WorldWideScience

Sample records for bunds

  1. Thorstein Bunde Veblen y el socialismo

    OpenAIRE

    Bonavena, Pablo Augusto

    2014-01-01

    En los últimos años el sociólogo norteamericano de origen noruego Thorstein Bunde Veblen (1857-1929) ha ganado un interesante lugar dentro del mundo académico. La contrapartida de esta presencia fueron varios años de destierro de los confines de la sociología. Esta tendencia al ostracismo parece revertirse ahora, ya que se reconocen sus heurísticos e interesantes aportes a temáticas disímiles como, entre otras, el turismo, los juegos de azar, la moda, el consumo, el esnobismo, la religión, el...

  2. Optimal spacing of soil conservation barriers: Example of rock bunds in Burkina Faso

    OpenAIRE

    R. Zougmoré; Kaboré, D.; J. Lowenberg-DeBoer

    2000-01-01

    Metadata only record A mathematical model is presented for computing the economically optimal spacing of conservation barriers or bunds. Crop yield is generally greatest immediately upslope of bunds. However, labor and availability of rocks or other materials limits the practicality of narrow bund spacings. The authors assumed a quadratic response of yield to distance from the bund and used sorghum yield data from test fields on a 1% slope to develop model coefficients. Three labor scenari...

  3. Does the 'Bund' dominate price discovery in Euro bond futures? Examining information shares

    OpenAIRE

    Fricke, Christoph; Menkhoff, Lukas

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the relative information shares of the Bund, i.e. the ten-year Euro bond future contract on German sovereign debt, versus two futures with shorter maturity. We find that the Bund is most important but does not dominate price discovery. The other contracts also have relevant - and at many days even higher - information shares. In examining determinants of information shares, we add order flow measures to market state variables and macroeconomic news. More order flow in a co...

  4. Interdisciplinary on-site evaluation of stone bunds to control soil erosion on cropland in Northern Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyssen, Jan; Poesen, Jean; Gebremichael, Desta;

    2007-01-01

    Since two decades, stone bunds have been installed in large areas of the Tigray Highlands, Northern Ethiopia, to control soil erosion by water. Field studies were conducted to quantify the effectiveness, efficiency, side effects and acceptance of stone bunds. Based on measurements on 202 field...

  5. Electronic versus open outcry markets: The case of the Bund futures contract

    OpenAIRE

    Francis Breedon; Allison Holland

    1998-01-01

    The Bund (10 year German Government Bond) futures contract is the most actively traded bond contract in Europe; it is traded in both London (LIFFE) and Frankfurt (DTB) on open outcry and electronic trading platforms respectively. In an attempt to reconcile the conflicting results of earlier studies this paper evalutes the relative liquidity and price discovery roles of these two markets using data from 1995 Q2. The paper finds that this conflict is largely a product of the price data used. Us...

  6. Nutzungsmöglichkeiten von Routinedaten der Gesetzlichen Krankenversicherung in der Gesundheitsberichterstattung des Bundes

    OpenAIRE

    Ohlmeier, C; Frick, J.; Prütz, Franziska; Lampert, Thomas; Ziese, Thomas; Mikolajczyk, R.; Garbe, E

    2014-01-01

    Die Gesundheitsberichterstattung (GBE) des Bundes übernimmt zentrale Aufgaben in der Politikberatung sowie bei der Information der Öffentlichkeit über den Gesundheitszustand und das Gesundheitsverhalten der Bevölkerung. Routinedaten der Gesetzlichen Krankenversicherungen (GKV) wurden hierzu bisher wenig genutzt. GKV-Routinedaten ermöglichen Analysen zur Häufigkeit von Krankheiten und Risikofaktoren sowie von Krankheitsverläufen, des Inanspruchnahmeverhaltens von Gesundheitsleistungen und der ...

  7. Projektabwicklung und Ergebnisse des Bund-Länder-1000-Dächer-Photovoltaik-Programmes in Sachsen

    OpenAIRE

    Teichmann, G.; Lang, D; Rindelhardt, U.

    2010-01-01

    Im Report werden die im Rahmen des Bund-Länder-1000-Dächer-Photovoltaik-Programmes in Sachsen erzielten Ergebnisse dargestellt. Insgesamt wurden auf Dächern von Ein- und Zweifamilienhäusern in den Jahren 1992 - 1994 150 netzgekoppelte Anlagen mit einer Gesamtleistung von 523 kWp errichtet. Dabei kamen Module und Wechselrichter von jeweils acht verschiedenen europäischen Herstellern zum Einsatz. Die beteiligten Fachfirmen erwarben ein breites Know-how zur Auslegung und Installation der Anlagen...

  8. Evaluation of the Impact of Stone Bunds on Soil Loss and Surface Runoff in the Gumara Maksegnit Watershed, Northern Highlands of Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakolbinger, Stefanie; Obereder, Eva Maria; Strohmeier, Stefan; Guzmán, Gema; Demelash, Nigus; Gomez, José Alfonso; Zucca, Claudio; Klik, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Ethiopia is highly affected by land degradation and one of the key problems is soil erosion. It is mainly caused by the rapid population increase, deforestation, low vegetation cover and unbalanced livestock and crop production. As far as about 85% of the Ethiopian population life of agriculture, it is essential to prevent or reduce further degradation. In the Northern Highlands of Ethiopia stone bunds are widely used as a soil and water conservation measure (SWC). Stone bunds are little embankments of stones along the contour lines and influence the translation processes of surface runoff. In June 2015 a field experiment was started in the Gumara Maksegnit watershed to investigate the impact of stone bunds on surface runoff and soil erosion. 4 m wide and 20 m long bordered replicated plots were installed with and without stone bunds. The average slope of the plots is about 8%.The design of the erosions plots with stone bunds allows the measurement of runoff along the stone bund as well as the overflow over it. At the end of the plots the sideflow and overflow are collected using a trough, then the runoff is divided by a multi-slot-divider and finally it is collected in storage ponds. Total runoff volume was measured and representative runoff samples were taken weekly to determine sediment concentration. Precipitation was measured in daily intervals next to the study site. First results show the positive impact of stone bunds on soil erosion. From July to September total precipitation was around 600 mm. During the same time period plots without stone bunds delivered around 15 t/ha soil loss whereas plots with stone bunds produced only 5 t/ha. This is a reduction of 77%. Only approximately 10% of the sediment is transported over the stone bund, the rest is either deposited or moved along it. Runoff does not show the same pattern. Further data is being processed at the moment and will be presented.

  9. Investigation of the impact of stone bunds on soil water content - A case study in the northern Ethiopian Highland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltenleithner, Martin; Strohmeier, Stefan; Demelash, Nigus; Ziadat, Feras; Klik, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    During rainy season (June to September) soil erosion by surface runoff is a major issue and a big challenge for soil conservation scenarios in the northern Ethiopian highland. For reduction of water erosion and thereby decrease of soil loss so called stone bunds were constructed along the contour line by local farmers as a simple soil conservation measure. In this research the impact of stone bunds on infiltration and water storage was investigated during the rainy season 2013. The research was carried out in the Gumara-Maksegnit watershed in the north Ethiopian Amhara. Therefore, an experimental field was selected, where an untreated hillslope was located nearby a treated one with soil conservation structures. Both selected hillslopes had a length of 50 m and the same inclination of about 9%, with a slight decrease of slope steepness in the close range above the stone bunds, caused by sedimentation processes. Soil texture and surface bulk density were measured. Data were similar for both sites. For the monitoring of the soil moisture a Delta-T Profile Probe type PR2 for water content measurements was used. The sensor device gives values of volumetric water content in 6 different depth steps up to 1m. Therefore access tubes (AT), for mounting the profile probe, have been installed in two selected transect lines of 50 m length each. The untreated hillslope was equipped with six AT in 10 m equidistance. The treated field included three stone bunds and was equipped with 18 AT. Near to the stone bunds the AT-density was higher than in between. Measurements were taken on a weekly basis from beginning of July untill end of September 2013. Changes in vegetation cover throughout the investigation period were documented to consider impacts of higher transpiration with higher vegetation cover in the calculations. First results show fast, temporal reactions to precipitation events and generally an increase of the shallow soil water content within a range of a few meters above

  10. Mehr Demokratie und mehr Sozialstaat in Bund und neuen Ländern : Verfassungskonzepte und Verfassungsgebung im deutschen Einigungsprozess

    OpenAIRE

    Freiling, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    Der „Verfassungsentwurf der Arbeitsgruppe Neue Verfassung der DDR des Zentralen Runden Tisches der DDR“ vom 4. April 1990 hat die Hoffnung vieler politisch aktiver Bürger und vieler Gruppen in der DDR auf einen demokratischen Aufbruch zum Ausdruck gebracht. In dieser Arbeit werden die Entstehung des Verfassungsentwurfs des Runden Tisches und des darauf aufbauenden Verfassungsentwurfs des Kuratoriums für einen demokratisch verfaßten Bund deutscher Länder vom 16. 6. 1991 und deren Auswirkungen ...

  11. Investigation of the Impact of Stone Bunds on Erosion and Deposition Processes combining Conventional and Tracer Methodology in the Gumara Maksegnit Watershed, Northern Highlands of Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obereder, Eva Maria; Wakolbinger, Stefanie; Guzmán, Gema; Strohmeier, Stefan; Demelash, Nigus; Gomez, José Alfonso; Klik, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Ethiopia is one of the poorest countries of the word, with over 85 % of total population dependent from agriculture. Massive deforestation in the past and missing soil and water conservation (SWC) measures cause severe soil erosion problems in the northern highlands of Ethiopia. Different SWC methods are supposed to prevent ongoing land degradation, which is triggered by rainfall driven soil erosion in the Ethiopian agricultural lands. Common technologies for soil and water conservation are stone bunds, which reduce surface runoff and sediment loss. In June 2015 two field experiments were set up in the Gumara-Maksegnit watershed in Northern Ethiopia. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of graded stone bunds on surface runoff and sediment yield by using conventional and tracing approaches. Three consecutive runoff plots of 20 x 4 m length and width, respectively were established along the maximum slope direction. Each one was separated to the downstream one by a stone bund. The experimental setup allowed the measurement of surface runoff along each stone bund and the measurement of overflow over the lowest stone bund. To assess the pathway and the spatial distribution of the sediments a different tracer (Magnetite, Hematite and Goethite) was applied in a 40 cm wide strip at the top of each one of the plots. The second tracer experiment was conducted on the same hillslope. It consisted of a 20 m long hillslope without borders in which a 4 m long and 40 cm wide Magnetite strip was placed at the top. At the end of August 2015 soil samples of 0-2 cm depth were taken in a 1.5 x 1.5 m grid within the area of the hillslope. Soil samples parallel to the stone bund (above and underneath) were taken along 16 m to assess the soil movement/deposition. Tracer concentrations of soil and sediment samples in both trials were analysed. Runoff and sediment were collected in weekly intervals from July to September. Runoff and erosion data, as well as the evaluation

  12. Til bunds i metropolen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Kristine; Schmidt, Jeanett; Kastanje, Maj; Nielsen, Henrik

    Dette kapitel søger at belyse hvordan vestafrikanske hjemløse, der er kommet til Danmark som arbejdsmriganter klarer sig i København. Pga. vansligheder med at komme ind på det københavnske arbejdsmarked fratages de initiativet som arbejdstagere og overlever istedet som en art moderne jæger-samler......-samler folk gennem flaskesamling og som klienter på diverse sociale tilbud. Denne deroute er forbundet med hvad Goffman har betegnet som stigma....

  13. Wäre es Dir lieber, ich würde zu Recht verurteilt? - Sokrates Bund und die Frage der Kontrolle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Kaiser-Müller

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Die Ablösung von zweifelhafter menschlicher Kontrolle durch eine zuverlässige Software bietet eindrucksvolle Möglichkeiten. Mit der flächendeckenden Einführung von Sokrates Bund zum Schuljahr 2014/2015 wird endlich die Identifzierung von Pisadurchschnittsverderbern möglich. Die AutorInnen diskutieren die Lage ... Die Situation war dramatisch: Ungerecht angeklagt wegen Verführung der Jugend und Gottlosigkeit, sieht Sokrates dem Tod durch den Schierlingsbecher entgegen und antwortet auf die ob des Fehlurteils durchaus verständliche Klage von Xanthippe mit der titelgebenden Frage. Anschließend verweigert er die Flucht und zieht es vor, sich dem formal korrekt gefällten falschen Urteil zu beugen. Eine legendäre Entscheidung, in der Sokrates die Gesetzestreue mit der Begründung, man müsse schlechte Gesetze ändern, dürfe sie aber nicht übertreten, über das eigene Wohl stellt.

  14. Structure Design of the Deep & Shallow Basin Water-stop Bund and Water-stop System%深浅坞挡水构筑物及止水系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温秀媛; 谷文强

    2014-01-01

    Mainly introduces the structure design of the deep&shallow basin water-stop bund and water-stop system for Hongkong-Zhuhai-Macau Bridge temporary casting yard for tunnel elements in Guishan. The water-stop bound is mainly composed of Anti-seepage processed undisturbed rock and caisson gravity dam. The key design of water-stop system includes the Anti-seepage treatment between caisson gravity dam and rock foundation,the joint between caisson gravity dam and undisturbed rock,and the treatment to undisturbed rocks. The mainly anti-seepage treatment is grouting combination with embedded Z9-30 rubber water-stop and casting plan concrete,etc.%主要介绍港珠澳大桥沉管预制厂深浅坞挡水构筑物及其止水系统设计。挡水构筑物主要由防渗处理过的原状岩石山体和重力式沉箱拦水坝结构组成。止水系统设计的重点包含重力式沉箱拦水坝和岩石坝基之间的防渗,拦水坝结构与原状岩石山体连接处的防渗以及原状岩石山体的防渗处理。主要采用注浆防渗的处理方法,结合预埋Z9-30橡胶止水带以及现浇素混凝土等进行防渗设计。

  15. Environmental law for environmental management. Compliance audits in the context of the regulations on environmental auditing. A guide to applicable regulations of the federal government and the state governments, with keyword references, for corporate environmental management and environmental auditing and reporting. 4. tot. new rev. ed.; Umweltrecht fuer Umweltmanagement. Die Einhaltung einschlaegiger Umweltvorschriften im Rahmen der Oeko-Audit-Verordnung. Aktuelle Rechtsvorschriften des Bundes und der Laender, erschlossen fuer die betriebliche Praxis und die Umweltbetriebspruefung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohse, S. [Umweltbundesamt, Berlin (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    This compilation, 'environmental law for environmental management', (URUM), is the 4th updated issue. Part I of the publication presents a list of all current regulations and administrative provisions of the German Federal Government and the Laender governments, relating to the entire system of environmental auditing of commercial and industrial enterprises. Part II is a keyword index with numbers, the numbers referring the user to all the legal provisions of relevance for his particular company for environmental reporting or auditing purposes. The keyword index is based on an exhaustive analysis of all legal provisions, for identification of the terminology used for specification of requirements according to types of facilities/plants, equipment, operating conditions and processes, materials and substances produced or used, and other operation-related terms and concepts, so that the reader finds his specific, selective guide to all relevant requirements and provisions. The compilation is an indispensable help and source of reference for any enterprise wishing to apply for certification in compliance with the Council Directive 1836/93 (EC), of June 1993, relating to voluntary participation of commercial or industrial enterprises in an EC-wide system for environmental management and environmental auditing (Environmental Audit Directive). (orig./CB) [German] Fuer diese Zusammenstellung 'Umweltrecht fuer Umweltmanagement' (URUM) wurden alle umweltrelevanten Rechts- und Verwaltungsvorschriften des Bundes und aller Bundeslaender auf Regelungen fuer Betriebsarten, Betriebseinrichtungen, Arbeitsverfahren, erzeugte oder verwendete Materialien und Stoffe und sonstige betriebsbezogene Nennungen durchgesehen und die entsprechenden Stichworte mit Hinweisen auf die jeweiligen Rechtsquellen zusammengestellt. Ausgehend von den tatsaechlichen Gegebenheiten des einzelnen Betriebes wird damit eine passgenaue Auflistung der zu beachtenden Vorschriften moeglich

  16. On the Problems and Countermeasures of Government Information Release Mechanism in Emergency---Based on the Case Study of 2015 Shanghai Bund Stampede Incident%突发事件中政府信息发布机制存在的问题及对策研究--基于2015年“上海外滩踩踏事件”的案例研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宇; 王建成

    2015-01-01

    Information release and disclosure mechanism is one of the most important mechanisms and strategies for government to respond to emergencies, at the same time is also the inevitable requirement for the service-oriented government to realize information disclosure and transparency. Taking the Shanghai Bund Stampede incident as the research example, Sina microblog of“Shanghai Release” as the research platform, according to the response time, response speed, microblog contents and microblog interaction of government microblog after the emergency, we reveal the information disclosure behavior of “Shanghai Release”, and then analyze and evaluate the information and re-sponse ability of government in emergency. Finally, some concrete ways and suggestions for the government to make information release more effective are put forward.%信息发布和公开机制是政府应对突发事件最重要的机制和策略之一,同时也是服务型政府信息公开透明的必然要求。以上海外滩踩踏事件为研究实例,以新浪政务微博“上海发布”为研究平台,通过对突发事件发生之后政务微博的发布形式、响应时间、响应速度、微博内容以及微博交互情况进行分析,揭示“上海发布”在踩踏事件中的信息公开表现,进而对突发事件中政府信息发布和应对能力做出分析和评价,最后为突发事件中政府提高信息发布的有效性提出具体的方法和建议。

  17. Ciudad, puerto y río en tierra de pasillos, bundes y guabinas

    OpenAIRE

    Duque Escobar, Gonzalo

    2014-01-01

    Gracias a la posición geoestratégica del territorio y a la navegación del Magdalena, puede surgir un nuevo escenario urbano-regional en el Magdalena Centro, sí se fortalece la multimodalidad conurbando La Dorada con Honda, y sí se construye el Ferrocarril Cafetero, que saliendo de La Dorada cruzaría la Cordillera Central, para articular el centro de la Región Andina con el Eje Cafetero y con los dos mares de Colombia.

  18. Energy. Political contacts at national, state and European level; Energie. Politikkontakte Bund, Land, Europa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holzapfel, Andreas (ed.)

    2013-04-01

    The manual is in three sections: 1. Parliaments and governments, survey and organization; 2. Biographic section, with 304 biography; 3. Index of names. The first section informs on the organizational structure of parliaments and governments. The subject of energy is discussed three times, i.e. in 'Economics', 'Environment', and 'Research'. For each parliament, the members of the energy policy TCs are listed, followed by names and contact addresses of the senior officials and departments with contact data, both on a national, state, and European scale. The second section contains the biographies of energy policy experts of the German parliament and government, the sixteen land parliaments and governments, and the European Commissions. As the subject of energy is highly interdisciplinary, the authors selected the energy policy committees of the German parliament and state parliaments. The biographies of the committee members are presented in the text.

  19. Swiss Federal Energy Research Concept 2008 - 2011; Konzept der Energieforschung des Bundes 2008 bis 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-04-15

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the plan for the activities of the Swiss Federal Commission on Energy Research CORE during the period 2008 - 2011. The motivation behind the state promotion of energy research is discussed. The visions, aims and strategies of the energy research programme are discussed. The main areas of research to be addressed during the period are presented. These include the efficient use of energy in buildings and traffic - batteries and supercaps, electrical technologies, combustion systems, fuel cells and power generation are discussed. Research to be done in the area of renewable sources of energy are listed. Here, solar-thermal, photovoltaics, hydrogen, biomass, geothermal energy, wind energy and ambient heat are among the areas to be examined. Research on nuclear energy and safety aspects are mentioned. Finally, work on the basics of energy economy are looked at and the allocation of funding during the period 2008 - 2011 is looked at.

  20. Swiss Federal energy research - project list 2006/2007; Projektliste der Energieforschung des Bundes 2006/2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-03-15

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) lists and classifies the 1,025 energy-relevant research projects carried out in the years 2006 and 2007. Those projects are listed that were supported and/or financed with Swiss or European public funding. Details of the contributions made by private enterprises are noted and discussed. It is also noted that the Swiss Federal Office of Energy operates a data bank with a systematic collection of around 9,200 publications on research projects. Statistics on the classification of the projects are presented, as are details of funding for the years 1990 to 2007. The sources of financing and the distribution of the means over the various areas of research are looked at. The number of persons active in the research work is discussed. A comparison is made with the research programs of other countries. The list of projects is split into four categories - efficient use of energy, renewable energy resources, nuclear energy, energy economic basics as well as technology transfer and co-ordination. Finally a comprehensive list of all research projects for the years 2006 and 2007 is presented in tabular form. A list of those responsible for the various areas of research completes the report.

  1. The nuclear phase-out. An expensive miscalculation by the federal government?; Kernenergieausstieg. Teure Rechenfehler des Bundes?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerssenbrock, Trutz Graf [Kanzlei Kerssenbrock, Bruck und Goerke, Kiel (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    With its ''energy turnaround'', implemented on 31 July 2011 through the Thirteenth Amendment to the Nuclear Energy Law (AtG), the Liberal/Christian Democrat Government finally seems to have thrown all caution to the wind. Its conduct of state affairs in the meantime appears to be governed more by calculated political manoeuvering and emotion mongering than by the constitutional order, and in legal respects it is leading the Federal Government into an impasse. The present article examines the impact of this misguided decision on the public purse in the form of (legitimate) claims for damage by the power supply companies concerned, and to what magnitude it might amount.

  2. Swiss energy research concept for the period 2004-2007; Konzept der Energieforschung des Bundes 2004-2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) made by the Swiss National Energy Research Commission CORE lists and discusses energy research topics that are to be looked during the period 2004 to 2007. The report discusses the fundamentals, visions and short and long-term targets for Swiss energy research and presents strategies for reaching them. Research areas dealt with include the efficient use of energy, renewable sources of energy, nuclear energy and the energy-economics basics necessary for the implementation of sustainable energy policy. Also, implementation aspects such as pilot and demonstration installations are discussed. The current state of research is noted and strategic targets and the ways and means of reaching them are examined. Main areas of research for the period are listed and financing issues are discussed.

  3. Activities of the Federal Government, Laender and municipalities and fields of activity relating to building modernisation; Aktivitaeten des Bundes, der Laender und der Kommunen und Handlungsfelder zur Gebaeudesanierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanke, Thomas; Schuele, Ralf; Pietzner, Katja [Wuppertal Institut fuer Klima, Umwelt, Energie GmbH, Wuppertal (Germany)

    2007-12-15

    The present report inquires into how the programmes and activities undertaken by the German Federal Government and the Lnder to increase the potential for building modernisation should be designed so that municipalities, including those with poor financial means, can utilise and create incentives and also take on a role as local multiplicator for building modernisation to improve energy efficiency. The goal is to maximise synergy effects between building modernisation programmes of the Federation and Laender and activities at the municipal level. The second part of the report explains the legal framework for promotion by the Federation and Laender which has been set up on the basis of European and global goals for climate protection and in particular building modernisation. The third part clarifies the importance and significance of building modernisation for climate protection and pinpoints general impediments affecting the area of building modernisation. The last part of the report offers suggestions to municipalities for setting up, designing and supplementing building modernisation programmes dedicated to improving energy efficiency.

  4. Evaluation of monitoring data of the German Environmental Specimen Bank using the Hasse diagram technique; Bewertung von Monitoringdaten der Umweltprobenbank des Bundes mit der Hasse-Diagramm-Technik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helm, D. [Umweltbundesamt, Fachgebiet II 1.4-S, Berlin (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    On behalf of the Federal Environment Ministry the Federal Environmental Agency operates the German Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB), which targets are to record and evaluate pollution data of selected ecological systems. Scope of the present study is to check the possibilities of the Hasse diagram technique (HDT) for the assessment of ESB data, mainly with regard to evaluations and conclusions. Xenobiotic body burden in Bream musculature (Abramis brama); measured in 1997, was exemplary used to answer these questions. Focus was put on ecosystemic assessment. The results clearly show that HDT is a valuable method for the graphical display, interpretation and comparative evaluation of pollution data, HDT visualises data qualitatively and in summary. Additionally, differences between pollution patterns are revealed, which suggest different contamination processes and entries. An ecosystemic approach of assessment is achieved by simultaneous consideration of different xenobiotics. (orig.)

  5. Fordampning fra pileanlæg med bund. En undersøgelse af vegetations- og klimaforholds indflydelse på fordampningen i spildevandsanlæg

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenild, Susanne

    2005-01-01

    #The actual evapotranspiration (ETA) was investigated over a year in two constructed wetland systems functioning as single household wastewater systems located in Denmark. A polyethylene-lined basin filled with soil is planted with clones of willow (Salix viminalis) grown as a short rotation coppice. The basin receives input from wastewater and precipitation and has no discharge but the water is evapotranspired by the willow and nutrients are consumed by the willow biomass, which ...

  6. The climate change law of the federal government. Analyses and proposals to its further development; Das Klimaschutzrecht des Bundes. Analyse und Vorschlaege zu seiner Weiterentwicklung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sina, Stephan; Garstetter, Christiane; Bausch, Camilla; Goerlach, Benjamin; Neubauer, Alexander [Ecologic gGmbH Institut fuer Internationale und Europaeische Umweltpolitik, Berlin (Germany); Rodi, Michael [Greifswald Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer oeffentliches Recht, Finanz- und Steuerrecht

    2011-09-15

    The present report provides an analysis of the current German federal climate change law. Due to the crosssectoral character of this law, the study comprises regulations from different sectors and areas of law such as emissions trading, the energy sector and agriculture. Based on this analysis, proposals for the advancement of the German federal law of climate change are developed in five particular areas: a potential outline for a general climate protection act serving as the central legal act for climate change law, further considerations on the structure of climate change law, development proposals related to energy grids, federal requirements for municipal climate protection as well as agricultural land use. (orig.)

  7. Energy Research 2006 - Overview; Recherche energetique/Energie-Forschung 2006. Rapports de synthese des chefs de programme/Ueberblicksberichte der Programmleiter. Konzept der Energieforschung des Bundes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-05-15

    This comprehensive annual report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) contains the overview-reports for the year 2006 that were made by the heads of the following Swiss energy research programmes: Efficient energy use, renewable energy, nuclear energy and fundamentals of energy economics. Under the topic of efficient energy use, new planning tools and a building component catalogue are mentioned along with new developments in building technology. In the traffic area, energy-optimisation of components and drive systems are mentioned as are electric bikes and a taxi system running on tracks. High-temperature superconductors, permanent magnet motors along with alternative power generation and storage systems are reviewed. New electricity grid systems and energy hubs are reported on. In the heat pump area, hot-water preparation, quality assurance and magnetic heat pumps are listed. Combustion topics reviewed include large diesel engines and catalytic oxidation in gas turbines. The new 'Power Station 2020' program is introduced with combined heat and power stations and efficient gas turbines. Fuel cells and hydrogen production and storage are looked at, as are process integration topics in the industrial area. Renewable energy topics described include design software and testing systems for solar heating systems, thin-film photovoltaics, industrial use of solar energy and solar production of hydrogen. Biomass and wood-fuel topics are covered, including the gasification of biomass. Cost reduction in small-scale hydro schemes is reported on as are hydropower schemes using drinking water and waste water. Geothermal energy and deep-heat mining are reported on, as is the use of geothermal probes for heating and cooling. Research and field testing done in the wind-energy area and the social acceptance of such installations are presented. In the nuclear energy area, safety and waste disposal issues are covered, as are a future reactor generation, safety research and work on controlled nuclear fusion. Energy-economics topics include contributions on building energy certificates, highly volatile oil prices, wood heating and district heating systems. The opening of the natural gas market in Switzerland is discussed.

  8. Kuerschner's energy manual. Political contacts at national, state and European level; Kuerschners Handbuch Energie. Politikkontakte Bund, Land, Europa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holzapfel, Andreas (ed.)

    2011-07-01

    The manual is in three sections: 1. Parliaments and governments, survey and organization; 2. Biographic section, with 453 biography; 3. Index of names. The first section informs on the organizational structure of parliaments and governments. The subject of energy is discussed three times, i.e. in 'Economics', 'Environment', and 'Research'. For each parliament, the members of the energy policy TCs are listed, followed by names and contact addresses of the senior officials and departments with contact data, both on a national, state, and European scale. The second section contains the biographies of energy policy experts of the German parliament and government, the sixteen land parliaments and governments, and the European Commissions. As the subject of energy is highly interdisciplinary, the authors selected the energy policy committees of the German parliament and state parliaments. The biographies of the committee members are presented in the text.

  9. Bestimmung der Messunsicherheit für die Verfahren und Methoden zur Bodenanalytik des Anhanges 1 der Bundes-Bodenschutz- und Altlastenverordnung

    OpenAIRE

    NESTLER Angelika

    2010-01-01

    The Federal Soil Protection and Contaminated Sites Ordinance (BBodSchV, 1999) regulates action, trigger and precautionary values for contaminants in soils. The requirements in soil analysis and quality assurance are committed including the estimation of measurement uncertainty as well as the indication of measurement uncertainty for the measurement results of the analysis. Without the information of measurement uncertainty decision making with respect to whether measureme...

  10. Distribution coefficients of chlorinated hydrocarbons between muscle tissue and liver in fish. A contribution to the Federal database of environmental samples (UPB); Verteilungskoeffizienten chlorierter Kohlenwasserstoffe zwischen Muskulatur und Leber bei Fischen. Ein Beitrag zur Umweltprobenbank des Bundes (UPB)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schramm, K.W.; Oxynos, K.; Schmitzer, J. [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit Neuherberg GmbH, Oberschleissheim (Germany). Inst. fuer Oekologische Chemie; Marth, P.; Kettrup, A. [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit Neuherberg GmbH, Oberschleissheim (Germany). Inst. fuer Oekologische Chemie; Technische Univ. Muenchen, Freising (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Oekologische Chemie und Umweltanalytik; Wolf, A. [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit GmbH, Neuherberg (Germany). Klinische Kooperationsgruppe Umweltdermatologie und Allergologie; Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Dermatologie und Allergologie am Biederstein; Hahn, K. [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit Neuherberg GmbH, Oberschleissheim (DE). Inst. fuer Medizinische Informatik und Systemforschung (MEDIS)

    1999-09-01

    Measured distribution coefficients (KL{sub M/L}) related to lipid concentrations between the muscle (C{sub ML}) and liver (C{sub LL}) tissue of two fish species (Abramis brama, Zoarces viviparus) exhibit nominal values of unity according to the relationship KL{sub M/L}=C{sub ML}/C{sub LL}=1 for persistent compounds such as highly chlorinated PCB and values above one for degradable compounds for example chlorinated cyclohexanes or DDT. The corresponding theory is presented. The relationship holds for samples for single fish as well as for pooled samples. (orig.) [German] Lipidbezogene Verteilungskoeffizienten (KL{sub M/L}) zwischen Muskelkonzentrationen- (C{sub ML}) und Leberkonzentrationen (C{sub LL}) zweier Friedfischarten Brassen (Abramis brama) und Aalmutter (Zoarces viviparus) ergeben theoriekonform (KL{sub M/L}=C{sub ML}/C{sub LL}=1) nominale Werte um 1 fuer persistente (hochchlorierte PCB) und Werte ueber 1 fuer metabolisierbare lipophile Umweltchemikalien wie chlorierte Cyclohexane oder DDT. (orig.)

  11. Developments of the climate protection law and the climate change policy 2014-2015. Pt. 2. Federal government, federal states and municipalities; Entwicklungen des Klimaschutzrechts und der Klimaschutzpolitik 2014/2015. T. 2. Bund, Bundeslaender und Kommunen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staesche, Uta [Hochschule fuer Wirtschaft und Recht (HWR), Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Klimaschutz, Energie und Mobilitaet (IKEM)

    2015-08-14

    According to the motto of the energy transition the Federal Government set herself targets in the areas of greenhouse gas emissions, renewable energy and energy efficiency. Main emphasis of its climate change policy is the implementation of the 2014/15 Action Programme Climate Protection 2020. A key measure discussed here is the climate contribution of the German electricity sector, is now being implemented in a significantly modified form. With a view on the long-term climate objectives prepares the federal government the national climate change plan 2050; the federal government promote locally climate protection within the framework of the National Climate Protection Initiative (NKI) in a Variety of projects. On the level of the federal states intensifies clearly the trend of the legal protection of federal climate protection targets. In addition to the federal levels are also the municipalities still active in various climate protection projects. [German] Unter dem Leitwort der Energiewende hat sich die Bundesregierung Ziele in den Bereichen Treibhausgasemissionen, erneuerbare Energien und Energieeffizienz gesetzt. Schwerpunkt ihrer Klimaschutzpolitik bildet 2014/15 die Umsetzung des Aktionsprogramms Klimaschutz 2020. Als eine zentrale Massnahme wurde hier der Klimabeitrag des deutschen Stromsektors diskutiert, der nun in deutlich abgewandelter Form umgesetzt wird. Mit Blick auf die langfristigen Klimaschutzziele bereitet die Bundesregierung den nationalen Klimaschutzplan 2050 vor; Klimaschutz vor Ort foerdert sie im Rahmen der Nationalen Klimaschutzinitiative (NKI) in einer Vielzahl von Projekten. Auf Ebene der Bundeslaender verstaerkt sich deutlich der Trend der gesetzlichen Absicherung von Landesklimaschutzzielen. Neben den ueberregionalen Ebenen sind auch die Kommunen weiterhin in vielfaeltigen Klimaschutzprojekten aktiv.

  12. Kernbereiche und Reformbedarf Auswärtiger Kulturpolitik des Bundes- unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Arbeit ausgewählter Goethe-Institute und Deutscher Schulen in Europa

    OpenAIRE

    Altmann, Elisabeth

    2003-01-01

    Absichten und Ziele der Arbeit sind::br:- die These von der dritten Säule der Außenpolitik, Auswärtige Kultur- und Bildungspolitik neben der Außenwirtschafts- und der Sicherheitspolitik, wie Willy Brandt es 1967 formuliert hat, zu überprüfen. Für die Betrachtung des Aufbaus der Säule rücken die Mittlerorganisationen, vor allem aber das Goethe-Institut und die Deutschen Schulen in den Mittelpunkt.:br:- der Debatte um den Reformbedarf im Bereich der Auswärtigen Kultur- und Bildungspolitik des B...

  13. Bundes-Immissionsschutzgesetz (Federal Nuisance Protection Act). BImSchG, BImSch-Verordnungen, EMASPrivilegV, Biokraft-NachV, TA Luft, TA Laerm, USchadG, TEHG, ZuG 2012, ZuV 2012, EHVV 2012, FlugISchG, 2. FlugLSV. 29. ed.; Bundes-Immissionsschutzgesetz. BImSchG, BImSch-Verordnungen, EMASPrivilegV, Biokraft-NachV, TA Luft, TA Laerm, USchadG, TEHG, ZuG 2012, ZuV 2012, EHVV 2012, FlugISchG, 2. FlugLSV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansmann, Klaus (ed.)

    2011-07-01

    After a detailed introduction, the book goes into detail about the specifications of the Federal Immission Control Act (BImSchG). Also discussed are all regulations for the implementation of the BImSchG, the EMAS-Privilegierungsverordnung (privileges ordinance), the biofuels sustainibility ordinance (Biokraft-NachV), the Technical Instructions on Air Quality Control (TA Luft) and the Technical Instructions on Noise Control (TA Laerm), the Environmental Damage Act (Umweltschadensgesetz), the Greenhouse Gas Emissions Act (Treibhausgas-Emissionshandelsgesetz), the Allocation Act (Zuteilungsgesetz 2012), the Allocation Ordinance (Zuteilungsverordnung 2012), the Auctioning Ordinance (Emissionshandels-Versteigerungsverordnung 2012), and the Aircraft Noise Act (Gesetz zum Schutz gegen Fluglaerm) and the Ordinance on Noise Protection in Airports (Flugplatz-Schallschutzmassnahmenverordnung).

  14. Jitka Balcarová: „Jeden za všechny, všichni za jednoho!“ Bund der Deutschen a jeho předchůdci v procesu utváření „sudetoněmecké identity“

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nosková, Jana

    Vol. Bd 22. Oldenburg : Bundesinstitut für Kultur und Geschichte der Deutschen im östlichen Europa, 2015. s. 465-466. ISBN 978-3-486-78144-1. ISSN 1865-5696 Institutional support: RVO:68378076 Keywords : Germans * unity * Sudeten * german identity Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  15. The EEG as an instrument of the Federal areal management of renewable energies - also a contribution to the discussion about energy sectoral planning; Das EEG als Instrument des Bundes zur raeumlichen Steuerung der erneuerbaren Energien - zugleich ein Beitrag zur Diskussion um eine Energiefachplanung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruener, Anna-Maria [Stiftung Umweltenergierecht, Wuerzburg (Germany); Sailer, Frank [Stiftung Umweltenergierecht, Wuerzburg (Germany). Forschungsgebiet Energieanlagen- und Infrastrukturrecht

    2016-05-15

    The areal management of the power generation structure takes place at first glance mainly on the Zoning and Planning Law, less than the energy law. The only sporadically encountered jurisprudential work for controlling effect of the EEG came to the conclusion, the current configuration of the support system in the EEG is in deficit and ''blind'' to the localization and areal distribution of energy generation plants in the Federal territory, although the EEG is representing a ''downright predestined management tool''. On closer inspection, however, shows that individual provisions have entirely certain location preferences or cause areal distribution effects and the EEG thus play a management effect. The contribution is therefore devoted to the question of whether and how the EEG 2014, with the overall network expansion and payment system is able to manage the energy production from renewable energy sources in the area and whether an energy specialist planning is useful and necessary. [German] Die raeumliche Steuerung der Energieerzeugungsstruktur findet auf den ersten Blick vornehmlich ueber das Raumordnungs- und Planungsrecht statt, weniger ueber das Energierecht. Die allenfalls vereinzelt anzutreffenden rechtswissenschaftlichen Arbeiten zur Steuerungsleistung des EEG kommen zu dem Ergebnis, die jetzige Ausgestaltung des Foerdersystems im EEG sei defizitaer und ''blind'' gegenueber der Lokalisierung und raeumlichen Verteilung von EE-Anlagen im Bundesgebiet, obwohl das EEG doch ein ''geradezu praedestiniertes Steuerungsinstrument'' darstelle. Bei naeherer Betrachtung zeigt sich jedoch, dass einzelne Regelungen durchaus bestimmte Standortpraeferenzen aufweisen bzw. raeumliche Verteilungseffekte bewirken und dem EEG damit eine steuernde Wirkung zukommt. Der Beitrag widmet sich daher der Frage, ob und wie das EEG 2014 sowie das allgemeine Netzausbau- und -entgeltsystem die Energieerzeugung aus erneuerbaren Energien raeumlich zu steuern vermoegen und ob eine Energiefachplanung sinnvoll und notwendig ist.

  16. 20 January 2011 - Hessischer Minister für Bundesangelegenheiten und Bevollmächtigter des Landes beim Bund, Hessen, Germany M. Boddenberg signing the guest book with CERN Director-General R. Heuer and Head of International Relations F. Pauss; in the ALICE surafce exhibition and underground experimental area with P. Braun-Munzinger, V.Lindenstruth and Adviser R. Voss.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2011-01-01

    Michael Boddenberg, Hessian Minister for Federal Affairs and Representative of Hessen in the Federal Government, visited CERN on 20 January. His tour included the ALICE experiment, the LHC tunnel, the CERN Computer Centre and CERN Control Centre.

  17. Ein nationaler Stabilitätspakt - aber wie?

    OpenAIRE

    Dieter Vesper

    2002-01-01

    Die Auseinandersetzungen der Bundesregierung mit der EU-Kommission um das hohe Staatsdefizit in Deutschland haben auch zu einem Streit zwischen Bund und Ländern darüber geführt, welche Ebene es an mangelnder Etatdisziplin habe fehlen lassen. Zur Einhaltung des europäischen Wachstums- und Stabilitätspakts erinnert der Bund die Länder an ihre Bringschuld. Die Länder reagieren zurückhaltend und verweisen auf ihre Haushaltsautonomie; nach Art. 109 Abs. 1 GG sind Bund und Länder in ihrer Haushalts...

  18. Reduzierte Bodenbearbeitung - Umsetzung im biologischen Landbau

    OpenAIRE

    Hegglin, Django; Dierauer, Hansueli; Clerc, Maurice

    2014-01-01

    Das Merkblatt zeigt Vorteile und Herausforderungen der reduzierten Bodenbearbeitung. Es stellt verschiedene Verfahren, Anwendungsbeispiele und Maschinen vor und erläutert die Rahmenbedingungen für den Bezug von Direktzahlungen im Rahmen des Ressourceneffizienzprogrammes des Bundes.

  19. Licensing and regulatory control of nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper deals with the legal background, the role of the 'Bund' (Federation) and the 'Laender' (States) in the field of atomic energy and radiation protection law and the licensing procedure for nuclear power plants. (RW)

  20. Er vi ved at date os til døde?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tem Frank

    2014-01-01

    Den amerikanske kulturkritiker Neil Postman skrev tilbage i 1970'erne om fjernsynets indflydelse på vores forstand, vores kognitive kompetencer, vores kulturelle præferencer og i bund og grund om vores civilisations intellektuelle tilstand....

  1. Lahar hazard assessment using Titan2D for an alluvial fan with rapidly changing geomorphology: Whangaehu River, Mt. Ruapehu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procter, J. N.; Cronin, S. J.; Fuller, I. C.; Sheridan, M.; Neall, V. E.; Keys, H.

    2010-03-01

    Rapid changes in small areas at the apex of alluvial fans may have devastating consequences by directing downstream flood or lahar impacts into catchments of widely varying population or infrastructure vulnerability. During a series of lahars in 1995 at Mt. Ruapehu, New Zealand, aggradation of the Whangaehu fan apex (draining the eastern edifice) caused the onset of avulsion of flows northward into the highly vulnerable Tongariro catchment. An earth training dike (or bund) was constructed to protect this catchment by retaining flows on the southern side and the normal lahar outlet path to the south. Surveys in 2001, late 2005, and following a major lahar in March 2007 now show net degradation of a channel in the Whangaehu fan apex, bordered by the bund. This indicates a net increase in the channel capacity at this site and shows that the bund remains at its effective design capacity. Past hydrological modelling used for the bund design provided a large range of discharge estimates but lacked precise constraints on the size and nature of lahars from eruption and lake-breakout events. New modelling has been carried out using Titan2D to examine the impacts of a 6 × 10 6 m 3 volume granular flow down this catchment. This simulates either an eruption or a lake breakout-induced lahar with a historically typical volumetric bulking factor of 4. These simulations predict minimum discharges between 1800 and 2100 m 3/s at the bund site. By comparison, the largest 1995 flow at this site was estimated at around 1200 m 3/s. Further, any single modelled flow from the normal outlet channel of Crater Lake could not be induced to overtop the bund because discharge appears to be limited by the narrow upper reaches of the Whangaehu Gorge. Theoretical discharge levels required to overtop the bund are estimated to be > 6800 m 3/s, assuming no aggradation of the channel by the decelerating flow. Maximum potential discharge at the bund site is additionally modified by potential

  2. A radiation hazard for humans and the environment. Assessment of the harmonisation of the German Radiation Protection Ordinance with the demands of EU Directive 96/29/Euratom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The German Association for Environmental Protection and Nature Conservation (BUND), the International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War, Physicians for Social Responsibility, the Citizens' Environmental Protection Group of Luechow-Dannenberg, the Gorleben Legal Rights Group and the German Radiation Protection Society (GSS) have commissioned an assessment as to whether the draft amendment is in accord with current scientific knowledge and improves the degree of protection against ionising radiation in Germany. The independent experts of the BUND Radiation Protection Commission (BSK) have come to the conclusion that this is not the case

  3. Environmental law in North-Rhine Westphalia. The main laws and regulations on the Federal and Land levels with particular regard to municipal and environmental protection. Vol. 3. LegaL provisions governing the law of hazardous materials, regional planning, construction and transport, environmental impact assessment, civil environmental liabilty, criminal and administrative offences and administrative charges. As of February 1, 1992. Umweltrecht in Nordrhein-Westfalen. Die wesentlichen Vorschriften des Bundes und des Landes unter Beruecksichtigung des kommunalen Umweltschutzes. Bd. 3. Gefahrstoffrecht, Raumordnung, Landesplanung, Bau- und Verkehrswesen, Umweltvertraeglichkeit, Umwelthaftung, Straftaten, Ordnungswidrigkeiten, Verwaltungsgebuehren. Stand: 1. Februar 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kippels, K. (comp.)

    1992-01-01

    The 3rd volume of the 3-volume collection contains the texts of all legal provisions governing the law of hazardous materials, regional planning, construction and transport, environmental impact assessment, civil environmental liability, criminal and administrative offences and administrative charges that are in force and must be observed in North-Rhine Westphalia. (HSCH).

  4. "Ma ei usu Jumalasse, kuid tunnen temast puudust" / Urmas Petti

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Petti, Urmas, 1965-

    2013-01-01

    Ameerika õigusfilosoofi Ronald Dworkini "jumalatu religiooni" kontseptsioonist; pealkiri on inglise kirjaniku Julin Barnes'i tsitaat, millest sai Šveitsi ajalehe Der Bund esseekonkursi teema aastal 2011; autor tsiteerb veel Mihkel Kunnust (Humanismi õnnetusi, Sirp, 6. aug. 2010), Torgny Lindgren ja Jeanette Wintersoni

  5. Fra 'Face' til Interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas K.

    2008-01-01

    En kollega lånte mig en udgave af Ervin Goffmanns "The Presentation of self in everyday life," der i bund og grund handler om, hvordan mennesket dramatiserer eller fremstiller sig selv i hverdagen. Goffmann deler det, vi normalt kalder "indtryk", op i expression og impression. Expression er i det...

  6. Fractional calculus and continuous-time finance II: the waiting-time distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainardi, Francesco; Raberto, Marco; Gorenflo, Rudolf; Scalas, Enrico

    2000-12-01

    We complement the theory of tick-by-tick dynamics of financial markets based on a continuous-time random walk (CTRW) model recently proposed by Scalas et al. (Physica A 284 (2000) 376), and we point out its consistency with the behaviour observed in the waiting-time distribution for BUND future prices traded at LIFFE, London.

  7. The supply of nuclear raw materials to the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Federal Republic of Germany will account for about 10% of the Western uranium demand. To improve the supply and reserves situation, German mining companies, with financial aid by the power industry and the Bund, have joined in the search for uranium deposits at home and abroad. (orig.)

  8. Estonia continues silly anti-Russian hysteria / Peter Shmelev

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Shmelev, Peter

    2011-01-01

    President Toomas Hendrik Ilvese intervjuust Šveitsi ajalehele Der Bund, millest suur osa rääkis suhetest Venemaaga ja probleemidest venekeelse elanikkonnaga Eestis. Artikli autori arvates peaksid Eesti presidendi säärased propagandistlikud väljaütlemised saama kindla vastuse Venemaa ametlikest struktuuridest

  9. An assessment on the influence of salinity in the growth of black clam (Villorita cyprinoides in cage in Cochin Estuary with a special emphasis on the impact of Thanneermukkom salinity barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aloorkalarickal U. Arun

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Regular tidal flow, estuarine circulation and other allied hydrographical parameters in the Cochin Estuary has changed due to regular closure and opening of Thanneermukkom bund and entry of saline water in to the estuary. Temperature, salinity and bottom sediment texture are found to be the important factors significant for the growth and survival of bivalves. The environmental condition on different parts of the estuary especially at station II (south of bund, station IV (north of bund and station V (near to bar mouth showed a clear and distinct variation in all the hydrographical parameters due to the existence of Thanneermukkom bund and bar mouth. At stations II the frequency of temperature fluctuation was high and the dominant environment was freshwater when compared with station IV. Sediment texture at station II was sandy silt and at station IV was silty sand. At station V the dominant condition was saline and sediment texture was clayey in nature. A higher salinity was noted throughout the study period at station V. At station II the annual average growth was 8.48 mm; at station IV it was 15.15 mm and at station V it was 9.64 mm. Moderate level of salinity is found to be a favourable factor for the growth of Villorita cyprinoides. Growth rates of smaller clams were found to be higher than larger clams.

  10. LEGO, Legoland og Billund Lalandia nr. 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth Pasgaard, Jens Chr.

    2007-01-01

    Projektet 'Shrinking Cities' opstartet i 2002 med støtte fra den tyske kunstfond 'Kulturstiftung des Bundes' satte fokus på en række byer (fx Detroit og Leipzig), der oplever misvækst som en konsekvens af produktionsudflytning til lavtlønslande og efterfølgende fabrikslukninger. I sådanne byer har...

  11. Skuffende forsideartikel i Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole John

    2008-01-01

    Lørdag den 31. marts 2007 skriver Jørgen Steen Nielsen en forside-artikel med overskriften 'Der er ingen CO2-grund til at spare på elektriciteten'. Det er skuffende at JSN ikke kommer lidt mere til bunds i materien. JSN burde vide og skrive, at det, der skal til , er en global enighed om hvilken ...

  12. Marginalskatterne efter Pinsepakken

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldager, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Et væsentligt element i pinsepakken var en nedsættelse af bundskatteprocenten fra 8 i 1998 til 5,5 i 2002. Satserne for mellem- og topskat er i samme periode hhv. 6 og 15%. Udviklingen i kommune- og amtsskatterne har bevirket, at så godt som alle bund- og mellemskatteydere har oplevet et fald i...

  13. Land has power. Energy transition an opportunity for rural areas. Documentation; Land unter Strom. Die Energiewende als Chance fuer den laendlichen Raum. Dokumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bredenbeck, Martin; Gotzmann, Inge (comps.)

    2015-07-01

    The energy transition affects the rural areas of Germany in particular. Which Opportunities and risks this brings there shows a new release of Bund Heimat und Umwelt in Deutschland (German heritage and Environmental Foundation (BHU)). The Federation of heritage and civic associations devoted to the question of how to the conventional expansion of renewable energies innovative options can added. Thereby a diversified positioning of energy use, the advancement of historical forms of use and the spatial differentiation are important factors. [German] Die Energiewende betrifft die laendlichen Raeume Deutschlands in besonderem Masse. Welche Chancen und Risiken sie dort bringt, zeigt eine Neuerscheinung des Bund Heimat und Umwelt in Deutschland (BHU). Der Bundesverband der Heimatverbaende, Heimat- und Buergervereine widmet sich der Frage, wie zum konventionellen Ausbau erneuerbarer Energien innovative Optionen hinzutreten koennen. Eine breite Aufstellung von Energienutzungen, die Weiterentwicklung historischer Nutzungsformen und die raeumliche Differenzierung sind dabei wichtige Faktoren.

  14. Law on Preventive Radiation Protection. A link between environmental protection and civil defence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roewer, H.

    1988-01-01

    The Law on Preventive Radiation Protection defines the legal framework of and the measures to be taken for achieving the purpose of the law, with competences being assigned to a variety of authorities of the Bund or Laender. The bill very quickly passed Parliament and this indeed is a very positive result, as the subject is a delicate one, politically speaking, but the disadvantages of the short law-making period are realized when going through the various provisions. There is a lack of exactness regarding terms and definitions, legal systematics, or assignment of competences. Also, lack of clear demarcation of applicability of the law against other laws in this field is likely to pose problems in practice. The article also presents a survey of tasks and competences assigned to the Bund or the Laender, and the relevant authorities concerned. (orig./HSCH).

  15. The Law on Preventive Radiation Protection. A link between environmental protection and civil defence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Law on Preventive Radiation Protection defines the legal framework of and the measures to be taken for achieving the purpose of the law, with competences being assigned to a variety of authorities of the Bund or Laender. The bill very quickly passed Parliament and this indeed is a very positive result, as the subject is a delicate one, politically speaking, but the disadvantages of the short law-making period are realized when going through the various provisions. There is a lack of exactness regarding terms and definitions, legal systematics, or assignment of competences. Also, lack of clear demarcation of applicability of the law against other laws in this field is likely to pose problems in practice. The article also presents a survey of tasks and competences assigned to the Bund or the Laender, and the relevant authorities concerned. (orig./HSCH)

  16. Correlations in the bond-future market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuniberti, Gianaurelio; Raberto, Marco; Scalas, Enrico

    1999-07-01

    We analyse the time series of overnight returns for the BUND and BTP futures exchanged at LIFFE (London). The overnight returns of both assets are mapped onto a one-dimensional symbolic-dynamics random walk: The “bond walk”. During the considered period (October 1991-January 1994) the BUND-future market opened earlier than the BTP-future one. The crosscorrelations between the two bond walks, as well as estimates of the conditional probability, show that they are not independent; however each walk can be modelled by means of a trinomial probability distribution. Monte Carlo simulations confirm that it is necessary to take into account the bivariate dependence in order to properly reproduce the statistical properties of the real-world data. Various investment strategies have been devised to exploit the “prior” information obtained by the aforementioned analysis.

  17. European sovereign bond spreads: monetary unification, market conditions and financial integration.

    OpenAIRE

    Georgoutsos, Dimitris A.; Petros Migiakis

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we examine the dynamics of European sovereign bond yield spreads focusing on issues related to financial integration and market conditions. The finding of near-unit-root effects highlights the need for careful econometric specification. Thus we formulate sovereign bond yield spreads, for eleven EMU countries against the Bund for the period 1992:1-2009:12, as AR(1) processes, while allowing for regime switching effects, along the lines of a Markovian probabilistic specification. ...

  18. The effect of acquisition reform on small business participation in the Federal marketplace

    OpenAIRE

    Cheifetz, Aaron A.

    2004-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited This thesis investigates the effect that acquisition reform has had on small business participation in the Federal contracting arena. As a result of the transformation of the Federal acquisition process through acquisition reform legislation and the reduction in the acquisition workforce, small business contractors are faced with new challenges to compete for and win Federal contracts. This paper concentrates on examining contract bund...

  19. Induction of Functional Hair-Cell-Like Cells from Mouse Cochlear Multipotent Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Quanwen Liu; Yi Shen; Jiarong Chen; Jie Ding; Zihua Tang; Cui Zhang; Jianling Chen; Liang Li; Ping Chen; Jinfu Wang

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we developed a two-step-induction method of generating functional hair cells from inner ear multipotent cells. Multipotent cells from the inner ear were established and induced initially into progenitor cells committed to the inner ear cell lineage on the poly-L-lysine substratum. Subsequently, the committed progenitor cells were cultured on the mitotically inactivated chicken utricle stromal cells and induced into hair-cell-like cells containing characteristic stereocilia bund...

  20. Anonymous electronic trading versus floor trading

    OpenAIRE

    Franke, Günter; Hess, Dieter

    1995-01-01

    This paper compares the attractiveness of floor trading and anonymous electronic trading systems. It is argued that in times of low information intensity the insight into the order book of the electronic trading system provides more valuable information than floor trading, but in times of high information intensity the reverse is true. Thus, the electronic system's market share in trading activity should decline in times of high information intensity. This hypothesis is tested by data on BUND...

  1. Land has power. Energy transition an opportunity for rural areas. Documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energy transition affects the rural areas of Germany in particular. Which Opportunities and risks this brings there shows a new release of Bund Heimat und Umwelt in Deutschland (German heritage and Environmental Foundation (BHU)). The Federation of heritage and civic associations devoted to the question of how to the conventional expansion of renewable energies innovative options can added. Thereby a diversified positioning of energy use, the advancement of historical forms of use and the spatial differentiation are important factors.

  2. Vegetation and sediment control: the potential of natural regeneration and assisted forest restoration

    OpenAIRE

    Aerts, Raf; Reubens, Bert; Descheemaeker, Katrien; Muys, Bart

    2007-01-01

    Runoff is an important process in land degradation, causing soil erosion, generating sediment and influencing the soil water balance and hydrology at catchment scale. In addition to the construction of physical soil conservation structures (such as stone bunds and check dams), afforestation, reforestation or vegetation restoration may be used for reducing runoff and thus erosion on slopes and in gullies and sedimentation of water reservoirs. The contribution of vegetation to soil and water ...

  3. “Loose lips sinking markets?": the impact of political communication on sovereign bond spreads

    OpenAIRE

    Gade, Thomas; Salines, Marion; Glöckler, Gabriel; Strodthoff, Steffen

    2013-01-01

    Taking a cue from the assertion that “loose lips sink markets” (Carmassi and Micossi, 2010), this paper investigates to what extent and why political communication has had an impact on the sovereign bond spreads of selected euro area countries over the German Bund. Drawing on 25,000 news media releases between January 2009 and October 2011, it empirically compares political communication across various political actors at the supranational and national levels in the euro area. It finds empiri...

  4. Die Raumfahrtpolitik des Bundesforschungsministeriums

    OpenAIRE

    Weyer, Johannes

    2005-01-01

    Der vorliegende Beitrag befasst sich mit der Raumfahrtpolitik des Bundesforschungsministeriums. Zunächst wird auf die Raketenforschung der Nachkriegszeit 1945-1955 eingegangen. Im Anschluss wird der Aufbau einer forschungspolitischen Identität des Bundes auf dem Wege über die Weltraumforschung (1955-1969) nachgezeichnet. Im vierten Kapitel werden die Probleme und Herausforderungen der Raumfahrtpolitik (1969-1982) beleuchtet. Danach widmet sich der Autor der bemannten Raumfahrt und dem Aufbruc...

  5. Schwerelose Gefahr für das Immunsystem

    OpenAIRE

    Ullrich, O

    2009-01-01

    Forscher der Universität Zürich und die Schweizer Luftwaffe arbeiten gemeinsam an einem der Hauptprobleme der bemannten Raumfahrt – dem Einfluss der Schwerelosigkeit auf das Immunsystem. Die Luftwaffe ist im Projekt gleich doppelt vertreten: Einerseits gehört Berufsmilitärpilot Marc Studer dem Forschungsteam an und andererseits hat der Lufttransportdienst des Bundes (LTDB) den Transport der zu erforschenden Zellen übernommen.

  6. Quantifying the Media Bias in Intensity Surveys: Lessons from the 2001 Bhuj, India, Earthquake

    OpenAIRE

    Hough, Susan E.; Pande, Prabhas

    2007-01-01

    Many seismologists have looked at the 26 January 2001 Bhuj earthquake as a key modern calibration event that could be used to improve estimates of magnitudes of large historic mainshocks in stable continental regions. Since no instrumental data are available for important historic events such as the 1819 Allah Bund, India, and the 1811–1812 New Madrid, central U.S. mainshocks, calibration hinges on comparisons of the macroseismic effects of these earthquakes with those of comparable modern ea...

  7. Adoption and economic impact of water conservation and intensification methods on input demand, output supply, and net returns in lowland rice production of northern Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Faltermeier, Andrea Liane Linda

    2009-01-01

    Rice is an important cereal to Ghana’s economy and agriculture. While there is huge potential for lowland rice cultivation in northern Ghana, erratic rainfall and low and degrading soil fertility remain the key constraints of production. The present study analyzes the adoption decision and the impact of bund technology and dibbling method on fertilizer demand, output supply, and net returns. The present analysis explicitly takes account of selection bias by employing endogenous switching ...

  8. Nachhaltige Bodenbewirtschaftung und Bodenschutz

    OpenAIRE

    Ehrnsberger, Rainer

    2010-01-01

    Es werden aus bodenbiologischer Sicht die Funktion, Bedeutung und Gefährdung unserer Böden dargestellt und die Ziele einer nachhaltigen Bodenbewirtschaftung angesichts der allgemeinen Diskussion um "Sustainable Development" erläutert. Die Neuerungen des Bundes-Bodenschutzgesetzes von 1998 werden diskutiert und anhand der Ergebnisse einer Machbarkeitsstudie zum Thema "Erlebnisbereich Boden" dargelegt, wie die Ziele einer nachhaltigen Bodenbewirtschaftung gerade in einer neuen Dauerausstellung ...

  9. なぜロシア・シオニストは文化的自治を批判したのか : シオニズムの「想像の文脈」とオーストリア・マルクス主義民族理論

    OpenAIRE

    鶴見, 太郎

    2010-01-01

    The Russian Zionist movement and the Bund (Jewish Labor Union) were rivals in Jewish politics in the Russian Empire. While they both attempted to improve the status of Jews within the Empire by participating in the Russian political arena, an important difference resided in the Zionists' insistence on the need for a territory for Jews. On the surface, the cause of this difference seems evident: the Zionists conceived of the system of nation-state, whereas the Bundists considered a multi-natio...

  10. Racism, xenophobia and ethnic discrimination in Germany : update report 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Peucker, Mario

    2009-01-01

    Der vorliegende Bericht enthält ergänzende statistische Daten und Informationen zum Bericht "Rassismus, Fremdenfeindlichkeit und ethnische Diskriminierung in Deutschland 2007". Er beschreibt die relevanten Entwicklungen im Bereich von Rassismus und ethnischer Diskriminierung von Migranten, die zwischen Januar und Oktober 2008 festzustellen waren. Zu Beginn werden die Ziele und Aufgaben der Antidiskriminierungsstelle des Bundes (ADS) dargestellt und die jüngsten Gerichtsentscheidungen zur rass...

  11. Traditional Knowledge System (Medicine): A Case Study of Arakalgud Taluk, Karnataka, India

    OpenAIRE

    B K Harish Kumara; K Lenin Babu

    2009-01-01

    This paper attempts to assess the status of Traditional Knowledge Systems (TKS) as a tool of conservation in the Arakalgud administrative unit of Karnataka. The Study is based on the field investigation and interaction with the followers of Traditional systems such as healers and practitioners. Many plants in traditional agricultural systems have medicinal value; these are found in home gardens, as scattered trees in croplands and grazing lands on field bunds. Consequently there has been a re...

  12. Wandel in der Implementation des Deutschen Embryonenschutzgesetzes

    OpenAIRE

    Bals-Pratsch M; Dittrich R; Frommel M

    2010-01-01

    Das Embryonenschutzgesetz (ESchG) bildet seit 1990 die rechtliche Grundlage für die Fortpflanzungmedizin in Deutschland. Die Bundesärztekammer (BÄK) hat aus diesem Gesetz (§ 1 Abs. 1 Nr. 3 und 5) die sogenannte Dreierregel herausgelesen. Damit hat sie zwar durch die Begrenzung des Transfers auf 3 Embryonen den Gesundheitsschutz der Frau hervorgehoben, gleichzeitig aber die reproduktiven Rechte der Frau eingeschränkt. Da die Fortschritte in der Reproduktionsmedizin, wie die Blastozystenkult...

  13. Provision of financial security for nuclear facilities taking into account actuarial preconditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Atomic Energy Act clearly differentiates between financial security to be provided by the owner of the nuclear facility on the basis of his costs, and an indemnification by the Bund based thereon in cases of emergency. Questions relevant to the nuclear insurance carriers resulting from the Third Act amending the Atomic Energy Act and from the amendment and supplement to the ordinance concerning the provision of financial security are discussed in detail and model solutions are proposed. (HP/LN)

  14. A Novel Graft Preparation Technique of the Quadriceps Tendon for Arthroscopic Double-Bundle Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Sang Eun; Ko, Yujin

    2013-01-01

    Surgical reconstruction is a general approach for an anterior cruciate ligament rupture. Techniques have evolved from single-bundle to double-bundle reconstruction to restore the 2 anatomically and functionally different bundles as much as possible. However, there is controversy regarding which method yields superior clinical outcomes. The purpose of this article is to introduce our new graft preparation method, which will potentially address the limitations of currently available double-bund...

  15. Bio-diversity and tribal cultivation practices

    OpenAIRE

    Das, V

    2009-01-01

    The tribal regions of Orissa used to contain a high biodiversity of crops which sustained the local tribal communities. However, due to deforestation and climate change influencing rainfall patterns, the rich soil and forests have disappeared leaving the tribal communities on the brink of starvation. Projects attempting to help the tribals have included measures such as agroforestry, contour cropping, vegetative bunds, and watershed improvements. These measures had poor sustainability and did...

  16. Toe rock stability for rubble mound breakwaters

    OpenAIRE

    Baart, S.; Ebbens, R.; Nammuni-Krohn, J.; Verhagen, H.J.

    2010-01-01

    Present design tools, as found in the Rock Manual or Coastal Engineering Manual, for the determination of toe rock size for rubble mound breakwaters are based on test data with a large spread: data is relatively dispersed around the centre and descriptive equations have limited applicability ranges. New research has been undertaken to contribute to a more accurate description of toe rock stability. Flume tests have lead to an empirical design criterion for toe bunds in very shallow water base...

  17. Study on Climatic Variation and Its Effect on Vegetable Type Soybean Genotypes at Khumaltar, Lalitpur in the Last Ten Years

    OpenAIRE

    Santosh Raj Tripathi; Jiban Shrestha; Jagat Devi Ranjit; Reshma Neupane

    2015-01-01

    Soybean (Glycine max L. Merril) is widely grown in the mid hills as intercrop with maize or in paddy bunds, while it is gaining popularity as sole crop in terai and inner terai. Mean temperature at Khumaltar during soybean growing period was mostly fluctuating; but we observed an increasing trend in temperature. Amount of rainfall was not changed dramatically but number of rainy days was decreased during study period. Rainfall during germination time increase soil moisture which also increase...

  18. オーストリア1920年連邦憲法とハンス・ケルゼン ―オーストリア法治主義(Legalitätsprinzip)の展開―(3)

    OpenAIRE

    奥, 正嗣; オク, マサツグ; Masatsugu, Oku

    2013-01-01

     This paper examines the Austrian Federal Constitution of 1920(Österreichisches Bundes-Verfassungsgesetz 1920). This constitution lays the foundations of the current Austrian Federal Constitution. The eminent Austrian jurist Hans Kelsen made different constitution drafts, and several Austrian political parties entered into heated controversies about these. Consequently, a range of views from Austrian people of that time are included in this constitution. On the other hand, the 1920 Austria Fe...

  19. オーストリア1920年連邦憲法とハンス・ケルゼン : オーストリア法治主義(Legalitätsprinzip)の展開(1)

    OpenAIRE

    奥, 正嗣; オク, マサツグ; Masatsugu, Oku

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the Austrian Federal Constitution of 1920 (Österreichisches Bundes-Verfassungsgesetz 1920). This constitution lays the foundations of the current Austrian Federal Constitution. The eminent Austrian jurist Hans Kelsen made different constitution drafts, and severalAustrian political parties entered into heated controversies about these. Consequently, a range of views from Austrian people of that time are included in this constitution. On the other hand, the 1920 Austria Fe...

  20. オーストリア1920年連邦憲法とハンス・ケルゼン -オーストリア法治主義(Legalitätsprinzip)の展開- (2)

    OpenAIRE

    奥, 正嗣; オク, マサツグ; Masatsugu, Oku

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the Austrian Federal Constitution of 1920 (Österreiches Bundes-Verfassungsgesetz 1920) which laid the foundation for the current constitution. The eminent Austrian jurist Hans Kelsen produced several draft constitutions, causing heated controversy among several political parties and resulting in a range of views from Austrian people being included in the 1920 Constitution. On the other hand, the 1920 Constitution also received important concepts such as popular sovereignty...

  1. オーストリア1920年連邦憲法とハンス・ケルゼン―オーストリア法治主義(Legalitätsprinzip)の展開―(4・完)

    OpenAIRE

    奥, 正嗣; オク, マサツグ; Masatsugu, Oku

    2013-01-01

     This paper examines the Austrian Federal Constitution of 1920 (Österreichisches Bundes-Verfassungsgesetz 1920) which laid the foundation for the current constitution. The eminent Austrian jurist Hans Kelsen produced several draft constitutions, causing heated controversy among several political parties and resulting in a range of views from Austrian people being included in the 1920 Constitution. On the other hand, the 1920 Constitution also received important concepts such as popular sovere...

  2. Public Smoking Bans, Youth Access Laws, and Cigarette Sales at Vending Machines

    OpenAIRE

    Kvasnicka, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Das vorliegende Papier untersucht anhand von Umsatzdaten an Zigarettenautomaten die Wirkungen von vier verschiedenen Maßnahmen zur Kontrolle bzw. Begrenzung des Zigarettenkonsums in Deutschland: die elektronische Alterskennung an Automaten (Januar 2007), die Anhebung des Mindestalters für den Erwerb und Konsum von Zigaretten von 16 auf 18 Jahren (September 2007), das Rauchverbot in Einrichtungen des Bundes (ebenfalls September 2007) sowie Rauchverbote in der Gastronomie auf Länderebene (zwisc...

  3. HOTEL INFORMATION SHANGHAI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Le Royal Meridien Shanghai Le Royal Meridien Shanghai is located in the center of Shanghai and is one of the city's tallest landmarks at 66 stories high. The iconic Bund is a short walk down the Nanjinglu Pedestrian Walkway, which is just beside the hotel. All rooms and suites provide a 42" plasma TV, DVD/CD player, rain shower system, wireless and high-speed Internet access, and floor-to-ceiling glass windows.

  4. Marginalskatterne efter pinsepakken

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldager, Peter

    Et væsentligt element i pinsepakken var en nedsættelse af bundskatteprocenten fra 8 i 1998 til 5,5 i 2002. Satserne for mellem- og topskat er i samme periode uændrede på hhv. 6 og 15%. Udviklingen i kommune- og amtsskatterne har bevirket, at så godt som alle bund- og mellemskatteydere har oplevet...

  5. Marginalskatterne efter pinsepakken

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Dubey, Amaresh

    2001-01-01

    Et væsentligt element i pinsepakken var en nedsættelse af bundskatteprocenten fra 8 i 1998 til 5,5 i 2002. Satserne for mellem- og topskat er i samme periode uændrede på hhv. 6 og 15%. Udviklingen i kommune- og amtsskatterne har bevirket, at så godt som alle bund- og mellemskatteydere har oplevet...

  6. Beitrag zur Diskussion über große Schutzgebiete im Unterharz aus rechtlicher Sicht am Beispiel des Selketalgebietes

    OpenAIRE

    George, Klaus; Günther, Egbert; Hellmann, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Im Naturschutz hat es in Sachsen-Anhalt nach 1989 neue Impulse gegeben, was sich beispielsweise in der Ausweisung bzw. einstweiligen Sichersteilung zahlreicher Schutzgebiete ausdrückt (Buschner 1992). So wurde auch das Selketal zunächst auf einer Fläche von 3200 ha einstweilig sichergestellt. Der rechtliche Rahmen (Bundes- und Landesnaturschutzgesetze) dieser im Sinne des Naturschutzes positiven Aktivitäten sieht aber bisher die Ausweisung von Schutzgebieten nur fakultativ vor.

  7. Die Verwendung von fremden Samen im Rahmen der Reproduktionsmedizin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentenich H

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Nach der "Richtlinie über künstliche Befruchtung" der Bundesärztekammer aus dem Jahr 1998 war eine Behandlung mit Spendersamen bei der Behandlung mittels In-vitro-Fertilisation (IVF und intrazytoplasmatischer Spermieninjektion (ICSI auf Antrag möglich, wenn eine Kommission bei der Landesärztekammer dem zugestimmt hatte. Da die grundlegende juristische und psychosoziale Problematik der Verwendung von Spendersamen bei der Insemination und bei der IVF/ICSI-Behandlung gleich ist, hat die Bundesärztekammer in ihren Richtlinien 2006 die Verwendung von fremdem Sperma näher geregelt. Es ergeben sich Auswirkungen für den Samenspender, das Paar und den behandelnden Arzt. Der Arzt muß sich über die rechtlichen Rahmenbedingungen informieren, der Samenspender und das Paar müssen über alle medizinischen, psychosozialen und rechtlichen Konsequenzen informiert, aufgeklärt und beraten werden. Die Identität des Samenspenders muß dokumentiert werden, damit das Kind später den genetischen Vater auf Wunsch identifizieren kann. Eine Behandlung mit Spendersamen bei der alleinstehenden Frau und dem homosexuellen weiblichen Paar scheint nach den Richtlinien der Bundesärztekammer nicht möglich.

  8. Investigating the water balance of on-farm techniques for improved crop productivity in rainfed systems: A case study of Makanya catchment, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makurira, H.; Savenije, H. H. G.; Uhlenbrook, S.; Rockström, J.; Senzanje, A.

    Water scarcity is a perennial problem in sub-Saharan agricultural systems where extreme rainfall events dominate agricultural seasons. Dry spell occurrences between and during seasons negatively impact on crop yields especially if such dry spells exceed 14 days. The impact of dry spells is felt more at smallholder farming scales where subsistence farming is the only source of livelihood for many households. This paper presents results from on-going research to improve rainfed water productivity in arid and semi-arid regions. The study site is the Makanya catchment in northern Tanzania where rainfall rarely exceeds 400 mm/season. Rainwater alone is not sufficient to support maize which is the preferred crop. The research introduced new soil and water conservation measures to promote water availability into the root zone. The introduced techniques include deep tillage, runoff diversion, fanya juus (infiltration trenches with bunds) and infiltration pits. The research aims at understanding the effectiveness of these interventions in increasing moisture availability within the root zone. Time domain reflectometry (TDR) was used to measure soil moisture twice weekly at 10 cm depth intervals up to depths of 2 m. Soil moisture fluctuated in the range 5-25% of volume with the beginning of the season recording the driest moisture levels and periods after good rainfall/runoff events recording the highest moisture levels. From the field observations made, a spreadsheet model was developed to simulate soil moisture variations during different maize growth stages. The results obtained show that the zones of greatest soil moisture concentrations are those around the trenches and bunds. Soil moisture is least at the centre of the plots. The study confirms the effectiveness of the introduced techniques to help concentrate the little available rainfall into green water flow paths. Indirect benefits from these improved techniques are the creation of fertile and moist zones around

  9. Sediment management modelling in Blue Nile Basin using SWAT model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. D. Betrie

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Soil erosion/sedimentation is a colossal problem that has menaced water resources development in the Nile, particularly in Eastern Nile (Ethiopia, Sudan and Egypt. An insight into soil erosion/sedimentation mechanism and mitigation methods plays an indispensable role for the sustainable water resources development in the region. This paper presents a daily sediment yield simulation in the Upper Blue Nile under different Best Management Practices (BMPs scenarios. The scenarios were baseline (existing condition, Buffer strips, stone bund (parallel terrace, and reforestation. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT was used to model soil erosion, identify soil erosion prone areas and assess the impact of BMPs on sediment reduction. The study found satisfactory agreement between daily observed and simulated sediment concentration with Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE=0.88, percent bias (PBIAS=−0.05%, and ratio of the root mean square error to the standard deviation of measured data (RSR=0.35 for calibration and NSE=0.83, RSR=0.61 and PBIAS=−11% for validation. The sediment yield for baseline scenario was 117×106 t yr−1. The buffer-strips, stone-bund and reforestation reduced the sediment yield at outlet of the Upper Blue Nile basin by 44%, 41% and 11%, respectively. The sediment reduction at subbasins outlets varied from 29% to 68% by buffer strip, 9% to 69% by stone-bund and 46% to 77% by reforestation. This study clearly demonstrates the efficacy of catchment management intervention (BMPs for sustainable water resources development in the Eastern Nile basin.

  10. Methodik der Sickerwasserprognose unter Anwendung eines inputdatenoptimierten Stofftransportmodells

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Roland Heinz

    2007-01-01

    As a result of the Federal German Soil Protection Act (Bundes-Bodenschutz- und Altlastenverordnung – BBodSchV) of 1999 the scientific advisory committee “Bodenschutz beim BMU” identified a considerable demand for R&D in the creation and validation of calculative solute transport models for the unsaturated soil zone. Against that background the Federal Ministry for Education and Science (Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung – BMBF) initiated a research association named “prognosis of th...

  11. Die Asyldebatte in Deutschland : 20 Jahre nach dem "Asylkompromiss"

    OpenAIRE

    Cremer, Hendrik

    2013-01-01

    Der anlässlich des Weltflüchtlingstags am 20. Juni 2013 erschienene Essay kritisiert den Populismus in der Asyldebatte. Staatliche Akteure und die demokratischen Parteien in Bund, Ländern sowie Kommunen sollten sich dringend darauf verständigen, auch in der politischen Diskussion die menschen- und flüchtlingsrechtlichen Verpflichtungen zu beachten und keinesfalls Flüchtlinge pauschal zu verdächtigen und zu diskriminieren. Der Autor blickt auf die Asyldebatte Anfang der 1990er Jahre zurück und...

  12. Energy transition in federalism; Energiewende im Foederalismus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Thorsten; Kahl, Hartmut (eds.)

    2015-07-01

    The conference transcript assemble the presentations of the 10th Wuerzburg discussions for environmental energy law. The contributions discuss the political development objectives of the Federal Government and Federal States as well as the coordination tasks between the different political levels, inter alia, of constitutional and European law perspective. [German] Der Tagungsband versammelt die Vortraege der 10. Wuerzburger Gespraeche zum Umweltenergierecht. Die Beitraege eroertern die politischen Ausbauziele des Bundes und der Laender sowie die Koordinierungsaufgaben zwischen den verschiedenen Politikebenen u.a. aus verfassungs- und europarechtlicher Perspektive.

  13. An Archaeological Assessment of Taung Valley of Sindh-Kohistan Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qasid Hussain Mallah

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Taung valley of Sindh – Kohistan is very rich in archaeological depositions. The present paper is an attempt to take an account of 43 sites in the said region, influx variety of evidences have been traced from microlithism to Hakra, Amri and Indus type. It also reveals traces of nomadic camp , circular structure of stones. Grave yards and gobra bunds. Nontheless Taung valley has big historical longitivity extending from ancient remains to medival cemetery to premodern nomadic activity and the most important structures witnessing local wisdom pertaining to water management.

  14. Qualitätssicherung unterschiedlicher Präparationen gerinnungsaktiven Frischplasmas (Frischplasma, S/D-Plasma und S/D-Plasma LG®) gemessen anhand der Langzeitstabilität von Gerinnungsfaktoren und –inhibitoren

    OpenAIRE

    Körber, Mareike Kristina

    2013-01-01

    At the moment thawed plasma is discarded latest 6 h after thawing according to the guidelines for production of blood and blood components and use of blood products (hemotherapy) of the Bundesärztekammer according to §§ 12 and 18 of the Transfusionsgesetz (TFG)(1). The reason for the limitation of thawed plasma storage is the estimated critical decrease of clotting factors and –inhibitors after 6 h. Furthermore bacterial contamination is feared. At Charité for example, costs of 50.720€ arise ...

  15. Soll die Deutsche Bahn privatisiert werden?

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Der folgende Beitrag befasst sich mit verschiedenen Varianten der Organisation der Eigentumsverhältnisse an der Deutschen Bahn (DB). Im Januar 1994 wurde die DB formell privatisiert in Form der Überführung in eine Aktiengesellschaft, an der der Bund 100 Prozent der Anteile hält. Die Aktien werden folglich nicht an der Börse gehandelt. Aus diesem Grund wird in der politischen Diskussion häufig der Begriff "Börsengang" als Synonym für Privatisierung verwendet. Im Rahmen dieses Beitrages werden ...

  16. Licensing and regulatory control of nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lecture is divided into three parts: 1) the legal conception and requirements of the German Atomic Energy Law (with special view on construction and operation of nuclear power plants), 2) the role of the Federation ('Bund') and the 'Laender' in the field of atomic energy and the Radiation Protection Ordinance (especially for licensing and supervision of nuclear power plants), 3) the function, participants, types and sequence of the strongly formalised licensing procedure for nuclear power plants, technical assessment in the frame of this procedure, content of a licence, possibility for altering the licence at a later date, role of administrative courts, continual supervision. (orig./HP)

  17. MEB primary substations and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The commitment by Midlands Electricity plc in the United Kingdom to protecting the environment has resulted in an intensive programme of bund wall construction around our primary substation transformers. These walls are designed to contain any oil leak and so avoid the pollution of any adjacent water course, canal or public drainage system. Midlands Electricity is also committed to eliminating any nuisance to our customers caused by noise from transformers. All noise complaints are thoroughly investigated and acoustic enclosures, or screens, are provided where necessary. (4 figures) (Author)

  18. Pengembangan Metoda Deteksi Rintangan untuk Traktor tanpa Awak Menggunakan Kamera CCD

    OpenAIRE

    Usman Ahmad; Desrial; Mudho Saksono

    2012-01-01

    For unmanned tractor guided by global positioning system, ability for eluding obstacles such as trees, big stone, cavity, bund, people, and other objects in the work area is very important in order not to stop the operation.Surrounding detection system using CCD camera makes it possible for unmanned tractor to detect obstacles in front of it realtime. However, with so many different objects that may captured by the camera, it will need a lot of image processing steps that takes a lot of time ...

  19. Allergische Krankheiten in Deutschland

    OpenAIRE

    Hermann-Kunz, Edelgard

    2000-01-01

    Die Ergebnisse des Bundes-Gesundheitssurveys 1998 bestätigen die weite Verbreitung allergischer Krankheiten in Deutschland. Insgesamt haben oder hatten 40 bis 43% der erwachsenen Bevölkerung schon einmal eine Allergie. Die Morbidität wurde mit einem Selbstausfüllfragebogen und einem persönlichen, ärztlichen Interview erhoben. Die Übereinstimmung zwischen Fragebogen und Interviewdaten beträgt über 90 % bei allergischer Rhinitis, Nahrungsmittelallergie und Urtikaria bzw. rund 80 % bei allergisc...

  20. Bals, Christoph/Hamm, Horst/ Jerger, Ilona/Milke i.A. von Germanwatch (Hg): Die Welt am Scheideweg: Wie retten wir das Klima? (2008), Reinbek: Rowohlt, 318 S. [...] [Sammelrezension

    OpenAIRE

    Datta, Asit

    2009-01-01

    Sammelrezension zu: 1. Bals, Christoph/Hamm, Horst/ Jerger, Ilona/Milke i.A. von Germanwatch (Hg): Die Welt am Scheideweg: Wie retten wir das Klima? (2008), Reinbek: Rowohlt, 318 S., ISBN: 978-3-498-00653-2. 2. Berg, Christian/Hartung, Manuel J.: Welt retten für Einsteiger. 30 Gründe für ein gutes Gewissen(2007). München: dtv, 180 S., ISBN: 978-3-423-24649-1. 3. Brot für die Welt/eed/BUND (Hg): Zukunftfähiges Deutschland in einer globalisierten Welt. Ein Anstoß zur gesellschaftlichen Debatte....

  1. Tuberkulose-Meldeverfahren nach Einführung des Infektionsschutzgesetzes (IfSG)

    OpenAIRE

    Haas, Walter

    2009-01-01

    Die Meldepflicht einer Erkrankung an Tuberkulose (TB) wurde in Deutschland rund 40 Jahre (1961-2000) durch das Bundes-Seuchengesetz (BSeuchG) geregelt. Das „Gesetz zur Verhütung und Bekämpfung der Infektionskrankheiten beim Menschen“ (Infektionsschutzgesetz; IfSG) vom 20.7.2000 ist ab dem 1.1.2001 anstelle des BSeuchG in Kraft getreten. Seit der Einführung IfSG hat sich das Tuberkulose-Meldeverfahren verändert. Unter anderem ermöglichen die Einführung einheitlicher Kriterien zur Erfüllun...

  2. Off-site nuclear emergency management in Germany under the auspices of the federal structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both the individual states (Laender) and the federation (Bund) are involved in off-site emergency management in Germany. The states operate site-related Remote Monitoring Systems for Nuclear Power Plants, while the federation operates a nationwide Integrated Measurement and Information System. The states are responsible for accident response, the federation is responsible for radiation precaution measures. In the event of an accident, the state and federal authorities make their decisions and implement the corresponding emergency measures within their responsibility. Exchange of information exists between the two levels. (P.A.)

  3. N-G型的代数连通度的界%The Nordhaus-Gaddum bounds for algebraic connectivity of graphs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕大梅; 冯瑞华

    2012-01-01

    Let G be a simple graph with ordering n and algebraic connectivity a(G). We proved that Nordhaus-Gad-dum bound for algebraic connectivity of G, I. E. , a(G)+a(Gc )2>1 for two classes of graphs. Moreover, a Nor-dhaus-Gaddum bund for one class was presented also.%对任一个n阶单图G,用a(G)表示G的代数连通度,Gc表示它的补图.着重证明了2个图类的代数连通度的N-G型的界:a(G)+a(Gc)≥1.

  4. The risks of atomic power in a globalized world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power is back on the agenda, even in the papers submitted for this conference. BUND, a German conservationist organisation, is strictly against nuclear power. There is no reason for assuming that nuclear power will protect our climate; instead, it will prevent or delay the necessary steps that must be taken to ensure sustainable power supply on a long-term basis. Most important of all, the use of nuclear power is irresponsible. There is always the risk of another disaster, whether from peaceful or military uses, and there is no safe option for ultimate storage of high-activity nuclear waste. (orig.)

  5. Öffentliche Haushalte 2007/2008: Überschüsse horten - Investitionen stärken

    OpenAIRE

    Florian Zinsmeister

    2007-01-01

    Die positive konjunkturelle Entwicklung hat seit Anfang 2006 zu einem rasanten Rückgang der Defizite in den öffentlichen Haushalten geführt. Bereits im laufenden Jahr dürften Bund, Länder und Gemeinden einen Finanzierungsüberschuss von 7 Milliarden Euro erzielen (2006: -35,9 Milliarden Euro), weil die Steuer einnahmen, bei weiterhin gemäßigtem Ausgabenwachstum, kräftig steigen. 2008 dürfte sich der Überschuss nur mäßig, auf 11 Milliarden Euro, erhöhen, da die Unternehmensteuerreform bei den E...

  6. Experimental study using coir geotextiles in watershed management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishnudas, S.; Savenije, H. H. G.; van der Zaag, P.; Anil, K. R.; Balan, K.

    2005-11-01

    This paper presents the results of a field experiment conducted in Kerala, South India, to test the effectiveness of coir geotextiles for embankment protection. In the context of sustainable watershed management, coir is a cheap and locally available material that can be used to strengthen traditional earthen bunds or protect the banks of village ponds from erosion. Particularly in developing countries, where coir is abundantly available and textiles can be produced by small-scale industry, this is an attractive alternative for conventional methods.

  7. Brutbiologie und Wanderungen einer Schleiereulenpopulation (Tyto alba) im hessischen Main-Kinzig-Kreis

    OpenAIRE

    Jahnel, Mathias

    2005-01-01

    Die Schleiereule (Tyto alba) ist eine in fast allen Regionen der Erde vorkommende Eulenart. In Mitteleuropa erreicht sie die nördlichste Grenze ihres Verbreitungsgebiets. Man trifft sie hier in tiefergelegenen, waldarmen Gegenden an. Eine Arbeitsgruppe der Hessischen Gesellschaft für Ornithologie und Naturschutz (HGON) und des Deutschen Bund für Vogelschutz (DBV) führt im hessischen Main-Kinzig-Kreis seit 1976 Maßnahmen zum Schutz der Schleiereulen durch. Dazu gehören das Anbringen von Brutki...

  8. Hydrogen mobility is moving forward; Wasserstoff-Mobilitaet kommt voran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez Duran, Andres [Air Liquide Deutschland GmbH, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2013-06-15

    The European Union (EU) declared aim is to cover at least 20 percent of energy needs from alternative sources until 2020. EU as well as federal and state governments promote various projects, to establish hydrogen as an energy carrier. Air Liquide participates by setting up a hydrogen infrastructure in this future project. [German] Erklaertes Ziel der Europaeischen Union (EU) ist es, bis 2020 mindestens 20 Prozent des Energiebedarfs aus alternativen Quellen zu decken. Dazu foerdern EU sowie Bund und Laender verschiedene Projekte, die Wasserstoff als Energietraeger etablieren sollen. Air Liquide beteiligt sich durch Mitarbeit am Aufbau einer Wasserstoff-Infrastruktur an diesem Zukunftsvorhaben.

  9. Federal Constitutional Court decision of January 26, 1988 - 1 BvR 1561/82: Construction permit, preliminary decision of a specialized court, proviso of legality, information to the public, protective obligations of the legislator, subsidiary principle, constitutional complaint, provisional legal protection, interim storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The legislators obligation to protect the legal objects defined in Article 2, (2), 1 of the Constitution does not mean that private external interim storage facilities may be built only by an explicit permit by the legislator. The principle of the reservation of the law bunds the legislator to make all essential decisions in the area of exercising the constitutional rights. The licensing of interim storage of spent fuel elements by the legislator, however, follows from the fact that interim storage is a necessary consequence of the operation of nuclear power plants which is permitted by the legislator. (orig.)

  10. Erbschafsteuer und Grundgesetz: Stellungnahme für das Bundesverfassungsgericht

    OpenAIRE

    Schemmel, Lothar

    2005-01-01

    Das Bundesverfassungsgericht hat dem Bund der Steuerzahler erneut Gelegenheit gegeben, sich in einem Verfahren als Sachverständiger zu äußern. Auf dem verfassungsrechtlichen Prüfstand stehen diesmal die Bewertungs- und Tarifvorschriften der Erbschaftsteuer. Der Bundesfinanzhof ist nämlich der Ansicht, dass diese Regelungen verfassungswidrig sind, und hat seine Bedenken dem Bundesverfassungsgericht zur Entscheidung vorgelegt. Der Bundesfinanzhof hält es für unzulässig, dass die Vermögensarten ...

  11. Analysis of Sovereign Yield Spreads Behavior: The French Bonds Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Vasilev

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of the Euro has led to price level stability and fostered growth within the European Union. Consequently, since its launch as a store of value and unit of account, there has been a clear convergence between the yield of France’s sovereign debt and German benchmark. This paper tries to estimate the effect of certain macroeconomic fundamentals on the yield spread of French 10-year bonds, relative to the German Bund of the same maturity for the period January 1999-March 2003. It reaches the conclusion that staying in line with Maastricht criteria decreases the risk premium of external debt.

  12. Away from the New Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ErinEspeland

    2004-01-01

    Aafter having lived in Shanghai for two and a half years, I've visited nearly all the tourist sites listed in my Lonely Planet. Bored with the Bund, shamefully tired of Xintiandi, and only half interested in shopping on Huaihai Road, I set off looking for something different. I wanted to find a place away from the noise and away from multinational fast food chains. I had heard that Tai Kang Road was Shanghai's official "Art Street" so there is where I went to search for a new

  13. Der Vorschlag einer Infrastrukturgesellschaft für Kommunen

    OpenAIRE

    Meurers, Martin; Alm, Bastian; Pagel, Beatrice

    2015-01-01

    Viele Kommunen in Deutschland haben bei der Realisierung von Investitionsprojekten einen hohen Bedarf an externer Beratung und Unterstützung. Dies ergibt sich aus einer vom Bundesministerium für Wirtschaft und Energie durchgeführten Befragung unter kommunalen Finanzverantwortlichen. Ein möglicher Lösungsansatz könnte in der von der Expertenkommission "Stärkung von Investitionen in Deutschland" vorgeschlagenen Gründung einer von Bund und Ländern getragenen Infrastrukturgesellschaft (oder mehre...

  14. Factors influencing adoption of farm management practices in three agrobiodiversity hotspots in India: an analysis using the Count Data Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhakaran T. Raghu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable agricultural practices require, among other factors, adoption of improved nutrient management techniques, pest mitigation technology and soil conservation measures. Such improved management practices can be tools for enhancing crop productivity. Data on micro-level farm management practices from developing countries is either scarce or unavailable, despite the importance of their policy implications with regard to resource allocation. The present study investigates adoption of some farm management practices and factors influencing the adoption behavior of farm households in three agrobiodiversity hotspots in India: Kundra block in the Koraput district of Odisha, Meenangadi panchayat in the Wayanad district of Kerala and Kolli Hills in the Namakkal district of Tamil Nadu. Information on farm management practices was collected from November 2011 to February 2012 from 3845 households, of which the data from 2726 farm households was used for analysis. The three most popular farm management practices adopted by farmers include: application of chemical fertilizers, farm yard manure and green manure for managing nutrients; application of chemical pesticides, inter-cropping and mixed cropping for mitigating pests; and contour bunds, grass bunds and trenches for soil conservation. A Negative Binomial count data regression model was used to estimate factors influencing decision-making by farmers on farm management practices. The regression results indicate that farmers who received information from agricultural extension are statistically significant and positively related to the adoption of farm management practices. Another key finding shows the negative relationship between cultivation of local varieties and adoption of farm management practices.

  15. Underground gas storage Uelsen: Findings from planning, building and commissioning. Part 1: Deposit; Untertagegasspeicher Uelsen: Erkenntnisse aus Planung, Bau und Inbetriebnahme. Teil 1: Lagerstaette

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallbrecht, J.; Beckmann, H.; Reiser, H.; Wilhelm, R. [BEB Erdgas und Erdoel GmbH, Hannover (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    The underground gas storage at Uelsen which was built as a H-gas storage in a former variegated sandstone gasfield in Western Lower Saxony close to the town of Nordhorn has added to the gas supply system of the BEB Erdgas and Erdoel GmbH. The underground storage is connected to the Bunde-Rheine transport pipeline BEB-grid gas system by a 27 km pipeline and is a consequent expansion of BEB`s underground storage/transport system. Planning, building and commissioning were handled by BEB. Findings to date are described. [Deutsch] Der Untertagegasspeicher (UGS) Uelsen, der in einem ehemaligen Buntsandstein Gasfeld im westlichen Niedersachsen in der Naehe der Stadt Nordhorn als H-Gasspeicher eingerichtet wurde, hat die BEB Erdgas und Erdoel GmbH eine weitere Staerkung ihres Gasversorgungssystems erreicht. Der UGS Uelsen ist ueber eine 27 km lange Anbindungsleitung mit der zum BEB - Ferngasleitungssystems gehoerenden Bunde-Rheine Transportleitung verbunden und stellt eine konsequente Erweiterung des BEB Untertagegasspeicher-/Transportsystems dar. Planung, Bau und Inbetriebnahme erfolgten durch BEB im Rahmen einer integrierten bereichsuebergreifenden Projektbearbeitung. Die hierbei gewonnenen Erkenntnisse werden im Folgenden fuer den Untertagebereich dargestellt. (orig.)

  16. Environmental impact of thermal power stations: mitigation by Maharashtra State Electricity Board

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The coal available in India for use in coal-burning thermal power plants is of a very inferior quality. It has a low calorific value and a high ash content (40 to 50%). Consequently Indian thermal power plants produce large quantities of fly ash which is disposed as waste. The thermal power plants of the Maharashtra State Electricity Board (MSEB) dispose fly ash by wet disposal method. This method requires large areas of land which are lost to agriculture or forestation. Construction of earthen bunds to make disposal areas requires clay soil which is generally top fertile soil. This also affects agriculture adversely. Moreover the effluent water from ash disposal areas is found to be polluted with suspended solids beyond acceptable limits. MSEB is trying to minimise these adverse environmental impacts by: (1)using fly ash as hearting material to construct bunds, (2) raising tree plantations on ash-filled areas, (3) using effluent water to irrigate forestry or tree plantations, (4) recirculation of ash water, and (5) establishing coal washeries at the site of collieries. This last measure will reduce consumption of fuel required for coal transport and also reduce transportation cost. (M.G.B.). 5 refs

  17. Sediment management modelling in the Blue Nile Basin using SWAT model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. D. Betrie

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Soil erosion/sedimentation is an immense problem that has threatened water resources development in the Nile river basin, particularly in the Eastern Nile (Ethiopia, Sudan and Egypt. An insight into soil erosion/sedimentation mechanisms and mitigation methods plays an imperative role for the sustainable water resources development in the region. This paper presents daily sediment yield simulations in the Upper Blue Nile under different Best Management Practice (BMP scenarios. Scenarios applied in this paper are (i maintaining existing conditions, (ii introducing filter strips, (iii applying stone bunds (parallel terraces, and (iv reforestation. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT was used to model soil erosion, identify soil erosion prone areas and assess the impact of BMPs on sediment reduction. For the existing conditions scenario, the model results showed a satisfactory agreement between daily observed and simulated sediment concentrations as indicated by Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency greater than 0.83. The simulation results showed that applying filter strips, stone bunds and reforestation scenarios reduced the current sediment yields both at the subbasins and the basin outlets. However, a precise interpretation of the quantitative results may not be appropriate because some physical processes are not well represented in the SWAT model.

  18. Common project energy change. The schedule to the success

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energy change is the most important common work of the German after-war history. And it offers a unique collective field of learning, how the socio-ecological transformation can be converted in practice. If the energy change succeeds in an industrial country like Germany, many other countries can follow this example. The Bund fuer Umwelt und Naturschutz Deutschland (BUND) and the Vereinigung Deutscher Wissenschaftler (VDW) show as editors, what now must be done in order that the energy change becomes a success. Because currently threatens the energy change to be slowed down by the policy and talked to death by many stakeholders in the industry. This book demonstrates why the energy change is necessary and how it can succeed. It shows what has to be done and wants to use the existing enthusiasm in order to lead the common project energy change jointly to success. What is needed is a long-term policy that finally takes the reduction of energy consumption in attack.

  19. Enviromental databases - metadata and standards. Workshop of the working group 'Umweltdatenbanken' of the expert group 'Informatik im Umweltschutz', held by the German Federal Environmental Office on May 19/20, 2003; Umweltdatenbanken - Nutzung von Metadaten und Standards. Workshop des Arbeitskreises 'Umweltdatenbanken' der Fachgruppe 'Informatik im Umweltschutz', veranstaltet vom Umweltbundesamt am 19. und 20. Mai 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The workshop was attended by about 30 experts from authorities, institutions and research institutes in Germany and Austria. One of the key issues was the standardisation of metadata and especially the role of ISO 19115 in environmental information. New systems were presented for accessing and managing geo-information, and the effects of the new standard on existing systems and the possibility of integration in new applications were discussed. There is a general trend, i.e. application of the ISO standard 19115 for data use on the environmental sector, e.g. in the development of the national geo-data meta-information system GeoMIS.Bund, the Brandenburg metadata profile, and the coastal information system NOKIS. However, the ISO standard should not be viewed as the only standard that is relevant. Specialized applications on the environmental sector that use metadata will continue to require further elements as well. The workshop also provided interesting insights into current applications of meta-information systems and environmental databases. (orig.) [German] Das Umweltbundesamt organisierte am 19. und 20. Mai 2003 in Zusammenarbeit mit dem Arbeitskreis ''Umweltdatenbanken'' des Fachausschusses ''Informatik im Umweltschutz'' einen Workshop zu dieser Thematik. Etwa 30 interessierte Fachexperten aus Behoerden, Institutionen und Forschungseinrichtungen Deutschlands und Oesterreichs nahmen daran teil. Ein Schwerpunktthema bildete der Bereich der Standardisierung von Metadaten und speziell die Rolle von ISO 19115 fuer Umweltinformationen. Einerseits wurden neue Systeme vorgestellt, die den Zugriff auf und die Verwaltung von Geo-Informationen in den Vordergrund stellen, andererseits wurden die Auswirkungen dieses neuen Standards auf existierende Systeme und die Moeglichkeiten der Integration in neue Fachanwendungen diskutiert. Eine deutliche Tendenz, die auf dem Workshop feststellbar war, zeigte sich in der zunehmenden Anwendung

  20. Instruments. Climate protection of reduction of no-load losses in electric appliances and equipment; Klimaschutz durch Minderung von Leerlaufverlusten bei Elektrogeraeten. Instrumente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rath, U.; Hellmann, R. [Ingenieurbuero fuer Energieberatung, Haustechnik und Oekologische Konzepte GbR (eboek), Tuebingen (Germany); Moehring-Hueser, W.; Wortmann, K.; Bregas, J. [Energiestiftung Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel (Germany); Mordziol, C. [Umweltbundesamt, Berlin (Germany)

    1999-12-01

    Two studies on the subject of 'Climate Protection through Reduction of No-load Losses in Electric Applicances and Equipment' have been performed on behalf of the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety and the German Federal Environmental Agency. The first study, carried out by the Tuebingen-based engineering bureau eboek, has been published in the Federal Environmental Agency's TEXTE series (Texte 45/97, 2{sup nd} edition, 1998). It was the starting point for a multitude of activities among them two information campaigns carried out in 1998 and 1999 that were funded by the Federal Ministry for the Environment and the German Section of the Friends of the Earth (BUND). The study also served as a basis for decisions taken by the German Bundestag and the Bundesrat (Council of Constituent States). The second study on the subject was carried out by the engineering bureau eboek and Energiestiftung Schleswig-Holstein. Building on the results obtained in the first study, it presents estimates of relevant data for the European Union and examines various approaches for possible measures to reduce no-load losses as to their suitability. The studies impressively show that effective climate protection can be achieved in all relevant sectors, and in many cases even save costs. The results are detailed below. (orig.) [German] Im Auftrag des Bundesministeriums fuer Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit sowie des Umweltbundesamtes wurden zwei Studien zum Thema: 'Klimaschutz durch Minderung von Leerlaufverlusten bei Elektrogeraeten' durchgefuehrt: Die erste, vom Ingenieurbuero fuer Energieberatung, Haustechnik und oekologische Konzepte (eboek), Tuebingen, earbeitete Studie wurde in der Reihe TEXTE des UBA veroeffentlicht (Texte 45/97, 2. Auflage 1998). Sie bildete den Ausgangspunkt fuer eine Vielzahl von Aktivitaeten, unter anderem zwei vom Bundesumweltministerium finanzierte und vom Bund fuer Umwelt und

  1. Rezension von: Ulf Gebken, Söhnke Vosgerau (Hg.: Fußball ohne Abseits. Ergebnisse und Perspektiven des Projekts ‚Soziale Integration von Mädchen durch Fußball‘. Wiesbaden: Springer VS 2014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Claus

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Seit 2006 wurden im Rahmen des vom Deutschen Fußball-Bund durchgeführten Modellprojektes „Soziale Integration von Mädchen durch Fußball“ an über 200 Standorten Schul-AGs in sogenannten Brennpunktbezirken aufgebaut. Im vorliegenden Sammelband beleuchten die Autor/-innen ausführlich die Funktion von Sport für die pädagogische Kompetenzvermittlung. Zudem erbringen sie einen umfassenden Projektbericht und leisten ein Plädoyer für die Modernisierung des Verhältnisses zwischen Schule und Vereinen, Lehrplan und Ehrenamt. Somit stellt das Buch, wie auch das Projekt, einen enorm wichtigen Beitrag zur Geschlechtergerechtigkeit im Sport dar. Gleichzeitig jedoch liest sich eine Reihe an Texten etwas zu sperrig für den Bericht einer Praxisforschung, und Begriffe im Feld der ‚Integration’ bleiben schwammig.

  2. Visibility Analysis of the Oriental Pearl Based on Digital Landscape Simulation - View from East Daming Road of Shanghai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, S.; Zhang, S.

    2015-08-01

    As the demand for visual quality of environment increases, visual analysis therefore plays progressively important role in current urban landscape construction and management. Guided by the City Image theory, this paper presents a covered scene index "X" to describe the visibility of the target scene, and formulates a digital analysis model based on ArcGIS and 3D simulation. This method is applied to the viewpoint analysis from the East Daming Road of the North Bund to the Oriental Pearl in Shanghai and optimized solutions are proposed according to the results. It turns out that this simple and objective technique can serve as a good tool for the reference of urban landscape planning and management.

  3. Fractal kinetics in drug release from finite fractal matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmidis, Kosmas; Argyrakis, Panos; Macheras, Panos

    2003-09-01

    We have re-examined the random release of particles from fractal polymer matrices using Monte Carlo simulations, a problem originally studied by Bunde et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 83, 5909 (1985)]. A certain population of particles diffuses on a fractal structure, and as particles reach the boundaries of the structure they are removed from the system. We find that the number of particles that escape from the matrix as a function of time can be approximated by a Weibull (stretched exponential) function, similar to the case of release from Euclidean matrices. The earlier result that fractal release rates are described by power laws is correct only at the initial stage of the release, but it has to be modified if one is to describe in one picture the entire process for a finite system. These results pertain to the release of drugs, chemicals, agrochemicals, etc., from delivery systems.

  4. [Delegation yes, substitution no!].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, A

    2014-08-01

    The aging of society leads on the one hand to increasing case numbers and on the other hand to a reduction in the number of physicians available for patient treatment. The delegation and substitution of medical duties as a tried and tested method is increasingly being recommended in order to compensate for the lack of physicians. The Berufsverband der Deutschen Urologen (BDU, Professional Association of German Urologists) supports the guiding principle of the Bundesärztekammer (Federal Medical Council) of "delegation yes, substitution no" and rejects a substitution of medical duties by non-medical academic health personnel. Against the background of the demographic changes, the increasing need for treatment and the current deficiency of junior physicians, a more extensive inclusion of well-qualified and experienced non-medical personnel by the delegation of medically responsible duties (medical scope of practice) can be an appropriate measure to maintain a good medical service in practices, hospitals and nursing homes. PMID:25047595

  5. Waste management technologies for the next millenium. Technical conference; Mit MBA-Technik ins naechste Jahrtausend. Fachtagung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    Waste management on a federal and Laender level requires reorientation and new decisions in ever shorter intervals. In view of the fact that projecting phases are long and investment costs amount to tens of millions, communal decision-makers must constantly modify their current projects in order to optimise them. The papers in this conference report present theoretical information as well as practical experience in waste treatment plant operation. [German] Die abfallwirtschaftlichen Entwicklungen auf Bundes- und Landesebene erfordern in immer kuerzer werdenden Abstaenden neue Ueberlegungen und Weichenstellungen. Angesichts langer Planungszeitraeume und hoher Investitionskosten im zweistelligen Millionenbereich sind die Entscheidungstraeger auf kommunaler Ebene immer wieder gefordert auf Grundlage aktueller Erkenntnisse bisherige Planungen zu ueberdenken sowie anstehende Projekte zu modifizieren und zu optimieren. Die Vortraege in diesem Tagungsband weisen nicht nur theoretische Ansaetze auf, sondern beinhalten auch praktische Erfahrungen aus verschiedenen Abfallbehandlungsanlagen. (orig./SR)

  6. Fire Symfonier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Svend Hvidtfelt

    2009-01-01

    sidste fire symfonier. Den er måske snarere at opfatte som et præludium til disse. At påstå, at symfonierne fra Holmboes side er planlagt til at være beslægtede, ville være at gå for vidt. Alene de 26 år, der skiller den 10. fra den 13., gør påstanden - i bedste fald - dubiøs. Når deres udformning...... udkrystallisering som i de sidste små 30 år af hans virke har afkastet disse fire variationer over en grundlæggende central holmboesk fornemmelse for form, melodi, klang og rytme. Denne oplevelse har fået mig til at udforske symfonierne, for at finde til bunds i dette holmboeske fællestræk, som jeg mener her står...

  7. Optimization and validation of a GC-MS analytical method for the determination of alkylated phenols and bisphenol A in sea water and suspended matter; Optimierung und Validierung einer GC-MS-Analysenmethode zur Bestimmung alkylierter Phenole und Bisphenol A in Meerwasser und Schwebstoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theobald, N.; Meyer, C.

    2001-12-01

    A method for the determination of alkylated phenols, phenol ethoxylates and bisphenol A in surface and sea water was optimized and validated. The analytical procedure consists of a liquid/liquid extraction with dichloromethane, a derivatisation with bis(heptafluorobutyric) anhydride and a GC-MS determination in EI-mode under selected ion monitoring condition. The validation parameters such as measuring precision, method precision, linearity, limits of determination, accuracy and robustness were determined. Very good results were achieved for all parameters. It turned out that the problem of contamination has to be observed very carefully. The method validation was supported by organising and performing two ring tests. For the first test, spiked samples of ultra-clean water were analysed. For the second test spiked river and sea water samples were investigated. The results show that the presented method is capable for monitoring purposes within the Bund-Laender-Messprogramm. (orig.)

  8. Med politiet i ’virkeligheden’: Reality-tv og kriminalitet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ib Bondebjerg

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Kriminalstoffet på tv bliver ofte anklaget for at spekulere i vore lavere instinkter, og med reality kommer vi tættere end nogensinde på sam- fundets bund og det utrættelige politi, som har til opgave at opretholde lov og orden. Artiklen gennemgår en lang række af de senere års kri- minalprogrammer og diskuterer dokumentarismens former med en særlig belysning af æstetik, retorik og synsvinkel i undergenrerne »reality magasin« og »reality soap«. Lars Engels’ serie »Historier fra en politistation« tages op til særlig debat, fordi Engels – vanen tro – arbejder med en mindre iscenesættelse og ukommenteret virkelig- hedsgengivelse, end vi finder det i andre »reality soaps«.

  9. Shanghai Keeps Its Cool

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KATE WESTGARTH

    2010-01-01

    @@ For a city about to receive an estimated 70 million visitors,Shanghai is remarkably composed as it nears the opening of the World Expo.Walking along the Bund and strolling through the former French Concession on a Saturday afternoon in spring,it would be easy for a foreign visitor not to realize what is going on.There are notices in hotels apologizing in advance to guests for any inconvenience caused by enhanced security measures.Taxis advertise hotlines for visitors having trouble in communicating with their drivers in English.But the air of suppressed hysteria which characterized Beijing in the run-up to the Olympics is absent.Shanghai is looking forward to a party,but is far too sophisticated for any display of overexcitement.

  10. The protective and attractive covering of a vegetated embankment using coir geotextiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishnudas, S.; Savenije, H. H. G.; van der Zaag, P.; Anil, K. R.; Balan, K.

    2006-08-01

    This paper presents the results of a field experiment conducted in Kerala, South India, to test the effectiveness of coir geotextiles for embankment protection. The results reveal that treatment with geotextile in combination with grass is an effective eco-hydrological measure to protect steep slopes from erosion. In the context of sustainable watershed management, coir is a cheap and locally available material that can be used to strengthen traditional earthen bunds or protect the banks of village ponds from erosion. Particularly in developing countries, where coir is abundantly available and textiles can be produced by small-scale industry, this is an attractive alternative for conventional methods. This paper analyses the performance of coir geotextile in different treatments with respect to soil moisture content, protection against erosion and biomass production.

  11. Photo Essay: An East Asian Circulation: Asa Mattice on the USS Juniata, 1883–1885

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Bickers

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available On Tuesday, May 12, 1885, 210 men from the U.S. navy warships Juniata and Monocacy marched up Shanghai’s Nanjing Road, from the riverside Bund to the Shanghai racecourse, led by a sixteen-man band. There, on the recreation ground inside the track, they exercised and paraded for two hours, putting their field gun teams through their maneuvers, and in the afternoon the band played for the spectators. The weather was fine that day. Toward the end of the proceedings, before the men were paraded back through the streets of the foreign-run International Settlement to embark for the ships moored in the Huangpu River, the North China Herald (May 15, 1885, p. 552 recorded that “past Assistant Engineer Mattice of the Juniata took a photographic view of the battalion by the dry plate process.”

  12. Sawah Rice Eco-technology and Actualization of Green Revolution in West Africa: Experience from Nigeria and Ghana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    O. I. OLADELE; T. WAKATSUKI

    2010-01-01

    The development and dissemination of sawah rice eco-technology in Nigeria and Ghana as prerequisites for the actualization of green revolution in West Africa were described. It showed that the neglect of the eco-technology and the overemphasis of the biotechnology have rendered the ineffective transferability of the green revolution process from Asia to Africa. The sawah eco-technology increases yield up to 5 t/hm2 through bunding and the use of inlet and outlet connecting irrigation and drainage, which enhances effective water control and management, improves the efficiency of fertilizer, improves nitrogen fixation by soil microbes and algae, increases the use of wetlands, improves soil organic matter accumulation, suppresses weed growth, and enhances immune mechanism of rice through nutrient supply. The current experience has therefore established that the technology overcomes the constraints that have limited the realization of green revolution in West Africa.

  13. Disaster aid services - what consequences have been drawn in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All disaster aid measures, whether after nuclear reactor accidents or other incidents, fall into the competence of the Laender. The immediate responsibility lies with the administrative districts and the autonomous towns which can summon support from the Federal Office for Civil Protection and Disaster Aid Services (BBK, www.bbk.bund.de). In the event of a disaster involving radioactivity the Laender can also summon support from the Federal Radiation Protection Office. The responsibilities of the Federation include monitoring radioactivity in the environment, evaluating data and imposing bans and restrictions on the consumption of food and the use of feeds. The Federation is also entitled to give recommendations for behaviour to the general public in consultation with the Laender. These measures fall into the sphere of the Preventive Radiation Protection Law

  14. Long-term effects of lowland properties system on soil physicochemical properties and rice yield in Ashanti Region of Ghana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obalum, S. E.; Oppong, J.; Nwite, J. C.; Watanabe, Y.; Buri, M. M.; Igwe, C. A.; Wakatsuki, T.

    2012-11-01

    Lowland sawah is viewed as a sustainable alternative to traditional rice culture in West Africa. Sawah (a bund-demarcated, puddled, leveled, and water-regulated rice field) has received growing research attention lately, but no data exist yet on the systems long-term agronomic impact. In a clayey inland-valley soil in southern Ghana, 10-year-old sawah plots (OSP), fresh sawah plots (FSP), and non-sawah plots (NSP) were maintained under both ponded and nonponded conditions in 2007. The OSP enhanced soil status of exchangeable nutrients compared to NSP. There were relative improvements in soil bulk density, total porosity, and field moisture content (OSP = FSP > NSP), with clear benefits of ponding over non-ponding in OSP. The NSP was so unsustainable that it showed less favourable values of these variables than an adjacent fallowed plot. These soil variables deteriorated with time, with significant differences in FSP. Soil moisture retention data for tension range of 0-300 kPa depicted the importance of puddling and ponding. During 2001-2009, OSP consistently out-yielded NSP by five times on average. During 2007-2009 when all three plots co-existed, grain yields averaged 5.80, 4.80 and 1.10 Mg ha-1 in OSP, FSP and NSP, respectively. In 2007 yields, OSP minus FSP was higher than NSP; in 2008/2009, the opposite prevailed. These results highlight the agronomic benefits of continuous sawah-based rice production. Although the positive effects of puddling on the soil hydrophysical properties were largely responsible for the wide margin in yield between sawah and traditional systems, other yield-enhancing factors, particularly bunds for water control, were also lacking in the latter. (Author) 37 refs.

  15. Catchment Area Treatment (CAT) Plan and Crop Area Optimization for Integrated Management in a Water Resource Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, R. K.; Thomas, T.; Galkate, R. V.; Ghosh, N. C.; Singh, S.

    2013-09-01

    A scientifically developed catchment area treatment (CAT) plan and optimized pattern of crop areas may be the key for sustainable development of water resource, profitability in agriculture and improvement of overall economy in drought affected Bundelkhand region of Madhya Pradesh (India). In this study, an attempt has been made to develop a CAT plan using spatial variation of geology, geomorphology, soil, drainage, land use in geographical information system for selection of soil and water conservation measures and crop area optimization using linear programming for maximization of return considering water availability, area affinity, fertilizers, social and market constraints in Benisagar reservoir project of Chhatarpur district (M.P.). The scientifically developed CAT plan based on overlaying of spatial information consists of 58 mechanical measure (49 boulder bunds, 1 check dam, 7 cully plug and 1 percolation tank), 2.60 km2 land for agro forestry, 2.08 km2 land for afforestation in Benisagar dam and 67 mechanical measures (45 boulder bunds and 22 gully plugs), 7.79 km2 land for agro forestry, 5.24 km2 land for afforestation in Beniganj weir catchment with various agronomic measures for agriculture areas. The linear programming has been used for optimization of crop areas in Benisagar command for sustainable development considering various scenarios of water availability, efficiencies, affinity and fertilizers availability in the command. Considering present supply condition of water, fertilizers, area affinity and making command self sufficient in most of crops, the net benefit can be increase to Rs. 1.93 crores from 41.70 km2 irrigable area in Benisagar command by optimizing cropping pattern and reducing losses during conveyance and application of water.

  16. [Health inequalities and cost-effectiveness: what do important health policy actors say about this potential conflict situation?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, M; Mielck, A

    2015-02-01

    The German statutory health-care system is based on the principle of solidarity and thus it is committed to the objective of 'equal chances'. From an economic perspective it is also important to emphasise that scarcity of resources continuously pushes the services towards cost control and towards increasing cost-effect-iveness. There could be conflicts between the 2 objectives 'equal chances' and 'cost-effectiveness', of course, for example if measures for increasing cost-effectiveness lead to increased financial burdens of the insured. To date it has not been studied if and how this potential conflict is discussed in Germany.In a first step we searched for German publications discussing this potential conflict focusing on 3 major public health journals (Das Gesundheitswesen, Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Ethik in der Medizin) and on the internet portal "gerechte-gesundheit.de". For the main part of the paper, we looked for publications from 4 major health policy actors (Bundesärztekammer, Zentrale Ethikkommission bei der Bundesärztekammer, Deutscher Ethikrat, Sachverständigenrat zur Begutachtung der Entwicklung im Gesundheitswesen). All papers published since the year 2000 were included in the system-atic qualitative analysis.The analyses show that the potential conflict between 'equal chances' and 'cost-effectiveness' is rarely discussed in any detail, at most in an implicit way. It would be important, though, to have an explicit discussion, supported by scientifically based analyses and recommendations. One step towards this objective could be, for example, a closer cooperation between social-epidemiologists and health--economists. PMID:24918869

  17. Spatial and temporal estimation of soil loss for the sustainable management of a wet semi-arid watershed cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rejani, R; Rao, K V; Osman, M; Srinivasa Rao, Ch; Reddy, K Sammi; Chary, G R; Pushpanjali; Samuel, Josily

    2016-03-01

    The ungauged wet semi-arid watershed cluster, Seethagondi, lies in the Adilabad district of Telangana in India and is prone to severe erosion and water scarcity. The runoff and soil loss data at watershed, catchment, and field level are necessary for planning soil and water conservation interventions. In this study, an attempt was made to develop a spatial soil loss estimation model for Seethagondi cluster using RUSLE coupled with ARCGIS and was used to estimate the soil loss spatially and temporally. The daily rainfall data of Aphrodite for the period from 1951 to 2007 was used, and the annual rainfall varied from 508 to 1351 mm with a mean annual rainfall of 950 mm and a mean erosivity of 6789 MJ mm ha(-1) h(-1) year(-1). Considerable variation in land use land cover especially in crop land and fallow land was observed during normal and drought years, and corresponding variation in the erosivity, C factor, and soil loss was also noted. The mean value of C factor derived from NDVI for crop land was 0.42 and 0.22 in normal year and drought years, respectively. The topography is undulating and major portion of the cluster has slope less than 10°, and 85.3% of the cluster has soil loss below 20 t ha(-1) year(-1). The soil loss from crop land varied from 2.9 to 3.6 t ha(-1) year(-1) in low rainfall years to 31.8 to 34.7 t ha(-1) year(-1) in high rainfall years with a mean annual soil loss of 12.2 t ha(-1) year(-1). The soil loss from crop land was higher in the month of August with an annual soil loss of 13.1 and 2.9 t ha(-1) year(-1) in normal and drought year, respectively. Based on the soil loss in a normal year, the interventions recommended for 85.3% of area of the watershed includes agronomic measures such as contour cultivation, graded bunds, strip cropping, mixed cropping, crop rotations, mulching, summer plowing, vegetative bunds, agri-horticultural system, and management practices such as broad bed furrow, raised sunken beds, and harvesting available water

  18. Tectonic Framework of the Kachchh Rift Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talwani, P.; Gangopadhyay, A. K.

    2001-05-01

    Evaluation of available geological data has allowed us to determine the tectonic framework of the Kachchh rift basin (KRB), the host to the 1819 Kachchh (MW 7.8), 1956 Anjar ( M 6.0) and the recent January 26, 2001 Bhachau (MW 7.6) earthquakes. The ~ 500 km x 200 km east-west trending KRB was formed during the Mesozoic following the break-up of Gondwanaland. It is bounded to the north and south by the Nagar Parkar and Kathiawar faults which separate it from the Precambrian granitic rocks of the Indian craton. The eastern border is the Radanpur-Barmer arch (defined by an elongate belt of gravity highs) which separates it from the early Cretaceous Cambay rift basin. KRB extends ~ 150 km offshore to its western boundary, the continental shelf. Following India's collision with Eurasia, starting ~ 50 MY ago, there was a stress reversal, from an extensional to the (currently N-S) compressional regime. Various geological observations attest to continuous tectonic activity within the KRB. Mesozoic sediments were uplifted and folded and then intruded by Deccan trap basalt flows in late Cretaceous. Other evidence of continuous tectonic activity include seismically induced soft sediment deformation features in the Upper Jurassic Katrol formation on the Kachchh Mainland and in the Holocene sequences in the Great Rann. Pleistocene faulting in the fluvial sequence along the Mahi River (in the bordering Cambay rift) and minor uplift during late Quaternary at Nal Sarovar, prehistoric and historic seismicity associated with surface deformation further attest to ongoing tectonic activity. KRB has responded to N-S compressional stress regime by the formation of east-west trending folds associated with Allah Bund, Kachchh Mainland, Banni, Vigodi, Katrol Hills and Wagad faults. The Allah Bund, Katrol Hill and Kachchh Mainland faults were associated with the 1819, 1956 and 2001 earthquakes. Northeast trending Median High, Bhuj fault and Rajkot-Lathi lineament cut across the east

  19. The use of Natural Flood Management to mitigate local flooding in the rural landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Mark; Quinn, Paul; Ghimire, Sohan; Nicholson, Alex; Addy, Steve

    2014-05-01

    The past decade has seen increases in the occurrence of flood events across Europe, putting a growing number of settlements of varying sizes at risk. The issue of flooding in smaller villages is usually not well publicised. In these small communities, the cost of constructing and maintaining traditional flood defences often outweigh the potential benefits, which has led to a growing quest for more cost effective and sustainable approaches. Here we aim to provide such an approach that alongside flood risk reduction, also has multipurpose benefits of sediment control, water quality amelioration, and habitat creation. Natural flood management (NFM) aims to reduce flooding by working with natural features and characteristics to slow down or temporarily store flood waters. NFM measures include dynamic water storage ponds and wetlands, interception bunds, channel restoration and instream wood placement, and increasing soil infiltration through soil management and tree planting. Based on integrated monitoring and modelling studies, we demonstrate the potential to manage runoff locally using NFM in rural systems by effectively managing flow pathways (hill slopes and small channels) and by exploiting floodplains and buffers strips. Case studies from across the UK show that temporary storage ponds (ranging from 300 to 3000m3) and other NFM measures can reduce peak flows in small catchments (5 to 10 km2) by up to 15 to 30 percent. In addition, increasing the overall effective storage capacity by a network of NFM measures was found to be most effective for total reduction of local flood peaks. Hydraulic modelling has shown that the positioning of such features within the catchment, and how they are connected to the main channel, may also affect their effectiveness. Field evidence has shown that these ponds can collect significant accumulations of fine sediment during flood events. On the other hand, measures such as wetlands could also play an important role during low flow

  20. The role of the Environmental Specimen Bank in environmental monitoring: The example of CHC in selected matrices; Die Rolle der Umweltprobenbank in der Umweltueberwachung am Beispiel von chlorierten Kohlenwasserstoffen in ausgewaehlten Matrizes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marth, P.; Kettrup, A. [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit Neuherberg GmbH, Oberschleissheim (Germany). Inst. fuer Oekologische Chemie]|[Technische Univ. Muenchen, Freising (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Oekologische Chemie und Umweltanalytik; Schramm, K.W.; Henkelmann, B.; Wolf, A.; Oxynos, K.; Schmitzer, J. [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit Neuherberg GmbH, Oberschleissheim (Germany). Inst. fuer Oekologische Chemie

    1999-03-01

    For precautionary environmental protection the Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB) has been successfully established as a permanent environmental surveillance tool in Germany. The presented monitoring results on chlorinated hydrocarbons (CHC) show very clearly the effects of political decisions and can be used for the identification of pollutant sources. The CHC burden of breams (Abramis brama) from five German rivers (Elbe, Rhein, Saar, Mulde, Saale) gives an current overview of the pollution situation of different limnic ecosystems in Germany. A calculation model about the distribution of organic pollutants between different tissues offers the possibility to predict concentrations in liver and muscle of breams. Legislative emission restrictions have led to a significant decrease of dioxin levels in herring gull (Larus argentatus) eggs between 1988-1996. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Umweltprobenbank des Bundes hat sich im Rahmen der Oekologischen Umweltbeobachtung zu einem wichtigen und permanenten Instrument der Umweltpolitik entwickelt. Neben der Langzeitkonservierung fuer zukuenftige Forschungsaufgaben wird am Beispiel der chlorierten Kohlenwasserstoffe demonstriert, dass das durchgefuehrte Monitoring-Programm als Nachweis fuer die Effektivitaet gesetzlicher Massnahmen und zur Identifizierung von Schadstoffeintragsquellen genutzt werden kann. Der vorliegende Beitrag vermittelt am Beispiel der Brassen (Abramis brama) als Akkumulationsindikator einen aktuellen und raeumlich differenzierten Ueberblick ueber die chlororganische Belastungssituation bundesdeutscher Gewaesser (Elbe, Rhein, Saar, Mulde, Saale). Betrachtungen zur Verteilung organischer Chemikalien zwischen Gewebetypen von Brassen zeigen, dass sich die Verteilung der Schadstoffkonzentrationen in Leber und Muskel mit einem geringen Fehler errechnen laesst. Die Dioxingehalte von Silbermoeweneiern (Larus argentatus) belegen, dass die Belastung durch strengere Emissionsgrenzwerte seit Beginn der neunziger Jahre

  1. Not simply a pipe dream : new concept in pipelaying is helping to build one of Europe's major gas pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2010-07-15

    This article discussed Volvo Construction Equipment's new concept in pipelaying machinery and its use in building the Bunde-Etzel pipeline. The Volvo PL4611 can lower a 1-kilometre-long pipe at once using 10 Volvo pipelayers at the same time. Lowering and laying is the sole purpose of the Volvo machines, and they are accompanied by 10 Volvo EC290BNLC crawler excavators. The Volvo pipelayers differ from conventional side-boom track-type tractor pipelayers in that the boom can turn 360 degrees, providing greater flexibility, precision, and control for placing pipe. The PL4611 is based on the EC460C standard excavator hydraulic design, so it can be disassembled easily and transported quickly. By switching the boom for digging equipment, the PL4611 can be changed into an excavator. The boom is longer than a standard pipelayer, allowing the machine to sit back from the trench, lessening the risk of tipping. The boom is mounted inside the track frame, near the machine's central line, providing it with a higher lift capacity and greater stability. The standard fully enclosed Volvo Care Cab provides the operator with excellent visibility. The boom is asymmetrical, allowing the pipe to be seen at all times for placing loads safely and precisely. A standard Load Management System enables the operator to determine what can be lifted safely. The pipelayer also meets the highest emission standards. 3 figs.

  2. CONSEQÜÈNCIES INSTITUCIONALS DE LA LIMITACIÓ DEL DEUTE PÚBLIC A LES COMUNITATS AUTÒNOMES I ALS LÄNDER. UNA ANÀLISI COMPARADA DELS MECANISMES DE CONTROL DE L’ESTABILITAT PRESSUPOSTÀRIA A ESPANYA I ALEMANYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mercè Darnaculleta Gardella

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze, from a comparative law perspective, the control mechanisms take in place to ensure compliance with the constitutional limitation of government debt in German and Spain. Specifically were analyzed, the German law creating the Stability Council to prevent situations of budget crisis, compared to the Spanish Law of Budgetary Stability and Financial Sustainability, with particular emphasis on the procedures, intervention measures and organs created to enforce structural deficit limits set by the European Union. This comparative analysis allows us to contrast two very different ways of dealing with the obligations stipulated by the European Union on the limitation of public debt in the composite States. In the German case, the federal law submits both levels of territorial Administration (Bund and Länder to the control of a joint participation body (StabilitätsRat. In the Spanish case the state law submits the regional levels to strict control by the Ministry of Finance and limited the role of the Council of Fiscal and Financial Policy to merely advisory functions. This not only does not give a satisfactory response to any failure by the State Administration, but it causes imbalance between the State and the Autonomous Communities.

  3. Antioxidant properties of the essential oil of Eugenia caryophyllata and its antifungal activity against a large number of clinical Candida species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaieb, Kamel; Zmantar, Tarek; Ksouri, Riadh; Hajlaoui, Hafedh; Mahdouani, Kacem; Abdelly, Chedly; Bakhrouf, Amina

    2007-09-01

    Many essential oils are known to possess an antioxidant activity and antifungal properties and therefore they potentially act as antimycotic agents. Essential oil of clove (Eugenia caryophyllata) was isolated by hydrodistillation. The chemical composition of the essential oil was analysed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. The antioxidant effect of the tested oil was evaluated by measuring its 2,2-diphenyl-l-1-picrylhydrazil radical scavenging ability and the antiradical dose required to cause a 50% inhibition (IC50) was recorded. The antifungal activity of essential oils was evaluated against 53 human pathogenic yeasts using a disc paper diffusion method. Our results show that the major components present in the clove bund oil were eugenol (88.6%), eugenyl acetate (5.6%), beta-caryophyllene (1.4%) and 2-heptanone (0.9%). The tested essential oil exhibited a very strong radical scavenging activity (IC50 = 0.2 microg ml-1) when compared with the synthetic antioxidant (tert-butylated hydroxytoluene, IC50 = 11.5 microg ml-1). On the other hand, this species displayed an important antifungal effect against the tested strains. It is clear that clove oil shows powerful antifungal activity; and it can be used as an easily accessible source of natural antioxidants and in pharmaceutical applications. PMID:17714361

  4. Accelerated fluctuation analysis by graphic cards and complex pattern formation in financial markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The compute unified device architecture is an almost conventional programming approach for managing computations on a graphics processing unit (GPU) as a data-parallel computing device. With a maximum number of 240 cores in combination with a high memory bandwidth, a recent GPU offers resources for computational physics. We apply this technology to methods of fluctuation analysis, which includes determination of the scaling behavior of a stochastic process and the equilibrium autocorrelation function. Additionally, the recently introduced pattern formation conformity (Preis T et al 2008 Europhys. Lett. 82 68005), which quantifies pattern-based complex short-time correlations of a time series, is calculated on a GPU and analyzed in detail. Results are obtained up to 84 times faster than on a current central processing unit core. When we apply this method to high-frequency time series of the German BUND future, we find significant pattern-based correlations on short time scales. Furthermore, an anti-persistent behavior can be found on short time scales. Additionally, we compare the recent GPU generation, which provides a theoretical peak performance of up to roughly 1012 floating point operations per second with the previous one.

  5. Firewater Storage, Treatment, Recycling and Management: New Perspectives Based on Experiences from the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miklas Scholz

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Smart firewater management and recycling helps reduce water use and protect the environment from pollution. However, contamination of recycled water may pose a health risk to fire fighters. This review assesses international literature to identify best practices, and to recommend new technologies and methods on firewater management and recycling. The literature assessment indicates that this is a new research area where insufficient findings have been published in Web of Science-referenced journals. Therefore, informally published materials (a.k.a. grey literature were also assessed. Findings indicate the need for practical decision support tools to estimate consumption rates, predict “bottlenecks” and bund capacity, assess water quality and determine pump requirements. This article recommends that cost-efficient and rapid on-site treatment methods, such as compact and mobile filtration units for firewater recycling should be researched in the future. The filters should be based on compartments with different media. The empty pore space should decrease from inflow to outflow. A light plastic media should be positioned near the inflow to retain large particles, such as a grid. Activated carbon media could be placed near the outlet to remove fine suspended solids and dissolved contaminants. This should address concerns by fire fighters dealing with contaminated water, spray and foam.

  6. VLBI2010 Feed Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrachenko, Bill

    2013-01-01

    VLBI2010 requires a feed that simultaneously has high efficiency over the full 2.2-14 GHz frequency range. The simultaneity requirement implies that the feed must operate at high efficiency over the full frequency range without the need to adjust its focal position to account for frequency dependent phase centre variations. Two feeds meet this specification: The Eleven Feed developed at Chalmers University. (For more information, contact Miroslav Pantaleev, miroslav.pantaleev@chalmers.se. The Eleven Feed, integrated with LNA's in a cryogenic receiver, is available as a product from Omnisys Instruments, info@omnisys.se). The Quadruple Ridged Flared Horn (QRFH) developed at the California Institute of Technology. (For more information please contact Ahmed Akgiray, aakgiray@ieee.org or Sander Weinreb, sweinreb@caltech.edu) Although not VLBI2010 compliant, two triband S/X/Ka feeds are also being developed for the commissioning of VLBI2010 antennas, for S/X observations during the VLBI2010 transition period, and to support X/Ka CRF observations. The two feeds are: The Twin Telescopes Wettzell (TTW) triband feed developed by Mirad Microwave. (For more information please contact Gerhard Kronschnabl, Gerhard.Kronschnabl@bkg.bund.de) The RAEGE (Spain) triband feed developed at Yebes Observatory. (For more information please contact Jose Antonio Lopez Perez, ja.lopezperez@oan.es)

  7. PENULARAN SCHISTOSOMIASIS DI DESA DODOLO DAN MEKARSARI DATARAN TINGGI NAPU SULAWESI TENGAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosmini Rosmini

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The transmission of schistosomiasis is still ongoing in Dodolo and Mekarsari Villages ofNapu highland, Poso District. The people who infected with Schistosoma japonicum, intermediate host. Oncomelania hnpensis lindoensis snails that infected by cercaria. infective stage of S. japonicum and reservoir host, rats, which infected by S. japonicum were still (bund. The purpose of this study was to identify the transmission of schistosomiasis at Dodolo and Mekarsari Villages, Napu highland. The epidemiological investigation was analyzed using observational study with cross sectional design. Data collections were conducted, including stool, snail and rat suryeys. Stool samples were examined by the Kato-Katz method and rats were dissected to identify the prevalence rate of schistosomiasis in human and rats. Snails were examined using crushing method to identify the infection rate of the snails. Prevalence rate of schistosomiasis in human, rats (Rattus exulans and infection rate O. hnpensis lindoensis snails in Dodolo were 6,9%, 8,3%, 2,8% and in Mekarsari were 6,1%, 10% 2,6% respectively. Prevalence of schistosomiasis in Dodolo and Mekarsari villages is still high, so we need continuous surveillance.   Keywords: Schistosomiasis, Schistosoma japonicum, O. hupensis lindoensis, Dodolo, Mekarsari

  8. Gametogenic cycle in Villorita cyprinoides and the influence of salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aloorkalarickal U. Arun

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Villorita cyprinoides is gonochoristic and showed no signs of sex reversal and hermaphroditism. During the inactive stages of reproductive cycle the gonad is hardly visible through the visceral mass, but at advanced level it observed as a thick transparent tissue through the visceral epithelium. In Villorita cyprinoides the reproductive stages is classified into undifferentiated, early gametogenesis, late gametogenesis, mature, partially spent and spent stage. In undifferentiated phase the sexes are not able to distinguish even in smear preparation and hostological sections. At both stations the number of females are higher and Villorita cyprinoides breeds twice a year, minor spawning during December-February and major during May to July. There is a period of rest between two reproductive cycles; change in salinity is found to be the major factor which triggers reproduction and temperature was not at all a factor governs reproduction. Induced breeding of the species is possible either by sudden drop in salinity or increase in pH. Construction and periodical opening of Thannermukkom bund drastically affects the reproductive pattern of Villorita cyprinoides.

  9. Politische Bildung und das Web 2.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heike Schaumburg

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Aktuell erhält die Diskussion um die Rolle des Internet in der Politischen Bildung neuen Auftrieb durch die Entwicklung der sogenannten Web-2.0- Technologien, die im Vergleich zum Web 1.0 ein erheblich grösseres Potenzial zur Mitgestaltung politischer Inhalte und Prozesse und bzw. zur Partizipation bieten, aber auch neue Möglichkeiten der Kommunikation und Vernetzung eröffnen. In der vorliegenden Studie wird der Frage nachgegangen, inwieweit das Internet und speziell das Web 2.0 in der Lage sind, die in die Technik gesetzten Hoffnungen zu erfüllen. Dabei wird zunächst ausgelotet, welche Potenziale das Web 2.0 für die Politische Bildung mit Blick auf ihre didaktische Gestaltung bieten könnte. Im Anschluss daran wird auf der Basis einer Analyse des Internet-Angebots der traditionellen Anbieter Politischer Bildung (Bundes- und Landeszentralen für Politische Bildung, politische Stiftungen sowie von Internetportalen im Bereich Politische Bildung festgestellt, welche Verbreitung Web-2.0-Angebote gegenwärtig besitzen. Schliesslich wird auf der Grundlage einer Nutzerbefragung an knapp 300 Teilnehmern virtueller politischer Bildungsangebote einer politischen Stiftung der Frage nachgegangen, wie Web-2.0-Angebote in der Politischen Bildungsarbeit aus Nutzersicht beurteilt werden.

  10. Farmers’ Perception and Adaption to Land Use Change and Climate Variability in Fina Reserve, Mali.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karamoko Sanogo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Like the whole sub-Sahara Africa, rainfall in Fina reserve is subject of strong inter-annual variability. This paper assesses farmers’ perception on land use utilised in the Fina biosphere reserve and their adaptation measures to climate variability. The statistical methods (descriptive and inferential analysis are used in this study to determine farmers’ perceptions and the adaptation measures in the Fina reserve. Results reveal that 75.5% of the farmers noticed an increase in temperature and decrease in rainfall ignoring the recent recovery observed in the annual rainfall. The length of rainy season is considered to be shorter according to 77.6% of farmers involved to the investigation. However, all the farmers underlined frequent and longer dry spell. Bush fire is considered by 10.2% of farmers as the major factor affecting the natural resources of the reserve and only about 10% of farmers accorded much importance to agricultural land as contributor to reserve degradation. Most of the farmers are limited by lack of manpower and not by the reserve rule to increase their farmlands. The major adaptation measures are the methods of shifting cultivation and improving seed which are practiced by 51% and 87.8% of farmers, respectively. New adaptation strategies such as adoption of planting pits and stone-bunds for water retention need to be practiced by farmers.

  11. Pengembangan Metoda Deteksi Rintangan untuk Traktor tanpa Awak Menggunakan Kamera CCD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usman Ahmad

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available For unmanned tractor guided by global positioning system, ability for eluding obstacles such as trees, big stone, cavity, bund, people, and other objects in the work area is very important in order not to stop the operation.Surrounding detection system using CCD camera makes it possible for unmanned tractor to detect obstacles in front of it realtime. However, with so many different objects that may captured by the camera, it will need a lot of image processing steps that takes a lot of time so it is no longer suitable for realtime detection in application. The proposed research is aimed to develop a simpler obstacle detection method by adding a red laser pointer to the CCD camera used to capture scene in front of the tractor. The red laser light that reflected by an obstacle gives an important information in the image, and the distance of the obstacle could be calculated based on phytagoras theory. The results showed that all obstacles with 1 m distance, 80% obstacles with 2 m distance, and 40% obstacles with 3 m distance could be detected. Obstacles with more than 3 m distances could not be detected due to weak laser light for the distances. The accuracy of distance prediction for all situation is 67.5%, which is still need improvements.

  12. Assessment of Intercomparison of Radionuclide Activity Measurement between P3KRBiN-BATAN and NMIJ/AIST-JAPAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On every radionuclide activity measurements or any measurements always contain uncertainties. The uncertainties come from standard source, equipment to be used, condition of measurements (background) and sample (measurement). Those elements should be taken into account in the measurement result evaluation. To know the result of activity measurement was in a good agreement or not, it can be done by intercomparison. A good result of a measurement if it was nearly with the result of international/primary laboratories measurements such as System Internationale de Reference (SIR)-Franch, National Metrology Institute of Japan- Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (NMIJ/AIST or Physikalisch Technische Bundes-anstalt (PTB) and the absolute value of En should be less than 1. The result of intercomparison between Center for Research and Development of Radiation Safety and Nuclear Biomedicine (P3KRBiN) -BATAN and NMIJ/AIST were in a good agreement for activity measurement of 125I (En=0.193), 58Co(En=0.503), 88Y(En=0.035) and 59Fe(En=0.632), by using gamma spectrometry counting system (HPGe detector) and 166mHo(En=0.492), by using Merlin Gerin Ionization chamber. (author)

  13. Human Influences on the Development of Acid Sulphate Soils in the Pearl River(the Zhujiang) Delta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN

    1996-01-01

    In the Pearl River Delta with more than 1000 years of intensive land reclamation history,the development of acid sulphate soils has been generally limited in terms of their acid potential (pyrite content)and spatial extent.This is attributed to the rapid delta progradation,partially resulted from increasing sediment yield caused by deforestation within the catchment and the empolderment in the estuarine embayment.The empolderment practice accompanied by the clearance of mangroves stopped the upward growth of the pyritic layer on the one hand and limited the vertical accretion of non-pyritic freshwater sediments over the pyritic layer on the one hand and limited the vertical accretion of non-pyritic freshwater sediments over the pyritic estuarine sediments on the other.In such a case,the pyritic layer in the area is frequently thin and of shallow occurrence.Under forced leaching-recharge conditions for the paddy rice cultivation ,the leaching of acid sulphate materials prevails over its production and this leads to a net loss in pyrite oxidation products.Land excavation for fishpond farming accelerates pyrite oxidation due to the direct exposure of the pyrtic sediments to air on the pond bunds.Severe acidification can intensity the environmental degradation of estuarine ecosystems.

  14. Instruments and scope of possible action of the Federal States for global climate protection. Vol. 1: Analysis. Vol. 2: Baseline data. Vol. 3: Legal opinion; Instrumente und Handlungsmoeglichkeiten der Bundeslaender zum Klimaschutz. Bd. 1: Analyseband. Bd. 2: Materialband. Bd. 3: Rechtsgutachten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blechschmidt, K.; Herbert, W.; Barzantny, K.; Dittmann, W.; Gehm, C.; Menges, R.; Moehring-Hueser, W.; Wortmann, K.; Herbert, W. [Energiestiftung Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel (Germany); Penschke, A. [Zentrum fuer Rationelle Energieanwendung und Umwelt GmbH, Regensburg (Germany); Groth, A.; Kusche, C.

    2001-07-01

    In the analysis volume, (vol. 1), the legal and political frameworks governing the greenhouse gas reduction policy adopted by the Federal states of Germany are explained. The evolution of the policies, goals pursued and points of major emphasis, the orientation for the future and existing impediments for implementation are analysed. Volume 2 contains a comprehensive baseline data library characterising the present situation, as well as examples selected by the Federal states, illustrating policy schemes which proved to be successful. The legal opinion presented in volume 3 explains the distribution of competences for climate policy of the Federal Government and the state governments in accordance with constitutional law, as well as channels of implementing policy schemes via legislation issued by the Federal states, or administrative action in execution of the law, or other administrative action. (orig./CB) [German] Im Analyseband (Band 1) werden die rechtlichen und politischen Rahmenbedingungen der Landesklimaschutzpolitik dargestellt, gefolgt von einer Analyse dieser Politik hinsichtlich ihrer Entwicklung, Ziele und Schwerpunkte, bestehenden Hindernissen, zukuenftiger Ausrichtung, Handlungsoptionen und Beispiele fuer die Erschliessung neuer Taetigkeitsgebiete der Laender. Der Materialband (Band 2) enthaelt neben umfassenden Daten zur Schilderung der Situation auch von den Laendern ausgewaehlte, erfolgreiche Beispiele fuer die Durchfuehrung von Klimaschutzmassnahmen. In einem Rechtsgutachten (Band 3) werden die verfassungsrechtlichen Grundlagen der Kompetenzverteilung zwischen Bund und Laendern auf dem Gebiet des Klimaschutzes detailliert dargelegt und Moeglichkeiten der Umsetzung von Klimaschutzpolitik durch Landesgesetzgebung sowie gesetzesvollziehende und nicht-gesetzesvollziehende Verwaltungstaetigkeit untersucht. (orig./CB)

  15. Assessment of U(nat) and 226Ra level in bore well water adjoining the newly constructed uranium mill tailings pond at Turamdih

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Processing of uranium ore leaves behind large quantity of low specific activity waste called tailings. In the absence of appropriate control measures such waste disposal may lead to contamination of adjoining ground water sources. Ten bore wells have been constructed across the earthen bund of the tailings pond to evaluate the migration characteristics of radionuclides and chemical toxicants. Present study is based on the monitoring results of significant radionuclides U(nat) and 226Ra of these bore well water during the last two years. The highest concentration of U(nat) and 226Ra was found 2.4 mg m-3 and 22.1 Bq m-3 respectively. These levels are comparable with the ground water sources situated in the vicinity of the tailings pond and adjacent areas within the same geological formation. The levels reflect the natural distribution of U(nat) and 226Ra in ground water sources of this region and impact of discharges at tailings pond has not been observed so far. The study reveal that the design features of tailings pond is able to restrict these radionuclides within the tailings pile. Moreover, the levels are well below the recommended standards of U(nat) and 226Ra for drinking water i.e. 60 mg m-3 and 300 Bq m-3. (author)

  16. The experience of the Hitler Youth - boys in national-socialism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Figiel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Losing the First World War, unemployment, the generation gap and the cult of youth led to the party of Adolf Hitler gaining popularity in the Weimar Republic. Using slogans of the restoration of a strong Germany the national socialists organized structures, which formed and educated German Youth. Hitler Youth – brought up according to the rule: “youth leads youth” – was a very fertile environment for the spread of the idea of national-socialism. The specific values – racial supremacy, honour, obedience – handed down by parents were the beginning of the Nazi indoctrination. In the later period such organizations as Bund Deutscher Madel or Hitlerjugend took power over German youth. Education, upbringing, ideological content used by the institutions in Nazi Germany are described in the extensive literature on the subject. However, very important are the experiences of individual members of the Hitler Youth that show the Nazi youth activities from a time perspective. Experiences such as the wisdom of life, and gained knowledge, enable recognition and description of the reality which is discussed. The scope of historical and pedagogical research shows the essential facts constituting the full picture of the life of young people during Nazi era.

  17. Development of an air quality related assessment instrument for motor vehicle emissions. Final report; Entwicklung eines Modellinstrumentariums zur immissionsseitigen Bewertung von Kfz-Emissionen. T. 1: Modell zur Wirkungsabschaetzung von verkehrsbezogenen Minderungsmassnahmen. Endbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, R.; Diaz-Bone, H.; Stern, R.; Wiegand, G.; Arzt, F.; Huesler, W.; Schnedler, W.

    1999-02-01

    As a tool to facilitate the checking task of Paragraph 40.2 Federal Immission Control Act, the computer program CITAIR was developed. Its emission and transmission modules calculate air quality parameters for street canyons with high building density. Its measure module City IMPACT allows an a-priori assessment of the effects of traffic restrictions considering the given local frame conditions. Part 1 of the report describes the assessment model for transport related measures. Part 2 describes the transmission model IMMIS-Net/CPB for inert air pollutants. Part 3 describes a model system for 3-dimensional transmission in street canyons with special respect to photochemical reactions. (orig.) [Deutsch] Als Hilfsmittel zur Umsetzung der Pruefaufgaben des Paragraph 40 Abs. 2 Bundes-Immissionsschutzgesetz wurde das Computerprogramm CITAIR fuer den Einsatz in Kommunal- und Landesbehoerden entwickelt. Mittels einer Emissions- und eines Ausbreitungsmoduls berechnet CITAIR die Immissionskonzentrationswerte an den Raendern einer Strassenschlucht mit dichter Randbebauung. Das Massnahmenmodul City IMPACT als drittes Element von CITAIR ermoeglicht die a-priori-Abschaetzung der Wirkungen von Verkehrsbeschraenkungen und Verkehrsverboten unter Beruecksichtigung der lokalen Randbedingungen. Berichtsteil 1 beschreibt das Modell zur Wirkungsabschaetzung von verkehrsplanerischen Massnahmen. Berichtsteil 2 beschreibt das Ausbreitungsmodul IMMIS-Net/CPB fuer inerte Schadstoffe. Berichtsteil 3 beschreibt ein Modellsystem zur dreidimensionalen Ausbreitungsrechnung unter Beruecksichtigung der Photochemie in Strassenschluchten. (orig.)

  18. The significance of trends in long-term correlated records

    CERN Document Server

    Tamazian, Araik; Bunde, Armin

    2014-01-01

    We study the distribution $P(x;\\alpha,L)$ of the relative trend $x$ in long-term correlated records of length $L$ that are characterized by a Hurst-exponent $\\alpha$ between 0.5 and 1.5 obtained by DFA2. The relative trend $x$ is the ratio between the strength of the trend $\\Delta$ in the record measured by linear regression, and the standard deviation $\\sigma$ around the regression line. We consider $L$ between 400 and 2200, which is the typical length scale of monthly local and annual reconstructed global climate records. Extending previous work by Lennartz and Bunde \\cite{Lennartz2011} we show explicitely that $P$ follows the student-t distribution $P\\propto [1+(x/a)^2/l]^{-(l+1)/2}$, where the scaling parameter $a$ depends on both $L$ and $\\alpha$, while the effective length $l$ depends, for $\\alpha$ below 1.15, only on the record length $L$. From $P$ we can derive an analytical expression for the trend significance $S(x;\\alpha, L)=\\int_{-x}^x P(x';\\alpha,L)dx'$ and the border lines of the $95\\%$ percent ...

  19. Official report and motion on the Committee for Internal Affairs of the Bundestag (4. Committee), concerning the proposed third bill amending the Atomic Energy Act framed by the Federal Government. Bulletins 7/2183, 7/2538

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The new bill is to adapt the national atomic energy legislation to the conventions which are to be ratified in conformity with the bill to be drafted after the Paris and Brussels Atomic Liability Conventions. It will also prevent a change for the worse in the national atomic liability legislation after the ratification and serve to improve national liability in the interest of the peaceful use of nuclear energy. These aims will be accomplished by 1) amendment and supplementation of those provisions of the Atomic Energy Law that are affected by the new conventions to be ratified, 2) full use, as far as possible, of the reservations made by the Federal Republic at the time of signature of the conventions, with a view to improving the protection of victims, 3) an upward adjustment of the present maximum amount of liability from DM 500 million to DM 1,000 million, 4) an upward adjustment of the financial security required from the present DM 120 million to DM 500 million, 5) a shift of the present indemnification by the Bund from the present range between DM 120 to DM 500 million to the range between DM 500 to DM 1,000 million with the Laender participating in such indemnification, 6) a regime of compensation for persons residing in the Federal Republic who suffer damage caused by foreign reactors with a view to ensure equal treatment of all persons suffering damage in Germany regardless of whether the nuclear incident occurred in Germany or abroad. (orig./AK)

  20. Evropski zeleni pas – narava ne pozna meja. Od železne zavese do popkovine Evrope.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Geidezis

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Od Barentsovega do Črnega morja je železna zavesa Evropo delila skoraj štirideset let. Bila je politična, ideološka in fizična ovira, še najbolj izrazito v Nemčiji. Čeprav je bila docela nečloveška, je omogočila naravi premor: narava se je razbohotila in razvilo se je nekaj izjemno redkega v intenzivno uporabljeni krajini – t. i. zeleni pas. Od padca železne zavese leta 1989, poteka prek Evrope popkovina habitatov, dolga skoraj 8.500 km. Z izhodišči v projektu Green Belt Germany, nastalem na pobudo BUND, se je razvil projekt Zeleni pas Evrope ali Green Belt Europe. Lahko postane hrbtenica ekološkega omrežja, ki bo globalni simbol čezmejnega sodelovanja in ohranjanja narave ter vzdržnega razvoja. Še več, povezuje ljudi in kaže, da ima lahko povečana Evropska unija poleg kulturne tudi skupno naravno dediščino. To je enkratna priložnost za premagovanje starih meja in ovir med vzhodom in zahodom – živo znamenje skupne rasti v Evropi.

  1. Green Belt Europe – nature knows no boundaries. From “Iron Curtain” to Europe’s lifeline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Geidezis

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The “Iron Curtain” divided Europe for almost forty years from the Barents Sea to the Black Sea. It was a political, ideological and physical barrier, most strongly expressed in Germany. Despite its inhumanity, this border granted nature a pause for breath: nature flourished and developed something extremely rare in intensively used landscapes – the so called Green Belt. Since the fall of the Iron Curtain in 1989, a lifeline of habitats about 8.500 km long runs through Europe. It originated from the project Green Belt Germany, initiated by BUND, the vision of a European Green Belt development. It can become a backbone of an ecological network that is a global symbol for trans-boundary co-operation in nature conservation and sustainable development. Moreover, it connects people and shows that the enlarged European Union has not only a cultural but also a natural heritage. The Green Belt is a unique chance to overcome the old boundaries and barriers between East and West – a living symbol of growing together in Europe.

  2. Elastic and inelastic scattering of polarized protons from lead-206 and lead-208 near isobaric analog resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Excitation functions have been measured for elastic scattering of polarized protons from 206Pb and 208Pb, and for inelastic scattering to collective states in 206Pb (2+, 0.8033 MeV; 3-, 2.647 MeV) and 208Pb (3-, 2.6145 MeV). Both differential cross sections and analyzing powers were measured at theta/sub lab/ = 1200, 1350, 1500, and 1650, for E/sub p/ = 14.25 to 18 MeV. Fits to the excitation-function data were obtained using scattering amplitudes consisting of sums of resonant and non-resonant parts. The resonances are the isobaric analogs (IARs) of 7 low-lying states in 209Pb and 35 in 207Pb. The fits to the elastic-scattering data are excellent; for the inelastic scattering the fit is very good for the 2+ state but only fair for the 3- states. For each IAR, the energy, the total width, and the partial width and mixing phase in each channel were obtained. Also, new spin assignments were made for a number of parent states in 207Pb. The theory of Bund and Blair was used to find the spectroscopic amplitudes, which provide information on the wave functions for the parent states in 207Pb and 209Pb and for the 3- states in 206Pb and 208Pb. These spectroscopic amplitudes were then checked for internal consistency and compared with the results of other experiments and with theoretical predictions

  3. Öffentlichkeitsbeteiligung ja, aber wie? Standards für qualitätsvolle Beteiligungsprozesse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Arbter

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Damit Öffentlichkeitsbeteiligung der Öffentlichkeit, der Politik und der Verwaltung nützt, muss sie qualitätsvoll durchgeführt werden. Daher entwickelte eine interministerielle Arbeitsgruppe unter Beteiligung von Ministerien, Interessenvertretungen, NGOs und externen FachexpertInnen im Rahmen eines Projekts im Auftrag des Bundes­kanzler­amtes und des Lebensministeriums "Standards der Öffentlich­keits­beteiligung". Die Standards wurden im Juli 2008 vom Ministerrat beschlossen und damit im Bereich der österreichischen Bundesverwaltung zur Anwendung empfohlen. Sie sollen nun VerwaltungsmitarbeiterInnen bei der konkreten Durchführung qualitätsvoller Beteiligungsprozesse unter­stützen. Die Standards der Öffentlichkeitsbeteiligung wurden selbst in einem partizipativen Prozess entwickelt. Zu Beginn wurde ein gemeinsames Begriffsverständnis zur Öffentlichkeit und zu den drei Intensitätsstufen der Beteiligung (Information, Konsultation und Kooperation geschaffen. Danach wurden Standards zu den drei Phasen eines Beteiligungsprozesses, der Vorbereitungsphase, der Durchführungsphase und der Monitoring- und Evaluierungsphase nach Abschluss des Prozesses, formuliert. Erste Anwendungsversuche – einerseits beim Konsultationsprozess zum Entwurf der Standards selbst, andererseits bei einem ersten Pilotprojekt – zeigen, dass die Standards der Öffentlich­keitsbeteiligung durchaus praxistauglich sind. Auch für elektronisch unterstützte Beteiligungs­prozesse sollen die Standards ein hilfreiches Qualitätsfundament bieten.

  4. THE MAKING OF AN UNLIKELY CHILEAN FASCIST: REFLECTIONS ON THE INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT AND POLITICAL WORK OF CARLOS KELLER RUEFF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Klein

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the intellectual evolution and political activities of Carlos Keller Rueff between the early 1920s and the late 1930s. It discusses his development from a German nationalist to a Chilean fascist during the course of this eventful period. In the 1920s Keller, who started his career in the Deutsch-Chilenischer Bund, the umbrella organisation of the German-Chilean community, expressed German National positions. Only at the end of the decade he began to distance himself from his narrow, sectarian German sub-culture and took a broader, national view, a development that coincided with his move from Concepción to Santiago and the failure of his plan to revive the immigration of Germans to Chile. With the book La eterna crisis chilena, published in 1931, he finally emerged as a Chilean nationalist and gained the reputation of an intellectual. One year later, in April 1932, he was, together with Jorge González von Marées, one of the founding members of the Chilean Movimiento Nacional Socialista (MNS. Keller became the movement’s ideologue and its second most prominent leader. This career abruptly ended with the failed nacista coup of 5 September 1938 and the subsequent transformation of the MNS into the Vanguardia Popular Socialista

  5. Die Lobbyarbeit des dbv: Allgemeine Überlegungen und konkrete Umsetzung am Beispiel des Urheberrechts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natascha Reip

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Der Deutsche Bibliotheksverband e.V. (dbv ist der Interessenvertreter aller Bibliotheken, formuliert bibliothekspolitische Forderungen, reagiert schnell auf aktuelle Entwicklungen und gibt den Bibliotheken Hilfestellungen. Der dbv hat seit 2012 seine Interessenvertretung weiter professionalisiert und intensiviert. Der Verband pflegt enge Kontakte zu den Parlamenten und den Ministerien auf Bundes- und Länderebene, zu den kommunalen Spitzenverbänden und Gebietskörperschaften und nimmt Einfluss auf Gesetzgebung und parlamentarische Willensbildung. Der Beitrag stellt grundlegende Instrumente der politischen Kommunikation vor und hebt anhand des konkreten Beispiels Urheberrecht deren Erfolgsfaktoren hervor: Erfolg hat, wer zur richtigen Zeit in der passenden Sprache mit den richtigen Beamt/inn/en oder Politiker/inne/n spricht. The German Library Association (dbv represents the interests of all libraries in Germany, formulates requirements for library policy, responds quickly to current developments and provides assistance for libraries. Since 2012 the dbv has professionalized and intensified its lobbying activities. The Association maintains close contacts with parliaments and ministries at federal and state level, as well as with municipal associations and local authorities and influences the legislation and the parliamentary decision-making process. The article presents basic tools for political communication and uses the example of copyright in order to emphasize the factors for success: To speak at the right time in an appropriate language to the right official or politician.

  6. Local agriculture traditional knowledge to avoid erosion in a changing climate: Ensuring agricultural livelihoods and food security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guadalupe Rivera Ferré, Marta; Di Masso, Marina; Vara, Isabel; Mailhost, Mara; Bhatta, Goppal; Cuellar, Mamem; López-i-Gelats, Feliu; Gallar, Donald

    2015-04-01

    In the regions that experience substantial climatic risks, considerable traditional expertise exists that is underutilized and that could be valuable as a starting point to build more effective strategies for adapting to climate change and ensure food availability. Some of these are agronomic strategies for soil conservation targeting erosion avoidance as a form to ensure soil fertility and thus, crop production and food availability. Following an extensive literature review in the Indogangetic Plans, we have identified many different practices derived from local traditional knowledge that can be classified as i) Reshaping the landscape (terracing, bunding, efficient distribution of land uses); ii) Stream diversion to reduce flood impact (channels along the edges of the fields, embankments, dams, network of ponds, outlets, walls and fencing); and iii) Others (agroforesty, use of specific trees as indicators of soil erosion, crop-fallow rotation, preservation of patches of forests, reforestation, collective management of forests). These endogenous-based practices have a great potential for adaptation since they are more easily adopted by communities, they require of minimum or not external expertise and aid, and usually, are cheaper than other strategies. A combination of local knowledge with other scientific knowledge may be the most effective way to face climate change. This work was performed as part of the CCAFS-Program of the CGIAR in South Asia.

  7. Nuclear emergency preparedness in Germany - an introduction. Pt. 2. Off-site emergency management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because of the federal structure of Germany, both the Federal States (Laender) and the Federation (Bund) are involved in the task of off-site emergency management. The States are responsible for the disaster control, which includes measures that prevent acute radiation damage and reduce the risk as the result of high doses, mainly in the near vicinity of nuclear facilities. The Federation is responsible for radiation precaution measures that reduce collective risk. The States have site-related Remote Monitoring Systems for Nuclear Power Plants (KFU) (within ∝ 25 km), whereas the Federation has a nationwide Integrated Measurement and Information System (IMIS). In the event of an accident, the State and Federal Authorities make their decisions and implement the corresponding emergency measures within their domains of task and responsibility. At the same time, there is an exchange of information and coordination of measures between both levels. The States are responsible for the performance of disaster control exercises, and the Federation is responsible for precautionary exercises. (orig.)

  8. Air quality annual report 1998; Lufthygienischer Jahresbericht 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The German Federal Emission Control Act (BImSchG) for protection against the harmful effects of air pollution, noise, vibrations and similar processes defines the legal instruments available to provide for air pollution monitoring and control. According to the legal provisions, responsibility for air pollution monitoring lies with the competent Land authorities, and monitoring activities are defined in terms of territory (areas subject to monitoring) and time periods as well as specific tasks for pollution measurement. The areas subject to monitoring are those with detected or expected air pollution very likely to cause harmful effects on the environment due to (1) frequency and prolongation of events, (2) pollutant concentrations, and (3) hazards emanating from synergistic action. (orig.) [German] Das Gesetz zum Schutz vor schaedlichen Umwelteinwirkungen durch Luftverunreinigungen, Geraeusche, Erschuetterungen und aehnliche Vorgaenge (Bundes-Immissionsschutzgesetz - BImSchG) enthaelt in Paragraph 44 das gesetzliche Instrumentarium zur Immissionsueberwachung. Demnach haben die nach Landesrecht zustaendigen Behoerden in den durch Rechtsverordnung festgesetzten Untersuchungsgebieten (frueher Belastungsgebiete) Art und Umfang bestimmter Luftverunreinigungen in einem bestimmten Zeitraum oder fortlaufend festzustellen. Gleiches gilt fuer Gebiete, in denen eine Ueberschreitung von Immissionswerten oder Immissionsleitwerten, die in zur Durchfuehrung dieses Gesetzes ergangenen Rechts- und allgemeinen Verwaltungsvorschriften zum Schutz vor Gesundheitsgefahren oder in bindenden Beschluessen der Europaeischen Gemeinschaften festgelegt sind, festgestellt wird oder zu erwarten sind. Untersuchungsgebiete sind Gebiete, in denen Luftverunreinigungen auftreten oder zu erwarten sind, die wegen - der Haeufigkeit und Dauer ihres Auftretens, - ihrer hohen Konzentrationen oder - der Gefahr des Zusammenwirkens verschiedener Luftverunreinigungen schaedliche Umwelteinwirkungen hervorrufen

  9. Study on Climatic Variation and Its Effect on Vegetable Type Soybean Genotypes at Khumaltar, Lalitpur in the Last Ten Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Raj Tripathi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Soybean (Glycine max L. Merril is widely grown in the mid hills as intercrop with maize or in paddy bunds, while it is gaining popularity as sole crop in terai and inner terai. Mean temperature at Khumaltar during soybean growing period was mostly fluctuating; but we observed an increasing trend in temperature. Amount of rainfall was not changed dramatically but number of rainy days was decreased during study period. Rainfall during germination time increase soil moisture which also increase germination and found higher early stand. Days from sowing to 50% flowering and 90% maturity were short in the case of higher minimum temperature and low rainfall. Among the genotypes, AGS-377, AGS-378, AGS-379 and Tarkari Bhattmas-1 were more sensitive. However, seed yield decreased in the case of higher temperatures and low rainfall. Cool night temperatures and high moisture increased disease incidence in soybean which, eventually reduced yield. In last three years, plant suffered from moisture stress during early vegetative stage and high moisture during late vegetative stage which reduced seed yield and seed weight. In conclusion, we found that genotypes like AGS- 360, Sathiya and Tarkari Bhatmas-1 are very sensitive to climatic variation.

  10. GKSS-workshop: contaminated sludges. Treatment and utilization fine graned residues; GKSS-Workshop: Kontaminierte Schlaemme. Behandlung und Nutzungsmoeglichkeiten feinkoerniger Reststoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvermann, G.; Luther, G.; Niemeyer, B. [eds.] [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Zentralabteilung Technikum

    2000-07-01

    New regulations, such as the materials recycling act, soil protection act and unsolved problems related to the treatment of contaminated sludges, the utilisation of the gained products demand the development of innovative techniques for industrial, dredged or drilling sludges. The workshop offered a platform for intensive discussions between representatives of industry, research institutions, associations, and authorities. The main aim of the workshop was the presentation of fundamental background of sludge processing and advanced technical solutions. The available proceedings contain 21 lectures held on the workshop with the following ranges of topics of the sludge treatment: legislation, R and D-funding, technological bases, decontamination processes, dewatering and drying processes, recycling and immobilization. (orig.) [German] Neue Gesetze wie das Kreislaufwirtschafts- oder das Bundes-Bodenschutzgesetz und anstehende Probleme bei der Beseitigung belasteter Schlaemme - zum Beispiel Industrie-, Bohr- und Baggergutschlaemme - erfordern die Entwicklung innovativer Techniken zu ihrer Aufbereitung, Reinigung bzw. Verwertung. Der Workshop bot ein Formung zur intensiven Diskussion zwischen Industrie, Forschung, Verbaenden und Behoerden. Ziel war es, unterschiedliche Methoden der Schlammbehandlung zu eroertern, Loesungswege aufzuzeigen und Moeglichkeiten fuer Kooperationen zu erarbeiten. Der vorliegende Band enthaelt Beitraege der Referenten, die sich auf folgende Themenbereiche der Schlammbehandlung konzentrieren: juristische Aspekte, Foerdermoeglichkeiten, Grundlagen, Aufbereitung von Schlaemmen, Entwaesserung und Trocknung von Schlaemmen, Verwertung und Immobilisierung. (orig.)

  11. Possibilities of supraregional evaluation of long-term soil monitoring on the basis of the metadata of the German states; Moeglichkeiten der laenderuebergreifenden Auswertung an Standorten der Bodendauerbeobachtung - ausgehend von der Zusammenstellung der Metadaten aus den Laendern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spatz, P. [Solum, Buero fuer Boden und Geologie, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)

    2001-03-01

    Long-term monitoring of soil data is a task of the German state in the context of its national and international reporting obligations. A supraregional, statewide evaluation routine was developed, and test evaluations were carried out in selected sites. Measurements cover general site date and site-specific analytical parameters. A database was produced which covers 794 measuring sites from July 2000. [German] Im Rahmen der nationalen und internationalen Berichtspflichten des Bundes zum Bodenzustand, besteht die Notwendigkeit die Boden-Dauerbeobachtungsflaechen (DBF) der Laender auf Bundesebene fuer integrierende Auswertungen nutzbar zu machen. In einem vorangegangenen F+E Vorhaben (Organisation und Methodik des Bodenmonitorings, 1998) wurden zum ersten Mal Informationen ueber die Bodenmessnetze der Laender erhoben und auf ihre bundesweite Repraesentanz untersucht. Projektziel des vorliegenden Vorhabens war es zunaechst, die Datengrundlage durch eine Befragung der Laender zu aktualisieren. In einem weiteren Schritt sollten eine Konzeption fuer eine laenderuebergreifende Auwerteroutine erarbeitet, sowie eine Testauswertung an ausgewaehlten BDF durchgefuehrt werden. Aufbauend auf der Datengrundlage des o.g. Vorhabens wurden im Rahmen dieses Projektes die Daten aller BDF (Stand 12/99) ergaenzt und aktualisiert bzw. neue BDF erhoben. Dabei wurden sowohl die allgemeinen Standortdaten (Nutzung BDF-Typ, Boden- und Substrattyp, Koordinaten, etc.) sowie auch alle standortspezifischen Untersuchungsparameter (Bodenphysik, Bodenchemie, Bodenbiologie, Eintrags-/Austragsmessungen) erfasst und in einer Datenbank hinterlegt. Mit Stand Juli 2000 sind damit in Deutschland 794 BDF, die in Bodenmessnetzen integriert und nach den Vorgaben der Ad hoc AG BDF (LABO ad hoc AG BDF, 2000) betrieben werden, laenderuebergreifend dokumentiert. (orig.)

  12. Reducing particulate matter in the operation of firewood burning stoves taking into account the toxicological relevance; Feinstaubminderung im Betrieb von Scheitholzkaminoefen unter Beruecksichtigung der toxikologischen Relevanz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenz, Volker Alfred

    2010-12-02

    One of the greatest challenges facing humanity is climate change. Correspondingly, inter alia, the German government has set a target by 2020, to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases to the 1990 level by 20%. For this purpose can and should an increased energetic use of biomass contribute. End of 2007, the bioenergy had a share of around three quarters of the renewable primary energy input. Of which more than 45% were used for the heat supply. A total of more than 90% of renewable heat have been provided from biomass. From the provided amount of heat come over 80% from the combustion of solid biofuels - so far almost exclusively wood products - in small and medium wood-fuelled combustion systems. To reduce carbon dioxide emissions the federal government is accelerating a further expansion of energetic use of biomass in the heating sector. This expansion of thermal use of biomass, however, for reasons of pollution control, should not rise simultaneously with the emissions of air pollutants such as carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides or particulate matter. [German] Eine der groessten Herausforderungen fuer die Menschheit ist der Klimawandel. Entsprechend hat sich u.a. die deutsche Bundesregierung das Ziel gesetzt bis 2020 die Emissionen an Treibhausgasen im Vergleich zum Stand 1990 um 20 % zu mindern. Hierzu kann und soll eine verstaerkte energetische Nutzung der Biomasse beitragen. Ende 2007 hatte die Bioenergie einen Anteil von rund drei Viertel am erneuerbaren Primaerenergieeinsatz. Davon wurden mehr als 45 % fuer die Waermebereitstellung genutzt. Insgesamt wurden mehr als 90 % der erneuerbaren Waerme aus Biomasse bereitgestellt. Von der bereitgestellten Waermemenge kommen ueber 80 % aus der Verbrennung von festen Biobrennstoffen - bisher fast ausschliesslich Holzprodukte - in kleinen und mittleren Holzfeuerungsanlagen. Zur Verminderung der Kohlenstoffdioxidemissionen wird von Seiten des Bundes ein weiterer Ausbau der energetischen Biomassenutzung im Waermebereich

  13. Supervision by the authorities and on account of sole responsibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    If radiation protection is not to miss its purpose, it has to be preventive. This results in the fact that supervision by the authorities and sole responsibility in preventive radiation protection can only be seen as a common effort, i.e. taking the FRG as an example, on three levels: 1) It is the duty of the Bund to adapt all legal regulations to the existing state of science and technology and to maintain this standard, in order that the statements made therein are clear and that they can be expressed in figures which have to be adapted to the risks and which have to be comparable with other permissible risks, 2) it is the task of the Laender authorities to see that the legal regulations are adhered to in individual cases, i.e. to examine the conformity of applications with existing legal provisions, and above all, to supervise that those responsible for radiation protection have their special qualifications, and that the personnel at their disposal has its equipment, 3) it is the duty of those responsible for radiation protection and their personnel to practice radiation protection in sole responsibility at their place of work and for the environment. Supervision is a success only in the case of each level being first of all its own supervisor, and if there is a constant mutual exchange of experience, as without this exchange each sector lives its own life. The supervision of measurement techniques by the authorities only fulfils its purpose if measurements supplement each other and if work is not done twice. Taking personnel dosimetry, possibilities are presented. However, where measurements are taken it is inevitable that equipment and methods are compared. (orig.)

  14. Isotope techniques to identify recharge areas of springs for rainwater harvesting in the mountainous region of Gaucher area, Chamoli district, Uttarakhand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental isotope techniques have been employed to identify the recharge areas of springs in India, in order to construct artificial recharge structures for rainwater harvesting and groundwater augmentation for their rejuvenation. A model project was taken up in the mountainous region of Gaucher area, Chamoli District, Uttarakhand for this purpose. The springs in this regions are seasonal and are derived from seepage waters flowing through the shallow weathered and fractured zone. The chemistry of high-altitude springs is similar to that of precipitation, whereas water-rock interactions contributes to increased mineralization in low-altitude springs. The stable isotopic variation in precipitation suggests that the altitude effect for Gaucher area is -0.55% for δ18O and -3.8% for δ2H per 100 m rise in altitude. Based on local geology, geomorphology, hydrochemistry and isotope information, the possible recharge areas inferred for valleys 1, 2 and 3 are located at altitudes of 1250, 1330 and 1020 m amsl respectively. Water conservation and recharge structures such as subsurface dykes, check bunds and contour trenches were constructed at the identified recharge areas in the respective valleys for controlling the subsurface flow, rainwater harvesting and groundwater augmentation respectively. As a result, during and after the following monsoon, the discharge rates of the springs not only increased significantly, but also did not dry up even during the dry period. The study shows that the isotope techniques can be effectively used in identifying recharge areas of springs in the Himalayan region. It also demonstrates the advantage of isotope techniques over conventional methods. (author)

  15. A framework for managing runoff and pollution in the rural landscape using a Catchment Systems Engineering approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, M E; Quinn, P F; Barber, N J; Jonczyk, J

    2014-01-15

    Intense farming plays a key role in increasing local scale runoff and erosion rates, resulting in water quality issues and flooding problems. There is potential for agricultural management to become a major part of improved strategies for controlling runoff. Here, a Catchment Systems Engineering (CSE) approach has been explored to solve the above problem. CSE is an interventionist approach to altering the catchment scale runoff regime through the manipulation of hydrological flow pathways throughout the catchment. By targeting hydrological flow pathways at source, such as overland flow, field drain and ditch function, a significant component of the runoff generation can be managed in turn reducing soil nutrient losses. The Belford catchment (5.7 km(2)) is a catchment scale study for which a CSE approach has been used to tackle a number of environmental issues. A variety of Runoff Attenuation Features (RAFs) have been implemented throughout the catchment to address diffuse pollution and flooding issues. The RAFs include bunds disconnecting flow pathways, diversion structures in ditches to spill and store high flows, large wood debris structure within the channel, and riparian zone management. Here a framework for applying a CSE approach to the catchment is shown in a step by step guide to implementing mitigation measures in the Belford Burn catchment. The framework is based around engagement with catchment stakeholders and uses evidence arising from field science. Using the framework, the flooding issue has been addressed at the catchment scale by altering the runoff regime. Initial findings suggest that RAFs have functioned as designed to reduce/attenuate runoff locally. However, evidence suggested that some RAFs needed modification and new RAFs be created to address diffuse pollution issues during storm events. Initial findings from these modified RAFs are showing improvements in sediment trapping capacities and reductions in phosphorus, nitrate and suspended

  16. Argillaceous rock as host rock for final storage of radioactive waste in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On behalf of the German Federal Ministry for Economics and Technology (BMWi), the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Raw Materials (BGR) in a study described argillaceous rock formations as potential host rock for repositories in some areas of Germany, and evaluated them. The study was based on available and usable data derived from maps, archives, and approx. 25,000 drillings. No additional field tests or laboratory examinations were conducted. The study was published in April 2007 under the title of 'Untersuchung und Bewertung von Tongesteinsformationen' (www.bgr.bund.de). The exclusion criteria and minimum requirements recommended by the Working Group on Repository Sites (AkEnd) in 2002 served as a basis for defining the subareas eligible for further study. In addition, internationally acknowledged selection criteria as well as weighting criteria to be taken into account especially under German conditions were applied. The result of the study is not a representation of repository sites. However, the investigations show that argillaceous rock meeting host rock requirements occurs in the Lower Cretacious as well as in rock formations of the Lower and Middle Jurassic of Northern Germany. In Southern Germany, rock of the Middle Jurassic was found to be worthy of examination. The clay formations of the Tertiary are not considered in the study because of their relatively adverse mechanical properties in Germany. The areas highlighted are situated mainly in Lower Saxony, Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Saxony-Anhalt, Baden-Wuerttemberg and, to a lesser extent, also im Bavaria, Brandenburg, and North Rhine-Westphalia. Other regional restrictions are mentioned in the study. Any further assessment of the argillaceous rock in the study would require an extensive program of investigations with a view to selecting sites for the final storage of high-level radioactive waste. (orig.)

  17. Holding Water in the Landscape; striking a balance between food production and healthy catchment function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Paul; Wilkinson, Mark; Stutter, Marc; Adams, Russell

    2015-04-01

    Here it is proposed that ~5 % of the rural landscape could be modified to hold water during storm events. Hence ~95% of land remains for food production, commercial forestry and amenity. This is a catchment scale commitment to sustainably reducing flood and drought risk, improving water quality, biodiversity and thereby climate proofing our catchments. The farmed landscape has intensified and as a result, runoff rates are no longer in balance with the catchment needs, which in turn contributes to floods, droughts and water pollution problems. The loss of infiltration rates, soil water holding capacity and the increase in ditches and drains through intense farming has resulted in a reduction of the overall water holding capacity of the landscape, therefore deeper soil and aquifer recharge rates are lower. However, adequate raw water supply and food production is also vital. Here we consider how ~5% of productive land could be used to physically hold water during and after storms. This is a simple philosophy for water stewardship that could be delivered by farmers and land managers themselves. In this poster we consider a 'treatment train' of mitigation in headwaters by the construction of:- Rural SuDs - by creating swales, bunds and grassy filters; Buffer Strips - (designed to hold water); The Ditch of The Future - by creating the prime location for holding water and recovering lost top soil and finally the better use of Small Headwater Floodplains - by storing flood water, creating wetlands, planting new forest, installing woody debris and new habitats. We present examples of where and how these measures have been installed and show the cost-effectiveness of temporarily holding storm runoff in several case study catchments taken from the UK.

  18. [How Much Blood and What Components does the Patient need Intra- and Perioperatively?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heim, M U; Meyer, F

    2016-02-01

    By the optimised availability of less expensive and safe red cell packs and other blood products over the last 20 years, numerous surgical interventions have become possible without any demand for comments on the precise need. However, a number of publications indicates that blood transfusion may also induce disadvantageous effects on the postoperative course by immunomodulation, which requires a rather restrictive indication for transfusion. Furthermore, demographic development leads to a decrease in that portion of the population with the potential for blood donation accompanied simultaneously by an increase of the percentage of older patients with more need of blood products during medical treatment. This makes blood-sparing measures necessary. In addition, costs for red cell packs have increased, in particular, for the generally compatible blood group 0 - an extra amount for rhesus negative blood. The present narrative review highlights, therefore, important news from the clinical transfusion medicine, immunohaematology and haemostaseology and their impact on daily transfusion practice. In this context, "blood management" is considered as one of the very effective blood-sparing measures, which focusses especially i) on the substitution of iron in case of depressed preoperative haemoglobin as well as ii) to elucidate disorders of coagulation by structured medical history and, subsequently, to balance possible need by a specific plan for substitution. Simultaneously, prospective studies are initiated to investigate how far the transfusion trigger of a patient can be lowered down to a still appropriate level. As far as consolidated findings are already available, they are described with regard to the single blood components and taking into account the cross-sectional guidelines of the "Bundesärztekammer" (Federal Physicians Chamber). Finally, initial evidence is provided characterising patient- and blood donor-specific, blood group-dependent features of a

  19. Seismicity Following Deep Reverse-Faulting in the Indian Plate: Implications for Gujarat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilham, R.; Wallace, K.; Bendick, R.

    2001-12-01

    The catastrophic 1819 Allah Bund M=7.7, 1897 Shillong M=8.1, and 2001 Bhuj M=7.6 earthquakes all occurred on buried steep-dipping reverse faults. Each resulted in shortening of the Indian plate in an approximately NW direction, and each consequently loaded the contiguous plate to the east and west. These locally increased stresses are significant compared to the cumulative geodetically-inferred intraplate loading in the past century. Following the 19th century events these adjacent regions subsequently experienced damaging earthquakes. The Bhuj event itself may have been triggered by, or advanced in time by, stress changes resulting from the 1819 earthquake. There is thus some concern that future seismicity east and west of the Bhuj rupture zone will be stimulated by the recent Bhuj event. Stress changes above buried reverse-faulting is compressive and significant. Data for the early events are too poor to assess depths, however, aftershock activity in the uppermost 8 km following the Bhuj earthquake is remarkably low. One explanation for the absence of shallow aftershock activity is that the Anjar 1956 event may have already released near-surface stress, incrementing the region of the 2001 rupture towards failure. Significant earthquakes (6Bhuj earthquake has placed the Kachchh Peninsula and the Little Rann of Kachchh west and east of the Bhuj epicenter under increased stress, and it is anticipated that these regions are likely to experience heightened seismicity in the next several decades. The locations of large aftershocks immediately following the event are consistent with these inferred stress changes, but of greater concern is the possibility that a major shock (M>7) may now occur 100-200 km east or west of the epicentral region.

  20. Evidence for right-lateral strike-slip environment in the Kutch basin of northwestern India from moment tensor inversion studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Ch. Nagabhushana; Rao, N. Purnachandra; Rastogi, B. K.

    2013-03-01

    The Kutch region located in northwestern part of India is an ancient rift basin that was active until Cretaceous period. The region falls close to the India-Arabia and the India-Eurasia plate boundaries and has experienced devastating earthquakes in the past, namely the 1819 Allah Bund earthquake, the 1956 Anjar earthquake and the 2001 Bhuj earthquake. To understand the tectonics of this region with respect to the adjacent plate boundaries, we invert seismic waveform data of 11 earthquakes in this region recorded by a network of the Institute of Seismological Research (ISR) during 2007-2009. The study yields focal mechanism solutions of reverse fault and strike-slip type mechanism. The inferred fault planes correlate well with the local trends of the known tectonic faults while the principal stress directions derived from stress inversion based on a linearized least squares approach, trend agreeably with the ambient stress field directions. A consistently right-lateral sense of shear is found on all the local faults as derived from each of the matching planes of the focal mechanism solutions computed in the present study. It is inferred that in the Kutch region a right-lateral strike-slip environment prevails along predominantly EW to NW-SE oriented deep-seated pre-existing faults in an otherwise compressive stress regime. This, in conjunction with the left-lateral movements along the Girnar mountain in southern Saurashtra, inferred from previous studies, indicates a westward escape of the Kutch-Saurashtra block as a consequence of the northward collision of the Indian plate with respect to the Eurasian landmass.

  1. Current state and future prospects of remedial soil protection. Background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frauenstein, Joerg

    2009-08-15

    The legal basis for soil protection in the Federal Republic of Germany is: -The Act on Protection against Harmful Changes to Soil and on Rehabilitation of Contaminated Sites (Federal Soil Protection Act) (Bundes-Bodenschutzgesetz - BBodSchG) of 1998 [1] -The Federal Soil Protection and Contaminated Sites Ordinance (BBodSchV) of 1999 [2]. In Germany, the Federal Government has legislative competence in the field of soil protection. The Lander (German federal states), in turn, are responsible for enforcement of the BBodSchG and the BBodSchV; they may also issue supplementary procedural regulations. According to Article 1 BBodschG, the purpose of the Act is inter alia to protect and restore the functions of the soil on a permanent sustainable basis. These actions shall include prevention of harmful soil changes as well as rehabilitating soil, contaminated sites and waters contaminated by such sites in such a way that any contamination remains permanently below the hazard threshold. Whilst prevention aims to protect and preserve soil functions on a long-term basis, the object of remediation is mainly to avert concrete hazards in a spatial, temporal and manageable causative context. ''Remedial soil protection'' encompasses a tiered procedure in which a suspicion is verified successively and with least-possible effort and in which the circumstances of the individual case at hand are taken into account in deciding whether or not a need for remediation exists. It comprises the systematic stages of identifying, investigating and assessing suspect sites and sites suspected of being contaminated with a view to their hazard potential, determining whether remediation is necessary, remediating identified harmful soil changes and contaminated sites, and carrying out, where necessary, aftercare measures following final inspection of the remedial measure. (orig.)

  2. Model remediation of contaminated sites as illustrated by the example of the TNT-remediation project Stadtallendorf, Hessen, Germany. Part 1: Final report; Part 2: Documentation and balancing of the measures; Part 3: Documentation of citizens' participation and public relations activities in Stadtallendorf; Modellhafte Sanierung von Altlasten am Beispiel des TNT-Sanierungsprojektes Stadtallendorf/Hessen. T. 1: Abschlussbericht. T. 2: Dokumentation und Bilanzierung von Auswirkungen der Sanierung. T. 3: Dokumentation der Buergerbeteiligung und Oeffentlichkeitsarbeit in Stadtallendorf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The project comprised the following stages: 1. Development of a technology for purification of soils contaminated with explosives. The process comprised soil washing, hot steam treatment, and thermal treatment of residues; 2. Projecting, construction and two years of operation of a soil purification plant with a rated throughput of 20 t/h and a total throughput of 130,000 t; 3. Remediation of two representative sites on DAG terrain (TNT production chain and filling stations); 4. Verification of the findings in an accompanying scientific programme. The site under investigation was formerly occupied by the Dynamit AG (DAG) Stadtallendorf, where TNT, contaminated waste water and acids were produced, and contamination levels were high in several areas. Today, the area is a residential area. In addition to the investigations described here, the waste water discharge system of the DAG was modernized. [German] Das FuE-Vorhaben Stadtallendorf wurde mit folgender Zielsetzung begonnen: (1) Entwicklung einer geeigneten und moeglichst umweltvertraeglichen Technik zur Reinigung von Boeden mit sprengstoffspezifischen Kontaminationen; hierzu wurde in Anlehnung an die Ausschreibung des Bundes ein kombiniertes Bodenbehandlungsverfahren vorgesehen, das aus folgenden Komponenten bestand: - Bodenwaesche, - Heissdampfbehandlung, - Thermische Reststoffbehandlung. (2) Planung, Bau und zweijaehriger Betrieb einer entsprechenden grosstechnischen Bodenreinigungsanlage (Nenndurchsatz von 20 t/Stunde; Gesamtdurchsatz 130.000 t). (3) Bodensanierung von zwei repraesentativen Arealen im DAG-Gelaende (TNT-Produktionskette und Fuellstellenbetrieb). (4) Absicherung der Ergebnisse in einem wissenschaftlichen Begleitprogramm. Gegenstand der Phase 2 des Vorhabens war der vollstaendige Prozess der Planung und Umsetzung der Sanierung eines (Teils eines) Planungsraumes des Ruestungsaltstandortes Dynamit AG (DAG) Stadtallendorf. Es handelte sich dabei um einen Bereich, der als Standort fuer TNT

  3. Mutational screening in patients with profound sensorineural hearing loss and neurodevelopmental delay: Description of a novel m.3861A > C mitochondrial mutation in the MT-ND1 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, Marwa; Tabebi, Mouna; Sfaihi, Lamia; Alila-Fersi, Olfa; Maalej, Marwa; Felhi, Rahma; Chabchoub, Imen; Keskes, Leila; Hachicha, Mongia; Fakhfakh, Faiza; Mkaouar-Rebai, Emna

    2016-06-10

    Mitochondrial diseases caused by mitochondrial dysfunction are a clinically and genetically, heterogeneous group of disorders involving multiple organs, particularly tissues with high-energy demand. Hearing loss is a recognized symptom of a number of mitochondrial diseases and can result from neuronal or cochlear dysfunction. The tissue affected in this pathology is most probably the cochlear hair cells, which are essential for hearing function since they are responsible for maintaining the ionic gradients necessary for sound signal transduction. Several mitochondrial DNA mutations have been associated with hearing loss and since mitochondria are crucial for the cellular energy supply in many tissues, most of these mtDNA mutations affect several tissues and will cause syndromic hearing loss. In the present study, we described 2 patients with sensorineural hearing loss and neurodevelopmental delay in whom we tested mitochondrial genes described to be associated with syndromic hearing loss. One of these patients showed a novel heteroplasmic mitochondrial mutation m.3861A > C (W185C) which lead to a loss of stability of the ND1 protein since it created a new hydrogen bund between the unique created cystein C185 and the A182 residue. In the second patient, we detected two novel heteroplasmic variations m.12350C > A (T5N) and m.14351T > C (E108G) respectively in the MT-ND5 and the MT-ND6 genes. The TopPred II prediction for the E108G variation revealed a decrease of the hydrophobicity in the mutated MT-ND6. PMID:27155156

  4. Nuclear Legislation in OECD and NEA Countries. Regulatory and Institutional Framework for Nuclear Activities - Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This country profile provide comprehensive information on the regulatory and Institutional Framework governing nuclear activities as well as a detailed review of a full range of nuclear law topics, including: mining regime; radioactive substances; nuclear installations; trade in nuclear materials and equipment; radiation protection; radioactive waste management; non-proliferation and physical protection; transport; and nuclear third party liability. The profile is complemented by reproductions of the primary legislation regulating nuclear activities in the country. Content: I) - General Regulatory Regime - General Outline: 1. Introduction; 2. Mining Regime; 3. Radioactive Substances, Nuclear Fuel and Equipment; 4. Nuclear Installations (Licensing and inspection, including nuclear safety; Emergency response); 5. Trade in Nuclear Materials and Equipment; 6. Radiation Protection; 7. Radioactive Waste Management; 8. Non-Proliferation and Physical Protection; 9. Transport; 10. Nuclear Third Party Liability; II) - Institutional Framework: 1. Regulatory and Supervisory Authorities: A. Federal Authorities - Bund (The Federal Chancellery; The Federal Minister for Women's Affairs and Consumer Protection; The Federal Minister of the Interior; The Federal Minister for Economic Affairs; The Federal Minister of Finance; The Federal Minister of Labour, Health and Social Affairs; The Federal Minister of Science and Transport; The Federal Minister of Justice; The Federal Minister for the Environment; The Federal Minister for Foreign Affairs) B. Regional Authorities - Laender; C. District Authorities - Bezirksverwaltungsbehorden; 2. Advisory Bodies (Forum for Nuclear Questions, Radiation Protection Commission - SSK); 3. Public and Semi-Public Agencies (The Seibersdorf Austrian Research Centre; The Graz Nuclear Institute; The Nuclear Institute of the Austrian Universities; The Institute of Risk Research, University of Vienna)

  5. Coral colonisation of a shallow reef flat in response to rising sea level: quantification from 35 years of remote sensing data at Heron Island, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scopélitis, J.; Andréfouët, S.; Phinn, S.; Done, T.; Chabanet, P.

    2011-12-01

    Observations made on Heron Island reef flat during the 1970s-1990s highlighted the importance of rapid change in hydrodynamics and accommodation space for coral development. Between the 1940s and the 1990s, the minimum reef-flat top water level varied by some tens of centimetres, successively down then up, in rapid response to local engineering works. Coral growth followed sea-level variations and was quantified here for several coral communities using horizontal two-dimensional above water remotely sensed observations. This required seven high spatial resolution aerial photographs and Quickbird satellite images spanning 35 years: 1972, 1979, 1990, 1992, 2002, 2006 and 2007. The coral growth dynamics followed four regimes corresponding to artificially induced changes in sea levels: 1972-1979 (lowest growth rate): no detectable coral development, due to high tidal currents and minimum mean low-tide water level; 1979-1991 (higher growth rate): horizontal coral development promoted by calmer hydrodynamic conditions; 1991-2001(lower growth rate): vertical coral development, induced by increased local sea level by ~12 cm due to construction of new bund walls; 2001-2007 (highest growth rate): horizontal coral development after that vertical growth had become limited by sea level. This unique time-series displays a succession of ecological stage comprising a `catch-up' dynamic in response to a rapid local sea-level rise in spite of the occurrences of the most severe bleaching events on record (1998, 2002) and the decreasing calcification rates reported in massive corals in the northern part of the Great Barrier Reef.

  6. Beam-Port Design of a Radiobiological Dosimetry Experiment for 10B-Enhanced 252Cf Brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been previously suggested that the incorporation of 10B-labeled drugs into tumor cells might significantly increase the dose to the peripheral tumor cells in 252Cf brachytherapy. The dose enhancement comes from the thermal neutron capture reactions of 10B(n, α)7Li. As a new cancer treatment modality, this so-called 10und B-und Enhanced 252und Cf und Brachyund therapy (BECBT) is currently being commercialized by Isotron. One of the challenges for implementing BECBT has been to determine the maximum tolerable dose (MTD) to the normal tissue surrounding a tumor. Because the relative biological effectiveness for the 10B(n, α)7Li reaction products is greater than that for fission neutrons, the MTD should decrease as 10B concentration increases for BECBT. To more precisely determine the MTD for BECBT, we intend to conduct both in vitro (cell culture) and in vivo (rat) experiments with a 50-mg 252Cf source. We will use cell survival fraction and normal brain necrosis as the biological end points for the cell-culture experiments and rat experiments, respectively. To carry out these experiments, the neutron field to which the samples are exposed must contain a significant portion of thermal neutrons. The rat experiments further require the use of a very small and well-collimated neutron beam to effectively irradiate the rat brain while minimizing the dose to its whole body. This paper discusses the design criteria for the experimental neutron beam port and the computational work leading to its optimal configuration

  7. How does the German executive judge the risk of a global climate change? An opinion survey on the risk management in environmental policy; Wie schaetzt die deutsche Exekutive die Gefahr eines globalen Klimawandels ein? Eine Meinungsumfrage zum Risikomanagement in der Umweltpolitik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krueck, C. [VDI-Technologiezentrum Physikalische Technologien, Duesseldorf (Germany). Abt. Zukuenftige Technologien; Bray, D. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Gewaesserphysik

    2000-07-01

    Global warming is a problem which is scientifically complex and risky for political institutions. Coping with this problem requires elaborate methods of information exchange and accommodation between scientific and political institutions in order to facilitate risk management and decisions under uncertainty. This paper explores the relationship between science and politics based on the results of a survey of representatives of the German executive branch (both on the Federal and the Laender level) who are in charged with regulating environmental, nature and climate protection affairs. Results indicate that the top-level administrative staff in Germany perceive climate change as an urgent problem but are undecided whether 'climate research has managed to remain a neutral, value-free science'. Climate change is perceived as an exceptionally complex problem for science which is still faced with numerous knowledge gaps. At present, the relation problem for science which is still faced with numerous knowledge gaps. At present, the relation between the executive branch and climate research is trust-based but also quite distanced, particularly, at the regional (Laender) level. (orig.) [German] Die Warnung vor einer globalen Erwaermung konfrontiert die Politik mit einem Problem, das wissenschaftlich komplex und politisch riskant ist. Die Bewaeltigung derartiger Probleme erfordert ein hohes Mass an Informationsaustausch und Verstaendigung zwischen politischen und wissenschaftlichen Institutionen, um Risikomanagement zu betreiben und Entscheidungen unter Unsicherheit zu treffen. Um ein genaueres Bild davon zu gewinnen, wie die Bedrohung des Klimawandels in der deutschen Politik wahrgenommen und handhabbar gemacht wird, wurde ein wichtiges Segment des deutschen politischen Systems unter die Lupe genommen: Fuehrende Vertreter der Exekutive (Verwaltung), die auf Bundes- und Laenderebene mit Fragen des Umwelt-Natur- und Klimaschutzes befasst sind, wurden zum Thema

  8. Coupled neutronics and thermal hydraulics of high density cores for FRM II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the 'Verwaltungsvereinbarung zwischen Bund und Land vom 30.5.2003' and its updating on 13.11.2010, the Forschungs-Neutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz, Frm II, has to convert its fuel element to an uranium enrichment which is significantly lower than the current 93%, in case this is economically reasonable and doesn't impact the reactor performance immoderate. In the framework of this conversion, new calculations regarding neutronics and thermal hydraulics for the anticipated core configurations have to be made. The computational power available nowadays allows for detailed 3D calculations, on the neutronic as well as on the thermal hydraulic side. In this context, a new program system, 'X2', was developed. It couples the Monte Carlo code McnpX, the computational fluid dynamics code Cfx and the burn-up code sequence MonteBurns. The codes were modified and extended to meet the requirements of the coupled calculation concept. To verify the new program system, highly detailed calculations for the current fuel element were made and compared to simulations and measurements that were performed in the past. The results strengthen the works performed so far and show that the original, conservative approach overestimates all critical thermal hydraulic values. Using the CFD software, effects like the impact of the combs that fix the fuel plates and the pressure drop at the edges of the fuel plates were studied in great detail for the first time. Afterwards, a number of possible new fuel elements with lower enrichment, based on disperse and monolithic UMo (uranium with 8 wt.-% Mo) were analysed. A number of straight-forward conversion scenarios was discussed, showing that a further compaction of the fuel element, an extended cycle length or an increased reactor power is needed to compensate the flux loss, which is caused by the lower enrichment. This flux loss is in excess of 7%. The discussed new fuel elements include a 50% enriched disperse UMo core with

  9. Hydrological analysis relevant to surface water storage at Jabiluka. Supervising Scientist report 142

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report is prepared for the Supervising Scientist at Jabiru. It describes part of an investigation into hydrological issues relating to the water management system proposed for the Jabiluka project. Specifically, the objective is to estimate the water storage capacity required to store surface runoff and other water within the total containment zone (TCZ) of the Jabiluka project. The water storage volume is calculated for a range of probabilities up to 0.002% that the pond design volume would be exceeded over a 30-year mine life. In this study, 50 000 sets of 30 years of daily rainfall and monthly pan evaporation data are stochastically generated to simulate the storage water balance. The approach used by Kinhill and Energy Resources of Australia (ERA) is reviewed and the pond design compared with the estimates derived here. The Kinhill-ERA approach is described in the Jabiluka Mill Alternative Public Environment Report and the Jabiluka Mill Alternative Public Environment Report Technical Appendices (hereon referred to as Jabiluka PER Appendices) (1998). The two reports also provide background to many other issues. The structural design of the storage and other features of the mine site are not considered here. This study also assumes that the bunds and other drainage diversion structures will prevent all water outside the TCZ from entering the TCZ and vice versa. The storage water balance components are discussed in section 2. Some of the water inflows into the storage and losses from the storage are discussed in detail, while elsewhere, the values used by Kinhill-ERA are adopted. Section 3 describes the selection of the climate stations used here, the rainfall and pan evaporation characteristics in the area and the stochastic generation of 1.5 million years of daily rainfall and monthly pan evaporation data. Section 4 describes the approach used to estimate the storage capacity, and presents the storage capacity estimates for various probabilities of

  10. Re-greening the Sahel: farmer-led innovation in Burkina Faso and Niger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reij, Chris; Smale, Melinda; Tappan, Gary

    2009-01-01

    The Sahel—the belt of land that stretches across Africa on the southern edge of the Sahara—has always been a tough place to farm. Rainfall is low and droughts are frequent. The crust of hard soil is, at times, almost impermeable, and harsh winds threaten to sweep away everything in their path. Over the past three decades, however, hundreds of thousands of farmers in Burkina Faso and Niger have transformed large swaths of the region’s arid landscape into productive agricultural land, improving food security for about 3 million people. Once-denuded landscapes are now home to abundant trees, crops, and livestock. Although rainfall has improved slightly from the mid-1990s relative to earlier decades, indications are that farmer management is a stronger determinant of land and agroforestry regeneration. Sahelian farmers achieved their success by ingeniously modifying traditional agroforestry, water, and soil-management practices. To improve water availability and soil fertility in Burkina Faso’s Central Plateau, farmers have sown crops in planting pits and built stone contour bunds, which are stones piled up in long narrow rows that follow the contours of the land in order to capture rainwater runoff and soil. These practices have helped rehabilitate between 200,000 and 300,000 hectares of land and produce an additional 80,000 tons of food per year. In southern Niger, farmers have developed innovative ways of regenerating and multiplying valuable trees whose roots already lay underneath their land, thus improving about 5 million hectares of land and producing more than 500,000 additional tons of food per year. While the specific calculations of farm-level benefits are subject to various methodological and data limitations, the order of magnitude of these benefits is high, as evidenced by the wide-scale adoption of the improved practices by large numbers of farmers. Today, the agricultural landscapes of southern Niger have considerably more tree cover than they

  11. Open Pit Water Control Safety A Case Of Nchanga Open Pit Mine Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silwamba C

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mining in Chingola Zambia started underground in 1931 and was catastrophically flooded and closed. The present Nchanga Underground Mine NUG started in 1937. The Nchanga Open Pit NOP mine started in 1955 situated to the west of NUG and partially overlying it. Open pit water control safety operations in the Nchanga-Chingola area have successfully enabled the safe extraction of millions of tonnes of copper ore annually over the past 60 years from NUG mining as well as the NOP. At the start Nchanga mining license surface already had NUG and many watershed divides with the Nchanga and Chingola streams being the main streams feeding into Zambias second largest river Kafue river and 42 of the year was characterised by heavy rains ranging between 800mm to 1300mm per annum. In this paper the presence of very significant amounts of seasonal rain and subsurface water in the mining area was identified as both a curse and a blessing. An excess in seasonal rain and subsurface water would disrupt both open pit and underground mining operations. In order for NOP to be operated successfully stable and free from flooding coping water management tactics were adopted from 1955 to 2015 including 1. Underground mine pump chamber pumping system 2. Piezometer instrumented boreholes 3. Underground mine 1500-ft sub-haulage east borehole dewatering beneath the open pit 4. Nchanga and Chingola stream diversionary tunnel and open drains 5. Nchanga stream causeway and embankment dam in the Matero School Golf Club area 6. Pit perimeter borehole pumping 7. Outer and inner pit perimeter drains and bund walls 8. In-pit ramp side drains 9. In-pit sub-horizontal borehole geo-drains and water and 10. Pit bottom sump pumps. Application of grout curtains along the Vistula River Poland was noted as a possibility in the right circumstances although it had never been used at Nchanga Open Pit. An additional conclusion was that forward health safety and environmental end

  12. Energy efficiency in spite of limited resources. Building construction with limited income. Conference documentation; Energieeffizienz trotz(t) Kostendeckel. Zukunftsfaehig Bauen mit knappen Mitteln. Dokumentation der Tagung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, Klaus; Strauss, R.; Loehnert, G.; Erhorn, H.; Korhammer, S.; Luetkemeyer, I.; Disch, R.

    2004-07-01

    Bau Foerderkonzept; (4) Sanierung EFH - Kosten- und energieeffizient bauen: Ergebnisbericht aus dem ENSAN-Forschungsprogramm des Bundes; (5) Sanierung Mehrfamilienhaus - Buerger 202: Mehrkosten durch klimafreundliche Sanierung?; (6) Sanierung Grossprojekt - Schulprojekt Sandwehen: Eine Schulsanierung und Erweiterung mit vorgegebenem Kostendeckel; (7) Was bringt die Zukunft? Wohin geht die Entwicklung beim energieeffizienten Bauen? Mit welchen Kosten hat der ambitionierte Bauherr zu rechnen? (orig.)

  13. Evidence for Tectonic Activity During the Mature Harappan Civilization, 2600-1800 BCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grijalva, K. A.; Kovach, R. L.; Nur, A. M.

    2006-12-01

    The mature Harappan civilization located in Pakistan and India dates from 2600 to 1800 BCE. By combining seismic data, three-dimensional elastic dislocation modeling, and archaeological findings we examined the role that earthquakes played in the demise of Harappan settlements. The study focuses on three different geographical regions: Gujarat, the Sarasvati-Ghaggar-Hakra River valley, and the Makran coast of Pakistan. In Gujarat, the fluvial system of the Rann of Kachchh has undergone significant changes. The Rann of Kachchh formed as a delta for three rivers, becoming an inland sea during the time of Alexander the Great, and ultimately a salty marsh. These changes were brought about by a combination of sea level changes, the truncation of the three rivers by tectonic uplift and the deepening of the Rann by earthquake induced subsidence. Events analogous to the 1819 Allah Bund earthquake, which dammed the Puran River for seven years, would have significantly altered the water source for downstream settlements. Data from the recent 2001 Bhuj event shows that Harappan settlements would have suffered considerable shaking damage from an analogous historical event. Archaeological studies to date have found direct evidence for of at least one large earthquake at Dholavira in 2200 BCE. A number of the mature Harappan settlements are located along the dry Sarasvati-Ghaggar-Hakra river system. The decline of these sites coincides with the divergence of the Sarasvati-Ghaggar-Hakra system to the Indus and Ganga river systems. A succession of earthquakes, along with a period of aridity, likely led to the disappearance of the Sarasvati-Ghaggar-Hakra system. Although this region has not had any large earthquakes in historic times, there is archaeological evidence of two large events at the Harappan site of Kalibangan, at 2900 and 2700 BCE. Along the Makran coast two settlements, believed to have been Harappan seaports, are now located tens of kilometers inland. Changes in sea

  14. Nail psoriasis as a severity indicator: results from the PsoReal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Schäfer

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Marc A Radtke1, Anna K Langenbruch1, I Schäfer1, Katharina Herberger1, Kristian Reich2, Matthias Augustin11Institute for Health Services Research in Dermatology and Nursing, University Medical Center of Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg; 2Dermatologikum Hamburg, GermanyBackground: Although nail psoriasis affects a substantial proportion of psoriasis patients and causes significant psychologic distress, few epidemiologic data characterizing patients with nail involvement are available. The aim of this research was to elucidate differences between patients with nail psoriasis and those without any nail involvement, taking quality indicators of health care from the patient's perspective into account.Methods: In total, 2449 patient members of the Deutscher Psoriasis Bund, the largest patient organization for psoriasis in Germany, were interviewed in this nationwide, noninterventional, cross-sectional study. Patients with nail psoriasis were compared with patients without any nail involvement with regard to gender, age, disease duration, affected body surface area, health-related quality of life (Dermatology Life Quality Index [DLQI] ED-5D, patient-defined treatment benefit, amount of inpatient treatments, disease duration, and numbers of work days lost.Results: Data from 2449 patients with psoriasis were analyzed. Overall, 44.8% (1078 of patients were female, mean age was 57.0 ± 11.7 years, and 72.8% had nail involvement and showed higher values for affected body surface area than those without nail involvement (8.3% versus 5.6%, respectively; P < 0.004. Health-related quality of life was significantly lower in patients with nail psoriasis (DLQI 7.2 versus 5.3; ED-5D 60.1 versus 67.3, who had more days off work (9.8 versus 3.3.Conclusion: Nail involvement is an important symptom of psoriasis and is associated with greater disease severity and quality of life impairment. Accordingly, management of psoriasis should include a special focus on nail

  15. Wandel in der Implementation des Deutschen Embryonenschutzgesetzes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bals-Pratsch M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Das Embryonenschutzgesetz (ESchG bildet seit 1990 die rechtliche Grundlage für die Fortpflanzungmedizin in Deutschland. Die Bundesärztekammer (BÄK hat aus diesem Gesetz (§ 1 Abs. 1 Nr. 3 und 5 die sogenannte Dreierregel herausgelesen. Damit hat sie zwar durch die Begrenzung des Transfers auf 3 Embryonen den Gesundheitsschutz der Frau hervorgehoben, gleichzeitig aber die reproduktiven Rechte der Frau eingeschränkt. Da die Fortschritte in der Reproduktionsmedizin, wie die Blastozystenkultur mit selektivem Transfer oder die Präimplantationsdiagnostik (PID, bei einer konservativen Lesart des ESchG in Deutschland nicht im Interesse der Kinderwunschpaare umgesetzt werden konnten, ist die Diskussion um ein umfassendes Fortpflanzungsmedizingesetz entstanden. Zudem ist die konservative Interpretation des ESchG teilweise durch das in der Länderhoheit befindliche Berufsrecht festgeschrieben worden, falls die entsprechenden Landesärztekammern (LÄK die Richtlinie der BÄK ratifiziert hatten. Gesetze sind aber so formuliert, dass „technische Veränderungen“ (z. B. Blastozystentransfer keine Neukodifikation erfordern, sondern andere Sachverhalte zu anderen rechtlichen Bewertungen führen. Der neue Kommentar des ESchG sowie aktuelle Gerichtsurteile zur Kultivierung von Eizellen und zur Trophoblastbiopsie als frühe Form der Pränataldiagnostik (PND bestätigen die im Gesetz vorhandenen Auslegungsspielräume. – Die Erbrechts- und Unterhaltsansprüche eines Kindes gegenüber seinem genetischen Vater bei der Samenspende können außerhalb eines neuen Fortpflanzungsmedizingesetzes geregelt werden. Das Verbot der Eizellspende und Leihmutterschaft folgen aus dem rechtlichen Status der „Mutter“ eines Kindes als der Frau, die das Kind geboren hat. Mit diesem Hintergrund greift das ESchG mit dem Verbot der Eizellspende in das Reproduktionsrecht von Frauen ein. Abgesehen von diesem Verbot ist mit der von vielen Reproduktionsmedizinern und auch von den

  16. Seismic Imaging of Crustal Faults in Kutch - A Requirement for Understanding Intraplate Earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvatareddy, R. R.; Sarkar, D.; Sain, K.

    2001-12-01

    Kutch could be a continental shield, but hardly a stable one. The presence of predominantly E-W rift/fault systems is well known. There are also some faults that strike transverse to this trend. That this fractured landmass is periodically rocked by a few great and several moderate but destructive earthquakes show that neotectonic reactivation along these faults is still on. The scenario is further complicated by the presence of a triple junction formed by Indian, African and Arabian plates about 400 km west of this region. The stress distribution and its direction get affected and become more complicated here than at a one-to-one plate boundary. Perhaps because of this, unlike interplate earthquakes, which show some trends of alignments, Kutch seismicity is rather scattered. The great 1819 earthquake is ascribed due to Allah Bund fault in the Great Rann far in north, but the focus of recent 2001 mega event lies at a depth of 23 km in the lower crust just north of Kutch Mainland Fault. This earthquake is perhaps associated with another nearly E-W blind shear. The 1956 Anjar earthquake lies near Katrol fault (KF), which coincides with the southern boundary of Kutch Mainland Uplift (KMU). The aftershock distribution of 2001 earthquake also shows that their foci also scatter over a much larger volume, several tens of kilometers away from the south dipping causative thrust plane. This picture points to the fact that many known and blind crustal scale faults are either already neotectonically active or have been reactivated due to the elastic energy released by the 2001 event. Many of them have the potential of causing damaging, if not great, earthquakes in this region. Mapping of blind faults and the depth extents of known faults with seismic tools therefore acquire importance. Though Kutch region is geophysically well explored by oil industry, hardly any information is available below the granitic basement. NGRI carried out seismic refraction studies mostly in

  17. Adaptation to heavy rainfall events: watershed-community planning of soil and water conservation technologies in Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziadat, Feras; Al-Wadaey, Ahmed; Masri, Zuhair; Sakai, Hirokazu

    2010-05-01

    classified into high erosion risk areas. Accordingly, a community-watershed plan was established and revised with the community committee. Loans to implement soil and water conservation measures were distributed to 52 farmers based on the priorities of their farms. Results from four runoff events in 2009 showed that one erosive runoff event can deliver more than 50% of the total soil loss. Implementing semi-circular bunds reduced rill erosion by 40% and captured 3.4 tons of sediments per hectare. The effect of this approach in limiting the negative impact of extreme rainfall events, at watershed and field levels, are now being quantified and modeled. Keywords: climate change, land use, soil erosion, GIS, flow accumulation, land tenure.

  18. The Power of Spectacle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Greenspan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available When people say Shanghai looks like the future the setting is almost always the same. Evening descends and the skyscrapers clustered on the eastern shore of the Huangpu light up. Super towers are transformed into giant screens. The spectacular skyline, all neon and lasers and LED, looms as a science fiction backdrop. Staring out from the Bund, across to Pudong, one senses the reemergence of what JG Ballard once described as an ”electric and lurid city, more exciting than any other in the world.” The high-speed development of Pudong – in particular the financial district of Lujiazui – is the symbol of contemporary Shanghai and of China’s miraculous rise.Yet, Pudong is also taken as a sign of much that is wrong with China’s new urbanism. To critics the sci-fi skyline is an emblem of the city’s shallowness, which focuses all attention on its glossy facade. Many share the sentiment of free market economist Milton Friedman who, when visiting Pudong famously derided the brand new spectacle as a giant Potemkin village. Nothing but “the statist monument for a dead pharaoh,” he is quoted as saying.This article explores Pudong in order to investigate the way spectacle functions in China’s most dynamic metropolis. It argues that the skeptical hostility towards spectacle is rooted in the particularities of a Western philosophical tradition that insists on penetrating the surface, associating falsity with darkness and truth with light.In contrast, China has long recognized the power of spectacle (most famously inventing gunpowder but using it only for fireworks. Alongside this comes an acceptance of a shadowy world that belongs to the dark. This acknowledgment of both darkness and light found in traditional Chinese culture (expressed by the constant revolutions of the yin/yang symbol may provide an alternative method for thinking about the tension between the spectacular visions of planners and the unexpected and shadowy disruptions from

  19. [Physician practice patterns and attitudes to euthanasia in Germany. A representative survey of physicians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschner, R; Elkeles, T

    1998-04-01

    Growing life expectancy and increasing pharmaceutical and technical methods in medicine are leading to more and more discussions among the general population and among physicians as to whether methods to shorten the sufferings of mortally ill persons should be legalised further. In Australia 60% of physicians wish to be able to perform active euthanasia if this would be legal. In the Netherlands physicians do not commit an offence if they perform euthanasia on the basis of ethically consented rules. In the FRG the National Board of Physicians (Bundesärztekammer) still rejects any liberalisation concerning active euthanasia. However, little is known of the attitudes and behaviour of physicians concerning the questions of active and passive euthanasia. Sponsored by Gruner and Jahr publishers for a magazine "Stern" publication we conducted a representative study among physicians working in hospitals and their colleagues in free practices concerning this topic. Beginning with qualitative interviews with 50 physicians we tested the questionnaire developed and looked for the data production method best fitting for this difficult matter resulting in telephone interviews or a self-administered questionnaire. In the main study a representative sample of n = 282 physicians in free practices and n = 191 physicians in hospitals were interviewed. The response rates were 94% and 51% respectively. Analysis of non-responses did not indicate any bias. Half of the physicians think that a broader discussion on euthanasia is necessary, 34% disagree and 17% consider even a discussion already dangerous. 6% of the physicians in hospitals and 11% in free practices have already experienced methods of active euthanasia. Half of the physicians have seen patients who strongly wished euthanasia, a situation which happens once in every two years. The majority of physicians feel a deep understanding but only a minority of 4% comply with the wish. The vast majority of physicians advocate

  20. Integrated interpretation of satellite imagery, aeromagnetic, aeroradiometric and ground exploration data-sets to delineate favorable target zones for unconformity related uranium mineralization, Khariar Basin, Central India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mesoproterozoic Khariar basin, to the SE of Chhattisgarh basin, comprises 1000 m thick arenaceous-argillaceous sediments. For the first time, a multidisciplinary approach has been made to the integrate interpreted satellite imagery, aero-magnetic and aero-radiometric data with available ground exploration data sets with an objective to understand structural fabric and to establish various parameters for unconformity related uranium mineralization in the environs of Khariar basin. Total Magnetic Intensity (TMI) anomaly image has been useful to mark major faults (ENE-WSW), magnetic bodies and overall basement characteristics. Combination of first vertical derivative (1VD) and tilt derivative magnetic images brought out presence of NW-SE magnetic linear (dominant) with minor ENE-WSW and NNE-SSW trends. Basic dykes and quartz veins are the surface manifestations of NW-SE trend in basement. Radially averaged power spectrum indicates the approximate basement configuration. Enhanced Thematic Mapper satellite imagery (Landsat ETM+) interpretation has shown lineaments along NW-SE, NNE-SSW, ENE-WSW and ENW-WSE directions. These observations are corroborated by interpreted results of magnetic data. Analysis of both results indicate NW-SE and ENE-WSW trends as post depositional. Aero-radiometric images (U, Th, K and ternary U-Th-K) show overall radio-elemental distribution for various litho-units. Besides, Th and K images along with interpreted ETM+ satellite imagery (RGB: 432/752/751) are useful to map small outliers and to modify basement-sediment contact. Geochemical data from basement rocks around Khariar basin suggests the younger Bundeli granitoids and its equivalents are good source of uranium in the western margin. Presence of labile uranium is inferred from higher concentration of uranium in water samples. The Airborne gamma-ray spectrometry (AGRS) and hydro-geochemical anomalies fall along fault zones and intersection of fault zones. The western and southern

  1. Coupled neutronics and thermal hydraulics of high density cores for FRM II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breitkreutz, Harald

    2011-03-04

    According to the 'Verwaltungsvereinbarung zwischen Bund und Land vom 30.5.2003' and its updating on 13.11.2010, the Forschungs-Neutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz, Frm II, has to convert its fuel element to an uranium enrichment which is significantly lower than the current 93%, in case this is economically reasonable and doesn't impact the reactor performance immoderate. In the framework of this conversion, new calculations regarding neutronics and thermal hydraulics for the anticipated core configurations have to be made. The computational power available nowadays allows for detailed 3D calculations, on the neutronic as well as on the thermal hydraulic side. In this context, a new program system, 'X{sup 2}', was developed. It couples the Monte Carlo code McnpX, the computational fluid dynamics code Cfx and the burn-up code sequence MonteBurns. The codes were modified and extended to meet the requirements of the coupled calculation concept. To verify the new program system, highly detailed calculations for the current fuel element were made and compared to simulations and measurements that were performed in the past. The results strengthen the works performed so far and show that the original, conservative approach overestimates all critical thermal hydraulic values. Using the CFD software, effects like the impact of the combs that fix the fuel plates and the pressure drop at the edges of the fuel plates were studied in great detail for the first time. Afterwards, a number of possible new fuel elements with lower enrichment, based on disperse and monolithic UMo (uranium with 8 wt.-% Mo) were analysed. A number of straight-forward conversion scenarios was discussed, showing that a further compaction of the fuel element, an extended cycle length or an increased reactor power is needed to compensate the flux loss, which is caused by the lower enrichment. This flux loss is in excess of 7%. The discussed new fuel elements include a 50

  2. Modelling field scale water partitioning using on-site observations in sub-Saharan rainfed agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Makurira

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Smallholder rainfed farming systems generally realise sub-optimal crop yields which are largely attributed to dry spell occurrences during crop growth stages. However, through the introduction of appropriate farming practices, it is possible to substantially increase yield levels even with little and highly variable rainfall. The presented results follow research conducted in the Makanya catchment in northern Tanzania where gross rainfall amounts to less than 400 mm/season which is insufficient to support staple food crops (e.g. maize. The yields from farming system innovations (SIs, which are basically alternative cultivation techniques, are compared against traditional farming practices. The SIs tested in this research are runoff harvesting used in combination with in-field trenches and soil bunds (fanya juus. These SIs aim to reduce soil and nutrient loss from the field and, more importantly, promote in-field infiltration and water retention. Water balance components have been observed in order to study water partitioning processes for the "with" and "without" SI scenarios. Based on rainfall, soil evaporation, transpiration, runoff and soil moisture measurements, a water balance model has been developed to simulate soil moisture variations over the growing season. Simulation results show that, during the field trials, the average productive transpiration flow ranged between 1.1–1.4 mm d−1 in the trial plots compared to 0.7–1.0 mm d−1 under traditional tillage practice. Productive transpiration processes accounted for 23–29% while losses to deep percolation accounted for 33–48% of the available water. The field system has been successfully modelled using the spreadsheet-based water balance 1-D model. Conclusions from the research are that the SIs that were tested are effective in enhancing soil moisture retention at field scale and that diversions allow crop growth moisture conditions to be attained

  3. Measures to influence nitric oxide formation and alkali release in coal dust combustion under pressure; Massnahmen zur Beeinflussung der Stickoxidbildung und Alkalienfreisetzung bei der Kohlenstaubdruckverbrennung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thielen, W.; Niepel, H. [Steinmueller (L.u.C.) GmbH, Gummersbach (Germany)

    1999-09-01

    Messrs. Steinmueller are making the following contributions to the Dorsten experimental plant: Development of pressure burner and combustion chamber, fuel supply and flue gas analysis, especially the development of a high-temperature flue gas tapping unit at the end of the hot reaction zone. Burner development should always aim at complete converstion of the fuel and minimal pollutant emissions, as well as stable combustion over a wide range of operating conditons and maximum reliability in case of disturbances. Tools for development and experiment analysis are flow measurements in isothermal models, numerical flow and radiation excchange calculation programs, and reference data from the hot operation under pressure of the small-scale Dorsten pilot plant. The contribution presents the results of the burner experiments with a view to nitric oxide and alkali emissions; finally, the effects of different influencing parameters on combustion control and on the still unresolved fields of investigation are indicated. [Deutsch] Die Druckkohlenstaubfeuerung erschliesst fuer den Brennstoff Kohle durch Nutzung des Gas- und Dampfturbinenprozesses Kraftwerkswirkungsgrade im Bereich von 50 % und mehr. Dabei soll das unter Druck verbrannte Rauchgas nach Abscheidung aller schaedlichen Bestandteile, insbesondere der Asche, die in diesem Temperaturbereich durchweg schmelzfluessig vorliegt, direkt auf die Gasturbine geleitet werden. Mit Foerderung des Bundes (seinerzeit BMFT) wurde unter Beteiligung der GHS Essen, mehrerer Industriepartner und Energieversorger am Zechenstandort Dorsten eine Kleinpilotanlage mit einer thermischen Leistung von ca 1 MW errichtet und seither betrieben. Der Forschungsschwerpunkt der L. und C. Steinmueller GmbH richtete sich darin auf die Thematik Kohleumwandlung. Die Aktivitaeten umfssten die Bereiche Druckbrenner- und Brennkammerentwicklung, die Brennstoffversorgung und die Rauchgasanalytik, hier insbesondere die Entwicklung einer Hochtemperatur

  4. The German approach to emergency/disaster management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domres, B; Schauwecker, H H; Rohrmann, K; Roller, G; Maier, G W; Manger, A

    2000-01-01

    Disaster control and disaster relief in Germany are public tasks. But the government has shifted the responsibility of the administration of these tasks to the 16 states, the so called "Lander", because the EFG is a federal republic. The same is valid for the civil defense and the civil protection in the case of military or international risks. The 16 states are also responsible for the legislation of rescue service, fire fighting service and disaster control (natural and technical disasters). Counties and district-free cities are responsible for the organisation of these services. The German system is based on the principle of subsidiary between official and private institutions. A lot of official and private relief organisations are responsible for the execution of disaster relief tasks. In Germany the following organisations exist: Official (GO): Technisches Hilfswerk (THW/Federal Technical Support Service), Feuerwehren (Fire Brigades/professionals and volunteers) Academie of Emergency Planning and Civil Defense Private (NGO): Arbeiter-Samariter-Bund Deutschland (ASB/Workers' Samaritan Association Germany), Deutsche Gesellschaft zur Rettung Schiffbruchiger (DGzRS, German Lifesaving Association), Deutsches Rotes Kreuz (DRK/German Red Cross), Johanniter-Unfall-Hilfe (JUH/St. John's Ambulance), Malteser Hilfsdienst (MEID/Maltese-Relief-Organisation). ASB, DRK, JUH and MHD are specialised in the field of rescue, medical and welfare services and medical disaster relief. 80% of the German rescue service and 95% of the German disaster medical relief are realised by these NGO's. NGO's and GO's employ more than 1.2 million volunteers and appr. 100,000 professionals. Rescue service is carried out by professionals, disaster relief by volunteers. The German constitution allows to call the federal army in case of disaster, to support the disaster relief organisations (for example: flood Oder River 1997, train-crash "ICE" 1998). In all counties and district free cities

  5. Les règles de l’ostentation : L’œuvre-phare de Veblen : source et guide de la sociologie du loisir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Marie Lafortune

    2007-10-01

    , tradition and pre-modern values to the popular type. Second, in focusing on the process of sociocultural change, which lies for him on emulation. Thus, he denounces the conservatism of the elite, that causes more damages in an economic et social point of view as members of a class tend to realign their behavior according to the one of the members of the immediate higher class. His condemnation is however less radical then it appears. Even if the leisure class constrains the cultural evolution by its own inertia, it his still the institution that would more likely give birth to new pratices. Despite its unproductive side, the leisure of the élite remains at the base of cultural innovation.Thorstein Bunde Veblen, values, classes, leisure, conspicuous consumption, sociocultural change

  6. Validation of Open-Sea CRYOSAT-2 Data in SAR Mode in the German Bight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinardo, Salvatore; Benveniste, Jérôme; Fenoglio-Marc, Luciana; Scharroo, Remko

    This work aims to generate and validate the altimetric geophysical parameters measured by the CryoSat-2 in SAR Mode in the temporal interval 2011-2012 in the area of the German Bight at distance to coast larger than 10 Kilometers (open-sea). Instantaneous sea surface height (SSH), significant wave height (SWH) and wind speed at 10 meter from sea surface (U10), measured by CryoSat-2, are compared to in-situ measurements at platforms, buoys and tide gauges and to results from an operational circulation model run by the German Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency (BSH). The in-situ data were made available by the Wasser- und Schifffahrtsverwaltung des Bundes (WSV). These stations are part of a network of tide gauges and offshore platforms equipped with continuously operation Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers. Since the coordinates of the zero point of the tide gauge are computed in the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF) the absolute comparison between sea level from tide gauge and altimetry is possible. The relevant in-situ data are sea level, wave and wind data. The CryoSat-2 Data have been Delay-Doppler processed as from the FBR (Full Bit Rate) Level 1A to Level 1B and subsequently re-tracked using the SAMOSA's SAR Echo Model (full solution) and a curve-fitting scheme based on Levenberg-Marquard Least Square Minimization Algorithm. Sea surface height, significant wave height and wind speed at 20 Hz and 1 Hz have been derived. The Delay-Doppler processing (L1B) and the re-tracking processing (L2) has been carried out by the EOP-SER Altimetry Team at ESA/ESRIN. Pseudo pulse-limited (PLRM) data derived from CryoSat-2 in SAR mode and provided via the RADS database are compared with the same parameters derived from the CryoSat-2 SAR Data to estimate possible biases and trends between SAR mode and LRM mode and tune-up the SAR re-tracking scheme. Special attention will be paid to spot trends between SAR and PLRM with respect the orbital

  7. Methodological requirements on the spatial representativeness of heavy metal background values in top-soils; Methodische Anforderungen an die Flaechenrepraesentanz von Hintergrundwerten in Oberboeden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Utermann, J.; Duewel, O.; Fuchs, M.; Gaebler, H.E. [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Hannover (Germany); Gehrt, E.; Hindel, R.; Schneider, J. [Niedersaechsisches Landesamt fuer Bodenforschung, Hannover (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    zur Pruefung der pedoregionalen und nutzungsbezogenen Repraesentanz von Punkt-, d.h. Profildaten auf kleiner Massstabsebene vorgestellt. Der Ansatz fusst auf (i) der massstabsabhaengigen Auswertung der raeumlichen Verbreitung der Legendeneinheiten einer Karte der Bodenausgangsgesteine (BAG) und (ii) der Bewertung der Uebereinstimmung von Profilinformationen und den Flaecheninformationen, denen sie aufgrund ihres Lagebezuges zugeordnet werden. Zur Schaffung eines Datensatzes mit entsprechenden Punktinformationen wurden unterschiedliche Datenbestaende aus den Laendern und vom Bund nach inhaltlicher Harmonisierung und Abgleich mit Mindestanforderungen zusammengefuehrt. In analytischer Hinsicht erfolgte eine Datenharmonisierung durch den Vergleich von Elementgehalten in unterschiedlichen Aufschlussverfahren. Zur Umrechnung von Totalgehalten und Koenigswasser-extrahierbaren Elementgehalten wurden substrat- und elementspezifische Regressionsfunktionen abgeleitet. Der Flaechenbezug wird ueber eine Karte der BAG (Massstab 1:1 Mio.) und Informationen zu den Bodenarten hergestellt. Als zweite Flaecheninformation dient eine Karte der Hauptlandnutzung basierend auf den Kategorien der CORINE Landcover. Mit den derzeit laenderuebergreifend verfuegbaren Datensaetzen lassen sich unter Beruecksichtigung der pedoregionalen und nutzungsbezogenen Repraesentanz fuer ca. 67% der Flaeche Deutschlands Hintergrundwerte fuer Schwermetalle in Oberboeden ausweisen. Am Beispiel Niedersachsens wird der laenderuebergreifende Algorithmus zur Pruefung der pedoregionalen und nutzungsbezogenen Repraesentanz auf mittleren, laenderbezogenen Massstabsebenen untersucht. Mit Profilinformationen aus dem Niedersaechsischen Fachinformationssystem Bodenkunde (NIBIS) lassen sich auf Grundlage der gleichen Repraesentanzkriterien ca. 47% der Landesflaeche nutzungsdifferenziert mit Hintergrundwerten belegen. (orig.)

  8. Errors and pitfalls: Briefing and accusation of medical malpractice – the second victim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wienke, Albrecht

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available [english] In June 2012, the German Medical Association (Bundesärztekammer published the statistics of medical malpractice for 2011 (published at . Still ENT-specific accusations of medical malpractice are by far the fewest in the field of hospitals and actually even in the outpatient context. Clearly most of the unforeseen incidents still occur in the disciplines of trauma surgery and orthopedics. In total, however, an increasing number of errors in treatment can be noticed on the multidisciplinary level: in 25.5% of the registered cases, an error in treatment was found to be the origin of damage to health justifying a claim for compensation of the patient. In the year before, it was only 24.7%. The reasons may be manifold, but the medical system itself certainly plays a major role in this context: the recent developments related to health policy lead to a continuous economisation of medical care. Rationing and limited remuneration more and more result in the fact that therapeutic decision are not exclusively made for the benefit of the patient but that they are oriented at economic or bureaucratic aspects. Thus, in the long term, practising medicine undergoes a change. According to the §§ 1, 3 of the professional code of conduct for doctors (Musterberufsordnung für Ärzte; MBO-Ä medical practice as liberal profession is principally incompatible with the pursuit of profit, however, even doctors have to earn money which more and more makes him play the role of a businessman. Lack of personnel and staff savings lead to excessive workloads of physicians, caregivers, and nurses, which also favour errors. The quality and even the confidential relationship between doctor and patient, which is important for the treatment success, are necessarily affected by the cost pressure. The victims in this context are not only the patients but also the physicians find themselves in the continuous conflict between ethical requirements of their profession and

  9. Errors and pitfalls: Briefing and accusation of medical malpractice - the second victim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wienke, Albrecht

    2013-01-01

    In June 2012, the German Medical Association (Bundesärztekammer) published the statistics of medical malpractice for 2011 (published at http://www.bundesaerztekammer.de). Still ENT-specific accusations of medical malpractice are by far the fewest in the field of hospitals and actually even in the outpatient context. Clearly most of the unforeseen incidents still occur in the disciplines of trauma surgery and orthopedics. In total, however, an increasing number of errors in treatment can be noticed on the multidisciplinary level: in 25.5% of the registered cases, an error in treatment was found to be the origin of damage to health justifying a claim for compensation of the patient. In the year before, it was only 24.7%. The reasons may be manifold, but the medical system itself certainly plays a major role in this context: the recent developments related to health policy lead to a continuous economisation of medical care. Rationing and limited remuneration more and more result in the fact that therapeutic decision are not exclusively made for the benefit of the patient but that they are oriented at economic or bureaucratic aspects. Thus, in the long term, practising medicine undergoes a change. According to the §§ 1, 3 of the professional code of conduct for doctors (Musterberufsordnung für Ärzte; MBO-Ä) medical practice as liberal profession is principally incompatible with the pursuit of profit, however, even doctors have to earn money which more and more makes him play the role of a businessman. Lack of personnel and staff savings lead to excessive workloads of physicians, caregivers, and nurses, which also favour errors. The quality and even the confidential relationship between doctor and patient, which is important for the treatment success, are necessarily affected by the cost pressure. The victims in this context are not only the patients but also the physicians find themselves in the continuous conflict between ethical requirements of their profession

  10. [Briefing and accusation of medical malpractice--the second victim].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wienke, A

    2013-04-01

    In June 2012, the German Medical Association (Bundesärztekammer) published the statistics of medical malpractice for 2011 [1]. Still ENT-specific accusations of medical malpractice are by far the fewest in the field of hospitals and actually even in the outpatient context. Clearly most of the unforeseen incidents still occur in the disciplines of trauma surgery and orthopedics. In total, however, an increasing number of errors in treatment can be noticed on the multidisciplinary level: in 25.5% of the registered cases, an error in treatment was found to be the origin of damage to health justifying a claim for compensation of the patient. In the year before, it was only 24.7%. The reasons may be manifold, but the medical system itself certainly plays a major role in this context: the recent developments related to health policy lead to a continuous economisation of medical care. Rationing and limited remuneration more and more result in the fact that therapeutic decisions are not exclusively made for the benefit of the patient but that they are oriented at economic or bureaucratic aspects. Thus, in the long term, practising medicine undergoes a change. According to the §§ 1, 3 of the professional code of conduct for doctors (Musterberufsordnung für Ärzte; MBO-Ä) medical practice as liberal profession is principally incompatible with the pursuit of profit, however, even doctors have to earn money which more and more makes him play the role of a businessman. Lack of personnel and staff savings lead to excessive workloads of physicians, caregivers, and nurses, which also favour errors. The quality and even the confidential relationship between doctor and patient, which is important for the treatment success, are necessarily affected by the cost pressure. The victims in this context are not only the patients but also the physicians find themselves in the continuous conflict between ethical requirements of their profession and the actual requirements of the

  11. Auslegungsspielräume des Embryonenschutzgesetzes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frommel M

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Seit Jahren klagen Reproduktionsmediziner über das deutsche Embryonenschutzgesetz und die dort vermutete Dreierregel, nach der nur maximal drei 2-PN-Zellen weiterentwickelt werden dürfen. Der Grund für diese Praxis ist aber nicht die Gesetzgebung, sondern eine zu enge Auslegung des ESchG durch die Bundesärztekammer. Deren Empfehlungen haben aber nur den Charakter eines antizipierten Gutachtens. Allerdings haben manche Berufsordnungen, etwa die für Ärztinnen und Ärzte in Nordrhein, diese Empfehlung als geltendes Landesrecht transformiert und damit erst verbindliches, aber juristisch angreifbares Berufsrecht geschaffen. Andere Länder, wie etwa Bayern, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Bremen u. a. haben dies hingegen nicht getan, während Länder wie etwa Hessen den Weg der umstrittenen dynamischen Verweisung gewählt haben. Möglicherweise werden daher Gerichte prüfen, ob die besonders strikten Berufsordnungen überhaupt gültig sind. Die Autorin verneint dies, da das ESchG im Gegensatz zum Schweizer Fortpflanzungsmedizingesetz keine Dreierregel enthält. Dies läßt sich anhand der Ziele und Inhalte des Gesetzes zeigen. Auch eine andere vieldiskutierte Frage stellt sich bei genauer rechtlicher Analyse sehr viel weniger eindeutig dar als häufig angenommen. Präimplantationsdiagnostik ist nach dem ESchG nur dann verboten, wenn eine totipotente Zelle entnommen und untersucht wird. Der historische Gesetzgeber wählte nämlich bewußt eine sehr fragmentarische Regelung und beschränkte sich darauf, im Wege einer gesetzlichen Fiktion totipotenten Zellen den Status von Embryonen einzuräumen und sie damit als eigenständige strafrechtliche Schutzgüter anzusehen. Pluripotente Zellen hingegen können de lege lata – auch dann, wenn der Restembryo dabei geschädigt werden sollte – untersucht werden. Unstrittig straflos ist auch das schlichte Verwerfen eines Embryos, wenn die Frau, von der er stammt, den Transfer nicht wünscht. Der Staat und

  12. Investigation of tailings water leak at the Ranger uranium mine. Supervising Scientist report 153

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report has been to investigate and report on the leak of water from the Tailings Water Return Pipe at the Ranger uranium mine during the 1999/2000 Wet season with specific reference to: the origin of the leak and the adequacy of remediation measures taken to prevent similar occurrences in the future; the extent to which the people and the environment of Kakadu National Park have been adversely affected by the leak and the extent to which Energy Resources of Australia has complied with the reporting requirements specified in the Environmental Requirements. It describes the outcomes of the investigation and makes recommendations to address deficiencies identified in the environmental management systems at Ranger and in the supervisory and regulatory regimes applied to Ranger by the Supervising Scientist and NTDME. It has been established that the volume of water that leaked from the tailings water return pipeline was about 2000 cubic metres during the 1999/2000 Wet season. Of this, only a small fraction, about 85 cubic metres, entered the culvert which flows to thc Corridor Creek Wetlands. The remainder was collected in the tailings corridor sump and returned to the water management system. The failure of the pipeline to contain tailings water would not on itself normally have resulted in the discharge of this water to the external environment. That the leaked water did reach the external environment is due to a failure of the bunded corridor system to fully contain any spilled water. The cause of this failure was that the engineered structure between the roadway and a culvert that drains water from the nearby waste rock dump was not impermeable.The statutory monitoring program has been found to be deficient in two ways. First, other than visual inspection, it has not been designed to include monitoring locations within secondary containment systems that would indicate the failure of primary containment systems. In the present case, no statutory

  13. 大都市创意空间识别研究——基于上海市创意企业分析视角%The Identification of Creative Spaces in Shanghai: Based on the Space Relation of Creative Enterprise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马仁锋

    2012-01-01

    CI, which then forms new economic space--the creative spaces (CS) emergences. What are CS? There are no unambiguous concepts. With the primary purpose of examining whether or not it ex- ists in metropolises in developing countries like China, and the stage of its growth, the authors took the CI of Shanghai as an example, collected data from yearbooks of the first and second Shanghai economic censuses, and used the method of combining global and local Moran's Index by GeoDA 0.9.5.i, monocentricity & polycentrici- ty autoregressive model of Creative Enterprises (CE), and creative industrial agglomeration forms. The results show that: (1) the route and its methods of Identification of CS is feasible; (2) the spatial correlation of CE in Shanghai in 2004 and 2008 is positive, whereas the correlation coefficient is small, CE spatial distribution is not entirely random, but spatial clustering of the similar values is obvious; (3) the CE are highly concentrated in cen- tral Shanghai and two centers Jing'an and Luwan have been formed, but the CBD in Shanghai which include the Bund and the Nanjing West Road is different from that of foreign metropolises.

  14. Diagnose problems of pulmonary heart disease complicated with hypertension,coronary heart disease%肺心病伴发高血压冠心病的诊断问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李增玉

    2016-01-01

    Objective TO investiGate tHe cLinicaL diaGnOsis Of puLmOnary HypertensiOn,Heart disease WitH cOrOnary Heart disease. Methods FrOm May 2013 tO May 2014,tHe 50 seLected puLmOnary Heart disease cOmpLicated WitH cOrO-nary Heart disease and HypertensiOn Were treated as tHe ObservatiOn GrOup,50 cases Of puLmOnary Heart disease Were tHe cOntrOL GrOup,tHe cLinicaL data Were cOmparativeLy revieWed,incLudinG eLectrOcardiOGram testinG,cLinicaL manifestatiOns. Results Obesity rate,tHe rate Of smOKinG HistOry,parOXysmaL nOcturnaL dyspnea in tHe ObservatiOn GrOup Were siGnificant-Ly HiGHer,tHe severe riGHt Heart faiLure rate Was LOWer tHan tHOse in tHe cOntrOL GrOup,tHe differences Were siGnificant( P﹤0. 05). THere Was nO siGnificant difference in tHe number Of patients WitH arrHytHmias(P﹥0. 05),but tHe rates Of myOcar-diaL infarctiOn,HypertensiOn,diabetes,anGina,HistOry Of HyperLipidemia in tHe ObservatiOn GrOup Were siGnificantLy HiGHer tHan tHOse in tHe cOntrOL GrOup( P﹤0. 05). THere Was nO siGnificant difference in tHe incidence Of puLmOnary P Wave betWeen tHe tWO GrOups( P﹥0. 05),but tHe rates Of Left bundLe brancH bLOcK,persistent iscHemia,Left aXis deviatiOn,myOcardiaL infarctiOn perfOrmance,sustained atriaL fi-briLLatiOn Was siGnificantLy HiGHer in tHe ObservatiOn GrOup(P﹤0. 05),tHe rate Of riGHt aXis deviatiOn Was siGnificantLy LOW-er tHan tHOse in tHe cOntrOL GrOup(P﹤0. 05). Conclusions PuLmOnary Heart disease cOmpLicated WitH cOrOnary Heart dis-ease and HypertensiOn is severe,cHanGes quicKLy,tHere is HiGH mOrtaLity rate,requires tHe use Of an apprOpriate prOGram Of earLy diaGnOsis,misdiaGnOsis rate and reduce tHe rate Of misdiaGnOsis,tO Guard aGainst cOrOnary Heart disease-induced fac-tOrs,prOmpt treatment,tHe prOGnOsis can imprOve tHe deLivery Of strOnG prOtectiOn.%目的:探讨肺心病伴高血压冠心病的临床诊断。方法选取2013年5月至2014年5月收治的肺心病伴发高血压冠心病患者50例,设为观察组

  15. Protecting the global climate through enhanced use of renewable energy sources. Study report. Compact version; Klimaschutz durch Nutzung erneuerbarer Energien. Studie. Kurzfassung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-10-31

    Ausgangspunkt der Analyse. Strom- und Waermemarkt werden aufgrund ihrer sehr unterschiedlichen Ausgestaltung getrennt behandelt. Fuer den Strombereich werden ein modifiziertes StrEG und die Vermarktung von Gruenem Strom als Hauptinstrumente vorgeschlagen. Fuer den Waermebereich sind die Hauptinstrumente eine Zuschussfoerderung fuer Kleinanlagen und eine Quotenregelung fuer Grossanlagen. Daneben muessen eine Reihe flankierender Unterstuetzungsmassnahmen ergriffen werden, wenn das Verdopplungsziel sicher bis 2010 erreicht werden soll. Neben den nicht budgetwirksamen Massnahmen StrEG und Quote erfordert der gewuenschte Zubau ein mittleres Zuschussvolumen von Bund und Laendern von rund 600 Mio. DM/a ueber 10 Jahre (1999: ca. 440 Mio DM/a). (orig.)

  16. Fractional and fractal dynamics approach to anomalous diffusion in porous media: application to landslide behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martelloni, Gianluca; Bagnoli, Franco

    2016-04-01

    . [26] J. P. Bouchaud, A. Georges, Anomalous diffusion in disordered media: Statistical mechanisms, models and physical applications, Physics reports, 195(4-5), 127293, 1990. [27] P.-G. de Gennes, Scaling Concepts in Polymer Physics, Cornell University Press, Ithaca, 1979. [28] M. Doi, S.F. Edwards, The Theory of Polymer Dynamics, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1986. [29] M. Porto, A. Bunde, S. Havlin, H.E. Roman, Phys. Rev. E 56 (2), 1997. [30] P. Allegrini, M. Buiatti, P. Grigolini, B. J. West, Non-Gaussian statistics of anomalous diffusion: The DNA sequences of prokaryotes, Physical Review E 58(3), 1998. [31] M. Bologna, C. Tsallis, P. Grigolini, Anomalous diffusion associated with nonlinear fractional derivative Fokker-Planck-like equation: Exact time-dependent solutions, Physical Review E, 62(2), 2000. [32] W. Chen, H. Sun, X. Zhang, D. Korosak, Anomalous diffusion modeling by fractal and fractional derivatives, Computers and Mathematics with Applications, 59, 1754-1758, 2010. [33] V.E. Tarasov, Fractional Hydrodynamic Equations for Fractal Media, Annals of Physics, 318(2), 286-307, 2005. [34] G. Martelloni, S. Segoni, R. Fanti, F. Catani, Rainfall thresholds for the forecasting of landslide occurrence at regional scale. Landslides Journal, 9(4), 485-495, 2012. [35] M.G. Anderson, S. Howes, Development and application of a combined soil water-slope stability model, Q. J. Eng. Geol. London, 18: 225-236, 1985. [36] R.M. Iverson, Landslide triggering by rain infiltration, Water Resources Research 36(7): 1897-1910, 2000. [37] N. Lu, J. Godt, Infinite slope stability under steady unsaturated seepage conditions, Water Resources Research, Vol. 44, W11404, doi:10.1029/2008WR006976, 2008. [38] W. Wu, R.C. Sidle, A Distributed Slope Stability Model for Steep Forested Basins, Water Resour. Res., 31(8), 2097-2110, doi:10.1029/95WR01136, 1995. [39] G.B. Crosta, P. Frattini, Distributed modelling of shallow landslides triggered by intense rainfall, Natural Hazards and System Sciences