WorldWideScience

Sample records for bunds

  1. Waldorf Astoria Shanghai on the Bund

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ The highly anticipated Waldorf Astoria Shanghai on the Bund recently announced the first of its two buildings, the Waldorf Astoria Club, will open this summer. Located on the celebrated Bund in Shanghai, the Waldorf Astoria Club occupies the same spot as the former Shanghai Club, which was an exclusive club originally built in 1911.

  2. Thorstein Bunde Veblen y el socialismo

    OpenAIRE

    Bonavena, Pablo Augusto

    2014-01-01

    En los últimos años el sociólogo norteamericano de origen noruego Thorstein Bunde Veblen (1857-1929) ha ganado un interesante lugar dentro del mundo académico. La contrapartida de esta presencia fueron varios años de destierro de los confines de la sociología. Esta tendencia al ostracismo parece revertirse ahora, ya que se reconocen sus heurísticos e interesantes aportes a temáticas disímiles como, entre otras, el turismo, los juegos de azar, la moda, el consumo, el esnobismo, la religión, el...

  3. Anti-erosion stone bunds influence rodent dynamics and crop damage in Ethiopian highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meheretu, Yonas; Welegerima, Kiros; Teferi, Mekonen; Yirga, Gidey; Haile, Mitiku; Sluydts, Vincent; Bauer, Hans; Nyssen, Jan; Deckers, Jozef; Leirs, Herwig

    2014-05-01

    In areas of subsistence agriculture, a variety of soil conservation methods have been implemented in the last few decades to improve crop yields, however these can have unintended consequences such as providing habitat for rodent pests. We studied rodent population dynamics and estimated crop damage in high and low stone bund density fields for four cropping seasons in Tigray highlands, northern Ethiopia. Stone bunds are physical structures for soil and water conservation, and potentially habitat for rodents. We used a general model to relate the proportion of crop damage to rodent abundance, stone bund density and crop stages. We found a positive correlation between rodent abundance and crop damage, and significant variation in rodent abundance and crop damage between high and low stone bund density fields. Furthermore, crop damage also varied significantly between crop stages. We concluded that Mastomys awashensis and Arvicanthis dembeensis were the two most important crop pests in the highlands causing significant damage. Fields with high stone bund density (~10 m average distance apart) harbor more rodents and endure a significantly higher proportion of crop damage compared to fields with lower stone bund density (~15 m average distance apart). The fact that rodent abundances peaked during the reproductive stage of the crop and around harvest implies the need for management intervention before these crop stages are attained.

  4. Interdisciplinary on-site evaluation of stone bunds to control soil erosion on cropland in Northern Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyssen, Jan; Poesen, Jean; Gebremichael, Desta

    2007-01-01

    Since two decades, stone bunds have been installed in large areas of the Tigray Highlands, Northern Ethiopia, to control soil erosion by water. Field studies were conducted to quantify the effectiveness, efficiency, side effects and acceptance of stone bunds. Based on measurements on 202 field pa...

  5. Evaluation of the Impact of Stone Bunds on Soil Loss and Surface Runoff in the Gumara Maksegnit Watershed, Northern Highlands of Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakolbinger, Stefanie; Obereder, Eva Maria; Strohmeier, Stefan; Guzmán, Gema; Demelash, Nigus; Gomez, José Alfonso; Zucca, Claudio; Klik, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Ethiopia is highly affected by land degradation and one of the key problems is soil erosion. It is mainly caused by the rapid population increase, deforestation, low vegetation cover and unbalanced livestock and crop production. As far as about 85% of the Ethiopian population life of agriculture, it is essential to prevent or reduce further degradation. In the Northern Highlands of Ethiopia stone bunds are widely used as a soil and water conservation measure (SWC). Stone bunds are little embankments of stones along the contour lines and influence the translation processes of surface runoff. In June 2015 a field experiment was started in the Gumara Maksegnit watershed to investigate the impact of stone bunds on surface runoff and soil erosion. 4 m wide and 20 m long bordered replicated plots were installed with and without stone bunds. The average slope of the plots is about 8%.The design of the erosions plots with stone bunds allows the measurement of runoff along the stone bund as well as the overflow over it. At the end of the plots the sideflow and overflow are collected using a trough, then the runoff is divided by a multi-slot-divider and finally it is collected in storage ponds. Total runoff volume was measured and representative runoff samples were taken weekly to determine sediment concentration. Precipitation was measured in daily intervals next to the study site. First results show the positive impact of stone bunds on soil erosion. From July to September total precipitation was around 600 mm. During the same time period plots without stone bunds delivered around 15 t/ha soil loss whereas plots with stone bunds produced only 5 t/ha. This is a reduction of 77%. Only approximately 10% of the sediment is transported over the stone bund, the rest is either deposited or moved along it. Runoff does not show the same pattern. Further data is being processed at the moment and will be presented.

  6. Investigation of the Impact of Stone Bunds on Erosion and Deposition Processes combining Conventional and Tracer Methodology in the Gumara Maksegnit Watershed, Northern Highlands of Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obereder, Eva Maria; Wakolbinger, Stefanie; Guzmán, Gema; Strohmeier, Stefan; Demelash, Nigus; Gomez, José Alfonso; Klik, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Ethiopia is one of the poorest countries of the word, with over 85 % of total population dependent from agriculture. Massive deforestation in the past and missing soil and water conservation (SWC) measures cause severe soil erosion problems in the northern highlands of Ethiopia. Different SWC methods are supposed to prevent ongoing land degradation, which is triggered by rainfall driven soil erosion in the Ethiopian agricultural lands. Common technologies for soil and water conservation are stone bunds, which reduce surface runoff and sediment loss. In June 2015 two field experiments were set up in the Gumara-Maksegnit watershed in Northern Ethiopia. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of graded stone bunds on surface runoff and sediment yield by using conventional and tracing approaches. Three consecutive runoff plots of 20 x 4 m length and width, respectively were established along the maximum slope direction. Each one was separated to the downstream one by a stone bund. The experimental setup allowed the measurement of surface runoff along each stone bund and the measurement of overflow over the lowest stone bund. To assess the pathway and the spatial distribution of the sediments a different tracer (Magnetite, Hematite and Goethite) was applied in a 40 cm wide strip at the top of each one of the plots. The second tracer experiment was conducted on the same hillslope. It consisted of a 20 m long hillslope without borders in which a 4 m long and 40 cm wide Magnetite strip was placed at the top. At the end of August 2015 soil samples of 0-2 cm depth were taken in a 1.5 x 1.5 m grid within the area of the hillslope. Soil samples parallel to the stone bund (above and underneath) were taken along 16 m to assess the soil movement/deposition. Tracer concentrations of soil and sediment samples in both trials were analysed. Runoff and sediment were collected in weekly intervals from July to September. Runoff and erosion data, as well as the evaluation

  7. Til bunds i metropolen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Kristine; Schmidt, Jeanett; Kastanje, Maj;

    2012-01-01

    Dette kapitel søger at belyse hvordan vestafrikanske hjemløse, der er kommet til Danmark som arbejdsmriganter klarer sig i København. Pga. vansligheder med at komme ind på det københavnske arbejdsmarked fratages de initiativet som arbejdstagere og overlever istedet som en art moderne jæger-samler......-samler folk gennem flaskesamling og som klienter på diverse sociale tilbud. Denne deroute er forbundet med hvad Goffman har betegnet som stigma....

  8. Wäre es Dir lieber, ich würde zu Recht verurteilt? - Sokrates Bund und die Frage der Kontrolle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Kaiser-Müller

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Die Ablösung von zweifelhafter menschlicher Kontrolle durch eine zuverlässige Software bietet eindrucksvolle Möglichkeiten. Mit der flächendeckenden Einführung von Sokrates Bund zum Schuljahr 2014/2015 wird endlich die Identifzierung von Pisadurchschnittsverderbern möglich. Die AutorInnen diskutieren die Lage ... Die Situation war dramatisch: Ungerecht angeklagt wegen Verführung der Jugend und Gottlosigkeit, sieht Sokrates dem Tod durch den Schierlingsbecher entgegen und antwortet auf die ob des Fehlurteils durchaus verständliche Klage von Xanthippe mit der titelgebenden Frage. Anschließend verweigert er die Flucht und zieht es vor, sich dem formal korrekt gefällten falschen Urteil zu beugen. Eine legendäre Entscheidung, in der Sokrates die Gesetzestreue mit der Begründung, man müsse schlechte Gesetze ändern, dürfe sie aber nicht übertreten, über das eigene Wohl stellt.

  9. Response of soil shear strength to soil water content in purple soil slope cropland bunds%紫色土坡耕地埂坎土壤抗剪性能对含水率的响应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦杰; 史炳林; 李进林

    2016-01-01

    选取三峡库区典型紫色土坡耕地埂坎进行试验,通过室内三轴试验研究不同含水率(质量分数6%、11%、16%、21%、26%和31%)对埂坎土壤抗剪强度指标的影响,以深化紫色土坡耕地埂坎力学性质研究。结果表明:1)试验含水率范围内,紫色土坡耕地埂坎土壤黏聚力受含水率影响显著(P<0.05),且随着含水率增加呈现出先增大后减小的趋势,明显的峰值出现在含水率质量分数11%左右,黏聚力为85.52 kPa;2)埂坎土壤内摩擦角随含水率增加而减小,呈非线性衰减,符合一阶指数衰减规律。高含水率时,衰减缓慢;3)紫色土坡耕地埂坎抗剪强度受含水率变化影响显著(P<0.05),埂坎土壤极限主应力差随含水率和围压的变化明显且具有规律性。相同围压下,埂坎土壤极限主应力差随含水率增大而迅速减小,即土体的抗剪强度降低。相同含水率下,极限主应力差随围压增大而增大,低含水率时增加明显,高含水率时增加缓慢。当含水率质量分数达到26%左右,埂坎土壤抗剪强度趋于低值;4)紫色土埂坎土壤的应力-应变曲线随含水率递增依次呈现应变软化型、硬化型和弱硬化型。研究结果可为三峡库区高标准基本农田等工程的埂坎建设提供依据和技术支撑。%Soil bunds play a key role in controlling soil erosion on sloping farmlands, however, the performance and mechanism of purple soil bunds against water erosion is little reported. The objective of the present study was to analyze the soil shear strength features of purple soil bunds under different soil water content scenarios. Samples were selected from 3 types of purple soil bunds in Zhongxian County in the Three Gorges area. An unconsolidated-undrained (UU) triaxial compression test was carried out to study the soil shear strength in terms of the cohesion, internal friction angle and principal

  10. Analysis `94. Statistical evaluation and comparative analysis of plant and performance data of the `1000 Roofs` programme of the German state and Laender; Analyse `94. Statistische Auswertung und vergleichende Untersuchung der Anlagen- und Betriebsdaten aus dem Bund-Laender-1000-Daecher Programm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuest, R.; Hielscher, T.

    1994-12-31

    This is a report of the `1000 Roofs` programme funded by the German State and Laender. In the course of this project, 104 photovoltaic systems were installed in Berlin between 1992 and 1995. (HW) [Deutsch] Es wird berichtet ueber das Bund-Laender-1000-Daecher-Programm. Innerhalb des Forschungsvorhabens wurden in Berlin in den Jahren 1992-1995 104 photovoltaische Anlagen in Betrieb genommen. (HW)

  11. Concretisation of the environmental monitoring programme in the context of a multistage environmental monitoring concept of the German federal and states governments. Sub-projects 1 -3; Konkretisierung des Umweltbeobachtungsprogrammes im Rahmen eines Stufenkonzeptes der Umweltbeobachtung des Bundes und der Laender. Teilvorhaben 1 und 2, Teilvorhaben 2 (Fortschreibung der Dokumentation von Programmen anderer Ressorts), Teilvorhaben 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nouhuys, J. van; Corsten, A.; Klitzing, F. von; Schroeder, W.; Schmidt, G.; Pesch, R.; Matejka, H.; Eckstein, T.

    2001-07-01

    Within a GIS Environmental Monitoring data and statistical techniques are combined which enable the system user to prove monitoring nets' suitability for environmental monitoring purposes with respect to methodological harmonization and representativity criteria: A classification of Germany's ecoregions by means of multivariate statistics is the basis for analyzing the landscape representativity of environmental monitoring networks. Metadata on environmental monitoring networks (measurement parameters and methods) are collected with a questionnaire of about 800 items. These informations build up a metadatabase, which is analysed by special evaluation tools. The spatial interpolation of measurement data of exemplarily chosen monitoring nets are verified by geostatistics. (orig.) [German] Das Teilvorhaben 1 befasst sich mit der Ausformung der konzeptionellen Grundlagen fuer eine Umweltbeobachtung. Es werden Stellungnahmen der Laender und anderer Ressorts beruecksichtigt, die im Zusammenhang mit den Befassung des Themas Umweltbeobachtung dem Umweltbundesamt vorliegen. Es wird eine Vorgehensweise zur Nutzung des umweltdatenkatalog des bundes und der laender (UDK) zur Dokumentation von Umweltbeobachtungsprogrammen vorgeschlagen. Vorliegende Materialien zu Mess- und Beobachtungsprogrammen der Laender werden ausgewertet und zur Verdichtung der Metainformationen zu Beobachtungsaktivitaeten der Laender genutzt. Die Ergebnisse werden so aufbereitet, dass sie fuer das GIS Umweltbeobachtung (Teilvorhaben 3) nutzbar sind. Das Teilvorhaben 2 setzt auf den Ergebnissen des 1997 abgeschlossenen Vorhabens ''Umweltbeobachtungsprogramme des Bundes - Integration der Beobachtungsprogramme anderer Ressorts'' (FKZ 20401119) auf. Es werden Metadaten zu Programmen aus dem Geschaeftsbereich des BMI (insb. Abfall), der bundesanstalt fuer geowissenschaften und rohstoffe (BGR) im Geschaeftsbereich des BMWI und des BMV aufgenommen und im

  12. DIE VERFASSUNG DES BUNDES VON DELOS UND DIE VORHERRSCHAFT ATHENS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Die Grundlagen des Attischen Seebundes wurden zwischen Herbst 478 und Frühjahr 477 v. Chr. gelegt, als zwischen den attischen und ionischen St?dtevereinigungen zum Zwecke der Verteidigung gegen die von den Persern geführten Angriffe ein Bündnisvertrag

  13. Energy. Political contacts at national, state and European level; Energie. Politikkontakte Bund, Land, Europa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holzapfel, Andreas (ed.)

    2013-04-01

    The manual is in three sections: 1. Parliaments and governments, survey and organization; 2. Biographic section, with 304 biography; 3. Index of names. The first section informs on the organizational structure of parliaments and governments. The subject of energy is discussed three times, i.e. in 'Economics', 'Environment', and 'Research'. For each parliament, the members of the energy policy TCs are listed, followed by names and contact addresses of the senior officials and departments with contact data, both on a national, state, and European scale. The second section contains the biographies of energy policy experts of the German parliament and government, the sixteen land parliaments and governments, and the European Commissions. As the subject of energy is highly interdisciplinary, the authors selected the energy policy committees of the German parliament and state parliaments. The biographies of the committee members are presented in the text.

  14. Swiss Federal Energy Research Concept 2008 - 2011; Konzept der Energieforschung des Bundes 2008 bis 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-04-15

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the plan for the activities of the Swiss Federal Commission on Energy Research CORE during the period 2008 - 2011. The motivation behind the state promotion of energy research is discussed. The visions, aims and strategies of the energy research programme are discussed. The main areas of research to be addressed during the period are presented. These include the efficient use of energy in buildings and traffic - batteries and supercaps, electrical technologies, combustion systems, fuel cells and power generation are discussed. Research to be done in the area of renewable sources of energy are listed. Here, solar-thermal, photovoltaics, hydrogen, biomass, geothermal energy, wind energy and ambient heat are among the areas to be examined. Research on nuclear energy and safety aspects are mentioned. Finally, work on the basics of energy economy are looked at and the allocation of funding during the period 2008 - 2011 is looked at.

  15. 外滩北区总体规划国际竞赛%North Bund Area International Masterplan Competition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    COX事务所所做的总体规划寻求该地区的平衡发展,并将其建成为一个集商业、住宅、购物为一体的享有声望的地区,设计同时尊重了多样化的经济,社会和历史文脉。总平面方案指出了通向外滩北区两条新地铁的开发潜力,确定了主要景观和滨水区的朝南的方向,以及充满社交文化气息的现存的城市肌理。

  16. Swiss Federal energy research - project list 2006/2007; Projektliste der Energieforschung des Bundes 2006/2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-03-15

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) lists and classifies the 1,025 energy-relevant research projects carried out in the years 2006 and 2007. Those projects are listed that were supported and/or financed with Swiss or European public funding. Details of the contributions made by private enterprises are noted and discussed. It is also noted that the Swiss Federal Office of Energy operates a data bank with a systematic collection of around 9,200 publications on research projects. Statistics on the classification of the projects are presented, as are details of funding for the years 1990 to 2007. The sources of financing and the distribution of the means over the various areas of research are looked at. The number of persons active in the research work is discussed. A comparison is made with the research programs of other countries. The list of projects is split into four categories - efficient use of energy, renewable energy resources, nuclear energy, energy economic basics as well as technology transfer and co-ordination. Finally a comprehensive list of all research projects for the years 2006 and 2007 is presented in tabular form. A list of those responsible for the various areas of research completes the report.

  17. Swiss energy research concept for the period 2004-2007; Konzept der Energieforschung des Bundes 2004-2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) made by the Swiss National Energy Research Commission CORE lists and discusses energy research topics that are to be looked during the period 2004 to 2007. The report discusses the fundamentals, visions and short and long-term targets for Swiss energy research and presents strategies for reaching them. Research areas dealt with include the efficient use of energy, renewable sources of energy, nuclear energy and the energy-economics basics necessary for the implementation of sustainable energy policy. Also, implementation aspects such as pilot and demonstration installations are discussed. The current state of research is noted and strategic targets and the ways and means of reaching them are examined. Main areas of research for the period are listed and financing issues are discussed.

  18. Kuerschner's energy manual. Political contacts at national, state and European level; Kuerschners Handbuch Energie. Politikkontakte Bund, Land, Europa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holzapfel, Andreas (ed.)

    2011-07-01

    The manual is in three sections: 1. Parliaments and governments, survey and organization; 2. Biographic section, with 453 biography; 3. Index of names. The first section informs on the organizational structure of parliaments and governments. The subject of energy is discussed three times, i.e. in 'Economics', 'Environment', and 'Research'. For each parliament, the members of the energy policy TCs are listed, followed by names and contact addresses of the senior officials and departments with contact data, both on a national, state, and European scale. The second section contains the biographies of energy policy experts of the German parliament and government, the sixteen land parliaments and governments, and the European Commissions. As the subject of energy is highly interdisciplinary, the authors selected the energy policy committees of the German parliament and state parliaments. The biographies of the committee members are presented in the text.

  19. The climate change law of the federal government. Analyses and proposals to its further development; Das Klimaschutzrecht des Bundes. Analyse und Vorschlaege zu seiner Weiterentwicklung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sina, Stephan; Garstetter, Christiane; Bausch, Camilla; Goerlach, Benjamin; Neubauer, Alexander [Ecologic gGmbH Institut fuer Internationale und Europaeische Umweltpolitik, Berlin (Germany); Rodi, Michael [Greifswald Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer oeffentliches Recht, Finanz- und Steuerrecht

    2011-09-15

    The present report provides an analysis of the current German federal climate change law. Due to the crosssectoral character of this law, the study comprises regulations from different sectors and areas of law such as emissions trading, the energy sector and agriculture. Based on this analysis, proposals for the advancement of the German federal law of climate change are developed in five particular areas: a potential outline for a general climate protection act serving as the central legal act for climate change law, further considerations on the structure of climate change law, development proposals related to energy grids, federal requirements for municipal climate protection as well as agricultural land use. (orig.)

  20. Evaluation of monitoring data of the German Environmental Specimen Bank using the Hasse diagram technique; Bewertung von Monitoringdaten der Umweltprobenbank des Bundes mit der Hasse-Diagramm-Technik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helm, D. [Umweltbundesamt, Fachgebiet II 1.4-S, Berlin (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    On behalf of the Federal Environment Ministry the Federal Environmental Agency operates the German Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB), which targets are to record and evaluate pollution data of selected ecological systems. Scope of the present study is to check the possibilities of the Hasse diagram technique (HDT) for the assessment of ESB data, mainly with regard to evaluations and conclusions. Xenobiotic body burden in Bream musculature (Abramis brama); measured in 1997, was exemplary used to answer these questions. Focus was put on ecosystemic assessment. The results clearly show that HDT is a valuable method for the graphical display, interpretation and comparative evaluation of pollution data, HDT visualises data qualitatively and in summary. Additionally, differences between pollution patterns are revealed, which suggest different contamination processes and entries. An ecosystemic approach of assessment is achieved by simultaneous consideration of different xenobiotics. (orig.)

  1. Energy Research 2006 - Overview; Recherche energetique/Energie-Forschung 2006. Rapports de synthese des chefs de programme/Ueberblicksberichte der Programmleiter. Konzept der Energieforschung des Bundes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-05-15

    This comprehensive annual report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) contains the overview-reports for the year 2006 that were made by the heads of the following Swiss energy research programmes: Efficient energy use, renewable energy, nuclear energy and fundamentals of energy economics. Under the topic of efficient energy use, new planning tools and a building component catalogue are mentioned along with new developments in building technology. In the traffic area, energy-optimisation of components and drive systems are mentioned as are electric bikes and a taxi system running on tracks. High-temperature superconductors, permanent magnet motors along with alternative power generation and storage systems are reviewed. New electricity grid systems and energy hubs are reported on. In the heat pump area, hot-water preparation, quality assurance and magnetic heat pumps are listed. Combustion topics reviewed include large diesel engines and catalytic oxidation in gas turbines. The new 'Power Station 2020' program is introduced with combined heat and power stations and efficient gas turbines. Fuel cells and hydrogen production and storage are looked at, as are process integration topics in the industrial area. Renewable energy topics described include design software and testing systems for solar heating systems, thin-film photovoltaics, industrial use of solar energy and solar production of hydrogen. Biomass and wood-fuel topics are covered, including the gasification of biomass. Cost reduction in small-scale hydro schemes is reported on as are hydropower schemes using drinking water and waste water. Geothermal energy and deep-heat mining are reported on, as is the use of geothermal probes for heating and cooling. Research and field testing done in the wind-energy area and the social acceptance of such installations are presented. In the nuclear energy area, safety and waste disposal issues are covered, as are a future reactor generation, safety research and work on controlled nuclear fusion. Energy-economics topics include contributions on building energy certificates, highly volatile oil prices, wood heating and district heating systems. The opening of the natural gas market in Switzerland is discussed.

  2. 百年外滩,再塑经典——上海外滩滨水区城市设计暨修建性详细规划%Remodeled Classic, the Centenary Shanghai Bund: Detailed Plan of the Urban Design & Site Plan of Shanghai Bund Waterfront

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    奚文沁; 徐玮

    2011-01-01

    @@ 外滩,坐落于黄浦江畔,是近代上海城市的发源地.在一个半世纪的历史中,外滩由开埠之初的滩涂码头,逐步发展成为上海最具标志性的景观区域和最负盛名的公共活动场所.

  3. Leitbilder und Handlungsstrategien für die Raumentwicklung in Deutschland. Entwicklungs-, Umsetzungs- und Fortschreibungsprozess der Bund-Länder-Strategie für Städte und Regionen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issaoui, Mariam; Sinz, Manfred

    2010-09-01

    Die Ministerkonferenz für Raumordnung stellte im Mai 2010 fest, dass sich die „Leitbilder und Handlungsstrategien für die Raumentwicklung in Deutschland“ (2006) bewährt haben und bei der Gestaltung der räumlichen Entwicklung umgesetzt werden. Um die Leitbilder den sich verändernden wirtschaftlichen, sozialen und naturräumlichen Rahmenbedingungen anzupassen und die Erkenntnisse aus dem bisherigen Diskussions- und Umsetzungsprozess in Politik und Praxis einzubeziehen, sind sie zu ergänzen und weiterzuentwickeln. Im Mittelpunkt der Fortschreibung werden die Themen „Partnerschaften und Strategien für Stadtregionen und ländliche Räume“, „Mobilität und Logistik“ sowie „Klimaschutz und Energieversorgung“ stehen.

  4. Distribution coefficients of chlorinated hydrocarbons between muscle tissue and liver in fish. A contribution to the Federal database of environmental samples (UPB); Verteilungskoeffizienten chlorierter Kohlenwasserstoffe zwischen Muskulatur und Leber bei Fischen. Ein Beitrag zur Umweltprobenbank des Bundes (UPB)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schramm, K.W.; Oxynos, K.; Schmitzer, J. [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit Neuherberg GmbH, Oberschleissheim (Germany). Inst. fuer Oekologische Chemie; Marth, P.; Kettrup, A. [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit Neuherberg GmbH, Oberschleissheim (Germany). Inst. fuer Oekologische Chemie; Technische Univ. Muenchen, Freising (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Oekologische Chemie und Umweltanalytik; Wolf, A. [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit GmbH, Neuherberg (Germany). Klinische Kooperationsgruppe Umweltdermatologie und Allergologie; Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Dermatologie und Allergologie am Biederstein; Hahn, K. [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit Neuherberg GmbH, Oberschleissheim (DE). Inst. fuer Medizinische Informatik und Systemforschung (MEDIS)

    1999-09-01

    Measured distribution coefficients (KL{sub M/L}) related to lipid concentrations between the muscle (C{sub ML}) and liver (C{sub LL}) tissue of two fish species (Abramis brama, Zoarces viviparus) exhibit nominal values of unity according to the relationship KL{sub M/L}=C{sub ML}/C{sub LL}=1 for persistent compounds such as highly chlorinated PCB and values above one for degradable compounds for example chlorinated cyclohexanes or DDT. The corresponding theory is presented. The relationship holds for samples for single fish as well as for pooled samples. (orig.) [German] Lipidbezogene Verteilungskoeffizienten (KL{sub M/L}) zwischen Muskelkonzentrationen- (C{sub ML}) und Leberkonzentrationen (C{sub LL}) zweier Friedfischarten Brassen (Abramis brama) und Aalmutter (Zoarces viviparus) ergeben theoriekonform (KL{sub M/L}=C{sub ML}/C{sub LL}=1) nominale Werte um 1 fuer persistente (hochchlorierte PCB) und Werte ueber 1 fuer metabolisierbare lipophile Umweltchemikalien wie chlorierte Cyclohexane oder DDT. (orig.)

  5. 7th cooperative working conference of the State and Laender in the field of raw materials and energy research. Papers and discussions. 7. Arbeitstagung der Bund-Bundeslaenderkooperation auf dem Gebiet der Rohstoff- und Energieforschung. Vortraege und Diskussionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-03-01

    Within the framework of the cooperation between the State and the Laender in the field of raw materials and energy research, a workshop is organized every year in one of the states. In this workshop, the main research issues of the organizing state are presented and the states are offered an opportunity to exchange their experiences. The 7th workshop took place in Eisenerz on October 4-5, 1984 and was titled '10 years of raw materials research in the Steiermark' as 10 years had passed since the State Government of the Steiermark had decided in 1974 to record the raw material resources of the Steiermark and it seemed to be the time to report on the results. Thus, the results of the raw material research over the past ten years were documented for this workshop.

  6. The Deutscher work-bund between art nouveau with the first world war%早期德意志制造联盟在现代建筑史中的地位

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王大光

    2006-01-01

    通过对德意志制造联盟在新艺术运动后和现代建筑运动高潮到来之间的理论探索和实践活动的分析,能够清晰地梳理出早期现代建筑运动的走向和发展关系,有利于把握现代建筑运动的本质.

  7. The Cultural Connotation of Architecture Dermatoglyphic Pattern on the Great Northern Telegraph Company Building on the Bund,Shanghai%上海大北电报公司大楼外部建筑纹样的文化涵义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚佳音; 张雅玮; 居伟忠

    2012-01-01

    上海大北电报公司大楼是文艺复兴式风格建筑,部分带有巴洛克风格装饰,在端庄稳重中又展现了低调的华贵。建筑外墙有许多装饰纹样,植物、花卉、实物等等,都代表了大北电报公司对于他电信事业发展的展望,以及增加财富的美好希冀。%The Great Northern Telegraph Company Building is the Renaissance style architecture,with partial Baroque style decoration.It is not only dignified and steady but also low-key luxury.The decoration patterns on the outer wall such as plants,flowers,material objects etc,are all represents the Great Northern Telegraph Company Building’s wish for the development the company as well as the desire of fortune.

  8. Approved Methods and Algorithms for DoD Risk-Based Explosives Siting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-21

    development and life expectancy.” http://www.statistik-bund.de/basis/e July 1998 (22 December 1998) 9 Instituto Nacional de Estadistica . “Number of deaths...bund.de/basis/e July 1998 (22 December 1998). 9 Instituto Nacional de Estadistica . “Number of deaths by major causes of death.” http://www.ine.es/htdocs

  9. The EEG as an instrument of the Federal areal management of renewable energies - also a contribution to the discussion about energy sectoral planning; Das EEG als Instrument des Bundes zur raeumlichen Steuerung der erneuerbaren Energien - zugleich ein Beitrag zur Diskussion um eine Energiefachplanung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruener, Anna-Maria [Stiftung Umweltenergierecht, Wuerzburg (Germany); Sailer, Frank [Stiftung Umweltenergierecht, Wuerzburg (Germany). Forschungsgebiet Energieanlagen- und Infrastrukturrecht

    2016-05-15

    The areal management of the power generation structure takes place at first glance mainly on the Zoning and Planning Law, less than the energy law. The only sporadically encountered jurisprudential work for controlling effect of the EEG came to the conclusion, the current configuration of the support system in the EEG is in deficit and ''blind'' to the localization and areal distribution of energy generation plants in the Federal territory, although the EEG is representing a ''downright predestined management tool''. On closer inspection, however, shows that individual provisions have entirely certain location preferences or cause areal distribution effects and the EEG thus play a management effect. The contribution is therefore devoted to the question of whether and how the EEG 2014, with the overall network expansion and payment system is able to manage the energy production from renewable energy sources in the area and whether an energy specialist planning is useful and necessary. [German] Die raeumliche Steuerung der Energieerzeugungsstruktur findet auf den ersten Blick vornehmlich ueber das Raumordnungs- und Planungsrecht statt, weniger ueber das Energierecht. Die allenfalls vereinzelt anzutreffenden rechtswissenschaftlichen Arbeiten zur Steuerungsleistung des EEG kommen zu dem Ergebnis, die jetzige Ausgestaltung des Foerdersystems im EEG sei defizitaer und ''blind'' gegenueber der Lokalisierung und raeumlichen Verteilung von EE-Anlagen im Bundesgebiet, obwohl das EEG doch ein ''geradezu praedestiniertes Steuerungsinstrument'' darstelle. Bei naeherer Betrachtung zeigt sich jedoch, dass einzelne Regelungen durchaus bestimmte Standortpraeferenzen aufweisen bzw. raeumliche Verteilungseffekte bewirken und dem EEG damit eine steuernde Wirkung zukommt. Der Beitrag widmet sich daher der Frage, ob und wie das EEG 2014 sowie das allgemeine Netzausbau- und -entgeltsystem die Energieerzeugung aus erneuerbaren Energien raeumlich zu steuern vermoegen und ob eine Energiefachplanung sinnvoll und notwendig ist.

  10. 20 January 2011 - Hessischer Minister für Bundesangelegenheiten und Bevollmächtigter des Landes beim Bund, Hessen, Germany M. Boddenberg signing the guest book with CERN Director-General R. Heuer and Head of International Relations F. Pauss; in the ALICE surafce exhibition and underground experimental area with P. Braun-Munzinger, V.Lindenstruth and Adviser R. Voss.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2011-01-01

    Michael Boddenberg, Hessian Minister for Federal Affairs and Representative of Hessen in the Federal Government, visited CERN on 20 January. His tour included the ALICE experiment, the LHC tunnel, the CERN Computer Centre and CERN Control Centre.

  11. Ecological evaluation of two prawn culture fields in the Cochin Backwater based on premonsoon diurnal observations

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Balasubramanian, T.; Viswakumar, M.; Venugopal, P.

    Extensive low lying areas of the Cochin Backwater peripheries at its lower reaches are bunded into interconnected ponds for paddy-cum-prawn culture. Results of a study of two representative ponds are reported. The ponds under study were found...

  12. 小瓷砖美化大上海(英文)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永安

    2000-01-01

    People would gasp in admiration if they went to Shanghai's new scenic spots which include Hongqiao International Airport, the Pudong International Airport, the Bund Sightseeing and Tourism Area, the Shanghai Library, the Shanghai New Railway

  13. Flyash disposal problems at thermal power stations - an experimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, E.S.; Peter, E.C. Nirmala; Sastri, K. Rama [JNTU Coll. of Engineering, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Hyderabad (India); Kura, Bhaskar [New Orleans Univ., Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, New Orleans, LA (United States)

    1999-07-01

    Disposal of flyash at thermal power stations is carried out in the form of ash slurry by mixing the ash with water. The ash slurry is stored in an ash pond. The water in the slurry is gradually drained out, through decanting wells, earthen embankments and over spillways, leaving the ash to deposit in the pond. It is observed that, the design of decanting wells presently being used allows a considerable amount of flyash to flow out with water, leading to the contamination of soil and the water courses. Further, it is observed that, the failure of earthen bunds of ash ponds, which results in a major damage to the environment, is mainly due to ineffective functioning of filters in the bunds. This paper presents the details of an experimental investigation carried out to study the role of geotextiles in improving the performance of decanting wells and earthen bunds. Two series of experiments were carried out. In the first series two model decanting wells were tested with geotextile lining. In the second series, a number of model earthen bunds were tested with and without geotextiles. Economics of providing geotextiles in earthen bunds is studied. The results indicated that, the use of geotextiles is economical and effective improving the performance of decanting wells and the earthen bunds of an ash pond. (Author)

  14. Flyash disposal problems at thermal power stations - an experimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, E.S.; Peter, E.C.N.; Sastri, K.R.; Kura, B. [JNTU College of Engineering, Hyderabad (India). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1999-06-10

    Disposal of fly ash at coal-fired power stations is carried out in the form of ash slurry by mixing the ash with water. The ash slurry is stored in an ash pond. The water in the slurry is gradually drained out, through decanting wells, earthen embankments and over spillways, leaving the ash to deposit in the pond. The design of decanting wells presently being used in power stations, such as Vijayawada in India allows a considerable amount of flyash to flow out with water, leading to the contamination of soil and the water courses. Further, the failure of earthen bunds of ash ponds, which results in a major damage to the environment, is mainly due to ineffective functioning of filters in the bunds. This paper presents the details of an experimental investigation carried out to study the role of geotextiles in improving the performance of decanting wells and earthen bunds. Two series of experiments were carried out. In the first series two model decanting wells were tested with geotextile lining. In the second series, a number of model earthen bunds were tested with and without geotextiles. Economics of providing geotextiles in earthen bunds is studied. The results indicated that, the use of geotextiles is economical and effective in improving the performance of decanting wells and the earthen bunds of an ash pond. 15 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  15. Analyze the Influence Factors of Crowd and Trampled Incident In Urban Public Spaces From Economic Perspective: Based on the Case about "Shanghai the Bund 12·31 Crowded and Stamped Incident"%城市公共场地挤踏事件影响因素的经济学分析——以“上海外滩12·31挤踏事件”为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢少云; 任小龙

    2016-01-01

    城市公共场地人群挤踏事件给城市公共安全治理提出了新挑战.以“上海外滩12·31挤踏事件”为例,基于经济学公共物品理论和“经济人”假设分析,发现人群拥挤是导致城市公共场地挤踏事件发生的主要原因.公共场地非排他性和竞争性、信息不完全、有限理性、规则缺失是造成人群拥挤的主要因素.公共资源过度使用造成使用者利益损失.

  16. Impacts of Soil and Water Conservation Practices on Crop Yield, Run-off, Soil Loss and Nutrient Loss in Ethiopia: Review and Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adimassu, Zenebe; Langan, Simon; Johnston, Robyn; Mekuria, Wolde; Amede, Tilahun

    2017-01-01

    Research results published regarding the impact of soil and water conservation practices in the highland areas of Ethiopia have been inconsistent and scattered. In this paper, a detailed review and synthesis is reported that was conducted to identify the impacts of soil and water conservation practices on crop yield, surface run-off, soil loss, nutrient loss, and the economic viability, as well as to discuss the implications for an integrated approach and ecosystem services. The review and synthesis showed that most physical soil and water conservation practices such as soil bunds and stone bunds were very effective in reducing run-off, soil erosion and nutrient depletion. Despite these positive impacts on these services, the impact of physical soil and water conservation practices on crop yield was negative mainly due to the reduction of effective cultivable area by soil/stone bunds. In contrast, most agronomic soil and water conservation practices increase crop yield and reduce run-off and soil losses. This implies that integrating physical soil and water conservation practices with agronomic soil and water conservation practices are essential to increase both provisioning and regulating ecosystem services. Additionally, effective use of unutilized land (the area occupied by bunds) by planting multipurpose grasses and trees on the bunds may offset the yield lost due to a reduction in planting area. If high value grasses and trees can be grown on this land, farmers can harvest fodder for animals or fuel wood, both in scarce supply in Ethiopia. Growing of these grasses and trees can also help the stability of the bunds and reduce maintenance cost. Economic feasibility analysis also showed that, soil and water conservation practices became economically more viable if physical and agronomic soil and water conservation practices are integrated.

  17. Sind Theater reine Subventionsgüter? Eine ökonomische Betrachtung der fiskalischen Unterstützung von Theaterbetrieben

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Kann sich Kultur selbst finanzieren? Nach den starken Einsparungen der Jahre 2003 und davor ist seit drei Jahren zwar wieder eine Tendenz der Ausgabenerhöhung des Bundes festzustellen (für 2008 ist auf Bundesebene ein Mehrbetrag von 1,3% für Kultur und Medien, das bedeutet Gesamtausgaben von 1,1 Mrd. Euro, geplant), dennoch muß oder sollte die Frage der Wirtschaftlichkeit von Kultur gestellt werden. Denn ebenso wie die Ausgaben des Bundes steigen die Kosten der kulturellen Einrichtungen beisp...

  18. Multimodalisering som stilladsering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasch, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Universal Design for Learning viser os, hvordan vi kan bruge digitale læremidler til inkluderende undervisning ved at stilladsere traditionelle læremidler i bund. I kapitlet gennemgås UDLs principper, og hvordan disse kan omsættes i en inkluderende undervisningspraksis i arbejdet med læsekompeten......Universal Design for Learning viser os, hvordan vi kan bruge digitale læremidler til inkluderende undervisning ved at stilladsere traditionelle læremidler i bund. I kapitlet gennemgås UDLs principper, og hvordan disse kan omsættes i en inkluderende undervisningspraksis i arbejdet med...... læsekompetencer i faget engelsk....

  19. 德语时事新闻

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚晓舟(选编)

    2007-01-01

    1. Zahl der Arbeitslosen im Juni weiter zuruckgegangen Muntefering: Stabiler Trend(趋势) (28. Juni 2007) Bundesarbeitsminister Müntefering sieht im neuerlichen Rückgang(减少) der Erwerbslosenzahlen einen stabilen Trend. Dies sei die Konsequenz (结果) einer zielführenden Politik, sagte Müntefering in Berlin. Bund,

  20. Skuffende forsideartikel i Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole John

    2008-01-01

    Lørdag den 31. marts 2007 skriver Jørgen Steen Nielsen en forside-artikel med overskriften 'Der er ingen CO2-grund til at spare på elektriciteten'. Det er skuffende at JSN ikke kommer lidt mere til bunds i materien. JSN burde vide og skrive, at det, der skal til , er en global enighed om hvilken ...

  1. Nachholbedarf bei steuerlicher Entlastung mittlerer Einkommen

    OpenAIRE

    Stern, Volker

    2009-01-01

    Die Bundesregierungen verfolgen seit langem zum Teil durch das Bundesverfassungsgericht dazu veranlasst das Ziel, niedrige Einkommen steuerlich zu entlasten. Mit dem Konjunkturpaket II wurden wiederum Tarifkorrekturen für 2009 und 2010 beschlossen. Welche Folgen diese Politik seit 1990 für die mittleren Einkommen hat, zeigt Volker Stern vom Karl-Bräuer-Institut des Bundes der Steuerzahler.

  2. "Ma ei usu Jumalasse, kuid tunnen temast puudust" / Urmas Petti

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Petti, Urmas, 1965-

    2013-01-01

    Ameerika õigusfilosoofi Ronald Dworkini "jumalatu religiooni" kontseptsioonist; pealkiri on inglise kirjaniku Julin Barnes'i tsitaat, millest sai Šveitsi ajalehe Der Bund esseekonkursi teema aastal 2011; autor tsiteerb veel Mihkel Kunnust (Humanismi õnnetusi, Sirp, 6. aug. 2010), Torgny Lindgren ja Jeanette Wintersoni

  3. Estonia continues silly anti-Russian hysteria / Peter Shmelev

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Shmelev, Peter

    2011-01-01

    President Toomas Hendrik Ilvese intervjuust Šveitsi ajalehele Der Bund, millest suur osa rääkis suhetest Venemaaga ja probleemidest venekeelse elanikkonnaga Eestis. Artikli autori arvates peaksid Eesti presidendi säärased propagandistlikud väljaütlemised saama kindla vastuse Venemaa ametlikest struktuuridest

  4. JPRS Report, East Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    the Bund- estag’s Commission on Foreign Affairs; Hans-Eberhard Dingels, leader of the International Secretariat of the SPD; and Gernot Erler , deputy...in the Bundestag and chairman of the German-Bulgarian Parliamentary Group. After the meeting, Erler told DUMA that contacts between the BSP and

  5. Land has power. Energy transition an opportunity for rural areas. Documentation; Land unter Strom. Die Energiewende als Chance fuer den laendlichen Raum. Dokumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bredenbeck, Martin; Gotzmann, Inge (comps.)

    2015-07-01

    The energy transition affects the rural areas of Germany in particular. Which Opportunities and risks this brings there shows a new release of Bund Heimat und Umwelt in Deutschland (German heritage and Environmental Foundation (BHU)). The Federation of heritage and civic associations devoted to the question of how to the conventional expansion of renewable energies innovative options can added. Thereby a diversified positioning of energy use, the advancement of historical forms of use and the spatial differentiation are important factors. [German] Die Energiewende betrifft die laendlichen Raeume Deutschlands in besonderem Masse. Welche Chancen und Risiken sie dort bringt, zeigt eine Neuerscheinung des Bund Heimat und Umwelt in Deutschland (BHU). Der Bundesverband der Heimatverbaende, Heimat- und Buergervereine widmet sich der Frage, wie zum konventionellen Ausbau erneuerbarer Energien innovative Optionen hinzutreten koennen. Eine breite Aufstellung von Energienutzungen, die Weiterentwicklung historischer Nutzungsformen und die raeumliche Differenzierung sind dabei wichtige Faktoren.

  6. Politik er ikke lykken

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenbuch, Johannes Aakjær

    2011-01-01

    Der er ikke længere nogen højere sandhed i livet end den, flertallet bestemmer sig for – og dermed ingen del af livet, der ikke er politisk. Højre- og venstrefløjen er i bund og grund enige - enige om, at det er politikernes opgave at forære os det gode liv. Dermed bliver demokratiet totalitært. ...

  7. At være eller ikke være

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Carsten; Ventura Campos Lima, Maria da Paz

    2011-01-01

    Kunstnernes arbejdsmarked er generelt præget af usikre ansættelser målt i forhold til den sikkerhed, en fast fuldtidsstilling giver. De har mange kontrakter hen over året, og det gør dem mere udsat på arbejdsmarkedet, fordi den danske model i bund og grund kun yder sikkerhed for ansatte i faste s...

  8. HOTEL INFORMATION SHANGHAI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Le Royal Meridien Shanghai Le Royal Meridien Shanghai is located in the center of Shanghai and is one of the city's tallest landmarks at 66 stories high. The iconic Bund is a short walk down the Nanjinglu Pedestrian Walkway, which is just beside the hotel. All rooms and suites provide a 42" plasma TV, DVD/CD player, rain shower system, wireless and high-speed Internet access, and floor-to-ceiling glass windows.

  9. Umweltberichterstattung in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland : Institutionen, Datenquellen, Literatur

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Wolfgang

    1989-01-01

    Der Autor vermittelt einen Überblick über den Stand der Umweltberichterstattung in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Um Defizite in der Vereinheitlichung aufzuarbeiten, faßt Meyer das Informationsmaterial unter dem Blickwinkel sozialer Indikatoren zusammen. Im ersten Teil listet der Verfasser innerhalb der Umweltberichterstattung Publikationen vom Statistischen Bundesamt, Umweltbundesamt, Rat der Sachverständigen für Umweltfragen, von Bundesministerien und Bundesämtern, Landesministerien und La...

  10. Innovation, identitet og mening - nye udfordringer for familie- og arbejdsliv YYYY No org found YYY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gleerup, Jørgen

    2002-01-01

    Udenlandsk design er mere overfladisk og handler mere om 'styling' end om kvalitet og respekt for brugerne og samfundet. Forfatteren spørger: Holder den tese? Hvordan kommer man til bunds i problemerne? Hvordan laver man godt design? Handler det bare om at være 'dyb' i sin tankegang, bedre til at...... at brain-storme og bruge nogle flere timer til at skitsere i?...

  11. Participatory assessment of soil erosion severity and performance of mitigation measured using stakeholders' workshops in Koga catchment, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakew, Walle; Baartman, Jantiene; Ritsema, Coen

    2016-04-01

    There has been little effort to systematically document the experiences and perceptions of farmers on soil erosion and soil and water conservation (SWC) even though a wealth of SWC knowledge and information exists, and there is a great demand to access it. Sustainable Land Management (SLM) has largely evolved through local traditional practices than being adopted on basis of scientific evidence. This research aimed to document the experiences of farmers on soil erosion and conservation, and to increase awareness and participation of the local community in SWC. Participatory stakeholders' workshops were undertaken at local level focused on experiences and perceptions of farmers. The workshops included group discussion and field monitoring of sheet erosion indicators, profiles of rills and gullies and impacts of SWC strategies. Systematic descriptions of the status of soil erosion, soil fertility and yield were used to assess the performances of SWC strategies. Results show that farmers were aware of the harmful effects of ongoing soil erosion and impacts of mitigation strategies on their farms. Sheet erosion was found to be the most damaging form of erosion while rill damage was critical on cereal cultivated farms on steep slopes. Farmers perceived that the desired impacts of SWC practices were attained in general: runoff and soil loss rates decreased, while soil fertility and production increased. The performance of SWC measures were found to be highly affected by the design quality and management strategies on the farm. Comparatively graded stone-faced soil bunds revealed maximum desired impacts and were liked by farmers whereas all level bunds caused water logging and traditional ditches begun incising and affected production of cereals. Bund maintenance practices were low and also distracted the stability of bunds. This calls for further improvement of design of SWC technologies and their maintenance. Further research should integrate the local knowledge for

  12. Im Fokus: Studiengebühren verändern Hochschullandschaft

    OpenAIRE

    Kubis, Alexander; Schneider, Lutz; Demuth, Marcel

    2009-01-01

    Mit dem im August 2007 von Bund und Ländern unterzeichneten Hochschulpakt 2020 verpflichten sich die Länder, dem erwarteten Anstieg der Zahl an Studienberechtigten durch eine Ausweitung der Hochschulkapazitäten Rechnung zu tragen. Aufgrund unterschiedlicher demographischer Entwicklungstrends in den Ländern, doch auch durch die mit den Doppelabiturjahrgängen verbundenen Sondereffekte ergibt sich dabei ein Bedarf der räumlichen Umverteilung von Studienanfängern. In diesem Zusammenhang ist die A...

  13. Filterkonjugation - sådan skal det gøres!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    Pincet åbnes. Filter åbnes. Agarpladens bund vises, og der gøres opmærksom på at pladen skal mærkes med gruppe, øvelse, isolat, dato. Filter overføres til agarpladen, der duppes. 1000 l pipetten vises med korrekt indstilling, mix bakterieblandingen, og der afpipetteres 500 l over på filteret i en...

  14. Racism, xenophobia and ethnic discrimination in Germany : update report 2008

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Der vorliegende Bericht enthält ergänzende statistische Daten und Informationen zum Bericht "Rassismus, Fremdenfeindlichkeit und ethnische Diskriminierung in Deutschland 2007". Er beschreibt die relevanten Entwicklungen im Bereich von Rassismus und ethnischer Diskriminierung von Migranten, die zwischen Januar und Oktober 2008 festzustellen waren. Zu Beginn werden die Ziele und Aufgaben der Antidiskriminierungsstelle des Bundes (ADS) dargestellt und die jüngsten Gerichtsentscheidungen zur rass...

  15. Legal aspects of the utilization of geothermal heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heller, W.

    1976-02-01

    At present, there are still no special legal regulations by the Bund or the Laender. For exploration, prospecting and mining there are only the mining laws and the law issued by the Laender pertaining to water supplies and water-ways, both of which also apply to all other 'minerals'. In contrast, Iceland, New Zealand and the USA have special legal provisions.

  16. The biomonitoring and bioremediation of toxic water resulting from municipal waste storage of Somârd, Sibiu county

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents information from the specialty literature and laboratory experimental results on biomonitoring, phytoextraction, biodegradation, and biotransformation of toxic water pollutants at the biotechnology laboratory of the Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering. The study was conducted in laboratory micro tanks with contaminated water from the municipal landfill water storage pit with toxic bund of Somârd/Medias, Sibiu County, in order to research and develo...

  17. Anonymous electronic trading versus floor trading

    OpenAIRE

    Franke, Günter; Hess, Dieter

    1995-01-01

    This paper compares the attractiveness of floor trading and anonymous electronic trading systems. It is argued that in times of low information intensity the insight into the order book of the electronic trading system provides more valuable information than floor trading, but in times of high information intensity the reverse is true. Thus, the electronic system's market share in trading activity should decline in times of high information intensity. This hypothesis is tested by data on BUND...

  18. Die Verwendung von fremden Samen im Rahmen der Reproduktionsmedizin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentenich H

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Nach der "Richtlinie über künstliche Befruchtung" der Bundesärztekammer aus dem Jahr 1998 war eine Behandlung mit Spendersamen bei der Behandlung mittels In-vitro-Fertilisation (IVF und intrazytoplasmatischer Spermieninjektion (ICSI auf Antrag möglich, wenn eine Kommission bei der Landesärztekammer dem zugestimmt hatte. Da die grundlegende juristische und psychosoziale Problematik der Verwendung von Spendersamen bei der Insemination und bei der IVF/ICSI-Behandlung gleich ist, hat die Bundesärztekammer in ihren Richtlinien 2006 die Verwendung von fremdem Sperma näher geregelt. Es ergeben sich Auswirkungen für den Samenspender, das Paar und den behandelnden Arzt. Der Arzt muß sich über die rechtlichen Rahmenbedingungen informieren, der Samenspender und das Paar müssen über alle medizinischen, psychosozialen und rechtlichen Konsequenzen informiert, aufgeklärt und beraten werden. Die Identität des Samenspenders muß dokumentiert werden, damit das Kind später den genetischen Vater auf Wunsch identifizieren kann. Eine Behandlung mit Spendersamen bei der alleinstehenden Frau und dem homosexuellen weiblichen Paar scheint nach den Richtlinien der Bundesärztekammer nicht möglich.

  19. Effectiveness of soil and water conservation structures in reducing runoff and soil loss for different land use and slope gradients: Case study from northern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taye, Gebeyehu; Poesen, Jean; Vanwesemael, Bas; Vanmaercke, Matthias; Teka, Daniel; Deckers, Jozef; Goosse, Tom; Maetens, Willem; Nyssen, Jan; Hallet, Vincent; Haregeweyn, Nigussie

    2014-05-01

    Land degradation and recurrent drought are the major threats to rain-fed agriculture in the semi-arid Ethiopian highlands. To mitigate drought and to ensure food security in the Tigray region, water harvesting using reservoirs for irrigation development has become a priority since 1990. However, the success of water harvesting in reservoirs is limited due to the reduced inflow. As a result, less area is irrigated than originally planned. The aim of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of soil and water conservation (SWC) structures in reducing runoff and soil loss under different land use types and slope gradients. Six runoff measuring sites, corresponding to three slope gradients (5%, 12% and 16%) were established for cropland and rangeland in the Mayleba catchment (Tigray). In total, 21 large runoff plots (with lengths of 60 to 100 m and widths of 10 m) were monitored daily for runoff production and soil loss during the main rainy season (July-September) in 2010. For each site in cropland, three plots were installed and treated with stone bunds and stone bunds with trenches in addition to a control plot. At each site in rangeland four runoff plots were installed: a plot treated with stone bunds, a plot treated with trenches, a plot treated with stone bunds and trenches as well as a control plot. Overall uncertainties on the runoff and soil loss measurements were estimated by means of Monte Carlo simulation techniques. The results show that the seasonal runoff coefficient (RCs) was much higher for rangeland (0.38 < RCs < 0.50) compared to RCs-values for cropland (0.11 < RCS < 0.15). Seasonal soil loss (SLs) values were five to six times larger on rangeland (28.6 < SLs < 50.0 ton ha-1) compared to that for cropland (4.6 < SLs < 11.4 ton ha-1). All tested SWC structures are effective in reducing runoff and soil loss compared to control plots. However, reduction in RCs were relatively much smaller than reductions in SLs. Trenches and stone bunds with

  20. Investigating the water balance of on-farm techniques for improved crop productivity in rainfed systems: A case study of Makanya catchment, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makurira, H.; Savenije, H. H. G.; Uhlenbrook, S.; Rockström, J.; Senzanje, A.

    Water scarcity is a perennial problem in sub-Saharan agricultural systems where extreme rainfall events dominate agricultural seasons. Dry spell occurrences between and during seasons negatively impact on crop yields especially if such dry spells exceed 14 days. The impact of dry spells is felt more at smallholder farming scales where subsistence farming is the only source of livelihood for many households. This paper presents results from on-going research to improve rainfed water productivity in arid and semi-arid regions. The study site is the Makanya catchment in northern Tanzania where rainfall rarely exceeds 400 mm/season. Rainwater alone is not sufficient to support maize which is the preferred crop. The research introduced new soil and water conservation measures to promote water availability into the root zone. The introduced techniques include deep tillage, runoff diversion, fanya juus (infiltration trenches with bunds) and infiltration pits. The research aims at understanding the effectiveness of these interventions in increasing moisture availability within the root zone. Time domain reflectometry (TDR) was used to measure soil moisture twice weekly at 10 cm depth intervals up to depths of 2 m. Soil moisture fluctuated in the range 5-25% of volume with the beginning of the season recording the driest moisture levels and periods after good rainfall/runoff events recording the highest moisture levels. From the field observations made, a spreadsheet model was developed to simulate soil moisture variations during different maize growth stages. The results obtained show that the zones of greatest soil moisture concentrations are those around the trenches and bunds. Soil moisture is least at the centre of the plots. The study confirms the effectiveness of the introduced techniques to help concentrate the little available rainfall into green water flow paths. Indirect benefits from these improved techniques are the creation of fertile and moist zones around

  1. Making use of the energy potential of hybrid heat production from excess green electricity; Energetische Potenziale hybrider Waermeerzeugung aus Oekostrom-Ueberangeboten nutzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkmann, Lukas; Riegebauer, Philipp; Oesterwind, Dieter [Zentrum fuer Innovative Energiesysteme (ZIES), Duesseldorf (Germany); Muench, Wolfram [Energie Baden-Wuerttemberg AG (EnBW), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2013-06-15

    Convert electricity to heat? Integration with the heat market opens up the option of using excess yields of electricity from renewable resources for hybrid provision of room heating, warm water and process steam. Environmental protection associations such as BUND e.V. (Association for Environmental Protection and Nature Conservation) are demanding a ban on conventional electric heating, but at the same time acknowledge the potential of plants that can flexibly switch between generating heat from fossil fuels and from electricity. Time for a paradigm change.

  2. [Further development and validation of a clinical auditing procedure for rehabilitation facilities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meixner, K; Lubenow, B; Brückner, U; Gerdes, N

    2006-06-01

    Visitations (audits) are considered an instrument of external quality assurance by which the structural and organizational set-up of health facilities can be assessed on site by external experts. The Deutsche Rentenversicherung Bund (including the former Bundesversicherungsanstalt für Angestellte, BfA, the statutory pension insurance agency for white collar employees) is the largest body responsible for rehabilitation in Germany, and it regularly carries out visitations in the approximately 650 rehab centres it sends its patients to. The project presented in this article aimed at developing a manual with detailed descriptions of the procedures and criteria of the assessment, as well as at checking the inter-rater-reliability of the assessment. The manual was developed in cooperation with experts of the Deutsche Rentenversicherung Bund. It contains a description of the areas to be assessed during a visitation as well as leading questions and criteria for the evaluation of single features. The manual was examined in "test visitations" in 10 centres, each of which was visited by three visitation teams (1 medical and 1 administrative expert) simultaneously. When the resulting 30 assessments were compared, the criterion "overall quality of the centre" (which was assessed on a 10-point scale) showed precise agreement in 47 %, and a deviation by 1 point in 33 % of the cases. Single features assessed on a three-point scale (no improvement needed/improvement recommended/immediate improvement obligatory) resulted in precise agreement in between 80 % ("medical and therapeutic processes") and 86 % ("structural features") of the cases. Two-point scales (condition fulfilled or not fulfilled) showed an agreement between 89 % ("internal quality management") and 97 % ("single structural features"). In order to maintain and further develop this good inter-rater-reliability, the visitors of Deutsche Rentenversicherung Bund are continually trained in applying the visitation manual

  3. Experimental study using coir geotextiles in watershed management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishnudas, S.; Savenije, H. H. G.; van der Zaag, P.; Anil, K. R.; Balan, K.

    2005-11-01

    This paper presents the results of a field experiment conducted in Kerala, South India, to test the effectiveness of coir geotextiles for embankment protection. In the context of sustainable watershed management, coir is a cheap and locally available material that can be used to strengthen traditional earthen bunds or protect the banks of village ponds from erosion. Particularly in developing countries, where coir is abundantly available and textiles can be produced by small-scale industry, this is an attractive alternative for conventional methods.

  4. Experimental study using coir geotextiles in watershed management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vishnudas

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a field experiment conducted in Kerala, South India, to test the effectiveness of coir geotextiles for embankment protection. In the context of sustainable watershed management, coir is a cheap and locally available material that can be used to strengthen traditional earthen bunds or protect the banks of village ponds from erosion. Particularly in developing countries, where coir is abundantly available and textiles can be produced by small-scale industry, this is an attractive alternative for conventional methods.

  5. Energy transition in federalism; Energiewende im Foederalismus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Thorsten; Kahl, Hartmut (eds.)

    2015-07-01

    The conference transcript assemble the presentations of the 10th Wuerzburg discussions for environmental energy law. The contributions discuss the political development objectives of the Federal Government and Federal States as well as the coordination tasks between the different political levels, inter alia, of constitutional and European law perspective. [German] Der Tagungsband versammelt die Vortraege der 10. Wuerzburger Gespraeche zum Umweltenergierecht. Die Beitraege eroertern die politischen Ausbauziele des Bundes und der Laender sowie die Koordinierungsaufgaben zwischen den verschiedenen Politikebenen u.a. aus verfassungs- und europarechtlicher Perspektive.

  6. Führer, Volk und Vaterland verpflichtet The Obligations Towards Führer, People and Fatherland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Schoppmann

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Die Organisation „Glaube und Schönheit“ war eine Gründung innerhalb des Bundes Deutscher Mädel (BDM, die den 18- bis 21-jährigen ‚arischen‘ Frauen im ‚Dritten Reich‘ vorbehalten war, um diese für die Ziele der ‚Volksgemeinschaft‘ zu instrumenalisieren. Sabine Hering und Kurt Schilde rekonstruieren nicht nur die Struktur der kaum noch bekannten Organisation; in zwölf Gesprächen mit Zeitzeuginnen gehen sie auch den bis in die heutige Zeit reichenden Auswirkungen auf die Beteiligten nach.The organization “Glaube und Schönheit” ("Belief and Beauty" was an organization within the Bund Deutscher Mädel, which was reserved for 18 up to 21 year old “Aryan” women during the Nazi period in order to functionalize them according to the goals of the “Volksgemeinschaft”. Sabine Hering and Kurt Schilde not only reconstruct the structure of the organization, which is mostly unknown today; in twelve interviews with contemporaries they also deal with the far reaching impacts on the people who were involved in this organization.

  7. Factors influencing adoption of farm management practices in three agrobiodiversity hotspots in India: an analysis using the Count Data Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhakaran T. Raghu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable agricultural practices require, among other factors, adoption of improved nutrient management techniques, pest mitigation technology and soil conservation measures. Such improved management practices can be tools for enhancing crop productivity. Data on micro-level farm management practices from developing countries is either scarce or unavailable, despite the importance of their policy implications with regard to resource allocation. The present study investigates adoption of some farm management practices and factors influencing the adoption behavior of farm households in three agrobiodiversity hotspots in India: Kundra block in the Koraput district of Odisha, Meenangadi panchayat in the Wayanad district of Kerala and Kolli Hills in the Namakkal district of Tamil Nadu. Information on farm management practices was collected from November 2011 to February 2012 from 3845 households, of which the data from 2726 farm households was used for analysis. The three most popular farm management practices adopted by farmers include: application of chemical fertilizers, farm yard manure and green manure for managing nutrients; application of chemical pesticides, inter-cropping and mixed cropping for mitigating pests; and contour bunds, grass bunds and trenches for soil conservation. A Negative Binomial count data regression model was used to estimate factors influencing decision-making by farmers on farm management practices. The regression results indicate that farmers who received information from agricultural extension are statistically significant and positively related to the adoption of farm management practices. Another key finding shows the negative relationship between cultivation of local varieties and adoption of farm management practices.

  8. Mapping of pollutants in sediments of the German Wadden Sea - June, 1989 to June, 1992. Final report January 1993; Schadstoffkartierung in Sedimenten des deutschen Wattenmeeres - Juni 1989 Juni 1992. Abschlussbericht Januar 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koopmann, C. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Faller, J. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Chemie; Bernem, K.H. van [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Prange, A. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Mueller, A. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik

    1994-01-01

    From June 1989 to June 1992 a mapping of inorganic and organic pollutants in the sediments from the entire German Wadden Sea has been carried out. Following the guidelines of the national (Bund/Laender-Messprogramm) and international monitoring programmes for the North Sea (Joint Monitoring Programme) distribution patterns of pollutants according to their type and concentration have been determined in the course of this investigation and the main pollution areas have been established. Based on the results of the mapping of pollutants, as well as on the first findings of the biological mapping, a concept for the monitoring of pollutants in eulittoral sediments of the German Wadden Sea has been developed. (orig.) [Deutsch] Von Juni 1989 bis Juni 1992 wurde eine flaechendeckende Kartierung der anorganischen und organischen Schadstoffe in den Sedimenten des gesamten deutschen Wattenmeeres durchgefuehrt. Im Rahmen dieser Untersuchung wurden sowohl die Verteilungsmuster der Schadstoffe nach Art und Konzentration bestimmt als auch deren Belastungsschwerpunkte im Wattengebiet festgestellt. Dabei wurden die Vorgaben des nationalen (Bund/Laender-Messprogramm) und des internationalen Ueberwachungsprogramms fuer die Nordsee (Joint Monitoring Programme) beruecksichtigt. Auf der Grundlage der Ergebnisse der Schadstoffkartierung sowie ersten Erkenntnissen aus einer zeitgleich aufgenommenen biologischen Kartierung wurde ein Konzeptvorschlag fuer ein Schadstoffmonitoring in den eulitoralen Sedimenten des deutschen Wattenmeeres ausgearbeitet. (orig.)

  9. Underground gas storage Uelsen: Findings from planning, building and commissioning. Part 1: Deposit; Untertagegasspeicher Uelsen: Erkenntnisse aus Planung, Bau und Inbetriebnahme. Teil 1: Lagerstaette

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallbrecht, J.; Beckmann, H.; Reiser, H.; Wilhelm, R. [BEB Erdgas und Erdoel GmbH, Hannover (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    The underground gas storage at Uelsen which was built as a H-gas storage in a former variegated sandstone gasfield in Western Lower Saxony close to the town of Nordhorn has added to the gas supply system of the BEB Erdgas and Erdoel GmbH. The underground storage is connected to the Bunde-Rheine transport pipeline BEB-grid gas system by a 27 km pipeline and is a consequent expansion of BEB`s underground storage/transport system. Planning, building and commissioning were handled by BEB. Findings to date are described. [Deutsch] Der Untertagegasspeicher (UGS) Uelsen, der in einem ehemaligen Buntsandstein Gasfeld im westlichen Niedersachsen in der Naehe der Stadt Nordhorn als H-Gasspeicher eingerichtet wurde, hat die BEB Erdgas und Erdoel GmbH eine weitere Staerkung ihres Gasversorgungssystems erreicht. Der UGS Uelsen ist ueber eine 27 km lange Anbindungsleitung mit der zum BEB - Ferngasleitungssystems gehoerenden Bunde-Rheine Transportleitung verbunden und stellt eine konsequente Erweiterung des BEB Untertagegasspeicher-/Transportsystems dar. Planung, Bau und Inbetriebnahme erfolgten durch BEB im Rahmen einer integrierten bereichsuebergreifenden Projektbearbeitung. Die hierbei gewonnenen Erkenntnisse werden im Folgenden fuer den Untertagebereich dargestellt. (orig.)

  10. Instruments. Climate protection of reduction of no-load losses in electric appliances and equipment; Klimaschutz durch Minderung von Leerlaufverlusten bei Elektrogeraeten. Instrumente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rath, U.; Hellmann, R. [Ingenieurbuero fuer Energieberatung, Haustechnik und Oekologische Konzepte GbR (eboek), Tuebingen (Germany); Moehring-Hueser, W.; Wortmann, K.; Bregas, J. [Energiestiftung Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel (Germany); Mordziol, C. [Umweltbundesamt, Berlin (Germany)

    1999-12-01

    Two studies on the subject of 'Climate Protection through Reduction of No-load Losses in Electric Applicances and Equipment' have been performed on behalf of the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety and the German Federal Environmental Agency. The first study, carried out by the Tuebingen-based engineering bureau eboek, has been published in the Federal Environmental Agency's TEXTE series (Texte 45/97, 2{sup nd} edition, 1998). It was the starting point for a multitude of activities among them two information campaigns carried out in 1998 and 1999 that were funded by the Federal Ministry for the Environment and the German Section of the Friends of the Earth (BUND). The study also served as a basis for decisions taken by the German Bundestag and the Bundesrat (Council of Constituent States). The second study on the subject was carried out by the engineering bureau eboek and Energiestiftung Schleswig-Holstein. Building on the results obtained in the first study, it presents estimates of relevant data for the European Union and examines various approaches for possible measures to reduce no-load losses as to their suitability. The studies impressively show that effective climate protection can be achieved in all relevant sectors, and in many cases even save costs. The results are detailed below. (orig.) [German] Im Auftrag des Bundesministeriums fuer Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit sowie des Umweltbundesamtes wurden zwei Studien zum Thema: 'Klimaschutz durch Minderung von Leerlaufverlusten bei Elektrogeraeten' durchgefuehrt: Die erste, vom Ingenieurbuero fuer Energieberatung, Haustechnik und oekologische Konzepte (eboek), Tuebingen, earbeitete Studie wurde in der Reihe TEXTE des UBA veroeffentlicht (Texte 45/97, 2. Auflage 1998). Sie bildete den Ausgangspunkt fuer eine Vielzahl von Aktivitaeten, unter anderem zwei vom Bundesumweltministerium finanzierte und vom Bund fuer Umwelt und

  11. Enviromental databases - metadata and standards. Workshop of the working group 'Umweltdatenbanken' of the expert group 'Informatik im Umweltschutz', held by the German Federal Environmental Office on May 19/20, 2003; Umweltdatenbanken - Nutzung von Metadaten und Standards. Workshop des Arbeitskreises 'Umweltdatenbanken' der Fachgruppe 'Informatik im Umweltschutz', veranstaltet vom Umweltbundesamt am 19. und 20. Mai 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The workshop was attended by about 30 experts from authorities, institutions and research institutes in Germany and Austria. One of the key issues was the standardisation of metadata and especially the role of ISO 19115 in environmental information. New systems were presented for accessing and managing geo-information, and the effects of the new standard on existing systems and the possibility of integration in new applications were discussed. There is a general trend, i.e. application of the ISO standard 19115 for data use on the environmental sector, e.g. in the development of the national geo-data meta-information system GeoMIS.Bund, the Brandenburg metadata profile, and the coastal information system NOKIS. However, the ISO standard should not be viewed as the only standard that is relevant. Specialized applications on the environmental sector that use metadata will continue to require further elements as well. The workshop also provided interesting insights into current applications of meta-information systems and environmental databases. (orig.) [German] Das Umweltbundesamt organisierte am 19. und 20. Mai 2003 in Zusammenarbeit mit dem Arbeitskreis ''Umweltdatenbanken'' des Fachausschusses ''Informatik im Umweltschutz'' einen Workshop zu dieser Thematik. Etwa 30 interessierte Fachexperten aus Behoerden, Institutionen und Forschungseinrichtungen Deutschlands und Oesterreichs nahmen daran teil. Ein Schwerpunktthema bildete der Bereich der Standardisierung von Metadaten und speziell die Rolle von ISO 19115 fuer Umweltinformationen. Einerseits wurden neue Systeme vorgestellt, die den Zugriff auf und die Verwaltung von Geo-Informationen in den Vordergrund stellen, andererseits wurden die Auswirkungen dieses neuen Standards auf existierende Systeme und die Moeglichkeiten der Integration in neue Fachanwendungen diskutiert. Eine deutliche Tendenz, die auf dem Workshop feststellbar war, zeigte sich in der zunehmenden Anwendung

  12. Regionalstatistik

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppmann, Helmut; Fürnrohr, Michael

    Viele Aufgaben in Politik, Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft erfordern nicht nur globale, sondern auch regionale Lösungen. Die Regionalstatistik ist deshalb unentbehrlich für viele Planungs- und Entscheidungsprozesse. Ihren Ausbau und ihre Nutzung zu fördern, hat sich der Ausschuss für Regionalstatistik der Deutschen Statistischen Gesellschaft zum Ziel gesetzt. Dieses Kapitel stellt zunächst einige Grundlagen der Regionalstatistik und die Aufgaben des Ausschusses dar. Es folgen das umfangreiche regionalstatistische Datenangebot der Statistischen Ämter des Bundes und der Länder und seine Nutzung. Ein ergänzender Abschnitt ist der Arbeit des Instituts für Bau-, Stadt- und Raumforschung gewidmet. Das Kapitel schließt mit einem Ausblick auf die Weiterentwicklung des regionalstatistischen Datenangebotes aus Sicht der amtlichen Statistik.

  13. Photo Essay: An East Asian Circulation: Asa Mattice on the USS Juniata, 1883–1885

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Bickers

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available On Tuesday, May 12, 1885, 210 men from the U.S. navy warships Juniata and Monocacy marched up Shanghai’s Nanjing Road, from the riverside Bund to the Shanghai racecourse, led by a sixteen-man band. There, on the recreation ground inside the track, they exercised and paraded for two hours, putting their field gun teams through their maneuvers, and in the afternoon the band played for the spectators. The weather was fine that day. Toward the end of the proceedings, before the men were paraded back through the streets of the foreign-run International Settlement to embark for the ships moored in the Huangpu River, the North China Herald (May 15, 1885, p. 552 recorded that “past Assistant Engineer Mattice of the Juniata took a photographic view of the battalion by the dry plate process.”

  14. Rezension von: Ulf Gebken, Söhnke Vosgerau (Hg.: Fußball ohne Abseits. Ergebnisse und Perspektiven des Projekts ‚Soziale Integration von Mädchen durch Fußball‘. Wiesbaden: Springer VS 2014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Claus

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Seit 2006 wurden im Rahmen des vom Deutschen Fußball-Bund durchgeführten Modellprojektes „Soziale Integration von Mädchen durch Fußball“ an über 200 Standorten Schul-AGs in sogenannten Brennpunktbezirken aufgebaut. Im vorliegenden Sammelband beleuchten die Autor/-innen ausführlich die Funktion von Sport für die pädagogische Kompetenzvermittlung. Zudem erbringen sie einen umfassenden Projektbericht und leisten ein Plädoyer für die Modernisierung des Verhältnisses zwischen Schule und Vereinen, Lehrplan und Ehrenamt. Somit stellt das Buch, wie auch das Projekt, einen enorm wichtigen Beitrag zur Geschlechtergerechtigkeit im Sport dar. Gleichzeitig jedoch liest sich eine Reihe an Texten etwas zu sperrig für den Bericht einer Praxisforschung, und Begriffe im Feld der ‚Integration’ bleiben schwammig.

  15. Modeling of First-Passage Processes in Financial Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Jun-Ichi; Hino, Hikaru; Sazuka, Naoya; Scalas, Enrico

    2010-03-01

    In this talk, we attempt to make a microscopic modeling the first-passage process (or the first-exit process) of the BUND future by minority game with market history. We find that the first-passage process of the minority game with appropriate history length generates the same properties as the BTP future (the middle and long term Italian Government bonds with fixed interest rates), namely, both first-passage time distributions have a crossover at some specific time scale as is the case for the Mittag-Leffler function. We also provide a macroscopic (or a phenomenological) modeling of the first-passage process of the BTP future and show analytically that the first-passage time distribution of a simplest mixture of the normal compound Poisson processes does not have such a crossover.

  16. Visibility Analysis of the Oriental Pearl Based on Digital Landscape Simulation - View from East Daming Road of Shanghai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, S.; Zhang, S.

    2015-08-01

    As the demand for visual quality of environment increases, visual analysis therefore plays progressively important role in current urban landscape construction and management. Guided by the City Image theory, this paper presents a covered scene index "X" to describe the visibility of the target scene, and formulates a digital analysis model based on ArcGIS and 3D simulation. This method is applied to the viewpoint analysis from the East Daming Road of the North Bund to the Oriental Pearl in Shanghai and optimized solutions are proposed according to the results. It turns out that this simple and objective technique can serve as a good tool for the reference of urban landscape planning and management.

  17. Fire Symfonier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Svend Hvidtfelt

    2009-01-01

    sidste fire symfonier. Den er måske snarere at opfatte som et præludium til disse. At påstå, at symfonierne fra Holmboes side er planlagt til at være beslægtede, ville være at gå for vidt. Alene de 26 år, der skiller den 10. fra den 13., gør påstanden - i bedste fald - dubiøs. Når deres udformning...... udkrystallisering som i de sidste små 30 år af hans virke har afkastet disse fire variationer over en grundlæggende central holmboesk fornemmelse for form, melodi, klang og rytme. Denne oplevelse har fået mig til at udforske symfonierne, for at finde til bunds i dette holmboeske fællestræk, som jeg mener her står...

  18. The protective and attractive covering of a vegetated embankment using coir geotextiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vishnudas

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a field experiment conducted in Kerala, South India, to test the effectiveness of coir geotextiles for embankment protection. The results reveal that treatment with geotextile in combination with grass is an effective eco-hydrological measure to protect steep slopes from erosion. In the context of sustainable watershed management, coir is a cheap and locally available material that can be used to strengthen traditional earthen bunds or protect the banks of village ponds from erosion. Particularly in developing countries, where coir is abundantly available and textiles can be produced by small-scale industry, this is an attractive alternative for conventional methods. This paper analyses the performance of coir geotextile in different treatments with respect to soil moisture content, protection against erosion and biomass production.

  19. The protective and attractive covering of a vegetated embankment using coir geotextiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishnudas, S.; Savenije, H. H. G.; van der Zaag, P.; Anil, K. R.; Balan, K.

    2006-08-01

    This paper presents the results of a field experiment conducted in Kerala, South India, to test the effectiveness of coir geotextiles for embankment protection. The results reveal that treatment with geotextile in combination with grass is an effective eco-hydrological measure to protect steep slopes from erosion. In the context of sustainable watershed management, coir is a cheap and locally available material that can be used to strengthen traditional earthen bunds or protect the banks of village ponds from erosion. Particularly in developing countries, where coir is abundantly available and textiles can be produced by small-scale industry, this is an attractive alternative for conventional methods. This paper analyses the performance of coir geotextile in different treatments with respect to soil moisture content, protection against erosion and biomass production.

  20. Mädchenerziehung im Nationalsozialismus Girl’s Education in Nationalsocialism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Hering

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Das von Gisela Miller-Kipp herausgegebene Buch stellt die erste auf Vollständigkeit ausgelegte Sammlung von Quellen und Dokumenten zur Geschichte des BDM dar. Damit ist für die Forschungen zur Erziehung der zehn bis 18jährigen Mädchen im Nationalsozialismus eine wichtige Grundlage in Form einer Dokumentation geschaffen worden, welche durch umfangreiche Kommentare und Interpretationen ergänzt und erschlossen wird.Miller-Kipp’s book presents the first complete compilation and analysis of documents about the history of the BDM (Bund Deutscher Mädel—Association of German Girls, a national organisation for girls founded by the Nazis. The volume, which contains a wealth of noteworthy comments and interpretation texts, thus offers an important basis for anyone doing research on this topic.

  1. Med politiet i ’virkeligheden’: Reality-tv og kriminalitet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ib Bondebjerg

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Kriminalstoffet på tv bliver ofte anklaget for at spekulere i vore lavere instinkter, og med reality kommer vi tættere end nogensinde på sam- fundets bund og det utrættelige politi, som har til opgave at opretholde lov og orden. Artiklen gennemgår en lang række af de senere års kri- minalprogrammer og diskuterer dokumentarismens former med en særlig belysning af æstetik, retorik og synsvinkel i undergenrerne »reality magasin« og »reality soap«. Lars Engels’ serie »Historier fra en politistation« tages op til særlig debat, fordi Engels – vanen tro – arbejder med en mindre iscenesættelse og ukommenteret virkelig- hedsgengivelse, end vi finder det i andre »reality soaps«.

  2. Words Inclination and Attitude Bias——On “Century Titanic” Comparison of Chinese and Western News%话语的倾斜与态度的偏向——关于“百年泰坦尼克号”的中西新闻比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王虎

    2012-01-01

    本文拟从新闻文本的角度切入,对《Time》与《外滩画报》关于"百年泰坦尼克号"的专题报道进行比较分析,追寻出隐藏在两大媒体背后影响其表述不同的因素,并力求给出造成两者差异的一个合理解释。%This paper starts from the angle of news text,comparison on the "Time" and "the Bund",about "century Titanic" thematic reports,searching out hidden behind two media which affect its representation of different factors,and sought to give the variance of both a reasonable explanation.

  3. Presencia de las instituciones en los enfoques del institucionalismo económico: convergencias y divergencias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Azalea Canales García

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Existe un renovado interés en el estudio de las instituciones y su incidencia en la economía. El análisis de las instituciones engloba un conjunto de perspectivas, siendo las más relevantes los puntos de vista de Thorstein Bunde Veblen, Douglas North y Oliver Williamson. El objetivo de este artículo es reflexionar sobre las convergencias y divergencias entre los enfoques de Veblen, North y Williamson; y, a partir de eso, proponer una categorización que precise las definiciones, métodos y tratamiento institucional de cada perspectiva. El propósito de esto es ayudar a clarificar el apelativo ¿institucionalista¿, así como entender los aspectos incluidos en cada enfoque.

  4. Waste management technologies for the next millenium. Technical conference; Mit MBA-Technik ins naechste Jahrtausend. Fachtagung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    Waste management on a federal and Laender level requires reorientation and new decisions in ever shorter intervals. In view of the fact that projecting phases are long and investment costs amount to tens of millions, communal decision-makers must constantly modify their current projects in order to optimise them. The papers in this conference report present theoretical information as well as practical experience in waste treatment plant operation. [German] Die abfallwirtschaftlichen Entwicklungen auf Bundes- und Landesebene erfordern in immer kuerzer werdenden Abstaenden neue Ueberlegungen und Weichenstellungen. Angesichts langer Planungszeitraeume und hoher Investitionskosten im zweistelligen Millionenbereich sind die Entscheidungstraeger auf kommunaler Ebene immer wieder gefordert auf Grundlage aktueller Erkenntnisse bisherige Planungen zu ueberdenken sowie anstehende Projekte zu modifizieren und zu optimieren. Die Vortraege in diesem Tagungsband weisen nicht nur theoretische Ansaetze auf, sondern beinhalten auch praktische Erfahrungen aus verschiedenen Abfallbehandlungsanlagen. (orig./SR)

  5. Sawah Rice Eco-technology and Actualization of Green Revolution in West Africa: Experience from Nigeria and Ghana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    O. I. OLADELE; T. WAKATSUKI

    2010-01-01

    The development and dissemination of sawah rice eco-technology in Nigeria and Ghana as prerequisites for the actualization of green revolution in West Africa were described. It showed that the neglect of the eco-technology and the overemphasis of the biotechnology have rendered the ineffective transferability of the green revolution process from Asia to Africa. The sawah eco-technology increases yield up to 5 t/hm2 through bunding and the use of inlet and outlet connecting irrigation and drainage, which enhances effective water control and management, improves the efficiency of fertilizer, improves nitrogen fixation by soil microbes and algae, increases the use of wetlands, improves soil organic matter accumulation, suppresses weed growth, and enhances immune mechanism of rice through nutrient supply. The current experience has therefore established that the technology overcomes the constraints that have limited the realization of green revolution in West Africa.

  6. Dynamics of Soil Erosion as Influenced by Watershed Management Practices: A Case Study of the Agula Watershed in the Semi-Arid Highlands of Northern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenta, Ayele Almaw; Yasuda, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Katsuyuki; Haregeweyn, Nigussie; Negussie, Aklilu

    2016-11-01

    Since the past two decades, watershed management practices such as construction of stone bunds and establishment of exclosures have been widely implemented in the semi-arid highlands of northern Ethiopia to curb land degradation by soil erosion. This study assessed changes in soil erosion for the years 1990, 2000 and 2012 as a result of such watershed management practices in Agula watershed using the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation. The Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation factors were computed in a geographic information system for 30 × 30 m raster layers using spatial data obtained from different sources. The results revealed significant reduction in soil loss rates by about 55 % from about 28 to 12 t ha-1 per year in 1990-2000 and an overall 64 % reduction from 28 to 10 t ha-1 per year in 1990-2012. This change in soil loss is attributed to improvement in surface cover and stone bund practices, which resulted in the decrease in mean C and P-factors, respectively, by about 19 % and 34 % in 1990-2000 and an overall decrease in C-factor by 29 % in 1990-2012. Considerable reductions in soil loss were observed from bare land (89 %), followed by cultivated land (56 %) and shrub land (49 %). Furthermore, the reduction in soil loss was more pronounced in steeper slopes where very steep slope and steep slope classes experienced over 70 % reduction. Validation of soil erosion estimations using field observed points showed an overall accuracy of 69 %, which is fairly satisfactory. This study demonstrated the potential of watershed management efforts to bring remarkable restoration of degraded semi-arid lands that could serve as a basis for sustainable planning of future developments of areas experiencing severe land degradation due to water erosion.

  7. The Clinic Observation on the Treatment for the Serious Annular Hemorrhoid Making Use of Ultrasonic Operation Knife%超声刀联合治疗重度环形混合痔的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王悦辉; 余智涛; 李学化; 李绮瀚; 温圣荣

    2010-01-01

    Objective To inquiring into the clinic applicative value to treat the serious annular hemorrhoid making use of ultrasonic operation knife. Methods We divided 206 cases into two groups, 102 of whom were to be treated by the ultrasonic operation knife, 104 of whom were to be treated by the traditional treatment that the outer parts were stripped and the inner parts are bund. Results After clinic observation, the group which was treated by ultrasonic operation knife has the following advantages, shorter operational time, less bleeding in the operation, smaller operational wound, mild pain, faster heal and less complications. Conclusion Obviously, the mixed treatment making us of ultrasonic operation knife has more advantages than the traditional treatment that the outer parts are stripped and the inner parts are bund.%目的 探讨用超声刀联合治疗重度环形混合痔的临床应用价值.方法 将206例重度环形混合痔患者分为两组,治疗组102例,使用超声刀联合疗法;对照组104例,采用传统外剥内扎治疗.结果 经临床观察,超声刀联合疗法具有手术时间短、术中出血少、创口小,疼痛轻,愈合快,并发症少等优点.结论 超声刀联合疗法疗效明显优于传统外剥内扎术.

  8. Topographic monitoring of a middle estuary mudflat, Humber estuary, UK--anthropogenic impacts and natural variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyes, Suzanne J; Allen, James H

    2007-01-01

    Annual topographic surveys were carried out at the Saltend mudflat (Humber estuary, UK) between 1998 and 2006. These surveys formed part of an ongoing monitoring programme to examine the potential effects on the mudflat topography of the construction and operation of a waste water treatment works (WwTW) development by Yorkshire Water. Of particular concern was the potential disruption to the sedimentological regime within the special protection area (SPA) and candidate special area of conservation (cSAC) which could affect the invertebrate communities and ornithological functioning of the site. In addition to the development of the WwTW located to the extreme north-west of the site, a port extension removing 10ha of the Saltend intertidal mudflat (outside the SPA but immediately south east of the WwTW) also occurred between 1999 and 2006. Minimal change was noted across the site following the construction and operation of the WwTW between 1998 and 2000. However, the construction of the bund in closer proximity to the SPA and cSAC masked any potential impact the WwTW could have had across the site after 2000. Profiles and contour mapping indicate that significant mudflat accretion occurred in the immediate area of the bund, with a general increase recorded across the western section of the site since 2000. In contrast the alternations to channel planform and subsequent rapid accretion of the mudflat to the east of the jetty, being a significant distance from the developments, are attributed to natural cyclical changes.

  9. Tectonic Framework of the Kachchh Rift Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talwani, P.; Gangopadhyay, A. K.

    2001-05-01

    Evaluation of available geological data has allowed us to determine the tectonic framework of the Kachchh rift basin (KRB), the host to the 1819 Kachchh (MW 7.8), 1956 Anjar ( M 6.0) and the recent January 26, 2001 Bhachau (MW 7.6) earthquakes. The ~ 500 km x 200 km east-west trending KRB was formed during the Mesozoic following the break-up of Gondwanaland. It is bounded to the north and south by the Nagar Parkar and Kathiawar faults which separate it from the Precambrian granitic rocks of the Indian craton. The eastern border is the Radanpur-Barmer arch (defined by an elongate belt of gravity highs) which separates it from the early Cretaceous Cambay rift basin. KRB extends ~ 150 km offshore to its western boundary, the continental shelf. Following India's collision with Eurasia, starting ~ 50 MY ago, there was a stress reversal, from an extensional to the (currently N-S) compressional regime. Various geological observations attest to continuous tectonic activity within the KRB. Mesozoic sediments were uplifted and folded and then intruded by Deccan trap basalt flows in late Cretaceous. Other evidence of continuous tectonic activity include seismically induced soft sediment deformation features in the Upper Jurassic Katrol formation on the Kachchh Mainland and in the Holocene sequences in the Great Rann. Pleistocene faulting in the fluvial sequence along the Mahi River (in the bordering Cambay rift) and minor uplift during late Quaternary at Nal Sarovar, prehistoric and historic seismicity associated with surface deformation further attest to ongoing tectonic activity. KRB has responded to N-S compressional stress regime by the formation of east-west trending folds associated with Allah Bund, Kachchh Mainland, Banni, Vigodi, Katrol Hills and Wagad faults. The Allah Bund, Katrol Hill and Kachchh Mainland faults were associated with the 1819, 1956 and 2001 earthquakes. Northeast trending Median High, Bhuj fault and Rajkot-Lathi lineament cut across the east

  10. The use of Natural Flood Management to mitigate local flooding in the rural landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Mark; Quinn, Paul; Ghimire, Sohan; Nicholson, Alex; Addy, Steve

    2014-05-01

    The past decade has seen increases in the occurrence of flood events across Europe, putting a growing number of settlements of varying sizes at risk. The issue of flooding in smaller villages is usually not well publicised. In these small communities, the cost of constructing and maintaining traditional flood defences often outweigh the potential benefits, which has led to a growing quest for more cost effective and sustainable approaches. Here we aim to provide such an approach that alongside flood risk reduction, also has multipurpose benefits of sediment control, water quality amelioration, and habitat creation. Natural flood management (NFM) aims to reduce flooding by working with natural features and characteristics to slow down or temporarily store flood waters. NFM measures include dynamic water storage ponds and wetlands, interception bunds, channel restoration and instream wood placement, and increasing soil infiltration through soil management and tree planting. Based on integrated monitoring and modelling studies, we demonstrate the potential to manage runoff locally using NFM in rural systems by effectively managing flow pathways (hill slopes and small channels) and by exploiting floodplains and buffers strips. Case studies from across the UK show that temporary storage ponds (ranging from 300 to 3000m3) and other NFM measures can reduce peak flows in small catchments (5 to 10 km2) by up to 15 to 30 percent. In addition, increasing the overall effective storage capacity by a network of NFM measures was found to be most effective for total reduction of local flood peaks. Hydraulic modelling has shown that the positioning of such features within the catchment, and how they are connected to the main channel, may also affect their effectiveness. Field evidence has shown that these ponds can collect significant accumulations of fine sediment during flood events. On the other hand, measures such as wetlands could also play an important role during low flow

  11. ENHANCING RURAL LIVELIHOODS THROUGH SUSTAINABLE LAND AND WATER MANAGEMENT IN NORTHWEST ETHIOPIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehretie Belay

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rural livelihoods (RLs in highland Ethiopia is critically threatened by increasing degradation of land and water resources (LWRs and lack of sufficient livelihood assets. In response, farmers adapted diverse indigenous land and water management (LWM technologies and livelihood strategies. This paper describes farmers’ methods of soil erosion identification and the practices of managing LWRs to enhance RLs. It presents the results of studies focusing on assessment of soil erosion indicators, farmers’ in-built sustainable land and water management practices (LWMPs and RLs in Dangila woreda (district in the northwestern highlands of Ethiopia. Data were gathered from May 2010 to October 2013 through participatory transect walks, field observation, formal and informal discussions with farmers, examination of office documents and from a survey of 201 rural households. Descriptive statistics and the livelihood strategy diversification index (LSDI were used to analyze the data. Results indicated that farmers employ around 13 indicators to identify soil erosion on their farmlands. Over 79% of the farmers indicated the occurrence of soil erosion on their farm fields and some 59% reported the trend was increasing for twenty years, 1991-2011. More than 174 km soil-bunds and greater than 4 km stone-bunds were constructed on farmlands and on grazing fields through farmer participatory watershed development campaigns. Some 34 gullies were stabilized using check-dams and vegetative measures. Almost 72% of the households applied cattle manure on about of their 75 ha lands to improve soil fertility. A total of 44 diversion canals and 34 water committees were established to facilitate the irrigation practice of 33% rural households. Over 20% farmers obtained results ranging from moderate to excellent by combining manure with chemical fertilizers in the same field. Nevertheless, introduced methods such as improved seeds and fertilizers were commented for

  12. Spatial and temporal estimation of soil loss for the sustainable management of a wet semi-arid watershed cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rejani, R; Rao, K V; Osman, M; Srinivasa Rao, Ch; Reddy, K Sammi; Chary, G R; Pushpanjali; Samuel, Josily

    2016-03-01

    The ungauged wet semi-arid watershed cluster, Seethagondi, lies in the Adilabad district of Telangana in India and is prone to severe erosion and water scarcity. The runoff and soil loss data at watershed, catchment, and field level are necessary for planning soil and water conservation interventions. In this study, an attempt was made to develop a spatial soil loss estimation model for Seethagondi cluster using RUSLE coupled with ARCGIS and was used to estimate the soil loss spatially and temporally. The daily rainfall data of Aphrodite for the period from 1951 to 2007 was used, and the annual rainfall varied from 508 to 1351 mm with a mean annual rainfall of 950 mm and a mean erosivity of 6789 MJ mm ha(-1) h(-1) year(-1). Considerable variation in land use land cover especially in crop land and fallow land was observed during normal and drought years, and corresponding variation in the erosivity, C factor, and soil loss was also noted. The mean value of C factor derived from NDVI for crop land was 0.42 and 0.22 in normal year and drought years, respectively. The topography is undulating and major portion of the cluster has slope less than 10°, and 85.3% of the cluster has soil loss below 20 t ha(-1) year(-1). The soil loss from crop land varied from 2.9 to 3.6 t ha(-1) year(-1) in low rainfall years to 31.8 to 34.7 t ha(-1) year(-1) in high rainfall years with a mean annual soil loss of 12.2 t ha(-1) year(-1). The soil loss from crop land was higher in the month of August with an annual soil loss of 13.1 and 2.9 t ha(-1) year(-1) in normal and drought year, respectively. Based on the soil loss in a normal year, the interventions recommended for 85.3% of area of the watershed includes agronomic measures such as contour cultivation, graded bunds, strip cropping, mixed cropping, crop rotations, mulching, summer plowing, vegetative bunds, agri-horticultural system, and management practices such as broad bed furrow, raised sunken beds, and harvesting available water

  13. Dorfentwicklung und Dorferneuerung . Die neuen Bundesländer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Oliver; Richter, Horst P.

    1997-03-01

    Das 1975 in Kraft getretene Bundesraumordnungsprogramm forderte, in allen Landesteilen angemessene und gleichwertige Lebensbedingungen herzustellen. Mit der Novellierung des Flurbereinigungsgesetzes 1976 bzw. dem Zukunftsinvestitionsprogramm 1977 bis 1980 startete die Dorfentwicklung/Dorferneuerung nicht zuletzt als Initiative zur Konjunkturbelebung im ländlichen Raum. Seit 1984 ist sie Bestandteil der von Bund und Ländern getragenen Gemeinschaftsaufgabe "Verbesserung der Agrarstruktur und des Küstenschutzes" (GAK) und liegt im Zuständigkeitsbereich der Landwirtschaftsministerien. Die Dorferneuerungsprogramme der Länder werden aus Mitteln der GAK, der EU und des Landes finanziert. Neben Ortssanierungen nach dem Städtebauförderungsgesetz bzw. Baugesetzbuch stellen sie das wichtigste Instrument zur Förderung von ländlichen Orten und Gemeinden dar. Nach der Vereinigung wurde das Dorferneuerungsrecht auf die neuen Bundesländer übertragen, indem man sich zunächst an den Regelungen der jeweiligen Partnerländer im Westen orientierte. Doch hatten sich die Dörfer in Ost- und Westdeutschland nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg völlig unterschiedlich entwickelt, so dass sich im Osten ein erweiterter Handlungsbedarf zeigte. Für Fachleute aus Politik, Verwaltung, Wissenschaft und freien Planungsberufen, nicht zuletzt für angewandt arbeitende Geographen, stellten sich neue Herausforderungen.

  14. Firewater Storage, Treatment, Recycling and Management: New Perspectives Based on Experiences from the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miklas Scholz

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Smart firewater management and recycling helps reduce water use and protect the environment from pollution. However, contamination of recycled water may pose a health risk to fire fighters. This review assesses international literature to identify best practices, and to recommend new technologies and methods on firewater management and recycling. The literature assessment indicates that this is a new research area where insufficient findings have been published in Web of Science-referenced journals. Therefore, informally published materials (a.k.a. grey literature were also assessed. Findings indicate the need for practical decision support tools to estimate consumption rates, predict “bottlenecks” and bund capacity, assess water quality and determine pump requirements. This article recommends that cost-efficient and rapid on-site treatment methods, such as compact and mobile filtration units for firewater recycling should be researched in the future. The filters should be based on compartments with different media. The empty pore space should decrease from inflow to outflow. A light plastic media should be positioned near the inflow to retain large particles, such as a grid. Activated carbon media could be placed near the outlet to remove fine suspended solids and dissolved contaminants. This should address concerns by fire fighters dealing with contaminated water, spray and foam.

  15. THE MAKING OF AN UNLIKELY CHILEAN FASCIST: REFLECTIONS ON THE INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT AND POLITICAL WORK OF CARLOS KELLER RUEFF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Klein

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the intellectual evolution and political activities of Carlos Keller Rueff between the early 1920s and the late 1930s. It discusses his development from a German nationalist to a Chilean fascist during the course of this eventful period. In the 1920s Keller, who started his career in the Deutsch-Chilenischer Bund, the umbrella organisation of the German-Chilean community, expressed German National positions. Only at the end of the decade he began to distance himself from his narrow, sectarian German sub-culture and took a broader, national view, a development that coincided with his move from Concepción to Santiago and the failure of his plan to revive the immigration of Germans to Chile. With the book La eterna crisis chilena, published in 1931, he finally emerged as a Chilean nationalist and gained the reputation of an intellectual. One year later, in April 1932, he was, together with Jorge González von Marées, one of the founding members of the Chilean Movimiento Nacional Socialista (MNS. Keller became the movement’s ideologue and its second most prominent leader. This career abruptly ended with the failed nacista coup of 5 September 1938 and the subsequent transformation of the MNS into the Vanguardia Popular Socialista

  16. Social perception of soil conservation benefits in Kondoa eroded area of Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra P. Shrestha

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A soil conservation project was implemented in Tanzania for over 30 years. This study applied a socio-economic approach to examine and analyse the benefits of soil conservation in the Kondoa eroded area of Tanzania by conducting a household survey of 240 households. The study findings show that 89% and 70% of respondents consider soil conservation activities have increased vegetation and soil fertility, respectively. Decreased soil erosion was perceived by 68% of respondents, increased firewood by 98%, increased fodder by 50%, high crop yields by 56%, and food sufficiency by 68%. These are the outcomes of conservation tillage, integrated farming and use of organic fertilizers, controlled stall feeding, agroforestry, construction of cut off drains, contour bunds and contour ridges cultivation, which are the main land use practices in the area. Access to extension services, household sizes, long term land ownership, crop incomes and awareness of soil conservation project were found to determine the level of participation in soil conservation. Major challenges are the lack of sustainability of those activities because of a recent policy decision to withdraw conservation investment. Despite the challenge, this study concluded that past government efforts on soil conservation activities initiated since the early 1970s through decentralization, institutional collaboration, socioeconomic support to farmers and continuous local community participation in restoring the degraded ecosystem of Kondoa have contributed to ensure environmental and socio-economic sustainability in the area.

  17. The experience of the Hitler Youth - boys in national-socialism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Figiel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Losing the First World War, unemployment, the generation gap and the cult of youth led to the party of Adolf Hitler gaining popularity in the Weimar Republic. Using slogans of the restoration of a strong Germany the national socialists organized structures, which formed and educated German Youth. Hitler Youth – brought up according to the rule: “youth leads youth” – was a very fertile environment for the spread of the idea of national-socialism. The specific values – racial supremacy, honour, obedience – handed down by parents were the beginning of the Nazi indoctrination. In the later period such organizations as Bund Deutscher Madel or Hitlerjugend took power over German youth. Education, upbringing, ideological content used by the institutions in Nazi Germany are described in the extensive literature on the subject. However, very important are the experiences of individual members of the Hitler Youth that show the Nazi youth activities from a time perspective. Experiences such as the wisdom of life, and gained knowledge, enable recognition and description of the reality which is discussed. The scope of historical and pedagogical research shows the essential facts constituting the full picture of the life of young people during Nazi era.

  18. Long-range dependence and time-clustering behavior in pedestrian movement patterns in stampedes: The Love Parade case-study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Liping; Song, Weiguo; Richard, Yuen Kwok Kit; Ma, Jian; Telesca, Luciano

    2017-03-01

    Pedestrian stampede happened more and more often during these years, such as Love Parade disaster in Germany 2010, trampling in Shanghai bund 2014 and crowd stampede in pilgrimages. Love Parade disaster 2010 stands out for well recorded videos, which are HD quality and available for researchers. There were totally seven surveillance cameras capturing the whole festival progress and the video we study is just before the disaster happened. Pedestrian motion was special and a small disturbance would lead the group to an avalanche in this kind of critical situation. Here we focus on the individual movement pattern. The trajectories of each pedestrian involved were extracted by a mean-shift algorithm. We analyzed the space-time patterns of the pedestrians involved in the Love Parade stampede by using the detrended fluctuation analysis and the coefficient of variation. Our results reveal that the pedestrians' movement in crowd-quakes is persistent in space, globally time-clusterized but locally regular or quasi-periodic behavior. Pedestrian movement was treated as stop and go state by point process-based representation. When the threshold increases, this means that the "go" state is longer and pedestrians keep on walking in several consecutive time frames; this is difficult in crowded situations and lead to special time-clustering behavior of the sequence of "go" events. The study reveals pedestrian motion characteristics in critical situations, which will enhance the understanding of pedestrian behaviors and supply early warning features for not only Love Parade Disaster, but also other similar large events.

  19. Environmental impact and health; Umweltbelastung und Gesundheit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-01

    The press documentation of the BMFT (Federal Ministry of Research and Technology) presents selected examples of previous project support and interministerial working groups in short survey articles which are partly available as a brochure in a detailed form. The single subjects are 1. effects of diesel engine waste gases on the health, 2. noble metal emissions from catalytic converter vehicles, 3. dioxins, furans and polychlorinated biphenyls in the environment, 4. check of chemicals on carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, tertogenesis, 4. improvement of the air quality interior spaces, 6. the Federal Government and its Laender AG `dioxins`. (VHE) [Deutsch] Die Pressedokumentation des BMFT stellt in kurzer Uebersichtsartikeln ausgewaehlte Beispiele der bisherigen Projektfoerderung und aus interministeriellen Arbeitsgruppen vor, die teilweise auch in ausfuehrlicher Form als Broschuere vorliegen. Die einzelnen Themen sind 1. Auswirkungen von Dieselmotorabgasen auf die Gesundheit; 2. Edelmetallemissionen aus Katalysatorfahrzeugen; 3. Dioxine, Furane und polychlorierte Biphenyle in der Umwelt; 4. Pruefung von Chemikalien auf Carcinogenese, Mutagenese, Teratogenese; 5. Verbesserung der Luftqualitaet in Innenraeumen; 6. Bund/Laender-AG `Dioxine`. (VHE)

  20. GKSS-workshop: contaminated sludges. Treatment and utilization fine graned residues; GKSS-Workshop: Kontaminierte Schlaemme. Behandlung und Nutzungsmoeglichkeiten feinkoerniger Reststoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvermann, G.; Luther, G.; Niemeyer, B. [eds.] [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Zentralabteilung Technikum

    2000-07-01

    New regulations, such as the materials recycling act, soil protection act and unsolved problems related to the treatment of contaminated sludges, the utilisation of the gained products demand the development of innovative techniques for industrial, dredged or drilling sludges. The workshop offered a platform for intensive discussions between representatives of industry, research institutions, associations, and authorities. The main aim of the workshop was the presentation of fundamental background of sludge processing and advanced technical solutions. The available proceedings contain 21 lectures held on the workshop with the following ranges of topics of the sludge treatment: legislation, R and D-funding, technological bases, decontamination processes, dewatering and drying processes, recycling and immobilization. (orig.) [German] Neue Gesetze wie das Kreislaufwirtschafts- oder das Bundes-Bodenschutzgesetz und anstehende Probleme bei der Beseitigung belasteter Schlaemme - zum Beispiel Industrie-, Bohr- und Baggergutschlaemme - erfordern die Entwicklung innovativer Techniken zu ihrer Aufbereitung, Reinigung bzw. Verwertung. Der Workshop bot ein Formung zur intensiven Diskussion zwischen Industrie, Forschung, Verbaenden und Behoerden. Ziel war es, unterschiedliche Methoden der Schlammbehandlung zu eroertern, Loesungswege aufzuzeigen und Moeglichkeiten fuer Kooperationen zu erarbeiten. Der vorliegende Band enthaelt Beitraege der Referenten, die sich auf folgende Themenbereiche der Schlammbehandlung konzentrieren: juristische Aspekte, Foerdermoeglichkeiten, Grundlagen, Aufbereitung von Schlaemmen, Entwaesserung und Trocknung von Schlaemmen, Verwertung und Immobilisierung. (orig.)

  1. Local agriculture traditional knowledge to avoid erosion in a changing climate: Ensuring agricultural livelihoods and food security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guadalupe Rivera Ferré, Marta; Di Masso, Marina; Vara, Isabel; Mailhost, Mara; Bhatta, Goppal; Cuellar, Mamem; López-i-Gelats, Feliu; Gallar, Donald

    2015-04-01

    In the regions that experience substantial climatic risks, considerable traditional expertise exists that is underutilized and that could be valuable as a starting point to build more effective strategies for adapting to climate change and ensure food availability. Some of these are agronomic strategies for soil conservation targeting erosion avoidance as a form to ensure soil fertility and thus, crop production and food availability. Following an extensive literature review in the Indogangetic Plans, we have identified many different practices derived from local traditional knowledge that can be classified as i) Reshaping the landscape (terracing, bunding, efficient distribution of land uses); ii) Stream diversion to reduce flood impact (channels along the edges of the fields, embankments, dams, network of ponds, outlets, walls and fencing); and iii) Others (agroforesty, use of specific trees as indicators of soil erosion, crop-fallow rotation, preservation of patches of forests, reforestation, collective management of forests). These endogenous-based practices have a great potential for adaptation since they are more easily adopted by communities, they require of minimum or not external expertise and aid, and usually, are cheaper than other strategies. A combination of local knowledge with other scientific knowledge may be the most effective way to face climate change. This work was performed as part of the CCAFS-Program of the CGIAR in South Asia.

  2. Study on Climatic Variation and Its Effect on Vegetable Type Soybean Genotypes at Khumaltar, Lalitpur in the Last Ten Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Raj Tripathi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Soybean (Glycine max L. Merril is widely grown in the mid hills as intercrop with maize or in paddy bunds, while it is gaining popularity as sole crop in terai and inner terai. Mean temperature at Khumaltar during soybean growing period was mostly fluctuating; but we observed an increasing trend in temperature. Amount of rainfall was not changed dramatically but number of rainy days was decreased during study period. Rainfall during germination time increase soil moisture which also increase germination and found higher early stand. Days from sowing to 50% flowering and 90% maturity were short in the case of higher minimum temperature and low rainfall. Among the genotypes, AGS-377, AGS-378, AGS-379 and Tarkari Bhattmas-1 were more sensitive. However, seed yield decreased in the case of higher temperatures and low rainfall. Cool night temperatures and high moisture increased disease incidence in soybean which, eventually reduced yield. In last three years, plant suffered from moisture stress during early vegetative stage and high moisture during late vegetative stage which reduced seed yield and seed weight. In conclusion, we found that genotypes like AGS- 360, Sathiya and Tarkari Bhatmas-1 are very sensitive to climatic variation.

  3. Evaporation Ponds or Recharge Structures ? the Role of Check Dams in Arkavathy River Basin, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeremiah, K.; Srinivasan, V.; R, A.

    2014-12-01

    "Watershed development" has been the dominant paradigm for water management in India for the last two decades. Current spending on watershed development programmes rivals spending on large dams. In practice, watershed development involves a range of soil and water conservation measures including building check dams, gully plugs, contour bunds etc. Despite their dominance in water management paradigms, relatively little empirical data exists on these structures. Importantly, even though the benefits of individual watershed structures are recognized, the cumulative impact of building hundreds of such structures on hydrologic partitioning of a watershed remains unknown. We investigated the role of check dams in two small milli-watersheds in the Arkavathy River basin in South India. We conducted a comprehensive census of all check dams in the two milli-watersheds with a total area of 26 sq km. 40 check dams (representing a density of 1.35/sq km of watershed area) were geotagged, photographed, measured and their condition was recorded. We then selected twelve check dams and monitored the water stored using capacitance sensors. We also set up Automatic Weather Stations in each watershed. Inflows, evaporation and infiltration were calculated at each site to evaluate how check dams alter hydrologic partitioning in the watershed as a whole.

  4. Tierexperimentelle Untersuchungen zur Effektivit(a)t der transarteriellen Chemoembolisation (TACE) unter Einsatz von Bletilla striata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Jun; Vossoughi Daryusch; Maataoui Adel; Oppermann Elsiez; Bechstein Wolf; Vogl Thomas Josef

    2005-01-01

    Evaluierung der Effektivit(a)t von Bletilla striata bei transerteriellenChemoembo lisation (TACE) im Kleintiermodell. Nach subkapsul(a)rer Implantation (Tag 0) eines soliden Morris Hepatoms (2 mm3) bei ACI-Ratten (n = 30) wurden am 13. Tag die Tumorvolumina (V1) magnettomographisch bestimmt. Im Anschlu erfolgten nach Laparatomie die retrograde Katheterisierung der Arteria gastroduodenalis und die Anwendung folgender Therapieprotokolle: (A) TACE (0,1 mg MitomycinC + 0,1 mL Lipiodol) + Bletilla striata (1,0 mg) (n=10); (B) TACE (Bletilla striata (1,0 mg) + Ligatur (n=10); (C) TACE allein (Kontrollgruppe, n=10). Zur Effektivit(a)tsbeurteilung der unterschiedlichen Therapieprotokolle erfolgte am 28. Tag eine erneute magnettomographische Bestimmung der Tumorvolumina (V2). Das durchschnittliche Tumorvolumen der Gruppen A, Bund C vor und nach interventioneller Therapie betrug 0,0355 cm3 und 0,2248 cm3 , 0,0374 cm3 und 0,0573 cm3 sowie 0,0380 cm3 und 0,3674 cm3. Das errechnete durchschnittliche Verh(a)ltnis (V2/V1) betrug 6,28, 1,53 sowie 9,14. Im Vergleich zur Kontrollgruppe C Beobachtungszeitraum ermittelt werden, wahrend zwischen Gruppe A und Gruppe C keine statistisch signifikanten (P>0,05) Unterschiede im Tumorwachstum festgestellt werden konnten. Das Wachstum der induzierten Lebertumoren konnte unter Behandlung mittels TACE + Bletilla striata + Ligatur im Tiermodell statistisch signifikant im Vergleich zur Kontrollgruppe gehemmt werden.

  5. Die Lobbyarbeit des dbv: Allgemeine Überlegungen und konkrete Umsetzung am Beispiel des Urheberrechts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natascha Reip

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Der Deutsche Bibliotheksverband e.V. (dbv ist der Interessenvertreter aller Bibliotheken, formuliert bibliothekspolitische Forderungen, reagiert schnell auf aktuelle Entwicklungen und gibt den Bibliotheken Hilfestellungen. Der dbv hat seit 2012 seine Interessenvertretung weiter professionalisiert und intensiviert. Der Verband pflegt enge Kontakte zu den Parlamenten und den Ministerien auf Bundes- und Länderebene, zu den kommunalen Spitzenverbänden und Gebietskörperschaften und nimmt Einfluss auf Gesetzgebung und parlamentarische Willensbildung. Der Beitrag stellt grundlegende Instrumente der politischen Kommunikation vor und hebt anhand des konkreten Beispiels Urheberrecht deren Erfolgsfaktoren hervor: Erfolg hat, wer zur richtigen Zeit in der passenden Sprache mit den richtigen Beamt/inn/en oder Politiker/inne/n spricht. The German Library Association (dbv represents the interests of all libraries in Germany, formulates requirements for library policy, responds quickly to current developments and provides assistance for libraries. Since 2012 the dbv has professionalized and intensified its lobbying activities. The Association maintains close contacts with parliaments and ministries at federal and state level, as well as with municipal associations and local authorities and influences the legislation and the parliamentary decision-making process. The article presents basic tools for political communication and uses the example of copyright in order to emphasize the factors for success: To speak at the right time in an appropriate language to the right official or politician.

  6. A modified soil water based Richards equation for layered soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinka, F.; Ahrens, B.

    2010-09-01

    Most Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere-Transfer (SVAT) models like TERRA-ML (implemented e.g. in the CCLM model (www.clm-community.eu)) use the soil moisture based Richards equation to simulate vertical water fluxes in soils, assuming a homogeneous soil type. Recently, high-resolution soil type datasets (e.g. BüK 1000, only for Germany (Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources, BGR, www.bgr.bund.de) or Harmonized World Soil Database (HWSD, version 1.1, FAO/IIASA/ISRIC/ISSCAS/JRC, March 2009)) have been developed. Deficiencies in the numerical solution of the soil moisture based Richards equation may occur if inhomogeneous soil type data is implemented, because there are possibly discontinuities in soil moisture due to various soil type characteristics. One way to fix this problem is to use the potential based Richards equation, but this may lead to problems in conservation of mass. This presentation will suggest a possible numerical solution of the soil moisture based Richards equation for inhomogeneous soils. The basic idea is to subtract the equilibrium state of it from soil moisture fluxes. This should reduce discontinuities because each soil layer aspires the equilibrium state and therefore differences might be of the same order. First sensitivity studies have been done for the Main river basin, Germany.

  7. The role of the Environmental Specimen Bank in environmental monitoring: The example of CHC in selected matrices; Die Rolle der Umweltprobenbank in der Umweltueberwachung am Beispiel von chlorierten Kohlenwasserstoffen in ausgewaehlten Matrizes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marth, P.; Kettrup, A. [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit Neuherberg GmbH, Oberschleissheim (Germany). Inst. fuer Oekologische Chemie]|[Technische Univ. Muenchen, Freising (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Oekologische Chemie und Umweltanalytik; Schramm, K.W.; Henkelmann, B.; Wolf, A.; Oxynos, K.; Schmitzer, J. [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit Neuherberg GmbH, Oberschleissheim (Germany). Inst. fuer Oekologische Chemie

    1999-03-01

    For precautionary environmental protection the Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB) has been successfully established as a permanent environmental surveillance tool in Germany. The presented monitoring results on chlorinated hydrocarbons (CHC) show very clearly the effects of political decisions and can be used for the identification of pollutant sources. The CHC burden of breams (Abramis brama) from five German rivers (Elbe, Rhein, Saar, Mulde, Saale) gives an current overview of the pollution situation of different limnic ecosystems in Germany. A calculation model about the distribution of organic pollutants between different tissues offers the possibility to predict concentrations in liver and muscle of breams. Legislative emission restrictions have led to a significant decrease of dioxin levels in herring gull (Larus argentatus) eggs between 1988-1996. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Umweltprobenbank des Bundes hat sich im Rahmen der Oekologischen Umweltbeobachtung zu einem wichtigen und permanenten Instrument der Umweltpolitik entwickelt. Neben der Langzeitkonservierung fuer zukuenftige Forschungsaufgaben wird am Beispiel der chlorierten Kohlenwasserstoffe demonstriert, dass das durchgefuehrte Monitoring-Programm als Nachweis fuer die Effektivitaet gesetzlicher Massnahmen und zur Identifizierung von Schadstoffeintragsquellen genutzt werden kann. Der vorliegende Beitrag vermittelt am Beispiel der Brassen (Abramis brama) als Akkumulationsindikator einen aktuellen und raeumlich differenzierten Ueberblick ueber die chlororganische Belastungssituation bundesdeutscher Gewaesser (Elbe, Rhein, Saar, Mulde, Saale). Betrachtungen zur Verteilung organischer Chemikalien zwischen Gewebetypen von Brassen zeigen, dass sich die Verteilung der Schadstoffkonzentrationen in Leber und Muskel mit einem geringen Fehler errechnen laesst. Die Dioxingehalte von Silbermoeweneiern (Larus argentatus) belegen, dass die Belastung durch strengere Emissionsgrenzwerte seit Beginn der neunziger Jahre

  8. Quantifying the media bias in intensity surveys: Lessons from the 2001 Bhuj, India, earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hough, S.E.; Pande, P.

    2007-01-01

    Many seismologists have looked at the 26 January 2001 Bhuj earthquake as a key modern calibration event that could be used to improve estimates of magnitudes of large historic mainshocks in stable continental regions. Since no instrumental data are available for important historic events such as the 1819 Allah Bund, India, and the 1811-1812 New Madrid, central U.S. mainshocks, calibration hinges on comparisons of the macroseismic effects of these earthquakes with those of comparable modern earthquakes for which a reliable, instrumentally determined moment magnitude is available. However, although such a comparison is conceptually straightforward, in practice it is complicated by potentially significant inconsistencies in methods used to quantify macroseismic effects in different regions and/or times. For the Bhuj earthquake, extensive intensity data sets have been compiled and published from both media accounts and detailed direct surveys. Comparing the two provides a quantification of the previously suspected media bias, whereby earthquake effects can be exaggerated in media accounts. This bias is a strong function of intensity level, with substantial bias at the highest shaking levels and significantly less bias at low intensities. Because only sparse documentary data are in general available for older historic earthquakes, the results of this study suggest that their inferred intensity distributions might be similarly biased. We further use the survey-based intensity values to develop a new relationship between intensities and ground motions.

  9. Human Influences on the Development of Acid Sulphate Soils in the Pearl River(the Zhujiang) Delta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN

    1996-01-01

    In the Pearl River Delta with more than 1000 years of intensive land reclamation history,the development of acid sulphate soils has been generally limited in terms of their acid potential (pyrite content)and spatial extent.This is attributed to the rapid delta progradation,partially resulted from increasing sediment yield caused by deforestation within the catchment and the empolderment in the estuarine embayment.The empolderment practice accompanied by the clearance of mangroves stopped the upward growth of the pyritic layer on the one hand and limited the vertical accretion of non-pyritic freshwater sediments over the pyritic layer on the one hand and limited the vertical accretion of non-pyritic freshwater sediments over the pyritic estuarine sediments on the other.In such a case,the pyritic layer in the area is frequently thin and of shallow occurrence.Under forced leaching-recharge conditions for the paddy rice cultivation ,the leaching of acid sulphate materials prevails over its production and this leads to a net loss in pyrite oxidation products.Land excavation for fishpond farming accelerates pyrite oxidation due to the direct exposure of the pyrtic sediments to air on the pond bunds.Severe acidification can intensity the environmental degradation of estuarine ecosystems.

  10. PENULARAN SCHISTOSOMIASIS DI DESA DODOLO DAN MEKARSARI DATARAN TINGGI NAPU SULAWESI TENGAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosmini Rosmini

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The transmission of schistosomiasis is still ongoing in Dodolo and Mekarsari Villages ofNapu highland, Poso District. The people who infected with Schistosoma japonicum, intermediate host. Oncomelania hnpensis lindoensis snails that infected by cercaria. infective stage of S. japonicum and reservoir host, rats, which infected by S. japonicum were still (bund. The purpose of this study was to identify the transmission of schistosomiasis at Dodolo and Mekarsari Villages, Napu highland. The epidemiological investigation was analyzed using observational study with cross sectional design. Data collections were conducted, including stool, snail and rat suryeys. Stool samples were examined by the Kato-Katz method and rats were dissected to identify the prevalence rate of schistosomiasis in human and rats. Snails were examined using crushing method to identify the infection rate of the snails. Prevalence rate of schistosomiasis in human, rats (Rattus exulans and infection rate O. hnpensis lindoensis snails in Dodolo were 6,9%, 8,3%, 2,8% and in Mekarsari were 6,1%, 10% 2,6% respectively. Prevalence of schistosomiasis in Dodolo and Mekarsari villages is still high, so we need continuous surveillance.   Keywords: Schistosomiasis, Schistosoma japonicum, O. hupensis lindoensis, Dodolo, Mekarsari

  11. Green Belt Europe – nature knows no boundaries. From “Iron Curtain” to Europe’s lifeline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Geidezis

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The “Iron Curtain” divided Europe for almost forty years from the Barents Sea to the Black Sea. It was a political, ideological and physical barrier, most strongly expressed in Germany. Despite its inhumanity, this border granted nature a pause for breath: nature flourished and developed something extremely rare in intensively used landscapes – the so called Green Belt. Since the fall of the Iron Curtain in 1989, a lifeline of habitats about 8.500 km long runs through Europe. It originated from the project Green Belt Germany, initiated by BUND, the vision of a European Green Belt development. It can become a backbone of an ecological network that is a global symbol for trans-boundary co-operation in nature conservation and sustainable development. Moreover, it connects people and shows that the enlarged European Union has not only a cultural but also a natural heritage. The Green Belt is a unique chance to overcome the old boundaries and barriers between East and West – a living symbol of growing together in Europe.

  12. Paleo-earthquake signatures from the South Wagad Fault (SWF), Wagad Island, Kachchh, Gujarat, western India: A potential seismic hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Javed N.; Gadhavi, Mahendrasinh S.; Kothyari, Girish Ch; Satuluri, Sravanthi

    2017-02-01

    In last 500 years, Kachchh experienced several large magnitude earthquakes (6.0 ≥ M ≤ 7.8), however, not all accompanied surface rupture. The 1819 Allah Bund earthquake (Mw7.8) accompanied surface rupture, whereas, the 2001 Bhuj event (Mw7.6) occurred at a depth of 23 km on E-W striking south dipping thrust fault remained blind. Discontinuities between the denser-brittle basement (?) and overlying ductile-softer Mesozoic-Tertiary-Quaternary succession resulted in a different geometry of faulting. Normal faults associated with rift were reactivated as reverse faults during inversion tectonics, propagated in sedimentary succession and arrested. Thrust-ramps developed along the discontinuities accompanied surface ruptures. Folded structures along the South Wagad Fault (SWF) - an active thrust, exhibits lateral-propagation of fold segments and linkage, suggestive of fault-related-fold growth. Paleoseismic investigations revealed evidence of at least three paleo-earthquakes. Event I occurred before BCE 5080; Event II between BCE 4820 and 2320, and was probably responsible for a massive damage at Dholavira - Harappan site. Event III was between BCE 1230 and 04, most likely caused severe damage to Dholavira. Archaeo-seismological Quality Factor (AQF) of 0.5 suggests that the Dholavira is vulnerable to earthquakes from nearby active faults. With 1500-2000 yr of recurrence interval, occurrence of a large magnitude earthquake on SWF cannot be ruled out.

  13. Air quality annual report 1998; Lufthygienischer Jahresbericht 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The German Federal Emission Control Act (BImSchG) for protection against the harmful effects of air pollution, noise, vibrations and similar processes defines the legal instruments available to provide for air pollution monitoring and control. According to the legal provisions, responsibility for air pollution monitoring lies with the competent Land authorities, and monitoring activities are defined in terms of territory (areas subject to monitoring) and time periods as well as specific tasks for pollution measurement. The areas subject to monitoring are those with detected or expected air pollution very likely to cause harmful effects on the environment due to (1) frequency and prolongation of events, (2) pollutant concentrations, and (3) hazards emanating from synergistic action. (orig.) [German] Das Gesetz zum Schutz vor schaedlichen Umwelteinwirkungen durch Luftverunreinigungen, Geraeusche, Erschuetterungen und aehnliche Vorgaenge (Bundes-Immissionsschutzgesetz - BImSchG) enthaelt in Paragraph 44 das gesetzliche Instrumentarium zur Immissionsueberwachung. Demnach haben die nach Landesrecht zustaendigen Behoerden in den durch Rechtsverordnung festgesetzten Untersuchungsgebieten (frueher Belastungsgebiete) Art und Umfang bestimmter Luftverunreinigungen in einem bestimmten Zeitraum oder fortlaufend festzustellen. Gleiches gilt fuer Gebiete, in denen eine Ueberschreitung von Immissionswerten oder Immissionsleitwerten, die in zur Durchfuehrung dieses Gesetzes ergangenen Rechts- und allgemeinen Verwaltungsvorschriften zum Schutz vor Gesundheitsgefahren oder in bindenden Beschluessen der Europaeischen Gemeinschaften festgelegt sind, festgestellt wird oder zu erwarten sind. Untersuchungsgebiete sind Gebiete, in denen Luftverunreinigungen auftreten oder zu erwarten sind, die wegen - der Haeufigkeit und Dauer ihres Auftretens, - ihrer hohen Konzentrationen oder - der Gefahr des Zusammenwirkens verschiedener Luftverunreinigungen schaedliche Umwelteinwirkungen hervorrufen

  14. Politische Bildung und das Web 2.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heike Schaumburg

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Aktuell erhält die Diskussion um die Rolle des Internet in der Politischen Bildung neuen Auftrieb durch die Entwicklung der sogenannten Web-2.0- Technologien, die im Vergleich zum Web 1.0 ein erheblich grösseres Potenzial zur Mitgestaltung politischer Inhalte und Prozesse und bzw. zur Partizipation bieten, aber auch neue Möglichkeiten der Kommunikation und Vernetzung eröffnen. In der vorliegenden Studie wird der Frage nachgegangen, inwieweit das Internet und speziell das Web 2.0 in der Lage sind, die in die Technik gesetzten Hoffnungen zu erfüllen. Dabei wird zunächst ausgelotet, welche Potenziale das Web 2.0 für die Politische Bildung mit Blick auf ihre didaktische Gestaltung bieten könnte. Im Anschluss daran wird auf der Basis einer Analyse des Internet-Angebots der traditionellen Anbieter Politischer Bildung (Bundes- und Landeszentralen für Politische Bildung, politische Stiftungen sowie von Internetportalen im Bereich Politische Bildung festgestellt, welche Verbreitung Web-2.0-Angebote gegenwärtig besitzen. Schliesslich wird auf der Grundlage einer Nutzerbefragung an knapp 300 Teilnehmern virtueller politischer Bildungsangebote einer politischen Stiftung der Frage nachgegangen, wie Web-2.0-Angebote in der Politischen Bildungsarbeit aus Nutzersicht beurteilt werden.

  15. Labile Organic Carbon in Recharge and its Impact on Groundwater Arsenic Concentrations in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, R. B.; Ashfaque, K. N.; Badruzzaman, A. M.; Ali, M.; Shoemaker, J. K.; Harvey, C. F.

    2009-12-01

    Researchers have puzzled over the origin of dissolved arsenic in the aquifers of the Ganges Delta since widespread arsenic poisoning from groundwater was publicized two decades ago. Previous work has concluded that biological oxidation of organic carbon drives geochemical transformations that mobilize arsenic from sediments; however, the source of the organic carbon that fuels these processes remains controversial. A combined hydrologic and biogeochemical analysis of a typical site in Bangladesh, where constructed ponds and groundwater-irrigated rice fields are the main sources of recharge, shows that only recharge through pond sediments provides the biologically degradable organic carbon that can drive arsenic mobilization. Numerical groundwater simulations as well as chemical and isotopic indicators suggest that contaminated groundwater originates from excavated ponds and that water originating from rice fields is low in arsenic. In fact, rice fields act as an arsenic sink. Irrigation moves arsenic-rich groundwater from the aquifers and deposits it on the rice fields. Most of the deposited arsenic does not return to the aquifers; it is sorbed by the field’s surface soil and bunds, and is swept away in the monsoon floods. The findings indicate that patterns of arsenic contamination in the shallow aquifer are due to recharge-source variation and complex three-dimensional flow.

  16. Intrusion of devil weed Chromolaena odorata, an exotic invasive, into Kinnerasani and Eturnagaram wildlife sanctuaries, Telangana, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sateesh Suthari

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The spread of devil weed is alarming in areas of podu cultivation, on the bunds of agricultural lands, wastelands, along roadsides, tracks, forest gaps, protected areas and plantations in the two said wildlife sanctuaries. It is found invading new territories easily along the river banks and steadily destroying the riparian elements. The manual removal of this weed (mechanical method before flowering is the effective means to mitigate the spread of the species in comparison to the biological (Pareuchaetes pseudoinsulata, P. insulata, Actinote thalia-pyrrha and chemical (Glyphosate, Triclopyrester methods attempted. It is not trouble in its native habitat but is weedy in India for want of natural enemies to keep it under control. It is a mandate to prevent the loss of native biodiversity due to biological invasions. Conversely, there is an urgent need to devise action plans by managers of the respective wildlife sanctuaries to control and eradicate it. The local people are to be educated of its potential dangers to their farming on one hand and NTFP extraction from the local forests on the other. The Government of India has to develop a national level policy towards the control of invasive alien weeds in general and implement it at the earliest before we loose our indigenous biodiversity once for all.

  17. The significance of trends in long-term correlated records

    CERN Document Server

    Tamazian, Araik; Bunde, Armin

    2014-01-01

    We study the distribution $P(x;\\alpha,L)$ of the relative trend $x$ in long-term correlated records of length $L$ that are characterized by a Hurst-exponent $\\alpha$ between 0.5 and 1.5 obtained by DFA2. The relative trend $x$ is the ratio between the strength of the trend $\\Delta$ in the record measured by linear regression, and the standard deviation $\\sigma$ around the regression line. We consider $L$ between 400 and 2200, which is the typical length scale of monthly local and annual reconstructed global climate records. Extending previous work by Lennartz and Bunde \\cite{Lennartz2011} we show explicitely that $P$ follows the student-t distribution $P\\propto [1+(x/a)^2/l]^{-(l+1)/2}$, where the scaling parameter $a$ depends on both $L$ and $\\alpha$, while the effective length $l$ depends, for $\\alpha$ below 1.15, only on the record length $L$. From $P$ we can derive an analytical expression for the trend significance $S(x;\\alpha, L)=\\int_{-x}^x P(x';\\alpha,L)dx'$ and the border lines of the $95\\%$ percent ...

  18. Reports on research work in the field of the safety of nuclear facilities financed by the Federal Minister of the Interior. Period under report: 1st October - 31th December 1980 (17th quarterly report on SR-projects)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    The BMI (Home Office) finances the performance of studies, expert's reports and other investigations in the field of the safety of nuclear facilities. The results of these studies (CSR-projects) are meant to contribute to the elucidation of still open questions concerning the atomic licensing procedure. The GRS, who are charged by the BMI, give regular information on the state-of-affairs of such investigations. This is done quarterly resp., annually by editing progrss reports within the report series GRS-F. These reports serve to inform the authorities of the Bund and Laender afflicted as well as the reactor safety commission. Each progress report presents a compilation of individual reports arranged according to subject fields. These are written by the contractors themselves in a standardized form as a documentation of the progress of their work and edited by the supervisory board of the GRS (GRS-FB) within the framework of the general information on progress within the investigations on the safety of nuclear facilities. The individual reports are marked in the order of their arrangement with successive numbers. Each report contains, among other things, data on the objective targets, the work performed, the results gained and the continuation of work planned.

  19. [Approval of a bone bank: an institution's experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, S; Wernerus, D; Reichel, H

    2012-03-01

    The new tissue laws of 2007 created a completely new situation for German musculoskeletal tissue banks. The objective of the new regulations in the recent German tissue act is to improve safety by reducing the risk of transmission of viral and nonviral diseases. Since 2007 tissue banks have to declare their intention to continue providing allografts to the local authorities until August 2011 based on the guidelines of the Federal Medical Association (Bundesärztekammer 2001) and according to § 144 of the Pharmaceutical Products Act (Arzneimittelgesetz). The Orthopedic University Clinic in Ulm applied for registration according to § 20 b and c of the Pharmaceutical Products Act in 2010. After submitting all the required documents, government officials controlled the equipment, distribution of responsible personnel, location of operating theatres and the laboratory and quality assurance documentation. After alluding to the lack of validation for the use of a hemoculture medium for testing ringer lactate solutions, permission according to § 20 b and c was granted with the obligation to transfer all serological and microbiological testing of tissue donors to another laboratory with its own approval under § 20 c of the Pharmaceutical Products Act.

  20. How effective are soil conservation techniques in reducing plot runoff and soil loss in Europe and the Mediterranean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maetens, W.; Poesen, J.; Vanmaercke, M.

    2012-10-01

    The effects of soil and water conservation techniques (SWCTs) on annual runoff (Ra), runoff coefficients (RCa) and annual soil loss (SLa) at the plot scale have been extensively tested on field runoff plots in Europe and the Mediterranean. Nevertheless, a comprehensive overview of these effects and the factors controlling the effectiveness of SWCTs is lacking. Especially the effectiveness of SWCT in reducing Ra is poorly understood. Therefore, an extensive literature review is presented that compiles the results of 101 earlier studies. In each of these studies, Ra and SLa was measured on field runoff plots where various SWCTs were tested. In total, 353 runoff plots (corresponding to 2093 plot-years of data) for 103 plot-measuring stations throughout Europe and the Mediterranean were considered. SWCTs include (1) crop and vegetation management (i.e. cover crops, mulching, grass buffer strips, strip cropping and exclosure), (2) soil management (i.e. no-tillage, reduced tillage, contour tillage, deep tillage, drainage and soil amendment) and (3) mechanical methods (i.e. terraces, contour bunds and geotextiles). Comparison of the frequency distributions of SLa rates on cropland without and with the application of SWCTs shows that the exceedance probability of tolerable SLa rates is ca. 20% lower when SWCT are applied. However, no notable effect of SWCTs on the frequency distribution of RCa is observed. For 224 runoff plots (corresponding to 1567 plot-year data), SWCT effectiveness in reducing Ra and/or SLa could be directly calculated by comparing measured Ra and/or SLa with values measured on a reference plot with conventional management. Crop and vegetation management techniques (i.e. buffer strips, mulching and cover crops) and mechanical techniques (i.e. geotextiles, contour bunds and terraces) are generally more effective than soil management techniques (i.e. no-tillage, reduced tillage and contour tillage). Despite being generally less effective, no

  1. Cadastral Resurvey using High Resolution Satellite Ortho Image - challenges: A case study in Odisha, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parida, P. K.; Sanabada, M. K.; Tripathi, S.

    2014-11-01

    Advancements in satellite sensor technology enabling capturing of geometrically accurate images of earth's surface coupled with DGPS/ETS and GIS technology holds the capability of large scale mapping of land resources at cadastral level. High Resolution Satellite Images depict field bunds distinctly. Thus plot parcels are to be delineated from cloud free ortho-images and obscured/difficult areas are to be surveyed using DGPS and ETS. The vector datasets thus derived through RS/DGPS/ETS survey are to be integrated in GIS environment to generate the base cadastral vector datasets for further settlement/title confirmation activities. The objective of this paper is to illustrate the efficacy of a hybrid methodology employed in Pitambarpur Sasana village under Digapahandi Tahasil of Ganjam district, as a pilot project, particularly in Odisha scenario where the land parcel size is very small. One of the significant observations of the study is matching of Cadastral map area i.e. 315.454 Acres, the image map area i.e. 314.887 Acres and RoR area i.e. 313.815 Acre. It was revealed that 79 % of plots derived by high-tech survey method show acceptable level of accuracy despite the fact that the mode of area measurement by ground and automated method has significant variability. The variations are more in case of Government lands, Temple/Trust lands, Common Property Resources and plots near to river/nalas etc. The study indicates that the adopted technology can be extended to other districts and cadastral resurvey and updating work can be done for larger areas of the country using this methodology.

  2. Reducing particulate matter in the operation of firewood burning stoves taking into account the toxicological relevance; Feinstaubminderung im Betrieb von Scheitholzkaminoefen unter Beruecksichtigung der toxikologischen Relevanz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenz, Volker Alfred

    2010-12-02

    One of the greatest challenges facing humanity is climate change. Correspondingly, inter alia, the German government has set a target by 2020, to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases to the 1990 level by 20%. For this purpose can and should an increased energetic use of biomass contribute. End of 2007, the bioenergy had a share of around three quarters of the renewable primary energy input. Of which more than 45% were used for the heat supply. A total of more than 90% of renewable heat have been provided from biomass. From the provided amount of heat come over 80% from the combustion of solid biofuels - so far almost exclusively wood products - in small and medium wood-fuelled combustion systems. To reduce carbon dioxide emissions the federal government is accelerating a further expansion of energetic use of biomass in the heating sector. This expansion of thermal use of biomass, however, for reasons of pollution control, should not rise simultaneously with the emissions of air pollutants such as carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides or particulate matter. [German] Eine der groessten Herausforderungen fuer die Menschheit ist der Klimawandel. Entsprechend hat sich u.a. die deutsche Bundesregierung das Ziel gesetzt bis 2020 die Emissionen an Treibhausgasen im Vergleich zum Stand 1990 um 20 % zu mindern. Hierzu kann und soll eine verstaerkte energetische Nutzung der Biomasse beitragen. Ende 2007 hatte die Bioenergie einen Anteil von rund drei Viertel am erneuerbaren Primaerenergieeinsatz. Davon wurden mehr als 45 % fuer die Waermebereitstellung genutzt. Insgesamt wurden mehr als 90 % der erneuerbaren Waerme aus Biomasse bereitgestellt. Von der bereitgestellten Waermemenge kommen ueber 80 % aus der Verbrennung von festen Biobrennstoffen - bisher fast ausschliesslich Holzprodukte - in kleinen und mittleren Holzfeuerungsanlagen. Zur Verminderung der Kohlenstoffdioxidemissionen wird von Seiten des Bundes ein weiterer Ausbau der energetischen Biomassenutzung im Waermebereich

  3. Importance of native grassland habitat for den-site selection of Indian foxes in a fragmented landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish Arjun Punjabi

    Full Text Available Fragmentation of native habitats is now a ubiquitous phenomenon affecting wildlife at various scales. We examined selection of den-sites (n = 26 by Indian foxes (Vulpes bengalensis in a highly modified short-grassland landscape in central India (Jan-May, 2010. At the scale of the home-range, defined by an 800 m circular buffer around den sites, we examined the effect of land-cover edges and roads on selection of sites for denning using a distance-based approach. At the smaller den-area scale, defined by a 25 m x 25 m plot around den and paired available sites, the effect of microhabitat characteristics was examined using discrete-choice models. Indian foxes selected den-sites closer to native grasslands (t = -9.57, P < 0.001 and roads (t = -2.04, P = 0.05 than random at the home-range scale. At the smaller scale, abundance of rodents and higher visibility increased the odds of selection of a site by eight and four times respectively, indicating resource availability and predator avoidance to be important considerations for foxes. Indian foxes largely chose to den in human-made structures, indicated by the proportion of dens found in earthen bunds (0.69 and boulder piles (0.27 in the study area. With agricultural expansion and human modification threatening native short-grassland habitats, their conservation and effective management in human-dominated landscapes will benefit the Indian fox. The presence of some human-made structures within native grasslands would also be beneficial for this den-dependent species. We suggest future studies examine the impact of fragmentation and connectivity of grasslands on survival and reproductive success of the Indian fox.

  4. Universality of market superstatistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denys, Mateusz; Gubiec, Tomasz; Kutner, Ryszard; Jagielski, Maciej; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2016-10-01

    We use a key concept of the continuous-time random walk formalism, i.e., continuous and fluctuating interevent times in which mutual dependence is taken into account, to model market fluctuation data when traders experience excessive (or superthreshold) losses or excessive (or superthreshold) profits. We analytically derive a class of "superstatistics" that accurately model empirical market activity data supplied by Bogachev, Ludescher, Tsallis, and Bunde that exhibit transition thresholds. We measure the interevent times between excessive losses and excessive profits and use the mean interevent discrete (or step) time as a control variable to derive a universal description of empirical data collapse. Our dominant superstatistic value is a power-law corrected by the lower incomplete gamma function, which asymptotically tends toward robustness but initially gives an exponential. We find that the scaling shape exponent that drives our superstatistics subordinates itself and a "superscaling" configuration emerges. Thanks to the Weibull copula function, our approach reproduces the empirically proven dependence between successive interevent times. We also use the approach to calculate a dynamic risk function and hence the dynamic VaR, which is significant in financial risk analysis. Our results indicate that there is a functional (but not literal) balance between excessive profits and excessive losses that can be described using the same body of superstatistics but different calibration values and driving parameters. We also extend our original approach to cover empirical seismic activity data (e.g., given by Corral), the interevent times of which range from minutes to years. Superpositioned superstatistics is another class of superstatistics that protects power-law behavior both for short- and long-time behaviors. These behaviors describe well the collapse of seismic activity data and capture so-called volatility clustering phenomena.

  5. An empirical evolutionary magnitude estimation for earthquake early warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yih-Min; Chen, Da-Yi

    2016-04-01

    For earthquake early warning (EEW) system, it is a difficult mission to accurately estimate earthquake magnitude in the early nucleation stage of an earthquake occurrence because only few stations are triggered and the recorded seismic waveforms are short. One of the feasible methods to measure the size of earthquakes is to extract amplitude parameters within the initial portion of waveform after P-wave arrival. However, a large-magnitude earthquake (Mw > 7.0) may take longer time to complete the whole ruptures of the causative fault. Instead of adopting amplitude contents in fixed-length time window, that may underestimate magnitude for large-magnitude events, we suppose a fast, robust and unsaturated approach to estimate earthquake magnitudes. In this new method, the EEW system can initially give a bottom-bund magnitude in a few second time window and then update magnitude without saturation by extending the time window. Here we compared two kinds of time windows for adopting amplitudes. One is pure P-wave time widow (PTW); the other is whole-wave time window after P-wave arrival (WTW). The peak displacement amplitude in vertical component were adopted from 1- to 10-s length PTW and WTW, respectively. Linear regression analysis were implemented to find the empirical relationships between peak displacement, hypocentral distances, and magnitudes using the earthquake records from 1993 to 2012 with magnitude greater than 5.5 and focal depth less than 30 km. The result shows that using WTW to estimate magnitudes accompanies with smaller standard deviation. In addition, large uncertainties exist in the 1-second time widow. Therefore, for magnitude estimations we suggest the EEW system need to progressively adopt peak displacement amplitudes form 2- to 10-s WTW.

  6. Universality of market superstatistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denys, Mateusz; Gubiec, Tomasz; Kutner, Ryszard; Jagielski, Maciej; Stanley, H Eugene

    2016-10-01

    We use a key concept of the continuous-time random walk formalism, i.e., continuous and fluctuating interevent times in which mutual dependence is taken into account, to model market fluctuation data when traders experience excessive (or superthreshold) losses or excessive (or superthreshold) profits. We analytically derive a class of "superstatistics" that accurately model empirical market activity data supplied by Bogachev, Ludescher, Tsallis, and Bunde that exhibit transition thresholds. We measure the interevent times between excessive losses and excessive profits and use the mean interevent discrete (or step) time as a control variable to derive a universal description of empirical data collapse. Our dominant superstatistic value is a power-law corrected by the lower incomplete gamma function, which asymptotically tends toward robustness but initially gives an exponential. We find that the scaling shape exponent that drives our superstatistics subordinates itself and a "superscaling" configuration emerges. Thanks to the Weibull copula function, our approach reproduces the empirically proven dependence between successive interevent times. We also use the approach to calculate a dynamic risk function and hence the dynamic VaR, which is significant in financial risk analysis. Our results indicate that there is a functional (but not literal) balance between excessive profits and excessive losses that can be described using the same body of superstatistics but different calibration values and driving parameters. We also extend our original approach to cover empirical seismic activity data (e.g., given by Corral), the interevent times of which range from minutes to years. Superpositioned superstatistics is another class of superstatistics that protects power-law behavior both for short- and long-time behaviors. These behaviors describe well the collapse of seismic activity data and capture so-called volatility clustering phenomena.

  7. [The physician's role in various clinical contexts. Physician counseling on in vitro fertilization (IVF) and preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentenich, H; Tandler-Schneider, A

    2012-09-01

    The role of the physician in the context of in vitro fertilization and preimplantation genetic diagnosis has certain distinct characteristics. Involuntary childlessness by definition of the WHO is a disease with good treatment options. As it is not considered a medical emergency, the focus lies more on intensive information giving, education, and counseling. Because the diagnosis and treatment can be a medical and psychological strain for the couple, counseling should address both medical and psychological aspects. The physician needs to have detailed medical knowledge as well as good communication skills to be able to meet the specific needs of the couple. Moreover, the physician should point out the realistic success rates of treatment and should refer to alternatives, such as remaining childless, adoption, and sperm or egg donation. The concurrent inclusion of biological, psychological, social, and ethical aspects in terms of psychosomatic basic care (Psychosomatische Grundversorgung) seems to be useful. There is potential for conflicts, for example, due to the economic interests of the physician. On the other hand, the treatment can be a financial burden for the couple. Of importance are the physician's and the patient's moral concepts, especially concerning some aspects of therapy (sperm and egg donation, surrogacy). The expected welfare of the intended child should also be respected (e.g., higher risk of preterm birth in multiple pregnancies). Further possible conflicts in reproductive medicine arise because of the crossing of moral boundaries (oocyte donation for postmenopausal women, surrogacy, cloning of human beings). The framework of counseling is based on the guidelines of the German Medical Association (Bundesärztekammer) for assisted reproduction (2006). Preimplantation genetic diagnosis has special requirements from a medical and psychosocial point of view.

  8. Coral colonisation of a shallow reef flat in response to rising sea level: quantification from 35 years of remote sensing data at Heron Island, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scopélitis, J.; Andréfouët, S.; Phinn, S.; Done, T.; Chabanet, P.

    2011-12-01

    Observations made on Heron Island reef flat during the 1970s-1990s highlighted the importance of rapid change in hydrodynamics and accommodation space for coral development. Between the 1940s and the 1990s, the minimum reef-flat top water level varied by some tens of centimetres, successively down then up, in rapid response to local engineering works. Coral growth followed sea-level variations and was quantified here for several coral communities using horizontal two-dimensional above water remotely sensed observations. This required seven high spatial resolution aerial photographs and Quickbird satellite images spanning 35 years: 1972, 1979, 1990, 1992, 2002, 2006 and 2007. The coral growth dynamics followed four regimes corresponding to artificially induced changes in sea levels: 1972-1979 (lowest growth rate): no detectable coral development, due to high tidal currents and minimum mean low-tide water level; 1979-1991 (higher growth rate): horizontal coral development promoted by calmer hydrodynamic conditions; 1991-2001(lower growth rate): vertical coral development, induced by increased local sea level by ~12 cm due to construction of new bund walls; 2001-2007 (highest growth rate): horizontal coral development after that vertical growth had become limited by sea level. This unique time-series displays a succession of ecological stage comprising a `catch-up' dynamic in response to a rapid local sea-level rise in spite of the occurrences of the most severe bleaching events on record (1998, 2002) and the decreasing calcification rates reported in massive corals in the northern part of the Great Barrier Reef.

  9. Current state and future prospects of remedial soil protection. Background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frauenstein, Joerg

    2009-08-15

    The legal basis for soil protection in the Federal Republic of Germany is: -The Act on Protection against Harmful Changes to Soil and on Rehabilitation of Contaminated Sites (Federal Soil Protection Act) (Bundes-Bodenschutzgesetz - BBodSchG) of 1998 [1] -The Federal Soil Protection and Contaminated Sites Ordinance (BBodSchV) of 1999 [2]. In Germany, the Federal Government has legislative competence in the field of soil protection. The Lander (German federal states), in turn, are responsible for enforcement of the BBodSchG and the BBodSchV; they may also issue supplementary procedural regulations. According to Article 1 BBodschG, the purpose of the Act is inter alia to protect and restore the functions of the soil on a permanent sustainable basis. These actions shall include prevention of harmful soil changes as well as rehabilitating soil, contaminated sites and waters contaminated by such sites in such a way that any contamination remains permanently below the hazard threshold. Whilst prevention aims to protect and preserve soil functions on a long-term basis, the object of remediation is mainly to avert concrete hazards in a spatial, temporal and manageable causative context. ''Remedial soil protection'' encompasses a tiered procedure in which a suspicion is verified successively and with least-possible effort and in which the circumstances of the individual case at hand are taken into account in deciding whether or not a need for remediation exists. It comprises the systematic stages of identifying, investigating and assessing suspect sites and sites suspected of being contaminated with a view to their hazard potential, determining whether remediation is necessary, remediating identified harmful soil changes and contaminated sites, and carrying out, where necessary, aftercare measures following final inspection of the remedial measure. (orig.)

  10. Concept for a climate protection campaign for private households and the commercial sector; Konzept fuer eine Kampagne 'Klimaschutz in privaten Haushalten und im Kleinverbrauch'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brohmann, B.; Cames, M.; Kallmann, K.; Prose, F.; Engellandt, C.

    2001-01-01

    The national goals of reducing CO{sub 2} emissions by 25% needs activities in cooperation with the German States, municipalities, business representatives and the private households. The working team developed a concept for a national climate protection campaign which addresses private households and the commercial sector. The campaign is to be implemented and financed jointly with the political and public administrations, and the business sector (public-private-partnership). Fundamental for the concept is a marketing strategy which both relies on ethical and participatory methods. Participatory marketing means the effort to include as many people as possible into the marketing of climate protection. The broad participation of representatives and supporters is not restricted to the implementation of climate-friendly measures, but should be achieved already in the planning stage and during evaluation of results. (orig.) [German] Das nationale Klimaschutzziel zur Reduktion der CO{sub 2}-Emissionen um 25% bedarf der gemeinsamen Anstrengung von Bund, Laendern, Gemeinden und Unternehmen sowie jedes Einzelnen. Die Arbeitsgemeinschaft legt ein Konzept fuer eine bundesweite Klimakampagne vor, die sowohl private Haushalte wie auch den Sektor 'Kleinverbrauch' ansprechen soll. Das Konzept umfasst neben einem Kommunikations- und Marketingansatz sowie Vorschlaegen zur Implementation ein kooperatives Finanzierungskonzept (public-private-partnership). Zielsetzung ist eine Veraenderung des Klimaschutzverhaltens und -handelns ueber den Einsatz des Sozialen Marketings. Zentral ist daher eine partizipative Marketingstrategie, die auf der dezentralen Aktivierung von klimaschuetzendem Verhalten ueber eine Grundkampagne und themenspezifische Leitaktionen aufbaut. Um Klimaschutzhandeln zu verstetigen, ist neben der Rueckmeldung ueber Erfolge die Evaluierung der Moeglichkeiten notwendig. (orig.)

  11. Model remediation of contaminated sites as illustrated by the example of the TNT-remediation project Stadtallendorf, Hessen, Germany. Part 1: Final report; Part 2: Documentation and balancing of the measures; Part 3: Documentation of citizens' participation and public relations activities in Stadtallendorf; Modellhafte Sanierung von Altlasten am Beispiel des TNT-Sanierungsprojektes Stadtallendorf/Hessen. T. 1: Abschlussbericht. T. 2: Dokumentation und Bilanzierung von Auswirkungen der Sanierung. T. 3: Dokumentation der Buergerbeteiligung und Oeffentlichkeitsarbeit in Stadtallendorf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The project comprised the following stages: 1. Development of a technology for purification of soils contaminated with explosives. The process comprised soil washing, hot steam treatment, and thermal treatment of residues; 2. Projecting, construction and two years of operation of a soil purification plant with a rated throughput of 20 t/h and a total throughput of 130,000 t; 3. Remediation of two representative sites on DAG terrain (TNT production chain and filling stations); 4. Verification of the findings in an accompanying scientific programme. The site under investigation was formerly occupied by the Dynamit AG (DAG) Stadtallendorf, where TNT, contaminated waste water and acids were produced, and contamination levels were high in several areas. Today, the area is a residential area. In addition to the investigations described here, the waste water discharge system of the DAG was modernized. [German] Das FuE-Vorhaben Stadtallendorf wurde mit folgender Zielsetzung begonnen: (1) Entwicklung einer geeigneten und moeglichst umweltvertraeglichen Technik zur Reinigung von Boeden mit sprengstoffspezifischen Kontaminationen; hierzu wurde in Anlehnung an die Ausschreibung des Bundes ein kombiniertes Bodenbehandlungsverfahren vorgesehen, das aus folgenden Komponenten bestand: - Bodenwaesche, - Heissdampfbehandlung, - Thermische Reststoffbehandlung. (2) Planung, Bau und zweijaehriger Betrieb einer entsprechenden grosstechnischen Bodenreinigungsanlage (Nenndurchsatz von 20 t/Stunde; Gesamtdurchsatz 130.000 t). (3) Bodensanierung von zwei repraesentativen Arealen im DAG-Gelaende (TNT-Produktionskette und Fuellstellenbetrieb). (4) Absicherung der Ergebnisse in einem wissenschaftlichen Begleitprogramm. Gegenstand der Phase 2 des Vorhabens war der vollstaendige Prozess der Planung und Umsetzung der Sanierung eines (Teils eines) Planungsraumes des Ruestungsaltstandortes Dynamit AG (DAG) Stadtallendorf. Es handelte sich dabei um einen Bereich, der als Standort fuer TNT

  12. A framework for managing runoff and pollution in the rural landscape using a Catchment Systems Engineering approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, M E; Quinn, P F; Barber, N J; Jonczyk, J

    2014-01-15

    Intense farming plays a key role in increasing local scale runoff and erosion rates, resulting in water quality issues and flooding problems. There is potential for agricultural management to become a major part of improved strategies for controlling runoff. Here, a Catchment Systems Engineering (CSE) approach has been explored to solve the above problem. CSE is an interventionist approach to altering the catchment scale runoff regime through the manipulation of hydrological flow pathways throughout the catchment. By targeting hydrological flow pathways at source, such as overland flow, field drain and ditch function, a significant component of the runoff generation can be managed in turn reducing soil nutrient losses. The Belford catchment (5.7 km(2)) is a catchment scale study for which a CSE approach has been used to tackle a number of environmental issues. A variety of Runoff Attenuation Features (RAFs) have been implemented throughout the catchment to address diffuse pollution and flooding issues. The RAFs include bunds disconnecting flow pathways, diversion structures in ditches to spill and store high flows, large wood debris structure within the channel, and riparian zone management. Here a framework for applying a CSE approach to the catchment is shown in a step by step guide to implementing mitigation measures in the Belford Burn catchment. The framework is based around engagement with catchment stakeholders and uses evidence arising from field science. Using the framework, the flooding issue has been addressed at the catchment scale by altering the runoff regime. Initial findings suggest that RAFs have functioned as designed to reduce/attenuate runoff locally. However, evidence suggested that some RAFs needed modification and new RAFs be created to address diffuse pollution issues during storm events. Initial findings from these modified RAFs are showing improvements in sediment trapping capacities and reductions in phosphorus, nitrate and suspended

  13. Holding Water in the Landscape; striking a balance between food production and healthy catchment function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Paul; Wilkinson, Mark; Stutter, Marc; Adams, Russell

    2015-04-01

    Here it is proposed that ~5 % of the rural landscape could be modified to hold water during storm events. Hence ~95% of land remains for food production, commercial forestry and amenity. This is a catchment scale commitment to sustainably reducing flood and drought risk, improving water quality, biodiversity and thereby climate proofing our catchments. The farmed landscape has intensified and as a result, runoff rates are no longer in balance with the catchment needs, which in turn contributes to floods, droughts and water pollution problems. The loss of infiltration rates, soil water holding capacity and the increase in ditches and drains through intense farming has resulted in a reduction of the overall water holding capacity of the landscape, therefore deeper soil and aquifer recharge rates are lower. However, adequate raw water supply and food production is also vital. Here we consider how ~5% of productive land could be used to physically hold water during and after storms. This is a simple philosophy for water stewardship that could be delivered by farmers and land managers themselves. In this poster we consider a 'treatment train' of mitigation in headwaters by the construction of:- Rural SuDs - by creating swales, bunds and grassy filters; Buffer Strips - (designed to hold water); The Ditch of The Future - by creating the prime location for holding water and recovering lost top soil and finally the better use of Small Headwater Floodplains - by storing flood water, creating wetlands, planting new forest, installing woody debris and new habitats. We present examples of where and how these measures have been installed and show the cost-effectiveness of temporarily holding storm runoff in several case study catchments taken from the UK.

  14. Argillaceous rock as host rock for final storage of radioactive waste in Germany; Tongesteine als Wirtsgesteine fuer die Endlagerung radioaktiver Abfaelle in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braeuer, V.; Hoth, P. [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Hannover (Germany)

    2007-05-15

    On behalf of the German Federal Ministry for Economics and Technology (BMWi), the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Raw Materials (BGR) in a study described argillaceous rock formations as potential host rock for repositories in some areas of Germany, and evaluated them. The study was based on available and usable data derived from maps, archives, and approx. 25,000 drillings. No additional field tests or laboratory examinations were conducted. The study was published in April 2007 under the title of 'Untersuchung und Bewertung von Tongesteinsformationen' (www.bgr.bund.de). The exclusion criteria and minimum requirements recommended by the Working Group on Repository Sites (AkEnd) in 2002 served as a basis for defining the subareas eligible for further study. In addition, internationally acknowledged selection criteria as well as weighting criteria to be taken into account especially under German conditions were applied. The result of the study is not a representation of repository sites. However, the investigations show that argillaceous rock meeting host rock requirements occurs in the Lower Cretacious as well as in rock formations of the Lower and Middle Jurassic of Northern Germany. In Southern Germany, rock of the Middle Jurassic was found to be worthy of examination. The clay formations of the Tertiary are not considered in the study because of their relatively adverse mechanical properties in Germany. The areas highlighted are situated mainly in Lower Saxony, Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Saxony-Anhalt, Baden-Wuerttemberg and, to a lesser extent, also im Bavaria, Brandenburg, and North Rhine-Westphalia. Other regional restrictions are mentioned in the study. Any further assessment of the argillaceous rock in the study would require an extensive program of investigations with a view to selecting sites for the final storage of high-level radioactive waste. (orig.)

  15. International comparison of actions taken by associations under environmental law; Untersuchung der Verbandsklage im Umweltrecht im internationalen Vergleich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkelmann, C. [Verein fuer Umweltrecht e.V., Bremen (Germany). Inst. fuer Umweltrecht (IUR)

    1992-12-31

    des Verbandes denen von natuerlichen Personen gleichgestellt. Der Anwendungsbereich kennt kaum Beschraenkungen wie im deutschen Recht. Allerdings werden sehr wohl in Foederalsystemen Differenzierungen in Abhaengigkeit davon vorgenommen, ob es sich um Entscheidungen auf Bundes- oder Landesebene handelt. Beklagter ist in Kontinentaleuropa immer die die Erlaubnis erteilende Behoerde. In einigen Laendern kann neben der Behoerde auch der Erlaubnisinhaber verklagt bzw. strafrechtlich zur Verantwortung gezogen werden. (orig./HSCH)

  16. Measures to influence nitric oxide formation and alkali release in coal dust combustion under pressure; Massnahmen zur Beeinflussung der Stickoxidbildung und Alkalienfreisetzung bei der Kohlenstaubdruckverbrennung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thielen, W.; Niepel, H. [Steinmueller (L.u.C.) GmbH, Gummersbach (Germany)

    1999-09-01

    Messrs. Steinmueller are making the following contributions to the Dorsten experimental plant: Development of pressure burner and combustion chamber, fuel supply and flue gas analysis, especially the development of a high-temperature flue gas tapping unit at the end of the hot reaction zone. Burner development should always aim at complete converstion of the fuel and minimal pollutant emissions, as well as stable combustion over a wide range of operating conditons and maximum reliability in case of disturbances. Tools for development and experiment analysis are flow measurements in isothermal models, numerical flow and radiation excchange calculation programs, and reference data from the hot operation under pressure of the small-scale Dorsten pilot plant. The contribution presents the results of the burner experiments with a view to nitric oxide and alkali emissions; finally, the effects of different influencing parameters on combustion control and on the still unresolved fields of investigation are indicated. [Deutsch] Die Druckkohlenstaubfeuerung erschliesst fuer den Brennstoff Kohle durch Nutzung des Gas- und Dampfturbinenprozesses Kraftwerkswirkungsgrade im Bereich von 50 % und mehr. Dabei soll das unter Druck verbrannte Rauchgas nach Abscheidung aller schaedlichen Bestandteile, insbesondere der Asche, die in diesem Temperaturbereich durchweg schmelzfluessig vorliegt, direkt auf die Gasturbine geleitet werden. Mit Foerderung des Bundes (seinerzeit BMFT) wurde unter Beteiligung der GHS Essen, mehrerer Industriepartner und Energieversorger am Zechenstandort Dorsten eine Kleinpilotanlage mit einer thermischen Leistung von ca 1 MW errichtet und seither betrieben. Der Forschungsschwerpunkt der L. und C. Steinmueller GmbH richtete sich darin auf die Thematik Kohleumwandlung. Die Aktivitaeten umfssten die Bereiche Druckbrenner- und Brennkammerentwicklung, die Brennstoffversorgung und die Rauchgasanalytik, hier insbesondere die Entwicklung einer Hochtemperatur

  17. EEG II. Annexes and regulations. Comment; EEG II. Anlagen und Verordnungen. Kommentar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frenz, Walter (ed.) [Rheinisch-Westfaelische Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Berg-, Umwelt- und Europarecht

    2016-11-01

    weitverzweigten Regeln. Sofern zum besseren Verstaendnis erforderlich, werden auch die Vorschriften des EEG 2014 erklaert. Konsequent fuer Ihre Praxis konzipiert Als Kaeufer des Werkes profitieren Sie auch vom Zugriff auf eine umfangreiche, regelmaessig aktualisierte Datenbank. Diese enthaelt wichtige energierechtliche Vorschriften der EU, des Bundes und der Laender. Auch fruehere Rechtsstaende bleiben recherchierbar und koennen komfortabel mit aktuellen Fassungen verglichen werden. So sehen Sie auf einen Blick, was sich geaendert hat.

  18. Re-greening the Sahel: farmer-led innovation in Burkina Faso and Niger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reij, Chris; Smale, Melinda; Tappan, Gary; Spielman, David J.; Pandya-Lorch, Rajul

    2009-01-01

    The Sahel—the belt of land that stretches across Africa on the southern edge of the Sahara—has always been a tough place to farm. Rainfall is low and droughts are frequent. The crust of hard soil is, at times, almost impermeable, and harsh winds threaten to sweep away everything in their path. Over the past three decades, however, hundreds of thousands of farmers in Burkina Faso and Niger have transformed large swaths of the region’s arid landscape into productive agricultural land, improving food security for about 3 million people. Once-denuded landscapes are now home to abundant trees, crops, and livestock. Although rainfall has improved slightly from the mid-1990s relative to earlier decades, indications are that farmer management is a stronger determinant of land and agroforestry regeneration. Sahelian farmers achieved their success by ingeniously modifying traditional agroforestry, water, and soil-management practices. To improve water availability and soil fertility in Burkina Faso’s Central Plateau, farmers have sown crops in planting pits and built stone contour bunds, which are stones piled up in long narrow rows that follow the contours of the land in order to capture rainwater runoff and soil. These practices have helped rehabilitate between 200,000 and 300,000 hectares of land and produce an additional 80,000 tons of food per year. In southern Niger, farmers have developed innovative ways of regenerating and multiplying valuable trees whose roots already lay underneath their land, thus improving about 5 million hectares of land and producing more than 500,000 additional tons of food per year. While the specific calculations of farm-level benefits are subject to various methodological and data limitations, the order of magnitude of these benefits is high, as evidenced by the wide-scale adoption of the improved practices by large numbers of farmers. Today, the agricultural landscapes of southern Niger have considerably more tree cover than they

  19. Comparative Study of Micro-simulation Performances for Urban Road Network between Vissim and Corsim%Vissim和Corsim在城市道路微观仿真中的对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴亦政; 孙健; 彭春露; 徐猛

    2012-01-01

    This study conducted a comparative analysis of two popular simulation models Vissim and Corsim, based on their simulation performances on an urban traffic network. The road network and field traffic data from North Bund, Hongkou District of Shanghai were collected and used as the simulation background and input. Three key indices, including software usability, average control delay and cross-sectional traffic volume, were selected for comparison, and a sensitivity analysis was conducted to compare the performances of both models on each index. Performance differences and particular advantages of each simulator were identified based on comparison analyses of simulations results with different levels of congestion and different scales of intersections. The main reason for performance differences was found to be the configuration of model parameters including driver behavior settings, traffic environment settings, vehicle types and others. Consequently, it is recommended that the appropriate tool should be chosen based on the intersection type and the saturation level of the simulation case.%对2种最为常见的微观仿真模型Vissim和Corsim在城市路网交通仿真中的性能进行对比评价.以上海市虹口区北外滩路网作为仿真对象,对路网和交通数据进行了收集,基于现实数据进行了仿真模拟,并选取编译简易度、平均控制延误以及断面交通量作为关键指标,运用敏感度分析的方法对2种模型的仿真性能进行对比.针对不同程度的拥挤度设置以及不同规模的交叉口,识别了2种仿真模型表现出的不同特点及其交通运行指标输出的差异性.该差异主要由模型的默认参数设置引起,包括驾驶行为,交通环境以及车辆类型的设置等.因此,研究人员应根据交叉口类型以及饱和程度等,来选择适当的仿真工具.

  20. Modelling field scale water partitioning using on-site observations in sub-Saharan rainfed agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makurira, H.; Savenije, H. H. G.; Uhlenbrook, S.

    2010-04-01

    Smallholder rainfed farming systems generally realise sub-optimal crop yields which are largely attributed to dry spell occurrences during crop growth stages. However, through the introduction of appropriate farming practices, it is possible to substantially increase yield levels even with little and highly variable rainfall. The presented results follow research conducted in the Makanya catchment in northern Tanzania where gross rainfall amounts to less than 400 mm/season which is insufficient to support staple food crops (e.g. maize). The yields from farming system innovations (SIs), which are basically alternative cultivation techniques, are compared against traditional farming practices. The SIs tested in this research are runoff harvesting used in combination with in-field trenches and soil bunds (fanya juus). These SIs aim to reduce soil and nutrient loss from the field and, more importantly, promote in-field infiltration and water retention. Water balance components have been observed in order to study water partitioning processes for the "with" and "without" SI scenarios. Based on rainfall, soil evaporation, transpiration, runoff and soil moisture measurements, a water balance model has been developed to simulate soil moisture variations over the growing season. Simulation results show that, during the field trials, the average productive transpiration flow ranged between 1.1-1.4 mm d-1 in the trial plots compared to 0.7-1.0 mm d-1 under traditional tillage practice. Productive transpiration processes accounted for 23-29% while losses to deep percolation accounted for 33-48% of the available water. The field system has been successfully modelled using the spreadsheet-based water balance 1-D model. Conclusions from the research are that the SIs that were tested are effective in enhancing soil moisture retention at field scale and that diversions allow crop growth moisture conditions to be attained with early rains. From the partitioning analysis, it is also

  1. 城市社区居民自治机制探索--以上海外滩社区(街道)建设为例%Exploration on Mechanism of Urban Community Residents’self-governing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈海燕

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays,the management system of urban grass-roots society has been changed from“unit system”to “community system”,and members of the society gradually change from “unit person”to “community person”.Democratic consciousness in grass-roots society is growing,and the interests of the grass-roots is increasing.The Bund community (street ) residents' self-government operates with such a way of development:to improve the function of grass-root autonomy,and find out the exact point of residents'self-government;to broaden space of grass-root autonomy,and promote the growth point of residents' self-government;to strengthen the construction of grass-roots democracy,and promote the growth point of residents'self-government;to adapt to the changes of grass-roots society,and focus on the attention spot of residents'self-government.%当前,城市基层社会管理体制从“单位制”向“社区制”发生变化,社会成员逐渐从“单位人”转向“社区人”,基层社会的民主意识不断增强,基层群众的利益需求不断增多。上海外滩社区(街道)居民自治的发展思路是:完善基层自治的功能,找准居民自治的切入点;拓展基层自治的空间,推进居民自治的生长点;加强基层民主的建设,促进居民自治的增长点;适应基层社会的变迁,聚焦居民自治的关注点。

  2. The Power of Spectacle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Greenspan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available When people say Shanghai looks like the future the setting is almost always the same. Evening descends and the skyscrapers clustered on the eastern shore of the Huangpu light up. Super towers are transformed into giant screens. The spectacular skyline, all neon and lasers and LED, looms as a science fiction backdrop. Staring out from the Bund, across to Pudong, one senses the reemergence of what JG Ballard once described as an ”electric and lurid city, more exciting than any other in the world.” The high-speed development of Pudong – in particular the financial district of Lujiazui – is the symbol of contemporary Shanghai and of China’s miraculous rise.Yet, Pudong is also taken as a sign of much that is wrong with China’s new urbanism. To critics the sci-fi skyline is an emblem of the city’s shallowness, which focuses all attention on its glossy facade. Many share the sentiment of free market economist Milton Friedman who, when visiting Pudong famously derided the brand new spectacle as a giant Potemkin village. Nothing but “the statist monument for a dead pharaoh,” he is quoted as saying.This article explores Pudong in order to investigate the way spectacle functions in China’s most dynamic metropolis. It argues that the skeptical hostility towards spectacle is rooted in the particularities of a Western philosophical tradition that insists on penetrating the surface, associating falsity with darkness and truth with light.In contrast, China has long recognized the power of spectacle (most famously inventing gunpowder but using it only for fireworks. Alongside this comes an acceptance of a shadowy world that belongs to the dark. This acknowledgment of both darkness and light found in traditional Chinese culture (expressed by the constant revolutions of the yin/yang symbol may provide an alternative method for thinking about the tension between the spectacular visions of planners and the unexpected and shadowy disruptions from

  3. Photovoltaics - new horizons. Proceedings; Photovoltaik - Neue Horizonte. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-02-01

    The FVS (Forschungsverbund Sonnenenergie) asked for a doubling of the funds within the next five years for research on renewable energy sources. According to the FVS, this is urgently necessary for solving the following impending problems: a) Protection of our natural basis of life; b) Overcoming energy shortage in many parts of the world; c) Reduction of the geopolitical potential for conflicts; d) Development of new marketable products. To solve these four problems, three development windows must be considered strategically: 1) Further development of the technology on which rapid growth on the market is based today; 2) Development of technologies that will gain profile 'at the horizon'; 3) Research into energy conversion processes 'beyond the horizon'. The papers presented at this forum concentrated on photovoltaic power generation, with the focus on cost reduction. (orig.) [German] Fuer ein neues Energieforschungsprogramm der Bundesrepublik fordert der FVS (Forschungsverbund Sonnenenergie) in seinem Eckpunktepapier eine Verdoppelung der Foerdermittel des Bundes im Bereich Erneuerbare Energien innerhalb der naechsten fuenf Jahre. Eine derartige Forderung zur Erhoehung von Finanzmitteln in diesem Forschungs- und Entwicklungsfeld ist - nach Meinung des FVS - unabdingbar, um die folgenden draengenden Problemkreise mit der unbedingt notwendigen Geschwindigkeit anzugeben: a) Schutz unserer natuerlichen Lebensgrundlage b) Bekaempfung der Energiearmut in weiten Teilen der Welt c) Verringerung des geopolitischen Konfliktpotenzials d) Erzeugung neuer Produkte fuer den Markt. Bei der Loesung der eingangs erwaehnten vier Problemkreise muss Forschung auf dem Feld der Photovoltaik drei Entwicklungsfenster strategisch bruecksichtigen. 1) Weiterentwicklung der Technologie, die heute das rasante Marktwachstum traegt 2) Entwicklung von Technologien, die,am Horizont' Profil gewinnen 3) Erforschung von Energiekonversionsverfahren, die teilweise noch &apos

  4. Experience with water-cooled grates in waste incinerators; Erfahrungen mit dem wassergekuehlten Rost in der thermischen Abfallverwertung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drexler, J.; Krueger, J. [Muellkraftwerk Schwandorf Betriebsgesellschaft mbH (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    The 17th Federal Nuisance Control Ordinance and the Act on Recycling and Waste Management have resulted in major changes in incinerator design and operation. The specified combustion conditions and emission quality specifications required a significant reduction of the air rating in order to raise the combustion temperature and reduce the investment cost of the projected new system. The more rigid burnout specifications made it necessary to increase the secondary air volume and reduce the primary air volume for grate cooling. The Schwandorf incinerator reported shorter grate bar lives even before the above legal regulations came into force as a result of increasing calorific values. Since 1994, experiments were made with water-cooled grates. The investigations aimed at unhurried development of a complete grate cooling system, from cooling of grate bars to heat removal, and were carried out in cooperation with component suppliers. Apart from the wear measurements, data on thermal layout were to determined as well. Three water-cooled grates from different suppliers have been tested since then. [German] Die mit der 17. Bundes-Immissionsschutz-Verordnung (BImSchV) verbundenen Vorschriften haben in Verbindung mit dem Kreislaufwirtschaftsgesetz zu einschneidenden Massnahmen beim Betrieb von Muellverbrennungsanlagen gefuehrt. Durch die in paragraph 4 der 17 BImSchV festgelegten Verbrennungsbedingungen und die strengen gesetzlichen Auflagen in der Abgasreinigung wurde eine deutliche Reduzierung der Luftzahl notwendig. Hierdurch sollte die Verbrennungstemperatur gesteigert und die Investitionskosten bei der neu zu errichtenden Rauchgasreinigungsanlage gesenkt werden. Weiterhin wurde durch die strengeren Grenzwerte hinsichtlich des Ausbrandes der Rauchgase eine Steigerung der Sekundaerluftmenge notwendig. Die zur Kuehlung des Rostes eingesetzte Primaerluft musste aus den beiden genannten Gruenden deutlich reduziert werden. Bereits vor Eintreten der Wirksamkeit der oben

  5. Remarks on the possible universal mechanism of the non-linear long-term autocorrelations in financial time-series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutner, Ryszard; Świtała, Filip

    2004-12-01

    The paper consists of two parts: (i) the empirical one where the non-linear, long-term autocorrelations present in high-frequency data extracting from the Warsaw Stock Exchange were analyzed and (ii) theoretical one where predictions of our model (Quantitative Finance 3 (2003) 201; Physica A (2003); Chem. Phys. 284 (2002) 481; Phys. Comm. 147 (2002) 565; Physica A 264 (1999) 84; Physica A 264 (1999) 107; Lecture Notes in Computer Science 2657 (2003) 407; Eur. Phys. J. B 33 (2003) 495) were shown and discussed. This model introduces the possibility that the Weierstrass (hierarchical) random walk can be occasionally intermitted by momentary localizations; the localizations themselves are again described by the Weierstrass process. In other words, this combined walk is a kind of the non-separable, generalized continuous-time random walk formalism. To adapt the model to the description of empirical data recorded at time horizon Δt=1 min, we applied a discretization procedure into the continuous-time series produced by the model. We observed that such a procedure generates the non-linear, long-term autocorrelations even in the Gaussian regime, as turning points of the random walk trajectory are, most often, incommensurable with discretization time-step. These autocorrelations appear to be similar to those observed in the financial time series (Physica A 287 (2000) 396; Physica A 299 (2001) 1; Physica A 299 (2001) 16; Physica A 299 (2001) 28), although single steps of the walker within continuous time are, by definition, uncorrelated. Our approach suggests a surprising origin of the non-linear, long-term autocorrelations alternative to the one proposed very recently (cf. Phys. Rev. E 67 (2003) 021112 and refs. therein) although both approaches involve related variants of the well-known CTRW formalism applied in yet many different branches of knowledge (Phys. Rep. 158 (1987) 263; Phys. Rep. 195 (1990) 127; in: A. Bunde, S. Havlin (Eds.), Fractals in Science, Springer

  6. Coupled neutronics and thermal hydraulics of high density cores for FRM II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breitkreutz, Harald

    2011-03-04

    According to the 'Verwaltungsvereinbarung zwischen Bund und Land vom 30.5.2003' and its updating on 13.11.2010, the Forschungs-Neutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz, Frm II, has to convert its fuel element to an uranium enrichment which is significantly lower than the current 93%, in case this is economically reasonable and doesn't impact the reactor performance immoderate. In the framework of this conversion, new calculations regarding neutronics and thermal hydraulics for the anticipated core configurations have to be made. The computational power available nowadays allows for detailed 3D calculations, on the neutronic as well as on the thermal hydraulic side. In this context, a new program system, 'X{sup 2}', was developed. It couples the Monte Carlo code McnpX, the computational fluid dynamics code Cfx and the burn-up code sequence MonteBurns. The codes were modified and extended to meet the requirements of the coupled calculation concept. To verify the new program system, highly detailed calculations for the current fuel element were made and compared to simulations and measurements that were performed in the past. The results strengthen the works performed so far and show that the original, conservative approach overestimates all critical thermal hydraulic values. Using the CFD software, effects like the impact of the combs that fix the fuel plates and the pressure drop at the edges of the fuel plates were studied in great detail for the first time. Afterwards, a number of possible new fuel elements with lower enrichment, based on disperse and monolithic UMo (uranium with 8 wt.-% Mo) were analysed. A number of straight-forward conversion scenarios was discussed, showing that a further compaction of the fuel element, an extended cycle length or an increased reactor power is needed to compensate the flux loss, which is caused by the lower enrichment. This flux loss is in excess of 7%. The discussed new fuel elements include a 50

  7. [Physician practice patterns and attitudes to euthanasia in Germany. A representative survey of physicians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschner, R; Elkeles, T

    1998-04-01

    Growing life expectancy and increasing pharmaceutical and technical methods in medicine are leading to more and more discussions among the general population and among physicians as to whether methods to shorten the sufferings of mortally ill persons should be legalised further. In Australia 60% of physicians wish to be able to perform active euthanasia if this would be legal. In the Netherlands physicians do not commit an offence if they perform euthanasia on the basis of ethically consented rules. In the FRG the National Board of Physicians (Bundesärztekammer) still rejects any liberalisation concerning active euthanasia. However, little is known of the attitudes and behaviour of physicians concerning the questions of active and passive euthanasia. Sponsored by Gruner and Jahr publishers for a magazine "Stern" publication we conducted a representative study among physicians working in hospitals and their colleagues in free practices concerning this topic. Beginning with qualitative interviews with 50 physicians we tested the questionnaire developed and looked for the data production method best fitting for this difficult matter resulting in telephone interviews or a self-administered questionnaire. In the main study a representative sample of n = 282 physicians in free practices and n = 191 physicians in hospitals were interviewed. The response rates were 94% and 51% respectively. Analysis of non-responses did not indicate any bias. Half of the physicians think that a broader discussion on euthanasia is necessary, 34% disagree and 17% consider even a discussion already dangerous. 6% of the physicians in hospitals and 11% in free practices have already experienced methods of active euthanasia. Half of the physicians have seen patients who strongly wished euthanasia, a situation which happens once in every two years. The majority of physicians feel a deep understanding but only a minority of 4% comply with the wish. The vast majority of physicians advocate

  8. Controlling Gully Erosion: An Analysis of Land Reclamation Processes and Challenges in Chambal Badlands, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pani, Padmini

    2016-04-01

    techniques involves selective levelling and sequential terracing within a time span of 3 to 5 years. Other land reclamation measures are gully bunding, construction of check-dams, flow-diversion and plantations. These methods are found to be expensive and labour intensive, with uncertain results for long-term sustainability. Key words: Gully Erosion, Geo-spatial Techniques, Land Reclamation, Sustainability, Chambal

  9. Expert`s discourse: methods and results on resorptional availability of relevant pollutants in contaminated soil and other material; Methoden und Ergebnisse zur Resorptionsverfuegbarkeit relevanter Schadstoffe in kontaminierten Boeden und Materialien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkowski, D.; Guenther, P.; Krause, H.; Machtolf, M.

    1999-01-01

    The requirements in the Federal Soil Protection Law (Bundes-Bodenschutzgesetz) ask for more concrete forms of a legal decree on a sub-legal level concerning the judgement of risk evaluation of existing soil alterations. Among other items this would provide for the establishment of trigger and measure values, even if trigger values have already been proposed for priority substances, the discussion on the derivation of measure values - here concerning the direct pathway - has not come to an end yet. Especially it is still being criticized how far methodical basics would be yet available in order to identify the amount of human-toxicological material in the soil. In order to summarize the latest scientific findings, main topics of the experts` discourse on this research project were methods and results on resorptional availability of relevant pollutants in contaminated soil and other material. Preparing this discourse the experts were systematically questioned by a special inquiry form. Additionally to this, a short essay was provided for them, which made the momentary status quo available to the participants in order to be prepared for the experts` discourse. The guided experts` discourse took place on 10th February 1998 and dealed with those procedures methodically established and developed in Germany (Stomach-Intestine-Model of the Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Salive-Stomach-Intestine-Model of the Umweltbundesamt as well as the DIN/EN 71,3, which is being in use within the administrational execution in Baden-Wuerttemberg). In addition specifications regarding validation and further development as well as possibilities were discussed by means of how far a standardisation of the procedure for collecting data on the availability of resorption of contaminants would seem promising. Thus it could be outlined that on the basis of research and developmental projects of the recent years a state of methods has already been reached, which - including several detail-works to be

  10. Low-land Gully Formation in the Amhara Region, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijkee, Pim; Keesstra, Saskia; Mekonnen Gethahun, Mulatie

    2015-04-01

    . We expect that erosion rates have increased compared to historical rates. Gully formation in the study area is primarily driven by subsurface flow, leading to dispersion and bank collapse. Extensive signs of subsurface flows are visible in and around all research gullies. Land use has not changed significantly over the past decade, so will not have played a role in the increased erosion rates. The influence of the change in groundwater level since reservoir construction (2011) is pending analysis of current groundwater levels. With the implementation of stone bunds and fanja yuu on all fields on every hillslope surrounding the study area, infiltration will have increased significantly. Although this has decreased overland runoff, it will have increased ground water flows toward the study area and therefore made the area more susceptible to erosion through subsurface flow mechanisms.

  11. Methodological requirements on the spatial representativeness of heavy metal background values in top-soils; Methodische Anforderungen an die Flaechenrepraesentanz von Hintergrundwerten in Oberboeden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Utermann, J.; Duewel, O.; Fuchs, M.; Gaebler, H.E. [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Hannover (Germany); Gehrt, E.; Hindel, R.; Schneider, J. [Niedersaechsisches Landesamt fuer Bodenforschung, Hannover (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    zur Pruefung der pedoregionalen und nutzungsbezogenen Repraesentanz von Punkt-, d.h. Profildaten auf kleiner Massstabsebene vorgestellt. Der Ansatz fusst auf (i) der massstabsabhaengigen Auswertung der raeumlichen Verbreitung der Legendeneinheiten einer Karte der Bodenausgangsgesteine (BAG) und (ii) der Bewertung der Uebereinstimmung von Profilinformationen und den Flaecheninformationen, denen sie aufgrund ihres Lagebezuges zugeordnet werden. Zur Schaffung eines Datensatzes mit entsprechenden Punktinformationen wurden unterschiedliche Datenbestaende aus den Laendern und vom Bund nach inhaltlicher Harmonisierung und Abgleich mit Mindestanforderungen zusammengefuehrt. In analytischer Hinsicht erfolgte eine Datenharmonisierung durch den Vergleich von Elementgehalten in unterschiedlichen Aufschlussverfahren. Zur Umrechnung von Totalgehalten und Koenigswasser-extrahierbaren Elementgehalten wurden substrat- und elementspezifische Regressionsfunktionen abgeleitet. Der Flaechenbezug wird ueber eine Karte der BAG (Massstab 1:1 Mio.) und Informationen zu den Bodenarten hergestellt. Als zweite Flaecheninformation dient eine Karte der Hauptlandnutzung basierend auf den Kategorien der CORINE Landcover. Mit den derzeit laenderuebergreifend verfuegbaren Datensaetzen lassen sich unter Beruecksichtigung der pedoregionalen und nutzungsbezogenen Repraesentanz fuer ca. 67% der Flaeche Deutschlands Hintergrundwerte fuer Schwermetalle in Oberboeden ausweisen. Am Beispiel Niedersachsens wird der laenderuebergreifende Algorithmus zur Pruefung der pedoregionalen und nutzungsbezogenen Repraesentanz auf mittleren, laenderbezogenen Massstabsebenen untersucht. Mit Profilinformationen aus dem Niedersaechsischen Fachinformationssystem Bodenkunde (NIBIS) lassen sich auf Grundlage der gleichen Repraesentanzkriterien ca. 47% der Landesflaeche nutzungsdifferenziert mit Hintergrundwerten belegen. (orig.)

  12. Les règles de l’ostentation : L’œuvre-phare de Veblen : source et guide de la sociologie du loisir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Marie Lafortune

    2007-10-01

    , tradition and pre-modern values to the popular type. Second, in focusing on the process of sociocultural change, which lies for him on emulation. Thus, he denounces the conservatism of the elite, that causes more damages in an economic et social point of view as members of a class tend to realign their behavior according to the one of the members of the immediate higher class. His condemnation is however less radical then it appears. Even if the leisure class constrains the cultural evolution by its own inertia, it his still the institution that would more likely give birth to new pratices. Despite its unproductive side, the leisure of the élite remains at the base of cultural innovation.Thorstein Bunde Veblen, values, classes, leisure, conspicuous consumption, sociocultural change

  13. How effective are soil and water conservation techniques in reducing annual plot runoff and soil loss? A pan-European and Mediterranean review and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maetens, W.; Poesen, J.; Vanmaercke, M.

    2012-04-01

    While a substantial number of experimental studies on the effectiveness of soil and water conservation techniques (SWCTs) in reducing annual runoff (Ra) and annual soil loss (SLa) at plot scales in Europe and the Mediterranean exists, a comprehensive overview and analysis of plot Ra and SLa data is lacking. Therefore, the objective of this study is to analyse the effectiveness of SWCT in reducing Ra and SLa in Europe and the Mediterranean, as well as to explore the factors that determine SWCT effectiveness. In the framework of the FP6 project DESIRE (http://www.desire-project.eu), a comprehensive plot database was compiled based on an extensive literature review covering 101 reports and publications. The database contains Ra and SLa data measured on runoff plots, where various SWCTs were tested in the Euro-Mediterranean region. The total database contains 353 plots, corresponding to 2 093 plot-years from 103 plot measuring stations throughout Europe and the Mediterranean. For 224 of these plots (corresponding to 1 567 plot-years), Ra and/or SLa from a paired plot with the same dimensions, land use and measuring period, but without the application SWCT was available, allowing to assess the effectiveness of the applied SWCTs. Documented SWCTs include cover crops, mulching, grass buffer strips, strip cropping, exclosure, no-tillage, reduced tillage, contour tillage, deep tillage, drainage, soil amendment, terraces, contour bunds and geotextiles. Analyses of the database shows that there are clear differences in effectiveness in reducing Ra and SLa between different SWCTs. Techniques related to crop and vegetation management like mulching (median reduction of Ra to 32% and SLa to 23% of the corresponding values measured on the plot without SWCT) and cover crops (36% for Ra and 14% for SLa) are more effective than soil management techniques like no-tillage (85% for Ra and 57% for SLa) or reduced tillage (90% for Ra and 68% for SLa). While these techniques are commonly

  14. Water balance of rice plots under three different water treatments: monitoring activity and experimental results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaradia, Enrico Antonio; Romani, Marco; Facchi, Arianna; Gharsallah, Olfa; Cesari de Maria, Sandra; Ferrari, Daniele; Masseroni, Daniele; Rienzner, Michele; Battista Bischetti, Gian; Gandolfi, Claudio

    2014-05-01

    In the agricultural seasons 2012 and 2013, a broad monitoring activity was carried out at the Rice Research Centre of Ente Nazionale Risi (CRR-ENR) located in Castello d'Agogna (PV, Italy) with the purpose of comparing the water balance components of paddy rice (Gladio cv.) under different water regimes and assessing the possibility of reducing the high water inputs related to the conventional practice of continuous submergence. The experiments were laid out in six plots of about 20 m x 80 m each, with two replicates for each of the following water regimes: i) continuous flooding with wet-seeded rice (FLD), ii) continuous flooding from around the 3-leaf stage with dry-seeded rice (3L-FLD), and iii) surface irrigation every 7-10 days with dry-seeded rice (IRR). One out of the two replicates of each treatment was instrumented with: water inflow and outflow meters, set of piezometers, set of tensiometers and multi-sensor moisture probes. Moreover, an eddy covariance station was installed on the bund between the treatments FLD and IRR. Data were automatically recorded and sent by a wireless connection to a PC, so as to be remotely controlled thanks to the development of a Java interface. Furthermore, periodic measurements of crop biometric parameters (LAI, crop height and rooting depth) were performed in both 2012 and 2013 (11 and 14 campaigns respectively). Cumulative water balance components from dry-seeding (3L-FLD and IRR), or flooding (FLD), to harvest were calculated for each plot by either measurements (i.e. rainfall, irrigation and surface drainage) or estimations (i.e. difference in the field water storage, evaporation from both the soil and the water surface and transpiration), whereas the sum of percolation and capillary rise (i.e. the 'net percolation') was obtained as the residual term of the water balance. Incidentally, indices of water application efficiency (evapotranspiration over net water input) and water productivity (grain production over net water

  15. Errors and pitfalls: Briefing and accusation of medical malpractice – the second victim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wienke, Albrecht

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available [english] In June 2012, the German Medical Association (Bundesärztekammer published the statistics of medical malpractice for 2011 (published at . Still ENT-specific accusations of medical malpractice are by far the fewest in the field of hospitals and actually even in the outpatient context. Clearly most of the unforeseen incidents still occur in the disciplines of trauma surgery and orthopedics. In total, however, an increasing number of errors in treatment can be noticed on the multidisciplinary level: in 25.5% of the registered cases, an error in treatment was found to be the origin of damage to health justifying a claim for compensation of the patient. In the year before, it was only 24.7%. The reasons may be manifold, but the medical system itself certainly plays a major role in this context: the recent developments related to health policy lead to a continuous economisation of medical care. Rationing and limited remuneration more and more result in the fact that therapeutic decision are not exclusively made for the benefit of the patient but that they are oriented at economic or bureaucratic aspects. Thus, in the long term, practising medicine undergoes a change. According to the §§ 1, 3 of the professional code of conduct for doctors (Musterberufsordnung für Ärzte; MBO-Ä medical practice as liberal profession is principally incompatible with the pursuit of profit, however, even doctors have to earn money which more and more makes him play the role of a businessman. Lack of personnel and staff savings lead to excessive workloads of physicians, caregivers, and nurses, which also favour errors. The quality and even the confidential relationship between doctor and patient, which is important for the treatment success, are necessarily affected by the cost pressure. The victims in this context are not only the patients but also the physicians find themselves in the continuous conflict between ethical requirements of their profession and

  16. Cyclone Xaver seen by SARAL/AltiKa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharroo, Remko; Fenoglio, Luciana; Annunziato, Alessandro

    2014-05-01

    meteorological forecasts produced by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) to estimate (with a 2-day lead time) potential storm surges due to cyclone or general storm events. Departure between model and altimeter-derived values, in particularly wind, are investigated and discussed. The qualitative agreement is satisfactory; the maximum storm surge peak is correctly estimated by BSH but underestimated by JRC due to insufficient wind forcing. The wind speed of SARAL/AltiKa agrees well with the ECMWF model wind speed but is lower than the DWD model estimate. The authors acknowledge the kind support from the BSH, the Bundesumweltministerium (BMU), Projectträger Jülich (PTJ), and the Wasser- und Schifffahrtsverwaltung des Bundes (WSV).

  17. Hazard Forecasting by MRI: A Prediction Algorithm of the First Kind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomnitz, C.

    2003-12-01

    enhancement in space is shaped like a Mexican hat function. The central part is the aftershock region, separated by a ring of quiescence from an outer region of increased rupture probability(Lomnitz, 1996b). In conclusion, we may speak of seismic weather prediction using MRI. Hasselmann, K. (2002). Is climate predictable? In The Science of Disasters, A. Bunde, J. Kropp and H.J. Schellnhuber, eds. (Springer, Berlin, 140-169). Lomnitz, C. (1996a). Predicting earthquakes with the MRI algorithm, Seismol. Res. Letters, 67, 40-46. Lomnitz, C. (1996b). Search of a worldwide catalog for earthquakes triggered at intermediate distances, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., 86, 293-298. Lorenz, E. (1975). Climate predictability: The physical basis of climate and climate modeling. World Meteorol. Org., Geneva, Report 16, 132.

  18. The German approach to emergency/disaster management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domres, B; Schauwecker, H H; Rohrmann, K; Roller, G; Maier, G W; Manger, A

    2000-01-01

    Disaster control and disaster relief in Germany are public tasks. But the government has shifted the responsibility of the administration of these tasks to the 16 states, the so called "Lander", because the EFG is a federal republic. The same is valid for the civil defense and the civil protection in the case of military or international risks. The 16 states are also responsible for the legislation of rescue service, fire fighting service and disaster control (natural and technical disasters). Counties and district-free cities are responsible for the organisation of these services. The German system is based on the principle of subsidiary between official and private institutions. A lot of official and private relief organisations are responsible for the execution of disaster relief tasks. In Germany the following organisations exist: Official (GO): Technisches Hilfswerk (THW/Federal Technical Support Service), Feuerwehren (Fire Brigades/professionals and volunteers) Academie of Emergency Planning and Civil Defense Private (NGO): Arbeiter-Samariter-Bund Deutschland (ASB/Workers' Samaritan Association Germany), Deutsche Gesellschaft zur Rettung Schiffbruchiger (DGzRS, German Lifesaving Association), Deutsches Rotes Kreuz (DRK/German Red Cross), Johanniter-Unfall-Hilfe (JUH/St. John's Ambulance), Malteser Hilfsdienst (MEID/Maltese-Relief-Organisation). ASB, DRK, JUH and MHD are specialised in the field of rescue, medical and welfare services and medical disaster relief. 80% of the German rescue service and 95% of the German disaster medical relief are realised by these NGO's. NGO's and GO's employ more than 1.2 million volunteers and appr. 100,000 professionals. Rescue service is carried out by professionals, disaster relief by volunteers. The German constitution allows to call the federal army in case of disaster, to support the disaster relief organisations (for example: flood Oder River 1997, train-crash "ICE" 1998). In all counties and district free cities

  19. Protecting the global climate through enhanced use of renewable energy sources. Study report. Compact version; Klimaschutz durch Nutzung erneuerbarer Energien. Studie. Kurzfassung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-10-31

    Ausgangspunkt der Analyse. Strom- und Waermemarkt werden aufgrund ihrer sehr unterschiedlichen Ausgestaltung getrennt behandelt. Fuer den Strombereich werden ein modifiziertes StrEG und die Vermarktung von Gruenem Strom als Hauptinstrumente vorgeschlagen. Fuer den Waermebereich sind die Hauptinstrumente eine Zuschussfoerderung fuer Kleinanlagen und eine Quotenregelung fuer Grossanlagen. Daneben muessen eine Reihe flankierender Unterstuetzungsmassnahmen ergriffen werden, wenn das Verdopplungsziel sicher bis 2010 erreicht werden soll. Neben den nicht budgetwirksamen Massnahmen StrEG und Quote erfordert der gewuenschte Zubau ein mittleres Zuschussvolumen von Bund und Laendern von rund 600 Mio. DM/a ueber 10 Jahre (1999: ca. 440 Mio DM/a). (orig.)

  20. 大都市创意空间识别研究——基于上海市创意企业分析视角%The Identification of Creative Spaces in Shanghai: Based on the Space Relation of Creative Enterprise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马仁锋

    2012-01-01

    CI, which then forms new economic space--the creative spaces (CS) emergences. What are CS? There are no unambiguous concepts. With the primary purpose of examining whether or not it ex- ists in metropolises in developing countries like China, and the stage of its growth, the authors took the CI of Shanghai as an example, collected data from yearbooks of the first and second Shanghai economic censuses, and used the method of combining global and local Moran's Index by GeoDA 0.9.5.i, monocentricity & polycentrici- ty autoregressive model of Creative Enterprises (CE), and creative industrial agglomeration forms. The results show that: (1) the route and its methods of Identification of CS is feasible; (2) the spatial correlation of CE in Shanghai in 2004 and 2008 is positive, whereas the correlation coefficient is small, CE spatial distribution is not entirely random, but spatial clustering of the similar values is obvious; (3) the CE are highly concentrated in cen- tral Shanghai and two centers Jing'an and Luwan have been formed, but the CBD in Shanghai which include the Bund and the Nanjing West Road is different from that of foreign metropolises.

  1. Diagnose problems of pulmonary heart disease complicated with hypertension,coronary heart disease%肺心病伴发高血压冠心病的诊断问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李增玉

    2016-01-01

    Objective TO investiGate tHe cLinicaL diaGnOsis Of puLmOnary HypertensiOn,Heart disease WitH cOrOnary Heart disease. Methods FrOm May 2013 tO May 2014,tHe 50 seLected puLmOnary Heart disease cOmpLicated WitH cOrO-nary Heart disease and HypertensiOn Were treated as tHe ObservatiOn GrOup,50 cases Of puLmOnary Heart disease Were tHe cOntrOL GrOup,tHe cLinicaL data Were cOmparativeLy revieWed,incLudinG eLectrOcardiOGram testinG,cLinicaL manifestatiOns. Results Obesity rate,tHe rate Of smOKinG HistOry,parOXysmaL nOcturnaL dyspnea in tHe ObservatiOn GrOup Were siGnificant-Ly HiGHer,tHe severe riGHt Heart faiLure rate Was LOWer tHan tHOse in tHe cOntrOL GrOup,tHe differences Were siGnificant( P﹤0. 05). THere Was nO siGnificant difference in tHe number Of patients WitH arrHytHmias(P﹥0. 05),but tHe rates Of myOcar-diaL infarctiOn,HypertensiOn,diabetes,anGina,HistOry Of HyperLipidemia in tHe ObservatiOn GrOup Were siGnificantLy HiGHer tHan tHOse in tHe cOntrOL GrOup( P﹤0. 05). THere Was nO siGnificant difference in tHe incidence Of puLmOnary P Wave betWeen tHe tWO GrOups( P﹥0. 05),but tHe rates Of Left bundLe brancH bLOcK,persistent iscHemia,Left aXis deviatiOn,myOcardiaL infarctiOn perfOrmance,sustained atriaL fi-briLLatiOn Was siGnificantLy HiGHer in tHe ObservatiOn GrOup(P﹤0. 05),tHe rate Of riGHt aXis deviatiOn Was siGnificantLy LOW-er tHan tHOse in tHe cOntrOL GrOup(P﹤0. 05). Conclusions PuLmOnary Heart disease cOmpLicated WitH cOrOnary Heart dis-ease and HypertensiOn is severe,cHanGes quicKLy,tHere is HiGH mOrtaLity rate,requires tHe use Of an apprOpriate prOGram Of earLy diaGnOsis,misdiaGnOsis rate and reduce tHe rate Of misdiaGnOsis,tO Guard aGainst cOrOnary Heart disease-induced fac-tOrs,prOmpt treatment,tHe prOGnOsis can imprOve tHe deLivery Of strOnG prOtectiOn.%目的:探讨肺心病伴高血压冠心病的临床诊断。方法选取2013年5月至2014年5月收治的肺心病伴发高血压冠心病患者50例,设为观察组

  2. Fractional and fractal dynamics approach to anomalous diffusion in porous media: application to landslide behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martelloni, Gianluca; Bagnoli, Franco

    2016-04-01

    and physical applications, Physics reports, 195(4-5), 127293, 1990. [27] P.-G. de Gennes, Scaling Concepts in Polymer Physics, Cornell University Press, Ithaca, 1979. [28] M. Doi, S.F. Edwards, The Theory of Polymer Dynamics, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1986. [29] M. Porto, A. Bunde, S. Havlin, H.E. Roman, Phys. Rev. E 56 (2), 1997. [30] P. Allegrini, M. Buiatti, P. Grigolini, B. J. West, Non-Gaussian statistics of anomalous diffusion: The DNA sequences of prokaryotes, Physical Review E 58(3), 1998. [31] M. Bologna, C. Tsallis, P. Grigolini, Anomalous diffusion associated with nonlinear fractional derivative Fokker-Planck-like equation: Exact time-dependent solutions, Physical Review E, 62(2), 2000. [32] W. Chen, H. Sun, X. Zhang, D. Korosak, Anomalous diffusion modeling by fractal and fractional derivatives, Computers and Mathematics with Applications, 59, 1754-1758, 2010. [33] V.E. Tarasov, Fractional Hydrodynamic Equations for Fractal Media, Annals of Physics, 318(2), 286-307, 2005. [34] G. Martelloni, S. Segoni, R. Fanti, F. Catani, Rainfall thresholds for the forecasting of landslide occurrence at regional scale. Landslides Journal, 9(4), 485-495, 2012. [35] M.G. Anderson, S. Howes, Development and application of a combined soil water-slope stability model, Q. J. Eng. Geol. London, 18: 225-236, 1985. [36] R.M. Iverson, Landslide triggering by rain infiltration, Water Resources Research 36(7): 1897-1910, 2000. [37] N. Lu, J. Godt, Infinite slope stability under steady unsaturated seepage conditions, Water Resources Research, Vol. 44, W11404, doi:10.1029/2008WR006976, 2008. [38] W. Wu, R.C. Sidle, A Distributed Slope Stability Model for Steep Forested Basins, Water Resour. Res., 31(8), 2097-2110, doi:10.1029/95WR01136, 1995. [39] G.B. Crosta, P. Frattini, Distributed modelling of shallow landslides triggered by intense rainfall, Natural Hazards and System Sciences 3: 81-93, 2003. [40] A. Patra, A. Bauer, C. Nichita, E. Pitman, M. Sheridan, M. Bursik, et al., Parallel