Jean-Michel Dalin, who is a NDT radiography technician in the EN Department's MM Section. It was he who designed the laboratory in collaboration with CERN's radiation protection service, wh...

  2. Safety Gear Decontamination Practices Among Florida Firefighters: Analysis of a Text-Based Survey Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Kevin J; Koru-Sengul, Tulay; Alvarez, Armando; Schaefer-Solle, Natasha; Harrison, Tyler R; Kobetz, Erin N; Caban-Martinez, Alberto J

    2018-02-01

    Despite the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 1851 Personal Protective Equipment Care and Maintenance guidelines, little is known about the routine cleaning of firefighter bunker gear. In collaboration with a large Florida firefighter union, a mobile phone text survey was administered, which included eight questions in an item logic format. In total, 250 firefighters participated in the survey of which 65% reported cleaning their bunker gear in the past 12 months. Approximately 32% ( n = 52) indicated that they had above average confidence in gear cleaning procedures. Arriving at a fire incident response was a significant predictor of gear cleaning in the 12 months preceding survey administration. Using mobile phone-based texting for periodic queries on adherence to NFPA cleaning guidelines and safety message distribution may assist firefighters to increase decontamination procedure frequency.

  3. Final design and construction issues of the TAPIRO epithermal column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burn, K.W.; Casalini, L.; Nava, E.; Tinti, R.; Martini, S.; Mondini, D.; Rosi, G.

    2006-01-01

    The construction of the epithermal column for clinical trials at the 5 kW fast reactor TAPIRO (ENEA, Casaccia, Italy) has been completed, the experimental bunker in the reactor hall has been designed and the beam characterisation will shortly be underway. As has been reviewed at the last two ICNCT conferences, the low power of the neuron source and the relatively distant patient position outside the reactor shield led to a column design with certain characteristics. One consequence is the employment of a collimator containing lead of high purity with the resultant problems of mechanical construction. Another is the substantial neutron leakage from the column outside the aperture into the experimental bunker. Furthermore the absence of a gamma shield has led to an electron dose to the skin. This is resolved with an electron shield of aluminium. Here the construction and final design issues are discussed and the state of the project is presented. (author)

  4. Decontamination and decommissioning plan for processing contaminated NaK at the INEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaRue, D.M.; Dolenc, M.R.

    1986-09-01

    This decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) plan describes the work elements and project management plan for processing four containers of contaminated sodium/potassium (NaK) and returning the Army Reentry Vehicle Facility Site (ARVFS) to a reusable condition. The document reflects the management plan for this project before finalizing the conceptual design and preliminary prototype tests of the reaction kinetics. As a result, the safety, environmental, and accident analyses are addressed as preliminary assessments before completion at a later date. ARVFS contains an earth-covered bunker, a cylindrical test pit and metal shed, and a cable trench connecting the two items. The bunker currently stores the four containers of NaK from the meltdown of the EBR-1 Mark II core. The D&D project addressed in this plan involves processing the contaminated NaK and returning the ARVFS to potential reuse after cleanup.

  5. Decontamination and decommissioning plan for processing contaminated NaK at the INEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaRue, D.M.; Dolenc, M.R.

    1986-09-01

    This decontamination and decommissioning (D D) plan describes the work elements and project management plan for processing four containers of contaminated sodium/potassium (NaK) and returning the Army Reentry Vehicle Facility Site (ARVFS) to a reusable condition. The document reflects the management plan for this project before finalizing the conceptual design and preliminary prototype tests of the reaction kinetics. As a result, the safety, environmental, and accident analyses are addressed as preliminary assessments before completion at a later date. ARVFS contains an earth-covered bunker, a cylindrical test pit and metal shed, and a cable trench connecting the two items. The bunker currently stores the four containers of NaK from the meltdown of the EBR-1 Mark II core. The D D project addressed in this plan involves processing the contaminated NaK and returning the ARVFS to potential reuse after cleanup.

  6. Activity report 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delande, E.; Drent, W.

    1980-07-01

    The activites of the Eurochemic (European Company for the Chemical Processing of Irradiated Fuels) at Mol is summarized under the following headings: the decontamination and intervention in the Fuel Reception and Storage Building, the active operation of the bituminization facility, the construction of two additional storage bunkers, the full active operation of the section for the handling of solid waste and the construction of various units for the conditioning of organic liquid waste and plutonium hearing solid wastes. (AF)

  7. The Lebanese Armed Forces Engaging Nahr Al-Bared Palestinian Refugee Camp Using the Instruments of National Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    destroyed during the Lebanese civil war between 1975 and 1990 and never reconstructed (Gambil 2003). The Sunni Palestinians represented 75 percent of the...2015, 6). Deptula (2001) argued that the nation’s power does not rest in the military alone , it is stronger when the full weight of national power is...less than three feet between buildings in Old Camp, with several underground bunkers filled with weapons ammunition, and ready-to- eat meals, was hard

  8. Conception of CTMSP ionizing radiation calibration laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Raimundo Dias da; Kibrit, Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    The present paper describes the implantation process of an ionizing radiation calibration laboratory in a preexistent installation in CTMSP (bunker) approved by CNEN to operate with gamma-ray for non destructive testing. This laboratory will extend and improve the current metrological capacity for the attendance to the increasing demand for services of calibration of ionizing radiation measuring instruments. Statutory and regulatory requirements for the licensing of the installation are presented and deeply reviewed. (author)

  9. Quarterly oil statistics. Second quarter, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    This issue presents rapid and accurate information on supply and disposal of crude oil, oil products, and natural gas, including production, refinery output, trade, bunkers, refinery fuel and losses and stock changes. Detailed import and export data are given for 42 origins and 29 destinations for crude oil and products. NGL, feedstocks, naphtha, LPG, gasoline, kerosene, gas/diesel oil, and heavy fuel oil (residual) are covered. (DLC)

  10. Non-Lethal Weaponry: A Framework for Future Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-04-01

    community, but was widely popularized by John Naisbitt in his 1982 work, Megatrends . In short, it asserts that much may be learned about a dynamic, but...Notes 1 John Naisbitt, Megatrends : Ten New Directions Transforming Our Lives (New York, NY: Warner Books, Inc., 1982), 3-5. 2 Robert J. Bunker...lethals by opponents of biological and chemical weapons. The use of chemical agents…is seen as a Trojan Horse to circumvent the Chemical Weapons

  11. Research in Biological and Medical Sciences, Including Biochemistry, Communicable Disease and Immunology Internal Medicine, Nuclear Medicine, Physiology, Psychiatry, Surgery, and Veterinary Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-07-01

    the virus overwintered in hibernating Culex plpiens. Mosquitoes were collected from underground bunkers at a number of abandoned Army forts located...determinants and antibiotic sensitivities. Straius examined (43) from South Vietnam, Java , and the USA produced Fraction 1 antigen, VW antigens...Organization (WHO) staff in Java from various rodents and fleas were also studied. The nine strains of Y. pestis obtained during 1974 from Vietnamese

  12. Freedom: A Promise of Possibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunkers, Sandra Schmidt

    2015-10-01

    The idea of freedom as a promise of possibility is explored in this column. The core concepts from a research study on considering tomorrow (Bunkers, 1998) coupled with humanbecoming community change processes (Parse, 2003) are used to illuminate this notion. The importance of intentionality in human freedom is discussed from both a human science and a natural science perspective. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Comparison of Ecological Impacts of Postulated Oil Spills at Selected Alaskan Locations. Volume 2, Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-06-01

    DISCUSSION TaMe 2-22 presents the results of the oil spill scenarios examined at St. Matthew Island without cleanup. 2-485 DIESEL-2 CRUDE BUNKER...include red fox, Arctic ground squirrel, lemmings, shrews , and voles. The Arctic fox, an inhabitant of both the terrestrial area and the pack ice, is... the time you ordered this report— which is only one of the hundreds of thou- sands in the NTIS information collection avail- able to you—and the

  14. Cyclotron for medicine and research; Zyklotron fuer Medizin und Forschung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2012-11-01

    35 tons, weighs the major medical device, which has been delivered in early may at the Julic campus. A heavy-duty crane hoisted the new compact cyclotron to its destination, an underground concrete bunker. There it will from summer 2013 produce radionuclides for the synthesis of radiopharmaca, by which it is possible among others to detect tumors, to pursue metabolic processes, and to investigate the mechanisms of action of drugs.

  15. Renewable energy sources and their contribution to gross domestic energy consumption in Italy in years 1992 and 1993; Censimento per il territorio italiano dei dati relativi alle fonti rinnovabili di energia ed al loro contributo al bilancio energetico per gli anni 1992 e 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menna, P [ENEA, Centro Ricerche, Portici (Italy). Dip. Energia

    1995-11-01

    In 1992, the gross domestic energy consumption in Italy was 167.5 MTOE (including bunkers) while in 1993 it decreased to 165.9 MTOE. The overall electricity demand passed from 244.8 TWh in 1992 to 246.6 TWh in 1993. In the same period, the overall contribution from Renewable Energy Sources (RES) kept almost constant at 5.y consumption. The RES contribution represented a share larger than gross National production of energy in 1992.

  16. Bioremediation Potential of Terrestrial Fuel Spills †

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Hong-Gyu; Wang, Xiaoping; Bartha, Richard

    1990-01-01

    A bioremediation treatment that consisted of liming, fertilization, and tilling was evaluated on the laboratory scale for its effectiveness in cleaning up a sand, a loam, and a clay loam contaminated at 50 to 135 mg g of soil−1 by gasoline, jet fuel, heating oil, diesel oil, or bunker C. Experimental variables included incubation temperatures of 17, 27, and 37°C; no treatment; bioremediation treatment; and poisoned evaporation controls. Hydrocarbon residues were determined by quantitative gas...

  17. Disposal of radioactive wastes from Czechoslovak nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumann, L.

    In gaseous radioactive waste disposal, aerosol particles are filtered and gaseous wastes are discharged in the environment. The filters and filter materials used are stored on solid radioactive waste storage sites in the individual power plants. Liquid radioactive wastes are concentrated and the concentrates are stored. Distillates and low-level radioactive waste water are discharged into the hydrosphere. Solid radioactive wastes are stored without treatment in power plant bunkers. Bituminization and cementation of liquid radioactive wastes are discussed. (H.S.)

  18. Method for removing radioactive waste from a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    By using the existing safety and auxiliary systems in a nuclear power plant a bunker-type building is to be linked up with the region of the main airlock, in which the radioactive material to be disposed of may pass through the necessary mechanical and chemical process while being handled in mobile containers. The constructional and engineering measures are described by a design example. (TK) [de

  19. We Were Caught Unprepared: The 2006 Hezbollah-Israeli War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    and would conduct the majority of its operations using standoff-based fi repower . Available historic evidence appears to indicate this rationale was...south of the Litani. The supplies were secreted in well-fortifi ed bunkers and entrenchments designed to withstand blistering IDF-precision fi repower ...Hezbollah to modify its doctrine. By the early summer of 2006, Hezbollah had transformed its original 13 22 principles of warfare (a doctrine that had

  20. Natural gas for ship propulsion in Denmark - Possibilities for using LNG and CNG on ferry and cargo routes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuer-Lauridsen, F.; Nielsen, Jesper B. (LITEHAUZ, Copenhagen (Denmark)); Odgaard, T.; Birkeland, M. (IncentivePartners, Birkeroed (Denmark)); Winter Graugaard, C.; Blikom, L.P. (DNV, Copenhagen (Denmark)); Muro-Sun, N.; Andersen, Morten; OEvlisen, F. (Ramboell Oil and Gas, Esbjerg (Denmark))

    2010-07-01

    The project's main task was to review logistical, technical and economic feasibility for using Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) and Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) as fuel for ship propulsion and the supply of LNG or CNG to Danish ports from existing natural gas lines, trucks or by ship. The following key findings are related to the use of natural gas as fuel for ships in Denmark: Natural gas as propulsion fuel in ships: 1) Advantages: Provide solution to present air emission challenges 2) Barriers: Capital investments large 3) Synergies: Developments in Norway and Baltic Sea area 4) Economy: Positive case for operation for large consumers 5) Future: Develop bunkering options for short sea shipping LNG: 6) Propulsion technology in ships is mature and proven 7) Distribution network not yet developed for use in ships 8) Safety concerns are demanding but manageable 9) Can enter existing bunkering value chain CNG: 10) Well developed for land based transport, not yet for shipping 11) Distribution network for natural gas exists in Denmark 12) Safety concerns are demanding but manageable 13) No seaborne CNG value chains in operation An immediate focus on the ferry sector in Denmark will reap benefits on a relatively short time scale. For the short sea shipping sector away to promote the conversion to natural gas is to support the development of storage and bunkering facilities in main ports. Given the general expectations in the shipping community LNG will presumably be the de facto choice at least for the 5-10 years ahead and the demand for facilities and bunkers will be for LNG. (LN)

  1. Renewable energy sources and their contribution to the gross domestic energy consumption in Italy in the year 1994; Censimento per il territorio italiano dei dati relativi alle fonti rinnovabili di energia ed al loro contributo al bilancio energetico per l`anno 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menna, P.; Manzo, R. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Portici, Naples (Italy). Dip. Energia

    1996-11-01

    The gross domestic energy consumption in 1994 (including bunkers) decreased to 165.8 Mtoe from the 1993 figure of 166.6 Mtoe. At the same time the overall electricity demand reached 253.6 TWh from 246.6 TWh, closely reflecting the 2 contribution of renewable energy sources (hydroelectricity, geothermal, biomasses, solar, wind) to the national energy consumption has been 9 1994. It represented more than 34% of the domestic energy production.

  2. Turning Point: Operation Allied Force and the Allure of Air Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-13

    Air Force Base in Nevada, from “a windowless bunker, lit by constantly flickering computer screens,” a Predator drone operator zoomed in on the...how the Army would mitigate risks to the Apaches by using artillery to suppress Serb air defenses before the Apaches went on their deep strike...conflict.” 162Clark, Waging Modern War, 236-7. 163Drozdiak, A22. 164To mitigate alliance member concerns, NATO did not officially refer to

  3. Time in a Timeless Environment

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    a human female is not coupled to the sleep-wake cycle. I also describe how such experiments can be useful in the context of shift-working, jet-lag and space studies. A Bunker? When you had to prepare for an exam or catch an early flight or train, you probably had the experience of getting up just before the alarm went off.

  4. The 34th Infantry Division at Cassino and Anzio: the role of operational art in the Italian Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-25

    deep ravines, rose precipitously 450 meters in 1000 meters and were thoroughly organized with wires, mines, felled trees, concrete bunkers and steel...under the registered German guns, eventually securing a shallow bridgehead on the west side of the Rapido by midnight.86 The same day, the FEC attacked...ID Commander, replaced Lucas as VI Corps commander. By March 4, neither side had achieved their objectives, and the exhausted adversaries paused in a

  5. CBAS - efficient coal management for optimised operation and minimised cost; CBAS - Betriebsoptimierung und Kostenminimierung durch effizientes Kohlenmanagement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pechtl, P.; Petek, J.; Shea, S.

    2000-07-01

    The 'Coal Bland Automation System' CBAS developed by Praxis Engineers, Inc. is a software application which simulates the path of coal from the dispatching station to the burners. The combustion characteristics of coal mixtures are predicted, and the fuel quality can be controlled hours before the coal arrives at the burners. Detailed modelling of the flow patterns in the mixing bunkers and grinding bunkers, time variations of the coal mixture properties at the bunker outlet can be predicted, and the coal mixture can be varied accordingly to account for load peaks. [German] Das von Praxis Engineers, Inc. entwickelte 'Coal Bland Automation System' CBAS ist eine online Softwareapplikation, die den Weg aller in einem Kraftwerk eingesetzten Kohlensorten vom Verladeplatz bis hin zu den Brennern mathematisch simuliert. Die Eigenschaften beliebiger Mischungen zwischen den Kohlen werden vorausgesagt und die Qualitaet des Brennstoffs an den Brennern kann geregelt werden, auch Stunden bevor die Kohlenmischung tatsaechlich an den Brennern ankommt. Aufgrund der detaillierten Modellierung des Fliessverhaltens in den Mischbunkern und den Bunkern der Kohlemuehlen ist es moeglich, die zeitliche Veraenderung der Eigenschaften der Kohlenmischung am Austritt aus den Bunkern vorherzusagen. Dadurch kann das Mischungsverhaeltnis der Kohlen rascher an die Lastanforderungen angepasst werden, was z.B. zum 'Einfangen' von lukrativen Lastspitzen genutzt werden kann. (orig.)

  6. Radiation protection in large linear accelerators; Seguranca radiologica de aceleradores lineares de grande porte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliva, Jose de Jesus Rivero, E-mail: rivero@con.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear; Sousa, Fernando Nuno Carneiro de, E-mail: fernandonunosousa@gmail.com [Aceletron Irradiacao lndustrial, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The electron linear accelerators can be used in industrial applications that require powerful sources of ionizing radiation. They have the important characteristic of not representing a radiation hazard when the accelerators remain electrically disconnected. With the plant in operation, a high reliability defense in depth reduces the risk of radiological accidents to extremely small levels. It is practically impossible that a person could enter into the radiation bunker with the accelerators connected. Aceletron Irradiacao Industrial, located in Rio de Janeiro, offers services of irradiation by means of two powerful electron linear accelerators, with 15 kW power and 10 MeV electron energy. Despite the high level of existing radiation safety, a simplified risk study is underway to identify possible sequences of radiological accidents. The study is based on the combined application of the event and fault trees techniques. Preliminary results confirm that there is a very small risk of entering into the irradiation bunker with the accelerators in operation, but the risk of an operator entering into the bunker during a process interruption and remaining there without notice after the accelerators were restarted may be considerably larger. Based on these results the Company is considering alternatives to reduce the likelihood of human error of this type that could lead to a radiological accident. The paper describes the defense in depth of the irradiation process in Aceletron Irradiacao Industrial, as well as the models and preliminary results of the ongoing risk analysis, including the additional safety measures which are being evaluated. (author)

  7. Buddy Board

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enggaard, Helle; Moselund, Lene

    2015-01-01

    Projekt ’BuddyBoard’ er kommet i stand via et samarbejde mellem Frederikshavn kommune, Bunker43 og Lab. X. Afdeling en ’Havly’ på Sæby Ældrecenter fungerer som living lab, hvilket betyder, at det udgør et levende laboratorium for udvikling og afprøvning af teknologi (Schultz, 2013). Projektet er....... Bunker43 har udviklet en teknologi (BuddyBoard) til hurtig formidling af billeder fra pårørende og personale til beboere på institutioner. Pårørende og personale uploader billeder via en APP eller en hjemmeside og har mulighed for at tilføje en kort forklarende tekst til hvert billede. Beboeren ser...... billederne via en tablet. Systemet bygger på et simpelt og brugervenligt design, så ældre med kognitive og/eller fysiske funktionsnedsættelser kan anvende teknologien. BuddyBoard fungerer via internettet, og billederne gemmes på en sikret server hos udbyderen, som er Bunker43. Intentionerne med BuddyBoard er...

  8. Exhaust gas emission from ships in Norwegian coastal waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meltzer, F.; Fiskaa, G.

    1991-02-01

    For the following vessel categories bunker consumption and emission of greenhouse gases and SO 2 has been calculated: Norwegian coastal trade, domestic ferries, fishing vessels (Norwegian), Norwegian military vessels, inter-coastal ferries, import and export, ships iron-ore from Narvik and Soviet vessels in transit. The carbon emission (CO 2 as carbon) within 12 nautical miles has been calculated to 0.621 MtC (Mega ton carbon) and to 1.0 MtC within the economic zone for these vessel categories. The calculated ''inland waterways'' bunker consumption in this study deviates from the Central Bureau of Statistics of Norway and OECD/IEA figures by up to 25%. This large deviation supports the need for a uniform method to calculate ''inland waterways'' bunker consumption. Scenarios for the emission outlook for the years 1995, 2000 and 2005 are discussed and calculated. With 1988 as present level it is possible, according to these scenarios, to reduce the emission of NO x by close to 40% and SO 2 by 85%. Reduction of greenhouse- and SO 2 components in the exhaust gases from ships is today technically possible, but the demand for further research and development is significant. Compared with land-based low-emission technologies, the offshore technologies are years behind. 21 refs., 9 figs., 9 tabs

  9. Allocation of multiple, widely spread oil spills associated with one polluter : GC-MS fingerprinting and diagnostic ratios of spilled oil and oiled seabirds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, A.B.; Avnskjold, J.

    2005-01-01

    In January 2005, a Cypriot cargo ship leaked about 5 tons of heavy fuel bunker oil in Kerteminde Bay in the Great Belt, Denmark. The ship was stopped to inspect and collect oil samples from its 2 damaged tanks for forensic oil spill identification by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Two weeks following the accident, a series of waterborne and stranded oil spills showed up in the Great Belt area, north and south of the vessel's route. Thousands of oiled seabirds on small islands and coastlines were affected. The Danish Coast Guard suspected that the vessel might be responsible for the observed spills. More than 50 oil samples were collected and sent for forensic analysis at the National Environmental Research Institute. Both waterborne and stranded spill samples showed an almost perfect match of diagnostic ratios and chromatograph with the potential responsible party (PRP) bunker. The spill samples therefore matched the reference oil and were allocated to the spill associated with the Cypriot cargo ship. One sample deviated significantly from the other samples and was not allocated to the ship's accidental spill. Oil samples collected from oiled seabirds showed larger variations between diagnostic ratios and the reference bunker oils. The variations can be attributed to weathering and biodegradation, but also to contamination by non-petrogenic material. It was concluded that the oiled seabirds represented non-match samples that cannot be allocated to the oil spill associated with the Cypriot cargo ship. 14 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs

  10. H(10) due to radiation scattered in a 6 MV Linac for tomotherapy; H*(10) debida a la radiacion dispersada en un LINAC de 6 MV para tomoterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega C, H. R.; Esparza H, A. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98060 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico); Garcia R, M. G. [Instituto Tecnologico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, Campus Zacatecas, Calz. Pedro Coronel 16, Dependencias Federales, 98600 Guadalupe, Zacatecas (Mexico); Reyes R, E. [Universidad de Guanajuato, Campus Leon, Division de Ciencias e Ingenierias, Loma del Bosque 103, Col. Lomas del Campestre, 37150 Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico); Hernandez A, L. [Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia, CIBNOR, Mar Bermejo 195, Col. Playa Palo de Santa Rita, 23090 La Paz, Baja California Sur (Mexico); Rivera, T., E-mail: fermineutron@yahoo.com [IPN, Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Calz. Legaria 694, Col. Irrigacion, 11500 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico)

    2017-10-15

    In order to determine the environmental equivalent dose (H(10)), due to the radiation that is dispersed over the body of a patient, 100 thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) around 6 MV TomoLINAC were used. The characteristics of the tomotherapy have the disadvantage that the shielding of the bunker increases considerably and for its design validated parameters are used for the conventional Linacs. In order to determine H(10) due to scattered radiation, measurements were made in the vicinity of the isocenter, while the 6 MeV photon beam was applied on a phantom. Also, TLDs were placed on the walls of the bunker that remained for 7 days, where approximately 50 patients were treated per day. At points close to the isocenter, the H(10) has an angular distribution caused by the phantom shape. In the bunker walls the highest H(10) was observed in the primary barriers. In the labyrinth, the impact of the scattered radiation was observed when measuring a greater value of the environmental equivalent dose in the wall furthest from the isocenter compared to the point located closest to it. (Author)

  11. H(10) due to radiation scattered in a 6 MV Linac for tomotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega C, H. R.; Esparza H, A.; Garcia R, M. G.; Reyes R, E.; Hernandez A, L.; Rivera, T.

    2017-10-01

    In order to determine the environmental equivalent dose (H(10)), due to the radiation that is dispersed over the body of a patient, 100 thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) around 6 MV TomoLINAC were used. The characteristics of the tomotherapy have the disadvantage that the shielding of the bunker increases considerably and for its design validated parameters are used for the conventional Linacs. In order to determine H(10) due to scattered radiation, measurements were made in the vicinity of the isocenter, while the 6 MeV photon beam was applied on a phantom. Also, TLDs were placed on the walls of the bunker that remained for 7 days, where approximately 50 patients were treated per day. At points close to the isocenter, the H(10) has an angular distribution caused by the phantom shape. In the bunker walls the highest H(10) was observed in the primary barriers. In the labyrinth, the impact of the scattered radiation was observed when measuring a greater value of the environmental equivalent dose in the wall furthest from the isocenter compared to the point located closest to it. (Author)

  12. Air-kerma evaluation at the maze entrance of HDR brachytherapy facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pujades, M C; Granero, D; Vijande, J; Ballester, F; Perez-Calatayud, J; Papagiannis, P; Siebert, F A

    2014-01-01

    In the absence of procedures for evaluating the design of brachytherapy (BT) facilities for radiation protection purposes, the methodology used for external beam radiotherapy facilities is often adapted. The purpose of this study is to adapt the NCRP 151 methodology for estimating the air-kerma rate at the door in BT facilities. Such methodology was checked against Monte Carlo (MC) techniques using the code Geant4. Five different facility designs were studied for 192 Ir and 60 Co HDR applications to account for several different bunker layouts. For the estimation of the lead thickness needed at the door, the use of transmission data for the real spectra at the door instead of the ones emitted by 192 Ir and 60 Co will reduce the lead thickness by a factor of five for 192 Ir and ten for 60 Co. This will significantly lighten the door and hence simplify construction and operating requirements for all bunkers. The adaptation proposed in this study to estimate the air-kerma rate at the door depends on the complexity of the maze: it provides good results for bunkers with a maze (i.e. similar to those used for linacs for which the NCRP 151 methodology was developed) but fails for less conventional designs. For those facilities, a specific Monte Carlo study is in order for reasons of safety and cost-effectiveness. (paper)

  13. Air-kerma evaluation at the maze entrance of HDR brachytherapy facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujades, M C; Granero, D; Vijande, J; Ballester, F; Perez-Calatayud, J; Papagiannis, P; Siebert, F A

    2014-12-01

    In the absence of procedures for evaluating the design of brachytherapy (BT) facilities for radiation protection purposes, the methodology used for external beam radiotherapy facilities is often adapted. The purpose of this study is to adapt the NCRP 151 methodology for estimating the air-kerma rate at the door in BT facilities. Such methodology was checked against Monte Carlo (MC) techniques using the code Geant4. Five different facility designs were studied for (192)Ir and (60)Co HDR applications to account for several different bunker layouts.For the estimation of the lead thickness needed at the door, the use of transmission data for the real spectra at the door instead of the ones emitted by (192)Ir and (60)Co will reduce the lead thickness by a factor of five for (192)Ir and ten for (60)Co. This will significantly lighten the door and hence simplify construction and operating requirements for all bunkers.The adaptation proposed in this study to estimate the air-kerma rate at the door depends on the complexity of the maze: it provides good results for bunkers with a maze (i.e. similar to those used for linacs for which the NCRP 151 methodology was developed) but fails for less conventional designs. For those facilities, a specific Monte Carlo study is in order for reasons of safety and cost-effectiveness.

  14. Report on three accidents that occurred in a cobalt therapy centre in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuolo, M.; Wells, J.

    2002-01-01

    In one of the main hospitals in a large province of Italy some accidents occurred in a cobalt therapy unit, after a new source had been installed. The first accident occurred one month later, at the end of a patient treatment. At the control desk a signal indicated that the source was not in the storage position. The operator first pushed unsuccessfully the emergency button, then entered the bunker to help the patient. Ten minutes later, pushing again the emergency button, the source went in the storage position, was not significant. The same day of the accident the technicians of the cobalt equipment were called for a control. About ten days later the same situation occurred and the operator, that had been in charge for the Radiotherapy Division for 30 years, did not follow the emergency radiation protection rules. He did not use the manual device (the wheel) to recall the source in the storage position. When he entered the bunker, the head of the equipment was set on 310 deg C to irradiate the left breast of the patient. To help the aged patient get off the bunker he lifted the patient off the cot thus exposing the right side of his breast to the direct beam. His intervention lasted about 45 seconds. In this case the personal dosimeter measured a dose of 54 mSv. (Author)

  15. How Selby coal will reach the surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-11-01

    In many respects this conveyor will exemplify the NCB's intention to employ the latest technology at Selby. This single conveyor will be almost 15km long, and will bring coal to the surface from almost 1 km below ground level. A steel cord belt, 1300 mm wide and weighing over 2500 tonnes, will travel at up to 8.4 m/s to bring as much as 3200 t/h of coal to the surface. The conveyor is capable of delivering up to 1800 t/h of coal even from the furthest and deepest point in the conveyor run. Maximum tension in the belt is almost 200 tonnes, and even on the slack side of the pulley, the tension will be 68 tonnes. Eleven bunkering points will each be capable of feeding 750 tonnes of coal per hour, and a computerized control will ensure that the required mix is brought from the bunkers without exceeding the maximum capacity of the conveyor. When maximum tonnage is not being handled, the conveyor will be capable of running at the lowest speed which is capable of bringing out the tonnage on the belt. This minimizes wear and tear on all moving parts of the system. From each bunkering point, the coal will be fed down a chute onto a short accelerating conveyor which feeds the coal centrally onto the main conveyor and ensures that it is moving in the same direction as the main conveyor.

  16. Design/licensing of on-site package for core component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogasawara, K.; Chohzuka, T.; Shimura, T.; Kikuchi, T.; Fujiwara, R.; Karigome, S.; Takani, M.

    1993-01-01

    For storage of used core components which are produced from reactors, Tohoku EPCO decided to construct a site bunker at Onagawa site. It was also decided to develop and fabricate one packaging to transport core components from the reactor buildings to the site bunker. The packaging will be used within the power station; therefore, it shall comply with 'The Law for the Business of Electric Power' and relevant Notification. The main requirements of the packaging are as follows: 1) The number of contents, such as channel boxes and control rods, shall be as large as possible. 2) The weight and the outer dimensions of the packaging shall be within the limitation of the reactor building and the site bunker. 3) Materials shall be selected from those which have been already applied for existing packagings and utilized without any problems. 4) It shall be considered during design of trunnions that handling equipment, such as lifting beam, can be used for not only this packaging but also for existing spent fuel packagings. The design of the packaging is completed and has been licensed. The packaging is scheduled to be utilized from November, 1993. (J.P.N.)

  17. Radiation protection in large linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliva, Jose de Jesus Rivero

    2013-01-01

    The electron linear accelerators can be used in industrial applications that require powerful sources of ionizing radiation. They have the important characteristic of not representing a radiation hazard when the accelerators remain electrically disconnected. With the plant in operation, a high reliability defense in depth reduces the risk of radiological accidents to extremely small levels. It is practically impossible that a person could enter into the radiation bunker with the accelerators connected. Aceletron Irradiacao Industrial, located in Rio de Janeiro, offers services of irradiation by means of two powerful electron linear accelerators, with 15 kW power and 10 MeV electron energy. Despite the high level of existing radiation safety, a simplified risk study is underway to identify possible sequences of radiological accidents. The study is based on the combined application of the event and fault trees techniques. Preliminary results confirm that there is a very small risk of entering into the irradiation bunker with the accelerators in operation, but the risk of an operator entering into the bunker during a process interruption and remaining there without notice after the accelerators were restarted may be considerably larger. Based on these results the Company is considering alternatives to reduce the likelihood of human error of this type that could lead to a radiological accident. The paper describes the defense in depth of the irradiation process in Aceletron Irradiacao Industrial, as well as the models and preliminary results of the ongoing risk analysis, including the additional safety measures which are being evaluated. (author)

  18. Buried Man-made Structure Imaging using 2-D Resistivity Inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson Bery, Andy; Nordiana, M. M.; El Hidayah Ismail, Noer; Jinmin, M.; Nur Amalina, M. K. A.

    2018-04-01

    This study is carried out with the objective to determine the suitable resistivity inversion method for buried man-made structure (bunker). This study was carried out with two stages. The first stage is suitable array determination using 2-D computerized modeling method. One suitable array is used for the infield resistivity survey to determine the dimension and location of the target. The 2-D resistivity inversion results showed that robust inversion method is suitable to resolve the top and bottom part of the buried bunker as target. In addition, the dimension of the buried bunker is successfully determined with height of 7 m and length of 20 m. The location of this target is located at -10 m until 10 m of the infield resistivity survey line. The 2-D resistivity inversion results obtained in this study showed that the parameters selection is important in order to give the optimum results. These parameters are array type, survey geometry and inversion method used in data processing.

  19. Interoperability of Web Archives and Digital Libraries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalb, Hendrik; Lazaridou, Paraskevi; Pinsent, Edward

    2013-01-01

    The interoperability of web archives and digital libraries is crucial to avoid silos of preserved data and content. While various researches focus on specfic facets of the challenge to interoperate, there is a lack of empirical work about the overall situation of actual challenges. We conduct...

  20. Storage and discharge of a granular fluid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pacheco-Martinez, Hector; van Gerner, H.J.; Ruiz-Suarez, J.C.

    2008-01-01

    Experiments and computational simulations are carried out to study the behavior of a granular column in a silo whose walls are able to vibrate horizontally. The column is brought to a steady fluidized state and it behaves similar to a hydrostatic system. We study the dynamics of the granular

  1. Consultation and illness behaviour in response to symptoms: A comparison of models from different disciplinary frameworks and suggestions for future research directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wyke, S.; Adamson, J.; Dixon, D.; Hunt, K.

    2013-01-01

    We all get ill and social scientific interest in how we respond - the study of illness behaviour - continues unabated. Existing models are useful, but have been developed and applied within disciplinary silos, resulting in wasted intellectual and empirical effort and an absence of accumulation of

  2. School Libraries and Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Kevin G.

    2015-01-01

    School library programs have measured success by improved test scores. But how do next-generation school libraries demonstrate success as they strive to be centers of innovation and creativity? These libraries offer solutions for school leaders who struggle to restructure existing systems built around traditional silos of learning (subjects and…

  3. Apples and Oranges Mean a New Fruit Crop: New Business Plan Competition Model Integrates Economic and Community Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Jacqueline; Oden, Lisa Derby

    2007-01-01

    Mount Wachusett Community College Entrepreneurial Resource Center Business Plan Competition brings together stakeholders across all economic sectors to bolster the regional economy. It also highlights entrepreneurs as a viable career choice. The competition disintegrates existing silos, provides education to all entrants, and gives business…

  4. There Is Still Nothing Better than Quality Play Experiences for Young Children's Learning and Development: Building the Foundation for Inquiry in Our Educational Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistorova, Stacey; Slutsky, Ruslan

    2018-01-01

    Teachers face a growing call for implementing inquiry-based teaching and learning in a current pedagogical environment that contradicts this through educational practices that silo content, disseminate knowledge, and produce classrooms of passive learners. We address a hot topic in the United States on how a push for more "academics" is…

  5. From a SoAp Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Cathy

    2010-01-01

    Various discussions at the March 2010 Scholarship of Teaching and Learning (SoTL) Commons in Statesboro, GA, led this author to reflect on the relationship between academic development, e-learning, and SoTL. Throughout the conference, she felt a nagging suspicion that each professional community may have created a silo, with a discourse so tightly…

  6. SPAWAR Strategic Plan Execution Year 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-11

    Transitioned financial reporting capability into SPAWAR’s business intelligence environment reducing the number of siloed business intelligence solutions...level forums, we are highlighting it here for visibility within the 2017 Strategic Execution Guidance. We will continue to report progress via...and savings • Number of analytic users MILESTONES Deliver Enterprise Business Intelligence Reports - Workforce Management Report Build #2 (January

  7. Selection and use of a low enriched fuel in high performance research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerles, J.M.; Schwartz, J.P.

    1978-08-01

    A new nuclear fuel composition for research reactors (Osiris, Siloe) is studied using low enriched (E<20%) uranium oxide. Its utilization leads to modifications in the facilities of these experimental reactors: increase of primary coolant flow, modifications in failed element detection system, handling of materials and storage

  8. Environmental protection for subsea wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diehl, R.J.; Osborne, R.S.; Elwood, J.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes an apparatus for receiving and containing surplus fluid from a subsea well installation on the ocean floor including a subsea wellhead assembly disposed in an enclosed protective chamber. It comprises a fluid-carrying conduit connected to the exterior of the protective chamber in fluid communication with the interior of the protective chamber; an inflatable dracon disposed upon and against the ocean floor in protective relation thereto when deflated and releasably connected in fluid communication to an outlet of the conduit; and pressure-balanced relief valve means disposed in the conduit between the outlet and the protective chamber for communicating surplus fluid from the interior of such chamber to the dracon when the fluid pressure within such chamber exceeds a predetermined value. This patent describes a method of completing an underwater well. It comprises installing a hollow cylindrical silo body with attached conductor guide casing into the sea floor; drilling and casing a well through the silo body and conductor guide casing; installing a wellhead assembly on top of the drilled and cased well inside of the silo body; installing a pressure-containing lid on top of the silo body, forming an enclosed protective chamber and isolating the interior of the chamber from the surrounding hydrostatic head of the sea water

  9. Future trends and needs in stored product entomology-pest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insect pest management in stored products, and in particular the concept of integrated pest management (IPM), has different meanings depending on one's viewpoint of IPM. One of the difficulties in stored products is adequately sampling large bulk bins or silos of raw stored grain or large milling an...

  10. Using Deferred Income Taxes as a Link between Intermediate Accounting and Corporate Income Tax Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derstine, Robert P.; Wagaman, David D.

    2012-01-01

    The accounting curriculum (in fact business colleges in general) often is accused of operating in silos. As a result, it is claimed that students fail to see the connections among the assignments in their separate course work and the necessity to have an integrated understanding to function effectively in the real-world. As a response to the…

  11. Homo Sapiens, All Too Homo Sapiens: Wise Man, All Too Human

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketcham, Amaris

    2015-01-01

    The emphasis on STEM education should not be interpreted as an omen of the death of humanities; art, literature, history, and philosophy can inform and enlighten STEM studies if the walls of academic silos are broken down and taught in combination. Where the physical universe collides with the fanciful and flawed human experience of life, there is…

  12. The North Carolina State University Libraries Search Experience: Usability Testing Tabbed Search Interfaces for Academic Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teague-Rector, Susan; Ballard, Angela; Pauley, Susan K.

    2011-01-01

    Creating a learnable, effective, and user-friendly library Web site hinges on providing easy access to search. Designing a search interface for academic libraries can be particularly challenging given the complexity and range of searchable library collections, such as bibliographic databases, electronic journals, and article search silos. Library…

  13. Research Information Management: How the Library Can Contribute to the Campus Conversation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Annette

    2018-01-01

    This article describes a project undertaken as part of a cross-campus strategic planning effort. The project documented current campus practices and systems in use for collecting, analyzing and reporting key research metrics. The project identified organizational issues around siloed data collection and lack of clarity on data stewards, data…

  14. A Business Intelligence Framework for Sustainability Information Management in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholtz, Brenda; Calitz, Andre; Haupt, Ross

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Higher education institutions (HEIs) face a number of challenges in effectively managing and reporting on sustainability information, such as siloes of data and a limited distribution of information. Business intelligence (BI) can assist in addressing the challenges faced by organisations. The purpose of this study was to propose a BI…

  15. The Bonds of Social-Emotional Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Nadja N.

    2018-01-01

    To better support students with conditions like depression, schools must take steps to shift away from a silo approach in which academics and emotional health are seen as separate. To illustrate, Nadja N. Reilly outlines an integrated approach to social-emotional learning accommodates both students and teachers' needs for emotional safety and…

  16. Heterogeneous Effects in Education: The Promise and Challenge of Incorporating Intersectionality into Quantitative Methodological Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schudde, Lauren

    2018-01-01

    To date, the theory of intersectionality has largely guided qualitative efforts in social science and education research. Translating the construct to new methodological approaches is inherently complex and challenging, but offers the possibility of breaking down silos that keep education researchers with similar interests--but different…

  17. Key Institutions in Business and Management Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornaciari, Charles J.; Arbaugh, J. B.; Asarta, Carlos J.; Bento, Regina F.; Hwang, Alvin; Lund Dean, Kathy

    2017-01-01

    The authors investigate institutional productivity in business and management education (BME) research based on the analysis of 4,464 articles published by 7,210 authors across 17 BME journals over a 10-year period, involving approximately 1,900 schools worldwide. Departing from traditional disciplinary silos, they examine the BME research field…

  18. The use of risk management principles in planning an internal audit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kirstam

    12Key words: risk management, key risks, internal auditing, risk-based internal auditing, internal audit .... a structured approach, regardless of the engagement type (for example, a compliance audit), the level of the ... risk management approach (also referred to as 'organisational' or 'enterprise-wide'), rather than a silo ...

  19. Proceeding of the 1999 Particle Accelerator Conference. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-04-02

    Instituto De Fisica Da Universidade De Sijo Paulo, Brazil; F.T.Degasperi, Faculdade De Tecnologia De Silo Paulo, Brazil...1524 Methods and Complex of Programs for Radiating Particle 3D of Nonlinear Dynamics Analysis -- Y.Alexahin, JIN R , D ubna, R ussia...1623 3d Multispecies Nonlinear Perturbative Particle Simulation of Intense Particle Beams -- Hong

  20. Measuring and Communicating the Value Created by an Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, W. Richard

    2010-01-01

    This paper offers a different perspective in measuring the value created by an organization. It does so in the context of an undergraduate course in managerial accounting. In order to break down the functional silo approach to problem solving that has become the model of traditional business education, applications of shadow accounting, the…

  1. Removing Barriers to Public Transport Fare Intergration in Poland: Key Directions and Change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monsalve, M.C.; van de Velde, D.M.; Wolanski, M.P.; Mazur, B.M.; Klatka, J.S.; Czapski, R.

    2016-01-01

    The need for more sustainable and integrative planning processes as a way of dealing with the complexity of urban mobility has been widely recognized. Within the European Union (EU) there has been an enhanced focus on urban mobility solutions where local authorities move away from past ‘silo

  2. "Maastik just sinule" / Aljona Galazan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Galazan, Aljona

    2014-01-01

    25.-27. septembrini 2014.a. toimus Barcelonas kaheksas rahvusvaheline maastikuarhitektuuri biennaal. Ettekannetes kõlasid sotsiaalsed teemad nagu kodanikualgatus ja sotsiaalne disain ning globaalsed keskkonnamuutused ja metropolide probleemid. Rosa Barba nimelise preemia pälvis Aucklandi sadamaala projekt Uus-Meremaalt: North Wharf`i promenaad ja Silo park

  3. Calidad microbiológica de leche y quesos según el suministro de diferentes silajes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Etchevers

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del estudio que se expone fue determinar cómo influye el consumo de forrajes ensilados, debidamente caracterizados, en la calidad microbiológica de la leche producida y su aptitud para la elaboración de quesos pasta dura. La producción de las vacas se controló durante dos años, en períodos quincenales, variando la alimentación para cada tratamiento; se extrajeron muestras de leche para analizar su calidad y se elaboraron quesos tipo "Reggianito". Los resultados mostraron que en silos de maíz "pasados" existe mayor contaminación de esporas que en silos de maíz "óptimos", en tanto que los silos de pulpa de citrus presentan contaminación mínima. No se observó correlación entre el nivel de esporas en leche y en silos. El recuento de microorganismos esporulados en los quesos no guarda relación proporcional con los encontrados en la leche utilizada como materia prima, por los cual los quesos no evidenciaron problemas durante la maduración.

  4. Climate Change Series: Federal, State, and Local Policy Recommendations for Creating a Positive School Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardichon, Jessica; Roc, Martens

    2015-01-01

    Too frequently, education reform takes a siloed view that focuses on an individual issue instead of a broader and more comprehensive perspective. For example, students' lack of access to challenging and rigorous course work and their lack of access to experienced, engaging, and effective teachers are often discussed as separate issues rather than…

  5. Milk production response to feeding alfalfa silage inoculated with Lactobacillus plantarum

    Science.gov (United States)

    In mini-silo trials, silages treated with a Lactobacillus plantarum silage inoculant (Ecosyl, Yorkshire, UK) had increased in vitro rumen microbial biomass production compared to untreated. Our objective was to determine if alfalfa silage treated with this inoculant could produce a milk production r...

  6. Assessing the land resource-food price nexus of the Sustainable Development Goals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Obersteiner, Michael; Walsh, Brian; Frank, Stefan; Havlík, Petr; Cantele, Matthew; Liu, Junguo; Palazzo, Amanda; Herrero, Mario; Lu, Yonglong; Mosnier, Aline; Valin, Hugo; Riahi, Keywan; Kraxner, Florian; Fritz, Steffen; van Vuuren, Detlef

    The 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) call for a comprehensive new approach to development rooted in planetary boundaries, equity, and inclusivity. The wide scope of the SDGs will necessitate unprecedented integration of siloed policy portfolios to work at international, regional, and national

  7. Le Monde’s Perception of the U.S.-Soviet Strategic Balance: An Update for 1979-1981.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    ICBMs in silos comprised 56 percent of their launchers [ lanceurs ], 75 percent of their warheads [ogives], and 70 percent of their throw-weight. For the... structures , in-place protection of one part of the population (about 20 million inhabitants) is anticipated, and the movement of the rest to less

  8. The removal of multi-Curie amounts of radon from a confined space by absorption on carbon beds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grumski, J.T.; Harmer, D.E.

    1988-01-01

    Two silos, designated as K-65, at the Feed Materials Production Center, Fernald, Ohio, contain from 1600 to 3800 curies of radium dispersed in sludges from the early days of uranium ore processing. Above the sludge bed in each silo, the confined air space has been found to contain up to 37 curies of radon in equilibrium with the radium-bearing material below. Preparations are now being made for treatment, stabilization, and disposal of these sludges. In this connection, it is necessary to open access ports occasionally to the atmosphere. To minimize releases of radon and to provide a significant reduction in personnel exposure, a radon adsorption system was designed and installed. It operates by pulling air from one side of the silo head-space, drawing it through calcium sulfate drying columns, then through activated carbon absorbers, and finally discharging it back into the opposite side of the silo. The circulation of the air is continued until the desired reduction in radon is achieved. Field experience with this system proved its effectiveness and established that it could be re-used after the initial charge of absorbed radon had decayed. It is believed that this is the largest scale application of adsorption of radon ever attempted

  9. Regulation for innovativeness or regulation of innovation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larouche, Pierre; Butenko, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The legal literature concerning the interplay between innovation and law is split between two streams: law and economics (broadly defined) and law and technology. They seem to exist in parallel and largely non-intersecting inter-disciplinary silos. This paper attempts to reconcile these two streams

  10. Anghel Saligny : Omul şi Monumentul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia Băjenaru

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Anghel Saligny was a remarcable engineer, world wide predecessor of metal building science and reinforced concrete, creator of multiple inventions and of unique solutions in designing and building bridges, industrial constructions, for the foundation of port piers and docks, as well as grain silos through the use of precast concrete, all of these in world premiere.

  11. A Harassing Climate? Sexual Harassment and Campus Racial Climate Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundy-Wagner, Valerie; Winkle-Wagner, Rachelle

    2013-01-01

    In this conceptual paper, the authors discuss how research about sexual harassment and campus racial climates for undergraduate students is relegated to separate silos. Drawing on intersectionality and critical race feminist frameworks, the authors juxtapose these strands of research with attention to ethnicity/race and gender, highlighting how…

  12. Staged Closure of Giant Omphalocele using Synthetic Mesh

    OpenAIRE

    Parida, Lalit; Pal, Kamalesh; Al Buainain, Hussah; Elshafei, Hossam

    2014-01-01

    Giant omphalocele is difficult to manage and is associated with a poor outcome. A male newborn presented to our hospital with a giant omphalocele. We performed a staged closure of giant omphalocele using synthetic mesh to construct a silo and then mesh abdominoplasty in the neonatal period that led to a successful outcome within a reasonable period of hospital stay.

  13. Interagency cooperation in the development of a cost-effective transportation and disposal solution for vitrified radium bearing material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.L.; Nixon, D.A.; Stone, T.J.; Tope, W.G.; Vogel, R.A.; Allen, R.B.; Schofield, W.D.

    1996-01-01

    Fernald radium bearing ore residue waste, stored within Silos 1 and 2 (K-65) and Silo 3 waste, will be vitrified for disposal at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). A comprehensive, parametric evaluation of waste form, shielding requirements, packaging, and transportation alternatives was completed to identify the safest, most cost-effective approach. The impacts of waste loading, waste form, regulatory requirements, NTS waste acceptance criteria, as-low-as-resonably-achievable principles, and material handling costs were factored into the recommended approach. Through cooperative work between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT), the vitrified K-65 and Silo 3 radioactive material will be classified consistent with the regulations promulgated by DOT in the September 28, 1995 Federal Register. These new regulations adopt International Atomic Energy Agency language to promote a consistent approach for the transportation and management of radioactive material between the international community and the DOT. Use of the new regulations allows classification of the vitrified radioactive material from the Fernald silos under the designation of low specific activity-II and allows the development of a container that is optimized to maximize payload while minimizing internal void space, external surface radiation levels, and external volume. This approach minimizes the required number of containers and shipments, and the related transportation and disposal costs

  14. static analysis of circular cylindrical shell under hydrostatic and ring

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DEPT OF AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING

    (Golzan et al, 2008). Circular cylindrical shells are used in a large variety of civil engineering structures, e.g. off-shore platforms, chimneys, silos, pipelines, bridge arches or wind turbine towers (Winterstetter et al, 2002). This work is concerned with the analysis of circular cylindri- cal shell subjected to hydrostatic pressure in.

  15. Big data analytics for mitigating carbon emissions in smart cities : opportunities and challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giest, S.N.

    2017-01-01

    The paper addresses the growing scepticism around big data use in the context of smart cities. Big data is said to transform city governments into being more efficient, effective and evidence-based. However, critics point towards the limited capacity of government to overcome the siloed structure of

  16. Sharing skills and knowledge to confront real-world problems | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-10-08

    Oct 8, 2010 ... IDRC Challenge Fund ... There, the impact of the Internet is limited because 1.3 billion people cannot read ... “If things continue the way they have been going — with people working in separate silos — we will not succeed.

  17. Textbook Citations as a Measure of Journal Influence on International Business Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbancic, Frank R.

    2006-01-01

    Previously published rankings of journals in relation to international business research are based on a survey method or a journal-based citation method wherein functional discipline journals are excluded from consideration. The narrow focus of these studies has generated criticism for perpetuating an international business silo perspective. In…

  18. Establishing Interoperability of a Blog Archive through Linked Open Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalb, Hendrik; Lazaridou, Paraskevi; Trier, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    on archived data. However, interoperability among BlogForever archives, as well as with other digital libraries, is necessary in order to avoid silos of data. In this paper, we reveal some of our efforts to establish interoperability through the application of Linked Open data....

  19. The science of firescapes: Achieving fire-resilient communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alistair M. S. Smith; Crystal A. Kolden; Travis B. Paveglio; Mark A. Cochrane; David MJS Bowman; Max A. Moritz; Andrew D. Kliskey; Lilian Alessa; Andrew T. Hudak; Chad M. Hoffman; James A. Lutz; Lloyd P. Queen; Scott J. Goetz; Philip E. Higuera; Luigi Boschetti; Mike Flannigan; Kara M. Yedinak; Adam C. Watts; Eva K. Strand; Jan W. van Wagtendonk; John W. Anderson; Brian J. Stocks; John T. Abatzoglou

    2016-01-01

    Wildland fire management has reached a crossroads. Current perspectives are not capable of answering interdisciplinary adaptation and mitigation challenges posed by increases in wildfire risk to human populations and the need to reintegrate fire as a vital landscape process. Fire science has been, and continues to be, performed in isolated "silos," including...

  20. The Development of a New Master's of Science in Healthcare Quality Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, Kim; Broderick, Briana; Stockley, Denise; Goldstien, D.; Egan, R.

    2014-01-01

    Working in silos or working within one discipline has not improved the delivery of healthcare. With a goal to advance the healthcare quality agenda and in response to an identified need within both the educational and healthcare sector, Queen's University has established a Master's degree in Healthcare Quality [MSc(HQ)]. The interprofessional…

  1. A Model to Guide the Evolution of a Multiprofessional Group into an Interprofessional Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varagona, Lynn; Nandan, Monica; Hooks, Dwayne; Porter, Kandice Johnson; Maguire, Mary Beth; Slater-Moody, Judith

    2017-01-01

    The focus on multiple disciplines coming together to provide services, create products, and solve problems is growing worldwide. Higher education is no exception. This case study illustrates how academic disciplines can transition from a silo mentality to working collaboratively across disciplinary lines. A multiprofessional group of faculty…

  2. Ensilage Of Sugarcane Tops Using Urea And Broiler Litter Additives ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sugarcane tops (SCT) constitute a source of readily available and cheap agroindustrial by-product for ruminant feeding in Mauritius. Its nutritional constraints are its low digestibility, and low crude protein (CP) content. Wilted SCT (50% DM) was ensiled in the laboratory using a SemiMicro technique with PVC silos.

  3. Handling wood shavings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1974-09-18

    Details of bulk handling equipment suitable for collection and compressing wood waste from commercial joinery works are discussed. The Redler Bin Discharger ensures free flow of chips from storage silo discharge prior to compression into briquettes for use as fuel or processing into chipboard.

  4. On the Shortcomings of Our Organisational Forms: With Implications for Educational Change and School Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, Duncan

    2010-01-01

    This article informs school improvement and educational change from a radically different perspective. Building upon work done recently in neural psychology, primatology and ethology, the article examines four common and general types of organisational form: the cell, the silo, the pyramidal, and the network types of organisational structures.…

  5. A Beautiful Friendship

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiConsiglio, John

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about the significance of the collaboration between alumni relations and student affairs offices in overcoming misinformation and silos. Each has something the other wants. For the alumni office, student affairs offers a treasure trove of resources. They have databases with contact information, affinity-based…

  6. Interagency cooperation in the development of a cost-effective transportation and disposal solution for vitrified radium bearing material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.L.; Nixon, D.A.; Stone, T.J.; Tope, W.G.; Vogel, R.A. [Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corp., Cincinnati, OH (United States); Allen, R.B. [USDOE, Fernald Area Office, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Schofield, W.D. [Foster Wheeler Environmental Corp. (United States)

    1996-02-01

    Fernald radium bearing ore residue waste, stored within Silos 1 and 2 (K-65) and Silo 3 waste, will be vitrified for disposal at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). A comprehensive, parametric evaluation of waste form, shielding requirements, packaging, and transportation alternatives was completed to identify the safest, most cost-effective approach. The impacts of waste loading, waste form, regulatory requirements, NTS waste acceptance criteria, as-low-as-resonably-achievable principles, and material handling costs were factored into the recommended approach. Through cooperative work between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT), the vitrified K-65 and Silo 3 radioactive material will be classified consistent with the regulations promulgated by DOT in the September 28, 1995 Federal Register. These new regulations adopt International Atomic Energy Agency language to promote a consistent approach for the transportation and management of radioactive material between the international community and the DOT. Use of the new regulations allows classification of the vitrified radioactive material from the Fernald silos under the designation of low specific activity-II and allows the development of a container that is optimized to maximize payload while minimizing internal void space, external surface radiation levels, and external volume. This approach minimizes the required number of containers and shipments, and the related transportation and disposal costs.

  7. Safety analysis of the VLJ repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieno, T.; Nordman, H.

    1991-05-01

    The VLJ repository is an underground disposal facility for the low and medium level waste generated at the Olkiluoto nuclear power plant. The repository is located within 1 km from TVO I and TVO II (2 x 710 MWe) BWR's on the Olkiluoto island at the west coast of Finland. It contains two rock silos excavated at the depth of 60...100 meters in the bedrock. Low level waste will be disposed of in a shotcreted rock silo. For bituminized medium level waste, a separate silo of reinforced concrete has been built inside the shotcreted rock silo. The post-closure safety analysis has been done for the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) of the VLJ repository. In addition to the normal evolution scenario, several disturbed evolution and accident scenarios have been analysed. In the reference scenario, radio-nuclides are assumed to be released from the bituminized waste within 500 years, the concrete silo is assumed to gradually disintegrate and finally to collapse at 5 000 years, all concrete in the silo is assumed to be also chemically depleted within 6 000 years, and all the seals of the repository are assumed to deteriorate within 12 000 years. The ability of alone natural barriers to restrict the release of radionuclides into the biosphere has been evaluated by means of scenarios where the degradation of engineered barriers has been assumed to take place at a still faster rate. In one of the disturbed evolution scenarios it has been assumed that the concrete silo for medium level waste is severely impaired immediately after sealing of the repository. Effects of gas generation and consequences of human intrusion have been evaluated, too. The results of the safety analysis show that radiation doses of any significance are caused only if a well is bored in the vicinity of the repository or if the groundwater discharge spot is inhabited and used for cultivation. In the reference scenario the maximum expectation value of the individual dose rate is 0.3 mSv/a

  8. Geoelectrical monitoring of simulated subsurface leakage to support high-hazard nuclear decommissioning at the Sellafield Site, UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuras, Oliver, E-mail: oku@bgs.ac.uk [British Geological Survey, Keyworth, Nottingham NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); Wilkinson, Paul B.; Meldrum, Philip I.; Oxby, Lucy S. [British Geological Survey, Keyworth, Nottingham NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); Uhlemann, Sebastian [British Geological Survey, Keyworth, Nottingham NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); ETH-Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Institute of Geophysics, Sonneggstr. 5, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Chambers, Jonathan E. [British Geological Survey, Keyworth, Nottingham NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); Binley, Andrew [Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom); Graham, James [National Nuclear Laboratory, Central Laboratory, Sellafield, Seascale, Cumbria CA20 1PG (United Kingdom); Smith, Nicholas T. [National Nuclear Laboratory, Central Laboratory, Sellafield, Seascale, Cumbria CA20 1PG (United Kingdom); School of Earth, Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences, Williamson Building, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Atherton, Nick [Sellafield Ltd, Albion Square, Swingpump Lane, Whitehaven CA28 7NE (United Kingdom)

    2016-10-01

    A full-scale field experiment applying 4D (3D time-lapse) cross-borehole Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) to the monitoring of simulated subsurface leakage was undertaken at a legacy nuclear waste silo at the Sellafield Site, UK. The experiment constituted the first application of geoelectrical monitoring in support of decommissioning work at a UK nuclear licensed site. Images of resistivity changes occurring since a baseline date prior to the simulated leaks revealed likely preferential pathways of silo liquor simulant flow in the vadose zone and upper groundwater system. Geophysical evidence was found to be compatible with historic contamination detected in permeable facies in sediment cores retrieved from the ERT boreholes. Results indicate that laterally discontinuous till units forming localized hydraulic barriers substantially affect flow patterns and contaminant transport in the shallow subsurface at Sellafield. We conclude that only geophysical imaging of the kind presented here has the potential to provide the detailed spatial and temporal information at the (sub-)meter scale needed to reduce the uncertainty in models of subsurface processes at nuclear sites. - Graphical abstract: 3D fractional resistivity change (resistivity change Δρ divided by baseline resistivity ρ{sub 0}) image showing results of Stage 1 silo liquor simulant injection. The black line delineates the preferential flow path; green cylinders show regions of historic contamination found in sediment cores from ERT boreholes. - Highlights: • 4D geoelectrical monitoring at Sellafield detected and tracked simulated silo leaks. • ERT revealed likely pathways of silo liquor simulant flow in the subsurface. • The method can reduce uncertainty in subsurface process models at nuclear sites. • Has been applied in this form at a UK nuclear licensed site for the first time • Study demonstrates value of 4D geophysics for nuclear decommissioning.

  9. Long Term Behaviour of Cementitious Materials in the Korean Repository Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.-W.; Kim, C.-L.

    2013-01-01

    The safe management of radioactive waste is a national task required for sustainable generation of nuclear power and for energy self-reliance in Korea. After the selection of the final candidate site for low- and intermediate-level waste (LILW) disposal in Korea, a construction and operation license was issued for the Wolsong LILW Disposal Center (WLDC) for the first stage of disposal. Underground silo type disposal has been determined for the initial phase. The engineered barrier system of the disposal silo consists of waste packages, disposal containers, backfills, and a concrete lining. Main objective of our study in this IAEA-CRP is to investigate closure concepts and cementitious backfill materials for the closure of silos. For this purpose, characterisation of cementitious materials, development of silo closure concept, and evaluation of long-term behaviour of cementitious materials, including concrete degradation in repository environment, have been carried out. The overall implementation plan for the CRP comprises performance testing for the physic-chemical properties of cementitious materials, degradation modelling of concrete structures, comparisons of performance for silo closure options, radionuclide transport modelling (considering concrete degradation in repository conditions), and the implementation of an input parameter database and quality assurance for safety/performance assessment. In particular, the concrete degradation modelling study has been focused on the corrosion of reinforcement steel induced by chloride attack, which was of primary concern in the safety assessment of the WLDC. A series of electrochemical experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of dissolved oxygen, pH, and Cl on the corrosion rate of reinforcing steel in a concrete structure saturated with groundwater. Laboratory-scale experiments and a thermodynamic modelling were performed to understand the porosity change of cement pastes, which were prepared using

  10. THE EFFECTS OF INOCULANT LACTIC ACID BACTERIA ON THE FERMENTATION AND AEROBIC STABILITY OF SUNFLOWER SILAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fisun Koc

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the effects of actic acid bacterial inoculant on the fermentation and aerobic stability of sunflower silages. Sunflower was harvested at the milk stage. Inoculant-1174 (Pioneer®,USA was used as homofermentative lactic acid bacterial inoculant. Inoculant was applied 6.00 log10 cfu/g silage levels. Silages with no additive served as controls. After treatment, the chopped sunflower was ensiled in the PVC type laboratory silos. Three silos for each group were sampled for chemical and microbiological analysis on days 2, 4, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 56 after ensiling. At the end of the ensiling period, all silages were subjected to an aerobic stability test for 14 days. Neither inoculant improved the fermentation parameters of sunflower silages. At the end of the ensiling period, inoculant increased lactic acid bacteria (LAB and decreased yeast and mould numbers of silages. Inoculant treatment did not affect aerobic stability of silages.

  11. Joint German/French S4-Analytical Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miemczyk, H.

    1979-03-01

    A joint German/French program was initiated to investigate in detail the behaviour of artificially defected fuel pins in a sodium loop of the SILOE reactor at Grenoble/France. Three irradiation experiments have been conducted in SILOE on representative SNR-type fuel pins (mixed oxide, low density, stainless steel cladding, external diameter 6 mm). The first experiment, S2, had been an unirradiated pin with a large interstitial defect (machined slit of 30x1 mm). The two following pins, S4 and S3, have been pre-irradiated in RAPSODIE (365 efpd, 10.6 % burnup). The main results of the S4-experiment are described and evaluated in the present report. They concern the following important aspects: sodium-uranate/plutonate formation and its kinetics, fuel loss, fission product release and fuel behaviour

  12. Using social media to facilitate knowledge transfer in complex engineering environments: a primer for educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Glen; Salomone, Sonia

    2013-03-01

    While highly cohesive groups are potentially advantageous they are also often correlated with the emergence of knowledge and information silos based around those same functional or occupational clusters. Consequently, an essential challenge for engineering organisations wishing to overcome informational silos is to implement mechanisms that facilitate, encourage and sustain interactions between otherwise disconnected groups. This paper acts as a primer for those seeking to gain an understanding of the design, functionality and utility of a suite of software tools generically termed social media technologies in the context of optimising the management of tacit engineering knowledge. Underpinned by knowledge management theory and using detailed case examples, this paper explores how social media technologies achieve such goals, allowing for the transfer of knowledge by tapping into the tacit and explicit knowledge of disparate groups in complex engineering environments.

  13. Decompressive Abdominal Laparotomy for Abdominal Compartment Syndrome in an Unengrafted Bone Marrow Recipient with Septic Shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derrick J. N. Dauplaise

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To describe a profoundly immunocompromised (panleukopenia child with septic shock who developed abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS and was successfully treated with surgical decompression. Design. Individual case report. Setting. Pediatric intensive care unit of a tertiary children's hospital. Patient. A 32-month-old male with Fanconi anemia who underwent bone marrow transplantation (BMT 5 days prior to developing septic shock secondary to Streptococcus viridans and Escherichia coli ACS developed after massive fluid resuscitation, leading to cardiopulmonary instability. Interventions. Emergent surgical bedside laparotomy and silo placement. Measurements and Main Results. The patient's cardiopulmonary status stabilized after decompressive laparotomy. The abdomen was closed and the patient survived to hospital discharge without cardiac, respiratory, or renal dysfunction. Conclusions. The use of laparotomy and silo placement in an unengrafted BMT patient with ACS and septic shock did not result in additional complications. Surgical intervention for ACS is a reasonable option for high risk, profoundly immunocompromised patients.

  14. The Impact of Cultural Divisions within Organizations in Implementing Brand Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyrd-Jones, Richard I.; Helm, Clive

    Whilst there has been enormous focus in the literature on developing strong brand positioning, identity and personality, there has been much less on utilising brands as strategic assets and achieving brand orientation across the organisation. Decision-making across function silos is widely explored...... in the management literature but is conspicuous in its absence in the brand management literature. With increased focus on auditing brand touchpoints to managing the total customer brand experience lack any attempt to understand the barriers to achieving orientation across the organisation represent a major...... opportunity for research. Through inductive analysis of a case study of a company implementing a major new brand revitalisation strategy, this paper demonstrates how, despite a strong brand vision and high level of management commitment, functional silos associated with different mindsets contributed...

  15. Estabilidade aeróbia de silagens de capim-mombaça tratadas com Lactobacillus buchneri Aerobic stability of mombaça grass silages treated with Lactobacillus buchneri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Luiza da Silva Ávila

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da adição de duas cepas de Lactobacillus buchneri sobre a estabilidade aeróbia de silagens de capim-mombaça. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com três repetições, em esquema de parcelas subdivididas no tempo, de modo que os tratamentos (silagens sem inoculantes e com inoculante experimental e comercial foram aleatorizados nas parcelas e os tempos de avaliação aeróbia das silagens (0, 2, 8 ou 10 dias após a abertura dos silos nas subparcelas. Após 90 dias de armazenamento, os silos foram abertos e amostras de aproximadamente 2,5 kg foram retiradas para avaliação da estabilidade aeróbia com base na temperatura de cada amostra. As mudanças químicas e microbiológicas foram avaliadas. Após abertura dos silos, verificou-se aumento nas populações de bactérias do ácido lático, leveduras e fungos filamentosos. Houve aumento nos valores de pH resultante da redução da concentração dos ácidos orgnicos e de aumentos dos teores de matéria seca e proteína bruta. A adição de L. buchneri às silagens melhorou sua estabilidade, enquanto a silagem sem inoculante apresentou estabilidade de 55 horas. As silagens inoculadas não ultrapassaram essa temperatura limite em um período de 10 dias. A melhoria da estabilidade foi ocasionada pela associação de altas concentrações de cido acético ao ácido propiônico e pela menor concentração de ácido lático no momento de abertura, o que inibiu a proliferação de fungos filamentosos e leveduras após abertura dos silos.This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the addition of two L. buchneri strains on the aerobic stability of the Mombaça grass silages. The experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design with three replicates in split-plot in time scheme, so that the treatments (silages without inoculant and with experimental or commercial inoculants were randomized on plot and in times of aerobic

  16. Power control of water reactors using nitrogen 16 activity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gariod, R.; Merchie, F.; O'byrne, G.

    1964-01-01

    At the Grenoble Nuclear Research Centre, the open-core swimming pool reactors Melusine (2 MW) and Siloe (15 MW) are controlled at a constant overall power using nitrogen-16 channels. The conventional linear control channels react instantaneously to the rapid power fluctuations, this being necessary for the safety of the reactors, but their power indications are erroneous since they are affected by local deformations of the thermal flux caused by the compensation movements of the control rods. The nitrogen-16 channels on the other hand give an indication of the overall power proportional to the mean fission flux and independent of the rod movements, but their response time is 15 seconds, A constant overall power control is thus possible by a slow correction of the reference signal given by the automatic control governed by thu linear channels by means of a correction term given by the 'N-16' channels: This is done automatically in Melusine and manually in Siloe. (authors) [fr

  17. Data storage and data access at H1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerhards, R.; Kleinwort, C.; Kruener-Marquis, U.; Niebergall, F.

    1996-01-01

    The electron proton collider HERA at the DESY laboratory in Hamburg and the H1 experiment are now in successful operation for more than three years. The H1 experiment is logging data at an average rate of 500KB/s which results in a yearly raw data volume of several Terabytes. The data are reconstructed with a delay of only a few hours, also yielding several Terabytes of reconstructed data after physics oriented event classification. Physics analysis is performed on a SGI Challenge computer, equipped with about 500 GB of disk and, since a couple of months, direct access to a Storage Tek ACS 4400 silo. The disk space is mainly devoted to store the reconstructed data in very compressed format (typically 5 to 10 KB per event). This allows for very efficient and fast physics analysis. Monte Carlo data, on the other hand, are kept in the ACS silo and staged to disk on demand. (author)

  18. Mesquite pod meal in elephant grass silages - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v35i3.12506

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otávio Rodrigues Machado Neto

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the chemical composition and in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD of elephant grass silages at different growth stages (70, 90 and 110 days, with the addition (0, 5, 10 and 15%, on a fresh matter basis of mesquite pod meal. A completely randomized design (CRD was used in a factorial arrangement with four replications. PVC pipes 100 mm in diameter were used as experimental silos. After 30 days of ensilage, samples were taken from the open silos to determine chemical composition and IVDMD. The inclusion of mesquite pod meal (MPM increased (p 0.01 was detected between MPM concentrations and elephant grass cutting age for DM, CP and NDF contents in the silages. A decrease (p  

  19. Engineering education research in European Journal of Engineering Education and Journal of Engineering Education: citation and reference discipline analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wankat, Phillip C.; Williams, Bill; Neto, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    The authors, citations and content of European Journal of Engineering Education (EJEE) and Journal of Engineering Education (JEE) in 1973 (JEE, 1975 EJEE), 1983, 1993, 2003, and available 2013 issues were analysed. Both journals transitioned from house organs to become engineering education research (EER) journals, although JEE transitioned first. In this process the number of citations rose, particularly of education and psychology sources; the percentage of research articles increased markedly as did the number of reference disciplines. The number of papers per issue, the number of single author papers, and the citations of science and engineering sources decreased. EJEE has a very broad geographic spread of authors while JEE authors are mainly US based. A 'silo' mentality where general engineering education researchers do not communicate with EER researchers in different engineering disciplines is evident. There is some danger that EER may develop into a silo that does not communicate with technically oriented engineering professors.

  20. Thermal treatment of petroleum contaminated soils - A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bubier, T.W.; Bilello. C.M.

    1993-01-01

    Thermal treatment is a cost-effective treatment method for removing chemicals from contaminated soils. However, detailed applicability studies are lacking. The goals of this paper are to (1) present the results of a thermal treatment study and (2) discuss the specific elements which must be evaluated prior to determining whether thermal treatment is a feasible option for a remediation project. Results of data collected during a pilot study involving thermal treatment of petroleum contaminated soils at a Marine Terminal are presented. The pilot study consisted of thermally treating the C8 through C40 + (gasoline, kerosene, diesel, motor oil, bunker fuel, etc.) hydrocarbon contaminated soils at treatment temperatures ranging from 250 degrees Fahrenheit (degree F) up to 550 degrees F. The low-temperature thermal treatment unit consisted of a rotary kiln with a temperature capacity of approximately 600 degrees F, a baghouse, and a catalytic oxidizer. The soil was monitored for concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons and volatile organic compounds before and after treatment. The results of the pilot study were used to determine if thermal treatment technology is a cost-efficient and effective option of remediating the estimated 300,000 tons of petroleum contaminated soil to acceptable cleanup levels. The low-temperature thermal treatment pilot study was effective in desorbing the short chain hydrocarbons (gasoline and diesel) but was not effective in desorbing the long-chain petroleum hydrocarbons, such as motor oils and bunker fuels, from the soil. This was primarily due to the boiling points of motor oil and bunker fuels which were higher than the temperature capacity of the pilot study treatment equipment. Additional factors that influenced the effectiveness of the desorption process included configuration of the treatment equipment, soil moisture content, soil particle size, and type and concentration of petroleum hydrocarbons