WorldWideScience

Sample records for bunker oils

  1. The Bunker Convention : International Convention on Civil Liability for Bunker Oil Pollition Damage

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the thesis is to examine the International Convention on Civil Liability for Bunker Oil Pollution Damage – the Bunker Convention – that implements a liability and compensation regime for pollution damage caused by spills of oil carried as fuel in the ship’s bunkers. The Bunker Convention will enter into force on 21 November 2008, more than six years after its adoption by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) in 23 March 2001. Firstly, the thesis will provide an overvi...

  2. Bunker C. fuel oil reduces mallard egg hatchability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szaro, R.C.

    1979-01-01

    Assessment of the effect of Bunker C fuel oil on artificially-incubated mallard eggs. Eggshell applications of 5-50 ul of Bunker C fuel oil were made on day 8 of incubation; measured hatching success.

  3. 19 CFR 10.62 - Bunker fuel oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bunker fuel oil. 10.62 Section 10.62 Customs... Equipment for Vessels § 10.62 Bunker fuel oil. (a) Withdrawal under section 309, Tariff Act of 1930, as... section 309, Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (19 U.S.C. 1309), when all the bunker fuel oil in a...

  4. Chemical dispersibility study of heavy bunker fuel oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiocco, R. J. [R. J. Fiocco Associates, Summit, NJ (United States); Daling, P. S. [SINTEF, Trondheim, (Norway); DeMarco, G.; Lessard, R. R. [Exxon Research and Engineering Company, Florham Park, NJ (United States); Canevari, G. P. [G. P. Canevari and Associates, Cranford, NJ (United States)

    1999-08-01

    Chemical dispersibility of heavy bunker fuel oil, which historically has been characterized as not dispersible, was studied, using the well-known SINTEF methodology for evaluating the dispersibility of fresh and weathered oils. Several heavy fuel oils, specifically IFO-380 fuel oils, were involved in the study. Corexit 9500, which has been shown to be effective for viscous and weathered oils, was used as the dispersant. Results indicated that in many cases heavy fuel oils are dispersible, and that viscosity and dispersant dosage are particularly important factors. As a general rule, more viscous and weathered oils were found to require longer time for the dispersion process to occur. The standard SINTEF laboratory effectiveness test, particularly the 60-minute extended -time MNS tests, have been found to be very useful in characterizing heavy fuel oil dispersibility. 17 refs., 5 tabs., 1 fig.

  5. Chemical dispersibility study of heavy bunker fuel oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiocco, R. J. [R. J. Fiocco Associates, Summit, NJ (United States); Daling, P. S. [SINTEF, Trondheim, (Norway); DeMarco, G.; Lessard, R. R. [Exxon Research and Engineering Company, Florham Park, NJ (United States); Canevari, G. P. [G. P. Canevari and Associates, Cranford, NJ (United States)

    1999-07-01

    Chemical dispersibility of heavy bunker fuel oil, which historically has been characterized as not dispersible, was studied, using the well-known SINTEF methodology for evaluating the dispersibility of fresh and weathered oils. Several heavy fuel oils, specifically IFO-380 fuel oils, were involved in the study. Corexit 9500, which has been shown to be effective for viscous and weathered oils, was used as the dispersant. Results indicated that in many cases heavy fuel oils are dispersible, and that viscosity and dispersant dosage are particularly important factors. As a general rule, more viscous and weathered oils were found to require longer time for the dispersion process to occur. The standard SINTEF laboratory effectiveness test, particularly the 60-minute extended -time MNS tests, have been found to be very useful in characterizing heavy fuel oil dispersibility. 17 refs., 5 tabs., 1 fig.

  6. Chemical dispersibility study of heavy bunker fuel oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiocco, R. J. (R. J. Fiocco Associates, Summit, NJ (United States)); Daling, P. S. (SINTEF, Trondheim, (Norway)); DeMarco, G.; Lessard, R. R. (Exxon Research and Engineering Company, Florham Park, NJ (United States)); Canevari, G. P. (G. P. Canevari and Associates, Cranford, NJ (United States))

    1999-01-01

    Chemical dispersibility of heavy bunker fuel oil, which historically has been characterized as not dispersible, was studied, using the well-known SINTEF methodology for evaluating the dispersibility of fresh and weathered oils. Several heavy fuel oils, specifically IFO-380 fuel oils, were involved in the study. Corexit 9500, which has been shown to be effective for viscous and weathered oils, was used as the dispersant. Results indicated that in many cases heavy fuel oils are dispersible, and that viscosity and dispersant dosage are particularly important factors. As a general rule, more viscous and weathered oils were found to require longer time for the dispersion process to occur. The standard SINTEF laboratory effectiveness test, particularly the 60-minute extended -time MNS tests, have been found to be very useful in characterizing heavy fuel oil dispersibility. 17 refs., 5 tabs., 1 fig.

  7. Ultrasound-assisted oxidative desulfurization of bunker-C oil using tert-butyl hydroperoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qiong; Lin, Song; Cheng, Ying; Liu, Sujun; Xiong, Jun-Ru

    2013-09-01

    This work investigated the ultrasonic assisted oxidative desulfurization of bunker-C oil with TBHP/MoO3 system. The operational parameters for the desulfurization procedure such as ultrasonic irradiation time, ultrasonic wave amplitude, catalyst initial concentration and oxidation agent initial concentration were studied. The experimental results show that the present oxidation system was very efficient for the desulfurization of bunker-C oil and ~35% sulfur was removed which was dependent on operational parameters. The application of ultrasonic irradiation allowed sulfur removal in a shorter time. The stronger the solvent polarity is, the higher the sulfur removal rate, but the recovery rate of oil is lower. The sulfur compounds in bunker-C oil reacted with TBHP to produce corresponding sulfoxide, and further oxidation produced the corresponding sulfone. PMID:23538118

  8. Biodesulfurization of model compounds and de-asphalted bunker oil by mixed culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xia; Yang, Senlin; Li, Wangling

    2014-01-01

    In this study, complicated model sulfur compounds in bunker oil and de-asphalted bunker oil were biodesulfurized in a batch process by microbial consortium enriched from oil sludge. Dibenzothiophene (DBT) and benzo[b]naphtho[1,2-d]thiophene (BNT1) were selected as model sulfur compounds. The results show that the mixed culture was able to grow by utilizing DBT and BNT1 as the sole sulfur source, while the cell density was higher using DBT than BNT1 as the sulfur source. GC-MS analysis of their desulfurized metabolites indicates that both DBT and BNT1 could be desulfurized through the sulfur-specific degradation pathway with the selective cleavage of carbon-sulfur bonds. When DBT and BNT1 coexisted, the biodesulfurization efficiency of BNT1 decreased significantly as the DBT concentrations increased (>0.1 mmol/L). BNT1 desulfurization efficiency also decreased along with the increase of 2-hydroxybiphenyl as the end product of DBT desulfurization. For real bunker oil, only 2.8 % of sulfur was removed without de-asphalting after 7 days of biotreatment. After de-asphalting, the biodesulfurization efficiency was significantly improved (26.2-36.5 %), which is mainly attributed to fully mixing of the oil and water due to the decreased viscosity of bunker oil. PMID:24046256

  9. Potent phototoxicity of marine bunker oil to translucent herring embryos after prolonged weathering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P Incardona

    Full Text Available Pacific herring embryos (Clupea pallasi spawned three months following the Cosco Busan bunker oil spill in San Francisco Bay showed high rates of late embryonic mortality in the intertidal zone at oiled sites. Dead embryos developed to the hatching stage (e.g. fully pigmented eyes before suffering extensive tissue deterioration. In contrast, embryos incubated subtidally at oiled sites showed evidence of sublethal oil exposure (petroleum-induced cardiac toxicity with very low rates of mortality. These field findings suggested an enhancement of oil toxicity through an interaction between oil and another environmental stressor in the intertidal zone, such as higher levels of sunlight-derived ultraviolet (UV radiation. We tested this hypothesis by exposing herring embryos to both trace levels of weathered Cosco Busan bunker oil and sunlight, with and without protection from UV radiation. Cosco Busan oil and UV co-exposure were both necessary and sufficient to induce an acutely lethal necrotic syndrome in hatching stage embryos that closely mimicked the condition of dead embryos sampled from oiled sites. Tissue levels of known phototoxic polycyclic aromatic compounds were too low to explain the observed degree of phototoxicity, indicating the presence of other unidentified or unmeasured phototoxic compounds derived from bunker oil. These findings provide a parsimonious explanation for the unexpectedly high losses of intertidal herring spawn following the Cosco Busan spill. The chemical composition and associated toxicity of bunker oils should be more thoroughly evaluated to better understand and anticipate the ecological impacts of vessel-derived spills associated with an expanding global transportation network.

  10. Drivers, Options and Approaches for Two Seaport Authorities on the Joint Reduction of Bunker Oil Related Emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stikkelman, R.M.; Minnée, M.G.; Prinssen, M.M.W.J.; Correljé, A.F.

    2012-01-01

    The international agreements, made by International Maritime Organization in 2008 are an encouraging start to reduce the SO2 emissions caused by the use of bunker oil. Port authorities are confronted with a dilemma. From an environmental point of view, a proactive attitude is preferred. However, a u

  11. Monitoring of Olympic National Park Beaches to determine fate and effects of spilled bunker C fuel oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strand, J.A.; Cullinan, V.I.; Crecelius, E.A.; Fortman, T.J.; Citterman, R.J.; Fleischmann, M.L.

    1990-10-01

    On December 23, 1988, the barge Nestucca was accidentally struck by its tow, a Souse Brothers Towing Company tug, releasing approximately 230,000 gallons of Bunker C fuel oil and fouling beaches from Grays Harbor north to Vancouver Island. Affected beaches in Washington included a 40-mile-long strip that has been recently added to Olympic National Park. The purpose of the monitoring program documented in this report was to determine the fate of spilled Bunker C fuel oil on selected Washington coastal beaches. We sought to determine (1) how much oil remained in intertidal and shallow subtidal habitats following clean-up and weathering, (2) to what extent intertidal and/or shallow subtidal biotic assemblages have been contaminated, and (3) how rapidly the oil has left the ecosystem. 45 refs., 18 figs., 8 tabs.

  12. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon body residues and lysosomal membrane destabilization in mussels exposed to the Dubai Star bunker fuel oil (intermediate fuel oil 380) spill in San Francisco Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Hyun-Min; Stanton, Beckye; McBride, Toby; Anderson, Michael J

    2014-05-01

    Following the spill of bunker fuel oil (intermediate fuel oil 380, approximately 1500-3000 L) into San Francisco Bay in October 2009, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in mussels from moderately oiled areas increased up to 87 554 ng/g (dry wt) and, 3 mo later, decreased to concentrations found in mussels collected prior to oiling, with a biological half-life of approximately 16 d. Lysosomal membrane destabilization increased in mussels with higher PAH body burdens.

  13. Degradation of Bunker C Fuel Oil by White-Rot Fungi in Sawdust Cultures Suggests Potential Applications in Bioremediation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darcy Young

    Full Text Available Fungal lignocellulolytic enzymes are promising agents for oxidizing pollutants. This study investigated degradation of Number 6 "Bunker C" fuel oil compounds by the white-rot fungi Irpex lacteus, Trichaptum biforme, Phlebia radiata, Trametes versicolor, and Pleurotus ostreatus (Basidiomycota, Agaricomycetes. Averaging across all studied species, 98.1%, 48.6%, and 76.4% of the initial Bunker C C10 alkane, C14 alkane, and phenanthrene, respectively were degraded after 180 days of fungal growth on pine media. This study also investigated whether Bunker C oil induces changes in gene expression in the white-rot fungus Punctularia strigosozonata, for which a complete reference genome is available. After 20 days of growth, a monokaryon P. strigosozonata strain degraded 99% of the initial C10 alkane in both pine and aspen media but did not affect the amounts of the C14 alkane or phenanthrene. Differential gene expression analysis identified 119 genes with ≥ log2(2-fold greater expression in one or more treatment comparisons. Six genes were significantly upregulated in media containing oil; these genes included three enzymes with potential roles in xenobiotic biotransformation. Carbohydrate metabolism genes showing differential expression significantly accumulated transcripts on aspen vs. pine substrates, perhaps reflecting white-rot adaptations to growth on hardwood substrates. The mechanisms by which P. strigosozonata may degrade complex oil compounds remain obscure, but degradation results of the 180-day cultures suggest that diverse white-rot fungi have promise for bioremediation of petroleum fuels.

  14. Effects of an experimental oil spill (bunker on seedling survival and growth rate of Laguncularia racemosa (Combretaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanoela Nardes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of bunker oil on survival and growth rate of Laguncularia racemosa were tested using 60 seedlings planted in small plastic bags (experimental unit. One of the six treatments was randomly assigned to each bag: 0 mL (control, 10 mL, 20 mL, 30 mL, 40 mL e 50 mL of bunker oil spilled in each bag. The experiment was monitored weekly for 20 weeks. The results were analyzed by repeated measure ANOVA and linear regression. In the first seven weeks, we observed chlorosis, loss of leafs and death rate significantly superior to plants of all treatments compared to the control group. Persistent effects like reduction of stem growth and leaf production was proportional to the initial oil concentration. The plants from control and 10 mL treatments were significantly superior to all remaining treatments in height, leaf number and healthy level. Results indicated that L. racemosa seedlings suffer both lethal and sublethal effects from exposition to bunker oil exposure.

  15. Degradation of Bunker C Fuel Oil by White-Rot Fungi in Sawdust Cultures Suggests Potential Applications in Bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Darcy; Rice, James; Martin, Rachael; Lindquist, Erika; Lipzen, Anna; Grigoriev, Igor; Hibbett, David

    2015-01-01

    Fungal lignocellulolytic enzymes are promising agents for oxidizing pollutants. This study investigated degradation of Number 6 "Bunker C" fuel oil compounds by the white-rot fungi Irpex lacteus, Trichaptum biforme, Phlebia radiata, Trametes versicolor, and Pleurotus ostreatus (Basidiomycota, Agaricomycetes). Averaging across all studied species, 98.1%, 48.6%, and 76.4% of the initial Bunker C C10 alkane, C14 alkane, and phenanthrene, respectively were degraded after 180 days of fungal growth on pine media. This study also investigated whether Bunker C oil induces changes in gene expression in the white-rot fungus Punctularia strigosozonata, for which a complete reference genome is available. After 20 days of growth, a monokaryon P. strigosozonata strain degraded 99% of the initial C10 alkane in both pine and aspen media but did not affect the amounts of the C14 alkane or phenanthrene. Differential gene expression analysis identified 119 genes with ≥ log2(2-fold) greater expression in one or more treatment comparisons. Six genes were significantly upregulated in media containing oil; these genes included three enzymes with potential roles in xenobiotic biotransformation. Carbohydrate metabolism genes showing differential expression significantly accumulated transcripts on aspen vs. pine substrates, perhaps reflecting white-rot adaptations to growth on hardwood substrates. The mechanisms by which P. strigosozonata may degrade complex oil compounds remain obscure, but degradation results of the 180-day cultures suggest that diverse white-rot fungi have promise for bioremediation of petroleum fuels.

  16. Biodegradation of Heavy C Oil by Alcanivorax sp. a1 Strain Isolated from Recovered Bunker Oil Spilt in the “Solar I” Accident

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshikawa, Takeshi; Murata, Kei; Uno, Seiichi; Koyama, Jiro; Maeda, Hiroto; Hayashi, Masazumi; Sadaba, Resurreccion B.

    2010-01-01

    The genus Alcanivorax is known as a petroleum hydrocarbon degrader and primarily contributes to bioremediation process of hydrocarbon pollution in petroleum-contaminated marine environments. In the present study, biodegradability of heavy C oil constituents by Alcanivorax sp. a1 strain, isolated from bunker oil recovered from the “Solar1” oil spill accident offshore the Guimaras Island, the Philippines in 2006, was investigated. The isolate showed remarkable growth in UPFe medium supplemen...

  17. Acute Toxicity of Water-Accommodated Fraction and Chemically Enhanced WAF of Bunker C Oil and Dispersant to a Microalga Tetraselmis tetrathele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santander-Avanceña, Sheryll S; Sadaba, Resurreccion B; Taberna, Hilario S; Tayo, Gilma T; Koyama, Jiro

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the toxicity of water-accommodated fraction (WAF) and chemically enhanced WAF (CEWAF) of bunker C oil and dispersant (DISP) to a microalga, Tetraselmis tetrathele. The 72-h median effective concentration (72-h EC50) of CEWAF and DISP were determined at 3.30% and 2.40%, respectively. The no observed effect concentration (NOEC) of CEWAF to T. tetrathele was at 2.0% and lowest observed effect concentration (LOEC) was at 3.0% while NOEC and LOEC of DISP to T. tetrathele were determined at 1.0% and 2.0%, respectively. The addition of dispersant to oil increased the amount of total PAH present in the CEWAF test solutions. DISP alone was highly toxic, and the toxicity of CEWAF was primarily caused by the presence of dispersant.

  18. Bunker purchasing with contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Christian Edinger Munk; Neergaard Jensen, Peter; Pisinger, David

    2014-01-01

    The cost for bunker fuel represents a major part of the daily running costs of liner shipping vessels. The vessels, sailing on a fixed roundtrip of ports, can lift bunker at these ports, having differing and fluctuating prices. The stock of bunker on a vessel is subject to a number of operational...... constraints such as capacity limits, reserve requirements and sulphur content. Contracts are often used for bunker purchasing, ensuring supply and often giving a discounted price. A contract can supply any vessel in a period and port, and is thus a shared resource between vessels, which must be distributed...

  19. Bunker C tank cars derailment in remote region of Labrador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods of cleaning up following a 1994 train derailment involving six Bunker C tank cars in a remote region of Labrador were described. 345,000 litres of Bunker C spilled in a ditch, through a culvert and into a section of the Summit River. Methods used in the reclamation of the bunker oil from the tank cars, from inside the culvert, and from the bottom of the Summit River were also reviewed.Principal problems encountered in the clean-up included severe winter conditions, remoteness of the spill site, and the onset of spring breakup. 3 figs., 3 tabs

  20. National Assembly report on the bill authorizing joining the 2001 International Convention on Civil Liability for Bunker Oil Pollution Damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report first gives an overview of the progressive implementation of measures and international convention to prevent pollution by ships: the Oilpol convention (Convention for the Prevention of Pollution of the Sea by Oil), the Marpol convention (Marine Pollution), and the different international conventions on liability and compensation (International Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution, International Convention on Liability and Compensation for Damage in Connection with the Carriage of Hazardous and Noxious Substances by Sea, convention on other damages). It also describes the French system to struggle against marine pollution. Then, it presents the main arrangements of the 2001 Convention (liability, mandatory insurance and certificate, and so on), expresses some reserves on the chosen arrangement, and comments the impact of this convention

  1. Monitoring of bunker fuel consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faber, J.; Nelissen, D.; Smit, M.

    2013-03-15

    Monitoring of fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions from international shipping is currently under discussion at the EU level as well as at the IMO (International Maritime Organization). There are several approaches to monitoring, each with different characteristics. Based on a survey of the literature and information from equipment suppliers, this report analyses the four main methods for monitoring emissions: (1) Bunker delivery notes (i.e. a note provided by the bunker fuel supplier specifying, inter alia, the amount of fuel bunkered); (2) Tank sounding (i.e. systems for measuring the amount of fuel in the fuel tanks); (3) Fuel flow meters (i.e. systems for measuring the amount of fuel supplied to the engines, generators or boilers); and (4) Direct emissions monitoring (i.e. measuring the exhaust emissions in the stack). The report finds that bunker delivery notes and tank soundings have the lowest investment cost. However, unless tank sounding is automated, these systems have higher operational costs than fuel flow meters or direct emissions monitoring because manual readings have to be entered in monitoring systems. Fuel flow meters have the highest potential accuracy. Depending on the technology selected, their accuracy can be an order of magnitude better than the other systems, which typically have errors of a few percent. By providing real-time feed-back on fuel use or emissions, fuel flow meters and direct emissions monitoring provide ship operators with the means to train their crew to adopt fuel-efficient sailing methods and to optimise their maintenance and hull cleaning schedules. Except for bunker delivery notes, all systems allow for both time-based and route-based (or otherwise geographically delineated) systems.

  2. RESEARCH AND IMPROVEMENT OF SPIRAL BUNKER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董正筑; 曹璎珞; 王启广

    1996-01-01

    A great attention has been paid to slowing the degradation of coal nowadays. The spiral bunker is the main measure to lower the degradation. In this paper the application and research of spiral bunker are introduced. And two non-normal spiral chutes are discussed. One is in the tangential direction of the inner wall of the bunker, another is in the direction of the diameter of the bunker. Mathematical models of the non-normal spiral chutes are set up to optimize the geometrical parameters of the spiral curved surface, which would ensure that coal travels smoothly to the bottom of the bunker. The results would be useful for designing and retrofitting the spiral bunker.

  3. Persistence, biodegradation and biological impact of Bunker C residues in Black Duck Cove, Nova Scotia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K.; Wohlgeschaffen, G. D.; Tremblay, G. H. [Dept. of Fisheries and Oceans of Canada, Inst. Maurice-Lamontagne, Mont Joli, PQ (Canada); Vandermeulen, D. C.; Mossman, K. G. [Dept. of Fisheries and Oceans of Canada, Bedford Inst. of Oceanography, Dartmouth, NS (Canada); Doe, K. G.; Jackman, P. M. [Environment Canada, Environmental Science Center, Moncton, NB (Canada); Prince, R. C.; Garrett, R. M.; Haith, C. E. [Exxon Research and Engineering Company, Annandale, NJ (United States)

    1998-12-31

    In 1970, approximately 2,045 cubic metres of Bunker C oil impacted on 300 km of Nova Scotia`s coastline following the grounding of the tanker `Arrow`. Only 10 per cent of the coastline was subjected to cleanup, the remainder was left to degrade naturally. Samples of sediments were collected in 1993 and 1997 in order to assess the attenuation processes on the reduction of toxicity within sediments and interstitial waters at Black Duck Cove, one of the untreated sites where residual oil was clearly evident. Detailed chemical analyses showed that the Bunker C oil at this site has undergone substantial biodegradation. Over the 20 plus years since the oil spill the toxicity of the residual oil has been significantly reduced and there is substantial evidence of habitat recovery.

  4. Persistence, biodegradation and biological impact of Bunker C residues in Black Duck Cove, Nova Scotia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K.; Wohlgeschaffen, G. D.; Tremblay, G. H. [Dept. of Fisheries and Oceans of Canada, Inst. Maurice-Lamontagne, Mont Joli, PQ (Canada); Vandermeulen, D. C.; Mossman, K. G. [Dept. of Fisheries and Oceans of Canada, Bedford Inst. of Oceanography, Dartmouth, NS (Canada); Doe, K. G.; Jackman, P. M. [Environment Canada, Environmental Science Center, Moncton, NB (Canada); Prince, R. C.; Garrett, R. M.; Haith, C. E. [Exxon Research and Engineering Company, Annandale, NJ (United States)

    1998-07-01

    In 1970, approximately 2,045 cubic metres of Bunker C oil impacted on 300 km of Nova Scotia's coastline following the grounding of the tanker 'Arrow'. Only 10 per cent of the coastline was subjected to cleanup, the remainder was left to degrade naturally. Samples of sediments were collected in 1993 and 1997 in order to assess the attenuation processes on the reduction of toxicity within sediments and interstitial waters at Black Duck Cove, one of the untreated sites where residual oil was clearly evident. Detailed chemical analyses showed that the Bunker C oil at this site has undergone substantial biodegradation. Over the 20 plus years since the oil spill the toxicity of the residual oil has been significantly reduced and there is substantial evidence of habitat recovery.

  5. Routing and Scheduling in Tramp Shipping - Integrating Bunker Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilhelmsen, Charlotte; Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper

    operations. Therefore, route and schedule decisions a_ect the options for bunkering. Current practice is, however, to separate the two planning problems by first constructing fleet schedules and then plan bunkering for these fixed schedules. In this paper we explore the effects of integrating bunker planning...... in the routing and scheduling phase and present a mixed integer programming formulation for the integrated problem of optimally routing, scheduling and bunkering a tramp fleet. Aside from the integration of bunker, this model also extends standard tramp formulations by using load dependent costs......, speed and bunker consumption. We devise a solution method based on column generation with a dynamic programming algorithm to generate columns. The method is heuristic mainly due to a discretization of the continuous bunker purchase variables. We show that the integrated planning approach can increase...

  6. Routing and Scheduling in Tramp Shipping - Integrating Bunker Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilhelmsen, Charlotte; Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper

    , route and schedule decisions affect the options for bunkering. Current practice is, however, to separate the two planning problems by first constructing fleet schedules and then plan bunkering for these fixed schedules. In this paper we explore the effects of integrating bunker planning in the routing...... and scheduling phase and present a mixed integer programming formulation for the integrated problem of optimally routing, scheduling and bunkering a tramp fleet. Aside from the integration of bunker, this model also extends standard tramp formulations by using load dependent costs, speed and bunker...... consumption. We devise a solution method based on column generation with a dynamic programming algorithm to generate columns. The method is heuristic mainly due to a discretization of the continuous bunker purchase variables. We show that the integrated planning approach can increase profits and that the...

  7. Aerated bunker discharge of fine dilating powders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouwerkerk, C.E.D.; Molenaar, H.J.; Frank, M.J.W.

    1992-01-01

    The discharge rate of coarse powders (mean particle size 500 ¿m) from bunkers without aeration can be described by both empirical relations and theoretical models. In the case of small particles the discharge rate is largely overestimated. As the powder dilates during flow a negative pressure gradie

  8. Impact resistance cryogenic bunker fuel tanks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voormeeren, L.O.; Atli-Veltin, B.; Vredeveldt, A.W.

    2014-01-01

    The increasing use of liquefied natural gas (LNG) as bunker fuel in ships, calls for an elaborate study regarding the risks involved. One particular issue is the vulnerability of cryogenic LNG storage tanks with respect to impact loadings, such as ship collisions and dropped objects. This requires a

  9. Tramp ship routing and scheduling with integrated bunker optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilhelmsen, Charlotte; Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    A tramp ship operator typically has some contracted cargoes that must be carried and seeks to maximize prot by carrying optional cargoes. Hence, tramp ships operate much like taxies following available cargoes and not according to a fixed route network and itinerary as liner ships. Marine fuel......, route and schedule decisions affect the options for bunkering. Current practice is, however, to separate the two planning problems by first constructing fleet schedules and then plan bunkering for these fixed schedules. In this paper we explore the effects of integrating bunker planning in the routing...... and scheduling phase and present a mixed integer programming formulation for the integrated problem of optimally routing, scheduling and bunkering a tramp fleet. Aside from the integration of bunker, this model also extends standard tramp formulations by using load dependent costs, speed and bunker consumption...

  10. Beating the Bunker: The Effect of PETTLEP Imagery on Golf Bunker Shot Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Dave; Wright, Caroline J.; Cantwell, Cara

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of physical practice with PETTLEP-based (Physical, Environment, Task, Timing, Learning, Emotion and Perspective; Holmes & Collins, 2001) imagery and PETTLEP + physical practice interventions on golf bunker shot performance. Thirty-two male county- or international-level golfers were assigned to one…

  11. Beating the bunker: the effect of PETTLEP imagery on golf bunker shot performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Dave; Wright, Caroline J; Cantwell, Cara

    2008-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of physical practice with PETTLEP-based (Physical, Environment, Task, Timing, Learning, Emotion and Perspective; Holmes & Collins, 2001) imagery and PETTLEP + physical practice interventions on golf bunker shot performance. Thirty-two male county- or international-level golfers were assigned to one of four groups; PETTLEP imagery, physical practice, PETTLEP + physical practice, or control. The PETTLEP imagery group imaged 15 bunker shots, their interventions incorporating PETTLEP components, such as physical, environment, and emotion, twice a week. The physical practice group physically performed their 15 bunker shots twice per week; the PETTLEP + physical practice group performed PETTLEP imagery once per week and physical practice once per week. Each group performed their respective tasks for 6 weeks. Pre- and posttests consisted of 15 bunker shots, with points awarded according to the ball proximity to the pin. All groups improved significantly (p .05). Findings, therefore, support the effectiveness of PETTLEP in enhancing golf performance, especially when combined with physical practice. PMID:18816950

  12. RADIATION PROTECTION OF LINAC BUNKERS. A USER-FRIENDLY APPROACH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holten Sørensen, Thyge; Olsen, Kjeld Jørgen; Behrens, Claus Flensted

    2015-01-01

    A well-known but complex formalism for the calculation of the leakage dose at the entrance of the linac maze was considered and simplified. These simplifications were based partly on the literature and partly on the authors' own measurements. The authors have included photon scatter originating...... from the irradiated patient in the formalism. A formalism for two different types of bunkers was developed, and the authors have obtained simple formulas to calculate the dose at the maze entrance for both bunker types....

  13. Development of coal store and transportation technology using horizontal coal bunker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Jian-sheng; CHEN Qing-shu

    2005-01-01

    Discussed the necessity of setting up the coal bunker in mining, introduced the development of coal bunker technology, combining the mining characteristic of the high yield and high-efficient working face in China at present, and point out that the type of horizontal coal bunker, is a kind of security, high-efficient coal store and transportation technology of suiting the modern production need of the colliery, is the developing direction of technology of store and transportation of coal bunker.

  14. Bunker door interlock limit issues of K-130 cyclotron, VECC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The K-130 cyclotron is in operation at VECC, Kolkata. Recently modernization of the cyclotron has taken place. Central region modification has increased reasonable internal beam current. During the tuning of the projectiles, loss of beam is unavoidable and projectiles hitting different parts of the machine inside the vacuum chamber . These interactions produce prompt radiation comprising neutron and gamma. However machine bunker is not accessible during the operation of the machine. The induced activity produced because of interactions of the primary and secondary radiation a radiation hazardous environment during the shut down for the related maintenance work. Area radiation monitors placed at machine bunker room have the interlock with massive shield door of the bunker. Area radiation monitors are set to specified limiting value, lower than that will allow to open the shield door in normal condition. As, the internal beam current being increased and the probability of beam spread being more. Consequently generation of induced activity is also high leading to delay in machine bunker door opening because of the interlock settings. Radiation dose mapping after a long operation of the machine was done for the different strategic points (The locations mainly people access immediate after shut down). Different consequences and remedial measures being presented in paper to raise the dose rate limit level for the interlocks between the area radiation monitors with machine bunker door, keeping in mind of the regulatory requirements. Raising the limit of dose rate limiting value will minimize the waiting time to access the machine bunker which will increase the duty factor of the machine. (author)

  15. Integrated hedging and network planning for container shipping's bunker fuel management

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoyu Wang; Chee-Chong Teo

    2013-01-01

    Bunker fuel costs could account for 50–60 per cent of a ship's total operating cost in times of high fuel prices. The volatility of the bunker market over recent years has contributed to significant instability of cash flows for shipping lines. In this study, we consider two of the bunker fuel risk management measures employed by container shipping companies to reduce bunker fuel price risk – re-planning of network configuration and financial hedging of bunker fuel prices. The current industr...

  16. FUZZY CONTROLLED AUTOMATION SYSTEM FOR THE MAIN COAL BUNKER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵良杉; 叶景楼; 付华

    1997-01-01

    A fuzzy control scheme is presented according to the coal quantity in the main coal bunker, this method has a good dynamic response characteristic and is suited for complex nonlinear systems. The designation of self-adopting fuzzy controller, the working principle and functions of this system are also proposed, with the hardware and the main flow diagram of this system introduced in this paper.

  17. Fuel oil and kerosene sales 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    The Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales 1997 report provides information, illustrations and state-level statistical data on end-use sales of kerosene; No. 1, No. 2, and No. 4 distillate fuel oil; and residual fuel oil. State-level kerosene sales include volumes for residential, commercial, industrial, farm, and all other uses. State-level distillate sales include volumes for residential, commercial, industrial, oil company, railroad, vessel bunkering, military, electric utility, farm, on-highway, off highway construction, and other uses. State-level residual fuel sales include volumes for commercial, industrial, oil company, vessel bunkering, military, electric utility, and other uses. 24 tabs.

  18. 78 FR 35314 - Availability of Final Environmental Impact Statement; Bunker Hill Groundwater Basin, Riverside...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    ..., 2011 (76 FR 3655). The Environmental Protection Agency Notice of Availability was published on January... Bureau of Reclamation Availability of Final Environmental Impact Statement; Bunker Hill Groundwater Basin... capacity in the Bunker Hill Groundwater Basin and the Chino Basin. We issued a Notice of Intent on...

  19. Earth-mounded concrete bunker PLAP technical approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eng, R.

    1989-11-01

    Under the US DOE Prototype License Application Project (PLAP), Ebasco Services Incorporated was commissioned to develop a preliminary design of the Earth-Mounded Concrete Bunker (EMCB) concept for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal. The EMCB disposal concept is of great interest because it represents the only engineered LLW disposal technology currently in use in the commercial sector. By definition, the EMCB disposal structure is located partially below grade and partially above grade. The concrete bunker is an engineered structure designed to be structurally stable for the prerequisite time horizon. The basic design parameters of the disposal facility were stipulated by US DOE, a northeast site location, representative waste, 30 year operational life, and a 250,000 ft{sup 3}/year disposal capacity. The design was developed to satisfy only US NRC Part 61 disposal requirements, not individual state requirements that may go beyond Part 61 requirements. The technical safety analysis of the preliminary design was documented according to the format specifications of NUREG-1199, to the extent practicable with quite limited resources.

  20. Effects of an oil spill in a harbor assessed using biomarkers of exposure in eelpout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturve, Joachim; Balk, Lennart; Liewenborg, Birgitta; Adolfsson-Erici, Margaretha; Förlin, Lars; Carney Almroth, Bethanie

    2014-12-01

    Oil spills occur commonly, and chemical compounds originating from oil spills are widespread in the aquatic environment. In order to monitor effects of a bunker oil spill on the aquatic environment, biomarker responses were measured in eelpout (Zoarces viviparus) sampled along a gradient in Göteborg harbor where the oil spill occurred and at a reference site, 2 weeks after the oil spill. Eelpout were also exposed to the bunker oil in a laboratory study to validate field data. The results show that eelpout from the Göteborg harbor are influenced by contaminants, especially polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), also during "normal" conditions. The bunker oil spill strongly enhanced the biomarker responses. Results show elevated ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activities in all exposed sites, but, closest to the oil spill, the EROD activity was partly inhibited, possibly by PAHs. Elevated DNA adduct levels were also observed after the bunker oil spill. Chemical analyses of bile revealed high concentrations of PAH metabolites in the eelpout exposed to the oil, and the same PAH metabolite profile was evident both in eelpout sampled in the harbor and in the eelpout exposed to the bunker oil in the laboratory study.

  1. Effects of an oil spill in a harbor assessed using biomarkers of exposure in eelpout

    OpenAIRE

    Sturve, Joachim; Balk, Lennart; Liewenborg, Birgitta; Adolfsson-Erici, Margaretha; Förlin, Lars; Carney Almroth, Bethanie

    2014-01-01

    Oil spills occur commonly, and chemical compounds originating from oil spills are widespread in the aquatic environment. In order to monitor effects of a bunker oil spill on the aquatic environment, biomarker responses were measured in eelpout (Zoarces viviparus) sampled along a gradient in Göteborg harbor where the oil spill occurred and at a reference site, 2 weeks after the oil spill. Eelpout were also exposed to the bunker oil in a laboratory study to validate field data. The results show...

  2. Bunker Conversion and the Overcoming of Siege Mentality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Morgan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Bunkers are concrete responses to threats, whether these be real or imagined. They are indicators of a defensive attitude and a siege mentality. My paper wishes to analyse specific sites of historical reinscription, where such constructions have undergone a process of cultural transformation which has converted them into places of creative experimentation, ludic activity and everyday use. Such initiatives in translation are important ways of reworking the past, addressing presents needs and projecting different- less reactive, and maybe more pacific- prospects for the future. A similar undertaking was proposed by Henri de Saint-Simon when he diverted the term “avant-garde” away from its military implementation towards more a progressive usage. The “avant-garde” became an experimental association of artists working together for the benefit of society as an evolving whole.In On Social Organisation Saint-Simon described the “avant-garde” as follows:They [the artists, the men of imagination] will lead the way in that great undertaking; they will proclaim the future of mankind; they will bring back the golden age from the past to enrich future generations; they will inspire society with enthusiasm for the increase of its well-being by laying before it a tempting picture of a new prosperity.Economic “prosperity” might well be an appealing prospect for “us”, especially in these times of “crisis” when “we” are made to feel that our day-to-day existence is precarious. However, when Saint-Simon employs the term “new prosperity”, he is envisaging social values that are largely incompatible with capitalist consumer “culture” and competitive “market forces”. His suggestion that new technologies should serve to nationalize “luxury” and internationalise peace would require a radically different approach to social organisation from that prevalent today. Likewise, the demilitarized bunkers I wish to analyse also figure

  3. Temporal evolution of the environmental dose remaining in a clinical irradiation bunker after the cessation of irradiation; Evolucion temporal de la Dosis ambiental remanente en un bunker de irradiacion clinica tras el cese de la irradiacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz Egea, E.; Sanchez Carrascal, M.; Torres Pozas, S.; Monja Ray, P. de la; Perez Molina, J. L.; Madan Rodriguez, C.; Luque Japon, L.; Morera Molina, A.; Hernandez Perez, A.; Barquero Bravo, Y.; Morengo Pedagna, I.; Oliva Gordillo, M. C.; Martin Olivar, R.

    2011-07-01

    In this paper we try to quantify the dose emitted by different radioactive processes that occur in the head of a clinical linear accelerator and the patient is irradiated, or walls of the bunker, converted into tertiary sources of radiation trying to establish the origin of the came in different parts of the bunker.

  4. Use of maze in cyclotron hoppers; Utilizacao de labirinto em bunker de ciclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Fernando A.; Alves, Juliano S.; Fochesatto, Cintia; Cerioli, Luciane; Borges, Joao Alfredo; Gonzalez, Delfin; Silva, Daniel C., E-mail: fernandofernandes@biofarmaco.com.br [Delfin Farmacos e Derivados (Biofarmaco Marcadores Moleculares), Lauro de Freitas, BA (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Introduction: the increasing number of cyclotrons in Brazil due to constitutional amendment 49 /06 that enabled the production of radiopharmaceuticals with a short half - life by private companies. The radionuclides used for PET - CT require production centers near or within the diagnostic centers. In order to minimize maintenance and operating risks, gaining efficiency, our facility was the first in Brazil to use the access to a cyclotron bunker via maze, rather than armored door stopper type. Materials: the design calculations were based on the Monte Carlo method (MCNP5 - Monte Carlo N-Particletransportcode version 5). At the ends of the labyrinth are installed a door of polyethylene, for thermalization of neutrons, and other of wood for limiting access. Both legs of the maze have wall thickness of 100cm. In inspection Brazilian CNEN realize measures of dose rate for neutrons and gamma 9 points: 7 around the bunker, 1 over the bunker and 1 in the exhaust with the cyclotron operating with maximum load, double beam of 50uA for 2 hours. After commissioning were carried out around the bunker, the following measures: cumulative dose in three months with dosimeters for neutron rate dose with a gas proportional detector type filled with {sup 3}He and polyethylene neutron moderator and dose rate with a Geiger - Mueller detector for gamma radiation. Readings with neutron detectors were classified as background radiation and dose rates were always below the limits established in standard EN 3.01, and the calculation of the predicted regardless of the intensity of irradiation inside the bunker. Conclusion: the use of labyrinths as a way to access the bunkers cyclotron has been shown to be effective as the radiation shielding and efficient by allowing quick and easy access, virtually eliminating the maintenance.

  5. Overview of the earth mounded concrete bunker prototype license application project: Objectives and approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, J.E. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering Lab.

    1989-11-01

    This paper presents an overview of the objectives and approach taken in developing the Earth-mounded Concrete Bunker Prototype License Application Project. The Prototype License Application Project was initiated by the Department of Energy`s National Low-Level Waste Management Program in early 1987 and completed in November 1988. As part of this project a prototype safety analysis report was developed. The safety analysis report evaluates the licensibility of an earth-mounded concrete bunker for a low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facility located on a hypothetical site in the northeastern United States. The project required approximately five person-years and twenty months to develop.

  6. The Psychological Effect of Television Characters: The Case of Archie Bunker and Authoritarian Viewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surlin, Stuart H.; Bowden, Elizabeth

    Reference group theory suggests that a perceived similarity between interacting individuals leads to future interaction, increased source credibility, and more frequent agreement on specific issues. This study shows how the reference group theory applies to the authoritarian television character Archie Bunker and television viewers that watch "All…

  7. Temporal and spatial assessment of microbial communities in commercial silages from bunker silos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraut-Cohen, J; Tripathi, V; Chen, Y; Gatica, J; Volchinski, V; Sela, S; Weinberg, Z; Cytryn, E

    2016-08-01

    Ensiling is a feed preservation method of moist forage crops that generally depends on naturally developing lactic acid bacteria to convert water-soluble carbohydrates into organic acids. While bacterial community dynamics have been previously assessed in bench-scale and pilot ensiling facilities, almost no studies have assessed the microbiomes of large-scale silage facilities. This study analyzed bacterial community composition in mature silage from bunker silos in three commercial production centers as related to pH, organic matter, volatile fatty acid composition, and spatial distribution within the ensiling bunker. It revealed significant physicochemical differences between "preserved" regions situated in the center and along the walls of the silage bunkers that were characterized by high concentrations of lactic acid and other volatiles and pH values below 5, and "spoiled" regions in the corners (shoulders) of the bunkers that had low lactic acid concentrations and high pH values. Preserved silage was dominated (>90 %) by lactic acid bacteria and characterized by high similarity and low taxonomic diversity, whereas spoiled silage had highly diverse microbiomes with low abundances of lactic acid bacteria (<5 %) that were sometimes characterized by high levels of Enterobacteriaceae. Spatial position had a much stronger impact on the microbial community composition than feedstock type, sampling date, or production center location supporting previous studies demonstrating that ecology and not geography is a major driver of environmental microbiomes. PMID:27075739

  8. Lawrence Livermore Laboratory's beryllium control program for high-explosive test firing bunkers and tables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report on the control program to minimize beryllium levels in Laboratory workplaces includes an outline of beryllium surface, soil, and air levels and an 11-y summary of sampling results from two high-use, high-explosive test firing bunkers. These sampling data and other studies demonstrate that the beryllium control program is functioning effectively

  9. A New Small-Scale LNG Distribution and Bunkering Facility: - An Approach to Risk Based Design and Verification

    OpenAIRE

    Steine, Caroline Mortmannsgård Gams

    2013-01-01

    LNG is the preferred solution to meet environmental requirement and a great market growth is expected within few years. Lack of suitable infrastructure, regulation and bunkering practices poses challenges to the industry, however these barriers are currently being broken. Connect-LNG is in a conceptual phase of developing an innovative solution for LNG distribution and bunkering at inshore locations. A study of industry legislatives, normal industry practice, LNG properties and historical acc...

  10. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 214: Bunkers and Storage Areas Nevada Test Site, Nevada: Revision 0, Including Record of Technical Change No. 1 and No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2003-05-16

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 214 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Areas 5, 11, and 25 of the Nevada Test Site, CAU 214 consists of nine Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 05-99-01, Fallout Shelters; 11-22-03, Drum; 25-99-12, Fly Ash Storage; 25-23-01, Contaminated Materials; 25-23-19, Radioactive Material Storage; 25-99-18, Storage Area; 25-34-03, Motor Dr/Gr Assembly (Bunker); 25-34-04, Motor Dr/Gr Assembly (Bunker); and 25-34-05, Motor Dr/Gr Assembly (Bunker). These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives (CAAs). The suspected contaminants and critical analyte s for CAU 214 include oil (total petroleum hydrocarbons-diesel-range organics [TPH-DRO], polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs]), pesticides (chlordane, heptachlor, 4,4-DDT), barium, cadmium, chronium, lubricants (TPH-DRO, TPH-gasoline-range organics [GRO]), and fly ash (arsenic). The land-use zones where CAU 214 CASs are located dictate that future land uses will be limited to nonresidential (i.e., industrial) activities. The results of this field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the corrective action decision document.

  11. Bunker Cave stalagmites: an archive for central European Holocene climate variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Fohlmeister

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Holocene climate was characterised by variability on multi-centennial to multi-decadal time scales. In central Europe, these fluctuations were most pronounced during winter. Here we present a record of past winter climate variability for the last 10.8 ka based on four speleothems from Bunker Cave, western Germany. Due to its central European location, the cave site is particularly well suited to record changes in precipitation and temperature in response to changes in the North Atlantic realm. We present high-resolution records of δ18O, δ13C values and Mg/Ca ratios. Changes in the Mg/Ca ratio are attributed to past meteoric precipitation variability. The stable C isotope composition of the speleothems most likely reflects changes in vegetation and precipitation, and variations in the δ18O signal are interpreted as variations in meteoric precipitation and temperature. We found cold and dry periods between 8 and 7 ka, 6.5 and 5.5 ka, 4 and 3 ka as well as between 0.7 and 0.2 ka. The proxy signals in the Bunker Cave stalagmites compare well with other isotope records and, thus, seem representative for central European Holocene climate variability. The prominent 8.2 ka event and the Little Ice Age cold events are both recorded in the Bunker Cave record. However, these events show a contrasting relationship between climate and δ18O, which is explained by different causes underlying the two climate anomalies. Whereas the Little Ice Age is attributed to a pronounced negative phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation, the 8.2 ka event was triggered by cooler conditions in the North Atlantic due to a slowdown of the thermohaline circulation.

  12. Bunker Cave stalagmites: an archive for central European Holocene climate variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fohlmeister, J.; Schröder-Ritzrau, A.; Scholz, D.; Spötl, C.; Riechelmann, D. F. C.; Mudelsee, M.; Wackerbarth, A.; Gerdes, A.; Riechelmann, S.; Immenhauser, A.; Richter, D. K.; Mangini, A.

    2012-10-01

    Holocene climate was characterised by variability on multi-centennial to multi-decadal time scales. In central Europe, these fluctuations were most pronounced during winter. Here we present a record of past winter climate variability for the last 10.8 ka based on four speleothems from Bunker Cave, western Germany. Due to its central European location, the cave site is particularly well suited to record changes in precipitation and temperature in response to changes in the North Atlantic realm. We present high-resolution records of δ18O, δ13C values and Mg/Ca ratios. Changes in the Mg/Ca ratio are attributed to past meteoric precipitation variability. The stable C isotope composition of the speleothems most likely reflects changes in vegetation and precipitation, and variations in the δ18O signal are interpreted as variations in meteoric precipitation and temperature. We found cold and dry periods between 8 and 7 ka, 6.5 and 5.5 ka, 4 and 3 ka as well as between 0.7 and 0.2 ka. The proxy signals in the Bunker Cave stalagmites compare well with other isotope records and, thus, seem representative for central European Holocene climate variability. The prominent 8.2 ka event and the Little Ice Age cold events are both recorded in the Bunker Cave record. However, these events show a contrasting relationship between climate and δ18O, which is explained by different causes underlying the two climate anomalies. Whereas the Little Ice Age is attributed to a pronounced negative phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation, the 8.2 ka event was triggered by cooler conditions in the North Atlantic due to a slowdown of the thermohaline circulation.

  13. Shielding analysis of the microtron MT-25 bunker using the MCNP-4C code and NCRP report 51

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cyclic electron accelerator Microtron MT-25 will be installed in Havana (Cuba)). Electrons, neutrons and gamma radiation up to 25 MeV can be produced in the MT-25. A detailed shielding analysis for the bunker is carried out using two ways: the NCRP-51 Report and the Monte Carlo Method (MCNP-4C Code). The walls and ceiling thicknesses are estimated with dose constraints of 0.5 and 20 mSv y-1, respectively, and an area occupancy factor of 1/16. Both results are compared and a preliminary bunker design is shown. (authors)

  14. A study on leakage radiation dose at ELV-4 electron accelerator bunker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chulan, Mohd Rizal Md, E-mail: rizal@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my, E-mail: redzuwan@ukm.my; Yahaya, Redzuwan, E-mail: rizal@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my, E-mail: redzuwan@ukm.my [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (Malaysia); Ghazali, Abu BakarMhd [Department of Electronic and Communication, College of Engineering, Universiti Tenaga Nasional (Malaysia)

    2014-09-03

    Shielding is an important aspect in the safety of an accelerator and the most important aspects of a bunker shielding is the door. The bunker’s door should be designed properly to minimize the leakage radiation and shall not exceed the permitted limit of 2.5μSv/hr. In determining the leakage radiation dose that passed through the door and gaps between the door and the wall, 2-dimensional manual calculations are often used. This method is hard to perform because visual 2-dimensional is limited and is also very difficult in the real situation. Therefore estimation values are normally performed. In doing so, the construction cost would be higher because of overestimate or underestimate which require costly modification to the bunker. Therefore in this study, two methods are introduced to overcome the problem such as simulation using MCNPX Version 2.6.0 software and manual calculation using 3-dimensional model from Autodesk Inventor 2010 software. The values from the two methods were eventually compared to the real values from direct measurements using Ludlum Model 3 with Model 44-9 probe survey meter.

  15. Developing a Penetrometer-Based Mapping System for Visualizing Silage Bulk Density from the Bunker Silo Face

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menghua Li

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available For silage production, high bulk density (BD is critical to minimize aerobic deterioration facilitated by oxygen intrusion. To precisely assess packing quality for bunker silos, there is a desire to visualize the BD distribution within the silage. In this study, a penetrometer-based mapping system was developed. The data processing included filtering of the penetration friction component (PFC out of the penetration resistance (PR, transfer of the corrected penetration resistance (PRc to BD, incorporation of Kriged interpolation for data expansion and map generation. The experiment was conducted in a maize bunker silo (width: 8 m, middle height: 3 m. The BD distributions near the bunker silo face were represented using two map groups, one related to horizontal- and the other to vertical-density distribution patterns. We also presented a comparison between the map-based BD results and core sampling data. Agreement between the two measurement approaches (RMSE = 19.175 kg·m−3 demonstrates that the developed penetrometer mapping system may be beneficial for rapid assessment of aerobic deterioration potential in bunker silos.

  16. Developing a Penetrometer-Based Mapping System for Visualizing Silage Bulk Density from the Bunker Silo Face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Menghua; Jungbluth, Kerstin H; Sun, Yurui; Cheng, Qiang; Maack, Christian; Buescher, Wolfgang; Lin, Jianhui; Zhou, Haiyang; Wang, Zhongyi

    2016-07-05

    For silage production, high bulk density (BD) is critical to minimize aerobic deterioration facilitated by oxygen intrusion. To precisely assess packing quality for bunker silos, there is a desire to visualize the BD distribution within the silage. In this study, a penetrometer-based mapping system was developed. The data processing included filtering of the penetration friction component (PFC) out of the penetration resistance (PR), transfer of the corrected penetration resistance (PRc) to BD, incorporation of Kriged interpolation for data expansion and map generation. The experiment was conducted in a maize bunker silo (width: 8 m, middle height: 3 m). The BD distributions near the bunker silo face were represented using two map groups, one related to horizontal- and the other to vertical-density distribution patterns. We also presented a comparison between the map-based BD results and core sampling data. Agreement between the two measurement approaches (RMSE = 19.175 kg·m(-3)) demonstrates that the developed penetrometer mapping system may be beneficial for rapid assessment of aerobic deterioration potential in bunker silos.

  17. 76 FR 21849 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Ships Bunkers Easy Acquisition (SEA) Card® and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-19

    ... the ``Submit a Comment'' screen. Please include your name, company name (if any), and ``DFARS Case... Office of Management and Budget under the Paperwork Reduction Act (44 U.S.C. chapter 35). List of... Regulation Supplement; Ships Bunkers Easy Acquisition (SEA) Card and Aircraft Ground Services (DFARS...

  18. Developing a Penetrometer-Based Mapping System for Visualizing Silage Bulk Density from the Bunker Silo Face

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Menghua; Jungbluth, Kerstin H.; Sun, Yurui; Cheng, Qiang; Maack, Christian; Buescher, Wolfgang; Lin, Jianhui; Zhou, Haiyang; Wang, Zhongyi

    2016-01-01

    For silage production, high bulk density (BD) is critical to minimize aerobic deterioration facilitated by oxygen intrusion. To precisely assess packing quality for bunker silos, there is a desire to visualize the BD distribution within the silage. In this study, a penetrometer-based mapping system was developed. The data processing included filtering of the penetration friction component (PFC) out of the penetration resistance (PR), transfer of the corrected penetration resistance (PRc) to BD, incorporation of Kriged interpolation for data expansion and map generation. The experiment was conducted in a maize bunker silo (width: 8 m, middle height: 3 m). The BD distributions near the bunker silo face were represented using two map groups, one related to horizontal- and the other to vertical-density distribution patterns. We also presented a comparison between the map-based BD results and core sampling data. Agreement between the two measurement approaches (RMSE = 19.175 kg·m−3) demonstrates that the developed penetrometer mapping system may be beneficial for rapid assessment of aerobic deterioration potential in bunker silos. PMID:27399703

  19. World War I chemical weapons bunker engineering evaluation and cost analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig, C.A.; Crotteau, A.

    1995-12-31

    This paper provides a review of the US Army Corps of Engineers development and execution of a CERCLA chemical weapons and soil removal from two World War 1 underground test bunkers. The non-time critical removal action was completed from October 1994 to January 1995 in conjunction with Operation Safe Removal, Spring Valley, Washington, D.C. On January 5, 1993, a startled backhoe operator unearthed three 75mm artillery shells, exposing the legacy of a World War 1 (WWI) chemical weapons test facility in the midst of the nation`s capitol. That discovery, made in an exclusive residential neighborhood, prompted an intensive two year environmental cleanup. The Army immediately responded to the chemical ordnance threat, initiating Operation Safe Removal, a $20 million emergency response action and remedial investigation.

  20. Bunker Cave stalagmites: an archive for central European Holocene climate variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Fohlmeister

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Holocene climate was characterised by variability on multi-centennial to multi-decadal time scales. In central Europe, these fluctuations were most pronounced during winter. Here we present a new record of past winter climate variability for the last 10.8 ka based on four speleothems from Bunker Cave, Western Germany. Due to its central European location, the cave site is particularly well suited to record changes in precipitation and temperature in response to changes in the North Atlantic realm. We present high resolution records of δ18O, δ13C values and Mg/Ca ratios. We attribute changes in the Mg/Ca ratio to variations in the meteoric precipitation. The stable C isotope composition of the speleothems most likely reflects changes in vegetation and precipitation and variations in the δ18O signal are interpreted as variations in meteoric precipitation and temperature. We found cold and dry periods between 9 and 7 ka, 6.5 and 5.5 ka, 4 and 3 ka as well as between 0.7 to 0.2 ka. The proxy signals in our stalagmites compare well with other isotope records and, thus, seem representative for central European Holocene climate variability. The prominent 8.2 ka event and the Little Ice Age cold events are both recorded in the Bunker cave record. However, these events show a contrasting relationship between climate and δ18O, which is explained by different causes underlying the two climate anomalies. Whereas the Little Ice Age is attributed to a pronounced negative phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation, the 8.2 ka event was triggered by cooler conditions in the North Atlantic due to a slowdown of the Thermohaline Circulation.

  1. Analysis of past marine oil spill rates and trends for future contingency planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite the increase in oil production and transportation, the rate of oil spillage has generally decreased over the past 30 years according to U.S. and international marine oil spill data. However, due to greater expectations for effective spill response, complex contingency planning is needed for increasingly rare, high-impact events. This study analyzed past oil spill trends for vessels from 1985-2000 and compared it with potential future spill rates considering the use of double hulls on tankers and bunkers. The paper then presented a methodology for determining theoretical and most-likely worst-case oil spill scenarios for contingency planning for ports. The analyses of spill scenarios included vessels such as tankers, barges, freighters, fishing vessels, and passenger vessels. Probability distribution functions were analyzed to determine various percentile spills and worst-case discharges. Spill data was also analyzed to determine the percentage of cargo or bunker fuel spilled for each incident involving an accidental cause. Theoretical future oil spill volumes were determined based on the use of cargo and fuel-loss percentages and probabilities for different sized and types of vessels from US data on vessels in waters off the Washington coast and Sans Francisco Bay area. It was noted that double hulls on bunkers decrease the probability of spillage upon impact, but they are likely to release just as much oil as single hulled tanks once they are breached. 6 refs., 10 tabs., 34 figs

  2. 双出口新型煤斗设计探讨%Design of Double Outlets New Bunker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎大胜; 沈鸿彪

    2013-01-01

    双出口的新型煤斗整体呈“裤型”,外形变化复杂,结构设计的难度相当大,该煤斗设计的关键是要处理好“裆”部的应力和变形问题,设置中间竖向钢板能很好的起到控制应力和变形的作用。%the Double Outlets New Bunker looks like a trousers with a complex shape. It is hard to design such a bunker. The key point in designing is to control the stress and deformation in the crotch area, setting a vertical steel plate is a good way to solve the problem.

  3. Combustion of oil on water: an experimental program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-02-01

    This study determined how well crude and fuel oils burn on water. Objectives were: (1) to measure the burning rates for several oils; (2) to determine whether adding heat improves the oils' combustibility; (3) to identify the conditions necessary to ignite fuels known to be difficult to ignite on ocean waters (e.g., diesel and Bunker C fuel oils); and (4) to evaluate the accuracy of an oil-burning model proposed by Thompson, Dawson, and Goodier (1979). Observations were made about how weathering and the thickness of the oil layer affect the combustion of crude and fuel oils. Nine oils commonly transported on the world's major waterways were tested. Burns were first conducted in Oklahoma under warm-weather conditions (approx. 30/sup 0/C) and later in Ohio under cold-weather conditions (approx. 0/sup 0/C to 10/sup 0/C).

  4. A Preliminary Study on the Air and Concrete Activation Analysis for RAON ISOL-Bunker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are two radiation analysis field; (i) prompt radiation and (ii) residual radiation. The residual radiation is generated from materials irradiated from the high energy prompt radiation. The dose of the residual radiation is relatively lower than that of the prompt radiation; therefore, the analysis is usually performed after turn-off of the accelerators. In this study, radioactivity analyses were performed to establish the strategy of the activation analysis in ISOL facilities of RAON. To estimate the residual radiation dose calculation, the rigorous-two-step method (R2S) was used with coupling the MCNPX 2.7 and SP-FISPECT-2010 code. In this study, a preliminary study for the air and concrete activation in ISOL-bunker was evaluated using the MCNPX 2.7 and SP-FISPACT-2010 codes. For the air activation, humidity effect was first evaluated; then, the air composition was determined. Also, a calculation procedure of the air activation was established. For the concrete activation, the strategy of dividing the concrete wall was constructed. These results can be used as the reference data to design the ISOL facility with considering radiation safety

  5. Jakuta Alikavazovic, La blonde et le bunker derrière le miroir…

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjorie Broussin

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Le roman que nous propose la romancière française, née en 1979, après le prix Goncourt du premier roman avec Les corps Volatils, a remporté la mention spéciale du jury Wepler. Et l’œuvre perturbe en effet tous nos repères, réalisant les aspirations de son auteure : « L’originalité dans la répétition. Le déjà-vu comme condition du sens, et paradoxalement comme irruption de la nouveauté. » Impossible de se raccrocher longtemps au désir d’élucidation, moteur du roman noir, tant la narration joue du speculum, à la fois jeux de regards et de miroirs, et spéculations de toutes sortes. Et pourtant, Jakuta Alikavazovic a éveillé notre curiosité et notre instinct de détective. C’est pourquoi nous vous proposons de nous suivre dans cette enquête, sur les traces du récit, avec pour seul indice celui qu’a laissé l’auteure derrière elle : « L’un des thèmes de La blonde et le bunker (comme de tous mes livres est la disparition »

  6. Use of an oiled gravel column dosing system to characterize exposure and toxicity of fish to sunken heavy oil on spawning substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, J.; Hodson, P. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    In August 2005, a freight train derailment near the shore of Lake Wabamun near Edmonton, Alberta resulted in the release of nearly 150,000 litres of Bunker C oil on the lakeshore. The purpose of this study was to define the toxic load of oil in sediments to better describe the exposure and toxicity of fish to sunken heavy oil on spawning substrates. Heavy Bunker C fuel contains a complex mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), particularly the 3-4 ringed alkylated forms that cause sublethal toxic responses in early life stages of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Oil patches still persist in near-shore sediments where fish spawn. This study evaluated how the behaviour of heavy oil in water interacts with exposure and toxicity to trout embryo. Flow-through oiled gravel columns were used to determine whether the toxic constituents of heavy oil are transferred to water quickly enough to cause toxicity. Embryonic trout exposed to the outflow of these columns showed signs of sublethal toxicity and dose-dependent mortality. In addition, column output of hydrocarbons and CYP1A induction in fish were flow-dependent. The desorption kinetics of the gravel column dosing was characterized in order to evaluate the toxicity of oil on these substrates and relate it back to toxicity of oil in sediments. The time to steady-state desorption of oil constituents in water was first determined, and then the rate at which different classes of oil constituents partition into water were identified.

  7. A laboratory approach for determining the effect of oils and dispersants on mangroves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baca, B.J.

    1982-10-01

    An experimental approach was developed and applied to testing the effects of oil and dispersant combinations on the growth of mangrove seedlings (trees of the intertidal tropics). A controlled growth chamber was employed to test the effects of different oils and dispersed oils in an array of dosages applied to different parts of the plants. Preliminary test results are reported for two species of mangroves collected from five localities, including both oiled and unoiled estuaries. Differences occurred between species, substances, dosages, the part of the plant dosed, and the presence of chronic oil pollution at localities from which the stocks were collected. Avicennia germinans (L.) L. (black mangrove) was more sensitive than Rhizophora mangle L. (red mangrove) when exposed to almost all substances tested. Light Arabian crude oil (LA) and light Arabian crude oil dispersed (LAD) were the most toxic substances tested. No. 2 fuel oil (N2) and No. 2 fuel oil dispersed (N2D) were as toxic as LA and LAD, except for an increase (an enhancement effect) in foliage and stem growth in Avicennia at lower dosages. Bunker C oil (BC) was the least toxic of the oils tested, resulting in the reduction of foliage and stem growth only at the highest dosage tested in Avicennia. Bunker C oil dispersed (BCD) failed to show effects in either species at any dosage tested. The leaves of Rhizophora were the most sensitive part of the plant tested.

  8. Effective bioremediation strategy for rapid in situ cleanup of anoxic marine sediments in mesocosm oil spill simulation

    OpenAIRE

    MariaGenovese; DanielaRusso; AlfonsoModica; LauraGiuliano; PeterN.Golyshin

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of present study was the simulation of an oil spill accompanied by burial of significant amount of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHs) in coastal sediments. Approximately 1,000 kg of sediments collected in Messina harbor were spiked with Bunker C furnace fuel oil (6,500 ppm). The rapid consumption of oxygen by aerobic heterotrophs created highly reduced conditions in the sediments with subsequent recession of biodegradation rates. As follows, after three months of ageing, the anaerobic s...

  9. Water chemistry and isotope data from a five year monitoring programme of Bunker Cave, NW Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riechelmann, S.; Schröder-Ritzrau, A.; Spötl, C.; Riechelmann, D. F. C.; Richter, D. K.; Immenhauser, A.

    2012-04-01

    Water chemistry and isotope data from a five year monitoring programme of Bunker Cave, NW Germany Sylvia Riechelmann (1), Andrea Schröder-Ritzrau (2), Christoph Spötl (3), Dana F.C. Riechelmann (4), Detlev K. Richter (1), Adrian Immenhauser (1) (1) Ruhr-University Bochum, Institute for Geology, Mineralogy and Geophysics, Universitätsstraße 150, D-44801 Bochum, Germany (2) Heidelberg Academy of Sciences, Im Neuenheimer Feld 229, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany (3) Leopold-Franzens-University Innsbruck, Institute for Geology and Palaeontology, Innrain 52, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria (4) Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Institute of Geography, Johann-Joachim-Becher-Weg 21, D-55128 Mainz, Germany Monitoring of cave environments is essential to understand the processes taking place in the soil, karst and cave zone and the interpretation of speleothem archives is increasingly based on monitoring data. A five year monitoring programme of Bunker Cave (NW Germany) included monthly sampling of rain, soil and drip water. The delta18O ratios of the drip waters reflect the mean annual delta18O composition of rain water. The weak seasonal pattern in drip water delta18O composition is overlain by a trend to increasing values (approximately 0.3‰ in the monitoring period between 2007 and 2011). Up to the year 2009, rain water delta18O values show an increasing trend. In 2010, the lowest yearly mean delta18O ratio of rain water (-9.20‰) was observed, probably due to cool summer air temperatures and significant amounts of snow fall during winter months 2010. A decrease of the drip water delta18O in the future will expectedly allow to stack both data series and to identify time delay between rain water and drip water series and allow for the quantification of the approximate transfer time of rain water from soil surface into the cave. The Mg2+-concentration of one drip site correlates positively with drip rate. High Mg2+-concentrations occur especially after dry periods (low

  10. Application of Moving Bunker in Mining in Steeply-inclined Seam%移动煤仓在急倾斜煤层开采中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹相证; 王守安; 张迎新

    2011-01-01

    简要阐述了移动式煤仓的设计,分析了原有急倾斜煤层走向长壁后退式分带仰斜采煤工作面在煤仓设计中的不足,结合生产实际,提出移动煤仓在实际生产中与原有设计相比的长处及具体的施工操作步骤。%By analysis of the disadvantages of original bunker design in retreating longwall rise mining face with steeply-inclined seam,the paper elaborates the design of moving bunker,and introduces the advantages of moving bunker compared with the old design and its concrete construction operating steps in actual production.

  11. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 214: Bunkers and Storage Areas, Nevada Test Site, Nevada - Revision 0 - March 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Site Office; Bechtel Nevada

    2005-03-01

    Corrective Action Unit 214, Bunkers and Storage Areas, is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order of 1996. Corrective Action Unit 214 consists of nine Corrective Action Sites located in Areas 5, 11, and 25 of the Nevada Test Site. The Nevada Test Site is located approximately 105 kilometers (65 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, in Nye County. Corrective Action Unit 214 was previously characterized in 2004, and results were presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document for 214. Site characterization indicated that soil and/or debris exceeded clean-up criteria for Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons, pesticides, metals, and radiological contamination.

  12. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No. 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Boehlecke

    2004-04-01

    The six bunkers included in CAU 204 were primarily used to monitor atmospheric testing or store munitions. The ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) for Corrective Action Unit 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site, Nevada'' (NNSA/NV, 2002a) provides information relating to the history, planning, and scope of the investigation; therefore, it will not be repeated in this CADD. This CADD identifies potential corrective action alternatives and provides a rationale for the selection of a recommended corrective action alternative for each CAS within CAU 204. The evaluation of corrective action alternatives is based on process knowledge and the results of investigative activities conducted in accordance with the CAIP (NNSA/NV, 2002a) that was approved prior to the start of the Corrective Action Investigation (CAI). Record of Technical Change (ROTC) No. 1 to the CAIP (approval pending) documents changes to the preliminary action levels (PALs) agreed to by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) and DOE, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). This ROTC specifically discusses the radiological PALs and their application to the findings of the CAU 204 corrective action investigation. The scope of this CADD consists of the following: (1) Develop corrective action objectives; (2) Identify corrective action alternative screening criteria; (3) Develop corrective action alternatives; (4) Perform detailed and comparative evaluations of corrective action alternatives in relation to corrective action objectives and screening criteria; and (5) Recommend and justify a preferred corrective action alternative for each CAS within CAU 204.

  13. Cosmogenic 36Cl in karst waters from Bunker Cave North Western Germany - A tool to derive local evapotranspiration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münsterer, C.; Fohlmeister, J.; Christl, M.; Schröder-Ritzrau, A.; Alfimov, V.; Ivy-Ochs, S.; Wackerbarth, A.; Mangini, A.

    2012-06-01

    Monthly rain and drip waters were collected over a period of 10 months at Bunker Cave, Germany. The concentration of 36Cl and the 36Cl/Cl-ratios were determined by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), while stable (35+37)Cl concentrations were measured with both, ion chromatography (IC) and AMS. The measured 36Cl-fluxes of (0.97 ± 0.57) × 104 atoms cm-2 month-1 (0.97 atoms m-2 month-1) in precipitation were on average twice as high as the global mean atmospheric production rate. This observation is consistent with the local fallout pattern, which is characterized by a maximum at mid-latitudes. The stable chloride concentration in drip waters (ranging from 13.2 to 20.9 mg/l) and the 36Cl-concentrations (ranging from 16.9 × 106 to 35.3 × 106 atoms/l) are a factor of 7 and 10 above the values expected from empirical evapotranspiration formulas and the rain water concentrations, respectively. Most likely the additional stable Cl is due to human impact from a nearby urban conglomeration. The large 36Cl-enrichment is attributed to the local evapotranspiration effect, which appears to be higher than the calculated values and to additional bomb-derived 36Cl from nuclear weapons tests in the 1950s and 60s stored in the soil above the cave. In the densely vegetated soil above Bunker Cave, 36Cl seems not to behave as a completely conservative tracer. The bomb derived 36Cl might be retained in the soil due to uptake by minerals and organic material and is still being released now. Based on our data, the residence time of 36Cl in the soil is estimated to be about 75-85 years.

  14. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0 with ROTC 1, 2, and Errata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wickline, Alfred

    2004-04-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 204 Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE); and the U.S. Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). The NTS is approximately 65 miles (mi) north of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1). The Corrective Action Sites (CASs) within CAU 204 are located in Areas 1, 2, 3, and 5 of the NTS, in Nye County, Nevada (Figure 1-2). Corrective Action Unit 204 is comprised of the six CASs identified in Table 1-1. As shown in Table 1-1, the FFACO describes four of these CASs as bunkers one as chemical exchange storage and one as a blockhouse. Subsequent investigations have identified four of these structures as instrumentation bunkers (CASs 01-34-01, 02-34-01, 03-34-01, 05-33-01), one as an explosives storage bunker (CAS 05-99-02), and one as both (CAS 05-18-02). The six bunkers included in CAU 204 were primarily used to monitor atmospheric testing or store munitions. The ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) for Corrective Action Unit 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site, Nevada'' (NNSA/NV, 2002a) provides information relating to the history, planning, and scope of the investigation; therefore, it will not be repeated in this CADD. This CADD identifies potential corrective action alternatives and provides a rationale for the selection of a recommended corrective action alternative for each CAS within CAU 204. The evaluation of corrective action alternatives is based on process knowledge and the results of investigative activities conducted in accordance with the CAIP (NNSA/NV, 2002a) that was approved prior to the start of the Corrective Action Investigation (CAI). Record of Technical Change (ROTC) No. 1 to the CAIP (approval pending) documents changes to the preliminary action levels

  15. Bunker glocal: configuração majoritária sutil do imaginário mediático contemporâneo e militarização imperceptível da vida cotidiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugênio Trivinho

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Bunker glocal – esta expressão heterodoxa – é o fundamento mediático do processo civilizatório contemporâneo. Sua análise no âmbito da teoria social e da comunicação apreende o principal aspecto de sua múltipla significação social-histórica: a militarização velada da existência humana no contexto civil da era digital. Ao materializar essa injunção teórica, o presente artigo detalha os vínculos inextricáveis entre processo de bunkerização ampliada, imaginário social e fenômeno glocal (além do global e do local, para, em conclusão, qualificar o bunker glocal como linguagem matricial de equivalência generalizada na cibercultura. Palavras-chave: Comunicação; cibercultura; bunker glocal; processo de bunkerização; militarização velada da vida social. ABSTRACT Glocal bunker – this heterodox expression – is the mediatic fundament of the contemporary civilizing process. Its analysis within the ambit of social and communication theory apprehends the principal aspects of its multiple social and historical meaning: the covert militarization of human existence in the civil context of the digital era. By materializing this theoretical injunction, this article details the inextricable links between the expanded bunkering process, the social imaginary and the glocal phenomenon (beyond the global and local, and concludes by qualifying the glocal bunker as a matricial language of generalized equivalence in cyberculture. Keywords: Communication; cyberculture; glocal bunker; bunkering process; covert militarization of social life.

  16. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (December 2002, Revision No.: 0), Including Record of Technical Change No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NNSA/NSO

    2002-12-12

    The Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 204 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 204 is located on the Nevada Test Site approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. This CAU is comprised of six Corrective Action Sites (CASs) which include: 01-34-01, Underground Instrument House Bunker; 02-34-01, Instrument Bunker; 03-34-01, Underground Bunker; 05-18-02, Chemical Explosives Storage; 05-33-01, Kay Blockhouse; 05-99-02, Explosive Storage Bunker. Based on site history, process knowledge, and previous field efforts, contaminants of potential concern for Corrective Action Unit 204 collectively include radionuclides, beryllium, high explosives, lead, polychlorinated biphenyls, total petroleum hydrocarbons, silver, warfarin, and zinc phosphide. The primary question for the investigation is: ''Are existing data sufficient to evaluate appropriate corrective actions?'' To address this question, resolution of two decision statements is required. Decision I is to ''Define the nature of contamination'' by identifying any contamination above preliminary action levels (PALs); Decision II is to ''Determine the extent of contamination identified above PALs. If PALs are not exceeded, the investigation is completed. If PALs are exceeded, then Decision II must be resolved. In addition, data will be obtained to support waste management decisions. Field activities will include radiological land area surveys, geophysical surveys to identify any subsurface metallic and nonmetallic debris, field screening for applicable contaminants of potential concern, collection and analysis of surface and subsurface soil samples from biased locations

  17. In-situ burning of heavy oils and Orimulsion : mid-scale burns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fingas, M.F.; Fieldhouse, B.; Brown, C.E.; Gamble, L. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Science and Technology Div]|[Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). River Road Environmental Technology Centre; Cooper, D. [SAIC Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    In-situ burning is considered to be a viable means to clean oil spills on water. In-situ burning, when performed under the right conditions, can reduce the volume of spilled oil and eliminate the need to collect, store, transport and dispose of the recovered oil. This paper presented the results of bench-scale in-situ burning tests in which Bunker C, Orimulsion and weathered bitumen were burned outdoors during the winter in burn pans of approximately 1 square metre. Each test was conducted on salt water which caused the separation of the bitumen from the water in the Orimulsion. Small amounts of diesel fuel was used to ignite the heavy oils. Quantitative removal of the fuels was achieved in all cases, but re-ignition was required for the Orimulsion. Maximum efficiency was in the order of 70 per cent. The residue was mostly asphaltenes and resins which cooled to a solid, glass like material that could be readily removed. The study showed that the type of oil burned influences the behaviour of the burns. Bunker C burned quite well and Orimulsion burned efficiently, but re-ignition was necessary. It was concluded that there is potential for burning heavy oils of several types in-situ. 6 refs., 7 tabs., 18 figs.

  18. CLOSURE REPORT FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT 204: STORAGE BUNKERS, NEVADA TEST SITE, NEVADA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 330 consists of four Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 6, 22, and 23 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The unit is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996) as CAU 330: Areas 6, 22, and 23 Tanks and Spill Sites. CAU 330 consists of the following CASs: CAS 06-02-04, Underground Storage Tank (UST) and Piping CAS 22-99-06, Fuel Spill CAS 23-01-02, Large Aboveground Storage Tank (AST) Farm CAS 23-25-05, Asphalt Oil Spill/Tar Release

  19. CLOSURE REPORT FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT 204: STORAGE BUNKERS, NEVADA TEST SITE, NEVADA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-04-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 330 consists of four Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 6, 22, and 23 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The unit is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996) as CAU 330: Areas 6, 22, and 23 Tanks and Spill Sites. CAU 330 consists of the following CASs: CAS 06-02-04, Underground Storage Tank (UST) and Piping CAS 22-99-06, Fuel Spill CAS 23-01-02, Large Aboveground Storage Tank (AST) Farm CAS 23-25-05, Asphalt Oil Spill/Tar Release

  20. Amoebas as mimivirus bunkers: increased resistance to UV light, heat and chemical biocides when viruses are carried by amoeba hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boratto, Paulo V M; Dornas, Fábio P; Andrade, Kétyllen R; Rodrigues, Rodrigo; Peixoto, Felipe; Silva, Lorena C F; La Scola, Bernard; Costa, Adriana Oliveira; de Almeida, Gabriel Magno Freitas; Kroon, Erna G; Abrahão, Jônatas S

    2014-05-01

    Amoebas of the genus Acanthamoeba are protists that are associated with human disease and represent a public health concern. They can harbor pathogenic microorganisms, acting as a platform for pathogen replication. Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus (APMV), the type species of the genus Mimivirus, family Mimiviridae, represents the largest group of amoeba-associated viruses that has been described to date. Recent studies have demonstrated that APMV and other giant viruses may cause pneumonia. Amoebas can survive in most environments and tolerate various adverse conditions, including UV light irradiation, high concentrations of disinfectants, and a broad range of temperatures. However, it is unknown how the amoebal intracellular environment influences APMV stability and resistance to adverse conditions. Therefore, in this work, we evaluated the stability of APMV, either purified or carried by the amoeba host, under extreme conditions, including UV irradiation, heat and exposure to six different chemical biocides. After each treatment, the virus was titrated in amoebas using the TCID50 method. APMV was more stable in all resistance tests performed when located inside its host. Our results demonstrate that Acanthamoeba acts as a natural bunker for APMV, increasing viral resistance to extreme physical and chemical conditions. The data raise new questions regarding the survival of APMV in nature and in hospital environments.

  1. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site, Nevada: Revision 0, Including Errata Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2004-04-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's corrective action alternative recommendation for each of the corrective action sites (CASs) within Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. An evaluation of analytical data from the corrective action investigation, review of current and future operations at each CAS, and a detailed comparative analysis of potential corrective action alternatives were used to determine the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. There are six CASs in CAU 204, which are all located between Areas 1, 2, 3, and 5 on the NTS. The No Further Action alternative was recommended for CASs 01-34-01, 02-34-01, 03-34-01, and 05-99-02; and a Closure in Place with Administrative Controls recommendation was the preferred corrective action for CASs 05-18-02 and 05-33-01. These alternatives were judged to meet all requirements for the technical components evaluated as well as applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the sites and will eliminate potential future exposure pathways to the contaminated media at CAU 204.

  2. Successful oil spill response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A freighter in the process of loading rock for the Quebec Iron and Titanium Mining Company near Havre-St. Pierre on the extreme north shore of the St. Lawrence River, was suddenly tossed against the dock by rough waters on the night of March 23, 1999, and spilled 49 tonnes of bunker fuel oil into the river. This article describes how the crew of the ship, trained by Environmental Accident Protection Inc., based in Petrolia, Ontario, averted disaster by responding to the accident quickly and effectively. Their first action was to notify the appropriate environmental and regulatory authorities and to put in place containment booms which corralled about 17 tonnes of oil. The oil contained by the booms were removed by trained personnel under the guidance of Eastern Canada Response Corporation of Corunna, Ontario, and Response Systems Inc. of Neshanic, New Jersey, in approximately three hours with only minimum disruption to the environment. Further cleanup of the area, often hindered by bad weather, freezing rain, ice, and 100 km/hr winds, was done by the cooperative efforts of governments, industry and the local fishermen's association. The work included scrubbing the shore with wire brushes and scrapers and handbathing some 1000 migratory birds. The cleanup job was completed in about three weeks and the Mingan Archipelago National Park Reserve and other nearby habitats for migrating birds were saved the devastation that would have occurred, except for the quick and knowledgeable intervention of a trained crew and an outstanding example of public-private sector and community cooperation. 2 photos

  3. Toxicity of oils and petroleum hydrocarbons to estuarine crustaceans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatem, H.E. (Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS); Cox, B.A.; Anderson, J.W.

    1978-04-01

    Bioassay experiments with various life stages of three estuarine shrimp and soluble petroleum hydrocarbons (PH) revealed residual Bunker C oil and refined No. 2 fuel oil to be more toxic than two crude oils tested. Larvae of Palaemonetes pugio were slightly more sensitive to the PH than adults, while young penaeid shrimp were shown to be more resistant than older, larger individuals. Shrimp exposed to PH in conjunction with temperature and salinity changes were more susceptible to the PH. Some common aromatic and diaromatic PH, including three naphthalene compounds, were utilized in bioassays. Naphthalenes were highly toxic. The toxicity of petroleum products is closely related to aromatic hydrocarbon content, especially the naphthalenes and related hydrocarbons.

  4. Methodology for estimating cleaning effectiveness and dispersion of oil with shoreline cleaning agents in the field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clayton, J.R.Jr.; Stransky, B.C.; Adkins, A.C.; Lees, D.C. [Ogden Environmental and Energy Services Co., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Michel, J. [Research Planning, Inc., Columbia, SC (United States); Schwartz, M.J.; Snyder, B.J. [Ogden Environmental and Energy Services Co., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Reilly, T.J. [PCCI, Alexandria, VA (United States)

    1996-09-01

    A method to evaluate shoreline cleaning agents (SCA) using a portable field kit, was described. SCAs enhance removal of oil from shoreline surfaces, but their performance can be influenced by site-specific variables, and the physical and chemical properties of the oil. On-site testing could provide a quantitative and qualitative estimate of cleaning capability and dispersion of oil with SCAs. The method was tested on three substrates, namely gravel rip-rap, and eelgrass and two oils (Bunker C and Bonny Light), and two SCAs (Corexit 9580 and PES-51). Results showed that values for cleaning performance and oil dispersion were reproducible enough to allow differences to be identified in tests with and without SCAs and between SCAs. The method could help users in their decision making as to which SCA, if any, to use in the field. 25 refs., 5 tabs., 2 figs.

  5. Application of fracture-flow hydrogeology to acid-mine drainage at the Bunker Hill Mine, Kellogg, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachmar, Thomas E.

    1994-03-01

    The mechanics of groundwater flow through fractured rock has become an object of major research interest during recent years. This project has investigated the flow of groundwater through fractured Precambrian metaquartzite rocks in a portion of the Bunker Hill Mine near Kellogg, Idaho. Groundwater flow through these types of rocks is largely dependent upon the properties of fractures such as faults, joints and relict bedding planes. Groundwater that flows into the mine via the fractures is acidic and is contaminated by heavy metals, which results in a severe acid mine drainage problem. A more complete understanding of how the fractures influence the groundwater flow system is a prerequisite of the evaluation of reclamation alternatives to reduce acid drainage from the mine. Fracture mapping techniques were used to obtain detailed information on the fracture properties observed in the New East Reed drift of the Bunker Hill Mine. The information obtained includes fracture type, orientation, trace length, the number of visible terminations, roughness, waviness, infilling material, and a qualitative measure of the amount of water flowing through each fracture. The hydrogeologic field data collected include routine measurements of the discharge from four individual structural features and four areas where large quantities of water are discharging from vertical rock bolts, the depths to water in three piezometer nests at the ground surface, the pressure variations in four diamond drillholes, and constant discharge flow tests conducted on three of the diamond drillholes. The field data indicate that relict bedding planes are the primary conduits for groundwater flow, and suggest that the two major joint sets that are present connect water flowing through the discontinuous bedding planes. The three minor joint sets that are present do not seem to have a significant impact on groundwater flow, but along with the two major joint sets may store relatively large quantities of

  6. The Impact of Russia’s Refinery Upgrade Plans on Global Fuel Oil Markets: OIES paper: WPM 48

    OpenAIRE

    Henderson, James; Fattouh, Bassam

    2012-01-01

    While higher fuel specifications and regulatory changes in the bunkers market are most likely to have a big impact on long-term fuel oil demand, a structural shift of a similar magnitude on the supply side is already taking place, particularly in Russia, the largest exporter of fuel oil. The Russian government’s firmly stated commitment to the regeneration of its country’s refining industry and its determination to ensure that domestic demand for higher quality products is met would suggest t...

  7. Influence of the initial guess spectrum in the unfolding of Bss data obtained inside a bunker of a PET cyclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benavente C, J. A.; Lacerda, M. A. S.; Guimaraes, A. M.; Da Silva, T. A. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear, Programa de Pos-graduacao em Ciencias e Tecnicas Nucleares, Pte. Antonio Carlos 6627, Belo Horizonte 31270-901, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Vega C, H. R. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98060 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico)

    2015-10-15

    In a cyclotron facility is strongly advised the use of spectrometry techniques to support workplace neutron dosimetry. Bonner sphere spectrometer (Bss) is the most used for radiation protection applications. Bss data must be unfolded to determine the spectral particle fluence. Some computer codes have been utilized for this purpose. These codes allow unfolding the spectrum from the Bss count rates through different algorithms. Some iterative routines need an initial guess spectrum to start the unfolding. The adequate choice of this initial spectrum is a critical part of the process and can affect the final solution. In this work, we evaluate the influence of the initial guess spectrum in the unfolding of Bss data obtained in four points inside the bunker of a PET cyclotron. The measurements were done utilizing a modified Bss system with thermoluminescent detectors (TLDs). Codes BUNKIUT and NSDUAZ were utilized to unfold the Bss data. For the NSDUAZ the starting spectrum is automatically obtained from a library initial guess spectra. For the BUNKIUT code were utilized two different initial guess spectra: (a) a Maxwellian spectrum with temperature of 1.4 MeV and shape factor of 0.1, created with the MAXIET algorithm and; (b) the spectra obtained through simulation with the MCNPX code version 2.7. Spectra obtained with both unfold codes and with the different initial guess spectra presented epithermal and thermal neutrons due to room-return effects. However, the contribution of the fast neutron to the total fluence were quite different for the different cases studied. These differences highlight the importance of an appropriate choice of an initial guess spectra for the quality of the results. (Author)

  8. Inflammatory markers following acute fuel oil exposure or bacterial lipopolysaccharide in mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kelly A; Tell, Lisa A; Mohr, F Charles

    2012-12-01

    Adult mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) were orally dosed with bunker C fuel oil for 5 days, and five different inflammatory markers (haptoglobin, mannan-binding lectin, ceruloplasmin, unsaturated iron-binding capacity, and plasma iron) were measured in blood plasma prior to and 8, 24, 48, and 72 hr following exposure. In order to contrast the response to fuel oil with that of a systemic inflammatory response, an additional five ducks were injected intramuscularly with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Oil-treated birds had an inflammatory marker profile that was significantly different from control and LPS-treated birds, showing decreases in mannan-binding lectin-dependent hemolysis and unsaturated iron-binding capacity, but no changes in any of the other inflammatory markers. Birds treated with oil also exhibited increased liver weights, decreased body and splenic weights, and decreased packed cell volume.

  9. Remote sensing of water-in-oil emulsions : initial laser fluorosensor studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, C.E.; Fingas, M.F.; Marois, R.; Fieldhouse, B.; Gamble, R.L. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Science and Technology Div]|[Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). River Road Environmental Technology Centre

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents the results of a study in which laser-induced fluorescence spectra were collected in a controlled environment for fresh oils, water-in-oil emulsions of the same oils and of the emulsions in water. Water-in-oil emulsions and other neutrally buoyant oils can be difficult or impossible to detect using commercial sensors, but preliminary airborne field experiments have shown that laser fluorosensors can detect and properly classify oils. Laser fluorosensors provide their own source of illumination and can be used during the night or day. They detect the fluorescence spectral signature and intensity of specific oils. This study analyzed Point Arguello Light, Mississippi Canyon and Bunker C oils. The fluorescence spectra of the water-in-oil emulsions were found to be identical to the spectra of the fresh oils, both in spectral shape and signal intensity, confirming that laser-induced fluorescence can be used to detect and classify fresh and water-in-oil emulsified forms of hydrocarbons. It was concluded that laser fluorosensor are promising sensors for airborne detection, classification and mapping of oil and related petroleum products in both marine and terrestrial environments. 4 refs., 1 tab., 14 figs.

  10. Palm Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... oil is obtained from the fruit of the oil palm tree. Palm oil is used for preventing vitamin ... de Palme Rouge, Huile de Palmiste, Main Ja, Oil Palm Tree, Palm, Palm Fruit Oil, Palm Kernel Oil, ...

  11. Effective bioremediation strategy for rapid in situ cleanup of anoxic marine sediments in mesocosm oil spill simulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eGenovese

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of present study was the simulation of an oil spill accompanied by burial of significant amount of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHs in coastal sediments. Approximately 1,000 kg of sediments collected in Messina harbor were spiked with Bunker C furnace fuel oil (6,500 ppm. The rapid consumption of oxygen by aerobic heterotrophs created highly reduced conditions in the sediments with subsequent recession of biodegradation rates. As follows, after three months of ageing, the anaerobic sediments did not exhibit any significant levels of biodegradation and more than 80% of added Bunker C fuel oil remained buried. Anaerobic microbial community exhibited a strong enrichment in sulfate-reducing PHs-degrading and PHs-associated Deltaproteobacteria. As an effective bioremediation strategy to clean up these contaminated sediments, we applied a Modular Slurry System (MSS allowing the containment of sediments and their physical-chemical treatment, e.g. aeration. Aeration for three months has increased the removal of main PHs contaminants up to 98%. As revealed by CARD-FISH, qPCR and 16S rRNA gene clone library analyses, addition of Bunker C fuel oil initially affected the activity of autochthonous aerobic obligate marine hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria (OMHCB, and after one month more than the third of microbial population was represented by Alcanivorax-, Cycloclasticus- and Marinobacter-related organisms. In the end of the experiment, the microbial community composition has returned to a status typically observed in pristine marine ecosystems with no detectable OMHCB present. Eco-toxicological bioassay revealed that the toxicity of sediments after treatment was substantially decreased. Thus, our studies demonstrated that petroleum-contaminated anaerobic marine sediments could efficiently be cleaned through an in situ oxygenation which stimulates their self-cleaning potential due to reawakening of allochtonous aerobic OMHCB.

  12. Effective bioremediation strategy for rapid in situ cleanup of anoxic marine sediments in mesocosm oil spill simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genovese, Maria; Crisafi, Francesca; Denaro, Renata; Cappello, Simone; Russo, Daniela; Calogero, Rosario; Santisi, Santina; Catalfamo, Maurizio; Modica, Alfonso; Smedile, Francesco; Genovese, Lucrezia; Golyshin, Peter N; Giuliano, Laura; Yakimov, Michail M

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of present study was the simulation of an oil spill accompanied by burial of significant amount of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHs) in coastal sediments. Approximately 1000 kg of sediments collected in Messina harbor were spiked with Bunker C furnace fuel oil (6500 ppm). The rapid consumption of oxygen by aerobic heterotrophs created highly reduced conditions in the sediments with subsequent recession of biodegradation rates. As follows, after 3 months of ageing, the anaerobic sediments did not exhibit any significant levels of biodegradation and more than 80% of added Bunker C fuel oil remained buried. Anaerobic microbial community exhibited a strong enrichment in sulfate-reducing PHs-degrading and PHs-associated Deltaproteobacteria. As an effective bioremediation strategy to clean up these contaminated sediments, we applied a Modular Slurry System (MSS) allowing the containment of sediments and their physical-chemical treatment, e.g., aeration. Aeration for 3 months has increased the removal of main PHs contaminants up to 98%. As revealed by CARD-FISH, qPCR, and 16S rRNA gene clone library analyses, addition of Bunker C fuel oil initially affected the activity of autochthonous aerobic obligate marine hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria (OMHCB), and after 1 month more than the third of microbial population was represented by Alcanivorax-, Cycloclasticus-, and Marinobacter-related organisms. In the end of the experiment, the microbial community composition has returned to a status typically observed in pristine marine ecosystems with no detectable OMHCB present. Eco-toxicological bioassay revealed that the toxicity of sediments after treatment was substantially decreased. Thus, our studies demonstrated that petroleum-contaminated anaerobic marine sediments could efficiently be cleaned through an in situ oxygenation which stimulates their self-cleaning potential due to reawakening of allochtonous aerobic OMHCB. PMID:24782850

  13. Natural attenuation of heavy oil on a coarse sediment beach : results from Black Duck Cove, Nova Scotia, Canada over 35 years following the Arrow oil spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owens, E.H. [Polaris Applied Sciences Inc., Bainbridge Island, WA (United States); Prince, R.C. [ExxonMobil Biomedical Sciences Inc., Annandale, NJ (United States); Taylor, R.B. [Natural Resources Canada, Dartmouth, NS (Canada). Geological Survey of Canada

    2008-07-01

    In 1970, the tanker Arrow spilled bunker C oil into Black Duck Cove on the Atlantic coast of Nova Scotia. The coarse sediment beaches provided an accessible natural laboratory for the study of the long-term fate and persistence of stranded oil in a coastal marine environment. Although the site is well known to the oil spill scientific community, it has not been studied systematically and much remains to be learned regarding the physical and chemical processes that have been ongoing. More information is needed pertaining to the character of the oil residues and the reasons for their persistence. This paper summarized the knowledge that has been acquired collectively over the last 35 years. The focus was primarily on coarse sediments, including cobbles and boulders. All tidal zones at the site have both surface and subsurface oil deposits. The sediments whose pore spaces remain filled with oil are examples of stable oil-sediment deposits. Wave action is slowly eroding these asphalt pavements. Intertidal pore-filled sediments are resistant to physical processes, and sequestered subsurface residues coat the cobble-boulder sediments below the zone of sediment redistribution. The subsurface oils will probably remain until the sediment is disturbed by major storms or by landward barrier migration. Although the surface oil is highly biodegraded, the subsurface oil remains similar to that of the spilled material. It was concluded that subsurface residues will likely remain sequestered and unaltered for the foreseeable future. 26 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  14. : The glocal bunker and its paradox: operational dialetic between "reclosure" and "openness" in advanced mediatic civilization. O bunker glocal e seu paradoxo: dialética operacional entre "refechamento" e "abertura" na civilização mediática avançada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugênio Trivinho

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available in advanced mediatic civilization — In this article, the author reflects upon the sociohistorical signification of the glocal bunker today — the mediatic bunker of cyberculture (cyberspace, which, extending beyond the global and the local, within the very fabric of planetary glocaliza- tion, culturally rearticulates and reinforces the process of obliterated militarization of social life. His discussion dissects an autopoietic sociophenomenological and fundamental filigrain of the material and subjective experience of this bunker: a paradoxical intra-operational movement which simultaneously encompasses "reclosure" and "openness" in relation to the world, and particularly to alterity. This peculiar paradox conceals the way in which the collective and indi- vidual appropriation by the majority of digital networks is expressed in the sociohistorical and in quotidian life. In effect, internationally established cyber-overoptimistic discourse promotes the "openness" brought about by interactivity as the only fact worthy of attention in the current stage of the productive forces. The material and subjective "reclosure" it also represents is discarded as a mere historical exception, accident or minor inconvenience. The present study examines the naiveté of this epochal fallacy. "Openness" can only be understood if in inter-remission with the tendency for "reclosure". If, in cyberculture, there is no confinement or total atomization of the subject, neither is there an unquestionable horizon absolutely free to him. O artigo desdobra a reflexão do autor sobre a significação social-histórica do bunker glocal na atualidade — bunker mediático da cibercultura (o cyberspace que, vigorando para além do global e do local, já no tecido próprio da glocalização planetária, rearticula e reforça, cul- turalmente, o processo de militarização obliterada da vida social. A argumentação disseca uma

  15. Recommendations to the NRC for review criteria for alternative methods of low-level radioactive waste disposal: Task 2b: Earth-mounded concrete bunkers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Army Engineers Waterways Experiment Station (WES) and US Army Engineer Division, Huntsville (HNDED) have developed general design criteria and specific design review criteria for the earth-mounded concrete bunker (EMCB) alternative method of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal. An EMCB is generally described as a reinforced concrete vault placed below grade, underneath a tumulus, surrounded by filter-blanket and drainage zones. The tumulus is covered over with a low permeability cover layer and top soil with vegetation. Eight major review criteria categories have been developed ranging from the loads imposed on the EMCB structure through material quality and durability considerations. Specific design review criteria have been developed in detail for each of the eight major categories. 63 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Temperature profile data collected using XBTs from the SEAPAC BUNKER HILL and other platforms from the Pacific Ocean during the International Decade of Ocean Exploration / North Pacific Experiment (IDOE/NORPAX) project, 1981-01-05 to 1982-02-01 (NCEI Accession 8800054)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using bathythermograph (BT/XBT) casts from SEAPAC BUNKER HILL and other platforms in the Pacific Ocean from January 5, 1981...

  17. Subtidal survey of the Strait of Magellan in the vicinity of the Metula oil spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swartz, R.C. (Environmental Protection Agency, Newport, OR); Gallardo, V.A.

    1976-09-01

    On 9 August 1974 the oil tanker Metula ran aground on the Satellite Bank (52/sup 0/33.8'S. 69/sup 0/ 42.1'W.) immediately west of the First Narrows in the Strait of Magellan. The ship spilled an estimated 52,300 metric tons of Arabian light crude and 2,000 tons of bunker C fuel oil into the Strait. Most of the oil was rapidly driven onto the beaches. No attempt was made to disperse the spilled oil or to remove it from the shoreline. We surveyed subtidal benthic communities and sediment oil contamination from the National Science Foundation's research ship Hero during 5--13 April 1976. We encountered a great diversity of subtidal benthic habitats. Sediment types ranged from clays to boulders, and benthic communities appeared to be equally heterogeneous. Quantities of oil were still on the beaches. We found a 25-centimeter-thick oil ''mousse'' layer 45 centimeters below the surface of the upper intertidal zone at the first beach station. Oil in the east estuary on the southern shore of First Narrows extended from the main channel to the supralittoral zone where it affected Lepidophylum and Salicornia plant communities. The beaches and inlets appear to be a continuing source of oil pollution in the Strait.

  18. Diesel oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil ... Diesel oil ... Diesel oil poisoning can cause symptoms in many parts of the body. EYES, EARS, NOSE, AND THROAT Loss of ... most dangerous effects of hydrocarbon (such as diesel oil) poisoning are due to inhaling the fumes. NERVOUS ...

  19. Estimating Children’s Soil/Dust Ingestion Rates through Retrospective Analyses of Blood Lead Biomonitoring from the Bunker Hill Superfund Site in Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Lindern, Ian; Spalinger, Susan; Stifelman, Marc L.; Stanek, Lindsay Wichers; Bartrem, Casey

    2016-01-01

    Background: Soil/dust ingestion rates are important variables in assessing children’s health risks in contaminated environments. Current estimates are based largely on soil tracer methodology, which is limited by analytical uncertainty, small sample size, and short study duration. Objectives: The objective was to estimate site-specific soil/dust ingestion rates through reevaluation of the lead absorption dose–response relationship using new bioavailability data from the Bunker Hill Mining and Metallurgical Complex Superfund Site (BHSS) in Idaho, USA. Methods: The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in vitro bioavailability methodology was applied to archived BHSS soil and dust samples. Using age-specific biokinetic slope factors, we related bioavailable lead from these sources to children’s blood lead levels (BLLs) monitored during cleanup from 1988 through 2002. Quantitative regression analyses and exposure assessment guidance were used to develop candidate soil/dust source partition scenarios estimating lead intake, allowing estimation of age-specific soil/dust ingestion rates. These ingestion rate and bioavailability estimates were simultaneously applied to the U.S. EPA Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic Model for Lead in Children to determine those combinations best approximating observed BLLs. Results: Absolute soil and house dust bioavailability averaged 33% (SD ± 4%) and 28% (SD ± 6%), respectively. Estimated BHSS age-specific soil/dust ingestion rates are 86–94 mg/day for 6-month- to 2-year-old children and 51–67 mg/day for 2- to 9-year-old children. Conclusions: Soil/dust ingestion rate estimates for 1- to 9-year-old children at the BHSS are lower than those commonly used in human health risk assessment. A substantial component of children’s exposure comes from sources beyond the immediate home environment. Citation: von Lindern I, Spalinger S, Stifelman ML, Stanek LW, Bartrem C. 2016. Estimating children’s soil/dust ingestion

  20. Research and development in oil spill response: The Australian view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Significant oil spill events in Australia are, fortunately, infrequent events. In recent years, the 33,000 dwt tonne phosphate carrier Sanko Harvest grounded and broke up losing all of its 740 tonnes of fuel oil bunkers off the small south west port of Esperance. Since that incident only one further casualty has occurred, that of the tanker KIRKI which lost some 18,000 tonnes of its crude oil cargo when the fore part of the vessel broke away and sank in heavy seas and subsequently during the tow to quieter waters off the north west coast of Australia. Whilst public interest in oil spills, when they occur, is understandably high, the national government budget for response to ship sourced marine oil spills is in proportion to assessment of the risk and approximates $Aus 2 million annually. The Australian Maritime Safety Authority (AMSA), is the Federal authority under whose responsibility revenue for the Federal/State arrangement, known as the National Plan to Combat Pollution of the Sea by Oil, is managed. This revenue is obtained directly from the shipping industry in the form of a small tax known as the oil pollution levy. Funds from this source are allocated to the States nationally for purchase of spill response equipment and approved dispersants, production of coastal resource atlases, training programs, maintenance and administration of the National Plan. It will be readily understood that a relatively small budget precludes all but the smallest of R ampersand D programs. Most spills occur in waters over which an Australian state has jurisdiction and are generally managed by state administrations using equipment and decision support resources provided by AMSA

  1. Peanut Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and baby care products. Sometimes the less expensive soya oil is added to peanut oil. ... are pregnant or breast-feeding. Allergy to peanuts, soybeans, and related plants: Peanut oil can cause serious ...

  2. Oil Spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil spills often happen because of accidents, when people make mistakes or equipment breaks down. Other causes include natural disasters or deliberate acts. Oil spills have major environmental and economic effects. Oil ...

  3. Reconstruction of drip-water δ18O based on calcite oxygen and clumped isotopes of speleothems from Bunker Cave (Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kluge

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The geochemical signature of many speleothems used for reconstruction of past continental climates is affected by kinetic isotope fractionation. This limits quantitative paleoclimate reconstruction and, in cases where the kinetic fractionation varies with time, also affects relative paleoclimate interpretations. In carbonate archive research, clumped isotope thermometry is typically used as proxy for absolute temperatures. In the case of speleothems, however, clumped isotopes provide a sensitive indicator for disequilibrium effects. The extent of kinetic fractionation co-varies in Δ47 and δ18O so that it can be used to account for disequilibrium in δ18O and to extract the past drip-water composition. Here we apply this approach to stalagmites from Bunker Cave (Germany and calculate drip-water δ18Ow values for the Eemian, MIS3, and the Holocene, relying on independent temperature estimates and accounting for disequilibrium. Applying the co-variation method to modern calcite precipitates yields drip-water δ18Ow values in agreement with modern cave drip-water δ18Ow of −7.9 ± 0.3‰, despite large and variable disequilibrium effects in both calcite δ18Oc and Δ47. Reconstructed paleo-drip-water δ18Ow values are lower during colder periods (e.g., MIS3: −8.6 ± 0.4‰ and the early Holocene at 11 ka: −9.7 ± 0.2‰ and show higher values during warmer climatic periods (e.g., the Eemian: −7.6 ± 0.2‰ and the Holocene Climatic Optimum: −7.2 ± 0.3‰. This new approach offers a unique possibility for quantitative climate reconstruction including the assessment of past hydrological conditions while accounting for disequilibrium effects.

  4. Reconstruction of drip-water δ18O based on calcite oxygen and clumped isotopes of speleothems from Bunker Cave (Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Wackerbarth

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The geochemical signature of many speleothems used for reconstruction of past continental climates is affected by kinetic isotope fractionation. This limits quantitative paleoclimate reconstruction and, in cases where the kinetic fractionation varies with time, also affects relative paleoclimate interpretations. In carbonate archive research, clumped isotope thermometry is typically used as proxy for absolute temperatures. In the case of speleothems, however, clumped isotopes provide a sensitive indicator for disequilibrium effects. The extent of kinetic fractionation co-varies in Δ47 and δ18O so that it can be used to account for disequilibrium in δ18O and to extract the past drip-water composition. Here we apply this approach to stalagmites from Bunker Cave (Germany and calculate drip-water δ18Ow values for the Eemian, Marine Isotope Stage (MIS 3, and the Holocene, relying on independent temperature estimates and accounting for disequilibrium. Applying the co-variation method to modern calcite precipitates yields drip-water δ18Ow values in agreement with modern cave drip-water δ18Ow of −7.9 ± 0.3‰, despite large and variable disequilibrium effects in both calcite δ18Oc and Δ47. Reconstructed paleo-drip-water δ18Ow values are lower during colder periods (e.g., MIS 3: −8.5 ± 0.4‰ and the early Holocene at 11 kyr: −9.3 ± 0.1‰ and show higher values during warmer climatic periods (e.g., the Eemian: −7.5 ± 0.2‰ and the Holocene Climatic Optimum: −7.2 ± 0.3‰. This new approach offers a unique possibility for quantitative climate reconstruction including the assessment of past hydrological conditions while accounting for disequilibrium effects.

  5. Sludge derived fuel technique of sewage sludge by oil vacuum evaporation drying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sewage sludge contains high content of organic materials and its water content is also very high about 80% even after filtration process. Landfill as a sludge treatment methods can cause odor problem and leachate production which can derive the secondary contamination of soil and groundwater. The ocean dumping will be prohibited according to the London Convention and domestic stringent environmental regulation. Based on domestic agenda on organic sewage sludge treatment, the ocean disposal will be prohibited from 2012, thus alternative methods are demanded. Sludge derived fuel (SDF) technology can alleviate the emission of greenhouse gas and recover energy from sludge. For proper treatment and SDF production from sludge, the vacuum evaporation and immersion frying technology was adopted in this research. This technology dries moisture in sludge after mixing with oil such as Bunker C oil, waste oil or waste food oil etc. Mixing sludge and oil secures liquidity of organic sludge to facilitate handling throughout the drying process. The boiling temperature could be maintained low through vacuum condition in whole evaporation process. This study was performed to find the optimum operating temperature and pressure, the mixing ratio of sludge and oil. Finally, we could obtained SDF which moisture content was less than 5%, its heating value was over 4,500 kcal/ kg sludge. This heating value could satisfy the Korean Fuel Standard for the Recycle Products. Assessed from the perspective of energy balance and economic evaluation, this sludge drying system could be widely used for the effective sludge treatment and the production of SDF. (author)

  6. Oil Spill!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansberry, Karen Rohrich; Morgan, Emily

    2005-01-01

    An oil spill occurs somewhere in the world almost every day of the year, and the consequences can be devastating. In this month's column, students explore the effects of oil spills on plants, animals, and the environment and investigate oil spill clean-up methods through a simulated oil spill. The activities described in this article give students…

  7. Initial effects of a moderate-sized oil spill on benthic assemblage structure of a subtropical rocky shore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Tim; Boden, Anna; Arthur, James Michael; Schlacher, Thomas Alfred; Rissik, David; Atkinson, Sally

    2012-08-01

    The environmental impacts of very large oil spills are well documented across a range of settings. However, there is a dearth of information about the immediate effects, and post-spill trajectories, of small to moderate (oil spills on intertidal biota. The published studies are from very different environments, and are contradictory in terms of the severity of initial impacts. This study reports on the effects of a 270 t spill of bunker fuel oil on 11 March 2009, approximately 13 km east of Cape Moreton, eastern Australia. We examined the initial effects of this moderate sized spill on the rocky shore biota of Cape Moreton, and quantified the trajectory of oil removal and change in assemblage structure over the next 5 months. Compared to adjacent reference sites, the initial effects were very marked, especially on the upper shore. Oiling was heavier and more persistent on the upper shore than the mid-shore, and biological effects were more pronounced higher in the intertidal. At both levels, however, there was little evidence of recovery up to 5 months after oiling, and visible oil residues were still apparent. The effect size was larger than previously reported for spills of this magnitude, comparable to that of larger spills, although over a smaller stretch of coastline.

  8. Oil risk in oil stocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, Bert; Wang, L

    2008-01-01

    We assess the oil price sensitivities and oil risk premiums of NYSE listed oil & gas firms' returns by using a two-step regression analysis under two different arbitrage pricing models. Thus, we apply the Fama and French (1992) factor returns in a study of oil stocks. In all, we find that the return

  9. Recovery of the Irving Whale oil barge: overflights with the laser environmental airborne fluorosensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contribution of Environment Canada's laser environmental airborne fluorosensor (LEAF) to the recovery in 1996 of the oil barge 'Irving Whale' from the St. Lawrence River was described. Additional equipment employed on board the DC-3 aircraft included an RC-10 colour mapping camera and two down-looking video cameras. Leaking of Bunker C fuel oil was detected around the sunken barge in the days immediately prior to and during the day of the raising of the vessel. During each overflight, the LEAF system produced timely, concise map-based contamination information in hard copy form. The LEAF system also detected extremely thin, sub-sheen levels of oil on the day of the lift over the majority of the southern Gulf of St. Lawrence. The extent of coverage was greatly reduced by the next day and essentially eliminated by the second day after the lift. The LEAF system continued to monitor the 'Irving Whale' as it was transported to Halifax on the deck of the submersible vessel Boabarge 10. There was no evidence of oil leakage during the transit attributable to the 'Irving Whale'. During the entire period of lift and recovery the LEAF system performed flawlessly, and demonstrated the usefulness of remote sensing flights during oil spill response operations. 3 refs., 4 figs

  10. Peppermint Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Steven Foster Common Name: peppermint oil Latin Name: Mentha x piperita Introduction This fact sheet provides basic ... naturaldatabase.com on July 22, 2009. Peppermint oil ( Mentha x piperita L.). Natural Standard Database Web site. ...

  11. Coconut Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that coconut oil can increase both HDL and LDL cholesterol. Head lice. Developing research shows that a spray ... coconut oil might increase total cholesterol and "bad" LDL cholesterol. But there is contradictory evidence that shows that ...

  12. Bunker glocal: configuração majoritária sutil do imaginário mediático contemporâneo e militarização imperceptível da vida cotidiana

    OpenAIRE

    Eugênio Trivinho

    2008-01-01

    Bunker glocal – esta expressão heterodoxa – é o fundamento mediático do processo civilizatório contemporâneo. Sua análise no âmbito da teoria social e da comunicação apreende o principal aspecto de sua múltipla significação social-histórica: a militarização velada da existência humana no contexto civil da era digital. Ao materializar essa injunção teórica, o presente artigo detalha os vínculos inextricáveis entre processo de bunkerização ampliada, imaginário social e fenômeno glocal (além ...

  13. 东露天选煤厂槽仓高边坡稳定性与变形分析%Stability and deformation analysis of high slope for tank-type of bunker at Donglutian coal mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜海波; 宫守才; 刘庆雪

    2012-01-01

    平朔东露天槽仓为目前亚洲最大规模的储煤槽仓.采用极限平衡方法和有限元法,开展了边坡在支护前后不同工况下的稳定性计算和应力与变形分析.结果表明,边坡支护前无法达到使用要求,斜壁与直壁转角处和仓底坡脚处为应力集中和变形最大处,是加固的重点部位.边坡采用土钉墙复合结构和灌注桩+钢内撑复合结构支护后,稳定性满足使用要求,变形在正常范围内,该支护方案非常适合该边坡.%The tank-type bunker is the largest coal bunker in Asia currently. In this paper, the stability calculation and deformation analysis of excavation slope under different conditions are made, using the limit equilibrium method and the finite element method. The results indicate that the slope support requirements can not be met before reinforcement, and the place of stress concentration and maximum displacement is located at nook of diagonal corner and straight wall where is the reinforcement of key positions. Reinforcement was applied in the slope, by method of composite soil nail wall and bored piles + entry cupporting complex structures. The stability and deformation are satisfied with operational requirement, and the layout of reinforcement is suitable for the slope.

  14. Oil crises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author's aim was to give very precise information on the many causes and effects of the oil crises that have occurred since 1900, and at the same time offer the reader the possibility to build up a basic knowledge of the oil industry and market, as he feels that the public is often subjected to misleading information. Political and economical aspects are elaborated. First-hand sources such as statistics and investigations have been used as far as possible to give information on the oil market. An oil crisis is defined by the author as a significant change in the price of oil compared to prices of other goods. Changes can be in the form of either rising or falling prices. A special chapter concentrates on Denmark in relation to the oil crises. (AB) (165 refs.)

  15. Antidiabetic oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berraaouan, Ali; Abid, Sanae; Bnouham, Mohamed

    2013-11-01

    Many studies have demonstrated evidence of the health benefits of natural products. Plant extracts have been tested on a variety of physiological disorders, including diabetes mellitus. Studies have tested aqueous extracts, plant fractions extracts, families of active of compounds, and specific active compounds. In this review, we describe the antidiabetic effects of vegetable oils. Information was collected from ScienceDirect and PubMed databases using the following key words: Diabetes mellitus, Oils, Vegetable oils, Type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, antidiabetic effect, antihyperglycemic, antidiabetic oil. We have compiled approximately ten vegetable oils with including experimental studies that have demonstrated benefits on diabetes mellitus. There are soybean, argan, olive, palm, walnut, black cumin, safflower, Colocynth, Black seed, Rice bran, Cinnamom, and Rocket oils. For each vegetable oil, we investigated on the plant's traditional uses, their pharmacological activities and their antidiabetic effects. It seems that many vegetable oils are really interesting and can be used in the improvement of human health, particularly, to prevent or to treat diabetes mellitus complications.

  16. Oil Spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mapping tools , OR&R provides standard techniques and publishes guidelines for observing oil, assessing shoreline impact, and ... consolidates key response data. Resources OR&R also publishes many of its guidelines for emergency responders and ...

  17. NUTRACEUTICAL ANALYSIS OF AMARANTH OIL, AVOCADO OIL, CUMIN OIL, LINSEED OIL AND NEEM OIL

    OpenAIRE

    Ripal Khamar* and YT Jasrai

    2014-01-01

    Amaranth oil, Avocado oil, Cumin oil, Linseed oil and Neem oil are medicinal herbal oil which is natural source of fatty acids, nutraceuticals and mainly Tocopherol – Vitamin ‘E’. They play important role with various medicinal properties like Anti-oxidant, Cholesterol reducing agent etc. Results suggested that Amaranth oil is reddish brown coloured and have 0.5-2 Acid value, 100-115 Iodine value and 182-190 saponification value as Biochemical parameters; 20-27 % Saturated Fatty acid, 18-25 %...

  18. Differential gene expression induced by exposure of captive mink to fuel oil: A model for the sea otter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, L.; Riva, F.; Mohr, C.; Aldridge, B.; Schwartz, J.; Miles, A.K.; Stott, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    Free-ranging sea otters are subject to hydrocarbon exposure from a variety of sources, both natural and anthropogenic. Effects of direct exposure to unrefined crude oil, such as that associated with the Exxon Valdez oil spill, are readily apparent. However, the impact of subtle but pathophysiologically relevant concentrations of crude oil on sea otters is difficult to assess. The present study was directed at developing a model for assessing the impact of low concentrations of fuel oil on sea otters. Quantitative PCR was used to identify differential gene expression in American mink that were exposed to low concentrations of bunker C fuel oil. A total of 23 genes, representing 10 different physiological systems, were analyzed for perturbation. Six genes with immunological relevance were differentially expressed in oil-fed mink. Interleukin-18 (IL-18), IL-10, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), and complement cytolysis inhibitor (CLI) were down-regulated while IL-2 was up-regulated. Expression of two additional genes was affected; heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) was up-regulated and thyroid hormone receptor (THR) was down-regulated. While the significance of each perturbation is not immediately evident, we identified differential expression of genes that would be consistent with the presence of immune system-modifying and endocrine-disrupting compounds in fuel oil. Application of this approach to identify effects of petroleum contamination on sea otters should be possible following expansion of this mink model to identify a greater number of affected genes in peripheral blood leukocytes. ?? 2007 Ecohealth Journal Consortium.

  19. Trends in concentrations of nitrate and total dissolved solids in public supply wells of the Bunker Hill, Lytle, Rialto, and Colton groundwater subbasins, San Bernardino County, California: influence of legacy land use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Robert; Landon, Matthew K

    2013-05-01

    Concentrations and temporal changes in concentrations of nitrate and total dissolved solids (TDS) in groundwater of the Bunker Hill, Lytle, Rialto, and Colton groundwater subbasins of the Upper Santa Ana Valley Groundwater Basin were evaluated to identify trends and factors that may be affecting trends. One hundred, thirty-one public-supply wells were selected for analysis based on the availability of data spanning at least 11 years between the late 1980s and the 2000s. Forty-one of the 131 wells (31%) had a significant (porganic compounds (VOCs); VOC occurrence decreases with increasing depth. The relations of nitrate trends to depth, lateral position, and VOCs imply that increasing nitrate concentrations are associated with nitrate loading from historical agricultural land use and that more recent urban land use is generally associated with lower nitrate concentrations and greater VOC occurrence. Increasing TDS trends were associated with relatively greater current nitrate concentrations and relatively greater amounts of urban land. Decreasing TDS trends were associated with relatively greater amounts of natural land use. Trends in TDS concentrations were not related to depth, lateral position, or VOC occurrence, reflecting more complex factors affecting TDS than nitrate in the study area. PMID:23500406

  20. Myristica oil poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutmeg oil; Myristicin ... Myristica oil ( Myristica fragrans ) can be harmful. It comes from the seed of a nutmeg. ... Myristica oil is found in: Aromatherapy products Mace Nutmeg Other products may also contain myristica oil.

  1. The oil industry in 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The various contributions present and comment many data about the evolutions of different parts of the oil industry until 2006: world oil and gas markets, worldwide oil exploration and production, oil exploration and production in France, oil and oil-related industry in France, hydrocarbon supplies, oil refining in France, fuel quality, substitution fuels, inner transportation of oil products, storage of oil products, consumption of oil products, taxing of oils products, price of oil products, distribution of oil products

  2. Markets for Canadian oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference presentation presented charts and graphs on the market for Canadian oil. Graphs included crude oil and natural gas prices and heavy oil discount differential. Graphs depicting heavy oil economics such as bitumen blending with condensate were also included along with global crude oil reserves by country. Information on oil sands projects in the Athabasca, Peace River, and Cold Lake deposits was presented along with graphs on oil sands supply costs by recovery type; Canadian production for conventional, oil sands and offshore oil; new emerging oil sands crude types; and 2003 market demand by crude type in the United States and Canada. Maps included Canada and United States crude oil pipelines; western Canadian crude oil markets; long term oil pipeline expansion projects; Canadian and United States crude oil pipeline alternatives; and potential tanker markets for Canadian oil sands production. Lastly, the presentation provided graphs on 2003 refinery crude demand and California market demand. tabs., figs

  3. Chemistry of oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iida, T.

    1974-01-01

    A review with several references covers the formation, distribution, and mining of oil shales of Fu-Shun colliery; retorting furnaces for oil shale; refining of crude shale oils; and components of oil from Fu-Shun oil shales including pyrolle, matrine, fatty acid anilides, 2,4,5-trimethylpyrrole, and middle-layer bases.

  4. Impact of oil spill and posterior clean-up activities on wrack-living talitrid amphipods on estuarine beaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Borzone

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A geomorphological and faunistic seasonal study of six estuarine beaches on Paranaguá Bay, Brazil, was abruptly interrupted when the Chilean ship "Vicuña" exploded and sank, spilling 291 tons of bunker fuel oil. The beaches sampled twice before the accident were affected by the oil spill deposition and the posterior clean-up activities. Neither drastic reduction in abundances nor occurrences of oil-covered individuals were registered. Significant variation in both amount of debris and talitrid amphipod densities was directly related to beach clean-up activities. A short (1-3 month manual clean-up of polluted wrack resulted in an increase in talitrid abundances, with the local distribution expansion of one species, Platorchestia monodi, from three to six of the beaches sampled. The active migration and concentration of organisms at sites without wrack during cleaning activities and a massive and continuous recovery of new debris, characteristic of estuarine beaches, may contribute to the findings.Um estudo sazonal da geomorfologia e fauna de seis praias estuarinas na baia de Paranaguá, Brasil, foi interrompido bruscamente pela explosão e posterior afundamento do navio chileno Vicuña, que derramou 291 toneladas de óleo bunker. As praias que foram afetadas pela deposição de óleo e pelas posteriores atividades de limpeza, tinham sido amostradas duas vezes antes do acidente. Nas coletas posteriores ao acidente não foram registradas nem reduções drásticas das abundâncias nem indivíduos impregnados por óleo. As significativas variações tanto da quantidade de detrito quanto nas densidades de anfipodes talitrídeos foram relacionadas às atividades de limpeza. Uma limpeza manual e de curta duração (1 a 3 meses resultou num aumento das abundâncias dos talitrídeos, juntamente com o aumento da distribuição de uma das espécies, Platorchestia monodi, que de três passou a ser encontrada em seis praias amostradas.Os fatores que

  5. Greening oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shell is playing its part both individually and as part of the World Business Council for Sustainable Development, which I have had the privilege of chairing over the past two years. This is part of a clear commitment to contribute to sustainable development, which is at the heart of the way we operate. That means we take account of environmental and social considerations as well as economic ones in making our business decisions. We know that oil and gas exploration and production can have an impact on the environment and are determined to minimize it and ensure the long-term legacy of these operations is a good one. Protecting the world's biodiversity is a particularly important aspect of our work, and we are working in partnership with a number of conservation organizations. These include a project with the Smithsonian Institution in Gabon that is researching and cataloguing the immensely rich natural environment around the oilfields in the Gamba complex. It is extremely encouraging that the research so far has suggested that, despite almost 40 years of oil operations, the environment in the area is as rich as ever. We have been working with other companies and conservation organizations in the Energy Biodiversity Initiative in recognition of the particular responsibilities of energy companies in this area. As part of this, the Shell Group has developed tools and guidelines on best practice in integrating biodiversity into oil and gas development. We hope these will form the basis for a common approach by the industry. This builds on the approach we have taken to integrate biodiversity into our project planning and operations. The environmental impact of any project is assessed right from the start and safeguards are put in place to mitigate any negative effects. There is an early dialogue with stakeholders to ensure that their concerns are addressed. Biodiversity is important wherever we work and we try to ensure that all our operations take place in a

  6. Exploring Oil Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses damages of oil tanker spillage to the marine organisms and scientists' research in oil pollution removal techniques. Included is a list of learning activities concerning the causes and effects of oil pollution and methods of solving the problem. (CC)

  7. Cedar leaf oil poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedar leaf oil is made from some types of cedar trees. Cedar leaf oil poisoning occurs when someone swallows this substance. ... The substance in cedar leaf oil that can be harmful is thujone (a hydrocarbon).

  8. Eating Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Woodward, Mr Lawrence; Jones, Andy

    2002-01-01

    The food system is now even more based on cheap crude oil. Every time we eat, we are all essentially ‘eating oil’. Virtually all of the processes in the modern food system are now dependent upon this finite resource which is nearing its depletion phase. Moreover, at a time when we should be making massive cuts in the emissions of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere in order to reduce the threat posed by climate change, the food system is lengthening its supply chains and increasing emissi...

  9. Reassessing the Oil Security Premium

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen P. A. Brown; Huntington, Hillard G.

    2010-01-01

    World oil supply disruptions lead to U.S. economic losses. Because oil is fungible in an integrated world oil market, increased oil consumption, whether from domestic or imported sources, increases the economic losses associated with oil supply disruptions. Nevertheless, increased U.S. oil production expands stable supplies and dampens oil price shocks, whereas increased U.S. oil imports boosts the share of world oil supply that comes from unstable producers and exacerbates oil price shocks. ...

  10. Oil Reserve Center Established

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Like other countries,China has started to grow its strategic oil reserve in case oil supplies are cut On December 18,2007,the National Development and Reform Commission(NDRC),China’s top economic planner,announced that the national oil reserve center has been officially launched.The supervisory system over the oil reserves has three levels: the energy department of the NDRC,the oil reserve center,and the reserve bases.

  11. Asian oil demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference presentation examined global oil market development and the role of Asian demand. It discussed plateau change versus cyclical movement in the global oil market; supply and demand issues of OPEC and non-OPEC oil; if high oil prices reduce demand; and the Asian oil picture in the global context. Asian oil demand has accounted for about 50 per cent of the global incremental oil market growth. The presentation provided data charts in graphical format on global and Asia-Pacific incremental oil demand from 1990-2005; Asia oil demand growth for selected nations; real GDP growth in selected Asian countries; and, Asia-Pacific oil production and net import requirements. It also included charts in petroleum product demand for Asia-Pacific, China, India, Japan, and South Korea. Other data charts included key indicators for China's petroleum sector; China crude production and net oil import requirements; China's imports and the share of the Middle East; China's oil exports and imports; China's crude imports by source for 2004; China's imports of main oil products for 2004; India's refining capacity; India's product balance for net-imports and net-exports; and India's trade pattern of oil products. tabs., figs

  12. Mexican oil industry: Shifting to difficult oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazan G., Gerardo; Gonzalez, Cristobal J.

    2010-09-15

    Mexico has stepped into an important transition of declining oil fields and new challenging oil projects. The aim of this paper is to show a new perspective of the oil resources that have been exploited throughout the Mexican territory, as well as the remaining resources yet to be exploited. We have developed a resources/production-costs chart that illustrates the historical and future development of the Mexican oil industry, showing the shift that the industry will face in the coming years; this chart was taken from a model already in use by the most prestige energy agencies in the world.

  13. Bio-Friendly Alternatives for Xylene – Carrot oil, Olive oil, Pine oil, Rose oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandan, Surapaneni Rateesh Kumar; Kulkarni, Pavan G.; Rao, Thokala Madhusudan; Palakurthy, Pavan

    2015-01-01

    Background Xylene is a flammable liquid with characteristic petroleum or aromatic odours, it is miscible with most of the organic solvents and paraffin wax. Xylene clears tissues rapidly and renders transparency, facilitating clearing endpoint determination, this made it to be used as a clearing agent in routine histopathological techniques. Even though it is a good clearing agent, it causes damage to the tissues by its hardening effect particularly those fixed in non-protein coagulant fixatives. Apart from these tissue effects, it has severe, long lasting ill effects on health of technicians and pathologists when exposed to longer duration. Hence in order to overcome these effects and replace xylene with a safe alternative agent, the present study was carried out to assess the clearing ability and bio-friendly nature of four different natural oils i.e., Carrot oil, Olive oil, Pine oil and Rose oil in comparison with that of Xylene. According to Bernoulli’s principle of fluid dynamics, to decrease viscosity of these oils and increase penetration into tissues for rapid clearing hot-air oven technique was used. Aims To assess:1) Clearing ability and bio-friendly nature of four different oils i.e., Carrot oil, Olive oil, Pine oil, Rose oil in comparison with that of xylene, 2) Application of Bernoulli’s principle of fluid dynamics in rapid clearing of tissues by using hot-air oven. Materials and Methods Forty different formalin fixed tissue samples were taken. Each sample of tissue was cut into 5 bits (40x5=200 total bits) which were subjected for dehydration in differential alcohol gradients. Later, each bit is kept in 4 different oils such as Carrot oil, Olive oil, Pine oil, Rose oil and xylene and transferred into hot-air oven. Further routine steps of processing, sectioning and staining were done. Individual sections cleared in four different oils were assessed for cellular architecture, staining quality and a comparison was done between them. Results Results

  14. HEAVY OIL DEVELOPMENT KEY TO CHINA'S OIL PRODUCTION GROWTH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Chunpeng

    2006-01-01

    @@ How to raise the heavy oil production rate has long been a difficult research project focused by international oil giants while the super-heavy oil development is particularly a world-class bottleneck for many oil producers. However, China's main oil companies will give priority to heavy oil exploration and production in the next decade to meet China's increasing energy needs.

  15. Transesterification of jojoba oil, sunflower oil, neem oil, rocket seed oil and linseed oil by tin catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The methanolysis of jojoba oil has been studied in the presence of tin powder, dibutyltin diacetate (C4H9)2Sn(OOCCH3)2, dioctyltin diacetate (C8H17)2Sn(OOCCH3)2, dibutyltin oxide (C4H9)2SnO, dioctyltin oxide (C8H17)2SnO, diphenyltin oxide (C6H5)2SnO, dibutyltin chloride dihydroxide (C4H9)2Sn(OH)2Cl, butyltinhydroxide hydrate (C4H9)Sn(=O)OH.xH2O, Ni nanoparticles and Pd nanoparticles act as catalysts. Among these, 1 weight % of dibutyltin diacetate shows the maximum conversion. Then, methanolysis of sunflower oil, neem oil, rocket seed oil and linseed oil into methyl esters studied in the presence of 1% dibutyltin diacetate as a catalyst and was compared their percentage conversions. The experimental yield for the conversion of jojoba oil, sunflower oil, neem oil, rocket seed oil and linseed oil into biodiesel was found to be 71%, 51%, 50.78%, 40.90% and 39.66%, respectively. The experimental yield of the conversion of jojoba oil into methyl esters was found to be increased up to 96% by increasing reaction time, without emulsion formation. The synthesis of jojoba seed oil biodiesel (JSOB), soybean oil biodiesel (SOB), neem oil biodiesel (NOB), rocket seed oil biodiesel (RSOB) and linseed oil biodiesel (LSOB) was confirmed by NMR (1H and 13C) and FT-IR analyses of biodiesel. - Highlights: • Transesterification of jojoba oil into biodiesel by tin and nano catalysts. • 1 weight % dibutyltin diacetate showed highest yield at 60 °C. • Catalytic conversion comparison of five oils using dibutyltin diacetate • The experimental yield of the conversion of jojoba oil increased with time. • FT-IR and NMR (1H and 13C) characterization

  16. China Aviation Oil Acquires Overseas Oil Company

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ China Aviation Oil (Singapore) announced an acquisition of a 20.6 percent stake in Singapore Petroleum Company (SPC) from Satya Capital Inc Ltd, the largest investment the company has ever made in its history. China Aviation Oil (Singapore),which is the largest Chinese enterprise Singapore,will become the second largest shareholder of SPC after the acquisition.

  17. Automotive gear oil lubricant from soybean oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of lubricants that are based on renewable materials is rapidly increasing. Vegetable oils have good lubricity, wear protection and low volatility which are desired properties for automotive gear lubricant applications. Soybean oil is used widely in the lubricant industry due to its properti...

  18. Indonesia's palm oil subsector

    OpenAIRE

    Larson, Donald F

    1996-01-01

    Debate on Indonesia's palm oil policy was stimulated by a sharp increase in cooking oil prices in 1994-95 and a resulting increase in the export tax rate on crude palm oil. Palm oil has been one of the fastest growing subsectors in Indonesia. Using a quantitative model, the author analyzes the effect of government policies, including the export tax, buffer stock operations by the BULOG (the national logistics agency), and directed sales from public estates. The author acknowledges the export ...

  19. A new oil crisis?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent developments in the oil market are discussed, focusing on the causes of recent price increase, expectations for the near future, why previous oil crises resulted into a recession, and the expected consequences of the oil price increase for the economic growth and inflation. The negative consequences of the high oil price for the European economy can be limited under the condition that claims for higher wages are moderate. 2 refs

  20. Extracting oil from coffee

    OpenAIRE

    Elkin Mauricio López Fontal

    2010-01-01

    The present work describes oil being extracted from toasted coffee by the extrusion method; two products are obtained from this process: coffee oil and pulp. Toasted coffee was used which has a high amount of sensorial compounds. It should be noted that a significant criterion in evaluating the quality of coffee lies in its aroma. When extracting oil from coffee, a significant part of toasted coffee’s aromatic content leaves with it, varying according to the extraction method. A fixed oil h...

  1. Soluble oil cutting fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rawlinson, A.P.; White, J.

    1987-06-23

    A soluble oil, suitable when diluted with water, for use as a cutting fluid comprises an alkali or alkaline-earth metal alkyl benzene sulphonate, a fatty acid diethanolamide, a mixed alkanolamine borate, a polyisobutenesuccinimide and a major proportion of mineral oil. The soluble oil is relatively stable without the need for a conventional coupling agent and some soluble oil emulsions are bio-static even though conventional biocides are not included.

  2. Cod Liver Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cod liver oil can be obtained from eating fresh cod liver or by taking supplements. Cod liver oil is used for high cholesterol, high triglycerides, ... ear infections (otitis media). Some people put cod liver oil on their skin to speed wound healing. ...

  3. OIL AS POLITICAL WEAPON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana, BUICAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Oil (called by some black gold has not always been as coveted and used, but only in the last hundred years has established itself as a highly sought after as an indispensable proper functioning of modern economic activity that an important factor in international politics. International oil regime has changed in the last decades. In 1960, oil regime was a private oligopol which had links with governments main consuming countries. By then the price of a barrel of oil was two U.S. dollars and seven major transnational oil companies decided the amount of oil that will be produced. Meanwhile the world region with the largest oil exports were more strongly expressed nationalism and decolonization. Result, it was so in the late 60s in the region occur independent states. They have created an organization aim of this resource to their advantage - OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. Thus since 1973 there have been changes in the international regime governing oil field, namely producing countries were fixed production rate and price. After this time the oil weapon has become increasingly important in the management of international relations. Oil influenced the great powers to Middle East conflicts that occurred in the last century, but their attitude about the emergence of new sources of oil outside OPEC. In the late 90's, Russia has become a major supplier of oil to the West.

  4. Oil Spill Cleanup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauble, Christena Ann

    2011-01-01

    Several classroom activities using a model of a seashore and an oil spill demonstrate the basic properties of oil spills in oceans. Students brainstorm about how to best clean up the mess. They work in teams, and after agreeing on how they will proceed, their method is tested by measuring the amount of oil removed and by rating the cleanliness of…

  5. Sassafras oil overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassafras oil comes from the root bark of the sassafras tree. Sassafras oil overdose occurs when someone swallows more than the ... Safrole is the poisonous ingredient in sassafras oil. It is a clear or ... yellow oily liquid. It can be dangerous in large amounts.

  6. Contaminated oil management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streatfield, R.E

    2005-03-15

    Gas circulator oils are the primary source of contaminated oil arising as Low Level Waste (LLW) from AGR and Magnox gas cooled reactors operated by British Energy and BNFL Magnox Generation, respectively. In addition, there are oil arisings from the PWR operated by British Energy at Sizewell B. The paper initially identifies the quantities and types of oil involved. The primary method of disposal is on-site or off-site combustion in authorised facilities and typical installations and their operational modes are described. The generation of waste circulator oils at stations is highly variable with some reporting no annual accumulations whilst others accumulate hundreds, or thousands of litres per year. At present some sites have significant stores of oil with no approved disposal route. In the Magnox reactor context the oil arisings are either as clean but contaminated circulator oil from circulator maintenance or dirty oil associated with and removed from sludge arisings. In the Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor (AGR) context the arisings are mainly due to circulator maintenance, with some oil being recycled. Sizewell B also has lubricating oil arisings. A range of alternative technologies for the treatment of LLW oil is reviewed and a number of physical/chemical destruction technologies identified and evaluated. The paper summarises the results of these studies and indicates where future technologies could be deployed with advantage. (author)

  7. Utah Heavy Oil Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Bauman; S. Burian; M. Deo; E. Eddings; R. Gani; R. Goel; C.K. Huang; M. Hogue; R. Keiter; L. Li; J. Ruple; T. Ring; P. Rose; M. Skliar; P.J. Smith; J.P. Spinti; P. Tiwari; J. Wilkey; K. Uchitel

    2009-10-20

    The Utah Heavy Oil Program (UHOP) was established in June 2006 to provide multidisciplinary research support to federal and state constituents for addressing the wide-ranging issues surrounding the creation of an industry for unconventional oil production in the United States. Additionally, UHOP was to serve as an on-going source of unbiased information to the nation surrounding technical, economic, legal and environmental aspects of developing heavy oil, oil sands, and oil shale resources. UHOP fulGilled its role by completing three tasks. First, in response to the Energy Policy Act of 2005 Section 369(p), UHOP published an update report to the 1987 technical and economic assessment of domestic heavy oil resources that was prepared by the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission. The UHOP report, entitled 'A Technical, Economic, and Legal Assessment of North American Heavy Oil, Oil Sands, and Oil Shale Resources' was published in electronic and hard copy form in October 2007. Second, UHOP developed of a comprehensive, publicly accessible online repository of unconventional oil resources in North America based on the DSpace software platform. An interactive map was also developed as a source of geospatial information and as a means to interact with the repository from a geospatial setting. All documents uploaded to the repository are fully searchable by author, title, and keywords. Third, UHOP sponsored Give research projects related to unconventional fuels development. Two projects looked at issues associated with oil shale production, including oil shale pyrolysis kinetics, resource heterogeneity, and reservoir simulation. One project evaluated in situ production from Utah oil sands. Another project focused on water availability and produced water treatments. The last project considered commercial oil shale leasing from a policy, environmental, and economic perspective.

  8. Historical Oil Shocks

    OpenAIRE

    Hamilton, James D.

    2011-01-01

    This paper surveys the history of the oil industry with a particular focus on the events associated with significant changes in the price of oil. Although oil was used much differently and was substantially less important economically in the nineteenth century than it is today, there are interesting parallels between events in that era and more recent developments. Key post-World-War-II oil shocks reviewed include the Suez Crisis of 1956-57, the OPEC oil embargo of 1973-1974, the Iranian revo...

  9. Electricity/oil substitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extent to which electricity could substitute for imported oil in Canada is assessed and it is concluded that the bulk of projected oil imports could be displaced. This substitution of electricity for oil could be largely completed within two decades, with existing technology, using Canadian resources. The substitution of electricity for imported oil would result in relatively low energy costs and would stimulate economic growth. Energy self-sufficiency through the substitution of electricity for oil is uniquely a Canadian option; it is not open to other industrial countries. The option exists because of Canada's resources of oil sands for essential liquid fuels, hydraulic and nuclear electrical potential, and natural gas as an interim source of energy. While other countries face an energy crisis due to declining supplies of oil, Canada faces opportunities. The policies of Federal and Provincial governments, as perceived by individual decision makers, will have a major influence on Canada's ability to realize opportunities. (auth)

  10. The Russian oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article proposes a brief discussion of various assessments of Russian oil reserves, of the evolutions of Russian oil production (Russia is the second world producer after Saudi Arabia), of the distribution of Russian oil exports among various regions, and of the decrease of Russian oil consumption between 1992 and 2002. It describes the evolution of the actor system as the oil sector has been largely privatised since 1992, and indicates the main companies which should control the Russia market on a medium term. It also discusses the obstacles for the development of Production Sharing Agreements (PSA) between these companies. It addresses the issue of modernisation of the oil transport system as its status and its condition are often an obstacle to oil export for Russian companies. The article finally discusses the price issue, the relationship between Russia and other OPEC countries, and the need for huge investments

  11. 27 CFR 21.98 - Bone oil (Dipple's oil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bone oil (Dipple's oil....98 Bone oil (Dipple's oil). (a) Color. The color shall be a deep brown. (b) Distillation range. When... below 90 °C. (c) Pyrrol reaction. Prepare a 1.0 percent solution of bone oil in 95 percent...

  12. Tarim Oil Field Company Oil Output Exceeds 5 Million Tons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    PetroChina Tarim Oil Field Company (Tarim Oil Field), located in the hinterland of Takelamagan Desert in Northwest Xinjiang Autonomous Region,produced 5.006 million tons of crude oil in 2002,ranking it as the sixth largest onshore oil field in China. This is the first time Tarim Oil Field has topped 5 million tons for its crude production.

  13. Weathering of oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosmanith, P.P.; Haegh, T.; Audunson, T.; Eggen, S.; Eide, I.

    1978-01-01

    Ekofisk crude oil (250 L) was exposed to weathering in Nov. 1977 contained in an oil boom on Trondheimsfjorden. Meteorologic and hydrographic data were recorded. Immediately after release of the oil, concentrations of up to 190 ppm of gas were measured 50 cm above the slick. In the water 20 cm below the oil, several parts per million of hydrocarbons was detected. Evaporation and solution of the oil was studied over a period of one month by gas chromatography. The loss of oil during this period was approximately 40%. Trials conducted with a polyvinyl chloride skimmer to study the adhesive properties of the oil showed that the amount of oil recoverable by this method varied between 0.03 and 0.13 ml/sq cm. Microbiological investigations, phytoplankton growth, and growth rate measurements of Ascophyllum nodosum in oil/water mixtures also were made. The total number of bacteria in the polluted water increased by approximately 1000 times during 2 days following release of the oil. The phytoplankton were only slightly affected (75 cm below the slick), though A. nodosum showed a clear reduction in growth rate.

  14. Oil: Economics and politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review is presented of the evolution of the international petroleum sector since 1973 with a special emphasis on the interdependence between the economic and political factors that influence it. Two issues are focused on: the effects of the nationalization of oil companies on the sharing of oil rents and on changes in the structure of the oil market; and the determination of oil prices. Definitions are presented of oil rents, and the reasons for OPEC nationalization of oil companies are explored. The effects of nationalization on market structures, expansion of free markets, and vertical integration are discussed. The existence of an oil price floor and the reasons for such a floor are examined. It is shown that nationalization induced an internalization of rents by the producing countries, leading to the emergence of a differential rent supported by the politics of the industrialized countries. Nationalization led to the breakup of systems of vertical and horizontal integration, with replacement by a new dual structure with OPEC controlling the upstream activities of the oil sector and oil companies controlling the downstream ones. Prices move between a floor price set by the costs of substitute deposits in the U.S., while the determination of ceiling levels by OPEC rests on successive fragile compromises. Overall oil is still a strategic product, despite the existence of spot markets, forward trading options, etc. 29 refs

  15. The oil price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Statistical analysis cannot, alone, provide an oil price forecast. So, one needs to understand the fundamental phenomena which control the past trends since the end of world war II After a first period during which oil, thanks to its abundance, was able to increase its market share at the expense of other energies, the first oil shock reflects the rarefaction of oil resource with the tilting of the US production curve from growth to decline. Since then, the new situation is that of a ''cohabitation'' between oil and the other energies with the oil price, extremely volatile, reflecting the trial and error adjustment of the market share left to the other energies. Such a context may explain the recent oil price surge but the analogy between the US oil situation at the time of the first shock and that existing today for the world outside Middle East suggest another possibility, that of a structural change with higher future oil prices. The authors examine these two possibilities, think that the oil price will reflect both as long as one or the other will not become proven, and conclude with a series of political recommendations. (authors)

  16. Spectroscopic study of Mentha oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, A. K.; Singh, A. K.

    The visible fluorescence and excitation spectra of Mentha oils (Japanese mint oil, peppermint oil and spearmint oil) have been recorded. Different physical constants which are characteristic of the fluorescent molecules have been calculated for all three oils. Results reveal that the same group of organic compounds dominate in the oils of peppermint and spearmint, whereas some different compound is present in Japanese mint oil. It is also found that the fluorescence intensity of these oils is comparable to that of Rhodamine 6G dye in methanol solution. Our studies suggest that Mentha oils may be a useful lasing material in the 450-600 nm wavelength range.

  17. European Union and oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a context of oil price increase, problems about a Russian oil company (Loukos), and uncertainties in the Middle-East, the possibility of a new oil shock is a threat for Europe, and raises the issue of a true European energy policy which would encompass, not only grid development, environmental issues or market regulation issues, but also strategic issues related to energy supply security. This article proposes an overview of the European policy: first steps for a future European energy and oil policy in the green paper of the European Commission published in November 2000, issues of pollution and safety for hydrocarbon maritime transport. The article then examines the possibility of a third oil shock due to a crisis in the Middle East, and discusses whether European must have strategic stocks to face an outage of oil supplies

  18. The oil market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter examines the structure of the oil industry and the impacts of the oil markets on the hedging strategies of the energy consumers, the oil company, and the energy derivatives' provider. An introduction to market perspectives is presented, and the hedging operations in the jet fuel market in the airline sector are discussed. Trading and risk management within an oil company, the derivatives provider, trading derivatives in a multi-dimensional world, locational risks, and the modelling of term structure and the role of storage are considered. Industrial spreads and the role of refining, future market developments and market strategies for crude oil and oil products, and marketing packages and market risk are addressed

  19. Chemometric techniques in oil classification from oil spill fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Azimah; Toriman, Mohd Ekhwan; Juahir, Hafizan; Kassim, Azlina Md; Zain, Sharifuddin Md; Ahmad, Wan Kamaruzaman Wan; Wong, Kok Fah; Retnam, Ananthy; Zali, Munirah Abdul; Mokhtar, Mazlin; Yusri, Mohd Ayub

    2016-10-15

    Extended use of GC-FID and GC-MS in oil spill fingerprinting and matching is significantly important for oil classification from the oil spill sources collected from various areas of Peninsular Malaysia and Sabah (East Malaysia). Oil spill fingerprinting from GC-FID and GC-MS coupled with chemometric techniques (discriminant analysis and principal component analysis) is used as a diagnostic tool to classify the types of oil polluting the water. Clustering and discrimination of oil spill compounds in the water from the actual site of oil spill events are divided into four groups viz. diesel, Heavy Fuel Oil (HFO), Mixture Oil containing Light Fuel Oil (MOLFO) and Waste Oil (WO) according to the similarity of their intrinsic chemical properties. Principal component analysis (PCA) demonstrates that diesel, HFO, MOLFO and WO are types of oil or oil products from complex oil mixtures with a total variance of 85.34% and are identified with various anthropogenic activities related to either intentional releasing of oil or accidental discharge of oil into the environment. Our results show that the use of chemometric techniques is significant in providing independent validation for classifying the types of spilled oil in the investigation of oil spill pollution in Malaysia. This, in consequence would result in cost and time saving in identification of the oil spill sources.

  20. The oil price conundrum

    OpenAIRE

    Mabro, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The governments of oil-importing countries are worried about the recent high oil prices. They worry about possible macro-economic effects: inflation, recession, balance-of-payments deficits. The consumers of energy in those countries where fuels are not subsidised are angry about the higher prices of oil, gas and electricity. Unfortunately these higher prices have coincided with increases in the cost of food and other items of vital expenditures. Those who use fuels in significant quantities,...

  1. Geopolitics of oil markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geopolitics can inject a great deal of uncertainty and cause fundamental shifts in the overall direction of oil markets, which would otherwise act in a fairly predictable and stable manner. The Iraqi invasion of Kuwait and the response of the USA were definitely linked with oil, and the aftermath of the invasion left four geopolitical issues affecting world oil markets. The provision authorizing $1.6 billion in Iraqi oil exports under the United Nations sanctions was imposed with little concern about the potential impact of these exports on the oil market; Iraq could export as much as 1 million bbl/d and it is unlikely that exports would be stopped once the $1.6 billion limit is reached. By making up most of the supply shortfall during the Kuwait crisis, Saudi Arabia suddenly became the producer of over a third of OPEC oil supplies and now dominates OPEC. The Saudis have indicated it will swing production according to world demand, irrespective of what OPEC wants, so that world oil demand will return strongly and remain. Middle East politics in general will determine the stability of oil supplies in the region for many of the countries. A producer-consumer dialogue at the high governmental level has started, with a view to some type of multilateral understanding in the light of mutual interests in secure oil supplies. This is not likely to have a big impact on oil markets without participation and support from the USA. The recent changes in the Soviet Union have potential impacts in regard to the attraction of that market for Western investment, in particular to assist exports. The worldwide environmental movement will also play a geopolitical role in the world oil market due to its influence on oil taxation policies

  2. Edible oils and fats

    OpenAIRE

    Kostik, Vesna; Memeti, Shaban; Bauer, Biljana

    2013-01-01

    Edible oils and fats are biological mixtures of plant origin consisting of ester mixtures derived from glycerol with chain of fatty acids. The rate of unsaturated to saturated fatty acids in edible oils and fats is very important for human nutrition. While high levels of saturated fatty acids is desirable to increase oil stability, on the other hand nutritionally they become undesirable, because high levels of saturated fatty acids are frequently considered to have influence in increasing...

  3. Integrated palm oil processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Googin, J.M.

    1983-01-01

    Tree palms are a promising source of fuel extenders and substitutes. They are perennials which bear oil for a period of two to three decades after a roughly four year preliminary growth period. Tree palms are now one of the most efficient energy crops: the best modern varieties can provide up to 6 tonnes per hectare per year of mesocarp and kernal oils. Palms are particularly attractive in areas where more conventional farming would pose a significant threat of laterization of cause major ecological problems. Technology for palm oil production is can range between village level manual operations and highly industrialized mills. Process energy is often supplied by combustion of byproducts. Although palm oil is a good energy crop, its physical and combustion properties preclude most use in conventional diesel engines, although palm oil could be directly blended with residual fuel oils for use in some large engines. At present, two uses for palm oil as a diesel fuel extender or substitute appear attractive: microemulsion blends using palm soapstock and monoesters produced by exchanging small alcohols for the glycerol in triglycerides. The amount of alcohols required for conversion of a substantial fraction of palm oil or palm oil soapstock to fuel extenders or substitutes is proportionately small, and, to a major extent, can be supplied by palm processing waste materials. Fermentation and gasification produced alcohols in the one to four carbon range are suitable for use in formulating palm oil based fuels. On a stoichiometric basis, it appears that the value of the palm oil and alcohols are very close to their value as export items. Use of these palm oil fuels could help to decrease balance of payments problems for developing countries, as well as provide a secure market for agricultural products and improved rural employment.

  4. OIL AS POLITICAL WEAPON

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana, BUICAN

    2013-01-01

    Oil (called by some black gold) has not always been as coveted and used, but only in the last hundred years has established itself as a highly sought after as an indispensable proper functioning of modern economic activity that an important factor in international politics. International oil regime has changed in the last decades. In 1960, oil regime was a private oligopol which had links with governments main consuming countries. By then the price of a barrel of oil was two U.S. dollars and ...

  5. Oil:SOS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Chinese economy will be hit hard if the recent oil shortage is not eased quickly This year’s oil shortage was reminis- cent of the previous one in 2005. Cargo drivers drove gingerly with half-full tanks,diesel generators sat silently waiting for oil that wasn’t there,and many taxis even stopped running because of the shortage. This time the oil shortage,which first started in southern cities like Guangzhou and Shenzhen in August,spread to northern cities like Zhengzhou and Taiyuan in November.

  6. Oil-based paint poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paint - oil based - poisoning ... Hydrocarbons are the primary poisonous ingredient in oil paints. Some oil paints have heavy metals such as lead, mercury, cobalt, and barium added as pigment. These heavy metals can cause additional ...

  7. [Imperial Oil's Cold Lake oil sands operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imperial Oil Limited's Cold Lake oil sands resources, production and operations in Alberta are discussed. Cold Lake is the company's largest single asset and its largest source of crude oil production. In 1998, Cold Lake accounted for just under half of Imperial's total liquid production, averaging more than 135,000 barrels of bitumen a day. Despite the very difficult operating conditions experienced by the oil sands industry in 1998, Imperial Oil's Cold Lake operations generated a positive cash flow and earnings. Just as important, the near and long-term potential of Cold Lake property continues to be strong, even with the tough market conditions today and the foreseeable future. Proved reserves at the end of 1997 were 1.3 billions barrels, equal to about 24 years of current production, but even more important is Imperial's resource base in the Athabasca region, which represents 150 years of production at current rates. Although production forecasts for the near future are are revised downward because of production shut-in due to low prices, the company is confident of its long-term prospects mainly because of existing infrastructure, superior reservoir quality, 30 years worth of operating improvements and established bitumen-blend markets. Details of the company's future Cold Lake development plans are discussed. The need to continue technology development, which has been at the core of the industry's growth in the past and will continue to be the key to the future, are emphasized

  8. Oil spill statistics and oil spill monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viebahn, C. von [Greifswald Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Geography

    2001-09-01

    The main parts of the report describe the analysis and it's results of German and international oil spill data (North Sea and Baltic Sea). In order to improve the current oil spill monitoring of the Baltic Sea regarding oil spill data, the report proposes the establishment of a combined monitoring system; its suitability is shown on selected examples. This contains today's pollution control aircraft plus in-service aircraft and satellites. (orig.) [German] Der Schwerpunkt der Arbeit liegt in der Analyse von Daten ueber marine Oelschadensfaelle in deutschen und internationalen Gewaessern (Nord- und Ostsee). Um die heutige Ueberwachung der Ostsee im Hinblick auf Oelschadensfaelle zu verbessern, wird die Einrichtung eines kombinierten Ueberwachungssystems vorgeschlagen und dessen Eignung an ausgewaehlten Beispielen dargestellt. Dieses umfasst sowohl die heute eingesetzten Ueberwachungsflugzeuge sowie zusaetzlich Linienflugzeuge und Satelliten. (orig.)

  9. Oil supply and demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rech, O

    2004-07-01

    World oil demand, driven by economic development in China, posted the highest growth rate in 20 years. In a context of geopolitical uncertainty, prices are soaring, encouraged by low inventory and the low availability of residual production capacity. Will 2004 bring a change in the oil market paradigm? (author)

  10. Oil decon methods evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, D.; Somers, A. [SAIC Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Brown, C.E. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Science and Technology Div; Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Environmental Technology Centre

    2005-07-01

    Equipment used to contain oil spills on water must undergo the time consuming and energy intensive process of cleaning to remove residues after spill response efforts are completed. Most cleaning products are either solvent-based cleaners that dissolve the oil on contact, or they are alkali-based degreasers. These products can be very effective at removing light oil, but are not effective for removing heavy, viscous products. This study identified several readily available products and methodologies that can efficiently clean heavy oil contaminated equipment. Three categories of products were chosen for evaluation, including solvents, degreasers and dispersants. Techniques involving soaking, manual cleaning, power washing and scrubbing were also examined. The effectiveness of surface washing agents was determined by soaking and rinsing heavy oil contaminated equipment in a sloped trough. Specific cleaning compounds were tested for their ability to dissolve or loosen heavy oil and bitumen from painted steel plates by soaking. Dispersants Corexit 9500 and 9527 were also tested. The tests involved a closed loop, equipment decontamination process. Results indicate that all of the solvent-based liquids successfully cleaned the test plates. They were so effective that scrubbing was not necessary. Oil residue was minimized with little staining. The alkali-based cleaners were not useful in improving the cleaning process by soaking or scrubbing. Simple pressure washing removed a similar quantity of oil. 4 refs., 1 tab., 45 figs.

  11. Olive oil's extra benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-17

    Could a Mediterranean diet including extra virgin olive oil reduce the risk of breast cancer? Niki Mourouti and Demosthenes Panagiotakos' study in Evidence Based Nursing examined the effects on cancer risks of a Mediterranean diet supplemented with extra virgin olive oil. PMID:27533420

  12. Fossil Energy: Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, William W.

    Detailed are the highlights of the history and technology of crude oil and its end products. Included also are some of the important programs that American industry and the Federal government are planning and undertaking in order to enhance the benefits of oil and make use of the limited available quantities as wisely as possible, both now and in…

  13. Oil supply and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    World oil demand, driven by economic development in China, posted the highest growth rate in 20 years. In a context of geopolitical uncertainty, prices are soaring, encouraged by low inventory and the low availability of residual production capacity. Will 2004 bring a change in the oil market paradigm? (author)

  14. Krill oil: new nutraceuticals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beuy Joob

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Krill oil is a new available health product which is produced from deep marine species. Its property is to promote good health. The good lipid composition and antioxidant enrichment make krill oil a new nutraceutical for reducing health problems.

  15. Crude oil burning mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Malmquist, Linus Mattias Valdemar; Jomaas, Grunde

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve predictions for the burning efficiency and the residue composition of in-situ burning of crude oil, the burning mechanism of crude oil was studied in relation to the composition of its hydrocarbon mixture, before, during and after the burning. The surface temperature, flame he...

  16. Tree nut oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    The major tree nuts include almonds, Brazil nuts, cashew nuts, hazelnuts, macadamia nuts, pecans, pine nuts, pistachio nuts, and walnuts. Tree nut oils are appreciated in food applications because of their flavors and are generally more expensive than other gourmet oils. Research during the last de...

  17. Neutron scattering studies of crude oil viscosity reduction with electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Enpeng

    topic. Dr. Tao with his group at Temple University, using his electro or magnetic rheological viscosity theory has developed a new technology, which utilizes electric or magnetic fields to change the rheology of complex fluids to reduce the viscosity, while keeping the temperature unchanged. After we successfully reduced the viscosity of crude oil with field and investigated the microstructure changing in various crude oil samples with SANS, we have continued to reduce the viscosity of heavy crude oil, bunker diesel, ultra low sulfur diesel, bio-diesel and crude oil and ultra low temperature with electric field treatment. Our research group developed the viscosity electrorheology theory and investigated flow rate with laboratory and field pipeline. But we never visualize this aggregation. The small angle neutron scattering experiment has confirmed the theoretical prediction that a strong electric field induces the suspended nano-particles inside crude oil to aggregate into short chains along the field direction. This aggregation breaks the symmetry, making the viscosity anisotropic: along the field direction, the viscosity is significantly reduced. The experiment enables us to determine the induced chain size and shape, verifies that the electric field works for all kinds of crude oils, paraffin-based, asphalt-based, and mix-based. The basic physics of such field induced viscosity reduction is applicable to all kinds of suspensions.

  18. Iranian-Oil-Free Zone and international oil prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the main elements of economic sanctions against Iran due to its nuclear and military programs is crude oil exportation restrictions in addition to investment in Iranian energy related projects. Senders of such sanction are interested in understanding the impacts of such embargos on international oil prices. We apply unrestricted vector autoregressive (VAR) model, using impulse response functions (IRF) and variance decomposition analysis (VDA) tools with annual data from 1965 to 2012 to analyze the dynamic response of international oil prices to Iranian oil export sanction. Controlling for the supply of non-Iranian oil, the world GDP per capita, and post-Islamic revolution exogenous dummy variables, we show that international oil prices respond negatively and statistically significant to increasing shock in absolute negative changes of the Iranian oil exports – our proxy of Iran oil sanctions – following the first 2 years after shock. The main reason is the positive response of the non-Iranian oil supply to negative shocks in Iranian oil exports, filling the missing supply of Iranian oil in international markets. - Highlights: • We analyze the interconnections between Iranian oil supply and global oil prices. • We use VAR modeling and annual data from 1965 to 2012 for the case of Iran. • There are no inflationary effects of Iranian oil sanction on world oil prices. • Non-Iranian oil supply offsets the missing Iranian oil in the market

  19. Chinese Oil Giants Eye Canadian Oil Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miao Bin

    2005-01-01

    @@ SinoCanada, a subsidiary of Sinopec International Petroleum Exploration and Development Corporation, and Canada-based Synenco Energy Inc announced on May 31 that they have inked a series of agreements to launch a joint venture for common development of the oil sand project located in Athabasca region of Northeast Canada's Alberta Province. Based on the agreements, Sinopec will pay 105 million Canadian dollars (US$84 million) for a stake in Canada's Northern Lights oil sands project while Synenco owns the remaining 60 percent share,and will operate the project as the managing partner.

  20. Crude oil burning mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Malmquist, L.M.V.; Jomaas, Grunde

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve predictions for the burning efficiency and the residue composition of in-situ burning of crude oil, the burning mechanism of crude oil was studied in relation to the composition of its hydrocarbon mixture, before, during and after the burning. The surface temperature, flame...... height, mass loss rate and residues of three hydrocarbon liquids (n-octane, dodecane and hexadecane), two crude oils (DUC and REBCO) and one hydrocarbon liquid mixture of the aforementioned hydrocarbon liquids were studied using the Crude Oil Flammability Apparatus. The experimental results were compared...... on the highest achievable oil slick temperature. Based on this mechanism, predictions can then be made depending on the hydrocarbon composition of the fuel and the measured surface temperature....

  1. Radiation chemistry of oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text : Primary investigations have been conducted at the end of the 1950th years in the area of radiation chemistry of the oils, the physical-chemical properties of crude oil have been investigated the influence of ionizing rays. This report by M. Malikzadeh is about the results of investigations carried out in the field of development of radiation chemistry. The power of the radiation dose and temperature-thermal effect of the collapse of Phentadekan -Oil, and oil fractions (200-400 degrees Celsium, 230-310 degrees Celsium) of radiation-thermal separation of olefins - Conversion of hydrogen from the transormation of black oil, bitumen and tar Kinetics of the above-mentioned processes was studied, the technical-economic indicators of the products were determined

  2. 从宙斯轮案论燃油清污费用的责任限制问题%On the Limitation of Liability of Clean -up Costs of Bunker based on Zeus Case

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞凯华

    2015-01-01

    Maritime safety administration of sinking, killed, stranded ship compulsory clean-up measures to produce fuel oil clean-up costs, after the Supreme Court Zeus rounds a case as a nonrestrictive creditor' s rights, it is conform to the law, but also to ensure the maritime safety administration in the practice of sewage disposal cost of pay of full specified amount. For fuel oil clean-up fees shall apply for maritime claims limit judicial interpretation from the supreme people' s court "the 17th paragraph 1 and the oil from the supreme people' s court judicial interpretation" stipulated in article 20 as unrestricted claims. Take effect at the same time soon the Nairobi convention on international debris removal has important significance for China' s leg-islation.%海事局对沉没、遇难、搁浅船舶采取强制清污措施产生的燃油清污费用,最高院在宙斯轮一案中认定为非限制性债权.此举既符合法律规定,同时也保障了实践中海事局清污费用的足额偿付.对于燃油清污费用应适用《最高院海事赔偿限制司法解释》第17条1款和《最高院油污司法解释》第20条规定认定为非限制性债权.同时生效不久的《内罗毕国际残骸清除公约》对于我国立法具有重要借鉴意义.

  3. GOOD OLD OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akula Annapurna

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays everybody is getting puzzled and confused about choosing right oil for daily use. Most of the ads in the market revolving around sunflower oil only with different brand names claiming it is heart friendly. In recent years, younger generation may not be familiar much with our age old traditional oils like sesame oil. Sesame oil is also called as gingelly oil or til oil is rich in vitamin E and B. It is a good source of minerals like calcium, manganese and phosphorous and promotes healing. It contains high amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids and decreases high blood pressure. Because of its antioxidant property, it decreases cholesterol and good for heart. It acts like a sedative, relieves mental fatigue and promotes sleep when it is used for head massage. It is having laxative nature, relieving constipation. When applied topically on to the skin it is acting as an excellent moisturizer and an emollient. Because of its natural antibacterial, antiviral and anti-inflammatory properties it keeps away the skin and tooth infections. Hence, it can be used by one and all without any hesitation for regular cooking. However, it is not preferred for deep frying. Let us once again say OLD IS GOLD

  4. Jojoba oil and derivates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wisniak, T.

    1977-01-01

    Jojoba oil differs from all known seed oils by its almost complete absence of glycerides, making it more a liquid wax than a fat. It has become important as a possible substitute for sperm-whale oil to produce lubricants, lubricant additives and other products. The plant occurs naturally in southern Arizona and N.W. Mexico and its oil has long been used by Indians for medicinal, culinary, ritual and other purposes. It tolerates extreme daily fluctuations of temperature and grows well under the difficult soil and moisture conditions of the region. In the first part of this review the plant and its uses are described, including its floral, fruit and seed anatomy and the use of liquid wax during germination. Stored coryledon wax is used up by the embryo as a linear function of time during the first 30 days of germination and growth. Before germination, seeds weight about 0.59 mg and contain about 54% wax. The second and greater part of the review deals with jojoba oil (its extraction, properties, molecular description, toxicity and composition), jojoba meal, which remains after the oil has been extracted, and the chemical modification of the oil.

  5. Detection of argan oil adulterated with vegetable oils: New markers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ourrach, I.; Rada, M.; Perez-Camino, M. C.; Benaissa, M.; Guinda, A

    2012-07-01

    This work aims to contribute to controlling the authenticity of pure argan oil, a valuable Moroccan product. Fatty acids, hydrocarbon fraction, 3,5-stigmastadiene, the alkyl esters of fatty acids, chlorophyllic pigments and physical properties such as viscosity, density and refractive index were studied in order to detect the adulteration of argan oil with edible vegetable oils. The results found in this study show that 3,5-stigmastadiene, kaurene and pheophytin-a can be used as possible new markers for argan oil blends of up to 5% with refined, sunflower and virgin olive oils. Due to the similarity of the fatty acid compositions of the edible oils studied and argan oil, fatty acids can be employed as markers for the detection of argan oil adulteration at levels higher than 10%. Among the physical properties studied, the refractive index shows significant differences for sunflower oil and its blend at 10% with argan oil. (Author) 35 refs.

  6. Hydroprocesssing of light gas oil - rape oil mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walendziewski, Jerzy; Stolarski, Marek; Luzny, Rafal; Klimek, Bartlomiej [Faculty of Chemistry, Wroclaw University of Technology, ul. Gdanska 7/9, 50-310 Wroclaw (Poland)

    2009-05-15

    Two series of experiments of hydroprocessing of light gas oil - rape oil mixtures were carried out. The reactor feed was composed of raw material: first series - 10 wt.% rape oil and 90 wt.% of diesel oil; second series - 20 wt.% rape oil and 80 wt.% of diesel oil. Hydroprocessing of both mixtures was performed with the same parameter sets, temperature (320, 350 and 380 C), hydrogen pressure 3 and 5 MPa, LHSV = 2 h{sup -} {sup 1} and hydrogen feed ratio of 500 Nm{sup 3}/m{sup 3}. It was stated that within limited range it is possible to control vegetable oil hydrogenolysis in the presence of light gas oil fraction (diesel oil boiling range) through the proper selection of the process parameters. Hydrogenolysis of ester bonds and hydrogenation of olefinic bonds in vegetable oils are the main reactions in the process. Basic physicochemical properties of the obtained hydroprocessed products are presented. (author)

  7. Does the Iranian oil supply matter for the oil prices?

    OpenAIRE

    Farzanegan, Mohammad Reza

    2012-01-01

    There is an increasing tension between the Iranian Government and the west on an increasingly likely European oil embargo and the Iranian threat to close the Strait of Hormuz. The main question is: What will happen to the international oil prices in the case of shocks in the flow of Iranian oil to the international markets? In this study, we analyze the dynamic relationship between the Iranian oil supply and international oil prices from January 1973 - September 2011, using a modified version...

  8. China's Oil Giants Increase Oil Imports from Russia's Yukos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ To relieve the shortage in crude supply, sharp reduction of crude production by Daqing Oil Field in particular, Sinopec Corp has recently signed an agreement with OAO Yukos Oil Company to import 17 million tons of crude oil from Russia's second largest oil firm via a railway over the next four years.The first batch of the Russian oil will be delivered starting May 1 by a rail link from Russian territory to Erlianhaote in China's Inner Mongolia.

  9. Oil: Reopening the door

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oil-exporting nations are seeking the capital, technology, and management skills of the very international oil companies they shut the door on in the 1970s. Driving the changed relationship is broadened competition for market share and needed investments that meet the double criteria of economic and environmental competitiveness. Now flat, oil demand could increase by 20 percent in the next decade, pushed by Asia's economic growth. Even with the opening of Russia, most increased production can be expected from the Middle East, maintaining that troubled region's strategic importance. 5 refs

  10. Precious Oil, New Equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The oil price is flying sky high, not only with respect to the purchase price, but also in oil futures and stock. On November 7, the International oil future price reached a new high of US$ 98.62 per barrel in New York.Just two days before the peak day, on November 5, the China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) was back in China's A-share market with a new offering. The opening quotation on the first day of this new issue reached RMB 48.60 yuan per share.

  11. Malaysia: oil, gas, petrochemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    Petronas or Petroliam Nasional Berhad was established on 17 August 1974 as the national petroleum corporation of Malaysia. The Petroleum Development Act, passed by the Malaysian Parliament in October of that same year, vested in Petronas the entire ownership of all oil and natural gas resources in the country. These resources are considerable and Malaysia is poised to become one of the major petrochemical producers in the region. This report outlines the extent of oil, gas and petrochemicals production in Malaysia, lists companies holding licences and contracts from Petronas and provides a directory of the Malaysian oil industry. (Author).

  12. Oil and the Dollar

    OpenAIRE

    Krugman, Paul R.

    1980-01-01

    This paper develops a simple theoretical model of the effect of an oil price increase on exchange rates. The model shows that the direction of this effect depends on a comparison of the direct balance of payments burden of the higher oil price with the indirect balance of payments benefits of OPEC spending and investment. In the short run, what matters is whether the U.S. share of world oil imports is more or less than its share of OPEC asset holdings; in the long run, whether its share of oi...

  13. Oil spill clean up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the consideration of bioremediation for oil spills, it is important to understand the ecological and human health implications of bioremediation efforts. During biodegradation, the toxicity of the polluting material may actually increase upon the conversion of non-toxic constituents to toxic species. Also, toxic compounds refractory to biological degradation may compromise the effectiveness of the treatment technique. In the study, the Salmonella mutagenicity assay showed that both the Prudhoe Bay crude oil and its weathered counterpart collected from oil-impacted water were weakly mutagenic. Results also showed that the mutagenic components were depleted at a faster rate than the overall content of organic material

  14. Oil from Chinese deposits

    OpenAIRE

    Wiesegart, Kurt

    1980-01-01

    From 18–25 March the United Nations’ “International Meeting on Petroleum Geology” will take place in China, a country whose oil reserves up to the mid-sixties had been judged by foreign observers to be minute and the development of her oil sector of no major importance. Today, with an annual crude output of 106 mn tons, China already ranks ninth among the world’s oil producers. And, with the prospect of a further advance towards leadership among producers and exporters of the coveted energy m...

  15. China Offshore Oil Logging Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Duan Kang

    1996-01-01

    @@ China offshore oil logging business entered a faster developing stage sin-ce 1982 with the beginning of international cooperation in its offshore oil exploration. Nearly 90% of the logging expertises of China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC)are in China Offshore Oil Logging Company (COOLC), headquartered in Yanjiao, Hebei Province.

  16. 21 CFR 172.861 - Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm... substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils. The food additive, cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils, may be safely used in food in accordance with the...

  17. MOC encourages private oil companies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The Ministry of Commerce issued a guideline in late June, encouraging private oil companies to take part in refined oil's processing, transportation and retail. The government will support competitive and large companies to integrate into asset-based oil groups and technology service-based oil companies, according to the guideline. Private business will be encouraged to obtain stable access to refined oil resources, technology and management service. China's refined oil market is largely controlled by three State-owned heavyweights: PetroChina, the largest oil producer in Asia; Sinopec,

  18. Risk Assessment of Ship Oil Spill Based on Bayesian Network%基于贝叶斯网络的船舶溢油风险评价研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘克中; 干伟东; 黄明; 邓健; 杨星

    2012-01-01

    船舶溢油事故已成为导致海洋污染重要的因素之一,采用科学方法对船舶溢油风险进行有效的预测与评估具有重要意义.将船舶溢油风险分为操作性溢油风险与事故性溢油风险两类,通过分析历史数据与借助专家经 验识别风险因素,构建了船舶溢油风险的贝叶斯网络模型和条件概率表CPT,并利用HUGIN软件进行了概率推理和风险因素灵敏度分析,定量评估了船舶溢油风险,找出了影响最突出的风险因素.将贝叶斯网络模型应用于我国沿海港口水域,得出两类船舶溢油风险概率分别为0.013 8和0.000 3,指出了加燃油、装卸油品、人员疏忽和船舶密度等风险因素对船舶溢油风险影响最突出.%The accidents of ship oil spill have been one of the most significant factors causing marine pollution, so appropriate approaches to forecast ship oil spill risk has important significance. A novel Bayesian model for risk assessment of ship oil spill is presented. Ship oil spill is divided into two kinds, I. E. 'operation spill' and 'accident spill'. The Bayesian network model and the statistics CPT are constructed by analyzing historic accident data and expert experience. The software HUGIN is used to compute accident probability of ship oil spill and to analyze sensitivity of risk factors so as to evaluate ship oil spill risks quantitatively and find out main risk factors. The presented Bayesian network model is applied to study the ship oil spill risk in China's coastal harbor waters, which led to the conclusion that probabilities for the two ship oil spill kinds are 0.013 8 and 0. 000 3 respectively and that bunkering, loading or discharging operation, personnel negligence and ship density etc. Are the major factors which influence ship oil spill risks.

  19. OIL DEPOT AND GAS STATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Contents and Abstracts STORAGE TECHNOLOGIES 1. Discussion on the Application of Automation Technology in Oil Depot Li Yiqing Abstract: The existing problems and the developing trend of the application of automation technology in oil depot are introduced briefly. And the measures of oil depot automation to obtain optimal application results using limited capital are discussed. Taking the Xiaohu Island Oil Depot in Guangdong Province as an example, the design ideas, content and requirements for oil depot automation are highlighted.

  20. Extracting oil from coffee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elkin Mauricio López Fontal

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes oil being extracted from toasted coffee by the extrusion method; two products are obtained from this process: coffee oil and pulp. Toasted coffee was used which has a high amount of sensorial compounds. It should be noted that a significant criterion in evaluating the quality of coffee lies in its aroma. When extracting oil from coffee, a significant part of toasted coffee’s aromatic content leaves with it, varying according to the extraction method. A fixed oil having a high volatile load is thus obtained, presenting favourable sensory characteristics. The pulp was physically and chemically analysed to show its benefit and particular properties and, according to the results so obtained, it is a product having potential usefulness.

  1. Uncertainty in oil projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents an oil project valuation under uncertainty by means of two well-known financial techniques: The Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) and The Black-Scholes Option Pricing Formula. CAPM gives a linear positive relationship between expected rate of return and risk but does not take into consideration the aspect of flexibility which is crucial for an irreversible investment as an oil price is. Introduction of investment decision flexibility by using real options can increase the oil project value substantially. Some simple tests for the importance of uncertainty in stock market for oil investments are performed. Uncertainty in stock returns is correlated with aggregate product market uncertainty according to Pindyck (1991). The results of the tests are not satisfactory due to the short data series but introducing two other explanatory variables the interest rate and Gross Domestic Product make the situation better. 36 refs., 18 figs., 6 tabs

  2. Peak oil and gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziegler, W. H. [W. H. Ziegler, Av. des Mousquines 40bis, Lausanne (Switzerland); Campbell, C. J. [Stabbal Hill, Ballydehob, County Cork (Ireland); Zagar, J.J. [Four Blues, Schull, County Cork (Ireland)

    2009-07-01

    Oil and gas were formed under exceptional conditions in the geological past, meaning that they are subject to natural depletion, such that the past growth in production must give way to decline. Although depletion is a simple concept to grasp, public data on the resource base are extremely unreliable due to ambiguous definitions and lax reporting. The oil industry is reluctant to admit to an onset of decline carrying obvious adverse financial consequences. There are several different categories of oil and gas, from tar sands to deep water fields, each with specific characteristics that need to be evaluated. It is important to build a global model on a country by country basis in order that anomalous statistics may be identified and evaluated. Such a study suggests that the world faces the onset of decline, with far-reaching consequences given the central role of oil-based energy. It is accordingly an important subject deserving detailed consideration by policy makers. (author)

  3. Peppermint oil overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 101. Murray MT. Mentha piperita (peppermint). In: Pizzorno JE, Murray MT, eds. ... B. Final report on the safety assessment of mentha piperita (peppermint) oil, mentha piperita (peppermint) leaf extract, ...

  4. Synthetic Eelgrass Oil Barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, T. G.

    2013-05-01

    Although surviving in situ micro-organisms eventually consume spilled oil, extensive inundation of shore biota by oil requires cleanup to enable ecological recovery within normal time scales. Although effective in calm seas and quiet waters, oil is advected over and under conventional curtain oil booms by wave actions and currents when seas are running. Most sorbent booms are not reusable, and are usually disposed of in landfills, creating excessive waste. A new concept is proposed for a floating oil barrier, to be positioned off vulnerable coasts, to interdict, contain, and sequester spilled oil, which can then be recovered and the barrier reused. While conventional oil boom designs rely principally on the immiscibility of oil in water and its relative buoyancy, the new concept barrier avoids the pitfalls of the former by taking advantage of the synergistic benefits of numerous fluid and material properties, including: density, buoyancy, elasticity, polarity, and surface area to volume ratio. Modeled after Zostera marina, commonly called eelgrass, the new barrier, referred to as synthetic eelgrass (SE), behaves analogously. Eelgrass has very long narrow, ribbon-like, leaves which support periphyton, a complex matrix of algae and heterotrophic microbes, which position themselves there to extract nutrients from the seawater flowing past them. In an analogous fashion, oil on, or in, seawater, which comes in contact with SE, is adsorbed on the surface and sequestered there. Secured to the bottom, in shoal waters, SE rises to the surface, and, if the tide is low enough, floats on the sea surface down wind, or down current to snare floating oil. The leaves of SE, called filaments, consist of intrinsically buoyant strips of ethylene methyl acrylate, aka EMA. EMA, made of long chain, saturated, hydrocarbon molecules with nearly homogeneous electron charge distributions, is a non-polar material which is oleophilic and hydrophobic. Oil must be in close proximity to the

  5. Oil Rig Weather Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Weather observations taken at offshore platforms along the United States coastlines. The majority are located in oil-rich areas of the Gulf of Mexico, Gulf of...

  6. RAPE SEED OIL TETRAHYDROFURFURYLESTERS

    OpenAIRE

    Malins, K.; Kampars, V.; Kampare, R.; Rusakova, T

    2015-01-01

    The transesterification of vegetable oil using various kinds of alcohols is a simple and efficient renewable fuel synthesis technique. Products obtained by modifying natural triglycerides in transesterification reaction substitute fossil fuels and mineral oils. Currently the most significant is the biodiesel, a mixture of fatty acid methyl esters, which is obtained in a reaction with methanol, which in turn is obtained from fossil raw materials. In biodiesel production it would be more approp...

  7. Alberta's new oil boom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A massive expansion of Canada's oil sands and the oil-mining business is underway. The prediction is that within five years there will be at least three, possibly six, huge new open pit mines north of Fort McMurray, Alberta. It was suggested that within 20 years, possibly half of Canada's oil supply will come from the oil sands industry which has already attracted $10 billion worth of developments. Unlike conventional crude, the oil sands contain bitumen, water, clay, minerals and lots of sands. Shallow deposits are mined like coal. Deeper formations make use of in-situ thermal recovery techniques. Extraction costs are presently at $15 per barrel, aiming for $12 by 1999. Return on investment is in double digits. Estimates of reserves in the Athabasca, Cold Lake, Peace River and Wabasca deposits go as high as 1.7 trillion barrels, or about twice as much as Saudi Arabia's conventional crude reserves. Syncrude has built a $5 billion production facility and two pipelines have already been proposed to transport the oil sands crude to midwestern US refineries. US refineries prize synthetic crude as excellent mixing stock. The major problem with oil sands is that unlike conventional oil, these reserves require an enormous amount of energy to exploit, which in turn means lots of foul air and greenhouse gases. There are many environmental unknowns, and without a clear management framework in sight the addition of two or three Syncrude-size operations has the potential to create a real and significant acid rain problem in the Western Canada Basin

  8. Moringa Seed Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana O. Ilesanmi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effects of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss and moringa (Moringa oleifera seed oils on the storability of cowpea grain. Cowpea samples were treated with various concentrations (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mL/200 g cowpea of pure neem and moringa oils and their mixtures in ratios of 1:1, 1:2, and 1:3. The treated cowpea samples were stored for 180 days. Data were collected every 30 days on number of eggs laid, total weevil population, and percentage of uninfested grains and analysed statistically. Significantly different means were compared using LSD at <.05. Increasing oil concentration resulted in better cowpea protection, for example, in oviposition where the control had 6513 eggs, only 8 eggs were recorded in pure neem oil-treated sample at 0.5 mL/200 g. Generally, better results were obtained with higher oil concentrations either in their pure forms or mixtures. The control had a total weevil population of 4988, while most treated samples had none. The control samples had 0% uninfested grains, while 73–94% of uninfested grains were observed in treated samples after 6 months of storage. Therefore, mixture of the oils at 1.5 mL/200 g can be effectively used to store cowpea.

  9. The functioning of the oil market during an oil crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The title study regarding the functioning of the oil market during an oil crisis is carried out with particular reference to the strategic behaviour of oil companies. Section 2 identifies major oil supply disruptions since 1951 and describes some important changes in the market that have occurred in recent decades; Section 3 reviews the economic literature of the functioning of oil markets during disruptions and models of oil supply disruptions; Section 4 examines the response of oil markets to recent supply disruptions; Section 5 examines the incentives and scope for strategic behaviour; Section 6 considers the implications of our analysis for the design of policy responses to oil supply disruptions; Appendix A describes the background to the four recent oil supply disruptions; Appendix B discusses the relationship between spot and futures prices for a storable commodity; and Appendix C is the bibliography

  10. Quantification of rice bran oil in oil blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, R.; Sharma, H. K.; Sengar, G.

    2012-11-01

    Blends consisting of physically refined rice bran oil (PRBO): sunflower oil (SnF) and PRBO: safflower oil (SAF) in different proportions were analyzed for various physicochemical parameters. The quantification of pure rice bran oil in the blended oils was carried out using different methods including gas chromatographic, HPLC, ultrasonic velocity and methods based on physico-chemical parameters. The physicochemical parameters such as ultrasonic velocity, relative association and acoustic impedance at 2 MHz, iodine value, palmitic acid content and oryzanol content reflected significant changes with increased proportions of PRBO in the blended oils. These parameters were selected as dependent parameters and % PRBO proportion was selected as independent parameters. The study revealed that regression equations based on the oryzanol content, palmitic acid composition, ultrasonic velocity, relative association, acoustic impedance, and iodine value can be used for the quantification of rice bran oil in blended oils. The rice bran oil can easily be quantified in the blended oils based on the oryzanol content by HPLC even at a 1% level. The palmitic acid content in blended oils can also be used as an indicator to quantify rice bran oil at or above the 20% level in blended oils whereas the method based on ultrasonic velocity, acoustic impedance and relative association showed initial promise in the quantification of rice bran oil. (Author) 23 refs.

  11. Vegetable oil as a diesel fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Callaghan, C.

    1982-05-01

    There are a wide range of vegetable oils which may be used in the diesel engine such as palm oil, soyabean oil, sunflower oil and rapeseed oil. This paper reports on preliminary work with rapeseed oil as a possible alternative to diesel. The oil was degummed by hydration. Physical and chemical properties of the oil are compared to diesel fuel. Three types of fuel were tested in a tractor: (a) pure diesel oil; (b) a 50:50 mixture of diesel oil and rapeseed oil; and (c) pure rapeseed oil. Power-speed curves were constructed for each fuel type and observations on nozzle cooking and smoke emissions made.

  12. Essential Oils, Part I: Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Anton C; Schmidt, Erich

    2016-01-01

    Essential oils are widely used in the flavor, food, fragrance, and cosmetic industries in many applications. Contact allergy to them is well known and has been described for 80 essential oils. The relevance of positive patch test reactions often remains unknown. Knowledge of the chemical composition of essential oils among dermatologists is suspected to be limited, as such data are published in journals not read by the dermatological community. Therefore, the authors have fully reviewed and published the literature on contact allergy to and chemical composition of essential oils. Selected topics from this publication will be presented in abbreviated form in Dermatitis starting with this issue, including I. Introduction; II. General aspects; III. Chemistry; IV. General aspects of contact allergy; V. Peppermint oil, lavender oil and lemongrass oil; VI: Sandalwood oil, ylang-ylang oil, and jasmine absolute. PMID:26983089

  13. Phenolation of vegetable oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZORAN S. PETROVIĆ

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Novel bio-based compounds containing phenols suitable for the syn­thesis of polyurethanes were prepared. The direct alkylation of phenols with different vegetable oils in the presence of superacids (HBF4, triflic acid as ca­talysts was studied. The reaction kinetics was followed by monitoring the de­crease of the double bond content (iodine value with time. In order to under­stand the mechanism of the reaction, phenol was alkylated with model com­pounds. The model compounds containing one internal double bond were 9-oc­tadecene and methyl oleate and those with three double bonds were triolein and high oleic safflower oil (82 % oleic acid. It was shown that the best structures for phenol alkylation are fatty acids with only one double bond (oleic acid. Fatty acids with two double bonds (linoleic acid and three double bonds (lino­lenic acid lead to polymerized oils by a Diels–Alder reaction, and to a lesser extent to phenol alkylated products. The reaction product of direct alkylation of phenol with vegetable oils is a complex mixture of phenol alkylated with poly­merized oil (30–60 %, phenyl esters formed by transesterification of phenol with triglyceride ester bonds (<10 % and unreacted oil (30 %. The phenolated vegetable oils are new aromatic–aliphatic bio-based raw materials suitable for the preparation of polyols (by propoxylation, ethoxylation, Mannich reactions for the preparation of polyurethanes, as intermediates for phenolic resins or as bio-based antioxidants.

  14. Bioremediation of oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For some years now UK and European oil spill response agencies, together with oil companies having an exploration or production interest in the European area, have been developing interest in the possible use of bioremediation techniques in combatting oil spills. The interest has accelerated in the aftermath of Exxon Valdez but there is significant scepticism over the actual value of the technique. The promise of increased rates of oil degradation, using bacteria or nutrients, does not yet appear to have been properly validated and there is concern over possible knock-on environmental effects. In consequence the response agencies are reluctant to bring the technique into their current combat armory. Some of the questions raised are: What efficacious techniques are available and how were they proven? On what type of oils can they be used? What is the scope for their use (at sea, type of coastline, temperature limitations, etc.)? What are the short and long term effects? Does bioremediation really work and offer a potential tool for oil spill clean-up? How do cleaning rates compare with natural recovery? There are many others. The view of the European Commission is that there should be a coordinated effort to answer these questions, but that effort should be properly targeted. I concur strongly with this view. The tasks are too large and varied for piecemeal attention. The European Commission wishes to initiate appropriate coordinated work, directed at the needs of European nations but which will subsequently inform the international response community through the International Maritime Organization and its Oil Pollution Preparedness and Response Cooperation initiative

  15. Bioremediation of oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conversion of oil to environmentally benign chemicals such as water and carbon dioxide by 'hydrocarbon-eating' bacteria is described. The emphasis is on a new process to selectively increase the population of 'oil eating' bacteria, a development that became the foundation for the second-generation bioremediation accelerator, Inipol EAP-22. Second-generation bioremediation products focus on providing nitrogen and phosphorus, chemicals that are not present in crude oil in readily available form, but are essential for the synthesis of proteins, nucleic acids, phospholipids and the energy metabolism of the bacteria. Providing these chemicals in the proper amounts encourages the preferential growth of oil-degrading microbes already present in the local biomass, thus overcoming the major limiting factor for biodegradation. These second-generation bioremediation products also have strong oleophilic properties engineered into them, to assure that the nutrients essential for the bacteria are in contact with the oil. The first major test for second-generation bioremediation accelerators came with the clean-up of the oil spill from the Exxon Valdez, a disaster that contaminated more than 120 kilometres of Alaskan beaches along the shores of Prince William Sound. The Inipol EAP-22 successfully held the nutrients in contact with the oil for the duration of the treatment period, despite constant exposure to the washing action of the surf and occasional heavy rainstorms. Today, the accelerator is routinely used in cleaning up all types of ordinary spills including diesel fuel spills along railway right-of-ways, truck yards and refinery sludge. Conditions under which the application of the accelerator is likely to be most successful are described

  16. Oil price prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, four different, popular approaches to the analysis of oil price movements will be considered and an alternative method will be proposed. Whilst we await the development of a rigorous theoretical framework within which to evaluate the phenomenon of oil price movements some progress may be effected by an amalgam of approaches, with the traditional supply and demand model being supplemented by observations regarding political and social developments in particular countries or regions, together with an assessment of emerging and prospective technological achievements. In this way it should be possible to identify the critical influences at work, from which it should also be possible to select either the single most important variable or combination of variables, affecting the oil price. Moreover, it is my belief that the crucial variables influencing the oil price almost certainly, are more likely to be political and social, rather than economic. In this context and notwithstanding the fact that there is only a minimal level of surplus productive capacity in the world oil industry at present (perhaps 1-2 million b/d albeit rising rapidly), it is reasonable to conclude that oil prices will average around $18-19 a barrel for North Sea Brent in 1992 and 1993, with oscillations of $2-4 a barrel either side, rising slightly in 1994 to $19-20 a barrel and to $20-21 a barrel in 1995. Thereafter, the most likely outcome is for a rise in line with inflation (say $ a barrel/annum) with no prospect of an upward spike, because demand will be weaker than most commentators expect up to the year 2000, whilst OPEC oil supplies will be substantially higher than the consensus forecast. (author)

  17. Oil crops: Status and outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The worldwide expansion in the production of oil crops, the increase of the production of edible vegetable oils and of oil cake or meal in the past 50 years is presented. It is noted also that the imports of edible oil increased markedly, especially in developing countries. Plant breeding efforts have been the key to the tremendous increase in the production of oil crops. The need to devote more research and development efforts to the wide range of oil crops, to domesticate and develop species which can serve as new sources for existing or new requirements is emphasized. 9 refs, 7 tabs

  18. Abandoned Texas oil fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-12-01

    Data for Texas abandoned oil fields were primarily derived from two sources: (1) Texas Railroad Commission (TRRC), and (2) Dwight's ENERGYDATA. For purposes of this report, abandoned oil fields are defined as those fields that had no production during 1977. The TRRC OILMASTER computer tapes were used to identify these abandoned oil fields. The tapes also provided data on formation depth, gravity of oil production, location (both district and county), discovery date, and the cumulative production of the field since its discovery. In all, the computer tapes identified 9211 abandoned fields, most of which had less than 250,000 barrel cumulative production. This report focuses on the 676 abandoned onshore Texas oil fields that had cumulative production of over 250,000 barrels. The Dwight's ENERGYDATA computer tapes provided production histories for approximately two-thirds of the larger fields abandoned in 1966 and thereafter. Fields which ceased production prior to 1966 will show no production history nor abandonment date in this report. The Department of Energy hopes the general availability of these data will catalyze the private sector recovery of this unproduced resource.

  19. Oil sands tax expenditures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The oil sands are a strategic Canadian resource for which federal and provincial governments provide financial incentives to develop and exploit. This report describes the Oil Sands Tax Expenditure Model (OSTEM) developed to estimate the size of the federal income tax expenditure attributed to the oil sands industry. Tax expenditures are tax concessions which are used as alternatives to direct government spending for achieving government policy objectives. The OSTEM was developed within the business Income Tax Division of Canada's Department of Finance. Data inputs for the model were obtained from oil sands developers and Natural Resources Canada. OSTEM calculates annual revenues, royalties and federal taxes at project levels using project-level projections of capital investment, operating expenses and production. OSTEM calculates tax expenditures by comparing taxes paid under different tax regimes. The model also estimates the foregone revenue as a percentage of capital investment. Total tax expenditures associated with investment in the oil sands are projected to total $820 million for the period from 1986 to 2030, representing 4.6 per cent of the total investment. 10 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs

  20. Olive oil and pomace olive oil processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siragakis, George

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil processing is introduced in food industry at the end of the nineteenth century and a lot of improvements have been initialized since. The steps for refining are, settling, neutralizing, bleaching and deodorizing. Monitoring of effective refining and the use of processes that remove less minor components of olive oil, like polyphenols and tocopherols are some issues for the process. The stringent environmental requirements and the target of industry for continuous improvements and cost savings, forcing equipment manufacturers to innovations and new products. The complete removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons during pomace oil process and the utilization of distillates are also important areas for research and development.El procesado del aceite de oliva se introdujo en la industria alimentaria a finales del siglo diecinueve y desde entonces se han realizado considerables mejoras. Los pasos de refinación son: decantado, neutralización, decoloración, y desodorización. La monitorización de una refinación efectiva así como el uso de procesos que eliminen una menor proporción de componentes menores del aceite de oliva, tales como polifenoles y tocoferoles, son algunos de los objetivos del proceso. La rigurosa normativa medioambiental y el interés de la industria por introducir mejoras y ahorro de costes han forzado a los fabricantes de equipos a innovar y desarrollar nuevos productos. La eliminación completa de los hidrocarburos aromáticos policíclicos durante el refinado del aceite de orujo y la utilización de los destilados son también áreas importantes de investigación y desarrollo.

  1. Anthelmintic Activity of Grapeseed Oil and Linseed Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goswami J

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the anthelminthic activity of vegetable fixed oils,grapeseed and linseed oil using adult earthworm, Pheritima posthuma. The oils were tested at differentconcentrations for the determination of paralysis time and death time of the earthworms. Albendazole isused as standard and it was found that grapeseed and linseed oil showed a better anthelminthic activityin comparison with the standard.

  2. The oil world war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the beginning of the 21. century, a war has started between the USA, China and India. The USA, first oil consuming and importing country in the world, has now to take into account the increasing energy consumption of China and India. China is now, just behind Japan, the third oil importing country and India ranked number seven. From the Gulf of Guinea to the Arabic peninsula, from the Orenoque basin to the Caspian sea banks, Washington, Beijing and New Delhi covet the same oil fields. This rivalry exacerbates the political tensions in many regions of the Earth and already provokes a latent food crisis. This black gold war is changing the World's face and should provoke serious armed conflicts. (J.S.)

  3. Oil scenarios; Escenarios petroleros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quiros Corradi, Alberto [Oxford Energy Policy Club (United States)

    2003-04-15

    If there is a war in Middle East affecting the Saudi Arabian crude oil production, the crude oil prices will increase at unimaginable levels. This is due to both the current decrease of the production capacity of Venezuela and the Nigeria's political fragility. Therefore, despite the fact that the majority of the reasons why the United States invade Irak are unknown, it is clear that the crude oil is one of them and is playing a major role. [Spanish] Cualesquiera que sean las verdaderas razones de Estados Unidos para invadir Irak, esta claro que el petroleo tiene un papel muy importante. Una guerra en Medio Oriente que afectara la produccion petrolera de Arabia Saudita elevaria los precios del crudo a niveles nunca vistos, debido al actual descenso de la capacidad de produccion de Venezuela y a la fragilidad politica de Nigeria.

  4. Shale oil combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 'coutant' carbon steel combustion chamber cooled by water jacket was conslructed to burn diesel fuel and mixlure of shale oil and diesel fuels. During experimental work nir fuel ratio was determined, temperaturces were measured using Chromel/ Almel thermocouple, finally the gasous combustion product analysis was carricd out using gas chromatograph technique. The constructed combustion chamber was operating salisfactory for several hours of continous work. According to the measurements it was found that: the flame temperature of a mixture of diesel and shale oil fuels was greater than the flame temperature of diesel fuel. and the sulfer emissious of a mixture of diesel and shale oil fuels was higher than that of diesel fuel. Calculation indicated that the dry gas energy loss was very high and the incomplete combustion energy loss very small. (author). 23 refs., 35 figs

  5. Strategies for displacing oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Vikram; Gupta, Raghubir

    2015-03-01

    Oil currently holds a monopoly on transportation fuels. Until recently biofuels were seen as the means to break this stranglehold. They will still have a part to play, but the lead role has been handed to natural gas, almost solely due to the increased availability of shale gas. The spread between oil and gas prices, unprecedented in its scale and duration, will cause a secular shift away from oil as a raw material. In the transport fuel sector, natural gas will gain traction first in the displacement of diesel fuel. Substantial innovation is occurring in the methods of producing liquid fuel from shale gas at the well site, in particular in the development of small scale distributed processes. In some cases, the financing of such small-scale plants may require new business models.

  6. Power from oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yerushalmi, J.; Wohlfarth, A.; Schwartz, M.; Luria, S.

    1988-02-01

    The possibilities for burning oil shale directly to generate a substantial fraction of Israel's electric power are to be investigated by means of a demonstration plant. The plant incorporates a fluidized bed reactor in which combustion tests have shown Israeli oil-shale will burn with high carbon utilization and without the need for supplementary fuel. Sulphur dioxide emissions are nearly all absorbed by the limestone that makes up about 50% of the shale. The design is for co-generation, supplying low pressure process steam for a chemical plant and electricity to the grid. Economic evaluation suggests that oil shale power generation in Israel could in the future be at least competitive with coal and under some circumstances have a cost advantage.

  7. RECENT OIL PRICE DECLINE BENEFITS OIL GIANTS LIMITEDLY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Sinopec, Asia's largest refiner, hasn't really benefited from recent declines in global crude oil prices, because its refining costs still far exceed domestic oil product prices. China caps refined oil product prices at relatively low levels by world standards.

  8. Oil composition and properties for oil spill modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Z.D.; Hollebone, B.P.; Yang, C.; Fieldhouse, B.; Fingas, M.; Landriault, M.; Gamble, L.; Peng, X. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Science and Technology Div]|[Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Environmental Technology Centre; Weaver, J. [National Exposure Research Laboratory, Athens, GA (United States)

    2005-07-01

    The methods and procedures for measuring the physical properties and chemical compositions of 9 commonly used crude oils that have the potential to be spilled at sea were presented. The 9 oils have API gravities ranging from 11 to 42 degrees and have large differences in their physical and chemical properties. The oils are fractioned into groups of compounds with similar structures and properties. The hydrocarbon groups include TPHCWG fractions with different carbon ranges, total petroleum hydrocarbon, total saturates, total aromatics, asphaltenes and polars. The target hydrocarbons characterized include n-alkanes, volatile BTEX and other alkyl benzenes, oil-characteristic alkylated PAH homologous series and other EPA priority PAH and biomarker compounds. This paper also presented a set of physical and chemical property data for the Cook Inlet Crude Oil. The physical and chemical properties reported were those that are most likely to determine the environmental fate and impact of spilled oil. Results of this project have been integrated into existing Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Environment Canada oil properties databases to advance oil spill modelling. The data will be particularly useful for an oil spill model that is being developed by the National Exposure Research Laboratory in Athens, Georgia to determine the fate and transport of oil components under a range of oil spill scenarios. The data reflects the changes to an oil over the course of a spill. 20 refs., 8 tabs., 4 figs.

  9. Business cycles in oil economies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Mutairi, N.H.

    1991-01-01

    This study examines the impact of oil price shocks on output fluctuations of several oil-exporting economies. In most studies of business cycles, the role of oil price is ignored; the few studies that use oil price as one of the variables in the system focus on modeling oil-importing economies. The vector autoregression (VAR) technique is used to consider the cases of Norway, Nigeria, and Mexico. Both atheoretical and structural' VARs are estimated to determine the importance of oil price impulses on output variations. The study reports two types of results: variance decomposition and impulse response functions, with particular emphasis on the issues of stationarity and co-integration among the series. The empirical results suggest that shocks to oil price are important in explaining output variations. In most cases, shocks to oil price are shown to explain more than 20% of the forecast variance of output over a 40-quarter horizon.

  10. Extracting Oil From Tar Sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, L. B.; Daly, D.

    1984-01-01

    Recovery of oil from tar sands possible by batch process, using steam produced by solar heater. In extraction process, solar heater provides steam for heating solvent boiler. Boiling solvent removes oil from tar sands in Soxhlet extractor.

  11. Fat Necrosis and Oil Cysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Granular cell tumors Fat necrosis and oil cysts Mastitis Duct ectasia Other non-cancerous breast conditions Summary ... References Previous Topic Granular cell tumors Next Topic Mastitis Fat necrosis and oil cysts Fat necrosis happens ...

  12. The Mexican oil industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the environment of growing domestic demand and enhanced international competitiveness, Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX)-the Mexican national oil company-faces the challenge of not only responding adequately to the rapid changes taking place in the Mexican economy, but making a significant contribution towards solid and stable growth. This paper reports that the relevant concern is how PEMEX is going to live up to these expectations. The Mexican oil industry, especially including the petrochemical sector, has great potential in terms of an ample domestic market as well as external foreign-currency-generating markets

  13. Refrigerating machine oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nozawa, K.

    1981-03-17

    Refrigerating machine oil to be filled in a sealed motorcompressor unit constituting a refrigerating cycle system including an electric refrigerator, an electric cold-storage box, a small-scaled electric refrigerating show-case, a small-scaled electric cold-storage show-case and the like, is arranged to have a specifically enhanced property, in which smaller initial driving power consumption of the sealed motor-compressor and easier supply of the predetermined amount of the refrigerating machine oil to the refrigerating system are both guaranteed even in a rather low environmental temperature condition.

  14. Oil Spill Cleanup

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Petroleum Remediation Product (PRP) is a new way of cleaning up oil spills. It consists of thousands of microcapsules, tiny balls of beeswax with hollow centers, containing live microorganisms and nutrients to sustain them. As oil flows through the microcapsule's shell, it is consumed and digested by the microorganisms. Pressure buildup causes the PRP to explode and the enzymes, carbon dioxide and water are released into the BioBoom used in conjunction with PRP, preventing contaminated water from spreading. The system incorporates technology originally developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and Marshall Space Flight Center.

  15. Global oil palm suitability assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Pirker, J.; Mosnier, A

    2015-01-01

    The palm oil boom of recent years has brought about both positive - economic development - and negative impacts - deforestation, habitat losses and increased GHG emissions - in the main producer countries in South-East Asia. As global demand for palm oil is still increasing, governments of developing and emerging countries increasingly promote oil palm cultivation as a major contributor to economic development, but there are concerns about the potential negative impacts of oil palm expansion ...

  16. WEO-2006 Fact Sheet: Oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    We have revised upwards our assumptions for oil prices in this Outlook, reflecting current market conditions. Globally, fossil fuels will remain the dominant source of energy to 2030 in both scenarios. Rising oil and gas demand and imports, if unchecked, would accentuate the consuming countries' vulnerability to a severe supply disruption and resulting price shock. The growing insensitivity of oil demand to price accentuates the potential impact on international oil prices of such a disruption.

  17. Market assessment for shale oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-10-01

    This study identified several key issues on the cost, timeliness, and ease with which shale oil can be introduced into the United States' refining system. The capacity of the existing refining industry to process raw shale oil is limited by the availability of surplus hydrogen for severe hydrotreating. The existing crude oil pipeline system will encounter difficulties in handling raw shale oil's high viscosity, pour point, and contaminant levels. The cost of processing raw shale oil as an alternate to petroleum crude oil is extremely variable and primarily dependent upon the percentage of shale oil run in the refinery, as well as the availability of excess hydrogen. A large fraction of any shale oil which is produced will be refined by the major oil companies who participate in the shale oil projects and who do not anticipate problems in processing the shale oil in their refineries. Shale oil produced for sale to independent refiners will initially be sold as boiler fuel. A federal shale oil storage program might be feasible to supplement the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Based on refinery configurations, hydrogen supply, transportation systems, and crude availability, eleven refineries in Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADDs) 2A and 2B have been identified as potential processors of shale oil. Based on refining technology and projected product demands to the year 2000, shale oil will be best suited to the production of diesel fuel and jet fuel. Tests of raw shale oil in boilers are needed to demonstrate nitrogen oxide emissions control.

  18. 7 CFR 985.4 - Spearmint oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spearmint oil. 985.4 Section 985.4 Agriculture... HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 985.4 Spearmint oil. Spearmint oil, hereinafter referred to as oil, means essential oil extracted by distillation...

  19. Oil Trading Centre to Reopen in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Chinese oil companies will likely resume activities at the oil trading centre in Shanghai this year, a move to further liberalize the once tightly controlled oil market. The centre will trade forward contracts for refined oil products,including gasoline, diesel oil, kerosene and fuel oil, industrial sources said.

  20. Green bio-oil extraction for oil crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainab, H.; Nurfatirah, N.; Norfaezah, A.; Othman, H.

    2016-06-01

    The move towards a green bio-oil extraction technique is highlighted in this paper. The commonly practised organic solvent oil extraction technique could be replaced with a modified microwave extraction. Jatropha seeds (Jatropha curcas) were used to extract bio-oil. Clean samples were heated in an oven at 110 ° C for 24 hours to remove moisture content and ground to obtain particle size smaller than 500μm. Extraction was carried out at different extraction times 15 min, 30 min, 45 min, 60 min and 120 min to determine oil yield. The biooil yield obtained from microwave assisted extraction system at 90 minutes was 36% while that from soxhlet extraction for 6 hours was 42%. Bio-oil extracted using the microwave assisted extraction (MAE) system could enhance yield of bio-oil compared to soxhlet extraction. The MAE extraction system is rapid using only water as solvent which is a nonhazardous, environment-friendly technique compared to soxhlet extraction (SE) method using hexane as solvent. Thus, this is a green technique of bio-oil extraction using only water as extractant. Bio-oil extraction from the pyrolysis of empty fruit bunch (EFB), a biomass waste from oil palm crop, was enhanced using a biocatalyst derived from seashell waste. Oil yield for non-catalytic extraction was 43.8% while addition of seashell based biocatalyst was 44.6%. Oil yield for non-catalytic extraction was 43.8% while with addition of seashell-based biocatalyst was 44.6%. The pH of bio-oil increased from 3.5 to 4.3. The viscosity of bio-oil obtained by catalytic means increased from 20.5 to 37.8 cP. A rapid and environment friendly extraction technique is preferable to enhance bio-oil yield. The microwave assisted approach is a green, rapid and environmental friendly extraction technique for the production of bio-oil bearing crops.

  1. Oil Futures off the Agenda

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiuShijun

    2003-01-01

    Speculation that the domestic oil futures exchange would reopen soon was premature, industry sources said. Beijing-based media indicated on March 4 that the resumption of oil futures was imminent, as part of the government's efforts to limit oil price fluctuations over fears of war with Iraq. The source

  2. Towards sustainable oil revenue management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Challenges to oil revenue management in existing and emerging African oil economies are examined, with a special emphasis on countries in UNDP's Central and Eastern Africa (CEA) Region. It is part of the first phase of UNDP/CEA's Oil Revenue Initiative (ml)

  3. The exploitation of volatile oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Teng; ZHANG Da; TENG Xiangjin; LINing; HAO Zaibin

    2007-01-01

    Rose is a kind of favorite ornamental plant. This article briefly introduced the cultivation and the use of rose around the world both in ancient time and nowadays. Today, volatile oil becomes the mainstream of the rose industry. People pay attention to the effect of volatile oil; meanwhile, they speed up their research on extracting volatile oil and the ingredients.

  4. Ozonated Olive Oils and Troubles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulent Uysal

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the commonly used methods for ozone therapy is ozonated oils. Most prominent type of used oils is extra virgin olive oil. But still, each type of unsaturated oils may be used for ozonation. There are a lot of wrong knowledge on the internet about ozonated oils and its use as well. Just like other ozone therapy studies, also the studies about ozone oils are inadequate to avoid incorrect knowledge. Current data about ozone oil and its benefits are produced by supplier who oversees financial interests and make misinformation. Despite the rapidly increasing ozone oil sales through the internet, its quality and efficacy is still controversial. Dozens of companies and web sites may be easily found to buy ozonated oil. But, very few of these products are reliable, and contain sufficiently ozonated oil. This article aimed to introduce the troubles about ozonated oils and so to inform ozonated oil users. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2014; 3(2.000: 49-50

  5. Oil Content and Oil Quality Properties of Some Grape Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    BAYDAR, Nilgün GÖKTÜRK

    2001-01-01

    In the present study, the oil contents and some oil quality properties of seeds taken from 18 grape cultivars were examined. The results showed that the oil concentration of seeds ranged from 11.6 to 19.6%. Grape seeds were rich in oleic and linoleic acids, ranging from 17.8 to 26.5% and 60.1 to 70.1%, respectively. The degree of unsaturation in the grape seed oil was over 86%, and the average concentration of total tocopherol in oil was around 454 mg/kg. The results indicate that grape seed...

  6. HOW PROPERTIES OF EDIBLE OILS ARE IMPROVED BY ESSENTIAL OILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SONIA AMARIEI

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the present paper is to find out whether the addition of essential oils determines better oxidation stability and positive change of sensory and hedonic perception of edible oils. The oxidation stability of sunflower, corn and grape seed oils was analyzed in the presence of antioxidants in essential oils of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis, thyme (Thymus vulgaris and basil (Ocimum basilicum during storage, under conditions of accelerated oxidative processes (4 days, at 60 °C. The total phenolic compounds of these essential oils were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. The DPPH method was used to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of basil, rosemary and thyme essential oils in comparison with known synthetic antioxidant L(+-ascorbic acid. The addition of essential oils to edible oils, the amounts proposed in analyses, determines a favorable influence on their oxidation stability as well as their taste. The influence of addition of essential oils on the taste of edible oils was studied in two products consumed mainly at breakfast, bread and spinach leaves. The results recommend the use of these plant extracts as additives in edible oils rather than synthetic antioxidants.

  7. Striking Oil: Another Puzzle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Driesprong (Gerben); B. Jacobsen (Ben); B. Maat (Benjamin)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractWe find that changes in oil prices strongly predict future stock market returns in many countries in the world. In our thirty year sample of monthly data for developed stock markets, we find statistically significant predictability in 12 out of the 18 countries and in a world market inde

  8. Turning Coal Into Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    China's coal liquefaction industry is developing rapidly, but still needs improvement In its effort to become more self-sufficient in energy, China is turning to other countries, notably South Africa, to establish joint ventures in turning coal into oil. To China's Shenhua Group Corp. Ltd., one of the world's largest coal-producing companies, the government's 11th Five-Year

  9. All About Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids Students Teens College Adults Men and Women Moms/ Moms-to-Be Older Adults Families MyPlate, MyWins for ... A person’s allowance for oils depends on age, sex, and level of physical activity. Daily allowances for ...

  10. Mineral oil; Mineraloel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schult-Bornemann, Karl-Heinz [Magdeburg Univ. (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The dominant theme in the world energy market was the fall in oil prices in 2014. From 115 US-$/bbl in June it dropped to below 50 US-$/bbl in January 2015. Thereby the shale oil revolution has had the strong impact on the global energy situation, to this point has been predicted for three years. Although no one could predict the exact height of the fall in oil prices, but with oil as a reserve currency for all other fuels, it has not only had an impact on the gas and coal prices, but other commodities, such as copper, have also yielded. About cause and effect, there is a lot of speculation - not all of which are supported by wisdom. [German] Das beherrschende Thema im Weltenergiemarkt war der Absturz des Rohoelpreises in 2014. Von 115 US-$/bbl im Juni sank er auf unter 50 US-$/bbl im Januar 2015. Damit hat die Schieferoelrevolution den kraeftigen Einfluss auf die Weltenergiesituation gehabt, der an dieser Stelle seit drei Jahren vorhergesagt wurde. Zwar konnte niemand die exakte Hoehe des Rueckgangs des Oelpreises prognostizieren, aber mit Oel als Leitwaehrung fuer alle anderen Energietraeger hat es nicht nur Einfluss auf den Gas- und Kohlepreis gehabt, sondern andere Rohstoffe, wie zum Beispiel Kupfer, haben ebenfalls nachgegeben. Ueber Ursache und Wirkung gibt es viele Spekulationen - nicht alle sind von Weisheit getragen.

  11. Windfall Tax on Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    China has adopted a special income tax on oil companies, to restrict excessive monopoly profits and subsidize weak sectors O n April 4, the China Petroleum & Chemical Corp., known as Sinopec, together with its holding subsidiaries Sinopec Shengli Oilfield Daming Co. Ltd. and

  12. Distillation of oil shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronder, G.A.

    1926-03-22

    To distill oil shales, cannel coals, and other carbonaceous materials for the extraction therefrom of hydrocarbons and volatile nitrogenous compounds, hard non-condensable gases from the condensers and scrubbers are withdrawn by blowers and admixed with burnt gases, obtained through conduits from the flues of heaters, and forced downwardly through horizontal chambers, connected by vertical conduits, of the heaters and delivered into the retort beneath the grate. Passing upwardly through the charge they vaporize the volatile substances in the shale, and a suction pump removes the vapors from the top of the retort. Immediately they are produced and at substantially the same temperature as that at which they emanate, thus preventing cracking of the oil vapors and condensation of the oil at the top of the retort. The amount of burnt flue gas admixed with the hard gases is regulated by two valves until a required uniform temperature is obtained. A generator supplies producer gas to a heater at the commencement of the retorting operation for circulation through the shale charge to initially produce oil vapors. The generator is connected by a pipe to the gas conduit leading to blowers.

  13. Oil shortage policy; Olieschaarstebeleid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koppelaar, R.; Van Meerkerk, B.; Polder, P.; Van den Bulk, J.; Kamphorst, F.

    2008-10-15

    This policy proposal addresses the deployment of options for decreasing Dutch dependency on oil by means of firm government policy. [Dutch] Dit beleidsvoorstel richt zich op het benutten van de mogelijkheden voor Nederland om via een sterke overheidsaanpak de afhankelijkheid van olie te verminderen.

  14. Oil supply and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The year 2004 saw a change in the oil market paradigm that was confirmed in 2005. Despite a calmer geopolitical context, prices continued to rise vigorously. Driven by world demand, they remain high as a result of the saturation of production and refining capacity. The market is still seeking its new equilibrium. (author)

  15. Oil supply and demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rech, O

    2006-07-01

    The year 2004 saw a change in the oil market paradigm that was confirmed in 2005. Despite a calmer geopolitical context, prices continued to rise vigorously. Driven by world demand, they remain high as a result of the saturation of production and refining capacity. The market is still seeking its new equilibrium. (author)

  16. Kicking the oil addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilenchik, Yaakov; Peled, Emanuel; Andelman, David

    2010-01-01

    Few people were left unaffected by the soaring oil prices of summer 2008. Motorists were the hardest hit as the price at the pumps reached an all time high, but nobody could avoid paying more for their food as higher transport costs were passed on from the retailer to the consumer.

  17. OIL SPILL CLEANUP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to the consideration of bioremediation for oil spills, it is important to understand the ecological and human health implications of bioremediation efforts. uring biodegradation, the toxicity of the polluting material may actually increase upon the conversion of non-toxic con...

  18. Scramble for Oil Power

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Geopolitical as well as economic concerns underlie the worldwide rush to establish petroleum exchanges New oil exchange programs have recently been mushrooming around the world. The Shanghai Petroleum Exchange, which uses renminbi in its transactions, kicked off operations on August 18. In May, Iran

  19. A Comparative Study of Diesel Oil and Soybean Oil as Oil-Based Drilling Mud

    OpenAIRE

    Okorie E. Agwu; Okon, Anietie N.; Udoh, Francis D.

    2015-01-01

    Oil-based mud (OBM) was formulated with soybean oil extracted from soybean using the Soxhlet extraction method. The formulated soybean mud properties were compared with diesel oil mud properties. The compared properties were rheological properties, yield point and gel strength, and mud density and filtration loss properties, fluid loss and filter cake. The results obtained show that the soybean oil mud exhibited Bingham plastic rheological model with applicable (low) yield point and gel stren...

  20. Oil and gas -94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report deals with the use of oil-, natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) during 1993. Information about markets and technical environmental questions are also given. Data have been collected from earlier reports, information given by different persons and statistics from SCB and SPI. The import of crude oil increased from 16,8 million tons in 1992 to 17,8 million tons in 1993. The import of oil products decreased by 0,9 million tons down to 6,7 million tons in the same period. During this period, the import of natural gas increased by 9%, a total of 817 million cubic meters. The import of LPG was 748000 tons in 1993, which is 61000 tons less compared to the import of 1992. The production in Sweden for 1993 was 290000 tons, the same level as the level reached in 1992. The export of LPG increased from 107000 tons to 138000 tons during this period. In January 1993, legislative changes were made concerning energy taxes and carbon dioxide penalty taxes. The rate of the latter was increased from 25 to 32 oere per kilogram of carbon dioxide released in the atmosphere. For industry and greenhouse production, the penalty rate is only 25% or 8 oere per kilogram of carbon dioxide. From 1995 to 1998, yearly increases in the rate of energy taxes and carbon dioxide penalty taxes will be based on the consumer price index. Taxes will be increased by 4% in 1994. Due to changes in energy taxes, the consumption of LPG decreased in 1993. Earlier, many industries had changed from oil to LPG but now have changed back to oil. 8 figs, 17 tabs

  1. Production Optimization of Oil Reservoirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Völcker, Carsten

    With an increasing demand for oil and diculties in nding new major oil elds, research on methods to improve oil recovery from existing elds is more necessary now than ever. The subject of this thesis is to construct ecient numerical methods for simulation and optimization of oil recovery with emp...... programming (SQP) with line-search and BFGS approximations of the Hessian, and the adjoint method for ecient computation of the gradients. We demonstrate that the application of NMPC for optimal control of smart-wells has the potential to increase the economic value of an oil reservoir....

  2. Optimization of walnut oil production

    OpenAIRE

    Jokić, Stela; Moslavac, T.; Bošnjak, Andreja; Aladić, K.; Rajić, Marina; Bilić, M.

    2014-01-01

    Walnut is recognized worldwide as a functional health food. In the walnut oil production it is very important to find an appropriate method to recover the oil from seeds. Walnut oil in this study was obtained by pressing the seeds followed by extraction with supercritical CO2. The effects of pressing temperature (70, 85, 100 °C), frequency (20, 30, 40 Hz) and nozzle size (8, 10, 12 mm) in pressing experiments on oil recovery and oil temperature were monitored. The optimal calculated pressing ...

  3. OIL EFFECT ON WORLD ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela SARPE

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the macroeconomic effects of the oil trade on the world economy, taking into account a number of factors that characterise it: evolution of oil price, as well as dynamics of oil exports, economic increase based on oil of the producing and consuming countries, attempts to diversify their economies inorder to get rid of the oil dependence, tendencies and length of these processes, co-operation and role of the countries that are involved in the exchange affairs that deal with this fundamental product called: “the blood of economy”.

  4. Flaxseed oil, a fish oil challenger?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurette Jean-Marc

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The too low level of omega-3 intake in the modern diet is a fact which is worrying health professional and authorities. Among the “traditional” recommendation for a safe and equilibrated diet, recommending food containing omega-3, is there, out of the inescapable fish oil leading to some digestive discomforts, any alternative? Two human clinical trials conducted to verify the effective efficiency of this re equilibrated diet on various skin parameters (hydration, surface evaluation, inflammation are reviewed here. The results of the clinical trials on various skin parameters (hydration, trans epidermal water loss, roughness, scaling, superficial inflammation and blood flow were quite convincing about the interest of such a supplementation.

  5. Oil price, capital mobility and oil importers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A three-region, three-commodity general equilibrium model is constructed to explore the impact of OPEC's pricing policies on major macro variables of importer economies. The aim of this paper is to explore general macro characteristics of the trading economies to aid understanding of the world economy response after OPEC I and OPEC II in terms of the evolution of North - South terms of trade, rates of profit and output levels. We support the view of a world economy in a three regions setting, North - South - OPEC. The analysis increases our understanding of why regions respond differently to the same external shock and how from different regimes of capital mobility we should derive alternative policy implications. With the current rise in oil prices, the topic promises to be relevant for some time, although the direction of the shocks has been reserved. (Author)

  6. Effect of mineral oil, sunflower oil, and coconut oil on prevention of hair damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rele, Aarti S; Mohile, R B

    2003-01-01

    Previously published results showed that both in vitro and in vivo coconut oil (CNO) treatments prevented combing damage of various hair types. Using the same methodology, an attempt was made to study the properties of mineral oil and sunflower oil on hair. Mineral oil (MO) was selected because it is extensively used in hair oil formulations in India, because it is non-greasy in nature, and because it is cheaper than vegetable oils like coconut and sunflower oils. The study was extended to sunflower oil (SFO) because it is the second most utilized base oil in the hair oil industry on account of its non-freezing property and its odorlessness at ambient temperature. As the aim was to cover different treatments, and the effect of these treatments on various hair types using the above oils, the number of experiments to be conducted was a very high number and a technique termed as the Taguchi Design of Experimentation was used. The findings clearly indicate the strong impact that coconut oil application has to hair as compared to application of both sunflower and mineral oils. Among three oils, coconut oil was the only oil found to reduce the protein loss remarkably for both undamaged and damaged hair when used as a pre-wash and post-wash grooming product. Both sunflower and mineral oils do not help at all in reducing the protein loss from hair. This difference in results could arise from the composition of each of these oils. Coconut oil, being a triglyceride of lauric acid (principal fatty acid), has a high affinity for hair proteins and, because of its low molecular weight and straight linear chain, is able to penetrate inside the hair shaft. Mineral oil, being a hydrocarbon, has no affinity for proteins and therefore is not able to penetrate and yield better results. In the case of sunflower oil, although it is a triglyceride of linoleic acid, because of its bulky structure due to the presence of double bonds, it does not penetrate the fiber, consequently resulting

  7. The oil and gas industry in 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illustrated by many graphs and tables, this report presents and comments many data and figures on many aspects of the oil and gas industry in the world and in France: worldwide oil and gas markets, worldwide oil exploration and production, worldwide gas exploration and production and stakes for European supply, exploration and production in France, oil and oil-based industry, hydrocarbon supplies, refining in France, fuel quality, substitution fuels, domestic transport of oil products, gas infrastructures, oil product storage, oil and gas product consumption, hydrocarbon taxing, oil product prices, and oil product distribution

  8. Environmentally adjusted oil and grease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the intention of maintaining healthy environment in our rivers Vattenfall in 1988 initiated a project called 'Environmentally friendly oils'. The goal was to find oils for bearings and hydraulic systems that would cause less negative environmental effects and still maintain a good technical function. Based on the results of the project it is recommended, for both economical and environmental reasons, to change to synthetic oil in bearings and to hydraulic oil made of white oil in regulating systems. The change may be carried out in connection to other work on the system in question. Special care is recommended when cleaning the system from old oil and dirt. In order to maintain the high quality of the oil, also during manufacturing and assembling, one should follow the recommendations outlined in the report. In bearings where used grease leaks into the river, a grease made of white oil should be used. The quality of the rubber sealings must be adapted to the oil used, in order to secure a good function. In order to bring down the number of products and to create an open market some additional changes is necessary in the specifications of oil. Further research regarding oil and sealing is planned. (3 refs.)

  9. Heavy oil markets and investments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forrest, Jackie [CERA North America (United States)

    2011-07-01

    With the depletion of traditional energy resources and the rising demand for energy, the exploitation of heavy oil resources is increasing. The aim of this paper is to present the heavy oil sector and to show which are the factors influencing heavy oil growth and production. A large part of heavy oil reserves lies in the Americas, with about 45% of the world's reserves in Latin America and over 35% in North America. The development of the heavy oil sector is dependent on economic, technological and environmental factors; greenhouse gas policies have important impacts on the development of the heavy oil industry as well as downstream market access. This presentation highlighted the great potential that North and South America have in terms of heavy oil but that the development of this sector will depend on several factors.

  10. Oil Prices Take a Hike

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The National Development and Reform Commission(NDRC),China’s top economic planner,announced at the end of October that the benchmark prices of gasoline,diesel oil and aviation kerosene would be raised by 500 yuan per ton. Recently,international oil prices have been rising continuously.Crude oil futures prices traded in New York surged to$93 per barrel on October 29. However,in China,oil prices are set by the government and not by the market. The recent hike on the price of oil in China is a measure implemented,to narrow the gap between soaring global crude oil prices and domestic fuel prices.NDRC officials answered questions posed by Xinhua News Agency about recent oil price hikes.The questions and answers follow:

  11. The Future of Oil Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Oil and gas are the major energy resources all over the world but are not renewable. According to their present reserves, the resource volumes yet to be found and the large amount of non-conventional oil and gas resources, there is still great potential in oil and gas production. The proportion ofoil and gas in energy structure will be influenced by four major factors: 1) Potential of the world oil and gas resources; 2) Technological progress of oil and gas exploration and development; 3) Speed of the development of substitute energy resources; and 4) Variation of oil price. It is estimated that, oil and gas will still retain an important proportion in energy structure by the first half of the 21st century.

  12. Oil price uncertainty in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elder, John [Department of Finance and Real Estate, 1272 Campus Delivery, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523 (United States); Serletis, Apostolos [Department of Economics, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

    2009-11-15

    Bernanke [Bernanke, Ben S. Irreversibility, uncertainty, and cyclical investment. Quarterly Journal of Economics 98 (1983), 85-106.] shows how uncertainty about energy prices may induce optimizing firms to postpone investment decisions, thereby leading to a decline in aggregate output. Elder and Serletis [Elder, John and Serletis, Apostolos. Oil price uncertainty.] find empirical evidence that uncertainty about oil prices has tended to depress investment in the United States. In this paper we assess the robustness of these results by investigating the effects of oil price uncertainty in Canada. Our results are remarkably similar to existing results for the United States, providing additional evidence that uncertainty about oil prices may provide another explanation for why the sharp oil price declines of 1985 failed to produce rapid output growth. Impulse-response analysis suggests that uncertainty about oil prices may tend to reinforce the negative response of output to positive oil shocks. (author)

  13. Aerobic microbial enhanced oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torsvik, T. [Univ. of Bergen (Norway); Gilje, E.; Sunde, E.

    1995-12-31

    In aerobic MEOR, the ability of oil-degrading bacteria to mobilize oil is used to increase oil recovery. In this process, oxygen and mineral nutrients are injected into the oil reservoir in order to stimulate growth of aerobic oil-degrading bacteria in the reservoir. Experiments carried out in a model sandstone with stock tank oil and bacteria isolated from offshore wells showed that residual oil saturation was lowered from 27% to 3%. The process was time dependent, not pore volume dependent. During MEOR flooding, the relative permeability of water was lowered. Oxygen and active bacteria were needed for the process to take place. Maximum efficiency was reached at low oxygen concentrations, approximately 1 mg O{sub 2}/liter.

  14. Canada's crude oil resources : crude oil in our daily lives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Created in 1975, the Petroleum Communication Foundation is a not-for-profit organization. The objective of the Foundation is to inform Canadians about the petroleum industry in Canada. It produces educational, fact-based publications and programs, employing a multi-stakeholder review process. The first section of this publication is devoted to crude oil and the benefits that are derived from it. It begins by providing a brief definition of crude oil, then moves to the many uses in our daily lives and the environmental impacts like air pollution, spills, and footprint on the land from exploration and production activities. Section 2 details the many uses of crude oil and identifies the major oil producing regions of Canada. A quick mention is made of non-conventional sources of crude oil. The search for crude oil is the topic of section 3 of the document, providing an overview of the exploration activities, the access rights that must be obtained before gaining access to the resource. The drilling of oil is discussed in section 4. Section 5 deals with issues pertaining to reservoirs within rocks, while section 6 covers the feeding of the refineries, discussing topics from the movement of oil to market to the refining of the crude oil, and the pricing issues. In section 7, the uncertain future is examined with a view of balancing the supply and demand, as crude oil is a non-renewable resource. Supplementary information is provided concerning additional publications published by various organizations and agencies. figs

  15. Cooling of oil injected screw compressors by oil atomisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper addresses the effect of oil atomisation in an oil-injected screw compressor. A test rig was built to assess the performance of different types of atomisers. Atomisers varying from fine atomisation to coarse atomisation were tested. Experiments on the test rig show that lowering the oil droplet diameter results in a considerably higher heat transfer. Growing oil flow rate, also gives a better cooling effectiveness. In parallel with the experiments, a thermodynamic model is developed by which the compression process can be calculated for every degree of revolution of the male-rotor. This way the influence of cooling oil temperature, cooling oil mass flow rate and injection point can be analysed. Having a better heat transfer effectiveness does not give a considerable gain in specific work. Lowering oil temperature gives better results, while changing the oil flow rate only gives small gains. Furthermore it is shown that cooling oil coming from the bearings has a negative influence on the performance. This paper shows that trying to reach isothermal compression through oil atomisation is not possible. The importance of the cooling effectiveness in the thermodynamic process is too small to have a significant influence

  16. The oil and oil services industry international context 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oil companies rarely do their own major work within the framework of their investments or in the operation of their facilities. They most often act as project coordinators, thereby opening up a vast market for equipment, services and engineering, involving many companies of widely-varying sizes, which constitute the oil services industry. This document provides a panorama of the international oil context in three distinct parts, for 2007, for the first three quarters of 2008, and aspects of trends for 2009. - The first part is devoted to a rapid description of the oil context and the economic environment in which it is evolving. - The second part examines the evolution of world investment in exploration-production (E and P) activities, distinguishing the investments made by oil and oil product/service companies throughout the E and P chain from the more targeted ones of three specific sectors: seismic, drilling and the construction of offshore production equipment. These markets are observed exclusively for oil product/service companies. - The last part is devoted to investments in the refining sector, focusing on the changes in the fundamentals, particularly the equilibrium between refining capacities and medium- term oil demand. This latter analysis involves both oil and oil product/service companies. (authors)

  17. Cooling of oil injected screw compressors by oil atomisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Paepe, M.; Bogaert, W.; Mertens, D. [Department of Flow, Heat and Combustion Mechanics, Ghent University-UGent, Sint-Pietersnieuwstraat 41, B 9000 Gent (Belgium)

    2005-12-01

    This paper addresses the effect of oil atomisation in an oil-injected screw compressor. A test rig was built to assess the performance of different types of atomisers. Atomisers varying from fine atomisation to coarse atomisation were tested. Experiments on the test rig show that lowering the oil droplet diameter results in a considerably higher heat transfer. Growing oil flow rate, also gives a better cooling effectiveness. In parallel with the experiments, a thermodynamic model is developed by which the compression process can be calculated for every degree of revolution of the male-rotor. This way the influence of cooling oil temperature, cooling oil mass flow rate and injection point can be analysed. Having a better heat transfer effectiveness does not give a considerable gain in specific work. Lowering oil temperature gives better results, while changing the oil flow rate only gives small gains. Furthermore it is shown that cooling oil coming from the bearings has a negative influence on the performance. This paper shows that trying to reach isothermal compression through oil atomisation is not possible. The importance of the cooling effectiveness in the thermodynamic process is too small to have a significant influence. (author)

  18. Cooling of oil injected screw compressors by oil atomisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paepe, M. de [Department of Flow, Heat and Combustion Mechanics, Ghent University-UGent, Sint-Pietersnieuwstraat 41, B 9000 Gent (Belgium)]. E-mail: michel.depaepe@ugent.be; Bogaert, W. [Department of Flow, Heat and Combustion Mechanics, Ghent University-UGent, Sint-Pietersnieuwstraat 41, B 9000 Gent (Belgium); Mertens, D. [Department of Flow, Heat and Combustion Mechanics, Ghent University-UGent, Sint-Pietersnieuwstraat 41, B 9000 Gent (Belgium)

    2005-12-01

    This paper addresses the effect of oil atomisation in an oil-injected screw compressor. A test rig was built to assess the performance of different types of atomisers. Atomisers varying from fine atomisation to coarse atomisation were tested. Experiments on the test rig show that lowering the oil droplet diameter results in a considerably higher heat transfer. Growing oil flow rate, also gives a better cooling effectiveness. In parallel with the experiments, a thermodynamic model is developed by which the compression process can be calculated for every degree of revolution of the male-rotor. This way the influence of cooling oil temperature, cooling oil mass flow rate and injection point can be analysed. Having a better heat transfer effectiveness does not give a considerable gain in specific work. Lowering oil temperature gives better results, while changing the oil flow rate only gives small gains. Furthermore it is shown that cooling oil coming from the bearings has a negative influence on the performance. This paper shows that trying to reach isothermal compression through oil atomisation is not possible. The importance of the cooling effectiveness in the thermodynamic process is too small to have a significant influence.

  19. Monetary Effects on Nominal Oil Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Max Gillman; Anton Nakov

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents a theory of nominal asset prices for competitively owned oil. Focusing on monetary effects, with flexible oil prices the US dollar oil price should follow the aggregate US price level. But with rigid nominal oil prices, the nominal oil price jumps proportionally to nominal interest rate increases. We find evidence for structural breaks in the nominal oil price that are used to illustrate the theory of oil price jumps. The evidence also indicates strong Granger causality of ...

  20. Research advancements in palm oil nutrition*

    OpenAIRE

    May, Choo Yuen; Nesaretnam, Kalanithi

    2014-01-01

    Palm oil is the major oil produced, with annual world production in excess of 50 million tonnes. About 85% of global palm oil produced is used in food applications. Over the past three decades, research on nutritional benefits of palm oil have demonstrated the nutritional adequacy of palm oil and its products, and have resulted in transitions in the understanding these attributes. Numerous studies have demonstrated that palm oil was similar to unsaturated oils with regards to effects on blood...

  1. Compatibility of DLC coatings with formulated oils

    OpenAIRE

    Sedlaček, Marko; PODGORNIK, Bojan; Vižintin, Jože

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the tribological performance and compatibility of hydrogenated amorphous carbon coating (a-C:H) and metal-doped diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating (Me-C:H) with formulated oils under the boundary lubrication regime was investigated. The investigation employed ball-on-flat contact geometry in reciprocating sliding motion and six formulated oils (manual gearbox oil, automatic gearbox oil, hydraulic oil, compressor oil, andnormal and high performance motor oil), with pure po...

  2. China's Oil Imports and Exports in 2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Chunrong

    2010-01-01

    @@ The so-called imported oil dependence degree commonly refers to the proportion of oil imported to China's oil consumption,which hit 56% in 2009 and has exceeded 50% in 2007.In the past two years,the net imports of oil,including crude oil,refined oil,LPG and other oil products,increased by 8.8% and rose to218.38 million tons.

  3. Oil goldenberry (Physalis peruviana L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, Mohamed F; Mörsel, Jörg-T

    2003-02-12

    Whole berries, seeds, and pulp/peel of goldenberry (Physalis peruviana L.) were compared in terms of fatty acids, lipid classes, triacylglyerols, phytosterols, fat-soluble vitamins, and beta-carotene. The total lipid contents in the whole berries, seeds, and seedless parts were 2.0, 1.8, and 0.2% (on a fresh weight basis), respectively. Linoleic acid was the dominating fatty acid followed by oleic acid as the second major fatty acid. Palmitic and stearic acids were the major saturates. In pulp/peel oil, the fatty acid profile was characterized by higher amounts of saturates, monoenes, and trienes than in whole berry and seed oils. Neutral lipids comprised >95% of total lipids in whole berry oil and seed oil, while neutral lipids separated in lower level in pulp/peel oil. Triacylglycerols were the predominant neutral lipid subclass and constituted ca. 81.6, 86.6, and 65.1% of total neutral lipids in whole berry, seed, and pulp/peel oils, respectively. Nine triacylglycerol molecular species were detected, wherein three species, C54:3, C52:2, and C54:6, were presented to the extent of approximately 91% or above. The highest level of phytosterols was estimated in pulp/peel oil that contained the highest level of unsaponifiables. In both whole berry and seed oils, campesterol and beta-sitosterol were the sterol markers, whereas Delta5-avenasterol and campesterol were the main 4-desmethylsterols in pulp/peel oil. The tocopherols level was much higher in pulp/peel oil than in whole berry and seed oils. beta- and gamma-tocopherols were the major components in whole berry and seed oils, whereas gamma- and alpha-tocopherols were the main constituents in pulp/peel oil. beta-Carotene and vitamin K(1) were also measured in markedly high levels in pulp/peel oil followed by whole berry oil and seed oil, respectively. Information provided by the present work is of importance for further chemical investigation of goldenberry oil and industrial utilization of the berries as a raw

  4. Bioremediation of oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In-situ bioremediation of crude oil spills relies on either the indigenous microbes at the polluted site, whose degradative abilities are accelerated by adding such agents as fertilizers or dispersants, or on introducing pollutant-degrading microbes into the site (possibly accompanied by stimulatory chemicals). The bioremediation method to be used at a specific site must be selected to be suitable for that site and its environmental conditions. The basic components of bioremediation are outlined and the background information needed to understand the chemical and biological limitations of the technique are presented. Specifically, the microbial community, the crude oil substrate composition, and biological limiting factors are discussed. Generalized examples of bioremediation applications are illustrated. 10 refs

  5. Amoco Cadiz oil spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Sullivan, A.J.

    1978-05-01

    This report gives a preliminary account of the events surrounding the wreck of the Amoco Cadiz on the Brittany coast in March, which caused the most massive oil pollution on record. The sequence of events is outlined. Also reported are details of clean-up of beaches as well as appearance and biological effects of oil. Further studies which will continue for years include: population dynamics (species of Littorina); feeding, reproduction, settlement of Spirorbis sp; surveillance of echinoderm and crustacean populations; changes in growth and development of species of red algae; changes in concentrations of bacteria, meiofauna, chlorophyll and organic material. There are indications of problems likely to arise in: sheltered areas (sediments, salt marsh vegetation); sandy shores; upper shore vegetation (higher plants, lichens); algae (temporary loss of algal cover); intertidal macrofauna; seabirds (mortality); economy (fishing, tourism, seaweed used for fertilizer).

  6. Middle East oil and gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study is intended to shed light on structural changes occurring in six Middle East countries (Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates) that can be expected to have a significant impact on their oil and gas industry. These six countries provide 42% of the world's traded crude oil, on which Member countries of the International Energy Agency (IEA) are increasingly dependent. They also contain about 65% and 30% of the world's proven oil and natural gas reserves, respectively, and command a strategic location between Europe and Asia. The Middle East has been one of the most volatile parts of the world where war, revolution and embargoes have caused major upheavals that have led to oil supply disruptions. The oil resources of all six countries were initially developed by international oil companies and all are members of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). In 1994, their crude oil production capacity was about 23 million barrels per day (mbd) and is planned to expand to about 28 mbd by the year 2000. Revenue from the sale of oil accounts for more than 80% of each nation's total exports and about 75% of each government's income. The objectives of this study are: to detail their announced oil and gas development plans, to describe the major trends occurring in these countries, to outline the government responses to the trends, and to analyse the impact of government policies on oil and gas development. (J.S.). 121 refs., 136 figs., 212 tabs

  7. Marine oil spill response organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The obligations under the law relative to the prevention of marine oil spills and the type of emergency plans needed to mitigate any adverse effects caused by a marine oil spill were discussed. The organizational structure, spill response resources and operational management capabilities of Canada's newly created Response Organizations (ROs) were described. The overall range of oil spill response services that the RO provides to the domestic oil handling, oil transportation and the international shipping industries were reviewed. Amendments to the Canada Shipping Act which require that certain ships and oil handling facilities take oil spill preparedness and response measures, including having an arrangement with an RO certified by the Canadian Coast Guard, were outlined. Canadians now benefit from five ROs established to provide coast-to-coast oil spill response coverage. These include the Western Canada Marine Response Corporation, the Canadian Marine Response Management Corporation, the Great Lakes Response Corporation, the Eastern Canada Response Corporation and the Atlantic Emergency Response Team Ltd. ROs have the expertise necessary to organize and manage marine oil spill response services. They can provide equipment, personnel and operational management for the containment, recovery and cleanup of oil spilled on water

  8. Effects of oil and oil burn residues on seabird feathers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritt-Rasmussen, Janne; Linnebjerg, Jannie Fries; Sørensen, Martin X.;

    2016-01-01

    It is well known, that in case of oil spill, seabirds are among the groups of animals most vulnerable. Even small amounts of oil can have lethal effects by destroying the waterproofing of their plumage, leading to loss of insulation and buoyancy. In the Arctic these impacts are intensified....... To protect seabirds, a rapid removal of oil is crucial and in situ burning could be an efficient method. In the present work exposure effects of oil and burn residue in different doses was studied on seabird feathers from legally hunted Common eider (Somateria mollissima) by examining changes in total weight...... of the feather and damages on the microstructure (Amalgamation Index) of the feathers before and after exposure. The results of the experiments indicate that burn residues from in situ burning of an oil spill have similar or larger fouling and damaging effects on seabird feathers, as compared to fresh oil....

  9. Effects of oil and oil burn residues on seabird feathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritt-Rasmussen, Janne; Linnebjerg, Jannie Fries; Sørensen, Martin X; Brogaard, Nicholas L; Rigét, Frank F; Kristensen, Paneeraq; Jomaas, Grunde; Boertmann, David M; Wegeberg, Susse; Gustavson, Kim

    2016-08-15

    It is well known, that in case of oil spill, seabirds are among the groups of animals most vulnerable. Even small amounts of oil can have lethal effects by destroying the waterproofing of their plumage, leading to loss of insulation and buoyancy. In the Arctic these impacts are intensified. To protect seabirds, a rapid removal of oil is crucial and in situ burning could be an efficient method. In the present work exposure effects of oil and burn residue in different doses was studied on seabird feathers from legally hunted Common eider (Somateria mollissima) by examining changes in total weight of the feather and damages on the microstructure (Amalgamation Index) of the feathers before and after exposure. The results of the experiments indicate that burn residues from in situ burning of an oil spill have similar or larger fouling and damaging effects on seabird feathers, as compared to fresh oil. PMID:27234369

  10. Effects of oil and oil burn residues on seabird feathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritt-Rasmussen, Janne; Linnebjerg, Jannie Fries; Sørensen, Martin X; Brogaard, Nicholas L; Rigét, Frank F; Kristensen, Paneeraq; Jomaas, Grunde; Boertmann, David M; Wegeberg, Susse; Gustavson, Kim

    2016-08-15

    It is well known, that in case of oil spill, seabirds are among the groups of animals most vulnerable. Even small amounts of oil can have lethal effects by destroying the waterproofing of their plumage, leading to loss of insulation and buoyancy. In the Arctic these impacts are intensified. To protect seabirds, a rapid removal of oil is crucial and in situ burning could be an efficient method. In the present work exposure effects of oil and burn residue in different doses was studied on seabird feathers from legally hunted Common eider (Somateria mollissima) by examining changes in total weight of the feather and damages on the microstructure (Amalgamation Index) of the feathers before and after exposure. The results of the experiments indicate that burn residues from in situ burning of an oil spill have similar or larger fouling and damaging effects on seabird feathers, as compared to fresh oil.

  11. A very competitive oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drop in oil barrel prices results in 8 to 10 billions in savings for French companies, i.e. as much as the tax credit for competitiveness and employment. This article analyses how the different sectors take benefit of this saving due to lower oil prices. It outlines that this decrease has been very profitable for the refining sector which exhibited historic margins. As far as the chemistry sector is concerned, costs are reduced but profits are less important as this decrease compensates the decrease of the euro with respect to the dollar. The plastic industry does not take profit as it comes at the end of value chain where other actors already took their benefits. Therefore, there is no profit in agriculture as far as plastic products and fertilizers are concerned. On the opposite, the decrease of marine fuel has been profitable to the fishing sector as well as to the sea transport sector. As far as road transport is concerned the fuel price decrease is reflected in resale prices, and the oil price decrease had therefore no impact, or only for few days. It's not the case for air transport where companies took benefit of this decrease. In this respect, a second article outlines that airline companies have learned lessons from previous oil price counter-shock to adapt their strategies. The last article addresses the general situation of industry which exhibits a better financial health, could be boosted by a recovery of consumption. But growth is still to be confirmed by investments. A brief article notices that the profit is less important at the world level, i.e. more important in Europe than in Asia and even more than in Africa

  12. Gold, Oil, and Stocks

    OpenAIRE

    Baruník, Jozef; Kočenda, Evžen; Vácha, Lukáš

    2014-01-01

    We employ a wavelet approach and conduct a time-frequency analysis of dynamic correlations between pairs of key traded assets (gold, oil, and stocks) covering the period from 1987 to 2012. The analysis is performed on both intra-day and daily data. We show that heterogeneity in correlations across a number of investment horizons between pairs of assets is a dominant feature during times of economic downturn and financial turbulence for all three pairs of the assets under research. Heterogenei...

  13. Oil sands development update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A detailed review and update of oil sands development in Alberta are provided covering every aspect of the production and economic aspects of the industry. It is pointed out that at present oil sands account for 28 per cent of Canadian crude oil production, expected to reach 50 per cent by 2005. Based on recent announcements, a total of 26 billion dollars worth of projects are in progress or planned; 20 billion dollars worth of this development is in the Athabasca area, the remainder in Cold Lake and other areas. The current update envisages up to 1,800,000 barrels per day by 2008, creating 47,000 new jobs and total government revenues through direct and indirect taxes of 118 billion dollars. Provinces other than Alberta also benefit from these development, since 60 per cent of all employment and income created by oil sands production is in other parts of Canada. Up to 60 per cent of the expansion is for goods and services and of this, 50 to 55 per cent will be purchased from Canadian sources. The remaining 40 per cent of the new investment is for engineering and construction of which 95 per cent is Canadian content. Aboriginal workforce by common consent of existing operators matches regional representation (about 13 per cent), and new developers are expected to match these standards. Planned or ongoing development in environmental protection through improved technologies and optimization, energy efficiency and improved tailings management, and active support of flexibility mechanisms such as emission credits trading, joint implementation and carbon sinks are very high on the industry's agenda. The importance of offsets are discussed extensively along with key considerations for international negotiations, as well as further research of other options such as sequestration, environmentally benign disposal of waste, and enhanced voluntary action

  14. Colombian fusel oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Montoya

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available By-products valorization in bio-fuels industry is an important issue for making the global process more efficient, more profitable and closer to the concept of biorefinery. Fusel oil is a by-product of bioethanol production that can be considered as an inexpensive and renewable raw material for manufacturing value-added products. In this work, results in terms of composition and physicochemical properties of six samples of fusel oil from industrial alcohol facilities are presented. Composition of the main components was established by gas chromatography. Complementary techniques, such as headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS, were used for detection of minor components. Fifty-five compounds were identified. Physicochemical properties such as density, acid value, moisture content and true boiling point curves were determined. Results are useful in the conceptual design of separation strategies for recovering higher alcohols, as well as to consider new options of valorization alternatives for fusel oil.

  15. Detection of argan oil adulterated with vegetable oils: new markers

    OpenAIRE

    Ourrach, I.; Rada, M.; Pérez-Camino, M. C.; Benaissa, M; Guinda, Á.

    2012-01-01

    This work aims to contribute to controlling the authenticity of pure argan oil, a valuable Moroccan product. Fatty acids, hydrocarbon fraction, 3,5-stigmastadiene, the alkyl esters of fatty acids, chlorophyllic pigments and physical properties such as viscosity, density and refractive index were studied in order to detect the adulteration of argan oil with edible vegetable oils. The results found in this study show that 3,5-stigmastadiene, kaurene and pheophytin-a can be used as possible new ...

  16. Crude Oil, Palm Oil Stock and Prices: How They Link

    OpenAIRE

    Fatimah Mohamed Arshad; Amna Awad Abdel Hameed

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the nature of links or relationships between crude, palm oil prices and stocks and its short term implications on the palm oil price trend in 2013. An econometric method is used to empirically forecast the palm oil price movements in the year 2013 using monthly historical data over the period of January 2002 to December 2012. A single equation model using Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) procedure was estimated to achieve the stated objective. The results provide a str...

  17. Microbial problems and corrosion in oil and oil product storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, E.C.

    1983-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference on biological fouling and corrosion during the storage of petroleum and petroleum products. Topics considered at the conference included electrochemical aspects of microbial corrosion, the influence of physical and nutritional conditions on microbial growth, hydrocarbon degradation, sulfate-reducing bacteria, corrosion and fouling problems during crude oil and oil product transport, light fuel oils, concrete corrosion, microbial ecology and its significance, and corrosion hazard assessment.

  18. Physicochemical methods for enhancing oil recovery from oil fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altunina, L K; Kuvshinov, V A [Institute of Petroleum Chemistry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2007-10-31

    Physicochemical methods for enhancing oil recovery from oil fields that are developed using water flooding and thermal steam treatment are considered. The results of pilot testing of processes based on these methods carried out at West Siberian and Chinese oil fields are analysed. The attention is focused on the processes that make use of surfactant blends and alkaline buffer solutions and thermotropic gel-forming systems.

  19. Physicochemical methods for enhancing oil recovery from oil fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altunina, L. K.; Kuvshinov, V. A.

    2007-10-01

    Physicochemical methods for enhancing oil recovery from oil fields that are developed using water flooding and thermal steam treatment are considered. The results of pilot testing of processes based on these methods carried out at West Siberian and Chinese oil fields are analysed. The attention is focused on the processes that make use of surfactant blends and alkaline buffer solutions and thermotropic gel-forming systems.

  20. Is 'oil pulling' a 'snake oil'? : a clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Wing-kiu; Chu, Dick-hei, Ryan Julian; Fung, Ka-wing, Karen; Law, Yew Wooi; Lee, Cheuk-sze, Tracy; Mak, Chun-hung; Tam, King-man; Wong, Wing-kin, Dennis; Wu, Ching-hong

    2015-01-01

    The traditional Ayurveda practice of ‘oil pulling’ has become a recent phenomenon and concerns about its efficacy have been raised. Objectives: (1) to determine awareness about the practice of ‘oil pulling’ among a group of young adults, and to determine variations in awareness with respect to socio-demographic factors, oral health behaviours (oral hygiene and dental attendance) and use of natural health products; (2) to determine the effectiveness of ‘oil pulling’ and conventional oral hygie...

  1. RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF RAPESEED OIL AND HYDRAULIC OIL

    OpenAIRE

    IOANA STANCIU

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the rheological behavior of refined rapeseed oil and hydraulic oil. Apparent viscosity of both oils was determined at temperatures between 40 and 90°C and shear rates ranging from 3.3 to 120 s-1. The aim of the study was to find a polynomial dependence of oil viscosity on temperature and shear rate. The modified Andrade equation was used. Constants A, B, C and correlation coefficient were determined by correlating a characteristic polynomial equation of each curve.

  2. RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF RAPESEED OIL AND HYDRAULIC OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOANA STANCIU

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the rheological behavior of refined rapeseed oil and hydraulic oil. Apparent viscosity of both oils was determined at temperatures between 40 and 90°C and shear rates ranging from 3.3 to 120 s-1. The aim of the study was to find a polynomial dependence of oil viscosity on temperature and shear rate. The modified Andrade equation was used. Constants A, B, C and correlation coefficient were determined by correlating a characteristic polynomial equation of each curve.

  3. Rape-seed oil - a substitute for mineral oil?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badent, R.; Kist, K.; Schwab, A.J. [University of Karlsruhe (Germany). Institute of Electric Systems and High-Voltage Technology

    1999-07-01

    This paper presents the results obtained from the study on the basic characteristics of rape-seed oil considered to be a substitute of mineral oil in power transformers. The results show that rape- seed oil is usable as an insulating liquid. Furthermore, results are presented concerning the breakdown behaviour in uniform (plane-plane geometry) and non-uniform (rod-plane geometry) fields under impulse conditions with gaps up to 40 mm and voltages up to 650 kV. A sufficient high 50 Hz breakdown voltage is the most important precondition for a medium to be used as an insulator. The dielectric strength of rape-seed oil exceeds more than 50 kV/2,5 mm and consequently fulfils the requirements of the standards. The measurement of the permittivity and tan {delta} at 90{sup o}C yields to 3,18 and 0,015, respectively and is comparable to the values of standard mineral oil. However, there are still some problems to be overcome. Beside the insulating task the liquid dielectric has also a cooling function in power apparatus. Since the dynamic viscosity of rape-seed oil (about 70 mm{sup 2}/s at 40{sup o}C) is higher than that of mineral oil, rape-seed oil has a lower ability for heat conduction. A further problem is the solidification of rape-seed oil below -5{sup o}C. (author)

  4. Improved oil recovery process for heavy oil: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barillas, J.L.M.; Dutra Junior, T.V.; Mata, W. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica], E-mail: jennys@eq.ufrn.br

    2008-01-15

    Petroleum is one of the main sources of energy in the world, occupying the first place of the Brazilian energy matrix. Therefore, technologies that involve the development and application of techniques capable of increasing the profitability of oil fields are important and require more thorough studies. In Brazil, self-sufficiency has been already reached in oil production, however it is necessary that improved oil recovery technologies be continually studied to maintain the current production or to increase it. Rio Grande do Norte (a Brazilian State) comprises many heavy oil reserves and the exploration activities in the Brazilian Basins of Campos, Santos and Espirito Santo have led to the discovery of large amounts of heavy oils. It is possible to increase heavy oil recovery in some of these reservoirs with the help of improved oil recovery processes, thus enhancing oil field productivity and profitability. Until recently, heavy oil reserves did not attract much interest. The lowest oil profitability, the low price of the oil barrel in the international market, the difficulties involved in its extraction and its refining, and the large amount of light and medium oils to be explored could not justify the investments. Maturity of light and medium oil fields and the significant increase in oil price placed that source of energy under a new perspective. In Brazil, the confirmed reserves constitute 2.9 billion barrels approximately, 26% of the total reserves, and the production should reach 450 thousand barrels daily or 25% of the total production predicted for 2010 (ANP, 'Agencia Nacional do Petroleo' - Brazilian Petroleum National Agency, 2006). To improve the capacity of drainage of the heavy oils and to increase its recovery, different thermal methods have been developed. Those more used involve steam in the process, because they are more efficient than other processes such as 'in situ' combustion or water injection. The steam is used with the

  5. China's Two Oil Giants Halt Oil Products Exports

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin Xian

    2008-01-01

    @@ CNPC, China's largest oil producer, and Sinopec, the nation's largest refiner expressed they would increase their oil processing and halt oil products exports in the third quarter to ensure domestic supply. Vice president of CNPC Wang Yilin said on June 2 that CNPC would stop oil products export and increase the imports to secure the domestic market supplies. Meanwhile, Sinopec President Wang Tianpu also said that Sinopec would raise production, halt exports and adjust product structure to ensure domestic supply, especially for the reconstruction after the earthquake, the summer harvest and the Olympic Games.

  6. Enzymatic Aqueous Extraction of Soybean Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The procedure of enzymatic aqueous extraction of soybean oil was assessed when two-step controlled enzymatic hydrolysis was applied. With aqueous extraction of soybean oil-containing protein, the highest yield of oil was 96.1% at the optimized conditions studied. Soybean oil-containing protein was hydrolyzed and resulted in releasing part of oil. The separated protein that contained 40% oil was enriched due to its adsorption capacity of released oil, the average oil extraction yeild reached 93.5%. Then the high oil content protein was hydrolyzed again to release oil by enzyme, the oil extraction yeild was 80.4%. As a result, high quality of soybean oil was obtained and the content of total oil yield was 74.4%.

  7. Oil patch pariah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Problems that can arise when Western oil companies invest in developing countries suffering under political instability are described using Calgary-based Talisman Energy Inc.'s recent experiences in the Sudan as example. In 1998 Talisman acquired a 25 per cent interest in an oil project by cash-poor Arakis Energy Corporation, thus acquiring a foothold in the Middle East , and more importantly, access to one of the world's largest oil reserves at a bargain-basement price. A UN report accusing the Sudanese government of gross human rights violations , the chagrin expressed by the US Secretary of State that a Canadian company would do business with a country that the US officially regards as 'a state sponsor of terrorism', a warning by the Canadian Minister of Foreign Affairs of economic sanctions unless Talisman demonstrates active promotion of human rights in the Sudan, led the Ontario Teachers Federation to threaten to withdraw its $ 184-million stake in Talisman if reports of human rights abuses in the country can be corroborated. A fact finding mission has been dispatched by the Minister of Foreign Affairs to establish by next month who is killing whom in the Sudan and whether oil revenue from Talisman is being used to fund a campaign of terror and killing that have claimed the lives of some two million Sudanese citizens in the past 16 years. As a result of the turmoil caused by these actions Talisman lost nearly $ 700 million in value in the last week of October, and several institutional investors are actively considering selling their shares in Talisman. The company has hired a top public relations firm to defend itself against the 'coordinated attack' by human rights groups, Sudanese refugees, and Christian fundamentalists whose aim is said to be to shut down oil production in the Sudan. Talisman management is confident that given the company's reputation and its large asset base, it can weather the storm that its Sudanese assets have generated, however

  8. Oil depletion and terms of trade

    OpenAIRE

    Irimia-Vladu, Marina; Thompson, Henry

    2007-01-01

    A model of the international oil market model with optimal depletion and offer curves suggests importers face a backward bending offer curve. An oil tariff would then raise oil imports and lower the price of oil including the tariff. Simulations of price and extraction paths for the coming century provide insight into the future of oil depletion and terms of trade.

  9. China's Oil Imports and Exports in 2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Chunrong

    2008-01-01

    @@ The net imports of oil increased by 8.4% in China in 2007, hitting the record of 183.48 million tons (Fig.l).The net imports of crude oil and other oil products including paraffin wax, oil coke, and asphalt increased and balanced out the decrease of the net imports of product oil and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG).

  10. 7 CFR 985.11 - Salable oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Salable oil. 985.11 Section 985.11 Agriculture... HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 985.11 Salable oil. Salable oil means that oil which is free to be handled....

  11. 14 CFR 29.1025 - Oil valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil valves. 29.1025 Section 29.1025... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Oil System § 29.1025 Oil valves. (a) Each oil shutoff.... (c) Each oil valve must have positive stops or suitable index provisions in the “on” and...

  12. 14 CFR 25.1025 - Oil valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil valves. 25.1025 Section 25.1025... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Oil System § 25.1025 Oil valves. (a) Each oil shutoff... feathering. (c) Each oil valve must have positive stops or suitable index provisions in the “on” and...

  13. The price for oil. An economic outline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This memorandum is dedicated to two different prices for oil: the spot price for oil supply in the present and the futures price for oil supply in the future. Two questions are dealt with: (1) which are the characteristics of the time series of those oil prices?; and (2) what can be learnt from futures prices about future oil prices

  14. 14 CFR 29.1013 - Oil tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil tanks. 29.1013 Section 29.1013... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Oil System § 29.1013 Oil tanks. (a) Installation. Each oil tank installation must meet the requirements of § 29.967. (b) Expansion space. Oil tank...

  15. 14 CFR 25.1013 - Oil tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil tanks. 25.1013 Section 25.1013... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Oil System § 25.1013 Oil tanks. (a) Installation. Each oil tank installation must meet the requirements of § 25.967. (b) Expansion space. Oil tank...

  16. International Oil Supplies and Demands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--90 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world's dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group's thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence.

  17. International Oil Supplies and Demands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--90 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world's dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group's thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence

  18. International Oil Supplies and Demands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--1990 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world's dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group's thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence

  19. Bioremediation of offshore oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research program was directed towards the enhancement of insitu biorestoration of open sea oil spills. Bacteria possessing petroleum degrading enzymes are capable of splitting even thick, viscous oils and tars into lighter fractions. This process will occur at the oil/bacterial interface and depends upon viscosity of the oil, bacterial species, availability of ancillary nutrients, residence times and extent of mixing/oxygenation. Through the enzymatic metabolism of bacteria, a wide range of petroleum oils can be converted almost completely into CO2, water, cell mass and harmless biological waste products, usually within 60 to 90 days under favorable conditions. Specifically, this research work focused on the selection and examination of a floating medium which enhances the biodegradation process through improvement of conditions necessary for the process to occur. An additional effort was made to update previous citations of the order of magnitude of oil biodegradation rates and to compare laboratory measurements of biodegradation rates with field or mesocosm measurements

  20. International Oil Supplies and Demands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-01

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--1990 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world's dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group's thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence.

  1. Modification of Oil Palm Plantation Wastes as Oil Adsorbent for Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research was conducted to modify oil palm solid wastes chemically to become oil adsorbent for palm oil mill effluent (POME). The purpose of modification on oil palm leaves (OPL) and oil palm frond (OPF) was to change the hydrophilic nature to a more hydrophobic character. This study also exploited the production of sorbent materials with high efficiency in the oil uptake for POME from OPL and OPF. Chemical modification was carried out using 200 mL of 1.0 M lauric acid solution for 6 hrs at room temperature. The modified OPL and OPF were preceded to adsorption test for POME and the capacity of oil adsorbed was compared between them. FTIR analysis supported the modification to occur with the increase in a peak of C-H group and the presence of C=O originated from lauric acid structure chain. The hydrophobicity of modified OPL and OPF samples was supported by XRD and contact angle analysis with modified OPL became more hydrophobic than the modified OPF, which had been 38.15 % and 24.67 % respectively. Both the analyses proved that the result from the oil adsorption test on POME showed the presence of a new peak attribute at C=C stretching of aromatics for the oil in POME proved that it was attached on the sorbent materials. Based on SEM analysis, the perforated and rough surface had been observed on modified OPL and OPF samples because oil layers on OPL and OPF surfaces were observed on the modified samples after the adsorption test. All the analyses in the study agreed that the results from oil adsorption test showed that the modified OPL had higher adsorption capacity than the modified OPF with the percentage of oil uptake at 83.74 % and 39.84 % respectively. The prepared adsorbent showed the potential to be used as a low-cost adsorbent in oil for POME. (author)

  2. [Contact allergy to essential oils].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvåg, E; Holm, J O; Thune, P

    1995-11-10

    Ethereal oils are widely used, in food, toothpaste, as flavouring agents in perfumes and cosmetics, and in dermatological treatment, as antiseptics, adstringenta, antipruritic tinctures, lotions and pomades. The use of ethereal oils seems to have increased in recent years, probably due to a growing interest in alternative medicine, and especially aromatherapy. By describing the cases of three patients with allergic contact dermatitis, we wish to point out possible unwanted side effects of using ethereal oils. PMID:7491578

  3. Oil Analysis by Fast DSC

    OpenAIRE

    Wetten, I.A.; Van Herwaarden, A.W.; Splinter, R.; Ruth, van, S.M.

    2014-01-01

    Thermal analysis of Olive and Sunflower Oil is done by Fast DSC to evaluate its potential to replace DSC for adulteration detection. DSC measurements take hours, Fast DSC minutes. Peak temperatures of the crystallisation peak in cooling for different Olive and Sunflower Oils are both comparable to DSC, but not always distinguishable. The heating curves of Olive and Sunflower Oil show more differences. Compared to DSC, Fast DSC shows lower peak temperatures for heating curve peaks.

  4. CSR Important to Oil Companies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Corporations are human endeavors, and all human endeavors should benefit our society and reflect our morals. They should provide more than just investor return. The nature of oil industry demands that oil companies be socially responsible in addition to operating in an ethical and environmentally friendly manner. At a time of rising energy prices and global concern over our energy future, however, oil companies should give even greater emphasis to this part of their approach to corporate social responsibility(CSR).

  5. Forecasting Oil price and Volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Man Tao

    2009-01-01

    Commodities prices play a crucial role in commodity-related investments, strategic planning, and affect the economy. Fluctuations in commodity prices affect the decision making by producers and consumers. Within the commodity products, crude oil is the central source of energy supply. The continuous rise in oil price since 2002 has caused public concerns of higher inflation rate for different countries. In July 2008, crude oil price has rise to a historic price US$147/barrel, and dropped to U...

  6. Oil and Gas in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Víctor Gerardo Carreón Rodríguez; Juan Rosellón

    2012-01-01

    Mexico is a highly centralized federation. The states and municipalities are highly dependent on federal transfers and so equally at risk to the country’s fiscal dependence on oil. Although Mexico has become more truly federal since multiparty competition has become vibrant and several states are in opposition hands, the states remain very minor actors in relation to oil and gas. However, as the political system has democratized, states have had an increasing say regarding oil and gas activit...

  7. CRUDE OIL CONTAMINATION AND PLANTS

    OpenAIRE

    Terek, Olga; Laphyna, Olga; Velychko, Oksana; Bunyo, Lyubov; Dovgaiuk-Semeniuk, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the physiological mechanisms of plant adaptation under crude oil contamination of soil. Different plant species used in the study sedge (Carex hirta L.), bean (Faba bona Medic.), alfalfa (Medicago lupulina L.) and clover (Trifolium pratense L.) showed various biochemical and morphological reactions under oil pollution. The effect of crude oil on root elongation, shoot growth and dry matter accumulation of the four species was evaluated. All invest...

  8. 33 CFR 155.320 - Fuel oil and bulk lubricating oil discharge containment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel oil and bulk lubricating oil... VESSELS Vessel Equipment § 155.320 Fuel oil and bulk lubricating oil discharge containment. (a) A ship of... area under or around each fuel oil or bulk lubricating oil tank vent, overflow, and fill pipe, that:...

  9. Olive oil adulterated with hazelnut oils: simulation to identify possible risks to allergic consumers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Arlorio; J.D. Coisson; M. Bordiga; F. Travaglia; C. Garino; L. Zuidmeer; R. van Ree; M.G. Giuffrida; A. Conti; A. Martelli

    2010-01-01

    According to European Union Regulation EC 1531/2001, olive oil labelled as oextra-virgino should be cold-pressed and contain no refined oil or oil from other oleaginous seeds or nuts. Adulteration of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) with hazelnut oil (HAO) is a serious concern both for oil suppliers an

  10. Extraction of oil from oil sands using thermoresponsive polymeric surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bingqing; Duhamel, Jean

    2015-03-18

    Several thermoresponsive block copolymers constituted of a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and a poly(2-(2-methoxyethoxy) ethyl methacrylate) (PMEO2MA) block were prepared by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and their ability to extract oil from oil sands was evaluated. The chemical composition of the PEG113-b-PMEO2MAX block copolymers was determined by (1)H NMR and gel permeation chromatography (GPC) with X-values ranging between 48 and 80. Aqueous solutions of block copolymers showed a cloud point of 34 ± 1 °C as determined by turbidimetry and dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements. DLS experiments indicated that these polymers formed stable block copolymer micelles due to association of the PMEO2MA blocks at temperatures greater than 45 °C with a unimodal distribution of hydrodynamic diameters. Since characterization of the block copolymer solutions as a function of temperature indicated the formation of hydrophobic domains in water for T > 45 °C, extractions of oil from oil sands with the block copolymers were conducted at T = 45 and 50 °C. At these temperatures, 15 mL of a 1 mg/mL PEG113-b-PMEO2MA77 aqueous solution extracted 100% of the oil trapped in 1 g of oil sand if 60 mg of toluene was added to the mixture. When the extraction was conducted under the same experimental conditions without block copolymer, a poor oil recovery of less than 30% was achieved. Starting with a 1 mg/mL block copolymer concentration, the block copolymer aqueous solution could be recycled up to five successive extractions while maintaining satisfying oil recovery. Each extraction cycle led to a 22% mass loss of block copolymer, certainly due to association with the toluene, oil, and sand particles. Together these experiments demonstrate that thermoresponsive block copolymers can be powerful aids to enhance the oil recovery of oil sands. PMID:25719623

  11. Recycling used oil makes sense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilbourne, L.W.

    1980-02-01

    Dalton and Co. Ltd., the manufacturer of Silkolene Lubricant which is prepared from re-refined oil, and Croda Synthetic Chemicals Ltd. will build a plant at Four Ashes, near Wolverhampton, Engl., to process 50,000 tons/yr of used oil. Oils collected throughout the mainland U.K. are distilled into three feedstocks of different viscosities, and these three feedstocks are then transported to Belper, Engl., where the ''refining'' takes place to produce three base oils for blending into finished products of any type. Solid contaminants can be removed by addition of sulfuric acid, which produces an acidic tar removable by settlement and centrifugation. Recycled oil, with all the contaminants removed, has virtually the same characteristics as the original oil. Oil re-refining is made more complicated if the used oil has to be dried, filtered, or contains hard-to-remove additives or contaminants. The desirability of recycling waste oil in comparison to using it as boiler fuel is discussed.

  12. Removing oil from produced water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews the design, operation, and performance of a new gas-assisted clarifier system which acts to remove oil from waste water. The system has no moving parts and uses no chemical additives. The results show that the system can be successfully used to reduce the oil content of waste water to acceptable effluent limits. The systems are designed for offshore oil and gas production facilities. Test results are provided which show the reduction of oil and grease from 211 mg/L to 3 mg/L

  13. Oil: economic and political factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article deals with the evolution of the international petroleum sector since 1973 with a special view to interdependence between the economic and political factors that influence it. Two issues are focused upon: (1) the effects of the nationalization of oil companies on the sharing of oil rents and on changes in the structure of the oil market; and (2) the determination of oil prices. The latter involves a discussion of, on the one hand, the political and economic behaviour of the United States and Saudi Arabia and, on the other, the combination of cooperation and conflict that has tended to characterize relations among OPEC countries. (author). 30 refs

  14. Composição bromatológica e perfil fermentativo da silagem de capim-elefante obtida em diferentes tipos de silos experimentais e no silo tipo trincheira Chemical composition and fermentation characteristics of elephantgrass silage obtained in different experimental and bunker silos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique Mazza Rodrigues

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Três diferentes tipos de silos experimentais, confeccionados a partir de baldes plásticos, sacos plásticos e manilhas de concreto não impermeabilizadas, foram comparados com o silo comercial tipo trincheira, amostrado a 30 e 60 cm da sua superfície, para a ensilagem do capim-elefante (cv. Napier. Utilizaram-se, ainda, dois diferentes graus de compactação, correspondentes a 400 ou 600 kg de silagem/m³. O capim (33,0% de MS e 4,2% de PB foi homogeneizado e utilizado para encher quatro silos por tratamento, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado. Depois de abertos, estes foram amostrados, para análise da composição bromatológica e do perfil fermentativo. Silagens produzidas em manilhas de concreto não impermeabilizadas apresentaram altos valores de pH, NIDA e lignina, baixas concentrações de ácido lático e nitrogênio amoniacal, baixo poder tampão e baixa digestibilidade in vitro. Silagens produzidas em silos experimentais apresentaram qualidade superior, quanto aos parâmetros amido, carboidratos solúveis, concentração de nitrogênio amoniacal, poder tampão, ácidos acético, propiônico, butírico e lático, do que aquelas produzidas no silo comercial. Silagens obtidas dos diferentes extratos do silo comercial apresentaram maior variabilidade para os parâmetros de fermentação do que aquelas obtidas entre diferentes tipos de silos experimentais.One type of commercial silo and three types of experimental silos were used for determination of chemical composition and fermentation characteristics of elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum (33.0% DM and 4.2% CP ensiled in two different densities (400 or 600 kg of silage/m³: 1 commercial bunker silo sampled at 30 (top and 60 (deep cm from the top; 2 plastic silo with bulsen valve; 3 plastic bag; and 4 concrete pipe. A completely randomized design was used. The concrete pipe silo produced silage with higher pH, ADIN and lignin values, as well as lower in vitro

  15. Financial and monetary policy responses to oil price shocks:evidence from oil-importing and oil-exporting countries

    OpenAIRE

    Filis, George; Chatziantoniou, Ioannis

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the financial and monetary policy responses to oil price shocks using a Structural VAR framework. We distinguish between net oil-importing and net oil-exporting countries. Since the 80s, a significant number of empirical studies have been published investigating the effect of oil prices on macroeconomic and financial variables. Most of these studies though, do not make a distinction between oil-importing and oil-exporting economies. Overall, our results indicate ...

  16. Characterization of Oxidative Stability of Fish Oil- and Plant Oil-Enriched Skimmed Milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saga, Linda C.; Kristinova, Vera; Kirkhus, Bente;

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the oxidative stability of fish oil blended with crude plant oils rich in naturally occurring antioxidants, camelina oil and oat oil, respectively, in bulk and after supplementation of 1 wt% of oil blends to skimmed milk emulsions. Ability of crude...... oat oil and camelina oil to protect fish oil in bulk and as fish oil-enriched skimmed milk emulsions was evaluated. Results of oxidative stability of bulk oils and blends assessed by the Schaal oven weight gain test and by the rancimat method showed significant increase in oxidative stability when oat...... oil was added to fish oil in only 5 and 10 %, whereas no protective effect of camelina oil was observed when evaluated by these methods. Moreover, fish oil blended with oat oil conferred the lowest PV and lower amounts of volatile compounds during the storage period of 14 days at 4 °C. Surprisingly...

  17. Brine crude oil interactions at the oil-water interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakravarty, Krishna Hara; Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup; Thomsen, Kaj

    2015-01-01

    The impact of brine salinity and its ionic composition on oil displacement efficiency has been investigated extensively in recent years due to the potential of enhanced oil recovery (EOR). Wettability alterations through relative interactions at the mineral surface have been the basis of proposed...

  18. Do oil dispersants make spilled oil more toxic to fish?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Deepwater Horizon blowout in the Gulf of Mexico was the world's largest oil spill in terms of duration and volume spilled. Clean-up operations, which involved the continuous and wide-spread use of oil dispersant at the surface and at the seabed discharge point at 1500 metres depth, gave rise to public concern about dispersant toxicity. Reports from the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) claimed little difference in acute toxicity to marine fish and invertebrate species among commonly available dispersants and between dispersed and non-dispersed Louisiana Sweet Crude. Technically, the toxicity of waterborne hydrocarbons does not vary with chemical dispersion. However, the EPA omitted any consideration of loading, and misled the public about the risks of dispersant use in oil clean-up. This study examined the chronic toxicity of dispersed oil to fish embryos. The study revealed that toxicity expressed as oil loading increases by a factor of 10 to 1000 times with dispersion, largely because 10 to 1000 times more oil enters the water column. Since the action of dispersant is on the exposure component of the risk equation, not on the potency of the toxic components of oil, then the risk of oil toxicity to fish increases an equivalent amount.

  19. Oil shale (in memoriam)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plans for the continued use of oil shale may lead the development of this country into an impasse. To this day no plans have been made for transition from the use of energy based on fossil fuels to that based on renewable resources. Without having any clear strategic plan politicians have been comforting both themselves and the population with promises to tackle the problem when the right time comes. Today the only enterprise whose cash flows and capital would really make it possible to reform the power industry is the firm Eesti Energia (Estonian Energy). However, its sole present shareholder - the state - prefers the sale of the firm's shares to carrying out a radical reform. At the same time, local consumers are likely to rather be willing to pay for the expensive electric energy produced from renewable resources than for that produced from fossil fuels, the price of which will also remain high due to the pollution tax. Practically it is impossible to buy a globally balanced environment for money - pollution taxes are but punitive mechanisms. The investments made into the oil-shale industry will also reinforce the cultural distance of North-East Estonia from the rest of Estonia - the uniform and prevalently Russian-speaking industrial area will be preserved as long as capital will continue to flow into the oil shale industry concentrated there. The way out would be for industries to make wider use of ecological and ecosystemic technologies and for the state to enforce ecologically balanced economic and social policies. (author)

  20. Structures, Mixed Types - Oil & Gas Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — An Oil and Gas Location is a DEP primary facility type related to the Oil & Gas Program. The sub-facility types related to Oil and Gas that are included in this...

  1. Estonian oil shale - resources and usage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article gives an overview about the oil shale deposits and industry in Estonia, the quality of commercial oil shale and the mining activities are also discussed. The development of power and heat production from oil shale is described

  2. China's Oil Industry Seeking Overseas Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CD News

    1996-01-01

    @@ China is actively exploring international oil markets,while making the efforts to tap huge oil and gas resources domestically, with the participation of foreign firms,according to a senior Chinese oil official.

  3. Review and Outlook of China's Oil Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gong Jinshuang

    2006-01-01

    @@ Major features of China's oil market in 2005 China's oil market is changing under the influence of domestic economy and the international oil market, witnessing different characteristics from time to time.

  4. Unusual Oils from Norway : Alternative petroleum systems?

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Some highly atypical oils from Scandinavia have been analysed and compared with some normal oils from the NOCS. The question is whether these atypical oils can represent additional petroleum systems in addition the the well known Mesozoic petroleum system.

  5. Ozonated olive oils and the troubles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Bulent

    2014-01-01

    One of the commonly used methods for ozone therapy is ozonated oils. Most prominent type of used oils is extra virgin olive oil. But still, each type of unsaturated oils may be used for ozonation. There are a lot of wrong knowledge on the internet about ozonated oils and its use as well. Just like other ozone therapy studies, also the studies about ozone oils are inadequate to avoid incorrect knowledge. Current data about ozone oil and its benefits are produced by supplier who oversees financial interests and make misinformation. Despite the rapidly increasing ozone oil sales through the internet, its quality and efficacy is still controversial. Dozens of companies and web sites may be easily found to buy ozonated oil. But, very few of these products are reliable, and contain sufficiently ozonated oil. This article aimed to introduce the troubles about ozonated oils and so to inform ozonated oil users. PMID:26401346

  6. Olive oil and haemostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams, Christine M.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil is a key component of the traditional Mediterranean diet; a diet that may explain the low rate of cardiovascular disease (CVD in Southern European. (Extra virgin Olive oil is a good source of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA and phenolic compounds, both of which have been investigated for their effects on plasma lipids and lipoproteins, measures of oxidation and factors related to thrombosis. This issue aims to summarise the current understanding of the effects of such dietary components on the haemostatic system and subsequent risk of CVD. To date, evidence suggests that diets rich in MUFA and thus in olive oil attenuate the thrombotic response via a reduction in platelet aggregation and in postprandial FVII levels. Thrombosis is a key event in causing heart attacks and strokes, which if modulated by diet could pose a cost-effective way of reducing CVD incidence in populations that adhere to MUFA/olive oil-rich diets long-term.El aceite de oliva es un componente esencial de la dieta Mediterránea que puede explicar el bajo índice de enfermedad cardiovascular (CVD en los países del sur de Europa. El aceite de oliva (extra virgen es una fuente de ácidos grasos monoinsaturados (MUFA y de compuestos fenólicos, de gran interés por sus efectos, entre otros, sobre las lipoproteínas y los lípidos plasmáticos, su capacidad antioxidante y su papel en la expresión de factores relacionados con la trombosis. En este capítulo se presenta un resumen del conocimiento actual sobre la influencia derivada del consumo de aceite de oliva (extra virgen en el sistema hemostático y el riesgo de CVD. Por ahora se sabe que dietas ricas en MUFA (aceite de oliva pueden atenuar la respuesta trombótica mediante la reducción de la agregación plaquetaria y de las concentraciones postprandiales del factor VII de coagulación (FVII. La trombosis es un evento relevante en los ataques al corazón y el ictus, de manera que su modulación con la dieta puede

  7. Modelling future oil production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laherrere, Jean [Preuilly sur Claise (France)

    2002-07-01

    The word Reserves may mean many things and is widely misunderstood. It may mean the estimated production from the beginning to the end of the field life (ultimate reserves) or that of what is left to produce. The estimates too may refer to what is 'proved' so far, hence with a high degree of certainty (called also reasonable) or to what can be 'expected' from the field over its full production life (called 'mean' or 'expected' value). World oil production is also badly defined, equalling 65 Mb/d of 'conventional' crude oil or 75 Mb/d when including all liquids. Obviously, the goal should be to forecast the future production of all liquids since the demand is that of these liquids. The starting point is to estimate conventional oil, later adding NGL, unconventional oil and refinery gains, which together comprise supply. In most countries other than the USA and FSU, Conventional oil depletion can be studied on the basis of estimated 'Mean' Reserves backdated to the year of discovery. We assume that the declared 2P values (Proved + Probable) are close to the 'Mean' values because some 2P values will grow but some will decrease, as others that correspond to hypothetical fields, will disappear of the discovery list. The US, following the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) rules, report only Proved Reserves, which in plain language means Proved So Far, accordingly being subject to strong reserve growth. In the FSU, The A+B+C1 reserves of their classification are generally thought to correspond with Proved + Probable Reserves, but actually also includes Possible Reserves. Both US and FSU reported reserves need to be corrected to a 'mean' value to be useful in forecasting. Modelling future production is straightforward in countries not constrained by political policy, a situation that does not exist so far with OPEC and the FSU. The Creaming Curve, plotting cumulative mean discoveries

  8. Oil from plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvin, M.

    1983-01-01

    As a result of the exhaustion of our supplies of ancient photosynthesis (oil and gas) it is necessary to develop renewable fuels for the future. The most immediate source of renewable fuel is, of course, the annually growing green plants, some of which produce hydrocarbon(s) directly. New plant sources can be selected for this purpose, plants which have high potential for production of chemicals and liquid fuels. Suggestions are made for modification of both the product character and the productivity of the plants. Ultimately, a totally synthetic device will be developed for the conversion of solar quanta into useful chemical form completely independent of the need for arable land.

  9. Oil burner nozzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Donald G.

    1982-01-01

    An oil burner nozzle for use with liquid fuels and solid-containing liquid fuels. The nozzle comprises a fuel-carrying pipe, a barrel concentrically disposed about the pipe, and an outer sleeve retaining member for the barrel. An atomizing vapor passes along an axial passageway in the barrel, through a bore in the barrel and then along the outer surface of the front portion of the barrel. The atomizing vapor is directed by the outer sleeve across the path of the fuel as it emerges from the barrel. The fuel is atomized and may then be ignited.

  10. Oil industry decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that the oil and gas business is undergoing a significant restructuring. In order to maintain control of our own destiny and succeed in an increasingly competitive business environment, the industry must set goals which are consistent with its continued success and focus on those goals in every aspect of its strategic management. By applying an approach to decision making which focuses on the achievement of the key goals required for success at every decision point and systematic follow-up, a firm can greatly increase its ability to succeed in the business environment of the future

  11. Life cycle of transformer oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurđević Ksenija R.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of electric power is constantly increasing due to industrialization and population growth. This results in much more severe operating conditions of transformers, the most important electrical devices that make integral parts of power transmission and distribution systems. The designed operating life of the majority of worldwide transformers has already expired, which puts the increase of transformer reliability and operating life extension in the spotlight. Transformer oil plays a very important role in transformer operation, since it provides insulation and cooling, helps extinguishing sparks and dissolves gases formed during oil degradation. In addition to this, it also dissolves moisture and gases from cellulose insulation and atmosphere it is exposed to. Further and by no means less important functions of transformer are of diagnostic purpose. It has been determined that examination and inspection of insulation oil provide 70% of information on transformer condition, which can be divided in three main groups: dielectric condition, aged transformer condition and oil degradation condition. By inspecting and examining the application oil it is possible to determine the condition of insulation, oil and solid insulation (paper, as well as irregularities in transformer operation. All of the above-mentioned reasons and facts create ground for the subject of this research covering two stages of transformer oil life cycle: (1 proactive maintenance and monitoring of transformer oils in the course of utilization with reference to influence of transformer oil condition on paper insulation condition, as well as the condition of the transformer itself; (2 regeneration of transformer oils for the purpose of extension of utilization period and paper insulation revitalization potential by means of oil purification. The study highlights advantages of oil-paper insulation revitalization over oil replacement. Besides economic, there are

  12. What about oil reserve depletion and crude oil price evolution?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this report is to give a synthesis of different points of view with respect to the 'Peak Oil' perspective and to the crude oil price evolution. In the first part, the authors examine the evolutions and assessments of oil reserves and productions, by discussing the different types of reserve, the optimistic and pessimistic points of views. Then, in the second part, they analyse the long term price formation, the various production technical costs (conventional oils, heavy oils and asphaltic sands, coal- and gas-based synthetic hydrocarbons, bio-fuels), the external costs (notably in relationship with greenhouse emissions), the relationship between geopolitical issues and short and middle term price formation. In the third and last part, they discuss the possible evolutions and scenarios in terms of demand, production, and prices

  13. Equine attraction to essential oil odours

    OpenAIRE

    Hurley, Juliet; Goodwin, Deborah

    2008-01-01

    There are a wide range of products containing essential oils. Aromatherapy for horses is becoming popular with owners however there are few published studies on equine response to essential oil odours. The study aimed to identify which essential oils were attractive to horses. The study comprised 10 horses, (5) geldings, (5) mares of mixed breed. Nine organic essential oils plus a control (no oil) were presented in a repeated measures experimental design. Oils were applied to cotton woo...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1472 - Menhaden oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... hydrogenated menhaden oils are used as edible fats or oils, as defined in § 170.3(n)(12) of this chapter, in... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Menhaden oil. 184.1472 Section 184.1472 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1472 Menhaden oil. (a) Menhaden oil. (1) Menhaden oil is prepared from...

  15. Oil-in-oil emulsions stabilised solely by solid particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binks, Bernard P; Tyowua, Andrew T

    2016-01-21

    A brief review of the stabilisation of emulsions of two immiscible oils is given. We then describe the use of fumed silica particles coated with either hydrocarbon or fluorocarbon groups in acting as sole stabilisers of emulsions of various vegetable oils with linear silicone oils (PDMS) of different viscosity. Transitional phase inversion of emulsions, containing equal volumes of the two oils, from silicone-in-vegetable (S/V) to vegetable-in-silicone (V/S) occurs upon increasing the hydrophobicity of the particles. Close to inversion, emulsions are stable to coalescence and gravity-induced separation for at least one year. Increasing the viscosity of the silicone oil enables stable S/V emulsions to be prepared even with relatively hydrophilic particles. Predictions of emulsion type from calculated contact angles of a silica particle at the oil-oil interface are in agreement with experiment provided a small polar contribution to the surface energy of the oils is included. We also show that stable multiple emulsions of V/S/V can be prepared in a two-step procedure using two particle types of different hydrophobicity. At fixed particle concentration, catastrophic phase inversion of emulsions from V/S to S/V can be effected by increasing the volume fraction of vegetable oil. Finally, in the case of sunflower oil + 20 cS PDMS, the study is extended to particles other than silica which differ in chemical type, particle size and particle shape. Consistent with the above findings, we find that only sufficiently hydrophobic particles (clay, zinc oxide, silicone, calcium carbonate) can act as efficient V/S emulsion stabilisers. PMID:26549699

  16. Oil-in-oil emulsions stabilised solely by solid particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binks, Bernard P; Tyowua, Andrew T

    2016-01-21

    A brief review of the stabilisation of emulsions of two immiscible oils is given. We then describe the use of fumed silica particles coated with either hydrocarbon or fluorocarbon groups in acting as sole stabilisers of emulsions of various vegetable oils with linear silicone oils (PDMS) of different viscosity. Transitional phase inversion of emulsions, containing equal volumes of the two oils, from silicone-in-vegetable (S/V) to vegetable-in-silicone (V/S) occurs upon increasing the hydrophobicity of the particles. Close to inversion, emulsions are stable to coalescence and gravity-induced separation for at least one year. Increasing the viscosity of the silicone oil enables stable S/V emulsions to be prepared even with relatively hydrophilic particles. Predictions of emulsion type from calculated contact angles of a silica particle at the oil-oil interface are in agreement with experiment provided a small polar contribution to the surface energy of the oils is included. We also show that stable multiple emulsions of V/S/V can be prepared in a two-step procedure using two particle types of different hydrophobicity. At fixed particle concentration, catastrophic phase inversion of emulsions from V/S to S/V can be effected by increasing the volume fraction of vegetable oil. Finally, in the case of sunflower oil + 20 cS PDMS, the study is extended to particles other than silica which differ in chemical type, particle size and particle shape. Consistent with the above findings, we find that only sufficiently hydrophobic particles (clay, zinc oxide, silicone, calcium carbonate) can act as efficient V/S emulsion stabilisers.

  17. Oil spill cleanup method and apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayes, F.M.

    1980-06-24

    A method for removing oil from the surface of water where an oil spill has occurred, particularly in obstructed or shallow areas, which comprises partially surrounding a hovercraft with a floating oil-collecting barrier, there being no barrier at the front of the hovercraft, moving the oil-barrier-surrounded-hovercraft into oil contaminated water, and collecting oil gathered within the barrier behind the hovercraft through a suction line which carries the oil to a storage tank aboard the hovercraft. The invention also embodies the hovercraft adapted to effect an oil spill cleanup.

  18. Recycle Used Oil on America Recycles Day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Boyd W.

    2000-01-01

    Explains that motor oils can be reused and recycled. Educates students about environmental hazards and oil management and includes classroom activities. Addresses the National Science Education Standards. (YDS)

  19. Castor oil: Biosynthesis and Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castor oil is unique among commodity oils in its fatty acid composition, which consists of 90% ricinoleate, (12-hydroxy-octadec-cis 9-enoate). The mid-chain hydroxyl group imparts physical and chemical properties that make it useful in many industrial applications. Among its uses are lithium grease,...

  20. Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basil (Ocimum basilicum) is one of the most popular and healthy culinary herbs in the world. Essential oil derived from basil (basil oil) through steam distillation has traditionally been used for a wide range of applications such as cooking spices, aromatherapy, perfumery, medicinal treatments, pes...

  1. Coping with Higher Oil Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Bacon, Robert; Kojima, Masami

    2006-01-01

    The rise in oil prices and the associated increase in the prices of petroleum products that has occurred since the beginning of 2004 are having adverse effects on the users of petroleum products in all countries. In many developing countries, price increases have generated considerable pressure for government response to lessen the burden of higher world oil prices, and policies to minimize ...

  2. A biological oil adsorption filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasila, A. [University of Helsinki (Finland). Dept. of Agricultural Engineering and Household Technology

    2005-12-01

    A new oil adsorption method called adsorption filtration (AF) has been developed. It is a technology where by oil residues can be cleaned from water by running it through a simple filter made from freeze treated, dried, milled and then fragmented plant material. By choosing suitable plants and fragmentation sizes it is possible to produce filters, which pass water but adsorb oil. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibilities of manufacturing oil adsorbing filter materials from reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea), flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) or hemp fibre (Cannabis sativa L.). The oil (80 ml) was mixed with de-ionised water (200 ml) and this mixture was filtered through 10 or 20 g adsorption filters. Fine spring harvested hemp fibre (diameter less than 1 mm) and reed canary grass fragments adsorb 2-4 g of oil per gram of adsorption material compared to 1-3 g of water. Adsorption filtration is thus a novel way of gathering spilled oil in shallow coastal waters before the oil reaches the shore. (author)

  3. Biodiesel from Waste Salmon Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon oils separated from salmon processing waste and hydrolysate and their derived methyl esters were analyzed and compared with corn oil and its methyl ester. These materials were characterized for their fatty acid profiles, viscosity, volatility, thermal properties, low temperature properties, o...

  4. About Oil, Cars and Comrades

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The last century was the century of oil, cars and electricity. Crude oil was probably the critical raw material for the industrial development of the United States, England, Germany and the like from the late 19th century to the beginning of the 21 st. Amazing amounts of riches were made. Those who called

  5. Oil Analysis by Fast DSC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wetten, I.A.; Herwaarden, A.W.; Splinter, R.; Ruth, van S.M.

    2014-01-01

    Thermal analysis of Olive and Sunflower Oil is done by Fast DSC to evaluate its potential to replace DSC for adulteration detection. DSC measurements take hours, Fast DSC minutes. Peak temperatures of the crystallisation peak in cooling for different Olive and Sunflower Oils are both comparable to D

  6. Characterization of amaranth seed oils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gamel, T.H.; Mesallam, A.S.; Damir, A.A.; Shekib, L.A.; Linssen, J.P.H.

    2007-01-01

    The oil fractions of Amaranthus caudatus L. and Amaranthus cruentus L. seeds were studied after different treatments of the seeds. The oil contents were 7.1 and 8.5% for raw A. caudatus L. and A. cruentus L. seeds, and consisted of 80.3¿82.3% of triacylglycerols (TAGs). Phospholipids represented 9.1

  7. Pyrolysis oil as diesel fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gros, S. [Wartsila Diesel International Ltd., Vaasa (Finland). Diesel Technology

    1996-12-31

    Wood waste pyrolysis oil is an attractive fuel alternative for diesel engine operation. The main benefit is the sustainability of the fuel. No fossil reserves are consumed. The fact that wood waste pyrolysis oil does not contribute to CO{sub 2} emissions is of utmost importance. This means that power plants utilising pyrolysis oil do not cause additional global warming. Equally important is the reduced sulphur emissions that this fuel alternative implies. The sulphur content of pyrolysis oil is extremely low. The high water content and low heating value are also expected to result in very low NO{sub x} emissions. Utilisation of wood waste pyrolysis oil in diesel engines, however, involves a lot of challenges and problems to be solved. The low heating value requires a new injection system with high capacity. The corrosive characteristics of the fluid also underline the need for new injection equipment materials. Wood waste pyrolysis oil contains solid particles which can clog filters and cause abrasive wear. Wood waste pyrolysis oil has proven to have extremely bad ignition properties. The development of a reliable injection system which is able to cope with such a fuel involves a lot of optimisation tests, redesign and innovative solutions. Successful single-cylinder tests have already been performed and they have verified that diesel operation on wood pyrolysis oil is technically possible. (orig.)

  8. Oil price and the dollar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oil prices and the United States (US) dollar exchange rate are driving the evolution of the world economy. This paper investigated long-term relationships between oil prices and the US effective exchange rate. An empirical study was performed on oil prices and the dollar real effective exchange rate between 1974 to 2004. The impact of the dollar exchange rate was also explored, and the effects of oil prices on supply and demand were considered. A dynamic partial equilibrium framework study was evaluated in order to compare how other countries used revenues from oil exports in dollars. The study showed that both variables had similar evolutions when price fluctuations were low. Strong increases in the dollar were associated with lower oil prices. However, adjustment speeds of the dollar real effective exchange rate was slow. Co-integration and causality tests showed that oil prices influenced the exchange rate, and that the link between the 2 variables was transmitted through the country's net foreign asset position. It was concluded that higher oil prices improved US net foreign asset position in relation to other countries, and had a positive impact on dollar appreciation. 24 refs., 6 tabs., 1 fig

  9. ALASKAN OIL SPILL BIOMEDIATION PROJECT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Research and Development entered into a cooperative agreement with the Exxon Company to initiate a bioremediation study as part of an effort to clean up oil on the shorelines of Prince William Sound, Alaska. The presence of oil...

  10. Is it all oil?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asche, Frank; Osmundsen, Petter; Sandsmark, Maria

    2003-07-01

    After opening up of the Interconnector, the liberalized UK natural gas market and the regulated Continental gas markets became physically integrated. The oil-linked Continental gas price became dominant, due to both the large volume of the Continental market and to the fact that the significant call options embedded in the complex take-or-pay contracts make these contracts the marginal source of supply. However, in an interim period - after deregulation of the UK gas market (1994) and the opening up of the Interconnector (1998) -the UK gas market had neither government price regulation nor a physical Continental gas linkage. We use this period - which for natural gas markets displays an unusual combination of deregulation and autarky - as a natural experiment to explore if decoupling of natural gas prices from prices of other energy commodities, such as oil and electricity, took place. Using monthly price data, we find a highly integrated market where the wholesale demand seems to be for energy rather than a specific energy source. (author)

  11. Oil for development 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-09-15

    In this report present key achievements for each of the various cooperation countries. Oil for Development (OfD) assistance has been important for the ability of a country like Ghana to improve petroleum resource management on its most important oil and gas field, and to better safeguard that the petroleum activities are conducted in an environmentally sustainable way. Competence building on Increased Oil Recovery (IOR), and negotiation training have helped to increase both the resource extraction potential and the revenue generation potential of a more mature oil producing country like Iraq. Furthermore, OfD has contributed to improving the legislative frameworks in several of our cooperating countries, including Afghanistan, Cambodia and Madagascar, although it will take time before we can assess to what extent the laws have been implemented. OfD's strong focus on providing legal assistance reflects our belief that clear divisions of roles and firm legal mandates are prerequisites for good governance of the petroleum sector and for attracting serious investors. A lot of our capacity building took place through seminars and more tailored workshops with a national or regional scope. We believe that some of these events have significantly increased awareness as well as the level of debate among government institutions and civil society. The oil production accounting workshop in Nigeria and the NOC workshop in Timor-Leste are particularly valid examples. Timor-Leste also addressed other petroleum sector governance issues with a focus on including civil society and by the end of 2009 had nearly fulfilled all criteria for becoming Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI) compliant. It should be noted that OfD assistance only made a relatively small contribution to this process, which was very much nationally driven. Petroleum related environmental issues were addressed at different levels and from different angles. A thorough environmental needs

  12. Ethics and the oil industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In many countries public opinions are more and more sensitive to ethical issues linked to the manner in which industries and particularly oil companies behave. Oil companies are frequently unpopular, among the public both in producing and consuming countries. After a brief analysis of the reasons for this unpopularity, the author attempts to show both the ambiguities surrounding the question of ethics, and its complexity. This is especially true when oil companies have to work in countries which are destabilized, and in which disturbances - or even civil wars - may be fuelled by the important revenue streams resulting from the oil production. The various ethical issues are reviewed, from human rights to political interference, without omitting global or local environmental problems. Despite the very deep roots of the various issues the author believe some progress is achievable and advocates that the oil industry lead the way in this difficult domain. (author)

  13. Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lewis R

    2010-06-01

    Two-thirds of the oil ever found is still in the ground even after primary and secondary production. Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) is one of the tertiary methods purported to increase oil recovery. Since 1946 more than 400 patents on MEOR have been issued, but none has gained acceptance by the oil industry. Most of the literature on MEOR is from laboratory experiments or from field trials of insufficient duration or that lack convincing proof of the process. Several authors have made recommendations required to establish MEOR as a viable method to enhance oil recovery, and until these tests are performed, MEOR will remain an unproven concept rather than a highly desirable reality. PMID:20149719

  14. China to Bolster Oil Stockpiles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ China is accelerating the build-up of its oil reserves to avoid the economic dislocations the country suffered in 2008 from fluctuations in the world oil price.China will,in addition to the current four strategic petroleum reserve bases,build eight new ones by 2011.The program will increase China's strategic crude reserve capacity to 44.6 million cubic meters,or 281 million barrels.The country will also increase its oil products reserve to 10 million tons by 2011."China's attentiveness to its oil reserve capacity has grown in tandem with its rising dependence on imported oil," said Pan Jiahua,an expert with the Chinese petroleum society.

  15. CYLINDER AND SYSTEM LUBRICATING OILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ION ADRIAN GIRBA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Increased thermal efficiency, savings in the fuel consumption and the possibility to burn low quality fuels conducted to an intense development of marine engines in past 20 years, this progress being emphasized by the increased combustion pressures and better combustion properties. These improvements represent a continuous challenge for lubricating oil manufacturers: the rise in combustion temperatures and pressures is making difficult to preserve the oil film in critical areas and the longer strokes of the piston leads to issues of spreading the oil. Adding here the new type of engines using gas or biofuel which requires different types of lubricating oils. Therefore, the success of new generation of engines will depend on lubricating oils quality. :

  16. Vegetable oil spills on salt marsh sediments; comparison between sunflower and linseed oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, M Glória; Mudge, Stephen M; Latchford, John

    2003-09-01

    The effects of a simulated spill of sunflower oil in salt marsh sediments were compared with an experiment with linseed oil. Sunflower and linseed oil penetrated the sediments at the same rates but different adsorption of the oils onto sediment particles resulted in the establishment of anaerobic conditions at shallower depths in sediments contaminated with linseed oil than with sunflower oil. The total lipid content of sunflower oil contaminated sediments remained almost stable for 6 months, whilst only 40% of linseed oil remained in the sediment after 2 months. Numbers of culturable heterotrophic bacteria and aerobic oil degrading bacteria in muddy sediment increased rapidly in response to the presence of the oils but bacterial numbers in sandy sediments increased more slowly for sunflower oil. Changes in fatty acid composition indicate similar degradation pathways for both oils but sunflower oil degraded more slowly than linseed oil and thus has the potential for longer lasting effects in marine environments.

  17. Fuel oil quality task force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laisy, J.; Turk, V. [R.W. Beckett Corp., Elyria, OH (United States)

    1997-09-01

    In April, 1996, the R.W. Beckett Corporation became aware of a series of apparently unrelated symptoms that made the leadership of the company concerned that there could be a fuel oil quality problem. A task force of company employees and industry consultants was convened to address the topic of current No. 2 heating oil quality and its effect on burner performance. The task force studied changes in fuel oil specifications and trends in properties that have occurred over the past few years. Experiments were performed at Beckett and Brookhaven National Laboratory to understand the effect of changes in some fuel oil properties. Studies by other groups were reviewed, and field installations were inspected to gain information about the performance of fuel oil that is currently being used in the U.S. and Canada. There was a special concern about the use of red dye in heating oils and the impact of sulfur levels due to the October, 1993 requirement of low sulfur (<0.05%) for on-highway diesel fuel. The results of the task force`s efforts were published in July, 1996. The primary conclusion of the task force was that there is not a crisis or widespread general problem with fuel oil quality. Localized problems that were seen may have been related to refinery practices and/or non-traditional fuel sources. System cleanliness is very important and the cause of many oil burner system problems. Finally, heating oil quality should get ongoing careful attention by Beckett engineering personnel and heating oil industry groups.

  18. Characteristics of oil microbes and microbial degradation on heavy oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, T.S.; Jiang, Z.Y.; Chen, X.; Huang, S. [Southwest Petroleum Univ. (China)

    2006-07-01

    Strains of bacteria were investigated for a microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) project at an oilfield in China. Samples of oil and bacteria were packed into conical flasks and incubated for 3 to 5 days at formation temperatures. The polymerase chain reaction was used to alter the DNA sequence of the microbes and increase the recovery mechanisms of the bacteria and enable them to more effectively degrade gums and asphaltenes. The gas-producing properties of the bacteria were then investigated. Changes in oil group composition were analyzed. The results of gas chromatography analyses showed that the bacteria combination selectively degraded different components of the phenanthrene series. As they matured, the bacteria caused the light aromatics in the oil to increase and evolved towards a naphthalene nucleus structure with greater stability. The bacteria were then tested within an oil well at the Xinjiang oilfield in China. Results of the field tests showed that the bacteria altered the group composition of oils as well as the phenanthrene series. The MEOR experiment increased oil output from 8.53 per cent to 35.72 per cent. 8 refs., 4 tabs., 6 figs.

  19. RESEARCH OIL RECOVERY MECHANISMS IN HEAVY OIL RESERVOIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony R. Kovscek; William E. Brigham

    1999-06-01

    The United States continues to rely heavily on petroleum fossil fuels as a primary energy source, while domestic reserves dwindle. However, so-called heavy oil (10 to 20{sup o}API) remains an underutilized resource of tremendous potential. Heavy oils are much more viscous than conventional oils. As a result, they are difficult to produce with conventional recovery methods such as pressure depletion and water injection. Thermal recovery is especially important for this class of reservoirs because adding heat, usually via steam injection, generally reduces oil viscosity dramatically. This improves displacement efficiency. The research described here was directed toward improved understanding of thermal and heavy-oil production mechanisms and is categorized into: (1) flow and rock properties; (2) in-situ combustion; (3) additives to improve mobility control; (4) reservoir definition; and (5) support services. The scope of activities extended over a three-year period. Significant work was accomplished in the area of flow properties of steam, water, and oil in consolidated and unconsolidated porous media, transport in fractured porous media, foam generation and flow in homogeneous and heterogeneous porous media, the effects of displacement pattern geometry and mobility ratio on oil recovery, and analytical representation of water influx. Significant results are described.

  20. Phase Inversion, Stability and Destabilization of Model and Crude Oil Water-in-Oil Emulsions

    OpenAIRE

    Barrabino, Albert

    2014-01-01

    The demand for crude oils has constantly been increasing forcing the industry to exploit heavier crude oils. These oils are more difficult to produce and transport than classical light oils, this leads the oil industry to improve their processes. The production of oil also implies the formation of water-in-crude oil emulsions. The presence of dispersed water causes an increase of the viscosity and corrosion problems in the equipment that induce the production difficulties. This doctoral work ...

  1. Oil exploitation and the environmental Kuznets curve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esmaeili, Abdoulkarim; Abdollahzadeh, Negar [Department of Agricultural Economics, College of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Fars (Iran)

    2009-01-15

    This study refers to a panel estimation of an environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) for oil to determine the factors most affecting oil exploitation in 38 oil-producing countries during 1990-2000. Control variables such as oil reserves, oil price, population, political rights, and the Gini index were used to determine its contribution to the main EKC model. The empirical results fully support the existence of an EKC for oil exploitation. Furthermore, the result indicates that the proved oil reserves has a significant and positive role in oil production, but oil price and population do not significantly affect crude oil production. Also, increased freedoms and a better income distribution will reduce the rate of oil exploitation. Thus, policies aiming at enhancing democratic society and better income distribution would be more compatible with sustainability. (author)

  2. Nanoporous polystyrene fibers for oil spill cleanup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jinyou; Shang, Yanwei; Ding, Bin; Yang, Jianmao; Yu, Jianyong; Al-Deyab, Salem S

    2012-02-01

    The development of oil sorbents with high sorption capacity, low cost, scalable fabrication, and high selectivity is of great significance for water environmental protection, especially for oil spillage on seawater. In this work, we report nanoporous polystyrene (PS) fibers prepared via a one-step electrospinning process used as oil sorbents for oil spill cleanup. The oleophilic-hydrophobic PS oil sorbent with highly porous structures shows a motor oil sorption capacity of 113.87 g/g, approximately 3-4 times that of natural sorbents and nonwoven polypropylene fibrous mats. Additionally, the sorbents also exhibit a relatively high sorption capacity for edible oils, such as bean oil (111.80 g/g) and sunflower seed oil (96.89 g/g). The oil sorption mechanism of the PS sorbent and the sorption kinetics were investigated. Our nanoporous material has great potential for use in wastewater treatment, oil accident remediation and environmental protection.

  3. Calendula oil processing : seed classification, oil extraction, refining process development and oil quality aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, R.J.J.

    2000-01-01

    The difference in Calendula oil quality from fractions obtained after seed classification is enormous. The oil quality varies from excellent to very poor, according to important aspects such as in the hulls and dust fraction, high free fatty acid values (13% vs. 0.6%) are found. This can be explaine

  4. Olive oil and cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriana, Francisco J.G.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, numerous studies have examined the association of dietary fat and cancer. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA from n -6 family display a strong promoting effect, this may be partially due to the especially prone to lipid peroxidation of PUFA that leads to formation of aldehydes, which react with DNA bases, forming genotoxic exocyclic etheno(epsilon-adducts. On the contrary, there are growing evidences that monounsaturated oils, like olive oil, may be associated with a decreased risk of some cancers. However, the epidemiological data do not fully agree with the experimental ones previously published. Minor compounds from (extra virgin olive oil, mainly phenolics like hydroxytyrosol and tocopherol, are antioxidants and radical scavenging. They can minimize the amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS generated by fatty acid peroxidation and in the case of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA the DNA damage can be reduced by a lower lipid peroxidation.Numerosos estudios en los últimos años han determinado la existencia de una asociación entre las grasas procedentes de la dieta y el cáncer. Los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados (PUFA de la familia n -6 pueden tener efectos proliferativos y angiogénicos, lo cual se debe en parte a que son especialmente sensibles a la peroxidación lipídica, formándose aldehídos que reaccionan con las bases del ADN y por lo tanto aductos exocíclicos con propiedades genotóxicas. Por el contrario, el consumo de dietas ricas en ácidos grasos monoinsaturados (MUFA está relacionado con un menor riesgo de distintos tipos de cáncer. Si bien, los datos epidemiológicos no siempre concuerdan con los datos experimentales. Los componentes menores del aceite de oliva (extra virgen, fundamentalmente el hidroxitirosol y tocoferol, son antioxidantes y secuestradores de radicales libres. Pueden minimizar la cantidad de especies reactivas de oxígeno que se generan por la peroxidación lipídica y además los

  5. Oil use and oil dependency: Long-term issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The continued dependence of the United States on imported oil is a matter of increasing concern. Under the direction of the Department of Energy's Office of Policy Integration, Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a study which was to examine long-term issues related to oil dependence. Major issues addressed are (1) energy efficiency and the role of new technologies, (2) fuel switching, and (3) regional factors affecting fuel use. The study examines all major end-use sectors in the economy, covering the industrial, commercial, residential, transportation, and electric utility sectors. The potential impacts of efficiency improvements in oil- using equipment are assessed through the year 2000. 107 refs., 8 figs., 9 tabs

  6. Research on oil recovery mechanisms in heavy oil reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovscek, Anthony R.; Brigham, William E., Castanier, Louis M.

    2000-03-16

    The research described here was directed toward improved understanding of thermal and heavy-oil production mechanisms and is categorized into: (1) flow and rock properties, (2) in-situ combustion, (3) additives to improve mobility control, (4) reservoir definition, and (5) support services. The scope of activities extended over a three-year period. Significant work was accomplished in the area of flow properties of steam, water, and oil in consolidated and unconsolidated porous media, transport in fractured porous media, foam generation and flow in homogeneous and heterogeneous porous media, the effects of displacement pattern geometry and mobility ratio on oil recovery, and analytical representation of water influx.

  7. Oil Giants Play Vital Role in China's Strategic Oil Reserves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ China plans to start building of its strategic reserve in August this year in the attempts to meet the emergency case and moderate the oil prices, according to a senior official at Sinopec, one of China's three oil giants."This will definitely be used as a mechanism to manage prices," he added. The government planned to allow State-owned companies to draw on the oil reserve when prices breached a yet-to-be-determined ceiling, and this was strongly supported by the refiners, the Petroleum Intelligence Weekly recently reported.

  8. Water issues associated with heavy oil production.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J. A.; Quinn, J. J.; Environmental Science Division

    2008-11-28

    Crude oil occurs in many different forms throughout the world. An important characteristic of crude oil that affects the ease with which it can be produced is its density and viscosity. Lighter crude oil typically can be produced more easily and at lower cost than heavier crude oil. Historically, much of the nation's oil supply came from domestic or international light or medium crude oil sources. California's extensive heavy oil production for more than a century is a notable exception. Oil and gas companies are actively looking toward heavier crude oil sources to help meet demands and to take advantage of large heavy oil reserves located in North and South America. Heavy oil includes very viscous oil resources like those found in some fields in California and Venezuela, oil shale, and tar sands (called oil sands in Canada). These are described in more detail in the next chapter. Water is integrally associated with conventional oil production. Produced water is the largest byproduct associated with oil production. The cost of managing large volumes of produced water is an important component of the overall cost of producing oil. Most mature oil fields rely on injected water to maintain formation pressure during production. The processes involved with heavy oil production often require external water supplies for steam generation, washing, and other steps. While some heavy oil processes generate produced water, others generate different types of industrial wastewater. Management and disposition of the wastewater presents challenges and costs for the operators. This report describes water requirements relating to heavy oil production and potential sources for that water. The report also describes how water is used and the resulting water quality impacts associated with heavy oil production.

  9. Maglev crude oil pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knolle, Ernst G.

    1994-05-01

    This maglev crude oil pipeline consists of two conduits guiding an endless stream of long containers. One conduit carries loaded containers and the other empty returns. The containers are levitated by permanent magnets in repulsion and propelled by stationary linear induction motors. The containers are linked to each other in a manner that allows them, while in continuous motion, to be folded into side by side position at loading and unloading points. This folding causes a speed reduction in proportion to the ratio of container diameter to container length. While in side by side position, containers are opened at their ends to be filled or emptied. Container size and speed are elected to produce a desired carrying capacity.

  10. Maglev crude oil pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knolle, Ernst G.

    1994-01-01

    This maglev crude oil pipeline consists of two conduits guiding an endless stream of long containers. One conduit carries loaded containers and the other empty returns. The containers are levitated by permanent magnets in repulsion and propelled by stationary linear induction motors. The containers are linked to each other in a manner that allows them, while in continuous motion, to be folded into side by side position at loading and unloading points. This folding causes a speed reduction in proportion to the ratio of container diameter to container length. While in side by side position, containers are opened at their ends to be filled or emptied. Container size and speed are elected to produce a desired carrying capacity.

  11. The end of cheap oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easy to find 'conventional' oil in huge quantities has fueled and satisfied the World's thirst for energy this century. About 95% of all oil produced-and 90% of today's production---comes from this group of hydrocarbons. But the coming century of the new millennium will see the exit of conventional oil as a major player on the World's energy stage. Already, outside the Middle East, conventional oil production is on the decline. And the Middle East with its vast reservoirs of oil will soon reach the mid-point of depletion and begin its irreversible decline. Currently, one barrel of oil is being found for every four barrels that are produced. The Middle East now supplies 30% of the World's conventional oil production and that trend is rising because, unlike in the 1970s, no new major provinces, save perhaps the Caspian, are there to deliver flush production. The stage is now set for another 'energy crisis' starting with higher prices from Middle East control and followed by the onset of physical shortage around 2010. We face something new to human experience. (author)

  12. Dispersed oil resurfacing with time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fingas, M.F.; Thouin, G.; Wang, Z.D.; Fieldhouse, B.G. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). River Road Environmental Technology Centre

    2003-07-01

    Surfactants in a water column are known to destabilize in situations where the water ratio to the droplet concentration is large. The effectiveness of a dispersant on a target oil was measured at regular time intervals up to 96 hours in a swirling flask test. Tests were conducted in which the vessel was both agitated and stationary in order to compare the difference between when energy is applied or not applied to the system. The oils tested were Alberta Sweet Mixed Blend and North Slope Crude oil. The dispersants used in this study were Corexit 9500 and Corexit 9527. Chemically-dispersed oils destabilize when surfactants are lost to the water column. The amount of destabilization varies depending on the amount of energy applied, but a significant amount of oil still resurfaces under all conditions. It was shown that mixtures are prone to retain more oil in the water column, but only 8 per cent more oil is retained in the water column than if the system is static over the 96-hour test period. A mathematical correlation for this process was presented, along with a prediction equation. The effect of weathering on dispersant effectiveness was also examined. 7 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  13. Unconventional uses for unconventional oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehlig-Economides, C.A.; Barrufet, M.; Longbottom, J.R.; Velu, B.P. [Texas A and M Univ., Austin, TX (United States)

    2005-11-01

    The transportation sector in the United States is 95 per cent dependent on oil, which is the only primary fuel that is being imported to the country in great quantities. It has been proposed that energy independence may come by supplying electric power with renewable energy sources. It was also suggested that the best solution for future transportation may be to develop electrified guideways that would provide energy to automatically convey personal cars and driverless freight through the roadways. Advantages include zero vehicle emissions, greater safety and decreased road congestion. This paper examined the option of using heavy oil for power generation instead of the current expensive refining practices designed to produce liquid transportation fuels from heavy oil. It compared coal gasification with heavy oil for power generation. The cost to consumers and environmental impacts were considered. The comparison of conventional versus electrified transportation options was based on on a well-to-mine-to-wheels cycle. It was shown that electrified transportation is attractive from a cost, environmental and energy security perspective. If the United States were to import Canadian heavy oil only for transportation, the consumer cost will increase by approximately 25 per cent based on 2003 data. If the United States were to transform transportation from conventional to electrified transportation, the cost of using Canadian heavy oil will be less, even including carbon dioxide capture. It was concluded that all primary fuel sources would seek new equilibrium prices that may affect comparisons between heavy oil and coal. 14 refs., 4 tabs., 10 figs.

  14. The geopolitics of $10 oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The market and the geopolitical implications of the possibility of $10 a barrel becoming the norm for oil prices in 1999 are examined. The low price will present budgetary difficulties for all the world's major oil producing countries with the exception of Brunei. In some countries, such as Nigeria and Venezuela, general financial and economic reform will become inevitable with the pressure for political reform to follow. If energy development is to continue in the Caspian region in a low price era, long term political stability will be necessary and a move towards democracy from the present autocracies may be necessary to achieve this. In the Middle East, countries are facing the erosion of their core financial base. Depressed oil prices could force Gulf States, which in the past have depended on their oil revenues alone, to introduce taxation as an alternative source of income. Hitherto, oil has meant power in political as well as in energy terms, but the diminished value of oil in a world where their are alternative energy sources will reduce the importance, even of key regions such as the Middle East. The power of OPEC is threatened by its failure to bring about the massive co-ordinated production cutbacks which alone might turn the market around. The beneficiaries of cheap oil will be the consuming nations, particularly those of East Asia where the pace of economic recovery will be speeded up. (UK)

  15. Biodiesel production from palm oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiatsimkul, P.

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Methyl ester was produced from many sources of oil palm products, namely used frying oil, RBD palm oil, degummed and deacidified palm oil, palm stearin and superhard palm stearin. Production process was a conventional transesterification batch process using methanol as reactant and sodium hydroxide as catalyst. Production procedure consisted of oil preparation, solvent preparation, reaction step, glycerol separation, washing step and finishing step. Thin layer chromatograph was used to determine the composition of product and nearly 100% methyl ester was obtained at a suitable condition. Molar ratio of oil: methanol was about 1:6, which equal to 20% by weight of methanol. Sodium hydroxide was 0.5-1 %wt. of oil. The production temperature was 60-80ºC, mixing time was only 15-30 minutes and reaction time was 3-4 hours. Many fuel properties of methyl ester were very close to high-speed diesel such as viscosity, density, heating value and boiling point range. Pour point of methyl ester was higher than diesel owing to the high composition of saturated methyl ester that has a high melting point.

  16. Unconventional uses for unconventional oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transportation sector in the United States is 95 per cent dependent on oil, which is the only primary fuel that is being imported to the country in great quantities. It has been proposed that energy independence may come by supplying electric power with renewable energy sources. It was also suggested that the best solution for future transportation may be to develop electrified guideways that would provide energy to automatically convey personal cars and driverless freight through the roadways. Advantages include zero vehicle emissions, greater safety and decreased road congestion. This paper examined the option of using heavy oil for power generation instead of the current expensive refining practices designed to produce liquid transportation fuels from heavy oil. It compared coal gasification with heavy oil for power generation. The cost to consumers and environmental impacts were considered. The comparison of conventional versus electrified transportation options was based on on a well-to-mine-to-wheels cycle. It was shown that electrified transportation is attractive from a cost, environmental and energy security perspective. If the United States were to import Canadian heavy oil only for transportation, the consumer cost will increase by approximately 25 per cent based on 2003 data. If the United States were to transform transportation from conventional to electrified transportation, the cost of using Canadian heavy oil will be less, even including carbon dioxide capture. It was concluded that all primary fuel sources would seek new equilibrium prices that may affect comparisons between heavy oil and coal. 14 refs., 4 tabs., 10 figs

  17. Oil is found with ideas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Next year the oil industry will celebrate the hundredth anniversary of its birth at Titusville, Pennsylvania. Some industries have had humble beginnings, but not the oil industry. Its birth was spectacular, and its growth since that time has been marked by intermittent, extravagant booms, or waves of gushers which have often resulted in an acute oversupply. These periods have usually been followed by periods of low discovery rate during which it looked as if we were going to run out of oil. In this paper a review of the history of petroleum technology shows that each of these bursts of increased production was caused by a new idea. We usually find oil in new places with old ideas. Sometimes, also, we find oil in an old place with a new idea, but we seldom find much oil in an old place with an old idea. Several times in the past we have thought we were running out of oil whereas actually we were only running out of ideas. This principle can be illustrated most vividly by reviewing the story of the principal discoveries in each producing area of the world

  18. Manitoba 2004 oil activity review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, J.N. [Manitoba Industry, Economic Development and Mines, Winnipeg, MB (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    This paper presented data on oil and gas activities in Manitoba during 2004, the busiest year in Manitoba's oil patch since the mid 1980s. Increases in the leasing of Crown and freehold acreage were also noted, with accompanying increases in drilling activity for the latter part of 2004. Details of Crown land sales were presented, with a total of 43,725 hectares of crown oil and gas rights under lease. During 2004, over 15,000 hectares of Crown oil and gas leases were sold, the highest figures since 1997. More wells were licensed and drilled in 2004 than in any year since 1986. Overall drilling success rate was 96.7 per cent. Details of top drillers in Manitoba were presented, with drilling activity focused in Waskada and Daly fields and the Sinclair area. Oil production increased by 0.7 per cent, with 1474 wells in production. Daily oil production statistics were presented, with the total value of Manitoba's oil production being $196 million. Details of the top 5 producers were provided, in addition to details of horizontal well production. Recent developments in Sinclair Field, Pierson L. Amaranth MC 3b A Pool, Waskada L. Amaranth I Pool and Virden Lodgepole D Pool were reviewed. The Manitoba Drilling Incentive Program was discussed with reference to the following enhancements: new well incentives, horizontal well incentives; holiday oil volume accounts; and marginal well major workover programs. Various Oil and Gas Act amendments were reviewed. In addition, the Williston Basin Architecture and Hydrocarbon Potential Project was discussed. 3 figs.

  19. Global Trends and Development Prospects for Oil and the Oil Products Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Dorozhkina

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the important issue of the development of the global market of oil and oil products. It offers an overview of how this market was formed and its current status, classification, location and potential of countries in the oil and oil processing business. It analyzes the Ukrainian oil products market. The article discusses the shortcomings and strategic areas for the development of Ukraine’s oil transport system. It presents an optimum method for creating integration groups in order to develop the oil processing business in Ukraine for the future. The article considers the main trends and outlines development prospects for the global oil and oil products market.

  20. Saudi Arabia's oil policy after 1. oil crisis explained with the help of a cartel model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saudi Arabian oil policy is analyzed by using a cartel model where Saudi Arabia's oil production is a function of oil price and oil production in other OPEC countries. Elasticities for oil production and oil price are estimated covering oil crises and 3 intercrises periods. During all intercrises periods, production elasticity is not significantly different from 1 which, to a considerable extent, shows that the oil production in Saudi Arabia followed that of the other OPEC countries. During oil crisis periods, production elasticities were either significantly negative or not significantly different from zero. In most cases, the price elasticity was not significantly different from zero. (au)

  1. Aerogel Microparticles from Oil-in-Oil Emulsion Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Senlong; Zhai, Chunhao; Jana, Sadhan C

    2016-06-01

    This paper reports preparation of polymer aerogel microparticles via sol-gel reactions inside micrometer size droplets created in an oil-in-oil emulsion system. The oil-in-oil emulsion system is obtained by dispersing in cyclohexane the droplets of the sols of polybenzoxazine (PBZ) or polyimide (PI) prepared in dimethylformamide. The sol droplets transform into harder gel microparticles due to sol-gel reactions. Finally, the aerogel microparticles are recovered using supercritical drying of the gel microparticles. The PBZ and PI aerogel microparticles prepared in this manner show mean diameter 32.7 and 40.0 μm, respectively, mesoporous internal structures, and surface area 55.4 and 512.0 m(2)/g, respectively. Carbonization of PBZ aerogel microparticles maintains the mesoporous internal structures but yields narrower pore size distribution.

  2. Physicochemical Evaluation of Seeds and Oil of Nontraditional Oil Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Ismail Ahmed

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work was conducted in the Laboratory of Biochemistry and Food science department, Faculty of Natural Resources and Environmental Studies, University of Kordofan, in order to evaluate some nontraditional oil seeds these are i.e. Marula (Sclerocarya birrea, Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L. seeds and Christ’s thorn (Zizyphus spina-christi seeds. The seeds of the roselle and Christ’s thorn fruits were procured from Elobeid local market, North Kordofan State, while marula fruits were obtained from Elnuhod, West Kordofan State. The proximate composition of the seeds, cake and christ’s thorn pulp was done. Some chemical and physical properties were performed for the extracted oil. The results revealed that proximate composition of the seeds and cake differ statistically among the studied materials. Significant differences were observed among the oil extracted from these species; moreover, these oils differ significantly in color and viscosity only.

  3. Aerogel Microparticles from Oil-in-Oil Emulsion Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Senlong; Zhai, Chunhao; Jana, Sadhan C

    2016-06-01

    This paper reports preparation of polymer aerogel microparticles via sol-gel reactions inside micrometer size droplets created in an oil-in-oil emulsion system. The oil-in-oil emulsion system is obtained by dispersing in cyclohexane the droplets of the sols of polybenzoxazine (PBZ) or polyimide (PI) prepared in dimethylformamide. The sol droplets transform into harder gel microparticles due to sol-gel reactions. Finally, the aerogel microparticles are recovered using supercritical drying of the gel microparticles. The PBZ and PI aerogel microparticles prepared in this manner show mean diameter 32.7 and 40.0 μm, respectively, mesoporous internal structures, and surface area 55.4 and 512.0 m(2)/g, respectively. Carbonization of PBZ aerogel microparticles maintains the mesoporous internal structures but yields narrower pore size distribution. PMID:27183146

  4. Deepwater Horizon MC252 - Oil Spill: Oil Trajectories Maps

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Trajectory maps are produced using GNOME (General NOAA Operational Modeling Environment), which is an oil spill trajectory model developed by OR and...

  5. Geophysical exploration in Oil India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viswanath, S.N.

    1984-07-01

    The discovery of the Nahorkatiya oilfield in Upper Assam in 1953 climaxed a long story of geophysical endeavor which started nearly 30 years earlier in the alluvial plains of the Brahmaputra. Since then there have been other geophysical discoveries, notably at Moran and east of Nahorkatiya; also, much valuable data on subsurface geology have been gathered by employing aeromagnetic gravity and seismic methods. All this has been accompanied by a constant updating of the interpretative tools and techniques. It is a process which Oil India Limited (OIL) will strive to maintain as the search for oil takes the company into more elusive and difficult subsurface geological environments.

  6. Lipid peroxidation of fish oils

    OpenAIRE

    Godwin, Angela; Prabhu, H. Ramachandra

    2006-01-01

    Fish and fish oils are the richest sources of ω-3 fatty acids. However, they are susceptible to lipid peroxidation due to their high degree of unsaturation. In the present study, the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive material in various fish oils available in the market with and without added Vitamin E was determined. The peroxide levels in fish oil heated to food frying temperature of 180°C and the effect of addition of vitamin E has also been studied. The results indicate that the perox...

  7. Alberta oil sands royalty regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The long term objective of the Oil Sands Business Unit of Alberta Energy is to pave the way for Alberta's bitumen production to reach 3 million barrels per day by 2020. This presentation described the national government's role in resource development. It was emphasized that since the Crown is the owner of the oil sands resource, it would benefit by providing strategic leadership and by generating a larger royalty base. The oil sands fiscal regime was described with reference to generic royalty, risk sharing, investment, and project economics. Business rule principles were also outlined along with criteria for project expansions. Both upstream and downstream challenges and opportunities were listed. 4 figs

  8. Scroll Compressor Oil Pump Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branch, S.

    2015-08-01

    Scroll compressors utilize three journal bearings to absorb gas, friction and inertial loads exerted on the crankshaft. To function properly, these bearings must be lubricated with a certain amount of oil. The focus of this paper will be to discuss how computational fluid dynamics can be used to predict oil flow out of a single-stage oil pump. The effects of speed and lubricant viscosity on pump output will also be presented. The comparisons will look at mass flow rates, differences in pressure, and torque at various speeds and dynamic viscosities. The computational fluid dynamic analysis results will be compared with actual lab testing where a crankshaft bench tester was built.

  9. North American oil demand outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, M.B. [National Economic Research Associates, White Plains, NY (United States)

    1995-11-01

    An understanding of the relationship of economic growth and potential petroleum product demand is needed to forecast the potential for North American oil demand growth as well as knowledge of world supply and price. The bullish expectations for economic growth in the US and Canada auger well for North American refiners and marketeers. The growth in world economic output forecast, however, means a larger oil demand and an increase in OPEC`s pricing power. Such price increases could depress North American oil demand growth. (author)

  10. North American oil demand outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An understanding of the relationship of economic growth and potential petroleum product demand is needed to forecast the potential for North American oil demand growth as well as knowledge of world supply and price. The bullish expectations for economic growth in the US and Canada auger well for North American refiners and marketeers. The growth in world economic output forecast, however, means a larger oil demand and an increase in OPEC's pricing power. Such price increases could depress North American oil demand growth. (author)

  11. Cheap oil. Good news - for most

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Lorié

    2014-01-01

    - The oil price has fallen by 40% in recent months, as a result of increasing oil supply, and is expected to be in the range of USD 70 - 80 per barrel in 2015. - The global economy is set to benefit, as are oil importing regions such as Europe and Asia. - Oil exporting countries like Brazil, Russia

  12. Middle East and North African Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Quazzaz, Ayad

    1981-01-01

    Traces the history of oil and natural gas in the Middle East and relates the importance of the Middle East's current stores of oil to economic development. Information is presented on the relationship of major oil companies and local governments, OPEC, rate of production, and the impact of oil on the societies of the Middle East and North Africa.…

  13. Reference data on world oil markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper makes a status of the 2004 activity of worldwide oil markets: oil demand, oil supplies (OPEC and non-OPEC countries, unused production capacities), formation of oil prices (role of stockpiles, role of terminal markets, impact of dollar rate), economic data: OPEC objectives, market vision, volatility of prices, supply and demand. (J.S.)

  14. Immiscible foam for enhancing oil recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simjoo, M.

    2012-01-01

    Growing worldwide oil demand increased the need of new and efficient oil recovery methods. Gas injection in oil reservoirs is deemed one of the most widely used methods to increase oil recovery. However, the full potential of gas injection is often not realized due to poor vertical and areal sweep e

  15. 7 CFR 985.56 - Excess oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Excess oil. 985.56 Section 985.56 Agriculture... HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Volume Limitations § 985.56 Excess oil. Oil of any class in excess of a producer's applicable annual allotment shall be identified...

  16. Crude Oil Stockpiling Needed in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Bin

    1997-01-01

    @@ The two oil crises in the 1970's had badly disturbed the economy and the way of life of those oil importing countries, which began to realize the importance of oil stockpiling. With the rapid development of economy, China could no longer satisfy itself soly with the domesticallyproduced oil.

  17. 21 CFR 573.680 - Mineral oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mineral oil. 573.680 Section 573.680 Food and... Listing § 573.680 Mineral oil. Mineral oil may be safely used in animal feed, subject to the provisions of this section. (a) Mineral oil, for the purpose of this section, is that complying with the...

  18. 7 CFR 985.58 - Exempt oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exempt oil. 985.58 Section 985.58 Agriculture... HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Volume Limitations § 985.58 Exempt oil. Oil held by a producer or handler on the effective date of this subpart shall not...

  19. Fire and explosion hazards of oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    The US Bureau of Mines publication presents the results of investigations into the fire and explosion hazards of oil shale rocks and dust. Three areas have been examined: the explosibility and ignitability of oil shale dust clouds, the fire hazards of oil shale dust layers on hot surfaces, and the ignitability and extinguishment of oil shale rubble piles. 10 refs., 54 figs., 29 tabs.

  20. 14 CFR 125.137 - Oil valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil valves. 125.137 Section 125.137....137 Oil valves. (a) Each oil valve must— (1) Comply with § 125.155; (2) Have positive stops or... the valve. (b) The closing of an oil shutoff means must not prevent feathering the propeller,...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1555 - Rapeseed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., bleached, and deodorized edible oil obtained from certain varieties of Brassica Napus or B. Campestris of... and partially hydrogenated low erucic acid rapeseed oil are used as edible fats and oils in food... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Rapeseed oil. 184.1555 Section 184.1555 Food...

  2. 14 CFR 23.1013 - Oil tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil tanks. 23.1013 Section 23.1013... tanks. (a) Installation. Each oil tank must be installed to— (1) Meet the requirements of § 23.967 (a...) Expansion space. Oil tank expansion space must be provided so that— (1) Each oil tank used with...

  3. 49 CFR 230.116 - Oil tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Oil tanks. 230.116 Section 230.116 Transportation... Locomotive Tanks § 230.116 Oil tanks. The oil tanks on oil burning steam locomotives shall be maintained free... adjacent to the fuel supply tank or in another safe location; (b) Closes automatically when tripped...

  4. 14 CFR 27.1013 - Oil tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil tanks. 27.1013 Section 27.1013... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Oil System § 27.1013 Oil tanks. Each oil tank must be... space of not less than the greater of 10 percent of the tank capacity or 0.5 gallon, and where used...

  5. Methanogenic Oil Degradation in the Dagang Oil Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Núria; Cai, Minmin; Straaten, Nontje; Yao, Jun; Richnow, Hans Hermann; Krüger, Martin

    2014-05-01

    Anaerobic biodegradation is one of the main in situ oil transformation processes in subsurface oil reservoirs. Recent studies have provided evidence of biodegradation of residual oil constituents under methanogenic conditions. Methane, like other biogenic gases, may contribute to reduce the viscosity of oil and enhance its flow characteristics (making it more available) but it can also be used as a energy source. So the aim of the present study was to provide reliable information on in situ biotransformation of oil under methanogenic conditions, and to assess the feasibility of implementing a MEOR strategy at this site. For this reason, chemical and isotopic analyses of injection and production fluids of the Dagang oil field (Hebei province, China) were performed. Microbial abundances were assessed by qPCR, and clone libraries were performed to study the diversity. In addition, microcosms with either oil or 13C-labelled hydrocarbons were inoculated with injection or production waters to characterize microbial processes in vitro. Geochemical and isotopic data were consistent with in situ biogenic methane production linked to aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon degradation: GC-MS profiles of petroleum samples were nearly devoid of n-alkanes, linear alkylbenzenes, and alkyltoluenes, and light PAH, confirming that Dagang oil is mostly highly weathered. In addition, carbon and hydrogen isotopic signatures of methane (δ13CCH4 and δDCH4, respectively), and the bulk isotopic discrimination (Δδ13C) between methane and CO2 (between 32 and 65 ) were in accordance with previously reported values for methane formation during hydrocarbon degradation. Furthermore, methane-producing Archaea and hydrocarbon-degrading Bacteria were abundant in produced oil-water samples. On the other hand, our laboratory degradation experiments revealed that autochthonous microbiota are capable of significantly degrade oil within several months, with biodegradation patterns resembling those

  6. 21 CFR 102.37 - Mixtures of edible fat or oil and olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mixtures of edible fat or oil and olive oil. 102... for Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.37 Mixtures of edible fat or oil and olive oil. The common or... olive oil shall be as follows: (a) A descriptive name for the product meeting the requirements of §...

  7. 75 FR 22363 - United States Standards for Grades of Olive Oil and Olive-Pomace Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service United States Standards for Grades of Olive Oil and Olive-Pomace Oil AGENCY... Department of Agriculture (USDA) is revising the United States Standards for Grades of Olive Oil. This... the grades of olive oil and olive-pomace oil commonly accepted in the United States and abroad....

  8. Running Out Of and Into Oil. Analyzing Global Oil Depletion and Transition Through 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, David L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hopson, Janet L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Li, Jia [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2003-10-01

    This report presents a risk analysis of world conventional oil resource production, depletion, expansion, and a possible transition to unconventional oil resources such as oil sands, heavy oil and shale oil over the period 2000 to 2050. Risk analysis uses Monte Carlo simulation methods to produce a probability distribution of outcomes rather than a single value.

  9. Iranian-oil-free zone and international oil prices

    OpenAIRE

    Farzanegan, Mohammad Reza; Parvari, Mozhgan Raeisian

    2014-01-01

    One of the main elements of economic sanctions against Iran due to its nuclear and military programs is crude oil exportation restrictions in addition to investment in Iranian energy related projects. Senders of such sanction are interested in understanding the impacts of such embargos on international oil prices. We apply unrestricted Vector Autoregressive (VAR) model, using impulse response (IRF) and variance decomposition (VDA) tools with annual data from 1965 to 2012 to analyze the dynami...

  10. Oil & Ethnocentrism: A study of Global Oil & Gas Organisations

    OpenAIRE

    Rees, Gareth

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation will examine the concept of ‘ethnocentrism’, or a belief in the superiority of one’s own cultural norms and values, against the backdrop of the Global Oil & Gas Service industry. Using Howard Perlmutter’s framework, ethnocentrism will be tested and analysed across distinct areas of international business; staffing and cultural prevalence, the management of international subsidiaries and corporate and national culture. Data will be collected from experienced Oil & Gas ma...

  11. China's Oil Giants Benefited from High Oil Price

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ High crude prices and strong local demand boosted the profits of China's oil sector in the year's first half, but government-capped petrol prices, cooling economic growth and rising costs threaten future earnings. State-owned big-three oil companies - PetroChina, Sinopec Corp and CNOOC Ltd - posted net profit increases ranging from 11 percent to 48 percent for the first six months of this year.

  12. Competitiveness in the Brazilian oil industry. The Brazilian 'oil diamond'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is recognized the economic benefits that might follow the opening process of the Brazilian oil and natural gas industry, which shall experience a fast expansion with the arrival of national and international private investors. However, we should not neglect the broader impact of this process on the future development of all that cluster of national agents that lived around and served the former national oil monopoly, managed by the Brazilian National Oil Company, Petrobras. This work focuses on this larger perspective, discussing about the capacity of Brazil to sustain and expand its competitiveness in the oil business as well as to obtain the maximum economic development from the exploration of its oil and gas reserves. We adopt the work of Michael Porter, from the University of Harvard, about the Competitive Advantage of Nations, as a theoretical model to analyze the Competitive Advantage of Brazil in the global oil industry. By introducing the concept of ''oil diamond'', adapted from the notion introduced by this author, we develop a new understanding of national competitiveness in the oil sector. In this paper, we present the general model as well as a brief characterization of the results found for Brazil Subsequently, we focus on just one leg of the model, for which we discuss, with more detail, about the competitive condition of the country in the opening-up scenario. This leg regards the so-called supporting and supplementary industries that constitute what is denominated in the French tradition the ''para petroleum'' industry. We analyze the conditions for the Brazilian domestic ''para petroleum industry'' to survive and grow in the new competitive environment. (authors)

  13. Does oil promote or prevent coups?

    OpenAIRE

    Nordvik, Frode Martin

    2014-01-01

    A large literature investigates the relation between oil and conflict, yet no empirical study has found any link between oil and coups d’´etat. Using a new data set on oil production separated into onshore and offshore production, and covering 172 countries from 1900 to 2012, onshore oil is seen to promote coup while offshore oil prevents them. A likely mechanism is that onshore oil motivates military build-ups, while offshore oil does not. From a political leader’s point of view, a large mil...

  14. Review of approaches to oil price modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Yulia Raskina

    2010-01-01

    A huge size of an oil market and its relation to economic growth and global wealth distribution make the oil an unique commodity. Oil price prediction is associated with plans of development of states as well as firms. Jumps in oil prices influence world economy similarly to natural disasters of planet scale. There is no surprise that a lot of publications are devoted to research of an oil market, modeling and forecasting of oil prices. This paper gives main facts describing an oil market and...

  15. Energy researchers - 7. Oil production: The new frontiers of oil production; Oil at what price?; How to reduce the environmental footprint of oil?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A first article comments the fact that, in order to increase oil reserves, engineers and geologists are considering always more technical and complex oil fields, notably in new geological areas. This search for new oil fields is based on simulations and on the use of supercomputers. It also raises the cost issue. In an interview, an economist discusses the factors influencing oil pricing, notices that oil price will probably keep on increasing, and discusses the impact of this increase. A last article discusses the issue of reduction of the environmental footprint of oil by avoiding oil slicks, reducing the impact of bituminous sands, reducing CO2 emissions and treating water

  16. China's Oil Imports and Exports in 2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Chunrong

    2009-01-01

    @@ The net imports of oil,including crude oil,refined oil,LPG and other oil products,increased by 9.5% in 2008 and rose to 200.67 million tons from 183.28 million tons in 2007 (Fig.1,Fig.2).The net imports of crude oil reached 175.16 million tons,up by 9.9%.According to the statistics of State Customs Administration,the net imports of oil products,including gasoline,kerosene,diesel and fuel oil increased by 19.4% and rose to 21.84 million tons.

  17. Ozonated olive oils and the troubles

    OpenAIRE

    Bulent Uysal

    2014-01-01

    One of the commonly used methods for ozone therapy is ozonated oils. Most prominent type of used oils is extra virgin olive oil. But still, each type of unsaturated oils may be used for ozonation. There are a lot of wrong knowledge on the internet about ozonated oils and its use as well. Just like other ozone therapy studies, also the studies about ozone oils are inadequate to avoid incorrect knowledge. Current data about ozone oil and its benefits are produced by supplier who oversees financ...

  18. Sustainability in the Malaysian palm oil industry

    OpenAIRE

    Choong, CG; McKay, A

    2014-01-01

    With a rapidly growing world population, the demand for palm oil is increasing. In 2010, palm oil accounted for 36.5% of the world's vegetable oil production and it is projected to be the leading vegetable oil in the world by 2016. As the Malaysian palm oil industry is committed to delivering sustainable palm oil products to meet customer demand, this research was to enable identification and prioritisation of areas for improvement. As an example, the Roadmap of Malaysian Palm Oil Industry 20...

  19. Efek Olive Oil dan Virgin Coconut Oil terhadap Striae Gravidarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evi Pratami

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of striae gravidarum (SG in pregnant women ranges from 50% to 90%. Effects of SG include itchy and hot feeling as well as dry skin. This situation also causes emotional disturbances that poses a cosmetic problem for most pregnant women. Nowadays, many pregnant women use olive oil to prevent SG, but it is relatively difficult to find and costly. In Indonesia, a similar oil, virgin coconut oil (VCO, has been used by many pregnant women for the same reason. The aim of this study was to analyze the differences and correlation between effects of olive oil and VCO against SG. The study was conducted in March−July 2012. An experimental study was performed on 80 pregnant women in Surabaya Municipality and they were divided into 2 groups using random permuted blocks. The results of this study showed that there was no difference in SG appearance based on the number of lines and levels of erythema between groups (p=0.156 and 1.00. Furthermore, there was a strong negative correlation between the effect of olive oil or VCO on the number of lines (r=-0.576 and -0.560 and the level of erythema (r=-0.699 and -0.586. In conclusion, there is no difference in the effect of olive oil and VCO against SG.

  20. Incident of inadvertent radiation exposure in a linac bunker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Implementation of a new Biomedical Equipment and service database poses special challenges. This paper describes the challenges and solutions during implementation of BEIMS (Mercury Computers) at RPAH and other sites within SSWAHS. During implementation we faced challenges of Code/Label design, workflow redesign, and data cleanup. Considerable time and effort went into the design of descriptive codes for breakdowns, tests, equipment types, meta-categories and the like. Some of the codes are explored and described to allow adoption by other entities if desired. Workflow redesign required us to include considerations of biomedical Technicians and Nurse Requestors. A simplified document was created for the self-education of Requestors and a full user manual (complete with screen shots) was created for Biomeds. More work remains, including simplification of standardised reports and ability to generate KPI's. The result is a system with improved utility compared to the old system and a flexible design enabling future improvements. (author)

  1. Oil flow in deep waters: comparative study between light oils and heavy oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreolli, Ivanilto [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-12-19

    Ultra deeper waters fields are being exploited due to technological development. Under this scenario, the flow design is accomplished through pipelines subjected to low temperature and high pressure. Moreover, these flow lines are usually long causing a fast fluid cooling, which may affect flow assurance in some cases. Problems during topsides production plant's restart might occur if the oil is viscous and even in steady state a significant different behavior can be noticed, if compared to a less viscous oil. A comparison between light and heavy oil through a case study with the objective to show some heavy oil flow particularities is the purpose of this paper. Permanent and transient analyses for a specific geometry are presented. The results showed that thermal and proper viscosity modeling are required for heavy oil flow, differently from that of light oil flow, due to the exponential viscosity dependence to temperature and because the predominant laminar regime. In addition, on heavier and heavier oil flow systems, it is essential to consider exportation system's restart. (author)

  2. Calorimetry for Fast Authentication of Edible Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angiuli, Marco; Bussolino, Gian Carlo; Ferrari, Carlo; Matteoli, Enrico; Righetti, Maria Cristina; Salvetti, Giuseppe; Tombari, Elpidio

    2009-06-01

    There are little data in the literature on how to authenticate edible oils through calorimetry techniques. However, oil melting curves can be used to represent correlations between calorimetric results and oil quality. A calorimetric method has been developed for studying the solid-liquid phase transitions of olive oil and seed oils, in which melting peak behavior is correlated to the type, quality, and composition of the oil. Good reproducible thermograms were obtained by defining precise protocols for use in testing, which take into account the specific characteristics of a particular oil. This approach does not replace classical analytical methods; nevertheless, it is believed that calorimetric tests could be a useful preliminary stage for quality testing. The calorimetric technique allows the detection of the adulterant (seed oils or refined olive oil), oil origin, and possible photo-oxidation degradation processes, before more complex and expensive procedures and analyses are applied.

  3. Oil for development 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-09-15

    In this report present key achievements for each of the various cooperation countries. Oil for Development (OfD) assistance has been important for the ability of a country like Ghana to improve petroleum resource management on its most important oil and gas field, and to better safeguard that the petroleum activities are conducted in an environmentally sustainable way. Competence building on Increased Oil Recovery (IOR), and negotiation training have helped to increase both the resource extraction potential and the revenue generation potential of a more mature oil producing country like Iraq. Furthermore, OfD has contributed to improving the legislative frameworks in several of our cooperating countries, including Afghanistan, Cambodia and Madagascar, although it will take time before we can assess to what extent the laws have been implemented. OfD's strong focus on providing legal assistance reflects our belief that clear divisions of roles and firm legal mandates are prerequisites for good governance of the petroleum sector and for attracting serious investors. A lot of our capacity building took place through seminars and more tailored workshops with a national or regional scope. We believe that some of these events have significantly increased awareness as well as the level of debate among government institutions and civil society. The oil production accounting workshop in Nigeria and the NOC workshop in Timor-Leste are particularly valid examples. Timor-Leste also addressed other petroleum sector governance issues with a focus on including civil society and by the end of 2009 had nearly fulfilled all criteria for becoming Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI) compliant. It should be noted that OfD assistance only made a relatively small contribution to this process, which was very much nationally driven. Petroleum related environmental issues were addressed at different levels and from different angles. A thorough environmental needs

  4. Vertical integration by oil exporting countries

    OpenAIRE

    Siebert, Horst; Rauscher, Michael

    1985-01-01

    Most oil-producing countries have now nationalised their oil reserves and are pursuing their own pricing and marketing policies; in recent years some of them have attempted to extend their influence over the oil market by undertaking processing activities downstream from oil production. What motives underlie this strategy of vertical integration? What is its economic justification? What effects will it have on oil-importing countries?

  5. Pricing of domestically consumed oil in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Hatami, Hossein

    1991-01-01

    As an oil exporting country, Iran heavily depends on the revenues generated from the sale its oil to the world. Oil revenues currently constitute about ninety percent of the nation's foreign exchange earnings, and serves as the most important determinant of all economic activities in the country. The dependency on oil incomes is anticipated to continue in the future, however, with the given proved stocks of oil and the country's potentials to instal higher production capacity, ...

  6. Preparation of function-enhanced vegetable oils

    OpenAIRE

    Hiroshi Maeda; Takao Satoh; Waliul Islam

    2016-01-01

    Background: Previously, we (HM) found that most commercially available edible oils, which were processed by hexane extraction followed by a number of purification steps, were extremely low in anti-peroxy radical (ROO.), or radical scavenging activity. This is a great contrast to the respective virgin oils as exemplified by extra-virgin olive oil or crude rape seed oil [1-4] (Figure 1). Therefore, such highly purified oils will became prooxidant and less desirable food components in terms of...

  7. Oil price shocks and stock market activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadorsky, P. [Schulich School of Business, York University, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    1999-10-01

    Results from a vector autoregression show that oil prices and oil price volatility both play important roles in affecting real stock returns. There is evidence that oil price dynamics have changed. After 1986, oil price movements explain a larger fraction of the forecast error variance in real stock returns than do interest rates. There is also evidence that oil price volatility shocks have asymmetric effects on the economy. 29 refs.

  8. Huge Oil Spill off North China Coast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Xiaojie

    2011-01-01

    ConocoPhillips China, a subsidiary of the US oil giant, operates an oilfield in Bohai Bay in partnership with Chinese offshore oil producer China National Offshore Oil Company (CNOOC), where a massive oil slick was detected on June 4 this year. The spill from the oilfield, which the United States' ConocoPhillips operates with China's state-run oil giant CNOOC, has polluted a total area of almost 4,250 square kilometers. The figures,

  9. 21 CFR 186.1557 - Tall oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Tall oil. 186.1557 Section 186.1557 Food and Drugs... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1557 Tall oil. (a) Tall oil (CAS Reg. No. 8002-26-4) is essentially the sap... consists mainly of tall oil resin acids and tall oil fatty acids. (b) In accordance with § 186.1(b)(1),...

  10. Oil price shocks and stock market activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results from a vector autoregression show that oil prices and oil price volatility both play important roles in affecting real stock returns. There is evidence that oil price dynamics have changed. After 1986, oil price movements explain a larger fraction of the forecast error variance in real stock returns than do interest rates. There is also evidence that oil price volatility shocks have asymmetric effects on the economy. 29 refs

  11. Phillips Pumps Cash in China's Oil Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Feng

    2002-01-01

    @@ US-based oil giant Phillips said it expects to reinforce its investment in Xijiang oil field, one of the largest oil fields in South China Sea, to raise its production. The company, together with partners including Royal/Dutch Shell and CNOOC, China's third largest oil company - plans to pump 150 million barrels of oil from the blocks in the offshore area in the coming four years, according to Phillips' Deng Zhiyun, general manager of the Xijiang project.

  12. Remote sensing of oil slicks

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fondekar, S.P.; Rao, L.V.G.

    , passive microwave radiometer, laser beam fluorosensor and laser-illuminated active gated television. These sensors provide more objective information for detection, quantification and classification of oil as well as identification of a polluting vessel. A...

  13. Arab oil and gas directory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This reference book is the only oil and gas encyclopedia in the world providing detailed country surveys on the oil and gas industry in the Arab countries and Iran. It provides thorough country reports and detailed statistics on oil and gas exploration, production, transport, refining and petrochemicals, as well as on development projects in all countries in the Middle East and North Africa: Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates and Yemen. Separate chapters cover OPEC and OAPEC, as well as world oil and gas statistics. It includes 53 maps and 268 tables and graphs, and 2420 addresses and contact names

  14. Identification of oil spill's sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Identifying the source of a marine oil spill is complicated because of the rapid modifications (weathering) undergone by oil as soon as it reaches the sea. Deciding if differences occurring between an oil sample collected after the spill and the original oil can be attributed to weathering involves not only adoption of sophisticated analytical methods but also correct sampling techniques and strict adherence to a chain-of-custody procedure. The method described in this paper, largely based on those adopted by some northern European countries, establishes the identity or non-identity of two samples by exploiting differences rather than similarities between them. It increases the efficiency of the method because it is sufficient to establish that there exists only one difference for deciding that two samples are different

  15. 2010 oil sands performance report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    With the depletion of traditional energy resources and the rising demand for energy, oil sands have become an important energy resource for meeting energy needs. Oil sands are a mixture of water, sand, clay and bitumen which is recovered either through open pit mining or in situ drilling techniques. The bitumen is then converted into syncrude or sold to refineries for the production of gasoline, diesel or other products. Shell has oil sands operations in Alberta and the aim of this report is to present its 2010 performance in terms of CO2, water, tailings, land, and reclamation and engagement. This document covers several of Shell's operations in the Muskeg River and Jackpine mines, Scotford upgrader, Peace River, Orion, Seal, Cliffdale and Chipmunk. It provides useful information on Shell's oil sands performance to governments, environmental groups, First Nations, local communities and the public.

  16. Aromatherapy and Essential Oils (PDQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professionals Questions to Ask about Your Treatment Research Aromatherapy and Essential Oils (PDQ®)–Patient Version Overview Go ... made (see Question 8 ). Questions and Answers About Aromatherapy What is aromatherapy? Aromatherapy is the use of ...

  17. Managing an oil spill response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the oil spill response business everything starts with a plan. When planning is set at only middle and top management levels before being chiseled into corporate marble, the result is all too often a plan for failure. For any chance at success, the plan must make sense to, and solve the problems of, the people at the ''business'' end of the business. In the case of Marine Spill Response Corporation (MSRC), that means highly trained responders are put at sea or along coastlines to remove oil from the water, or to deflect oil away from environmentally sensitive areas. They are fortunate in MSRC, and especially in the Gulf Coast Region, to have on their staff, some of the most knowledgeable and experienced oil spill responders in the world. The company relies on them to help build their plans, and to poke holes wherever their plans are inconsistent with getting the job done right

  18. Oil Paintings by Ou Yang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Ou Yang, professor of the Oil Painting Department of Guangdong Art College, has been pursuing perfection in the field of art for many years. With their rich emotional color, paintings by her do not simply

  19. Coordinated Oil Price Readjustment Plan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In March this year, the National Development and Reform Commission issued an oil price readjustment plan, including the establishment of a subsidy system for disadvantaged sections of the community and public service sectors, a price linkage mechanism for related industries, and a fiscal adjustment mechanism for oil enterprises. The recipients of the subsidies mainly include farmers, fishermen and fishing firms, state-owned forestry enterprises and urban public transportation firms.

  20. Aromatherapy Oils: Commodities, Materials, Essences

    OpenAIRE

    Ruth Barcan

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the essential oils that are the central tools of aromatherapy and uses them as a case study for different approaches to material culture. It considers the conceptual and political implications of thinking of essential oils as, in turn, commodities, materials and essences. I argue that both cultural studies and aromatherapy have something to learn from each other. Classic materialist approaches might do well to focus more attention on the material properties and effects o...

  1. ECOLOGY AFFECTED IN OIL EXPLOITATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Mingren; Zeng Dezhang; Zhang Shiquan; Shi Lifeng

    1997-01-01

    @@ Introduction During the Eighth Five-Year Plan period(1991-1995), a study about crude impacts on ecology in oil exploitation was conducted in seven representative onshore oil fields of China. The study discusses crude pollutant's impacts on ecology in terms of its production,movement, transformation and concentration in the ecological system,as well as its toxicity and damage degree on living things , by means of investigation on the spot, test analysis and analogue test.

  2. Detection of argan oil adulterated with vegetable oils: new markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ourrach, I.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to contribute to controlling the authenticity of pure argan oil, a valuable Moroccan product. Fatty acids, hydrocarbon fraction, 3,5-stigmastadiene, the alkyl esters of fatty acids, chlorophyllic pigments and physical properties such as viscosity, density and refractive index were studied in order to detect the adulteration of argan oil with edible vegetable oils. The results found in this study show that 3,5-stigmastadiene, kaurene and pheophytin-a can be used as possible new markers for argan oil blends of up to 5% with refined, sunflower and virgin olive oils. Due to the similarity of the fatty acid compositions of the edible oils studied and argan oil, fatty acids can be employed as markers for the detection of argan oil adulteration at levels higher than 10%. Among the physical properties studied, the refractive index shows significant differences for sunflower oil and its blend at 10% with argan oil.

    El objetivo principal de este trabajo es contribuir al control de la autenticidad del aceite argán, un producto marroquí muy valorado. Con el fin de detectar la adulteración del aceite de argán con aceites vegetales comestibles, se han estudiado los siguientes parámetros: ácidos grasos, fracción de hidrocarburos, 3,5-estigmastadieno, ésteres alquílicos, pigmentos clorofílicos y propiedades físicas como la viscosidad, densidad e índice de refracción. Los resultados de este estudio muestran que el 3,5-estigmastadieno, kaureno y la feofitina-a podrían utilizarse como nuevos marcadores en la detección del aceite de argán adulterado con aceites refinados y aceite oliva virgen al 5%. La composición en ácidos grasos puede emplearse para la detección de la adulteración del aceite de argán a niveles superiores al 10%, debido a la similitud en la composición de los aceites estudiados. Entre las propiedades físicas analizadas, el índice de refracción mostró diferencias significativas entre el aceite de arg

  3. Direct olive oil analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peña, F.

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The practical impact of “direct analysis” is undeniable as it strong contributes to enhance the so-called productive analytical features such as expeditiousness, reduction of costs and minimisation of risks for the analysts and environment. The main objective is to establish a reliable bypass to the conventional preliminary operations of the analytical process. This paper offers a systematic approach in this context and emphasises the great field of action of direct methodologies in the routine analysis of olive oil. Two main types of methodologies are considered. On the one hand, the direct determination of volatile components is systematically considered. On the other hand, simple procedures to automatically implement the preliminary operations of the oil analysis using simple devices in which the sample is directly introduced with/without a simple dilution are present and discussed.El impacto práctico del análisis directo es tan innegable como que el contribuye decisivamente a mejorar las denominadas características analíticas relacionadas con la productividad como la rapidez, la reducción de costes y la minimización de riesgos para los analistas y el ambiente. El principal objetivo es establecer un adecuado "bypass" a las operaciones convencionales preliminares del proceso analítico. Este artículo ofrece una propuesta sistemática en este contexto y resalta el gran campo de acción de las metodologías directas en los análisis de rutina del aceite de oliva. Se analizan los dos tipos principales de metodologías. Por una lado, se analiza la determinación directa de los compuestos volátiles. Por el otro, se presentan y discuten los procedimientos simples para implementar automáticamente las operaciones preliminares del análisis del aceite usando sistemas simples en los que la muestra se introduce directamente con/sin un dilución simple.

  4. Gold, coal and oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dani, Sergio U

    2010-03-01

    Jared Diamond has hypothesized that guns, germs and steel account for the fate of human societies. Here I propose an extension of Diamond's hypothesis and put it in other terms and dimensions: gold, coal and oil account not only for the fate of human societies but also for the fate of mankind through the bodily accumulation of anthropogenic arsenic, an invisible weapon of mass extinction and evolutionary change. The background is clear; arsenic species fulfill seven criteria for a weapon of mass extinction and evolutionary change: (i) bioavailability to all living organisms; (ii) imperceptibility; (iii) acute toxicity; (iv) bioaccumulation and chronic toxicity; (v) adverse impact on reproductive fitness and reproductive outcomes and early-age development and growth in a wide range of microbial, plant and animal species including man; (vi) widespread geographical distribution, mobility and ecological persistence on a centennial to millennial basis and (vii) availability in necessary and sufficient amounts to exert evolutionarily meaningful effects. The proof is becoming increasingly feasible as human exploitation of gold, coal and oil deposits cause sustainable rises of arsenic concentrations in the biosphere. Paradoxically, humans are among the least arsenic-resistant organisms because humans are long-lived, encephalized and complex social metazoans. An arsenic accumulation model is presented here to describe how arsenic accumulates in the human body with increasing age and at different provisionally safe exposure levels. Arsenic accumulates in the human body even at daily exposure levels which are within the lowest possible WHO provisional tolerance limits, yielding bodily arsenic concentrations which are above WHO provisional limits. Ongoing consequences of global scale arsenic poisoning of mankind include age-specific rises in morbidity and mortality followed by adaptive changes. The potential rise of successful forms of inborn resistance to arsenic in humans

  5. Vegetable oil basestocks for lubricants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garces, R.; Martinez-Force, E.; Salas, J.

    2011-07-01

    The use of vegetable biodegradable basestocks for lubricant oils present several advantages over the much more extended mineral bases. These advantages refer to biodegradability, a renewable feedstock of local production, lubricant and viscosity index and lower costs than synthetic lubricant bases. Despite these benefits, their use in industry and motor vehicles is not yet extensive due their lower stability and higher pour points. Vegetable oils are esters of fatty acids and glycerol, and their physicochemical properties rely mainly on the composition of their acyl moieties. Thus, to assure the maximum levels of stability while maintaining acceptable behavior at low temperatures, monounsaturated fatty acids are preferred for this purpose. The presence of natural antioxidants also improves the properties of these vegetable based stocks as lubricants. These oils usually require additives to improve their viscosity value, oxidative stability and properties at low temperatures. In the present work, the different sources of vegetable oils appropriate for biolubricant production were reviewed. Their properties and the future improvement of the oil bases, oil based stock production, uses and additives are discussed. (Author).

  6. [Antioxidant properties of essential oils].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misharina, T A; Terenina, M B; Krikunova, N I

    2009-01-01

    By the method of capillary gas-liquid chromatography we studied antioxidant properties and stability during the storage of hexane solutions of 14 individual essential oils from black and white pepper (Piper nigrum L.), cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum L.), nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt.), mace (Myristica fragrans Houtt), juniperberry (Juniperus communis L.), seed of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill., var. dulce Thelling), caraway (Carvum carvi L.), dry leaves of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Bl.), marjoram (Origanum majorana L.), laurel (Laurus nobilis L.), ginger (Zingiber officinale L.), garlic (Allium sativum L.), and clove bud (Caryophyllus aromaticus L.). We assessed the antioxidant properties by the oxidation of aliphatic aldehyde (trans-2-hexenal) into the according carbon acid. We established that essential oils of garlic, clove bud, ginger and leaves of cinnamon have the maximal efficiency of inhibition of hexenal oxidation (80-93%), while black pepper oil has the minimal (49%). Antioxidant properties of essential oils with a high content of substituted phenols depended poorly on its concentration in model systems. We studied the changes in essential oils content during the storage of its hexane solutions for 40 days in the light and out of the light and compared it with the stability of essential oils stored for a year out of the light. PMID:20067158

  7. Saving oil in a hurry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none

    2005-07-01

    During 2004, oil prices reached levels unprecedented in recent years. Though world oil markets remain adequately supplied, high oil prices do reflect increasingly uncertain conditions. Many IEA member countries and non-member countries alike are looking for ways to improve their capability to handle market volatility and possible supply disruptions in the future. This book aims to provide assistance. It provides a new, quantitative assessment of the potential oil savings and costs of rapid oil demand restraint measures for transport. Some measures may make sense under any circumstances; others are primarily useful in emergency situations. All can be implemented on short notice ? if governments are prepared. The book examines potential approaches for rapid uptake of telecommuting, ?ecodriving?, and car-pooling, among other measures. It also provides methodologies and data that policymakers can use to decide which measures would be best adapted to their national circumstances. This ?tool box? may help countries to complement other measures for coping with supply disruptions, such as use of strategic oil stocks.

  8. Quantification of rice bran oil in oil blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishra, R.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Blends consisting of physically refined rice bran oil (PRBO: sunflower oil (SnF and PRBO: safflower oil (SAF in different proportions were analyzed for various physicochemical parameters. The quantification of pure rice bran oil in the blended oils was carried out using different methods including gas chromatographic, HPLC, ultrasonic velocity and methods based on physico-chemical parameters. The physicochemical parameters such as ultrasonic velocity, relative association and acoustic impedance at 2 MHz, iodine value, palmitic acid content and oryzanol content reflected significant changes with increased proportions of PRBO in the blended oils. These parameters were selected as dependent parameters and % PRBO proportion was selected as independent parameters. The study revealed that regression equations based on the oryzanol content, palmitic acid composition, ultrasonic velocity, relative association, acoustic impedance, and iodine value can be used for the quantification of rice bran oil in blended oils. The rice bran oil can easily be quantified in the blended oils based on the oryzanol content by HPLC even at a 1% level. The palmitic acid content in blended oils can also be used as an indicator to quantify rice bran oil at or above the 20% level in blended oils whereas the method based on ultrasonic velocity, acoustic impedance and relative association showed initial promise in the quantification of rice bran oil.

    Se analizaron diversos parámetros físico-químicos para la evaluación de mezclas de aceites en diferentes proporciones que incluyen: aceite de salvado de arroz físícamente refinado (PRBO: aceite de girasol (SNF y las mezclas PRBO: aceite de cártamo (SAF en diferentes proporciones. La cuantificación de la presencia del aceite de salvado de arroz en las mezclas se llevó a cabo por diferentes métodos, como cromatografía de gases (GC, cromatografía líquida (HPLC, ultrasonidos y métodos basados en otros parámetros f

  9. Oxidative stabilization of mixed mayonnaises made with linseed oil and saturated medium-chain triglyceride oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raudsepp, P.; Brüggemann, D.A.; Lenferink, A.T.M.; Otto, C.; Andersen, M.L.

    2014-01-01

    Mayonnaises, made with either saturated medium chain triglyceride (MCT) oil or unsaturated purified linseed oil (LSO), were mixed. Raman confocal microspectrometry demonstrated that lipid droplets in mixed mayonnaise remained intact containing either MCT oil or LSO. Peroxide formation during storage

  10. Sedimentation Of Oil-MIneral Aggregates For Remediation Of Vegetable Oil Spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    A response alternative for floating vegetable oil spills based on sedimentation of negatively buoyant oil-mineral aggregrates followed by anaerobic biodegradation in the sediments is under investigation. Sedimentation of floating canola oil by interaction with montmorillonite wa...

  11. The effectiveness of eucalyptus oil, orange oil, and xylene in dissolving different endodontic sealers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemant Kumar Yadav

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: In general, xylene was the most effective in dissolving root canal sealers than other organic solvents. Essential oils (eucalyptus oil and orange oil were found similar in their ability to dissolve Apexit Plus and Endomethasone N.

  12. Oil Mist Compliance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes activities at the KCP related to evaluating and modifying machine tools in order to be in compliance with Section 23 of DOE 10 CFR 851, Worker Safety and Health Program. Section 851.23 (a) states that 'Contractors must comply with the following safety and health standards that are applicable to the hazards in their covered workplace', and subsection 9 contains the following applicable standard: 'American Congress of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), 'Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents and Biological Exposure Indices,' (2005) (incorporated by reference, see (section)851.27) when the ACGIH Threshold Limit Values are lower (more protective) than permissible exposure limits in 29 CFR 1910'. In the 2005 ACGIH Threshold Limit Value book a Notice of Change was issued for exposure to mineral oil mist used in metalworking fluids (MWFs). The effects of planning for the new facility and which machine tools would be making the transition to the new facility affected which machine tools were modified

  13. Oil Mist Compliance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazarus, Lloyd

    2009-02-02

    This report summarizes activities at the KCP related to evaluating and modifying machine tools in order to be in compliance with Section 23 of DOE 10 CFR 851, Worker Safety and Health Program. Section 851.23 (a) states that “Contractors must comply with the following safety and health standards that are applicable to the hazards in their covered workplace”, and subsection 9 contains the following applicable standard: “American Congress of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), ‘Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents and Biological Exposure Indices,’ (2005) (incorporated by reference, see §851.27) when the ACGIH Threshold Limit Values are lower (more protective) than permissible exposure limits in 29 CFR 1910.” In the 2005 ACGIH – Threshold Limit Value book a Notice of Change was issued for exposure to mineral oil mist used in metalworking fluids (MWFs). The effects of planning for the new facility and which machine tools would be making the transition to the new facility affected which machine tools were modified.

  14. World Crude Oil Markets; Monetary Policy and the Recent Oil Shock

    OpenAIRE

    Noureddine Krichene

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between monetary policy and oil prices within a world oil demand and supply model. Low price and high income elasticities of demand and rigid supply explain high price volatilities and producers' market power. Exchange and interest rates do influence oil market equilibrium. The relationship between oil prices and interest rates is a two-way relationship that depends on the type of oil shock. During a supply shock, rising oil prices caused interest rates to...

  15. Global Trends and Development Prospects for Oil and the Oil Products Market

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Dorozhkina

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the important issue of the development of the global market of oil and oil products. It offers an overview of how this market was formed and its current status, classification, location and potential of countries in the oil and oil processing business. It analyzes the Ukrainian oil products market. The article discusses the shortcomings and strategic areas for the development of Ukraine’s oil transport system. It presents an optimum method for creating integration group...

  16. Exposure to oil mist and oil vapour during offshore drilling in Norway, 1979-2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinsvag, K.; Bratveit, M.; Moen, B.E. [University of Bergen (Norway). Dept. of Public Health and Primary Health Care

    2006-07-01

    Objectives: To describe personal exposure to airborne hydrocarbon contaminants (oil mist and oil vapour) from 1979 to 2004 in the mud-handling areas of offshore drilling facilities operating on the Norwegian continental shelf when drilling with oil-based muds. Methods: Qualitative and quantitative information was gathered during visits to companies involved in offshore oil and gas production in Norway. Monitoring reports on oil mist and oil vapour exposure covered 37 drilling facilities. Exposure data were analysed using descriptive statistics and by constructing linear mixed-effects models. Results: Samples had been taken during the use of three generations of hydrocarbon base oils, namely diesel oils (1979-1984), low-aromatic mineral oils (1985-1997) and non-aromatic mineral oils (1998-2004). Sampling done before 1984 showed high exposure to diesel vapour (arithmetic mean, AM = 1217 mg m{sup -3}). When low-aromatic mineral oils were used, the exposure to oil mist and oil vapour was 4.3 and 36 mg m{sup -3}, and the respective AMs for non-aromatic mineral oils were reduced to 0.54 and 16 mg m{sup -3}. Downward time trends were indicated for both oil mist (6% per year) and oil vapour (8% per year) when the year of monitoring was introduced as a fixed effect in a linear mixed-effects model analysis. Rig type, technical control measures and mud temperature significantly determined exposure to oil mist. Rig type, type of base oil, viscosity of the base oil, work area, mud temperature and season significantly determined exposure to oil vapour. Major decreases in variability were found for the between-rig components. Conclusions: Exposure to oil mist and oil vapour declined over time in the mud-handling areas of offshore drilling facilities. Exposure levels were associated with rig type, mud temperature, technical control measures, base oil, viscosity of the base oil, work area and season. (author)

  17. Characterization of water-in-crude oil emulsions in oil spill response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The formation of water-in-crude oil emulsions occurs when crude oils are spilled into sea. The water-in-crude oil emulsionssignificantly change the properties of the spilled crude oils and in turn influence the choices made relating to oil spill countermeasures. Thewater-in-crude oil emulsions were characterized using various techniques in this study. The environmental scanning electron microscopyobservation of water droplets in the emulsions is also presented. It is a powerful tool in emulsion observations.

  18. Comparison of lubricant properties of castor oil and commercial engine oil

    OpenAIRE

    Binfa Bongfa; Peter A. Atabor; Atuci Barnabas; M.O. Adeoti

    2015-01-01

    The tribological performance of crude Nigeria-based castor oil has been investigated and compared with that of a foreign, 20W-50 high quality crankcase oil, to see its suitability as base oil for lubricating oils in indigenous vehicle and power plants engines. The experiment was conducted using a four ball tester. The results showed that unrefined castor oil has superior friction reduction and load bearing capability in an unformulated form than the commercial oil; can compete favourably with...

  19. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Three Oil Palm Fruit and Seed Tissues That Differ in Oil Content and Fatty Acid Composition

    OpenAIRE

    Dussert, Stéphane; Guerin, Chloe; Andersson, Mariette; JOET, THIERRY; Tranbarger, Timothy J.; Pizot, Maxime; Gautier, Sarah; Omore, Alphonse; Durand-Gasselin, Tristan; Morcillo, Fabienne

    2013-01-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) produces two oils of major economic importance, commonly referred to as palm oil and palm kernel oil, extracted from the mesocarp and the endosperm, respectively. While lauric acid predominates in endosperm oil, the major fatty acids (FAs) of mesocarp oil are palmitic and oleic acids. The oil palm embryo also stores oil, which contains a significant proportion of linoleic acid. In addition, the three tissues display high variation for oil content at maturity. To g...

  20. Exploration of process parameters for continuous hydrolysis of canola oil, camelina oil and algal oil

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Weicheng

    2012-07-01

    Thermal hydrolysis of triglycerides to form free fatty acid (FFA) is a well-established industry practice. Recently, this process has been employed as a first step in the production of biofuels from lipids. To that end, batch and continuous hydrolysis of various feedstocks has been examined at the laboratory scale. Canola, the primary feedstock in this paper, camelina and algal oils were converted to high quality FFA. For the different reaction temperatures, the continuous hydrolysis system was found to provide better yields than the laboratory batch system. In addition, CFD simulation with ANSYS-CFX was used to model the performance and reactant/product separation in the continuous, counter-flow reactor. The effects of reaction temperature, water-to-oil ratio (ratio of water and oil volumetric inflow rate), and preheating of the reactants were examined experimentally. Optimization of these parameters has resulted in an improved, continuous process with high mass yields (89-93%, for reactor temperature of 260°C and water-to-oil ratio of 4:1) and energy efficiency (76%, for reactor temperature of 250°C and water-to-oil ratio of 2:1). Based on the product quality and energy efficiency considerations, the reactor temperature of 260°C and water-to-oil ratio of 4:1 have provided the optimal condition for the lab scale continuous hydrolysis reaction. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  1. Oil and the political economy of energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matutinovic, Igor [GfK-Center for Market Research, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2009-11-15

    The key issues concerning oil exploitation are still open for discussion: there is no agreement about where we presently stand in the world oil extraction curve, what is its exact shape, and how far can oil price grow before it changes irreversibly the world economy and consumer behavior. The paper proposes an alternative scenario to the Hubbert's bell-shaped model of oil exploitation, based on more realistic assumptions regarding political agendas in oil-exporting countries and consumer behavior dynamics in oil-importing countries. Under this scenario, the joint impact of markets and public policy in oil importing countries together with 'resource pragmatism' policy in oil-exporting countries allows for a less steep oil supply curve with a much fatter tail compared to the Hubbert's model. (author)

  2. Bio-oil fractionation and condensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Robert C; Jones, Samuel T; Pollard, Anthony

    2013-07-02

    A method of fractionating bio-oil vapors which involves providing bio-oil vapors comprising bio-oil constituents is described. The bio-oil vapors are cooled in a first stage which comprises a condenser having passages for the bio-oil separated by a heat conducting wall from passages for a coolant. The coolant in the condenser of the first stage is maintained at a substantially constant temperature, set at a temperature in the range of 75 to 100.degree. C., to condense a first liquid fraction of liquefied bio-oil constituents in the condenser of the first stage. The first liquid fraction of liquified bio-oil constituents from the condenser in the first stage is collected. Also described are steps for subsequently recovering further liquid fractions of liquefied bio-oil constituents. Particular compositions of bio-oil condensation products are also described.

  3. Oil and the political economy of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The key issues concerning oil exploitation are still open for discussion: there is no agreement about where we presently stand in the world oil extraction curve, what is its exact shape, and how far can oil price grow before it changes irreversibly the world economy and consumer behavior. The paper proposes an alternative scenario to the Hubbert's bell-shaped model of oil exploitation, based on more realistic assumptions regarding political agendas in oil-exporting countries and consumer behavior dynamics in oil-importing countries. Under this scenario, the joint impact of markets and public policy in oil importing countries together with 'resource pragmatism' policy in oil-exporting countries allows for a less steep oil supply curve with a much fatter tail compared to the Hubbert's model.

  4. Oil and the political economy of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The key issues concerning oil exploitation are still open for discussion: there is no agreement about where we presently stand in the world oil extraction curve, what is its exact shape, and how far can oil price grow before it changes irreversibly the world economy and consumer behavior. The paper proposes an alternative scenario to the Hubbert's bell-shaped model of oil exploitation, based on more realistic assumptions regarding political agendas in oil-exporting countries and consumer behavior dynamics in oil-importing countries. Under this scenario, the joint impact of markets and public policy in oil importing countries together with 'resource pragmatism' policy in oil-exporting countries allows for a less steep oil supply curve with a much fatter tail compared to the Hubbert's model. (author)

  5. Development of the gaharu oil quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaharu (Agar wood) is a secondary metabolite produces by the Aquilaria spp. and accumulates in the plant cell in oleoresin form. The essential oil known as gaharu oil can be extracted from this oleoresin gaharu via varies extraction method such as the water distillation, solvent extraction, pressurize extraction and etc. The gaharu oil extracted through different methods will give different fragrances. Besides, different source of materials will also give different in chemical profiles. In gaharu oil trading market, most of the buyers request quality assurance from the gaharu oil manufacturer to assure the gaharu oil purchased meets their standard requirement. Since there is a demand on gaharu oil quality assurance then it become a need to develop the gaharu oil quality control method in order to have a standard quality control of gaharu oil presented in a certificate of analysis and verified by laboratory. (author)

  6. Oil Body Biogenesis during Brassica napus Embryogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Qing He; Yan Wu

    2009-01-01

    Although the oil body is known to be an important membrane enclosed compartment for oil storage in seeds, we have little understanding about its biogenesis during embryogenesis. In the present study we investigated the oil body emergence and variations in Brassica napus cv. Topas. The results demonstrate that the oil bodies could be detected already at the heart stage, at the same time as the embryos began to tum green, and the starch grains accumulated in the chloroplast stroma. In comparison, we have studied the development of oil bodies between Arabidopsis thaliana wild type (Col) and the low-seed-oil mutant wrinkled1-3. We observed that the oil body development in the embryos of Col is similar to that of B. napus cv. Topas, and that the size of the oil bodies was obviously smaller in the embryos of wrinkled1-3. Our results suggest that the oil body biogenesis might be coupled with the embryo chloroplast.

  7. Storage studies on mustard oil blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chugh, Bhawna; Dhawan, Kamal

    2014-04-01

    Mustard oil blends were investigated for fatty acid composition and oxidative stability during storage for 3 months at room temperature (15 °C to 35 °C). The blends were prepared using raw mustard oil with selected refined vegetable oils namely; palm, safflower, soybean, rice bran, sunflower and sesame oil (raw). The fatty acid compositions of all these blends were studied using GLC. The developed blends were found to obey the ideal fatty acid ratio as laid down by health agencies i.e. 1:2:1:: SFA:MUFA:PUFA. The oxidative stability of blends was studied by measuring peroxide value (PV), Kries and Thiobarbituric acid (TBA) test. Blends MPSu (mustard oil, palm oil and sunflower oil), MPT (mustard oil, palm oil and sesame oil) and MPGr (mustard oil, palm oil and groundnut oil) were more stable than other blends during storage. The presence of mustard oil in all blends might make them a healthier option for many consumers as it is a rich source of ω-3 fatty acids and has anti-carcinogenic properties.

  8. Essential Oils, Part III: Chemical Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Anton C; Schmidt, Erich

    2016-01-01

    Data on the chemistry of essential oils which have caused contact allergy are provided. The largest group of chemicals found in essential oils consists of terpenes. The number of identified components usually ranges from 100 to 250, but in some oils (lavender, geranium, rosemary) 450 to 500 chemicals have been found. Many chemicals are present in a large number of oils, up to 98% for β-caryophyllene and 97% for limonene. Chemicals that are important constituents of >20 oils are limonene, linalool, and α-pinene. In many essential oils, there are 2 to 5 components which together constitute over 50% to 60% of the oil. In some oils, however, there is one dominant ingredient, making up more than 50% of the oil, including (E)-anethole in aniseed and star anise oil, carvone in spearmint oil, 1,8-cineole (eucalyptol) in Eucalyptus globulus oil, and (E)-cinnamaldehyde in cassia oil. The most important chemicals in 93 individual oils are specified. PMID:27427817

  9. European oil product supply modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the last few years, trends in European oil product consumption (in terms of level as structure and quality) has important implications of the refining industry. In this context, the purpose of this thesis consists in building a mathematical programming model applied to the European refineries in order to determine oil product supply prices, European refining industry investments and oil product exchanges of the European Union. The first part presents the reason for our choice for a long-term aggregate multi-refineries linear programming model, based on European refineries characteristics and the objectives of our model. Its dual properties are studied in detail and we focus particularly on the European exchange modelling. In the second part, an analysis of the European refining trends leads us to identify parameters and variables of the model that are essential to the aggregate representation of the European oil product supply. The third part is devoted to the use of this model, regarding two scenarios of increasingly stringent specifications for gasoline and diesel oil. Our interest for these products is due to their important share of the European oil product consumption and the not insignificant responsibility of the transport sector for atmospheric pollution. Finally, in order to have the use of an overall picture of the European refining industry, we build a regression model summarizing, though a few equations, the main relations between the major endogenous and exogenous variables o the LP model. Based on pseudo-data, this kind of model provides a simple and robust representation of the oil product supply. But a more specialized analysis of the refining industry operations, turning on a technical assessment of processing units, is reliant on the use of an optimization model such as the model we have built. (author)

  10. Reversing oil prices and valuation of oil projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report deals with the valuation of offshore development projects as a result of reduced oil prices. The development and operation of an oil field or natural gas field call for an heavy investment, and the oil price fluctuation and currency problems involve uncertainty on the amount of future income from such a project. As a basis for the decision process of investment, a well-designed analyzing model for considering the affecting factors in a project valuation is of great importance. The main topics discussed are as follow: Valuation of petroleum projects; premises of the bargain price development; owner advantage and valuation of determined requirements; a model for calculating the value of a petroleum project. 35 refs., 10 figs

  11. Review and Outlook of China's Oil Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gong Jinshuang

    2006-01-01

    @@ In the first half of 2006, growth of oil supply in China slowed down and the growth rate of actual consumption was kept stable. Oil imports and apparent consumption increased rapidly, and the oil price went up to the historical records. In the future, growth of oil supply in China will still be restrained and oil import will remain a relatively high growth rate in the latter half of 2006.Compared to actual consumption, which will still be stabilized, the growth rate of apparent consumption will be higher. The oil price will linger at high-level.

  12. Evaluation of olive oil quality during frying

    OpenAIRE

    Carapinha, P.; Correia, A.C.; Ferreira-Dias, S.

    2012-01-01

    Olive oil is the main lipid source in the Mediterranean diet. Due to its richness in monounsaturated fatty acids and in natural antioxidants, the olive oil is highly resistant to oxidation and, therefore, it is an excellent oil to be used in deep frying processes. The aim of the present study was to investigate the quality evolution of two commercial olive oils (extra virgin olive oil and olive oil) during heating at 180ºC (±2ºC) along 63 h, and frying processes of pre-fried fr...

  13. [Solidification of volatile oil with graphene oxide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hong-Mei; Jia, Xiao-Bin; Zhang, Zhen-Hai; Sun, E; Xu, Yi-Hao

    2015-02-01

    To evaluate the properties of solidifying volatile oil with graphene oxide, clove oil and zedoary turmeric oil were solidified by graphene oxide. The amount of graphene oxide was optimized with the eugenol yield and curcumol yield as criteria. Curing powder was characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The effects of graphene oxide on dissolution in vitro and thermal stability of active components were studied. The optimum solidification ratio of graphene oxide to volatile oil was 1:1. Dissolution rate of active components had rare influence while their thermal stability improved after volatile oil was solidified. Solidifying herbal volatile oil with graphene oxide deserves further study. PMID:25975033

  14. US oil dependency and energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The three papers of this document were written in the framework of a seminar organized the 30 may 2002 by the IFRI in the framework of its program Energy and Climatic Change. The first presentation deals with the american oil policy since 1980 (relation between the oil dependence and the energy security, the Reagan oil policy, the new oil policy facing the increase of the dependence). The second one deals with the US energy security (oil security, domestic energy security, policy implications). The last presentation is devoted to the US oil dependence in a global context and the problems and policies of international energy security. (A.L.B.)

  15. IEA Shows Concerns Over China's Oil Stockpiling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Reportedly, China's oil imports accounted for nearly one third of the world's total oil supply in 2003. The country's oil imports are estimated at 110~120 million tons in 2004,equal to 2.2~2.4 million barrels per day, much higher than 91 million tons in 2003. International Energy Agency has helped the Chinese government with the country's strategic oil stockpiling plan by offering the training. The Paris-based IEA has urged China to take into consideration how to operate and maintain the national strategic oil stockpiling system and clarify the roles of the enterprises and the State in oil stockpiling.

  16. Comparison of thermal stability of grape seed oil with virgin sesame oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Heating causes extensive physical and chemical changes in oil and fats, which can change all physical and chemical characteristics and quality of oil during frying is so critical. This study was aimed to compare the thermal stability of virgin sesame oil and grape seed oil. Methods: The grape seed oil and virgin sesame oil were heated at 180 ° C for 8 hours. Every hour, a sample of the heated oils was taken to determine the changes in acid value, peroxide, anisidine and Totox. Results: Heating the oil caused extensive chemical variations both oils. The acidity index increased over time (p<0.05, there were fluctuations inperoxide value, and anisidine and Totox values also increased during thermal processes (p<0.05. Conclusion: Grape seed oil showed more resistance to heat than sesame oil.

  17. Oil drainage by CO2 gas diffusion, dissolution and foaming in heavy oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kono, H; Sasaki, K.; Sugai, Y. [Department of Earth Resources Engineering, Kyushu University (Japan); Takahashi, T.; Ito, D.; Okabe, T. [Research Center, JAPEX (Japan)

    2011-07-01

    In the heavy oil industry, the injection of carbon dioxide into reservoirs is used as a method to enhance oil recovery and store CO2. During this process, dissolution of gas takes place and contributes to cold production through a reduction in oil viscosity and capillarity pressure and swelling of the oil. The aim of this study was to investigate oil drainage from the sandstone cores. Experiments were conducted in a high pressure cell with pressures up to 10MPa, to measure the swelling factors of heavy and light oils for CO2 gas dissolution and thus evaluate the swelling coefficient and diffusion coefficient of the oil. Results allowed the development of an equation to determine gas solubility in the heavy oil based on measurements of apparent density. This study showed that gas dissolution does not affect oil mobility but that foamy oil contributes to oil drainage.

  18. Noise exposure in oil mills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanna Kumar G

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Noise of machines in various agro-based industries was found to be the major occupational hazard for the workers of industries. The predominant noise sources need to be identified and the causes of high noise need to be studied to undertake the appropriate measures to reduce the noise level in one of the major agro-based industries, oil mills. Aims: To identify the predominant noise sources in the workrooms of oil mills. To study the causes of noise in oil mills. To measure the extent of noise exposure of oil mill workers. To examine the response of workers towards noise, so that appropriate measures can be undertaken to minimize the noise exposure. Settings and Design: A noise survey was conducted in the three renowned oil mills of north-eastern region of India. Materials and Methods: Information like output capacity, size of power source, maintenance condition of the machines and workroom configurations of the oil mills was collected by personal observations and enquiry with the owner of the mill. Using a Sound Level Meter (SLM (Model-824, Larson and Davis, USA, equivalent SPL was measured at operator′s ear level in the working zone of the workers near each machine of the mills. In order to study the variation of SPL in the workrooms of the oil mill throughout its operation, equivalent SPL was measured at two appropriate locations of working zone of the workers in each mill. For conducting the noise survey, the guidelines of Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety (CCOHS were followed. Grid points were marked on the floor of the workroom of the oil mill at a spacing of 1 m x 1 m. SPL at grid points were measured at about 1.5 m above the floor. The direction of the SLM was towards the nearby noisy source. To increase accuracy, two replications were taken at each grid point. All the data were recorded for 30 sec. At the end of the experiment, data were downloaded to a personal computer. With the help of utility software of

  19. Using geosynthetics for oil containment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas, S. [Albarrie Canada Ltd., Barrie, ON (Canada)

    2007-07-15

    Geosynthetics are a group of manmade synthetic polymeric materials that can be modified and combined with other geosynthetic materials for a variety of applications. Geosynthetics are used in municipal solid waste landfills to prevent the seepage of leachates, as their half-life when buried underground is approximately 400 years. This article discussed a geosynthetics system designed to allow precipitation to pass through a containment system while still containing the hydrocarbons. The Sorweb Plus solution used a modified sodium bentonite-based copolymer capable of absorbing hydrocarbons spread over the surface of water to absorb oils floating on the surface. A geosynthetic clay liner design was used without the addition of sodium bentonite. Tests were then conducted to determine the optimal amount of copolymer needed. A geosynthetic oil mat was placed over porous soil to allow for the drainage of precipitation. The sidewalls around the system's perimeter were lined with an impervious geomembrane to direct the flow of any liquids to the bottom of the system. A number of drainage layers were placed above the oil mat to provide lateral flow. A case study demonstrated that the system was able to contain a 4000 litre spill after an accident at the Don River in Toronto. The containment system was designed to contain 3,600,000 litres of transformer oil. It was concluded that the Sorweb Plus solution provides continuous protection against oil spills, while allowing water to drain through a containment area. 3 figs.

  20. Virgin coconut oil improves hepatic lipid metabolism in rats--compared with copra oil, olive oil and sunflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunima, S; Rajamohan, T

    2012-11-01

    Effect of virgin coconut oil (VCO) on lipid levels and regulation of lipid metabolism compared with copra oil (CO), olive oil (OO), and sunflower oil (SFO) has been reported. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed different oils at 8% level for 45 days along with synthetic diet. Results showed that VCO feeding significantly lowered (P < 0.05) levels of total cholesterol, LDL+ VLDL cholesterol, Apo B and triglycerides in serum and tissues compared to rats fed CO, OO and SFO, while HDL-cholesterol and Apo A1 were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in serum of rats fed VCO than other groups. Hepatic lipogenesis was also down regulated in VCO fed rats, which was evident from the decreased activities of enzymes viz., HMG CoA reductase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, isocitrate dehydrogenase and malic enzyme. In addition, VCO significantly (P < 0.05) increased the activities of lipoprotein lipase, lecithin cholesterol acyl transferase and enhanced formation of bile acids. Results demonstrated hypolipidemic effect of VCO by regulating the synthesis and degradation of lipids.