WorldWideScience

Sample records for bunds

  1. Determinants of the Adoption of Physical Soil Bund Conservation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: This study emphasizes the adoption of physical soil bund structures including the major factors influencing the adoption process. The study is based on the data collected from 120 households. Two analytical techniques, descriptive statistics and logistic regression function were employed in analyzing the data.

  2. Interdisciplinary on-site evaluation of stone bunds to control soil erosion on cropland in Northern Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyssen, Jan; Poesen, Jean; Gebremichael, Desta

    2007-01-01

    Since two decades, stone bunds have been installed in large areas of the Tigray Highlands, Northern Ethiopia, to control soil erosion by water. Field studies were conducted to quantify the effectiveness, efficiency, side effects and acceptance of stone bunds. Based on measurements on 202 field pa...

  3. Optimal spacing of soil conservation barriers : example of rock bunds in Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zougmore, R.; Kabore, D.; Lowenberg-DeBoer, J.

    2000-01-01

    Though construction methods vary widely, use of physical or biological barriers to conserve soil and water is common throughout the world. Rock or earthen bunds are common physical barriers. Strips of perennial grass, shrubs or trees serve as biological barriers. Often these barriers are arranged on

  4. Evaluation of the Impact of Stone Bunds on Soil Loss and Surface Runoff in the Gumara Maksegnit Watershed, Northern Highlands of Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakolbinger, Stefanie; Obereder, Eva Maria; Strohmeier, Stefan; Guzmán, Gema; Demelash, Nigus; Gomez, José Alfonso; Zucca, Claudio; Klik, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Ethiopia is highly affected by land degradation and one of the key problems is soil erosion. It is mainly caused by the rapid population increase, deforestation, low vegetation cover and unbalanced livestock and crop production. As far as about 85% of the Ethiopian population life of agriculture, it is essential to prevent or reduce further degradation. In the Northern Highlands of Ethiopia stone bunds are widely used as a soil and water conservation measure (SWC). Stone bunds are little embankments of stones along the contour lines and influence the translation processes of surface runoff. In June 2015 a field experiment was started in the Gumara Maksegnit watershed to investigate the impact of stone bunds on surface runoff and soil erosion. 4 m wide and 20 m long bordered replicated plots were installed with and without stone bunds. The average slope of the plots is about 8%.The design of the erosions plots with stone bunds allows the measurement of runoff along the stone bund as well as the overflow over it. At the end of the plots the sideflow and overflow are collected using a trough, then the runoff is divided by a multi-slot-divider and finally it is collected in storage ponds. Total runoff volume was measured and representative runoff samples were taken weekly to determine sediment concentration. Precipitation was measured in daily intervals next to the study site. First results show the positive impact of stone bunds on soil erosion. From July to September total precipitation was around 600 mm. During the same time period plots without stone bunds delivered around 15 t/ha soil loss whereas plots with stone bunds produced only 5 t/ha. This is a reduction of 77%. Only approximately 10% of the sediment is transported over the stone bund, the rest is either deposited or moved along it. Runoff does not show the same pattern. Further data is being processed at the moment and will be presented.

  5. Application of zai and rock bunds in the northwest region of Burkina Faso : Study of its impact on household level by using a stochastic linear programming model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maatman, A; Sawadogo, H; Schweigman, C; Ouedraogo, A

    Agricultural production in the northwest region of Burkina Faso is seriously endangered by soil erosion and an overall decline in Soil fertility. In the past 15 years various anti-erosion methods have been adopted in this region with quite some success. The widespread promotion lion of rock bunds is

  6. Til bunds i metropolen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Kristine; Schmidt, Jeanett; Kastanje, Maj

    2012-01-01

    Dette kapitel søger at belyse hvordan vestafrikanske hjemløse, der er kommet til Danmark som arbejdsmriganter klarer sig i København. Pga. vansligheder med at komme ind på det københavnske arbejdsmarked fratages de initiativet som arbejdstagere og overlever istedet som en art moderne jæger-samler......-samler folk gennem flaskesamling og som klienter på diverse sociale tilbud. Denne deroute er forbundet med hvad Goffman har betegnet som stigma....

  7. Comparison of SWAT and GeoWEPP model in predicting the impact of stone bunds on runoff and erosion processes in the Northern Ethiopian Highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demelash, Nigus; Flagler, Jared; Renschler, Chris; Strohmeier, Stefan; Holzmann, Hubert; Feras, Ziadat; Addis, Hailu; Zucca, Claudio; Bayu, Wondimu; Klik, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    Soil degradation is a major issue in the Ethiopian highlands which are most suitable for agriculture and, therefore, support a major part of human population and livestock. Heavy rainstorms during the rainy season in summer create soil erosion and runoff processes which affect soil fertility and food security. In the last years programs for soil conservation and afforestation were initiated by the Ethiopian government to reduce erosion risk, retain water in the landscape and improve crop yields. The study was done in two adjacent watersheds in the Northwestern highlands of Ethiopia. One of the watersheds is developed by soil and water conservation structures (stone bunds) in 2011 and the other one is without soil and water conservation structures. Spatial distribution of soil textures and other soil properties were determined in the field and in the laboratory and a soil map was derived. A land use map was evaluated based on satellite images and ground truth data. A Digital Elevation Model of the watershed was developed based on conventional terrestrial surveying using a total station. At the outlet of the watersheds weirs with cameras were installed to measure surface runoff. During each event runoff samples were collected and sediment concentration was analyzed. The objective of this study is 1) to assess the impact of stone bunds on runoff and erosion processes by using simulation models, and 2) to compare the performance of two soil erosion models in predicting the measurements. The selected erosion models were the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and the Geospatial Interface to the Water Erosion Prediction Project (GeoWEPP). The simulation models were calibrated/verified for the 2011-2013 periods and validated with 2014-2015 data. Results of this comparison will be presented.

  8. Wäre es Dir lieber, ich würde zu Recht verurteilt? - Sokrates Bund und die Frage der Kontrolle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Kaiser-Müller

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Die Ablösung von zweifelhafter menschlicher Kontrolle durch eine zuverlässige Software bietet eindrucksvolle Möglichkeiten. Mit der flächendeckenden Einführung von Sokrates Bund zum Schuljahr 2014/2015 wird endlich die Identifzierung von Pisadurchschnittsverderbern möglich. Die AutorInnen diskutieren die Lage ... Die Situation war dramatisch: Ungerecht angeklagt wegen Verführung der Jugend und Gottlosigkeit, sieht Sokrates dem Tod durch den Schierlingsbecher entgegen und antwortet auf die ob des Fehlurteils durchaus verständliche Klage von Xanthippe mit der titelgebenden Frage. Anschließend verweigert er die Flucht und zieht es vor, sich dem formal korrekt gefällten falschen Urteil zu beugen. Eine legendäre Entscheidung, in der Sokrates die Gesetzestreue mit der Begründung, man müsse schlechte Gesetze ändern, dürfe sie aber nicht übertreten, über das eigene Wohl stellt.

  9. Studie über Ausgewählte, typische Informationssysteme in der öffentlichen Verwaltung Schleswig-Holsteins, Nordrhein-Westfalens und des Bundes unter Prüfung der Relevanz als Testmarktbereich für das INSIS-Programm ; 3, Bd C

    CERN Document Server

    Studie über Ausgewählte, typische Informationssysteme in der öffentlichen Verwaltung Schleswig-Holsteins, Nordrhein-Westfalens und des Bundes unter Prüfung der Relevanz als Testmarktbereich für das INSIS-Programm ; 3, Bd C

  10. Studie über Ausgewählte, typische Informationssysteme in der öffentlichen Verwaltung Schleswig-Holsteins, Nordrhein-Westfalens und des Bundes unter Prüfung der Relevanz als Testmarktbereich für das INSIS-Programm ; Bd A

    CERN Document Server

    EURATOM. Brussels

    Studie über Ausgewählte, typische Informationssysteme in der öffentlichen Verwaltung Schleswig-Holsteins, Nordrhein-Westfalens und des Bundes unter Prüfung der Relevanz als Testmarktbereich für das INSIS-Programm ; Bd A

  11. Studie über Ausgewählte, typische Informationssysteme in der öffentlichen Verwaltung Schleswig-Holsteins, Nordrhein-Westfalens und des Bundes unter Prüfung der Relevanz als Testmarktbereich für das INSIS-Programm ; Bd B

    CERN Document Server

    EURATOM. Brussels

    Studie über Ausgewählte, typische Informationssysteme in der öffentlichen Verwaltung Schleswig-Holsteins, Nordrhein-Westfalens und des Bundes unter Prüfung der Relevanz als Testmarktbereich für das INSIS-Programm ; Bd B

  12. The German Federal Emission Control Act: (BImSchG). Commentary; 3. rev. ed.; Bundes-Immissionsschutzgesetz: (BImSchG). Kommentar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarass, H.D. [Bochum Univ. (Germany). Juristische Fakultaet

    1995-11-01

    Immissionsschutz eingegangen. Zahlreiche Fragen der Auslegung der Bundes-Immissionsschutzverordnung, der TA Laerm und der TA Luft werden im Zusammenhang mit den einschlaegigen Vorschriften des BImSchG eroertert. Zudem werden die Ordnungswidrigkeiten ausfuehrlich behandelt und ein Ueberblick ueber die einschlaegigen Strafrechtsbestaende gegeben. Vertiefte Aufmerksamkeit finden endlich die EG-rechtlichen Fragen. Die Erlaeuterungen sind vor allem an der Rechtsprechung orientiert; die gerichtlichen Entscheidungen wurden zu diesem Zweck umfassend ausgewertet. Aber auch die Literatur fand eine vergleichsweise intensive Beruecksichtigung. Inhaltlich wurde noch waehrend der Drucklegung die 1994 beschlossene Reform des Abfallrechts eingearbeitet. Gleiches gilt fuer das neue Umweltinformationsgesetz und den 1994 erfolgten Ausbau des Umweltstrafrechts. Beruecksichtigung findet auch die Verordnung ueber Immissionschutz- und Stoerfallbeauftragte (5. BImSchV) von 1993. Eine wesentliche Vertiefung erfuhren die Erlaeuterungen fuer Abfallentsorgungsanlagen und die Ausfuehrungen zum Immissionsschutz fuer Strassen und Schienenwege. Weiter wurden die Erlaeuterungen zur Umweltvertraeglichkeitspruefung und zum Stoerfallbeauftragten deutlich ausgeweitet. Rechtsverordnungen und EG-Vorschriften, Rechtsprechung und Literatur befinden sich auf dem Stand vom 1.8. 1994.

  13. The new German Electrosmog Ordinance. 26th Ordinance for implementation of the German Federal Emission Control Act (Ordinance on protection against electromagnetic fields - 26th BImSchV), as of 16 December 1996. Edition comprising explanations, legislative text, and statement of legislative intent; Die neue Elektrosmog-Verordnung. Sechsundzwanzigste Verordnung zur Durchfuehrung des Bundes-Immissionsschutzgesetzes (Verordnung ueber elektromagnetische Felder - 26. BImSchV) vom 16. Dezember 1996. Ausgabe mit Erlaeuterungsteil, Verordnungstext und amtlicher Begruendung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemmer, W.

    1997-10-01

    bestimmt sind, eingehalten werden. Dies ist im Zeichen eines sich rasant entwickelnden Telekommunikationsmarktes von besonderer Wichtigkeit. Mit der sechsundzwanzigsten Verordnung zur Durchfuehrung des Bundes-Immissionsschutzgesetzes (Verordnung ueber elektromagnetische Felder - 26. BImSchV) vom 16. Dezember 1996 hat die Bundesregierung eine Vorreiterrolle uebernommen, in anderen Laendern gibt es derartig weitreichende Vorschriften nicht. Auch auf EU-Ebene fehlen diese. (orig./AJ)

  14. Emergency preparedness for mass gatherings: Lessons of "12.31" stampede in Shanghai Bund

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-He Dong; Fei Liu; Yong-Mei Liu; Xia-Rong Jiang; Zhong-Xin Zhao

    2017-01-01

    According to WHO,one of these mass gatherings with critical risk is stampedes.Shanghai "12.31" stampede was a preventable tragedy that the government and event planner hold responsibility for.At the same time,it can be a legacy for improvement in the future.The government should draw experience on the implementation of an emergency preparedness system,in order to improve the rapid emergency response during mass gatherings in the future.

  15. Swiss Federal Energy Research Concept 2008 - 2011; Konzept der Energieforschung des Bundes 2008 bis 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-04-15

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the plan for the activities of the Swiss Federal Commission on Energy Research CORE during the period 2008 - 2011. The motivation behind the state promotion of energy research is discussed. The visions, aims and strategies of the energy research programme are discussed. The main areas of research to be addressed during the period are presented. These include the efficient use of energy in buildings and traffic - batteries and supercaps, electrical technologies, combustion systems, fuel cells and power generation are discussed. Research to be done in the area of renewable sources of energy are listed. Here, solar-thermal, photovoltaics, hydrogen, biomass, geothermal energy, wind energy and ambient heat are among the areas to be examined. Research on nuclear energy and safety aspects are mentioned. Finally, work on the basics of energy economy are looked at and the allocation of funding during the period 2008 - 2011 is looked at.

  16. A microscopic investigation into capacity drop: impacts of a bunded acceleration and reaction time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuan, K.; Knoop, V.L.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.

    2016-01-01

    Capacity drop indicates that the queue discharge rate is lower than the road capacity. Due to the capacity drop, traffic delays increase once queues form. Researchers find that queue discharge rates vary in different traffic conditions. Empirical data shows that the queue discharge rate increases as

  17. The nuclear phase-out. An expensive miscalculation by the federal government?; Kernenergieausstieg. Teure Rechenfehler des Bundes?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerssenbrock, Trutz Graf [Kanzlei Kerssenbrock, Bruck und Goerke, Kiel (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    With its ''energy turnaround'', implemented on 31 July 2011 through the Thirteenth Amendment to the Nuclear Energy Law (AtG), the Liberal/Christian Democrat Government finally seems to have thrown all caution to the wind. Its conduct of state affairs in the meantime appears to be governed more by calculated political manoeuvering and emotion mongering than by the constitutional order, and in legal respects it is leading the Federal Government into an impasse. The present article examines the impact of this misguided decision on the public purse in the form of (legitimate) claims for damage by the power supply companies concerned, and to what magnitude it might amount.

  18. Swiss energy research concept for the period 2004-2007; Konzept der Energieforschung des Bundes 2004-2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) made by the Swiss National Energy Research Commission CORE lists and discusses energy research topics that are to be looked during the period 2004 to 2007. The report discusses the fundamentals, visions and short and long-term targets for Swiss energy research and presents strategies for reaching them. Research areas dealt with include the efficient use of energy, renewable sources of energy, nuclear energy and the energy-economics basics necessary for the implementation of sustainable energy policy. Also, implementation aspects such as pilot and demonstration installations are discussed. The current state of research is noted and strategic targets and the ways and means of reaching them are examined. Main areas of research for the period are listed and financing issues are discussed.

  19. Emergency preparedness for mass gatherings: Lessons of “12.31” stampede in Shanghai Bund

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-He Dong

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available According to WHO, one of these mass gatherings with critical risk is stampedes. Shanghai “12.31” stampede was a preventable tragedy that the government and event planner hold responsibility for. At the same time, it can be a legacy for improvement in the future. The government should draw experience on the implementation of an emergency preparedness system, in order to improve the rapid emergency response during mass gatherings in the future.

  20. Swiss Federal energy research - project list 2006/2007; Projektliste der Energieforschung des Bundes 2006/2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-03-15

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) lists and classifies the 1,025 energy-relevant research projects carried out in the years 2006 and 2007. Those projects are listed that were supported and/or financed with Swiss or European public funding. Details of the contributions made by private enterprises are noted and discussed. It is also noted that the Swiss Federal Office of Energy operates a data bank with a systematic collection of around 9,200 publications on research projects. Statistics on the classification of the projects are presented, as are details of funding for the years 1990 to 2007. The sources of financing and the distribution of the means over the various areas of research are looked at. The number of persons active in the research work is discussed. A comparison is made with the research programs of other countries. The list of projects is split into four categories - efficient use of energy, renewable energy resources, nuclear energy, energy economic basics as well as technology transfer and co-ordination. Finally a comprehensive list of all research projects for the years 2006 and 2007 is presented in tabular form. A list of those responsible for the various areas of research completes the report.

  1. The climate change law of the federal government. Analyses and proposals to its further development; Das Klimaschutzrecht des Bundes. Analyse und Vorschlaege zu seiner Weiterentwicklung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sina, Stephan; Garstetter, Christiane; Bausch, Camilla; Goerlach, Benjamin; Neubauer, Alexander [Ecologic gGmbH Institut fuer Internationale und Europaeische Umweltpolitik, Berlin (Germany); Rodi, Michael [Greifswald Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer oeffentliches Recht, Finanz- und Steuerrecht

    2011-09-15

    The present report provides an analysis of the current German federal climate change law. Due to the crosssectoral character of this law, the study comprises regulations from different sectors and areas of law such as emissions trading, the energy sector and agriculture. Based on this analysis, proposals for the advancement of the German federal law of climate change are developed in five particular areas: a potential outline for a general climate protection act serving as the central legal act for climate change law, further considerations on the structure of climate change law, development proposals related to energy grids, federal requirements for municipal climate protection as well as agricultural land use. (orig.)

  2. Landschaftsplanung und Naturschutz : Bericht über das Kolloquium des Bundes Deutscher Landschaftsarchitekten, LV Sachsen-Anhalt, der Architektenkammer und der Landgesellschaft Sachsen-Anhalt

    OpenAIRE

    Wendt, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Im Rahmen des Fortbildungsprogramms zu rechtlichen Aspekten und aus Anlass der 3. Landesgartenschau hatte die Architektenkammer Sachsen-Anhalt am 9. Juni 2010 zu einem gemeinsamen Kolloquium mit der Landgesellschaft Sachsen-Anhalt eingeladen. Unter der Überschrift „Landschaftsplanung und Naturschutz“ wurden von fünf Fachreferenten Beiträge mit einer Schwerpunktsetzung auf Landschaftswert, Eingriffsregelung und Ökokonto vorgetragen.

  3. Activities of the Federal Government, Laender and municipalities and fields of activity relating to building modernisation; Aktivitaeten des Bundes, der Laender und der Kommunen und Handlungsfelder zur Gebaeudesanierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanke, Thomas; Schuele, Ralf; Pietzner, Katja [Wuppertal Institut fuer Klima, Umwelt, Energie GmbH, Wuppertal (Germany)

    2007-12-15

    The present report inquires into how the programmes and activities undertaken by the German Federal Government and the Lnder to increase the potential for building modernisation should be designed so that municipalities, including those with poor financial means, can utilise and create incentives and also take on a role as local multiplicator for building modernisation to improve energy efficiency. The goal is to maximise synergy effects between building modernisation programmes of the Federation and Laender and activities at the municipal level. The second part of the report explains the legal framework for promotion by the Federation and Laender which has been set up on the basis of European and global goals for climate protection and in particular building modernisation. The third part clarifies the importance and significance of building modernisation for climate protection and pinpoints general impediments affecting the area of building modernisation. The last part of the report offers suggestions to municipalities for setting up, designing and supplementing building modernisation programmes dedicated to improving energy efficiency.

  4. Energy Research 2006 - Overview; Recherche energetique/Energie-Forschung 2006. Rapports de synthese des chefs de programme/Ueberblicksberichte der Programmleiter. Konzept der Energieforschung des Bundes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-05-15

    This comprehensive annual report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) contains the overview-reports for the year 2006 that were made by the heads of the following Swiss energy research programmes: Efficient energy use, renewable energy, nuclear energy and fundamentals of energy economics. Under the topic of efficient energy use, new planning tools and a building component catalogue are mentioned along with new developments in building technology. In the traffic area, energy-optimisation of components and drive systems are mentioned as are electric bikes and a taxi system running on tracks. High-temperature superconductors, permanent magnet motors along with alternative power generation and storage systems are reviewed. New electricity grid systems and energy hubs are reported on. In the heat pump area, hot-water preparation, quality assurance and magnetic heat pumps are listed. Combustion topics reviewed include large diesel engines and catalytic oxidation in gas turbines. The new 'Power Station 2020' program is introduced with combined heat and power stations and efficient gas turbines. Fuel cells and hydrogen production and storage are looked at, as are process integration topics in the industrial area. Renewable energy topics described include design software and testing systems for solar heating systems, thin-film photovoltaics, industrial use of solar energy and solar production of hydrogen. Biomass and wood-fuel topics are covered, including the gasification of biomass. Cost reduction in small-scale hydro schemes is reported on as are hydropower schemes using drinking water and waste water. Geothermal energy and deep-heat mining are reported on, as is the use of geothermal probes for heating and cooling. Research and field testing done in the wind-energy area and the social acceptance of such installations are presented. In the nuclear energy area, safety and waste disposal issues are covered, as are a future reactor generation, safety research and work on controlled nuclear fusion. Energy-economics topics include contributions on building energy certificates, highly volatile oil prices, wood heating and district heating systems. The opening of the natural gas market in Switzerland is discussed.

  5. Environmental radioactivity in Germany. Report of the federal installations and the Federal office of radiation protection. Data and evaluation; Umweltradioaktivitaet in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Bericht der Leitstellen des Bundes und des Bundesamtes fuer Strahlenschutz. Stand 2014. Daten und Bewertung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-04-15

    This report is a compilation and evaluation of data on radioactivity in the environment and in the vicinity of nuclear facilities in Germany from 2011 to 2013. The mean radiation exposure of the public in Germany was about 4.0 mSv in 2013, of which natural radiation exposure accounted for about 2.1 mSv and man-made radiation exposure for 1.9 mSv. An international work group is in charge of the preparation of quality standards for radon measurements. These latter also serve as a basis to implement the regulations of the new EURATOM Basic Safety Standards Directive. Rice grown within the contaminated zone around Fukushima has been certified as reference material for food monitoring. The trace analysis laboratory for airborne radioactive substances obtained several striking results of measurements performed during the reporting period. Man-made radionuclides from the Fukushima nuclear accident were detectable, too. Assessment of anthropogenic radioactivity also requires thorough measurement of ''natural'' radiation components. Three different measurement areas are used as a reference for calibration. Discharges of radioactive substances into the exit air and wastewaters from nuclear power plants remained far below the authorised limit from 2011 to 2013. There has been a trend of decreasing discharges since 1975. The nine nuclear power plant units in operation at the end of the reporting period had a total capacity of 12.7 GW and accounted for 15 per cent of power generation. The annual mean values provided by the measuring network of the Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD; German Meteorological Service) amounted to 0.6 mBq/m{sup 3}, 0.7 mBq/m{sup 3} and 0.7 mBq/m{sup 3} for the total -activity in the air and 58 Bq/m{sup 2}, 38 Bq/m{sup 2}, and 27 Bq/m{sup 2} for the total -activity deposited by precipitation in 2011, 2012 and 2013, respectively. The higher annual value for 2011 is due to the Fukushima releases. The activity concentrations of {sup 85}Kr measured by the BfS in Freiburg remained at about 1.5 Bq/m{sup 3}. The measured activity concentrations of {sup 133}Xe ranged from one to 100 mBq/m{sup 3}, except for the time after the Fukushima disaster. Almost all measured values of {sup 137}Cs concentrations in drinking water and groundwater are below the detection limit The BfS, in cooperation with the PTB, carried out interlaboratory comparisons to determine natural radionuclides in drinking water in 2012 and 2014. In the North Sea sampling was performed every August. The {sup 137}Cs activity concentration ranged from 1.3 Bq/m{sup 3} in the Elbe estuary up to 3.0 Bq/m{sup 3} in the outer German Bight. Compared to this, the {sup 137}Cs activity concentration in the Baltic Sea is higher, ranging from 20 Bq/m{sup 3} in the western part, to 34 Bq/m{sup 3} in the eastern part of the region under study, as a result of the Chernobyl reactor accident. Consequently, the measured {sup 137}Cs activity concentrations in fish are also higher in the Baltic Sea than in the North Sea, reaching up to 11 Bq/kg during the reporting period. Increased activity concentrations are still being measured in fish from inland waters, especially from lakes. In Southern Germany, these have declined from more than 200 Bq/kg moist mass in 1986 down to 2.3 Bq/kg up to now. As a result of the Fukushima nuclear disaster, more than 10 PBq of {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs (1 PBq = 1015Bq) entered the Pacific Ocean every. While soil contamination with {sup 137}Cs is due to the Chernobyl accident, most of the {sup 90}Sr deposits go back to the time of the atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. In feedstuffs, mean values ranging from < 0.1 Bq/kg up to 0.8 Bq/kg were measured for {sup 137}Cs and from 0.1 Bq/kg up to 2.3 Bq/kg for {sup 90}Sr. Contamination of milk constantly remains at a low level. Dietary intake of {sup 137}Cs and 90Sr was 73 Bq and 29 Bq, respectively, on average in 2013. An interlaboratory comparison involving 72 institutions from Germany and neighbouring countries was carried out to determine the levels of {sup 40}K, {sup 89}Sr, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 131}I, Ba-133, {sup 134}Cs, and {sup 137}Cs in raw milk. More than 94 per cent of the measurement results obtained for all nuclides were within the allowed range of dispersion. Apart from {sup 131}I, which was detected in many samples of fly ash/filter dust and is assumed to originate from nuclear medicine applications, {sup 137}Cs from the Chernobyl accident was still detectable. Mean values of 14 Bq/kg of dry matter were measured in clearing sludge in Southern Bavaria. {sup 134}Cs from the Fukushima accident was also detectable temporarily in 2011. As a consequence of the Chernobyl accident, the {sup 137}Cs activity concentration was found to be enhanced in samples of plants used to make pharmaceuticals or tea still in 2013. Buckbean leaves from Poland had 35 Bq/kg of dry matter, and Iceland moss from Russia 15 Bq/kg of dry matter.

  6. Developments of the climate protection law and the climate change policy 2014-2015. Pt. 2. Federal government, federal states and municipalities; Entwicklungen des Klimaschutzrechts und der Klimaschutzpolitik 2014/2015. T. 2. Bund, Bundeslaender und Kommunen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staesche, Uta [Hochschule fuer Wirtschaft und Recht (HWR), Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Klimaschutz, Energie und Mobilitaet (IKEM)

    2015-08-14

    According to the motto of the energy transition the Federal Government set herself targets in the areas of greenhouse gas emissions, renewable energy and energy efficiency. Main emphasis of its climate change policy is the implementation of the 2014/15 Action Programme Climate Protection 2020. A key measure discussed here is the climate contribution of the German electricity sector, is now being implemented in a significantly modified form. With a view on the long-term climate objectives prepares the federal government the national climate change plan 2050; the federal government promote locally climate protection within the framework of the National Climate Protection Initiative (NKI) in a Variety of projects. On the level of the federal states intensifies clearly the trend of the legal protection of federal climate protection targets. In addition to the federal levels are also the municipalities still active in various climate protection projects. [German] Unter dem Leitwort der Energiewende hat sich die Bundesregierung Ziele in den Bereichen Treibhausgasemissionen, erneuerbare Energien und Energieeffizienz gesetzt. Schwerpunkt ihrer Klimaschutzpolitik bildet 2014/15 die Umsetzung des Aktionsprogramms Klimaschutz 2020. Als eine zentrale Massnahme wurde hier der Klimabeitrag des deutschen Stromsektors diskutiert, der nun in deutlich abgewandelter Form umgesetzt wird. Mit Blick auf die langfristigen Klimaschutzziele bereitet die Bundesregierung den nationalen Klimaschutzplan 2050 vor; Klimaschutz vor Ort foerdert sie im Rahmen der Nationalen Klimaschutzinitiative (NKI) in einer Vielzahl von Projekten. Auf Ebene der Bundeslaender verstaerkt sich deutlich der Trend der gesetzlichen Absicherung von Landesklimaschutzzielen. Neben den ueberregionalen Ebenen sind auch die Kommunen weiterhin in vielfaeltigen Klimaschutzprojekten aktiv.

  7. Leitbilder und Handlungsstrategien für die Raumentwicklung in Deutschland. Entwicklungs-, Umsetzungs- und Fortschreibungsprozess der Bund-Länder-Strategie für Städte und Regionen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issaoui, Mariam; Sinz, Manfred

    2010-09-01

    Die Ministerkonferenz für Raumordnung stellte im Mai 2010 fest, dass sich die „Leitbilder und Handlungsstrategien für die Raumentwicklung in Deutschland“ (2006) bewährt haben und bei der Gestaltung der räumlichen Entwicklung umgesetzt werden. Um die Leitbilder den sich verändernden wirtschaftlichen, sozialen und naturräumlichen Rahmenbedingungen anzupassen und die Erkenntnisse aus dem bisherigen Diskussions- und Umsetzungsprozess in Politik und Praxis einzubeziehen, sind sie zu ergänzen und weiterzuentwickeln. Im Mittelpunkt der Fortschreibung werden die Themen „Partnerschaften und Strategien für Stadtregionen und ländliche Räume“, „Mobilität und Logistik“ sowie „Klimaschutz und Energieversorgung“ stehen.

  8. Federal Act on Protection against Nuisances with implementing regulations, emission trading legislation, Technical Instructions on Air Quality Control (TA Luft) and the Technical Instructions on Noise Control (TA Laerm). 11. new rev. ed.; Bundes-Immissionsschutzgesetz mit Durchfuehrungsverordnungen, Emissionshandelsrecht, TA Luft und TA Laerm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarass, Hans D. (ed.)

    2011-07-01

    The actual version of the Federal Immission Control Act under consideration reports on the ordinance of small and medium firing installations, ordinance of installations requiring a permit, ordinance on nature and distinction of the quality of fuels, ordinance on immission control, ordinance on incident officer, ordinance on licensing procedure, ordinance on emission declaration, ordinance on disaster prevention, traffic noise ordinance, sports facilities noise ordinance, ordinance on electromagnetic pollution, ordinance on noise protection in public traffic, ordinance on waste treatment facilities, solvents regulation, ordinance on the protection against noise from equipment and machinery, ordinance on noise mapping, ordinance on motor vehicle pollutant labelling, ordinance on quotas for bio fuels, ordinance on air quality standard and emission ceilings.

  9. The EEG as an instrument of the Federal areal management of renewable energies - also a contribution to the discussion about energy sectoral planning; Das EEG als Instrument des Bundes zur raeumlichen Steuerung der erneuerbaren Energien - zugleich ein Beitrag zur Diskussion um eine Energiefachplanung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruener, Anna-Maria [Stiftung Umweltenergierecht, Wuerzburg (Germany); Sailer, Frank [Stiftung Umweltenergierecht, Wuerzburg (Germany). Forschungsgebiet Energieanlagen- und Infrastrukturrecht

    2016-05-15

    The areal management of the power generation structure takes place at first glance mainly on the Zoning and Planning Law, less than the energy law. The only sporadically encountered jurisprudential work for controlling effect of the EEG came to the conclusion, the current configuration of the support system in the EEG is in deficit and ''blind'' to the localization and areal distribution of energy generation plants in the Federal territory, although the EEG is representing a ''downright predestined management tool''. On closer inspection, however, shows that individual provisions have entirely certain location preferences or cause areal distribution effects and the EEG thus play a management effect. The contribution is therefore devoted to the question of whether and how the EEG 2014, with the overall network expansion and payment system is able to manage the energy production from renewable energy sources in the area and whether an energy specialist planning is useful and necessary. [German] Die raeumliche Steuerung der Energieerzeugungsstruktur findet auf den ersten Blick vornehmlich ueber das Raumordnungs- und Planungsrecht statt, weniger ueber das Energierecht. Die allenfalls vereinzelt anzutreffenden rechtswissenschaftlichen Arbeiten zur Steuerungsleistung des EEG kommen zu dem Ergebnis, die jetzige Ausgestaltung des Foerdersystems im EEG sei defizitaer und ''blind'' gegenueber der Lokalisierung und raeumlichen Verteilung von EE-Anlagen im Bundesgebiet, obwohl das EEG doch ein ''geradezu praedestiniertes Steuerungsinstrument'' darstelle. Bei naeherer Betrachtung zeigt sich jedoch, dass einzelne Regelungen durchaus bestimmte Standortpraeferenzen aufweisen bzw. raeumliche Verteilungseffekte bewirken und dem EEG damit eine steuernde Wirkung zukommt. Der Beitrag widmet sich daher der Frage, ob und wie das EEG 2014 sowie das allgemeine Netzausbau- und -entgeltsystem die Energieerzeugung aus erneuerbaren Energien raeumlich zu steuern vermoegen und ob eine Energiefachplanung sinnvoll und notwendig ist.

  10. 20 January 2011 - Hessischer Minister für Bundesangelegenheiten und Bevollmächtigter des Landes beim Bund, Hessen, Germany M. Boddenberg signing the guest book with CERN Director-General R. Heuer and Head of International Relations F. Pauss; in the ALICE surafce exhibition and underground experimental area with P. Braun-Munzinger, V.Lindenstruth and Adviser R. Voss.

    CERN Document Server

    Maximilien Brice

    2011-01-01

    Michael Boddenberg, Hessian Minister for Federal Affairs and Representative of Hessen in the Federal Government, visited CERN on 20 January. His tour included the ALICE experiment, the LHC tunnel, the CERN Computer Centre and CERN Control Centre.

  11. Protection and prevention. Structures of risk detection, risk assignment, and risk management of the two fundamental obligations defined in the Federal Emission Contract Act (BImSchG). Schutz und Vorsorge. Strukturen der Risikoerkenntnis, Risikozurechnung und Risikosteuerung der Grundpflichten im Bundes-Immissionsschutzgesetz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, F.

    1993-01-01

    The obligations to provide for protection and preventive action are the backbone of the Emission Control Act (BImSchG). With these two principles in mind, the Act defines the duties of the owners of industrial installations subject to licensing, to minimize or prevent the harmful environmental impact emanating from the existence and operation of their installations. Thus the two obligations mark the permissible margin or scope of environmental effects to be tolerated due to the operation of industrial installation, and establish the criteria to be applied to serve the legislative intent of the Act. The author defines the two obligations as a framework or system comprising the major principles of risk detection, risk assignment, and risk management. This systematic approach allows to weigh the legal relevance of unresolved problems of causal relationship research as well as problems raising the question of how to define the limit of acceptable risks to man and the environment. The author applies his validation concept to in-depth analyses of their air pollution control legislation, noise abatement legislation, and to safety engineering and accident prevention, and by finding answers to significant questions of law hitherto outstanding, he demonstrates the suitability of his approach and deepens the insight into these fields of law. (orig./HP)

  12. Er vi ved at date os til døde?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tem Frank

    2014-01-01

    Den amerikanske kulturkritiker Neil Postman skrev tilbage i 1970'erne om fjernsynets indflydelse på vores forstand, vores kognitive kompetencer, vores kulturelle præferencer og i bund og grund om vores civilisations intellektuelle tilstand....

  13. Difficulties in assessing outcomes of soil and water conservation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    therefore no need for bunds). Lack of mulching materials. 75 (55%). 15 (11%). 54 (40%). 33 (24%. Problems inhibiting successful implementation of soil and water conservation techniques. Table 2 shows that although most farmers apply contour.

  14. Forsøgsfiskeri med jomfruhummertejner i det permanent lukkede område i Kattegat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Rikke; Feekings, Jordan P.; Madsen, Niels

    2013-01-01

    bekymring for, hvorvidt tejnerne ville synke ned i bunden. Forsøget viste, at det var muligt at undgå områderne med meget blød bund, og på den øvrige bund stod tejnerne fint. Undervandskameraer dokumenterede forekomster af slim-ål, men agn-bokse sikrede, at disse ikke havde adgang til agnen. På basis af det...

  15. Illicit operation of industrial plant subject to licensing, or of other installations within the purview of the German Federal Emission Control Act (BImSchG), which have been shut down for protection against hazards (section 327, subsection 2, No. 1 Penal Code (StGB)); Das unerlaubte Betreiben von genehmigungsbeduerftigen Anlagen oder sonstigen Anlagen im Sinne des Bundes-Immissionsschutzgesetzes, deren Betrieb zum Schutz vor Gefahren untersagt worden ist (Paragraph 327 Abs.2 Nr.1 StGB)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ocker, A.

    1995-12-31

    The 18th act of 28 March 1980 for amendment of the German Criminal Code (StGB) incorporated the provisions governing the criminal offence of illicit operation of installations subject to licensing into the StGB. These provisions have until then been forming part of the BImSchG (Federal Act on Emission Control). The study in hand presents a discussion of section 327, subsection 2, No. 1 StGB, because this provision represents a fundamental type of an administration accessory criminal offence and thus is suitable to be taken as a basis for an analysis of the scope of problems covered by the StGB, but having an effect on and being interlaced with offences governed by other acts and legal provisions. The study addresses inter alia items such as the object of legal protection defined by this section of the StGB, the provisions defining the licensability of a non-licensed installation in operation, and the consequences of defective decisions under administrative law on the applicability of criminal law provisions. The specific aspects of section 327 StGB, which are of a dominantly administrative nature, are discussed, in particular those referring to the definition of the term ``industrial installation`` as defined by the BImSchG. [Deutsch] Durch das 18. Strafrechtsaenderungsgesetz vom 28.3.1980 wurde der Straftatbestand des unerlaubten Betreibens von Anlagen, die einer Genehmigung nach dem Bundesimmissionsschutzgesetz beduerfen, aus dem BImSchG in das Kernstrafrecht ueberfuehrt. Die vorliegende Untersuchung versucht eine eingehendere Auseinandersetzung mit Para. 327 Abs. 2 Nr. 1 StGB, weil diese Vorschrift als ein Grundtypus der verwaltungsakzessorischen Straftatbestaende die Gelegenheiit zur vertieften Diskussion von umfassenderen strafrechtlichen Problemkreisen gibt. Angesprochen sind insoweit vor allem die Frage des geschuetzten Rechtsgutes der Norm, der Behandlung der materiellen Genehmigungsfaehigkeit eines ungenehmigten Anlagenbetriebs sowie der Auswirkungen von verwaltungsrechtlichen Fehlern auf das Strafrecht. Daneben werden die spezifischen Problempunkte des Para. 327 Abs. 2 Nr. 1 StGB beachtet, die eine starke verwaltungsrechtliche Auspraegung aufweisen. Hervorzuheben sind hier insbesondere die Ausfuehrungen zum Anlagenbegriff i.S.d. BImSchG. (orig./HSCH)

  16. Effort to Increase Oil Palm Production through Application Technique of Soil and Water Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kukuh Murtilaksono

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out at block 375, 415, and 414 (block 1, 2, and 3 Afdeling III, Mangement Unit of Rejosari, PT Perkebunan Nusantara VII, Lampung from June 2005 until December 2007. Objective of the study is to examine the effect of soil and water conservation measurement, namely bund terrace and silt pit that are combined with retarded-water hole on production of oil palm. Sampled trees of each block were randomly selected as much as 36 trees. Parameters of vegetative growth (additional new frond, total of frond, number of new bunch, production (number of bunch, fresh fruit bunch (TBS, and average of bunch weigh (RBT were observed and recorded every two weeks. Production of palm oil of each block was also recorded every harvesting schedule of Afdeling. Tabular data were analyzed descriptively by logical comparison among the blocks as result of application of bund terrace and silt pit. Although the data of sampled trees were erratic, bund terrace and silt pit generally increasing number of frond, number of bunch, average of bunch weight, and fresh fruit bunch. Bund terrace gived the highest production of TBS (25.2 t ha-1 compared to silt pit application (23.6 t ha-1, and it has better effect on TBS than block control (20.8 t ha-1. Aside from that, RBT is the highest (21 kg at bund terrace block compared to silt pit block (20 kg and control block (19 kg.

  17. Tedmical Note on Local Adaptations to Soil Erosion and Low Soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    digenous soil and water conservation practices in response to soil erosion and low soil moisture. The main indigenous methods used were intercropping, trash lines, stone bunds, minimum tillage, grass strips, ''janyajuu t t terraces and their combinations. The farmers' decision to adapt a particular tech- nique was influenced ...

  18. Review of Rainwater Harvesting Techniques and Evidence for their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This technique involves'the creation of cross- slope barriers, which may be vegetative (grass sqips, _ trash lines) or mechanical (stone lines, earth Qunds). The barrier intercepts runoff from upslope and promotes infiltration in the cropped area. In the case of earth bunds, the barrier is designed to be impermeable and wa-.

  19. Neuer Trend: Bio ohne Knospe

    OpenAIRE

    Schiess, Christophe; Schaedeli, Alfred

    2004-01-01

    Seit es die Bioverordnung des Bundes gibt, gibt es auch Biohöfe ohne Knospe. Zunächst waren sie nur dünn gesät. Doch in den letzten Jahren hat ihre Zahl stark zugenommen. Vor allem Umstellbetriebe bevorzugen die punktuell weniger strengen Richtlinien der Bioverordnung. bioaktuell ist dem Phänomen nachgegangen.

  20. Final Environmental Assessment: Renovation of Child Development Centers Buildings 3904 and 5510 at Tinker Air Force Base, Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-28

    fungicide/ antimicrobial fogging and complete HEPA filtration (Dove, 2008). 1.2 History of the Formulation of Alternatives The National...paren!S F’O’St aid supplies will be kept on hand in each facility to include on•• bActerial soap , Band.-Atds. bund~~ges. ice pa<:la ’tw=rs, gauze

  1. Untitled

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    bunds; maintenance of the dam infrastructure involving the filling of potholes on the dam wall, as well as canal cleaning and repairs; the resolution of conflicts and the mobilization of funds. The Binduri Water Users Association is confronted with a series of challenges ranging from poor finances to weak enforcement of rules.

  2. Skuffende forsideartikel i Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole John

    2008-01-01

    Lørdag den 31. marts 2007 skriver Jørgen Steen Nielsen en forside-artikel med overskriften 'Der er ingen CO2-grund til at spare på elektriciteten'. Det er skuffende at JSN ikke kommer lidt mere til bunds i materien. JSN burde vide og skrive, at det, der skal til , er en global enighed om hvilken ...

  3. "Ma ei usu Jumalasse, kuid tunnen temast puudust" / Urmas Petti

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Petti, Urmas, 1965-

    2013-01-01

    Ameerika õigusfilosoofi Ronald Dworkini "jumalatu religiooni" kontseptsioonist; pealkiri on inglise kirjaniku Julin Barnes'i tsitaat, millest sai Šveitsi ajalehe Der Bund esseekonkursi teema aastal 2011; autor tsiteerb veel Mihkel Kunnust (Humanismi õnnetusi, Sirp, 6. aug. 2010), Torgny Lindgren ja Jeanette Wintersoni

  4. Distribution and nature of sedimentary organic matter in a tropical estuary: An indicator of human intervention on environment

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarkar, Arindam; Chakraborty, P.; Nath, B.N

    in the clay-sized fractions from the southern part. Alteration of sediment texture led to a change in the distribution pattern of SOM in the lake after bund construction. Human intervention and changes in land-use pattern were also found to influence the SOM...

  5. Percolation pond as a method of managed aquifer recharge in a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This study indicated that a simple excavation without providing support for the slope and paving of the bunds helped to improve the groundwater quality. This method can be easily adoptable by farmers who can have a small pond within their farm to collect and store the rainwater. The cost of water recharged from this pond ...

  6. On the presence of Rana ridibunda ridibunda Pallas in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogmoed, M.S.

    1975-01-01

    Since long there has been a dispute whether in the Netherlands there occur one or two species of green frogs of the genus Rana. There has never been any doubt concerning the presence of Rana esculenta Linnaeus, a species widely distributed throughout the country (Van de Bund, 1964, 1968). The first

  7. Sealing rice field boundaries in Bangladesh: a pilot study demonstrating reductions in water use, arsenic loading to field soils, and methane emissions from irrigation water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Rebecca B; Pracht, Lara E; Polizzotto, Matthew L; Badruzzaman, A Borhan M; Ali, M Ashraf

    2014-08-19

    Irrigation of rice fields in Bangladesh with arsenic-contaminated and methane-rich groundwater loads arsenic into field soils and releases methane into the atmosphere. We tested the water-savings potential of sealing field bunds (raised boundaries around field edges) as a way to mitigate these negative outcomes. We found that, on average, bund sealing reduced seasonal water use by 52 ± 17% and decreased arsenic loading to field soils by 15 ± 4%; greater savings in both water use and arsenic loading were achieved in fields with larger perimeter-to-area ratios (i.e., smaller fields). Our study is the first to quantify emission of methane from irrigation water in Bangladesh, a currently unaccounted-for methane source. Irrigation water applied to unsealed fields at our site emits 18 to 31 g of methane per square-meter of field area per season, potentially doubling the atmospheric input of methane from rice cultivation. Bund sealing reduced the emission of methane from irrigation water by 4 to 19 g/m(2). While the studied outcomes of bund sealing are positive and compelling, widespread implementation of the technique should consider other factors, such as effect on yields, financial costs, and impact on the hydrologic system. We provide an initial and preliminary assessment of these implementation factors.

  8. Prima Klima

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeskleba-Dupont, Rolf

    2009-01-01

    Artiklen erindrer om metodologien i 1980 studiet af det tyske Öko-Institut "Die Energiewende" (Bossel, Krause and Müller-Reissmann) som Florentin Krause i 1981 beskrev i tidsskriftet af Bund demokratischer Wissenschaftler, hvor han fremhævede vigtigheden af en systemisk teknologifaktor for at kunne...

  9. Participatory research approaches for enhancing innovations and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    The failure by farmers to manage these problems partly ensues from poor delivery of technical knowledge and inadequate institutional support. ... Regarding poverty alleviation and food security, agricultural production per unit area in .... integrated soil and water conservation strategies, such as mulching, contour bunds ...

  10. Estonia continues silly anti-Russian hysteria / Peter Shmelev

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Shmelev, Peter

    2011-01-01

    President Toomas Hendrik Ilvese intervjuust Šveitsi ajalehele Der Bund, millest suur osa rääkis suhetest Venemaaga ja probleemidest venekeelse elanikkonnaga Eestis. Artikli autori arvates peaksid Eesti presidendi säärased propagandistlikud väljaütlemised saama kindla vastuse Venemaa ametlikest struktuuridest

  11. Comparative analysis of transformed potato microtubers and its non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-11

    Jul 11, 2011 ... production of genetically modified (GM) crops. The aim of this study ... New foods or food components derived from genetic engineering should be compared with its conventional counterpart to establish the extent of equivalence. Substantial ...... ABN 044.http://www.bfr.bund.de/cm/245/schauzu.pdf. Singh N ...

  12. Vegetarismus

    OpenAIRE

    Pungs, Birgit

    2006-01-01

    Die vorliegende Dissertation behandelt sozialpolitische und philosophische Dimensionen des Vegetarismus. Sie thematisiert den Zusammenhang von partiellem Nahrungsverzicht und gesellschaftlicher Realität und die Beziehungen zwischen den Denksystemen vegetarischer Bewegungen und ihrem besonderen Ernährungsstil. Zwei antike kulturelle Formationen werden modellhaft studiert: der religiös-philosophisch-politische Bund der Pythagoreer in den Stadtstaaten des archaischen und klassischen Griechenland...

  13. Effectiveness of technological options for minimising production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most of the technologies showed significant positive impacts on mean yield, but had different risk-reducing effects on yield. Changing sowing dates and crop varieties, soil bunds, compost manure, cover crops, crop rotation and intercropping showed significant (P<0.05) riskreducing effects on yield. However, their effects ...

  14. Fra 'Face' til Interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas K.

    2008-01-01

    En kollega lånte mig en udgave af Ervin Goffmanns "The Presentation of self in everyday life," der i bund og grund handler om, hvordan mennesket dramatiserer eller fremstiller sig selv i hverdagen. Goffmann deler det, vi normalt kalder "indtryk", op i expression og impression. Expression er i det...

  15. Land has power. Energy transition an opportunity for rural areas. Documentation; Land unter Strom. Die Energiewende als Chance fuer den laendlichen Raum. Dokumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bredenbeck, Martin; Gotzmann, Inge (comps.)

    2015-07-01

    The energy transition affects the rural areas of Germany in particular. Which Opportunities and risks this brings there shows a new release of Bund Heimat und Umwelt in Deutschland (German heritage and Environmental Foundation (BHU)). The Federation of heritage and civic associations devoted to the question of how to the conventional expansion of renewable energies innovative options can added. Thereby a diversified positioning of energy use, the advancement of historical forms of use and the spatial differentiation are important factors. [German] Die Energiewende betrifft die laendlichen Raeume Deutschlands in besonderem Masse. Welche Chancen und Risiken sie dort bringt, zeigt eine Neuerscheinung des Bund Heimat und Umwelt in Deutschland (BHU). Der Bundesverband der Heimatverbaende, Heimat- und Buergervereine widmet sich der Frage, wie zum konventionellen Ausbau erneuerbarer Energien innovative Optionen hinzutreten koennen. Eine breite Aufstellung von Energienutzungen, die Weiterentwicklung historischer Nutzungsformen und die raeumliche Differenzierung sind dabei wichtige Faktoren.

  16. Rice field geochemistry and hydrology: an explanation for why groundwater irrigated fields in Bangladesh are net sinks of arsenic from groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Rebecca B; St Vincent, Allison P; Roberts, Linda C; Badruzzaman, A Borhan M; Ali, M Ashraf; Harvey, Charles F

    2011-03-15

    Irrigation of rice fields in Bangladesh with arsenic-contaminated groundwater transfers tens of cubic kilometers of water and thousands of tons of arsenic from aquifers to rice fields each year. Here we combine observations of infiltration patterns with measurements of porewater chemical composition from our field site in Munshiganj Bangladesh to characterize the mobility of arsenic in soils beneath rice fields. We find that very little arsenic delivered by irrigation returns to the aquifer, and that recharging water mobilizes little, if any, arsenic from rice field subsoils. Arsenic from irrigation water is deposited on surface soils and sequestered along flow paths that pass through bunds, the raised soil boundaries around fields. Additionally, timing of flow into bunds limits the transport of biologically available organic carbon from rice fields into the subsurface where it could stimulate reduction processes that mobilize arsenic from soils and sediments. Together, these results explain why groundwater irrigated rice fields act as net sinks of arsenic from groundwater.

  17. A tool for cost-effectiveness analysis of field scale sediment-bound phosphorus mitigation measures and application to analysis of spatial and temporal targeting in the Lunan Water catchment, Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinten, Andy; Sample, James; Ibiyemi, Adekunle; Abdul-Salam, Yakubu; Stutter, Marc

    2017-05-15

    The cost-effectiveness of six edge-of-field measures for mitigating diffuse pollution from sediment bound phosphorus (P) runoff from temperate arable farmland is analysed at catchment/field scales. These measures were: buffer strips, permanent grassland in the lowest 7% of arable fields, dry detention bunds, wetlands, and temporary barriers such as sediment fences. Baseline field P export was estimated using export coefficients (low risk crops) or a modified Universal Soil Loss Equation (high risk crops). The impact of measures was estimated using simple equations. Costs were estimated from gross margin losses or local data on grants. We used a net cost:benefit (NCB) factor to normalise the costs and impacts of each measure over time. Costs minimisation for target impact was done using PuLP, a linear programming module for Python, across 1634 riparian and non-riparian fields in the Lunan Water, a mixed arable catchment in Eastern Scotland. With all measures in place, average cost-effectiveness increases from £9 to £48/kg P as target P mitigation increases from 500 to 2500kg P across the catchment. Costs increase significantly when the measures available are restricted only to those currently eligible for government grants (buffers, bunds and wetlands). The assumed orientation of the average field slope makes a strong difference to the potential for storage of water by bunds and overall cost-effectiveness, but the non-funded measures can substitute for the extra expense incurred by bunds, where the slope orientation is not suitable. Economic discounting over time of impacts and costs of measures favours those measures, such as sediment fences, which are strongly targeted both spatially and temporally. This tool could be a useful guide for dialogue with land users about the potential fields to target for mitigation to achieve catchment targets. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Anonymous electronic trading versus floor trading

    OpenAIRE

    Franke, Günter; Hess, Dieter

    1995-01-01

    This paper compares the attractiveness of floor trading and anonymous electronic trading systems. It is argued that in times of low information intensity the insight into the order book of the electronic trading system provides more valuable information than floor trading, but in times of high information intensity the reverse is true. Thus, the electronic system's market share in trading activity should decline in times of high information intensity. This hypothesis is tested by data on BUND...

  19. An evaluation of EHD enhancement and thermoacoustic refrigeration for Naval applications

    OpenAIRE

    Memory, Stephen B.

    1991-01-01

    An evaluation has been made of two different techniques which could prove valuable for Naval refrigeration needs in the future. The first is electrohydrodynamic (EHD) enhancement of pool boiling and condensation heat transfer; this has been shown to provide significant enhancements for both modes of heat transfer under certain conditions and could provide increases in efficiency of present vapor-compression systems. EHD techniques are quite advanced and prototype condenser and evaporator bund...

  20. [Soft-ridged bench terrace design in hilly loess region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shixiong; Chen, Li; Gao, Wangsheng

    2005-08-01

    Reconfiguration of hillside field into terrace is regarded as one of the key techniques for water and soil conservation in mountainous regions. On slopes exceeding 30 degrees, the traditional techniques of terracing are difficult to apply as risers (i.e., backslopes), and if not reinforced, are so abrupt and easy to collapse under gravity alone, thus damaging the terrace. To improve the reconfiguration of hillside field into terrace, holistic techniques of soft-ridged bench terrace engineering, including revegetation, with trees and planting grasses on riser slopes, were tested between 1997 and 2001 in Xiabiangou watershed of Yan' an, Shaanxi Province. A "working with Nature" engineering approach, riser slopes of 45 degrees, similar to the pre-existing slope of 35 degrees, was employed to radically reduce gravity-erosion. Based on the concepts of biodiversity and the principles of landscape ecology, terrace benches, bunds, and risers were planted with trees, shrubs, forage grasses, and crops, serving to generate a diverse array of plants, a semi-forested area, and to stabilize terrace bunds. Soft-ridged bench terrace made it possible to significantly reduce hazards arising from gravity erosion, and reduce the costs of individual bench construction and maintenance by 24.9% and 55.5% of the costs under traditional techniques, respectively. Such a construction allowed an enrichment and concentration of nutrients in the soils of terrace bunds, providing an ideal environment for a range of plants to grow and develop. The terrace riser could be planted with drought-resistant plants ranging from forage grasses to trees, and this riser vegetation would turn the exposed bunds and risers existing under traditional techniques into plant-covered belts, great green ribbons decorating farmland and contributing to the enhancement of the landscape biology.

  1. Konsolidierung des Landesbankensektors ist ein Muss für die zweite Regierung Merkel

    OpenAIRE

    Schäfer, Dorothea

    2010-01-01

    1989 bereits wurde in einem Gutachten auf die "unterdurchschnittliche Ertragskraft" der Landesbanken verwiesen und der Zusammenschluss zu einem einzigen Spitzeninstitut gefordert. 20 Jahre später allerdings, inmitten der bislang schwersten Krise der Landesbanken, bewahrte das hiesige Bad-Bank-Gesetz die Landesbanken nicht nur weitgehend vor Wertberichtigungen, sondern eröffnet den Bundesländern auch noch den Ausweg, sich mit einer ländereigenen Bad Bank Konsolidierungsbemühungen des Bundes zu...

  2. Filterkonjugation - sådan skal det gøres!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    Pincet åbnes. Filter åbnes. Agarpladens bund vises, og der gøres opmærksom på at pladen skal mærkes med gruppe, øvelse, isolat, dato. Filter overføres til agarpladen, der duppes. 1000 l pipetten vises med korrekt indstilling, mix bakterieblandingen, og der afpipetteres 500 l over på filteret i en...

  3. Interpolar spindle microtubules in PTK cells

    OpenAIRE

    1993-01-01

    Spindle microtubules (MTs) in PtK1 cells, fixed at stages from metaphase to telophase, have been reconstructed using serial sections, electron microscopy, and computer image processing. We have studied the class of MTs that form an interdigitating system connecting the two spindle poles (interpolar MTs or ipMTs) and their relationship to the spindle MTs that attach to kinetochores (kMTs). Viewed in cross section, the ipMTs cluster with antiparallel near neighbors throughout mitosis; this bund...

  4. Effect of Coffee Pulp Compost and Terrace on Erosion, Run off and Nutrients Loss from Coffee Plantation in Lahat Regency, South Sumatra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Masreah Bernas

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available On some coffee plantations in Lahat Regency South Sumatra, in some places the farmers did not apply agricultural practices, such as tillage, conservation practices, and fertilizers. Many researches have been done to study about effects of organic fertilizer on soil nutrients content and plant growth as well as and the impacts of terrace on soil water content, run-off and erosion. However, there was less research in the highland area. Whereas the possibility of run off, erosion and nutrient leaching the high land area was high. Thus, it was important to apply terrace and organic coffee pulp in this farm. The aims of this research were to determine the effect of terrace and organic fertilizer on run off and soil erosion, nutrients loss and nutrient content in coffee leaves. Terrace system and organic fertilizer were applied on a one year old coffee plantation in Lahat Regency. Before the treatment applied, coffee pulp as organic fertilizer was decomposed in the chamber for about 2 months. The experiment was conducted in factorial in a Randomized Block Design with two factors. The first factor was coffee pulp compost (0, 3, and 6 Mg ha-1, and the second factor was type of terrace (without, individual, and bund terraces. The size of each plot was 2 m width and 10 m length. Data was analysed by using LSD (Least Significant Different test. The result shows that bund terrace reduced runoff and erosion significantly up to 79% (for run off water and 78% (for eroded soil compared to without terrace. Organic fertilizer did not affect run off and soil erosion. This may be caused by properties of coffee pulp compost which were fine particulates and the dosages of application were too low to cover soil suface. Bund terrace decreased significantly N, P, K nutrients in soil loss (sediment. The amount of N loss was reduced from 3.37 kg ha-1 per four months (without terrace to about 0.75 kg ha-1 per four months (bund terrace. Terrace and organic fertilizer did

  5. Investigating the water balance of on-farm techniques for improved crop productivity in rainfed systems: A case study of Makanya catchment, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makurira, H.; Savenije, H. H. G.; Uhlenbrook, S.; Rockström, J.; Senzanje, A.

    Water scarcity is a perennial problem in sub-Saharan agricultural systems where extreme rainfall events dominate agricultural seasons. Dry spell occurrences between and during seasons negatively impact on crop yields especially if such dry spells exceed 14 days. The impact of dry spells is felt more at smallholder farming scales where subsistence farming is the only source of livelihood for many households. This paper presents results from on-going research to improve rainfed water productivity in arid and semi-arid regions. The study site is the Makanya catchment in northern Tanzania where rainfall rarely exceeds 400 mm/season. Rainwater alone is not sufficient to support maize which is the preferred crop. The research introduced new soil and water conservation measures to promote water availability into the root zone. The introduced techniques include deep tillage, runoff diversion, fanya juus (infiltration trenches with bunds) and infiltration pits. The research aims at understanding the effectiveness of these interventions in increasing moisture availability within the root zone. Time domain reflectometry (TDR) was used to measure soil moisture twice weekly at 10 cm depth intervals up to depths of 2 m. Soil moisture fluctuated in the range 5-25% of volume with the beginning of the season recording the driest moisture levels and periods after good rainfall/runoff events recording the highest moisture levels. From the field observations made, a spreadsheet model was developed to simulate soil moisture variations during different maize growth stages. The results obtained show that the zones of greatest soil moisture concentrations are those around the trenches and bunds. Soil moisture is least at the centre of the plots. The study confirms the effectiveness of the introduced techniques to help concentrate the little available rainfall into green water flow paths. Indirect benefits from these improved techniques are the creation of fertile and moist zones around

  6. Buying bundles: the effects of bundle attributes on the value of bundling

    OpenAIRE

    Linthorst, M.M.; Telgen, Jan; Schotanus, Fredo

    2008-01-01

    We consider the situation in which a buyer has to find the optimal degree of bundling for buying goods and services. From a review of the literature we develop attributes associated with bundling. Each of these attributes has an effect on the value of a bundle. Combined, the attributes determine the value of a bundle. We describe how the various attributes of a bundle contribute to the value of a bundle given the context of the buying situation. Based on interviews, a further analysis of bund...

  7. Buying bundles: the effects of bundling attributes on the value of bundling

    OpenAIRE

    Linthorst, M.M.; Telgen, Jan; Schotanus, Fredo

    2008-01-01

    We consider the situation in which a buyer has to find the optimal degree of bundling for buying goods and services. From a review of the literature we develop attributes associated with bundling. Each of these attributes has an effect on the value of a bundle. Combined, the attributes determine the value of a bundle. We describe how the various attributes of a bundle contribute to the value of a bundle given the context of the buying situation. Based on interviews, a further analysis of bund...

  8. Energy transition in federalism; Energiewende im Foederalismus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Thorsten; Kahl, Hartmut (eds.)

    2015-07-01

    The conference transcript assemble the presentations of the 10th Wuerzburg discussions for environmental energy law. The contributions discuss the political development objectives of the Federal Government and Federal States as well as the coordination tasks between the different political levels, inter alia, of constitutional and European law perspective. [German] Der Tagungsband versammelt die Vortraege der 10. Wuerzburger Gespraeche zum Umweltenergierecht. Die Beitraege eroertern die politischen Ausbauziele des Bundes und der Laender sowie die Koordinierungsaufgaben zwischen den verschiedenen Politikebenen u.a. aus verfassungs- und europarechtlicher Perspektive.

  9. Auswirkungen des zusätzlichen Incoming-Tourismus während der FIFA WM 2006 auf die gesamtwirtschaftliche Entwicklung

    OpenAIRE

    Ahlert, Gerd

    2006-01-01

    Vom 9.Juni bis zum 9.Juli 2006 wird vom Deutschen Fußball-Bund (DFB) in Deutschland die FIFA WM 2006 ausgerichtet. In der öffentlichen Diskussion wird in diesem Zusammenhang sehr häufig neben der sportlichen Dimension dieses Megaevents auch seine ökonomische Dimension betont. Nach Einschätzung von Exprten liegt der ökonomische Nutzen insbesondere in dem angestrebten Imagegewinn für Deutschland, der sich sowohl aus der globalen multimedialen Verbreitung des Events als auch durch die zusätzlich...

  10. Observed mixed standing-wave signatures in Cochin Estuary on the southwest coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DineshKumar, P.K.; Srinivas, K.; Muraleedharan, K.R.; Thottam, T.J.

    data at hourly intervals were collected at T1 (near to the mouth of the estuary) and T2 (at the southern extremity, near Thanneermukkom Bund) using an automatic stilling-well tide gauge and visual tide staff, respectively, for the period between 0700..., at 10 minutes intervals, using Aanderaa recording current meters. Instruments were deployed at 2 m below sur- face to record middepth currents. At M1, M2, and M4 record- ing current meters (Rcm7), current meters were used, where- as at M3 (Rcm9), a...

  11. Força e Fraude : apontamentos sobre a "Teoria da Classe Ociosa" e os limites da mudança institucional

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Resende Simiqueli

    2016-01-01

    Resumo: Nosso objetivo, com este trabalho, é revisitar a produção de Thorstein Bunde Veblen (1857-1929) ao longo da década de 1890, marcadamente seus dois trabalhos de maior renome - a Teoria da Classe Ociosa (1899) e Why is Economics Not an Evolutionary Science (1898). Lido como o fundador do institucionalismo econômico, Veblen goza da peculiar reputação de "ilustre desconhecido" entre os grandes nomes do Pensamento Econômico: suas teses, reconhecidas a partir da mordaz qualificação do consu...

  12. Schutz personenbezogener Daten im Internet - Eine verfassungsrechtliche Untersuchung

    OpenAIRE

    Eun, John Joon Yong

    2014-01-01

    Mit der vorliegenden Untersuchung sollte der Versuch unternommen werden, Probleme zum Schutz personenbezogener Daten im Internet, die mit der Entwicklung der Technologie - insbesondere die Fortschritte im Internet - aufgetreten ist, mit dem Grundrecht zu verknüpfen, um den personenbezogener Daten ausführlichere und um einen Dimension höhere Schutz zu gewähren. Die bereits bestehende Gesetze über den Datenschutz ist es möglich, den Schutz auf der Länder-, Bundes- und EU-Ebene zu gewähren, dies...

  13. Generation Y : salutogenes unternehmerisches Engagement und Work-Life-Balance Maßnahmen als Auslöser affektiven Mitarbeiter-Commitments

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    In einem Artikel der Zeitschrift Die Zeit wird die Generation Y, die Generation deren Angehörige derzeit zum Großteil ihre akademische Ausbildung beenden und sich dem Arbeitsmarkt zuwenden, auch als Generation Pippi, angelehnt an Astrid Lindgrens Kinderbuchheldin Pippi Langstrumpf, bezeichnet (Bund et al., 2013: 1). Individualität, eine ausgeprägte Abneigung gegenüber Autoritätspersonen, der Wunsch nach Spaß und Abwechslung sowie das Bestreben, sich selbst zu verwirklichen, charakterisieren P...

  14. Sediment management modelling in the Blue Nile Basin using SWAT model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. D. Betrie

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Soil erosion/sedimentation is an immense problem that has threatened water resources development in the Nile river basin, particularly in the Eastern Nile (Ethiopia, Sudan and Egypt. An insight into soil erosion/sedimentation mechanisms and mitigation methods plays an imperative role for the sustainable water resources development in the region. This paper presents daily sediment yield simulations in the Upper Blue Nile under different Best Management Practice (BMP scenarios. Scenarios applied in this paper are (i maintaining existing conditions, (ii introducing filter strips, (iii applying stone bunds (parallel terraces, and (iv reforestation. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT was used to model soil erosion, identify soil erosion prone areas and assess the impact of BMPs on sediment reduction. For the existing conditions scenario, the model results showed a satisfactory agreement between daily observed and simulated sediment concentrations as indicated by Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency greater than 0.83. The simulation results showed that applying filter strips, stone bunds and reforestation scenarios reduced the current sediment yields both at the subbasins and the basin outlets. However, a precise interpretation of the quantitative results may not be appropriate because some physical processes are not well represented in the SWAT model.

  15. Führer, Volk und Vaterland verpflichtet The Obligations Towards Führer, People and Fatherland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Schoppmann

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Die Organisation „Glaube und Schönheit“ war eine Gründung innerhalb des Bundes Deutscher Mädel (BDM, die den 18- bis 21-jährigen ‚arischen‘ Frauen im ‚Dritten Reich‘ vorbehalten war, um diese für die Ziele der ‚Volksgemeinschaft‘ zu instrumenalisieren. Sabine Hering und Kurt Schilde rekonstruieren nicht nur die Struktur der kaum noch bekannten Organisation; in zwölf Gesprächen mit Zeitzeuginnen gehen sie auch den bis in die heutige Zeit reichenden Auswirkungen auf die Beteiligten nach.The organization “Glaube und Schönheit” ("Belief and Beauty" was an organization within the Bund Deutscher Mädel, which was reserved for 18 up to 21 year old “Aryan” women during the Nazi period in order to functionalize them according to the goals of the “Volksgemeinschaft”. Sabine Hering and Kurt Schilde not only reconstruct the structure of the organization, which is mostly unknown today; in twelve interviews with contemporaries they also deal with the far reaching impacts on the people who were involved in this organization.

  16. Underground gas storage Uelsen: Findings from planning, building and commissioning. Part 1: Deposit; Untertagegasspeicher Uelsen: Erkenntnisse aus Planung, Bau und Inbetriebnahme. Teil 1: Lagerstaette

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallbrecht, J.; Beckmann, H.; Reiser, H.; Wilhelm, R. [BEB Erdgas und Erdoel GmbH, Hannover (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    The underground gas storage at Uelsen which was built as a H-gas storage in a former variegated sandstone gasfield in Western Lower Saxony close to the town of Nordhorn has added to the gas supply system of the BEB Erdgas and Erdoel GmbH. The underground storage is connected to the Bunde-Rheine transport pipeline BEB-grid gas system by a 27 km pipeline and is a consequent expansion of BEB`s underground storage/transport system. Planning, building and commissioning were handled by BEB. Findings to date are described. [Deutsch] Der Untertagegasspeicher (UGS) Uelsen, der in einem ehemaligen Buntsandstein Gasfeld im westlichen Niedersachsen in der Naehe der Stadt Nordhorn als H-Gasspeicher eingerichtet wurde, hat die BEB Erdgas und Erdoel GmbH eine weitere Staerkung ihres Gasversorgungssystems erreicht. Der UGS Uelsen ist ueber eine 27 km lange Anbindungsleitung mit der zum BEB - Ferngasleitungssystems gehoerenden Bunde-Rheine Transportleitung verbunden und stellt eine konsequente Erweiterung des BEB Untertagegasspeicher-/Transportsystems dar. Planung, Bau und Inbetriebnahme erfolgten durch BEB im Rahmen einer integrierten bereichsuebergreifenden Projektbearbeitung. Die hierbei gewonnenen Erkenntnisse werden im Folgenden fuer den Untertagebereich dargestellt. (orig.)

  17. Factors influencing adoption of farm management practices in three agrobiodiversity hotspots in India: an analysis using the Count Data Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhakaran T. Raghu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable agricultural practices require, among other factors, adoption of improved nutrient management techniques, pest mitigation technology and soil conservation measures. Such improved management practices can be tools for enhancing crop productivity. Data on micro-level farm management practices from developing countries is either scarce or unavailable, despite the importance of their policy implications with regard to resource allocation. The present study investigates adoption of some farm management practices and factors influencing the adoption behavior of farm households in three agrobiodiversity hotspots in India: Kundra block in the Koraput district of Odisha, Meenangadi panchayat in the Wayanad district of Kerala and Kolli Hills in the Namakkal district of Tamil Nadu. Information on farm management practices was collected from November 2011 to February 2012 from 3845 households, of which the data from 2726 farm households was used for analysis. The three most popular farm management practices adopted by farmers include: application of chemical fertilizers, farm yard manure and green manure for managing nutrients; application of chemical pesticides, inter-cropping and mixed cropping for mitigating pests; and contour bunds, grass bunds and trenches for soil conservation. A Negative Binomial count data regression model was used to estimate factors influencing decision-making by farmers on farm management practices. The regression results indicate that farmers who received information from agricultural extension are statistically significant and positively related to the adoption of farm management practices. Another key finding shows the negative relationship between cultivation of local varieties and adoption of farm management practices.

  18. [The frequency of medical malpractice: the results of the German Expert Panels and Arbitration Boards for Medical Liability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffartzik, Walter; Neu, Johann

    2008-01-01

    The Gutachterkommissionen and Schlichtungsstellen in Germany (Expert Panels and Arbitration Boards for Medical Liability) were founded in the 1970s in order to serve as an institution other than the courts where suspected incidents of malpractice can be evaluated. The "Medical Error Reporting System" (MERS) was developed by the North German Schlichtungsstelle. The data it provides serve as the basis for the national statistics published by the Bundesärztekammer (German Medical Association). 7201 factual decisions were made. In 5074 proceedings no malpractice cases or risk disclosure problems were discovered, while in 2127 proceedings either of the two problems was noticed, and in 1,683 proceedings these problems were rated as being causative in the claimed harm and led to the recommendation to grant financial compensation to the patient. The MERS data reveal that most of the diagnoses which led patients to file a claim with the Gutachterkommissionen and Schlichtungsstellen referred to orthopaedics and traumatology and in the majority of cases reproaches were directed at surgical therapy. Doctors must strive to minimise malpractice and harm caused by medical treatment. With the help of the national statistics of the Bundesärztekammer derived from MERS the doctor can easily access information on cases of medical malpractice and harm in his or her discipline. This knowledge helps to foresee risks in a patient's treatment and to avoid errors.

  19. OPTIMALISASI LAHAN USAHATANI BERBASIS KAKAO UNTUK PEMBANGUNAN PERTANIAN BERKELANJUTAN DI DAS KRUENG SEULIMUM PROVINSI ACEH (Land Optimization of Cocoa Based on Farming for Agricultural Sustainable Development in Krueng Seulimum Watershed Aceh Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halim Akbar

    2015-11-01

    implementation of agro-technology with complete fertilizer at 7% slope, complete fertilizer plus making grass planted bund-terrace at 14% slope and making grass planted bund terrace plus mulching 6 ton.ha-1.year- at the 21% slope, to reduce erosion less than ETol and provide farming income bigger than the need for minim living standart (MLS. Cocoa farming type plus banana (KPs in the Krueng Seulimum watershed on 1.5 ha land area by applying agro-technology bund terrace plus mulching 6 ton.ha-1.year-1 can suppress erosion under ETol (16.03 - 38.64 ton.ha-1.year-1 with optimum income of Rp 42,954,150 kk-1.year-1.

  20. Instruments. Climate protection of reduction of no-load losses in electric appliances and equipment; Klimaschutz durch Minderung von Leerlaufverlusten bei Elektrogeraeten. Instrumente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rath, U.; Hellmann, R. [Ingenieurbuero fuer Energieberatung, Haustechnik und Oekologische Konzepte GbR (eboek), Tuebingen (Germany); Moehring-Hueser, W.; Wortmann, K.; Bregas, J. [Energiestiftung Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel (Germany); Mordziol, C. [Umweltbundesamt, Berlin (Germany)

    1999-12-01

    Two studies on the subject of 'Climate Protection through Reduction of No-load Losses in Electric Applicances and Equipment' have been performed on behalf of the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety and the German Federal Environmental Agency. The first study, carried out by the Tuebingen-based engineering bureau eboek, has been published in the Federal Environmental Agency's TEXTE series (Texte 45/97, 2{sup nd} edition, 1998). It was the starting point for a multitude of activities among them two information campaigns carried out in 1998 and 1999 that were funded by the Federal Ministry for the Environment and the German Section of the Friends of the Earth (BUND). The study also served as a basis for decisions taken by the German Bundestag and the Bundesrat (Council of Constituent States). The second study on the subject was carried out by the engineering bureau eboek and Energiestiftung Schleswig-Holstein. Building on the results obtained in the first study, it presents estimates of relevant data for the European Union and examines various approaches for possible measures to reduce no-load losses as to their suitability. The studies impressively show that effective climate protection can be achieved in all relevant sectors, and in many cases even save costs. The results are detailed below. (orig.) [German] Im Auftrag des Bundesministeriums fuer Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit sowie des Umweltbundesamtes wurden zwei Studien zum Thema: 'Klimaschutz durch Minderung von Leerlaufverlusten bei Elektrogeraeten' durchgefuehrt: Die erste, vom Ingenieurbuero fuer Energieberatung, Haustechnik und oekologische Konzepte (eboek), Tuebingen, earbeitete Studie wurde in der Reihe TEXTE des UBA veroeffentlicht (Texte 45/97, 2. Auflage 1998). Sie bildete den Ausgangspunkt fuer eine Vielzahl von Aktivitaeten, unter anderem zwei vom Bundesumweltministerium finanzierte und vom Bund fuer Umwelt und

  1. Sawah Rice Eco-technology and Actualization of Green Revolution in West Africa: Experience from Nigeria and Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.I. OLADELE

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The development and dissemination of sawah rice eco-technology in Nigeria and Ghana as prerequisites for the actualization of green revolution in West Africa were described. It showed that the neglect of the eco-technology and the overemphasis of the biotechnology have rendered the ineffective transferability of the green revolution process from Asia to Africa. The sawah eco-technology increases yield up to 5 t/hm2 through bunding and the use of inlet and outlet connecting irrigation and drainage, which enhances effective water control and management, improves the efficiency of fertilizer, improves nitrogen fixation by soil microbes and algae, increases the use of wetlands, improves soil organic matter accumulation, suppresses weed growth, and enhances immune mechanism of rice through nutrient supply. The current experience has therefore established that the technology overcomes the constraints that have limited the realization of green revolution in West Africa.

  2. [The Evaluation of the German Federal Law of Equal Treatment of Disabled Persons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramm, D; Welti, F

    2017-08-01

    The German federal law of equal treatment of disabled persons (Behindertengleichstellungsgesetz des Bundes, BGG) came into effect in 2002. An evaluation of this law was required by the national plan of action for the implementation of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD). Project evaluation objectives were to estimate whether the needs of disabled persons were being met and whether the instruments proved to be adequate for fulfilling the aims of the law. Jurisprudential analyses in combination with surveys were used for this research. It was found that the BGG still lacks adequate publicity. Its impact, however, was assessed as positive. Results also indicate that there might be some shortcomings with regard to accessibility. For a closer examination, however, more data focusing on accessibility in the context of health care and rehabilitation is. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Waste management technologies for the next millenium. Technical conference; Mit MBA-Technik ins naechste Jahrtausend. Fachtagung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    Waste management on a federal and Laender level requires reorientation and new decisions in ever shorter intervals. In view of the fact that projecting phases are long and investment costs amount to tens of millions, communal decision-makers must constantly modify their current projects in order to optimise them. The papers in this conference report present theoretical information as well as practical experience in waste treatment plant operation. [German] Die abfallwirtschaftlichen Entwicklungen auf Bundes- und Landesebene erfordern in immer kuerzer werdenden Abstaenden neue Ueberlegungen und Weichenstellungen. Angesichts langer Planungszeitraeume und hoher Investitionskosten im zweistelligen Millionenbereich sind die Entscheidungstraeger auf kommunaler Ebene immer wieder gefordert auf Grundlage aktueller Erkenntnisse bisherige Planungen zu ueberdenken sowie anstehende Projekte zu modifizieren und zu optimieren. Die Vortraege in diesem Tagungsband weisen nicht nur theoretische Ansaetze auf, sondern beinhalten auch praktische Erfahrungen aus verschiedenen Abfallbehandlungsanlagen. (orig./SR)

  4. Med politiet i ’virkeligheden’: Reality-tv og kriminalitet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ib Bondebjerg

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Kriminalstoffet på tv bliver ofte anklaget for at spekulere i vore lavere instinkter, og med reality kommer vi tættere end nogensinde på sam- fundets bund og det utrættelige politi, som har til opgave at opretholde lov og orden. Artiklen gennemgår en lang række af de senere års kri- minalprogrammer og diskuterer dokumentarismens former med en særlig belysning af æstetik, retorik og synsvinkel i undergenrerne »reality magasin« og »reality soap«. Lars Engels’ serie »Historier fra en politistation« tages op til særlig debat, fordi Engels – vanen tro – arbejder med en mindre iscenesættelse og ukommenteret virkelig- hedsgengivelse, end vi finder det i andre »reality soaps«.

  5. Fire Symfonier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Svend Hvidtfelt

    2009-01-01

    sidste fire symfonier. Den er måske snarere at opfatte som et præludium til disse. At påstå, at symfonierne fra Holmboes side er planlagt til at være beslægtede, ville være at gå for vidt. Alene de 26 år, der skiller den 10. fra den 13., gør påstanden - i bedste fald - dubiøs. Når deres udformning...... udkrystallisering som i de sidste små 30 år af hans virke har afkastet disse fire variationer over en grundlæggende central holmboesk fornemmelse for form, melodi, klang og rytme. Denne oplevelse har fået mig til at udforske symfonierne, for at finde til bunds i dette holmboeske fællestræk, som jeg mener her står...

  6. Russians, Jews, and Poles: Russification and Antisemitism 1881-1914

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodor R. Weeks

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Relations between Poles and Jews deteriorated significantly in the three decades leading up to World War I. Many reasons for this phenomenon can be given, for example: economic competition, a general atmosphere of acute nationalism, increased migration, perceived threats to traditional forms of life and religion. Exacerbating all of these factors, however, was the fact of Polish statelessness and the extreme sensitivity of Poles to perceived threats to their culture and nation. In particular within the Russian Empire, Poles perceived the very future of their nation at risk. In such circumstances the continued existence of Jewish cultural difference combined with the development of specifically Jewish forms of national awakening (e.g., the Bund and Zionism were understood by many in Polish society as ingratitude and collaboration with the Russian occupier

  7. The directive on electromagnetic fields and its application; Die Verordnung ueber elektromagnetische Felder in der Praxis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueggemeyer, H. [Niedersaechsisches Landesamt fuer Oekologie, Hannover (Germany); Dib, R. [Fachhochschule Giessen-Friedberg, Friedberg (Germany); Eberle, W. [Hessisches Ministerium fuer Umwelt, Energie, Jugend, Familie und Gesundheit, Wiesbaden (Germany); Freund, H. [Teweratio Unternehmensberatung GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany); Hirsch, F. [FGH, Mannheim (Germany); Stamm, A. [PreussenElektra AG, Hannover (Germany); Wiedemann, P. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany)

    1997-11-03

    On January 1, 1997 the directive concerning the implementation of the German Federal Emission Control Act (directive on electromagnetic fields) took effect. The article contains: Explanation of the directive, calculation and measurement of low frequency electric and magnetic fields, electromagnetic fields of high and medium voltage powerlines as well as medium voltage switching stations. Another aspect discussed is the risk perception of powerline frequency electromagnetic fields by laymen and information management in power utilities. (orig./RHM) [Deutsch] Am 1. Januar 1997 trat die Verordnung zur Durchfuehrung des Bundes-Immissionsschutzgesetzes (Verordnung ueber elektromagnetischer Felder) in Kraft. Im folgenden Beitrag wird nach der Erlaeuterung der 26. BImSchV auf die Berechnung und Messung elektromagnetischer Felder (EMF) sowie auf die Felder von Hoch- und Mittelspannungsleitungen, Schaltanlagen und Stationen eingegangen. Abschliessend werden die Themen Risikowahrnehmung in der Bevoelkerung und EMF-Informationsmanagement behandelt. (orig./RHM)

  8. Rezension von: Ulf Gebken, Söhnke Vosgerau (Hg.: Fußball ohne Abseits. Ergebnisse und Perspektiven des Projekts ‚Soziale Integration von Mädchen durch Fußball‘. Wiesbaden: Springer VS 2014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Claus

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Seit 2006 wurden im Rahmen des vom Deutschen Fußball-Bund durchgeführten Modellprojektes „Soziale Integration von Mädchen durch Fußball“ an über 200 Standorten Schul-AGs in sogenannten Brennpunktbezirken aufgebaut. Im vorliegenden Sammelband beleuchten die Autor/-innen ausführlich die Funktion von Sport für die pädagogische Kompetenzvermittlung. Zudem erbringen sie einen umfassenden Projektbericht und leisten ein Plädoyer für die Modernisierung des Verhältnisses zwischen Schule und Vereinen, Lehrplan und Ehrenamt. Somit stellt das Buch, wie auch das Projekt, einen enorm wichtigen Beitrag zur Geschlechtergerechtigkeit im Sport dar. Gleichzeitig jedoch liest sich eine Reihe an Texten etwas zu sperrig für den Bericht einer Praxisforschung, und Begriffe im Feld der ‚Integration’ bleiben schwammig.

  9. Presencia de las instituciones en los enfoques del institucionalismo económico: convergencias y divergencias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Azalea Canales García

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Existe un renovado interés en el estudio de las instituciones y su incidencia en la economía. El análisis de las instituciones engloba un conjunto de perspectivas, siendo las más relevantes los puntos de vista de Thorstein Bunde Veblen, Douglas North y Oliver Williamson. El objetivo de este artículo es reflexionar sobre las convergencias y divergencias entre los enfoques de Veblen, North y Williamson; y, a partir de eso, proponer una categorización que precise las definiciones, métodos y tratamiento institucional de cada perspectiva. El propósito de esto es ayudar a clarificar el apelativo ¿institucionalista¿, así como entender los aspectos incluidos en cada enfoque.

  10. Topicality and possibilities for complete processing of red mud of aluminous production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. Л. Трушко

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In the aluminum industry, the largest amount of waste is red mud (RM. that is a solid bauxite residue after hydrochemical processing and extraction of alumina. The topicality of its processing was shown by the ecological catastrophe in Hungary (2010, where the bund wall of the slurry storage was destroyed and the viscous mass of fine red mud fell on thousands of hectares of land.The risks of a recurrence of such a catastrophe increase due to the increased natural disasters: earthquakes, torrential rains and floods, as well as terrorist attacks. Therefore, it is proposed to exclude the storage of red mud in sludge storages and organize its shipment in transportable form to processing complexes.The article presents the results of scientific research and the experience of complex processing of red sludge on an industrial scale with the production of new types of marketable products.

  11. Utilisation of waste water of the Schlema-Alberode mine in the German state of Sachsen for heat supply to domestic buildings - feasibility study. Final report; Thermische Nutzung der Abflusswaesser der Grube Schlema-Alberoda/Sachsen zur Waermeversorgung von Wohngebaeuden - Machbarkeitsstudie. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckhardt, L.; Lange, T.

    2003-02-01

    This feasibility study was carried out with positive results, and the concept investigated appears to be feasible in principle. Several variants were investigated. The investment risk should be minimised, so the construction of a demonstration plant is recommended. The next step will be the search for investors and for funds from the state or federal governments. (orig.) [German] Die vorliegende Machbarkeitsstudie fuehrte in der technischen, wirtschaftlichen und genehmigungsrechtlichen Bewertung zu einem positiven Ergebnis. Eine Umsetzung des beschriebenen Anlagenkonzeptes erscheint daher prinzipiell realisierbar. Aus der Bewertung verschiedener Varianten ging die technische Planung des Anlagenkonzeptes hervor. Dieses liegt jetzt in der Systemvorplanung vor. Speziell die Investitionen beinhalten ein gewisses unternehmerisches Restrisiko, welches weitestgehend minimiert wurde. Die Errichtung einer Demonstrationsanlage ist zu empfehlen. Das weitere Vorgehen sollte vom Auffinden geeigneter Investoren bestimmt sein. Gleichzeitig sind Foerdermoeglichkeiten des Bundes bzw. Landes fuer eine Umsetzung des Anlagenkonzeptes zu erschliessen. (orig.)

  12. Mädchenerziehung im Nationalsozialismus Girl’s Education in Nationalsocialism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Hering

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Das von Gisela Miller-Kipp herausgegebene Buch stellt die erste auf Vollständigkeit ausgelegte Sammlung von Quellen und Dokumenten zur Geschichte des BDM dar. Damit ist für die Forschungen zur Erziehung der zehn bis 18jährigen Mädchen im Nationalsozialismus eine wichtige Grundlage in Form einer Dokumentation geschaffen worden, welche durch umfangreiche Kommentare und Interpretationen ergänzt und erschlossen wird.Miller-Kipp’s book presents the first complete compilation and analysis of documents about the history of the BDM (Bund Deutscher Mädel—Association of German Girls, a national organisation for girls founded by the Nazis. The volume, which contains a wealth of noteworthy comments and interpretation texts, thus offers an important basis for anyone doing research on this topic.

  13. Photo Essay: An East Asian Circulation: Asa Mattice on the USS Juniata, 1883–1885

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Bickers

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available On Tuesday, May 12, 1885, 210 men from the U.S. navy warships Juniata and Monocacy marched up Shanghai’s Nanjing Road, from the riverside Bund to the Shanghai racecourse, led by a sixteen-man band. There, on the recreation ground inside the track, they exercised and paraded for two hours, putting their field gun teams through their maneuvers, and in the afternoon the band played for the spectators. The weather was fine that day. Toward the end of the proceedings, before the men were paraded back through the streets of the foreign-run International Settlement to embark for the ships moored in the Huangpu River, the North China Herald (May 15, 1885, p. 552 recorded that “past Assistant Engineer Mattice of the Juniata took a photographic view of the battalion by the dry plate process.”

  14. Geothermal sites and systems in Germany; Verzeichnis geothermischer Standorte: Geothermische Anlagen in Deutschland auf einen Blick

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pester, S.; Schellschmidt, R.; Schulz, R.

    2007-07-15

    In 2004, The BLA-GEO (Bund-Laender-Ausschuss Bodenforschung) commissioned the SGD (Staatliche Geologische Dienste) to set up two working groups ''Utilisation of the Near-Surface Geothermal Potential'' and ''Utilisation of the Deep Geothermal Potential''. The two working groups are to develop a national digital product catalogue for economically efficient utilisation of geothermal data. The working group ''Deep Geothermal Potential'' published a manual which outlines methods, the data base and projecting steps for deep geothermal projects: http://www.geotis.de/homepage/Informationen/Arbeitshilfe 08022007.pdf, which is supplemented by a detailed table of deep geothermal projects in Germany, whether in the operating, construction or projecting phase. The data are published on the web as part of the Geothermisches Informationssystem fuer Deutschland (Schulz et al.). (orig.)

  15. Development and testing of evaluation methods for data acquired to adapt the Waste Water Ordinance (AbwasserVwV) to the technical developments in treatment and avoidance measures. Final report; Entwicklung und Ueberpruefung von Auswerteverfahren wasserrechtlicher Vollzugsdaten zur Anpassung der AbwasserVwV`en an die technische Entwicklung von Behandlungs- und Vermeidungsmassnahmen. T. 1: UDIS-Handbuch fuer Abwasserspezialisten. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sterger, O.; Luedtke, T. [comps.

    1997-03-10

    This volume is part of the final report on project NO. 102 06 2212 `Development and testing of evaluation methods for data acquired to adapt the Waste Water Ordinance (AbwasserVwV) to the technical develoments in treatment and avoidance measures`. It contains the information required for practical implementation of UDIS and addresses especially the waste water experts of the German federal and state governments. [Deutsch] Dieser Band des Abschlussberichts zum Vorhaben 102 06 221 `Entwicklung und Ueberpruefung von Auswerteverfahren wasserrechtlicher Vollzugsdaten zur Anpassung der AbwasserVwV`en an die technische Entwicklung von Behandlungs- und Vermeidungsmassnahmen` umfasst die zur praktischen Anwendung von UDIS erforderlichen Anleitungen und Informationen und richtet sich vor allem an den Abwasserfachmann auf der Ebene des Bundes oder der Laender. (orig.)

  16. Tendencies in Spatial Planning in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Hladká

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In Austria there is a federal system, where the power is shared between national (Bund and regional (Land governments, with each having autonomy in some spheres, and able to pass laws. Power resides with the national government, although certain responsibilities may be delegated to regional governments. In Austria the national government has no competence in spatial planning, but planning at the national level is undertaken through a joint forum which has advisory powers, and in which the national government and the Länder Austrian are equal partners. At regional level the Austrian Länder play the primary role in spatial planning. The Austrian national government has only limited responsibilities.

  17. [Delegation yes, substitution no!].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, A

    2014-08-01

    The aging of society leads on the one hand to increasing case numbers and on the other hand to a reduction in the number of physicians available for patient treatment. The delegation and substitution of medical duties as a tried and tested method is increasingly being recommended in order to compensate for the lack of physicians. The Berufsverband der Deutschen Urologen (BDU, Professional Association of German Urologists) supports the guiding principle of the Bundesärztekammer (Federal Medical Council) of "delegation yes, substitution no" and rejects a substitution of medical duties by non-medical academic health personnel. Against the background of the demographic changes, the increasing need for treatment and the current deficiency of junior physicians, a more extensive inclusion of well-qualified and experienced non-medical personnel by the delegation of medically responsible duties (medical scope of practice) can be an appropriate measure to maintain a good medical service in practices, hospitals and nursing homes.

  18. A more ecological waste management concept for the Duesseldorf district; Moeglichkeiten der Oekologisierung der Siedlungsabfallentsorgung im Regierungsbezirk Duesseldorf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehoust, G.; Dopfer, J.; Gebhardt, P.; Gaertner, S.; Schilling, A. [Oeko-Institut, Inst. fuer Angewandte Oekologie e.V., Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Hennebrueder, W. [NABU e.V. (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    The Duesseldorf regional section of BUND, Landesverband NW e.V. authorized the Oeko-Institut e.V., Freiburg, to investigate conceptual alternatives to the conventional waste management concept of the Duesseldorf government. The project was supported by NABU NRW e.V., Das Bessere Muellkonzept NRW e.V., and Buendnis 90/Die Gruenen NRW. A waste management for the Duesseldorf district was developed in which the focus is on preventing waste production and on recycling. The concept supports the BMU goal, i.e. complete and environment-friendly disposal of all kinds of household refuse. [German] Am 16. April 1998 hat die Bezirksregierung Duesseldorf den neuen 'Abfallwirtschaftsplan - Teilplan Siedlungsabfaelle', vorgelegt. Mit Verweis auf die Bestimmungen der TA Siedlungsabfall setzt die Bezirksregierung auch weiterhin auf die Muellverbrennung als zentrale Komponente zur Behandlung von Siedlungsabfaellen, obgleich das MURL ausdruecklich auch andere Behandlungsverfahren - speziell die mechanisch-biologische Restabfallbehandlung (MBA) - als genehmigungsfaehig anerkennt. Inzwischen arbeiten auch das BMU und UBA an der Oeffnung der TA-Siedlungsabfall fuer die MBA. Eine Abkehr vom bisherigen abfallwirtschaftlichen Denken ist auf der Ebene der Bezirksregierung bisher jedoch nicht erkennbar. Die Regionalgruppe Duesseldorf des BUND, Landesverband NW e.V. beauftragte daher das Oeko-Institut e.V., im Rahmen dieses Gutachtens Wege aufzuzeigen, die eine Abkehr von der konventionellen Abfallwirtschaftsplanung der Bezirksregierung Duesseldorf deutlich werden lassen. Unterstuetzt wurde das Projekt durch den NABU NRW e.V., Das Bessere Muellkonzept NRW e.V. und den Oeko-Fonds von Buendnis 90/Die Gruenen NRW. Am Beispiel des Regierungsbezirks Duesseldorf wird ein oekologisches Abfallwirtschaftskonzept fuer das Jahr 2005 vorgestellt, dessen Schwerpunkt auf Massnahmen zur Abfallvermeidung und -verwertung liegt. Damit wird ein Weg aufgezeigt, der wesentlich zu der Umsetzung des vom

  19. Dynamics of Soil Erosion as Influenced by Watershed Management Practices: A Case Study of the Agula Watershed in the Semi-Arid Highlands of Northern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenta, Ayele Almaw; Yasuda, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Katsuyuki; Haregeweyn, Nigussie; Negussie, Aklilu

    2016-11-01

    Since the past two decades, watershed management practices such as construction of stone bunds and establishment of exclosures have been widely implemented in the semi-arid highlands of northern Ethiopia to curb land degradation by soil erosion. This study assessed changes in soil erosion for the years 1990, 2000 and 2012 as a result of such watershed management practices in Agula watershed using the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation. The Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation factors were computed in a geographic information system for 30 × 30 m raster layers using spatial data obtained from different sources. The results revealed significant reduction in soil loss rates by about 55 % from about 28 to 12 t ha -1 per year in 1990-2000 and an overall 64 % reduction from 28 to 10 t ha -1 per year in 1990-2012. This change in soil loss is attributed to improvement in surface cover and stone bund practices, which resulted in the decrease in mean C and P-factors, respectively, by about 19 % and 34 % in 1990-2000 and an overall decrease in C-factor by 29 % in 1990-2012. Considerable reductions in soil loss were observed from bare land (89 %), followed by cultivated land (56 %) and shrub land (49 %). Furthermore, the reduction in soil loss was more pronounced in steeper slopes where very steep slope and steep slope classes experienced over 70 % reduction. Validation of soil erosion estimations using field observed points showed an overall accuracy of 69 %, which is fairly satisfactory. This study demonstrated the potential of watershed management efforts to bring remarkable restoration of degraded semi-arid lands that could serve as a basis for sustainable planning of future developments of areas experiencing severe land degradation due to water erosion.

  20. Participatory assessment of soil erosion severity and performance of mitigation measures using stakeholder workshops in Koga catchment, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemberu, Walle; Baartman, Jantiene E M; Fleskens, Luuk; Ritsema, Coen J

    2018-02-01

    Farmers possess a wealth of knowledge regarding soil erosion and soil and water conservation (SWC), and there is a great demand to access it. However, there has been little effort to systematically document farmers' experiences and perceptions of SWC measures. Sustainable Land Management (SLM) has largely evolved through local traditional practices rather than adoption based on scientific evidence. This research aimed to assess soil erosion and performance of different SWC measures from the farmers' perspective by documenting their perceptions and experiences in Koga catchment, Ethiopia. To this aim, workshops were organised in three sub-catchments differing in slopes and SWC measures. Workshops included group discussions and field monitoring of erosion indicators and systematically describing the status of soil erosion, soil fertility and yield to assess the performance of SWC measures. Results show that farmers are aware of the harmful effects of ongoing soil erosion and of the impacts of mitigation measures on their farms. Sheet erosion was found to be the most widespread form of erosion while rill damage was critical on plots cultivated to cereals on steep slopes. The average rill erosion rates were 24.2 and 47.3 t/ha/y in treated and untreated farmlands, respectively. SWC reduced rill erosion on average by more than 48%. However, the impacts of SWC measures varied significantly between sub-watersheds, and farmers believed that SWC measures did not prevent erosion completely. Comparatively, graded stone-faced soil bunds revealed maximum desired impacts and were most appreciated by farmers, whereas level bunds caused water logging. Most traditional ditches were highly graded and begun incising and affected production of cereals. Despite the semi-quantitative nature of the methodology, using farmers' perceptions and experiences to document land degradation and the impacts of SWC measures is crucial as they are the daily users of the land and therefore directly

  1. Implementation of a practical model for light and heat distribution using laser-induced thermotherapy near to a large vessel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhey, J. F.; Mohammed, Y.; Ludwig, A.; Giese, K.

    2003-11-01

    This paper introduces a simulation model for light and heat transport in tissues including perfusion effects. The model enables an efficient simulation of the damaged zone induced with an optical fibre for laser interstitial thermotherapy (LITT). It is designed specially for, but not limited to, tissue ablation in the neck region near to vessels. We describe in detail the effects of the rise in temperature caused by the absorption of light in tissue, using the heat equation and including the cooling effects of flow in vessels and of microperfusion in tissue in order to determine the extent of thermal damage. The extent of the necrosis zone is calculated with a damage function at each point of a finite element method (FEM) mesh. The FEM mesh is implemented with FEMLAB 2.3 as an add-on for finite element modelling for Matlab 6.5. LITT for tumour ablation in liver and some other anatomical regions is a well-known and established method (Bundesärztekammer und Kassenärztliche Bundesvereinigung 2002 Assessment der Bundesärztekammer und der Kassenärztlichen Bundesvereinigung, Köln). Investigations of treatments using LITT in the neck region are still in progress. We propose a refined model to validate the LITT method in the future in another anatomic region, e.g., in the highly sensitive region of the neck. Our calculations show that in order to induce a lesion with a maximum diameter of about 1 cm near to a large vessel, an application time between 3 and 4 min is needed using a laser power of about 10 W with a Nd:YAG 1064 nm radiation wavelength.

  2. Numerical modeling of seismicity and geodynamics of the Kachchh rift zone, Gujarat, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorobieva, Inessa; Mandal, Prantik; Gorshkov, Alexander

    2014-11-01

    The numerical block-and-fault model of lithosphere dynamics and seismicity (BAFD) is used to understand crustal motion and features of the observed seismicity in the Kachchh rift zone, Gujarat, Western India. The block-model allows simulating seismicity and geodynamics simultaneously unlike other modeling approaches for studying seismicity or geodynamics. The model structure of Kachchh rift zone is composed of seven major crustal blocks separated by fault planes. Based on the orientation of boundary crustal block movements, we develop a set of numerical experiments to analyze the spatial distribution of earthquakes, frequency-to-magnitude relationships, earthquake focal mechanisms, velocity field, and fault slip rates in the model. The main results of our modeling suggest that an NNW-SSE trending compression is a principal driving force in the Kachchh rift zone that explains basic features of the regional seismicity, direction of block motions, and the presence of an extensional stress regime associated with the Cambay rift zone. Large synthetic events occur on the fault segments associated with the Allah-Bund fault, Katrol hill fault and north Wagad fault which have been causative faults for the 1819 Mw7.7 Allah-Bund, 1956 Mw6.0 Anjar and 2001 Mw7.7 Bhuj earthquakes. The frequency-magnitude distribution for both synthetic seismicity and observed seismicity shows a similar slope. The focal mechanisms of the synthetic events are found to be consistent with those of earthquakes in the region. A special attention has been paid to study long-term and post-seismic deformations. Our results are in a qualitative agreement with the GPS post-seismic observations in the Kachchh rift zone. We infer that the observed seismicity and crustal block motions are a consequence of the dynamics of the entire regional fault and block system rather than that of a single causative fault only.

  3. Catchment Area Treatment (CAT) Plan and Crop Area Optimization for Integrated Management in a Water Resource Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, R. K.; Thomas, T.; Galkate, R. V.; Ghosh, N. C.; Singh, S.

    2013-09-01

    A scientifically developed catchment area treatment (CAT) plan and optimized pattern of crop areas may be the key for sustainable development of water resource, profitability in agriculture and improvement of overall economy in drought affected Bundelkhand region of Madhya Pradesh (India). In this study, an attempt has been made to develop a CAT plan using spatial variation of geology, geomorphology, soil, drainage, land use in geographical information system for selection of soil and water conservation measures and crop area optimization using linear programming for maximization of return considering water availability, area affinity, fertilizers, social and market constraints in Benisagar reservoir project of Chhatarpur district (M.P.). The scientifically developed CAT plan based on overlaying of spatial information consists of 58 mechanical measure (49 boulder bunds, 1 check dam, 7 cully plug and 1 percolation tank), 2.60 km2 land for agro forestry, 2.08 km2 land for afforestation in Benisagar dam and 67 mechanical measures (45 boulder bunds and 22 gully plugs), 7.79 km2 land for agro forestry, 5.24 km2 land for afforestation in Beniganj weir catchment with various agronomic measures for agriculture areas. The linear programming has been used for optimization of crop areas in Benisagar command for sustainable development considering various scenarios of water availability, efficiencies, affinity and fertilizers availability in the command. Considering present supply condition of water, fertilizers, area affinity and making command self sufficient in most of crops, the net benefit can be increase to Rs. 1.93 crores from 41.70 km2 irrigable area in Benisagar command by optimizing cropping pattern and reducing losses during conveyance and application of water.

  4. ENHANCING RURAL LIVELIHOODS THROUGH SUSTAINABLE LAND AND WATER MANAGEMENT IN NORTHWEST ETHIOPIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehretie Belay

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rural livelihoods (RLs in highland Ethiopia is critically threatened by increasing degradation of land and water resources (LWRs and lack of sufficient livelihood assets. In response, farmers adapted diverse indigenous land and water management (LWM technologies and livelihood strategies. This paper describes farmers’ methods of soil erosion identification and the practices of managing LWRs to enhance RLs. It presents the results of studies focusing on assessment of soil erosion indicators, farmers’ in-built sustainable land and water management practices (LWMPs and RLs in Dangila woreda (district in the northwestern highlands of Ethiopia. Data were gathered from May 2010 to October 2013 through participatory transect walks, field observation, formal and informal discussions with farmers, examination of office documents and from a survey of 201 rural households. Descriptive statistics and the livelihood strategy diversification index (LSDI were used to analyze the data. Results indicated that farmers employ around 13 indicators to identify soil erosion on their farmlands. Over 79% of the farmers indicated the occurrence of soil erosion on their farm fields and some 59% reported the trend was increasing for twenty years, 1991-2011. More than 174 km soil-bunds and greater than 4 km stone-bunds were constructed on farmlands and on grazing fields through farmer participatory watershed development campaigns. Some 34 gullies were stabilized using check-dams and vegetative measures. Almost 72% of the households applied cattle manure on about of their 75 ha lands to improve soil fertility. A total of 44 diversion canals and 34 water committees were established to facilitate the irrigation practice of 33% rural households. Over 20% farmers obtained results ranging from moderate to excellent by combining manure with chemical fertilizers in the same field. Nevertheless, introduced methods such as improved seeds and fertilizers were commented for

  5. Spatial and temporal estimation of soil loss for the sustainable management of a wet semi-arid watershed cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rejani, R; Rao, K V; Osman, M; Srinivasa Rao, Ch; Reddy, K Sammi; Chary, G R; Pushpanjali; Samuel, Josily

    2016-03-01

    The ungauged wet semi-arid watershed cluster, Seethagondi, lies in the Adilabad district of Telangana in India and is prone to severe erosion and water scarcity. The runoff and soil loss data at watershed, catchment, and field level are necessary for planning soil and water conservation interventions. In this study, an attempt was made to develop a spatial soil loss estimation model for Seethagondi cluster using RUSLE coupled with ARCGIS and was used to estimate the soil loss spatially and temporally. The daily rainfall data of Aphrodite for the period from 1951 to 2007 was used, and the annual rainfall varied from 508 to 1351 mm with a mean annual rainfall of 950 mm and a mean erosivity of 6789 MJ mm ha(-1) h(-1) year(-1). Considerable variation in land use land cover especially in crop land and fallow land was observed during normal and drought years, and corresponding variation in the erosivity, C factor, and soil loss was also noted. The mean value of C factor derived from NDVI for crop land was 0.42 and 0.22 in normal year and drought years, respectively. The topography is undulating and major portion of the cluster has slope less than 10°, and 85.3% of the cluster has soil loss below 20 t ha(-1) year(-1). The soil loss from crop land varied from 2.9 to 3.6 t ha(-1) year(-1) in low rainfall years to 31.8 to 34.7 t ha(-1) year(-1) in high rainfall years with a mean annual soil loss of 12.2 t ha(-1) year(-1). The soil loss from crop land was higher in the month of August with an annual soil loss of 13.1 and 2.9 t ha(-1) year(-1) in normal and drought year, respectively. Based on the soil loss in a normal year, the interventions recommended for 85.3% of area of the watershed includes agronomic measures such as contour cultivation, graded bunds, strip cropping, mixed cropping, crop rotations, mulching, summer plowing, vegetative bunds, agri-horticultural system, and management practices such as broad bed furrow, raised sunken beds, and harvesting available water

  6. Identification and classification of structural soil conservation measures based on very high resolution stereo satellite data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, Sandra; Tesfay Ghebremicael, Selamawit; Hurni, Hans; Kohler, Thomas

    2017-05-15

    Land degradation affects large areas of land around the globe, with grave consequences for those living off the land. Major efforts are being made to implement soil and water conservation measures that counteract soil erosion and help secure vital ecosystem services. However, where and to what extent such measures have been implemented is often not well documented. Knowledge about this could help to identify areas where soil and water conservation measures are successfully supporting sustainable land management, as well as areas requiring urgent rehabilitation of conservation structures such as terraces and bunds. This study explores the potential of the latest satellite-based remote sensing technology for use in assessing and monitoring the extent of existing soil and water conservation structures. We used a set of very high resolution stereo Geoeye-1 satellite data, from which we derived a detailed digital surface model as well as a set of other spectral, terrain, texture, and filtered information layers. We developed and applied an object-based classification approach, working on two segmentation levels. On the coarser level, the aim was to delimit certain landscape zones. Information about these landscape zones is useful in distinguishing different types of soil and water conservation structures, as each zone contains certain specific types of structures. On the finer level, the goal was to extract and identify different types of linear soil and water conservation structures. The classification rules were based mainly on spectral, textural, shape, and topographic properties, and included object relationships. This approach enabled us to identify and separate from other classes the majority (78.5%) of terraces and bunds, as well as most hillside terraces (81.25%). Omission and commission errors are similar to those obtained by the few existing studies focusing on the same research objective but using different types of remotely sensed data. Based on our results

  7. Symposium Fallkonferenz Integrative Medizin [Symposium Case Conference on Integrative Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scheffer, Christian

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available [english] Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM is highly requested by patients. Therefore, medical students have to be prepared and educated for this situation. We report about the first Case Conference on Integrative Medicine under the auspices of the president of the German Medical Association. In contrast to often-occurring polemic and polarizing discussions the dialog was characterized by serious and open-minded contributions in order to find the best therapeutic concept for patients. The authors suggest to establish a committee of the Gesellschaft für Medizinische Ausbildung (GMA to work on key questions in this field. Possible topics and questions are listed. [german] Vor dem Hintergrund der weiten Verbreitung von Komplementär- und Alternativmedizin (CAM und dem Bedarf einer Vorbereitung und Ausbildung der Medizinstudierenden auf dem Umgang mit CAM wird im folgenden von der ersten Fallkonferenz Integrative Medizin unter Schirmherrschaft des Bundesärztekammerpräsidenten berichtet. Statt der sonst bei dieser Thematik häufig anzutreffenden Polarisierung und Polemisierung war die Atmosphäre bei diesem Symposium geprägt von Dialogbereitschaft und dem gemeinsamen Bemühen um eine patientengerechte Integrative Medizin. Die Autoren schlagen vor, für die in diesem Zusammenhang noch völlig unbearbeiteten Ausbildungsfragen einen Ausschuss der Gesellschaft für Medizinische Ausbildung (GMA zu gründen. Mögliche Themen und Arbeitsfelder werden dargestellt.

  8. [Relationship between Yangtze River floodplain micro ecological environment and distribution of Oncomelania hupensis snails].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jin-song; Wang, An-yun; Zhou, Shu-lin

    2014-04-01

    To explore the relationship between the Yangtze River floodplain ecological environment (vegetation, soil, water and light intensity) and the distribution of Oncomelania hupensis snails, so as to provide the evidence for ecological snail control. Three regions (the Lu-Gang Bridge, Dragon Nest Lake in the bund, and Dragon Nest lake beach) were selected to investigate the plant characteristics (species, height, coverage, frequency and strain of clusters), soil characteristics (temperature, humidity, light intensity) and pH value. All the results were analyzed statistically with SPSS 18 software. A total of 920 boxes were investigated. The vegetation coverage was 3.7%-63.5%, and the dominant population was Cyperusrotundus L. cluster on the marshland. The soil temperature was 19.0 degrees C-24.0 degrees C, pH 5.0-5.7, and humidity 53%-75%. There were statistical significants in average number of living snails and dead snails among 3 groups (P snails were in the back surface in summer and front surface in winter respectively. The average number of living snails was the most near the water. The difference was statistical significant (P snail survival and distribution have close relations with micro ecological environment factors, such as vegetation, soil, water and light intensity.

  9. The experience of the Hitler Youth - boys in national-socialism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Figiel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Losing the First World War, unemployment, the generation gap and the cult of youth led to the party of Adolf Hitler gaining popularity in the Weimar Republic. Using slogans of the restoration of a strong Germany the national socialists organized structures, which formed and educated German Youth. Hitler Youth – brought up according to the rule: “youth leads youth” – was a very fertile environment for the spread of the idea of national-socialism. The specific values – racial supremacy, honour, obedience – handed down by parents were the beginning of the Nazi indoctrination. In the later period such organizations as Bund Deutscher Madel or Hitlerjugend took power over German youth. Education, upbringing, ideological content used by the institutions in Nazi Germany are described in the extensive literature on the subject. However, very important are the experiences of individual members of the Hitler Youth that show the Nazi youth activities from a time perspective. Experiences such as the wisdom of life, and gained knowledge, enable recognition and description of the reality which is discussed. The scope of historical and pedagogical research shows the essential facts constituting the full picture of the life of young people during Nazi era.

  10. Pocket book of the metal trade. Vol. 2. Legal boundary conditions. 11. rev. ed.; Taschenbuch des Metallhandels. Bd. 2. Rechtliche Rahmenbedingungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, Ralf (ed.); Bock, Hans-Leo; Bunzel, Klaus; Goerisch, Uwe; Kopp-Assenmacher, Stefan; Malanowski, Nikolai; Mueller, Norbert; Passvoss, Torsten; Pauly, Markus; Zocher, Nadine

    2008-07-01

    Vol. 2 comprises the following chapters: 1. Introduction; 2. Waste management legislation: Act on recycling and waste management; 3. Waste management legislation: Ordinance on verification in waste management; 4. Waste management legislation: Specialist waste management companies; 5. Waste management legislation: Transfrontier waste transportation; 6. Waste management legislation: ElektroG (Act on waste electrical and electronic equipment); 7. Legislation on chemicals: REACH; 8. Licensing procedures according to the German BImSchG (Act on protection against nuisances); 9. Trade laws; 10. Radioactivity of scrap metal; 11. Quality assurance: Audits and certifications; 12. Introduction to environmental criminal law and misdemeanour law; 13. Other environmental regulations; 13. Accident prevention, industrial safety; 14. Vision: Outlook to the future environmental law code. [German] Dieser zweite Band ist wie folgt gegliedert: 1. Einfuehrung; 2. Abfallrecht: Kreislaufwirtschafts- und Abfallgesetz; 3. Abfallrecht: Nachweisverordnung; 4. Abfallrecht: Entsorgungsfachbetrieb; 5. Abfallrecht; Grenzueberschreitende Abfallverbringung; 6. Abfallrecht: Elektro- und Elektronikgeraetegesetz (ElektroG); 7. Chemikalienrecht: REACH; 8. Genehmigungsverfahren nach dem Bundes-Immissionsschutzgesetz (BImSchG); 9. Handelsgesetze; 10. Radioaktivitaet im Schrott; 11. Qualitaetssicherung: Audits und Zertifizierungen; 12. Einfuehrung in das Umweltstraf- und Ordnungswidrigkeitenrecht; 13. Sonstige Umweltschutzvorschriften; 13. Unfallverhuetung, Arbeitssicherheit und 14. Vision: Ausblick auf das kuenftige Umweltgesetzbuch.

  11. [Risk Index Disability Pension (RI-DP). A register-based case-control study with 8,500 men and 8,405 women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethge, M; Egner, U; Streibelt, M; Radoschewski, F M; Spyra, K

    2011-11-01

    The aim of our study was to identify variables of prognostic relevance for disability pensions (DP) in the register data of the German Pension Fund (GPF) and to use the identified variables to construct a risk index. The study was designed as a case-control study of insurants of the GPF Bund using disability pensioners from 2004-2008 as cases and active insurants as controls. Independent variables were selected from the accumulated register data from 2001-2003. Data of 8,500 men and 8,405 women were analyzed. The strongest predictor of future DP were days of sickness benefits. Men with short-term benefits had 6.1 times higher odds of receiving a DP, while men receiving long-term benefits had even 66.3 times higher odds of receiving a DP. For women, the odds were increased 3.8 and 38.4 times, respectively. The risk index score was calculated by transforming the linear combination of parameter estimators and personal characteristics to values ranging from 0-100. ROC analyses and survival analyses confirmed the prognostic relevance of the index score. Independent samples were used to validate our models. Our results show that the GPF has information which could enable an active strategy to enhance the provision of medical rehabilitation.

  12. Air quality annual report 1998; Lufthygienischer Jahresbericht 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The German Federal Emission Control Act (BImSchG) for protection against the harmful effects of air pollution, noise, vibrations and similar processes defines the legal instruments available to provide for air pollution monitoring and control. According to the legal provisions, responsibility for air pollution monitoring lies with the competent Land authorities, and monitoring activities are defined in terms of territory (areas subject to monitoring) and time periods as well as specific tasks for pollution measurement. The areas subject to monitoring are those with detected or expected air pollution very likely to cause harmful effects on the environment due to (1) frequency and prolongation of events, (2) pollutant concentrations, and (3) hazards emanating from synergistic action. (orig.) [German] Das Gesetz zum Schutz vor schaedlichen Umwelteinwirkungen durch Luftverunreinigungen, Geraeusche, Erschuetterungen und aehnliche Vorgaenge (Bundes-Immissionsschutzgesetz - BImSchG) enthaelt in Paragraph 44 das gesetzliche Instrumentarium zur Immissionsueberwachung. Demnach haben die nach Landesrecht zustaendigen Behoerden in den durch Rechtsverordnung festgesetzten Untersuchungsgebieten (frueher Belastungsgebiete) Art und Umfang bestimmter Luftverunreinigungen in einem bestimmten Zeitraum oder fortlaufend festzustellen. Gleiches gilt fuer Gebiete, in denen eine Ueberschreitung von Immissionswerten oder Immissionsleitwerten, die in zur Durchfuehrung dieses Gesetzes ergangenen Rechts- und allgemeinen Verwaltungsvorschriften zum Schutz vor Gesundheitsgefahren oder in bindenden Beschluessen der Europaeischen Gemeinschaften festgelegt sind, festgestellt wird oder zu erwarten sind. Untersuchungsgebiete sind Gebiete, in denen Luftverunreinigungen auftreten oder zu erwarten sind, die wegen - der Haeufigkeit und Dauer ihres Auftretens, - ihrer hohen Konzentrationen oder - der Gefahr des Zusammenwirkens verschiedener Luftverunreinigungen schaedliche Umwelteinwirkungen hervorrufen

  13. Study on Climatic Variation and Its Effect on Vegetable Type Soybean Genotypes at Khumaltar, Lalitpur in the Last Ten Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Raj Tripathi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Soybean (Glycine max L. Merril is widely grown in the mid hills as intercrop with maize or in paddy bunds, while it is gaining popularity as sole crop in terai and inner terai. Mean temperature at Khumaltar during soybean growing period was mostly fluctuating; but we observed an increasing trend in temperature. Amount of rainfall was not changed dramatically but number of rainy days was decreased during study period. Rainfall during germination time increase soil moisture which also increase germination and found higher early stand. Days from sowing to 50% flowering and 90% maturity were short in the case of higher minimum temperature and low rainfall. Among the genotypes, AGS-377, AGS-378, AGS-379 and Tarkari Bhattmas-1 were more sensitive. However, seed yield decreased in the case of higher temperatures and low rainfall. Cool night temperatures and high moisture increased disease incidence in soybean which, eventually reduced yield. In last three years, plant suffered from moisture stress during early vegetative stage and high moisture during late vegetative stage which reduced seed yield and seed weight. In conclusion, we found that genotypes like AGS- 360, Sathiya and Tarkari Bhatmas-1 are very sensitive to climatic variation.

  14. The significance of trends in long-term correlated records

    CERN Document Server

    Tamazian, Araik; Bunde, Armin

    2014-01-01

    We study the distribution $P(x;\\alpha,L)$ of the relative trend $x$ in long-term correlated records of length $L$ that are characterized by a Hurst-exponent $\\alpha$ between 0.5 and 1.5 obtained by DFA2. The relative trend $x$ is the ratio between the strength of the trend $\\Delta$ in the record measured by linear regression, and the standard deviation $\\sigma$ around the regression line. We consider $L$ between 400 and 2200, which is the typical length scale of monthly local and annual reconstructed global climate records. Extending previous work by Lennartz and Bunde \\cite{Lennartz2011} we show explicitely that $P$ follows the student-t distribution $P\\propto [1+(x/a)^2/l]^{-(l+1)/2}$, where the scaling parameter $a$ depends on both $L$ and $\\alpha$, while the effective length $l$ depends, for $\\alpha$ below 1.15, only on the record length $L$. From $P$ we can derive an analytical expression for the trend significance $S(x;\\alpha, L)=\\int_{-x}^x P(x';\\alpha,L)dx'$ and the border lines of the $95\\%$ percent ...

  15. Percolation pond as a method of managed aquifer recharge in a coastal saline aquifer: A case study on the criteria for site selection and its impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christy, Raicy Mani; Lakshmanan, Elango

    2017-07-01

    Percolation ponds have become very popular methods of managed aquifer recharge due to their low cost, ease of construction and the participation and assistance of community. The objective of this study is to assess the feasibility of a percolation pond in a saline aquifer, north of Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India, to improve the storage and quality of groundwater. Electrical resistivity and ground penetrating radar methods were used to understand the subsurface conditions of the area. From these investigations, a suitable location was chosen and a percolation pond was constructed. The quality and quantity of groundwater of the nearby area has improved due to the recharge from the pond. This study indicated that a simple excavation without providing support for the slope and paving of the bunds helped to improve the groundwater quality. This method can be easily adoptable by farmers who can have a small pond within their farm to collect and store the rainwater. The cost of water recharged from this pond works out to be about 0.225 Re/l. Cleaning the pond by scrapping the accumulated sediments needs to be done once a year. Due to the small dimension and high saline groundwater, considerable improvement in quality at greater depths could not be achieved. However, ponds of larger size with recharge shafts can directly recharge the aquifer and help to improve the quality of water at greater depths.

  16. Long-range dependence and time-clustering behavior in pedestrian movement patterns in stampedes: The Love Parade case-study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Liping; Song, Weiguo; Richard, Yuen Kwok Kit; Ma, Jian; Telesca, Luciano

    2017-03-01

    Pedestrian stampede happened more and more often during these years, such as Love Parade disaster in Germany 2010, trampling in Shanghai bund 2014 and crowd stampede in pilgrimages. Love Parade disaster 2010 stands out for well recorded videos, which are HD quality and available for researchers. There were totally seven surveillance cameras capturing the whole festival progress and the video we study is just before the disaster happened. Pedestrian motion was special and a small disturbance would lead the group to an avalanche in this kind of critical situation. Here we focus on the individual movement pattern. The trajectories of each pedestrian involved were extracted by a mean-shift algorithm. We analyzed the space-time patterns of the pedestrians involved in the Love Parade stampede by using the detrended fluctuation analysis and the coefficient of variation. Our results reveal that the pedestrians' movement in crowd-quakes is persistent in space, globally time-clusterized but locally regular or quasi-periodic behavior. Pedestrian movement was treated as stop and go state by point process-based representation. When the threshold increases, this means that the "go" state is longer and pedestrians keep on walking in several consecutive time frames; this is difficult in crowded situations and lead to special time-clustering behavior of the sequence of "go" events. The study reveals pedestrian motion characteristics in critical situations, which will enhance the understanding of pedestrian behaviors and supply early warning features for not only Love Parade Disaster, but also other similar large events.

  17. Politische Bildung und das Web 2.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heike Schaumburg

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Aktuell erhält die Diskussion um die Rolle des Internet in der Politischen Bildung neuen Auftrieb durch die Entwicklung der sogenannten Web-2.0- Technologien, die im Vergleich zum Web 1.0 ein erheblich grösseres Potenzial zur Mitgestaltung politischer Inhalte und Prozesse und bzw. zur Partizipation bieten, aber auch neue Möglichkeiten der Kommunikation und Vernetzung eröffnen. In der vorliegenden Studie wird der Frage nachgegangen, inwieweit das Internet und speziell das Web 2.0 in der Lage sind, die in die Technik gesetzten Hoffnungen zu erfüllen. Dabei wird zunächst ausgelotet, welche Potenziale das Web 2.0 für die Politische Bildung mit Blick auf ihre didaktische Gestaltung bieten könnte. Im Anschluss daran wird auf der Basis einer Analyse des Internet-Angebots der traditionellen Anbieter Politischer Bildung (Bundes- und Landeszentralen für Politische Bildung, politische Stiftungen sowie von Internetportalen im Bereich Politische Bildung festgestellt, welche Verbreitung Web-2.0-Angebote gegenwärtig besitzen. Schliesslich wird auf der Grundlage einer Nutzerbefragung an knapp 300 Teilnehmern virtueller politischer Bildungsangebote einer politischen Stiftung der Frage nachgegangen, wie Web-2.0-Angebote in der Politischen Bildungsarbeit aus Nutzersicht beurteilt werden.

  18. Paleo-earthquake signatures from the South Wagad Fault (SWF), Wagad Island, Kachchh, Gujarat, western India: A potential seismic hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Javed N.; Gadhavi, Mahendrasinh S.; Kothyari, Girish Ch; Satuluri, Sravanthi

    2017-02-01

    In last 500 years, Kachchh experienced several large magnitude earthquakes (6.0 ≥ M ≤ 7.8), however, not all accompanied surface rupture. The 1819 Allah Bund earthquake (Mw7.8) accompanied surface rupture, whereas, the 2001 Bhuj event (Mw7.6) occurred at a depth of 23 km on E-W striking south dipping thrust fault remained blind. Discontinuities between the denser-brittle basement (?) and overlying ductile-softer Mesozoic-Tertiary-Quaternary succession resulted in a different geometry of faulting. Normal faults associated with rift were reactivated as reverse faults during inversion tectonics, propagated in sedimentary succession and arrested. Thrust-ramps developed along the discontinuities accompanied surface ruptures. Folded structures along the South Wagad Fault (SWF) - an active thrust, exhibits lateral-propagation of fold segments and linkage, suggestive of fault-related-fold growth. Paleoseismic investigations revealed evidence of at least three paleo-earthquakes. Event I occurred before BCE 5080; Event II between BCE 4820 and 2320, and was probably responsible for a massive damage at Dholavira - Harappan site. Event III was between BCE 1230 and 04, most likely caused severe damage to Dholavira. Archaeo-seismological Quality Factor (AQF) of 0.5 suggests that the Dholavira is vulnerable to earthquakes from nearby active faults. With 1500-2000 yr of recurrence interval, occurrence of a large magnitude earthquake on SWF cannot be ruled out.

  19. [Approval of a bone bank: an institution's experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, S; Wernerus, D; Reichel, H

    2012-03-01

    The new tissue laws of 2007 created a completely new situation for German musculoskeletal tissue banks. The objective of the new regulations in the recent German tissue act is to improve safety by reducing the risk of transmission of viral and nonviral diseases. Since 2007 tissue banks have to declare their intention to continue providing allografts to the local authorities until August 2011 based on the guidelines of the Federal Medical Association (Bundesärztekammer 2001) and according to § 144 of the Pharmaceutical Products Act (Arzneimittelgesetz). The Orthopedic University Clinic in Ulm applied for registration according to § 20 b and c of the Pharmaceutical Products Act in 2010. After submitting all the required documents, government officials controlled the equipment, distribution of responsible personnel, location of operating theatres and the laboratory and quality assurance documentation. After alluding to the lack of validation for the use of a hemoculture medium for testing ringer lactate solutions, permission according to § 20 b and c was granted with the obligation to transfer all serological and microbiological testing of tissue donors to another laboratory with its own approval under § 20 c of the Pharmaceutical Products Act.

  20. Variability of silver fir (Abies alba Mill. progeny from the Tisovik Reserve expressed in needle traits and chloroplast microsatellite DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawlaczyk Ewa M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Progeny from nineteen family lines of silver fir (Abies alba Mill. from the Tisovik Reserve growing in an experimental plot were analyzed based on 4 chloroplast microsatellite DNA loci and 12 morphological and anatomical needle traits. The Tisovik Reserve is located in Białowieża Primeval Forest, 120 km north of the natural range limit of this species, and embraces a small and isolated natural population of silver fir. The aim of this study was to determine genetic variation within and between progeny lines. Analysis of phenotypic variation showed that the traits which differed most among individuals were the needle width and the distance from resin canals to vascular bundle. Those traits, which differed most between the progeny lines, were the number of endodermic cells around the vascular bund and the weight of hypodermic cells. In Tisovik progeny, we detected 107 different haplotypes. In progeny lines, we detected more haplotypes than in maternal trees, and most haplotypes did not exist in maternal trees. This may be the result of pollen influx from other silver fir stands. Progeny from Tisovik showed a higher level of variability in comparison with maternal trees.

  1. The potential environmental impact of pesticides removed from sprayers during cleaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramwell, Carmel T; Leak, Jennifer; Cooper, Simon E; Taylor, William A

    2007-11-01

    There is concern that pesticide residues on the external surfaces of sprayers could have an adverse impact on the environment if they are washed off, yet there is a need to remove these residues for health reasons. The aim of this study was to quantify pesticide residues contained in washings from cleaning discrete parts of a sprayer and to assess their likely environmental impact. The boom/rear of the sprayer and the spray tank accounted for 80% of the total pesticide load in the washings. Predicted environmental pesticide concentrations from sprayer washings were lower than predictions from the FOCUS surface water model for pesticides used under normal agricultural conditions, although for tebuconazole this difference was smaller than for the other compounds investigated. The field area over which the residues may need to be uniformly deposited to avoid overdosing during infield cleaning was typically less than 0.5 m(2), with a maximum value of 4 m(2). It is unlikely that infield cleaning will lead to overdosing. External residues are not insignificant, so any adverse impact on the environment must be mitigated. Appropriate measures include cleaning in the field away from surface waters and other sensitive areas, and cleaning machines over bunded areas or similar.

  2. Based on acceptance and commitment therapy on social anxiety symptoms and quality of life Chamran University students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farokh Hasheminiya

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy on social anxiety symptoms and quality of life Chamran University Dormitory. From among female students living in dormitories martyr Chamran University, through the call, and after the implementation of the social anxiety questionnaire, a total of 30 people with the highest social anxiety score Bund, were selected randomly to participate in the study. Method of this quasi experimental study was from type of pre- and post-test with the control group. So that the qualified students, after the initial interview were randomly assigned to two experimental and control groups. Participants in both groups of social anxiety and quality of life questionnaire in the pre-test, post-test and follow-up was 1.5 months completed. The experimental group received 10 sessions of treatment based on acceptance and commitment. The results of multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA suggests that this treatment reduces social anxiety (F = 18,47, p = 0/001 and improved quality of life (F = 13,46, p = 0/04 in experimental group compared with the control group in the post-test and procedures were followed. Research results show that based on acceptance and commitment therapy a good way to reduce social anxiety and improve the quality of life.

  3. Impact of Soil Depth and Topography on the Effectiveness of Conservation Practices on Discharge and Soil Loss in the Ethiopian Highlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adugnaw T. Akale

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Restoration of degraded landscapes through the implementation of soil and water conservation practices is considered a viable option to increase agricultural production by enhancing ecosystems. However, in the humid Ethiopian highlands, little information is available on the impact of conservation practices despite wide scale implementation. The objective of this research was to document the effect of conservation practices on discharge and sediment concentration and load in watersheds that have different soil depths and topography. Precipitation, discharge, and sediment concentration were measured from 2010 to 2012 in two watersheds in close proximity and located in the Lake Tana basin, Ethiopia: Tikur-Wuha and Guale watersheds. The Tikur-Wuha watershed has deep soils and a gentle slope stream channel. The Guale watershed has shallow soils and a steep slope stream channel. In early 2011, the local community installed upland conservation measures consisting of stone and soil bunds, waterways, cutoff drains, infiltration furrows, gully rehabilitation, and enclosures. The results show that conservation practices marginally decreased direct runoff in both watersheds and increased base flow in the Tikur-Wuha watershed. Average sediment concentration decreased by 81% in Tikur-Wuha and 45% in Guale. The practices intended to increase infiltration were most effective in the Tikur-Wuha watershed because the deep soil could store the infiltrated water and release it over a longer period of time after the rainy season than the steeper Guale watershed with shallow soils.

  4. Quantifying the media bias in intensity surveys: Lessons from the 2001 Bhuj, India, earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hough, S.E.; Pande, P.

    2007-01-01

    Many seismologists have looked at the 26 January 2001 Bhuj earthquake as a key modern calibration event that could be used to improve estimates of magnitudes of large historic mainshocks in stable continental regions. Since no instrumental data are available for important historic events such as the 1819 Allah Bund, India, and the 1811-1812 New Madrid, central U.S. mainshocks, calibration hinges on comparisons of the macroseismic effects of these earthquakes with those of comparable modern earthquakes for which a reliable, instrumentally determined moment magnitude is available. However, although such a comparison is conceptually straightforward, in practice it is complicated by potentially significant inconsistencies in methods used to quantify macroseismic effects in different regions and/or times. For the Bhuj earthquake, extensive intensity data sets have been compiled and published from both media accounts and detailed direct surveys. Comparing the two provides a quantification of the previously suspected media bias, whereby earthquake effects can be exaggerated in media accounts. This bias is a strong function of intensity level, with substantial bias at the highest shaking levels and significantly less bias at low intensities. Because only sparse documentary data are in general available for older historic earthquakes, the results of this study suggest that their inferred intensity distributions might be similarly biased. We further use the survey-based intensity values to develop a new relationship between intensities and ground motions.

  5. Labile Organic Carbon in Recharge and its Impact on Groundwater Arsenic Concentrations in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, R. B.; Ashfaque, K. N.; Badruzzaman, A. M.; Ali, M.; Shoemaker, J. K.; Harvey, C. F.

    2009-12-01

    Researchers have puzzled over the origin of dissolved arsenic in the aquifers of the Ganges Delta since widespread arsenic poisoning from groundwater was publicized two decades ago. Previous work has concluded that biological oxidation of organic carbon drives geochemical transformations that mobilize arsenic from sediments; however, the source of the organic carbon that fuels these processes remains controversial. A combined hydrologic and biogeochemical analysis of a typical site in Bangladesh, where constructed ponds and groundwater-irrigated rice fields are the main sources of recharge, shows that only recharge through pond sediments provides the biologically degradable organic carbon that can drive arsenic mobilization. Numerical groundwater simulations as well as chemical and isotopic indicators suggest that contaminated groundwater originates from excavated ponds and that water originating from rice fields is low in arsenic. In fact, rice fields act as an arsenic sink. Irrigation moves arsenic-rich groundwater from the aquifers and deposits it on the rice fields. Most of the deposited arsenic does not return to the aquifers; it is sorbed by the field’s surface soil and bunds, and is swept away in the monsoon floods. The findings indicate that patterns of arsenic contamination in the shallow aquifer are due to recharge-source variation and complex three-dimensional flow.

  6. Social perception of soil conservation benefits in Kondoa eroded area of Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra P. Shrestha

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A soil conservation project was implemented in Tanzania for over 30 years. This study applied a socio-economic approach to examine and analyse the benefits of soil conservation in the Kondoa eroded area of Tanzania by conducting a household survey of 240 households. The study findings show that 89% and 70% of respondents consider soil conservation activities have increased vegetation and soil fertility, respectively. Decreased soil erosion was perceived by 68% of respondents, increased firewood by 98%, increased fodder by 50%, high crop yields by 56%, and food sufficiency by 68%. These are the outcomes of conservation tillage, integrated farming and use of organic fertilizers, controlled stall feeding, agroforestry, construction of cut off drains, contour bunds and contour ridges cultivation, which are the main land use practices in the area. Access to extension services, household sizes, long term land ownership, crop incomes and awareness of soil conservation project were found to determine the level of participation in soil conservation. Major challenges are the lack of sustainability of those activities because of a recent policy decision to withdraw conservation investment. Despite the challenge, this study concluded that past government efforts on soil conservation activities initiated since the early 1970s through decentralization, institutional collaboration, socioeconomic support to farmers and continuous local community participation in restoring the degraded ecosystem of Kondoa have contributed to ensure environmental and socio-economic sustainability in the area.

  7. Farmers’ Perception and Adaption to Land Use Change and Climate Variability in Fina Reserve, Mali.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karamoko Sanogo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Like the whole sub-Sahara Africa, rainfall in Fina reserve is subject of strong inter-annual variability. This paper assesses farmers’ perception on land use utilised in the Fina biosphere reserve and their adaptation measures to climate variability. The statistical methods (descriptive and inferential analysis are used in this study to determine farmers’ perceptions and the adaptation measures in the Fina reserve. Results reveal that 75.5% of the farmers noticed an increase in temperature and decrease in rainfall ignoring the recent recovery observed in the annual rainfall. The length of rainy season is considered to be shorter according to 77.6% of farmers involved to the investigation. However, all the farmers underlined frequent and longer dry spell. Bush fire is considered by 10.2% of farmers as the major factor affecting the natural resources of the reserve and only about 10% of farmers accorded much importance to agricultural land as contributor to reserve degradation. Most of the farmers are limited by lack of manpower and not by the reserve rule to increase their farmlands. The major adaptation measures are the methods of shifting cultivation and improving seed which are practiced by 51% and 87.8% of farmers, respectively. New adaptation strategies such as adoption of planting pits and stone-bunds for water retention need to be practiced by farmers.

  8. [Acceptance and practicability of evidence-based therapy standards in child and adolescent rehabilitation: results of a user survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahnert, J; Löffler, S; Winnefeld, M; Vogel, H

    2013-04-01

    The introduction of evidence-based therapy standards in child and adolescent rehabilitation of the German statutory pension insurance scheme (Deutsche Rentenversicherung Bund, 2011) was accompanied by a user survey that gave the participating rehabilitation centres the opportunity to comment on the new therapy standards and to suggest modifications.The survey questionnaire encompassed various topics related to the therapy standards, amongst them quality, comprehensibility, and acceptance, evaluation of feedback, and reasons for noncompliance with therapy standard requirements. For each of the 3 indications, a separate questionnaire was applied to assess modification suggestions regarding KTL therapy elements, the minimum percentage of patients to be treated accordingly, and the minimum duration of therapeutic procedures for each evidence-based treatment module. Responses from 14 rehab centres (return rate 54%) were obtained and analyzed.According to the majority of the responding rehabilitation centres, the therapy standards for child and adolescent rehabilitation fulfilled the quality features of topicality, multidisciplinarity, and relevance for routine rehabilitative practice. The degree of empirical grounding was evaluated more inconsistently. Difficulties with coding of KTL therapy elements were cited as the primary reasons for failing to comply with requirements in 2008.Exemplarily, the results of the user survey regarding the rehabilitative treatment of children and adolescents with obesity (age group: 8 years and older) are presented in detail.Concluding, the modifications to the therapy standards in child and adolescent rehabilitation introduced on the basis of the user survey are set out. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. GKSS-workshop: contaminated sludges. Treatment and utilization fine graned residues; GKSS-Workshop: Kontaminierte Schlaemme. Behandlung und Nutzungsmoeglichkeiten feinkoerniger Reststoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvermann, G.; Luther, G.; Niemeyer, B. [eds.] [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Zentralabteilung Technikum

    2000-07-01

    New regulations, such as the materials recycling act, soil protection act and unsolved problems related to the treatment of contaminated sludges, the utilisation of the gained products demand the development of innovative techniques for industrial, dredged or drilling sludges. The workshop offered a platform for intensive discussions between representatives of industry, research institutions, associations, and authorities. The main aim of the workshop was the presentation of fundamental background of sludge processing and advanced technical solutions. The available proceedings contain 21 lectures held on the workshop with the following ranges of topics of the sludge treatment: legislation, R and D-funding, technological bases, decontamination processes, dewatering and drying processes, recycling and immobilization. (orig.) [German] Neue Gesetze wie das Kreislaufwirtschafts- oder das Bundes-Bodenschutzgesetz und anstehende Probleme bei der Beseitigung belasteter Schlaemme - zum Beispiel Industrie-, Bohr- und Baggergutschlaemme - erfordern die Entwicklung innovativer Techniken zu ihrer Aufbereitung, Reinigung bzw. Verwertung. Der Workshop bot ein Formung zur intensiven Diskussion zwischen Industrie, Forschung, Verbaenden und Behoerden. Ziel war es, unterschiedliche Methoden der Schlammbehandlung zu eroertern, Loesungswege aufzuzeigen und Moeglichkeiten fuer Kooperationen zu erarbeiten. Der vorliegende Band enthaelt Beitraege der Referenten, die sich auf folgende Themenbereiche der Schlammbehandlung konzentrieren: juristische Aspekte, Foerdermoeglichkeiten, Grundlagen, Aufbereitung von Schlaemmen, Entwaesserung und Trocknung von Schlaemmen, Verwertung und Immobilisierung. (orig.)

  10. Mid-Holocene sedimentation and landscape evolution in the western Great Rann of Kachchh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, A. K.; Shukla, A. D.; Bhushan, R.; Thakker, P. S.; Thakkar, M. G.; Juyal, N.

    2012-05-01

    This study is an attempt to reconstruct the history of sedimentation and landform evolution in the western Great Rann of Kachchh. Field stratigraphy, sedimentology, geochemistry, optical and radiocarbon dating suggest dominance of tidal flat sedimentation with subordinate contribution coming from the southern-draining streams during 5.5 to 2 ka. Variability in the geochemical proxies are interpreted as a surrogate for tidal energy (viz. Zr and Cr) which, along with the major elemental ratios (TiO2/Al2O3 and K2O/Al2O3), indicate enhanced tidal energy condition during 5.5 to 5 ka and around 3 ka. A close correspondence of the major and trace elements with those of the Indus River sediment and the dominance of illite suggest the Indus River was a major contributor for western Rann sedimentation during the mid-Holocene. These sediments were routed through the Kori Creek during marginally high sea level until around 2.2 ka and the present landscape was largely sculptured after the 1819 Allah Bund earthquake.

  11. UIS Baden-Wuerttemberg. Project AJA. Application of JAVA-based and other efficient solutions in the areas of environment, traffic and administration. Phase V 2004; UIS Baden-Wuerttemberg. Projekt AJA. Anwendung JAVA-basierter und anderer leistungsfaehiger Loesungen in den Bereichen Umwelt, Verkehr und Verwaltung. Phase V 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer-Foell, R.; Keitel, A.; Geiger, W. (eds.)

    2004-12-01

    The application of innovative information technologies can make an important contribution to meet new requirements in many fields. Portal, content, management and integration technologies and new technologies for the web-based and mobile access to information are only a few of these. Development and conservation of the new information and communication systems mostly involve high costs. Increasingly, the funds required cannot be provided by the instances involved which is due to the scarce funds available in the public budgets. Individual developments, on the other hand, would not correspond with requirements of effective using and careful employment of the funds. One important tool which territorial authorities can use in order to meet these challenges is increased cooperation in developing and conserving information systems. In order to support the cooperation within the State of Baden-Wuerttemberg and also with the Federal Government and the other States, the R and D-project AJA (Application of JAVA-based and other efficient solutions in the areas of environment, traffic and administration) was created at the end of 1999. In 2004, the AJA project has started its fifth phase and will be completed with it. This report is the project documentation of phase V of AJA in 2004. It contains the duties and results of the 19 R and D activities. [German] Die Anforderungen an die Erfassung, Aufbereitung und Bereitstellung von Daten und Informationen in den Bereichen Umwelt, Verkehr und Verwaltung haben sich in den letzten Jahren deutlich erhoeht, und es ist absehbar, dass sie auch in den naechsten Jahren weiter steigen werden. Beispiele sind hier die erweiterten Verpflichtungen, die aus der neuen Europaeischen Richtlinie fuer den Zugang der Oeffentlichkeit zu Umweltinformationen und den geplanten Umweltinformationsgesetzen (UIG) des Bundes und der Laender herruehren, sowie die Erfordernisse aus der Europaeischen Wasserrahmenrichtlinie. Ausserdem fuehrt in mehreren

  12. The contribution of tyre and brake abrasion to soot levels in streets; Beitrag des Reifen- und Bremsenabriebs zur Russemission an Strassen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauterberg-Wulff, A.

    1998-09-01

    After the coming into force of the new soot emission thresholds as of July 1998, excess values are measured along many city streets. The author investigated whether tyre and brake abrasion contributes to soot emissions in addition to diesel soot. For this purpose, characteristic material and physical parameters of particles of diesel soot, tyre and brake material were investigated by thermography, AAS, and SEM. With the aid of a receptor-oriented approach, the contribution of these particles to soot levels measured in a highway tunnel and a Berlin city street could be assessed. The contribution of local traffic was calculated from the difference between soot levels along the road and in a background station. The measurements inside the tunnel served to determine emissin factors for diesel soot and abrasion particles from tyres and brakes. (orig.) [Deutsch] Mit Inkrafttreten des endgueltigen Russ-Immissionswertes der 23. Verordnung zum Bundes-Immissionsschutzgesetz im Juli 1998 ist an zahlreichen innerstaedtischen Strassen mit einer Ueberschreitung dieser Werte zu rechnen. Zur Beantwortung der Frage, inwieweit neben Dieselruss auch Reifen- und Bremsenabrieb zur verkehrsbedingten Russimmission beitragen, wurden charakteristische stoffliche und physikalische Eigenschaften von Dieselruss, Reifenabrieb und Bremsenabrieb mit der Thermographie, der AAS und der Rasterelektronenmikroskopie untersucht. Mit Hilfe dieses rezeptororientierten Ansatzes konnte der Beitrag dieser Partikel zur Russimmission in einem Autobahntunnel und an einer Hauptverkehrsstrasse in Berlin bestimmt werden, wobei zuerst der Beitrag des lokalen Verkehrs zur Russimmission aus der Differenz zwischen der Russimmission an der Strassen- und einer Hintergrundstation berechnet wurde. Mit Hilfe der Messungen im Tunnel konnten Emissionsfaktoren fuer Dieselruss und fuer Reifen- und Bremsenabriebpartikel bestimmt werden. (orig.)

  13. [Organ transplantation in Germany - Legal framework and organizational management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rommel, Wolf; Schmidt, Hartmut H J

    2010-05-01

    Organ transplantation is the therapeutic option of choice in organ failure and distinct types of cancer. For more than two decades organ transplantation had no legal framework in Germany. Multiple ethical and judicial considerations as well as the complexity of medical and organizational management but also the fears of possible organ donors lead to the enacting of German Transplantation Act (Transplantationsgesetz, TPG) in 1997. The TPG defines controlled brain death and the extended consent as requirements for explantation. This means, the organ donor must have approved the donation of his organs before. This approval can be writtenly documented or approved by the nearest relatives or the closest confidents. It is also possible to denominate an assignee (alt.: to authorize another person) during life time. Living organ donations are also legalized in the TPG. Precondition for any organ donation is the brain death of the organ donor. The diagnostic requirements for brain death are specifically mentioned by guidelines of the German Federal Medical Association (Bundesärztekammer). The major problem today is willingness to organ donation in the German population. There is an eminent deficiency of organ donations in Germany. Therefore local hospitals, regional Transplantation Centres, the supraregional German Foundation for Organ transplantation have to act closely in concert based on the directives of TPG. After successful Transplantation, a life- long immunosuppression is necessary. Nevertheless organ rejections remain still possible. By reason of this and other complications a life-long connection to a responsible Transplantation Centre is necessary for the transplanted patient. Physicians who work at a regional hospital's ICU have to be able to identify possible organ donators. They also should know how to initiate the organizational procedures to provide explantation, rapid procuration, and transportation of the explanted organs based upon to the regulations of

  14. Holding Water in the Landscape; striking a balance between food production and healthy catchment function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Paul; Wilkinson, Mark; Stutter, Marc; Adams, Russell

    2015-04-01

    Here it is proposed that ~5 % of the rural landscape could be modified to hold water during storm events. Hence ~95% of land remains for food production, commercial forestry and amenity. This is a catchment scale commitment to sustainably reducing flood and drought risk, improving water quality, biodiversity and thereby climate proofing our catchments. The farmed landscape has intensified and as a result, runoff rates are no longer in balance with the catchment needs, which in turn contributes to floods, droughts and water pollution problems. The loss of infiltration rates, soil water holding capacity and the increase in ditches and drains through intense farming has resulted in a reduction of the overall water holding capacity of the landscape, therefore deeper soil and aquifer recharge rates are lower. However, adequate raw water supply and food production is also vital. Here we consider how ~5% of productive land could be used to physically hold water during and after storms. This is a simple philosophy for water stewardship that could be delivered by farmers and land managers themselves. In this poster we consider a 'treatment train' of mitigation in headwaters by the construction of:- Rural SuDs - by creating swales, bunds and grassy filters; Buffer Strips - (designed to hold water); The Ditch of The Future - by creating the prime location for holding water and recovering lost top soil and finally the better use of Small Headwater Floodplains - by storing flood water, creating wetlands, planting new forest, installing woody debris and new habitats. We present examples of where and how these measures have been installed and show the cost-effectiveness of temporarily holding storm runoff in several case study catchments taken from the UK.

  15. Current state and future prospects of remedial soil protection. Background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frauenstein, Joerg

    2009-08-15

    The legal basis for soil protection in the Federal Republic of Germany is: -The Act on Protection against Harmful Changes to Soil and on Rehabilitation of Contaminated Sites (Federal Soil Protection Act) (Bundes-Bodenschutzgesetz - BBodSchG) of 1998 [1] -The Federal Soil Protection and Contaminated Sites Ordinance (BBodSchV) of 1999 [2]. In Germany, the Federal Government has legislative competence in the field of soil protection. The Lander (German federal states), in turn, are responsible for enforcement of the BBodSchG and the BBodSchV; they may also issue supplementary procedural regulations. According to Article 1 BBodschG, the purpose of the Act is inter alia to protect and restore the functions of the soil on a permanent sustainable basis. These actions shall include prevention of harmful soil changes as well as rehabilitating soil, contaminated sites and waters contaminated by such sites in such a way that any contamination remains permanently below the hazard threshold. Whilst prevention aims to protect and preserve soil functions on a long-term basis, the object of remediation is mainly to avert concrete hazards in a spatial, temporal and manageable causative context. ''Remedial soil protection'' encompasses a tiered procedure in which a suspicion is verified successively and with least-possible effort and in which the circumstances of the individual case at hand are taken into account in deciding whether or not a need for remediation exists. It comprises the systematic stages of identifying, investigating and assessing suspect sites and sites suspected of being contaminated with a view to their hazard potential, determining whether remediation is necessary, remediating identified harmful soil changes and contaminated sites, and carrying out, where necessary, aftercare measures following final inspection of the remedial measure. (orig.)

  16. Palliative care versus euthanasia. The German position: the German General Medical Council's principles for medical care of the terminally ill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahm, S W

    2000-04-01

    In September 1998 the Bundesärztekammer, i.e., the German Medical Association, published new principles concerning terminal medical care. Even before publication, a draft of these principles was very controversial, and prompted intense public debate in the mass media. Despite some of the critics' suspicions that the principles prepared the way for liberalization of active euthanasia, euthanasia is unequivocally rejected in the principles. Physician-assisted suicide is considered to violate professional medical rules. In leaving aside some of the notions customarily used in the euthanasia debate, e.g., passive euthanasia, the principles emphasize the obligation of physicians to offer and the right of patients to receive palliative care. The principles explicitly list modalities of basic treatment that are indispensable in all cases, such as the obligation to satisfy hunger and thirst. This statement is meant to resolve the dispute on nutrition and hydration at the end of life, as it shifts the focus of care from maintaining physiological parameters to satisfying subjective needs. For patients in a persistent vegetative state, artificial feeding is held to be obligatory. Yet, the principles make reference to recent German jurisdiction which permit the stopping of artificial feeding if it is in accordance with the patient's presumed will. Additionally, the wording concerning this issue is found to remain unclear. Patients' autonomy is strengthened by explicitly welcoming advance directives as a means to ascertain patients' wills. The principles mark some changes compared to earlier documents. They deserve careful analysis and should be considered in the international debate on issues concerning the end of life.

  17. Behaviour of radionuclides during microbially-induced mining of nickel at Talvivaara, Eastern Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuovinen, Hanna; Pohjolainen, Esa; Lempinen, Janne; Vesterbacka, Daniela; Read, David; Solatie, Dina; Lehto, Jukka

    2016-01-01

    The Talvivaara mine in Eastern Finland utilizes microbe-induced heap leaching to recover nickel and other valuable metals (Zn, Cu, Co) from a black schist ore. In addition to the target metals, the ore contains uranium at a concentration of 17 mg/kg, incorporated as uraninite (UO2). Uranium oxidizes from the U(IV) to U(VI) state during leaching and dissolves as the uranyl ion (UO2(2+)) in the acidic pregnant leach solution. Mobilisation of uranium has caused sufficient concern that plans have been developed for uranium recovery. The aim of this study is to generate new data leading to a better understanding of the fate of its radiotoxic daughter nuclides, primarily (226)Ra, (210)Pb and (210)Po, in the mining process. It is shown that uranium daughters mostly remain in the heaps during the leaching process and are associated with secondary minerals, including jarosite, goethite and gypsum. Thorium and progeny ((232)Th plus (228)Th, (228)Ra) are also mainly retained. High sulphate concentrations in the acidic solutions limit the solubility of radium by incorporation in the crystal lattices of precipitated secondary sulphates. Electron probe microanalysis shows that goethite in the heaps is uraniferous, resulting from the adsorption of U(VI). After recovery of target metals, the pregnant leach solution is neutralized to further remove metal contaminants and the resulting slurries stored in a bunded tailings pond. The activity concentrations of thorium, radium, lead and polonium isotopes are generally low in the pond owing to prior retention by secondary minerals in the heaps. However, (238)U activity concentrations range up to 3375 Bq/kg, which exceeds the permitted value (1000 Bq/kg) for natural radionuclides of the (238)U series. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Natural flood management in Southwell (Nottinghamshire, UK): an interdisciplinary approach in a rural-urban catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Josh; Labadz, Jillian; Islam, Mofa; Smith, Amanda; Disney, Andrew; Thorne, Colin

    2017-04-01

    The town of Southwell (Nottinghamshire, UK) is situated within a rural catchment and has experienced multiple flood events. In summer 2013 an extreme event occurred in which 107.6mm of rain fell within two hours, flooding up to 300 homes. As a result, a voluntary flood action group was established in the community (Southwell Flood Forum). An experimental natural flood management research project has been developed within the Potwell Dyke catchment (above Southwell). This has led to the creation of a catchment partnership of relevant stakeholders (academics, community, statutory bodies, local government and conservation organisations). Prior to intervention, water level monitoring was installed at five locations and flows were gauged for approximately one year. Rainfall data are available from the university weather station within the catchment. Ten large woody debris dams were installed on two of the streams within the catchment in summer 2016. In November, a stream restoration took place to reinstate historic meanders and create online storage in a previously ditched channel reach, together with the construction of five earth bunds in the corners of the fields. These interventions are designed to store and slow water whilst promoting ecological gains. The research takes an interdisciplinary approach. The aims are to assess the extent to which natural food management (NFM) can reduce fluvial flood occurrence but also identify and analyse current barriers to NFM uptake. Interviews with landowners in the catchment have taken place. Practitioners have also been interviewed in order to discuss the barriers to current uptake from an industry perspective. This study therefore not only addresses the evidence gap but also draws upon current barriers to advise future NFM projects. This paper will present preliminary findings from the hydrological monitoring and summarise barriers identified and lessons learned from stakeholder engagement activities.

  19. Numerical study of the heat and material transport in the absorption of water vapour in aqueous LiBr solution; Numerische Untersuchung des Waerme- und Stofftransports bei der Absorption von Wasserdampf in waessriger LiBr-Loesung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olbricht, Michael; Buchholz, Niklas; Fries, Simon; Addy, Joseph; Luke, Andrea [Kassel Univ. (Germany). Fachgebiet Technische Thermodynamik

    2016-07-01

    In absorption refrigerating machines with the working-material pair water/lithium bromide usually falling-film apparatuses are applied as absorbers, evaporators, and condensers. These are often performed as horizontal tube bundes. As critical, the process limiting component in the literature the absorper is called, because of which the their running, coupled heat and material transport processes are more detailedly theoretically studied. For this a model was developed, which maps starting from analytically describable physical connections the transport processes in the apparatus. The flow in the tube bundle is hereby divided in two sections, the flow in the liquid film on the tubes and the drop fall between the tubes. The basic equations are numerically solved under given boundary conditions, whereby for the description of the drop fall phase addititonally semi-empirical calculation approaches are used. The results are elucidated by means of concentration and temperature profiles in the film. A distinctly faster formation of the temperature boundary layer than the concentration boundary layer in the fim is shown, which makes the material transport to the limiting transport process in the absorber, which is already known from experimental studies.The physical plausibility of the model is by means of this fact confirmed by an analysis of the coupled transport processes by means of dimensionless characteristic numbers. Furthermore from the results an improvement of the heat and material transport at diminishing of the tube diameter can be derived. Just so by the results of the study an estimation method for the quality of the absorber by means of the subcooling is shown.

  20. Reducing particulate matter in the operation of firewood burning stoves taking into account the toxicological relevance; Feinstaubminderung im Betrieb von Scheitholzkaminoefen unter Beruecksichtigung der toxikologischen Relevanz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenz, Volker Alfred

    2010-12-02

    One of the greatest challenges facing humanity is climate change. Correspondingly, inter alia, the German government has set a target by 2020, to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases to the 1990 level by 20%. For this purpose can and should an increased energetic use of biomass contribute. End of 2007, the bioenergy had a share of around three quarters of the renewable primary energy input. Of which more than 45% were used for the heat supply. A total of more than 90% of renewable heat have been provided from biomass. From the provided amount of heat come over 80% from the combustion of solid biofuels - so far almost exclusively wood products - in small and medium wood-fuelled combustion systems. To reduce carbon dioxide emissions the federal government is accelerating a further expansion of energetic use of biomass in the heating sector. This expansion of thermal use of biomass, however, for reasons of pollution control, should not rise simultaneously with the emissions of air pollutants such as carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides or particulate matter. [German] Eine der groessten Herausforderungen fuer die Menschheit ist der Klimawandel. Entsprechend hat sich u.a. die deutsche Bundesregierung das Ziel gesetzt bis 2020 die Emissionen an Treibhausgasen im Vergleich zum Stand 1990 um 20 % zu mindern. Hierzu kann und soll eine verstaerkte energetische Nutzung der Biomasse beitragen. Ende 2007 hatte die Bioenergie einen Anteil von rund drei Viertel am erneuerbaren Primaerenergieeinsatz. Davon wurden mehr als 45 % fuer die Waermebereitstellung genutzt. Insgesamt wurden mehr als 90 % der erneuerbaren Waerme aus Biomasse bereitgestellt. Von der bereitgestellten Waermemenge kommen ueber 80 % aus der Verbrennung von festen Biobrennstoffen - bisher fast ausschliesslich Holzprodukte - in kleinen und mittleren Holzfeuerungsanlagen. Zur Verminderung der Kohlenstoffdioxidemissionen wird von Seiten des Bundes ein weiterer Ausbau der energetischen Biomassenutzung im Waermebereich

  1. Changes in the fluvial system of the Kondoa Irangi Hills, central Tanzania, since 1960

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Mats; Reuterswärd, Karin; Christiansson, Carl

    2003-11-01

    Using evidence from aerial photographs, supported by field checks, changes in the fluvial systems of three catchments in the Kondoa Irangi Hills, Kondoa District, central Tanzania were mapped. This area is known for its severely eroded landscape and, today, also for the drastic measures introduced to deal with the soil erosion problem. In the early stages these included mechanical construction of contour bunds, but later emphasis was placed on tree planting and planting of elephant grass on sand fans and dry, sandy riverbeds. Restrictions were introduced on clearing land for cultivation and on felling of trees for construction material and fuel wood. The most dramatic conservation measure was the eviction, in 1979, of all livestock from 19 villages to halt the severe overgrazing.Since the different conservation measures have now been in effect for more than 20 years, their impact can be assessed. The sand rivers, conspicuous features of the study area, have in many places decreased in width. Their total surface area in the three catchments decreased by about two-thirds between 1960 and 1987. Previously unvegetated sand fans have been converted to crop production. Natural vegetation is now establishing itself on formerly barren areas. However, the badlands, which cover some 25% of the study area and which take a very long time to recover, still seem to be relatively unaffected by the conservation efforts, although they decreased in extent by about 10% between 1960 and 1987. In the present report, the biophysical landscape changes and their implications for the drainage system in parts of the Kondoa Irangi Hills are discussed. Copyright

  2. A framework for managing runoff and pollution in the rural landscape using a Catchment Systems Engineering approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, M E; Quinn, P F; Barber, N J; Jonczyk, J

    2014-01-15

    Intense farming plays a key role in increasing local scale runoff and erosion rates, resulting in water quality issues and flooding problems. There is potential for agricultural management to become a major part of improved strategies for controlling runoff. Here, a Catchment Systems Engineering (CSE) approach has been explored to solve the above problem. CSE is an interventionist approach to altering the catchment scale runoff regime through the manipulation of hydrological flow pathways throughout the catchment. By targeting hydrological flow pathways at source, such as overland flow, field drain and ditch function, a significant component of the runoff generation can be managed in turn reducing soil nutrient losses. The Belford catchment (5.7 km(2)) is a catchment scale study for which a CSE approach has been used to tackle a number of environmental issues. A variety of Runoff Attenuation Features (RAFs) have been implemented throughout the catchment to address diffuse pollution and flooding issues. The RAFs include bunds disconnecting flow pathways, diversion structures in ditches to spill and store high flows, large wood debris structure within the channel, and riparian zone management. Here a framework for applying a CSE approach to the catchment is shown in a step by step guide to implementing mitigation measures in the Belford Burn catchment. The framework is based around engagement with catchment stakeholders and uses evidence arising from field science. Using the framework, the flooding issue has been addressed at the catchment scale by altering the runoff regime. Initial findings suggest that RAFs have functioned as designed to reduce/attenuate runoff locally. However, evidence suggested that some RAFs needed modification and new RAFs be created to address diffuse pollution issues during storm events. Initial findings from these modified RAFs are showing improvements in sediment trapping capacities and reductions in phosphorus, nitrate and suspended

  3. Assessment of Differential Uplift Along South Java, Indonesia from Terrace Elevations Mapped with Structure from Motion Photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreini, J.; Bunds, M. P.; Harris, R. A.; Yulianto, E.; Horns, D. M.; Prasetyadi, C.; Putra, P. S.

    2016-12-01

    Assessment of Differential Uplift Along South Java, Indonesia from Terrace Elevations Mapped with Structure from Motion Photogrammetry Jeremy Andreini, Michael Bunds, Ronald Harris, Eko Yulianto, Carolus Prasetyadi, Daniel Horns, Purna Putra Is differential uplift occurring on the south coast of Java? Java is on the southern edge of the Sunda plate, above the subducting Indo-Australian plate. Its south coast is 300 km north of the Java Trench and south of the volcanic arc that runs the length of Java. We are investigating relations between marine terraces and convergence, normal faulting associated with tectonically induced basin subsidence, eustatic sea level change, and variations in sediment supply from volcanic activity. Exposed bedrock along the coast includes upper Miocene basinal limestone, and localized exposure of underlying Miocene reef deposits and Oligo-miocene volcanic basement. Differential uplift in the past is implied by north-south trending horst-like ridges of Miocene reef sediment and volcanic basement that have been exhumed from greater depth than adjacent upper Miocene strata. We utilized Quaternary terrace elevations at four locations (Pangamalang, Pangandaran, Karanghawu, and Pacitan). Elevations were measured using traverses with handheld GPS units, profiles made with RTK GPS, and digital surface models (DSMs).The DSMs have 5 cm pixels and were constructed using structure-from-motion (SfM) software to process photos collected with quadcopters equipped with a 24 Mpixel Sony A5100 camera; their vertical RMS error relative to checkpoints measured on bare ground is 6 cm. SfM processing was done in the field with a specially built portable workstation. Four sets of terraces (T) with the following elevations were identified: T1 0-.5 m, T2 2 m, T3 17 m, T4 22 m. We interpret T1 to be the modern wave-cut platform, T2 to represent Holocene uplift of a Holocene terrace or possibly modern deposition, T3 to result from Marine Isotope Stage 5e. T4 occurs

  4. Triassic structural and stratigraphic evolution of the Central German North Sea sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Marco; Jähne-Klingberg, Fabian

    2017-04-01

    The subsurface of the Central German North Sea sector is characterized by a complex sequence of tectonic events that span from the Permo-Carboniferous initiation of the Southern Permian Basin to the present day. The Triassic period is one of the most prominent stratigraphic intervals in this area due to alternating phases of relatively tectonic quiescence and intense tectonic activity with the development of grabens, salt-tectonics movements, various regional and local erosional events and strong local and regional changes in subsidence over time. The heterogeneous geological history led to complex structural and lithological patterns. The presented results are part of a comprehensive investigation of the Central German North Sea sector. It was carried out within the scope of the project TUNB (www.bgr.bund.de). The main goal was to enhance the understanding of the Triassic geological development in the area of interest due to detailed seismic interpretation of several hundred 2D seismic lines and as well 3D seismic data sets. A seismostratigraphic concept was used to interpret most formations of the Triassic resulting in a detailed subdivision of the Triassic unit. Depth and thickness maps for every stratigraphic unit and geological cross sections provided new insights regarding an overall basin evolution as well as the timing and mechanisms of rifting and salt-tectonics. New results concerning the evolution of the Keuper in the German North Sea and especially the Triassic evolution of the Horn Graben, as one of the major Triassic rift-structures in the North Sea, will be highlighted. We will show aspects of strong tectonic subsidence in the Horn Graben in the Lower Triassic. In parts of the study area, halotectonic movements started in the Upper Triassic, earlier than previously proposed. Besides mapping of regional seismic reflectors, distinct sedimentary features like fluvial channel systems of the Stuttgart formation (Middle Keuper) or subrosion-like structures

  5. The Power of Spectacle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Greenspan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available When people say Shanghai looks like the future the setting is almost always the same. Evening descends and the skyscrapers clustered on the eastern shore of the Huangpu light up. Super towers are transformed into giant screens. The spectacular skyline, all neon and lasers and LED, looms as a science fiction backdrop. Staring out from the Bund, across to Pudong, one senses the reemergence of what JG Ballard once described as an ”electric and lurid city, more exciting than any other in the world.” The high-speed development of Pudong – in particular the financial district of Lujiazui – is the symbol of contemporary Shanghai and of China’s miraculous rise.Yet, Pudong is also taken as a sign of much that is wrong with China’s new urbanism. To critics the sci-fi skyline is an emblem of the city’s shallowness, which focuses all attention on its glossy facade. Many share the sentiment of free market economist Milton Friedman who, when visiting Pudong famously derided the brand new spectacle as a giant Potemkin village. Nothing but “the statist monument for a dead pharaoh,” he is quoted as saying.This article explores Pudong in order to investigate the way spectacle functions in China’s most dynamic metropolis. It argues that the skeptical hostility towards spectacle is rooted in the particularities of a Western philosophical tradition that insists on penetrating the surface, associating falsity with darkness and truth with light.In contrast, China has long recognized the power of spectacle (most famously inventing gunpowder but using it only for fireworks. Alongside this comes an acceptance of a shadowy world that belongs to the dark. This acknowledgment of both darkness and light found in traditional Chinese culture (expressed by the constant revolutions of the yin/yang symbol may provide an alternative method for thinking about the tension between the spectacular visions of planners and the unexpected and shadowy disruptions from

  6. Estimation of gaseous real-world traffic emissions downstream a motorway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, M.; Corsmeier, U.; Vogt, U.; Vogel, B.

    The consequences of air pollution scenarios caused by road traffic or the impact of exhaust gas reduction techniques are estimated by emission models. To ensure the quality of model results, it is necessary to evaluate the used emission factors under real-world conditions. Therefore, the Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung (IMK) of the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe initiated the field campaign BAB II (BundesAutoBahn, Federal motorway). The campaign was conducted in May 2001 with the objective of measuring the traffic emissions at a motorway section and to compare them to modelled emissions. Based on experiences during a precursor campaign (BAB I, 1997), a symmetric experimental set-up was installed which allowed measurements up- and downwind of a motorway nearby Heidelberg, Germany. This paper focuses on the determination of source intensities and emission factors for CO and NO x, whereas other papers in this issue handle VOC and particulate matter. First the basic approach of BAB II measurements up- and downwind of a motorway was approved, showing that it is possible to detect the plume originating from traffic emissions. A case study during a traffic jam illustrates that driving patterns have a strong impact on the emissions and therefore a detailed traffic census is required to obtain reliable emission calculations. Two different strategies were used: (i) long-time measurements during the whole campaign to obtain vertical profiles each 30 min and (ii) measurements during eight special operation periods (SOP) in a higher temporal resolution of 5 min, using instrumentation in elevators. It could be shown that even at a distance of 60-80 m from the motorway the structure of the plume is still inhomogeneous, and concentration changes within short times. The inhomogeneity of the plume not only affects the temporal scale, the spatial scale is also influenced and frequently concentration maxima in higher altitudes are observed. Mean source intensities of 9.5 kg

  7. EEG II. Annexes and regulations. Comment; EEG II. Anlagen und Verordnungen. Kommentar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frenz, Walter (ed.) [Rheinisch-Westfaelische Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Berg-, Umwelt- und Europarecht

    2016-11-01

    weitverzweigten Regeln. Sofern zum besseren Verstaendnis erforderlich, werden auch die Vorschriften des EEG 2014 erklaert. Konsequent fuer Ihre Praxis konzipiert Als Kaeufer des Werkes profitieren Sie auch vom Zugriff auf eine umfangreiche, regelmaessig aktualisierte Datenbank. Diese enthaelt wichtige energierechtliche Vorschriften der EU, des Bundes und der Laender. Auch fruehere Rechtsstaende bleiben recherchierbar und koennen komfortabel mit aktuellen Fassungen verglichen werden. So sehen Sie auf einen Blick, was sich geaendert hat.

  8. Measures to influence nitric oxide formation and alkali release in coal dust combustion under pressure; Massnahmen zur Beeinflussung der Stickoxidbildung und Alkalienfreisetzung bei der Kohlenstaubdruckverbrennung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thielen, W.; Niepel, H. [Steinmueller (L.u.C.) GmbH, Gummersbach (Germany)

    1999-09-01

    Messrs. Steinmueller are making the following contributions to the Dorsten experimental plant: Development of pressure burner and combustion chamber, fuel supply and flue gas analysis, especially the development of a high-temperature flue gas tapping unit at the end of the hot reaction zone. Burner development should always aim at complete converstion of the fuel and minimal pollutant emissions, as well as stable combustion over a wide range of operating conditons and maximum reliability in case of disturbances. Tools for development and experiment analysis are flow measurements in isothermal models, numerical flow and radiation excchange calculation programs, and reference data from the hot operation under pressure of the small-scale Dorsten pilot plant. The contribution presents the results of the burner experiments with a view to nitric oxide and alkali emissions; finally, the effects of different influencing parameters on combustion control and on the still unresolved fields of investigation are indicated. [Deutsch] Die Druckkohlenstaubfeuerung erschliesst fuer den Brennstoff Kohle durch Nutzung des Gas- und Dampfturbinenprozesses Kraftwerkswirkungsgrade im Bereich von 50 % und mehr. Dabei soll das unter Druck verbrannte Rauchgas nach Abscheidung aller schaedlichen Bestandteile, insbesondere der Asche, die in diesem Temperaturbereich durchweg schmelzfluessig vorliegt, direkt auf die Gasturbine geleitet werden. Mit Foerderung des Bundes (seinerzeit BMFT) wurde unter Beteiligung der GHS Essen, mehrerer Industriepartner und Energieversorger am Zechenstandort Dorsten eine Kleinpilotanlage mit einer thermischen Leistung von ca 1 MW errichtet und seither betrieben. Der Forschungsschwerpunkt der L. und C. Steinmueller GmbH richtete sich darin auf die Thematik Kohleumwandlung. Die Aktivitaeten umfssten die Bereiche Druckbrenner- und Brennkammerentwicklung, die Brennstoffversorgung und die Rauchgasanalytik, hier insbesondere die Entwicklung einer Hochtemperatur

  9. Open Pit Water Control Safety A Case Of Nchanga Open Pit Mine Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silwamba C

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mining in Chingola Zambia started underground in 1931 and was catastrophically flooded and closed. The present Nchanga Underground Mine NUG started in 1937. The Nchanga Open Pit NOP mine started in 1955 situated to the west of NUG and partially overlying it. Open pit water control safety operations in the Nchanga-Chingola area have successfully enabled the safe extraction of millions of tonnes of copper ore annually over the past 60 years from NUG mining as well as the NOP. At the start Nchanga mining license surface already had NUG and many watershed divides with the Nchanga and Chingola streams being the main streams feeding into Zambias second largest river Kafue river and 42 of the year was characterised by heavy rains ranging between 800mm to 1300mm per annum. In this paper the presence of very significant amounts of seasonal rain and subsurface water in the mining area was identified as both a curse and a blessing. An excess in seasonal rain and subsurface water would disrupt both open pit and underground mining operations. In order for NOP to be operated successfully stable and free from flooding coping water management tactics were adopted from 1955 to 2015 including 1. Underground mine pump chamber pumping system 2. Piezometer instrumented boreholes 3. Underground mine 1500-ft sub-haulage east borehole dewatering beneath the open pit 4. Nchanga and Chingola stream diversionary tunnel and open drains 5. Nchanga stream causeway and embankment dam in the Matero School Golf Club area 6. Pit perimeter borehole pumping 7. Outer and inner pit perimeter drains and bund walls 8. In-pit ramp side drains 9. In-pit sub-horizontal borehole geo-drains and water and 10. Pit bottom sump pumps. Application of grout curtains along the Vistula River Poland was noted as a possibility in the right circumstances although it had never been used at Nchanga Open Pit. An additional conclusion was that forward health safety and environmental end

  10. Coupled neutronics and thermal hydraulics of high density cores for FRM II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breitkreutz, Harald

    2011-03-04

    According to the 'Verwaltungsvereinbarung zwischen Bund und Land vom 30.5.2003' and its updating on 13.11.2010, the Forschungs-Neutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz, Frm II, has to convert its fuel element to an uranium enrichment which is significantly lower than the current 93%, in case this is economically reasonable and doesn't impact the reactor performance immoderate. In the framework of this conversion, new calculations regarding neutronics and thermal hydraulics for the anticipated core configurations have to be made. The computational power available nowadays allows for detailed 3D calculations, on the neutronic as well as on the thermal hydraulic side. In this context, a new program system, 'X{sup 2}', was developed. It couples the Monte Carlo code McnpX, the computational fluid dynamics code Cfx and the burn-up code sequence MonteBurns. The codes were modified and extended to meet the requirements of the coupled calculation concept. To verify the new program system, highly detailed calculations for the current fuel element were made and compared to simulations and measurements that were performed in the past. The results strengthen the works performed so far and show that the original, conservative approach overestimates all critical thermal hydraulic values. Using the CFD software, effects like the impact of the combs that fix the fuel plates and the pressure drop at the edges of the fuel plates were studied in great detail for the first time. Afterwards, a number of possible new fuel elements with lower enrichment, based on disperse and monolithic UMo (uranium with 8 wt.-% Mo) were analysed. A number of straight-forward conversion scenarios was discussed, showing that a further compaction of the fuel element, an extended cycle length or an increased reactor power is needed to compensate the flux loss, which is caused by the lower enrichment. This flux loss is in excess of 7%. The discussed new fuel elements include a 50

  11. [Quality assurance in cardiology: Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silber, S

    1996-10-01

    Quality assurance is a touchy subject: difficult to implement, time-demanding and expensive. The goal of quality assurance is to assist both the patients and the physicians. In addition to legal requirements, quality assurance is necessary for medical as well as economical reasons. It makes sense that the license to practice medicine does not automatically entail the right to perform all medical procedures; the development of new methods and the insights won from important scientific studies necessitates constant training. Furthermore, the decreasing allocation of funds for medical care combined with increased demand effected by new treatment methods and longer life expectancy force the development of instruments for specific and reasonable budgeting of medical expenditures. The primary goal of quality management in respect to economical regards must be the avoidance of unnecessary hospital admissions. But the patient must retain the right to choose the physician he prefers. The organization of the supervising structures in Germany is inconsistent: in 1995, a new Zentralstelle der Deutschen Arzteschaft zur Qualitätssicherung in der Medizin (German Physicians Headquarters for Quality Assurance in Medicine) was founded; it is proportionally staffed by representatives of the Bundesärztekammer (BAK, Federal Board of Physicians) and the Kassenärztliche Bundesvereinigung (KBV, Federal Commission of Panel Physicians). Furthermore, there is the Arbeitsgemeinschaft zur Förderung der Qualitätssicherung in der Medizin (Working Group for the Advancement of Quality Assurance in Medicine), in which the Bundesministerium für Gesundheit (Federal Ministry of Health) and the Kassenärztliche Vereinigung (KV, Public Health Insurance Providers) are represented. The KV is already seeing to it that stricter regulations govern physicians with private practice than those governing hospital physicians. There are three data banks existing on a voluntary basis for invasive diagnostic

  12. Soil use in gardens as chance to socially promote the Sustainable Development Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teuber, Sandra; Kühn, Peter; Scholten, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    biodiversity in the garden plot and its vicinity and thus relates to Goal 15, the halt of biodiversity loss. Gardeners influence the biodiversity through different plant species that attract pollinators on a small scale. Careful use of herbicides and pesticides also protect the soil fauna. Gardeners already accept and appreciate biodiversity in their gardens. Thus, gardening associations could be the starting point to more social acceptance of biodiversity protection measures, also making soil fauna a subject of discussion. *https://de.statista.com/statistik/daten/studie/171915/umfrage/haeufigkeit-gartenarbeit-in-der-freizeit/ **http://www.kleingarten-bund.de/de/portrait/zahlen-und-fakten/

  13. Adaptation to heavy rainfall events: watershed-community planning of soil and water conservation technologies in Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziadat, Feras; Al-Wadaey, Ahmed; Masri, Zuhair; Sakai, Hirokazu

    2010-05-01

    classified into high erosion risk areas. Accordingly, a community-watershed plan was established and revised with the community committee. Loans to implement soil and water conservation measures were distributed to 52 farmers based on the priorities of their farms. Results from four runoff events in 2009 showed that one erosive runoff event can deliver more than 50% of the total soil loss. Implementing semi-circular bunds reduced rill erosion by 40% and captured 3.4 tons of sediments per hectare. The effect of this approach in limiting the negative impact of extreme rainfall events, at watershed and field levels, are now being quantified and modeled. Keywords: climate change, land use, soil erosion, GIS, flow accumulation, land tenure.

  14. New design and facilities for the International Database for Absolute Gravity Measurements (AGrav): A support for the Establishment of a new Global Absolute Gravity Reference System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wziontek, Hartmut; Falk, Reinhard; Bonvalot, Sylvain; Rülke, Axel

    2017-04-01

    After about 10 years of successful joint operation by BGI and BKG, the International Database for Absolute Gravity Measurements "AGrav" (see references hereafter) was under a major revision. The outdated web interface was replaced by a responsive, high level web application framework based on Python and built on top of Pyramid. Functionality was added, like interactive time series plots or a report generator and the interactive map-based station overview was updated completely, comprising now clustering and the classification of stations. Furthermore, the database backend was migrated to PostgreSQL for better support of the application framework and long-term availability. As comparisons of absolute gravimeters (AG) become essential to realize a precise and uniform gravity standard, the database was extended to document the results on international and regional level, including those performed at monitoring stations equipped with SGs. By this it will be possible to link different AGs and to trace their equivalence back to the key comparisons under the auspices of International Committee for Weights and Measures (CIPM) as the best metrological realization of the absolute gravity standard. In this way the new AGrav database accommodates the demands of the new Global Absolute Gravity Reference System as recommended by the IAG Resolution No. 2 adopted in Prague 2015. The new database will be presented with focus on the new user interface and new functionality, calling all institutions involved in absolute gravimetry to participate and contribute with their information to built up a most complete picture of high precision absolute gravimetry and improve its visibility. A Digital Object Identifier (DOI) will be provided by BGI to contributors to give a better traceability and facilitate the referencing of their gravity surveys. Links and references: BGI mirror site : http://bgi.obs-mip.fr/data-products/Gravity-Databases/Absolute-Gravity-data/ BKG mirror site: http://agrav.bkg.bund

  15. Shale Gas and Oil in Germany - Resources and Environmental Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladage, Stefan; Blumenberg, Martin; Houben, Georg; Pfunt, Helena; Gestermann, Nicolai; Franke, Dieter; Erbacher, Jochen

    2017-04-01

    migration in the subsurface has been conducted, as well as stress modelling to estimate frac dimension magnitudes and the potential frequency of induced seismity. The results of these simulations reveal that the probabiltiy of impacts on shallow groundwater by the upward migration of fracking fluids from a deep shale formation through the geological underground in the North German basin is small. BGR 2016 - Schieferöl und Schiefergas in Deutschland - Potenziale und Umweltaspekte, 197p, Hannover, 2016: http://www.bgr.bund.de/DE/Themen/Energie/Downloads/Abschlussbericht_13MB_Schieferoelgaspotenzial_Deutschland_2016.pdf?__blob=publicationFile&v=5.

  16. Lithospheric Structure Beneath Various Tectonic Units of Northwestern Deccan Volcanic Province from Surface Wave Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, J.

    2016-12-01

    The northwestern portion of the Indian subcontinent evoked a lot of scientific interest due to its geological and tectonic evolution since 140 Ma, after breakup of India from the Gondwanaland and collision with the Asian plate. During the northward movement of the Indian plate, it passed over mantle plumes, resulting in massive outpouring of basalts seen in regions like the Deccan Volcanic province (DVP). The DVP region is one of the most seismically active intraplate regions in the world and has witnessed large earthquakes in the past including the 1819 Allah Bund earthquake (M 7.8) and 2001 Bhuj earthquake (M 7.7). Moreover, this region has been continuously active since the Bhuj earthquake (Mw 7.7). Since the entire lithosphere is involved in the deformation of continents, knowledge of the structure of the crust and upper mantle of tectonically active areas is very much important for understanding the tectonic framework and evolve possible models of geodynamic evolution. In the present study, we obtained the shear wave velocity structure of the crust and upper mantle by inverting the 1o by 1o regionalized group velocity dispersion curves. The 2-D surface wave dispersion maps have been prepared at various periods (6 to 100 s) and then inverted down to a depth of 220 km using the Genetic Algorithm (GA) technique. Our results reveal distinct sedimentary and upper crustal layers, Moho, lithospheric mantle lid (LID) and an asthenospheric low velocity zone (LVZ). We observed a variation in the crustal thickness, with the Moho depths varying from 35.4 to 40.7 km in the Kachchh rift, 32.1 to 36 km in the Cambay rift, 33.4 to 37 km in the Narmada Rift, and 35.3 to 42.6 km in the Saurashtra and other parts of DVP. Large values of Moho depth (40.7 km) with a Vs value of 4.0 km/s in the Kachchh Seismic Zone (KSZ) indicates presence of high-velocity lower crust with a mafic/ultramafic composition. A thin lithosphere of 82.5 km, 115 km and 93.2 km has been identified in the 3

  17. Methodological requirements on the spatial representativeness of heavy metal background values in top-soils; Methodische Anforderungen an die Flaechenrepraesentanz von Hintergrundwerten in Oberboeden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Utermann, J.; Duewel, O.; Fuchs, M.; Gaebler, H.E. [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Hannover (Germany); Gehrt, E.; Hindel, R.; Schneider, J. [Niedersaechsisches Landesamt fuer Bodenforschung, Hannover (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    zur Pruefung der pedoregionalen und nutzungsbezogenen Repraesentanz von Punkt-, d.h. Profildaten auf kleiner Massstabsebene vorgestellt. Der Ansatz fusst auf (i) der massstabsabhaengigen Auswertung der raeumlichen Verbreitung der Legendeneinheiten einer Karte der Bodenausgangsgesteine (BAG) und (ii) der Bewertung der Uebereinstimmung von Profilinformationen und den Flaecheninformationen, denen sie aufgrund ihres Lagebezuges zugeordnet werden. Zur Schaffung eines Datensatzes mit entsprechenden Punktinformationen wurden unterschiedliche Datenbestaende aus den Laendern und vom Bund nach inhaltlicher Harmonisierung und Abgleich mit Mindestanforderungen zusammengefuehrt. In analytischer Hinsicht erfolgte eine Datenharmonisierung durch den Vergleich von Elementgehalten in unterschiedlichen Aufschlussverfahren. Zur Umrechnung von Totalgehalten und Koenigswasser-extrahierbaren Elementgehalten wurden substrat- und elementspezifische Regressionsfunktionen abgeleitet. Der Flaechenbezug wird ueber eine Karte der BAG (Massstab 1:1 Mio.) und Informationen zu den Bodenarten hergestellt. Als zweite Flaecheninformation dient eine Karte der Hauptlandnutzung basierend auf den Kategorien der CORINE Landcover. Mit den derzeit laenderuebergreifend verfuegbaren Datensaetzen lassen sich unter Beruecksichtigung der pedoregionalen und nutzungsbezogenen Repraesentanz fuer ca. 67% der Flaeche Deutschlands Hintergrundwerte fuer Schwermetalle in Oberboeden ausweisen. Am Beispiel Niedersachsens wird der laenderuebergreifende Algorithmus zur Pruefung der pedoregionalen und nutzungsbezogenen Repraesentanz auf mittleren, laenderbezogenen Massstabsebenen untersucht. Mit Profilinformationen aus dem Niedersaechsischen Fachinformationssystem Bodenkunde (NIBIS) lassen sich auf Grundlage der gleichen Repraesentanzkriterien ca. 47% der Landesflaeche nutzungsdifferenziert mit Hintergrundwerten belegen. (orig.)

  18. Assessment of monthly soil erosion rates in different land-uses of a Mediterranean agro-system at high spatial scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Vicente, M.; Navas, A.; Poesen, J.; van den Eeckhaut, M.

    2009-04-01

    Distributed soil erosion models are potential tools for identifying sediment sources. However, the uncertainty of model predictions in different land-uses has yet to be resolved. In this work the erosion module of the SERT (Soil Erosion and Redistribution Tool) model is presented and used to estimate soil loss by sheet and rill erosion at monthly scale in a small endorheic sub-catchment in the Spanish Pre-Pyrenees (0.7 ha). The different land-uses of the study area are crops of winter cereal, pasture, Mediterranean and oak forest, and dense scrublands. The physical basis of the SERT model is the revised Morgan, Morgan and Finney (RMMF) model, though overland flow per raster cell and cumulative overland flow volume are calculated after assessing the volume of rainfall to ponding (López-Vicente and Navas, 2008 [Geophysical Research Abstracts 10: 03390]) and by using multiple and combined flow algorithms (López-Vicente and Navas, 2009 [Land Degradation and Development DOI: 10.1002/ldr.901]). The SERT model also deals with the effect of soil microtopography, roughness, infiltration properties, temporal changes of soil moisture and the number of monthly erosive events. The main target of this work is to compare the predicted soil erosion rates in different Mediterranean land uses with the SERT model as well as to discuss the effect of the temporal changes of climatic conditions and soil properties. A total of 266 soil samples were collected in order to obtain a detailed database of the different soil properties. All maps were derived with a GIS application and the model was run at a spatial resolution of 5 x 5 meters. Results underline the complexity of runoff connectivity in the study area due to the presence of sinkholes, stone bunds and terraces. The average annual erosion rate for the whole catchment is 17.5 Mg ha-1 yr-1, though the predicted rates of soil erosion vary at temporal and spatial scales. The highest values of cumulative overland flow, total soil

  19. Errors and pitfalls: Briefing and accusation of medical malpractice - the second victim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wienke, Albrecht

    2013-12-13

    In June 2012, the German Medical Association (Bundesärztekammer) published the statistics of medical malpractice for 2011 (published at http://www.bundesaerztekammer.de). Still ENT-specific accusations of medical malpractice are by far the fewest in the field of hospitals and actually even in the outpatient context. Clearly most of the unforeseen incidents still occur in the disciplines of trauma surgery and orthopedics. In total, however, an increasing number of errors in treatment can be noticed on the multidisciplinary level: in 25.5% of the registered cases, an error in treatment was found to be the origin of damage to health justifying a claim for compensation of the patient. In the year before, it was only 24.7%. The reasons may be manifold, but the medical system itself certainly plays a major role in this context: the recent developments related to health policy lead to a continuous economisation of medical care. Rationing and limited remuneration more and more result in the fact that therapeutic decision are not exclusively made for the benefit of the patient but that they are oriented at economic or bureaucratic aspects. Thus, in the long term, practising medicine undergoes a change. According to the §§ 1, 3 of the professional code of conduct for doctors (Musterberufsordnung für Ärzte; MBO-Ä) medical practice as liberal profession is principally incompatible with the pursuit of profit, however, even doctors have to earn money which more and more makes him play the role of a businessman. Lack of personnel and staff savings lead to excessive workloads of physicians, caregivers, and nurses, which also favour errors. The quality and even the confidential relationship between doctor and patient, which is important for the treatment success, are necessarily affected by the cost pressure. The victims in this context are not only the patients but also the physicians find themselves in the continuous conflict between ethical requirements of their profession

  20. [Briefing and accusation of medical malpractice--the second victim].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wienke, A

    2013-04-01

    In June 2012, the German Medical Association (Bundesärztekammer) published the statistics of medical malpractice for 2011 [1]. Still ENT-specific accusations of medical malpractice are by far the fewest in the field of hospitals and actually even in the outpatient context. Clearly most of the unforeseen incidents still occur in the disciplines of trauma surgery and orthopedics. In total, however, an increasing number of errors in treatment can be noticed on the multidisciplinary level: in 25.5% of the registered cases, an error in treatment was found to be the origin of damage to health justifying a claim for compensation of the patient. In the year before, it was only 24.7%. The reasons may be manifold, but the medical system itself certainly plays a major role in this context: the recent developments related to health policy lead to a continuous economisation of medical care. Rationing and limited remuneration more and more result in the fact that therapeutic decisions are not exclusively made for the benefit of the patient but that they are oriented at economic or bureaucratic aspects. Thus, in the long term, practising medicine undergoes a change. According to the §§ 1, 3 of the professional code of conduct for doctors (Musterberufsordnung für Ärzte; MBO-Ä) medical practice as liberal profession is principally incompatible with the pursuit of profit, however, even doctors have to earn money which more and more makes him play the role of a businessman. Lack of personnel and staff savings lead to excessive workloads of physicians, caregivers, and nurses, which also favour errors. The quality and even the confidential relationship between doctor and patient, which is important for the treatment success, are necessarily affected by the cost pressure. The victims in this context are not only the patients but also the physicians find themselves in the continuous conflict between ethical requirements of their profession and the actual requirements of the

  1. Possible origin of the non-linear long-term autocorrelations within the Gaussian regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutner, Ryszard; Świtała, Filip

    2003-12-01

    time series), which are collected with a discrete time step, we used in the continuous-time series produced by the model a discretization procedure. We observed that such a procedure generates, in general, long-range non-linear autocorrelations even in the Gaussian regime, which appear to be similar to those observed, e.g., in the financial time series (Phys. A 287 (2000) 396; Phys. A 299 (2001) 1; Phys. A 299 (2001) 16; Phys. A 299 (2001) 16), although single steps of the walker within continuous time are, by definition, uncorrelated. This suggests a suprising origin of long-range non-linear autocorrelations alternative to the one proposed very recently (cf. Mosaliver et al. (Phys. Rev. E 67 (2003) 021112) and refs. therein) although both approaches involve related variants of the well-known continuous-time random walk formalism applied yet in many different branches of knowledge (Phys. Rep. 158 (1987) 263; Phys. Rep. 195 (1990) 127; in: A. Bunde, S. Havlin (Eds.), Fractals in Science, Springer, Berlin, 1995, p. 1).

  2. Redistribution of magnetic iron oxide along soil profile after eight years managing a commercial olive orchard in a Vertisol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, Gema; Gómez, José Alfonso

    2017-04-01

    at 12 cm, in 2016, in both zones (tree and inter tree rows) magnetite decreases slightly from the 10-20 cm interval but still finding tagged soil at a depth of 60 cm where background values were nearly reached. The implications of these results on the use of erosion magnetic tracers in long-term erosion experiments and soil vertical fluxes in Vertic soils will be discussed. References: Guzmán G., Vanderlinden K., Giráldez J.V., Gómez J. A. 2013. Assessment of spatial variability in water erosion rates in an olive orchard at plot scale using a magnetic iron oxide tracer. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 77(2), 350-361. Guzmán G., Barrón V., Gómez J.A. 2010. Evaluation of magnetic iron oxides as sediment tracers in water erosion experiments. Catena, 82(2), 126-133. Obereder E., Klik A., Wakolbinger S., Guzmán G., Strohmeier S., Demelash N., Gómez, J.A. 2016. Investigation of the impact of stone bunds on erosion and deposition processes combining conventional and tracer methodology in the Gumara Maksegnit watershed, Northern highlands of Ethiopia. In EGU General Assembly Conference Abstracts (Vol. 18, p. 2455).

  3. Les règles de l’ostentation : L’œuvre-phare de Veblen : source et guide de la sociologie du loisir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Marie Lafortune

    2007-10-01

    , tradition and pre-modern values to the popular type. Second, in focusing on the process of sociocultural change, which lies for him on emulation. Thus, he denounces the conservatism of the elite, that causes more damages in an economic et social point of view as members of a class tend to realign their behavior according to the one of the members of the immediate higher class. His condemnation is however less radical then it appears. Even if the leisure class constrains the cultural evolution by its own inertia, it his still the institution that would more likely give birth to new pratices. Despite its unproductive side, the leisure of the élite remains at the base of cultural innovation.Thorstein Bunde Veblen, values, classes, leisure, conspicuous consumption, sociocultural change

  4. Low-land Gully Formation in the Amhara Region, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijkee, Pim; Keesstra, Saskia; Mekonnen Gethahun, Mulatie

    2015-04-01

    . We expect that erosion rates have increased compared to historical rates. Gully formation in the study area is primarily driven by subsurface flow, leading to dispersion and bank collapse. Extensive signs of subsurface flows are visible in and around all research gullies. Land use has not changed significantly over the past decade, so will not have played a role in the increased erosion rates. The influence of the change in groundwater level since reservoir construction (2011) is pending analysis of current groundwater levels. With the implementation of stone bunds and fanja yuu on all fields on every hillslope surrounding the study area, infiltration will have increased significantly. Although this has decreased overland runoff, it will have increased ground water flows toward the study area and therefore made the area more susceptible to erosion through subsurface flow mechanisms.

  5. Modeling the hydrologic effects of land and water development interventions: a case study of the upper Blue Nile river basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haregeweyn, Nigussie; Tsunekawa, Atsushi; Tsubo, Mitsuru; Meshesha, Derege; Adgo, Enyew; Poesen, Jean; Schütt, Brigitta

    2014-05-01

    Over 67% of the Ethiopian landmass has been identified as very vulnerable to climate variability and land degradation. These problems are more prevalent in the Upper Blue Nile (UBN, often called Abay) river basin covering a drainage area of about 199,800 km2. The UBN River runs from Lake Tana (NW Ethiopia) to the Ethiopia-Sudan border. To enhance the adaptive capacity to the high climate variability and land degradation in the basin, different land and water management measures (stone/soil bunds, runoff collector trenches, exclosures) have been extensively implemented, especially since recent years. Moreover, multipurpose water harvesting schemes including the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD, reservoir area of ca. 4000 km2) and 17 other similar projects are being or to be implemented by 2025. However, impact studies on land and water management aspects rarely include detailed hydrological components especially at river basin scale, although it is generally regarded as a major determinant of hydrological processes. The main aim of this study is therefore to model the significance of land and water management interventions in surface runoff response at scale of UBN river basin and to suggest some recommendations. Spatially-distributed annual surface runoff was simulated for both present-day and future (2025) land and water management conditions using calibrated values of the proportional loss model in ArcGIS environment. Average annual rainfall map (1998-2012) was produced from calibrated TRMM satellite source and shows high spatial variability of rainfall ranging between ca. 1000 mm in the Eastern part of the basin to ca. 2000 mm in the southern part of the basin. Present-day land use day condition was obtained from Abay Basin Master Plan study. The future land use map was created taking into account the land and water development interventions to be implemented by 2025. Under present-day conditions, high spatial variability of annual runoff depth was observed

  6. Investigations into adverse effects on soil organisms at the concentration level of trigger values according to German Federal Soil Protection Act; Ermittlung der Wirkungen auf Bodenorganismen (Lebensraumfunktion) im Bereich der Pruefwerte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koerdel, W.; Dreher, P.; Hund, K.; Ruedel, H.

    1999-09-01

    nach Bundes-Bodenschutzgesetz auch den Schutz der Lebensraumfunktion fuer Bodenorganismen mit einschliessen. Um dies abzuklaeren, wurden mit ausgewaehlten Boeden, deren Belastung im Bereich der Pruefwerte (Park- und Freizeitanlagen bzw. Ackerbau und Nutzgarten) eingestellt wurde, gezielte oekotoxikologische Tests durchgefuehrt. Die Untersuchungen wurden mit den Schadstoffen Arsen, Cadmium und Benzo(a)pyren durchgefuehrt. Die Bodenbelastung mit annaehernd einer Kontaminante wurde erreicht, indem zwei unbelastete Boeden unterschiedlicher Charakteristik mit stark belasteten Bodenproben vermischt wurden. Bei den stark belasteten Bodenproben handelte es sich um Altlastboeden, die weitgehend eine Monobelastung des jeweiligen Schadstoffs aufwiesen. Die fuer die oekotoxikologischen Tests ausgewaehlten Testorganismen decken verschiedene trophische Ebenen ab: Mikroorganismen (originaere Population), Nitrifikation, Basalatmung, substratinduzierte Atmung; Nematoden (zugesetzte Organismen), Reproduktionsrate; Regenwurm (zugesetzte Organismen), Reproduktionsrate; Pflanzen, Keimrate, Biomasseproduktion. Fuer Cadmium und Arsen ergaben sich vergleichbare Ergebnisse von belasteten Boeden und Kontrollboeden fuer Pflanzen, Nematoden und Mikroorganismen, so dass mit den bisher abgeleiteten Pruefwerten auf dem Schutzniveau der Park- und Freizeitanlagen bzw. Ackerbau und Nutzgarten auch die Lebensraumfunktion ausreichend gesichert zu sein scheint. Bei leichten Boeden koennte im Bereich der Pruefwerte eine Einschraenkung der Lebensraumfunktion fuer Regenwuermer gegeben sein. Aufgrund des hohen Anteils an kontaminiertem Boden in den Mischungen mit Benzo(a)pyren ist eine nochmalige Ueberpruefung speziell im Hinblick auf Wirkungen auf die Mikroflora und Eisenia fetida wuenschenswert. (orig.)

  7. Safety and Environment- Masterplan 2020 of DLR's Rocket Test Center Lampoldhausen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberzettl, Andreas; Dommers, Michael

    2013-09-01

    safety of the test center.The site of Lampoldshausen with its test and supply facilities is subject to the restrictions of the German law BundesImissionsSchutzGesetz (derived from the European SEVESO-II directive) and its relevant ordinances, especially the Hazardous Incident Ordinance. Because of the complex framework effort which guarantees safety and security, Lampoldshausen has invested in people and processes in order to respect the restrictions of all relevant laws and ordinances as well as to guarantee the protection of people and the environment.Therefor a very special Master plan has been developed, with the goal to rearrange the complete testing area in order to be able to divide the area in certain sectors (testing range, technology and bureau) so that future testing enterprises will not affect almost free testing activities inside the site as it is in the present status.The paper provides comprehensive information related to the planned innovations including detailed background facts related to the foreseen safety and security standard applications.

  8. Assessment of hydrological controls on gully formation near Lake Tana, Northern Highlands of Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebebu, T. Y.; Abiy, A. Z.; Dahlke, H. E.; White, E. D.; Collick, A. S.; Steenhuis, T. S.

    2008-12-01

    pore pressure and moisture content at the interface of the organic rich A-horizon and the underlying, red-clay horizon. Piping and tunneling saturate the soil near the gully and thereby facilitate the slumping of the gully wall and their retreat. The sediment produced from the collapsing walls is exported during heavy storm events that cause flow depths of 70 cm and more. The faced changes in the hydrological flow paths and water balance in Debre-Mewi watershed suggest a change of the existing catchment protection policy, including check dams, exclosures, stone bunds and most important the reforestation of the hillsides. We find that alteration of the runoff response due to reestablishing the natural vegetation on the hillside and the improvement of existing farming practices will be most important to decelerate current erosion rates.

  9. Fractional and fractal dynamics approach to anomalous diffusion in porous media: application to landslide behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martelloni, Gianluca; Bagnoli, Franco

    2016-04-01

    and physical applications, Physics reports, 195(4-5), 127293, 1990. [27] P.-G. de Gennes, Scaling Concepts in Polymer Physics, Cornell University Press, Ithaca, 1979. [28] M. Doi, S.F. Edwards, The Theory of Polymer Dynamics, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1986. [29] M. Porto, A. Bunde, S. Havlin, H.E. Roman, Phys. Rev. E 56 (2), 1997. [30] P. Allegrini, M. Buiatti, P. Grigolini, B. J. West, Non-Gaussian statistics of anomalous diffusion: The DNA sequences of prokaryotes, Physical Review E 58(3), 1998. [31] M. Bologna, C. Tsallis, P. Grigolini, Anomalous diffusion associated with nonlinear fractional derivative Fokker-Planck-like equation: Exact time-dependent solutions, Physical Review E, 62(2), 2000. [32] W. Chen, H. Sun, X. Zhang, D. Korosak, Anomalous diffusion modeling by fractal and fractional derivatives, Computers and Mathematics with Applications, 59, 1754-1758, 2010. [33] V.E. Tarasov, Fractional Hydrodynamic Equations for Fractal Media, Annals of Physics, 318(2), 286-307, 2005. [34] G. Martelloni, S. Segoni, R. Fanti, F. Catani, Rainfall thresholds for the forecasting of landslide occurrence at regional scale. Landslides Journal, 9(4), 485-495, 2012. [35] M.G. Anderson, S. Howes, Development and application of a combined soil water-slope stability model, Q. J. Eng. Geol. London, 18: 225-236, 1985. [36] R.M. Iverson, Landslide triggering by rain infiltration, Water Resources Research 36(7): 1897-1910, 2000. [37] N. Lu, J. Godt, Infinite slope stability under steady unsaturated seepage conditions, Water Resources Research, Vol. 44, W11404, doi:10.1029/2008WR006976, 2008. [38] W. Wu, R.C. Sidle, A Distributed Slope Stability Model for Steep Forested Basins, Water Resour. Res., 31(8), 2097-2110, doi:10.1029/95WR01136, 1995. [39] G.B. Crosta, P. Frattini, Distributed modelling of shallow landslides triggered by intense rainfall, Natural Hazards and System Sciences 3: 81-93, 2003. [40] A. Patra, A. Bauer, C. Nichita, E. Pitman, M. Sheridan, M. Bursik, et al., Parallel