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Sample records for bundles iii effective

  1. Effective freeness of adjoint line bundles

    OpenAIRE

    Heier, Gordon

    2001-01-01

    In this note we establish a new Fujita-type effective bound for the base point freeness of adjoint line bundles on a compact complex projective manifold of complex dimension $n$. The bound we obtain (approximately) differs from the linear bound conjectured by Fujita only by a factor of the cube root of $n$. As an application, a new effective statement for pluricanonical embeddings is derived.

  2. Effect of Testing Conditions on Fibre-Bundle Tensile Properties Part Ⅰ: Sample Preparation, Bundle Mass and Fibre Alignment of Wool Bundles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Wei-dong; YAN Hao-jing; Ron Postle; Yang Shouren

    2002-01-01

    Due to the effects of samples and testing conditions on fibre-bundle tensile behaviour, it is necessary to investigate the relationships between experimental factors and tensile properties for the fibre-bumdle tensile tester (TENSOR). The effects of bundle sample preparation, fibre bundle mass and fibre alignment have been tested. The experimental results indicated that (1) the low damage in combing and no free-end fibres in the cut bundle are most important for the sample preparation; (2) the reasonable bundle mass is 400- 700tex, but the tensile properties measured should bemodified with the bundle mass because a small amount of bundle mass causes the scatter results, while the larger is the bundle mass, the more difficult to comb fibres parallel and to clamp fibre evenly; and (3) the fibre irregular arrangement forms a slack bundle resulting in interaction between fibres, which will affect the reproducibility and accuracy of the tensile testing.

  3. Class III myosins shape the auditory hair bundles by limiting microvilli and stereocilia growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelli, Andrea; Michel, Vincent; Boutet de Monvel, Jacques; Cortese, Matteo; Bosch-Grau, Montserrat; Aghaie, Asadollah; Perfettini, Isabelle; Dupont, Typhaine; Avan, Paul; El-Amraoui, Aziz; Petit, Christine

    2016-01-18

    The precise architecture of hair bundles, the arrays of mechanosensitive microvilli-like stereocilia crowning the auditory hair cells, is essential to hearing. Myosin IIIa, defective in the late-onset deafness form DFNB30, has been proposed to transport espin-1 to the tips of stereocilia, thereby promoting their elongation. We show that Myo3a(-/-)Myo3b(-/-) mice lacking myosin IIIa and myosin IIIb are profoundly deaf, whereas Myo3a-cKO Myo3b(-/-) mice lacking myosin IIIb and losing myosin IIIa postnatally have normal hearing. Myo3a(-/-)Myo3b(-/-) cochlear hair bundles display robust mechanoelectrical transduction currents with normal kinetics but show severe embryonic abnormalities whose features rapidly change. These include abnormally tall and numerous microvilli or stereocilia, ungraded stereocilia bundles, and bundle rounding and closure. Surprisingly, espin-1 is properly targeted to Myo3a(-/-)Myo3b(-/-) stereocilia tips. Our results uncover the critical role that class III myosins play redundantly in hair-bundle morphogenesis; they unexpectedly limit the elongation of stereocilia and of subsequently regressing microvilli, thus contributing to the early hair bundle shaping.

  4. Effectiveness of Hair Bundle Motility as the Cochlear Amplifier

    OpenAIRE

    Sul, Bora; Iwasa, Kuni H.

    2009-01-01

    The effectiveness of hair bundle motility in mammalian and avian ears is studied by examining energy balance for a small sinusoidal displacement of the hair bundle. The condition that the energy generated by a hair bundle must be greater than energy loss due to the shear in the subtectorial gap per hair bundle leads to a limiting frequency that can be supported by hair-bundle motility. Limiting frequencies are obtained for two motile mechanisms for fast adaptation, the channel re-closure mode...

  5. Theories of the dorsal bundle extinction effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, S T; Iversen, S D

    1979-07-01

    Selective destruction of the noradrenaline systems in the rat brain using the neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine has been found to cause resistance to extinction in a number of behavioural situations. Several theories concerning the behavioural mechanism altered by the lesion, and hence about the role of noradrenaline in normal brain functioning, are proposed and evaluated. Theories suggesting a role for noradrenaline in activity, perseveration, internal inhibition, frustrative non-reward, motivation, or secondary reinforcement, fail to explain all the available evidence and direct tests of each theory fails to support its predictions. A model which suggests that noreadrenaline is involved in attentional behaviour, specifically in filtering out or learning to ignore irrelevant environmental stimuli, is successful in explaining all available data and direct tests of the lesioned rats' attentional capacity serve to confirm many of the predictions of an attentional theory of the dorsal bundle extinction effect.

  6. Steric effects induce geometric remodeling of actin bundles in filopodia

    CERN Document Server

    Dobramysl, Ulrich; Erban, Radek

    2016-01-01

    Filopodia are ubiquitous fingerlike protrusions, spawned by many eukaryotic cells, to probe and interact with their environments. Polymerization dynamics of actin filaments, comprising the structural core of filopodia, largely determine their instantaneous lengths and overall lifetimes. The polymerization reactions at the filopodial tip require transport of G-actin, which enter the filopodial tube from the filopodial base and diffuse toward the filament barbed ends near the tip. Actin filaments are mechanically coupled into a tight bundle by cross-linker proteins. Interestingly, many of these proteins are relatively short, restricting the free diffusion of cytosolic G-actin throughout the bundle and, in particular, its penetration into the bundle core. To investigate the effect of steric restrictions on G-actin diffusion by the porous structure of filopodial actin filament bundle, we used a particle-based stochastic simulation approach. We discovered that excluded volume interactions result in partial and the...

  7. Effect of Reynolds number and bundle geometry on the turbulent flow in tight lattice bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The flow structure in tight lattice is still of great interest to nuclear industry. The accurate prediction of flow parameter in subchannels of tight lattice is likable. Unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (URANS) is a promising approach to achieve this goal. The implementation of URANS (Unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes) approach will be validated by comparing computational results with the experimental data of Krauss (1998). In this paper, the turbulent flow with different Reynolds number (5000~215000) and different P/D(1.005~1.2) are simulated with CFD code CFX12.The effects of the Reynolds number and the bundle geometry(P/D) on wall shear stress, turbulent kinetic energy, turbulent mixing and large scale coherent structure in tight lattice are analyzed in details. It is hoped that the present work will contribute to the understanding of these important flow phenomena and facilitate the prediction and design of rod bundles. (author)

  8. Thermal hydraulics of rod bundles: The effect of eccentricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauhan, Amit K., E-mail: amit_fmlab@yahoo.co.in [Fluid Mechanics Laboratory, Department of Applied Mechanics, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Prasad, B.V.S.S.S., E-mail: prasad@iitm.ac.in [Thermal Turbomachines Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Patnaik, B.S.V., E-mail: bsvp@iitm.ac.in [Fluid Mechanics Laboratory, Department of Applied Mechanics, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • Present CFD investigation explores, whole bundle eccentricity for the first time. • Fluid flow and thermal characteristics in various subchannels are analyzed. • Mass flux distribution is particularly analyzed to study eccentricity effect. • Higher eccentricity resulted in a shoot up in rod surface temperature distribution. • Both tangential and radial flow in rod bundles has resulted due to eccentricity. -- Abstract: The effect of eccentricity on the fluid flow and heat transfer through a 19-rod bundle is numerically carried out. When the whole bundle shifts downwards with respect to the outer (pressure) tube, flow redistribution happens. This in turn is responsible for changes in mass flux, pressure and differential flow development in various subchannels. The heat flux imposed on the surface of the fuel rods and the mass flux through the subchannels determines the coolant outlet temperatures. The simulations are performed for a coolant flow Reynolds number of 4 × 10{sup 5}. For an eccentricity value of 0.7, the mass flux in the bottom most subchannel (l) was found to decrease by 10%, while the surface temperature of the fuel rod in the vicinity of this subchannel increased by 250% at the outlet section. Parameters of engineering interest including skin friction coefficient, Nusselt number, etc., have been systematically explored to study the effect of eccentricity on the rod bundle.

  9. Topological Aharonov-Bohm Effect and Pseudo-Particle Bundles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payandeh, Farrin

    2016-10-01

    Exploiting a topological approach, we discuss the outstanding Aharonov-Bohm effect and try to explain it in the context of the principal P(M, U(1)) bundle. We show that this could be done by excluding a specific region from the main manifold which acts as the solenoid around which the effect is observed. Moreover, we discuss the impacts of pseudo-particles in this topological approach.

  10. Effect of left bundle branch block on TIMI frame count

    OpenAIRE

    Hatice Tolunay; Ahmet Kasapkara; İsa Öner Yüksel; Nurcan Başar; Ayşe Saatcı Yaşar; Mehmet Bilge

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Left bundle branch block is an independent risk factorfor cardiac mortality. In this study we aimed to evaluatecoronary blood flow with TIMI frame count in patients with left bundle branch block and angiographically proven normal coronary arteries.Materials and methods: We retrospectively studied 17 patients with left bundle branch block and as a control group 16 patients without left bundle branch block. All patientshad angiographically proven normal coronary arteries.Left bundle branch...

  11. The effect of radial power profile of DUPIC bundle on CHF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The axial and ring power profiles of DUPIC bundle are much different from those of reference 37-element fuel bundle since a DUPIC fuel bundle is re-fabricated using spent PWR fuel and 2-bundle shift refuelling scheme is proposed to CANDU-6 reactor. In case that the ring power profile of a fuel bundle is altered, the flow and enthalpy distribution of subchannels and the radial position of CHF occurrence will be changed. Similarly, the axial power profile of a fuel channel affects CHF and axial position of CHF occurrence as well as axial enthalpy, quality and pressure distribution. The ring power profile of the DUPIC bundle as increasing burnup is altered and flattened compared to 37-element bundle and each fuel bundle in a fuel channel has a different ring power profile from the other bundles at different axial position in the same fuel channel. Therefore, how to consider the burnup or ring power effect on CHF is very important to DUPIC thermalhydraulic analysis. At present study, thermalhydraulic analysis of the DUPIC bundle was performed in consideration of ring power profile effect on CHF. The subchannel enthalpy, mass flux and CHF distribution for 0 burnup to discharged burnup (18,000 MWD/THM) of DUPIC bundle were evaluated using ASSERT subchannel code. The results were compared to those of 37-element bundle and the compatability of DUPIC bundle with an existing CANDU-6 was presented in a CHF point of view

  12. Cellulosic Fibers: Effect of Processing on Fiber Bundle Strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Anders; Madsen, Bo; Thomsen, Anne Belinda;

    2011-01-01

    A range of differently processed cellulosic fibers from flax and hemp plants were investigated to study the relation between processing of cellulosic fibers and fiber bundle strength. The studied processing methods are applied for yarn production and include retting, scutching, carding, and cotto......A range of differently processed cellulosic fibers from flax and hemp plants were investigated to study the relation between processing of cellulosic fibers and fiber bundle strength. The studied processing methods are applied for yarn production and include retting, scutching, carding...

  13. The Offer Framing Effect: Choosing Single versus Bundled Offerings Affects Variety Seeking

    OpenAIRE

    Mauricio Mittelman; Eduardo B. Andrade; Amitava Chattopadhyay; C. Miguel Brendl

    2014-01-01

    Choices of multiple items can be framed as a selection of single offerings (e.g., a choice of two individual candy bars) or of bundled offerings (e.g., a choice of a bundle of two candy bars). Four experiments provide strong evidence that consumers seek more variety when choosing from single than from bundled offerings. The offer framing effect shows that the mechanics of choosing--the ways consumers go about making choices of multiple items--affect variety seeking in a systematic manner. The...

  14. The button effect of CANFLEX bundle on the critical heat flux and critical channel power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Joo Hwan; Jun, Jisu; Suk, Ho Chun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Dimmick, G. R.; Bullock, D. E.; Inch, W. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Ontario (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    A CANFLEX (CANdu FLEXible fuelling) 43-element bundle has developed for a CANDU-6 reactor as an alternative of 37-element fuel bundle. The design has two diameter elements (11.5 and 13.5 mm) to reduce maximum element power rating and buttons to enhance the critical heat flux (CHF), compared with the standard 37-element bundle. The freon CHF experiments have performed for two series of CANFLEX bundles with and without buttons with a modelling fluid as refrigerant R-134a and axial uniform heat flux condition. Evaluating the effects of buttons of CANFLEX bundle on CHF and Critical Channel Power (CCP) with the experimental results, it is shown that the buttons enhance CCP as well as CHF. All the CHF`s for both the CANFLEX bundles are occurred at the end of fuel channel with the high dryout quality conditions. The CHF enhancement ratio are increased with increase of dryout quality for all flow conditions and also with increase of mass flux only for high pressure conditions. It indicates that the button is a useful design for CANDU operating condition because most CHF flow conditions for CANDU fuel bundle are ranged to high dryout quality conditions. 5 refs., 11 figs. (Author)

  15. Pressure effects on single wall carbon nanotube bundles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teredesai, P.V. [Indian Inst. of Science, Bangalore (India). Dept. of Physics; Sood, A.K. [Indian Inst. of Science, Bangalore (India). Dept. of Physics; Chemistry and Physics of Materials Unit, Jawaharlal Nehru Center for Advanced Scientific Research, Jakkur Campus, Jakkur (India); Sharma, S.M.; Karmakar, S.; Sikka, S.K. [High Pressure Physics Div., Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Mumbai (India); Govindaraj, A.; Rao, C.N.R. [Chemistry and Physics of Materials Unit, Jawaharlal Nehru Center for Advanced Scientific Research, Jakkur Campus, Jakkur (India)

    2001-01-01

    We report high pressure Raman studies on single wall carbon nanotube bundles under hydrostatic conditions using two different pressure transmitting media, alcohol mixture and pure water. The radial and tangential modes show a blue shift when SWNT bundle is immersed in the liquids at ambient pressures. The pressure dependence of the radial modes is the same in both liquids. However, the pressure derivatives d{omega}/dP of the tangential modes are slightly higher for the water medium. Raman results are compared with studies under non-hydrostatic conditions and with recent high-pressure X-ray studies. It is seen that the mode frequencies of the recovered sample after pressure cycling from 26 GPa are downshifted by {proportional_to}7-10 cm{sup -1} as compared to the starting sample. (orig.)

  16. The effects of fee bundling on dental utilization.

    OpenAIRE

    Porter, J.; Coyte, P. C.; Barnsley, J.; Croxford, R.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine dental utilization following an adjustment to the provincial fee schedule in which preventive maintenance (recall) services were bundled at lower fees. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING: Blue Cross dental insurance claims for claimants associated with four major Ontario employers using a common insurance plan over the period 1987-1990. STUDY DESIGN: This before-and-after design analyzes the dental claims experience over a four-year period for 4,455 individuals 18 years of age a...

  17. Effect of Testing Conditions on Fibre-Bundle Tensile Properties Part Ⅱ: the Gauge Length and Elongation Speed in Wool Fibre Bundle Measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Wei-dong; Ron Postle; YANG Shou-ren; YAN Hao-jing

    2002-01-01

    The testing conditions of a fibre bundle tensile tester (TENSOR) are elongation speed (ES), gauge length (GL), pretension, jaw pressure, environmental temperature and relative humidity, instrument linearity and sensitivity. The effects on fibre-bundle tensile properties at different GL and ES have been discussed in detail and compared with Peirce's theories on the weaklinks and the breaking time effect. The experimental results indicate that the tensile properties of fibre bundles are strongly affected by GL and vary with different GL. The reasonable GL should be 5-15mm rather than 3.2mm for wool bundle measurements. The ES ranging from 20mm/min to 40mm/min is beneficial for obtaining comparatively stable and accurate tensile values, whereas 20 mm/min used in current testing for wool fibre bundles is at the lower limit of the suggested range. For bundle modulus measurement, the sampling interval must be selected appropriately. The new calculation of the sampling interval has been established.

  18. The effect of hair bundle shape on hair bundle hydrodynamics of inner ear hair cells at low and high frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatz, L F

    2000-03-01

    The relationship between size and shape of the hair bundle of a hair cell in the inner ear and its sensitivity at asymptotically high and low frequencies was determined, thereby extending the results of an analysis of hair bundle hydrodynamics in two dimensions (Freeman and Weiss, 1990. Hydrodynamic analysis of a two-dimensional model for micromechanical resonance of free-standing hair bundles. Hear. Res. 48, 37-68) to three dimensions. A hemispheroid was used to represent the hair bundle. The hemispheroid had a number of advantages: it could represent shapes that range from thin, pencil-like shapes, to wide, flat, disk-like shapes. Also analytic methods could be used in the high frequency range to obtain an exact solution to the equations of motion. In the low frequency range, where an approximate solution was found using boundary element methods, the sensitivity of the responses of hair cells was mainly proportional to the cube of the heights of their hair bundles, and at high frequencies, the sensitivity of the hair cells was mainly proportional to the inverse of their heights. An excellent match was obtained between measurements of sensitivity curves in the basillar papilla of the alligator and bobtail lizards and the model's predictions. These results also suggest why hair bundles of hair cells in vestibular organs which are sensitive to low frequencies have ranges of heights that are an order of magnitude larger than the range of heights of hair bundles of hair cells found in auditory organs.

  19. [The effect of central anatomical single-bundle versus anatomical double-bundle reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament on knee stability. a clinical study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komzák, M; Hart, R; Smíd, P; Puskeiler, M

    2014-01-01

    most important factors in restoring physiological kinematics of the joint after ACL injury. Since there are not many studies comparing knee rotational stability after CASB with that after DB reconstructions, the results presented here may contribute to selecting the optimal method of ACL reconstruction. CONCLUSIONS The results show that, in ACL reconstruction, the DB technique provides better stability to the knee, in both APT and rotation, than the CASB method. The latter has the same effect on knee stability as the presence of the AM bundle alone. When the PL bundle is added, knee stability, in both APT and internal/external rotation, is increased in comparison with central single-bundle ACL repair. Key words:anterior cruciate ligament, navigation, central anatomical single-bundle reconstruction, double-bundle reconstruction.

  20. The Effects of Resource Bundling on Third-party Logistics Providers’ Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noorliza Karia

    2015-03-01

    resource bundling (excluding advanced technology is required to achieve cost leadership. The effects of other resources on performance are mediated mainly by the demand management interface capability and knowledge resources. This is a novel attempt to justify the interaction and mediation effects of resources and capabilities on performance. The research highlights the needs for 3PL managers to focus on developing and bundling their demand management interface capability and knowledge resources in order to achieve cost leadership, and further combine advanced technology into such bundling of resources and capabilities to achieve innovation in customer service. It advances the application of resource-based view (RBV theory in logistics research by identifying resources that play supporting roles and examining the capabilities for enhancing 3PLs’ competitive performance.

  1. The effect of hair bundle shape on hair bundle hydrodynamics of non-mammalian inner ear hair cells for the full frequency range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatz, Lisa F

    2004-09-01

    The effect of the size and the shape of the hair bundle of a hair cell in the inner ear of non-mammals on its motion for the full range of frequencies is determined thereby extending the results of a previous analysis of hair bundle motion for high and low frequencies [Hear Res. 141 (2000) 39-50]. A hemispheroid is used to represent the hair bundle because it can represent a full range of shapes, from thin, pencil-like shapes to wide, flat, disk-like shapes. Boundary element methods are used to approximate the solution for the hydrodynamics. For physiologically relevant parameters, an excellent match is obtained between the model's predictions and measurements of hair bundle motion in the free-standing region of the basilar papilla of the alligator lizard [Aranyosi, Measuring sound-induced motions of the alligator lizard cochlea. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, PhD Thesis, 2002]. Neither in the model's predictions nor in experimental measurements is sharp tuning observed. The model predicted the low frequency region of neural tuning curves for the alligator lizard and bobtail lizard, but could not predict the sharp tuning or the high frequency region. An element that represents an active mechanism is added to the hair bundle model to predict neural tuning curves, which are sharply tuned, and an excellent match is obtained for all the characteristics of neural tuning curves for the alligator lizard, and for the low and high frequency regions for the bobtail lizard. The model does not predict well the sharp tuning of the shorter hair bundles of the bobtail lizard, possibly because it does not represent tectorial sallets.

  2. Effective action of heterotic compactification on K3 with non-trivial gauge bundles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schasny, Martin

    2012-10-15

    In this thesis we study the heterotic string compactified on K3 with non-trivial gauge bundles. We focus on two backgrounds, the well-known standard embedding and abelian line bundles. Using a Kaluza-Klein reduction, the six-dimensional effective action is computed up to terms of order {alpha}'{sup 2} with special attention on the hypermultiplet sector. We compute the moduli dependent couplings of the matter fields and analyze the geometry of the hyperscalar sigma model. Moreover, we prove the consistency with six-dimensional supergravity and derive the appropriate D-term scalar potential. For the line bundle backgrounds we show that the gauge flux stabilizes some geometrical moduli and renders some abelian vector multiplets massive.

  3. Effective action of heterotic compactification on K3 with non-trivial gauge bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this thesis we study the heterotic string compactified on K3 with non-trivial gauge bundles. We focus on two backgrounds, the well-known standard embedding and abelian line bundles. Using a Kaluza-Klein reduction, the six-dimensional effective action is computed up to terms of order α'2 with special attention on the hypermultiplet sector. We compute the moduli dependent couplings of the matter fields and analyze the geometry of the hyperscalar sigma model. Moreover, we prove the consistency with six-dimensional supergravity and derive the appropriate D-term scalar potential. For the line bundle backgrounds we show that the gauge flux stabilizes some geometrical moduli and renders some abelian vector multiplets massive.

  4. The Effect of Lexical Bundles on Iranian EFL Learners Linguistic Production Fluency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjbar, Nosrat; Pazhakh, Abdolreza; Gorjian, Bahman

    2012-01-01

    The present study attempted to investigate the effects of lexical bundles on Iranian EFL learners' paragraph writing production fluency. To achieve this purpose, an English language proficiency test was administered to 120 language learners studying TEFL at Islamic Azad University of Dehloran. Ultimately, 90 language learners were selected and…

  5. Preliminary examination of the effects of relative humidity on the fracture morphology of cotton flat bundles

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of the relative humidity (RH) of testing conditions on stelometer cotton flat bundle strength and elongation measurements, and on the morphology of fiber fractures are presented herein. A trend is observed for stelometer strength and elongations measurements; testing in conditions with h...

  6. Student assessment of teaching effectiveness of "bundle of changes"-A paired, controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Kalra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Inching toward optimum patient safety by training personnel is the prime aim of the ongoing medical education. Aims : To assess whether lectures targeted to improve quality care in ICU could improve ICU practitioners′ knowledge levels and to evaluate the effectiveness of teaching. Settings and Design : In this paired controlled trial, 50 ICU practitioners, i.e., anesthesia and medicine residents and nursing staff of our hospital attended a series of four lectures. Materials and Methods : Participants enrolled in the study attended lectures on "bundles of changes" in ICU, namely, introduction, ventilator bundle, central line bundle, and catheter-related blood stream infections and severe sepsis bundle. They were given a questionnaire of 15 multiple choice questions prior to and after the lectures. We evaluated their immediate knowledge acquisition and retention recall. Subsequently, they evaluated the effectiveness of the teaching programme by a questionnaire of 10 multiple choice questions. Statistical analysis used: Data for statistical analysis were tabulated and analyzed using SPSS-Pc 11.5 version software. Results : Fifty study participants completed all three questionnaires. There was an increase in the overall mean score in the post-lecture test (4.58 + 1.51 SD (P < 0.001. Overall mean score increased significantly from 8.30 + 1.34 SD in THE pre-lecture test - to 12.02 + 1.61 SD in the postlecture re-test (3.72 + 1.39 SD (P < 0.001. In the evaluation of teaching effectiveness 88% respondents agreed to most of the questions, signifying the effectiveness of the lectures. However, there were 10% who disagreed to the questions and only 2% strongly disagreed to all the questions. Conclusions : Teaching programmes such as the "bundle of changes" are effective in improving immediate knowledge acquisition and retention recall of the participants if designed keeping the target audience in mind.

  7. Effect of Entry/Exit Length on Flow Distribution in the Test Bundle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Byeong Il; Jang, Beom Jun; Kim, Hong Ju; Kim, Kanghoon; Nahm, Kee Yil; Park, Sang Weon [KEPCO Nuclear Fuel, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    In data analysis, the geometric information within the heated section of the rod bundle is important because the CHF occurs in the heated section. To ensure a constant geometry and to prevent adverse flow effects, it is required to extend the same geometry beyond the heated section of rod bundle geometry. Regarding to evaluate the validity of inlet boundary condition of subchannel analysis code, the effect of the entry and exit length on the flow distribution is evaluated under the various inlet flow conditions which could be produced without flow distributor or strainer. To evaluate the validation of the inlet and outlet boundary conditions used in the subchannel analysis code, a study on the effect of the entry and exit length on the flow distribution is conducted. Even though the non-uniform flow is entered inside the test bundle, the flow gets more saturated by the simple supports and frictions. Through the code calculation under various flow conditions, it is concluded that the flow is to be fully developed flow over about 40∼80 inches of the entry length. If the exit length is about 30∼40 inches, the effect of the exit pressure can be negligible. The entry and exit length in this paper is calculated based on only rod bundles and simple supports. By installing the flow distributors or strainer, these lengths can get shorter and the flow difference between the subchannels become smaller. This study could be very useful in order to confirm the validation of the boundary conditions used in the subchannel analysis code.

  8. A cost-effectiveness analysis of reducing ventilator-associated pneumonia at a Danish ICU with ventilator bundle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Anders Holmen; Hansen, Louise; Jensen, Morten Sall;

    2012-01-01

    -based routine treatment or standard procedures. OBJECTIVE: To determine cost-effectiveness of implementing the Ventilator bundle (VB), thereby reducing ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), when treating a ventilated patient, compared to standard procedure. SETTING AND PATIENTS: A hypothetical population...

  9. Fluid-Structure Interaction Effects Modeling for the Modal Analysis of a Steam Generator Tube Bundle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigrist, J.F. [DCNS Prop, Serv Tech et Sci, F-44620 La Montagne, (France); Broc, D. [CEA Saclay, Serv Etud Mecan et Sism, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, (France)

    2009-07-01

    Seismic analysis of steam generator is of paramount importance in the safety assessment of nuclear installations. These analyses require, in particular, the calculation of frequency, mode shape, and effective modal mass of the system Eigenmodes. As fluid-structure interaction effects can significantly affect the dynamic behavior of immersed structures, the numerical modeling of the steam generator has to take into account FSI. A complete modeling of heat exchangers (including pressure vessel, tubes, and fluid) is not accessible to the engineer for industrial design studies. In the past decades, homogenization methods have been studied and developed in order to model tubes and fluid through an equivalent continuous media, thus avoiding the tedious task to mesh all structure and fluid sub-domains within the tube bundle. Few of these methods have nonetheless been implemented in industrial finite element codes. In a previous paper (Sigrist, 2007, 'Fluid-Structure Interaction Effects Modeling for the Modal Analysis of a Nuclear Pressure Vessel', J. Pressure Vessel Technol., 123, p. 1-6), a homogenization method has been applied to an industrial case for the modal analysis of a nuclear rector with internal structures and coupling effects modeling. The present paper aims at investigating the extension of the proposed method for the dynamic analysis of tube bundles with fluid-structure interaction modeling. The homogenization method is compared with the classical coupled method in terms of eigenfrequencies, Eigenmodes, and effective modal masses. (authors)

  10. Effect of local heat flux spikes on DNB in non-uniformly heated rod bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High pressure water tests were carried out to measure the DNB heat flux using an electrically heated rod bundle in which three adjacent rods had 20 percent heat flux spikes at the axial location where DNB is most likely to occur. This test series was run at the same conditions as those of two earlier test series which had unspiked rods, so that spiked and unspiked runs could be paired and spike effects could thus be isolated. Results are described. 7 references. (U.S.)

  11. Amplifying effect of a release mechanism for fast adaptation in the hair bundle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sul, Bora; Iwasa, Kuni H

    2009-07-01

    A "release" mechanism, which has been experimentally observed as the fast component in the hair bundle's response to mechanical stimulation, appears similar to common mechanical relaxation with a damping effect. This observation is puzzling because such a response is expected to have an amplifying role in the mechanoelectrical transduction process in hair cells. Here it is shown that a release mechanism can indeed have a role in amplification, if it is associated with negative stiffness due to the gating of the mechonoelectric transducer channel. PMID:19603855

  12. Short-circuit mechanical effects on outdoor HV substations with wide bundling.

    OpenAIRE

    Pitz, Volker; Köster, Hans-Joachim; Stein, Norbert; Röder, Dieter Wiener; Meyer, Wolfgang; Tsanakas, Dimitris; Lilien, Jean-Louis

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents results of a research project investigating the mechanical effects of short-circuit currents in high-voltage substations with conductor bundles. The experimental part was performed on two set-ups, called "100 kV arrangement" and "400 kV arrangement". Those two set-ups differed in the height of the crossarm, the phase-to-phase distance and the conductor sag. Additional parameters which were varied in the course of the experiments included the level and duration of the short...

  13. Effect of Flow Blockage on the Coolability during Reflood in a 2 × 2 Rod Bundle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kihwan Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During the reflood phase of a large-break loss-of-coolant accident (LBLOCA in a pressurized-water reactor (PWR, the fuel rods can be ballooned or rearranged owing to an increase in the temperature and internal pressure of the fuel rods. In this study, an experimental study was performed to understand the thermal behavior and effect of the ballooned region on the coolability using a 2 × 2 rod bundle test facility. The electrically heated rod bundle was used and the ballooning shape of the rods was simulated by superimposing hollow sleeves, which have a 90% blockage ratio. Forced reflood tests were performed to examine the transient two-phase heat transfer behavior for different reflood rates and rod powers. The droplet behaviors were also investigated by measuring the velocity and size of droplets near the blockage region. The results showed that the heat transfer was enhanced in the downstream of the blockage region, owing to the reduced flow area of the subchannel, intensification of turbulence, and deposition of the droplet.

  14. Mode III effects on interface delamination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo; Hutchinson, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    mode III has an effect. Subsequently, the focus is on crack growth along an interface between an elastic-plastic solid and an elastic substrate. The analyses are carried out for conditions of small-scale yielding, with the fracture process at the interface represented by a cohesive zone model. Due...... to the mismatch of elastic properties across the interface the corresponding elastic solution has an oscillating stress singularity, and this solution is applied as boundary conditions on the outer edge of the region analyzed. For several combinations of modes I, II and III crack growth resistance curves......For crack growth along an interface between dissimilar materials the effect of combined modes I, II and III at the crack-tip is investigated. First, in order to highlight situations where crack growth is affected by a mode III contribution, examples of material configurations are discussed where...

  15. Relaxing the electrostatic screening effect by patterning vertically-aligned silicon nanowire arrays into bundles for field emission application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hung, Yung-Jr, E-mail: yungjrhung@gmail.com [Department of Electronic Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, No. 43, Sec. 4, Keelung Rd., Taipei 106, Taiwan, ROC (China); Department of Photonics, National Sun Yat-sen University, No. 70, Lienhai Rd., Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan, ROC (China); Graduate Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, No. 43, Sec. 4, Keelung Rd., Taipei 106, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lee, San-Liang [Department of Electronic Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, No. 43, Sec. 4, Keelung Rd., Taipei 106, Taiwan, ROC (China); Graduate Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, No. 43, Sec. 4, Keelung Rd., Taipei 106, Taiwan, ROC (China); Beng, Looi Choon [Faculty of Engineering, Multimedia University, Jalan Multimedia, 63100 Cyberjaya, Selangor (Malaysia); Chang, Hsuan-Chen [Department of Electronic Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, No. 43, Sec. 4, Keelung Rd., Taipei 106, Taiwan, ROC (China); Graduate Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, No. 43, Sec. 4, Keelung Rd., Taipei 106, Taiwan, ROC (China); Huang, Yung-Jui [Graduate Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, No. 43, Sec. 4, Keelung Rd., Taipei 106, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lee, Kuei-Yi; Huang, Ying-Sheng [Department of Electronic Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, No. 43, Sec. 4, Keelung Rd., Taipei 106, Taiwan, ROC (China); Graduate Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, No. 43, Sec. 4, Keelung Rd., Taipei 106, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2014-04-01

    Top-down fabrication strategies are proposed and demonstrated to realize arrays of vertically-aligned silicon nanowire bundles and bundle arrays of carbon nanotube–silicon nanowire (CNT–SiNW) heterojunctions, aiming for releasing the electrostatic screening effect and improving the field emission characteristics. The trade-off between the reduction in the electrostatic screening effect and the decrease of emission sites leads to an optimal SiNW bundle arrangement which enables the lowest turn-on electric field of 1.4 V/μm and highest emission current density of 191 μA/cm{sup 2} among all testing SiNW samples. Benefiting from the superior thermal and electrical properties of CNTs and the flexible patterning technologies available for SiNWs, bundle arrays of CNT–SiNW heterojunctions show improved and highly-uniform field emission with a lower turn-on electric field of 0.9 V/μm and higher emission current density of 5.86 mA/cm{sup 2}. The application of these materials and their corresponding fabrication approaches is not limited to the field emission but can be used for a variety of emerging fields like nanoelectronics, lithium-ion batteries, and solar cells. - Highlights: • Aligned silicon nanowire (SiNW) bundle arrays are realized with top-down methods. • Growing carbon nanotubes atop SiNW bundle arrays enable uniform field emission. • A turn-on field of 0.9 V/μm and an emission current of > 5 mA/cm{sup 2} are achieved.

  16. Overview of methods to increase dryout power in CANDU fuel bundles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groeneveld, D.C., E-mail: degroeneveld@gmail.com [Chalk River Laboratories, AECL, Chalk River (Canada); University of Ottawa, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ottawa (Canada); Leung, L.K.H. [Chalk River Laboratories, AECL, Chalk River (Canada); Park, J.H. [Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • Small changes in bundle geometry can have noticeable effects on the bundle CHF. • Rod spacing devices can results in increases of over 200% in CHF. • CHF enhancement decays exponentially downstream from spacers. • CHF-enhancing bundle appendages also increase the post-CHF heat transfer. - Abstract: In CANDU reactors some degradation in the CCP (critical channel power, or power corresponding to the first occurrence of CHF in any fuel channel) will occur with time because of ageing effects such as pressure-tube diametral creep, increase in reactor inlet-header temperature, increased hydraulic resistance of feeders. To compensate for the ageing effects, various options for recovering the loss in CCP are described in this paper. They include: (i) increasing the bundle heated perimeter, (ii) optimizing the bundle configuration, (iii) optimizing core flow and flux distribution, (iv) reducing the bundle hydraulic resistance, (v) use of CHF-enhancing bundle appendages, (vi) more precise experimentation, and (vii) redefining CHF. The increase in CHF power has been quantified based on experiments on full-scale bundles and subchannel code predictions. The application of several of these CHF enhancement principles has been used in the development of the 43-rod CANFLEX bundle.

  17. Bundling biodiversity

    OpenAIRE

    Heal, Geoffrey

    2002-01-01

    Biodiversity provides essential services to human societies. Many of these services are provided as public goods, so that they will typically be underprovided both by market mechanisms (because of the impossibility of excluding non-payers from using the services) and by government-run systems (because of the free rider problem). I suggest here that in some cases the public goods provided by biodiversity conservation can be bundled with private goods and their value to consumers captured in th...

  18. Investigation of the heat exchanger bundle effect for the passive condensate cooling tank using the CUPID code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The need for a multi dimensional analysis of transient thermal hydraulic phenomena in a component of a nuclear reactor is increasing with the advanced design features. Motivated by this, the development of a new thermal hydraulic analysis code, named CUPID, is in progress at KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute). The simulation of the passive secondary cooling system, PAFS (Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System) has been considered as one of the practical applications of CUPID. In order to validate the two phase flow models of CUPID, the PASCAL test facility was simulated with a porous media model in our previous study. In the present study, the heat exchanger bundle effect on the natural circulation heat transfer was investigated using CUPID for the passive condensate cooling tank (PCCT) of the PAFS. The calculation results with the porous media model, such as the liquid temperature and velocity, were imposed as boundary conditions of the detailed flow simulation near the single heat exchanger tube of the PASCAL facility. Thereafter, the bundle effect was investigated by comparing the calculation result of the unit cell of the PAFS tube bundle and that of the single tube. This paper presents the two dimensional porous media analysis result for the PCCT of the PASCAL facility, two dimensional open media analysis result for a single heat exchanger tube, and two dimensional open media analysis result for the unit cell of the heat exchanger bundle

  19. Effective System for Automatic Bundle Block Adjustment and Ortho Image Generation from Multi Sensor Satellite Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akilan, A.; Nagasubramanian, V.; Chaudhry, A.; Reddy, D. Rajesh; Sudheer Reddy, D.; Usha Devi, R.; Tirupati, T.; Radhadevi, P. V.; Varadan, G.

    2014-11-01

    Block Adjustment is a technique for large area mapping for images obtained from different remote sensingsatellites.The challenge in this process is to handle huge number of satellite imageries from different sources with different resolution and accuracies at the system level. This paper explains a system with various tools and techniques to effectively handle the end-to-end chain in large area mapping and production with good level of automation and the provisions for intuitive analysis of final results in 3D and 2D environment. In addition, the interface for using open source ortho and DEM references viz., ETM, SRTM etc. and displaying ESRI shapes for the image foot-prints are explained. Rigorous theory, mathematical modelling, workflow automation and sophisticated software engineering tools are included to ensure high photogrammetric accuracy and productivity. Major building blocks like Georeferencing, Geo-capturing and Geo-Modelling tools included in the block adjustment solution are explained in this paper. To provide optimal bundle block adjustment solution with high precision results, the system has been optimized in many stages to exploit the full utilization of hardware resources. The robustness of the system is ensured by handling failure in automatic procedure and saving the process state in every stage for subsequent restoration from the point of interruption. The results obtained from various stages of the system are presented in the paper.

  20. Numerical evaluation of effects of lift force model on pressure loss in tight-lattice rod bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) develops three dimensional two-fluid model analysis code ACE-3D that adopts boundary fitted coordinate system in order to simulate complex shape flow channel. In this paper, boiling two-phase flow analysis in a tight-lattice rod bundle was performed by ACE-3D code, and predicted pressure loss was compared with experimental result. The predicted friction pressure loss was underestimated around 20% of measured values, and the effect of the turbulence model is considered as one of the causes of this underestimation. To evaluate effects of two-phase flow model used in ACE-3D code on pressure loss, numerical simulation of boiling two-phase in tight-lattice rod bundle with no lift force model was also performed. In the results, the prediction accuracies of the pressure loss improve by considering the lift force. (author)

  1. Pitch-to-diameter effect on two-phase flow across an in-line tube bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on void fraction and friction pressure drop measurements that were made for an adiabatic, vertical two-phase flow of air-water across two horizontal, in-line, 5 x 20 rod bundles, one with a pitch-to-diameter ratio, P/D, of 1.3, the other 1.75. For both bundles the average void fraction showed a strong mass velocity effect and values were significantly less than those predicted by a homogeneous flow model. All void fraction data were found to be well correlated, with no P/D effect, using the dimensionless gas velocity, j*g. The two-phase friction multiplier data exhibited a strong effect of P/D and mass velocity, however, the data for both bundles could be well correlated with the Martinelli parameter for G > 200 kg/m2s. The correlations developed for void fraction and two-phase friction multiplier were successfully tested in predicting the total pressure drop in boiling freon experiments

  2. Effect of four-alpha-helix bundle cavity size on volatile anesthetic binding energetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manderson, Gavin A; Michalsky, Stuart J; Johansson, Jonas S

    2003-09-30

    Currently, it is thought that inhalational anesthetics cause anesthesia by binding to ligand-gated ion channels. This is being investigated using four-alpha-helix bundles, small water-soluble analogues of the transmembrane domains of the "natural" receptor proteins. The study presented here specifically investigates how multiple alanine-to-valine substitutions (which each decrease the volume of the internal binding cavity by 38 A(3)) affect structure, stability, and anesthetic binding affinity of the four-alpha-helix bundles. Structure remains essentially unchanged when up to four alanine residues are changed to valine. However, stability increases as the number of these substitutions is increased. Anesthetic binding affinities are also affected. Halothane binds to the four-alpha-helix bundle variants with 0, 1, and 2 substitutions with equivalent affinities but binds to the variants with 3 and 4 more tightly. The same order of binding affinities was observed for chloroform, although for a particular variant, chloroform was bound less tightly. The observed differences in binding affinities may be explained in terms of a modulation of van der Waals and hydrophobic interactions between ligand and receptor. These, in turn, could result from increased four-alpha-helix bundle binding cavity hydrophobicity, a decrease in cavity size, or improved ligand/receptor shape complementarity.

  3. Monosaccharide templates for de novo designed 4-alpha-helix bundle proteins: template effects in carboproteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brask, Jesper; Dideriksen, J.M.; Nielsen, John;

    2003-01-01

    De novo design and total chemical synthesis of proteins provide powerful approaches to critically test our understanding of protein folding, structure, and stability. The 4-alpha-helix bundle is a frequently studied structure in which four amphiphilic alpha-helical peptide strands form a hydropho......)) and melting points in chemical and thermal denaturation experiments....

  4. Three-dimensional Effects of Turburlent Flow in an In-Line Tube Bundle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Knud Erik

    1998-01-01

    Velocities have been measured with laser Doppler anemometry between tubes in cross-flow in a small in-line tube bundle with longitudinal to transverse pitches of 1.5Dx1.8D and a Reynolds number based on mean velocity in minimum flow section of Re=30000. At most locations a single recirculation zone...

  5. Effect of Calcium Phosphate–Hybridized Tendon Graft in Anatomic Single-Bundle ACL Reconstruction in Goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutsuzaki, Hirotaka; Fujie, Hiromichi; Nakajima, Hiromi; Fukagawa, Makoto; Nomura, Shunsuke; Sakane, Masataka

    2016-01-01

    Background: We previously developed a novel technique using an alternate soaking process that improves tendon-bone healing by hybridizing the tendon graft with calcium phosphate (CaP). However, the effects of the CaP-hybridized tendon graft on anatomic single-bundle anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction remain unclear. Purpose: To determine the effects of CaP-hybridized tendon grafts compared with untreated tendon grafts 6 months after anatomic single-bundle ACL reconstruction using a goat model. Study Design: Controlled laboratory study. Methods: Animals were divided into a CaP group (n = 5 goats) and a control group (n = 5 goats), and we analyzed (1) knee kinematics and in situ forces under applied anterior tibial loads of 50 N and internal tibial torque of 2.0 N·m in the grafts at full extension and at 60° and 90° of knee flexion, (2) the mean percentage of bone tunnel enlargement using computed tomography (CT), and (3) the histology of the tendon-bone interface. Results: The in situ forces under applied anterior tibial loads of 50 N at 60° and 90° of knee flexion in the CaP group were greater than those in the control group (P joint aperture sites of the anterior femoral and posterior tibial bone tunnel, was greater in the CaP group than that in the control group (P joint aperture site in both anterior femoral and posterior tibial tunnels 6 months after anatomic single-bundle ACL reconstruction in goats. The in situ forces under applied anterior tibial loads at greater flexion angles in the CaP group increased compared with controls. Clinical Relevance: Anatomic single-bundle ACL reconstruction using CaP-hybridized tendon grafts may lead to better postoperative knee function. PMID:27660798

  6. The Effect of Pre-teaching Extended Prefabricated Lexical Bundles on the Writing Development of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiyed Mahdi Araghi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to shed light on how a teacher’s instruction and guidance can cast aside writing inhibitions and bring about remarkable changes in the writing ability of advanced EFL students through the collaborative construction of extended chunks of language with the aim of enhancing lexical density and complexity and consequently injecting into learners a sense of satisfaction with their work. The sample included 40 TOEFL students selected out of 75 TOEFL students on the basis of their scores on a TOEFL test. The participants were randomly assigned into two groups-the control group and experimental group. After 20 instructional sessions both groups were assigned five writing tasks. The results reveal that the participants in experimental group outperformed their counterparts in control group. Overall, it is concluded that pre-teaching extended prefabricated lexical bundles can be a useful means of helping advanced students to improve their writing quality.Keywords: prefabricated lexical bundles, extended prefabricated lexical bundles, negative transfer, writing fluency

  7. Effect of ageing in fibre bundle models on the evolution of acoustic and silent damage in time-dependent failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennartz, S.; Main, I. G.; Zaiser, M.; Kun, F.

    2012-04-01

    The spatio-temporal evolution of damage in brittle materials is often modelled by fibre bundle models. In real fibre bundles (such as suspension bridge ropes), and in other composite materials such as rocks and ceramics, the evolution of damage as a function of stress and time can be recorded using acoustic emissions (AE), and used to asses the integrity of the sample and its lifetime. Such monitoring however tells only part of the story, since time-dependent, effectively 'silent' damage also occurs without AE, and small AE events may not be recorded below some recording threshold set by the background noise. The proportion of seismic to aseismic deformation is important for a number of applications, for example providing a strong constraint on plate boundary dynamics and estimates of earthquake hazard. Accordingly we have modified the usual fibre bundle model by introducing some additional ageing, which results in silent damage below a nominal threshold for more dynamic deformation. This enables us to model the effect of the model parameters on the ratio of acoustic to total damage, and how it evolves in time under a given stress history. We found that the silent damage dominates the process and that for a constant applied stress the ratio between acoustic and silent emissions is approximately constant over a wide range of time. The proportionality factor depends strongly on the applied stress and only weakly on the ageing parameter, while it is the other way around for the failure time which depends more on the ageing parameter than on the applied stress.

  8. Strategic Aspects of Bundling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increase of bundle supply has become widespread in several sectors (for instance in telecommunications and energy fields). This paper review relates strategic aspects of bundling. The main purpose of this paper is to analyze profitability of bundling strategies according to the degree of competition and the characteristics of goods. Moreover, bundling can be used as price discrimination tool, screening device or entry barriers. In monopoly case bundling strategy is efficient to sort consumers in different categories in order to capture a maximum of surplus. However, when competition increases, the profitability on bundling strategies depends on correlation of consumers' reservations values. (author)

  9. Lanthanide(III and Yttrium(III Complexes of Benzimidazole-2-Acetic Acid: Synthesis, Characterisation and Effect of La(III Complex on Germination of Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis and characterisation of lanthanide(III and yttrium(III nitrate complexes of benzimidazole-2-acetic acid (HBIA are reported. The complexes have been characterised by elemental analysis, molar conductance, magnetic studies, IR, 1 H NMR, UV-visible, EPR, and TG/DTA studies. They have the stoichiometry [ Ln 3 ( BIA 2 ( NO 3 7 ( H 2 O 4 ]⋅3 H 2 O where Ln=La(III, Pr(III, Nd(II, Sm(III, Eu(III, Gd(III, Tb(III, Dy(III, and Y(III. The effect of La(III complex on germination, coleoptile, and root length of two local varieties of wheat DWR-195 and GW-349 for different treatment periods has been investigated. The complex was found to exhibit enhanced activity, compared to HBIA or metal salt alone at lower treatment periods.

  10. Simulation of propagation in a bundle of skeletal muscle fibers: Modulation effects of passive fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henneberg, Kaj-åge; F.A., Roberge

    1997-01-01

    Computer simulations are used to study passive fiber modulation of propagation in a tightly packed bundle of frog skeletal muscle fibers (uniform fiber radius of 50 mu m). With T = 20 degrees C and a uniform nominal interstitial cleft width (d) over bar = 0.35 mu m, about 92% of the active fiber...... with experimental results. The peak-to-peak interstitial potential (phi(epp)) at the active fiber surface was 38 mV, compared to 1.3 mV for the isolated fiber. A uniform increase of d from 0.35 to 1.2 mu m decreased phi(epp) from 38 to 25 mV, increased the velocity from 1.32 to 1.54 m/s, and decreased the maximum...

  11. Effects of axial power shapes on CHF locations in a single tube and in rod bundle assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, B.; Yang, B.W.; Zhang, H.; Zha, Y.; Zhang, Y. [Xi' an Jiaotong Univ. (China). School of Nuclear Science and Technology

    2016-07-15

    Currently, the prediction of rod bundle CHF is dependent on CHF correlations derived from CHF data. A simple correction factor, such as F-factor, is often used to account for the axial power shape differences based on a simple accumulated energy concept, which has totally no consideration on the impact of true local condition on CHF mechanism. Subsequently, as expected, large uncertainty is often associated with the CHF value and CHF location predictions. For the purpose of obtaining different power shapes effects on CHF, CFD calculated parameter values were used to predict the possible CHF occurrence location. The possible CHF location prediction method proposed in this paper is calculated void fraction, heat transfer coefficient (HTC), liquid temperature distribution and detailed local parameters. And the uniform and non-uniform CHF were analyzed. The prediction of possible CHF locations in a 5 x 5 rod bundle may provide useful information for the design of a full-length CHF test, enhance the accuracy of CHF and CHF location prediction, and reduce the costs of the experimentation.

  12. Bundling in Telecommunications

    OpenAIRE

    Begoña García-Mariñoso; Xavier Martinez-Giralt; Pau Olivella

    2008-01-01

    The paper offers an overview of the literature on bundling in the telecommunications sector and its application in the Spanish market. We argue that the use of bundling in the provision of services is associated to technological reasons. Therefore, there appears no need to regulate bundling activities. However, this is not to say that other related telecom markets should not be scrutinized and regulated, or that the regulator should not pay attention to other bundling-related anticompetitive ...

  13. Effect of shape and thickness of asbestos bundles and fibres on EDS microanalysis: A Monte Carlo simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, D.; Valdre, G.

    2016-02-01

    Quantitative microanalysis of tiny asbestos mineral fibres by scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) still represents a complex analytical issue. This complexity arises from the variable fibre shape and small thickness (asbestos bundles and fibres shape and thickness on the detected EDS X-ray intensity was observed. The X-ray intensity trends as a function of fibre thickness showed a non-linear dependence for all the elements and minerals. In general, the X-ray intensities showed a considerable reduction for thicknesses below about 5 μm at 5 keV, 2 μm at 15 keV, and 5 μm at 25 keV. Correction parameters, k-ratios, for the asbestos fibre thickness effect, are reported.

  14. Hydraulic characteristics of HANARO fuel bundles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, S.; Chung, H. J.; Chun, S. Y.; Yang, S. K.; Chung, M. K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents the hydraulic characteristics measured by using LDV (Laser Doppler Velocimetry) in subchannels of HANARO, KAERI research reactor, fuel bundle. The fuel bundle consists of 18 axially finned rods with 3 spacer grids, which are arranged in cylindrical configuration. The effects of the spacer grids on the turbulent flow were investigated by the experimental results. Pressure drops for each component of the fuel bundle were measured, and the friction factors of fuel bundle and loss coefficients for the spacer grids were estimated from the measured pressure drops. Implications regarding the turbulent thermal mixing were discussed. Vibration test results measured by using laser vibrometer were presented. 9 refs., 12 figs. (Author)

  15. Impact of bundle deformation on CHF: ASSERT-PV assessment of extended burnup Bruce B bundle G85159W

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a subchannel thermalhydraulic analysis of the effect on critical heat flux (CHF) of bundle deformation such as element bow and diametral creep. The bundle geometry is based on the post-irradiation examination (PIE) data of a single bundle from the Bruce B Nuclear Generating Station, Bruce B bundle G85159W, which was irradiated for more than two years in the core during reactor commissioning. The subchannel code ASSERT-PV IST is used to assess changes in CHF and dryout power due to bundle deformation, compared to the reference, undeformed bundle. (author)

  16. Parabolic k-ample bundles

    CERN Document Server

    Biswas, Indranil

    2011-01-01

    We construct projectivization of a parabolic vector bundle and a tautological line bundle over it. It is shown that a parabolic vector bundle is ample if and only if the tautological line bundle is ample. This allows us to generalize the notion of a k-ample bundle, introduced by Sommese, to the context of parabolic bundles. A parabolic vector bundle $E_*$ is defined to be k-ample if the tautological line bundle ${\\mathcal O}_{{\\mathbb P}(E_*)}(1)$ is $k$--ample. We establish some properties of parabolic k-ample bundles.

  17. Contact fiber bundles

    OpenAIRE

    Lerman, Eugene

    2003-01-01

    We define contact fiber bundles and investigate conditions for the existence of contact structures on the total space of such a bundle. The results are analogous to minimal coupling in symplectic geometry. The two applications are construction of K-contact manifolds generalizing Yamazaki's fiber join construction and a cross-section theorem for contact moment maps

  18. Principal noncommutative torus bundles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Echterhoff, Siegfried; Nest, Ryszard; Oyono-Oyono, Herve

    2008-01-01

    action) and give necessary and sufficient conditions for any non-commutative principal torus bundle being RKK-equivalent to a commutative one. As an application of our methods we shall also give a K-theoretic characterization of those principal torus-bundles with H-flux, as studied by Mathai...... and Rosenberg which possess "classical" T-duals....

  19. Damping Properties of the Hair Bundle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgart, Johannes; Kozlov, Andrei S.; Risler, Thomas; Hudspeth, A. J.

    2011-11-01

    The viscous liquid surrounding a hair bundle dissipates energy and dampens oscillations, which poses a fundamental physical challenge to the high sensitivity and sharp frequency selectivity of hearing. To identify the mechanical forces at play, we constructed a detailed finite-element model of the hair bundle. Based on data from the hair bundle of the bullfrog's sacculus, this model treats the interaction of stereocilia both with the surrounding liquid and with the liquid in the narrow gaps between the individual stereocilia. The investigation revealed that grouping stereocilia in a bundle dramatically reduces the total drag. During hair-bundle deflections, the tip links potentially induce drag by causing small but very dissipative relative motions between stereocilia; this effect is offset by the horizontal top connectors that restrain such relative movements at low frequencies. For higher frequencies the coupling liquid is sufficient to assure that the hair bundle moves as a unit with a low total drag. This work reveals the mechanical characteristics originating from hair-bundle morphology and shows quantitatively how a hair bundle is adapted for sensitive mechanotransduction.

  20. Sequence effects in service bundles: Implications for service design and scheduling

    OpenAIRE

    Dixon, Michael J.; Verma, Rohit

    2013-01-01

    The article of record as published may be located at http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jom.2012.12.002 Researchers in several academic disciplines have investigated the effect of the sequence of pleasure and pain on the customer in service, experience, or healthcare-related interactions. Specifically, past research from psychology, behavioral economics, and other related fields suggests that the sequence effect can significantly impact a customer’s overall impression of a service intera...

  1. The Impact of Bundled Payment on Emergency Department Utilization: Alternative Quality Contract Effects After Year One

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Adam L.; Song, Zirui; Safran, Dana G.; Chernew, Michael E.; Fendrick, A. Mark

    2014-01-01

    Objective Identify the effect of the Alternative Quality Contract (AQC), a global payment system implemented by Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts (BCBS) in 2009, on emergency department (ED) utilization. Methods BCBS claims from 2006–2009 for 332,624 enrollees whose primary care physician (PCP) enrolled in the AQC, and 1,296,399 whose PCP was not enrolled in the AQC were evaluated. We used a pre-post, intervention-control, propensity scored difference-in-difference approach to isolate the AQC effect on ED utilization. The analysis adjusted for age, sex, health status and secular trends to compare ED utilization between the treatment and control groups. Results Overall, secular trends showed ED utilization decreased slightly for both treatment and control groups. The adjusted analysis of the AQC group showed decreases from 0.131 to 0.127 visits per member/quarter, and the control group decreased from 0.157 to 0.152 visits per member/quarter. The difference-in-difference analysis showed the AQC had no statistically significant effect on total ED utilization compared to the control group. Conclusion In its first year, the AQC had no significant effect on ED utilization. Similar global budget programs may not alter ED use in the initial implementation period. PMID:24050802

  2. Hemp fibres: Enzymatic effect of microbial processing on fibre bundle structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Anders; Liu, Ming; Meyer, Anne S.;

    2013-01-01

    with the microbial retting to evaluate the effects on their ultrastructure. SEM microscopy of the composites showed low porosity on the fibre surfaces after defibration with P. radiata Cel 26 and C. subvermispora indicating good epoxy polymer impregnation. In contrast, fibres treated by water retting and the raw...

  3. Effective System for Automatic Bundle Block Adjustment and Ortho Image Generation from Multi Sensor Satellite Imagery

    OpenAIRE

    A. Akilan; V. Nagasubramanian; Chaudhry, A.; Rajesh Reddy, D.; Sudheer Reddy, D.; Usha Devi, R.; Tirupati, T.; Radhadevi, P.V.; Varadan, G.

    2014-01-01

    Block Adjustment is a technique for large area mapping for images obtained from different remote sensingsatellites.The challenge in this process is to handle huge number of satellite imageries from different sources with different resolution and accuracies at the system level. This paper explains a system with various tools and techniques to effectively handle the end-to-end chain in large area mapping and production with good level of automation and the provisions for intuitive anal...

  4. A prediction method of the effect of radial heat flux distribution on critical heat flux in CANDU fuel bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuel irradiation experiments to study fuel behaviors have been performed in the experimental loops of the National Research Universal (NRU) Reactor at Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) in support of the development of new fuel technologies. Before initiating a fuel irradiation experiment, the experimental proposal must be approved to ensure that the test fuel strings put into the NRU loops meet safety margin requirements in critical heat flux (CHF). The fuel strings in irradiation experiments can have varying degrees of fuel enrichment and burnup, resulting in large variations in radial heat flux distribution (RFD). CHF experiments performed in Freon flow at CRL for full-scale bundle strings with a number of RFDs showed a strong effect of RFD on CHF. A prediction method was derived based on experimental CHF data to account for the RFD effect on CHF. It provides good CHF predictions for various RFDs as compared to the data. However, the range of the tested RFDs in the CHF experiments is not as wide as that required in the fuel irradiation experiments. The applicability of the prediction method needs to be examined for the RFDs beyond the range tested by the CHF experiments. The Canadian subchannel code ASSERT-PV was employed to simulate the CHF behavior for RFDs that would be encountered in fuel irradiation experiments. The CHF predictions using the derived method were compared with the ASSERT simulations. It was observed that the CHF predictions agree well with the ASSERT simulations in terms of CHF, confirming the applicability of the prediction method in fuel irradiation experiments. (author)

  5. Restrictions of stable bundles

    CERN Document Server

    Balaji, V

    2011-01-01

    The Mehta-Ramanathan theorem ensures that the restriction of a stable vector bundle to a sufficiently high degree complete intersection curve is again stable. We improve the bounds for the "sufficiently high degree" and propose a possibly optimal conjecture.

  6. Evaluation of the Effect of Tube Pitch and Surface Alterations on Temperature Field at Sprinkled Tube Bundle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kracík Petr

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Water flowing on a sprinkled tube bundle forms three basic modes: It is the Droplet mode (liquid drips from one tube to another, the Jet mode (with an increasing flow rate droplets merge into a column and the Membrane (Sheet mode (with further increasing of falling film liquid flow rate columns merge and create sheets between the tubes. With sufficient flow rate sheets merge at this state and the tube bundle is completely covered by a thin liquid film. There are several factors influencing the individual mode types as well as heat transfer. Beside the above mentioned falling film liquid flow rate they are for instance tube diameters, tube pitches in a tube bundle or a physical condition of a falling film liquid. This paper presents a summary of data measured at atmospheric pressure at a tube bundle consisting of copper tubes of 12 milimeters diameter and of the studied tube length one meter. The tubes are positioned horizontally one above another with the tested pitches of 15, 20, 25 and 30 mm and there is a distribution tube placed above them with water flowing out. The thermal gradient of 15–40 has been tested with all pitches where the falling film liquid’s temperature at the inlet of the distribution tube was 15 °C. The liquid was heated during the flow through the exchanger and the temperature of the sprinkled (heater liquid at the inlet of the exchanger with a constant flow rate about 7.2 litres per minute was 40 °C. The tested flow of the falling film liquid ranged from 1.0 to 13.0 litres per minute. Sequences of 180 exposures have been recorded in partial flow rate stages by thermographic camera with record frequency of 30 Hz which were consequently assessed using the Matlab programme. This paper presents results achieved at the above mentioned pitches and at three types of tube bundle surfaces.

  7. Singular hermitian metrics on vector bundles

    CERN Document Server

    De Cataldo, M A A

    1997-01-01

    We introduce a notion of singular hermitian metrics (s.h.m.) for holomorphic vector bundles and define positivity in view of $L^2$-estimates. Associated with a suitably positive s.h.m. there is a (coherent) sheaf 0-th kernel of a certain $d''$-complex. We prove a vanishing theorem for the cohomology of this sheaf. All this generalizes to the case of higher rank known results of Nadel for the case of line bundles. We introduce a new semi-positivity notion, $t$-nefness, for vector bundles, establish some of its basic properties and prove that on curves it coincides with ordinary nefness. We particularize the results on s.h.m. to the case of vector bundles of the form $E=F \\otimes L$, where $F$ is a $t$-nef vector bundle and $L$ is a positive (in the sense of currents) line bundle. As applications we generalize to the higher rank case 1) Kawamata-Viehweg Vanishing Theorem, 2) the effective results concerning the global generation of jets for the adjoint to powers of ample line bundles, and 3) Matsusaka Big Theor...

  8. Subtleties Concerning Conformal Tractor Bundles

    CERN Document Server

    Graham, C Robin

    2012-01-01

    The realization of tractor bundles as associated bundles in conformal geometry is studied. It is shown that different natural choices of principal bundle with normal Cartan connection corresponding to a given conformal manifold can give rise to topologically distinct associated tractor bundles for the same inducing representation. Consequences for homogeneous models and conformal holonomy are described. A careful presentation is made of background material concerning standard tractor bundles and equivalence between parabolic geometries and underlying structures.

  9. Comparison of the CORA-12, 13, 17 experiments and B4 effect on the flooding behavior of BWR bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CORA quench experiments 12, 13 (PWR) and 17 (BWR) are in agreement with LOFT 2 and TMI: Flooding of hot Zircaloy clad fuel rods does not result in an immediate cooldown of the bundle, but produces remarkable temporary temperature increase, connected to a strong peak in hydrogen production. The PWR tests CORA 12 and CORA 13 are of the same geometrical arrangement and test conduct, with the exception of the shorter time between power shutdown and quench initiation for CORA 13. A higher temperature of the bundle at start of quenching was the consequence. BWR test CORA 17 - with B4C absorber and additional Zircaloy channel box walls - was in respect to the delay-time between power shutdown and start of quenching similar to test CORA 12. All tests showed during the quench phase the temporary temperature increase, correlated to a hydrogen peak. The CORA 17 test resulted immediately after quenching in a modest increase for 20 s and changed then in a steep increase, resulting in the highest temperature and hydrogen peaks of the three tests. CORA 17 also showed a temperature increase in the lower part of the bundle, in contrast to CORA 12 and CORA 13 with temperature increase only in the upper half of the bundle. We interpret this earlier starting and stronger reaction due to the influence of the boron carbide, the absorber material of the BWR test. B4C has an exothermic reaction rate 4 to 9 times larger than Zry and produces 5 to 6,6 times more hydrogen. Probably the hot remained columns of B4C (seen in the non-quench test CORA 16) react early in the quench process with the increased upcoming steam. The bundle temperature raised by this reaction increases the reaction rate (exponential dependency) of the remaining metallic Zry. Due to the larger amount of Zry in the BWR bundle (channel box walls) and the smaller steam input during the heatup phase (2 g/s instead of 6 g/s) more metallic Zry can have survived oxidation during the heatup phase. (orig./HP)

  10. Three-dimensional porous media based numerical investigation of spatial power distribution effect on advanced nuclear fuel rod bundles critical power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stosic, Zoran V. [Framatome ANP GmbH . NBTT, Erlangen (Germany)], e-mail: Zoran.Stosic@Framatome-ANP.de; Stevanovic, Vladimir D. [Framatome ANP GmbH, Erlangen (Germany); Iguchi, Tadashi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), Ibaraki (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    The influence of spatial power generation shape on thermal-hydraulics behaviour of the fuel rod bundle has been investigated. Particularly, the occurrence of the local Boiling Transition has been analysed, indicating that conditions for the Critical Heat Flux (CHF) are reached somewhere within the boiling water channels in the assembly. The two-phase coolant flow within the bundle is represented with the two-fluid model in 3D space. The porous medium concept is applied in the simulation of the two-phase flow through the rod bundle implying nonequilibrium thermal and flow conditions. The governing equations in three-dimensions are discretized with the control volume method. The 3D numerical simulation and analyses of thermal-hydraulics in a complex geometry of an advanced nuclear fuel assembly are performed for conditions of a partial and/or complete rods uncovering indicating occurrence of high quality CHF - Dryout. The obtained results from numerical simulations are compared with experimental Critical Power data obtained from full scale tests. Employed is an electrically heated test rod bundle with real 1:1 geometry. Different radial and axial power distributions are used with wide range of inlet mass flow rates (2 - 19 kg/s) and coolant inlet subcooling (25 - 185 kJ/kg). The coolant pressure, equal to 6.9 MPa, is typical for BWRs conditions. Comparison of the predicted Critical Power values with measured data shows encouraging agreements for all analysed power distributions and the results completely reflect measured two-phase mixture cross flows, steam void distribution and spatial positions of Dryout onsets. Based on performed numerical investigation, an improvement of Dryout criteria is proposed. Dynamic effects of power shape change on spatial thermal hydraulics and hence on CHF occurrence as well as the influence of transfer function on thermal hydraulics under cyclic power and/or flow rate changes are also being analysed. Experiments for such verifications

  11. Right bundle branch block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bussink, Barbara E; Holst, Anders Gaarsdal; Jespersen, Lasse;

    2013-01-01

    AimsTo determine the prevalence, predictors of newly acquired, and the prognostic value of right bundle branch block (RBBB) and incomplete RBBB (IRBBB) on a resting 12-lead electrocardiogram in men and women from the general population.Methods and resultsWe followed 18 441 participants included.......5%/2.3% in women, P Right bundle branch block was associated with significantly...... increased all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in both genders with age-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) of 1.31 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.11-1.54] and 1.87 (95% CI, 1.48-2.36) in the gender pooled analysis with little attenuation after multiple adjustment. Right bundle branch block was associated...

  12. Principal -bundles on Nodal Curves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Usha N Bhosle

    2001-08-01

    Let be a connected semisimple affine algebraic group defined over . We study the relation between stable, semistable -bundles on a nodal curve and representations of the fundamental group of . This study is done by extending the notion of (generalized) parabolic vector bundles to principal -bundles on the desingularization of and using the correspondence between them and principal -bundles on . We give an isomorphism of the stack of generalized parabolic bundles on with a quotient stack associated to loop groups. We show that if is simple and simply connected then the Picard group of the stack of principal -bundles on is isomorphic to ⊕ , being the number of components of .

  13. Bundles of Banach algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. W. Kitchen

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available We study bundles of Banach algebras π:A→X, where each fiber Ax=π−1({x} is a Banach algebra and X is a compact Hausdorff space. In the case where all fibers are commutative, we investigate how the Gelfand representation of the section space algebra Γ(π relates to the Gelfand representation of the fibers. In the general case, we investigate how adjoining an identity to the bundle π:A→X relates to the standard adjunction of identities to the fibers.

  14. On projective space bundle with nef normalized tautological line bundle

    CERN Document Server

    Yasutake, Kazunori

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we study the structure of projective space bundles whose relative anti-canonical line bundle is nef. As an application, we get a characterization of abelian varieties up to finite etale covering.

  15. Hybrid bundle divertor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A hybrid bundle divertor design is presented that produces <0.3% magnetic ripple at the center of the plasma while providing adequate space for the coil shielding and structure for a tokamak fusion test reactor similar to the International Tokamak Reactor and the Engineering Test Facility (with R = 5 m, B = 5 T, and a /SUB wall/ = 1.5 m, in particular). This hybrid divertor consists of a set of quadrupole ''wing'' coils running tangent to the tokamak plasma on either side of a bundle divertor. The wing coils by themselves pull the edge of the plasma out 1.5 m and spread the thickness of the scrape-off layer from 0.1 to 0.7 m at the midplane. The clear aperture of the bundle divertor throat is 1.0 m high and 1.8 m wide. For maintenance or replacement, the hybrid divertor can be disassembled into three parts, with the bundle divertor part pulling straight out between toroidal field coils and the wing coils then sliding out through the same opening

  16. ALUMINUM BOX BUNDLING PRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iosif DUMITRESCU

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In municipal solid waste, aluminum is the main nonferrous metal, approximately 80- 85% of the total nonferrous metals. The income per ton gained from aluminum recuperation is 20 times higher than from glass, steel boxes or paper recuperation. The object of this paper is the design of a 300 kN press for aluminum box bundling.

  17. Universal Lagrangian bundles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sepe, D.

    2013-01-01

    The obstruction to construct a Lagrangian bundle over a fixed integral affine manifold was constructed by Dazord and Delzant (J Differ Geom 26:223–251, 1987) and shown to be given by ‘twisted’ cup products in Sepe (Differ GeomAppl 29(6): 787–800, 2011). This paper uses the topology of universal Lagr

  18. Effects of Working Fluid,Tubeside Enhancement and Bundle Depth on the Optimized Fin Geometry of a Horizontal Condenser Tube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H.Honda; T.Fukuda

    1992-01-01

    A theoretical study has been made to optimize the fin geometry of a horizontal finned tube which is to be used for condensers that handle the vapor load of a liquid phase change cooling module,Systematic numerical calculations of the vapor to coolant heat transfer coefficinet.Three dielctric fluids(R-113,FC-72,and FC-87) at atmospheric pressure were selected as the working fluids.For a single tube with optimized fin geometry,the average heat flux increased in the order of FC-87,R-113 and FC-72.Both the optimum fin height and optimum fin spacing incresaed with increasing vertical bundle depth.

  19. On framed quantum principal bundles

    CERN Document Server

    Durdevic, M

    1995-01-01

    A noncommutative-geometric formalism of framed principal bundles is sketched, in a special case of quantum bundles (over quantum spaces) possessing classical structure groups. Quantum counterparts of torsion operators and Levi-Civita type connections are analyzed. A construction of a natural differential calculus on framed bundles is described. Illustrative examples are presented.

  20. a Mossbauer Effect Study of Iron(iii) Dithiocarbamates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiddy, Judith Mary

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Ever since the pioneering work of Cambi iron(III) trisdithiocarbamates, which have the formula Fe(R _2NCS_2]_3 where R is an alkyl or an aryl group, have formed the basis for understanding spin-state equilibria in iron(III) complexes. Magnetic and infrared studies clearly indicate equilibrium between the high-spin and low-spin states. The Mossbauer spectra, however, show only a single component, indicating rapid relaxation between the two spin states on the Mossbauer timescale. It has been assumed that the spectral parameters are therefore a function of the relative spin-state populations. In this thesis, the results of Mossbauer experiments carried out on a series of iron(III) trisdithiocarbamates with various organic substituents, known to give a range of high-spin and low-spin state populations at room temperature, are presented. An iron(III) bisdithiocarbamate complex, Fe^{57} ((C_5 H_{10})_2NCS _2]_2NCS, was also investigated. The samples were studied at temperatures from 1.3K to 295K, and at pressures between atmospheric pressure and 80kbar at room temperature only. It was found that, in fact, the spin-equilibrium plays only a minor role in determining the Mossbauer spectra of the trisdithiocarbamate compounds. The effects of spin -state relaxation on the temperature dependence of the spectra are, in general, masked by those of slow paramagnetic relaxation which, in contrast to the effects of the spin-equilibrium, are marked and different for each compound. By fitting the spectra to models of paramagnetic relaxation the temperature dependence of the relaxation rates and possible directions of the magnetic hyperfine field relative to the major axis of the electric field gradient were found. The pressure dependence of the spectra was found to be rather similar for all the compounds, the main differences being in the widths and in the asymmetry of the areas of the spectral lines. Both these effects can

  1. Deformation quantization of principal bundles

    CERN Document Server

    Aschieri, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    We outline how Drinfeld twist deformation techniques can be applied to the deformation quantization of principal bundles into noncommutative principal bundles, and more in general to the deformation of Hopf-Galois extensions. First we twist deform the structure group in a quantum group, and this leads to a deformation of the fibers of the principal bundle. Next we twist deform a subgroup of the group of authomorphisms of the principal bundle, and this leads to a noncommutative base space. Considering both deformations we obtain noncommutative principal bundles with noncommutative fiber and base space as well.

  2. Helices and vector bundles

    CERN Document Server

    Rudakov, A N

    1990-01-01

    This volume is devoted to the use of helices as a method for studying exceptional vector bundles, an important and natural concept in algebraic geometry. The work arises out of a series of seminars organised in Moscow by A. N. Rudakov. The first article sets up the general machinery, and later ones explore its use in various contexts. As to be expected, the approach is concrete; the theory is considered for quadrics, ruled surfaces, K3 surfaces and P3(C).

  3. Bundled monocapillary optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Gregory

    2002-01-01

    A plurality of glass or metal wires are precisely etched to form the desired shape of the individual channels of the final polycapillary optic. This shape is created by carefully controlling the withdrawal speed of a group of wires from an etchant bath. The etched wires undergo a subsequent operation to create an extremely smooth surface. This surface is coated with a layer of material which is selected to maximize the reflectivity of the radiation being used. This reflective surface may be a single layer of material, or a multilayer coating for optimizing the reflectivity in a narrower wavelength interval. The collection of individual wires is assembled into a close-packed multi-wire bundle, and the wires are bonded together in a manner which preserves the close-pack configuration, irrespective of the local wire diameter. The initial wires are then removed by either a chemical etching procedure or mechanical force. In the case of chemical etching, the bundle is generally segmented by cutting a series of etching slots. Prior to removing the wire, the capillary array is typically bonded to a support substrate. The result of the process is a bundle of precisely oriented radiation-reflecting hollow channels. The capillary optic is used for efficiently collecting and redirecting the radiation from a source of radiation which could be the anode of an x-ray tube, a plasma source, the fluorescent radiation from an electron microprobe, a synchrotron radiation source, a reactor or spallation source of neutrons, or some other source.

  4. Bundling harvester; Nippukorjausharvesteri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koponen, K. [Eko-Log Oy, Kuopio (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The staring point of the project was to design and construct, by taking the silvicultural point of view into account, a harvesting and processing system especially for energy-wood, containing manually driven bundling harvester, automatizing of the harvester, and automatized loading. The equipment forms an ideal method for entrepreneur`s-line harvesting. The target is to apply the system also for owner`s-line harvesting. The profitability of the system promotes the utilization of the system in both cases. The objectives of the project were: to construct a test equipment and prototypes for all the project stages, to carry out terrain and strain tests in order to examine the usability and durability, as well as the capacity of the machine, to test the applicability of the Eko-Log system in simultaneous harvesting of energy and pulp woods, and to start the marketing and manufacturing of the products. The basic problems of the construction of the bundling harvester have been solved using terrain-tests. The prototype machine has been shown to be operable. Loading of the bundles to form sufficiently economically transportable loads has been studied, and simultaneously, the branch-biomass has been tried to be utilized without loosing the profitability of transportation. The results have been promising, and will promote the profitable utilization of wood-energy

  5. Complexation of Nd(III) with tetraborate ion and its effect on actinide (III) solubility in WIPP brine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borkowski, Marian [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Richmann, Michael K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reed, Donald T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yongliang, Xiong [SNL

    2010-01-01

    The potential importance of tetraborate complexation on lanthanide(III) and actinide(III) solubility is recognized in the literature but a systematic study of f-element complexation has not been performed. In neodymium solubility studies in WIPP brines, the carbonate complexation effect is not observed since tetraborate ions form a moderately strong complex with neodymium(III). The existence of these tetraborate complexes was established for low and high ionic strength solutions. Changes in neodymium(III) concentrations in undersaturation experiments were used to determine the neodymium with tetraborate stability constants as a function of NaCl ionic strength. As very low Nd(III) concentrations have to be measured, it was necessary to use an extraction pre-concentration step combined with ICP-MS analysis to extend the detection limit by a factor of 50. The determined Nd(III) with borate stability constants at infinite dilution and 25 C are equal to log {beta}{sub 1} = 4.55 {+-} 0.06 using the SIT approach, equal to log {beta}{sub 1} = 4.99 {+-} 0.30 using the Pitzer approach, with an apparent log {beta}{sub 1} = 4.06 {+-} 0.15 (in molal units) at I = 5.6 m NaCl. Pitzer ion-interaction parameters for neodymium with tetraborate and SIT interaction coefficients were also determined and reported.

  6. Co-norming the WAIS-III and WMS-III: Is there a test-order effect on IQ and memory scores?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, J; Tulsky, D S

    2000-11-01

    Test-order effect on the WAIS-III and WMS-III scores was evaluated using the WMS-III standardization sample. Participants completed the standardization editions of the WAIS-III and WMS-III in one session, with the tests administered in roughly counterbalanced order. Repeated measure MANOVA analyses were conducted to determine if there was an overall test-order effect for subtest, index, or IQ scores. No significant test-order effects were found for either the WAIS-III index or IQ scores or for the WMS-III index scores. At the subtest level, the majority of the WAIS-III and WMS-III subtests did not show a significant test-order effect. The exceptions were Digit Span and Digit Symbol-Coding on the WAIS-III and Faces II and Logical Memory II on the WMS-III. Although statistically significant test-order effects were found on these subtests, the effect sizes were small. This study indicates that the test-order effect is not a potential threat to the internal validity of the WAIS-III and WMS-III normative data. The practical implications of the current study are discussed.

  7. Enthalpy and void distributions in subchannels of PHWR fuel bundles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J. W.; Choi, H.; Rhee, B. W. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    Two different types of the CANDU fuel bundles have been modeled for the ASSERT-IV code subchannel analysis. From calculated values of mixture enthalpy and void fraction distribution in the fuel bundles, it is found that net buoyancy effect is pronounced in the central region of the DUPIC fuel bundle when compared with the standard CANDU fuel bundle. It is also found that the central region of the DUPIC fuel bundle can be cooled more efficiently than that of the standard fuel bundle. From the calculated mixture enthalpy distribution at the exit of the fuel channel, it is found that the mixture enthalpy and void fraction can be highest in the peripheral region of the DUPIC fuel bundle. On the other hand, the enthalpy and the void fraction were found to be highest in the central region of the standard CANDU fuel bundle at the exit of the fuel channel. This study shows that the subchannel analysis is very useful in assessing thermal behavior of the fuel bundle that could be used in CANDU reactors. 10 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs. (Author)

  8. Managing bundled payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, Andrew

    2011-04-01

    Results of Medicare's ACE demonstration project and Geisinger Health System's ProvenCare initiative provide insight into the challenges hospitals will face as bundled payment proliferates. An early analysis of these results suggests that hospitals would benefit from bringing full automation using clinical IT tools to bear in their efforts to meet these challenges. Other important factors contributing to success include board and physician leadership, organizational structure, pricing methodology for bidding, evidence-based medical practice guidelines, supply cost management, process efficiency management, proactive and aggressive case management, business development and marketing strategy, and the financial management system.

  9. Managing bundled payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, Andrew

    2011-04-01

    Results of Medicare's ACE demonstration project and Geisinger Health System's ProvenCare initiative provide insight into the challenges hospitals will face as bundled payment proliferates. An early analysis of these results suggests that hospitals would benefit from bringing full automation using clinical IT tools to bear in their efforts to meet these challenges. Other important factors contributing to success include board and physician leadership, organizational structure, pricing methodology for bidding, evidence-based medical practice guidelines, supply cost management, process efficiency management, proactive and aggressive case management, business development and marketing strategy, and the financial management system. PMID:21548437

  10. Twists of symmetric bundles

    OpenAIRE

    Cassou-Nogues, Ph.; Erez, B.; Taylor, M. J.

    2004-01-01

    We establish comparison results between the Hasse-Witt invariants w_t(E) of a symmetric bundle E over a scheme and the invariants of one of its twists E_{\\alpha}. For general twists we describe the difference between w_t(E) and w_t(E_{\\alpha}) up to terms of degree 3. Next we consider a special kind of twist, which has been studied by A. Fr\\"ohlich. This arises from twisting by a cocycle obtained from an orthogonal representation. We show how to explicitly describe the twist for representatio...

  11. On the Classification of Complex Vector Bundles of Stable Rank

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Constantin Bǎnicǎ; Mihai Putinar

    2006-08-01

    One describes, using a detailed analysis of Atiyah–Hirzebruch spectral sequence, the tuples of cohomology classes on a compact, complex manifold, corresponding to the Chern classes of a complex vector bundle of stable rank. This classification becomes more effective on generalized flag manifolds, where the Lie algebra formalism and concrete integrability conditions describe in constructive terms the Chern classes of a vector bundle.

  12. The behaviour of Phenix fuel pin bundle under irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An entire Phenix sub-assembly has been mounted and sectioned after irradiation. The examination of cross-sections revealed the effects of mechanical interaction in the bundle (ovalisations and contacts between clads). According to analysis of the sodium channels, cooling of the pin bundle remained uniform. (author)

  13. Differential calculi on noncommutative bundles

    OpenAIRE

    Pflaum, Markus J.; Schauenburg, Peter

    1996-01-01

    We introduce a category of noncommutative bundles. To establish geometry in this category we construct suitable noncommutative differential calculi on these bundles and study their basic properties. Furthermore we define the notion of a connection with respect to a differential calculus and consider questions of existence and uniqueness. At the end these constructions are applied to basic examples of noncommutative bundles over a coquasitriangular Hopf algebra.

  14. The equivalence of bundling and advance sales

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandrov, Alexei; Bedre-Defolie, Özlem

    2013-01-01

    We show that a monopolist's problem of optimal advance selling strategy can be mathematically transformed into a problem of optimal bundling strategy if four conditions hold: i. consumers and the firm agree on the probability of the states occurring, ii. the firm pre-commits to the spot prices to be charged in the advance selling stage, iii. consumers are risk-neutral, and iv. consumers and the firm do not have time preferences or when they do have time preferences, they discount future at th...

  15. Neurotrophic effect of gonadotropin-releasing hormone on neurite extension and neuronal migration of embryonic gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons in chick olfactory nerve bundle culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaho, Yoh-Ichiro; Enomoto, Masahiro; Endo, Daisuke; Maehiro, Sayaka; Park, Min Kyun; Murakami, Shizuko

    2009-08-01

    Hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons play a pivotal role in regulating the reproductive function of vertebrates. These neurons are known to originate in the olfactory placode and migrate along olfactory-related axons to reach the forebrain during embryonic development. Although GnRH is suggested to be secreted during such migration, its physiological significance is unknown. This point is difficult to explore in vivo because recent studies suggest that GnRH is an important factor for normal brain development and that modification of the embryonic GnRH system by exogenous GnRH analogue or genetic methods would result in dysgenesis of the brain. Therefore, to study the role of GnRH in the migratory process of GnRH neurons, we established an in vitro chick embryonic olfactory nerve bundle explant model. Embryonic day 7.5-8 olfactory nerve bundles were cultured in a mixture of Matrigel and collagen gel. At day 3 of culture, GnRH neurons extended their unbranched neurites and migrated out from both edges of the explant. The nature of neurite extension and migratory behavior of GnRH neurons was well maintained in the gel containing 25% Matrigel and 50% collagen. With this culture system, we examined the effect of GnRH on the migrating GnRH neurons. Cetrorelix, a GnRH antagonist, was found to inhibit significantly neurite growth and neuronal migration of GnRH neurons, the effects of which were repressed by the addition of chicken GnRH-I. These results suggest that GnRH functions as one of the regulating factors of GnRH neuronal development by promoting neurite extension and neuronal migration. PMID:19301422

  16. Effects of Ca2+ on refolding of the recombinant hemolytic lectin CEL-III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisamatsu, Keigo; Unno, Hideaki; Goda, Shuichiro; Hatakeyama, Tomomitsu

    2009-05-01

    CEL-III is a hemolytic lectin isolated from Cucumaria echinata. Although recombinant CEL-III (rCEL-III) expressed in Escherichia coli showed very weak hemolytic activity compared with native protein, it was considerably enhanced by refolding in the presence of Ca(2+). This suggests that Ca(2+) supported correct folding of the carbohydrate-binding domains of rCEL-III, leading to effective binding to the cell surface and subsequent self-oligomerization. PMID:19420692

  17. REBEKA bundle experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a summary of experimental investigations describing the fuel rod behavior in the refilling and reflooding phase of a loss-of-coolant accident of a PWR. The experiments were performed with 5x5 and 7x7 rod bundles, using indirectly electrically heated fuel rod simulators of full length with original PWR-KWU-geometry, original grid spacers and Zircaloy-4-claddings (Type Biblis B). The fuel rod simulators showed a cosine shaped axial power profile in 7 steps and continuous, respectively. The results describe the influence of the different parameters such as bundle size on the maximum coolant channel blockage, that of the cooling on the size of the circumferential strain of the cladding (azimuthal temperature distribution) a cold control rod guide thimble and the flow direction (axial temperature distribution) on the resulting coolant channel blockage. The rewetting behavior of different fuel rod simulators including ballooned and burst Zircaloy claddings is discussed as well as the influence of thermocouples on the cladding temperature history and the rewetting behavior. All results prove the coolability of a PWR in the case of a LOCA. Therefore, it can be concluded that the ECC-criteria established by licensing authorities can be fulfilled. (orig./HP)

  18. Porous Silicon and Denim Fiber Bundle Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deuro, Randi Ellen

    My thesis research aims to characterize and exploit materials in an efficient, rapid, non-destructive manner. Part I of this document summarizes my research on porous silicon (pSi) design, fabrication, and surface modification for use as a novel chemical sensor. The optimization of fabrication process parameters (etching time, etching solution, electrode shape, and the fixing process) on pSi photoluminescence (PL) is presented. I have also investigated the effects of analyte vapors (acetonitrile, toluene, methanol, acetone) on the pSi PL and surface chemistry using luminescence and Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and microscopy methods. The mechanism and benefits of one method of pSi surface modification and protection (ultraviolet (UV) hydrosilylation) will also be presented. Finally, high thorough-put methods of pSi sensor production are described. In Part II of this document, I introduce a novel technique for analyzing and discriminating among denim fiber bundles. An investigation into the benefits of luminescence-based multispectral imaging (LMSI) for denim fiber bundle identification has been conducted. I explore the power of nitromethane (CH 3NO2) based quenching in fiber bundle classification and identify the quenching mechanism. The luminescence spectra (450 - 850 nm) and images from the denim fiber bundles were obtained while exciting at 325 nm or 405 nm. Here, LMSI data were recorded in < 10 s and subsequently assessed by principal component analysis (PCA) and rendered red, green, blue (RGB) component histograms. The results show that LMSI data can be used to rapidly and uniquely classify all the fiber bundle types studied in this research. These non-destructive techniques eliminate extensive sample preparation and allow for rapid multispectral image collection, analysis, and assessment. The quenching data also revealed that the dye molecules within the individual fiber bundles exhibited dramatically different accessibilities to CH 3NO2.

  19. TRIGA spent fuel bundles safe storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TRIGA-SSR is a steady state research and material test reactor that has been in operation since 1980. The original TRIGA fuel was HEU (highly enriched uranium) with a U235 enrichment of 93 per cent. Almost all TRIGA HEU fuel bundles are now burned-up. Part of the spent fuel was loaded and transferred to US, in a Romania - DOE arrangement. The rest of the TRIGA fuel bundles have to be temporarily stored in the TRIGA facility. As the storage conditions had to be established with caution, neutron and thermal hydraulic evaluations of the storage conditions were required. Some criticality evaluations were made based on the SAR (Safety Analysis Report) data. Fuel constant axial temperature approximation effect is usual for criticality computations. TRIGA-SSR fuel bundle geometry and materials model for SCALE5-CSAS module allows the introduction of a fuel temperature dependency for the entire fuel active height, using different materials for each fuel bundle region. Previous RELAP5 thermal hydraulic computations for an axial and radial power distribution in the TRIGA fuel pin were done. Fuel constant temperature approximation overestimates pin factors for every core operating at high temperatures. From the thermal hydraulic point of view the worst condition of the storage grid occurs when the transfer channel is accidentally emptied of water from the pool, or the bundle is handled accidentally to remain in air. All the residual heat from the bundles has to be removed without fuel overheating and clad failure. RELAP5 computer code for residual heat removal was used in the assessment of residual heat removal. We made a couple of evaluations of TRIGA bundle clad temperatures in air cooling conditions, with different residual heat levels. The criticality computations have shown that the spent TRIGA fuel bundles storage grid is strongly sub-critical with k(eff) = 0.5951. So, there is no danger for a criticality accident for this storage grid type. The assessment is done for

  20. Fiber Bundles and Parseval Frames

    OpenAIRE

    Agrawal, Devanshu; Knisley, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Continuous frames over a Hilbert space have a rich and sophisticated structure that can be represented in the form of a fiber bundle. The fiber bundle structure reveals the central importance of Parseval frames and the extent to which Parseval frames generalize the notion of an orthonormal basis.

  1. Bundle Security Protocol for ION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burleigh, Scott C.; Birrane, Edward J.; Krupiarz, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    This software implements bundle authentication, conforming to the Delay-Tolerant Networking (DTN) Internet Draft on Bundle Security Protocol (BSP), for the Interplanetary Overlay Network (ION) implementation of DTN. This is the only implementation of BSP that is integrated with ION.

  2. Templated growth of PFO-DBT nanorod bundles by spin coating: effect of spin coating rate on the morphological, structural, and optical properties

    OpenAIRE

    Fakir, Muhamad Saipul; Supangat, Azzuliani; Sulaiman, Khaulah

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the spin coating of template-assisted method is used to synthesize poly[2,7-(9,9-dioctylfluorene)-alt-4,7-bis(thiophen-2-yl)benzo-2,1,3-thiadiazole] (PFO-DBT) nanorod bundles. The morphological, structural, and optical properties of PFO-DBT nanorod bundles are enhanced by varying the spin coating rate (100, 500, and 1,000 rpm) of the common spin coater. The denser morphological distributions of PFO-DBT nanorod bundles are favorably yielded at the low spin coating rate of 100 rp...

  3. Equilibrium Bundle Size of Rodlike Polyelectrolytes with Counterion-Induced Attractive Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Henle, Mark L.; Pincus, Philip A.

    2004-01-01

    Multivalent counterions can induce an effective attraction between like-charged rodlike polyelectrolytes, leading to the formation of polelectrolyte bundles. In this paper, we calculate the equilibrium bundle size using a simple model in which the attraction between polyelectrolytes (assumed to be pairwise additive) is treated phenomenologically. If the counterions are point-like, they almost completely neutralize the charge of the bundle, and the equilibrium bundle size diverges. When the co...

  4. Twisted Vector Bundles on Pointed Nodal Curves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ivan Kausz

    2005-05-01

    Motivated by the quest for a good compactification of the moduli space of -bundles on a nodal curve we establish a striking relationship between Abramovich’s and Vistoli’s twisted bundles and Gieseker vector bundles.

  5. Langmuir mixing effects on global climate: WAVEWATCH III in CESM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Webb, Adrean; Fox-Kemper, Baylor; Craig, Anthony; Danabasoglu, Gokhan; Large, William G.; Vertenstein, Mariana

    2016-07-01

    Large-Eddy Simulations (LES) have shown the effects of ocean surface gravity waves in enhancing the ocean boundary layer mixing through Langmuir turbulence. Neglecting this Langmuir mixing process may contribute to the common shallow bias in mixed layer depth in regions of the Southern Ocean and the Northern Atlantic in most state-of-the-art climate models. In this study, a third generation wave model, WAVEWATCH III, has been incorporated as a component of the Community Earth System Model, version 1.2 (CESM1.2). In particular, the wave model is now coupled with the ocean model through a modified version of the K-Profile Parameterization (KPP) to approximate the influence of Langmuir mixing. Unlike past studies, the wind-wave misalignment and the effects of Stokes drift penetration depth are considered through empirical scalings based on the rate of mixing in LES. Wave-Ocean only experiments show substantial improvements in the shallow biases of mixed layer depth in the Southern Ocean. Ventilation is enhanced and low concentration biases of pCFC-11 are reduced in the Southern Hemisphere. A majority of the improvements persist in the presence of other climate feedbacks in the fully coupled experiments. In addition, warming of the subsurface water over the majority of global ocean is observed in the fully coupled experiments with waves, and the cold subsurface ocean temperature biases are reduced.

  6. A comprehensive comparison on vibration and heat transfer of two elastic heat transfer tube bundles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫柯; 葛培琪; 翟强

    2015-01-01

    Elastic heat transfer tube bundles are widely used in the field of flow-induced vibration heat transfer enhancement. Two types of mainly used tube bundles, the planar elastic tube bundle and the conical spiral tube bundle were comprehensively compared in the condition of the same shell side diameter. The natural mode characteristics, the effect of fluid−structure interaction, the stress distribution, the comprehensive heat transfer performance and the secondary fluid flow of the two elastic tube bundles were all concluded and compared. The results show that the natural frequency and the critical velocity of vibration buckling of the planar elastic tube bundle are larger than those of the conical spiral tube bundle, while the stress distribution and the comprehensive heat transfer performance of the conical spiral tube bundle are relatively better.

  7. Genotoxic effects of bismuth (III oxide nanoparticles by comet assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reecep Liman

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Bismuth oxide is one of the important transition metal oxides and it has been intensively studied due to their peculiar characteristics (semiconductor band gap, high refractive index, high dielectric permittivity, high oxygen conductivity, resistivity, photoconductivity and photoluminescence etc.. Therefore, it is used such as microelectronics, sensor technology, optical coatings, transparent ceramic glass manufacturing, nanoenergetic gas generator, biosensor for DNA hybridization, potential immobilizing platforms for glucose oxidase and polyphenol oxidase, fuel cells, a additive in paints, an astringent in a variety of medical creams and topical ointments, and for the determination of heavy metal ions in drinking water, mineral water and urine. In addition this, Bismuth (III oxide nanoparticles (BONPs are favorable for the biomolecules adsorption than regular sized particles because of their greater advantages and novel characteristics (much higher specific surface, greater surface free energy, and good electrochemical stability etc.. Genotoxic effects of BONPs were investigated on the root cells of Allium cepa by Comet assay. A. cepa roots were treated with the aqueous dispersions of BONPs at 5 different concentrations (12.5, 25, 50, 75, and 100 ppm for 4 h. A significant increase in DNA damage was also observed at all concentrations of BONPs except 12.5 ppm by Comet assay. The results were also analyzed statistically by using SPSS for Windows; Duncan’s multiple range test was performed. These result indicate that BONPs exhibit genotoxic activity in A. cepa root meristematic cells.

  8. Semiflexible Biopolymers in Bundled Arrangements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Schnauß

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Bundles and networks of semiflexible biopolymers are key elements in cells, lending them mechanical integrity while also enabling dynamic functions. Networks have been the subject of many studies, revealing a variety of fundamental characteristics often determined via bulk measurements. Although bundles are equally important in biological systems, they have garnered much less scientific attention since they have to be probed on the mesoscopic scale. Here, we review theoretical as well as experimental approaches, which mainly employ the naturally occurring biopolymer actin, to highlight the principles behind these structures on the single bundle level.

  9. The Atiyah Bundle and Connections on a Principal Bundle

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Indranil Biswas

    2010-06-01

    Let be a ∞ manifold and a Lie a group. Let $E_G$ be a ∞ principal -bundle over . There is a fiber bundle $\\mathcal{C}(E_G)$ over whose smooth sections correspond to the connections on $E_G$. The pull back of $E_G$ to $\\mathcal{C}(E_G)$ has a tautological connection. We investigate the curvature of this tautological connection.

  10. Effects of reduced surface tension on two-phase diversion cross-flow between subchannels simplifying triangle tight lattice rod bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two-phase diversion cross-flow between tight lattice subchannels has been investigated experimentally and analytically. For hydraulically non-equilibrium flows with the pressure difference between the subchannels, experiments were conducted using a vertical multiple-channel with two subchannels simplifying a triangle tight lattice rod bundle. To know the effects of the reduced surface tension on the diversion cross-flow, water and water with a surfactant were used as the test liquids. Data were obtained on the axial variations in the pressure difference between the subchannels, gas and liquid flow rates and void fraction in each subchannel for slug-churn and annular flows. In the analysis, flow redistribution processes due to the diversion cross-flow have been calculated by our subchannel analysis code based on a two-fluid model. From a comparison between the experiment and the code calculation, the code was found to be valid against the present data if the improved constitutive equations of wall and interfacial friction reported in our previous paper were incorporated to account for the reduced surface tension effects. (author)

  11. Effects of surface tension on void fraction in a multiple-channel simplifying triangle tight lattice rod bundle. Measurement and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to know the effects of reduced surface tension on void fraction, adiabatic experiments were conducted for both air-water and air-water with surfactant systems at room temperature and pressure. Void fraction data were obtained for bubbly, slug, churn and annular flows in a vertical channel with two subchannels simplifying a triangle tight lattice rod bundle. The void fraction was found to be lower in air-water system than air-water with surfactant one. In addition, the void fractions for both systems were found to be lower than those calculated by various correlations in literatures for circular pipe flow. In order to study the cause of the above data trend, for annular flows, the void fraction has been calculated by a subchannel analysis using wall and interfacial friction correlations in literatures as constitutive equations, and by assuming the liquid film to be uniform over the wall perimeter. The best agreement between the calculation and the experiment has been obtained when NASCA correlation for wall friction force and modified RELAP5/MOD2 correlation incorporating reduced surface tension effects for interfacial friction force were used. (author)

  12. Effect of tunnel placements on clinical and magnetic resonance imaging findings 2 years after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using the double-bundle technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suomalainen P

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Piia Suomalainen,1 Tommi Kiekara,2 Anna-Stina Moisala,1 Antti Paakkala,2 Pekka Kannus,3 Timo Järvelä4 1Division of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Department of Trauma, Musculoskeletal Surgery and Rehabilitation, Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, 2Medical Imaging Centre, Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, 3Injury and Osteoporosis Research Center, UKK Institute, Tampere, 4Arthroscopic and Sports Medicine Center Omasairaala, Helsinki, Finland Purpose: The purpose of the study reported here was to find out if the clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI findings of a reconstructed anterior cruciate ligament (ACL have an association. Our hypothesis, which was based on the different functions of the ACL bundles, was that the visibility of the anteromedial graft would have an impact on anteroposterior stability, and the visibility of the posterolateral graft on rotational stability of the knee. Methods: This study is a level II, prospective clinical and MRI study (NCT02000258. The study involved 75 patients. One experienced orthopedic surgeon performed all double-bundle ACL reconstructions. Two independent examiners made the clinical examinations at 2-year follow-up: clinical examination of the knee; KT-1000, International Knee Documentation Committee and Lysholm knee evaluation scores; and International Knee Documentation Committee functional score. The MRI evaluations were made by two musculoskeletal radiologists separately, and the means of these measurements were used. Results: We found that the location of the graft in the tibia had an impact on the MRI visibility of the graft at 2-year follow-up. There were significantly more partially or totally invisible grafts if the insertion of the graft was more anterior in the tibia. No association was found between the clinical results and the graft locations. Conclusion: Anterior graft location in the tibia can cause graft invisibility in the MRI 2 years after ACL reconstruction, but this

  13. Bundling ecosystem services in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turner, Katrine Grace; Odgaard, Mette Vestergaard; Bøcher, Peder Klith;

    2014-01-01

    We made a spatial analysis of 11 ecosystem services at a 10 km × 10 km grid scale covering most of Denmark. Our objective was to describe their spatial distribution and interactions and also to analyze whether they formed specific bundle types on a regional scale in the Danish cultural landscape....... We found clustered distribution patterns of ecosystem services across the country. There was a significant tendency for trade-offs between on the one hand cultural and regulating services and on the other provisioning services, and we also found the potential of regulating and cultural services...... to form synergies. We identified six distinct ecosystem service bundle types, indicating multiple interactions at a landscape level. The bundle types showed specialized areas of agricultural production, high provision of cultural services at the coasts, multifunctional mixed-use bundle types around urban...

  14. Left bundle-branch block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risum, Niels; Strauss, David; Sogaard, Peter;

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between myocardial electrical activation by electrocardiogram (ECG) and mechanical contraction by echocardiography in left bundle-branch block (LBBB) has never been clearly demonstrated. New strict criteria for LBBB based on a fundamental understanding of physiology have recently...

  15. Damage in Fiber Bundle Models

    OpenAIRE

    Kun, Ferenc; Zapperi, Stefano; Herrmann, Hans J.

    1999-01-01

    We introduce a continuous damage fiber bundle model that gives rise to macroscopic plasticity and compare its behavior with that of dry fiber bundles. Several interesting constitutive behaviors are found in this model depending on the value of the damage parameter and on the form of the disorder distribution. In addition, we compare the behavior of global load transfer models with local load transfer models and study in detail the damage evolution before failure. We emphasize the analogies be...

  16. Systematic evaluation of bundled SPC water for biomolecular simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopal, Srinivasa M; Kuhn, Alexander B; Schäfer, Lars V

    2015-04-01

    In bundled SPC water models, the relative motion of groups of four water molecules is restrained by distance-dependent potentials. Bundled SPC models have been used in hybrid all-atom/coarse-grained (AA/CG) multiscale simulations, since they enable to couple atomistic SPC water with supra-molecular CG water models that effectively represent more than a single water molecule. In the present work, we systematically validated and critically tested bundled SPC water models as solvent for biomolecular simulations. To that aim, we investigated both thermodynamic and structural properties of various biomolecular systems through molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Potentials of mean force of dimerization of pairs of amino acid side chains as well as hydration free energies of single side chains obtained with bundled SPC and standard (unrestrained) SPC water agree closely with each other and with experimental data. Decomposition of the hydration free energies into enthalpic and entropic contributions reveals that in bundled SPC, this favorable agreement of the free energies is due to a larger degree of error compensation between hydration enthalpy and entropy. The Ramachandran maps of Ala3, Ala5, and Ala7 peptides are similar in bundled and unrestrained SPC, whereas for the (GS)2 peptide, bundled water leads to a slight overpopulation of extended conformations. Analysis of the end-to-end distance autocorrelation times of the Ala5 and (GS)2 peptides shows that sampling in more viscous bundled SPC water is about two times slower. Pronounced differences between the water models were found for the structure of a coiled-coil dimer, which is instable in bundled SPC but not in standard SPC. In addition, the hydration of the active site of the serine protease α-chymotrypsin depends on the water model. Bundled SPC leads to an increased hydration of the active site region, more hydrogen bonds between water and catalytic triad residues, and a significantly slower exchange of water

  17. Plant trait-based models identify direct and indirect effects of climate change on bundles of grassland ecosystem services

    OpenAIRE

    Lamarque, Pénélope; Lavorel, Sandra; Mouchet, Maud; Quétier, Fabien

    2014-01-01

    The sustainable management of the supply of ecosystem services (ESs) in a context of global change is of major importance to sustain human livelihoods. Doing sustainable management requires us to understand and to quantify the effects and mechanisms of changes in driving variables on multiple ESs. However, few studies to date have analyzed ES scenarios, and even fewer have adopted a mechanistic approach. This study presents a unique approach to examine not only the direct effects of climate o...

  18. 关节镜下双束及单束单隧道重建膝前交叉韧带的中期疗效观察%Curative effect observation on arthroscopic single-tunnel double-bundle and single-bundle anterior cuciate ligament reconstruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜庆钧; 宋洋; 黄明光

    2014-01-01

    目的:观察使用同种异体肌腱进行关节镜下前交叉韧带(anterior cruciate ligament, ACL)损伤后双束单隧道重建中期疗效。方法通过对2006年3月~2012年3月进行随访的100例应用双束单隧道重建关节镜下前交叉韧带病例(100个膝关节)。所有患者术前及随访时均进行IKDC2000、Tegner和Lyrsholm评分评价比较手术前后膝关节功能,并对结果进行统计学分析。结果随访时患者的IKDC2000、Tegner和Lyrsholm评分较治疗前均明显提高,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论膝前交叉韧带胫骨端双束单隧道重建较目前临床应用较广泛的单束单隧道重建可以更好地重建膝关节的稳定性,手术操作简便,最大限度恢复解剖重建,近期、中期疗效佳,远期效果有待进一步观察。%Objective To investigate the efficacy of allergenic tendon in arthroscopic single-tunnel double-bundle reconstruction after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). Methods From March 2006 to March 2012 follow-up of 100 cases in single tunnel double-bundle anterior curiae ligament reconstruction arthroscopic patients (100 knees) were carried out and follow-up all patients IKDC2000, and Lysol Tiger score evaluation before and after surgery knee function comparison, and the results were analyzed statistically. Results IKDC2000 patients at follow-up, Tiger and Lysol score before treatment were significantly improved, with a significant difference (P<0.05), with a description of statistical significance. Conclusion The anterior cruciate ligament tibia tunnel double-bundle reconstruction of a single clinical applications can be wider than the current single-bundle reconstruction of single-tunnel reconstruction to better stability of the knee, the operation is simple. It can maximize the recovery anatomical reconstruction and medium effect good, but long-term effect still remains to be seen .

  19. Could test length or order affect scores on letter number sequencing of the WAIS-III and WMS-III? Ruling out effects of fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulsky, D S; Zhu, J

    2000-11-01

    The Letter Number Sequencing subtest of the WAIS-III and WMS-III was administered at the end of the standardization edition of the WMS-III. It was not administered as part of the WAIS-III standardization battery. Nevertheless, the subtest was included in the published version of the WAIS-III. This study examines differences between examinees administered the Letter Number Sequencing subtest at three different times during a psychological battery: (1) as part of the published battery, (2) as part of the WMS-III when the WMS-III was administered as the first test in a sequence, and (3) as part of the WMS-III standardization when the WAIS-III was administered immediately preceding the WMS-III. The participants were 372 examinees ( n = 124 in each condition) who were matched on key demographic variables. A repeated measures MANOVA yielded no difference in subtest scores when administered in any of these conditions. The results show no evidence of fatigue or ordering effects on the Letter Number Sequencing subtest.

  20. Effect of the medium and the formation of nanostructures on deexcitation of electronic excitation of Eu(III) and Tb(III) chelates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sveshnikova, E. B.; Dudar, S. S.; Shablya, A. V.; Ermolaev, V. L.

    2006-10-01

    The intensity I lum and lifetime τlum of the luminescence of complexes of Eu(III) and Tb(III) ions with β-diketones and o-phenanthroline in water-ethanol solutions of these ligands have been analyzed as functions of the concentrations of ligand, luminescing lanthanide ions, and added ions causing columinescence and of the solvent deuteration. It is shown that the formation of nanostructures from Ln complexes and their coarsening leads to an increase in τlum of Eu(III) and Tb(III) and that this increase is due to the suppression of both photochemical deexcitation of these ions and transfer of their electronic excitation energy to OH vibrations of water molecules. The disappearance of the dependence of I lum of Eu(III) on deuteration of water-ethanol solutions of n-methoxybenzoyltrifluoracetone + o-phenanthroline caused by adding Gd(III) ions is explained by the shift of the equilibrium of formation of complexes of Ln chelates to neutral hydrophoblic forms corresponding to the formation of nanostructures of these chelates in the solution. The differences in effect of La(III) and Gd(III) ions on I lum and τlum of Eu(III) and Tb(III) complexes are explained. It is shown that the widely discussed effect of columinescence not only results from the energy migration in mixed structures of Eu or Tb complexes and Gd complexes but is also due to a large extent to the decrease in τlum of Eu(III) or Tb(III) caused by their incorporation into nanostructures.

  1. The Effects of Utilitarian and Hedonic Attribute on Price Frame in Bundling%实用与享乐属性对捆绑销售价格框架的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李四兰; 景奉杰

    2014-01-01

    The consumer′s price perception is affected by the price format , which is called price frame effect .Price frame affects the bundles attraction under certain conditions when the discount level is controlled in the same level .In marketing practice , the cross-selling of bundles is becoming more and more popular .Therefore, it has become a notice-able problem to how to use the pricing format to improve the consumer′s preference to products .The paper chooses a bundle with a utilitarian and a hedonic product which has similar value and importance as the research perspective and analyzes the relationship between price frame and preference in bundling with experimental methods .This research finds when a hedonic product is sold bundled with a utilitarian one , framing a discount as savings on hedonic versus utilitarian items makes consumers have less expected guilt and higher buying intentions to the bundles , and expected guilt mediates price frame and consumer′s buying intention .%消费者对价格的感知会受到价格表述方式的影响,被称为价格框架效应。在控制价格折扣绝对水平的情况下,价格框架会影响捆绑产品促销的吸引力。在营销实践中,不相关的交叉捆绑销售越来越普遍,如何采用合适的价格表述形式提高消费者对产品的偏好,成为一个值得关注的问题。本文从价值和重要性相似的实用性产品和享乐性产品捆绑的情况入手,分析了捆绑销售中价格框架与消费者偏好之间的关系。研究表明:当一个享乐品和一个实用品捆绑销售时,价格折扣体现为享乐品上比实用品上的节省使消费者有更少的预期愧疚和更高的购买意向,预期愧疚在价格框架与消费者的购买意向之间起中介作用。

  2. Zeta Functions for Elliptic Curves I. Counting Bundles

    CERN Document Server

    Weng, Lin

    2012-01-01

    To count bundles on curves, we study zetas of elliptic curves and their zeros. There are two types, i.e., the pure non-abelian zetas defined using moduli spaces of semi-stable bundles, and the group zetas defined for special linear groups. In lower ranks, we show that these two types of zetas coincide and satisfy the Riemann Hypothesis. For general cases, exposed is an intrinsic relation on automorphism groups of semi-stable bundles over elliptic curves, the so-called counting miracle. All this, together with Harder-Narasimhan, Desale-Ramanan and Zagier's result, gives an effective way to count semi-stable bundles on elliptic curves not only in terms of automorphism groups but more essentially in terms of their $h^0$'s. Distributions of zeros of high rank zetas are also discussed.

  3. Infinitely stably extendable vector bundles on projective spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Coanda, Iustin

    2009-01-01

    According to Horrocks (1966), a vector bundle E on the projective n-space extends stably to the projective N-space, N>n, if there exists a vector bundle on the larger space whose restriction to the smaller one is isomorphic to E plus a direct sum of line bundles. We show that E extends stably to the projective N-space for every N>n if and only if E is the cohomology of a free monad (with three terms). The proof uses the method of Coanda and Trautmann (2006). Combining this result with a theorem of Mohan Kumar, Peterson and Rao (2003), we get a new effective version of the Babylonian tower theorem for vector bundles on projective spaces.

  4. Using Advanced Fuel Bundles in CANDU Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Improving the exit fuel burnup in CANDU reactors was a long-time challenge for both bundle designers and performance analysts. Therefore, the 43-element design together with several fuel compositions was studied, in the aim of assessing new reliable, economic and proliferation-resistant solutions. Recovered Uranium (RU) fuel is intended to be used in CANDU reactors, given the important amount of slightly enriched Uranium (~0.96% w/o U235) that might be provided by the spent LWR fuel recovery plants. Though this fuel has a far too small U235 enrichment to be used in LWR's, it can be still used to fuel CANDU reactors. Plutonium based mixtures are also considered, with both natural and depleted Uranium, either for peacefully using the military grade dispositioned Plutonium or for better using Plutonium from LWR reprocessing plants. The proposed Thorium-LEU mixtures are intended to reduce the Uranium consumption per produced MW. The positive void reactivity is a major concern of any CANDU safety assessment, therefore reducing it was also a task for the present analysis. Using the 43-element bundle with a certain amount of burnable poison (e.g. Dysprosium) dissolved in the 8 innermost elements may lead to significantly reducing the void reactivity. The expected outcomes of these design improvements are: higher exit burnup, smooth/uniform radial bundle power distribution and reduced void reactivity. Since the improved fuel bundles are intended to be loaded in existing CANDU reactors, we found interesting to estimate the local reactivity effects of a mechanical control absorber (MCA) on the surrounding fuel cells. Cell parameters and neutron flux distributions, as well as macroscopic cross-sections were estimated using the transport code DRAGON and a 172-group updated nuclear data library. (author)

  5. Uncovering ecosystem service bundles through social preferences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berta Martín-López

    Full Text Available Ecosystem service assessments have increasingly been used to support environmental management policies, mainly based on biophysical and economic indicators. However, few studies have coped with the social-cultural dimension of ecosystem services, despite being considered a research priority. We examined how ecosystem service bundles and trade-offs emerge from diverging social preferences toward ecosystem services delivered by various types of ecosystems in Spain. We conducted 3,379 direct face-to-face questionnaires in eight different case study sites from 2007 to 2011. Overall, 90.5% of the sampled population recognized the ecosystem's capacity to deliver services. Formal studies, environmental behavior, and gender variables influenced the probability of people recognizing the ecosystem's capacity to provide services. The ecosystem services most frequently perceived by people were regulating services; of those, air purification held the greatest importance. However, statistical analysis showed that socio-cultural factors and the conservation management strategy of ecosystems (i.e., National Park, Natural Park, or a non-protected area have an effect on social preferences toward ecosystem services. Ecosystem service trade-offs and bundles were identified by analyzing social preferences through multivariate analysis (redundancy analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis. We found a clear trade-off among provisioning services (and recreational hunting versus regulating services and almost all cultural services. We identified three ecosystem service bundles associated with the conservation management strategy and the rural-urban gradient. We conclude that socio-cultural preferences toward ecosystem services can serve as a tool to identify relevant services for people, the factors underlying these social preferences, and emerging ecosystem service bundles and trade-offs.

  6. Cohomology of line bundles: Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenhagen, Ralph; Jurke, Benjamin; Rahn, Thorsten; Roschy, Helmut

    2012-01-01

    Massless modes of both heterotic and Type II string compactifications on compact manifolds are determined by vector bundle valued cohomology classes. Various applications of our recent algorithm for the computation of line bundle valued cohomology classes over toric varieties are presented. For the heterotic string, the prime examples are so-called monad constructions on Calabi-Yau manifolds. In the context of Type II orientifolds, one often needs to compute cohomology for line bundles on finite group action coset spaces, necessitating us to generalize our algorithm to this case. Moreover, we exemplify that the different terms in Batyrev's formula and its generalizations can be given a one-to-one cohomological interpretation. Furthermore, we derive a combinatorial closed form expression for two Hodge numbers of a codimension two Calabi-Yau fourfold.

  7. Bundle Formation in Biomimetic Hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaspers, Maarten; Pape, A C H; Voets, Ilja K; Rowan, Alan E; Portale, Giuseppe; Kouwer, Paul H J

    2016-08-01

    Bundling of single polymer chains is a crucial process in the formation of biopolymer network gels that make up the extracellular matrix and the cytoskeleton. This bundled architecture leads to gels with distinctive properties, including a large-pore-size gel formation at very low concentrations and mechanical responsiveness through nonlinear mechanics, properties that are rarely observed in synthetic hydrogels. Using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), we study the bundle formation and hydrogelation process of polyisocyanide gels, a synthetic material that uniquely mimics the structure and mechanics of biogels. We show how the structure of the material changes at the (thermally induced) gelation point and how factors such as concentration and polymer length determine the architecture, and with that, the mechanical properties. The correlation of the gel mechanics and the structural parameters obtained from SAXS experiments is essential in the design of future (synthetic) mimics of biopolymer networks.

  8. A Possible Anticancer Agent, Type III Interferon, Activates Cell Death Pathways and Produces Antitumor Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masatoshi Tagawa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently identified interleukin-28 and -29 belong to a novel type III interferon (IFN family, which could have distinct biological properties from type I and II IFNs. Type I IFNs, IFN-α/β, have been clinically applied for treating a certain kind of malignancies for over 30 years, but a wide range of the adverse effects hampered the further clinical applications. Type III IFNs, IFN-λs, have similar signaling pathways as IFN-α/β and inhibits proliferation of tumor cells through cell cycle arrest or apoptosis. Restricted patterns of type III IFN receptor expression in contrast to ubiquitously expressed IFN-α/β receptors suggest that type III IFNs have limited cytotoxicity to normal cells and can be a possible anticancer agent. In this paper, we summarize the current knowledge on the IFN-λs-mediated tumor cell death and discuss the functional difference between type I and III IFNs.

  9. Principal bundles the classical case

    CERN Document Server

    Sontz, Stephen Bruce

    2015-01-01

    This introductory graduate level text provides a relatively quick path to a special topic in classical differential geometry: principal bundles.  While the topic of principal bundles in differential geometry has become classic, even standard, material in the modern graduate mathematics curriculum, the unique approach taken in this text presents the material in a way that is intuitive for both students of mathematics and of physics. The goal of this book is to present important, modern geometric ideas in a form readily accessible to students and researchers in both the physics and mathematics communities, providing each with an understanding and appreciation of the language and ideas of the other.

  10. Effects of ionic strength and fulvic acid on adsorption of Tb(III) and Eu(III) onto clay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poetsch, Maria; Lippold, Holger

    2016-09-01

    High salinity and natural organic matter are both known to facilitate migration of toxic or radioactive metals in geochemical systems, but little is known on their combined effect. We investigated complexation of Tb(III) and Eu(III) (as analogues for trivalent actinides) with fulvic acid and their adsorption onto a natural clay in the presence of NaCl, MgCl2 and CaCl2 up to very high ionic strengths. 160Tb, 152Eu and 14C-labelled fulvic acid were employed as radiotracers, allowing investigations at very low concentrations according to probable conditions in far-field scenarios of nuclear waste repositories. A combined Kd approach (Linear Additive Model) was tested for suitability in predicting solid-liquid distribution of metals in the presence of organic matter based on the interactions in the constituent subsystems. In this analysis, it could be shown that high ionic strength does not further enhance the mobilizing potential of humic matter. A quantitative reproduction of the influence of fulvic acid failed for most systems under study. Assumptions and limitations of the model are discussed.

  11. Exploring Bundling Theory with Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckalbar, John C.

    2006-01-01

    The author shows how instructors might successfully introduce students in principles and intermediate microeconomic theory classes to the topic of bundling (i.e., the selling of two or more goods as a package, rather than separately). It is surprising how much students can learn using only the tools of high school geometry. To be specific, one can…

  12. Implementation of central venous catheter bundle in an intensive care unit in Kuwait: Effect on central line-associated bloodstream infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Mona F; Jamal, Wafaa; Al Mousa, Haifa; Rotimi, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSIs) is an important healthcare-associated infection in the critical care units. It causes substantial morbidity, mortality and incurs high costs. The use of central venous line (CVL) insertion bundle has been shown to decrease the incidence of CLABSIs. Our aim was to study the impact of CVL insertion bundle on incidence of CLABSI and study the causative microbial agents in an intensive care unit in Kuwait. Surveillance for CLABSI was conducted by trained infection control team using National Health Safety Network (NHSN) case definitions and device days measurement methods. During the intervention period, nursing staff used central line care bundle consisting of (1) hand hygiene by inserter (2) maximal barrier precautions upon insertion by the physician inserting the catheter and sterile drape from head to toe to the patient (3) use of a 2% chlorohexidine gluconate (CHG) in 70% ethanol scrub for the insertion site (4) optimum catheter site selection. (5) Examination of the daily necessity of the central line. During the pre-intervention period, there were 5367 documented catheter-days and 80 CLABSIs, for an incidence density of 14.9 CLABSIs per 1000 catheter-days. After implementation of the interventions, there were 5052 catheter-days and 56 CLABSIs, for an incidence density of 11.08 per 1000 catheter-days. The reduction in the CLABSI/1000 catheter days was not statistically significant (P=0.0859). This study demonstrates that implementation of a central venous catheter post-insertion care bundle was associated with a reduction in CLABSI in an intensive care area setting.

  13. Bundling Information Goods: Pricing, Profits, and Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Yannis Bakos; Erik Brynjolfsson

    1999-01-01

    We study the strategy of bundling a large number of information goods, such as those increasingly available on the Internet, and selling them for a fixed price. We analyze the optimal bundling strategies for a multiproduct monopolist, and we find that bundling very large numbers of unrelated information goods can be surprisingly profitable. The reason is that the law of large numbers makes it much easier to predict consumers' valuations for a bundle of goods than their valuations for the indi...

  14. Failure properties of fiber bundle models

    OpenAIRE

    Pradhan, Srutarshi; Chakrabarti, Bikas K.

    2003-01-01

    We study the failure properties of fiber bundles when continuous rupture goes on due to the application of external load on the bundles. We take the two extreme models: equal load sharing model (democratic fiber bundles) and local load sharing model. The strength of the fibers are assumed to be distributed randomly within a finite interval. The democratic fiber bundles show a solvable phase transition at a critical stress (load per fiber). The dynamic critical behavior is obtained analyticall...

  15. Dendritic bundles, minicolumns, columns, and cortical output units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Innocenti

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The search for the fundamental building block of the cerebral cortex has highlighted three structures, perpendicular to the cortical surface: i columns of neurons with radially invariant response properties, e.g., receptive field position, sensory modality, stimulus orientation or direction, frequency tuning etc. ii minicolumns of radially aligned cell bodies and iii bundles, constituted by the apical dendrites of pyramidal neurons with cell bodies in different layers. The latter were described in detail, and sometimes quantitatively, in several species and areas. It was recently suggested that the dendritic bundles consist of apical dendrites belonging to neurons projecting their axons to specific targets. We review the concept above and suggest that another structural and computational unit of cerebral cortex is the cortical output unit (COU, i.e. an assembly of bundles of apical dendrites and their parent cell bodies including each of the outputs to distant cortical or subcortical structures, of a given cortical locus (area or part of an area. This somato-dendritic assembly receives inputs some of which are common to the whole assembly and determine its radially invariant response properties, others are specific to one or more dendritic bundles, and determine the specific response signature of neurons in the different cortical layers and projecting to different targets.

  16. Quantum principal bundles and corresponding gauge theories

    CERN Document Server

    Durdevic, M

    1995-01-01

    A generalization of classical gauge theory is presented, in the framework of a noncommutative-geometric formalism of quantum principal bundles over smooth manifolds. Quantum counterparts of classical gauge bundles, and classical gauge transformations, are introduced and investigated. A natural differential calculus on quantum gauge bundles is constructed and analyzed. Kinematical and dynamical properties of corresponding gauge theories are discussed.

  17. Higher order jet prolongations type gauge natural bundles over vector bundles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kurek

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Let $rgeq 3$ and $mgeq 2$ be natural numbers and $E$ be a vector bundle with $m$-dimensional basis. We find all gauge natural bundles ``similar" to the $r$-jet prolongation bundle $J^rE$ of $E$. We also find all gauge natural bundles ``similar" to the vector $r$-tangent bundle $(J^r_{fl}(E,R_0^*$ of $E$.

  18. The Games Children Play III: More Comments on Effective Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, Charlotte A.; Ashy, Madge

    2013-01-01

    In the years since the authors published two articles with tips for effective teaching, they have acquired and developed more advice and impressions on teaching. This article presents ideas that can help physical educators become increasingly effective in their teaching.

  19. Systemic effects of angiotensin III in conscious dogs during acute double blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Iben; Wamberg, Søren; Bie, Peter

    2006-01-01

    AIMS: The study was designed to determine (i) whether the effects of angiotensin III (AngIII) are similar to those of angiotensin II (AngII) at identical plasma concentrations and (ii) whether AngIII operates solely through AT1- receptors. METHODS: Angiotensin II (3 pmol kg(-1) min(-1)-3.1 ng kg(...

  20. III. Biological effects of radiation from external and internal sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, R.S.

    1948-05-24

    This report focuses on the hemotological effects of total body irradiation from external and internal sources observed in patients treated for arthritis with radioactive phosphorus administered intravenously.

  1. Quantum bundles and their symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wave functions in the domain of observables such as the Hamiltonian are not always smooth functions on the classical configuration space Q. Rather, they are often best regarded as functions on a G bundle EG over Q or as sections of an associated bundle. If H is a classical group which acts on Q, its quantum version HG, which acts on EG, is not always H, but an extension of H by G. A powerful and physically transparent construction of EG and HG, where G = U(1) and H1(Q,Z) = 0, has been developed using the path space P. (P consists of paths on Q from a fixed point). In this paper the authors show how to construct EG and HG when G is U(1) or U(1) x π1(Q) and there is no restriction on H1(Q,Z). The method is illustrated with concrete examples, such as a system of charges and monopoles. The method is illustrated with concrete examples, such as a system of charges and monopoles. The authors argue also that P is a sort of superbundle from which a large variety of bundles can be obtained by imposing suitable equivalence relations

  2. Photonic bandgap fiber bundle spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Hang, Qu; Syed, Imran; Guo, Ning; Skorobogatiy, Maksim

    2010-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate an all-fiber spectrometer consisting of a photonic bandgap fiber bundle and a black and white CCD camera. Photonic crystal fibers used in this work are the large solid core all-plastic Bragg fibers designed for operation in the visible spectral range and featuring bandgaps of 60nm - 180nm-wide. 100 Bragg fibers were chosen to have complimentary and partially overlapping bandgaps covering a 400nm-840nm spectral range. The fiber bundle used in our work is equivalent in its function to a set of 100 optical filters densely packed in the area of ~1cm2. Black and white CCD camera is then used to capture spectrally "binned" image of the incoming light at the output facet of a fiber bundle. To reconstruct the test spectrum from a single CCD image we developed an algorithm based on pseudo-inversion of the spectrometer transmission matrix. We then study resolution limit of this spectroscopic system by testing its performance using spectrally narrow test peaks (FWHM 5nm-25nm) centered at va...

  3. Effects of Al(III and Nano-Al13 Species on Malate Dehydrogenase Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Fu Chen

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different aluminum species on malate dehydrogenase (MDH activity were investigated by monitoring amperometric i-t curves for the oxidation of NADH at low overpotential using a functionalized multi-wall nanotube (MWNT modified glass carbon electrode (GCE. The results showed that Al(III and Al13 can activate the enzymatic activity of MDH, and the activation reaches maximum levels as the Al(III and Al13 concentration increase. Our study also found that the effects of Al(III and Al13 on the activity of MDH depended on the pH value and aluminum speciation. Electrochemical and circular dichroism spectra methods were applied to study the effects of nano-sized aluminum compounds on biomolecules.

  4. Effectiveness of Urban Shelter-in-Place. III: Commercial Districts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Wanyu R.; Chan, Wanyu R.; Nazaroff, William W.; Price, Phillip N.; Gadgil, Ashok J.

    2007-12-28

    In the event of a toxic chemical release to the atmosphere, shelter-in-place (SIP) is an emergency response option available to protect public health. This paper is the last in a three-part series that examines the effectiveness of SIP at reducing adverse health effects in communities. We model a hypothetical chemical release in an urban area, and consider SIP effectiveness in protecting occupants of commercial buildings. Building air infiltration rates are predicted from empirical data using an existing model. We consider the distribution of building air infiltration rates both with mechanical ventilation systems turned off and with the systems operating. We also consider the effects of chemical sorption to indoor surfaces and nonlinear chemical dose-response relationships. We find that commercial buildings provide effective shelter when ventilation systems are off, but that any delay in turning off ventilation systems can greatly reduce SIP effectiveness. Using a two-zone model, we find that there can be substantial benefit by taking shelter in the inner parts of a building that do not experience direct air exchange with the outdoors. Air infiltration rates vary substantially among buildings and this variation is important in quantifying effectiveness for emergency response. Community-wide health metrics, introduced in the previous papers in this series, can be applied in pre-event planning and to guide real-time emergency response.

  5. Large-Scale Structure and Gravitational Waves III: Tidal Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, Fabian; Zaldarriaga, Matias

    2013-01-01

    The leading locally observable effect of a long-wavelength metric perturbation corresponds to a tidal field. We derive the tidal field induced by scalar, vector, and tensor perturbations, and use second order perturbation theory to calculate the effect on the locally measured small-scale density fluctuations. For sub-horizon scalar perturbations, we recover the standard perturbation theory result ($F_2$ kernel). For tensor modes of wavenumber $k_L$, we find that effects persist for $k_L\\tau \\gg 1$, i.e. even long after the gravitational wave has entered the horizon and redshifted away, i.e. it is a "fossil" effect. We then use these results, combined with the "ruler perturbations" of arXiv:1204.3625, to predict the observed distortion of the small-scale matter correlation function induced by a long-wavelength tensor mode. We also estimate the observed signal in the B mode of the cosmic shear from a gravitational wave background, including both tidal (intrinsic alignment) and projection (lensing) effects. The ...

  6. Assessment of hydrogen combustion effects in the BWR/6 - Mark III Standard Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discusses General Electric's study of potential hydrogen combustion effects on the Standard Mark III containment during postulated severe accidents. This study was performed as part of the Probabilistic Risk Assessment of the BWR/6 - Mark III Standard Plant. The methodology of determining the accident event sequence and modeling of the Boiling Water Reactor core response, including hydrogen generation by metal-water reaction, is described. Combustion of hydrogen released to the containment is analyzed and effects on the Mark III containment system are assessed. It is concluded that even for those cases where containment integrity may be lost, the containment function (i.e., limiting offsite doses) is maintained by the drywell and suppression pool

  7. Formation and structural organization of the egg-sperm bundle of the scleractinian coral Montipora capitata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Gamiño, J. L.; Weatherby, T. M.; Waller, R. G.; Gates, R. D.

    2011-06-01

    The majority of scleractinian corals are hermaphrodites that broadcast spawn their gametes separately or packaged as egg-sperm bundles during spawning events that are timed to the lunar cycle. The egg-sperm bundle is an efficient way of transporting gametes to the ocean surface where fertilization takes place, while minimizing sperm dilution and maximizing the opportunity for gamete encounters during a spawning event. To date, there are few studies that focus on the formation and structure of egg-sperm bundle. This study explores formation, ultrastructure, and longevity of the egg-sperm bundle in Montipora capitata, a major reef building coral in Hawai`i. Our results show that the egg-sperm bundle is formed by a mucus layer secreted by the oocytes. The sperm package is located at the center of each bundle, possibly reflecting the development of male and female gametes in different mesenteries. Once the egg-sperm bundle has reached the ocean surface, it breaks open within 10-35 min, depending on the environmental conditions (i.e., wind, water turbulence). Although the bundle has an ephemeral life span, the formation of an egg-sperm bundle is a fundamental part of the reproductive process that could be strongly influenced by climate change and deterioration of water quality (due to anthropogenic effects) and thus requires further investigation.

  8. Photochemical properties of mesophyll and bundle sheath chloroplasts of maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzaz, M B; Govindjee

    1973-09-01

    Several photochemical and spectral properties of maize (Zea mays) bundle sheath and mesophyll chloroplasts are reported that provide a better understanding of the photosynthetic apparatus of C(4) plants. The difference absorption spectrum at 298 K and the fluorescence excitation and emission spectra of chlorophyll at 298 K and 77 K provide new information on the different forms of chlorophyll a in bundle sheath and mesophyll chloroplasts: the former contain, relative to short wavelength chlorophyll a forms, more long wavelength chlorophyll a form (e.g. chlorophyll a 693 and chlorophyll a 705) and less chlorophyll b than the latter. The degree of polarization of chlorophyll a fluorescence is 6% in bundle sheath and 4% in mesophyll chloroplasts. This result is consistent with the presence of relatively high amounts of oriented long wavelength forms of chlorophyll a in bundle sheath compared to mesophyll chloroplasts. The relative yield of variable, with respect to constant, chorophyll a fluorescence in mesophyll chloroplasts is more than twice that in bundle sheath chloroplast. Furthermore, the relative yield of total chlorophyll a fluorescence is 40% lower in bundle sheath compared to that in mesophyll chloroplasts. This is in agreement with the presence of the higher ratio of the weakly fluorescent pigment system I to pigment system II in bundle sheath than in mesophyll chloroplast. The efficiency of energy transfer from chlorophyll b and carotenoids to chlorophyll a are calculated to be 100 and 50%, respectively, in both types of chloroplasts. Fluorescence quenching of atebrin, reflecting high energy state of chloroplasts, is 10 times higher in mesophyll chloroplasts than in bundle sheath chloroplasts during noncyclic electron flow but is equal during cyclic flow. The entire electron transport chain is shown to be present in both types of chloroplasts, as inferred from the antagonistic effect of red (650 nm) and far red (710 nm) lights on the absorbance changes at

  9. Confinement-dependent friction in peptide bundles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbaş, Aykut; Netz, Roland R

    2013-03-19

    Friction within globular proteins or between adhering macromolecules crucially determines the kinetics of protein folding, the formation, and the relaxation of self-assembled molecular systems. One fundamental question is how these friction effects depend on the local environment and in particular on the presence of water. In this model study, we use fully atomistic MD simulations with explicit water to obtain friction forces as a single polyglycine peptide chain is pulled out of a bundle of k adhering parallel polyglycine peptide chains. The whole system is periodically replicated along the peptide axes, so a stationary state at prescribed mean sliding velocity V is achieved. The aggregation number is varied between k = 2 (two peptide chains adhering to each other with plenty of water present at the adhesion sites) and k = 7 (one peptide chain pulled out from a close-packed cylindrical array of six neighboring peptide chains with no water inside the bundle). The friction coefficient per hydrogen bond, extrapolated to the viscous limit of vanishing pulling velocity V → 0, exhibits an increase by five orders of magnitude when going from k = 2 to k = 7. This dramatic confinement-induced friction enhancement we argue to be due to a combination of water depletion and increased hydrogen-bond cooperativity. PMID:23528088

  10. Failure process of a bundle of plastic fibers

    OpenAIRE

    F. Raischel; Kun, F; Herrmann, H. J.

    2006-01-01

    We present an extension of fiber bundle models considering that failed fibers still carry a fraction $0 \\leq \\alpha \\leq 1$ of their failure load. The value of $\\alpha$ interpolates between the perfectly brittle failure $(\\alpha = 0)$ and perfectly plastic behavior $(\\alpha=1)$ of fibers. We show that the finite load bearing capacity of broken fibers has a substantial effect on the failure process of the bundle. In the case of global load sharing it is found that for $\\alpha \\to 1$ the macros...

  11. Bundling and joint marketing by rival firms

    OpenAIRE

    Jeitschko, Thomas D.; Jung, Yeonjei; Kim, Jaesoo

    2014-01-01

    We study joint marketing arrangements by competing firms who engage in price discrimination between consumers who patronize only one firm (single purchasing) and those who purchase from both competitors (bundle purchasers). Two types of joint marketing are considered. Firms either commit to a component-price that applies to bundle-purchasers and then firms set stand-alone prices for single purchasers; or firms commit to a rebate off their stand alone price that will be applied to bundle-purch...

  12. Static stress analysis of CANFLEX fuel bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The static stress analysis of CANFLEX bundles is performed to evaluate the fuel structural integrity during the refuelling service. The structure analysis is carried out by predicting the drag force, stress and displacements of the fuel bundle. By the comparison of strength tests and analysis results, the displacement values are well agreed within 15%. The analysis shows that the CANFLEX fuel bundle keep its structural integrity. 24 figs., 6 tabs., 12 refs. (Author) .new

  13. Damping Properties of the Hair Bundle

    OpenAIRE

    Baumgart, Johannes; Kozlov, Andrei S.; Risler, Thomas; Hudspeth, A. James

    2015-01-01

    The viscous liquid surrounding a hair bundle dissipates energy and dampens oscillations, which poses a fundamental physical challenge to the high sensitivity and sharp frequency selectivity of hearing. To identify the mechanical forces at play, we constructed a detailed finite-element model of the hair bundle. Based on data from the hair bundle of the bullfrog's sacculus, this model treats the interaction of stereocilia both with the surrounding liquid and with the liquid in the narrow gaps b...

  14. General frame structures on quantum principal bundles

    CERN Document Server

    Durdevic, M

    1996-01-01

    A noncommutative-geometric generalization of the classical formalism of frame bundles is developed, incorporating into the theory of quantum principal bundles the concept of the Levi-Civita connection. The construction of a natural differential calculus on quantum principal frame bundles is presented, including the construction of the associated differential calculus on the structure group. General torsion operators are defined and analyzed. Illustrative examples are presented.

  15. Statistical Constitutive Equation of Aramid Fiber Bundles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊杰; 顾伯洪; 王善元

    2003-01-01

    Tensile impact tests of aramid (Twaron) fiber bundles were carried om under high strain rates with a wide range of 0. 01/s~1000/s by using MTS and bar-bar tensile impact apparatus. Based on the statistical constitutive model of fiber bundles, statistical constitutive equations of aramid fiber bundles are derived from statistical analysis of test data at different strain rates. Comparison between the theoretical predictions and experimental data indicates statistical constitutive equations fit well with the experimental data, and statistical constitutive equations of fiber bundles at different strain rates are valid.

  16. Parallel transport on principal bundles over stacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Brian; Lerman, Eugene; Wolbert, Seth

    2016-09-01

    In this paper we introduce a notion of parallel transport for principal bundles with connections over differentiable stacks. We show that principal bundles with connections over stacks can be recovered from their parallel transport thereby extending the results of Barrett, Caetano and Picken, and Schreiber and Waldorf from manifolds to stacks. In the process of proving our main result we simplify Schreiber and Waldorf's original definition of a transport functor for principal bundles with connections over manifolds and provide a more direct proof of the correspondence between principal bundles with connections and transport functors.

  17. Jacobi Structures on Affine Bundles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J. GRABOWSKI; D. IGLESIAS; J. C. MARRERO; E. PADR(O)N; P. URBA(N)SKI

    2007-01-01

    We study affine Jacobi structures (brackets) on an affine bundle π: A→M, i.e. Jacobi brackets that close on affine functions. We prove that if the rank of A is non-zero, there is a one-to- one correspondence between affine Jacobi structures on A and Lie algebroid structures on the vector bundle A+=∪p∈M Aff(Ap, R) of affine functionals. In the case rank A = 0, it is shown that there is a one-to-one correspondence between affins Jacobi structures on A and local Lie algebras on A+. Some examples and applications, also for the linear case, are discussed. For a special type of affine Jacobi structures which are canonically exhibited (strongly-affine or affine-homogeneous Jacobi structures) over a real vector space of finite dimension, we describe the leaves of its characteristic foliation as the orbits of an affine representation. These afline Jacobi structures can be viewed as an analog of the Kostant-Arnold-LiouviUe linear Poisson structure on the dual space of a real finite-dimensional Lie algebra.

  18. Multicell slug flow heat transfer analysis of finite LMFBR bundles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeung, M.K.; Wolf, L.

    1978-12-01

    An analytical two-dimensional, multi-region, multi-cell technique has been developed for the thermal analysis of LMFBR rod bundles. Local temperature fields of various unit cells were obtained for 7, 19, and 37-rod bundles of different geometries and power distributions. The validity of the technique has been verified by its excellent agreement with the THTB calculational result. By comparing the calculated fully-developed circumferential clad temperature distribution with those of the experimental measurements, an axial correction factor has been derived to account for the entrance effect for practical considerations. Moreover, the knowledge of the local temperature field of the rod bundle leads to the determination of the effective mixing lengths L/sub ij/ for adjacent subchannels of various geometries. It was shown that the implementation of the accurately determined L/sub ij/ into COBRA-IIIC calculations has fairly significant effects on intersubchannel mixing. In addition, a scheme has been proposed to couple the 2-D distributed and lumped parameter calculation by COBRA-IIIC such that the entrance effect can be implanted into the distributed parameter analysis. The technique has demonstrated its applicability for a 7-rod bundle and the results of calculation were compared to those of three-dimensional analyses and experimental measurements.

  19. Negotiating over bundles and prices using aggregate knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Somefun, D.J.A.; Klos, T.B.; La Poutré, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    Combining two or more items and selling them as one good, a practice called bundling, can be a very effective strategy for reducing the costs of producing, marketing, and selling goods. In this paper, we consider a form of multi-issue negotiation where a shop negotiates both the contents and the pri

  20. Effects of friction and high torque on fatigue crack propagation in Mode III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayeb-Hashemi, H.; McClintock, F. A.; Ritchie, R. O.

    1982-12-01

    Turbo-generator and automotive shafts are often subjected to complex histories of high torques. To provide a basis for fatigue life estimation in such components, a study of fatigue crack propagation in Mode III (anti-plane shear) for a mill-annealed AISI 4140 steel (RB88, 590 MN/m2 tensile strength) has been undertaken, using torsionally-loaded, circumferentially-notched cylindrical specimens. As demonstrated previously for higher strength AISI 4340 steel, Mode III cyclic crack growth rates (dc/dN) IIIcan be related to the alternating stress intensity factor ΔKIII for conditions of small-scale yielding. However, to describe crack propagation behavior over an extended range of crack growth rates (˜10-6 to 10-2 mm per cycle), where crack growth proceeds under elastic-plastic and full plastic conditions, no correlation between (dc/dN) III and ΔKIII is possible. Accordingly, a new parameter for torsional crack growth, termed the plastic strain intensity Γ III, is introduced and is shown to provide a unique description of Mode III crack growth behavior for a wide range of testing conditions, provided a mean load reduces friction, abrasion, and interlocking between mating fracture surfaces. The latter effect is found to be dependent upon the mode of applied loading (i.e., the presence of superimposed axial loads) and the crack length and torque level. Mechanistically, high-torque surfaces were transverse, macroscopically flat, and smeared. Lower torques showed additional axial cracks (longitudinal shear cracking) perpendicular to the main transverse surface. A micro-mechanical model for the main radi l Mode III growth, based on the premise that crack advance results from Mode II coalescence of microcracks initiated at inclusions ahead of the main crack front, is extended to high nominal stress levels, and predicts that Mode III fatigue crack propagation rates should be proportional to the range of plastic strain intensity (ΔΓIII if local Mode II growth rates are

  1. Effects of V-type ducts on condensation heat transfer of HFC245fa on horizontal tube bundles%V型导液槽对HFC245fa水平管束外冷凝换热影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马志先; 张吉礼; 孙德兴

    2011-01-01

    试验研究了HFC245fa在水平光管与强化管管束外的冷凝换热特性,提出在管束中加装V型导液槽来消除管束效应的方法,并通过试验研究了V型导液槽对管束冷凝换热特性的影响.试验管束由4列排深为5排的列管构成,带导液槽管束的前4排管下方加装了两段长度为450 mm的导液槽;试验换热管公称外径为19.05 mm、换热长度为1000 mm.试验中,以Wilson描点法获得强化换热管水侧对流传热系数,以对比试验方法研究了V型导液槽对水平管束外冷凝换热性能的影响.结果表明:传统的管束效应模型仅在较小的热通量范围适用;凝液在管间的迁移形态与流态随管上作用凝液量的系列变化是导致管束效应变化的主要因素;加装导液槽可有效控制凝液在管间的迁移,控制管束效应;加装导液槽使光管单管冷凝传热能力下降10%左右,使光管管束总体换热能力提升4.5%~9.5%;加装导液槽对强化管单管冷凝换热性能的影响比对光管影响强近4倍.本文研究成果对引入导液槽开发新型高效卧式冷凝管束具有指导意义.%In a horizontal condensation tube-bundle, the inundation effect, resulted from local condensation film and falling condensate from upper tube rows, may reduce the condensation heat transfer coefficient (CHTC) considerably. This paper presents an experimental study on condensation heat transfer characteristic of HFC245fa on horizontal tube bundles. A scheme was proposed to reduce the tube row effect resulted from falling condensate with V-type ducts, and the effect of the duct on CHTC of the tube bundles was investigated experimentally. The tube bundle consisted of 4 columns, each with 5 tubes, with smooth tubes and enhanced tubes, separately. Two columns out of the four were equipped with the duct. The equivalent outside diameter and effective length for heat transfer of tubes were 19.05 mm and 1000 mm respectively. In the experiment, water

  2. Anatomic Double-bundle ACL Reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V.M. Schreiber; C.F. van Eck; F.H. Fu

    2010-01-01

    Rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is one of the most frequent forms of knee trauma. The traditional surgical treatment for ACL rupture is single-bundle reconstruction. However, during the past few years there has been a shift in interest toward double-bundle reconstruction to closely r

  3. The Verlinde formula for Higgs bundles

    CERN Document Server

    Andersen, Jørgen Ellegaard; Pei, Du

    2016-01-01

    We propose and prove the Verlinde formula for the quantization of the Higgs bundle moduli spaces and stacks for any simple and simply-connected group. This generalizes the equivariant Verlinde formula for the case of $SU(n)$ proposed previously by the second and third author. We further establish a Verlinde formula for the quantization of parabolic Higgs bundle moduli spaces and stacks.

  4. Principal Bundles on the Projective Line

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V B Mehta; S Subramanian

    2002-08-01

    We classify principal -bundles on the projective line over an arbitrary field of characteristic ≠ 2 or 3, where is a reductive group. If such a bundle is trivial at a -rational point, then the structure group can be reduced to a maximal torus.

  5. Fock modules and noncommutative line bundles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi, Giovanni

    2016-09-01

    To a line bundle over a noncommutative space there is naturally associated a Fock module. The algebra of corresponding creation and annihilation operators is the total space algebra of a principal U(1) -bundle over the noncommutative space. We describe the general construction and illustrate it with examples.

  6. Study on Effect of Gd (III) Speciation on Ca (II) Speciation in Human Blood Plasma by Computer Simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Ca (II) speciation and effect of Gd (III) speciation on Ca (II) speciation in human blood plasma were studied by computer simulation. [CaHCO3]+ is a predominant compound species of Ca (II). Gd (III) can compete with Ca (II) for biological molecules. The presence of Gd (III) results in a increase of concentration of free Ca (II) and a decrease of concentration of Ca (II) compounds.

  7. Overview of flowline bundle technology from concept selection to offshore installation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Ruxin; Xia Qiuling

    2013-01-01

    Flowline bundle system consisting of carrier pipe,sleeve pipe and internal flowlines offers innovative solution for the infield transportation of oil and gas.Due to its features,flowline bundle offers a couple of advantages over conventional flowline in particular for cases where multi-flowlines and high thermal performance is of great interest.The main benefits and advantages of such system include excellent thermal performance to prevent wax formation and hydrates,multiple bundled flowlines,mechanical and corrosion protection,potential reuse,etc.With the developments of offshore oil and gas industries,more and more hydrocarbon resources are being explored and discovered from shallow to deep water.Pipeline bundle system can be a smart solution for certain applications,which can be safe and cost effective solution.The objective of this paper is to overview pipeline bundle technology,outline detailed engineering design issue and procedure.Focus is given to its potential application in offshore for infield transportation.Engineering design principles and procedures for pipeline bundle system are highlighted.Construction methods of flowline bundle onshore are reviewed.Offshore towing and installation of pipeline bundle procedure is outlined.

  8. Line bundle embeddings for heterotic theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groot Nibbelink, Stefan [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics; Ruehle, Fabian [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-03-15

    In heterotic string theories consistency requires the introduction of a non-trivial vector bundle. This bundle breaks the original ten-dimensional gauge groups E{sub 8} x E{sub 8} or SO(32) for the supersymmetric heterotic string theories and SO(16) x SO(16) for the non-supersymmetric tachyon-free theory to smaller subgroups. A vast number of MSSM-like models have been constructed up to now, most of which describe the vector bundle as a sum of line bundles. However, there are several different ways of describing these line bundles and their embedding in the ten-dimensional gauge group. We recall and extend these different descriptions and explain how they can be translated into each other.

  9. Requirements for disordered actomyosin bundle contractility

    CERN Document Server

    Lenz, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Actomyosin contractility is essential for biological force generation, and is well understood in highly ordered structures such as striated muscle. In vitro experiments have shown that non-sarcomeric bundles comprised only of F-actin and myosin thick filaments can also display contractile behavior, which cannot be described by standard muscle models. Here we investigate the microscopic symmetries underlying this process in large non-sarcomeric bundles with long actin filaments. We prove that contractile behavior requires non-identical motors that generate large enough forces to probe the nonlinear elastic behavior of F-actin. A simple disordered bundle model demonstrates a contraction mechanism based on these assumptions and predicts realistic bundle deformations. Recent experimental observations of F-actin buckling in in vitro contractile bundles support our model.

  10. Double Fell bundles and Spectral triples

    CERN Document Server

    Martins, Rachel A D

    2007-01-01

    As a natural and canonical extension of Kumjian's Fell bundles over groupoids \\cite{fbg}, we give a definition for a double Fell bundle (a double category) over a double groupoid. We show that finite dimensional double category Fell line bundles tensored with their dual with $S^o$-reality satisfy the finite real spectral triples axioms but not necessarily orientability. This means that these product bundles with noncommutative algebras can be regarded as noncommutative compact manifolds more general than real spectral triples as they are not necessarily orientable. By construction, they unify the noncommutative geometry axioms and hence provide an algebraic enveloping structure for finite spectral triples to give the Dirac operator $D$ new algebraic and geometric structures that are otherwise missing in the transition from Fredholm operator to Dirac operator. The Dirac operator in physical applications as a result becomes less ad hoc. The new noncommutative space we present is a complex line bundle over a dou...

  11. Line bundle embeddings for heterotic theories

    CERN Document Server

    Nibbelink, Stefan Groot

    2016-01-01

    In heterotic theories consistency requires the introduction of a non-trivial vector bundle. This bundle breaks the original ten-dimensional gauge groups E_8 x E_8 or SO(32) for the supersymmetric heterotic theories and SO(16) x SO(16) for the non-supersymmetric tachyon-free theory to smaller subgroups. A vast number of MSSM-like models have been constructed up to now, most of which describe the vector bundle as a sum of line bundles. However, there are several different ways of describing these line bundles and their embedding in the ten-dimensional gauge group. We recall and extend these different descriptions and explain how they can be translated into each other.

  12. On Harder–Narasimhan Reductions for Higgs Principal Bundles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Arijit Dey; R Parthasarathi

    2005-05-01

    The existence and uniqueness of – reduction for the Higgs principal bundles over nonsingular projective variety is shown. We also extend the notion of – reduction for (, )-bundles and ramified -bundles over a smooth curve.

  13. Effects of Pipe Bundles on the Sparger Zone Development in Bubble Columns%列管束内构件对鼓泡塔流动发展的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵远方; 李兆奇; 管小平; 王丽军; 成有为; 李希

    2015-01-01

    在Φ500 mm×4000 mm的大型冷模实验装置内考察了列管束内构件对鼓泡塔流动发展的影响。以空气-水为工作体系,分别采用电导探针和Pavlov管测量了有、无列管的鼓泡塔内不同轴向高度的气含率和液体流速径向分布。实验表明,在安装密集列管束的鼓泡塔内也存在一个充分发展段。与空塔不同的是,列管束的存在使分布器影响区显著延长,从空塔的约两倍塔径高度增至约四倍塔径高度,在冷模装置中占据塔体积的50%以上。在实验条件下,鼓泡塔高径比或液位高度对分布器影响区大小没有明显影响。%Bubble column reactors with pipe bundle heat exchangers are of importance in industrial application. Study on the effect of pipe bundles on flow development was conducted in a bubble column of 0.5 m diameter with 40 vertical pipes. Radial distributions of gas hold-up and liquid velocity at different heights were measured with conductivity probe and Pavlov tube respectively. Results show that a fully developed zone is existed in the column with pipe bundles. Comparing with the column without pipes, the size of the sparger zone is remarkably extended from 2 diameter height to 4 diameter height, which accounts for more than 50% of the column volume. The liquid level height has no significant impact on the existence and development of the sparger zone.

  14. Fission yeast Scp3 potentially maintains microtubule orientation through bundling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanako Ozaki

    Full Text Available Microtubules play important roles in organelle transport, the maintenance of cell polarity and chromosome segregation and generally form bundles during these processes. The fission yeast gene scp3+ was identified as a multicopy suppressor of the cps3-81 mutant, which is hypersensitive to isopropyl N-3-chlorophenylcarbamate (CIPC, a poison that induces abnormal multipolar spindle formation in higher eukaryotes. In this study, we investigated the function of Scp3 along with the effect of CIPC in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Microscopic observation revealed that treatment with CIPC, cps3-81 mutation and scp3+ gene deletion disturbed the orientation of microtubules in interphase cells. Overexpression of scp3+ suppressed the abnormal orientation of microtubules by promoting bundling. Functional analysis suggested that Scp3 functions independently from Ase1, a protein largely required for the bundling of the mitotic spindle. A strain lacking the ase1+ gene was more sensitive to CIPC, with the drug affecting the integrity of the mitotic spindle, indicating that CIPC has a mitotic target that has a role redundant with Ase1. These results suggested that multiple systems are independently involved to ensure microtubule orientation by bundling in fission yeast.

  15. Effects of lesions to ascending noradrenergic neurones on performance of a 5-choice serial reaction task in rats; implications for theories of dorsal noradrenergic bundle function based on selective attention and arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carli, M; Robbins, T W; Evenden, J L; Everitt, B J

    1983-09-01

    Five experiments examined the effects of destruction of the dorsal noradrenergic bundle (DNAB), arising in the locus coeruleus, both on brightness and spatial visual discrimination, and selective attention. An analogue o Leonard's 5-choice serial reaction task for human subjects was used. Hungry rats were trained to detect brief (0.5 sec) flashes of light presented randomly in one of 5 locations with a fixed intertrial interval of 5 sec, paced by the rat. Correct responses were rewarded with food and incorrect responses punished by time-out (darkness + delay). Following training to high levels of accuracy (80%, with less than 20% errors of omission), rats received either 6-OHDA (4 micrograms/2 microliters) injected bilaterally into the trajectory of the dorsal bundle, or injection of vehicle (0.1% ascorbic acid in 0.9% saline). The 6-OHDA lesion was sufficient to reduce cortical NA by 84%. Performance on both the spatial discrimination and brightness (produced by graded reductions in the brightness of the stimuli) discrimination was unaffected by DNAB lesions. However, the DNAB lesion produced significant decreases in accuracy and increases in omissions when the stimuli were presented at faster, unpredictable rates. In addition, although intense white noise failed to produce differential impairments when presented simultaneously with the visual discriminanda, the DNAB lesion significantly impaired accuracy when the noise was presented immediately prior to, but not overlapping, the onset of the visual stimuli. The implications of this pattern of deficits in performance found following DNAB lesions is discussed in terms of disruptive effects of cortical NA depletion upon mechanisms of selective attention and arousal. PMID:6639741

  16. Fiber bundle model under fluid pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amitrano, David; Girard, Lucas

    2016-03-01

    Internal fluid pressure often plays an important role in the rupture of brittle materials. This is a major concern for many engineering applications and for natural hazards. More specifically, the mechanisms through which fluid pressure, applied at a microscale, can enhance the failure at a macroscale and accelerate damage dynamics leading to failure remains unclear. Here we revisit the fiber bundle model by accounting for the effect of fluid under pressure that contributes to the global load supported by the fiber bundle. Fluid pressure is applied on the broken fibers, following Biot's theory. The statistical properties of damage avalanches and their evolution toward macrofailure are analyzed for a wide range of fluid pressures. The macroscopic strength of the new model appears to be strongly controlled by the action of the fluid, particularly when the fluid pressure becomes comparable with the fiber strength. The behavior remains consistent with continuous transition, i.e., second order, including for large pressure. The main change concerns the damage acceleration toward the failure that is well modeled by the concept of sweeping of an instability. When pressure is increased, the exponent β characterizing the power-law distribution avalanche sizes significantly decreases and the exponent γ characterizing the cutoff divergence when failure is approached significantly increases. This proves that fluid pressure plays a key role in failure process acting as destabilization factor. This indicates that macrofailure occurs more readily under fluid pressure, with a behavior that becomes progressively unstable as fluid pressure increases. This may have considerable consequences on our ability to forecast failure when fluid pressure is acting.

  17. Fiber bundle model under fluid pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amitrano, David; Girard, Lucas

    2016-03-01

    Internal fluid pressure often plays an important role in the rupture of brittle materials. This is a major concern for many engineering applications and for natural hazards. More specifically, the mechanisms through which fluid pressure, applied at a microscale, can enhance the failure at a macroscale and accelerate damage dynamics leading to failure remains unclear. Here we revisit the fiber bundle model by accounting for the effect of fluid under pressure that contributes to the global load supported by the fiber bundle. Fluid pressure is applied on the broken fibers, following Biot's theory. The statistical properties of damage avalanches and their evolution toward macrofailure are analyzed for a wide range of fluid pressures. The macroscopic strength of the new model appears to be strongly controlled by the action of the fluid, particularly when the fluid pressure becomes comparable with the fiber strength. The behavior remains consistent with continuous transition, i.e., second order, including for large pressure. The main change concerns the damage acceleration toward the failure that is well modeled by the concept of sweeping of an instability. When pressure is increased, the exponent β characterizing the power-law distribution avalanche sizes significantly decreases and the exponent γ characterizing the cutoff divergence when failure is approached significantly increases. This proves that fluid pressure plays a key role in failure process acting as destabilization factor. This indicates that macrofailure occurs more readily under fluid pressure, with a behavior that becomes progressively unstable as fluid pressure increases. This may have considerable consequences on our ability to forecast failure when fluid pressure is acting. PMID:27078437

  18. 75 FR 11530 - Crystal Lake Wind III, LLC, et al.; Notice of Effectiveness of Exempt Wholesale Generator Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Crystal Lake Wind III, LLC, et al.; Notice of Effectiveness of Exempt Wholesale Generator Status March 4, 2010. Docket Nos. Crystal Lake Wind III, LLC EG10-6-000...

  19. Prioritary omalous bundles on Hirzebruch surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aprodu, Marian; Marchitan, Marius

    2016-01-01

    An irreducible algebraic stack is called unirational if there exists a surjective morphism, representable by algebraic spaces, from a rational variety to an open substack. We prove unirationality of the stack of prioritary omalous bundles on Hirzebruch surfaces, which implies also the unirationality of the moduli space of omalous H-stable bundles for any ample line bundle H on a Hirzebruch surface (compare with Costa and Miro-Ŕoig, 2002). To this end, we find an explicit description of the duals of omalous rank-two bundles with a vanishing condition in terms of monads. Since these bundles are prioritary, we conclude that the stack of prioritary omalous bundles on a Hirzebruch surface different from P1 ×P1 is dominated by an irreducible section of a Segre variety, and this linear section is rational (Ionescu, 2015). In the case of the space quadric, the stack has been explicitly described by N. Buchdahl. As a main tool we use Buchdahl's Beilinson-type spectral sequence. Monad descriptions of omalous bundles on hypersurfaces in P4, Calabi-Yau complete intersection, blowups of the projective plane and Segre varieties have been recently obtained by A.A. Henni and M. Jardim (Henni and Jardim, 2013), and monads on Hirzebruch surfaces have been applied in a different context in Bartocci et al. (2015).

  20. Late onset sepsis in newborn babies: epidemiology and effect of a bundle to prevent central line associated bloodstream infections in the neonatal intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane Silva Resende

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim:We assessed late onset sepsis (LOS rates of neonates in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU before and after implementing an evidence-based bundle to prevent these infections in a country with poor resources.Methods:We evaluate trends of LOS between October 2010 and August 2012 in a large tertiary hospital in Brazil. We designed a protocol based of CDC guidelines for insertion of maintenance of central venous catheter targeted to reduction of bloodstream infections. During this period two major events occurred: a great increase of LOS rates in January months and relocation of the unit to a provisory place. Additionally we evaluated the risk factors and etiology of these infections.Results:A total of 112 (20.3% cases defined as LOS were found. The overall incidence rate of LOS in the study was 16.1/1000 patient/days and 23.0/1000 CVC-days. Our monthly rates data of LOS/1000 patient-day reveal fluctuations over the studied period, with incidence rates of these infections in staff vacation period (January 2011 and 2012 significantly higher (59.6/1000 patients-days than compared with the other months rates (16.6/1000 patients-days (IRR = 3.59; p< 0.001. As opposite, the incidence rates of LOS during relocation period was lower (10.3/1000 patients-days when compared with baseline period 26.7/1000 patients-days (IRR = 2.59; p= 0.007. After the intervention period, these rates decreased in the post intervention period, when compared with preintervention 14.7/1000 patients-days and 23.4/1000 patients-days, respectively (IRR = 1.59; p= 0.04.Conclusion:Through simple infection control measures, LOS can be successfully controlled especially in NICUs of limited resources countries such as ours.

  1. Deformations of the generalised Picard bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Let X be a nonsingular algebraic curve of genus g ≥ 3, and let Mξ denote the moduli space of stable vector bundles of rank n ≥ 2 and degree d with fixed determinant ξ over X such that n and d are coprime. We assume that if g = 3 then n ≥ 4 and if g = 4 then n ≥ 3, and suppose further that n0, d0 are integers such that n0 ≥ 1 and nd0 + n0d > nn0(2g - 2). Let E be a semistable vector bundle over X of rank n0 and degree d0. The generalised Picard bundle Wξ(E) is by definition the vector bundle over Mξ defined by the direct image pMξ *(Uξ x pX*E) where Uξ is a universal vector bundle over X x Mξ. We obtain an inversion formula allowing us to recover E from Wξ(E) and show that the space of infinitesimal deformations of Wξ(E) is isomorphic to H1(X, End(E)). This construction gives a locally complete family of vector bundles over Mξ parametrised by the moduli space M(n0,d0) of stable bundles of rank n0 and degree d0 over X. If (n0,d0) = 1 and Wξ(E) is stable for all E is an element of M(n0,d0), the construction determines an isomorphism from M(n0,d0) to a connected component M0 of a moduli space of stable sheaves over Mξ. This applies in particular when n0 = 1, in which case M0 is isomorphic to the Jacobian J of X as a polarised variety. The paper as a whole is a generalisation of results of Kempf and Mukai on Picard bundles over J, and is also related to a paper of Tyurin on the geometry of moduli of vector bundles. (author)

  2. Synthesis, enzymatic stability and in vitro cytostatic effect of Daunorubicin-GnRH-III derivative dimers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreier, Verena Natalie; Mező, Gábor; Orbán, Erika; Dürr, Claudia; Marquardt, Andreas; Manea, Marilena

    2013-04-01

    Bioconjugates containing chemotherapeutic agents attached to peptide hormones, such as gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), are developed as drug delivery systems for targeted cancer chemotherapy. We report here the synthesis and biochemical characterization of disulfide bond-linked dimeric bioconjugates in which daunorubicin was coupled via an oxime linkage to aminooxyacetylated GnRH-III ([Glp-His-Trp-Ser-His-Asp-Trp-Lys(DauAoa-Cys)-Pro-Gly-NH2]2; where Glp is pyroglutamic acid and Aoa is aminooxyacetyl) and its derivatives modified in position four by N-Me-Ser and Lys(Ac). The in vitro stability/degradation of the bioconjugates was determined in human serum, as well as in the presence of rat liver lysosomal homogenate and digestive enzymes. All compounds were stable at least for 24h in human serum and in the presence of pepsin and trypsin, while they were degraded by lysosomal enzymes. The daunorubicin-GnRH-III derivative dimers were partly digested by α-chymotrypsin; however, they had increased stability compared to the corresponding monomers, making them potential candidates for oral administration. The in vitro cytostatic effect of the compounds was determined on MCF-7 human breast cancer cells by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. All daunorubicin-GnRH-III derivative dimers exerted slightly increased in vitro cytostatic effect (IC50 values in low μM range) than the corresponding monomeric bioconjugates.

  3. Geometry of quantum principal bundles, 1

    CERN Document Server

    Durdevic, M

    1995-01-01

    A theory of principal bundles possessing quantum structure groups and classical base manifolds is presented. Structural analysis of such quantum principal bundles is performed. A differential calculus is constructed, combining differential forms on the base manifold with an appropriate differential calculus on the structure quantum group. Relations between the calculus on the group and the calculus on the bundle are investigated. A concept of (pseudo)tensoriality is formulated. The formalism of connections is developed. In particular, operators of horizontal projection, covariant derivative and curvature are constructed and analyzed. Generalizations of the first structure equation and of the Bianchi identity are found. Illustrative examples are presented.

  4. Weak equivalence classes of complex vector bundles

    OpenAIRE

    Hông-Vân Lê

    2006-01-01

    For any complex vector bundle Ek of rank k over a manifold Mm with Chern classes ci Î H2i(Mm, Z) and any non-negative integers l1, . . ., lk we show the existence of a positive number p(m, k) and the existence of a complex vector bundle Êk over Mm whose Chern classes are p(m, k) × li × ci Î H2i(Mm, Z). We also discuss a version of this statement for holomorphic vector bundles over projective algebraic manifolds.

  5. Vector supersymmetry in the universal bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a vector supersymmetry for Witten-type topological gauge theories, and examine its algebra in terms of a superconnection formalism. When covariant constraints on the supercurvature are chosen, a correspondence is established with the universal bundle construction of Atiyah and Singer. The vector supersymmetry represents a certain shift operator in the curvature of the universal bundle, and can be used to generate the hierarchy of observables in these theories. This formalism should lead to the construction of vector supergravity theories, and perhaps to the gravitational analogue of the universal bundle. (orig.)

  6. Implications of the Differential Toxicological Effects of III-V Ionic and Particulate Materials for Hazard Assessment of Semiconductor Slurries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wen; Lin, Sijie; Chang, Chong Hyun; Ji, Zhaoxia; Sun, Bingbing; Wang, Xiang; Li, Ruibin; Pon, Nanetta; Xia, Tian; Nel, André E

    2015-12-22

    Because of tunable band gaps, high carrier mobility, and low-energy consumption rates, III-V materials are attractive for use in semiconductor wafers. However, these wafers require chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) for polishing, which leads to the generation of large quantities of hazardous waste including particulate and ionic III-V debris. Although the toxic effects of micron-sized III-V materials have been studied in vivo, no comprehensive assessment has been undertaken to elucidate the hazardous effects of submicron particulates and released III-V ionic components. Since III-V materials may contribute disproportionately to the hazard of CMP slurries, we obtained GaP, InP, GaAs, and InAs as micron- (0.2-3 μm) and nanoscale (materials that could appear in slurries. This finding is of importance for considering how to deal with the hazard potential of CMP slurries.

  7. Analysis of steady state combined forced and free convection data in rod bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuel and blanket assemblies in an LMFBR are subjected to a wide range of power and power gradients during their life in the reactor. To accommodate these changes the assemblies operate in a wide range of flow regimes extending from forced convection, turbulent flow, to mixed convection, laminar flow. At low flow conditions the transverse temperature gradient in an assembly is considerably flattened because of energy redistribution by not only wire-wrap mixing and thermal conduction but also by flow redistribution because of buoyancy-induced crossflow. This has significance in LMFBR design. For the mixed convection regime of bundle operation, the transverse velocity profiles within a bundle change axially because of buoyancy-induced crossflow. It was therefore decided to use the ENERGY II and ENERGY III computer programs for the analysis of the rod bundle mixed convection data

  8. Implementation of a children's hospital-wide central venous catheter insertion and maintenance bundle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Helder MScN (Onno); R.F. Kornelisse (René); C. van der Starre (Cynthia); D. Tibboel (Dick); C.W.N. Looman (Caspar); R.M.H. Wijnen (Rene); M.J. Poley (Marten); E. Ista (Erwin)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Central venous catheter-associated bloodstream infections in children are an increasingly recognized serious safety problem worldwide, but are often preventable. Central venous catheter bundles have proved effective to prevent such infections. Successful implementation requir

  9. Liquid Flow in Shaped Fiber Bundle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yan; WANG Hua-ping; CHEN Yue-hua

    2006-01-01

    By computation and comparison of the critical spreading coefficient parameter, it was found that shaped fiber bundle is better for wetting. Liquid-air interface tension of liquid arising the shaped fiber bundle body is considered as one critical factor besides liquid viscosity, inertia force and liquid-fiber interface tension. Experimental result simulation demonstrated that the liquid-air interface tension is correlated with the geometric size of the liquid arising in body, φ0 (x) and which is affected by the cross sectional shape of fiber and the radius of single fiber. The shaped fiber bundle model is introduced to investigate liquid flow in fiber assembly. The model is generated based on a random function for stochastic forming of fibers in bundle and it is necessary to combine this fundamental model with physical explanation for investigation of liquid flow in fiber assembly.

  10. Mobility of Taxol in Microtubule Bundles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, J.

    2003-06-01

    Mobility of taxol inside microtubules was investigated using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) on flow-aligned bundles. Bundles were made of microtubules with either GMPCPP or GTP at the exchangeable site on the tubulin dimer. Recovery times were sensitive to bundle thickness and packing, indicating that taxol molecules are able to move laterally through the bundle. The density of open binding sites along a microtubule was varied by controlling the concentration of taxol in solution for GMPCPP samples. With > 63% sites occupied, recovery times were independent of taxol concentration and, therefore, inversely proportional to the microscopic dissociation rate, k_{off}. It was found that 10*k_{off} (GMPCPP) ~ k_{off} (GTP), consistent with, but not fully accounting for, the difference in equilibrium constants for taxol on GMPCPP and GTP microtubules. With taxol along the microtubule interior is hindered by rebinding events when open sites are within ~7 nm of each other.

  11. Quantum Bundle Description of Quantum Projective Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ó Buachalla, Réamonn

    2012-12-01

    We realise Heckenberger and Kolb's canonical calculus on quantum projective ( N - 1)-space C q [ C p N-1] as the restriction of a distinguished quotient of the standard bicovariant calculus for the quantum special unitary group C q [ SU N ]. We introduce a calculus on the quantum sphere C q [ S 2 N-1] in the same way. With respect to these choices of calculi, we present C q [ C p N-1] as the base space of two different quantum principal bundles, one with total space C q [ SU N ], and the other with total space C q [ S 2 N-1]. We go on to give C q [ C p N-1] the structure of a quantum framed manifold. More specifically, we describe the module of one-forms of Heckenberger and Kolb's calculus as an associated vector bundle to the principal bundle with total space C q [ SU N ]. Finally, we construct strong connections for both bundles.

  12. A Geometric Approach to Noncommutative Principal Bundles

    CERN Document Server

    Wagner, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    From a geometrical point of view it is, so far, not sufficiently well understood what should be a "noncommutative principal bundle". Still, there is a well-developed abstract algebraic approach using the theory of Hopf algebras. An important handicap of this approach is the ignorance of topological and geometrical aspects. The aim of this thesis is to develop a geometrically oriented approach to the noncommutative geometry of principal bundles based on dynamical systems and the representation theory of the corresponding transformation group.

  13. Parahoric bundles on a compact Riemann surface

    CERN Document Server

    Balaji, V

    2010-01-01

    Let $X$ be a compact Riemann surface of genus $g \\geq 2$. The aim of this paper is to study homomorphisms of certain discrete subgroups of $PSL(2, {\\mathbb R})$ into maximal compact subgroups of semisimple simply connected algebraic groups and relate them to torsors under a Bruhat-Tits group scheme. We also construct the moduli spaces of semistable parahoric bundles. These results generalize the theorem of Mehta and Seshadri on parabolic vector bundles.

  14. Testing and implementation program for the modified Darlington 37-element fuel bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To mitigate the effects of reactor ageing, a design modification to the 37-element fuel is proposed in which the diameter of the centre element will be reduced to 11.5 mm from 13.1 mm. The testing and implementation phase for the 37-element fuel bundle modification is discussed in this paper. The initial plan for testing is to perform a set of out-reactor tests to assess the endurance, acoustic response and cross-flow behaviour of the revised fuel bundle design. The initial schedule outlines activities that will enable OPG to implement full core fuelling of the modified bundle within the next three to four years. (author)

  15. Annular burnout data from rod bundle experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnout data for annular flow in a rod bundle are presented for both transient and steady-state conditions. Tests were performed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the Thermal Hydraulic Test Facility (THTF), a pressurized-water loop containing an electrically heated 64-rod bundle. The bundle configuration is typical of later generation pressurized-water reactors with 17 x 17 fuel arrays. Both axial and radial power profiles are flat. All experiments were carried out in upflow with subcooled inlet conditions, insuring accurate flow measurement. Conditions within the bundle were typical of those which could be encountered during a nuclear reactor loss-of-coolant accident. Level average fluid conditions within the test section were calculated using steady-state mass and energy conservation considerations for the steady-state tests and a transient, homogeneous, equilibrium computer code for the transient tests. Unlike tube dryout, burnout within a rod bundle does not necessarily occur at one distinct axial level. The location of individual rod dryout was determined by scanning rods axially and locating the position where rod superheat increased from approx. =0 to 30 K or greater. Thermocouple instrumentation within the bundle allows the location of dryout to be determined to within approximately +.5 cm for many of the tests

  16. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF CONDENSATION HEAT TRANSFER CHARACTERISTICS OF HORIZONTAL TUBE BUNDLES IN VACUUM STATES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Shen; SUN Feng-zhong; SHI Yue-tao

    2012-01-01

    To develop an excellent heat transfer element under the vacuum condition,experiments about the heat transfer performance of horizontal tube bundles of different materials under various vacuum conditions were carried out,including the stainless steel tube,the brass tube,the Ni-based implanted steel tube and the ion implanted brass tube.The relative trends show that the condensation heat transfer coefficient and the overall heat transfer coefficient of bundles of four materials all increase with the vacuum degree,especially,those of the Ni-based implanted steel tube and the ion implanted brass tube.Under a high vacuum condition (0.07 MPa),the condensation heat transfer coefficient of the Ni-based implanted steel tube bundle is about 1.4 times of that of the stainless steel tube bundle,the condensation heat transfer coefficient of the ion implanted brass tube bundle is found to be about 1.3 times of that of the common brass tube bundle.Therefore,according to the condensation heat transfer characteristics studied under high vacuum conditions,it is believed that a dropwise condensation is partly achieved on the surface of these two implanted tube bundles,and the ion implantation is shown to be an effective method to achieve the dropwise condensation.Based on this study,it is believed that the Ni-based steel tube may replace the brass tube,which is more expensive as a heat transfer component.

  17. Uniform versus Nonuniform Axial Power Distribution in Rod Bundle CHF Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baowen Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rod bundle experiments with axially uniform and nonuniform heat fluxes are examined to explore the potential limitations of using uniform rod bundle CHF data for CHF correlation development of light water reactors with nonuniform axial power distribution (APD. The case of upstream burnout is presented as an example of unique phenomena associated with nonuniform rod bundle CHF experiments. It is a result from combined effect of axial nonuniform power shape and different interchannel mixing mechanisms. In addition, several key parameters are investigated with respect to their potential impacts on the thermal-hydraulic behaviors between rod bundles with uniform and nonuniform APDs. This type of misrepresentation cannot be amended or compensated through the use of correction factors due to the lack of critical information in the uniform rod bundle CHF testing as well as the fundamental difference in the underlining driving mechanisms. Other potential issues involved with the use of uniform rod bundle CHF data for nonuniform APD system applications also present strong evidence concerning the limitations and inadequacy of using uniform rod bundle CHF data for the correlation, prediction, and design limit calculation for safety analysis.

  18. Attribute-based edge bundling for visualizing social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lin; Zuo, Wanli; Peng, Tao; Adhikari, Binod Kumar

    2015-11-01

    Most nodes in complex networks have multiple attributes, which make them hard to analyze. Because general edge bundling algorithms fail to handle complex networks as a result of their intricate features, network simplification is extremely important. This paper proposes an attribute-based edge bundling algorithm that displays similar edges in nearby locations. Meanwhile, by analyzing complex networks at a community level, the overlapping clustering of nodes is well implemented, and better clustering effects can be achieved by grouping similar edges together. On the basis of datasets with different types and sizes, the experiments illustrate the simplification degree of the intricate graphs created by the algorithm proposed, which outperforms established competitors in correctness and effectiveness.

  19. THE EFFECT OF THE ACL SINGLE-BUNDLE/DOUBLE-BUNDLE RECONSTRUCTION ON THE BIOMECHANICS OF TIBIO-FEMORAL JOINT AT DIFFERENT FLEXION ANGLES 1)%ACL单束/双束重建对多屈曲角位姿的胫股关节力学特性影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐强; 黄荣瑛; 许勇刚; 郭云飞; 郑红光

    2012-01-01

    flexion angle of 0° for the models A and B, the accuracy and validity of the pairs of models for healthy adult A were proved. After that, MRI images of the normal human knee at different flexion angles of 0°/25°/60°/80° were obtained through SONATA MAESTRO 1.5 T Scanning. Then, the corresponding 3D tibio-femoral joint models of normal/ACL single bundle/double bundle reconstruction were established. In the experiment, axial force and combined loads (axial force and torque) were applied to these models to analyze and compare the changes of the stress distribution of cartilages/meniscus/ligaments and the tension characteristic of ligaments before and after the ACL reconstruction. The results show that: (1) The stresses on cartilages and meniscus after ACL single bundle/double bundle reconstruction change with the flexion angles, and especially the stress distributions on the cartilages change significantly at some angle. (2) Single-bundle reconstruction can lead to the obvious increment of the equivalent stresses on cartilages and meniscus, and the maximum increment is to 40%. However, the corresponding values after double bundle reconstruction at different flexion angles are closer than that after single-bundle reconstruction. (3) Although ACL single-bundle reconstruction will reduce the equivalent stress on PCL, stress on medial/lateral collateral ligament will significantly increase at high-flexion angle. The maximum stress on MCL changes obviously with the flexion angles after double-bundle reconstruction, but the maximum stress on LCL and PCL show the corresponding trend to normal joint. (4) The average tension of MCL is higher than that of the other two after single or double bundle reconstruction. Besides, the tension characteristic of ligaments after the double-bundle reconstruction is closer to the normal joint than that after single-bundle. In short, considering the stress and tension of cartilages, meniscus and ligaments after ACL

  20. 集束化护理在重症肺炎患儿病情改善中的应用效果研究%Effects of bundle nursing on the improvement of illness state in severe pneumonia children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓霞; 葛延瑱

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨集束化护理在重症肺炎中的应用效果。方法选取80例重症肺炎患者为研究对象,随机分为观察组和对照组各40例,对照组采用常规护理,观察组采用集束化护理,比较两组的护理效果。结果观察组的SaO2、PaO2高于对照组, PaCO2低于对照组,退热时间、肺部听诊改善时间、胸部X线片改善时间、并发症、住院时间少于对照组,疗效高于对照组,差异有统计学意义( P<0.05);观察组的焦虑标分、生活标分、躯体标分等生活质量评分高于对照组,家长护理满意度高于对照组,差异有统计学意义( P<0.05)。结论集束化护理以循证医学为指导,能提高重症肺炎患儿的治疗效果,改善生活质量。%Objective To investigate the effect of bundle nursing in the treatment of severe pneumonia.Methods Eighty children with severe pneumonia were randomly divided into the observation group and the control group , the control group received routine nursing care, the observation group was used bundle nursing , nursing effects were compared between two groups.Results SaO2 , PaO2 in the obser-vation group were higher than those in the control group , PaCO2 was lower than that in the control group , the cooling time, improvment time of lung auscultation and chest X -ray, complications, hospitalization time were less than those in the control group , curative effect was high-er than that in the control group , with statistical significance ( P<0.05 ) .Life quality grading score in anxiety scale , living standard , phys-ical standard in the observation group were higher than those in the control group , the parents nursing satisfaction was higher than that in the control group, with statistical significance (P<0.05) .Conclusions Bundle nursing is directed by nursing evidence -based medicine;it can improve the treatment effects and the quality life of severe pneumonia children .

  1. Heat transfer augmentation in rod bundles near grid spacers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heat transfer augmentation by straight grid spacers in rod bundles is studied for single phase flow and for post critical heat flux dispersed flow. The heat transfer effect of swirling grid spacers in single phase flow is also examined. Governing heat transfer mechanisms are analyzed, and predictive formulations are established. For single phase flow, the local heat transfer at a straight spacer and at its upstream or downstream locations are treated separately. 18 refs

  2. Tailoring Pull-out Properties of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Bundles by Varying Binding Structures through Molecular Dynamics Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liuyang; Wang, Xianqiao

    2014-08-12

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) have demonstrated a remarkable capacity for self-assembly into nanobundles through intermolecular van der Waals interactions, bestowing these agglomerates extraordinary mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties. However, how to improve the binding ability of SWCNT bundles to mitigate the delamination and sliding effects between individual nanotubes remains to be further investigated. By utilizing molecular dynamics simulation, here we present the construction of SWCNT bundles with discrete cylindrical and continuous helical binders by noncovalent coating of the bundle surface with sp(2)-hybridized carbon networks. Meanwhile, by modifying the binding potentials between the binder and SWCNT bundles to mimic the different binding types actually used, the bound SWCNT bundle presents a variety of distinct mechanical properties unmatched by unbound bundles. The pull-out tests with discrete binders portray an intriguing force-displacement curve which can help determine the number of discrete binders used in the system. SWCNT bundles with binders depict unique mechanical properties which can differentiate them from unbound SWCNT bundles. These findings provide compelling evidence that bound SWCNT bundles will open up novel avenues for a variety of applications, especially in nanocomposites.

  3. Human health effects of low doses of ionizing radiation: the BEIR III controversy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Controversy in the BEIR III Subcommittee on Somatic Effects concerning human health effects of low doses of low-LET radiation has centered on (a) the appropriate dose-response relationship by which extrapolation to low doses of data obtained at relatively high doses should be governed, and (b) the appropriate human evidence which should be the basis of estimation of lifetime cancer risk from radiation exposure. It is shown that the use of the linear no-threshold dose-response relationship for extrapolation purposes is an excellent approximation that is in agreement with widely accepted fundamental radiobiological principles. The appropriate human data for derivation of cancer risks are the composite age-specific risks derived from all epidemiologic studies of human cancer resulting from partial-body and whole-body radiation exposure; this composite is in good agreement with the currently available cancer incidence dose-response data obtained from the Nagasaki Tumor Registry. The current version of BEIR III significantly underestimates the radiation-induced cancer risk because it ignores the effect of high-dose-rate, low-LET radiation on cell survival in relation to cancer induction probability, and because it emphasizes cancer mortality rather than cancer incidence. The controversy and the way in which it was resolved raises important questions about how the public and its representatives can in the future obtain objective scientific evaluations of issues that may have significant economic, social, and political implications

  4. Single and Combined Effects of As (III) and Acetochlor on Phosphatase Activity in Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yun; ZHANG Feng; ZHANG Guan-cai; GUAN Lian-zhu

    2013-01-01

    The actions and interactions of acetochlor and As on the soil phosphatase activity were investigated after 1, 3, 6, 10, 15, 30 and 60 d of exposure under control conditions. The soils were exposed to various concentrations of acetochlor and As individually and simultaneously. The results showed that acetochlor, As only, and combined pollution all clearly inhibited soil phosphatase activity. The maximum inhibition ratios of soil phosphatase activity by acetochlor, As only and combined pollution were 36.44, 74.12 and 61.29%, respectively. Two kinetic models,ν=c/(1+bi) (model 1) andν=c(1+ai)/(l+bi) (model 2), were used to describe the relationship between the concentrations of As and acetochlor and the activity of soil phosphatase. The semi-effect dose (ED50) values induced by As and acetochlor stress based on the inhibition of soil phosphatase were 18.1 and 33.11 mg kg-1, respectively, according to calculation by model 1. The interactive effect of acetochlor with As on soil phosphatase primarily consisted of significant antagonism effects at the higher concentrations tested. The step regression results show that the toxicity order was As (III)>acetochlor>As (III)×acetochlor throughout the incubation period.

  5. CFD analysis of flow and heat transfer in Canadian supercritical water reactor bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Flow and heat transfer in SCWR fuel bundle design by AECL is studied using CFD. • Bare-rod bundle geometry is tested at 23.5, 25 and 28 MPa using STAR-CCM+ code. • SST k–ω low-Re model was used to study occurrence of heat transfer deterioration. - Abstract: Within the Gen-IV International Forum, AECL is leading the effort in developing a conceptual design for the Canadian SCWR. AECL proposed a new fuel bundle design with two rings of fuel elements placed between central flow tube and the pressure tube. In line with the scope of the conceptual design, the objective of the present CFD work is to aid in developing a bundle heat transfer correlation for the Canadian SCWR fuel bundle design. This paper presents results from an ongoing effort in determining the conditions favorable for occurrence of HTD in the supercritical bundle flows. In the current investigation, bare-rod bundle geometry was tested for the proposed fuel bundle design at 23.5, 25 and 28 MPa using STAR-CCM+ CFD code. Taking advantage of the design symmetry of the fuel bundle, only 1/32 of the computational domain was simulated. The low-Reynolds number modification of SST k–ω turbulence model along with y+ < 1 was used in the simulations. For lower mass flow simulations, the increase of inlet temperature and operational pressure was found effective in reducing the occurrence of HTD. For higher mass flow simulations, normal heat transfer behaviour was observed except for the lower pressure range (23.5 MPa)

  6. K-Theories for Certain Infinite Rank Bundles

    OpenAIRE

    Larrain-Hubach, Andres

    2011-01-01

    Several authors have recently constructed characteristic classes for classes of infinite rank vector bundles appearing in topology and physics. These include the tangent bundle to the space of maps between closed manifolds, the infinite rank bundles in the families index theorem, and bundles with pseudodifferential operators as structure group. In this paper, we construct the corresponding K-theories for these types of bundles. We develop the formalism of these theories and use their Chern ch...

  7. Behavior of mixed-oxide fuel elements in a tight bundle under duty-cycle conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The irradiation behavior of the TOB-10 fuel pins was comparable with that obtained in the single pin tests. There was no significant effect that could be directly attributed to tight bundle configuration. The postirradiation examination data provided information on the axial migration of cesium and its effect on cladding strain. Severe fuel/cladding chemical interaction (FCCI), which resulted in substantial cladding thinning and probably restricted venting of fission gas from the fuel column into the pin plena, apparently caused the earlier-than-expected cladding breaches in the D9-clad pins. No such severe FCCI was noted in the 316SS-clad pins. At the time of test termination, the overall cladding strain from creep and swelling was insufficient to cause bundle closure. Consequently, there would have been minimal pin bundle-duct interaction in the subassembly. Neither of the breaches appeared to be induced by pin bundle-duct interaction. (author)

  8. Effect of using heat-inactivated serum with the Abbott human T-cell lymphotropic virus type III antibody test.

    OpenAIRE

    Jungkind, D. L.; DiRenzo, S A; Young, S J

    1986-01-01

    The Abbott enzyme immunoassay (Abbott Laboratories, North Chicago, Ill.) for human T-cell lymphotropic virus type III (HTLV-III) antibody was evaluated to determine the effect of using heat-inactivated (56 degrees C for 30 min) serum as the sample. Each of 58 nonreactive serum samples gave a higher A492 value when tested after heat inactivation. Ten of the samples became reactive after heating. Heat-inactivated serum should not be used in the current Abbott HTLV-III antibody test, because thi...

  9. 医院集束化干预措施防控手足口病成效分析%Effect analysis of bundles of care on Hand-foot-mouth Disease control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    骆春华

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨医院集束化干预措施防控手足口病效果。方法:采用随机抽样本院儿科208名患儿家长,分为对照组98名与干预组110名,对照组仅采取常规的健教及干预措施,对干预组患儿家长进行多种方式手足口病相关知识宣教及行为干预,评价其效果。结果:两组家长对手足口病相关知识知晓率、对手足口病防控措施的认可性比较差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:医院集束化干预措施能显著提高患儿家长对手足口病知晓率及对防控措施的认可性,帮肋人们树立健康信念和行为方式.%Objective To investigate the effect of bundles of care on Hand-foot-mouth Disease control.Methods 208 patients whose child had been in our hospital were chosen randomly, including 98 patients in the control groups by normal health education and behavior change and 110 in the intervention groups by health education and behavior change on Hand-foot-mouth Disease in a variety of ways, then analysis the effect through χ2 test.Results The two group were significantly differences in the awareness of HFMD and acceptability of control messures(P<0.05).Conclusion Bundles of care can improve availablely awareness of HFMD and acceptability of control messures,help people build up health beliefs and behaviors.

  10. An improved partial bundle method for linearly constrained minimax problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunming Tang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose an improved partial bundle method for solving linearly constrained minimax problems. In order to reduce the number of component function evaluations, we utilize a partial cutting-planes model to substitute for the traditional one. At each iteration, only one quadratic programming subproblem needs to be solved to obtain a new trial point. An improved descent test criterion is introduced to simplify the algorithm. The method produces a sequence of feasible trial points, and ensures that the objective function is monotonically decreasing on the sequence of stability centers. Global convergence of the algorithm is established. Moreover, we utilize the subgradient aggregation strategy to control the size of the bundle and therefore overcome the difficulty of computation and storage. Finally, some preliminary numerical results show that the proposed method is effective.

  11. The Formation of Population III Stars in Gas Accretion Stage: Effects of Magnetic Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Machida, Masahiro N

    2013-01-01

    The formation of Population III stars is investigated using resistive magnetohydrodynamic simulations. Starting from a magnetized primordial prestellar cloud, we calculate the cloud evolution several hundreds of years after first protostar formation, resolving the protostellar radius. When the natal minihalo field strength is weaker than B \\lesssim 10^-13 (n/1 cm^-3)^-2/3 G (n is the hydrogen number density), magnetic effects can be ignored. In this case, fragmentation occurs frequently and a stellar cluster forms, in which stellar mergers and mass exchange between protostars contribute to the mass growth of these protostars. During the early gas accretion phase, the most massive protostar remains near the cloud centre, whereas some of the less massive protostars are ejected. The magnetic field significantly affects Population III star formation when B_amb \\gtrsim 10^-12 (n/1 cm^-3)^-2/3 G. In this case, because the angular momentum around the protostar is effectively transferred by both magnetic braking and ...

  12. Hybrid Bacterial Foraging and Particle Swarm Optimization for detecting Bundle Branch Block

    OpenAIRE

    Kora, Padmavathi; Kalva, Sri Ramakrishna

    2015-01-01

    Abnormal cardiac beat identification is a key process in the detection of heart diseases. Our present study describes a procedure for the detection of left and right bundle branch block (LBBB and RBBB) Electrocardiogram (ECG) patterns. The electrical impulses that control the cardiac beat face difficulty in moving inside the heart. This problem is termed as bundle branch block (BBB). BBB makes it harder for the heart to pump blood effectively through the heart circulatory system. ECG feature ...

  13. Analysis of effectiveness of bundle interventions to improve accuracy of hand hygiene of healthcare workers%提高医务人员手卫生正确率的干预效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾会学; 李玲; 任军红; 贾建侠; 赵艳春; 赵秀莉; 姚希; 李六亿

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解医务人员手卫生正确率及干预措施的效果.方法 在医务人员不知情的情况下,由受过专门培训的调查员,按照统一的方法和表格,调查医务人员手卫生正确率;采取签署目标责任书、会议反馈等干预措施.结果 医务人员手卫生的正确率为85.04%,不同专业医务人员手卫生正确率相差较大,以护士最高,为94.09%;随着一系列干预措施的实施与推进,医务人员手卫生正确率由70.78%升高至92.88%,呈逐月升高趋势,差异有统计学意义(X2=128.56,P<0.05).结论 信息传递通畅并及时反馈对提高医务人员手卫生正确率至关重要;在培训方面应关注手卫生揉搓时间的宣传,并针对不同个体、不同问题细化培训.%OBJECTIVE To investigate the accuracy of hand hygiene of the medical staff and the effectiveness of bundle interventions. METHODS We observed and recorded the hand hygiene practices of the workers using single-blind method and carried out bundle interventions, such as signing target responsibility documents, meeting feedback, and so on. All the investigators who were specially trained conducted the investigation according to uniform method and investigation form. RESULTS The accuracy of hand hygiene of the healthcare workers was 85.04%, which varied among different professional workers. The accuracy of hand hygiene of the nurses was 94. 09% , which was the highest. With the implementation of bundle interventions, the accuracy of hand hygiene of the healthcare workers increased from 70. 78% to 92.88% , showing an monthly upward trend, the difference was statistically significant(χ2 = 128. 56,P<0. 05 ). CONCLUSION The smooth delivery of information and the timely feedback are crucial to improve the accuracy of hand hygiene of the medical staffs. On the training, we should be aware of the publicity of information about the duration of hand rubbing and develop the refinement of training for different

  14. Total evaluation of in bundle void fraction measurement test of PWR fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation is performing the various proof or verification tests on safety and reliability of nuclear power plants under the sponsorship of the Ministry of International Trade and Industry. As one program of these Japanese national projects, an in bundle void fraction measurement test of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) fuel assembly was started in 1987 and finished at the end of 1994. The experiments were performed using the 5 x 5 square array rod bundle test sections. The rod bundle test section simulates the partial section and full length of a 17 x 17 type Japanese PWR fuel assembly. A distribution of subchannel averaged void fraction in a rod bundle test section was measured by the gamma-ray attenuation method using the stationary multi beam systems. The additional single channel test was performed to obtain the required information for the calibration of the rod bundle test data and the assessment of the void prediction method. Three test rod bundles were prepared to analyze an axial power distribution effect, an unheated rod effect, and a grid spacer effect. And, the obtained data were used for the assessment of the void prediction method relevant to the subchannel averaged void fraction of PWR fuel assemblies. This paper describes the outline of the experiments, the evaluation of the experimental data and the assessment of void prediction method

  15. Addition effect of erbium(III) trifluoromethanesulfonate in the homopolymerization kinetics of a DGEBA resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solid bisphenol-A epoxy resin of medium molecular weight was cured using a Lewis acid initiator (erbium(III) trifluoromethanesulfonate) in three different proportions (0.5, 1 and 2 phr). A kinetic study was performed in a differential scanning calorimeter. The complete kinetic triplet was determined (activation energy, pre-exponential factor, and integral function of the deg.ree of conversion) for each system. A kinetic analysis was performed with an integral isoconversional procedure (model-free), and the kinetic model was determined both with the Coats-Redfern method (the obtained isoconversional E value being accepted as the effective activation energy) and through the compensation effect. All the systems followed the same isothermal curing model simulated from non-isothermal ones. The 'nucleation and growth' Avrami kinetic model A 3/2 has been proposed as the polymerization kinetic model. The addition of initiator accelerated the reaction having higher influence when low temperatures were applied

  16. Energy Band Gap Study of Semiconducting Single Walled Carbon Nanotube Bundle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkadi, Asmaa; Decrossas, Emmanuel; El-Ghazaly, Samir

    2013-01-01

    The electronic properties of multiple semiconducting single walled carbon nanotubes (s-SWCNTs) considering various distribution inside a bundle are studied. The model derived from the proposed analytical potential function of the electron density for an individual s-SWCNT is general and can be easily applied to multiple nanotubes. This work demonstrates that regardless the number of carbon nanotubes, the strong coupling occurring between the closest neighbours reduces the energy band gap of the bundle by 10%. As expected, the coupling is strongly dependent on the distance separating the s-SWCNTs. In addition, based on the developed model, it is proposed to enhance this coupling effect by applying an electric field across the bundle to significantly reduce the energy band gap of the bundle by 20%.

  17. The Shape of a Ponytail and the Statistical Physics of Hair Fiber Bundles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Raymond E.; Warren, Patrick B.; Ball, Robin C.

    2012-02-01

    From Leonardo to the Brothers Grimm our fascination with hair has endured in art and science. Yet, a quantitative understanding of the shapes of a hair bundles has been lacking. Here we combine experiment and theory to propose an answer to the most basic question: What is the shape of a ponytail? A model for the shape of hair bundles is developed from the perspective of statistical physics, treating individual fibers as elastic filaments with random intrinsic curvatures. The combined effects of bending elasticity, gravity, and bundle compressibility are recast as a differential equation for the envelope of a bundle, in which the compressibility enters through an ``equation of state.'' From this, we identify the balance of forces in various regions of the ponytail, extract the equation of state from analysis of ponytail shapes, and relate the observed pressure to the measured random curvatures of individual hairs.

  18. Dynamically Switching among Bundled and Single Tickets with Time-Dependent Demand Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhan Duran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The most important market segmentation in sports and entertainment industry is the competition between customers that buy bundled and single tickets. A common selling practice is starting the selling season with bundled ticket sales and switching to selling single tickets later on. The aim of this practice is to increase the number of customers that buy bundles, which in return increases the load factor of the events with low demand. In this paper, we investigate the effect of time dependent demand on dynamic switching times from bundled to single ticket sales and the potential revenue gain over the case where the demand rate of events is assumed to be constant with time.

  19. Twistor bundle theory and its application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Over an oriented even dimensional Riemannian manifold (M2m, ds2), in terms of the Levi-Civita connection form Ω and the canonical form Θ on the bundle of positive or→ J+(M, ds2) → M. The integrability on an almost complex structure J compatible with the metric and the orientation, is shown to be equivalent to the fact that the corresponding cross section of the twistor bundle is holomorphic with respect to J and the canonical almost complex structure J1 on J+(M, ds2), by using moving frame theory. Moreover, for various metrics and a fixed orientation on M, a canonical bundle isomorphism is established. As a consequence, we generalize a celebrated theorem of LeBrun.

  20. Tangent bundle formulation of a charged gas

    CERN Document Server

    Sarbach, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    We discuss the relativistic kinetic theory for a simple, collisionless, charged gas propagating on an arbitrary curved spacetime geometry. Our general relativistic treatment is formulated on the tangent bundle of the spacetime manifold and takes advantage of its rich geometric structure. In particular, we point out the existence of a natural metric on the tangent bundle and illustrate its role for the development of the relativistic kinetic theory. This metric, combined with the electromagnetic field of the spacetime, yields an appropriate symplectic form on the tangent bundle. The Liouville vector field arises as the Hamiltonian vector field of a natural Hamiltonian. The latter also defines natural energy surfaces, called mass shells, which turn out to be smooth Lorentzian submanifolds. A simple, collisionless, charged gas is described by a distribution function which is defined on the mass shell and satisfies the Liouville equation. Suitable fibre integrals of the distribution function define observable fie...

  1. Explicit presentations of nonspecial line bundles and secant spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Seonja

    2012-01-01

    A line bundle L on a smooth curve X is nonspecial if and only if L admits a presentation L=K_X -D +E for some effective divisors D and E>0 on X with gcd (D, E)=0 and h^0 (X, O_X (D))=1. In this work, we define a minimal presentation of L which is minimal with respect to the degree of E among the presentations. If L=K_X -D +E with degE>2 is a minimal, then L is very ample and any q-points of X with q bundle L=K_X -D +E on X with/without an n-secant (n-2)-plane of the embedded curve by taking divisors D and E on X. As its applications, we construct nonspecial line bundles which show the sharpness of Green and Lazarsfeld's Conjecture on property (N_p) for general n-gonal curves and simple multiple coverings of smooth plane curves.

  2. Multi-dimensional modeling of two-phase flow in rod bundles and interpretation of velocities measured in BWRs by the cross-correlation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors present an as precise as possible interpretation of velocity measurements in BWRs by the cross-correlation technique, which is based on the radially non-uniform quality and velocity distribution in BWR type bundles, as well as on our knowledge about the spatial 'field of view' of the in-core neutron detectors. After formulating the three-dimensional two-fluid model volume/time averaged equations and pointing out some problems associated with averaging, they expound a little on the turbulence mixing and void drift effects, as well as on the way they are modelled in advanced subchannel analysis codes like THERMIT or COBRA-TF. Subsequently, some comparisons are made between axial velocities measured in a commercial BWR by neutron noise analysis, and the steam velocities of the four subchannels nearest to the instrument tube of one of the four bundles as predicted by COBRA-III and by THERMIT. Although as expected, for well-known reasons, COBRA-III predicts subchannel steam velocities which are close to each other, THERMIT correctly predicts in the upper half of the core three largely different steam velocities in the three different types of BW0 subchannels (corner, edge and interior). (Auth.)

  3. Type I and III procollagen propeptides in growth hormone-deficient patients: effects of increasing doses of GH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L T; Jørgensen, J O; Risteli, J;

    1991-01-01

    The effect of increasing doses of growth hormone on collagen synthesis in GH-treated GH-deficient patients was determined in a short-term study. The synthesis of type I and III collagen was estimated by measurements of the carboxyterminal propeptide of type I procollagen and the aminoterminal...... propeptide of type III procollagen. Type I collagen is mainly found in bone and type III collagen in loose connective tissue. We observed a GH dose dependency of both procollagen propeptides. Serum type I procollagen propeptide was significantly higher following GH doses of 4 and 6 IU/day for 14 days...... compared with 2 IU/day (normal replacement dose) (p = 0.04). Withdrawal of GH therapy for 14 days resulted in wider variation, but not significantly different from the levels at 2, 4 and 6 IU/day. A dose dependency was found regarding type III procollagen propeptide, showing significantly higher serum...

  4. The impact of Lean bundles on hospital performance: does size matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hyari, Khalil; Abu Hammour, Sewar; Abu Zaid, Mohammad Khair Saleem; Haffar, Mohamed

    2016-10-10

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of the implementation of Lean bundles on hospital performance in private hospitals in Jordan and evaluate how much the size of organization can affect the relationship between Lean bundles implementation and hospital performance. Design/methodology/approach The research is considered as quantitative method (descriptive and hypothesis testing). Three statistical techniques were adopted to analyse the data. Structural equation modeling techniques and multi-group analysis were used to examine the research's hypothesis, and to perform the required statistical analysis of the data from the survey. Reliability analysis and confirmatory factor analysis were used to test the construct validity, reliability and measurement loadings that were performed. Findings Lean bundles have been identified as an effective approach that can dramatically improve the organizational performance of private hospitals in Jordan. Main Lean bundles - just in time, human resource management, and total quality management are applicable to large, small and medium hospitals without significant differences in advantages that depend on size. Originality/value According to the researchers' best knowledge, this is the first research that studies the impact of Lean bundles implementation in healthcare sector in Jordan. This research also makes a significant contribution for decision makers in healthcare to increase their awareness of Lean bundles. PMID:27671423

  5. The impact of Lean bundles on hospital performance: does size matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hyari, Khalil; Abu Hammour, Sewar; Abu Zaid, Mohammad Khair Saleem; Haffar, Mohamed

    2016-10-10

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of the implementation of Lean bundles on hospital performance in private hospitals in Jordan and evaluate how much the size of organization can affect the relationship between Lean bundles implementation and hospital performance. Design/methodology/approach The research is considered as quantitative method (descriptive and hypothesis testing). Three statistical techniques were adopted to analyse the data. Structural equation modeling techniques and multi-group analysis were used to examine the research's hypothesis, and to perform the required statistical analysis of the data from the survey. Reliability analysis and confirmatory factor analysis were used to test the construct validity, reliability and measurement loadings that were performed. Findings Lean bundles have been identified as an effective approach that can dramatically improve the organizational performance of private hospitals in Jordan. Main Lean bundles - just in time, human resource management, and total quality management are applicable to large, small and medium hospitals without significant differences in advantages that depend on size. Originality/value According to the researchers' best knowledge, this is the first research that studies the impact of Lean bundles implementation in healthcare sector in Jordan. This research also makes a significant contribution for decision makers in healthcare to increase their awareness of Lean bundles.

  6. Characteristic classes of quantum principal bundles

    CERN Document Server

    Durdevic, M

    1995-01-01

    A noncommutative-geometric generalization of classical Weil theory of characteristic classes is presented, in the conceptual framework of quantum principal bundles. A particular care is given to the case when the bundle does not admit regular connections. A cohomological description of the domain of the Weil homomorphism is given. Relations between universal characteristic classes for the regular and the general case are analyzed. In analogy with classical geometry, a natural spectral sequence is introduced and investigated. The appropriate counterpart of the Chern character is constructed, for structures admitting regular connections. Illustrative examples and constructions are presented.

  7. Are Medicare bundles in your future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvany, Chad

    2015-08-01

    To ensure they are well-positioned for an expansion by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services of bundled payment, hospitals that are not participants in the Bundled Payments for Care Improvement initiative should take the following steps: Understand which organizations in their markets are already participating and which might participate. Understand care utilization patterns within their care delivery networks and how those patterns affect cost per episode. Identify high-quality, cost-efficient postacute care providers and begin collaborating with them to further improve outcomes. Educate discharging physicians about the impact that choices related to postacute settings have on both beneficiary out-of-pocket obligations and overall cost of care.

  8. A bundle of sticks in my garden

    OpenAIRE

    Farran, Sue

    2012-01-01

    The English law of property is often described as a ‘bundle of sticks’ in which each ‘stick’ represents a particular right. Gardens challenge these rights and wreak havoc on the ‘bundle of sticks’. This paper looks at the twenty-first century manifestations of community engagement with ground and explores how ‘gardening’ is undermining concepts of ownership, possession and management of land and how the fence between what is private and what is public is being encroached and challenged by com...

  9. Bundling in semiflexible polymers: A theoretical overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benetatos, Panayotis; Jho, YongSeok

    2016-06-01

    Supramolecular assemblies of polymers are key modules to sustain the structure of cells and their function. The main elements of these assemblies are charged semiflexible polymers (polyelectrolytes) generally interacting via a long(er)-range repulsion and a short(er)-range attraction. The most common supramolecular structure formed by these polymers is the bundle. In the present paper, we critically review some recent theoretical and computational advances on the problem of bundle formation, and point a few promising directions for future work. PMID:26813628

  10. A Comparison between Clinical Results of Selective Bundle and Double Bundle Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Yon-Sik; Song, Si Young; Yang, Cheol Jung; Ha, Jong Mun; Kim, Yoon Sang

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical outcomes of arthroscopic anatomical double bundle (DB) anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction with either selective anteromedial (AM) or posterolateral (PL) bundle reconstruction while preserving a relatively healthy ACL bundle. Materials and Methods The authors evaluated 98 patients with a mean follow-up of 30.8±4.0 months who had undergone DB or selective bundle ACL reconstructions. Of these, 34 cases underwent DB ACL reconstruction (group A), 34 underwent selective AM bundle reconstruction (group B), and 30 underwent selective PL bundle reconstructions (group C). These groups were compared with respect to Lysholm and International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) score, side-to-side differences of anterior laxity measured by KT-2000 arthrometer at 30 lbs, and stress radiography and Lachman and pivot shift test results. Pre- and post-operative data were objectively evaluated using a statistical approach. Results The preoperative anterior instability measured by manual stress radiography at 90° of knee flexion in group A was significantly greater than that in groups B and C (all panterior instability measured by KT-2000 arthrometer, pivot shift, or functional scores. Conclusion Selective bundle reconstruction in partial ACL tears offers comparable clinical results to DB reconstruction in complete ACL tears. PMID:27401652

  11. Compactifications of the Heterotic string with unitary bundles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weigand, T.

    2006-05-23

    In this thesis we investigate a large new class of four-dimensional supersymmetric string vacua defined as compactifications of the E{sub 8} x E{sub 8} and the SO(32) heterotic string on smooth Calabi-Yau threefolds with unitary gauge bundles and heterotic five-branes. The first part of the thesis discusses the implementation of this idea into the E{sub 8} x E{sub 8} heterotic string. After specifying a large class of group theoretic embeddings featuring unitary bundles, we analyse the effective four-dimensional N=1 supergravity upon compactification. From the gauge invariant Kaehler potential for the moduli fields we derive a modification of the Fayet-Iliopoulos D-terms arising at one-loop in string perturbation theory. From this we conjecture a one-loop deformation of the Hermitian Yang-Mills equation and introduce the idea of {lambda}-stability as the perturbatively correct stability concept generalising the notion of Mumford stability valid at tree-level. We then proceed to a definition of SO(32) heterotic vacua with unitary gauge bundles in the presence of heterotic five-branes and find agreement of the resulting spectrum with the S-dual framework of Type I/Type IIB orientifolds. A similar analysis of the effective four-dimensional supergravity is performed. Further evidence for the proposed one-loop correction to the stability condition is found by identifying the heterotic corrections as the S-dual of the perturbative part of {pi}-stability as the correct stability concept in Type IIB theory. After reviewing the construction of holomorphic stable vector bundles on elliptically fibered Calabi-Yau manifolds via spectral covers, we provide semi-realistic examples for SO(32) heterotic vacua with Pati-Salam and MSSM-like gauge sectors. We finally discuss the construction of realistic vacua with flipped SU(5) GUT and MSSM gauge group within the E{sub 8} x E{sub 8} framework, based on the embedding of line bundles into both E{sub 8} factors. Some of the appealing

  12. Implementing surviving sepsis campaign bundles in China: a prospective cohort study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhi-qiang; XI Xiu-ming; LUO Xin; LI Jie; JIANG Li

    2013-01-01

    Background Surviving sepsis campaign (SSC) bundles have been demonstrated to significantly improve survival in sepsis and septic shock patients worldwide.Compliance with these protocols and resultant mortality in sepsis patients was investigated in intensive care units (ICUs) in China.Methods Adult patients with severe sepsis or septic shock treated from September 2007 to October 2008 in 11 ICUs of Chinese teaching hospitals were included.The primary outcome was compliance with resuscitation and management bundles.Secondary outcomes included individual bundle protocol impact and the effects of the completed bundle protocol number on 28-day mortality.Results Overall compliance during 6-hr resuscitation and 24-hour management bundles were 5.5% and 17.4%,respectively,and 28-day mortality was 33.0%.Compliance with protocols for blood cultures before antibiotics (42.2%),central venous pressure ≥8 mmHg (65.9%),central venous oxygen saturation ≥70% (25.0%),and optimized glucose control (82.1%),were significantly associated with decreased 28-day mortality (P <0.05).When adjusted for age,acute organ dysfunction,and APACHE Ⅱ score,compliance with the blood culture before antibiotics protocol produced the most significant decrease in 28-day mortality (OR,0.33; 95% Cl,0.16-0.70; P=-0.004).Compliance with ≥5 protocols in the 6-hour resuscitation bundle was also associated with lower 28-day mortality in septic shock patients (OR,0.17; 95% Cl,0.06-0.54; P =0.001).Conclusions Compliance with resuscitation and management bundles is generally poor in China; however,when applied,6-hour resuscitation bundle are associated with significant reductions in 28-day mortality for sepsis patients.

  13. Effects of overinflation on procollagen type III expression in experimental acute lung injury

    OpenAIRE

    de Carvalho, Maria-Eudóxia Pilotto; Dolhnikoff, Marisa; Meireles, Sibele Inácio; Reis, Luiz Fernando Lima; Martins, Milton Arruda; Deheinzelin, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Introduction In acute lung injury (ALI), elevation of procollagen type III (PC III) occurs early and has an adverse impact on outcome. We examined whether different high-inflation strategies of mechanical ventilation (MV) in oleic acid (OA) ALI alter regional expression of PC III. Methods We designed an experimental, randomized, and controlled protocol in which rats were allocated to two control groups (no injury, recruited [alveolar recruitment maneuver after tracheotomy without MV; n = 4 ra...

  14. Global analysis of bundle behavior in pressurized water reactor specific CORA experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe, out-of-pile bundle experiments are performed in the CORA facility to investigate the behavior of light water reactor fuel elements during severe fuel damage accidents. To analyze the phenomena observed during the tests, such as claddin failure, oxidation, and deformation, as well as their influence on the post test bundle state, four pressurized water reactor specific tests are selected: CORA-2, CORA-3, CORA-5, and CORA-12. From each of these tests, a detailed global analysis using all the measured temperatures, pressures, and fluid compositions as well as videoscope information has been performed. To describe the post test bundle state quantitatively, axial profiles of the bundle cross-section area, the damage state of the rods, the average cladding oxidation, and the damage to the pellets are measured. The effects of CORA-specific components on the bundle melt progression and the measured axial profiles are identified and assessed. Most of the observations during the tests as well as the post test bundle state can be explained by the established common sequence of phenomena. For a better understanding of the melt progression, some physical phenomena, such as the energy release associated with the double-sided oxidation of the cladding, the melt release, or the melt relocation, must be analyzed in detail

  15. Cadherin-23 may be dynamic in hair bundles of the model sea anemone Nematostella vectensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Ciao Tang

    Full Text Available Cadherin 23 (CDH23, a component of tip links in hair cells of vertebrate animals, is essential to mechanotransduction by hair cells in the inner ear. A homolog of CDH23 occurs in hair bundles of sea anemones. Anemone hair bundles are located on the tentacles where they detect the swimming movements of nearby prey. The anemone CDH23 is predicted to be a large polypeptide featuring a short exoplasmic C-terminal domain that is unique to sea anemones. Experimentally masking this domain with antibodies or mimicking this domain with free peptide rapidly disrupts mechanotransduction and morphology of anemone hair bundles. The loss of normal morphology is accompanied, or followed by a decrease in F-actin in stereocilia of the hair bundles. These effects were observed at very low concentrations of the reagents, 0.1-10 nM, and within minutes of exposure. The results presented herein suggest that: (1 the interaction between CDH23 and molecular partners on stereocilia of hair bundles is dynamic and; (2 the interaction is crucial for normal mechanotransduction and morphology of hair bundles.

  16. The unintended consequences of bundled payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, William B; Rauh, Stephen S; Wadsworth, Eric B; Weinstein, James N

    2013-01-01

    Consensus is building that episode-based bundled payments can produce substantial Medicare savings, and the Center for Medicare & Medicaid Innovation's Bundled Payment Initiative endorses this concept. The program generates potential cost savings by reducing the historic cost of time-defined episodes of care, provided through a discount. Although bundled payments can reduce waste primarily in the postacute care setting, concerns arise that, in an effort to maintain income levels that are necessary to cover fixed costs, providers may change their behaviors to increase the volume of episodes. Such actions would mitigate the savings that Medicare might have accrued and may perpetuate the fee-for-service payment mechanism, with episodes of care becoming the new service. Although bundled payments have some advantages over the current reimbursement system, true cost-savings to Medicare will be realized only when the federal government addresses the use issue that underlies much of the waste inherent in the system and provides ample incentives to eliminate capacity and move toward capitation.

  17. Graph Bundling by Kernel Density Estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hurter, C.; Ersoy, O.; Telea, A.

    2012-01-01

    We present a fast and simple method to compute bundled layouts of general graphs. For this, we first transform a given graph drawing into a density map using kernel density estimation. Next, we apply an image sharpening technique which progressively merges local height maxima by moving the convolved

  18. Optimization of a bundle divertor for FED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optimal double-T bundle divertor configurations have been obtained for the Fusion Engineering Device (FED). On-axis ripple is minimized, while satisfying a series of engineering constraints. The ensuing non-linear optimization problem is solved via a sequence of quadratic programming subproblems, using the VMCON algorithm. The resulting divertor designs are substantially improved over previous configurations

  19. η-Invariant and Flat Vector Bundles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    We present an alternate definition of the mod Z component of the AtiyahPatodi-Singer η invariant associated to (not necessary unitary) fiat vector bundles, which identifies explicitly its real and imaginary parts. This is done by combining a deformation of flat connections introduced in a previous paper with the analytic continuation procedure appearing in the original article of Atiyah, Parodi and Singer.

  20. Capacity efficiency of recovery request bundling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Dittmann, Lars; Berger, Michael Stübert;

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison of recovery methods in terms of capacity efficiency. In particular, a method where recovery requests are bundled towards the destination (Shortcut Span Protection) is evaluated against traditional recovery methods. Our simulation results show that Shortcut Span...

  1. Computations in intersection rings of flag bundles

    CERN Document Server

    Grayson, Daniel R; Stillman, Michael E

    2012-01-01

    Intersection rings of flag varieties and of isotropic flag varieties are generated by Chern classes of the tautological bundles modulo the relations coming from multiplicativity of total Chern classes. In this paper we describe the Groebner bases of the ideals of relations and give applications to computation of intersections, as implemented in Macaulay2.

  2. Interplanetary Overlay Network Bundle Protocol Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burleigh, Scott C.

    2011-01-01

    The Interplanetary Overlay Network (ION) system's BP package, an implementation of the Delay-Tolerant Networking (DTN) Bundle Protocol (BP) and supporting services, has been specifically designed to be suitable for use on deep-space robotic vehicles. Although the ION BP implementation is unique in its use of zero-copy objects for high performance, and in its use of resource-sensitive rate control, it is fully interoperable with other implementations of the BP specification (Internet RFC 5050). The ION BP implementation is built using the same software infrastructure that underlies the implementation of the CCSDS (Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems) File Delivery Protocol (CFDP) built into the flight software of Deep Impact. It is designed to minimize resource consumption, while maximizing operational robustness. For example, no dynamic allocation of system memory is required. Like all the other ION packages, ION's BP implementation is designed to port readily between Linux and Solaris (for easy development and for ground system operations) and VxWorks (for flight systems operations). The exact same source code is exercised in both environments. Initially included in the ION BP implementations are the following: libraries of functions used in constructing bundle forwarders and convergence-layer (CL) input and output adapters; a simple prototype bundle forwarder and associated CL adapters designed to run over an IPbased local area network; administrative tools for managing a simple DTN infrastructure built from these components; a background daemon process that silently destroys bundles whose time-to-live intervals have expired; a library of functions exposed to applications, enabling them to issue and receive data encapsulated in DTN bundles; and some simple applications that can be used for system checkout and benchmarking.

  3. Holomorphic Vector Bundle on Hopf Manifolds with Abelian Fundamental Groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang Yu ZHOU; Wei Ming LIU

    2004-01-01

    Let X be a Hopf manifolds with an Abelian fundamental group. E is a holomorphic vector bundle of rank r with trivial pull-back to W = Cn - {0}. We prove the existence of a non-vanishing section of L(×) E for some line bundle on X and study the vector bundles filtration structure of E. These generalize the results of D. Mall about structure theorem of such a vector bundle E.

  4. In-pile test of Qinshan PWR fuel bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In-pile test of Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant PWR fuel bundle has been conducted in HWRR HTHP Test loop at CIAE. The test fuel bundle was irradiated to an average burnup of 25000 Mwd/tU. The authors describe the structure of (3 x 3-2) test fuel bundle, structure of irradiation rig, fuel fabrication, irradiation conditions, power and fuel burnup. Some comments on the in-pile performance for fuel bundle, fuel rod and irradiation rig were made

  5. Anatomic Double-Bundle Posterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Chahla, Jorge; Nitri, Marco; Civitarese, David; Dean, Chase S.; Moulton, Samuel G.; LaPrade, Robert F.

    2016-01-01

    The posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) is known to be the main posterior stabilizer of the knee. Anatomic single-bundle PCL reconstruction, focusing on reconstruction of the larger anterolateral bundle, is the most commonly performed procedure. Because of the residual posterior and rotational tibial instability after the single-bundle procedure and the inability to restore the normal knee kinematics, an anatomic double-bundle PCL reconstruction has been proposed in an effort to re-create the n...

  6. BEIR-III report and the health effects of low-level radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present BEIR-III Committee has not highlighted any controversy over the health effects of low-level radiation. In its evaluation of the experimental data and epidemiological surveys, the Committee has carefully reviewed and assessed the value of all the available scientific evidence for estimating numerical risk coefficients for the health hazards to human populations exposed to low levels of ionizing radiation. Responsible public awareness of the possible health effects of ionizing radiations from medical and industrial radiation exposure, centers on three important matters of societal concern: (1) to place into perspective the extent of harm to the health of man and his descendants to be expected in the present and in the future from those societal activities involving ionizing radiation; (2) to develop quantitative indices of harm based on dose-effect relationships; such indices could then be used with prudent caution to introduce concepts of the regulation of population doses on the basis of somatic and genetic risks; and (3) to identify the magnitude and extent of radiation activities which could cause harm, to assess their relative significance, and to provide a framework for recommendations on how to reduce unnecessary radiation exposure to human populations. The main difference of the BEIR Committee Report is not so much from new data or new interpretations of existing data, but rather from a philosophical approach and appraisal of existing and future radiation protection resulting from an atmosphere of constantly changing societal conditions and public attitudes

  7. BEIR-III report and the health effects of low-level radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1980-01-01

    The present BEIR-III Committee has not highlighted any controversy over the health effects of low-level radiation. In its evaluation of the experimental data and epidemiological surveys, the Committee has carefully reviewed and assessed the value of all the available scientific evidence for estimating numerical risk coefficients for the health hazards to human populations exposed to low levels of ionizing radiation. Responsible public awareness of the possible health effects of ionizing radiations from medical and industrial radiation exposure, centers on three important matters of societal concern: (1) to place into perspective the extent of harm to the health of man and his descendants to be expected in the present and in the future from those societal activities involving ionizing radiation; (2) to develop quantitative indices of harm based on dose-effect relationships; such indices could then be used with prudent caution to introduce concepts of the regulation of population doses on the basis of somatic and genetic risks; and (3) to identify the magnitude and extent of radiation activities which could cause harm, to assess their relative significance, and to provide a framework for recommendations on how to reduce unnecessary radiation exposure to human populations. The main difference of the BEIR Committee Report is not so much from new data or new interpretations of existing data, but rather from a philosophical approach and appraisal of existing and future radiation protection resulting from an atmosphere of constantly changing societal conditions and public attitudes. (PCS)

  8. A study on III-nitride recessed-gate field-effect transistors using a remote-oxygen-plasma treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a comparative study of the device performance of III-nitride (III-N) heterojunction field-effect transistors (HFETs) and metal-insulator-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MISFETs). The influence of a remote-oxygen-plasma treatment was investigated. The plasma-treated recessed-gate HFETs and MISFETs show normally-off characteristics with higher peak transconductance, lower sub-threshold slope, smaller hysteresis. An on-off ratio greater than 2.2E11 with a significant suppression of gate leakage can be achieved in plasma-treated III-N MISFETs. A drain current transient measurement was performed to analyze the traps in these devices and possible origins of these traps are studied. Six traps with characteristic time constants (τ) ranging from 180 s to 3 ms are identified in both HFETs and MISFETs, in addition to a trap which is associated with the ALD-grown gate dielectrics for the MISFETs. The results suggest that improved device performance in these plasma-treated III-N FETs is attributed to the reduced trap states with τ < 400 ms, which are located on III-N surfaces. The slower traps (τ > 2 s) cannot be reduced by the plasma treatment and are related to the oxygen and carbon impurities and the buffer traps in the bulk semiconductors. (paper)

  9. A Comparison between Clinical Results of Selective Bundle and Double Bundle Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Yon-Sik; Song, Si Young; Yang, Cheol Jung; Ha, Jong Mun; Kim, Yoon Sang

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical outcomes of arthroscopic anatomical double bundle (DB) anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction with either selective anteromedial (AM) or posterolateral (PL) bundle reconstruction while preserving a relatively healthy ACL bundle. Materials and Methods The authors evaluated 98 patients with a mean follow-up of 30.8±4.0 months who had undergone DB or selective bundle ACL reconstructions. Of these, 34 cases underwent DB ACL reconstruction (group A), 34 underwent selective AM bundle reconstruction (group B), and 30 underwent selective PL bundle reconstructions (group C). These groups were compared with respect to Lysholm and International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) score, side-to-side differences of anterior laxity measured by KT-2000 arthrometer at 30 lbs, and stress radiography and Lachman and pivot shift test results. Pre- and post-operative data were objectively evaluated using a statistical approach. Results The preoperative anterior instability measured by manual stress radiography at 90° of knee flexion in group A was significantly greater than that in groups B and C (all pACL tears offers comparable clinical results to DB reconstruction in complete ACL tears. PMID:27401652

  10. Geometry of torus bundles in integrable Hamiltonian systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lukina, Olga

    2008-01-01

    Thesis is concerned with global properties of Lagrangian bundles, i.e. symplectic n-torus bundles, as these occur in integrable Hamiltonian systems. It treats obstructions to triviality and concerns with classification of such bundles, as well as with manifestations of global invariants in real-worl

  11. Compactifications of reductive groups as moduli stacks of bundles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martens, Johan; Thaddeus, Michael

    Let G be a reductive group. We introduce the moduli problem of "bundle chains" parametrizing framed principal G-bundles on chains of lines. Any fan supported in a Weyl chamber determines a stability condition on bundle chains. Its moduli stack provides an equivariant toroidal compactification of G...

  12. VECTOR BUNDLE, KILLING VECTOR FIELD AND PONTRYAGIN NUMBERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周建伟

    1991-01-01

    Let E be a vector bundle over a compact Riemannian manifold M. We construct a natural metric on the bundle space E and discuss the relationship between the killing vector fields of E and M. Then we give a proof of the Bott-Baum-Cheeger Theorem for vector bundle E.

  13. Stability of Picard Bundle Over Moduli Space of Stable Vector Bundles of Rank Two Over a Curve

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Indranil Biswas; Tomás L Gómez

    2001-08-01

    Answering a question of [BV] it is proved that the Picard bundle on the moduli space of stable vector bundles of rank two, on a Riemann surface of genus at least three, with fixed determinant of odd degree is stable.

  14. On the interplay effects with proton scanning beams in stage III lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yupeng [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 and Applied Research, Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, California 94304 (United States); Kardar, Laleh; Liao, Li; Lim, Gino [Department of Industrial Engineering, The University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204 (United States); Li, Xiaoqiang; Li, Heng; Zhu, Ronald X.; Sahoo, Narayan; Gillin, Michael; Zhang, Xiaodong, E-mail: xizhang@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Cao, Wenhua [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 and Department of Industrial Engineering, The University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204 (United States); Chang, Joe Y.; Liao, Zhongxing; Komaki, Ritsuko; Cox, James D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: To assess the dosimetric impact of interplay between spot-scanning proton beam and respiratory motion in intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) for stage III lung cancer. Methods: Eleven patients were sampled from 112 patients with stage III nonsmall cell lung cancer to well represent the distribution of 112 patients in terms of target size and motion. Clinical target volumes (CTVs) and planning target volumes (PTVs) were defined according to the authors' clinical protocol. Uniform and realistic breathing patterns were considered along with regular- and hypofractionation scenarios. The dose contributed by a spot was fully calculated on the computed tomography (CT) images corresponding to the respiratory phase that the spot is delivered, and then accumulated to the reference phase of the 4DCT to generate the dynamic dose that provides an estimation of what might be delivered under the influence of interplay effect. The dynamic dose distributions at different numbers of fractions were compared with the corresponding 4D composite dose which is the equally weighted average of the doses, respectively, computed on respiratory phases of a 4DCT image set. Results: Under regular fractionation, the average and maximum differences in CTV coverage between the 4D composite and dynamic doses after delivery of all 35 fractions were no more than 0.2% and 0.9%, respectively. The maximum differences between the two dose distributions for the maximum dose to the spinal cord, heart V40, esophagus V55, and lung V20 were 1.2 Gy, 0.1%, 0.8%, and 0.4%, respectively. Although relatively large differences in single fraction, correlated with small CTVs relative to motions, were observed, the authors' biological response calculations suggested that this interfractional dose variation may have limited biological impact. Assuming a hypofractionation scenario, the differences between the 4D composite and dynamic doses were well confined even for single fraction. Conclusions

  15. Bundle sheath diffusive resistance to CO(2) and effectiveness of C(4) photosynthesis and refixation of photorespired CO(2) in a C(4) cycle mutant and wild-type Amaranthus edulis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiirats, Olavi; Lea, Peter J; Franceschi, Vincent R; Edwards, Gerald E

    2002-10-01

    A mutant of the NAD-malic enzyme-type C(4) plant, Amaranthus edulis, which lacks phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) in the mesophyll cells was studied. Analysis of CO(2) response curves of photosynthesis of the mutant, which has normal Kranz anatomy but lacks a functional C(4) cycle, provided a direct means of determining the liquid phase-diffusive resistance of atmospheric CO(2) to sites of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylation inside bundle sheath (BS) chloroplasts (r(bs)) within intact plants. Comparisons were made with excised shoots of wild-type plants fed 3,3-dichloro-2-(dihydroxyphosphinoyl-methyl)-propenoate, an inhibitor of PEPC. Values of r(bs) in A. edulis were 70 to 180 m(2) s(-1) mol(-1), increasing as the leaf matured. This is about 70-fold higher than the liquid phase resistance for diffusion of CO(2) to Rubisco in mesophyll cells of C(3) plants. The values of r(bs) in A. edulis are sufficient for C(4) photosynthesis to elevate CO(2) in BS cells and to minimize photorespiration. The calculated CO(2) concentration in BS cells, which is dependent on input of r(bs), was about 2,000 microbar under maximum rates of CO(2) fixation, which is about six times the ambient level of CO(2). High re-assimilation of photorespired CO(2) was demonstrated in both mutant and wild-type plants at limiting CO(2) concentrations, which can be explained by high r(bs). Increasing O(2) from near zero up to ambient levels under low CO(2), resulted in an increase in the gross rate of O(2) evolution measured by chlorophyll fluorescence analysis in the PEPC mutant; this increase was simulated from a Rubisco kinetic model, which indicates effective refixation of photorespired CO(2) in BS cells. PMID:12376660

  16. Chronic effects of a Salmonella type III secretion effector protein AvrA in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Lu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Salmonella infection is a common public health problem that can become chronic and increase the risk of inflammatory bowel diseases and cancer. AvrA is a Salmonella bacterial type III secretion effector protein. Increasing evidence demonstrates that AvrA is a multi-functional enzyme with critical roles in inhibiting inflammation, regulating apoptosis, and enhancing proliferation. However, the chronic effects of Salmonella and effector AvrA in vivo are still unknown. Moreover, alive, mutated, non-invasive Salmonella is used as a vector to specifically target cancer cells. However, studies are lacking on chronic infection with non-pathogenic or mutated Salmonella in the host. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We infected mice with Salmonella Typhimurium for 27 weeks and investigated the physiological effects as well as the role of AvrA in intestinal inflammation. We found altered body weight, intestinal pathology, and bacterial translocation in spleen, liver, and gallbladder in chronically Salmonella-infected mice. Moreover, AvrA suppressed intestinal inflammation and inhibited the secretion of cytokines IL-12, IFN-gamma, and TNF-alpha. AvrA expression in Salmonella enhanced its invasion ability. Liver abscess and Salmonella translocation in the gallbladder were observed and may be associated with AvrA expression in Salmonella. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: We created a mouse model with persistent Salmonella infection in vivo. Our study further emphasizes the importance of the Salmonella effector protein AvrA in intestinal inflammation, bacterial translocation, and chronic infection in vivo.

  17. Addition effect of erbium(III) trifluoromethanesulfonate in the homopolymerization kinetics of a DGEBA resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, S.J. [Area de Ciencia de los Materiales, Departament d' Enginyeria de Sistemes Industrials i Disseny, Universitat Jaume I, Avda. Vicent Sos Baynat s/n, 12071 Castellon (Spain)]. E-mail: espallar@sg.uji.es; Ramis, X. [Laboratori de Termodinamica, Escola Tecnica Superior Enginyeria Industrial Barcelona, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Serra, A. [Departament de Q. Analitica i Q. Organica, Facultat de Quimica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, C/Marcel.li Domingo s/n, 43007 Tarragona (Spain); Suay, J. [Centro de Biomateriales, Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, E-46071 Valencia (Spain)

    2006-02-01

    Solid bisphenol-A epoxy resin of medium molecular weight was cured using a Lewis acid initiator (erbium(III) trifluoromethanesulfonate) in three different proportions (0.5, 1 and 2 phr). A kinetic study was performed in a differential scanning calorimeter. The complete kinetic triplet was determined (activation energy, pre-exponential factor, and integral function of the deg.ree of conversion) for each system. A kinetic analysis was performed with an integral isoconversional procedure (model-free), and the kinetic model was determined both with the Coats-Redfern method (the obtained isoconversional E value being accepted as the effective activation energy) and through the compensation effect. All the systems followed the same isothermal curing model simulated from non-isothermal ones. The 'nucleation and growth' Avrami kinetic model A {sub 3/2} has been proposed as the polymerization kinetic model. The addition of initiator accelerated the reaction having higher influence when low temperatures were applied.

  18. Proton irradiation effects on advanced digital and microwave III-V components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hash, G.L.; Schwank, J.R.; Shaneyfelt, M.R.; Sandoval, C.E.; Connors, M.P.; Sheridan, T.J.; Sexton, F.W.; Slayton, E.M.; Heise, J.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Foster, C. [Indiana University Cyclotron Facility, Bloomington, IN (United States)

    1994-09-01

    A wide range of advanced III-V components suitable for use in high-speed satellite communication systems were evaluated for displacement damage and single-event effects in high-energy, high-fluence proton environments. Transistors and integrated circuits (both digital and MMIC) were irradiated with protons at energies from 41 to 197 MeV and at fluences from 10{sup 10} to 2 {times} 10{sup 14} protons/cm{sup 2}. Large soft-error rates were measured for digital GaAs MESFET (3 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} errors/bit-day) and heterojunction bipolar circuits (10{sup {minus}5} errors/bit-day). No transient signals were detected from MMIC circuits. The largest degradation in transistor response caused by displacement damage was observed for 1.0-{mu}m depletion- and enhancement-mode MESFET transistors. Shorter gate length MESFET transistors and HEMT transistors exhibited less displacement-induced damage. These results show that memory-intensive GaAs digital circuits may result in significant system degradation due to single-event upset in natural and man-made space environments. However, displacement damage effects should not be a limiting factor for fluence levels up to 10{sup 14} protons/cm{sup 2} [equivalent to total doses in excess of 10 Mrad(GaAs)].

  19. Bundling of harvesting residues and whole-trees and the treatment of bundles; Hakkuutaehteiden ja kokopuiden niputus ja nippujen kaesittely

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaipainen, H.; Seppaenen, V.; Rinne, S.

    1996-12-31

    The conditions on which the bundling of the harvesting residues from spruce regeneration fellings would become profitable were studied. The calculations showed that one of the most important features was sufficient compaction of the bundle, so that the portion of the wood in the unit volume of the bundle has to be more than 40 %. The tests showed that the timber grab loader of farm tractor was insufficient for production of dense bundles. The feeding and compression device of the prototype bundler was constructed in the research and with this device the required density was obtained.The rate of compaction of the dry spruce felling residues was about 40 % and that of the fresh residues was more than 50 %. The comparison between the bundles showed that the calorific value of the fresh bundle per unit volume was nearly 30 % higher than that of the dry bundle. This means that the treatment of the bundles should be done of fresh felling residues. Drying of the bundles succeeded well, and the crushing and chipping tests showed that the processing of the bundles at the plant is possible. The treatability of the bundles was also excellent. By using the prototype, developed in the research, it was possible to produce a bundle of the fresh spruce harvesting residues, the diameter of which was about 50 cm and the length about 3 m, and the rate of compaction over 50 %. By these values the reduction target of the costs is obtainable

  20. T3_MM: A Markov Model Effectively Classifies Bacterial Type III Secretion Signals

    OpenAIRE

    Yejun Wang; Ming'an Sun; Hongxia Bao; Aaron P. White

    2013-01-01

    MOTIVATION: Type III Secretion Systems (T3SSs) play important roles in the interaction between gram-negative bacteria and their hosts. T3SSs function by translocating a group of bacterial effector proteins into the host cytoplasm. The details of specific type III secretion process are yet to be clarified. This research focused on comparing the amino acid composition within the N-terminal 100 amino acids from type III secretion (T3S) signal sequences or non-T3S proteins, specifically whether e...

  1. Parameter design and optimization of tight-lattice rod bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thin rod bundles with tight lattice are arranged according to the equilateral triangle grid, as the proportion of fuel is large, and the power density of core is high. Based on the analysis of the performance of core, the ABV-6M reactor is taken as the example, and two objective functions, power density and flow rate of coolant are proposed for optimization calculation. Diameter and pitch of rod are optimized by using GA method respectively. The results, which are considered to be safety in security checking, show that tight lattice is effective for improving the power density and other performances of the reactor core. (author)

  2. Talents and Type Iiis: The Effects of the Talents Unlimited Model on Creative Productivity in Gifted Youngsters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Jane L.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined a set of lessons that integrate the Talents Unlimited Model (TU; C. L. Schlichter, 1986) with the 10 steps of completing a Type III activity (J. S. Renzulli & S. M. Reis, 1985) to determine the effects of these lessons on the quality of students' creative products and on the number of students who completed their products.…

  3. Spin-State Energetics of Fe(III) and Ru(III) Aqua Complexes: Accurate ab Initio Calculations and Evidence for Huge Solvation Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radoń, Mariusz; Gąssowska, Katarzyna; Szklarzewicz, Janusz; Broclawik, Ewa

    2016-04-12

    Aqua complexes of transition metals are useful models for understanding the electronic structure of metal-oxide species relevant in photocatalytic water splitting. Moreover, spin-forbidden d-d transitions of aqua complexes provide valuable experimental data of spin-state energetics, which can be used for benchmarking of computational methods. Here, low-energy spin states of Fe(III) and Ru(III) aqua complexes are studied with an array of DFT and high-level wave function methods (CASPT2, RASPT2, NEVPT2, CCSD(T)-F12, and other coupled cluster methods up to full CCSDT). The results from single-reference and multireference methods are cross-checked, and the amount of multireference character for both considered spin states of [Fe(H2O)6](3+) is carefully analyzed. In addition to small [M(H2O)6](3+) clusters (M = Fe, Ru), we also employ larger models [M(H2O)6·(H2O)12](3+), with explicit water molecules in the second coordination sphere, to describe the situation in aqueous solution. By comparing the results for both types of models, our calculations evidence large and systematic solvation effects on the spin-state energetics. It is found that, due to the interaction with hydrogen-bonded water molecules in the second coordination sphere, the first coordination sphere undergoes a noticeable contraction and deformation. In consequence, the presence of solvation shell affects the relative energies of spin states by as much as 3-4 × 10(3) cm(-1) (∼10 kcal/mol). Once this solvation effect is accounted for, the spin-state energetics from CCSD(T) and NEVPT2 calculations turn out to be in an excellent agreement with the experimental estimates, which was not the case for isolated [M(H2O)6](3+) species is gas phase. We thus postulate that significant discrepancies between theory and experimental data for [Fe(H2O)6](3+) that were previously reported in the literature may be plausibly resolved and attributed to the neglect of explicit solvation effects and also, to some extent, to

  4. The effect of complexing agent on the extraction of Ce(III) and Nd(III) by 2-ethylhexyl phosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liquid-liquid extraction of Ce(III) and Nd(III) has been studied using 2-ethylhexyl phosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (EHEHPA) in kerosene as the extractant. An improvement in separation factor between these elements has been observed in the presence of the complexing agent, glycine. (author). 6 refs., 1 tab

  5. Multiwalled carbon nanotube reinforced biomimetic bundled gel fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Jin; Yamamoto, Seiichiro; Takahashi, Haruko; Sasaki, Naruo; Matsunaga, Yukiko T

    2016-08-19

    This work describes the fabrication and characterization of hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC)-based biomimetic bundled gel fibres. The bundled gel fibres were reinforced with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). A phase-separated aqueous solution with MWCNT and HPC was transformed into a bundled fibrous structure after being injected into a co-flow microfluidic device and applying the sheath flow. The resulting MWCNT-bundled gel fibres consist of multiple parallel microfibres. The mechanical and electrical properties of MWCNT-bundled gel fibres were improved and their potential for tissue engineering applications as a cell scaffold was demonstrated. PMID:27200527

  6. Comparison of ASSERT subchannel code with Marviken bundle data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper ASSERT predictions are compared with the Marviken 6-rod bundle and 36+1 rod bundle. The predictions are presented for two experiments in the 6-rod bundle and four experiments in the 36+1 rod bundle. For low inlet subcooling, the void predictions are in good agreement with the experimental data. For high inlet subcooling, however, the agreement is not as good. This is attributed to the fact that in the high inlet subcooling experiments, single phase turbulent mixing plays a more important role in determining flow conditions in the bundle

  7. Anatomic Double-Bundle Posterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahla, Jorge; Nitri, Marco; Civitarese, David; Dean, Chase S; Moulton, Samuel G; LaPrade, Robert F

    2016-02-01

    The posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) is known to be the main posterior stabilizer of the knee. Anatomic single-bundle PCL reconstruction, focusing on reconstruction of the larger anterolateral bundle, is the most commonly performed procedure. Because of the residual posterior and rotational tibial instability after the single-bundle procedure and the inability to restore the normal knee kinematics, an anatomic double-bundle PCL reconstruction has been proposed in an effort to re-create the native PCL footprint more closely and to restore normal knee kinematics. We detail our technique for an anatomic double-bundle PCL reconstruction using Achilles and anterior tibialis tendon allografts. PMID:27284530

  8. Reactor application of an improved bundle divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Bundle Divertor was chosen as the impurity control and plasma exhaust system for the beam driven Demonstration Tokamak Hybrid Reactor - DTHR. In the context of a preconceptual design study of the reactor and associated facility a bundle divertor concept was developed and integrated into the reactor system. The overall system was found feasible and scalable for reactors with intermediate torodial field strengths on axis. The important design characteristics are: the overall average current density of the divertor coils is 0.73 kA for each tesla of toroidal field on axis; the divertor windings are made from super-conducting cables supported by steel structures and are designed to be maintainable; the particle collection assembly and auxiliary cryosorption vacuum pump are dual systems designed such that they can be reactivated alterntively to allow for continuous reactor operation; and the power requirement for energizing and operating the divertor is about 5 MW

  9. Heterotic String Compactification and New Vector Bundles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hai; Wu, Baosen; Yau, Shing-Tung

    2016-07-01

    We propose a construction of Kähler and non-Kähler Calabi-Yau manifolds by branched double covers of twistor spaces. In this construction we use the twistor spaces of four-manifolds with self-dual conformal structures, with the examples of connected sum of n {mathbb{P}2}s. We also construct K3-fibered Calabi-Yau manifolds from the branched double covers of the blow-ups of the twistor spaces. These manifolds can be used in heterotic string compactifications to four dimensions. We also construct stable and polystable vector bundles. Some classes of these vector bundles can give rise to supersymmetric grand unified models with three generations of quarks and leptons in four dimensions.

  10. Venereau polynomials and related fiber bundles

    OpenAIRE

    Kaliman, Shulim; ZAIDENBERG, MIKHAIL

    2003-01-01

    The Venereau polynomials v-n:=y+x^n(xz+y(yu+z^2)), n>= 1, on A4 have all fibers isomorphic to the affine space A3. Moreover, for all n>= 1 the map (v-n, x) : A4 -> A2 yields a flat family of affine planes over A2. In the present note we show that over the punctured plane A2\\0, this family is a fiber bundle. This bundle is trivial if and only if v-n is a variable of the ring C[x][y,z,u] over C[x]. It is an open question whether v1 and v2 are variables of the polynomial ring C[x,y,z,u]. S. Vene...

  11. Covariance and the hierarchy of frame bundles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estabrook, Frank B.

    1987-01-01

    This is an essay on the general concept of covariance, and its connection with the structure of the nested set of higher frame bundles over a differentiable manifold. Examples of covariant geometric objects include not only linear tensor fields, densities and forms, but affinity fields, sectors and sector forms, higher order frame fields, etc., often having nonlinear transformation rules and Lie derivatives. The intrinsic, or invariant, sets of forms that arise on frame bundles satisfy the graded Cartan-Maurer structure equations of an infinite Lie algebra. Reduction of these gives invariant structure equations for Lie pseudogroups, and for G-structures of various orders. Some new results are introduced for prolongation of structure equations, and for treatment of Riemannian geometry with higher-order moving frames. The use of invariant form equations for nonlinear field physics is implicitly advocated.

  12. Rod bundle burnout data and correlation comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rod bundle burnout data from 30 steady-state and 3 transient tests were obtained from experiments performed in the Thermal Hydraulic Test Facility at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The tests covered a parameter range relevant to intact core reactor accidents ranging from large break to small break loss-ofcoolant conditions. Instrumentation within the 64-rod test section indicated that burnout occurred over an axial range within the bundle. The distance from the point where the first dry rod was detected to the point where all rods were dry was up to 60 cm in some of the tests. The burnout data should prove useful in developing new correlations for use in reactor thermalhydraulic codes. Evaluation of several existing critical heat flux correlations using the data show that three correlations, the Barnett, Bowring, and Katto correlations, perform similarly and correlate the data better than the Biasi correlation

  13. The SDSS-III Baryonic Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey: Constraints on the Integrated Sachs Wolfe effect

    CERN Document Server

    Hernandez-Monteagudo, Carlos; Cuesta, Antonio; Genova-Santos, Ricardo; Prada, Francisco; Rossi, Graziano; Neyrinck, Mark; Viel, Matteo; Rubino-Martin, Jose-Alberto; Scoccola, Claudia G; Zhao, Gongbo; Schneider, Donald P; Brownstein, Joel R; Thomas, Daniel; Brinkmann, Jonathan V

    2013-01-01

    In the context of the study of the Integrated Sachs Wolfe effect (ISW), we construct a template of the projected density distribution up to $z\\simeq 0.7$ by using the Luminous Galaxies (LGs) from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR8. We use a photo-z catalogue trained with more than a hundred thousand galaxies from BOSS in the SDSS DR8 imaging area. We consider two different LG samples whose selection matches that of SDSS-III/BOSS: the LOWZ sample ($z\\in [0.15,0.5]$) and the CMASS sample ($z\\in[0.4,0.7]$). When building the LG density maps we use the information from star density, survey footprint, seeing conditions, sky emission, dust extinction and airmass to explore the impact of these artifacts on the two LG samples. In agreement with previous studies, we find that the CMASS sample is particularly sensitive to Galactic stars, which dominate the contribution to the auto-angular power spectrum below $\\ell=7$. Other potential systematics affect mostly the low multipole range ($\\ell\\in[2,7]$), but leave fluctuati...

  14. Effect of sodium hexanitrocobaltate (III) decomposition on its staining of intracellular potassium ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, D B; Dodge, S M; Lee, J R; Tallman, G

    1990-01-01

    The effect was examined of the chemical decomposition of the potassium stain sodium hexanitrocobaltate (III) (SHC), on its ability to produce stain granules of consistent size that could be used to estimate the K+ contents of stomatal guard cells. Stomata in detached epidermis from leaves of Vicia faba (fava bean) were stimulated to accumulate K+ by treating them with fusicoccin. Stomatal apertures and the fraction of guard cell area covered by K+ precipitate granules (K+ score) were measured by digitizing photographic enlargements, and K+ scores were correlated with the age of stain that had been stored either in open or closed containers. The ability of stain aged in open containers to produce consistent fractional cell coverage was compared to 1) the ability of identically treated stain to precipitate K+ from solutions of KCI, and to 2) the kinetics of decomposition of SHC. It was found that the fractional coverage of guard cells of stomata opened to the same apertures decreased with a first order rate constant of 2.3 x 10(-5)/sec. The mass of precipitate formed by treatment of KCl solutions was unchanged for 2 hr after initial preparation of the SHC, and decreased thereafter with a first order rate constant of 1.0 x 10(-5)/sec. When stored in tightly sealed containers, nearly 100 hr were required for an occasionally opened bottle of SHC to decay to the same efficacy as a solution left open to the air for 8 hr. PMID:1694311

  15. Deformations of Fell bundles and twisted graph algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeburn, Iain

    2016-11-01

    We consider Fell bundles over discrete groups, and the C*-algebra which is universal for representations of the bundle. We define deformations of Fell bundles, which are new Fell bundles with the same underlying Banach bundle but with the multiplication deformed by a two-cocycle on the group. Every graph algebra can be viewed as the C*-algebra of a Fell bundle, and there are are many cocycles of interest with which to deform them. We thus obtain many of the twisted graph algebras of Kumjian, Pask and Sims. We demonstate the utility of our approach to these twisted graph algebras by proving that the deformations associated to different cocycles can be assembled as the fibres of a C*-bundle.

  16. Radiological evidence for the triple bundle anterior cruciate ligament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKay, James W; Whitehead, Harry; Toms, Andoni P

    2014-10-01

    The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) has traditionally been described as having two bundles--one anteromedial and one posterolateral. This has been challenged by studies proposing the existence of a third, intermediate, bundle with distinct functional significance, an arrangement that has been described in a number of domesticated animal species. No radiological evidence for the triple bundle ACL has previously been described. A prevalence study was carried out on 73 consecutive human knee magnetic resonance (MR) studies to determine the number of visible bundles, excluding individuals with a history of ACL injury or mucoid degeneration. A triple bundle ACL was demonstrated in 15 out of 73 human knees (20.5%, 95% confidence interval 12.9-31.2%). This is the first radiological description of the human triple bundle ACL. There was MR imaging evidence of a triple bundle ACL in approximately one fifth of human knees in this study. PMID:24890455

  17. On Complex Supermanifolds with Trivial Canonical Bundle

    CERN Document Server

    Groeger, Josua

    2016-01-01

    We give an algebraic characterisation for the triviality of the canonical bundle of a complex supermanifold in terms of a certain Batalin-Vilkovisky superalgebra structure. As an application, we study the Calabi-Yau case, in which an explicit formula in terms of the Levi-Civita connection is achieved. Our methods include the use of complex integral forms and the recently developed theory of superholonomy.

  18. Quantum principal bundles and their characteristic classes

    CERN Document Server

    Durdevic, M

    1996-01-01

    A brief exposition of the general theory of characteristic classes of quantum principal bundles is given. The theory of quantum characteristic classes incorporates ideas of classical Weil theory into the conceptual framework of non-commutative differential geometry. A purely cohomological interpretation of the Weil homomorphism is given, together with a standard geometrical interpretation via quantum invariant polynomials. A natural spectral sequence is described. Some quantum phenomena appearing in the formalism are discussed.

  19. Effects of mitochondrial complex III disruption in the respiratory chain of Neurospora crassa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Margarida; Videira, Arnaldo

    2009-04-01

    In mitochondria from most organisms, including Neurospora crassa, dimeric complex III was found associated with complex I. Additional association of complex IV with this core structure leads to the formation of a respirasome. It was recently described for bacteria and mammals that complex III is needed for the assembly/stability of complex I. To elucidate the role of complex III in the organization of the respiratory chain of N. crassa, we analysed strains devoid of either the Rieske iron-sulphur or the COREII polypeptide subunits. The mutants display reduced growth, are female sterile and lack active complex III. The supramolecular organization of the oxidative phosphorylation system was characterized by electrophoretic analyses and the efficiency of the respiratory chain analysed by oxygen consumption measurements. The results obtained indicate that absence of complex III activity is not associated with the absence of complex I or complex IV, and leads to the induction of alternative oxidase. Complex III mutant mitochondria are devoid of respirasomes but contain significant amounts of dimeric complex I (I(2)) and of the supercomplex I(1)IV(1). Moreso, for the first time the alternative oxidase was found associated with dimeric complex IV and with supercomplex I(1)IV(1).

  20. Pool boiling and condensation analysis for a vertical tube bundle condenser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, W.; Wolf, B., E-mail: zhouw@purdue.edu [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, Indiana (United States); Revankar, S.T., E-mail: shripad@ecn.purdue.edu [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, Indiana (United States); POSTECH, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-07-01

    An experimental and theoretical study is performed for the steam condensation in a vertical tube bundle passive condenser simulating PCCS condenser in the ESBWR. Four condenser tubes are submerged in a water pool where the heat from the condenser tube is removed through boiling heat transfer. Condenser tubes with a full length/diameter scale are used to obtain the condensation data with various process parameters. The comparison of tube bundle experimental data with the single tube data by both the experiments and models shows that the single tube secondary heat transfer coefficient (HTC) is between 25% - 35% less than what was recorded for the tube bundle, and the tube bundle condensation rates are slightly higher than the data from the single tube test sections due to turbulent mixing effect which increases the condensation heat removal. The turbulent mixing on the secondary side decreases the DT between pool water and condenser tube outer wall, causing an increase in secondary HTC. This increase in secondary HTC thus results in higher condensate mass flow rates. Tube bundle boundary layer model and heat and mass analogy model were then developed for the prediction of the filmwise steam condensation with noncondensable (NC) gas in a vertical tube bundle. The predictions from the models are compared with the experimental data for various complete condensation and through flow conditions and the agreement is satisfactory. The local parameters predicted by the boundary layer model and heat and mass analogy model with tube bundle pool boiling can also be predicted with the axial distance from entrance for different NC gas fractions and system pressures. (author)

  1. Pool boiling and condensation analysis for a vertical tube bundle condenser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experimental and theoretical study is performed for the steam condensation in a vertical tube bundle passive condenser simulating PCCS condenser in the ESBWR. Four condenser tubes are submerged in a water pool where the heat from the condenser tube is removed through boiling heat transfer. Condenser tubes with a full length/diameter scale are used to obtain the condensation data with various process parameters. The comparison of tube bundle experimental data with the single tube data by both the experiments and models shows that the single tube secondary heat transfer coefficient (HTC) is between 25% - 35% less than what was recorded for the tube bundle, and the tube bundle condensation rates are slightly higher than the data from the single tube test sections due to turbulent mixing effect which increases the condensation heat removal. The turbulent mixing on the secondary side decreases the DT between pool water and condenser tube outer wall, causing an increase in secondary HTC. This increase in secondary HTC thus results in higher condensate mass flow rates. Tube bundle boundary layer model and heat and mass analogy model were then developed for the prediction of the filmwise steam condensation with noncondensable (NC) gas in a vertical tube bundle. The predictions from the models are compared with the experimental data for various complete condensation and through flow conditions and the agreement is satisfactory. The local parameters predicted by the boundary layer model and heat and mass analogy model with tube bundle pool boiling can also be predicted with the axial distance from entrance for different NC gas fractions and system pressures. (author)

  2. Abelian conformal field theory and determinant bundles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jørgen Ellegaard; Ueno, K.

    2007-01-01

    Following [10], we study a so-called bc-ghost system of zero conformal dimension from the viewpoint of [14, 16]. We show that the ghost vacua construction results in holomorphic line bundles with connections over holomorphic families of curves. We prove that the curvature of these connections are...... nodal curves. These results are used in [4] to construct modular functors form the conformal field theories given in [14, 16] by twisting with an appropriate factional power of this Abelian theory.......Following [10], we study a so-called bc-ghost system of zero conformal dimension from the viewpoint of [14, 16]. We show that the ghost vacua construction results in holomorphic line bundles with connections over holomorphic families of curves. We prove that the curvature of these connections...... are up to a scale the same as the curvature of the connections constructed in [14, 16]. We study the sewing construction for nodal curves and its explicit relation to the constructed connections. Finally we construct preferred holomorphic sections of these line bundles and analyze their behaviour near...

  3. Bundling harvester; Harvennuspuun automaattisen nippukorjausharvesterin kehittaeminen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koponen, K. [Eko-Log Oy, Kuopio (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    The starting point of the project was to design and construct, by taking the silvicultural point of view into account, a harvesting and processing system especially for energy-wood, containing manually driven bundling harvester, automating of the harvester, and automated loading. The equipment forms an ideal method for entrepreneur`s-line harvesting. The target is to apply the system also for owner`s-line harvesting. The profitability of the system promotes the utilisation of the system in both cases. The objectives of the project were: to construct a test equipment and prototypes for all the project stages, to carry out terrain and strain tests in order to examine the usability and durability, as well as the capacity of the machine, to test the applicability of the Eko-Log system in simultaneous harvesting of energy and pulp woods, and to start the marketing and manufacturing of the products. The basic problems of the construction of the bundling harvester have been solved using terrain-tests. The prototype machine has been shown to be operable. Loading of the bundles to form sufficiently economically transportable loads has been studied, and simultaneously, the branch-biomass has been tried to be utilised without loosing the profitability of transportation. The results have been promising, and will promote the profitable utilisation of wood-energy. (orig.)

  4. Theoretical calculations of thermophysical properties of single-wall carbon nanotube bundles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miao Ting-Ting; Song Meng-Xuan; Ma Wei-Gang; Zhang Xing

    2011-01-01

    Carbon nanotube bundles are promising thermal interfacial materials due to their excellent thermal and mechanical characteristics. In this study, the phonon dispersion relations and density of states of the single-wall carbon nanotube bundles are calculated by using the force constant model. The calculation results show that the inter-tube interaction leads to a significant frequency raise of the low frequency modes. To verify the applied calculation method, the specific heat of a single single-wall carbon nanotube is calculated first based on the obtained phonon dispersion relations and the results coincide well with the experimental data. Moreover, the specific heat of the bundles is calculated and exhibits a slight reduction at low temperatures in comparison with that of the single tube. The thermal conductivity of the bundles at low temperatures is calculated by using the ballistic transport model. The calculation results indicate that the inter-tube interaction, i.e. van der Waals interaction, hinders heat transfer and cannot be neglected at extremely low temperatures. For (5, 5) bundles, the relative difference of the thermal conductivity caused by ignoring inter-tube effect reaches the maximum value of 26% around 17 K, which indicates the significant inter-tube interaction effect on the thermal conductivity at low temperatures.

  5. An analytical fiber bundle model for pullout mechanics of root bundles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, D.; Schwarz, M.; Or, D.

    2011-09-01

    Roots in soil contribute to the mechanical stability of slopes. Estimation of root reinforcement is challenging because roots form complex biological networks whose geometrical and mechanical characteristics are difficult to characterize. Here we describe an analytical model that builds on simple root descriptors to estimate root reinforcement. Root bundles are modeled as bundles of heterogeneous fibers pulled along their long axes neglecting root-soil friction. Analytical expressions for the pullout force as a function of displacement are derived. The maximum pullout force and corresponding critical displacement are either derived analytically or computed numerically. Key model inputs are a root diameter distribution (uniform, Weibull, or lognormal) and three empirical power law relations describing tensile strength, elastic modulus, and length of roots as functions of root diameter. When a root bundle with root tips anchored in the soil matrix is pulled by a rigid plate, a unique parameter, ?, that depends only on the exponents of the power law relations, dictates the order in which roots of different diameters break. If ? 1, large roots break first. When ? = 1, all fibers break simultaneously, and the maximum tensile force is simply the roots' mean force times the number of roots in the bundle. Based on measurements of root geometry and mechanical properties, the value of ? is less than 1, usually ranging between 0 and 0.7. Thus, small roots always fail first. The model shows how geometrical and mechanical characteristics of roots and root diameter distribution affect the pullout force, its maximum and corresponding displacement. Comparing bundles of roots that have similar mean diameters, a bundle with a narrow variance in root diameter will result in a larger maximum force and a smaller displacement at maximum force than a bundle with a wide diameter distribution. Increasing the mean root diameter of a bundle without changing the distribution's shape increases

  6. Hydrodynamic behavior of a bare rod bundle. [LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartzis, J.G.; Todreas, N.E.

    1977-06-01

    The temperature distribution within the rod bundle of a nuclear reactor is of major importance in nuclear reactor design. However temperature information presupposes knowledge of the hydrodynamic behavior of the coolant which is the most difficult part of the problem due to complexity of the turbulence phenomena. In the present work a 2-equation turbulence model--a strong candidate for analyzing actual three dimensional turbulent flows--has been used to predict fully developed flow of infinite bare rod bundle of various aspect ratios (P/D). The model has been modified to take into account anisotropic effects of eddy viscosity. Secondary flow calculations have been also performed although the model seems to be too rough to predict the secondary flow correctly. Heat transfer calculations have been performed to confirm the importance of anisotropic viscosity in temperature predictions. All numerical calculations for flow and heat have been performed by two computer codes based on the TEACH code. Experimental measurements of the distribution of axial velocity, turbulent axial velocity, turbulent kinetic energy and radial Reynolds stresses were performed in the developing and fully developed regions. A 2-channel Laser Doppler Anemometer working on the Reference mode with forward scattering was used to perform the measurements in a simulated interior subchannel of a triangular rod array with P/D = 1.124. Comparisons between the analytical results and the results of this experiment as well as other experimental data in rod bundle array available in literature are presented. The predictions are in good agreement with the results for the high Reynolds numbers.

  7. Effect of ferri(III)citrate and potassium hexacyanoferrate(III) on growth of the moss Bryum argenteum Hedw. (Bryaceae) in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Vukojević Vanja; Sabovljević Aneta; Sabovljević Marko S.

    2004-01-01

    In order to examine the manner of iron uptake from the medium, in vitro culture of moss Bryum argenteum Hedw. (Bryaceae) was established. Under controlled conditions (16h light/8h dark, light intensity 47μmol m-2s-1 25±2°C), the moss was grown on basal MS medium or on MS medium enriched with various concentrations of ferri(III)citrate or potassium hexacyanoferrate(III). It was expected that with the organic chelate complex, Fe(III) ion will be more available for the plant. Sixty days after es...

  8. Effect of operating parameters on indium (III) ion removal by iron electrocoagulation and evaluation of specific energy consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Wei-Lung, E-mail: wlchou0388@hotmail.com [Department of Safety, Health and Environmental Engineering, Hungkuang University, Sha-Lu, Taichung 433, Taiwan (China); Wang, Chih-Ta [Department of Safety Health and Environmental Engineering, Chung Hwa University of Medical Technology, Tainan Hsien 717, Taiwan (China); Huang, Kai-Yu [Department of Safety, Health and Environmental Engineering, Hungkuang University, Sha-Lu, Taichung 433, Taiwan (China)

    2009-08-15

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of operating parameters on the specific energy consumption and removal efficiency of synthetic wastewater containing indium (III) ions by electrocoagulation in batch mode using an iron electrode. Several parameters, including different electrode pairs, supporting electrolytes, initial concentration, pH variation, and applied voltage, were investigated. In addition, the effects of applied voltage, supporting electrolyte, and initial concentration on indium (III) ion removal efficiency and specific energy consumption were investigated under the optimum balance of reasonable removal efficiency and relative low energy consumption. Experiment results indicate that a Fe/Al electrode pair is the most efficient choice of the four electrode pairs in terms of energy consumption. The optimum supporting electrolyte concentration, initial concentration, and applied voltage were found to be 100 mg/l NaCl, 20 mg/l, and 20 V, respectively. A higher pH at higher applied voltage (20 or 30 V) enhanced the precipitation of indium (III) ion as insoluble indium hydroxide, which improved the removal efficiency. Results from the indium (III) ion removal kinetics show that the kinetics data fit the pseudo second-order kinetic model well. Finally, the composition of the sludge produced was characterized with energy dispersion spectra (EDS).

  9. Band structure effects on resonant tunneling in III-V quantum wells versus two-dimensional vertical heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, Philip M., E-mail: philip.campbell@gatech.edu [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Electronic Systems Laboratory, Georgia Tech Research Institute, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Tarasov, Alexey; Joiner, Corey A.; Vogel, Eric M. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Ready, W. Jud [Electronic Systems Laboratory, Georgia Tech Research Institute, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States)

    2016-01-14

    Since the invention of the Esaki diode, resonant tunneling devices have been of interest for applications including multi-valued logic and communication systems. These devices are characterized by the presence of negative differential resistance in the current-voltage characteristic, resulting from lateral momentum conservation during the tunneling process. While a large amount of research has focused on III-V material systems, such as the GaAs/AlGaAs system, for resonant tunneling devices, poor device performance and device-to-device variability have limited widespread adoption. Recently, the symmetric field-effect transistor (symFET) was proposed as a resonant tunneling device incorporating symmetric 2-D materials, such as transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), separated by an interlayer barrier, such as hexagonal boron-nitride. The achievable peak-to-valley ratio for TMD symFETs has been predicted to be higher than has been observed for III-V resonant tunneling devices. This work examines the effect that band structure differences between III-V devices and TMDs has on device performance. It is shown that tunneling between the quantized subbands in III-V devices increases the valley current and decreases device performance, while the interlayer barrier height has a negligible impact on performance for barrier heights greater than approximately 0.5 eV.

  10. Band structure effects on resonant tunneling in III-V quantum wells versus two-dimensional vertical heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Philip M.; Tarasov, Alexey; Joiner, Corey A.; Ready, W. Jud; Vogel, Eric M.

    2016-01-01

    Since the invention of the Esaki diode, resonant tunneling devices have been of interest for applications including multi-valued logic and communication systems. These devices are characterized by the presence of negative differential resistance in the current-voltage characteristic, resulting from lateral momentum conservation during the tunneling process. While a large amount of research has focused on III-V material systems, such as the GaAs/AlGaAs system, for resonant tunneling devices, poor device performance and device-to-device variability have limited widespread adoption. Recently, the symmetric field-effect transistor (symFET) was proposed as a resonant tunneling device incorporating symmetric 2-D materials, such as transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), separated by an interlayer barrier, such as hexagonal boron-nitride. The achievable peak-to-valley ratio for TMD symFETs has been predicted to be higher than has been observed for III-V resonant tunneling devices. This work examines the effect that band structure differences between III-V devices and TMDs has on device performance. It is shown that tunneling between the quantized subbands in III-V devices increases the valley current and decreases device performance, while the interlayer barrier height has a negligible impact on performance for barrier heights greater than approximately 0.5 eV.

  11. Cascading blockages in channel bundles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barré, C; Talbot, J

    2015-11-01

    Flow in channel networks may involve a redistribution of flux following the blockage or failure of an individual link. Here we consider a simplified model consisting of N(c) parallel channels conveying a particulate flux. Particles enter these channels according to a homogeneous Poisson process and an individual channel blocks if more than N particles are simultaneously present. The behavior of the composite system depends strongly on how the flux of entering particles is redistributed following a blockage. We consider two cases. In the first, the intensity on each open channel remains constant while in the second the total intensity is evenly redistributed over the open channels. We obtain exact results for arbitrary N(c) and N for a system of independent channels and for arbitrary N(c) and N=1 for coupled channels. For N>1 we present approximate analytical as well as numerical results. Independent channels block at a decreasing rate due to a simple combinatorial effect, while for coupled channels the interval between successive blockages remains constant for N=1 but decreases for N>1. This accelerating cascade is due to the nonlinear dependence of the mean blocking time of a single channel on the entering particle flux that more than compensates for the decrease in the number of active channels.

  12. Fuel bundle geometry and composition influence on coolant void reactivity reduction in ACR and CANDU reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is very well known that the CANDU reactor has positive Coolant Void Reactivity (CVR), which is most important criticisms about CANDU. The most recent innovations based on using a thin absorbent Hafnium shell in the central bundle element were successfully been applied to the Advanced CANDU Reactor (ACR) project. The paper's objective is to analyze elementary lattice cell effects in applying such methods to reduce the CVR. Three basic fuel designs in their corresponding geometries were chosen to be compared: the ACR-1000TM, the RU-43 (developed in INR Pitesti) and the standard CANDU fuel. The bundle geometry influence on void effect was also evaluated. The WIMS calculations proved the Hafnium absorber suitability (in the latest 'shell design') to achieve the negative CVR target with great accuracy for the ACR-1000 fuel bundle design than for the other two projects. (authors)

  13. An Investigation of Effective Discharge for Suspended Sediment by Level III Ecoregion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heins, A.; Simon, A.

    2002-12-01

    for seven ecoregions: Coast Range (1) Sierra Nevada (5), Snake River Basin (12), Arizona-New Mexico Plateau (22), Flint Hills (28), Central Irregular Plains (40) and the Mississippi Valley Loess Plains (74). Mean daily flow data for a substantial period of record were divided into 33 logarithmic classes and the percentage occurrence of each of these was computed. The total annual suspended sediment transport was then calculated for each class, using suspended-sediment rating equations generated through regression of instantaneous discharge and suspended sediment concentration historic sample data. The geometric midpoint of the class transporting the greatest annual sediment load was considered to be the effective discharge. Results to date demonstrate in environments as diverse the Sierra Nevada Mountains and the Mississippi Valley Loess Plains, the effective discharge for suspended sediment is close to the 1.5 year flow. In the former ecoregion, the mean recurrence interval of suspended sediment effective discharge was 1.526 years. The eventual aim of this project is to calculate effective discharges for all 2929 USGS gaging stations with sufficient instantaneous suspended sediment and associated discharges measurements. These sites cover all 84 level III ecoregions, permitting environmental and geographic patterns of effective discharge recurrence interval. Calculations will be repeated using higher temporal resolution (15 minute) flow data.

  14. Direct observation of lanthanide(III)-phthalocyanine molecules on Au(111) by using scanning tunneling microscopy and scanning tunneling spectroscopy and thin-film field-effect transistor properties of Tb(III)- and Dy(III)-phthalocyanine molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, Keiichi; Yoshida, Yusuke; Yamashita, Masahiro; Miyasaka, Hitoshi; Breedlove, Brian K; Kajiwara, Takashi; Takaishi, Shinya; Ishikawa, Naoto; Isshiki, Hironari; Zhang, Yan Feng; Komeda, Tadahiro; Yamagishi, Masakazu; Takeya, Jun

    2009-07-29

    The crystal structures of double-decker single molecule magnets (SMM) LnPc(2) (Ln = Tb(III) and Dy(III); Pc = phthalocyanine) and non-SMM YPc(2) were determined by using X-ray diffraction analysis. The compounds are isomorphous to each other. The compounds have metal centers (M = Tb(3+), Dy(3+), and Y(3+)) sandwiched by two Pc ligands via eight isoindole-nitrogen atoms in a square-antiprism fashion. The twist angle between the two Pc ligands is 41.4 degrees. Scanning tunneling microscopy was used to investigate the compounds adsorbed on a Au(111) surface, deposited by using the thermal evaporation in ultrahigh vacuum. Both MPc(2) with eight lobes and MPc with four lobes, which has lost one Pc ligand, were observed. In the scanning tunneling spectroscopy images of TbPc molecules at 4.8 K, a Kondo peak with a Kondo temperature (T(K)) of approximately 250 K was observed near the Fermi level (V = 0 V). On the other hand, DyPc, YPc, and MPc(2) exhibited no Kondo peak. To understand the observed Kondo effect, the energy splitting of sublevels in a crystal field should be taken into consideration. As the next step in our studies on the SMM/Kondo effect in Tb-Pc derivatives, we investigated the electronic transport properties of Ln-Pc molecules as the active layer in top- and bottom-contact thin-film organic field effect transistor devices. Tb-Pc molecule devices exhibit p-type semiconducting properties with a hole mobility (mu(H)) of approximately 10(-4) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). Interestingly, the Dy-Pc based devices exhibited ambipolar semiconducting properties with an electron mobility (mu(e)) of approximately 10(-5) and a mu(H) of approximately 10(-4) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). This behavior has important implications for the electronic structure of the molecules. PMID:19569681

  15. Effect of water soluble complexing agent on the extraction of Ce(III) and Nd(III) by 2-ethylhexylphosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extraction of Ce(III) and Nd(III) by 2-ethylhexylphosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (EHEHPA) in the presence of water soluble complexing agent, glycine, has been studied. An improvement in separation factor between these lanthanides is observed. The extraction data have been analyzed theoretically, taking into account complexation of the metal in the aqueous phase with glycine and chloride ion and plausible complexation in the organic phase. (author) 12 refs.; 4 figs.; 1 tab

  16. Combining high power diode lasers using fiber bundles for beam delivery in optoacoustic endoscopy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawali, Sandeep Babu; Leggio, Luca; Sánchez, Miguel; Rodríguez, Sergio; Dadrasnia, Ehsan; Gallego, Daniel C.; Lamela, Horacio

    2016-05-01

    Optoacoustic (OA) effect refers to the generation of the acoustic waves due to absorption of light energy in a biological tissue. The incident laser pulse is absorbed by the tissue, resulting in the generation of ultrasound that is typically detected by a piezoelectric detector. Compared to other techniques, the advantage of OA imaging (OAI) technique consists in combining the high resolution of ultrasound technique with the high contrast of optical imaging. Generally, Nd:YAG and OPO systems are used for the generation of OA waves but their use in clinical environment is limited for many aspects. On the other hand, high-power diode lasers (HPDLs) emerge as potential alternative. However, the power of HPDLs is still relatively low compared to solid-state lasers. We show a side-by-side combination of several HPDLs in an optical fiber bundle to increase the amount of power for OA applications. Initially, we combine the output optical power of several HPDLs at 905 nm using two 7 to 1 round optical fiber bundles featuring a 675 μm and 1.2 mm bundle aperture. In a second step, we couple the output light of these fiber bundles to a 600 μm core diameter endoscopic fiber, reporting the corresponding coupling efficiencies. The fiber bundles with reasonable small diameter are likely to be used for providing sufficient light energy to potential OA endoscopy (OAE) applications.

  17. Effect of pH on complex coacervate core micelles from Fe(III)-based coordination polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junyou; de Keizer, Arie; van Leeuwen, Herman P; Yan, Yun; Vergeldt, Frank; van As, Henk; Bomans, Paul H H; Sommerdijk, Nico A J M; Cohen Stuart, Martien A; van der Gucht, Jasper

    2011-12-20

    The effect of pH on iron-containing complex coacervate core micelles [Fe(III)-C3Ms] is investigated in this paper. The Fe(III)-C3Ms are formed by mixing cationic poly(N-methyl-2-vinylpyridinium iodide)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) [P2MVP(41)-b-PEO(205)] and anionic iron coordination polymers [Fe(III)-L(2)EO(4)] at stoichiometric charge ratio. Light scattering and Cryo-TEM have been performed to study the variations of hydrodynamic radius and core structure with changing pH. The hydrodynamic radius of Fe(III)-C3Ms is determined mainly by the corona and does not change very much in a broad pH range. However, Cryo-TEM pictures and magnetic relaxation measurements indicate that the structure of the micellar cores changes upon changing the pH, with a more crystalline, elongated shape and lower relaxivity at high pH. We attribute this to the formation of mixed iron complexes in the core, involving both the bis-ligand and hydroxide ions. These complexes are stabilized toward precipitation by the diblock copolymer.

  18. Experimental investigation on anisotropic turbulent flow in a 6 × 6 rod bundle with LDV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Jinbiao, E-mail: xiongjinbiao@sjtu.edu.cn [School of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University (China); Yu, Nan [State Nuclear Power Software Development Center (China); Yu, Yang [School of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University (China); Fu, Xiaoliang [State Nuclear Power Software Development Center (China); Cheng, Xu [School of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University (China); Yang, Yanhua [School of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University (China); State Nuclear Power Software Development Center (China)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Five-beam three-component LDV is applied to measure flow in a 6 × 6 rod bundle. • Three-dimension flow field is obtained at the outlet. • The effects of spacer and Reynolds number on flow are investigated. • Three components of mean velocity scale with the bulk velocity. • The Reynolds stresses scale with the square of average bulk velocity. - Abstract: The five-beam three-component laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) is applied to investigate the turbulent flow in a 6 × 6 rod bundle installed with simple grid spacers. LDV measurement has been conducted at four cross sections downstream a grid spacer at five Reynolds numbers ranging from 6600 to 70,300. The flow evolution downstream of the grid spacer is demonstrated through the comparison of the axial mean velocity and Root Mean Square (RMS) velocity at the three cross sections downstream of the grid spacer. All the three components of the flow velocity are measured in the selected subchannels at the outlet cross section of the rod bundle which is dedicated to provide more information on the turbulence statistics in the rod bundle flow. Remarkably high ratio of axial normal stress to the turbulent kinetic energy, vv{sup ¯}/k, is observed even in the subchannel center, which indicates that the turbulence in the rod bundle is anisotropic. Comparing experiment results at the five Reynolds numbers, the low Reynolds number effect is found in the case with Re = 6.6 × 10{sup 3}. The experiment results also imply that the Reynolds number effect in the tight-lattice bundle is weak compare to that in the loose one.

  19. Measurement technique for local heat transfer coefficients of subchannels of rod bundles using a copper sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Jeong Sik; Kim, Kyoung Rock; Choi, Young Don [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Jong Keun [Hanzhong Univ., Donghae (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-07-01

    This paper is described for the measurement technique for local heat transfer coefficients using a copper sensor in rod bundles with mixing vanes. A copper sensor is defined as the device to measure the convective heat transfer coefficient using constant heat flux and surface temperatures. The copper sensor consists of a cartridge heater and four pieces of thermocouple. The copper sensors located at axial positions of rod bundles are able to measure the local heat transfer coefficients at its positions. The effect of local heated and full heated of copper sensors for rod bundles is investigated using CFD analysis. The decay of local heat transfer coefficients of locally heating condition such as a copper sensor is estimated to be higher value than that of fully heating condition. The calibration curve for local heat transfer coefficients measured is presented.

  20. Study of matrix crack-tilted fiber bundle interaction using caustics and finite element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Wenfeng; Zhu, Jianguo; Zhu, Qi; Yuan, Yanan

    2016-02-01

    In this work, the interaction between the matrix crack and a tilted fiber bundle was investigated via caustics and the finite element method (FEM). First, the caustic patterns at the crack tip with different distances from the tilted fiber were obtained and the stress intensity factors were extracted from the geometry of the caustic patterns. Subsequently, the shielding effect of the fiber bundle in front of the crack tip was analyzed. Furthermore, the interaction between the matrix crack and the broken fiber bundle was discussed. Finally, a finite element simulation was carried out using ABAQUS to verify the experimental results. The results demonstrate that the stress intensity factors extracted from caustic experiments are in excellent agreement with the data calculated by FEM.

  1. The costs and effectiveness of large Phase III pre-licensure vaccine clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Prior to the 1980s, most vaccines were licensed based upon safety and effectiveness studies in several hundred individuals. Beginning with the evaluation of Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccines, much larger pre-licensure trials became common. The pre-licensure trial for Haemophilus influenzae oligosaccharide conjugate vaccine had more than 60,000 children and that of the seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine included almost 38,000 children. Although trial sizes for both of these studies were driven by the sample size required to demonstrate efficacy, the sample size requirements for safety evaluations of other vaccines have subsequently increased. With the demonstration of an increased risk of intussusception following the Rotashield brand rotavirus vaccine, this trend has continued. However, routinely requiring safety studies of 20,000-50,000 or more participants has two major downsides. First, the cost of performing large safety trials routinely prior to licensure of a vaccine is very large, with some estimates as high at US$200 million euros for one vaccine. This high financial cost engenders an opportunity cost whereby the number of vaccines that a company is willing or able to develop to meet public health needs becomes limited by this financial barrier. The second downside is that in the pre-licensure setting, such studies are very time consuming and delay the availability of a beneficial vaccine substantially. One might argue that in some situations, this financial commitment is warranted such as for evaluations of the risk of intussusception following newer rotavirus vaccines. However, it must be noted that while an increased risk of intussusception was not identified in large pre-licensure studies, in post marketing evaluations an increased risk of this outcome has been identified. Thus, even the extensive pre-licensure evaluations conducted did not identify an associated risk. The limitations of large Phase III trials have also been

  2. Capillary bundle model of hydraulic conductivity for frozen soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kunio; Flury, Markus

    2008-12-01

    We developed a capillary bundle model to describe water flow in frozen soil. We assume that the soil can be represented as a bundle of cylindrical capillaries. We consider that the freezing point in the capillaries is depressed according to the Gibbs-Thomson effect and that when stable ice forms in a capillary, the ice forms in the center of the capillaries, leaving a circular annulus open for liquid water flow. We use the model to demonstrate how the hydraulic conductivity changes as a function of temperature for both saturated and unsaturated soils, using a sand and two silt loam soils as examples. As temperature decreases, more and more ice forms, and the water flux consequently decreases. In frozen soil near 0°C, water predominantly flows through ice-free capillaries, so that the hydraulic conductivity of frozen soil is similar to that of an unfrozen soil with a water content equal to the unfrozen water content of the frozen soil. At low temperatures, however, ice forms in almost all capillaries, and the hydraulic conductivity of frozen soil is greater than that of unfrozen soil with the same water potential.

  3. Dislodgement of carbon nanotube bundles under pressure driven flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baowan, Duangkamon; Cox, Barry J; Hill, James M

    2010-04-16

    Experimental and predicted flow rates through carbon nanotubes vary considerably but generally are reported to be well in excess of that predicted by the conventional Poiseuille flow, and therefore nanotubes embedded in a matrix might provide membranes with exceptional mass transport properties. In this paper, applied mathematical modelling is undertaken to estimate the three forces acting on a nanotube bundle, namely the molecular interaction force, the viscous force, and the static pressure force. In deducing estimates of these forces we introduce a modification of the notion of the effective dead area for a carbon nanotube membrane, and we calculate the total forces necessary to push one or more of the nanotubes out of the bundle, thus creating a channel through which further enhancement of flow may take place. However, careful analysis shows that the nett dislodgement force is entirely independent on the useable flow area, but rather depends only on the total cross-sectional area perpendicular to the flow. This rather surprising result is a consequence of the flow being steady and a balance of the viscous and pressure forces. PMID:20332554

  4. Resolving bundled microtubules using anti-tubulin nanobodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhaylova, Marina; Cloin, Bas M C; Finan, Kieran; van den Berg, Robert; Teeuw, Jalmar; Kijanka, Marta M; Sokolowski, Mikolaj; Katrukha, Eugene A; Maidorn, Manuel; Opazo, Felipe; Moutel, Sandrine; Vantard, Marylin; Perez, Frank; van Bergen en Henegouwen, Paul M P; Hoogenraad, Casper C; Ewers, Helge; Kapitein, Lukas C

    2015-08-11

    Microtubules are hollow biopolymers of 25-nm diameter and are key constituents of the cytoskeleton. In neurons, microtubules are organized differently between axons and dendrites, but their precise organization in different compartments is not completely understood. Super-resolution microscopy techniques can detect specific structures at an increased resolution, but the narrow spacing between neuronal microtubules poses challenges because most existing labelling strategies increase the effective microtubule diameter by 20-40 nm and will thereby blend neighbouring microtubules into one structure. Here we develop single-chain antibody fragments (nanobodies) against tubulin to achieve super-resolution imaging of microtubules with a decreased apparent diameter. To test the resolving power of these novel probes, we generate microtubule bundles with a known spacing of 50-70 nm and successfully resolve individual microtubules. Individual bundled microtubules can also be resolved in different mammalian cells, including hippocampal neurons, allowing novel insights into fundamental mechanisms of microtubule organization in cell- and neurobiology.

  5. Effect of fibronectin on the binding of antithrombin III to immobilized heparin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Byun, Youngro; Jacobs, Harvey A.; Feijen, Jan; Kim, Sung Wan

    1996-01-01

    An objective of this research is to verify the mechanism of anticoagulant activity of surface-immobilized heparin in the presence of plasma proteins. The competition and binding interaction between immobilized heparin and antithrombin III (ATIII)/thrombin have been described in vitro. However, the s

  6. Complexation Effect on Redox Potential of Iron(III)-Iron(II) Couple: A Simple Potentiometric Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Masood Ahmad; Syed, Raashid Maqsood; Khan, Badruddin

    2011-01-01

    A titration curve with multiple inflection points results when a mixture of two or more reducing agents with sufficiently different reduction potentials are titrated. In this experiment iron(II) complexes are combined into a mixture of reducing agents and are oxidized to the corresponding iron(III) complexes. As all of the complexes involve the…

  7. Criteria for the onset of mixed convection and onset of recirculation in vertical rod bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Criteria were developed for the onset of recirculation and onset of mixed convection in vertical rod bundles. It was concluded that the dominant mechanisms governing mixed convection in rod bundles are the frictional and buoyancy forces. By balancing these two terms, the key dimensionless parameters were identified as Re and B*. The criteria was expressed in terms of a flow regime map of Re versus B*. It was found that the onset of mixed convection could be predicted with forced convection input parameters, but for the onset of recirculation the effect of buoyancy on mixing was important

  8. Shape of a Ponytail and the Statistical Physics of Hair Fiber Bundles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Raymond E.; Warren, Patrick B.; Ball, Robin C.

    2012-02-01

    A general continuum theory for the distribution of hairs in a bundle is developed, treating individual fibers as elastic filaments with random intrinsic curvatures. Applying this formalism to the iconic problem of the ponytail, the combined effects of bending elasticity, gravity, and orientational disorder are recast as a differential equation for the envelope of the bundle, in which the compressibility enters through an “equation of state.” From this, we identify the balance of forces in various regions of the ponytail, extract a remarkably simple equation of state from laboratory measurements of human ponytails, and relate the pressure to the measured random curvatures of individual hairs.

  9. Affordable Care Organizations and Bundled Pricing: A New Philosophy of Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barinaga, Gonzalo; Chambers, Monique C; El-Othmani, Mouhanad M; Siegrist, Richard B; Saleh, Khaled J

    2016-10-01

    Under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA), the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services' Innovation was chartered to develop new models of health care delivery. The changes meant a drastic need to restructure the health care system. To minimize costs and optimize quality, new laws encourage continuity in health care delivery within an integrated system. Affordable care organizations provided a model of high-quality care while reducing costs. Bundled payments can have a substantial effect on the national expenditures. This article examines new developments in bundle payments, affordable care organizations, and gainsharing agreements as they pertain to arthroplasty. PMID:27637657

  10. A Tannakian approach to dimensional reduction of principal bundles

    CERN Document Server

    Álvarez-Cónsul, Luis; García-Prada, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    Let $P$ be a parabolic subgroup of a connected simply connected complex semisimple Lie group $G$. Given a compact K\\"ahler manifold $X$, the dimensional reduction of $G$-equivariant holomorphic vector bundles over $X\\times G/P$ was carried out by the first and third authors. This raises the question of dimensional reduction of holomorphic principal bundles over $X\\times G/P$. The method used for equivariant vector bundles does not generalize to principal bundles. In this paper, we adapt to equivariant principal bundles the Tannakian approach of Nori, to describe the dimensional reduction of $G$-equivariant principal bundles over $X\\times G/P$, and to establish a Hitchin--Kobayashi type correspondence. In order to be able to apply the Tannakian theory, we need to assume that $X$ is a complex projective manifold.

  11. Monopoles and Modifications of Bundles over Elliptic Curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey M. Levin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Modifications of bundles over complex curves is an operation that allows one to construct a new bundle from a given one. Modifications can change a topological type of bundle. We describe the topological type in terms of the characteristic classes of the bundle. Being applied to the Higgs bundles modifications establish an equivalence between different classical integrable systems. Following Kapustin and Witten we define the modifications in terms of monopole solutions of the Bogomolny equation. We find the Dirac monopole solution in the case R × (elliptic curve. This solution is a three-dimensional generalization of the Kronecker series. We give two representations for this solution and derive a functional equation for it generalizing the Kronecker results. We use it to define Abelian modifications for bundles of arbitrary rank. We also describe non-Abelian modifications in terms of theta-functions with characteristic.

  12. Amplitude death of coupled hair bundles with stochastic channel noise

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Kyung-Joong

    2014-01-01

    Hair cells conduct auditory transduction in vertebrates. In lower vertebrates such as frogs and turtles, due to the active mechanism in hair cells, hair bundles(stereocilia) can be spontaneously oscillating or quiescent. Recently, the amplitude death phenomenon has been proposed [K.-H. Ahn, J. R. Soc. Interface, {\\bf 10}, 20130525 (2013)] as a mechanism for auditory transduction in frog hair-cell bundles, where sudden cessation of the oscillations arises due to the coupling between non-identical hair bundles. The gating of the ion channel is intrinsically stochastic due to the stochastic nature of the configuration change of the channel. The strength of the noise due to the channel gating can be comparable to the thermal Brownian noise of hair bundles. Thus, we perform stochastic simulations of the elastically coupled hair bundles. In spite of stray noisy fluctuations due to its stochastic dynamics, our simulation shows the transition from collective oscillation to amplitude death as inter-bundle coupling str...

  13. Differential geometry of complex vector bundles

    CERN Document Server

    Kobayashi, Shoshichi

    2014-01-01

    Holomorphic vector bundles have become objects of interest not only to algebraic and differential geometers and complex analysts but also to low dimensional topologists and mathematical physicists working on gauge theory. This book, which grew out of the author's lectures and seminars in Berkeley and Japan, is written for researchers and graduate students in these various fields of mathematics. Originally published in 1987. The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeto

  14. Riemann Surfaces: Vector Bundles, Physics, and Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sikander, Shehryar

    We construct quantum representation of a subgroup of the mapping class group of a genus two surface. Our construction relies on realizing this subgroup as the orbifold fundamental group of a Teichmueller curve, pulling back the Hitchin connection to this Tecihmueller curve, and computing...... the monodromy with respect to the pulled back connection. The formula for the representation includes a series with coefficients as iterated integrals. This series is closely related to the cyclotomic version of the Drinfel'd associator. The geodesic flow in the unit the tangent bundle of this Teichmueller...

  15. Compression of a bundle of light rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcuse, D

    1971-03-01

    The performance of ray compression devices is discussed on the basis of a phase space treatment using Liouville's theorem. It is concluded that the area in phase space of the input bundle of rays is determined solely by the required compression ratio and possible limitations on the maximum ray angle at the output of the device. The efficiency of tapers and lenses as ray compressors is approximately equal. For linear tapers and lenses the input angle of the useful rays must not exceed the compression ratio. The performance of linear tapers and lenses is compared to a particular ray compressor using a graded refractive index distribution.

  16. Tiling spaces are Cantor set fiber bundles

    OpenAIRE

    Sadun, Lorenzo; Williams, R F

    2001-01-01

    We prove that fairly general spaces of tilings of R^d are fiber bundles over the torus T^d, with totally disconnected fiber. This was conjectured (in a weaker form) in [W3], and proved in certain cases. In fact, we show that each such space is homeomorphic to the d-fold suspension of a Z^d subshift (or equivalently, a tiling space whose tiles are marked unit d-cubes). The only restrictions on our tiling spaces are that 1) the tiles are assumed to be polygons (polyhedra if d>2) that meet full-...

  17. Higher order mechanics on graded bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we develop a geometric approach to higher order mechanics on graded bundles in both, the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formalism, via the recently discovered weighted algebroids. We present the corresponding Tulczyjew triple for this higher order situation and derive in this framework the phase equations from an arbitrary (also singular) Lagrangian or Hamiltonian, as well as the Euler–Lagrange equations. As important examples, we geometrically derive the classical higher order Euler–Lagrange equations and analogous reduced equations for invariant higher order Lagrangians on Lie groupoids. (paper)

  18. Effect of ionizing radiation on the activity of restriction nucleases PvuII and HindIII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research is focused on the influence of the ionizing radiation on the activity of the restriction enzymes PvuII and HindIII. Enzymes PvuII and HindIII are restriction endonucleases of type II. These enzymes can be found in bacteria and they have a significant role in defense mechanisms of bacteria against viruses. They cleave DNA double helix at specific recognition palindromic sequences in the presence of cofactor Mg2+. PvuII cleaves the sequence CAG↓CTG and HindIII cleaves the sequence A↓AGCTT in marked places. Plasmid pcDNA3 has been used as the DNA substrate for the whole experimental study. It is 5446 base pairs (bp) long, circular DNA molecule and it contains three recognition sites for enzyme PvuII and one recognition site for enzyme HindIII. After the correct interaction of pcDNA3 with PvuII, we thus have three plasmid fragments with lengths 1069, 1097 and 3280 bp. When HindIII is incubated with this plasmid, we shall obtain the linear form of the DNA plasmid.The method for processing the cleaved DNA samples is the agarose gel electrophoresis. The activity of the irradiated enzymes decreases with increasing dose of radiation, because a part of the enzymes is deactivated due to induced radiation damage. To determine effect of radiation quality, samples were irradiated using proton and gamma sources. The results of our experimental study will be presented and discussed with respect to molecular structure of both enzymes and particular sites of radical damage influencing their function. (authors)

  19. Effect of calcium on adsorptive removal of As(III) and As(V) by iron oxide-based adsorbents

    KAUST Repository

    Uwamariya, V.

    2014-06-25

    The effects of calcium on the equilibrium adsorption capacity of As(III) and As(V) onto iron oxide-coated sand (IOCS) and granular ferric hydroxide (GFH) were investigated through batch experiments, rapid small-scale column tests (RSSCT) and kinetics modelling. Batch experiments showed that at calcium concentrations≤20 mg/L, high As(III) and As(V) removal efficiencies by IOCS and GFH are achieved at pH 6. An increase of the calcium concentration to 40 and 80 mg/L reversed this trend, giving higher removal efficiencies at higher pH (8). The adsorption capacities of IOCS and GFH at an equilibrium arsenic concentration of 10 g/L were found to be between 2.0 and 3.1 mg/g for synthetic water without calcium and between 2.8 and 5.3 mg/g when 80 mg/L of calcium was present at the studied pH values. After 10 hours of filter run in RSSCT, approximately 1000 empty bed volumes, the ratios of C/Co for As(V) were 26% and 18% for calcium-free model water; and only 1% and 0.2% after addition of 80 mg/L of Ca for filter columns with IOCS and GFH, respectively. The adsorption of As(III) and As(V) onto GFH follows a second-order reaction, with and without addition of calcium. The adsorption of As(III) and As(V) onto IOCS follows a first-order reaction without calcium addition, and moves to the second-reaction-order kinetics when calcium is added. Based on the intraparticle diffusion model, the main controlling mechanism for As(III) adsorption is intraparticle diffusion, while surface diffusion contributes greatly to the adsorption of As(V).

  20. Non-commutative P-1-bundles over commutative schemes

    OpenAIRE

    Van den Bergh, Michel

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we develop the theory of non-commutative P-1-bundles over commutative (smooth) schemes. Such non-commutative P-1-bundles occur in the theory of D-modules but our definition is more general. We can show that every non-commutative deformation of a Hirzebruch surface is given by a non-commutative P-1-bundle over P-1 in our sense.

  1. Bohr--Sommerfeld Lagrangians of moduli spaces of Higgs bundles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biswas, Indranil; Gammelgaard, Niels Leth; Logares, Marina

    Let $X$ be a compact connected Riemann surface of genus at least two. Let $M_H(r,d)$ denote the moduli space of semistable Higgs bundles on $X$ of rank $r$ and degree $d$. We prove that the compact complex Bohr-Sommerfeld Lagrangians of $M_H(r,d)$ are precisely the irreducible components of the n...... of the nilpotent cone in $M_H(r,d)$. This generalizes to Higgs $G$-bundles and also to the parabolic Higgs bundles....

  2. Hydration effects on the barrier function of stratum corneum lipids: Raman analysis of ceramides 2, III and 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tfayli, Ali; Jamal, Dima; Vyumvuhore, Raoul; Manfait, Michel; Baillet-Guffroy, Arlette

    2013-11-01

    The stratum corneum is the outermost layer of the skin; its barrier function is highly dependent on the composition and the structure as well as the organization of lipids in its extracellular matrix. Ceramides, free fatty acids and cholesterol represent the major lipid classes present in this matrix. They play an important role in maintaining the normal hydration levels required for the normal physiological function. Despite the advancement in the understanding of the structure, composition and the function of the stratum corneum (SC), the concern of "dry skin" remains important in dermatology and care research. Most studies focus on the quantification of water in the skin using different techniques including Raman spectroscopy, while the studies that investigate the effect of hydration on the quality of the barrier function of the skin are limited. Raman spectroscopy provides structural, conformational and organizational information that could help elucidate the effect of hydration on the barrier function of the skin. In order to assess the effect of relative humidity on the lipid barrier function; we used Raman spectroscopy to follow-up the evolution of the conformation and the organization of three synthetic ceramides (CER) differing from each other by the nature of their polar heads (sphingosine, phytosphingosine and α hydroxyl sphingosine), CER 2, III and 5 respectively. CER III and 5 showed a more compact and ordered organization with stronger polar interactions at intermediate relative humidity values, while CER 2 showed opposite tendencies to those observed with CER III and 5.

  3. Environmental influence on the single-molecule magnet behavior of [Mn(III)6Cr(III)]3+: molecular symmetry versus solid-state effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeke, Veronika; Heidemeier, Maik; Krickemeyer, Erich; Stammler, Anja; Bögge, Hartmut; Schnack, Jürgen; Postnikov, Andrei; Glaser, Thorsten

    2012-10-15

    The structural, spectroscopic, and magnetic properties of a series of [Mn(III)(6)Cr(III)](3+) (= [{(talen(t-Bu(2)))Mn(III)(3)}(2){Cr(III)(CN)(6)}](3+)) compounds have been investigated by single-crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and electronic absorption spectroscopy, elemental analysis, electro spray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS), cyclic voltammetry, AC and DC magnetic measurements, as well as theoretical analysis. The crystal structures obtained with [Cr(III)(CN)(6)](3-) as a counterion exhibit (quasi-)one-dimensional (1D) chains formed by hydrogen-bonded (1) or covalently linked (2) trications and trianions. The rod-shaped anion lactate enforces a rod packing of the [Mn(III)(6)Cr(III)](3+) complexes in the highly symmetric space group R3[overline] (3) with a collinear arrangement of the molecular S(6) axes. Incorporation of the spherical anion BPh(4)(-) leads to less-symmetric crystal structures (4-6) with noncollinear orientations of the [Mn(III)(6)Cr(III)](3+) complexes, as evidenced by the angle between the approximate molecular C(3) axes taking no specific values in the range of 2°-69°. AC magnetic measurements on freshly isolated crystals (1a and 3a-6a), air-dried crystals (3b-6b), and vacuum-dried powder samples (3c-6c) indicate single-molecule magnet (SMM) behavior for all samples with U(eff) values up to 28 K. The DC magnetic data are analyzed by a full-matrix diagonalization of the appropriate spin-Hamiltonian including isotropic exchange, zero-field splitting, and Zeeman interaction, taking into account the relative orientation of the D-tensors. Simulations for 3a-6a and 3c-6c indicate a weak antiferromagnetic exchange between the Mn(III) ions in the trinuclear subunits (J(Mn-Mn) = -0.70 to -0.85 cm(-1), Ĥ(ex) = -2∑(i

  4. Annular burnout data from rod-bundle experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnout data for annular flow in a rod bundle are presented for both transient and steady-state conditions. Tests were performed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the Thermal Hydraulic Test Facility (THTF), a pressurized-water loop containing an electrically heated 64-rod bundle. The bundle configuration is typical of later generation pressurized-water reactors with 17 x 17 fuel arrays. Both axial and radial power profiles are flat. All experiments were carried out in upflow with subcooled inlet conditions, insuring accurate flow measurement. Conditions within the bundle were typical of those which could be encountered during a nuclear reactor loss-of-coolant accident

  5. Robust Mapping of Incoherent Fiber-Optic Bundles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Harry E.; Deason, Brent E.; DePlachett, Charles P.; Pilgrim, Robert A.; Sanford, Harold S.

    2007-01-01

    A method and apparatus for mapping between the positions of fibers at opposite ends of incoherent fiber-optic bundles have been invented to enable the use of such bundles to transmit images in visible or infrared light. The method is robust in the sense that it provides useful mapping even for a bundle that contains thousands of narrow, irregularly packed fibers, some of which may be defective. In a coherent fiber-optic bundle, the input and output ends of each fiber lie at identical positions in the input and output planes; therefore, the bundle can be used to transmit images without further modification. Unfortunately, the fabrication of coherent fiber-optic bundles is too labor-intensive and expensive for many applications. An incoherent fiber-optic bundle can be fabricated more easily and at lower cost, but it produces a scrambled image because the position of the end of each fiber in the input plane is generally different from the end of the same fiber in the output plane. However, the image transmitted by an incoherent fiber-optic bundle can be unscrambled (or, from a different perspective, decoded) by digital processing of the output image if the mapping between the input and output fiber-end positions is known. Thus, the present invention enables the use of relatively inexpensive fiber-optic bundles to transmit images.

  6. Bundle formation in parallel aligned polymers with competing interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Sandipan; Benetatos, P.; Jho, Y. S.

    2016-04-01

    Aggregation of like-charged polymers is widely observed in biological- and soft-matter systems. In many systems, bundles are formed when a short-range attraction of diverse physical origin like charge bridging, hydrogen bonding or hydrophobic interaction, overcomes the longer-range charge repulsion. In this letter, we present a general mechanism of bundle formation in these systems as the breaking of the translational invariance in parallel aligned polymers with competing interactions of this type. We derive a criterion for finite-sized bundle formation as well as for macroscopic phase separation (formation of infinite bundles).

  7. Steady-flow characteristics of bundle fluid in drawing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huh, You; Kim, Jong Seong [Kyunghee University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-15

    Drawing is a mechanical operation attenuating material thickness to an appropriate level for the next processing or end usage. When the input material has a form of bundle or bundles made of very thin and long shaped wires or fibers, this attenuation operation is called 'bundle drawing' or 'drafting'. Bundle drawing is being used widely in manufacturing micro sized wires or staple yarns. However, the bundle processed by this operation has more or less defects in the evenness of linear density. Such irregularities cause many problems not only for the product quality but also for the efficiency of the next successive processes. In this research a mathematical model for the dynamic behavior of the bundle fluid is to be set up on the basis of general physical laws containing physical variables, i.e. linear density and velocity as the dynamic state variables of the bundle fluid. The governing equations resulting from the modeling show that they appear in a slightly different form from what they do in a continuum fluid. Then, the governing equations system is simplified in a steady state and the bundle dynamics is simulated, showing that the shape of the velocity profiles depends on two model parameters. Experiments confirm that the model parameters are to be well adjusted to show a coincidence with the theoretical analysis. The higher the drawing ratio and drawing speed are, the more sensitive becomes the bundle flow to exogenous disturbances.

  8. Mechanistic investigation of food effect on disintegration and dissolution of BCS class III compound solid formulations: the importance of viscosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radwan, Asma; Amidon, Gordon L; Langguth, Peter

    2012-10-01

    A negative food effect, i.e. a decrease in bioavailability upon the co-administration of compounds together with food, has been attributed particularly with high solubility/low permeability compounds (BCS class III). Different mechanisms have been proposed including intestinal dilution leading to a lower concentration gradient across the intestinal wall as well as binding of the active pharmaceutical ingredient to food components in the intestine and thereby decreasing the fraction of the dose available for absorption. These mechanisms refer primarily to the compound and not to the dosage form. An increase in viscosity of the dissolution fluid will in particular affect the absorption of BCS type III compounds with preferential absorption in the upper small intestine if the API release is delayed from the dosage form. The present study demonstrated that the increase in viscosity of the dissolution medium, following ingestion of a solid meal, may drastically reduce disintegration and dissolution. For that purpose the viscosity of the standard FDA meal was determined and simulated by solutions of HPMC in buffer. As model formulations, three commercially available tablets containing trospium chloride, a BCS class III m-cholinoreceptor antagonist was used. Trospium chloride drug products have been described to undergo a negative food effect of more than 80% following ingestion with food. The tablets showed prolonged disintegration times and reduced dissolution rates in viscous media, which could be attributed to changes in the liquid penetration rates. The effect was particularly significant for film-coated tablets relative to uncoated dosage forms. The results show the necessity of considering media viscosity when designing in vitro models of drug release for BCS type III drug formulations.

  9. Development boiling to sprinkled tube bundle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kracík, Petr; Pospíšil, Jiří

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents results of a studied heat transfer coefficient at the surface of a sprinkled tube bundle where boiling occurs. Research in the area of sprinkled exchangers can be divided into two major parts. The first part is research on heat transfer and determination of the heat transfer coefficient at sprinkled tube bundles for various liquids, whether boiling or not. The second part is testing of sprinkle modes for various tube diameters, tube pitches and tube materials and determination of individual modes' interface. All results published so far for water as the falling film liquid apply to one to three tubes for which the mentioned relations studied are determined in rigid laboratory conditions defined strictly in advance. The sprinkled tubes were not viewed from the operational perspective where there are more tubes and various modes may occur in different parts with various heat transfer values. The article focuses on these processes. The tube is located in a low-pressure chamber where vacuum is generated using an exhauster via ejector. The tube consists of smooth copper tubes of 12 mm diameter placed horizontally one above another.

  10. Adsorption site analysis of impurity embedded single-walled carbon nanotube bundles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnihotri, S.; Mota, J.P.B.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Rood, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    Bundle morphology and adsorptive contributions from nanotubes and impurities are studied both experimentally and by simulation using a computer-aided methodology, which employs a small physisorbed probe molecule to explore the porosity of nanotube samples. Grand canonical Monte Carlo simulation of nitrogen adsorption on localized sites of a bundle is carried out to predict adsorption in its accessible internal pore volume and on its external surface as a function of tube diameter. External adsorption is split into the contributions from the clean surface of the outermost nanotubes of the bundle and from the surface of the impurities. The site-specific isotherms are then combined into a global isotherm for a given sample using knowledge of its tube-diameter distribution obtained by Raman spectroscopy. The structural parameters of the sample, such as the fraction of open-ended nanotubes and the contributions from impurities and nanotube bundles to total external surface area, are determined by fitting the experimental nitrogen adsorption data to the simulated isotherm. The degree of closure between experimental and calculated adsorption isotherms for samples manufactured by two different methods, to provide different nanotube morphology and contamination level, further strengthens the validity and resulting interpretations based on the proposed approach. The average number of nanotubes per bundle and average bundle size, within a sample, are also quantified. The proposed method allows for extrapolation of adsorption properties to conditions where the purification process is 100% effective at removing all impurities and opening access to all intrabundle adsorption sites. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Electrochemical Studies of the Inhibition and Activation Effects of Al (III on the Activity of Bovine Liver Glutamate Dehydrogenase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuping Bi

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the study of Al3+ ion on the enzyme activity by using of electrochemical techniques was rarely found in available literatures, the differential-pulse polarography (DPP technique was applied to study the effects of Al3+ ion on the glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH activity in the catalytical reaction of α-KG +NADH+NH4 + ⇔ L-Glu+NAD++H2O by monitoring the DPP reduction current of NAD+. At the plant and animal physiologically relevant pH values (pH=6.5 and 7.5, the GDH enzyme activities were strongly depended on the concentrations of the metal ion in the assay mixture solutions. In the lower Al (III concentration solutions (80μM, the inhibition effects of Al (III were shown again. The cyclic voltammetry of NAD+ and NAD+-GDH in the presence of Al (III can help to explain some biological phenomena. According to the differential-pulse polarography and cyclic voltammetry experiments, the present research confirmed that the electrochemical technique is a convenient and reliable sensor for accurate determination of enzyme activity in biological and environmental samples.

  12. Proteomic and metabolomic analysis on the toxicological effects of As (III) and As (V) in juvenile mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Deliang; Ji, Chenglong; Zhao, Jianmin; Wu, Huifeng

    2016-05-01

    Inorganic arsenic (As) is a known pollutant including two chemical forms (arsenite (As III) and arsenate (As V)), in marine and coastal environment. Marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis is an important environmental monitoring species around the world. In this study, we focused on valence-specific responses of As in juvenile mussel M. galloprovincialis using a combined proteomic and metabolomic approach. Metabolic responses indicated that As (III) mainly caused disturbance in osmotic regulation in juvenile mussels. As (V) caused disturbances in both osmotic regulation and energy metabolism marked by different metabolic responses, including betaine, taurine, glucose and glycogen. Proteomic responses exhibited that As (III) had a significant negative effect on cytoskeleton and cell structure (actin and collagen alpha-6(VI) chain). As (V) affected some key enzymes involved in energy metabolism (cytosolic malate dehydrogenase, cMDH) and cell development (ornithine aminotransferase and astacin). Overall, all these results confirmed the valence-specific responses in juvenile mussels to As exposures. These findings demonstrate that a combined metabolomic and proteomic approach could provide an important insight into the toxicological effects of environmental pollutants in organisms.

  13. DRD4-exonIII-VNTR moderates the effect of childhood adversities on emotional resilience in young-adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debjani Das

    Full Text Available Most individuals successfully maintain psychological well-being even when exposed to trauma or adversity. Emotional resilience or the ability to thrive in the face of adversity is determined by complex interactions between genetic makeup, previous exposure to stress, personality, coping style, availability of social support, etc. Recent studies have demonstrated that childhood trauma diminishes resilience in adults and affects mental health. The Dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4 exon III variable number tandem repeat (VNTR polymorphism was reported to moderate the impact of adverse childhood environment on behaviour, mood and other health-related outcomes. In this study we investigated whether DRD4-exIII-VNTR genotype moderates the effect of childhood adversities (CA on resilience. In a representative population sample (n = 1148 aged 30-34 years, we observed an interactive effect of DRD4 genotype and CA (β = 0.132; p = 0.003 on resilience despite no main effect of the genotype when effects of age, gender and education were controlled for. The 7-repeat allele appears to protect against the adverse effect of CA since the decline in resilience associated with increased adversity was evident only in individuals without the 7-repeat allele. Resilience was also significantly associated with approach-/avoidance-related personality measures (behavioural inhibition/activation system; BIS/BAS measures and an interactive effect of DRD4-exIII-VNTR genotype and CA on BAS was observed. Hence it is possible that approach-related personality traits could be mediating the effect of the DRD4 gene and childhood environment interaction on resilience such that when stressors are present, the 7-repeat allele influences the development of personality in a way that provides protection against adverse outcomes.

  14. Effect of method of crystallization on the IV-III and IV-II polymorphic transitions of ammonium nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study has been undertaken on the effect of crystallization method on the IV ↔ III transition of ammonium nitrate (AN). AN is crystallized in three different ways, viz. recrystallization, evaporative crystallization and melt crystallization. When the samples were crystallized from saturated aqueous solution, ideal crystals were formed, which behaved differently from the crystals formed from the other methods. The DTA examination of the crystals showed that the crystals have different transition behaviour. The moisture uptake of the samples determined were found to have influenced by the mode of crystallization. The samples were further analyzed by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The present study showed that the parameters like thermal history, number of previous transformations and moisture content have a very negligible influence on the IV ↔ III transition of AN as compared to the method of crystallization

  15. Hierarchical composites: Analysis of damage evolution based on fiber bundle model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishnaevsky, Leon

    2011-01-01

    A computational model of multiscale composites is developed on the basis of the fiber bundle model with the hierarchical load sharing rule, and employed to study the effect of the microstructures of hierarchical composites on their damage resistance. Two types of hierarchical materials were consi...

  16. Reflood Phenomena in a 5 x 5 Ballooned Rod Bundle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Byoung Jae; Kim, Jong Rok; Kim, Kihwan; Moon, S. K. [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Various experimental programs were carried out for the coolability of an assembly containing a partial blockage in a group of ballooned fuel rods under LOCA conditions. A review on these experimental programs is well documented in. One key distinguished feature of KAERI research activities is the consideration of local power increase owing to fuel relocation, whereas the past experimental program did not consider the effect of fuel relocation. The purpose of this study is to investigate the reflood phenomena in the partial blocked 5 x 5 rod bundle. A series of the forced reflood tests were performed with/without consideration of local power increase by fuel relocation. The experimental data were evaluated with numerical predictions using MARS code. The flow blockage alone has little effect on the peak wall temperature. However, the local power increase by fuel relocation affects considerably the peak wall temperature and the time period during which high wall temperatures continue.

  17. Reflood Phenomena in a 5 x 5 Ballooned Rod Bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various experimental programs were carried out for the coolability of an assembly containing a partial blockage in a group of ballooned fuel rods under LOCA conditions. A review on these experimental programs is well documented in. One key distinguished feature of KAERI research activities is the consideration of local power increase owing to fuel relocation, whereas the past experimental program did not consider the effect of fuel relocation. The purpose of this study is to investigate the reflood phenomena in the partial blocked 5 x 5 rod bundle. A series of the forced reflood tests were performed with/without consideration of local power increase by fuel relocation. The experimental data were evaluated with numerical predictions using MARS code. The flow blockage alone has little effect on the peak wall temperature. However, the local power increase by fuel relocation affects considerably the peak wall temperature and the time period during which high wall temperatures continue

  18. Heat-transfer augmentation in rod bundles near grid spacers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heat-transfer augmentation by straight grid spacers in rod bundles is studied for single-phase flow and for post-critical heat flux dispersed flow. The heat transfer effect of swirling grid spacers in single-phase flow is also examined. Governing heat-transfer mechanisms are analyzed, and predictive formulations are established. For single-phase flow, the local heat transfer at a straight spacer and at its upstream or downstream locations are treated separately. The effect of local velocity increasing near swirling spacer is considered. For post critical heat flux (CHF) dispersed flow, the heat transfer by thermal radiation, fin cooling, and vapor convection near the spacer are calculated. The predictions are compared with experimental data with satisfactory agreement

  19. [Effect of extraoral facemask appliance in 48 cases of malocclusion and dentofacial deformity in class III].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X; Su, X

    1993-10-01

    Malocclusion and dentofacial deformity in class III is always characterized by maxillary skeletal retrusion and/or mandibular protrusion. It affects function and facial esthetics. An orthopedic mask appliance with class III extraoral traction made by the authors was applied in 48 cases from Aug. 1985 to Oct. 1991. The study population included 5 patients with deciduous dentition, 30 with permanent dentition, and 13 with mixed dentition. The second deciduous molars or permanent first molars are a class III relationship. These exhibited bilateral crossbites and negative overjet greater than 5 mm severe arch length discrepancies existed in both arches, maxillary skeletal retrusion and/or mandibular protrusion. The results of these 48 cases were very satisfactory. The relationship between maxillary and mandibular second deciduous molar or permanent first molar all showed centric occlusal position. Dentofacial orthopedics therapy is one of the most important treatments of malocclusion and dentofacial deformity. The choice of therapy and orthodontic force must follow the age and endurance of the patient. Also, exercise of the tongue muscle must be considered.

  20. Revisiting The First Galaxies: The effects of Population III stars on their host galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Muratov, Alexander L; Gnedin, Nickolay Y; Zemp, Marcel

    2012-01-01

    We revisit the formation and evolution of the first galaxies using new hydrodynamic cosmological simulations with the ART code. Our simulations feature a recently developed model for H2 formation and dissociation, and a star formation recipe that is based on molecular rather than atomic gas. Here, we develop and implement a new recipe for the formation of metal-free Population III stars. We find the epoch during which Pop III stars dominated the energy and metal budget of the first galaxies to be short-lived. Galaxies which host Pop III stars do not retain dynamical signatures of their thermal and radiative feedback for more than 10^8 yr after the lives of the stars end in pair-instability supernovae, even when we consider the maximum reasonable efficiency of the feedback. Though metals ejected by the supernovae can travel well beyond the virial radius of the host galaxy, they will typically begin to fall back quickly, and do not enrich a large fraction of the intergalactic medium. Galaxies more massive than ...

  1. Sugar in disguise or healthy indulgence: A cross-cultural comparision of the perceptions of dietary vice/virtue bundles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiraporn Napatsorn

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Consumers often choose virtue food to attain health goals and vice food to achieve indulgence goals. However, food and beverage companies have begun to nullify the vice and virtue categories by bundling vice and virtue ingredients into a single item (e.g. Yogurt with Oreo topping. This research contrasts how consumers from Asian and Western cultures evaluate such vice/virtue food bundles. Building on the perceptual processes and regulatory focus literatures, two cross-cultural experiments using participants in Thailand and the U.S. shows that Westerners prefer virtue-heavy bundles to vice-heavy bundles while Asians show similar preference across both types of bundle. Process measures revealed that Asians perceive greater fit between vice and virtue components in the bundles than Westerners and this perceived fit mediates the effect of culture on their food choice. Study 2 reveals the boundary condition. Specifically, when regulatory focus was manipulated, the effect of culture is no longer significant. The findings provide managerial implications for food and beverage companies as well as contributions to consumer behavior literature.

  2. Evaluation of Single-Bundle versus Double-Bundle PCL Reconstructions with More Than 10-Year Follow-Up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masataka Deie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL injuries are not rare in acute knee injuries, and several recent anatomical studies of the PCL and reconstructive surgical techniques have generated improved patient results. Now, we have evaluated PCL reconstructions performed by either the single-bundle or double-bundle technique in a patient group followed up retrospectively for more than 10 years. Methods. PCL reconstructions were conducted using the single-bundle (27 cases or double-bundle (13 cases method from 1999 to 2002. The mean age at surgery was 34 years in the single-bundle group and 32 years in the double-bundle group. The mean follow-up period was 12.5 years. Patients were evaluated by Lysholm scoring, the gravity sag view, and knee arthrometry. Results. The Lysholm score after surgery was 89.1±5.6 points for the single-bundle group and 91.9±4.5 points for the double-bundle group. There was no significant difference between the methods in the side-to-side differences by gravity sag view or knee arthrometer evaluation, although several cases in both groups showed a side-to-side difference exceeding 5 mm by the latter evaluation method. Conclusions. We found no significant difference between single- and double-bundle PCL reconstructions during more than 10 years of follow-up.

  3. Fatigue crack growth in mixed mode I+III+III non proportional loading conditions in a 316 stainless steel, experimental analysis and modelization of the effects of crack tip plasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis deals with fatigue crack growth in non-proportional variable amplitude mixed mode I + II + III loading conditions and analyses the effects of internal stresses stemming from the confinement of the plastic zone in small scale yielding conditions. The tests showed that there are antagonistic long-distance and short-distance effects of the loading history on fatigue crack growth. The shape of loading path, and not only the maximum and minimum values in this path, is crucial and, by comparison, the effects of contact and friction are of lesser importance. Internal stresses play a major role on the fatigue crack growth rate and on the crack path. An approach was developed to analyze the elastic-plastic behavior of a representative section of the crack front using the FEA. A model reduction technic is used to extract the relevant information from the FE results. To do so, the velocity field is partitioned into mode I, II, III elastic and plastic components, each component being characterized by an intensity factor and a fixed spatial distribution. The calculations were used to select seven loading paths in I + II and I + II + III mixed mode conditions, which all have the same amplitudes for each mode, the same maximum, minimum and average values. These paths are supposed to be equivalent in the sense of common failure criteria, but differ significantly when the elastic-plastic behavior of the material is accounted for. The results of finite element simulations and of simulations using a simplified model proposed in this thesis are both in agreement with experimental results. The approach was also used to discuss the role of mode III loading steps. Since the material behavior is nonlinear, the nominal loading direction does not coincide with the plastic flow direction. Adding a mode III loading step in a mode I+II fatigue cycle, may, in some cases, significantly modify the behaviour of the crack (crack growth rate, crack path and plastic flow). (author)

  4. Implementation of a bundle of care to reduce surgical site infections in patients undergoing vascular surgery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasper van der Slegt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Surgical site infections (SSI's are associated with severe morbidity, mortality and increased health care costs in vascular surgery. OBJECTIVE: To implement a bundle of care in vascular surgery and measure the effects on the overall and deep-SSI's rates. DESIGN: Prospective, quasi-experimental, cohort study. METHODS: A prospective surveillance for SSI's after vascular surgery was performed in the Amphia hospital in Breda, from 2009 through 2011. A bundle developed by the Dutch hospital patient safety program (DHPSP was introduced in 2009. The elements of the bundle were (1 perioperative normothermia, (2 hair removal before surgery, (3 the use of perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis and (4 discipline in the operating room. Bundle compliance was measured every 3 months in a random sample of surgical procedures and this was used for feedback. RESULTS: Bundle compliance improved significantly from an average of 10% in 2009 to 60% in 2011. In total, 720 vascular procedures were performed during the study period and 75 (10.4% SSI were observed. Deep SSI occurred in 25 (3.5% patients. Patients with SSI's (28,5±29.3 vs 10.8±11.3, p<0.001 and deep-SSI's (48.3±39.4 vs 11.4±11.8, p<0.001 had a significantly longer length of hospital stay after surgery than patients without an infection. A significantly higher mortality was observed in patients who developed a deep SSI (Adjusted OR: 2.96, 95% confidence interval 1.32-6.63. Multivariate analysis showed a significant and independent decrease of the SSI-rate over time that paralleled the introduction of the bundle. The SSI-rate was 51% lower in 2011 compared to 2009. CONCLUSION: The implementation of the bundle was associated with improved compliance over time and a 51% reduction of the SSI-rate in vascular procedures. The bundle did not require expensive or potentially harmful interventions and is therefore an important tool to improve patient safety and reduce SSI's in patients undergoing

  5. Boiling on a tube bundle: heat transfer, pressure drop and flow patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The complexity of two-phase flow boiling on a tube bundle presents many challenges to the understanding of the physical phenomena taking place. It is important to quantify these numerous heat flow mechanisms in order to better describe the performance of tube bundles as a function of the operational conditions. In the present study, the bundle boiling facility at the Laboratory of Heat and Mass Transfer (LTCM) was modified to obtain high-speed videos to characterise the two-phase regimes and some bubble dynamics of the boiling process. It was then used to measure heat transfer on single tubes and in bundle boiling conditions. Pressure drop measurements were also made during adiabatic and diabatic bundle conditions. New enhanced boiling tubes from Wolverine Tube Inc. (Turbo-B5) and the Wieland-Werke AG (Gewa-B5) were investigated using R134a and R236fa as test fluids. The tests were carried out at saturation temperatures Tsat of 5 °C and 15 °C, mass flow rates from 4 to 35 kg/m2s and heat fluxes from 15 to 70 kW/m2, typical of actual operating conditions. The flow pattern investigation was conducted using visual observations from a borescope inserted in the middle of the bundle. Measurements of the light attenuation of a laser beam through the intertube two-phase flow and local pressure fluctuations with piezo-electric pressure transducers were also taken to further help in characterising the complex flow. Pressure drop measurements and data reduction procedures were revised and used to develop new, improved frictional pressure drop prediction methods for adiabatic and diabatic two-phase conditions. The physical phenomena governing the enhanced tube evaporation process and their effects on the performance of tube bundles were investigated and insight gained. A new method based on a theoretical analysis of thin film evaporation was used to propose a new correlating parameter. A large new database of local heat transfer coefficients were obtained and then utilised

  6. COPD exacerbation care bundle improves standard of care, length of stay, and readmission rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parikh R

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Raj Parikh,1 Trushil G Shah,2 Rajive Tandon2 1Department of Internal Medicine, 2Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, USA Introduction: COPD is the third leading cause of death in the world. Utilizing care bundles during acute COPD exacerbations results in fewer complications and lower costs. Our aim was to construct a COPD exacerbation care bundle and evaluate the effects on patient care. Methods: We conducted a prospective analysis of 44 patients admitted with a COPD exacerbation to a single tertiary care facility. Primary outcomes included length of stay, readmission rates, and hospital costs. Secondary outcomes included patient education, pulmonologist follow-up, and timeliness of medication administration. Two cohorts were analyzed: those treated with an electronic COPD care bundle (cases; N=22 versus those treated without the care bundle (controls; N=22. Results: Mean length of stay (51.2 vs 101.1 hours in controls; P-value =0.001, 30-day readmission rates (9.1% vs 54.4% in controls; P-value =0.001, and 60-day readmission rates (22.7% vs 77% in controls; P-value =0.0003 decreased in the care bundle group. Ninety-day hospital costs had a significant difference in the care bundle group (US$7,652 vs US$19,954 in controls; P-value =0.044. Secondary outcomes included a 100% rate of COPD inhaler teaching (vs 27.3% in controls; P-value <0.001, 59.1% rate of pulmonologist follow-up after discharge (vs 18.2% in controls; P-value =0.005, and a mean reduction in time to steroid administration (7.0 hours; P-value =0.015 seen in the care bundle cases. Conclusion: Our significant findings coupled with the recent success of standardized algorithms in managing COPD exacerbations stress the importance of enforcing clinical guidelines that can enhance patient care. We demonstrated improved care for COPD exacerbation patients during hospitalizations, thereby decreasing morbidity and the financial

  7. Effects of chromium(III and VI) on spring barley and maize biomass yield and content of nitrogenous compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyszkowski, Mirosław; Radziemska, Maja

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to (1) determine the effects of trivalent Cr(III) or hexavalent chromium Cr(VI) soil contamination on biomass yield and nitrogenous compound content of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) as the main crop and subsequently maize (Zea mays L.) grown successively, and (2) examine whether the neutralizing additives applied (compost, zeolite, and calcium oxide) may be effective in reducing adverse impact of chromium (Cr) on crops. Spring barley yield was markedly decreased by Cr compounds, particularly Cr(VI). In contrast, maize yield was significantly increased by Cr(VI). Hexavalent Cr exerted a greater effect than the Cr(III) form on nitrogen levels in spring barley. Chromium significantly increased ammonia nitrogen content in maize. The accumulation of NO(3)(-)-N in plants treated with Cr(VI) was lower than in controls. The application of compost, zeolite, and calcium oxide onto the soil increased yield of maize only in pots containing Cr(III). Neutralizing additives exerted a positive, increased effect on the N-total content of maize but not spring barley, which was apparent with calcium oxide. Accumulation of NH(4)(+)-N in maize in pots with Cr(VI) was increased by all additives applied. The content of nitrate nitrogen in spring barley was predominantly affected by addition of compost and calcium oxide into the soil, producing a significant rise in NO(3)(-)-N content. Chromium, especially Cr(VI), used at doses of 100 and 150 mg/kg soil exerted adverse effects in treated plants, particularly spring barley.

  8. Effect of nitrate enrichment and diatoms on the bioavailability of Fe(III) oxyhydroxide colloids in seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng-Jiao; Huang, Bang-Qin; Li, Shun-Xing; Zheng, Feng-Ying; Huang, Xu-Guang

    2016-03-01

    The photoconversion of colloidal iron oxyhydroxides was a significant source of bioavailable iron in coastal systems. Diatoms dominate phytoplankton communities in coastal and upwelling regions. Diatoms are often exposed to eutrophication. We investigated the effects of different species of diatom, cell density, illumination period, and nitrate additions on the bioavailability of Fe(III) oxy-hydroxide colloids in seawaters. With the increase of illumination period from 1 to 4 h, the ratios of concentrations of total dissolved Fe (DFe) to colloidal iron oxyhydroxides and Fe(II) to DFe increased up to 24.3% and 23.9% for seawater without coastal diatoms, 45.6% and 30.2% for Skeletonema costatum, 44.3% and 29.7% for Thalassiosira weissflogii, respectively. The photochemical activity of coastal diatoms themselves (excluding the dissolved organic matter secreted by algae) on the species transformation of iron in seawater (including the light-induced dissolution of Fe(III) oxyhydroxide colloids and the photo-reduction of Fe(III) into Fe(II)) was confirmed for the first time. There was no significant difference of the ability of S. costatum and Thalassiosira weissflogii on the photoconversion of colloidal iron oxyhydroxides. The photoproduction of dissolved Fe(II) and DFe in the seawater with or without diatoms could be depressed by the nitrate addition. PMID:26766021

  9. Kinetic spectrophotometric determination of Bi(III based on its catalytic effect on the oxidation of phenylfluorone by hydrogen peroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOFIJA M. RANČIĆ

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A new reaction was suggested and a new kinetic method was elaborated for determination of Bi(III in solution, based on its catalytic effect on the oxidation of phenyl-fluorone (PF by hydrogen peroxide in ammonia buffer. By application of spectrophotometric technique, a limit of quantification (LQ of 128 ng cm-3 was reached, and the limit of detection (LD of 37 ng cm-3 was obtained, where LQ was defined as the ratio signal:noise = 10:1 and LD was defined as signal 3:1 against the blank. The RSD value was found to be in the range 2.8–4.8 % for the investigated concentration range of Bi(III. The influence of some ions upon the reaction rate was tested. The method was confirmed by determining Bi(III in a stomach ulcer drug (“Bicit HP”, Hemofarm A.D.. The obtained results were compared to those obtained by AAS and good agreement of results was obtained.

  10. Comparative transduction mechanisms of hair cells in the bullfrog uticulus. 2: Sensitivity and response dynamics to hair bundle displacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Richard A.

    1994-01-01

    The present study was motivated by an interest in seeing whether hair cell types in the bullfrog utriculus might differ in their voltage responses to hair bundle displacement. Particular interest was in assessing the contributions of two factors to the responses of utricular hair cells. First, interest in examining the effect of hair bundle morphology on the sensitivity of hair cells to natural stimulation was motivated by the observation that vestibular hair cells, unlike many auditory hair cells, are not free-standing but rather linked to an accessory cupular or otolithic membrane via the tip of their kinocilium. Interest also laid in examining the contribution, if any, of adaptation to the response properties of utricular hair cells. Hair cells in auditory and vibratory inner ear endorgans adapt to maintained displacements of their hair bundles, sharply limiting their low frequency sensitivity. This adaptation is mediated by a shift in the displacement-response curve (DRC) of the hair cell along the displacement axis. Observations suggest that the adaptation process occurs within the hair bundle and precedes mechanoelectric transduction. Recent observations of time-dependent changes in hair bundle stiffness are consistent with this conclusion. Adaptation would be expected to be most useful in inner ear endorgans in which hair cells are subject to large static displacements that could potentially saturate their instantaneous response and compromise their sensitivity to high frequency stimulation. The adaptation process also permits hair cells to maintain their sensory hair bundle in the most sensitive portion of their DRC. In vestibular otolith organs in which static sensitivity is desirable, any adaptation process in the hair cells may be undesirable. The rate and extent of the decline of the voltage responses was measured of utricular hair cells to step and sinusoidal hair bundle displacements. Then for similar resting potentials and response amplitudes, the

  11. Short-Term Effect of Right Atrial and Left Uni-Ventricular Pacing in Patients of Chronic Heart Failure With Left Bundle-Branch Block%右心房、左心室起搏治疗慢性心力衰竭伴左束支传导阻滞患者的短期疗效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱春光; 王徐乐; 韩战营; 卢文杰; 陈晓杰

    2012-01-01

    目的:观察右心房、左心室起搏治疗慢性心力衰竭(心衰)伴左束支传导阻滞患者的短期疗效.方法:选择纽约心功能分级(NYHA)Ⅲ级~Ⅳ级、左心室射血分数≤0.35、体表心电图QRS时限≥120 ms、窦性心律的心衰患者26例,成功植入三腔起搏器后,以右心房、左心室起搏模式治疗7天,以起搏器植入术前及术后第7天的6分钟步行距离、明尼苏达生活质量评分、QRS波时限、左心室舒张末期内径、左心室射血分数、左心室室间隔部与侧壁基底段收缩期达峰时间差值、N末端脑钠肽为疗效评价指标,观察右心房、左心室起搏治疗慢性心衰的短期疗效.结果:右心房、左心室起搏治疗术后第7天较术前比较,6分钟步行距离由术前的( 279±46)m提高至(312±37)m;明尼苏达生活质量评分由术前的(28±7)下降至(22±5);体表心电图QRS波时限由术前的(167±22)ms缩短至(132±8)ms;左心室射血分数由术前的(0.29±0.07)提高至(0.33±0.05);左心室舒张末期内径由术前的(75±8)mm减小至(69±7)mm;左心室室间隔部与侧壁基底段收缩期达峰时间差值由术前的(105±29)ms下降至(62±8)ms;N末端脑钠肽由术前的(3 086±1 265)pg/ml下降至(1 976±760)pg/ml;患者的各疗效评价指标均得到明显改善,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:对窦性心律、完全性左束支传导阻滞的慢性心衰患者右心房、左心室起搏的短期疗效确切.%Objective:To observe the short-term effect of right atrial and left uni-ventricular pacing in patients of chronic heart failure with left bundle-branch block.Methods; A total of 26 heart failure patients who had NYHA class III to IV .with sinus rhythm,left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤ 0. 35, QRS duration ≥s 0. 12 ms were studied after successful implantation of CRT/CRTD. All patients received right atrial and left uni-ventricular pacing for 7 days. The therapeutic effects

  12. 种植密度对夏玉米茎秆维管束结构及茎流特性的影响%Effect of Plant Density on Microstructure of Stalk Vascular Bundle of Summer Maize (Zea mays L.) and Its Characteristics of Sap Flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯海娟; 张善平; 马存金; 刘鹏; 董树亭; 赵斌; 张吉旺; 杨今胜

    2014-01-01

    选用不同耐密型品种农大108和郑单958,设置3个种植密度,研究了种植密度对夏玉米基部第3茎节维管束显微结构和茎流速率的影响。结果表明,随种植密度增大,两品种基部茎节的横截面积、大小维管束数目和面积均显著减小,并导致总维管束数目和面积减小。两品种对种植密度的敏感度存在显著差异,农大108比郑单958受高密度影响更大。种植密度增加后,两品种茎流速率及8:00至17:00的总茎流量均显著减小,其中郑单958的降幅小于农大108;茎秆维管束的运输效率均有所提高,郑单958的升高幅度大于农大108。相关分析表明,两品种8:00至17:00的总茎流量与基部茎节的大维管束总面积呈显著正相关。郑单958具有在较高密度下较大幅度提高维管束运输效率的能力,表现出在维管束结构、茎流速率、总茎流量及运输效率上的优势,这可能是其具有较强耐密性,密植后仍能获得高产的原因之一。%Improving plant density is an important measure to get high yield of summer maize. Two varieties of summer maize with different density tolerances, Zhengdan 958 and Nongda 108, were used to study the effect of plant density on structure of vascular bundles of the third internode and its characteristics of sap flow under three plant densities. The results showed that the cross sectional area of stem and the amount and area of big, small vascular bundles in stalks decreased significantly with the in-crease of plant density, which resulted in the total number and area of vascular bundle decreased. Nongda 108 was more sensitive to plant density than Zhengdan 958. The sap flow rate and amount of sap during 8:00-17:00 decreased significantly with the in-crease of plant density, while the transport efficiency of stalk vascular bundle increased. There was a positive correlation between area of big vascular bundles and amount of sap flow during 8:00-17:00. The

  13. Structural insights into the counterion effects on the manganese(III) spin crossover system with hexadentate Schiff-base ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shi; Xu, Wu-Tan; He, Wen-Rui; Takaishi, Shinya; Li, Yong-Hua; Yamashita, Masahiro; Huang, Wei

    2016-04-01

    A series of new salts [Mn(5-MeO-sal-N-1,5,8,12)]Y (Y = ClO4 for 1, Y = BF4 for 2, Y = NO3 for 3 and Y = CF3SO3 for 4) based on the six-coordinated mononuclear manganese(iii) Schiff-base complex cation [Mn(5-MeO-sal-N-1,5,8,12)](+), has been investigated to determine the impact of counter anion effects, intramolecular ligand distortion and intermolecular supramolecular structures on the spin crossover (SCO) behavior. The SCO in salt 1 has resulted in a crystallographic observation of the coexistence of high-spin (HS, S = 2) and low-spin (LS, S = 1) manganese(iii) complex cations in equal proportions around 100 K. At room temperature, the two crystallographically distinct manganese centers are both close to the complete HS state. Only one of the two slightly different units undergoes SCO in the temperature range 300-180 K, whereas the other remains in the HS state down to 20 K. For salts 2 and 3, crystal structural analysis indicates change in the anion from ClO4(-) to BF4(-) and NO3(-) was led to the close arrangement of the cations and the stacking between phenyl groups from the ligands. With CF3SO3(-) as the counterion, although the cations and the anions separate clearly in one direction, the close arrangement of cations in other directions precludes the spin transformation of the Mn(iii) cations. Magnetic measurements on 2-4 indicate that the manganese(iii) complex cations remain in the HS state in the temperature range 2-300 K. PMID:26927027

  14. Lexical Bundles in L1 and L2 Academic Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Hua; Baker, Paul

    2010-01-01

    This paper adopts an automated frequency-driven approach to identify frequently-used word combinations (i.e., "lexical bundles") in academic writing. Lexical bundles retrieved from one corpus of published academic texts and two corpora of student academic writing (one L1, the other L2), were investigated both quantitatively and qualitatively.…

  15. Presenting Lexical Bundles for Explicit Noticing with Schematic Linguistic Representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Haidee Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Lexical bundles are essential for fluency, but their incompleteness is a stumbling block for learners. In this study, two presentation methods to increase awareness of lexical bundles through explicit noticing are explored and compared with incidental exposure. The three conditions in this study were as follows: noticing with schematic linguistic…

  16. Quantum principal bundles as Hopf-Galois extensions

    CERN Document Server

    Durdevic, M

    1995-01-01

    It is shown that every quantum principal bundle with a compact structure group is a Hopf-Galois extension. This property naturally extends to the level of general differential structures, so that every differential calculus over a quantum principal bundle with a compact structure group is a graded-differential variant of the Hopf-Galois extension.

  17. Subanalytic Bundles and Tubular Neighbourhoods of Zero-Loci

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vishwambhar Pati

    2003-08-01

    We introduce the natural and fairly general notion of a subanalytic bundle (with a finite dimensional vector space of sections) on a subanalytic subset of a real analytic manifold , and prove that when is compact, there is a Baire subset of sections in whose zero-loci in have tubular neighbourhoods, homeomorphic to the restriction of the given bundle to these zero-loci.

  18. Skeleton-Based Edge Bundling for Graph Visualization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ersoy, Ozan; Hurter, Christophe; Paulovich, Fernando V.; Cantareira, Gabriel; Telea, Alexandru

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present a novel approach for constructing bundled layouts of general graphs. As layout cues for bundles, we use medial axes, or skeletons, of edges which are similar in terms of position information. We combine edge clustering, distance fields, and 2D skeletonization to construct p

  19. CANDU bundle junction. Misalignment probability and pressure-drop correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pressure drop over the bundle junction is an important component of the pressure drop in a CANDU (Canada Deuterium Uranium) fuel channel. This component can represent from ∼ 15% for aligned bundles to ∼ 26% for rotationally misaligned bundles, and is dependent on the degree of misalignment. The geometry of the junction increases the mixing between subchannels, and hence improves the thermal performance of the bundle immediately downstream. It is therefore important to model the junction's performance adequately. This paper summarizes a study sponsored by COG (CANDU Owners Group) and an NSERC (National Science and Engineering Research Council) Industrial Research Grant, undertaken, at CRL (Chalk River Laboratories) to identify and develop a bundle-junction model for potential implementation in the ASSERT (Advanced Solution of Subchannel Equations in Reactor Thermalhydraulics) subchannel code. The work reported in this paper consists of two components of this project: an examination of the statistics of bundle misalignment, demonstrating that there are no preferred positions for the bundles and therefore all misalignment angles are equally possible; and, an empirical model for the single-phase pressure drop across the junction as a function of the misalignment angle. The second section of this paper includes a brief literature review covering the experimental, analytical and numerical studies concerning the single-phase pressure drop across bundle junctions. 32 refs., 9 figs

  20. On the general elephant conjecture for Mori conic bundles

    CERN Document Server

    Prokhorov, Yu G

    1996-01-01

    Let $f:X\\to S$ be an extremal contraction from a threefolds with terminal singularities onto a surface (so called Mori conic bundle). We study some particular cases of such contractions: quotients of usual conic bundles and index two contractions. Assuming Reid's general elephants conjecture we also obtain a rough classification. We present many examples.

  1. Phase Space Reduction of Star Products on Cotangent Bundles.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Kowalzig; N. Neumaier; M. Pflaum

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we construct star products on Marsden-Weinstein reduced spaces in case both the original phase space and the reduced phase space are (symplectomorphic to) cotangent bundles. Under the assumption that the original cotangent bundle $T^*Q$ carries a symplectic structure of form $\\omega_{B

  2. Parabolic stable Higgs bundles over complete noncompact Riemann surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李嘉禹; 王友德

    1999-01-01

    Let M be an open Riemann surface with a finite set of punctures, a complete Poincar(?)-like metric is introduced near the punctures and the equivalence between the stability of an indecomposable parabolic Higgs bundle, and the existence of a Hermitian-Einstein metric on the bundle is established.

  3. Moduli of Parabolic Higgs Bundles and Atiyah Algebroids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Logares, Marina; Martens, Johan

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we study the geometry of the moduli space of (non-strongly) parabolic Higgs bundles over a Riemann surface with marked points. We show that this space possesses a Poisson structure, extending the one on the dual of an Atiyah algebroid over the moduli space of parabolic vector bundles...

  4. Helical twist controls the thickness of F-actin bundles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claessens, M.M.A.E.; Semmrich, C.; Ramos, L.; Bausch, A.R.

    2008-01-01

    In the presence of condensing agents such as nonadsorbing polymer, multivalent counter ions, and specific bundling proteins, chiral biopolymers typically form bundles with a finite thickness, rather than phase-separating into a polymer-rich phase. Although short-range repulsive interactions or geome

  5. Non-abelian higher gauge theory and categorical bundle

    CERN Document Server

    Viennot, David

    2012-01-01

    A gauge theory is associated with a principal bundle endowed with a connection permitting to define horizontal lifts of paths. The horizontal lifts of surfaces cannot be defined into a principal bundle structure. An higher gauge theory is an attempt to generalize the bundle structure in order to describe horizontal lifts of surfaces. A such attempt is particularly difficult for the non-abelian case. Some structures have been proposed to realize this goal (twisted bundle, gerbes with connection, bundle gerbe, 2-bundle). Each of them uses a category in place of the total space manifold of the usual principal bundle structure. Some of them replace also the structure group by a category (more precisely a Lie crossed module viewed as a category). But the base space remains still a simple manifold (possibly viewed as a trivial category with only identity arrows). We propose a new principal categorical bundle structure, with a Lie crossed module as structure groupoid, but with a base space belonging to a bigger clas...

  6. Bundled slaty cleavage in laminated argillite, north-central minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southwick, D.L.

    1987-01-01

    Exceptional bundled slaty cleavage (defined herein) has been found in drill cores of laminated, folded, weakly metamorphosed argillite at several localities in the early Proterozoic Animikie basin of north-central Minnesota. The cleavage domains are more closely spaced within the cleavage bundles than outside them, the mean tectosilicate grain size of siltstone layers, measured normal to cleavage, is less in the cleavage bundles than outside them, and the cleavage bundles are enriched in opaque phases and phyllosilicates relative to extra-bundle segments. These facts suggest that pressure solution was a major factor in bundle development. If it is assumed that opaque phases have been conserved during pressure solution, the modal differences in composition between intra-bundle and extra-bundle segments of beds provide a means for estimating bulk material shortening normal to cleavage. Argillite samples from the central part of the Animikie basin have been shortened a minimum of about 22%, as estimated by this method. These estimates are similar to the shortening values derived from other strain markers in other rock types interbedded with the argillite, and are also consistent with the regional pattern of deformation. ?? 1987.

  7. Flow-induced vibration of steam generator tube bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The vibrations induced in tube arrays by a transversal flow are of great practical interest because of their destructive effects especially on heat exchangers. Instabilities can appear beyond a critical flow velocity and induce very high vibratory levels which may involve fractures. These instabilities involve a fluidelastic coupling between the vibratory movement of the tubes and the flow round them. Studies are being carried out in France concerning steam generators. A lot of bundle mock-ups with various pitches have been tested and large range parameter domains have been investigated. In a second part, the C.E.A., FRAMATOME, E.D.F. and WESTINGHOUSE research program, which is being carried out, is presented

  8. LONG TERM EFFECTS OF SKELETAL CLASS III TREATMENT: A CASE REPORT

    OpenAIRE

    GÜNGÖR, AHMET YALÇIN; Turkkahraman, Hakan

    2013-01-01

    Even class III treatment in pubertal ages is more difficult than treatment of other maloclusions, its results could be change later especially due to late mandibular growth. This case describes stabile results of a patient, at the last period of her growth and development, from 14 to 19 years old. Our patient was a 14.3 years old girl at Ru period of skeletal maturation. Extraorally, patient had a concave profile, lower midline was symmetric, upper midline was 3mm dislocated to right from ...

  9. Molecular Recognition of Cobalt(III)-ligated Peptides by Serine Proteases: The Role of Electrostatic Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Sven; Wagner, Kim

    1998-01-01

    A series of peptides with a positively charged cobalt(III)-complex group attached to the carboxylate terminal was synthesized. The behaviour of these metallopeptides as acceptor nucleophiles in acyl transfer reactions catalyzed by the three serine proteases bovine pancreatic à-chymotrypsin, porcine...... pancreatic trypsin, and proteinase K from Tritirachium album was examined. The efficiency of the substrates was assessed by kinetic measurement of the partition between aminolysis and hydrolysis. The results are discussed with special reference to coulombic interactions between the metal-ligated substrates...... and charged residues on the enzyme surfaces. The idea of using the metallopeptides in practical enzymatic peptide synthesis is put forward....

  10. Bundled automobile insurance coverage and accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chu-Shiu; Liu, Chwen-Chi; Peng, Sheng-Chang

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the characteristics of automobile accidents by taking into account two types of automobile insurance coverage: comprehensive vehicle physical damage insurance and voluntary third-party liability insurance. By using a unique data set in the Taiwanese automobile insurance market, we explore the bundled automobile insurance coverage and the occurrence of claims. It is shown that vehicle physical damage insurance is the major automobile coverage and affects the decision to purchase voluntary liability insurance coverage as a complement. Moreover, policyholders with high vehicle physical damage insurance coverage have a significantly higher probability of filing vehicle damage claims, and if they additionally purchase low voluntary liability insurance coverage, their accident claims probability is higher than those who purchase high voluntary liability insurance coverage. Our empirical results reveal that additional automobile insurance coverage information can capture more driver characteristics and driving behaviors to provide useful information for insurers' underwriting policies and to help analyze the occurrence of automobile accidents.

  11. Geometries and applications of active fiber bundles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giglmayr, Josef

    2001-10-01

    Active fiber bundles (FBs) are aimed to model photonic switching and processing in 3-D without the restrictions of the photonic technology. The 2-D photonic architectures are assumed to be implemented by networks of directional couplers (DCs) and Mach-Zehnder interferometers (MZIs), respectively. For the implementation several crucial problems are expected: (1) proper operation of the spatial couplers/switches (nonblocking interconnections) and (2) coupling in the interstage interconnection section mainly caused by parallel and crossing fibers/waveguides (WGs). For the design of proper operating switches (refinement of couplers) the application of decoupling concepts of modern control theory is proposed. The final goal is to translate the refined couplers into integrated photonic architectures rather than into additional lightwave circuits (LWCs) which simply would increase the coupling. The decoupling concepts are reviewed. The paper is an attempt to prepare for applying well-known system engineering concepts to the upcoming technology of photonics.

  12. On The Motive of G-bundles

    CERN Document Server

    Habibi, Somayeh

    2011-01-01

    Let $G$ be a reductive algebraic group over a perfect field $k$ and $\\mathcal{G}$ a $G$-bundle over a scheme $X/k$. The main aim of this article is to study the motive associated with $\\mathcal{G}$, inside the Veovodsky Motivic categories. We consider the case that $\\charakt k=0$ (resp. $\\charakt k\\geq 0$), the motive associated to $X$ is geometrically mixed Tate (resp. geometrically cellular) and $\\mathcal{G}$ is locally trivial for the Zariski (resp. \\'etale) topology on $X$ and show that the motive of $\\mathcal{G}$ is a geometrically mixed Tate motive. Moreover for a general $X$ we construct a filtration on the motive associated to $\\mathcal{G}$ in terms of weight polytopes. Along the way we give some applications and examples.

  13. Extendability of parallel sections in vector bundles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschner, Tim

    2016-01-01

    I address the following question: Given a differentiable manifold M, what are the open subsets U of M such that, for all vector bundles E over M and all linear connections ∇ on E, any ∇-parallel section in E defined on U extends to a ∇-parallel section in E defined on M? For simply connected manifolds M (among others) I describe the entirety of all such sets U which are, in addition, the complement of a C1 submanifold, boundary allowed, of M. This delivers a partial positive answer to a problem posed by Antonio J. Di Scala and Gianni Manno (2014). Furthermore, in case M is an open submanifold of Rn, n ≥ 2, I prove that the complement of U in M, not required to be a submanifold now, can have arbitrarily large n-dimensional Lebesgue measure.

  14. Bundles over Quantum RealWeighted Projective Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Brzeziński

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The algebraic approach to bundles in non-commutative geometry and the definition of quantum real weighted projective spaces are reviewed. Principal U(1-bundles over quantum real weighted projective spaces are constructed. As the spaces in question fall into two separate classes, the negative or odd class that generalises quantum real projective planes and the positive or even class that generalises the quantum disc, so do the constructed principal bundles. In the negative case the principal bundle is proven to be non-trivial and associated projective modules are described. In the positive case the principal bundles turn out to be trivial, and so all the associated modules are free. It is also shown that the circle (coactions on the quantum Seifert manifold that define quantum real weighted projective spaces are almost free.

  15. Artificial ciliary bundles with nano fiber tip links

    CERN Document Server

    Asadnia, Mohsen; Miao, Jianmin; Triantafyllou, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Mechanosensory ciliary bundles in fishes are the inspiration for carefully engineered artificial flow sensors. We report the development of a new class of ultrasensitive MEMS flow sensors that mimic the intricate morphology of the ciliary bundles, including the stereocilia, tip links, and the cupula, and thereby achieve threshold detection limits that match the biological example. An artificial ciliary bundle is achieved by fabricating closely-spaced arrays of polymer micro-pillars with gradiating heights. Tip links that form the fundamental sensing elements are realized through electrospinning aligned PVDF piezoelectric nano-fibers that link the distal tips of the polymer cilia. An optimized synthesis of hyaluronic acid-methacrylic anhydride hydrogel that results in properties close to the biological cupula, together with drop-casting method are used to form the artificial cupula that encapsulates the ciliary bundle. In testing, fluid drag force causes the ciliary bundle to slide, stretching the flexible nan...

  16. Superconductivity in an Inhomogeneous Bundle of Metallic and Semiconducting Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilya Grigorenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Using Bogoliubov-de Gennes formalism for inhomogeneous systems, we have studied superconducting properties of a bundle of packed carbon nanotubes, making a triangular lattice in the bundle's transverse cross-section. The bundle consists of a mixture of metallic and doped semiconducting nanotubes, which have different critical transition temperatures. We investigate how a spatially averaged superconducting order parameter and the critical transition temperature depend on the fraction of the doped semiconducting carbon nanotubes in the bundle. Our simulations suggest that the superconductivity in the bundle will be suppressed when the fraction of the doped semiconducting carbon nanotubes will be less than 0.5, which is the percolation threshold for a two-dimensional triangular lattice.

  17. HORIZONTAL LAPLACE OPERATOR IN REAL FINSLER VECTOR BUNDLES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A vector bundle F over the tangent bundle TM of a manifold M is said to be a Finsler vector bundle if it is isomorphic to the pull-back π*E of a vector bundle E over M([1]). In this article the authors study the h-Laplace operator in Finsler vector bundles.An h-Laplace operator is defined, first for functions and then for horizontal Finsler forms on E. Using the h-Laplace operator, the authors define the h-harmonic function and h-harmonic horizontal Finsler vector fields, and furthermore prove some integral formulas for the h-Laplace operator, horizontal Finsler vector fields, and scalar fields on E.

  18. Development of nuclear fuel. Development of CANDU advanced fuel bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to develop CANDU advanced fuel, the agreement of the joint research between KAERI and AECL was made on February 19, 1991. AECL conceptual design of CANFLEX bundle for Bruce reactors was analyzed and then the reference design and design drawing of the advanced fuel bundle with natural uranium fuel for CANDU-6 reactor were completed. The CANFLEX fuel cladding was preliminarily investigated. The fabricability of the advanced fuel bundle was investigated. The design and purchase of the machinery tools for the bundle fabrication for hydraulic scoping tests were performed. As a result of CANFLEX tube examination, the tubes were found to be meet the criteria proposed in the technical specification. The dummy bundles for hydraulic scoping tests have been fabricated by using the process and tools, where the process parameters and tools have been newly established. (Author)

  19. Introduction to the theory of fiber bundles and connections I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In lectures 1 and 2 we discuss basic concepts of topology and differential geometry: definition of a topological space and of Hausdorff, compact, connected and paracompact spaces; topological groups and actions of groups on spaces; differentiable manifolds, tangent vectors and 1 forms; partitions of unity and Lie groups. In lecture 3 we present the concept of a fiber bundle and discuss vector bundles and principal bundles. The concept of a connection on a smooth vector bundle is defined in lecture 4, together with the associated concepts of curvature and parallel transport; as an illustration we present the Levi-Civita connection on a Riemannian manifold. Finally, in lecture 5 we define connections on principal bundles and present examples with the Lie groups U(1) and SU(2). For reasons of space the present article only includes lectures 1, 2 and 3. Lectures 4 and 5 will be published in a forthcoming paper. (Author)

  20. Voltage- and calcium-dependent motility of saccular hair bundles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiñones, Patricia M.; Meenderink, Sebastiaan W. F.; Bozovic, Dolores

    2015-12-01

    Active bundle motility, which is hypothesized to supply feedback for mechanical amplification of signals, is thought to enhance sensitivity and sharpen tuning in vestibular and auditory organs. To study active hair bundle motility, we combined high-speed camera recordings of bullfrog sacculi, which were mounted in a two-compartment chamber, and voltage-clamp of the hair cell membrane potential. Using this paradigm, we measured three types of bundle motions: 1) spontaneous oscillations which can be analyzed to measure the physiological operating range of the transduction channel; 2) a sustained quasi-static movement of the bundle that depends on membrane potential; and 3) a fast, transient and asymmetric movement that resets the bundle position and depends on changes in the membrane potential. These data support a role for both calcium and voltage in the transduction-channel function.

  1. The 2-Hilbert Space of a Prequantum Bundle Gerbe

    CERN Document Server

    Bunk, Severin; Szabo, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    We construct a prequantum 2-Hilbert space for any line bundle gerbe whose Dixmier-Douady class is torsion. Analogously to usual prequantisation, this 2-Hilbert space has the category of sections of the line bundle gerbe as its underlying 2-vector space. These sections are obtained as certain morphism categories in Waldorf's version of the 2-category of line bundle gerbes. We show that these morphism categories carry a monoidal structure under which they are semisimple and abelian. We introduce a dual functor on the sections, which yields a closed structure on the morphisms between bundle gerbes and turns the category of sections into a 2-Hilbert space. We discuss how these 2-Hilbert spaces fit various expectations from higher prequantisation. We then extend the transgression functor to the full 2-category of bundle gerbes and demonstrate its compatibility with the additional structures introduced. We discuss various aspects of Kostant-Souriau prequantisation in this setting, including its dimensional reductio...

  2. Birefringence of single and bundled microtubules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldenbourg, R; Salmon, E D; Tran, P T

    1998-01-01

    We have measured the birefringence of microtubules (MTs) and of MT-based macromolecular assemblies in vitro and in living cells by using the new Pol-Scope. A single microtubule in aqueous suspension and imaged with a numerical aperture of 1.4 had a peak retardance of 0.07 nm. The peak retardance of a small bundle increased linearly with the number of MTs in the bundle. Axonemes (prepared from sea urchin sperm) had a peak retardance 20 times higher than that of single MTs, in accordance with the nine doublets and two singlets arrangement of parallel MTs in the axoneme. Measured filament retardance decreased when the filament was defocused or the numerical aperture of the imaging system was decreased. However, the retardance "area," which we defined as the image retardance integrated along a line perpendicular to the filament axis, proved to be independent of focus and of numerical aperture. These results are in good agreement with a theory that we developed for measuring retardances with imaging optics. Our theoretical concept is based on Wiener's theory of mixed dielectrics, which is well established for nonimaging applications. We extend its use to imaging systems by considering the coherence region defined by the optical set-up. Light scattered from within that region interferes coherently in the image point. The presence of a filament in the coherence region leads to a polarization dependent scattering cross section and to a finite retardance measured in the image point. Similar to resolution measurements, the linear dimension of the coherence region for retardance measurements is on the order lambda/(2 NA), where lambda is the wavelength of light and NA is the numerical aperture of the illumination and imaging lenses. PMID:9449366

  3. Big things come in bundled packages: implications of bundled payment systems in health care reimbursement reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delisle, Dennis R

    2013-01-01

    With passage of the Affordable Care Act, the ever-evolving landscape of health care braces for another shift in the reimbursement paradigm. As health care costs continue to rise, providers are pressed to deliver efficient, high-quality care at flat to minimally increasing rates. Inherent systemwide inefficiencies between payers and providers at various clinical settings pose a daunting task for enhancing collaboration and care coordination. A change from Medicare's fee-for-service reimbursement model to bundled payments offers one avenue for resolution. Pilots using such payment models have realized varying degrees of success, leading to the development and upcoming implementation of a bundled payment initiative led by the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Innovation. Delivery integration is critical to ensure high-quality care at affordable costs across the system. Providers and payers able to adapt to the newly proposed models of payment will benefit from achieving cost reductions and improved patient outcomes and realize a competitive advantage.

  4. Thermal Characteristics of Tube Bundles in Ultra-Supercritical Boilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok Min Choi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, flow and thermal characteristics of tube bundles in ultra-supercritical boilers were analyzed. The local heat transfer around the tube bundles was measured to predict the local temperature distribution and vulnerable positions of the superheated tube bundles. The maximally superheated tube bundles were simulated in the laboratory and local heat transfer was measured by using the naphthalene sublimation method. The experiment was conducted on three lines of tube bundles, all with in-line arrangements. Each line consist of six tubes. The distance in the streamwise direction (Sx/∅ was 1.99 and that in the spanwise direction (Sz/∅ was 5.45. The Reynolds number varied from 5000 to 30,000, which covers a range of different operating conditions. Thermal and stress analyses were conducted numerically, based on the experimental data. The results showed that the flow characteristic changes the local heat transfer of the tube bundles. The flow impinged on the stagnation point of Tube 1 and reattached at 60° of Tube 2. The high heat transfer occurred at those positions of the tube bundles. The temperature and stress distributions on the surface of each tube bundle also varied. The reattachment point on Tube 2 had the highest heat transfer and temperature distribution. That position on Tube 2 was subjected to the highest stress due to the large temperature gradient. This result indicates that Tube 2 of the ultra-supercritical (USC boiler is the weakest of the tube bundles, changing the pitch of the streamwise direction of Tube 2 is one method to reduce the highest stress in superheater tube bundles in the USC boiler.

  5. CHF Enhancement of Advanced 37-Element Fuel Bundles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joo Hwan Park

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A standard 37-element fuel bundle (37S fuel bundle has been used in commercial CANDU reactors for over 40 years as a reference fuel bundle. Most CHF of a 37S fuel bundle have occurred at the elements arranged in the inner pitch circle for high flows and at the elements arranged in the outer pitch circle for low flows. It should be noted that a 37S fuel bundle has a relatively small flow area and high flow resistance at the peripheral subchannels of its center element compared to the other subchannels. The configuration of a fuel bundle is one of the important factors affecting the local CHF occurrence. Considering the CHF characteristics of a 37S fuel bundle in terms of CHF enhancement, there can be two approaches to enlarge the flow areas of the peripheral subchannels of a center element in order to enhance CHF of a 37S fuel bundle. To increase the center subchannel areas, one approach is the reduction of the diameter of a center element, and the other is an increase of the inner pitch circle. The former can increase the total flow area of a fuel bundle and redistributes the power density of all fuel elements as well as the CHF. On the other hand, the latter can reduce the gap between the elements located in the middle and inner pitch circles owing to the increasing inner pitch circle. This can also affect the enthalpy redistribution of the fuel bundle and finally enhance CHF or dry-out power. In this study, the above two approaches, which are proposed to enlarge the flow areas of the center subchannels, were considered to investigate the impact of the flow area changes of the center subchannels on the CHF enhancement as well as the thermal characteristics by applying a subchannel analysis method.

  6. The Fate of the First Galaxies. II. Effects of Positive Feedback on Population III Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Ricotti, M; Shull, J M; Ricotti, Massimo; Gnedin, Nickolay Y.

    2002-01-01

    [abridged]We use 3D cosmological simulations with radiative transfer to study the formation and evolution of the first galaxies in a LCDM cosmology. We find that the first luminous objects (Population III) are characterized by a bursting star formation (SF) that is self-regulated by a feedback process acting on cosmological instead of galactic scales. The global star formation history is regulated by the mean number of ionizing photons that escape from each source, \\epsilon_{UV}\\fesc. It is almost independent of the assumed star formation efficiency parameter, \\epsilon_*, and the intensity of the dissociating background. The main feedback process that regulates the SF is the re-formation of H_2 in front of HII regions and inside relic HII regions. The HII regions remain confined inside filaments, maximizing the production of H_2 in overdense regions through cyclic destruction/reformation of H_2. If \\epsilon_{UV}\\fesc > 10^{-8}/\\epsilon_* the SF is self-regulated, photo-evaporation of Population III objects do...

  7. Sorption of Eu(III) on Th4(PO4)4P2O7. Effects of pH, complexing anions and fulvic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sorption of Eu(III) on Th4(PO4)4P2O7 was studied under ambient conditions using the batch technique. The effects of pH, the concentrations of Eu(III) on Th4(PO4)4P2O7 sorption were investigated. The sorption characteristics of sulfate, phosphate and fulvic acid (FA) on Th4(PO4)4P2O7 was explored in the presence Eu(III). The results indicated that sorption of Eu(III) on Th4(PO4)4P2O7 was strongly affected by pH and the concentrations of Eu(III). Eu(III) sorption onto Th4(PO4)4P2O7 was greatly enhanced in FA and phosphate media than in KNO3. The Langmuir, Freundlich and D-R model were used to simulate the sorption isotherms of Eu(III) at four different medium. FA sorption isotherm can be described by Langmuir model in presence and absence of Eu(III) in solution. (author)

  8. Differential effects of buffer pH on Ca2+-induced ROS emission with inhibited mitochondrial complex I and III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P Lindsay

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Excessive mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS emission is a critical component in the etiolo-gy of ischemic injury. Complex I and complex III of the electron transport chain are considered the primary sources of ROS emission during cardiac ischemia and reperfusion (IR injury. Several factors modulate ischemic ROS emission, such as an increase in extra-matrix Ca2+, a decrease in extra-matrix pH, and a change in substrate utilization. Here we examined the combined effects of these factors on ROS emission from respiratory complex I and III under conditions of simulated IR injury. Guinea pig heart mitochondria were suspended in experimental buffer at a given pH and incubated with or without CaCl2. Mitochondria were then treated with either pyruvate, a complex I substrate, followed by rote-none, a complex I inhibitor, or succinate, a complex II substrate, followed by antimycin A, a complex III inhibitor. H2O2 release rate and matrix volume were compared with and without adding CaCl2 and at pH 7.15, 6.9, or 6.5 with pyruvate + rotenone or succinate + antimycin A to simulate conditions that may occur during in vivo cardiac IR injury. We found a large increase in H2O2 release with high [CaCl2] and pyruvate + rotenone at pH 6.9, but not at pHs 7.15 or 6.5. Large increases in H2O2 release rate also occurred at each pH with high [CaCl2] and succinate + antimycin A, with the highest levels observed at pH 7.15. The increases in H2O2 release were associated with significant mitochondrial swelling, and both H2O2 release and swelling were abolished by cyclosporine A, a desensitizer of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore. These results indicate that ROS production by complex I and by III is differently affected by buffer pH and Ca2+ loading with mPTP opening. The study sug-gests that changes in the levels of cytosolic Ca2+ and pH during IR alter the relative amounts of ROS produced at mitochondrial respiratory complex I and complex III.

  9. Effects of Chromium(VI) and Chromium(III) on Desulfovibrio vulgaris Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.E. Clark; A. Klonowska; S.B. Thieman; B. Giles; J.D. Wall; and M.W. Fields

    2007-04-19

    cell growth was most likely a consequence of Cr(III), and that an organic ligand could protect D. vulgaris cells from Cr(III) toxicity. Lactate consumption decoupled from sulfate reduction in the presence of Cr(VI) could provide organic carbon for organo- Cr(III) complexes.

  10. Study of enhanced entrance pressure losses in a rod bundle experiment employing heavy liquid metal coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Innovative nuclear reactor concepts like accelerator driven systems (ADS) or the lead cooled fast reactor LFR employ lead bismuth eutectic (LBE) as a coolant. Within the framework of the EU project THINS (thermalhydraulics of innovative nuclear systems) a rod bundle experiment in LBE is performed employing characteristic dimensions at the Karlsruhe Liquid Metal Laboratory (KALLA)l of Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT). In a first measurement campaign it is observed that the pressure drop across the first spacer in the rod bundle experiment is noticeable larger than at the subsequent spacers. We speculate that this is due to blockage of the very narrow spacer channels and numerically investigate whether there are substantially enhanced entrance effects. The present numerical study investigates the whole rod bundle including the entrance region in order to show possible mechanisms which can increase the pressure drop of the first spacer even if no blockage is present. The extra pressure loss compared to simulations with uniform inflow is found to be very small which supports the speculation of blockage. Since rod bundle flow is known to depend very sensitive on turbulence models and mesh resolution we carefully verify that our simulations use an adequate computation domain, mesh resolution and turbulence model. (author)

  11. CFD analyses of flow structures in air-ingress and rod bundle problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hong-Chan

    Two topics from nuclear engineering field are included in this dissertation. One study is the air-ingress phenomenon during a loss of coolant accident (LOCA) scenario, and the other is a 5-by-5 bundle assembly with a PWR design. The objectives were to investigate the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability of the gravity-driven stratified flows inside a coaxial pipe and the effects caused by two types of spacers at the downstream of the rod bundle. Richardson extrapolation was used for the grid independent study. The simulation results show good agreements with the experiments. Wavelet analysis and Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) were used to study the flow behaviors and flow patterns. For the air-ingress phenomenon, Brunt-Vaisala frequency, or buoyancy frequency, predicts a frequency of 2.34 Hz; this is confirmed by the dominant frequency of 2.4 Hz obtained from the wavelet analysis between times 1.2 s and 1.85 s. For the rod bundle study, the dominant frequency at the center of the subchannel was determined to be 2.4 Hz with a secondary dominant frequency of 4 Hz and a much minor frequency of 6 Hz. Generally, wavelet analysis has much better performance than POD, in the air-ingress phenomenon, for a strongly transient scenario; they are both appropriate for the rod bundle study. Based on this study, when the fluid pair in a real condition is used, the time which air intrudes into the reactor is predictable.

  12. Reflood experiments in rod bundles with flow blockages due to clad ballooning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, S.K.; Kim, J.; Kim, K.; Kim, B.J.; Park, J.K.; Youn, Y.J.; Choi, H.S.; Song, C.H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    Clad ballooning and the resulting partial flow blockage are one of the major thermal-hydraulic concerns associated with the coolability of partially blocked cores during a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). Several in-pile tests have shown that fuel relocation causes a local power accumulation and a high thermal coupling between the clad and fuel debris in the ballooned regions. However, previous experiments in the 1980s did not take into account the fuel relocation phenomena and resulting local power increase in the ballooned regions. The present paper presents the results of systematic investigations on the coolability of rod bundles with flow blockages. The experiments were mainly performed in 5 x 5 rod bundles, 2 x 2 rod bundles and other test facilities. The experiments include a reflood heat transfer, single-phase convective heat transfer, flow redistributions phenomena, and droplet break-up behavior. The effects of the fuel relocation and resulting local power increase were investigated using a 5 x 5 rod bundle. The fuel relocation phenomena increase the peak cladding temperature.

  13. Importance of electrode positioning in the diagnosis of right bundle branch block.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Ramírez C.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The correct positioning of precordial electrodes of an electrocardiogram (ECG was agreed upon and formalized in 1938 by the American Heart Association (AHA and the Cardiac Society of Great Britain (CSGB , establishing the gold standard for the correct ECG procedure. The correct positioning of the electrodes is extremely important, with incorrect placement being related to right bundle branch block overdiagnosis and the subsequent social, psychological and economical effects of implying a pathological condition in a normal person. OBJECTIVE: To quantify the diagnosis of right bundle branch block in high right parasternal accessory leads (diagnostic test compared to classic precordial leads (gold standard. MATERIAL AND METHOD: A number of 100 consecutive patients were evaluated with resting 12-lead-electrocardiogram and high right parasternal accessory leads, after proper consent from patients. RESULTS: A 7% of patients presented right bundle branch block in classical precordial leads, compared with 29% in high right parasternal accessory leads. QRS complexes were all less than 120 milliseconds. DISCUSSION: There are not national available references analyzing electrode placement in the study of electrocardiographic abnormalities. There was an overdiagnosis of right bundle branch block in high right parasternal accessory leads. The association and relevance in the diagnosis of serious diseases, such as myocardial infarction and Brugada syndrome, makes the necessity of a solid foundation on electrocardiogram technique, of uttermost importance.

  14. Thermalhydraulics of advanced 37-element fuel bundle in crept pressure tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Joo Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A CANDU-6 reactor, which has 380 fuel channels of a pressure tube type, is suffering from aging or creep of the pressure tubes. Most of the aging effects for the CANDU primary heat transport system were originated from the horizontal crept pressure tubes. As the operating years of a CANDU reactor proceed, a pressure tube experiences high neutron irradiation damage under high temperature and pressure. The crept pressure tube can deteriorate the Critical Heat Flux (CHF of a fuel channel and finally worsen the reactor operating performance and thermal margin. Recently, the modification of the central subchannel area with increasing inner pitch length of a standard 37-element fuel bundle was proposed and studied in terms of the dryout power enhancement for the uncrept pressure tube since a standard 37-element fuel bundle has a relatively small flow area and high flow resistance at the central region. This study introduced a subchannel analysis for the crept pressure tubes loaded with the inner pitch length modification of a standard 37-element fuel bundle. In addition, the subchannel characteristics were investigated according to the flow area change of the center subchannels for the crept pressure tubes. Also, it was discussed how much the crept pressure tubes affected the thermalhydraulic characteristics of the fuel channel as well as the dryout power for the modification of a standard 37-element fuel bundle.

  15. Void Fraction in a Four by Four Rod Bundle under a Stagnant Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamei, Akihiro; Hosokawa, Shigeo; Tomiyama, Akio; Kinoshita, Ikuo; Murase, Michio

    In the case of a hypothetical failure of a residual heat removal (RHR) systems under mid-loop operation, vapor generated in a reactor core forms two-phase flow in a stagnant liquid and rises the water level in the core. The vapor flows into a steam generator through a hot leg, and condenses in the steam generator. Since the flow rate of vapor from the reactor core to the hot leg depends on the water level and the void fraction α in the reactor core, the reliable analysis of the RHR failure cannot be carried out without accurately estimating the void fraction in the reactor core. Although a number of studies on void fractions in two-phase flows in rod bundles have been carried out, there are few experimental data on void fractions in rod bundles under the stagnant condition. Void fractions in four by four rod bundles under the stagnant condition were measured for a wide range of gas volume fluxes to examine the validity of available void correlations. Flow patterns were visualized by using a high-speed video camera to examine the effects of flow pattern on the void fraction. As a result, the following conclusions were obtained: (1) Dependence of the void fraction on the gas volume flux JG changed at JG ≅ 1.5 m/s due to the flow pattern transition. (2) Murase's correlation agreed well with the void fraction in the two kinds of rod bundles having different dimensions under the stagnant condition.

  16. Fracture process of a fiber bundle with strong disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danku, Zsuzsa; Kun, Ferenc

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the effect of the amount of disorder on the fracture process of heterogeneous materials in the framework of a fiber bundle model. The limit of high disorder is realized by introducing a power law distribution of fiber strength over an infinite range. We show that on decreasing the amount of disorder by controlling the exponent of the power law the system undergoes a transition from the quasi-brittle phase where fracture proceeds in bursts to the phase of perfectly brittle failure where the first fiber breaking triggers a catastrophic collapse. For equal load sharing in the quasi-brittle phase the fat tailed disorder distribution gives rise to a homogeneous fracture process where the sequence of breaking bursts does not show any acceleration as the load increases quasi-statically. The size of bursts is power law distributed with an exponent smaller than the usual mean field exponent of fiber bundles. We demonstrate by means of analytical and numerical calculations that the quasi-brittle to brittle transition is analogous to continuous phase transitions and determine the corresponding critical exponents. When the load sharing is localized to nearest neighbor intact fibers the overall characteristics of the failure process prove to be the same, however, with different critical exponents. We show that in the limit of the highest disorder considered the spatial structure of damage is identical with site percolation—however, approaching the critical point of perfect brittleness spatial correlations play an increasing role, which results in a different cluster structure of failed elements.

  17. Measuring ambient radon using a scintillating optical fiber bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Several years ago a new approach to monitoring radon and its radioactive progeny using a bundle of scintillating optical fibers was introduced, and studies on the characteristics of this detector were reported. It was demonstrated that a bundle of thin optical fibers constructed from a scintillating glass could serve as a detector of radon in air by providing a large accessible surface area and a means of trapping and concentrating radon gas so as to increase the effective contact time between the radon and the scintillating material. We now report the first ambient radon measurements made with this detector. Details of the sensor construction will be supplied and diagrammed. Briefly, several thousand scintillating glass fibers are packed into a 6 mm i.d. quartz tube through which radon-laden ambient air is drawn. Light produced by the interaction of alpha particles from radon and its radioactive progeny is directed by a reflector onto a photomultiplier tube, and the resulting pulses are sorted and displayed by a multichannel scalar. The instrument has been used in laboratory studies, and in field measurements at a location in Slovenia with high radon levels. Radon was simultaneously monitored in the same location using an Alphaguard radon monitor, which is a commercial passive ionization chamber instrument. It was found that the fiber optic sensor detected ambient radon with a sensitivity of approximately 50 counts per minute per Bq per liter of air. Since the sensitive volume is only 1 ml. we conclude that significant concentration of radon on the the sensor is occurring. These results will be presented and discussed

  18. Co-modification of F{sup −} and Fe(III) ions as a facile strategy towards effective separation of photogenerated electrons and holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xuefei; Yu, Rui; Wang, Ping; Chen, Feng [School of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Life Sciences, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Yu, Huogen, E-mail: yuhuogen@whut.edu.cn [School of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Life Sciences, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); State Key Laboratory of Silicate Materials for Architectures, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China)

    2015-10-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The Fe(III)/F-TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst was prepared by a facile, wet chemical method. • Fe(III)/F-TiO{sub 2} exhibited higher photocatalytic activity than TiO{sub 2}, Fe(III)/TiO{sub 2} and F-TiO{sub 2}. • The synergistic effect of Fe(III) and F ions contributed to the enhanced activity of TiO{sub 2}. - Abstract: The combination of cocatalysts for simultaneously promoting rapid transfer of photogenerated electrons and holes is one of the effective strategies to improve photocatalytic activity of semiconductor photocatalysts. In this study, highly efficient TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst with co-modification of F and Fe(III) ions was prepared by a facile two wet-chemical method including Fe(III) ions impregnation and then F-ion adsorption on the TiO{sub 2} surface. The photocatalytic results demonstrated that the simultaneously modified Fe(III)/F-TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst exhibited obvious enhancement of photocatalytic performance compared with the pure TiO{sub 2} and single-component modified Fe(III)/TiO{sub 2} and F-TiO{sub 2}. Based on the present experimental results, we propose a possible synergistic effect of Fe(III) and F ions to illustrate the enhanced photocatalytic activity of Fe(III)/F-TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst, namely the Fe(III) ions act as effective active sites to rapidly transfer the photogenerated electrons in the CB of TiO{sub 2} and then reduce oxygen, while F ions work as other effective active sites to rapidly transfer the photogenerated holes in the VB of TiO{sub 2} and then form free hydroxide radical to oxidize the organic substances. As a result, the transfer rate and the interfacial catalytic reaction of photogenerated electrons and holes were simultaneously accelerated, which resulted in the enhanced photocatalytic performance of Fe(III)/F-TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst. Due to the low cost and abundant resource of Fe and F, the obtained photocatalyst is promising for practical application. Furthermore, the

  19. Bundling dynamics regulates the active mechanics and transport in carbon nanotube networks and their nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahm, Myung Gwan; Wang, Hailong; Jung, Hyun Young; Hong, Sanghyun; Lee, Sung-Goo; Kim, Sung-Ryong; Upmanyu, Moneesh; Jung, Yung Joon

    2012-06-01

    High-density carbon nanotube networks (CNNs) continue to attract interest as active elements in nanoelectronic devices, nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) and multifunctional nanocomposites. The interplay between the network nanostructure and its properties is crucial, yet current understanding remains limited to the passive response. Here, we employ a novel superstructure consisting of millimeter-long vertically aligned single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) sandwiched between polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) layers to quantify the effect of two classes of mechanical stimuli, film densification and stretching, on the electronic and thermal transport across the network. The network deforms easily with an increase in the electrical and thermal conductivities, suggestive of a floppy yet highly reconfigurable network. Insight from atomistically informed coarse-grained simulations uncover an interplay between the extent of lateral assembly of the bundles, modulated by surface zipping/unzipping, and the elastic energy associated with the bent conformations of the nanotubes/bundles. During densification, the network becomes highly interconnected yet we observe a modest increase in bundling primarily due to the reduced spacing between the SWCNTs. The stretching, on the other hand, is characterized by an initial debundling regime as the strain accommodation occurs via unzipping of the branched interconnects, followed by rapid rebundling as the strain transfers to the increasingly aligned bundles. In both cases, the increase in the electrical and thermal conductivity is primarily due to the increase in bundle size; the changes in network connectivity have a minor effect on the transport. Our results have broad implications for filamentous networks of inorganic nanoassemblies composed of interacting tubes, wires and ribbons/belts.

  20. Assessment of ASSERT-PV for prediction of post-dryout heat transfer in CANDU bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Assessment of the new Canadian subchannel code ASSERT-PV 3.2 for PDO sheath temperature prediction. • CANDU 28-, 37- and 43-element bundle PDO experiments. • Prediction improvement of ASSERT-PV 3.2 over previous code versions. • Sensitivity study of the effect of PDO model options. - Abstract: Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) has developed the subchannel thermalhydraulics code ASSERT-PV for the Canadian nuclear industry. The recently released ASSERT-PV 3.2 provides enhanced models for improved predictions of subchannel flow distribution, critical heat flux (CHF), and post-dryout (PDO) heat transfer in horizontal CANDU fuel channels. This paper presents results of an assessment of the new code version against PDO tests performed during five full-size CANDU bundle experiments conducted between 1992 and 2009 by Stern Laboratories (SL), using 28-, 37- and 43-element bundles. A total of 10 PDO test series with varying pressure-tube creep and/or bearing-pad height were analyzed. The SL experiments encompassed the bundle geometries and range of flow conditions for the intended ASSERT-PV applications for existing CANDU reactors. Code predictions of maximum PDO fuel-sheath temperature were compared against measurements from the SL PDO tests to quantify the code's prediction accuracy. The prediction statistics using the recommended model set of ASSERT-PV 3.2 were compared to those from previous code versions. Furthermore, separate-effects sensitivity studies quantified the contribution of each PDO model change or enhancement to the improvement in PDO heat transfer prediction. Overall, the assessment demonstrated significant improvement in prediction of PDO sheath temperature in horizontal fuel channels containing CANDU bundles

  1. Assessment of ASSERT-PV for prediction of post-dryout heat transfer in CANDU bundles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Z., E-mail: chengz@aecl.ca; Rao, Y.F., E-mail: raoy@aecl.ca; Waddington, G.M., E-mail: waddingg@aecl.ca

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Assessment of the new Canadian subchannel code ASSERT-PV 3.2 for PDO sheath temperature prediction. • CANDU 28-, 37- and 43-element bundle PDO experiments. • Prediction improvement of ASSERT-PV 3.2 over previous code versions. • Sensitivity study of the effect of PDO model options. - Abstract: Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) has developed the subchannel thermalhydraulics code ASSERT-PV for the Canadian nuclear industry. The recently released ASSERT-PV 3.2 provides enhanced models for improved predictions of subchannel flow distribution, critical heat flux (CHF), and post-dryout (PDO) heat transfer in horizontal CANDU fuel channels. This paper presents results of an assessment of the new code version against PDO tests performed during five full-size CANDU bundle experiments conducted between 1992 and 2009 by Stern Laboratories (SL), using 28-, 37- and 43-element bundles. A total of 10 PDO test series with varying pressure-tube creep and/or bearing-pad height were analyzed. The SL experiments encompassed the bundle geometries and range of flow conditions for the intended ASSERT-PV applications for existing CANDU reactors. Code predictions of maximum PDO fuel-sheath temperature were compared against measurements from the SL PDO tests to quantify the code's prediction accuracy. The prediction statistics using the recommended model set of ASSERT-PV 3.2 were compared to those from previous code versions. Furthermore, separate-effects sensitivity studies quantified the contribution of each PDO model change or enhancement to the improvement in PDO heat transfer prediction. Overall, the assessment demonstrated significant improvement in prediction of PDO sheath temperature in horizontal fuel channels containing CANDU bundles.

  2. Experimental investigation of heat transfer from a 2 × 2 rod bundle to supercritical pressure water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Han [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Bi, Qincheng, E-mail: qcbi@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Wang, Linchuan; Lv, Haicai [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Leung, Laurence K.H. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ont., Canada K0J 1J0 (Canada)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Heat transfer of supercritical water through a 2 × 2 rod bundles is investigated. • Circumferential wall temperature distribution is obtained. • Effects of system parameters on heat transfer characteristics are analyzed. • Heat transfer correlations are compared against the rod bundle test data. - Abstract: Heat transfer experiments with supercritical pressure water flowing vertically upward through a 2 × 2 rod bundle have been performed at Xi’an Jiaotong University. A fuel-assembly simulator with four heated rods was installed inside a square channel with rounded corner. The outer diameter of each heated rod is 8 mm with an effective heated length of 600 mm. The experiments covered the pressure range of 23–28 MPa, mass-flux range of 350–1000 kg/(m{sup 2} s) and heat-flux range on the rod surface of 200–1000 kW/m{sup 2}. Heat transfer characteristics of supercritical pressure water through the bundle were examined with respect to variations of heat flux, system pressure, and mass flux. These characteristics were shown to be similar to those previously observed in tubes or annuli. The experimental data indicate a non-uniform circumferential wall-temperature distribution around the heated rod. A maximum wall temperature was observed at the surface facing the corner gap between the heated rod and the ceramic tube, while the minimum wall temperature was observed at the surface facing the center subchannel. The difference between maximum and minimum wall temperatures varies with heat flux and/or mass flux. Eight heat transfer correlations developed for supercritical water were assessed against the current set of test data. Prediction of the Jackson correlation agrees closely with the experimental Nusselt number. A new correlation has been derived based on Jackson correlation to improve the prediction accuracy of supercritical heat transfer coefficient in a 2 × 2 rod bundle.

  3. Effective As(III) Removal by A Multi-Charged Hydroacid Complex Draw Solute Facilitated Forward Osmosis-Membrane Distillation (FO-MD) Processes

    KAUST Repository

    Ge, Qingchun

    2016-01-29

    © 2016 American Chemical Society. Effective removal of As(III) from water by an oxalic acid complex with the formula of Na3[Cr(C2O4)3] (Na-Cr-OA) is demonstrated via an forward osmosis-membrane distillation (FO-MD) hybrid system in this study. Na-Cr-OA first proved its superiority as a draw solute with high water fluxes and negligible reverse fluxes in FO, then a systematic investigation of the Na-Cr-OA promoted FO process was conducted to ascertain the factors in As(III) removal. Relatively high water fluxes of 28 LMH under the FO mode and 74 LMH under the pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) mode were achieved when using a 1000 ppm As(III) solution as the feed and 1.0 M Na-Cr-OA as the draw solution at 60 °C. As(III) removal with a water recovery up to 21.6% (FO mode) and 48.3% (PRO mode) were also achieved in 2 h. An outstanding As(III) rejection with 30-3000 μg/L As(III) in the permeate was accomplished when As(III) feed solutions varied from 5 × 104 to 1 × 106 μg/L, superior to the best FO performance reported for As(III) removal. Incorporating MD into FO not only makes As(III) removal sustainable by reconcentrating the Na-Cr-OA solution simultaneously, but also reduces the As(III) concentration below 10 μg/L in the product water, meeting the WHO standard.

  4. Two-categorical bundles and their classifying spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baas, Nils A.; Bökstedt, M.; Kro, T.A.

    2012-01-01

    For a 2-category 2C we associate a notion of a principal 2C-bundle. In case of the 2-category of 2-vector spaces in the sense of M.M. Kapranov and V.A. Voevodsky this gives the the 2-vector bundles of N.A. Baas, B.I. Dundas and J. Rognes. Our main result says that the geometric nerve of a good 2......-category is a classifying space for the associated principal 2-bundles. In the process of proving this we develop a lot of powerful machinery which may be useful in further studies of 2-categorical topology. As a corollary we get a new proof of the classification of principal bundles. A calculation based...... on the main theorem shows that the principal 2-bundles associated to the 2-category of 2-vector spaces in the sense of J.C. Baez and A.S. Crans split, up to concordance, as two copies of ordinary vector bundles. When 2C is a cobordism type 2-category we get a new notion of cobordism-bundles which turns out...

  5. The effect of ligand substituent on crystal packing: Structural and theoretical studies of two Ga(III) supramolecular compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleimannejad, Janet; Nazarnia, Esfandiar

    2016-07-01

    A new Ga(III) supramolecular compound (4,4‧-bipyH2)[Ga(hpydc)2]2·7H2O (2) (where H2hpydc = 4-hydroxy-pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid and 4,4‧-bipy = 4,4‧-bipyridine) was synthesized using the proton transfer reaction. Compound 2 was structurally characterized using single crystal X-ray diffraction, and it was shown that its asymmetric unit consists of two independent anionic Ga(III) complexes, one fully protonated 4,4‧-bipyridine and seven uncoordinated water molecules. In order to understand the effect of pyridine OH substituent on supramolecular interactions and crystal packing, compound 2 was compared with (bipyH2)[Ga(pydc)2]·(H2pydc)·4H2O (1) (where H2pydc = pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid), that does not have an OH group on the pyridine ligand. The Density Functional Theory (DFT) and Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) calculations and also Atoms in Molecules (AIM) analysis were used to analyze the non-covalent interactions in both complexes. The calculation of non-covalent interactions' energy provides a useful means to investigate their effects in the crystal packing.

  6. The Geometry of Tangent Bundles: Canonical Vector Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongzhu Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A canonical vector field on the tangent bundle is a vector field defined by an invariant coordinate construction. In this paper, a complete classification of canonical vector fields on tangent bundles, depending on vector fields defined on their bases, is obtained. It is shown that every canonical vector field is a linear combination with constant coefficients of three vector fields: the variational vector field (canonical lift, the Liouville vector field, and the vertical lift of a vector field on the base of the tangent bundle.

  7. Bondage Numbers of C4 Bundles over a Cycle Cn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moo Young Sohn

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Graph bundles generalize the notion of covering graphs and graph products. Graph bundles have been applied in computer architecture and communication networks. The bondage number is an important parameter for measuring the vulnerability and stability of the network domination under link failure. The bondage number b(G of a graph G is the minimum number of edges whose removal enlarges the domination number. In this paper, we show that the bondage number of every C4 bundles over a cycle Cn  (n≥4 is equal to 4.

  8. Thermomagnetic Siphoning on a Bundle of Current-Carrying Wires

    OpenAIRE

    Boulware, Jeffrey C.; Jensen, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Using COMSOL Multiphysics 3.5a, thermomagnetic siphoning (TMS) was shown to be a sufficient manner of regulating the temperature of a bundle of current-carrying wires wrapped with a magnetorheological fluid (MRF) jacket. As the bundle heated up, cooler MRF on the outside of the jacket was drawn towards the center due to Curie’s Law and the induced magnetic field. The process convected heat from the bundle as the MRF warmed up and was pushed out towards an isothermal jacket wall. Assuming an o...

  9. Mitigation of effects of extreme drought during stage III of peach fruit development by summer pruning and fruit thinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Gerardo; Mata, Mercè; Arbones, Amadeu; Solans, Josep R; Girona, Joan; Marsal, Jordi

    2006-04-01

    A water deficit during stage III of fruit growth was established with the aim of determining if it is possible to achieve an improvement in tree water status by summer pruning and fruit thinning. The experiment was set up as a randomized block split-plot design across trials (irrigation) where pruning was assigned to the main plot and fruit thinning to the sub-plots. The irrigation treatments were (1) standard full irrigation (FI), and (2) suppression of irrigation during stage III of fruit growth until leaves visibly withered (LWI); the pruning treatments were (1) experimental summer pruning (EP), and (2) standard summer pruning (CP); and three fruit thinning intensities were applied to facilitate analysis of the effects of the treatments in relation to fruit load. Changes in amount of light intercepted and in tree stem water potential (Psi stem) were evaluated. The EP treatment reduced the amount of light intercepted by the tree. In the FI treatment, there was a significant reduction in fruit growth measured as both water accumulation and dry mass accumulation. Under FI conditions, reductions in fruit load as a result of EP were not accompanied by a significant improvement in Psi stem. In the LWI treatment, EP produced a significant improvement of 0.17 MPa in Psi stem, but there was no improvement in fruit growth compared with CP trees. A reduction in fruit load from 350 (commercial load) to 150 per tree significantly improved Psi stem by 0.3 MPa at the end of stage III of fruit growth. These results indicate that improvements in water status in response to pruning may be insufficient to promote fruit growth if the pruned trees are unable to provide an adequate supply of assimilates to the developing fruits.

  10. A Population-Based Comparative Effectiveness Study of Radiation Therapy Techniques in Stage III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Jeremy P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Murphy, James D. [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Science, University of California– San Diego, Moores Cancer Center, La Jolla, California (United States); Hanlon, Alexandra L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); University of Pennsylvania School of Nursing, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Le, Quynh-Thu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Loo, Billy W., E-mail: BWLoo@Stanford.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Diehn, Maximilian, E-mail: diehn@Stanford.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States)

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: Concerns have been raised about the potential for worse treatment outcomes because of dosimetric inaccuracies related to tumor motion and increased toxicity caused by the spread of low-dose radiation to normal tissues in patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). We therefore performed a population-based comparative effectiveness analysis of IMRT, conventional 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT), and 2-dimensional radiation therapy (2D-RT) in stage III NSCLC. Methods and Materials: We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare database to identify a cohort of patients diagnosed with stage III NSCLC from 2002 to 2009 treated with IMRT, 3D-CRT, or 2D-RT. Using Cox regression and propensity score matching, we compared survival and toxicities of these treatments. Results: The proportion of patients treated with IMRT increased from 2% in 2002 to 25% in 2009, and the use of 2D-RT decreased from 32% to 3%. In univariate analysis, IMRT was associated with improved overall survival (OS) (hazard ratio [HR] 0.90, P=.02) and cancer-specific survival (CSS) (HR 0.89, P=.02). After controlling for confounders, IMRT was associated with similar OS (HR 0.94, P=.23) and CSS (HR 0.94, P=.28) compared with 3D-CRT. Both techniques had superior OS compared with 2D-RT. IMRT was associated with similar toxicity risks on multivariate analysis compared with 3D-CRT. Propensity score matched model results were similar to those from adjusted models. Conclusions: In this population-based analysis, IMRT for stage III NSCLC was associated with similar OS and CSS and maintained similar toxicity risks compared with 3D-CRT.

  11. Reproducibility of heat transfer tests in a 5X5 bundle geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the repeatability and reliability of bundle heat transfer data obtained in a 5X5 PWR-type bundle subassembly operating at PWR conditions of interest. The 5X5 fuel bundle simulator, installed in the OMEGA-2 loop, is equipped with simple support grids, designed to have a low impact on the flow and heat transfer. The nine central heaters were equipped with the novel sliding thermocouple technique, capable of measuring the detailed axial and circumferential temperature distributions during single-phase and boiling heat transfer tests. In order to obtain highly accurate bundle heat transfer measurements, appropriate experimental procedures and in-situ calibrations of all essential instrumentation were employed. This includes (i) the employment of calibrated reference fluid temperature measurement devices, (ii) in-situ calibrations of fluid and heater-sheath thermocouples, (iii) calibration of heater wall thickness based on in-situ measurements, and (iv) selection of data that satisfy strict acceptance criteria. After applying these corrections and data screening criteria, the measurement accuracy and repeatability was assessed. This was done by means of three different tests: Single Phase Heat Transfer: The repeatability of heat transfer were assessed by comparing the measurements of two separate 5X5 bundles against the predictions from a Dittus-Boelter-type heat transfer correlation which provided very similar results. Also the single-phase heat transfer repeatability was assessed by performing several repeat runs and comparing results obtained on heaters in symmetric locations. Excellent repeatability was noted and the results for symmetric angular locations are almost identical; Boiling Tests: During the boiling heat transfer tests excellent repeatability and symmetry was observed. The saturation temperature (corresponding to the measured outlet temperature) was found to be in very good agreement with (i) the outlet temperature measured by the

  12. Assessment of ASSERT-PV for prediction of critical heat flux in CANDU bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Assessment of the new Canadian subchannel code ASSERT-PV 3.2 for CHF prediction. • CANDU 28-, 37- and 43-element bundle CHF experiments. • Prediction improvement of ASSERT-PV 3.2 over previous code versions. • Sensitivity study of the effect of CHF model options. - Abstract: Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) has developed the subchannel thermalhydraulics code ASSERT-PV for the Canadian nuclear industry. The recently released ASSERT-PV 3.2 provides enhanced models for improved predictions of flow distribution, critical heat flux (CHF), and post-dryout (PDO) heat transfer in horizontal CANDU fuel channels. This paper presents results of an assessment of the new code version against five full-scale CANDU bundle experiments conducted in 1990s and in 2009 by Stern Laboratories (SL), using 28-, 37- and 43-element (CANFLEX) bundles. A total of 15 CHF test series with varying pressure-tube creep and/or bearing-pad height were analyzed. The SL experiments encompassed the bundle geometries and range of flow conditions for the intended ASSERT-PV applications for CANDU reactors. Code predictions of channel dryout power and axial and radial CHF locations were compared against measurements from the SL CHF tests to quantify the code prediction accuracy. The prediction statistics using the recommended model set of ASSERT-PV 3.2 were compared to those from previous code versions. Furthermore, the sensitivity studies evaluated the contribution of each CHF model change or enhancement to the improvement in CHF prediction. Overall, the assessment demonstrated significant improvement in prediction of channel dryout power and axial and radial CHF locations in horizontal fuel channels containing CANDU bundles

  13. Assessment of ASSERT-PV for prediction of critical heat flux in CANDU bundles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Y.F., E-mail: raoy@aecl.ca; Cheng, Z., E-mail: chengz@aecl.ca; Waddington, G.M., E-mail: waddingg@aecl.ca

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Assessment of the new Canadian subchannel code ASSERT-PV 3.2 for CHF prediction. • CANDU 28-, 37- and 43-element bundle CHF experiments. • Prediction improvement of ASSERT-PV 3.2 over previous code versions. • Sensitivity study of the effect of CHF model options. - Abstract: Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) has developed the subchannel thermalhydraulics code ASSERT-PV for the Canadian nuclear industry. The recently released ASSERT-PV 3.2 provides enhanced models for improved predictions of flow distribution, critical heat flux (CHF), and post-dryout (PDO) heat transfer in horizontal CANDU fuel channels. This paper presents results of an assessment of the new code version against five full-scale CANDU bundle experiments conducted in 1990s and in 2009 by Stern Laboratories (SL), using 28-, 37- and 43-element (CANFLEX) bundles. A total of 15 CHF test series with varying pressure-tube creep and/or bearing-pad height were analyzed. The SL experiments encompassed the bundle geometries and range of flow conditions for the intended ASSERT-PV applications for CANDU reactors. Code predictions of channel dryout power and axial and radial CHF locations were compared against measurements from the SL CHF tests to quantify the code prediction accuracy. The prediction statistics using the recommended model set of ASSERT-PV 3.2 were compared to those from previous code versions. Furthermore, the sensitivity studies evaluated the contribution of each CHF model change or enhancement to the improvement in CHF prediction. Overall, the assessment demonstrated significant improvement in prediction of channel dryout power and axial and radial CHF locations in horizontal fuel channels containing CANDU bundles.

  14. Standardization of Type 2 Diabetes Outpatient Expenditure with Bundled Payment Method in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-Chao Xu; Yun Luo; Qian Li; Meng-Fan Wu; Zi-Jun Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Background:In recent years,the prevalence of type 2 diabetes among Chinese population has been increasing by years,directly leading to an average annual growth rate of 19.90% of medical expenditure.Therefore,it is urgent to work on strategies to control the growth of medical expenditure on type 2 diabetes on the basis of the reality of China.Therefore,in this study,we explored the feasibility of implementing bundled payment in China through analyzing bundled payment standards of type 2 diabetes outpatient services.Methods:This study analyzed the outpatient expenditure on type 2 diabetes with Beijing Urban Employee's Basic Medical Insurance from 2010 to 2012.Based on the analysis of outpatient expenditure and its influential factors,we adopted decision tree approach to conduct a case-mix analysis.In the end,we built a case-mix model to calculate the standard expenditure and the upper limit of each combination.Results:We found that age,job status,and whether with complication were significant factors that influence outpatient expenditure for type 2 diabetes.Through the analysis of the decision tree,we used six variables (complication,age,diabetic foot,diabetic nephropathy,cardiac-cerebrovascular disease,and neuropathy) to group the cases,and obtained 11 case-mix groups.Conclusions:We argued that it is feasible to implement bundled payment on type 2 diabetes outpatient services.Bundled payment is effective to control the increase of outpatient expenditure.Further improvements are needed for the implementation of bundled payment reimbursement standards,together with relevant policies and measures.

  15. Fe(II) Sorption On Pyrophyllite: Effect Of Structural Fe(III) (impurity) In Pyrophyllite On Nature Of Layered Double Hydroxide (LDH) Secondary Mineral Formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starcher, Autumn N.; Li, Wei; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Elzinga, E. J.; Sparks, Donald L.

    2016-06-18

    Fe(II)-Al(III)-LDH (layered double hydroxide) phases have been shown to form from reactions of aqueous Fe(II) with Fe-free Al-bearing minerals (phyllosilicate/clays and Al-oxides). To our knowledge, the effect of small amounts of structural Fe(III) impurities in “neutral” clays on such reactions, however, were not studied. In this study to understand the role of structural Fe(III) impurity in clays, laboratory batch studies with pyrophyllite (10 g/L), an Al-bearing phyllosilicate, containing small amounts of structural Fe(III) impurities and 0.8 mM and 3 mM Fe(II) (both natural and enriched in 57Fe) were carried out at pH 7.5 under anaerobic conditions (4% H2 – 96% N2 atmosphere). Samples were taken up to 4 weeks for analysis by Fe-X-ray absorption spectroscopy and 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy. In addition to the precipitation of Fe(II)-Al(III)-LDH phases as observed in earlier studies with pure minerals (no Fe(III) impurities in the minerals), the analyses indicated formation of small amounts of Fe(III) containing solid(s), most probably hybrid a Fe(II)-Al(III)/Fe(III)-LDH phase. The mechanism of Fe(II) oxidation was not apparent but most likely was due to interfacial electron transfer from the sorbed Fe(II) to the structural Fe(III) and/or surface-sorption-induced electron-transfer from the sorbed Fe(II) to the clay lattice. Increase in the Fe(II)/Al ratio of the LDH with reaction time further indicated the complex nature of the samples. This research provides evidence for the formation of both Fe(II)-Al(III)-LDH and Fe(II)-Fe(III)/Al(III)-LDH-like phases during reactions of Fe(II) in systems that mimic the natural environments. Better understanding Fe phase formation in complex laboratory studies will improve models of natural redox systems.

  16. LVRF fuel bundle manufacture for Bruce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pant, A. [Zircatec Precision Industries, Port Hope, Ontario (Canada)

    2005-12-15

    In response to the Power Uprate program at Bruce Power, Zircatec has committed to introduce, by Spring 2006 a new manufacturing line for the production of 43 element Bruce LVRF bundles containing Slightly Enriched Uranium (SEU) with a centre pin of blended dysprosia/urania (BDU). This is a new fuel design and is the first change in fuel design since the introduction of the current 37-element fuel over 20 years ago. Introduction of this new line has involved the introduction of significant changes to an environment that is not used to rapid changes with significant impact. At ZPI we have been able to build on our innovative capabilities in new fuel manufacturing, the strength and experience of our core team, and on our prevailing management philosophy of 'support the doer'. The presentation will discuss some of the novel aspects of this fuel introduction and the mix of innovative and classical project management methods that are being used to ensure that project deliveries are being met. Supporting presentations will highlight some of the issues in more detail. (author)

  17. EFFECT OF GRADE -III EXERCISE ON TOTAL LEUCOCYTE COUNT AND DIFFERENTIAL LEUCOCYTE COUNT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrutha.K,

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Exercise is a type of physical activity and is defined as a planned. Structured and repetitive bodily movement done to improve and to maintain physical fitness .exercise stress releases some amount of adrenaline from adrenal medulla. Adrenaline brings about a beta receptor mediated vasodilatation in skeletal muscles which may contribute to the anticipatory vasodilatation in the blood vassals, and increased blood flow is seen during and for a short while after the exercise. Due to the stimulation of bone marrow more number of white blood cells (WBC produced from marginal pool and released into circulation. Materials & Methods: Thirty subjects both male and female were randomly selected as control and study groups. Control group sample was collected after taking rest for 1 hour and study group sample was collected immediately after grade III exercise. Conclusion: After exercise total leukocyte count (TLC increased significantly p. value being ˂0.0001 and differential leukocyte count(DLC increased significantly p. value being ˂0.01.

  18. Temperature effects on the interaction mechanisms between the europium (III) and uranyl ions and zirconium diphosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temperature should remain higher than 25 C in the near field environment of a nuclear waste repository for thousands years. In this context, the aim of this work is to study the temperature influence on the interaction mechanisms between europium (III) and uranyl ions and zirconium diphosphate, as well as the influence of a complexing medium (nitrate) on the sorption of the lanthanide. The experimental definition of the equilibria was achieved by combining a structural investigation with the macroscopic sorption data. Surface complexes were characterized at all temperatures (25 C to 90 C) by TRLFS experiments carried out on dry and in situ samples using an oven. This characterization was completed by XPS experiments carried out at 25 C on samples prepared at 25 C and 90 C. The reaction constants (surface hydration and cations sorption) were obtained by simulating the experimental data with the constant capacitance surface complexation model. The reaction constants temperature dependency allowed one to characterize thermodynamically the different reactions by application of the van't Hoff relation. The validity of this law was tested by performing microcalorimetric measurements of the sorption heat for both cations. (author)

  19. SIMMER-III Analyses of Local Fuel-Coolant Interactions in a Simulated Molten Fuel Pool: Effect of Coolant Quantity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songbai Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on local fuel-coolant interactions (FCI in a molten pool are important for the analyses of severe accidents that could occur for sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFRs. To clarify the mechanisms underlying this interaction, in recent years, several experimental tests, with comparatively larger difference in coolant volumes, were conducted at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency by delivering a given quantity of water into a molten pool formed with a low-melting-point alloy. In this study, to further understand this interaction, interaction characteristics including the pressure buildup as well as mechanical energy release and its conversion efficiency are investigated using the SIMMER-III, an advanced fast reactor safety analysis code. It is found that the SIMMER-III code not only reasonably simulates the transient pressure and temperature variations during local FCIs, but also supports the limited tendency of pressurization and resultant mechanical energy release as observed from experiments when the volume of water delivered into the pool increases. The performed analyses also suggest that the most probable reason leading to such limited tendency should be primarily due to an isolation effect of vapor bubbles generated at the water-melt interface.

  20. The effect of heterocyclic S,S’-ligands on the electrochemical properties of some cobalt(III complexes in acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. JOVANOVIC

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Eight mixed-ligand cobalt(III complexes with the macrocyclic amine 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane (cyclam and a heterocyclic dithiocarbamate (Rdtc- i.e., morpholine- (Morphdtc, thiomorpholine- (Timdtc, piperazine- (Pzdtc, N-methylpiperazine-(Mepzdtc, piperidine- (Pipdtc, 2-, 3- or 4-methylpiperidine- (2-, 3- and 4-Mepipdtc carbodithionato-S,S ions, of the general formula [Co(cyclamRdtc](ClO42, were investigated in deoxygenated 0.1MHClO4 solutions. Cyclic voltammetry data at a glassy carbon (GC electrode demonstrate a redox reaction of cobalt(III from the complexes at potentials strongly influenced by the presence of different heterocyclic Rdtc- ligands. In this respect, the complexes were separated into two groups: the first, with a heteroatom O, S or N in the heterocyclic ring, and the second, with a methyl group on the piperidine ring of the Rdtc- ligand. Anodic polarization of an Fe electrode in the presence of the complexes shows their influence not only on the dissolution of iron but also on the hydrogen evolution reactions and on this basis complexes the complexes could be divided into the same two groups. It was found that the weaker the inhibiting effect of the free heterocyclic amines is, the significantly higher is the efficiency of the corresponding complexes.

  1. Effects of joint position on the distraction distance during grade III glenohumeral joint distraction in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sam-Sik; Kim, Bo-Kyung; Moon, Ok-Kon; Choi, Wan-Suk

    2015-10-01

    [Purpose] The study investigated the effects of joint position on the distraction distance during Grade III glenohumeral joint distraction in healthy individuals. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty adults in their forties without shoulder disease were randomly divided into neutral position group (NPG; n = 7), resting position group (RPG; n = 7), and end range position group (ERPG; n = 6). After Kaltenborn Grade III distraction for 40s, the distance between glenoid fossa and humeral head was measured by ultrasound. [Results] The average distances between the humeral head and glenoid fossa before distraction were 2.86 ± 0.81, 3.21 ± 0.47, and 3.55 ± 0.59 mm for the NP, RP, and ERP groups. The distances after applying distraction were 3.12 ± 0.51, 3.86 ± 0.55, and 4.35 ± 0.32 mm. Between-group comparison after applying distraction revealed no significant differences between the NP and RP groups, while there was a statistically significant difference between the NP and RP groups, as well as between the NP and ERP groups. [Conclusion] Joint space was largest in ERP individuals when performing manual distraction. PMID:26644692

  2. Bundles of Norms About Teen Sex and Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollborn, Stefanie; Sennott, Christie

    2015-09-01

    Teen pregnancy is a cultural battleground in struggles over morality, education, and family. At its heart are norms about teen sex, contraception, pregnancy, and abortion. Analyzing 57 interviews with college students, we found that "bundles" of related norms shaped the messages teens hear. Teens did not think their communities encouraged teen sex or pregnancy, but normative messages differed greatly, with either moral or practical rationalizations. Teens readily identified multiple norms intended to regulate teen sex, contraception, abortion, childbearing, and the sanctioning of teen parents. Beyond influencing teens' behavior, norms shaped teenagers' public portrayals and post hoc justifications of their behavior. Although norm bundles are complex to measure, participants could summarize them succinctly. These bundles and their conflicting behavioral prescriptions create space for human agency in negotiating normative pressures. The norm bundles concept has implications for teen pregnancy prevention policies and can help revitalize social norms for understanding health behaviors. PMID:25387911

  3. On exact triangles consisting of stable vector bundles on tori

    CERN Document Server

    Kobayashi, Kazushi

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the exact triangles consisting of stable holomorphic vector bundles on one-dimensional complex tori, and discuss their relations with the corresponding Fukaya category via the homological mirror symmetry.

  4. Topological T-duality for torus bundles with monodromy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraglia, David

    2015-05-01

    We give a simplified definition of topological T-duality that applies to arbitrary torus bundles. The new definition does not involve Chern classes or spectral sequences, only gerbes and morphisms between them. All the familiar topological conditions for T-duals are shown to follow. We determine necessary and sufficient conditions for existence of a T-dual in the case of affine torus bundles. This is general enough to include all principal torus bundles as well as torus bundles with arbitrary monodromy representations. We show that isomorphisms in twisted cohomology, twisted K-theory and of Courant algebroids persist in this general setting. We also give an example where twisted K-theory groups can be computed by iterating T-duality.

  5. Mechanical Models of Microtubule Bundle Collapse in Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendek, Austin; Singh, Rajiv; Cox, Daniel

    2013-03-01

    Amyloid-beta aggregates initiate Alzheimer's disease, and downstream trigger degradation of tau proteins that act as microtubule bundle stabilizers and mechanical spacers. Currently it is unclear which of tau cutting by proteases, tau phosphorylation, or tau aggregation are responsible for cytoskeleton degradation., We construct a percolation simulation of the microtubule bundle using a molecular spring model for the taus and including depletion force attraction between microtubules and membrane/actin cytoskeletal surface tension. The simulation uses a fictive molecular dynamics to model the motion of the individual microtubules within the bundle as a result of random tau removal, and calculates the elastic modulus of the bundle as the tau concentration falls. We link the tau removal steps to kinetic tau steps in various models of tau degradation. Supported by US NSF Grant DMR 1207624

  6. The canonical Cartan bundle and connection in CR geometry

    OpenAIRE

    Herzlich, Marc

    2009-01-01

    minor changes ; wrong author in reference [7] corrected; International audience; We give a differential geometric description of the Cartan (or tractor) bundle and its canonical connection in CR geometry, thus offering a direct, alternative, definition to the usual abstract approach.

  7. Deformation Quantization of Principal Fibre Bundles and Classical Gauge Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Wei\\ss, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    In this dissertation the notion of deformation quantization of principal fibre bundles is established and investigated in order to find a geometric formulation of classical gauge theories on noncommutative space-times. As a generalization, the notion of deformation quantization of surjective submersions is also discussed. It is shown that deformation quantizations of surjective submersions and principal fibre bundles always exist and are unique up to equivalence. These statements concerning complex-valued functions are moreover formulated and proved for sections of arbitrary vector bundles over the total space, in particular equivariant vector bundles. The commutants of the deformed right module structures within the differential operators, playing an inportant role with regard to the infinitesimal gauge transformations, are computed explicitly in each case. Depending on the choice of specific covariant derivatives and connections the commutants are isomorphic to the formal power series of the respective vert...

  8. National Partnership for Maternal Safety: Consensus Bundle on Venous Thromboembolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alton, Mary E; Friedman, Alexander M; Smiley, Richard M; Montgomery, Douglas M; Paidas, Michael J; D'Oria, Robyn; Frost, Jennifer L; Hameed, Afshan B; Karsnitz, Deborah; Levy, Barbara S; Clark, Steven L

    2016-10-01

    Obstetric venous thromboembolism is a leading cause of severe maternal morbidity and mortality. Maternal death from thromboembolism is amenable to prevention, and thromboprophylaxis is the most readily implementable means of systematically reducing the maternal death rate. Observational data support the benefit of risk-factor-based prophylaxis in reducing obstetric thromboembolism. This bundle, developed by a multidisciplinary working group and published by the National Partnership for Maternal Safety under the guidance of the Council on Patient Safety in Women's Health Care, supports routine thromboembolism risk assessment for obstetric patients, with appropriate use of pharmacologic and mechanical thromboprophylaxis. Safety bundles outline critical clinical practices that should be implemented in every maternity unit. The safety bundle is organized into four domains: Readiness, Recognition, Response, and Reporting and Systems Learning. Although the bundle components may be adapted to meet the resources available in individual facilities, standardization within an institution is strongly encouraged. PMID:27636577

  9. Bundles of Norms About Teen Sex and Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollborn, Stefanie; Sennott, Christie

    2015-09-01

    Teen pregnancy is a cultural battleground in struggles over morality, education, and family. At its heart are norms about teen sex, contraception, pregnancy, and abortion. Analyzing 57 interviews with college students, we found that "bundles" of related norms shaped the messages teens hear. Teens did not think their communities encouraged teen sex or pregnancy, but normative messages differed greatly, with either moral or practical rationalizations. Teens readily identified multiple norms intended to regulate teen sex, contraception, abortion, childbearing, and the sanctioning of teen parents. Beyond influencing teens' behavior, norms shaped teenagers' public portrayals and post hoc justifications of their behavior. Although norm bundles are complex to measure, participants could summarize them succinctly. These bundles and their conflicting behavioral prescriptions create space for human agency in negotiating normative pressures. The norm bundles concept has implications for teen pregnancy prevention policies and can help revitalize social norms for understanding health behaviors.

  10. Interactive hypermedia training manual for spent-fuel bundle counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spent-fuel bundle counters, developed by the Canadian Safeguards Support Program for the International Atomic Energy Agency, provide a secure and independent means of counting the number of irradiated fuel bundles discharged into the fuel storage bays at CANDU nuclear power stations. Paper manuals have been traditionally used to familiarize IAEA inspectors with the operation, maintenance and extensive reporting capabilities of the bundle counters. To further assist inspectors, an interactive training manual has been developed on an Apple Macintosh computer using hypermedia software. The manual uses interactive animation and sound, in conjunction with the traditional text and graphics, to simulate the underlying operation and logic of the bundle counters. This paper presents the key features of the interactive manual and highlights the advantages of this new technology for training

  11. Psychophysiological adaptation of the patient with the remote effect of the III degree acute radiation syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metlyaeva N.A.

    2013-12-01

    putation of both shins at level in top / 3, late beam buttock, right hip ulcers, a beam cataract of the III degree of both eyes, stabilized. The assessment of the efficiency of psychophysiological adaptation in dynamics with 2009 indicates emergence of prevalence of hypochondriac tendencies over a demonstration with accession of high uneasiness and autistic lines at preservation of the leading role of an hypochondriac somatization of alarm with considerable decrease in an emotionality, an integration, a freedom of behavior. The changes revealed in dynamics correspond to the specific increase weight of violations of mental adaptation, characteristic for the period of adaptation exhaustion. The high intelligence, good figurative and logical thinking, well-mannered forms of behavior, high control over the emotional sphere, restraint of emotions, independence, self-sufficiency, organization, behavior taking into account environment requirements provided the patient M. firmness before a heavy illness, promoted good adaptation to an environment with confidence in myself, high social adaptability, opportunity successfully to carry out duties, hold the work account (worked 39 years after accident. Comparative assessment of operator ability of the patient M. showed good average time of common and difficult sensorimotor reactions with 2 mistakes, high time of reaction for moving object, however decrease in accuracy of reaction from 10-13% to 2% testifies to manifestation in dynamics of insufficiency of real functional reserves of nervous system. Conclusions. Efficiency of psychophysiological adaptation depends not only on a dose of radiation and weight of the transferred disease, but, mostly, on premorbid properties of the identity of the victim and his social and labor installation.

  12. Quantum principal bundles and Tannaka-Krein duality theory

    CERN Document Server

    Durdevic, M

    1995-01-01

    The structure of quantum principal bundles is studied, from the viewpoint of Tannaka-Krein duality theory. It is shown that if the structure quantum group is compact, principal G-bundles over a quantum space M are in a natural correspondence with certain contravariant functors defined on the category of finite-dimensional unitary representations of G, with the values in the category of finite projective bimodules over a *-algebra representing the base space.

  13. Quantized gauge-affine gravity in the superfiber bundle approach

    OpenAIRE

    Meziane, A.; Tahiri, M

    2004-01-01

    The quantization of gauge-affine gravity within the superfiber bundle formalism is proposed. By introducing an even pseudotensorial 1-superform over a principal superfibre bundle with superconnection, we obtain the geometrical Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) and anti-BRST transformations of the fields occurring in such a theory. Reducing the four-dimensional general affine group double-covering to the Poincare group double-covering we also find the BRST and anti-BRST transformations of the f...

  14. Bondage Numbers of C4 Bundles over a Cycle Cn

    OpenAIRE

    Moo Young Sohn; Fu-Tao Hu; Jaeun Lee

    2013-01-01

    Graph bundles generalize the notion of covering graphs and graph products. Graph bundles have been applied in computer architecture and communication networks. The bondage number is an important parameter for measuring the vulnerability and stability of the network domination under link failure. The bondage number $b\\left(G\\right)$ of a graph $G$ is the minimum number of edges whose removal enlarges the domination number. In this paper, we show that the bondage number of every ${C}_{4}$ bu...

  15. Simplified modeling of EM field coupling to complex cable bundles

    OpenAIRE

    Schetelig, B.; J. Keghie; Kanyou Nana, R.; Fichte, L.-O.; S. Potthast; Dickmann, S.

    2010-01-01

    In this contribution, the procedure "Equivalent Cable Bundle Method" is used for the simplification of large cable bundles, and it is extended to the application on differential signal lines. The main focus is on the reduction of twisted-pair cables. Furthermore, the process presented here allows to take into account cables with wires that are situated quite close to each other. The procedure is based on a new approach to calculate the geometry of the simplified cable and us...

  16. Filler metals for containers holding irradiated fuel bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the procedures being considered for the disposal of Canadian deuterium uranium (CANDU) irradiated fuel bundles is to place the bundles in containers, fill the containers with metal, and place them underground. This investigation deals with the selection of the filler metal with particular reference to the reaction rate with, and bonding of the filler metal to, the fuel sheathing (Zircaloy 4) and potential container materials. Lead, zinc, and aluminium alloys were examined as potential filler metals. (U.K.)

  17. Intra-His bundle block: clinical, electrocardiographic, and electrophysiologic characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Andréa Eduardo M.; Atié Jacob; Maciel Washington A.; Oliveira Jr Nilson A. de; Camanho Luiz Eduardo; Belo Luís Gustavo; Carvalho Hecio Affonso de; Siqueira Leonardo; Saad Eduardo; Venancio Ana Claudia

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the clinical, electrocardiographic, and electrophysiologic characteristics of patients (pt) with intra-His bundle block undergoing an electrophysiologic study (EPS). METHODS: We analyzed the characteristics of 16 pt with second-degree atrioventricular block and symptoms of syncope or dyspnea, or both, undergoing conventional EPS. RESULTS: Intra-His bundle block was documented in 16 pt during an EPS. In 15 (94%) pt, the atrioventricular block was recorded in sinus rhythm; ...

  18. Principal 2-bundles and their gauge 2-groups

    OpenAIRE

    Wockel, Christoph

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we introduce principal 2-bundles and show how they are classified by non-abelian Cech cohomology. Moreover, we show that their gauge 2-groups can be described by 2-group-valued functors, much like in classical bundle theory. Using this, we show that, under some mild requirements, these gauge 2-groups possess a natural smooth structure. In the last section we provide some explicit examples.

  19. 老年患者压疮护理中集束化护理管理的施行效果探析%Effect of Bundle Nursing Management in Elderly Patients With Bedsore

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何君

    2015-01-01

    目的:探析集束化护理管理在老年患者压疮护理中的应用效果。方法将在我院住院治疗发生压疮的88例老年患者分成集束化组和一般组,给予一般组压疮常规护理,给予集束化组集束化护理管理。结果集束化组压疮治疗总有效率高于一般组(P<0.05)。结论对老年患者实施压疮集束化护理管理,可有效改善患者压疮临床治疗效果,减轻患者痛苦。%Objective The application of bundle nursing management in elderly patients with bedsore is analysed. Methods 88 cases of elderly patients in our hospital with bedsore were divided into cluster group and general group, giving general group of general nursing, giving cluster cluster group cluster nursing management. Results In the observation group, the total ef iciency of treatment of pressure ulcers was significantly higher than that of normal group(P<0.05). Conclusion The implementation of bedsore nursing management for elderly patients can ef ectively improve curative ef ect, reduce the pain.

  20. The effect of epicardial radiofrequency ablation of Bachmann bundle on acute induction of atrial fibrillation in dogs%心外膜射频消融犬Bachmann束对心房颤动诱发的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯允天; 杜日映; 郑强荪

    2001-01-01

    AIM: To compare with the incidences of induced atrial fibrillation (AF)before and after blocking of Bachmann bundle (BB), and to evaluate the role of BB in initiation and maintaince of AF. METHODS: Ten dogs' BB were blocked by epicardial radiofrequency ablation and the blocking was confirmed by histopathologic examination. Burst stimuli from right and left auricles were given to induce AF. RESULTS: The differences of AF thresholds and AF duration before and after blocking of BB were not statistically significant (P>0.05). CONCLUSION:Blocking of BB not influence the initiation of AF.%目的:研究阻断Bachmann束(BB)对心房颤动(AF)诱发的影响。方法:对10只实验犬行心外膜BB射频消融术。阻断BB前后分别从左右心耳行快速短阵刺激以诱发AF,并比较AF阈值与持续时间。结果:在刺激方式与强度相同的情况下阻断BB前后AF阈值与持续时间相差无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论:阻断BB对AF诱发率无明显影响,提示在AF启动与维持机制中作用可能不同。

  1. Fermilab III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The total ongoing plans for Fermilab are wrapped up in the Fermilab III scheme, centrepiece of which is the proposal for a new Main Injector. The Laboratory has been awarded a $200,000 Illinois grant which will be used to initiate environmental assessment and engineering design of the Main Injector, while a state review panel recommended that the project should also benefit from $2 million of funding

  2. BiSet: Semantic Edge Bundling with Biclusters for Sensemaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Maoyuan; Mi, Peng; North, Chris; Ramakrishnan, Naren

    2016-01-01

    Identifying coordinated relationships is an important task in data analytics. For example, an intelligence analyst might want to discover three suspicious people who all visited the same four cities. Existing techniques that display individual relationships, such as between lists of entities, require repetitious manual selection and significant mental aggregation in cluttered visualizations to find coordinated relationships. In this paper, we present BiSet, a visual analytics technique to support interactive exploration of coordinated relationships. In BiSet, we model coordinated relationships as biclusters and algorithmically mine them from a dataset. Then, we visualize the biclusters in context as bundled edges between sets of related entities. Thus, bundles enable analysts to infer task-oriented semantic insights about potentially coordinated activities. We make bundles as first class objects and add a new layer, "in-between", to contain these bundle objects. Based on this, bundles serve to organize entities represented in lists and visually reveal their membership. Users can interact with edge bundles to organize related entities, and vice versa, for sensemaking purposes. With a usage scenario, we demonstrate how BiSet supports the exploration of coordinated relationships in text analytics.

  3. A Radiologist's Primer on Bundles and Care Episodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidenwurm, David; Lexa, Frank James

    2016-09-01

    Bundled or episode payments are among the most heavily emphasized approaches to aligning incentives and promoting care coordination, efficiency, and accountability in health care redesign. Bundled or episode payments price a market basket of services for an entire episode of care with both a clearly defined trigger and termination. Because the radiologist is "ancillary" in many bundles, the specialty is often unaware of the phenomenon. This is likely to change rapidly. Radiology is pivotal in high-prevalence, high-impact care areas such as low back pain and stroke that are focuses of widely used system performance metrics. More important, radiology is central to the diagnosis and management of a wide range of important diagnostic issues in areas such as breast cancer, pulmonary nodules, and incidental findings. Three models of bundled care will probably involve radiology intimately in the near future. Pure radiology bundles might be constructed for breast cancer screening and diagnosis, and these could be priced on the basis of guideline-based best-practice frequencies of care events such as recall and biopsy. Clinical bundles, for example low back pain, could be priced on the basis of optimal imaging frequencies. Finally, pricing of imaging studies might include evidence-based frequencies of follow-up imaging for incidental findings. PMID:27210231

  4. Spacetime foam induced collective bundling of intense fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oniga, Teodora; Wang, Charles H.-T.

    2016-09-01

    The influence of spacetime foam on a broad class of bosonic fields with arbitrary numbers of particles in the low-energy regime is investigated. Based on a recently formulated general description of open quantum gravitational systems, we analyze the propagation of scalar, electromagnetic, and gravitational waves on both long and short time scales with respect to their mean frequencies. For the long time propagation, the Markov approximation that neglects the effects of initial conditions of these waves is employed. In this case, despite intuitively expected decoherence and dissipation from the noisy spacetime, we show that such phenomena turn out to be completely suppressed for scalar bosons, photons, and gravitons, which are coupled to gravity but otherwise free. The short time effects are then recovered through the transient non-Markovian evolution. Focusing on scalar bosons in initially incoherent states, we find that the resulting quantum dissipation depends strongly on the distribution of the particle momentum states. We further identify a hitherto undiscovered collective antidissipation mechanism for a large number of particles. The surprising new effect tends to "bundle" identical particles within sharply distributed momentum states having a width inversely proportional to the particle number due to the thermal fluctuations, or its square root due to the vacuum fluctuations of spacetime.

  5. Propagation velocity profile in a cross-section of a cardiac muscle bundle from PSpice simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sperelakis Nicholas

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effect of depth on propagation velocity within a bundle of cardiac muscle fibers is likely to be an important factor in the genesis of some heart arrhythmias. Model and methods The velocity profile of simulated action potentials propagated down a bundle of parallel cardiac muscle fibers was examined in a cross-section of the bundle using a PSpice model. The model (20 × 10 consisted of 20 chains in parallel, each chain being 10 cells in length. All 20 chains were stimulated simultaneously at the left end of the bundle using rectangular current pulses (0.25 nA, 0.25 ms duration applied intracellularly. The simulated bundle was symmetrical at the top and bottom (including two grounds, and voltage markers were placed intracellularly only in cells 1, 5 and 10 of each chain to limit the total number of traces to 60. All electrical parameters were standard values; the variables were (1 the number of longitudinal gap-junction (G-j channels (0, 1, 10, 100, (2 the longitudinal resistance between the parallel chains (Rol2 (reflecting the closeness of the packing of the chains, and (3 the bundle termination resistance at the two ends of the bundle (RBT. The standard values for Rol2 and RBT were 200 KΩ. Results The velocity profile was bell-shaped when there was 0 or only 1 gj-channel. With standard Rol2 and RBT values, the velocity at the surface of the bundle (θ1 and θ20 was more than double (2.15 × that at the core of the bundle (θ10, θ11. This surface:core ratio of velocities was dependent on the values of Rol2 and RBT. When Rol2 was lowered 10-fold, θ1 increased slightly and θ2decreased slightly. When there were 100 gj-channels, the velocity profile was flat, i.e. the velocity at the core was about the same as that at the surface. Both velocities were more than 10-fold higher than in the absence of gj-channels. Varying Rol2 and RBT had almost no effect. When there were 10 gj-channels, the cross-sectional velocity profile

  6. Theory of dressed-state lasers. III. Pump-depletion effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakrzewski, J. (Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Reymonta 4, 30-059 Krakow (Poland)); Lewenstein, M. (Institute for Theoretical Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland)); Mossberg, T.W. (Department of Physics, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon 97403 (United States))

    1991-12-01

    We present further developments in the theory of dressed-state lasers, i.e., lasers that operate on inverted transitions between the dressed states of a coupled atom-field system. We take into account the quantum character of the driving field, and consider the effect of its depletion. We derive effective Hamiltonians appropriate for the analysis of both one- and two-photon dressed-state lasers, and then discuss the stability and statistics of such lasers. We show that pump-depletion effects tend to reduce the degree of squeezing found in dressed-state-laser output while simultaneously introducing small squeezing effects into the depleted pump field.

  7. Synthesis and Characterization of Flower-Like Bundles of ZnO Nanosheets by a Surfactant-Free Hydrothermal Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jijun Qiu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Flower-like bundles of ZnO nanosheets have been prepared by using preheating hydrothermal process without any surfactants. The flower-like bundles consist of many thin and uniform hexagonal-structured ZnO nanosheets, with a thickness of 50 nm. The selected area electronic diffraction (SAED and high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM images indicate that the ZnO nanosheets are single crystal in nature. The growth mechanism of the flower-like bundles of ZnO nanosheets is discussed based on the morphology evolution with growth times and reaction conditions. It is believed that the formation of flower-like bundles of ZnO nanosheets is related to the shielding effect of OH− ions and the self-assembly process, which is dominated by a preheating time. Room temperature photoluminescence spectra results show that the annealing atmosphere strongly affects the visible emission band, which is sensitive to intrinsic and surface defects, especially oxygen interstitials, in flower-like bundles of ZnO nanosheets.

  8. Nurse-led implementation of a ventilator-associated pneumonia care bundle in a children's critical care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Charlotte

    2016-05-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is the leading cause of death with hospital-acquired infections, and preventing it is one of the Saving Lives initiatives ( Department of Health 2007 ). This article discusses the implementation of a purpose-designed VAP care bundle in a children's intensive care unit and examines the unique role of nurses in the management of the change process. A nurse-led VAP education, implementation and surveillance programme was set up. Nurse education was paramount, as nursing staff acceptance and involvement was a key feature. A multi-method training strategy was implemented, providing staff with multiple training opportunities and introducing VAP project education as a routine part of staff induction. Bundle compliance was monitored regularly and graphs of the results produced quarterly; feedback proved to be useful in keeping staff informed and engaged in VAP reduction. Comparison of VAP incidence before and after introduction of the care bundle showed a reduction after its implementation. With a co-ordinated, multidisciplinary approach, VAP care bundles can result in significant and sustained reductions in VAP rates in the paediatric intensive care unit. Effective co-ordination and leadership is crucial to successful implementation of the VAP bundle, and nurses are well placed to undertake this role. PMID:27156419

  9. Two-phase flow interfacial structures in a rod bundle geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranjape, Sidharth S.

    Interfacial structure of air-water two-phase flow in a scaled nuclear reactor rod bundle geometry was studied in this research. Global and local flow regimes were obtained for the rod bundle geometry. Local two-phase flow parameters were measured at various axial locations in order to understand the transport of interfacial structures. A one-dimensional two-group interfacial area transport model was evaluated using the local parameter database. Air-water two-phase flow experiments were performed in an 8 X 8 rod bundle test section to obtain flow regime maps at various axial locations. Area averaged void fraction was measured using parallel plate type impedance void meters. The cumulative probability distribution functions of the signals from the impedance void meters were used along with a self organizing neural network to identify flow regimes. Local flow regime maps revealed the cross-sectional distribution of flow regimes in the bundle. Local parameters that characterize interfacial structure, that is, void fraction alpha, interfacial area concentration, ai, bubble Sauter mean diameter, DSm and bubble velocity, vg were measured using four sensor conductivity probe technique. The local data revealed the distribution of the interfacial structure in the radial direction, as well as its development in the axial direction. In addition to this, the effect of spacer grid on the flow structure at different gas and liquid velocities was revealed by local parameter measurements across the spacer grids. A two-group interfacial area transport equation (IATE) specific to rod bundle geometry was derived. The derivation of two-group IATE required certain assumption on the bubble shapes in the subchannels and the bubbles spanning more than a subchannel. It was found that the geometrical relationship between the volume and the area of a cap bubble distorted by rods was similar to the one derived for a confined channel under a specific geometrical transformation. The one

  10. The preventive surgical site infection bundle in patients with colorectal perforation

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamoto, Takehito; MORIMOTO, TAKESHI; Kita, Ryosuke; Masui, Hideyuki; Kinoshita, Hiromitsu; Sakamoto, Yusuke; Okada, Kazuyuki; Komori, Junji; Miki, Akira; Kondo, Masato; Uryuhara, Kenji; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Hashida, Hiroki; Kaihara, Satoshi; Hosotani, Ryo

    2015-01-01

    Background Incisional surgical site infection (SSI) is one of the most frequent complications that occur after colorectal surgery. Surgery for colorectal perforation carries an especially high risk of incisional SSI because fecal ascites contaminates the incision intraoperatively, and in patients who underwent stoma creation, the incision is located near the infective origin and is subject to infection postoperatively. Although effectiveness of the preventive SSI bundle of elective colorectal...

  11. Combustor having mixing tube bundle with baffle arrangement for directing fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Michael John; McConnaughhay, Johnie Franklin

    2016-08-23

    A combustor includes a tube bundle that extends radially across at least a portion of the combustor. The tube bundle includes an upstream surface axially separated from a downstream surface, and a plurality of tubes extend from the upstream surface through the downstream surface to provide fluid communication through the tube bundle. A barrier extends radially inside the tube bundle between the upstream and downstream surfaces, and a baffle extends axially inside the tube bundle between the upstream surface and the barrier.

  12. How Buyers Evaluate Product Bundles: A Model of Anchoring and Adjustment.

    OpenAIRE

    Yadav, Manjit S

    1994-01-01

    Bundling, the joint offering of two or more items, is a common selling strategy, yet little research has been conducted on buyers' evaluation of bundle offers. We developed and tested a model of bundle evaluation in which the buyers anchored their evaluation on the item perceived as most important and then made adjustments on the basis of their evaluations of the remaining bundle items. The results of two computerized laboratory experiments suggested that people tend to examine bundle items i...

  13. Effect of coexisting Al(III) ions on Pb(II) sorption on biochars: Role of pH buffer and competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuxi; Zhang, Weihua; Qiu, Hao; Tsang, Daniel C W; Morel, Jean-Louis; Qiu, Rongliang

    2016-10-01

    Biochar is being widely considered as a promising amendment agent for immobilizing heavy metals in contaminated acidic soils, where plenty of soluble Al(III) ions exist. In view of uncertain significance of the effects of coexisting Al(III) on Pb(II) sorption by biochars, this study used kenaf core biochar (KB550; high carbon, low ash) and sewage sludge biochar (SB550; low carbon, high ash) pyrolyzed at 550 °C to elucidate the influence of coexisting Al(III) species and biochars' mineral components on Pb(II) immobilization conducted in aqueous solution with initial pHs of 3.0-4.5. Results showed that Al(III) reduced Pb(II) sorption on KB550 primarily via pH buffering against biochar alkalinity, thus inhibiting lead carbonate formation. In contrast, the reduction on SB550 mainly resulted from direct competition for sorption sites, especially on Fe-rich phengite 2M1 and metakaolinite. Because of Pb-P precipitation and Pb-K interlayer exchange, the residual Pb(II) adsorption capacity resistant to coexisting Al(III) was 3-5 times higher on SB550 than on KB550. The Pb-K interlayer exchange was enhanced by lower pH and coexisting Al(III), while Pb-P precipitation was the dominant Pb(II) sorption mechanism on SB550 resistant to Al(III) buffering and competition at higher pH. Application of these two biochars as amendments confirmed that the mineral-rich SB550 was more suitable for Pb(II) immobilization in acidic soils with high levels of extractable Al(III). PMID:27454898

  14. [Effectiveness of phytotherapy in supportive treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus III. Momordica (Momordica charantia)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudá-Kučerová, Jana; Kotolová, Hana; Koupý, David

    2015-09-01

    Momordica charantia is a thermophilic voluble plant from the tropical and subtropical regions of Asia, Africa and the Caribbean. In central Europe, momordica requires greenhouse plantations. Mature fruits resemble a cucumber or a pumpkin and can be used as other similar vegetables. Crude fruits are very bitter and refreshing. For centuries the plant has been known in Chinese traditional medicine for its antidiabetic effects as well as for the treatment of cancer or infections caused by worms, viruses and malaria. Antidiabetic effects are attributed namely to cucurbitane type triterpenoids, charantin, p-insulin and 9cis-11trans-13trans-conjugated linolenic acid. These substances in momordica preparations show antidiabetic effectiveness in clinical studies by increasing insulin secretion and deceasing insulin resistance or glucose absorption from the gut. Beside this main effect the extract possesses certain neuroprotective and antioxidant effects (especially p9cis-11trans-13trans-conjugated linolenic acid) and contributes to normalize blood lipid and adipokine levels which results in the normalization of metabolic syndrome. Antidiabetic effectiveness of momordica was compared to active treatment with several oral antidiabetic drugs and proved comparable effects. However, the number of studies is limited and their methodological approach variable. Therefore, the evidence is so far inconclusive.

  15. [Effectiveness of phytotherapy in supportive treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus III. Momordica (Momordica charantia)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudá-Kučerová, Jana; Kotolová, Hana; Koupý, David

    2015-09-01

    Momordica charantia is a thermophilic voluble plant from the tropical and subtropical regions of Asia, Africa and the Caribbean. In central Europe, momordica requires greenhouse plantations. Mature fruits resemble a cucumber or a pumpkin and can be used as other similar vegetables. Crude fruits are very bitter and refreshing. For centuries the plant has been known in Chinese traditional medicine for its antidiabetic effects as well as for the treatment of cancer or infections caused by worms, viruses and malaria. Antidiabetic effects are attributed namely to cucurbitane type triterpenoids, charantin, p-insulin and 9cis-11trans-13trans-conjugated linolenic acid. These substances in momordica preparations show antidiabetic effectiveness in clinical studies by increasing insulin secretion and deceasing insulin resistance or glucose absorption from the gut. Beside this main effect the extract possesses certain neuroprotective and antioxidant effects (especially p9cis-11trans-13trans-conjugated linolenic acid) and contributes to normalize blood lipid and adipokine levels which results in the normalization of metabolic syndrome. Antidiabetic effectiveness of momordica was compared to active treatment with several oral antidiabetic drugs and proved comparable effects. However, the number of studies is limited and their methodological approach variable. Therefore, the evidence is so far inconclusive. PMID:26459126

  16. Effect of Iron Fe (II and Fe (III in a Binary System Evaluated Bioluminescent Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Sorokina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of iron ions Fe2+ and Fe3+ on the bioluminescent recombinant strain of Escherichia coli in a single-component and binary system. Found that for the bacteria E. coli Fe3+ ions are more toxic than Fe2+. Under the combined effect of iron toxicity increases, the percentage of luminescence quenching increases, but the value is much less than the sum of the indicator for the Fe2+ and Fe3+. The biological effect of insertion of iron is not proportional to their content in the mixture.

  17. Experimental studies on heat transfer to supercritical water in 2 × 2 rod bundle with two channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, H.Y., E-mail: guhanyang@sjtu.edu.cn [School of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Dongchuan Road 800, 200240, Shanghai (China); Hu, Z.X.; Liu, D.; Xiao, Y. [School of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Dongchuan Road 800, 200240, Shanghai (China); Cheng, X. [Institute of Fusion and Reactor Technologies (IFRT), Karlsruhe Institute of Technologies (KIT), Karlsruhe, 76131 (Germany)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Heat transfer to supercritical water in a 2 × 2 rod bundle is investigated. • Effects of system parameters on heat transfer in bundle are analyzed. • The test data were compared with twenty heat transfer correlations. - Abstract: The experiment of heat transfer to supercritical water in 2 × 2 rod bundle is performed at Shanghai Jiao Tong University. The test section consists of two channels separated by a square steel assembly box with rounded corners. Water flows downward in the first channel and then turns upward in the second channel to cool the 2 × 2 rod bundle installed inside the assembly box. The bundle consists of four heated rods of 10 mm in O.D. and 1.18 in pitch-to-diameter ratio. The fluid enthalpy in the first channel increases due to the heat transfer through the assembly box when flowing downward. The minimum fluid enthalpy increase in the first channel appears at the pseudo-critical region due to the small temperature difference between the two channels. Effects of various parameters on heat transfer behavior inside the 2 × 2 rod bundle are similar to those observed in tube or annuli. No special phenomenon in heat transfer is observed during the mass flux and power transient. The steady-state heat transfer correlation is applicable to predict the heat transfer in the mass or power transient sequence. In addition, the importance of several dimensionless numbers and the accuracy of 20 heat transfer correlations are assessed. It is concluded that the buoyancy parameter proposed by Cheng et al. (2009) shows unique effect on heat transfer coefficient. Among the 20 selected heat transfer correlations, the correlations of Jackson and Fewster (1975) and Bishop et al. (1964) give the best predictions when compared with the experimental data.

  18. “All Bundled Out” - Application of Lean Six Sigma techniques to reduce workload impact during implementation of patient care bundles within critical care – A case study

    OpenAIRE

    Hagg, Heather (Woodward); El-Harit, Jamie; Vanni, Chris; Scott, Penny

    2007-01-01

    Within healthcare, clinical practice bundles have been used to implement standardized, nursing driven protocols resulting in standardized patient care and improved patient outcomes. Examples of these types of bundles include clinical practices shown through evidence based medicine to reduce occurrences of Ventilator Associated Pneumonia – VAP bundle; those shown to reduce the occurrences of central line infections – CL bundle; and those shown to significantly improve the outcomes of patients...

  19. Velocity and turbulence distributions in wall subchannels of a road bundle in three axial planes downstream of a spacer grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehme, K.

    1987-03-01

    The velocity, turbulence, and temperature distributions in nuclear fuel element bundles of nuclear reactors were investigated. The mean velocity, the wall shear stresses, and the turbulence were measured in two wall subchannels of a rod bundle of four parallel rods, arranged in a rectangular channel, for three axial planes. A spacer grid was inserted in the rod bundle, for ratios between the distance spacer grid/measuring plane and the hydraulic diameter (LIDh) of 40.4, 32.8 and 16.9. The Reynolds number was 145,000. The results show that the distributions of the velocity and the turbulence are affected by the spacer grid, already for LIDh = 40.4. The effects of the spacer grid increase with decreasing distance to the spacer grid.

  20. Red Supergiant Stars as Cosmic Abundance Probes. III. NLTE effects in J-band Magnesium lines

    CERN Document Server

    Bergemann, Maria; Gazak, Zach; Davies, Ben; Plez, Bertrand

    2014-01-01

    Non-LTE calculations for Mg I in red supergiant stellar atmospheres are presented to investigate the importance of non-LTE for the formation of Mg I lines in the NIR J-band. Recent work using medium resolution spectroscopy of atomic lines in the J-band of individual red supergiant stars has demonstrated that technique is a very promising tool to investigate the chemical composition of the young stellar population in star forming galaxies. As in previous work, where non-LTE effects were studied for iron, titanium and silicon, substantial effects are found resulting in significantly stronger Mg I absorption lines. For the quantitative spectral analysis the non-LTE effects lead to magnesium abundances significantly smaller than in LTE with the non-LTE abundance corrections varying smoothly between -0.4 dex to -0.1 dex for effective temperatures between 3400 K to 4400 K. We discuss the physical reasons of the non-LTE effects and the consequences for extragalactic J-band abundance studies using individual red supe...

  1. Controlling DNA Bundle Size and Spatial Arrangement in Self-assembled Arrays on Superhydrophobic Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gabriele Ciasca; Luca Businaro; Marco De Spirito; Massimiliano Papi; Valentina Palmieri; Michela Chiarpotto; Simone Di Claudio; Adele De Ninno; Ennio Giovine; Gaetano Campi; Annamaria Gerardino

    2015-01-01

    The use of superhydrophobic surfaces (SHSs) is now emerging as an attractive platform for the realization of one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures with potential applications in many nanotechnological and biotechnological fields. To this purpose, a strict control of the nanostructures size and their spatial arrangement is highly required. However, these parameters may be strongly dependent on the complex evaporation dynamics of the sessile droplet on the SHS. In this work, we investigated the effect of the evaporation dynamics on the size and the spatial arrangement of self-assembled 1D DNA bundles. Our results reveal that different arrangements and bundle size distributions may occur depending on droplet evaporation stage. These results contribute to elucidate the formation mechanism of 1D nanostructures on SHSs.

  2. Fluid-mixing studies in a hexagonal 217-pin wire-wrapped rod bundle. [LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Symolon, P.D.; Todreas, N.E.

    1981-02-01

    Mixing, pressure drop, and flow split experiments were performed on a 217 pin LMFBR fuel bundle with a pitch to diameter ratio of 1.25 and a lead length of 12 inches. It was found that the turbulent flow data could best be characterized by the energy parameter C/sub 1L/=.106, which is 9% higher than the value from the correlation of Chiu et al. Chiu's correlation was developed on a data base of 61 and 91 pins. The spread of existing data about the correlation is +- 25%, but the error band on our data is expected to be less (approx. +- 10% since injection depth effects were not previously considered). This result is consistent with the concept of increased swirl flow in larger bundles (more pins).

  3. Influence on rewetting temperature and wetting delay during rewetting rod bundle by various radial jet models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debbarma, Ajoy; Pandey, Krishna Murari [National Institute of Technology, Assam (India). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2016-03-15

    Numerical investigation of the rewetting of single sector fuel assembly of Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR) has been carried out to exhibit the effect of coolant jet diameters (2, 3 and 4 mm) and jet directions (Model: M, X and X2). The rewetting phenomena with various jet models are compared on the basis of rewetting temperature and wetting delay. Temperature-time curve have been evaluated from rods surfaces at different circumference, radial and axial locations of rod bundle. The cooling curve indicated the presence of vapor in respected location, where it prevents the contact between the firm and fluid phases. The peak wall temperature represents as rewetting temperature. The time period observed between initial to rewetting temperature point is wetting delay. It was noted that as improved in various jet models, rewetting temperature and wetting delay reduced, which referred the coolant stipulation in the rod bundle dominant vapor formation.

  4. Construction report of 6 x 6 rod bundle reflood test facility (ATHER)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 6x6 reflood test facility has been constructed by KAERI to quantify rewetting mechanism and evaluate the effect of dispersed flow cooling with respect to droplet behavior. The test section consists of a simulated 6 x 6 rod bundle, a flow housing, 4 pairs of borosilicate glasses for a visual observation and instrumentation. Axial power shape of the simulated heater rod is cosine. Peaking factor and heated length of the rod bundle are 1.468 and 3,810 mm, respectively. Special features of this facility are a separator tank to measure the amount of entrained droplet and a superheated steam probe for the measurement of superheated steam temperature in sub-channel. The experimental results from this study will be useful for the performance evaluation and the program update of the related computer code

  5. Construction report of 6 x 6 rod bundle reflood test facility (ATHER)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Seok; Chun, Se Young; Choi, Ki Yong; Moon, Sang Ki; Yun, Young Jung; Park, Jong Kuk; Kim, Bok Duk; Song, Chul Hwa; Baek, Won Pil

    2008-10-15

    The 6x6 reflood test facility has been constructed by KAERI to quantify rewetting mechanism and evaluate the effect of dispersed flow cooling with respect to droplet behavior. The test section consists of a simulated 6 x 6 rod bundle, a flow housing, 4 pairs of borosilicate glasses for a visual observation and instrumentation. Axial power shape of the simulated heater rod is cosine. Peaking factor and heated length of the rod bundle are 1.468 and 3,810 mm, respectively. Special features of this facility are a separator tank to measure the amount of entrained droplet and a superheated steam probe for the measurement of superheated steam temperature in sub-channel. The experimental results from this study will be useful for the performance evaluation and the program update of the related computer code.

  6. Band structure and effective mass calculations for III-V compound semiconductors using hybrid functionals and optimized local potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The band structures of III-V semiconductors (InP, InAs, InSb, GaAs, and GaSb) are calculated using the HSE06 hybrid functional, GW, and local potentials optimized for the description of band gaps. We show that the inclusion of a quarter of the exact HF exchange allows to predict accurate direct band gaps for InP, InAs, and InSb, i.e., 1.48, 0.42, 0.28 eV, in good agreement with recent experiments, i.e., 1.42, 0.42, 0.24 eV, respectively. The calculated effective masses and Luttinger parameters are also in reasonable agreement with experiment, although a tendency towards underestimation is observed with increasing anion mass. In order to find more efficient methods than hybrid functionals, the modified Becke-Johnson exchange potential is also employed to calculate the effective masses. The agreement of the effective masses with experiment is comparable to the one obtained with the HSE06 hybrid functional. Therefore, this opens a way to model band structures of much large systems than possible using hybrid functionals.

  7. External Verification of the Bundle Adjustment in Photogrammetric Software Using the Damped Bundle Adjustment Toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Börlin, Niclas; Grussenmeyer, Pierre

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate whether the Matlab-based Damped Bundle Adjustment Toolbox (DBAT) can be used to provide independent verification of the BA computation of two popular software—PhotoModeler (PM) and PhotoScan (PS). For frame camera data sets with lens distortion, DBAT is able to reprocess and replicate subsets of PM results with high accuracy. For lens-distortion-free data sets, DBAT can furthermore provide comparative results between PM and PS. Data sets for the discussed projects are available from the authors. The use of an external verification tool such as DBAT will enable users to get an independent verification of the computations of their software. In addition, DBAT can provide computation of quality parameters such as estimated standard deviations, correlation between parameters, etc., something that should be part of best practice for any photogrammetric software. Finally, as the code is free and open-source, users can add computations of their own.

  8. Location of test bundle instrumentation and anticipated experimental values for the CFTL AG-1 bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The placement of instrumentation within the Core Flow Test Loop (CFTL) AG-1 test section to meet the following objectives is described. The objectives are threefold: (1) to provide values for the evaluation of the performance of the test section, (2) to compare the experimental data with value determined by pretest calulations to indicate the approach to conditions that can lead to a bundle failure, and (3) to acquire data during testing that will form a data base for subsequent use in the verification of computational procedures used in the licensing of the Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor. Anticipated values for the various instruments have been determined using the computational procedure SAGAPO modified for the AG-1 geometry. These results are used as the basis for the specification of differential pressure cells and the range of readings anticipated from the thermocouples. Part of the results for the full-flow, full-power case is presented

  9. Effect of electron density on cutoff frequency of III-N HFETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matulionis, Arvydas; Morkoç, Hadis

    2014-03-01

    Advances in frequency performance of heterostructure field-effect transistors (HFETs) are discussed in terms of dissipative processes. The conditions for fastest dissipation coincide reasonably well with those for fastest operation and slowest device degradation. The correlation has its genesis in dissipation of the hot-phonon heat accumulated by non-equilibrium optical phonons launched by hot electrons. The hot-phonon heat causes defect formation and additional electron scattering in a different manner as compared with the effects due to conventional heat accumulated by acoustic phonons. The desirable ultrafast conversion of hot phonons into acoustic phonons is assisted by plasmons as demonstrated through measurement of hot-phonon lifetime. Signatures of plasmons have been also resolved in hot-electron transport, transistor frequency performance, phase noise, and device reliability. The plasmon-assisted ultrafast dissipation of hot-phonon heat explains the known necessity for application a stronger negative gate bias to a channel with higher as-grown electron density.

  10. BRILL-NOETHER MATRIX FOR RANK TWO VECTOR BUNDLES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭小江

    2002-01-01

    Let X be an arbitrary smooth irreducible complex projective curve, E → X a rank two vector bundle generated by its sections. The author first represents E as a triple {D1,D2, f},where D1, D2 are two effective divisors with d = deg(D1) + deg(D2), and f ∈ Ho (X, [D1] |D2)is a collection of polynomials. E is the extension of [D2] by [D1] which is determined by f. By using f and the Brill-Noether matrix of D1 + D2, the author constructs a 29 × d matrix WE whose zero space gives Im{Ho(X, [D1]) → Ho(X, [D1] |D1 )} Im{Ho(X, E) → Ho(X, [D2]) →H0(X, [D2] |D2)}. From this and Ho(X, E) = Ho(X, [D1]) Im{Ho(X, E) → Ho(X, [D2])},it is got in particular that dimHo(X, E) = deg(E) - rank(WE) + 2.

  11. Detecting Effects of Filaments on Galaxy Properties in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yen-Chi; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Bahcall, Neta A; Brownstein, Joel R; Freeman, Peter E; Genovese, Christopher R; Schneider, Donald P; Wasserman, Larry

    2015-01-01

    We study the effects of filaments on galaxy properties in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 12 using filaments from the `Cosmic Web Reconstruction' catalogue (Chen et al. 2015a), a publicly available filament catalogue for SDSS. Since filaments are tracers of medium-to-high density regions, we expect that galaxy properties associated with the environment are dependent on the distance to the nearest filament. Our analysis demonstrates a red galaxy or a high-mass galaxy tend to reside closer to filaments than a blue or low-mass galaxy. After adjusting the effect from stellar mass, on average, late-forming galaxies or large galaxies have a shorter distance to filaments than early-forming galaxies or small galaxies. For the Main galaxy sample, all signals are very significant ($> 5\\sigma$). For the LOWZ and CMASS samples, most of the signals are significant (with $> 3\\sigma$). The filament effects we observe persist until z = 0.7 (the edge of the CMASS sample). Comparing our results to those using ...

  12. Dissolution of cerium(IV)-lanthanide(III) oxides: Comparative effect of chemical composition, temperature, and acidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dissolution of Ce1-xLnxO2-x/2 solid solutions was undertaken in various acid media in order to evaluate the effects of several physicochemical parameters such as chemical composition, temperature, and acidity on the reaction kinetics. The normalized dissolution rates (RL,0) were found to be strongly modified by the trivalent lanthanide incorporation rate, due to the presence of oxygen vacancies decreasing the samples cohesion. Conversely, the nature of the trivalent cation considered only weakly impacted the RL,0 values. The dependence of the normalized dissolution rates on the temperature then appeared to be of the same order of magnitude than that of chemical composition. Moreover, it allowed determining the corresponding activation energy (EA ≅ 60-85 kJ.mol-1) which accounts for a dissolution driven by surface-controlled reactions. A similar conclusion was made regarding the acidity of the solution: the partial order related to (H3O+) reaching about 0.7. Finally, the prevailing effect of the incorporation of aliovalent cations in the fluorite-type CeO2 matrix on the dissolution kinetics precluded the observation of slight effects such as those linked to the complexing agents or to the crystal structure of the samples. (authors)

  13. Interplanetary magnetic field and its possible effects on the mid-latitude ionosphere III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Tulunay

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Using critical frequencies, f0F2 from the Lannion, Slough, Poitiers, Garchy, Dourbes, Rome, Juliusrud, Gibilmanna, Pruhonice, Uppsala, Kaliningrad, Miedzeszyn, Sofia, Athens and Kiev ionosonde stations, the possible effects of the orientation of the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF on mid-latitude ionosphere are further investigated. This time, only the southward polarity changes in IMF Bz with seasonal effects were considered. The same method of analysis was employed to facilitate a comparison between the recent results presented here with those which appeared in the preceding papers in the series. That is, the regular diurnal, seasonal and solar cycle variations in the f0F2 data were removed by subtracting the mean of the f0F2 for the same UT on all magnetically quite days (Ap < 6 within 15 days around the IMF Bz turnings (Tulunay, 1994. This last paper also includes the seasonal effects on the ionospheric data. The results confirm that much of the day-to-day variability of the mid-latitude ionosphere may be related to the orientation of the southward IMF Bz , characterized by the ionospheric winter anomaly. Day-to-day ionospheric variability becomes more significant towards higher latitudes.

  14. An in vitro biomechanical comparison of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: single bundle versus anatomical double bundle techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Umeda Sasaki

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Anterior cruciate ligament ruptures are frequent, especially in sports. Surgical reconstruction with autologous grafts is widely employed in the international literature. Controversies remain with respect to technique variations as continuous research for improvement takes place. One of these variations is the anatomical double bundle technique, which is performed instead of the conventional single bundle technique. More recently, there has been a tendency towards positioning the two bundles through double bone tunnels in the femur and tibia (anatomical reconstruction. OBJECTIVES: To compare, through biomechanical tests, the practice of anatomical double bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with a patellar graft to conventional single bundle reconstruction with the same amount of patellar graft in a paired experimental cadaver study. METHODS: Nine pairs of male cadaver knees ranging in age from 44 to 63 years were randomized into two groups: group A (single bundle and group B (anatomical reconstruction. Each knee was biomechanically tested under three conditions: intact anterior cruciate ligament, reconstructed anterior cruciate ligament, and injured anterior cruciate ligament. Maximum anterior dislocation, rigidity, and passive internal tibia rotation were recorded with knees submitted to a 100 N horizontal anterior dislocation force applied to the tibia with the knees at 30, 60 and 90 degrees of flexion. RESULTS: There were no differences between the two techniques for any of the measurements by ANOVA tests. CONCLUSION: The technique of anatomical double bundle reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament with bone-patellar tendon-bone graft has a similar biomechanical behavior with regard to anterior tibial dislocation, rigidity, and passive internal tibial rotation.

  15. Hair-bundle friction from transduction channels' gating forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bormuth, Volker; Barral, Jérémie; Joanny, Jean-François; Jülicher, Frank; Martin, Pascal

    2015-12-01

    Hearing starts when sound-evoked mechanical vibrations of the hair-cell bundle activate mechanosensitive ion channels, giving birth to an electrical signal. As for any mechanical system, friction impedes movements of the hair bundle and thus constrains the sensitivity and frequency selectivity of auditory transduction. We have shown recently that the opening and closing of the transduction channels produce internal frictional forces that can dominate viscous drag on the micrometer-sized hair bundle and thus provide a major source of damping [2]. We develop here a physical theory of passive hair-bundle mechanics that explains the origin of channel friction. We show that channel friction can be understood quantitatively by coupling the dynamics of the conformational change associated with channel gating to tip-link tension. As a result, varying channel properties affects friction, with faster channels producing smaller friction. The analysis emphasizes the dual role of transduction channels' gating forces, which affect both hair-bundle stiffness and drag. Friction originating from gating of ion channels is a general concept that is relevant to all mechanosensitive channels.

  16. Variable recruitment in bundles of miniature pneumatic artificial muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLaHunt, Sylvie A; Pillsbury, Thomas E; Wereley, Norman M

    2016-01-01

    The natural compliance and force generation properties of pneumatic artificial muscles (PAMs) allow them to operate like human muscles in anthropomorphic robotic manipulators. Traditionally, manipulators use a single PAM or multiple PAMs actuated in unison in place of a human muscle. However, these standard manipulators can experience significant efficiency losses when operated outside their target performance ranges at low actuation pressures. This study considers the application of a variable recruitment control strategy to a parallel bundle of miniature PAMs as an attempt to mimic the selective recruitment of motor units in a human muscle. Bundles of miniature PAMs are experimentally characterized, their actuation behavior is modeled, and the efficiency gains and losses associated with the application of a variable recruitment control strategy are assessed. This bio-inspired control strategy allows muscle bundles to operate the fewest miniature PAMs necessary to achieve a desired performance objective, improving the muscle bundle's operating efficiency over larger ranges of force generation and displacement. The study also highlights the need for improved PAM fabrication techniques to facilitate the production of identical miniature PAMs for inclusion in muscle bundles. PMID:27623216

  17. Pressure Loss across Tube Bundles in Two-phase Flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sim, Woo Gun; Banzragch, Dagdan [Hannam Univ., Daejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    An analytical model was developed by Sim to estimate the two-phase damping ratio for upward two-phase flow perpendicular to horizontal tube bundles. The parameters of two-phase flow, such as void fraction and pressure loss evaluated in the model, were calculated based on existing experimental formulations. However, it is necessary to implement a few improvements in the formulations for the case of tube bundles. For the purpose of the improved formulation, we need more information about the two-phase parameters, which can be found through experimental test. An experiment is performed with a typical normal square array of cylinders subjected to the two-phase flow of air-water in the tube bundles, to calculate the two-phase Euler number and the two-phase friction multiplier. The pitch-to-diameter ratio is 1.35 and the diameter of cylinder is 18mm. Pressure loss along the flow direction in the tube bundles is measured with a pressure transducer and data acquisition system to calculate the two-phase Euler number and the two-phase friction multiplier. The void fraction model by Feenstra et al. is used to estimate the void fraction of the two-phase flow in tube bundles. The experimental results of the two phase friction multiplier and two-phase Euler number for homogeneous and non-homogeneous two-phase flows are compared and evaluated against the analytical results given by Sim's model.

  18. Experimental study for convective heat transfer of staged tube bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lack of potable water is one of the most serious problems the world is facing at present. SMART which is a 330 MWt advanced integral PWR, was developed by the KAERI for electricity generation and seawater desalination. SMART adopted a passive system to enhance its safety. The passive system can passively remove a decay heat from a reactor core to an emergency cooldown tank through the heat exchanger. Tube bundles of the heat exchanger, which is submerged in an emergency cooldown tank, transfer heat to an emergency cooldown tank by natural circulation. Heat transfer tests for the upward straight tube bundle were performed to confirm the capability of the SMART design under natural circulation conditions. The heat transfer at the tube bundle was affected by the fluid temperature in the emergency cooldown tank and the radial location of tube bundle. However, it had nearly the same value at the inlet region regardless of the tube location. The average heat transfer at the tube bundle was slightly higher than that at the single tube. (author)

  19. Combined Effects of Lanthanum (III) and Acid Rain on Antioxidant Enzyme System in Soybean Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuanbo; Du, Yuping; Wang, Lihong; Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiaohua; Sun, Zhaoguo

    2015-01-01

    Rare earth element pollution (REEs) and acid rain (AR) pollution simultaneously occur in many regions, which resulted in a new environmental issue, the combined pollution of REEs and AR. The effects of the combined pollution on the antioxidant enzyme system of plant roots have not been reported. Here, the combined effects of lanthanum ion (La3+), one type of REE, and AR on the antioxidant enzyme system of soybean roots were investigated. In the combined treatment of La3+ (0.08 mM) and AR, the cell membrane permeability and the peroxidation of cell membrane lipid of soybean roots increased, and the superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase and reduced ascorbic acid served as scavengers of reactive oxygen species. In other combined treatments of La3+ (0.40 mM, 1.20 mM) and AR, the membrane permeability, malonyldialdehyde content, superoxide dismutase activity, peroxidase activity and reduced ascorbic acid content increased, while the catalase activity decreased. The increased superoxide dismutase activity, peroxidase activity and reduced ascorbic acid content were inadequate to scavenge the excess hydrogen peroxide and superoxide, leading to the damage of the cell membrane, which was aggravated with the increase in the concentration of La3+ and the level of AR. The deleterious effects of the combined treatment of La3+ and AR were stronger than those of the single treatment of La3+ or AR. Moreover, the activity of antioxidant enzyme system in the combined treatment group was affected directly and indirectly by mineral element content in soybean plants. PMID:26230263

  20. Combined Effects of Lanthanum (III and Acid Rain on Antioxidant Enzyme System in Soybean Roots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuanbo Zhang

    Full Text Available Rare earth element pollution (REEs and acid rain (AR pollution simultaneously occur in many regions, which resulted in a new environmental issue, the combined pollution of REEs and AR. The effects of the combined pollution on the antioxidant enzyme system of plant roots have not been reported. Here, the combined effects of lanthanum ion (La3+, one type of REE, and AR on the antioxidant enzyme system of soybean roots were investigated. In the combined treatment of La3+ (0.08 mM and AR, the cell membrane permeability and the peroxidation of cell membrane lipid of soybean roots increased, and the superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase and reduced ascorbic acid served as scavengers of reactive oxygen species. In other combined treatments of La3+ (0.40 mM, 1.20 mM and AR, the membrane permeability, malonyldialdehyde content, superoxide dismutase activity, peroxidase activity and reduced ascorbic acid content increased, while the catalase activity decreased. The increased superoxide dismutase activity, peroxidase activity and reduced ascorbic acid content were inadequate to scavenge the excess hydrogen peroxide and superoxide, leading to the damage of the cell membrane, which was aggravated with the increase in the concentration of La3+ and the level of AR. The deleterious effects of the combined treatment of La3+ and AR were stronger than those of the single treatment of La3+ or AR. Moreover, the activity of antioxidant enzyme system in the combined treatment group was affected directly and indirectly by mineral element content in soybean plants.

  1. Effective methods of parameter identification for creep models with account of III stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grishchenko Alexey I.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The account of tertiary (third stage of creep is important for the failure analysis of structures. The correct description of third stage of creep is based on taking into account of damage accumulation process. An identification of the parameters of coupled creep-damage model leads to the optimization problem of finding the global minimum of a functional, having a complex, non-linear structure and a large number of local minimums. The Nelder–Mead method is applied to the solution to the multiparameter identification problem. The effectiveness and robustness of the applied approach are illustrated on examples of mechanical and civil engineering.

  2. The Moessbauer effect and its application - Pt III : Magnetic hyperfine interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The magnetic hyperfine interaction in a large number of nuclei such as Fe57, Sn119, Eu151 etc. have been studied using Moessbauer effect. A quantitative description of the basic principle underlying the nuclear magnetic interactions is given. Typical Moessbauer spectra of metallic iron, Fe2O3, FeB, are shown. The behavior of a diagmagnetic nucleus Sn119 embedded in a magnetically ordered lattice has also been studied by its Moessbauer spectrum. Magnetic hf interaction technique has been extended to investigate the composition of lunar materials and also to extract information on the provenance and thermal treatment of Greek and Roman earthenware. (A.K.)

  3. Magnetoconvection and dynamo coefficients III: alpha-effect and magnetic pumping in the rapid rotation regime

    CERN Document Server

    Käpylä, P J; Ossendrijver, M; Stix, M

    2006-01-01

    Aims. The convective alpha- and gamma-effects, which are responsible for the generation and turbulent pumping of large scale magnetic fields, respectively, are determined in the rapid rotation regime corresponding to the deep layers of the solar convection zone. Methods. A 3D rectangular local model is used for solving the full set of MHD equations in order to compute the electromotive force (emf), E = , generated by the interaction of imposed weak gradient-free magnetic fields and turbulent convection with varying rotational influence and latitude. By expanding the emf in terms of the mean magnetic field, E_i = a_ij , all nine components of a_ij are computed. The diagonal elements of a_ij describe the alpha-effect, whereas the off-diagonals represent magnetic pumping. The latter is essentially the advection of magnetic fields by means other than the underlying large-scale velocity field. Comparisons are made to analytical expressions of the coefficients derived under the first-order smoothing approximation (...

  4. Ab initio calculations of the Fe(II) and Fe(III) isotopic effects in citrates, nicotianamine, and phytosiderophore, and new Fe isotopic measurements in higher plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynier, Frédéric; Fujii, Toshiyuki; Wang, Kun; Foriel, Julien

    2013-05-01

    Iron is one of the most abundant transition metal in higher plants and variations in its isotopic compositions can be used to trace its utilization. In order to better understand the effect of plant-induced isotopic fractionation on the global Fe cycling, we have estimated by quantum chemical calculations the magnitude of the isotopic fractionation between different Fe species relevant to the transport and storage of Fe in higher plants: Fe(II)-citrate, Fe(III)-citrate, Fe(II)-nicotianamine, and Fe(III)-phytosiderophore. The ab initio calculations show firstly, that Fe(II)-nicotianamine is ˜3‰ (56Fe/54Fe) isotopically lighter than Fe(III)-phytosiderophore; secondly, even in the absence of redox changes of Fe, change in the speciation alone can create up to ˜1.5‰ isotopic fractionation. For example, Fe(III)-phytosiderophore is up to 1.5‰ heavier than Fe(III)-citrate2 and Fe(II)-nicotianamine is up to 1‰ heavier than Fe(II)-citrate. In addition, in order to better understand the Fe isotopic fractionation between different plant components, we have analyzed the iron isotopic composition of different organs (roots, seeds, germinated seeds, leaves and stems) from six species of higher plants: the dicot lentil (Lens culinaris), and the graminaceous monocots Virginia wild rye (Elymus virginicus), Johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense), Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis), river oat (Uniola latifolia), and Indian goosegrass (Eleusine indica). The calculations may explain that the roots of strategy-II plants (Fe(III)-phytosiderophore) are isotopically heavier (by about 1‰ for the δ56Fe) than the upper parts of the plants (Fe transported as Fe(III)-citrate in the xylem or Fe(II)-nicotianamine in the phloem). In addition, we suggest that the isotopic variations observed between younger and older leaves could be explained by mixing of Fe received from the xylem and the phloem.

  5. Effect of aluminum (III) on the conversion of dopachrome in the melanin synthesis pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Junwei; Bi, Shuping

    2003-06-01

    The effect of aluminum ions on the kinetics and mode of the conversion of dopachrome (DC) in acidic environment has been studied using UV-Vis spectrophotometric and cyclic voltammetric methods. The DC conversion step is an important reaction in melanogenesis. Aluminum ions catalyze greatly the decarboxylative transformation of DC to give 5,6-dihydroxyindole (DHI) rather than 5,6-dihydroxyindole-2-carboxylic acid (DHICA) at pH 5.5, which enhance the ratio of formation DHI/DHICA in melanin synthesis pathway. The kinetics of DC conversion catalyzed by aluminum ions is dependent on the concentration of DC and aluminum ions. These results provide evidence that aluminum ions could play a role in the synthesis of melanin pathway in acidic condition through catalyzing the DC decarboxylative transformation to yield DHI and influence the melanin structure and properties.

  6. Time-temperature effects on Salmonellae and Staphylococci in foods. III. Thermal death time studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ANGELOTTI, R; FOTER, M J; LEWIS, K H

    1961-07-01

    Thermal death time studies were conducted at 5 F intervals from 130 to 150 F with strains of salmonellae and enterotoxigenic staphylococci. Heat-resistant Salmonella senftenberg strain 775W, Staphylococcus aureus strains 196E and Ms149, and non-heat-resistant Salmonella manhattan were studied in custard, chicken à la king, and ham salad. The F(140) values (minutes of exposure at 140 F required to effect 100% destruction) were as follows: S. senftenberg 775W in custard 78, and chicken à la king 81.5; S. manhattan in custard 19, and chicken à la king 3.1; S. aureus 196E in custard 59, and chicken à la king 47; S. aureus Ms149 in custard 53, and chicken à la king 40. The end points of survival-kill at all the test temperatures for both salmonellae and staphylococci in ham salad were considerably less than for the other foods studied.D(140) values (minutes of exposure at 140 F required to effect a 90% reduction in numbers) were also calculated from the data and presented. Values for z(F) and z(D) (slope of the thermal-death-time and decimal-reduction-time curves) are also presented and discussed in relation to type of food, organism, and temperature. These data indicate that heating perishable foods of the type studied to 150 F and holding every particle of food at this temperature for at least 12 min reduces 10 million or less salmonellae or staphylococci per gram to nondetectable levels. The same degree of destruction is achieved in similarly contaminated foods when held at 140 F for 78 to 83 min. On the basis of the calculation procedures employed, it is estimated that 45-min exposure at 140 F would be necessary to reduce 1,000 organisms per gram to nondetectable levels. PMID:13683564

  7. A new study on diffusion tensor imaging of the whole visual pathway fiber bundle and clinical application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO Xiao-feng; WANG Zhong-qiu; GONG Wan-qing; JIANG Qing-jun; SHI Zeng-ru

    2009-01-01

    Background With conventional imaging methods only the morphous of the visual nerve fiber bundles can be demonstrated, while the earlier period functional changes can not be demonstrated. We hypothesized that diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) would demonstrated the whole optic never fiber bundle and visual pathway and the earlier period functional changes. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the application of DTI technique in the demonstration of the whole optic never fiber bundle and visual pathway, and the influence of orbital tumors on them. Methods GE 1.5T signa HD MR System, and the software package DTV2 were adopted. The total 45 subjects were enrolled, including 15 volunteers and 30 patients. All patients had ocular proptosis from minor to major. Seven patients had visual acuity decrescence. Results The nerve fiber bundles, e.g. optic chiasma, optic tract and optic radiation in posterior visual pathway were well demonstrated in all cases. Wherein, the intact whole visual pathway fiber bundles were clearly revealed in 10 volunteers and 17 patients, and optic nerve was not wholly revealed in the rest of the subjects. Shift of optic nerve caused by compression and partial deformation were seen in 7 patients with orbital tumor. In 6 of 7 patients, DTI displayed significant abscise and deformation of visual nerve. Chi-square test indicated significant correlation between visual acuity decrescence and DTI visual nerve non-display. Conclusions Visual nerve fiber bundles and the whole visual pathway were visualized in most of patients with DTI. It might be an effective method of providing imaging evidence for visual nerve fiber earlier period functional changes, and laid a foundation for the study in other cranial nerves.

  8. The Impact of Bundled High Performance Human Resource Practices on Intention to Leave: Mediating Role of Emotional Exhaustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyoti, Jeevan; Rani, Roomi; Gandotra, Rupali

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the mediating effect of emotional exhaustion (EE) in between bundled high-performance human resource practices (HPHRPs) and intention to leave (ITL) in the education sector. Design/methodology/approach: A survey questionnaire method was used to collect data from a sample of 514 teachers working in…

  9. Combinative effects of a bacterial type-III effector and a biocontrol bacterium on rice growth and disease resistance

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Haiying Ren; Ganyu Gu; Juying Long; Qian Yin; Tingquan Wu; Tao Song; Shujian Zhang; Zhiyi Chen; Hansong Dong

    2006-12-01

    Expression of HpaGXoo, a bacterial type-III effector, in transgenic plants induces disease resistance. Resistance also can be elicited by biocontrol bacteria. In both cases, plant growth is often promoted. Here we address whether biocontrol bacteria and HpaGXoo can act together to provide better results in crop improvement. We studied effects of Pseudomonas cepacia on the rice variety R109 and the hpaGXoo-expressing rice line HER1. Compared to R109, HER1 showed increased growth, grain yield, and defense responses toward diseases and salinity stress. Colonization of roots by P. cepacia caused 20% and 13% increase, in contrast to controls, in root growth of R109 and HER1. Growth of leaves and stems also increased in R109 but that of HER1 was inhibited. When P. cepacia colonization was subsequent to plant inoculation with Rhizoctonia solani, a pathogen that causes sheath blight, the disease was less severe than controls in both R109 and HER1; HER1, nevertheless, was more resistant, suggesting that P. cepacia and HpaGXoo cooperate in inducing disease resistance. Several genes that critically regulate growth and defense behaved differentially in HER1 and R109 while responding to P. cepacia. In R109 leaves, the OsARF1 gene, which regulates plant growth, was expressed in consistence with growth promotion by P. cepacia. Inversely, OsARF1 expression was coincident with inhibition in growth of HER1 leaves. In both plants, the expression of OsEXP1, which encodes an expansin protein involved in plant growth, was concomitant with growth promotion in leaves instead of roots, in response to P. cepacia. We also studied OsMAPK, a gene that encodes a mitogen-activated protein kinase and controls defense responses toward salinity and infection by pathogens in rice. In response to P. cepacia, an early expression of OsMAPK was coincident with R109 resistance to the disease, while HER1 expressed the gene similarly whether P. cepacia was present or not. Evidently, P. cepacia and GXoo

  10. Sectional pipeline bundles. Design, fabrication and testing of a subsea pipeline connection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-08-01

    The tests of the prototype system indicated that the system is applicable for connecting pipeline bundle sections. The overall performance of the system is therefore concluded to be satisfactory. Some modifications are required though, for improving the reliability of the system to the level required for offshore North Sea application. The tests showed that connection of the pipeline bundle sections can be performed for alignment tolerances larger than those expected during a typical subsea installation. Pull-in of bundle end sections can be performed with pull-in wires deployed from surface. The offshore tests showed that handling of wires must be done with great care to avoid possibility for wire entanglement, especially if a fully diverless system is to be used. The flowline connection tool was found to be suitable for final alignment of the individual spool ends. It was demonstrated that face to face contact between the hub faces in the connector was obtained after tie-in. Pressure tests showed that the connector could be sealed by the tie-in force applied by the connection tool tie-in system. However, the standard connector clamp which was used, was found to be insuficient for maintaining the connector effectively sealed after removal of the pull-in force applied by the connection tool. Based on the results proposals for improvements of the system are included. Improvements are applicable to the current system for connection of bundle sections or for tie-in operations, relating to conventional pipelines. The improvements also includes a strong connection clamp suitable for subsea use. The connection clamp will replace the standard clamp devise used in this project. (au) EFP-96. 41 refs.

  11. Application of the finite element method in the modelling of coil bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three different FEM approaches are presented and evaluated as viable interpretations of an actual coil, each limited for use within specified parameter ranges. One is based on solid elements with correctly defined properties permitting the accurate representation of the global behavior of a coil bundle. The other two are more complex and are based on the combination of various elements each accounting for a different aspect of coil behavior which are best resolved via multi-level substructuring. The choice of the best model for the job rests with the analyst who must first resolve what the goals of the analysis are and given the parameters of the problem, which models can be used. The basic idea behind these models is the application of a systematic modelling technique requiring a close correspondence between the capability of the FE themselves and the true mechanical behavior of that portion of the coil being simulated. In order to have analytical solutions for confirming the bending and torsional capabilities of these coil bundle FEM, their behavior is studied via several basic examples. Laminated beam behavior which categorizes the structural nature of many conventional coil bundles is also examined in some depth. Also discussed is a generalized computer program that was developed to accept the description of any conventional coil section and determine an effective stiffness for it to be used in FEM. The various methodologies described in this paper should be applicable to any bundled coil design. Although only conventional coils are discussed, with the proper modifications the concepts and techniques presented can be applied to other configurations as well, such as superconductors. (orig./HP)

  12. Development of a position sensor based on a four quadrant structured optic fiber bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article reports on the development of a new kind of 2D displacement sensor based on an optic fiber bundle whose fiber arrangement has been customized to provide an input sensitive surface with four quadrants. The fibers of each quadrant are regrouped to form four output arms. The aim is to reach behavior similar to that of a quad cell photodiode when illuminated by a laser spot. In this paper, we present the motivations for developing such a sensor and its design. Prior to the fabrication of a first prototype, the optic fiber bundle has been modelled and compared to a quad cell photodiode. It has an active surface which is 10 mm in diameter and which comprises 40 000 fibers of 50 µm core diameter. For this experimental test, a specific electronic conditioning circuit has been developed to process the signals. From both modelled and experimental results, fiber optic bundle and quad cell photodiode behavior has proved to be very similar, provided that the number of fibers is sufficient to achieve a statistical effect on the detected displacement, i.e. the laser spot diameter is rightly chosen as a function of the fiber diameter. For the use of the bundle as position sensor, a laser spot size of 5 mm has been fixed to achieve a good compromise between sensitivity and displacement range. With this spot size, sensitivity and displacement range have been experimentally evaluated to 2 mV µm−1 and 3.8 mm respectively with a corresponding displacement resolution of 5 nm in the best case. (paper)

  13. Multi-scale strain-stiffening of semiflexible bundle networks

    CERN Document Server

    Piechocka, I K; Broedersz, C P; Kurniawan, N A; MacKintosh, F C; Koenderink, G H

    2015-01-01

    Bundles of polymer filaments are responsible for the rich and unique mechanical behaviors of many biomaterials, including cells and extracellular matrices. In fibrin biopolymers, whose nonlinear elastic properties are crucial for normal blood clotting, protofibrils self-assemble and bundle to form networks of semiflexible fibers. Here we show that the extraordinary strain-stiffening response of fibrin networks is a direct reflection of the hierarchical architecture of the fibrin fibers. We measure the rheology of networks of unbundled protofibrils and find excellent agreement with an affine model of extensible wormlike polymers. By direct comparison with these data, we show that physiological fibrin networks composed of thick fibers can be modeled as networks of tight protofibril bundles. We demonstrate that the tightness of coupling between protofibrils in the fibers can be tuned by the degree of enzymatic intermolecular crosslinking by the coagulation Factor XIII. Furthermore, at high stress, the protofibri...

  14. Magnetic Propulsion of Microswimmers with DNA-Based Flagellar Bundles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Alexander M; Weig, Cornelius; Oswald, Peter; Frey, Erwin; Fischer, Peer; Liedl, Tim

    2016-02-10

    We show that DNA-based self-assembly can serve as a general and flexible tool to construct artificial flagella of several micrometers in length and only tens of nanometers in diameter. By attaching the DNA flagella to biocompatible magnetic microparticles, we provide a proof of concept demonstration of hybrid structures that, when rotated in an external magnetic field, propel by means of a flagellar bundle, similar to self-propelling peritrichous bacteria. Our theoretical analysis predicts that flagellar bundles that possess a length-dependent bending stiffness should exhibit a superior swimming speed compared to swimmers with a single appendage. The DNA self-assembly method permits the realization of these improved flagellar bundles in good agreement with our quantitative model. DNA flagella with well-controlled shape could fundamentally increase the functionality of fully biocompatible nanorobots and extend the scope and complexity of active materials. PMID:26821214

  15. Real Parabolic Vector Bundles over a Real Curve

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sanjay Amrutiya

    2014-02-01

    We define real parabolic structures on real vector bundles over a real curve. Let $(X, _X)$ be a real curve, and let $S\\subset X$ be a non-empty finite subset of such that $_X(S) = S$. Let ≥ 2 be an integer. We construct an -fold cyclic cover : $Y→ X$ in the category of real curves, ramified precisely over each point of , and with the property that for any element of the Galois group , and any $y\\in Y$, one has $_Y(gy) = g^{-1}_Y(y)$. We established an equivalence between the category of real parabolic vector bundles on $(X,_X)$ with real parabolic structure over , all of whose weights are integral multiples of 1/, and the category of real -equivariant vector bundles on $(Y, _Y)$.

  16. A class of Poisson Nijenhuis structures on a tangent bundle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarlet, W.; Vermeire, F.

    2004-06-01

    Equipping the tangent bundle TQ of a manifold with a symplectic form coming from a regular Lagrangian L, we explore how to obtain a Poisson-Nijenhuis structure from a given type (1, 1) tensor field J on Q. It is argued that the complete lift Jc of J is not the natural candidate for a Nijenhuis tensor on TQ, but plays a crucial role in the construction of a different tensor R, which appears to be the pullback under the Legendre transform of the lift of J to T*Q. We show how this tangent bundle view brings new insights and is capable also of producing all important results which are known from previous studies on the cotangent bundle, in the case when Q is equipped with a Riemannian metric. The present approach further paves the way for future generalizations.

  17. Betti numbers of graded modules and cohomology of vector bundles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenbud, David; Schreyer, Frank-Olaf

    2009-07-01

    In the remarkable paper Graded Betti numbers of Cohen-Macaulay modules and the multiplicity conjecture, Mats Boij and Jonas Soederberg conjectured that the Betti table of a Cohen-Macaulay module over a polynomial ring is a positive linear combination of Betti tables of modules with pure resolutions. We prove a strengthened form of their conjectures. Applications include a proof of the Multiplicity Conjecture of Huneke and Srinivasan and a proof of the convexity of a fan naturally associated to the Young lattice. With the same tools we show that the cohomology table of any vector bundle on projective space is a positive rational linear combination of the cohomology tables of what we call supernatural vector bundles. Using this result we give new bounds on the slope of a vector bundle in terms of its cohomology.

  18. Symposium on Singularities, Representation of Algebras, and Vector Bundles

    CERN Document Server

    Trautmann, Günther

    1987-01-01

    It is well known that there are close relations between classes of singularities and representation theory via the McKay correspondence and between representation theory and vector bundles on projective spaces via the Bernstein-Gelfand-Gelfand construction. These relations however cannot be considered to be either completely understood or fully exploited. These proceedings document recent developments in the area. The questions and methods of representation theory have applications to singularities and to vector bundles. Representation theory itself, which had primarily developed its methods for Artinian algebras, starts to investigate algebras of higher dimension partly because of these applications. Future research in representation theory may be spurred by the classification of singularities and the highly developed theory of moduli for vector bundles. The volume contains 3 survey articles on the 3 main topics mentioned, stressing their interrelationships, as well as original research papers.

  19. Simulation of bundle test Quench-12 with integral code MELCOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The past NRI analyses cover the Quench-01, Quench-03 and Quench-06 with version MELCOR 1.8.5 (including reflood model), and Quench-01 and Quench-11 tests with the latest version MELCOR 1.8.6. The Quench-12 test is specific, because it has different bundle configuration related to the VVER bundle configuration with hexagonal grid of pins and also used E110 cladding material. Specificity of Quench-12 test is also in the used material of fuel rod cladding - E110. The test specificities are a reason for the highest concern, because the VVER reactors are operated in the Czech Republic. The new input model was developed with the taking into account all experience from previous simulations of the Quench bundle tests. The recent version MELCOR 1.8.6 YU2911 was used for the simulation with slightly modified ELHEAT package. Sensitivity studies on input parameters and oxidation kinetics were performed. (author)

  20. Gradient Bundle Analysis: A Full Topological Approach to Chemical Bonding

    CERN Document Server

    Morgenstern, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    The "chemical bond" is a central concept in molecular sciences, but there is no consensus as to what a bond actually is. Therefore, a variety of bonding models have been developed, each defining the structure of molecules in a different manner with the goal of explaining and predicting chemical properties. This thesis describes the initial development of gradient bundle analysis (GBA), a chemical bonding model that creates a high resolution picture of chemical interactions within the charge density framework. GBA is based on concepts from the quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM), but uses a more complete picture of the topology and geometry of the electron charge density to understand and predict bonding interactions. Gradient bundles are defined as volumes bounded by zero-flux surfaces (ZFSs) in the gradient of the charge density with well-defined energies. The structure of gradient bundles provides an avenue for detecting the locations of valence electrons, which correspond to reactive regions in a ...