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Sample records for bundles iii effective

  1. Buying bundles: the effects of bundle attributes on the value of bundling

    OpenAIRE

    Linthorst, M.M.; Telgen, Jan; Schotanus, Fredo

    2008-01-01

    We consider the situation in which a buyer has to find the optimal degree of bundling for buying goods and services. From a review of the literature we develop attributes associated with bundling. Each of these attributes has an effect on the value of a bundle. Combined, the attributes determine the value of a bundle. We describe how the various attributes of a bundle contribute to the value of a bundle given the context of the buying situation. Based on interviews, a further analysis of bund...

  2. Buying bundles: the effects of bundling attributes on the value of bundling

    OpenAIRE

    Linthorst, M.M.; Telgen, Jan; Schotanus, Fredo

    2008-01-01

    We consider the situation in which a buyer has to find the optimal degree of bundling for buying goods and services. From a review of the literature we develop attributes associated with bundling. Each of these attributes has an effect on the value of a bundle. Combined, the attributes determine the value of a bundle. We describe how the various attributes of a bundle contribute to the value of a bundle given the context of the buying situation. Based on interviews, a further analysis of bund...

  3. Buying bundles: the effects of bundling attributes on the value of bundling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linthorst, M.M.; Telgen, Jan; Schotanus, Fredo

    2008-01-01

    We consider the situation in which a buyer has to find the optimal degree of bundling for buying goods and services. From a review of the literature we develop attributes associated with bundling. Each of these attributes has an effect on the value of a bundle. Combined, the attributes determine the

  4. Buying bundles: the effects of bundle attributes on the value of bundling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linthorst, M.M.; Telgen, Jan; Schotanus, Fredo

    2008-01-01

    We consider the situation in which a buyer has to find the optimal degree of bundling for buying goods and services. From a review of the literature we develop attributes associated with bundling. Each of these attributes has an effect on the value of a bundle. Combined, the attributes determine the

  5. Effects of different initial bundle tensioning strategies on the outcome of double-bundle ACL reconstruction: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muneta Takeshi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was performed to investigate the effects of different strategies and initial tension applied to each one of the bundles, antero-medial (AM and postero-lateral (PL, on clinical outcome in double bundle (DB ACL reconstruction. Methods One hundred fifty-one primary unilateral DB ACL reconstructions performed by a single surgeon from 1994 through 2002 were included in the study with a follow-up of at least 24 months. They were divided in the following 3 groups: Group I - Higher initial tension applied manually in the AM bundle compared to PL. II - Higher tension applied in the PL bundle compared to AM. III - The 2 bundles were attempted to be equally tensioned. All fixations were performed in 30 degrees of flexion. Group I = 59 patients, group II = 53 patients and group III = 39 patients. The groups had no statistical differences concerning demographic distribution. Clinical outcome was retrospectively evaluated by use of knee range of motion, manual knee laxity tests, KT-1000, Lysholm knee scale, subjective recovery scale and sports performance recovery scale. The differences of data were analyzed among the three groups. Results Group I showed a significant extension deficit compared with groups II and III. ANOVA revealed a significant difference of anterior laxity measured by the KT-1000 (average KT difference of 2.1, 2.1 and 1.2 mm in Group I, II and III, respectively. A statistical difference was found among the three groups regarding subjective and sports performance recovery scales with Group II showing higher scores in recovery than Group I. Conclusions The current clinical study does not recommend manual maximum of initial tension applied to the anteromedial or posterolateral bundles with graft tension imbalance at 30 degrees of flexion in double-bundle ACL reconstruction to achieve a better clinical outcome.

  6. Myosin III-mediated cross-linking and stimulation of actin bundling activity of Espin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liu, Haiyang; Li, Jianchao; Raval, Manmeet H; Yao, Ningning; Deng, Xiaoying; Lu, Qing; Nie, Si; Feng, Wei; Wan, Jun; Yengo, Christopher M; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Mingjie

    2016-01-01

    Class III myosins (Myo3) and actin-bundling protein Espin play critical roles in regulating the development and maintenance of stereocilia in vertebrate hair cells, and their defects cause hereditary hearing impairments...

  7. Cost-effectiveness of a central venous catheter care bundle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate A Halton

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A bundled approach to central venous catheter care is currently being promoted as an effective way of preventing catheter-related bloodstream infection (CR-BSI. Consumables used in the bundled approach are relatively inexpensive which may lead to the conclusion that the bundle is cost-effective. However, this fails to consider the nontrivial costs of the monitoring and education activities required to implement the bundle, or that alternative strategies are available to prevent CR-BSI. We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of a bundle to prevent CR-BSI in Australian intensive care patients. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A Markov decision model was used to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the bundle relative to remaining with current practice (a non-bundled approach to catheter care and uncoated catheters, or use of antimicrobial catheters. We assumed the bundle reduced relative risk of CR-BSI to 0.34. Given uncertainty about the cost of the bundle, threshold analyses were used to determine the maximum cost at which the bundle remained cost-effective relative to the other approaches to infection control. Sensitivity analyses explored how this threshold alters under different assumptions about the economic value placed on bed-days and health benefits gained by preventing infection. If clinicians are prepared to use antimicrobial catheters, the bundle is cost-effective if national 18-month implementation costs are below $1.1 million. If antimicrobial catheters are not an option the bundle must cost less than $4.3 million. If decision makers are only interested in obtaining cash-savings for the unit, and place no economic value on either the bed-days or the health benefits gained through preventing infection, these cost thresholds are reduced by two-thirds. CONCLUSIONS: A catheter care bundle has the potential to be cost-effective in the Australian intensive care setting. Rather than anticipating cash-savings from this intervention, decision

  8. Simulation of finite size effects of the fiber bundle model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Da-Peng; Tang, Gang; Xun, Zhi-Peng; Xia, Hui; Han, Kui

    2018-01-01

    In theory, the macroscopic fracture of materials should correspond with the thermodynamic limit of the fiber bundle model. However, the simulation of a fiber bundle model with an infinite size is unrealistic. To study the finite size effects of the fiber bundle model, fiber bundle models of various size are simulated in detail. The effects of system size on the constitutive behavior, critical stress, maximum avalanche size, avalanche size distribution, and increased step number of external load are explored. The simulation results imply that there is no feature size or cut size for macroscopic mechanical and statistical properties of the model. The constitutive curves near the macroscopic failure for various system size can collapse well with a simple scaling relationship. Simultaneously, the introduction of a simple extrapolation method facilitates the acquisition of more accurate simulation results in a large-limit system, which is better for comparison with theoretical results.

  9. The effectiveness bundling of zinc with Oral Rehydration Salts (ORS) for improving adherence to acute watery diarrhea treatment in Ethiopia: cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebremedhin, Samson; Mamo, Girma; Gezahign, Henock; Kung'u, Jacqueline; Adish, Abdulaziz

    2016-05-31

    Presumably bundling/co-packaging of zinc with ORS encourages the combined use of the products for diarrhea treatment; however, empirical evidences are scarce. The purpose of this work is to evaluate whether co-packing using a plastic pouch can enhance the joint adherence to the treatment or not. The study also compares the cost effectiveness (CE) of two co-packaging options: 'central' and 'health center (HC)' level bundling. This cluster-randomised controlled trial was conducted in 2015 in eight districts of Ethiopia. Thirty two HCs were randomly assigned to one of the following four intervention arms: (i) 'Central bundling' (zinc and ORS bundled using a pouch that had instructional message, distributed to HCs); (ii) 'HC level bundling' (zinc, ORS and a similar pouch distributed to the HCs and bundled by health workers); (iii) 'Bundling without message' (zinc, ORS and plain pouch distributed and bundled by the health workers); and, (iv) 'Status quo' (zinc and ORS co-administered without bundling). In each of the four arms, 176 children 6-59 months of age, presented with acute diarrhea were enrolled. Twelve days after enrollment, level of adherence was assessed. A composite scale of adherence was developed and modeled using mixed effects linear regression analysis. The unit costs associated with the arms were estimated using secondary data sources. Incremental CE analysis was made by taking the cost and level of adherence in fourth arm as a base value. The follow-up rate was 95.6 %. As compared with the 'status quo' arm, the joint adherences in the 'central' and 'HC level' bundling arms raised substantially by 14.8 and 15.7 percentage points (PP), respectively (P < 0.05). No significant difference was observed between 'bundling without message' and the 'status quo' arms. The unit cost incurred by the 'central bundling' is relatively higher (USD 0.658/episode) as compared with the 'HC level bundling' approach (USD 0.608/episode). The incremental CE ratio in the

  10. Effects of reward bundling on male rats' preference for larger-later food rewards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Jeffrey S; Smits, Rochelle R; Johnson, Patrick S; Liston, Kennan J; Madden, Gregory J

    2013-03-01

    In both humans and nonhumans, prior research demonstrates increased preference for larger-later over smaller-sooner rewards when rewards are bundled together in a series (i.e., when an operant choice produces multiple discrete reward deliveries, as opposed to only a single delivery). These findings can be predicted using a traditional hyperbolic delay-discounting model. The present study was designed to examine the parametric effects of the size of the reward bundle on larger-later reward preference in male rats. During a reward-bundling phase, rats were exposed to bundle-sizes of either 1 (i.e., no bundling), 3, or 9 rewards. Rats in the Bundle-size 9 group showed significantly greater larger-later reward preference across a range of delays (0-17.5 s) than rats in any other group, but no other significant differences in choice were observed between groups. In addition, when choice for unbundled rewards was assessed following the reward-bundling phase, rats in the Bundle-size 9 group showed a significant increase in larger-later reward preference (compared to a pre-test). Obtained data from the reward-bundling phase are compared to model-predicted data, and potential mechanisms of the observed increase in self-control for unbundled rewards are discussed. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  11. Cellulosic Fibers: Effect of Processing on Fiber Bundle Strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Anders; Madsen, Bo; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2011-01-01

    A range of differently processed cellulosic fibers from flax and hemp plants were investigated to study the relation between processing of cellulosic fibers and fiber bundle strength. The studied processing methods are applied for yarn production and include retting, scutching, carding, and cotto......A range of differently processed cellulosic fibers from flax and hemp plants were investigated to study the relation between processing of cellulosic fibers and fiber bundle strength. The studied processing methods are applied for yarn production and include retting, scutching, carding...

  12. The button effect of CANFLEX bundle on the critical heat flux and critical channel power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Joo Hwan; Jun, Jisu; Suk, Ho Chun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Dimmick, G. R.; Bullock, D. E.; Inch, W. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Ontario (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    A CANFLEX (CANdu FLEXible fuelling) 43-element bundle has developed for a CANDU-6 reactor as an alternative of 37-element fuel bundle. The design has two diameter elements (11.5 and 13.5 mm) to reduce maximum element power rating and buttons to enhance the critical heat flux (CHF), compared with the standard 37-element bundle. The freon CHF experiments have performed for two series of CANFLEX bundles with and without buttons with a modelling fluid as refrigerant R-134a and axial uniform heat flux condition. Evaluating the effects of buttons of CANFLEX bundle on CHF and Critical Channel Power (CCP) with the experimental results, it is shown that the buttons enhance CCP as well as CHF. All the CHF`s for both the CANFLEX bundles are occurred at the end of fuel channel with the high dryout quality conditions. The CHF enhancement ratio are increased with increase of dryout quality for all flow conditions and also with increase of mass flux only for high pressure conditions. It indicates that the button is a useful design for CANDU operating condition because most CHF flow conditions for CANDU fuel bundle are ranged to high dryout quality conditions. 5 refs., 11 figs. (Author)

  13. The Effects of Resource Bundling on Third-party Logistics Providers’ Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Noorliza Karia; Chee Yew Wong; Muhammad Hasmi Abu Hassan Asaari; Kee-hung Lai

    2015-01-01

    This research develops and tests a model of the effects of resources bundling on third-party logistics (3PL) providers’ performance. Based on data from a survey of Malaysian 3PLs, basic and advanced technology and equipment resources, knowledge and relational resources, and demand management interfaces are identified. The bundling of advanced technology, knowledge resources, and demand management interface capability are found to enhance 3PLs’ customer service innovation. Similar resource ...

  14. Different effects of implanting vascular bundles and sensory nerve tracts on the expression of neuropeptide receptors in tissue-engineered bone in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Siyuan; Qin Junjun; Wang Le; Mu Tianwang; Jin Dan; Jiang Shan; Zhao Peiran [Department of Orthopaedic and Trauma, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515 (China); Pei Guoxian, E-mail: easonfaye_2001@qq.co [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Xijing Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China)

    2010-10-01

    We investigated whether implantation of vascular bundles or sensory nerves affected the expression of calcitonin gene-related peptide type I receptor (CGRP1R) and neuropeptide Y1 receptor (NPY1R) in tissue-engineered bone. We implanted osteogenically induced bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) with {beta}-tricalcium phosphate ({beta}-TCP) as the scaffold material either with sensory nerve tracts (group I, n = 18), vascular bundles (group II, n = 18) or alone (group III, n = 18) to repair a 1.2 cm femur defect in the rabbit. Better osteogenesis was observed by x-ray and histology in groups I and II than in group III at 4, 8 and 12 weeks. Within the new bone, the mRNA levels of the two neuropeptide receptors determined by real-time PCR increased through week 8, and then gradually decreased (P < 0.05). Expression of the neuropeptide receptors determined by immunohistochemistry was lowest at 4 weeks (P < 0.05) and was higher in group II than in group I (P < 0.05). Expression was significantly higher in groups I and II than in group III at all time points. We conclude that implanting vascular bundles into tissue-engineered bone can significantly improve the early expression of CGRP1R and NPY1R. In contrast, implantation of sensory nerves did not show the same dramatic effect as implantation of vascular bundles.

  15. Effect of the Maximum Dose on White Matter Fiber Bundles Using Longitudinal Diffusion Tensor Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Tong; Chapman, Christopher H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Tsien, Christina [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University at St Louis, St Louis, Missouri (United States); Kim, Michelle; Spratt, Daniel E.; Lawrence, Theodore S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Cao, Yue, E-mail: yuecao@umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Purpose: Previous efforts to decrease neurocognitive effects of radiation focused on sparing isolated cortical structures. We hypothesize that understanding temporal, spatial, and dosimetric patterns of radiation damage to whole-brain white matter (WM) after partial-brain irradiation might also be important. Therefore, we carried out a study to develop the methodology to assess radiation therapy (RT)–induced damage to whole-brain WM bundles. Methods and Materials: An atlas-based, automated WM tractography analysis was implemented to quantify longitudinal changes in indices of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of 22 major WM fibers in 33 patients with predominantly low-grade or benign brain tumors treated by RT. Six DTI scans per patient were performed from before RT to 18 months after RT. The DTI indices and planned doses (maximum and mean doses) were mapped onto profiles of each of 22 WM bundles. A multivariate linear regression was performed to determine the main dose effect as well as the influence of other clinical factors on longitudinal percentage changes in axial diffusivity (AD) and radial diffusivity (RD) from before RT. Results: Among 22 fiber bundles, AD or RD changes in 12 bundles were affected significantly by doses (P<.05), as the effect was progressive over time. In 9 elongated tracts, decreased AD or RD was significantly related to maximum doses received, consistent with a serial structure. In individual bundles, AD changes were up to 11.5% at the maximum dose locations 18 months after RT. The dose effect on WM was greater in older female patients than younger male patients. Conclusions: Our study demonstrates for the first time that the maximum dose to the elongated WM bundles causes post-RT damage in WM. Validation and correlative studies are necessary to determine the ability and impact of sparing these bundles on preserving neurocognitive function after RT.

  16. Evaluation of nonequilibrium effects in bundle dispersed-flow film boiling. [PWR; BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, D.G.; Mullins, C.B.; Yoder, G.L.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of thermodynamic nonequilibrium in dispersed flow film boiling heat transfer are examined. Steady-state and transient rod-bundle data are used to evaluate several empirical heat-transfer models commonly employed to predict post-CHF behavior. The models that account for thermodynamic nonequilibrium perform adequately, while those that ignore nonequilibrium effects incur errors in wall superheat as high as 190/sup 0/K. Nonequilibrium effects can also be treated by explicitly modeling the phenomena. The thermal-hydraulic code COBRA-TF employs this approach. Using bundle data, the models in the code are evaluated. Analysis suggests that the interfacial heat transfer is overpredicted.

  17. The Effects of Resource Bundling on Third-party Logistics Providers’ Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noorliza Karia

    2015-03-01

    resource bundling (excluding advanced technology is required to achieve cost leadership. The effects of other resources on performance are mediated mainly by the demand management interface capability and knowledge resources. This is a novel attempt to justify the interaction and mediation effects of resources and capabilities on performance. The research highlights the needs for 3PL managers to focus on developing and bundling their demand management interface capability and knowledge resources in order to achieve cost leadership, and further combine advanced technology into such bundling of resources and capabilities to achieve innovation in customer service. It advances the application of resource-based view (RBV theory in logistics research by identifying resources that play supporting roles and examining the capabilities for enhancing 3PLs’ competitive performance.

  18. Effective action of heterotic compactification on K3 with non-trivial gauge bundles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schasny, Martin

    2012-10-15

    In this thesis we study the heterotic string compactified on K3 with non-trivial gauge bundles. We focus on two backgrounds, the well-known standard embedding and abelian line bundles. Using a Kaluza-Klein reduction, the six-dimensional effective action is computed up to terms of order {alpha}'{sup 2} with special attention on the hypermultiplet sector. We compute the moduli dependent couplings of the matter fields and analyze the geometry of the hyperscalar sigma model. Moreover, we prove the consistency with six-dimensional supergravity and derive the appropriate D-term scalar potential. For the line bundle backgrounds we show that the gauge flux stabilizes some geometrical moduli and renders some abelian vector multiplets massive.

  19. Monosaccharide templates for de novo designed 4-alpha-helix bundle proteins: template effects in carboproteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brask, Jesper; Dideriksen, J.M.; Nielsen, John

    2003-01-01

    Da 4-alpha-helix bundles by oxime ligation of tetra-aminooxyacetyl functionalized D-galacto-, D-gluco-, and D-altropyranoside templates with an amphiphilic C- terminal hexadecapeptide aldehyde sequence. CD spectroscopy indicated that the choice of template has an effect on the overall structure...

  20. Cotton properties: relative humidity and its effect on flat bundle strength elongation and fracture morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of the relative humidity (RH) of testing conditions on stelometer cotton flat bundle strength and elongation measurements, and on the morphology of fiber fractures will be discussed in this talk. We observed a trend for stelometer strength and elongations measurements. Testing in conditi...

  1. Student assessment of teaching effectiveness of "bundle of changes"-A paired, controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Kalra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Inching toward optimum patient safety by training personnel is the prime aim of the ongoing medical education. Aims : To assess whether lectures targeted to improve quality care in ICU could improve ICU practitioners′ knowledge levels and to evaluate the effectiveness of teaching. Settings and Design : In this paired controlled trial, 50 ICU practitioners, i.e., anesthesia and medicine residents and nursing staff of our hospital attended a series of four lectures. Materials and Methods : Participants enrolled in the study attended lectures on "bundles of changes" in ICU, namely, introduction, ventilator bundle, central line bundle, and catheter-related blood stream infections and severe sepsis bundle. They were given a questionnaire of 15 multiple choice questions prior to and after the lectures. We evaluated their immediate knowledge acquisition and retention recall. Subsequently, they evaluated the effectiveness of the teaching programme by a questionnaire of 10 multiple choice questions. Statistical analysis used: Data for statistical analysis were tabulated and analyzed using SPSS-Pc 11.5 version software. Results : Fifty study participants completed all three questionnaires. There was an increase in the overall mean score in the post-lecture test (4.58 + 1.51 SD (P < 0.001. Overall mean score increased significantly from 8.30 + 1.34 SD in THE pre-lecture test - to 12.02 + 1.61 SD in the postlecture re-test (3.72 + 1.39 SD (P < 0.001. In the evaluation of teaching effectiveness 88% respondents agreed to most of the questions, signifying the effectiveness of the lectures. However, there were 10% who disagreed to the questions and only 2% strongly disagreed to all the questions. Conclusions : Teaching programmes such as the "bundle of changes" are effective in improving immediate knowledge acquisition and retention recall of the participants if designed keeping the target audience in mind.

  2. Single Actin Bundle Rheology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strehle, Dan; Mollenkopf, Paul; Glaser, Martin; Golde, Tom; Schuldt, Carsten; Käs, Josef A; Schnauß, Jörg

    2017-10-24

    Bundled actin structures play an essential role in the mechanical response of the actin cytoskeleton in eukaryotic cells. Although responsible for crucial cellular processes, they are rarely investigated in comparison to single filaments and isotropic networks. Presenting a highly anisotropic structure, the determination of the mechanical properties of individual bundles was previously achieved through passive approaches observing bending deformations induced by thermal fluctuations. We present a new method to determine the bending stiffness of individual bundles, by measuring the decay of an actively induced oscillation. This approach allows us to systematically test anisotropic, bundled structures. Our experiments revealed that thin, depletion force-induced bundles behave as semiflexible polymers and obey the theoretical predictions determined by the wormlike chain model. Thickening an individual bundle by merging it with other bundles enabled us to study effects that are solely based on the number of involved filaments. These thicker bundles showed a frequency-dependent bending stiffness, a behavior that is inconsistent with the predictions of the wormlike chain model. We attribute this effect to internal processes and give a possible explanation with regard to the wormlike bundle theory.

  3. Single Actin Bundle Rheology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Strehle

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Bundled actin structures play an essential role in the mechanical response of the actin cytoskeleton in eukaryotic cells. Although responsible for crucial cellular processes, they are rarely investigated in comparison to single filaments and isotropic networks. Presenting a highly anisotropic structure, the determination of the mechanical properties of individual bundles was previously achieved through passive approaches observing bending deformations induced by thermal fluctuations. We present a new method to determine the bending stiffness of individual bundles, by measuring the decay of an actively induced oscillation. This approach allows us to systematically test anisotropic, bundled structures. Our experiments revealed that thin, depletion force-induced bundles behave as semiflexible polymers and obey the theoretical predictions determined by the wormlike chain model. Thickening an individual bundle by merging it with other bundles enabled us to study effects that are solely based on the number of involved filaments. These thicker bundles showed a frequency-dependent bending stiffness, a behavior that is inconsistent with the predictions of the wormlike chain model. We attribute this effect to internal processes and give a possible explanation with regard to the wormlike bundle theory.

  4. Effects of fuel relocation on reflood in a partially-blocked rod bundle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Byoung Jae [School of Mechanical Engineering, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34134 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jongrok; Kim, Kihwan; Bae, Sung Won [Thermal-Hydraulic Safety Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Division, 111 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34057 (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Sang-Ki, E-mail: skmoon@kaeri.re.kr [Thermal-Hydraulic Safety Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Division, 111 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34057 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    Ballooning of the fuel rods has been an important issue, since it can influence the coolability of the rod bundle in a large-break loss-of-coolant accident (LBLOCA). Numerous past studies have investigated the effect of blockage geometry on the heat transfer in a partially blocked rod bundle. However, they did not consider the occurrence of fuel relocation and the corresponding effect on two-phase heat transfer. Some fragmented fuel particles located above the ballooned region may drop into the enlarged volume of the balloon. Accordingly, the fuel relocation brings in a local power increase in the ballooned region. The present study’s objective is to investigate the effect of the fuel relocation on the reflood under a LBLOCA condition. Toward this end, experiments were performed in a 5 × 5 partially-blocked rod bundle. Two power profiles were tested: one is a typical cosine shape and the other is the modified shape considering the effect of the fuel relocation. For a typical power shape, the peak temperature in the ballooned rods was lower than that in the intact rods. On the other hand, for the modified power shape, the peak temperature in the ballooned rods was higher than that in the intact rods. Numerical simulations were also performed using the MARS code. The tendencies of the peak clad temperatures were well predicted.

  5. Effects of Angle of Rotation on Pool Boiling Heat Transfer of V-shape Tube Bundle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Myeong-Gie [Andong National University, Andong (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The most important facility for the systems is a passive heat exchanger that transfers core decay heat to the cold water in a water storage tank under atmospheric pressure. Since the space for the installation of the heat exchanger is usually limited, developing more efficient heat exchangers is important. In general, pool boiling is generated on the surface of the heat exchanging tube. The major design parameter of the heat exchanger is a tube arrangement. The upper tube is affected by the lower tube and the enhancement of the heat transfer on the upper tube is estimated by the bundle effect. Since heat transfer is related to the conditions of a tube surface, bundle geometries, and a liquid type, lots of studies have been carried out for the combinations of those parameters. An experimental study was performed to investigate the effects of the angle of rotation on pool boiling heat transfer of a V-shape tube bundle. For the test, two smooth stainless steel tubes of 19 mm outside diameter and the water at atmospheric pressure were used. The enhancement of the heat transfer is clearly observed when the angle becomes to 90° where the upper tube has the maximum region of influence by the lower tube. The convective flow and liquid agitation enhance heat transfer while the coalescence of the bubbles deteriorates heat transfer.

  6. Effects of a bundled Antimicrobial Stewardship Program on mortality: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Miyake Okumura

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess a bundled Antimicrobial Stewardship Program and its effect on mortality. Data:Eight months of clinical electronic medical records and Antimicrobial Stewardship Program registries were used as source of data.Method: This is a historical cohort study conducted in a Brazilian University Hospital. Eligible patients were admitted to general wards or intensive care units and had an antimicrobial therapy prescribed and assessed by different strategies: Bundled Antimicrobial Stewardship Program (bundled intervention consisted of clinical pharmacist chart review, discussion with microbiologist and infectious disease physicians, local education and continuous follow-up or Conventional Antimicrobial Stewardship Program (clinical pharmacist chart review and discussion with infectious disease physician. Primary outcome from this study was 30-day mortality, which was compared between groups, by using Kaplan-Meier survival curve and log-rank test. Other outcomes included Defined Daily Doses per 1000 patient-days and occurrence of resistant bacteria.Results: From 533 patients, 491 were eligible for the study, of which 191 patients were included to Antimicrobial Stewardship Program and 300 to Conventional strategy. In general, they were likely to be male and age was similar in groups (58.9 vs 55.5 years, p= 0.38. Likewise, Charlson Comorbidity Index was not statistically different between groups (2.6 vs 2.7, p= 0.2. Bloodstream site infections were frequently diagnosed in both groups (30.89% vs 26%, p= 0.24. Other less common sites of infections were central nervous system and lungs. The ASP group had higher survival rates (p< 0.01 and the risk difference was 10.8% (95% CI: 2.41-19.14. There were less Defined Daily Doses per 1000 patient-days (417 vs 557.2, p< 0.05 and higher rates of resistant bacteria identified in the ASP group (83% vs 17%.Conclusion: Bundled ASP was the most effective strategy, with reduced mortality and Defined Daily

  7. Effects of an Isolated Complete Right Bundle Branch Block on Mechanical Ventricular Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qin; Xue, Minghua; Li, Zhan; Wang, Haiyan; Zhu, Lei; Liu, Xinling; Meng, Haiyan; Hou, Yinglong

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of an isolated complete right bundle branch block on mechanical ventricular function. Two groups of participants were enrolled in this study: a block group, consisting of 98 patients with isolated complete right bundle branch blocks without structural heart disease, and a control group, consisting of 92 healthy adults. The diameter, end-diastolic area, end-systolic area, and right ventricular (RV) fractional area change were obtained to evaluate morphologic and systolic function by 2-dimensional sonographic technology. Systolic and diastolic velocities and time interval parameters were measured to assess mechanical ventricular performance using pulsed wave tissue Doppler imaging. Although there was no significant difference in the RV fractional area change between the patients with blocks and controls, the diameter, end-diastolic area, and end-systolic area of the RV were significantly larger in the patients with blocks (P blocks, the peak velocities during systole and early diastole and the ratio of the peak velocities during early and late diastole decreased. The block group had a prolonged pre-ejection period, electromechanical delay time, and isovolumic relaxation time, a decreased ejection time, and an increased pre-ejection period/ejection time ratio, and the myocardial performance index (Tei index) at the basal RV lateral wall was significantly increased. There were no significant differences in any echocardiographic parameters at different sites of the left ventricle. In patients with isolated complete right bundle branch blocks, systolic and diastolic functions are impaired in the RV, and follow-up is needed. © 2015 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  8. Effect of multimodal coupling in imaging micro-endoscopic fiber bundle on optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jae-Ho; Kang, Jin U

    2012-01-14

    The effect of higher order modes in fiber bundle imager-based optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been theoretically modeled using coupled fiber mode analysis ignoring the polarization and core size variation in order to visualize the pure effect of multimodal coupling of the imaging bundle. In this model, the optical imaging fiber couples several higher order modes in addition to the fundamental one due to its high numerical aperture for achieving light confinement to the single core pixel. Those modes become evident in a distance domain using A-mode (depth) OCT based on a mirror sample experiment where multiple peaks are generated by the spatial convolution and coherence function of the light source. The distance between the peaks corresponding to each mode can be estimated by considering the effective indices of coupled (guided) modes obtained from numerically solving the fiber mode characteristics equations and the fiber length. The results have been compared for various types (fiber dimensions and wavelengths) and lengths of fibers, which have mode separation of 715 μm (1404 μm) and 764 μm (1527 μm) for the measurement and analysis, respectively in a 152.5 mm (305 mm)-long imaging fiber.

  9. Annular flow in rod-bundle: Effect of spacer on disturbance waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pham, Son H.; Kunugi, Tomoaki

    2016-08-01

    A high-speed camera technique is used to study the effect of spacers on the disturbance waves present in annular two-phase flow within a rod-bundle geometry. Images obtained using a backlight configuration to visualize the spacer-wave interactions at the micro-scale resolution (in time and space) are discussed. This paper also presents additional images obtained using a reflected light configuration which provides new observations of the disturbance waves. These images show the separation effect caused by the spacer on the liquid film in which the size of generated liquid droplets can be controlled by the gas superficial velocity. Furthermore, the data confirm that the spacer breaks the circumferential coherent structures of the waves.

  10. BENDING THE DOMING EFFECT IN STRUCTURE FROM MOTION RECONSTRUCTIONS THROUGH BUNDLE ADJUSTMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Magri

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Structure from Motion techniques provides low-cost and flexible methods that can be adopted in arial surveying to collect topographic data with accurate results. Nevertheless, the so-called “doming effect”, due to unfortunate acquisition conditions or unreliable modeling of radial distortion, has been recognized as a critical issue that disrupts the quality of the attained 3D reconstruction. In this paper we propose a novel method, that works effectively in the presence of a nearly flat soil, to tackle a posteriori the doming effect: an automatic ground detection method is used to capture the doming deformation flawing the reconstruction, which in turn is wrapped to the correct geometry by iteratively enforcing a planarity constraint through a Bundle Adjustment framework. Experiments on real word datasets demonstrate promising results.

  11. Mode III effects on interface delamination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo; Hutchinson, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    For crack growth along an interface between dissimilar materials the effect of combined modes I, II and III at the crack-tip is investigated. First, in order to highlight situations where crack growth is affected by a mode III contribution, examples of material configurations are discussed where...... mode III has an effect. Subsequently, the focus is on crack growth along an interface between an elastic-plastic solid and an elastic substrate. The analyses are carried out for conditions of small-scale yielding, with the fracture process at the interface represented by a cohesive zone model. Due...... to the mismatch of elastic properties across the interface the corresponding elastic solution has an oscillating stress singularity, and this solution is applied as boundary conditions on the outer edge of the region analyzed. For several combinations of modes I, II and III crack growth resistance curves...

  12. Impact of VAP bundle adherence among ventilated critically ill patients and its effectiveness in adult ICU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad Rabie Samra

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: The application of VAP bundle is a feasible reality that produces improvement in microbiological measures and nosocomal infection rates resulting in lowering mortality, shortened lengths of hospitalization and decreased medical care costs. However, education and periodic training remain a fundamental process of improving health services. VAPs were reduced by improving bundle compliance and ensuring the same standard of care to all ICU patients. Direct, on-site observation was a more accurate method of monitoring.

  13. Fighting Capital Flight in Africa: Evidence from Bundling and Unbundling Governance

    OpenAIRE

    Asongu, Simplice; Nwachukwu, Jacinta

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of governance on capital flight by bundling and unbundling governance. The empirical evidence is based on 37 African countries for the period 1996-2010 and the Generalised Method of Moments. Governance is bundled by principal component analysis, namely: (i) political governance from political stability and ‘voice and accountability’; (ii) economic governance from government effectiveness and regulation quality and (iii) institutional governance from corrupti...

  14. Comparison of the effects of selective and non-selective His bundle pacing on cardiac electrical and mechanical synchrony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinlong; Guo, Jianghong; Hou, Xiaofeng; Wang, Yao; Qian, Zhiyong; Li, Kebei; Ge, Peibing; Zou, Jiangang

    2017-05-31

    This study aimed to assess the acute effect of selective His bundle pacing (S-HBP), non-selective His bundle pacing (NS-HBP), and right ventricular septum pacing (RVSP) on electrical synchrony and left ventricular (LV) mechanical synchrony using electrocardiogram and phase analysis of gated single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI). Totally 39 patients eligible for pacemaker were enrolled. Thirty-seven patients underwent successful His bundle pacing (HBP) including S-HBP in 23 and NS-HBP in 14 patients, respectively. Thirty-one patients simultaneously underwent backup RVSP. Twenty-three patients received SPECT MPI scans under different pacing modes, including S-HBP low- and high-output, NS-HBP low- and high-output, and RVSP mode. The paced QRS duration (QRSd) in the S-HBP low- and high-output mode and in the NS-HBP high-output mode were similarly compared with the baseline intrinsic QRSd. QRS duration in the NS-HBP low-output mode was slightly longer than the baseline. QRS duration was the longest in the RVSP group. Left ventricular mechanical synchrony parameters in both the S-HBP and the NS-HBP groups were remarkably better than those in the RVSP group. Moreover, LV mechanical synchrony parameters were much better in the S-HBP groups and NS-HBP high-output group. Selective His bundle pacing and high-output NS-HBP could restore normal electrical and LV mechanical synchrony.

  15. Effectiveness and safety of the awakening and breathing coordination, delirium monitoring/management, and early exercise/mobility bundle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balas, Michele C; Vasilevskis, Eduard E; Olsen, Keith M; Schmid, Kendra K; Shostrom, Valerie; Cohen, Marlene Z; Peitz, Gregory; Gannon, David E; Sisson, Joseph; Sullivan, James; Stothert, Joseph C; Lazure, Julie; Nuss, Suzanne L; Jawa, Randeep S; Freihaut, Frank; Ely, E Wesley; Burke, William J

    2014-05-01

    The debilitating and persistent effects of ICU-acquired delirium and weakness warrant testing of prevention strategies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of implementing the Awakening and Breathing Coordination, Delirium monitoring/management, and Early exercise/mobility bundle into everyday practice. Eighteen-month, prospective, cohort, before-after study conducted between November 2010 and May 2012. Five adult ICUs, one step-down unit, and one oncology/hematology special care unit located in a 624-bed tertiary medical center. Two hundred ninety-six patients (146 prebundle and 150 postbundle implementation), who are 19 years old or older, managed by the institutions' medical or surgical critical care service. Awakening and Breathing Coordination, Delirium monitoring/management, and Early exercise/mobility bundle. For mechanically ventilated patients (n = 187), we examined the association between bundle implementation and ventilator-free days. For all patients, we used regression models to quantify the relationship between Awakening and Breathing Coordination, Delirium monitoring/management, and Early exercise/mobility bundle implementation and the prevalence/duration of delirium and coma, early mobilization, mortality, time to discharge, and change in residence. Safety outcomes and bundle adherence were monitored. Patients in the postimplementation period spent three more days breathing without mechanical assistance than did those in the preimplementation period (median [interquartile range], 24 [7-26] vs 21 [0-25]; p = 0.04). After adjusting for age, sex, severity of illness, comorbidity, and mechanical ventilation status, patients managed with the Awakening and Breathing Coordination, Delirium monitoring/management, and Early exercise/mobility bundle experienced a near halving of the odds of delirium (odds ratio, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.33-0.93; p = 0.03) and increased odds of mobilizing out of bed at least once during an ICU stay

  16. CFD analysis of localized crud effects on the flow of coolant in nuclear rod bundles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cinosi, N., E-mail: n.cinosi@imperial.ac.uk; Walker, S.P.

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • CDF simulation of PWR sub-channels with crudded rods. • Evaluation of coolant flow variations induced by crud rough surfaces. • Evaluation of coolant temperatures in presence of crudded rods. • Evaluation of crud effects on critical heat flux and DNBR margins. - Abstract: It has been suggested that crud deposits on a number of adjacent fuel rods might reduce coolant flow rates in associated sub-channels. Such reduced flow rates could then worsen thermal-hydraulic conditions, such as margin to saturated boiling, fuel surface temperature, and the DNB ratio. We report the results of a detailed computational fluid dynamics study of the flow pattern in a partially crudded rod bundle. Values obviously depend on, for example, the thickness of crud assumed, but sub-channel flow rate reductions of ∼10% were predicted by this analysis. However, this mass flow rate reduction was found to be more than offset by improved heat transfer induced by the relatively rough surface of the crud. Cladding temperatures were predicted to be essentially unchanged, and the DNBR was similarly little altered. We conclude that such flow reduction and diversion is not likely to be of concern.

  17. The effect of isolated left bundle branch block on the myocardial velocities and myocardial performance index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duzenli, Mehmet Akif; Ozdemir, Kurtulus; Soylu, Ahmet; Aygul, Nazif; Yazici, Mehmet; Tokac, Mehmet

    2008-03-01

    This study was planned in order to investigate the effect of left bundle branch block (LBBB) on myocardial velocities obtained by tissue Doppler echocardiography (TDE) and myocardial performance index (MPI). Subjects with LBBB (n = 61) and age-matched healthy subjects (n = 60) were enrolled in the study. Left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF), mitral inflow velocities (E-wave and A-wave), isovolumetric contraction and relaxation time (ICT and IRT), ejection time (ET), and flow propagation velocity (Vp) were measured by conventional echocardiography. Systolic velocity (Sm), early and late diastolic velocities (Em and Am) and time intervals were measured by TDE. MPI was calculated by the formula (ICT + IRT)/ET. LVEF and mitral E/A ratio were similar in both groups. Vp was lower in the LBBB group than in the control group, whereas the E/Em and the E/Vp ratio was higher. LV Sm and Em/Am ratio were lower in LBBB group. Right ventricular Sm and Em/Am ratio were similar in both groups. LV mean and RV MPI were significantly increased in LBBB group. These findings obtained by TDE show that isolated LBBB impairs the ventricular functions. Both of the LV and RV dysfunctions shown by the new parameters may contribute to increased morbidity and mortality in cases with isolated LBBB.

  18. Strategic and welfare implications of bundling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin, Stephen

    1999-01-01

    A standard oligopoly model of bundling shows that bundling by a firm with a monopoly over one product has a strategic effect because it changes the substitution relationships between the goods among which consumers choose. Bundling in appropriate proportions is privately profitable, reduces rivals...

  19. Three-dimensional Effects of Turburlent Flow in an In-Line Tube Bundle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Knud Erik

    1998-01-01

    Velocities have been measured with laser Doppler anemometry between tubes in cross-flow in a small in-line tube bundle with longitudinal to transverse pitches of 1.5Dx1.8D and a Reynolds number based on mean velocity in minimum flow section of Re=30000. At most locations a single recirculation zone...

  20. Monosaccharide templates for de novo designed 4-alpha-helix bundle proteins: template effects in carboproteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brask, Jesper; Dideriksen, J.M.; Nielsen, John

    2003-01-01

    De novo design and total chemical synthesis of proteins provide powerful approaches to critically test our understanding of protein folding, structure, and stability. The 4-alpha-helix bundle is a frequently studied structure in which four amphiphilic alpha-helical peptide strands form...

  1. Effect of graft fixation sequence on knee joint biomechanics in double-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Dongliang; Zhou, Jingbin; Yapici, Can; Linde-Rosen, Monica; Smolinski, Patrick; Fu, Freddie H

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the effect of graft fixation sequence in double-bundle anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction on knee biomechanics. Twelve mature porcine knees underwent double-bundle ACL reconstruction with a randomized fixation order of the two graft bundles. The knees were subjected to external loadings of (1) an 89 N anterior tibial load at 30°, 60° and 90° of knee flexion and (2) 4 N-m internal and external tibial torques at 30° and 60° of knee flexion for ACL intact, deficient and reconstructed states. Knee kinematics and in situ graft forces were measured under the applied loads. The anterior tibial translation of the two reconstructions was not different from each other but was significantly different from the intact ACL. There was no difference in internal and external rotations between the intact knees and the reconstructions. At lower flexion angles, the graft that was fixed last (whether anteromedial or posterolateral) tended to carry significantly higher in situ load under anterior tibial loading and tibial torques. While a difference in knee kinematics may not be observable with different graft fixation sequences, fixation sequence can alter the in situ forces that the grafts bear under knee loading.

  2. EFFECT OF TUBE PITCH ON HEAR TRANSFER IN SPRINKLED TUBE BUNDLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Kracík

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Water flowing on a sprinkled tube bundle forms three basic modes: the Droplet mode (the liquid drips from one tube to another, the Jet mode (with an increasing flow rate, the droplets merge into a column and the Membrane (Sheet mode (with a further increase in the flow rate of the falling film liquid, the columns merge and create sheets between the tubes. With a sufficient flow rate, the sheets merge at this stage, and the tube bundle is completely covered by a thin liquid film. There are several factors influencing both the individual modes and the heat transfer. Beside the above-mentioned falling film liquid flow rate, these are for instance the tube diameters, the tube pitches in the tube bundle, or the physical conditions of the falling film liquid. This paper presents a summary of data measured at atmospheric pressure, with a tube bundle consisting of copper tubes of 12 millimetres in diameter, and with a studied tube length of one meter. The tubes are situated horizontally one above another at a pitch of 15 to 30 mm, and there is a distribution tube placed above them with water flowing through apertures of 1.0mm in diameter at a 9.2mm span. Two thermal conditions have been tested with all pitches: 15 °C to 40 °C and 15 °C to 45 °C. The temperature of the falling film liquid, which was heated during the flow through the exchanger, was 15 °C at the distribution tube input. The temperature of the heating liquid at the exchanger input, which had a constant flow rate of approx. 7.2. litres per minute, was 40 °C, or alternatively 45 °C.

  3. Effect of PR interval prolongation on long-term outcomes in patients with left bundle branch block vs non-left bundle branch block morphologies undergoing cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickard, John; Karim, Mohammad; Baranowski, Bryan; Cantillon, Daniel; Spragg, David; Tang, W H Wilson; Niebauer, Mark; Grimm, Richard; Trulock, Kevin; Wilkoff, Bruce; Varma, Niraj

    2017-10-01

    Although the influence of QRS duration (QRSd) and/or bundle branch block morphology on outcomes of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) have been well studied, the effect of PR interval remains uncertain. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of PR prolongation (PRp) before CRT on long-term outcomes, specifically taking into account bundle branch block morphology and QRSd. We extracted clinical data on consecutive patients undergoing CRT. Multivariate models were constructed to analyze the effect of PRp (≥200 ms) on the combined endpoint of death, heart transplant, or left ventricular assist device. Kaplan-Meier curves were constructed stratifying patients based on bundle branch block and QRSd (dichotomized by 150 ms). Of the 472 patients who met inclusion criteria, 197 (41.7%) had PR interval ≥200 ms. During follow-up (mean 5.1 ± 2.6 years) there were 214 endpoints, of which 109 (23.1%) occurred in patients with PRp. In multivariate analysis, PRp was independently associated with worsened outcomes (hazard ratio 1.34, 95% confidence interval 1.01-1.77, P = .04). When stratified by bundle branch block morphology, PRp was significantly associated with worsened outcomes (log-rank P <.001) in patients with LBBB but not in those with non-LBBB (log-rank P = .55). Among patients with LBBB, stratified by QRSd, patients without PRp had improved outcomes compared to those with PRp independent of QRSd (log-rank P <.001). PRp is an independent predictor of impaired long-term outcome after CRT among patients with LBBB but not in non-LBBB patients. Notably, among LBBB patients, PRp is a more important predictor than QRSd in assessing long-term outcomes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. CFD Analysis of Localised Crud Effects on the Flow of Coolant in Nuclear Rod Bundles

    OpenAIRE

    Cinosi, N; Walker, SP

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that crud deposits on a number of adjacent fuel rods might reduce coolant flow rates in associated sub-channels. Such reduced flow rates could then worsen thermal-hydraulic conditions, such as margin to saturated boiling, fuel surface temperature, and the DNB ratio. We report the results of a detailed computational fluid dynamics study of the flow pattern in a partially-crudded rod bundle. Values obviously depend on, for example, the thickness of crud assumed, but sub-ch...

  5. Simulation of propagation in a bundle of skeletal muscle fibers: Modulation effects of passive fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henneberg, Kaj-åge; F.A., Roberge

    1997-01-01

    Computer simulations are used to study passive fiber modulation of propagation in a tightly packed bundle of frog skeletal muscle fibers (uniform fiber radius of 50 mu m). With T = 20 degrees C and a uniform nominal interstitial cleft width (d) over bar = 0.35 mu m, about 92% of the active fiber...... source current (I-ma) enters the passive tissue as a radial load current (I-ep) while the rest flows longitudinally in the cleft between the active and adjacent passive fibers. The conduction velocity of 1.32 m/s was about 30% lower than on an isolated fiber in a Ringer bath, in close agreement...

  6. Effects of axial power shapes on CHF locations in a single tube and in rod bundle assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, B.; Yang, B.W.; Zhang, H.; Zha, Y.; Zhang, Y. [Xi' an Jiaotong Univ. (China). School of Nuclear Science and Technology

    2016-07-15

    Currently, the prediction of rod bundle CHF is dependent on CHF correlations derived from CHF data. A simple correction factor, such as F-factor, is often used to account for the axial power shape differences based on a simple accumulated energy concept, which has totally no consideration on the impact of true local condition on CHF mechanism. Subsequently, as expected, large uncertainty is often associated with the CHF value and CHF location predictions. For the purpose of obtaining different power shapes effects on CHF, CFD calculated parameter values were used to predict the possible CHF occurrence location. The possible CHF location prediction method proposed in this paper is calculated void fraction, heat transfer coefficient (HTC), liquid temperature distribution and detailed local parameters. And the uniform and non-uniform CHF were analyzed. The prediction of possible CHF locations in a 5 x 5 rod bundle may provide useful information for the design of a full-length CHF test, enhance the accuracy of CHF and CHF location prediction, and reduce the costs of the experimentation.

  7. The Effect of Pre-teaching Extended Prefabricated Lexical Bundles on the Writing Development of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiyed Mahdi Araghi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to shed light on how a teacher’s instruction and guidance can cast aside writing inhibitions and bring about remarkable changes in the writing ability of advanced EFL students through the collaborative construction of extended chunks of language with the aim of enhancing lexical density and complexity and consequently injecting into learners a sense of satisfaction with their work. The sample included 40 TOEFL students selected out of 75 TOEFL students on the basis of their scores on a TOEFL test. The participants were randomly assigned into two groups-the control group and experimental group. After 20 instructional sessions both groups were assigned five writing tasks. The results reveal that the participants in experimental group outperformed their counterparts in control group. Overall, it is concluded that pre-teaching extended prefabricated lexical bundles can be a useful means of helping advanced students to improve their writing quality.

  8. Networked neural spheroid by neuro-bundle mimicking nervous system created by topology effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Gi Seok; Chang, Joon Young; Park, Ji Soo; Lee, Seung-A; Park, DoYeun; Woo, Junsung; An, Heeyoung; Lee, C Justin; Lee, Sang-Hoon

    2015-03-22

    In most animals, the nervous system consists of the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS), the latter of which connects the CNS to all parts of the body. Damage and/or malfunction of the nervous system causes serious pathologies, including neurodegenerative disorders, spinal cord injury, and Alzheimer's disease. Thus, not surprising, considerable research effort, both in vivo and in vitro, has been devoted to studying the nervous system and signal transmission through it. However, conventional in vitro cell culture systems do not enable control over diverse aspects of the neural microenvironment. Moreover, formation of certain nervous system growth patterns in vitro remains a challenge. In this study, we developed a deep hemispherical, microchannel-networked, concave array system and applied it to generate three-dimensional nerve-like neural bundles. The deep hemicylindrical channel network was easily fabricated by exploiting the meniscus induced by the surface tension of a liquid poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) prepolymer. Neurospheroids spontaneously aggregated in each deep concave microwell and were networked to neighboring spheroids through the deep hemicylindrical channel. Notably, two types of satellite spheroids also formed in deep hemispherical microchannels through self-aggregation and acted as an anchoring point to enhance formation of nerve-like networks with neighboring spheroids. During neural-network formation, neural progenitor cells successfully differentiated into glial and neuronal cells. These cells secreted laminin, forming an extracellular matrix around the host and satellite spheroids. Electrical stimuli were transmitted between networked neurospheroids in the resulting nerve-like neural bundle, as detected by imaging Ca(2+) signals in responding cells.

  9. Effects of difructose anhydride III (DFA III) administration on rat intestinal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamida, Kimiko; Shiga, Kazuki; Sujaya, I Nengah; Sone, Teruo; Yokota, Atsushi; Hara, Hiroshi; Asano, Kozo; Tomita, Fusao

    2005-03-01

    The effects of difructose anhydride III (di-D-fructofuranose-1,2':2,3'-dianhydride; DFA III) administration (3% DFA III for 4 weeks) on rat intestinal microbiota were examined using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). According to DGGE profiles, the number of bacteria related to Bacteroides acidofaciens and uncultured bacteria within the Clostridium lituseburense group decreased, while that of bacteria related to Bacteroides vulgatus, Bacteroides uniformis and Ruminococcus productus increased in DFA III-fed rat cecum. In the cecal contents of DFA III-fed rats, a lowering of pH and an increase in short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), especially acetic acid, were observed. The DFA III-assimilating bacterium, Ruminococcus sp. M-1, was isolated from the cecal contents of DFA III-fed rats. The strain had 98% similarity with R. productus ATCC 27340T (L76595), and mainly produced acetic acid. These results confirmed that the bacteria harmful to host health were not increased by DFA III administration. Moreover, DFA III stimulated the growth of Ruminococcus sp. M-1 producing acetic acid, which may alter the intestinal microbiota towards a healthier composition. It is expected that DFA III would be a new candidate as a prebiotic.

  10. Hydraulic characteristics of HANARO fuel bundles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, S.; Chung, H. J.; Chun, S. Y.; Yang, S. K.; Chung, M. K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents the hydraulic characteristics measured by using LDV (Laser Doppler Velocimetry) in subchannels of HANARO, KAERI research reactor, fuel bundle. The fuel bundle consists of 18 axially finned rods with 3 spacer grids, which are arranged in cylindrical configuration. The effects of the spacer grids on the turbulent flow were investigated by the experimental results. Pressure drops for each component of the fuel bundle were measured, and the friction factors of fuel bundle and loss coefficients for the spacer grids were estimated from the measured pressure drops. Implications regarding the turbulent thermal mixing were discussed. Vibration test results measured by using laser vibrometer were presented. 9 refs., 12 figs. (Author)

  11. Can a Toy Encourage Lower Calorie Meal Bundle Selection in Children? A Field Experiment on the Reinforcing Effects of Toys on Food Choice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Reimann

    Full Text Available The goal of this research was to test whether including an inexpensive nonfood item (toy with a smaller-sized meal bundle (420 calories, but not with the regular-sized meal bundle version (580 calories, would incentivize children to choose the smaller-sized meal bundle, even among children with overweight and obesity. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the effect in a between-subjects field experiment of a toy on smaller-sized meal choice (here, a binary choice between a smaller-sized or regular-sized meal bundles. A random sample of 109 elementary school children from two schools in the Tucson, Arizona metropolitan area (55 females; Mage = 8.53 years, SDage = 2.14; MBMI = 18.30, SDBMI = 4.42 participated. Children's height and weight were measured and body-mass-index (BMI was calculated, adjusting for age and sex. In our sample, 21 children were considered to be either overweight or obese. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the effect of a toy on smaller-sized meal choice. Results revealed that the inclusion of a toy with a smaller-sized meal, but not with the regular-sized version, predicted smaller-sized meal choice (P < .001, suggesting that children can be incentivized to choose less food when such is paired with a toy. BMI neither moderated nor nullified the effect of toy on smaller-sized meal choice (P = .125, suggesting that children with overweight and obesity can also be incentivized to choose less. This article is the first to suggest that fast-food restaurant chains may well utilize toys to motivate children to choose smaller-sized meal bundles. Our findings may be relevant for consumers, health advocates, policy makers, and marketers who would benefit from a strategy that presents healthier, but still desirable, meal bundle options.

  12. Can a Toy Encourage Lower Calorie Meal Bundle Selection in Children? A Field Experiment on the Reinforcing Effects of Toys on Food Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimann, Martin; Lane, Kristen

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this research was to test whether including an inexpensive nonfood item (toy) with a smaller-sized meal bundle (420 calories), but not with the regular-sized meal bundle version (580 calories), would incentivize children to choose the smaller-sized meal bundle, even among children with overweight and obesity. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the effect in a between-subjects field experiment of a toy on smaller-sized meal choice (here, a binary choice between a smaller-sized or regular-sized meal bundles). A random sample of 109 elementary school children from two schools in the Tucson, Arizona metropolitan area (55 females; Mage = 8.53 years, SDage = 2.14; MBMI = 18.30, SDBMI = 4.42) participated. Children's height and weight were measured and body-mass-index (BMI) was calculated, adjusting for age and sex. In our sample, 21 children were considered to be either overweight or obese. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the effect of a toy on smaller-sized meal choice. Results revealed that the inclusion of a toy with a smaller-sized meal, but not with the regular-sized version, predicted smaller-sized meal choice (P food when such is paired with a toy. BMI neither moderated nor nullified the effect of toy on smaller-sized meal choice (P = .125), suggesting that children with overweight and obesity can also be incentivized to choose less. This article is the first to suggest that fast-food restaurant chains may well utilize toys to motivate children to choose smaller-sized meal bundles. Our findings may be relevant for consumers, health advocates, policy makers, and marketers who would benefit from a strategy that presents healthier, but still desirable, meal bundle options.

  13. Effects of axions on Population III stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choplin, Arthur; Coc, Alain; Meynet, Georges; Olive, Keith A.; Uzan, Jean-Philippe; Vangioni, Elisabeth

    2017-09-01

    Aims: Following the renewed interest in axions as a dark matter component, we revisit the effects of energy loss by axion emission on the evolution of the first generation of stars. These stars with zero metallicity are assumed to be massive, more compact, and hotter than subsequent generations. It is hence important to extend previous studies, which were restricted to solar metallicity stars. Methods: Our analysis first compares the evolution of solar metallicity 8, 10, and 12 M⊙ stars to previous work. We then calculate the evolution of 8 zero-metallicity stars with and without axion losses and with masses ranging from 20 to 150 M⊙. Results: For the solar metallicity models, we confirm the disappearance of the blue-loop phase for a value of the axion-photon coupling of gaγ = 10-10 GeV-1. We show that for gaγ = 10-10 GeV-1, the evolution of Population III stars is not much affected by axion losses, except within the range of masses 80-130 M⊙. Such stars show significant differences in both their tracks within the Tc-ρc diagram and their central composition (in particular 20Ne and 24Mg). We discuss the origin of these modifications from the stellar physics point of view, and also their potential observational signatures.

  14. Cytoskeletal bundle mechanics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bathe, Mark; Heussinger, Claus; Claessens, Mireille Maria Anna Elisabeth; Bausch, Andreas R.; Frey, Erwin

    2008-01-01

    The mechanical properties of cytoskeletal actin bundles play an essential role in numerous physiological processes, including hearing, fertilization, cell migration, and growth. Cells employ a multitude of actin-binding proteins to actively regulate bundle dimensions and cross-linking properties to

  15. The Clinical effectiveness of sequential treatment of skeletal class III ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To assess the dentofacial changes induced by the sequential treatment in the skeletal class III malocclusion with maxillary retrognathism. Study design: Controlled clinical trial assessing the effectiveness of sequential treatment of skeletal class III malocclusion. Materials and Methods: The treated group consisted of 30 ...

  16. A cost effective complement to managing the vitamin D deficient and anemic dialysis patient in the bundled world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, John; Bea, Liza; Sharma, Amit

    2012-07-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is a common health complication in patients with chronic kidney disease and can be treated with an abundance of classical and advanced pharmaceutics. However, the impact of bundling in dialysis clinics limits the use of the most optimal therapeutics and desired efficacy targets in end-stage renal disease patients. To address this issue, we investigated the benefits of adding a cost-effective antioxidant and vitamin D nutraceutical (MV-ONE, Nephrian Inc.) to patient regiments. This nutraceutical was used in an attempt to replete vitamin D levels and decrease inflammation that dialysis patients experience. Additionally, we investigated the potential of this therapy to reduce the need for erythropoietin-stimulating agents. Results indicate MV-ONE caused: (1) increases in 25-OH vitamin D (p = 0.0058), (2) decreases in ESA dose (p = 0.0475), and (3) no change in C-reactive protein (p = 0.3290). Overall, this suggests the addition of MV-ONE does benefit the vitamin D deficiency and anemia observed in ESRD patients.

  17. The ABCDEF Implementation Bundle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annachiara Marra

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Long-term morbidity, long-term cognitive impairment and hospitalization-associated disability are common occurrence in the survivors of critical illness, with significant consequences for patients and for the caregivers. The ABCDEF bundle represents an evidence-based guide for clinicians to approach the organizational changes needed for optimizing ICU patient recovery and outcomes. The ABCDEF bundle includes: Assess, Prevent, and Manage Pain, Both Spontaneous Awakening Trials (SAT and Spontaneous Breathing Trials (SBT, Choice of analgesia and sedation, Delirium: Assess, Prevent, and Manage, Early mobility and Exercise, and Family engagement. The purpose of this review is to describe the core features of the ABCDEF bundle.

  18. The diversion of outpatient echocardiography from private offices to higher cost hospital facilities: an unanticipated effect of code bundling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, David C; Parker, Laurence; Halpern, Ethan J; Rao, Vijay M

    2014-05-01

    In 2009, the add-on codes for spectral Doppler and color flow Doppler echocardiography were bundled into the code for primary transthoracic echocardiography. The relative value units for the new single code were substantially lower than the previous sum for the 3 codes. The purpose of this study was to see how this affected the distribution of outpatient echocardiographic studies between cardiology offices and hospital outpatient departments (HOPDs). The 2005 to 2011 Medicare databases were used. All echocardiography Current Procedural Terminology codes were selected. Specialty codes identified those done by cardiologists (who do most echocardiographic studies). Place-of-service codes identified those done in offices and HOPDs. Procedure volumes and utilization rates per 1,000 were determined each year before and after bundling occurred in 2009. Cardiologists' office echocardiography utilization rate rose from 219.5 per 1,000 in 2005 to 257.1 in 2008 (+17%), then dropped to 100.0 in 2009 (-61%) because of bundling. Their HOPD echocardiography rate rose from 72.2 in 2005 to 76.5 in 2008 (+6%), then dropped to 35.0 in 2009 (-54%). From 2009 to 2011, cardiologists' office echocardiography rate dropped again from 100.0 to 88.8 (-11%), while their HOPD rate increased from 35.0 to 46.1 (+32%). Echocardiography code bundling produced the expected sharp drop in outpatient claims from cardiologists in 2009. But after bundling, office echocardiography rates continued to drop, while HOPD rates increased. It seems that in this instance, code bundling led to the closure of many cardiology offices and a resultant shift of echocardiography from that lower cost setting to the higher cost HOPD setting. Copyright © 2014 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Bundle Branch Block

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2015. Bundle branch block Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  20. Thermodynamics of fiber bundles

    OpenAIRE

    Pride, Steven R.; Toussaint, Renaud

    2002-01-01

    A recent theory that determines the properties of disordered solids as the solid accumulates damage is applied to the special case of fiber bundles with global load sharing and is shown to be exact in this case. The theory postulates that the probability of observing a given emergent damage state is obtained by maximizing the emergent entropy as defined by Shannon subject to energetic constraints. This theory yields the known exact results for the fiber-bundle model with global load sharing a...

  1. Cotton fiber properties: relative humidity and its effect on flat bundle strength, elongation, and fracture morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is well known that cotton fibers readily exchange moisture content with their surrounding atmosphere. As moisture exchange progresses, several physical properties of the fiber are significantly affected. In this study, the effects of relative humidity (RH), a factor that affects the atmospheric m...

  2. Thermal-Hydraulic Effect of Pattern of Wire-wrap Spacer in 19-pin Rod Bundle for SFR Fuel Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Yeong Shin; Bang, In Cheol [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Seong Dae [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    As sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) has been considered the most promising reactor type for future and prototype gen-IV SFR has been developed actively in Korea, thermal-hydraulic aspects of the SFR fuel assembly have the important role for the reactor safety analysis. In PGSFR fuel assembly, 271 pins of fuel rods are tightly packed in triangular array inside hexagonal duct, and wire is wound helically per each fuel rod with regular pattern to assure the gap between rods and prevent the collision, which is called wire-wrapped spacer. Due to helical shape of the wire-wrapped spacer, flow inside duct can have stronger turbulent characteristics and thermal mixing effect. However, many studies showed the possible wake from swirl flow inside subchannel, which cause local hot spot. To prevent the wake flow and improve thermal mixing, new pattern of wire wrap spacer was suggested. To evaluate the effect of wire wrap spacer pattern, CFD analysis was performed for 19-pin rod bundle with comparison of conventional and U-pattern wire wrap spacer. To prevent the wake due to same direction of swirl flow, 7-rod unit pattern of wire spacer, which are arranged to have different rotational direction of wire with adjacent rods and center rod without wire wrap was proposed. From simulation results, swirl flow across gap conflicts its rotation direction causing wake flow from the regular pattern of the conventional one, which generates local hot spot near cladding. With U-pattern of wire wrap spacer, heat transfer in subchannel can be enhanced with evenly distributed cross flow without compensating pressure loss. From the results, the pattern of wire wrap spacer can influence the both heat transfer characteristics and pressure drop, with flow structures generated by wire wrap spacer.

  3. Antidepressant-like Effects of Medial Forebrain Bundle Deep Brain Stimulation in Rats are not Associated With Accumbens Dopamine Release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bregman, Tatiana; Reznikov, Roman; Diwan, Mustansir; Raymond, Roger; Butson, Christopher R; Nobrega, José N; Hamani, Clement

    2015-01-01

    Medial forebrain bundle (MFB) deep brain stimulation (DBS) is currently being investigated in patients with treatment-resistant depression. Striking features of this therapy are the large number of patients who respond to treatment and the rapid nature of the antidepressant response. To study antidepressant-like behavioral responses, changes in regional brain activity, and monoamine release in rats receiving MFB DBS. Antidepressant-like effects of MFB stimulation at 100 μA, 90 μs and either 130 Hz or 20 Hz were characterized in the forced swim test (FST). Changes in the expression of the immediate early gene (IEG) zif268 were measured with in situ hybridization and used as an index of regional brain activity. Microdialysis was used to measure DBS-induced dopamine and serotonin release in the nucleus accumbens. Stimulation at parameters that approximated those used in clinical practice, but not at lower frequencies, induced a significant antidepressant-like response in the FST. In animals receiving MFB DBS at high frequency, increases in zif268 expression were observed in the piriform cortex, prelimbic cortex, nucleus accumbens shell, anterior regions of the caudate/putamen and the ventral tegmental area. These structures are involved in the neurocircuitry of reward and are also connected to other brain areas via the MFB. At settings used during behavioral tests, stimulation did not induce either dopamine or serotonin release in the nucleus accumbens. These results suggest that MFB DBS induces an antidepressant-like effect in rats and recruits structures involved in the neurocircuitry of reward without affecting dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Double-bundle revision anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction is effective in rescuing failed primary reconstruction and re-introducing patients to physical exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Changqing; Chen, Guofei; Chen, Peng; Li, Wei; Zhang, Honglei; Zhang, Wentao

    2018-02-01

    The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is one of a pair of cruciate ligaments in the human knee and is critical for knee stability, as it limits anterior tibial translation on the femur, restrains rotation and resists varus and valgus joint forces. The present study aimed to assess the effect of double-bundle revision anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction in improving the subjective and objective functions and re-introducing patients to physical activity after primary ACL reconstruction had failed. A total of 34 patients who underwent double-bundle ACL revision surgeries were included in the present retrospective study. Lysholm, Tegner and IKDC scores as well as KT-2000 arthrometry measures were obtained pre- and post-operatively. The follow-up time was at least 2 years. The results indicated that the IKDC, Lysholm and Tegner scores as well as KT-2000 flexion scores were significantly improved after revision ACL reconstruction. All patients resumed to performing physical exercise activities after revision surgeries, 65% of whom reached pre-injury levels. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that double-bundle revision ACL reconstruction was consistently effective in rescuing failed primary ACL reconstruction and re-introducing patients to physical exercise.

  5. Double-bundle revision anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction is effective in rescuing failed primary reconstruction and re-introducing patients to physical exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Changqing; Chen, Guofei; Chen, Peng; Li, Wei; Zhang, Honglei; Zhang, Wentao

    2018-01-01

    The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is one of a pair of cruciate ligaments in the human knee and is critical for knee stability, as it limits anterior tibial translation on the femur, restrains rotation and resists varus and valgus joint forces. The present study aimed to assess the effect of double-bundle revision anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction in improving the subjective and objective functions and re-introducing patients to physical activity after primary ACL reconstruction had failed. A total of 34 patients who underwent double-bundle ACL revision surgeries were included in the present retrospective study. Lysholm, Tegner and IKDC scores as well as KT-2000 arthrometry measures were obtained pre- and post-operatively. The follow-up time was at least 2 years. The results indicated that the IKDC, Lysholm and Tegner scores as well as KT-2000 flexion scores were significantly improved after revision ACL reconstruction. All patients resumed to performing physical exercise activities after revision surgeries, 65% of whom reached pre-injury levels. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that double-bundle revision ACL reconstruction was consistently effective in rescuing failed primary ACL reconstruction and re-introducing patients to physical exercise. PMID:29434808

  6. Effects of Remnant Tissue Preservation on Clinical and Arthroscopic Results After Anatomic Double-Bundle Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Eiji; Yasuda, Kazunori; Onodera, Jun; Kawaguchi, Yasuyuki; Kitamura, Nobuto

    2015-08-01

    Clinical utility of remnant tissue preservation after single-bundle anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction has not been established. In addition, no studies have evaluated the clinical utility of remnant preservation after anatomic double-bundle ACL reconstruction. The study hypotheses were as follows: (1) Subjective and functional clinical results may be comparable between anatomic double-bundle reconstructions that preserve the remnant tissue and those that resect the remnant tissue, (2) postoperative knee stability and the second-look arthroscopic evaluation may be significantly more favorable with the remnant-preserving reconstruction, and (3) the degree of the initial graft coverage may significantly affect postoperative knee stability. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. A total of 179 patients underwent anatomic double-bundle ACL reconstruction. Based on the Crain classification of ACL remnant tissue, 81 patients underwent the remnant-preserving procedure (group P) and the remaining 98 patients underwent the remnant-resecting procedure (group R). There were no differences between the 2 groups concerning all background factors, including preoperative knee instability and intraoperative tunnel positions. The patients were followed for 2 years or more. The subjective and functional clinical results were comparable between the 2 reconstruction procedures. Side-to-side anterior laxity was significantly less (P = .0277) in group P (0.9 mm) than in group R (1.5 mm). The pivot-shift test was negative in 89% of group P and 78% of group R patients; the result for group R was significantly lower (P = .0460). In the arthroscopic observations, results for group P were significantly better than for group R concerning postoperative laceration and fibrous tissue coverage of the grafts (P = .0479). Remnant preservation in anatomic double-bundle ACL reconstruction did not significantly improve subjective and functional results in the short-term evaluation, but it

  7. Evaluation of the Effect of Tube Pitch and Surface Alterations on Temperature Field at Sprinkled Tube Bundle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kracík Petr

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Water flowing on a sprinkled tube bundle forms three basic modes: It is the Droplet mode (liquid drips from one tube to another, the Jet mode (with an increasing flow rate droplets merge into a column and the Membrane (Sheet mode (with further increasing of falling film liquid flow rate columns merge and create sheets between the tubes. With sufficient flow rate sheets merge at this state and the tube bundle is completely covered by a thin liquid film. There are several factors influencing the individual mode types as well as heat transfer. Beside the above mentioned falling film liquid flow rate they are for instance tube diameters, tube pitches in a tube bundle or a physical condition of a falling film liquid. This paper presents a summary of data measured at atmospheric pressure at a tube bundle consisting of copper tubes of 12 milimeters diameter and of the studied tube length one meter. The tubes are positioned horizontally one above another with the tested pitches of 15, 20, 25 and 30 mm and there is a distribution tube placed above them with water flowing out. The thermal gradient of 15–40 has been tested with all pitches where the falling film liquid’s temperature at the inlet of the distribution tube was 15 °C. The liquid was heated during the flow through the exchanger and the temperature of the sprinkled (heater liquid at the inlet of the exchanger with a constant flow rate about 7.2 litres per minute was 40 °C. The tested flow of the falling film liquid ranged from 1.0 to 13.0 litres per minute. Sequences of 180 exposures have been recorded in partial flow rate stages by thermographic camera with record frequency of 30 Hz which were consequently assessed using the Matlab programme. This paper presents results achieved at the above mentioned pitches and at three types of tube bundle surfaces.

  8. Hemp fibres: Enzymatic effect of microbial processing on fibre bundle structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Anders; Liu, Ming; Meyer, Anne S.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of microbial pretreatment on hemp fibres were evaluated after microbial retting using the white rot fungi Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and Phlebia radiata Cel 26 and water retting. Based on chemical composition, P. radiata Cel 26 showed the highest selectivity for pectin and lignin...... degradation and lowest cellulose loss (14%) resulting in the highest cellulose content (78.4%) for the treated hemp fibres. The pectin and lignin removal after treatment with P. radiata Cel 26 were of the order 82% and 50%, respectively. Aligned epoxy-matrix composites were made from hemp fibres defibrated...... hemp fibres were badly impregnated due to porosity caused by surface impurities such as epidermis and other pectin rich plant cells. The pectin and lignin mainly located in the outer part of the fibres were assumed to be extracted and degraded by pectinase and peroxidase enzymes produced by the fungi....

  9. Effect of bundle size on cladding deformation in LOCA simulation tests. [PWR; BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, R.H.; Crowley, J.L.; Longest, A.W.

    1982-01-01

    Two LOCA simulation tests were conducted to investigate the effects of temperature uniformity and radial restraint boundary conditions on Zircaloy cladding deformation. In one of the tests (B-5), boundary conditions typical of a large array were imposed on an inner 4 x 4 square array by two concentric rings of interacting guard fuel pin simulators. In the other test (B-3), the boundary conditions were imposed on a 4 x 4 square array by a non-interacting heated shroud. Test parameters conducive to large deformation were selected in order to favor rod-to-rod interactions. The tests showed that rod-to-rod interactions play an important role in the deformation process.

  10. Effect of tunnel position for anatomic single-bundle ACL reconstruction on knee biomechanics in a porcine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Yuki; Ingham, Sheila J M; Kramer, Scott; Smolinski, Patrick; Saito, Akiyoshi; Fu, Freddie H

    2010-01-01

    Attention has been focused on the importance of anatomical tunnel placement in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of different tunnel positions for single-bundle (SB) ACL reconstruction on knee kinematics. Ten porcine knees were used for the following reconstruction techniques: three different anatomic SB [AM-AM (antero-medial), PL-PL (postero-lateral), and MID-MID] (n = 5 for each group), conventional SB (PL-high AM) (n = 5), and anatomic double-bundle (DB) (n = 5). Using a robotic/universal force-moment sensor testing system, an 89 N anterior load (simulated KT1000 test) at 30, 60, and 90 degrees of knee flexion and a combined internal rotation (4 N m) and valgus (7 N m) moment (simulated pivot-shift test) at 30 and 60 degrees were applied. Anterior tibial translation (ATT) (mm) and in situ forces (N) of reconstructed grafts were calculated. During simulated KT1000 test at 60 degrees of knee flexion, the PL-PL had significantly lower in situ force than the intact ACL (P < 0.01). In situ force of the MID-MID was higher than other SB reconstructions (at 30 degrees : 94.8 +/- 2.5 N; at 60 degrees : 85.2 +/- 5.3 N; and 90 degrees: 66.0 +/- 8.7 N). At 30 degrees of knee flexion, the PL-high AM had the lowest in situ values (67.1 +/- 19.3 N). At 60 and 90 degrees of knee flexion the PL-PL had the lowest in situ values (at 60 degrees : 60.8 +/- 19.9 N; 90 degrees : 38.4 +/- 19.2 N). The MID-MID and DB had no significant in situ force differences at 30 and 60 degrees of knee flexion. During simulated pivot-shift test at 60 degrees of knee flexion, the PL-PL and PL-high AM reconstructions had a significant lower in situ force than the intact ACL (P < 0.01). During simulated KT1000 test at 30, 60, and 90 degrees of knee flexion, the PL-PL and PL-high AM had significantly lower ATT than the intact ACL (P < 0.01). During simulated KT1000 test at 60 and 90 degrees, the MID-MID, AM-AM, and DB had significantly

  11. Monte Carlo simulation of the effect of shape and thickness on SEM-EDS microanalysis of asbestos fibres and bundles: the case of anthophyllite, tremolite and actinolite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdrè, G.; Moro, D.; Ulian, G.

    2018-01-01

    Asbestos is a generic term used for six types of silicate minerals that are found in fibres or bundles of fibres, which can be easily cleaved into thinner ones. Scanning electron microscopy energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM-EDS) quantitative microanalysis of asbestos mineral fibres still represents a complex analytical issue because of the variable fibre shape and small thickness (asbestos. Realistic experimental conditions, such as sample geometry, SEM set-up and detector physics were taken into account. We report the results obtained on 100 μm long fibres and bundles of circular and square section and thicknesses from to 0.1 μm to 10 μm, for electron beam energies of 5, 15 and 25 keV. A strong influence of the asbestos mineral fibres and bundles shape and thickness on the detected EDS X-ray intensity was observed. In general, the X-ray intensities as a function of fibre thickness showed a considerable reduction below about 0.5 μm at 5 keV, 2 μm at 15 keV, and 5 μm at 25 keV for all the elements and minerals, with a non-linear dependence. Correction parameters, k-ratio, for the thickness effect were calculated and proposed.

  12. The effect of element bow on dryout power and post-dryout heat transfer in CANDU fuel bundles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutradhar, S.C.; Schenk, J.R. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    1997-07-01

    Dryout and post-dryout tests were performed in a modified 37-element simulated CANDU fuel bundle, with one outer element of the last bundle bowed at gradual but controlled steps toward the pressure-tube wall. The dryout power decreased moderately as the gap size was reduced from nominal to about 40%. For smaller-than-40%-gap sizes, however, the dryout power increased in most cases; this resulted in almost equal dryout powers at the nominal and zero gap sizes. The maximum surface temperature of the bowed element at up to 20% overpower increased with decreasing gap sizes; however, for gap sizes smaller than 35% of the nominal gap, the surface temperature fluctuated moderately. (author)

  13. Right bundle branch block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bussink, Barbara E; Holst, Anders Gaarsdal; Jespersen, Lasse

    2013-01-01

    AimsTo determine the prevalence, predictors of newly acquired, and the prognostic value of right bundle branch block (RBBB) and incomplete RBBB (IRBBB) on a resting 12-lead electrocardiogram in men and women from the general population.Methods and resultsWe followed 18 441 participants included.......5%/2.3% in women, P Right bundle branch block was associated with significantly...... increased all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in both genders with age-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) of 1.31 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.11-1.54] and 1.87 (95% CI, 1.48-2.36) in the gender pooled analysis with little attenuation after multiple adjustment. Right bundle branch block was associated...

  14. Bundles of Banach algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. W. Kitchen

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available We study bundles of Banach algebras π:A→X, where each fiber Ax=π−1({x} is a Banach algebra and X is a compact Hausdorff space. In the case where all fibers are commutative, we investigate how the Gelfand representation of the section space algebra Γ(π relates to the Gelfand representation of the fibers. In the general case, we investigate how adjoining an identity to the bundle π:A→X relates to the standard adjunction of identities to the fibers.

  15. ALUMINUM BOX BUNDLING PRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iosif DUMITRESCU

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In municipal solid waste, aluminum is the main nonferrous metal, approximately 80- 85% of the total nonferrous metals. The income per ton gained from aluminum recuperation is 20 times higher than from glass, steel boxes or paper recuperation. The object of this paper is the design of a 300 kN press for aluminum box bundling.

  16. Dynamics of flagellar bundling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Pieter; Graham, Michael

    2010-11-01

    Flagella are long thin appendages of microscopic organisms used for propulsion in low-Reynolds environments. For E. coli the flagella are driven by a molecular motor, which rotates the flagella in a counter-clockwise motion (CCM). When in a forward swimming motion, all flagella bundle up. If a motor reverses rotation direction, the flagella unbundle and the cell makes a tumbling motion. When all motors turn in the same CC direction again, the flagella bundle up, and forward swimming continues. To investigate the bundling, we consider two flexible helices next to each other, as well as several flagella attached to a spherical body. Each helix is modeled as several prolate spheroids connected at the tips by springs. For hydrodynamic interactions, we consider the flagella to made up of point forces, while the finite size of the body is incorporated via Fax'en's laws. We show that synchronization occurs quickly relative to the bundling process. For flagella next to each other, the initial deflection is generated by rotlet interactions generated by the rotating helices. At longer times, simulations show the flagella only wrap once around each other, but only for flagella that are closer than about 4 helix radii. Finally, we show a run-and-tumble motion of the body with attached flagella.

  17. Effects of Jigsaw III Technique on Achievement in Written Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Abdullah

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to compare the Jigsaw III technique (of cooperative learning) with the instructional teacher-centered teaching method in six graders in terms of the effect of written expression on their academic success. The universe of the study consists of 71 sixth-grade students studying during 2009-2010 academic term in a…

  18. Effect of second ligand on the luminescence of Samarium (III ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Effect of second ligand on the luminescence of Samarium (III) dibenzoylmethane complexes: Syntheses, crystal structures, thermal analysis and luminescence study. MUHAMMAD IDIRIS SALEH, MIN YEE CHOO, TAI WEI CHAN and MOHD R RAZALI. ∗. School of Chemical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, ...

  19. Effect of second ligand on the luminescence of Samarium (III ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 127; Issue 12. Effect of second ligand on the luminescence of Samarium (III) dibenzoylmethane complexes: ... Muhammad Idiris Saleh1 Min Yee Choo1 Tai Wei Chan1 Mohd R Razali1. School of Chemical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia ...

  20. Bundle pricing with comparable items

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grigoriev, Alexander; van Loon, Joyce; Sviridenko, Maxim; Uetz, Marc Jochen; Vredeveld, Tjark; Arge, L.; Hoffmann, M.; Welzl, E.

    2007-01-01

    We consider a revenue maximization problem where we are selling a set of items, each available in a certain quantity, to a set of bidders. Each bidder is interested in one or several bundles of items. We assume the bidders’ valuations for each of these bundles to be known. Whenever bundle prices are

  1. Bundling ecosystem services in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turner, Katrine Grace; Odgaard, Mette Vestergaard; Bøcher, Peder Klith

    2014-01-01

    to form synergies. We identified six distinct ecosystem service bundle types, indicating multiple interactions at a landscape level. The bundle types showed specialized areas of agricultural production, high provision of cultural services at the coasts, multifunctional mixed-use bundle types around urban...

  2. Helices and vector bundles

    CERN Document Server

    Rudakov, A N

    1990-01-01

    This volume is devoted to the use of helices as a method for studying exceptional vector bundles, an important and natural concept in algebraic geometry. The work arises out of a series of seminars organised in Moscow by A. N. Rudakov. The first article sets up the general machinery, and later ones explore its use in various contexts. As to be expected, the approach is concrete; the theory is considered for quadrics, ruled surfaces, K3 surfaces and P3(C).

  3. Bundling harvester; Nippukorjausharvesteri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koponen, K. [Eko-Log Oy, Kuopio (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The staring point of the project was to design and construct, by taking the silvicultural point of view into account, a harvesting and processing system especially for energy-wood, containing manually driven bundling harvester, automatizing of the harvester, and automatized loading. The equipment forms an ideal method for entrepreneur`s-line harvesting. The target is to apply the system also for owner`s-line harvesting. The profitability of the system promotes the utilization of the system in both cases. The objectives of the project were: to construct a test equipment and prototypes for all the project stages, to carry out terrain and strain tests in order to examine the usability and durability, as well as the capacity of the machine, to test the applicability of the Eko-Log system in simultaneous harvesting of energy and pulp woods, and to start the marketing and manufacturing of the products. The basic problems of the construction of the bundling harvester have been solved using terrain-tests. The prototype machine has been shown to be operable. Loading of the bundles to form sufficiently economically transportable loads has been studied, and simultaneously, the branch-biomass has been tried to be utilized without loosing the profitability of transportation. The results have been promising, and will promote the profitable utilization of wood-energy

  4. Heat Transfer Analysis in Wire Bundles for Aerospace Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickman, S. L.; Iamello, C. J.

    2016-01-01

    Design of wiring for aerospace vehicles relies on an understanding of "ampacity" which refers to the current carrying capacity of wires, either, individually or in wire bundles. Designers rely on standards to derate allowable current flow to prevent exceedance of wire temperature limits due to resistive heat dissipation within the wires or wire bundles. These standards often add considerable margin and are based on empirical data. Commercial providers are taking an aggressive approach to wire sizing which challenges the conventional wisdom of the established standards. Thermal modelling of wire bundles may offer significant mass reduction in a system if the technique can be generalized to produce reliable temperature predictions for arbitrary bundle configurations. Thermal analysis has been applied to the problem of wire bundles wherein any or all of the wires within the bundle may carry current. Wire bundles present analytical challenges because the heat transfer path from conductors internal to the bundle is tortuous, relying on internal radiation and thermal interface conductance to move the heat from within the bundle to the external jacket where it can be carried away by convective and radiative heat transfer. The problem is further complicated by the dependence of wire electrical resistivity on temperature. Reduced heat transfer out of the bundle leads to higher conductor temperatures and, hence, increased resistive heat dissipation. Development of a generalized wire bundle thermal model is presented and compared with test data. The steady state heat balance for a single wire is derived and extended to the bundle configuration. The generalized model includes the effects of temperature varying resistance, internal radiation and thermal interface conductance, external radiation and temperature varying convective relief from the free surface. The sensitivity of the response to uncertainties in key model parameters is explored using Monte Carlo analysis.

  5. Enthalpy and void distributions in subchannels of PHWR fuel bundles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J. W.; Choi, H.; Rhee, B. W. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    Two different types of the CANDU fuel bundles have been modeled for the ASSERT-IV code subchannel analysis. From calculated values of mixture enthalpy and void fraction distribution in the fuel bundles, it is found that net buoyancy effect is pronounced in the central region of the DUPIC fuel bundle when compared with the standard CANDU fuel bundle. It is also found that the central region of the DUPIC fuel bundle can be cooled more efficiently than that of the standard fuel bundle. From the calculated mixture enthalpy distribution at the exit of the fuel channel, it is found that the mixture enthalpy and void fraction can be highest in the peripheral region of the DUPIC fuel bundle. On the other hand, the enthalpy and the void fraction were found to be highest in the central region of the standard CANDU fuel bundle at the exit of the fuel channel. This study shows that the subchannel analysis is very useful in assessing thermal behavior of the fuel bundle that could be used in CANDU reactors. 10 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs. (Author)

  6. Bundled payments in orthopedic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushnell, Brandon D

    2015-02-01

    As a result of reading this article, physicians should be able to: 1. Describe the concept of bundled payments and the potential applications of bundled payments in orthopedic surgery. 2. For specific situations, outline a clinical episode of care, determine the participants in a bundling situation, and define care protocols and pathways. 3. Recognize the importance of resource utilization management, quality outcome measurement, and combined economic-clinical value in determining the value of bundled payment arrangements. 4. Identify the implications of bundled payments for practicing orthopedists, as well as the legal issues and potential future directions of this increasingly popular alternative payment method. Bundled payments, the idea of paying a single price for a bundle of goods and services, is a financial concept familiar to most American consumers because examples appear in many industries. The idea of bundled payments has recently gained significant momentum as a financial model with the potential to decrease the significant current costs of health care. Orthopedic surgery as a field of medicine is uniquely positioned for success in an environment of bundled payments. This article reviews the history, logistics, and implications of the bundled payment model relative to orthopedic surgery. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  7. Muon bundles from the Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kankiewicz P.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently the CERN ALICE experiment, in its dedicated cosmic ray run, observed muon bundles of very high multiplicities, thereby confirming similar findings from the LEP era at CERN (in the CosmoLEP project. Significant evidence for anisotropy of arrival directions of the observed high multiplicity muonic bundles is found. Estimated directionality suggests their possible extragalactic provenance. We argue that muonic bundles of highest multiplicity are produced by strangelets, hypothetical stable lumps of strange quark matter infiltrating our Universe.

  8. Monoubiquitination Inhibits the Actin Bundling Activity of Fascin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shengchen; Lu, Shuang; Mulaj, Mentor; Fang, Bin; Keeley, Tyler; Wan, Lixin; Hao, Jihui; Muschol, Martin; Sun, Jianwei; Yang, Shengyu

    2016-12-30

    Fascin is an actin bundling protein that cross-links individual actin filaments into straight, compact, and stiff bundles, which are crucial for the formation of filopodia, stereocillia, and other finger-like membrane protrusions. The dysregulation of fascin has been implicated in cancer metastasis, hearing loss, and blindness. Here we identified monoubiquitination as a novel mechanism that regulates fascin bundling activity and dynamics. The monoubiquitination sites were identified to be Lys247 and Lys250, two residues located in a positive charge patch at the actin binding site 2 of fascin. Using a chemical ubiquitination method, we synthesized chemically monoubiquitinated fascin and determined the effects of monoubiquitination on fascin bundling activity and dynamics. Our data demonstrated that monoubiquitination decreased the fascin bundling EC50, delayed the initiation of bundle assembly, and accelerated the disassembly of existing bundles. By analyzing the electrostatic properties on the solvent-accessible surface of fascin, we proposed that monoubiquitination introduced steric hindrance to interfere with the interaction between actin filaments and the positively charged patch at actin binding site 2. We also identified Smurf1 as a E3 ligase regulating the monoubiquitination of fascin. Our findings revealed a previously unidentified regulatory mechanism for fascin, which will have important implications for the understanding of actin bundle regulation under physiological and pathological conditions. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Right Bundle Branch Block-Like Pattern During Uncomplicated Right Ventricular Pacing and the Effect of Pacing Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzeis, Stylianos; Andrikopoulos, George; Weigand, Severin; Grebmer, Christian; Semmler, Verena; Brkic, Amir; Asbach, Stefan; Kloppe, Axel; Lennerz, Carsten; Bourier, Felix; Pastromas, Sokratis; Kolb, Christof

    2016-03-15

    Right bundle branch block (RBBB) configuration is an unexpected finding during right ventricular (RV) pacing that raises the suspicion of inadvertent left ventricular lead positioning. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of paced RBBB pattern in relation to RV lead location. This is a secondary analysis of a prospective, multicenter study, which randomized implantable cardioverter defibrillator recipients to an apical versus midseptal defibrillator lead positioning. A 12-lead electrocardiogram was recorded during intrinsic rhythm and RV pacing. Paced RBBB-like pattern was defined as positive (>0.05 mV) net amplitude of QRS complex in leads V1 and/or V2. In total, 226 patients (65.6 ± 12.0 years, 20.8% women, 53.1% apical site) were included in the study. The prevalence of paced RBBB pattern in the total population was 15.5%. A significantly lower percentage of patients in the midseptal group demonstrated RBBB-type configuration during RV pacing compared with the apical group (1.9% vs 27.5%, p <0.001). Baseline RBBB, prolonged QRS duration during intrinsic rhythm, and reduced ejection fraction were not associated with increased likelihood of paced RBBB. In the subgroup of patients with RBBB type during pacing, 91.4% of patients had a paced QRS axis from -30° to -90°, whereas 100% of patients displayed a negative QRS vector at lead V3. In conclusion, RBBB configuration is encountered in a considerable percentage of device recipients during uncomplicated RV pacing. Midseptal lead positioning is associated with significantly lower likelihood of paced RBBB pattern compared with apical location. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Does surgically induced right bundle branch block really effect ventricular function in children after ventricular septal defect closure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadeniz, Cem; Atalay, Semra; Demir, Fikri; Tutar, Ercan; Ciftci, Omer; Ucar, Tayfun; Uysalel, Adnan; Eyileten, Zeynep

    2015-03-01

    In this prospective study, we aimed to assess left and right ventricular function in terms of the presence of right bundle branch block (RBBB) in the cases with repaired ventricular septal defect (VSD). Fifty-three patients who had VSD surgery at least 1-year preceding admission and 52 healthy controls were enrolled into the study. All the participants underwent electrocardiographic and echocardiographic examination. The cases with RBBB were determined. The conventional and tissue Doppler echocardiographic measurements of the patients with and without RBBB were compared with each other and healthy controls. Twenty-eight of VSD repair groups were male and 25 were female. Control group consisted of 30 males and 22 females. The mean age of the study and control groups was 7.5 ± 5.0 and 6.9 ± 4.3 years, respectively. RBBB was detected in 20 of 53 (37.7 %) operated patients. The only significant difference between the cases with and without RBBB was decreased right ventricular fractional area change (%) in the former group (33 ± 7 vs. 39 ± 5 p < 0.05). When compared to controls, operated group had statistically lower [corrected] tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (p < 0.05), lower systolic, early diastolic, and late diastolic myocardial velocities, higher left and right ventricular myocardial performance indices, irrespective of the presence of RBBB. The ratios of mitral or tricuspid inflow to left or right ventricular myocardial in early diastolic velocities measured from lateral annular levels were increased in operated group (all p values <0.05). In conclusion, RBBB in the cases with surgical VSD repair might be associated with right ventricular dysfunction. Biventricular systolic and diastolic dysfunction may develop following VSD repair irrespective of the presence of RBBB. Tissue Doppler-derived myocardial performance indices are useful in detection of those subclinical dysfunctions.

  11. Bundle Formation in Biomimetic Hydrogels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaspers, Maarten; Pape, A C H; Voets, Ilja K; Rowan, Alan E; Portale, Giuseppe; Kouwer, Paul H J

    2016-01-01

    Bundling of single polymer chains is a crucial process in the formation of biopolymer network gels that make up the extracellular matrix and the cytoskeleton. This bundled architecture leads to gels with distinctive properties, including a large-pore-size gel formation at very low concentrations and

  12. Bundle Security Protocol for ION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burleigh, Scott C.; Birrane, Edward J.; Krupiarz, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    This software implements bundle authentication, conforming to the Delay-Tolerant Networking (DTN) Internet Draft on Bundle Security Protocol (BSP), for the Interplanetary Overlay Network (ION) implementation of DTN. This is the only implementation of BSP that is integrated with ION.

  13. Effect of hydrogel particle additives on water-accessible pore structure of sandy soils: a custom pressure plate apparatus and capillary bundle model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Y; Durian, D J

    2013-05-01

    To probe the effects of hydrogel particle additives on the water-accessible pore structure of sandy soils, we introduce a custom pressure plate method in which the volume of water expelled from a wet granular packing is measured as a function of applied pressure. Using a capillary bundle model, we show that the differential change in retained water per pressure increment is directly related to the cumulative cross-sectional area distribution f(r) of the water-accessible pores with radii less than r. This is validated by measurements of water expelled from a model sandy soil composed of 2-mm-diameter glass beads. In particular, it is found that the expelled water is dramatically dependent on sample height and that analysis using the capillary bundle model gives the same pore size distribution for all samples. The distribution is found to be approximately log normal, and the total cross-sectional area fraction of the accessible pore space is found to be f(0)=0.34. We then report on how the pore distribution and total water-accessible area fraction are affected by superabsorbent hydrogel particle additives, uniformly mixed into a fixed-height sample at varying concentrations. Under both fixed volume and free swelling conditions, the total area fraction of water-accessible pore space in a packing decreases exponentially as the gel concentration increases. The size distribution of the pores is significantly modified by the swollen hydrogel particles, such that large pores are clogged while small pores are formed.

  14. Fiber bundle phase conjugate mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Benjamin G.

    2012-05-01

    An improved method and apparatus for passively conjugating the phases of a distorted wavefronts resulting from optical phase mismatch between elements of a fiber laser array are disclosed. A method for passively conjugating a distorted wavefront comprises the steps of: multiplexing a plurality of probe fibers and a bundle pump fiber in a fiber bundle array; passing the multiplexed output from the fiber bundle array through a collimating lens and into one portion of a non-linear medium; passing the output from a pump collection fiber through a focusing lens and into another portion of the non-linear medium so that the output from the pump collection fiber mixes with the multiplexed output from the fiber bundle; adjusting one or more degrees of freedom of one or more of the fiber bundle array, the collimating lens, the focusing lens, the non-linear medium, or the pump collection fiber to produce a standing wave in the non-linear medium.

  15. Templated growth of PFO-DBT nanorod bundles by spin coating: effect of spin coating rate on the morphological, structural, and optical properties

    OpenAIRE

    Fakir, Muhamad Saipul; Supangat, Azzuliani; Sulaiman, Khaulah

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the spin coating of template-assisted method is used to synthesize poly[2,7-(9,9-dioctylfluorene)-alt-4,7-bis(thiophen-2-yl)benzo-2,1,3-thiadiazole] (PFO-DBT) nanorod bundles. The morphological, structural, and optical properties of PFO-DBT nanorod bundles are enhanced by varying the spin coating rate (100, 500, and 1,000 rpm) of the common spin coater. The denser morphological distributions of PFO-DBT nanorod bundles are favorably yielded at the low spin coating rate of 100 rp...

  16. Effects of energy delivery via a His bundle catheter during closed chest ablation of the atrioventricular conduction system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trantham, J L; Gallagher, J J; German, L D; Broughton, A; Guarnieri, T; Kasell, J

    1983-11-01

    In this paper we summarize our experience and report the characteristics of energy delivery in 23 patients who have undergone closed chest ablation of the normal atrioventricular (AV) conduction system for the treatment of refractory supraventricular arrhythmias. The induction of AV block was achieved by the synchronous delivery of electrical energy with a damped sinusoidal waveform utilizing a standard direct current defibrillator and a standard tripolar His bundle catheter. The procedure was well tolerated, though one patient experienced ventricular fibrillation, which was uneventfully converted with external paddles. Complete AV block was achieved in 20 of 23 patients and all were rendered arrhythmia free, though two still required antiarrhythmic drugs. A stable escape rhythm was seen in all patients with a cycle length of 1,294 +/- 243 ms. Creatine phosphokinase-MB was positive at low levels in 19 of 23 patients and cleared within 24 h. 99mTc pyrophosphate scans were faintly positive in only 2 of 22 patients. Left ventricular wall motion and ejection fractions were unchanged in 19 of 19 patients, two-dimensional echocardiography with microcavitation technique was unchanged in 12 of 12 patients, and a slight increase in pulmonary artery wedge pressure was seen in only 1 of 11 patients. Current, voltage, and their product (power) waveforms were recorded in 12 patients (12 recordings at a defibrillator setting of 200 J and 5 recordings at a defibrillator setting of 300 J) and revealed a complex voltage-current relationship due to changes occurring at the catheter electrode-tissue interface. At 200 J the peak values were 42.2 +/- 3.3 A, 2.16 +/- 0.11 kV, and 87.9 +/- 4.7 kW, while at 300 J the peak values were 58.2 +/- 2.8 A, 2.40 +/- 0.10 kV, and 134.4 +/- 6.7 kW, respectively. No instance of catheter disruption was seen, though "pitting" of the distal electrode (through which current passed) occurred in all but one catheter.

  17. Templated growth of PFO-DBT nanorod bundles by spin coating: effect of spin coating rate on the morphological, structural, and optical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakir, Muhamad Saipul; Supangat, Azzuliani; Sulaiman, Khaulah

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the spin coating of template-assisted method is used to synthesize poly[2,7-(9,9-dioctylfluorene)-alt-4,7-bis(thiophen-2-yl)benzo-2,1,3-thiadiazole] (PFO-DBT) nanorod bundles. The morphological, structural, and optical properties of PFO-DBT nanorod bundles are enhanced by varying the spin coating rate (100, 500, and 1,000 rpm) of the common spin coater. The denser morphological distributions of PFO-DBT nanorod bundles are favorably yielded at the low spin coating rate of 100 rpm, while at high spin coating rate, it is shown otherwise. The auspicious morphologies of highly dense PFO-DBT nanorod bundles are supported by the augmented absorption and photoluminescence.

  18. Semiflexible Biopolymers in Bundled Arrangements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Schnauß

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Bundles and networks of semiflexible biopolymers are key elements in cells, lending them mechanical integrity while also enabling dynamic functions. Networks have been the subject of many studies, revealing a variety of fundamental characteristics often determined via bulk measurements. Although bundles are equally important in biological systems, they have garnered much less scientific attention since they have to be probed on the mesoscopic scale. Here, we review theoretical as well as experimental approaches, which mainly employ the naturally occurring biopolymer actin, to highlight the principles behind these structures on the single bundle level.

  19. Prevalence of type III secretion system in effective biocontrol pseudomonads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almario, Juliana; Gobbin, Davide; Défago, Geneviève; Moënne-Loccoz, Yvan; Rezzonico, Fabio

    2014-05-01

    Functional type III secretion system (T3SS) genes are needed for effective biocontrol of Pythium damping-off of cucumber by Pseudomonas fluorescens KD, but whether biocontrol Pseudomonas strains with T3SS genes display overall a higher plant-protecting activity is unknown. The assessment of 198 biocontrol fluorescent pseudomonads originating from 60 soils worldwide indicated that 32% harbour the ATPase-encoding T3SS gene hrcN, which was most often found in tomato isolates. The hrcN(+) biocontrol strains (and especially those also producing 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol and displaying 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase activity) displayed higher plant-protecting ability in comparison with hrcN(-) biocontrol strains, both in the Pythium/cucumber and Fusarium/cucumber pathosystems. Copyright © 2014 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Solvation of CO2 in water: effect of RuBP on CO2 concentration in bundle sheath of C4 plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadhukhan, Tumpa; Latif, Iqbal A; Datta, Sambhu N

    2014-07-24

    An understanding of the temperature-dependence of solubility of carbon dioxide (CO2) in water is important for many industrial processes. Voluminous work has been done by both quantum chemical methods and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations on the interaction between CO2 and water, but a quantitative evaluation of solubility remains elusive. In this work, we have approached the problem by considering quantum chemically calculated total energies and thermal energies, and incorporating the effects of mixing, hydrogen bonding, and phonon modes. An overall equation relating the calculated free energy and entropy of mixing with the gas-solution equilibrium constant has been derived. This equation has been iteratively solved to obtain the solubility as functions of temperature and dielectric constant. The calculated solubility versus temperature plot excellently matches the observed plot. Solubility has been shown to increase with dielectric constant, for example, by addition of electrolytes. We have also found that at the experimentally reported concentration of enzyme RuBP in bundle sheath cells of chloroplast in C4 green plants, the concentration of CO2 can effectively increase by as much as a factor of 7.1-38.5. This stands in agreement with the observed effective rise in concentration by as much as 10 times.

  1. Aerosol retention in the flooded steam generator bundle during SGTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lind, Terttaliisa, E-mail: terttaliisa.lind@psi.c [Paul Scherrer Institut, Department of Nuclear Energy and Safety, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Dehbi, Abdel; Guentay, Salih [Paul Scherrer Institut, Department of Nuclear Energy and Safety, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland)

    2011-01-15

    Research highlights: High retention of aerosol particles in a steam generator bundle flooded with water. Increasing particle inertia, i.e., particle size and velocity, increases retention. Much higher retention of aerosol particles in the steam generator bundle flooded with water than in a dry bundle. Much higher retention of aerosol particles in the steam generator bundle than in a bare pool. Bare pool models have to be adapted to be applicable for flooded bundles. - Abstract: A steam generator tube rupture in a pressurized water reactor may cause accidental release of radioactive particles into the environment. Its specific significance is in its potential to bypass the containment thereby providing a direct pathway of the radioactivity from the primary circuit to the environment. Under certain severe accident scenarios, the steam generator bundle may be flooded with water. In addition, some severe accident management procedures are designed to minimize the release of radioactivity into the environment by flooding the defective steam generator secondary side with water when the steam generator has dried out. To extend our understanding of the particle retention phenomena in the flooded steam generator bundle, tests were conducted in the ARTIST and ARTIST II programs to determine the effect of different parameters on particle retention. The effects of particle type (spherical or agglomerate), particle size, gas mass flow rate, and the break submergence on particle retention were investigated. Results can be summarized as follows: increasing particle inertia was found to increase retention in the flooded bundle. Particle shape, i.e., agglomerate or spherical structure, did not affect retention significantly. Even with a very low submergence, 0.3 m above the tube break, significant aerosol retention took place underlining the importance of the jet-bundle interactions close to the tube break. Droplets were entrained from the water surface with high gas flow rates

  2. Introductory lectures on fibre bundles and topology for physicists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, G.H.

    1978-05-01

    These lectures may provide useful background material for understanding gauge theories, particularly the nonperturbative effects such as instantons and monopoles. The mathematical language of topology and fibre bundles is introduced.

  3. MAVEN EUV Modelled Data Bundle

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This bundle contains solar irradiance spectra in 1-nm bins from 0-190 nm. The spectra are generated based upon the Flare Irradiance Spectra Model - Mars (FISM-M)...

  4. Left bundle-branch block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risum, Niels; Strauss, David; Sogaard, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between myocardial electrical activation by electrocardiogram (ECG) and mechanical contraction by echocardiography in left bundle-branch block (LBBB) has never been clearly demonstrated. New strict criteria for LBBB based on a fundamental understanding of physiology have recently...

  5. MAVEN SWEA Calibrated Data Bundle

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This bundle contains fully calibrated electron energy/angle (3D) distributions, pitch angle distributions, and omni-directional energy spectra. Tables of sensitivity...

  6. MAVEN LPW Derived Data Bundle

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This bundle contains data which have been derived from other data products or determined by fits to other data. These are science quality data produced by the LPW...

  7. MAVEN LPW Calibrated Data Bundle

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This bundle contains fully calibrated, science quality data produced by the LPW instrument. The data include spacecraft potential, electric field waveforms and wave...

  8. Dark-field illuminated reflectance fiber bundle endoscopic microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuan; Huang, Yong; Kang, Jin U.

    2011-04-01

    We propose a reflectance fiber bundle microscope using a dark-field illumination configuration for applications in endoscopic medical imaging and diagnostics. Our experiment results show that dark-field illumination can effectively suppress strong specular reflection from the proximal end of the fiber bundle. We realized a lateral resolution of 4.4 μm using the dark-field illuminated fiber bundle configuration. To demonstrate the feasibility of using the system to study cell morphology, we obtained still and video images of two thyroid cancer cell lines. Our results clearly allow differentiation of different cancer cell types.

  9. Effect of tunnel placements on clinical and magnetic resonance imaging findings 2 years after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using the double-bundle technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suomalainen P

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Piia Suomalainen,1 Tommi Kiekara,2 Anna-Stina Moisala,1 Antti Paakkala,2 Pekka Kannus,3 Timo Järvelä4 1Division of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Department of Trauma, Musculoskeletal Surgery and Rehabilitation, Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, 2Medical Imaging Centre, Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, 3Injury and Osteoporosis Research Center, UKK Institute, Tampere, 4Arthroscopic and Sports Medicine Center Omasairaala, Helsinki, Finland Purpose: The purpose of the study reported here was to find out if the clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI findings of a reconstructed anterior cruciate ligament (ACL have an association. Our hypothesis, which was based on the different functions of the ACL bundles, was that the visibility of the anteromedial graft would have an impact on anteroposterior stability, and the visibility of the posterolateral graft on rotational stability of the knee. Methods: This study is a level II, prospective clinical and MRI study (NCT02000258. The study involved 75 patients. One experienced orthopedic surgeon performed all double-bundle ACL reconstructions. Two independent examiners made the clinical examinations at 2-year follow-up: clinical examination of the knee; KT-1000, International Knee Documentation Committee and Lysholm knee evaluation scores; and International Knee Documentation Committee functional score. The MRI evaluations were made by two musculoskeletal radiologists separately, and the means of these measurements were used. Results: We found that the location of the graft in the tibia had an impact on the MRI visibility of the graft at 2-year follow-up. There were significantly more partially or totally invisible grafts if the insertion of the graft was more anterior in the tibia. No association was found between the clinical results and the graft locations. Conclusion: Anterior graft location in the tibia can cause graft invisibility in the MRI 2 years after ACL reconstruction, but this

  10. Histones bundle F-actin filaments and affect actin structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blotnick, Edna; Sol, Asaf; Muhlrad, Andras

    2017-01-01

    Histones are small polycationic proteins complexed with DNA located in the cell nucleus. Upon apoptosis they are secreted from the cells and react with extracellular polyanionic compounds. Actin which is a polyanionic protein, is also secreted from necrotic cells and interacts with histones. We showed that both histone mixture (histone type III) and the recombinant H2A histone bundles F-actin, increases the viscosity of the F-actin containing solution and polymerizes G-actin. The histone-actin bundles are relatively insensitive to increase of ionic strength, unlike other polycation, histatin, lysozyme, spermine and LL-37 induced F-actin bundles. The histone-actin bundles dissociate completely only in the presence of 300-400 mM NaCl. DNA, which competes with F-actin for histones, disassembles histone induced actin bundles. DNase1, which depolymerizes F- to G-actin, actively unbundles the H2A histone induced but slightly affects the histone mixture induced actin bundles. Cofilin decreases the amount of F-actin sedimented by low speed centrifugation, increases light scattering and viscosity of F-actin-histone mixture containing solutions and forms star like superstructures by copolymerizing G-actin with H2A histone. The results indicate that histones are tightly attached to F-actin by strong electrostatic and hydrophobic forces. Since both histones and F-actin are present in the sputum of patients with cystic fibrosis, therefore, the formation of the stable histone-actin bundles can contribute to the pathology of this disease by increasing the viscosity of the sputum. The actin-histone interaction in the nucleus might affect gene expression.

  11. Histones bundle F-actin filaments and affect actin structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna Blotnick

    Full Text Available Histones are small polycationic proteins complexed with DNA located in the cell nucleus. Upon apoptosis they are secreted from the cells and react with extracellular polyanionic compounds. Actin which is a polyanionic protein, is also secreted from necrotic cells and interacts with histones. We showed that both histone mixture (histone type III and the recombinant H2A histone bundles F-actin, increases the viscosity of the F-actin containing solution and polymerizes G-actin. The histone-actin bundles are relatively insensitive to increase of ionic strength, unlike other polycation, histatin, lysozyme, spermine and LL-37 induced F-actin bundles. The histone-actin bundles dissociate completely only in the presence of 300-400 mM NaCl. DNA, which competes with F-actin for histones, disassembles histone induced actin bundles. DNase1, which depolymerizes F- to G-actin, actively unbundles the H2A histone induced but slightly affects the histone mixture induced actin bundles. Cofilin decreases the amount of F-actin sedimented by low speed centrifugation, increases light scattering and viscosity of F-actin-histone mixture containing solutions and forms star like superstructures by copolymerizing G-actin with H2A histone. The results indicate that histones are tightly attached to F-actin by strong electrostatic and hydrophobic forces. Since both histones and F-actin are present in the sputum of patients with cystic fibrosis, therefore, the formation of the stable histone-actin bundles can contribute to the pathology of this disease by increasing the viscosity of the sputum. The actin-histone interaction in the nucleus might affect gene expression.

  12. Glass composition and solution speciation effects on stage III dissolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trivelpiece, Cory L. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Rice, Jarret A. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Pantano, Carlo G. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    2017-10-03

    To understand and mitigate the onset of Stage III corrosion of multicomponent oxides waste glasses. Stage III refers to a resumption of the high initial rate of glass dissolution in some glass samples that have otherwise exhibited dissolution at the much lower residual rate for a long time (Stage II). Although the onset of Stage III is known to occur concurrently with the precipitation of particular alteration products, the root cause of the transition is still unknown. Certain glass compositions (notably AFCI) and high pH environmental conditions are also associated with this observed transition.

  13. Genotoxic effects of bismuth (III oxide nanoparticles by comet assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reecep Liman

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Bismuth oxide is one of the important transition metal oxides and it has been intensively studied due to their peculiar characteristics (semiconductor band gap, high refractive index, high dielectric permittivity, high oxygen conductivity, resistivity, photoconductivity and photoluminescence etc.. Therefore, it is used such as microelectronics, sensor technology, optical coatings, transparent ceramic glass manufacturing, nanoenergetic gas generator, biosensor for DNA hybridization, potential immobilizing platforms for glucose oxidase and polyphenol oxidase, fuel cells, a additive in paints, an astringent in a variety of medical creams and topical ointments, and for the determination of heavy metal ions in drinking water, mineral water and urine. In addition this, Bismuth (III oxide nanoparticles (BONPs are favorable for the biomolecules adsorption than regular sized particles because of their greater advantages and novel characteristics (much higher specific surface, greater surface free energy, and good electrochemical stability etc.. Genotoxic effects of BONPs were investigated on the root cells of Allium cepa by Comet assay. A. cepa roots were treated with the aqueous dispersions of BONPs at 5 different concentrations (12.5, 25, 50, 75, and 100 ppm for 4 h. A significant increase in DNA damage was also observed at all concentrations of BONPs except 12.5 ppm by Comet assay. The results were also analyzed statistically by using SPSS for Windows; Duncan’s multiple range test was performed. These result indicate that BONPs exhibit genotoxic activity in A. cepa root meristematic cells.

  14. Effect of the fuel element bundle statistical characteristics on the evaluation of temperature in the sodium-cooled fast-neutron reactor core

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.B. Tikhomirov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Different fuel element bundle models used to calculate the coolant and fuel cladding temperatures inside fuel assemblies have been analyzed as applied to sodium-cooled fast-neutron reactors. The drawbacks of the existing models have been identified. A bundle model based on an experimental study into the actual arrangement of the fuel elements within the AF shroud has been proposed. The model's capabilities and advantages, as compared to conservative models, have been shown with regard for the need to raise the reliability of the fuel cladding working temperature estimation.

  15. Effect of Population III Multiplicity on Dark Star Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacy, Athena; Pawlik, Andreas H.; Bromm, Volker; Loeb, Abraham

    2012-01-01

    We numerically study the mutual interaction between dark matter (DM) and Population III (Pop III) stellar systems in order to explore the possibility of Pop III dark stars within this physical scenario. We perform a cosmological simulation, initialized at z approx. 100, which follows the evolution of gas and DM. We analyze the formation of the first mini halo at z approx. 20 and the subsequent collapse of the gas to densities of 10(exp 12)/cu cm. We then use this simulation to initialize a set of smaller-scale 'cut-out' simulations in which we further refine the DM to have spatial resolution similar to that of the gas. We test multiple DM density profiles, and we employ the sink particle method to represent the accreting star-forming region. We find that, for a range of DM configurations, the motion of the Pop III star-disk system serves to separate the positions of the protostars with respect to the DM density peak, such that there is insufficient DM to influence the formation and evolution of the protostars for more than approx. 5000 years. In addition, the star-disk system causes gravitational scattering of the central DM to lower densities, further decreasing the influence of DM over time. Any DM-powered phase of Pop III stars will thus be very short-lived for the typical multiple system, and DM will not serve to significantly prolong the life of Pop III stars.

  16. Improved Conjugate Gradient Bundle Adjustment of Dunhuang Wall Painting Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, K.; Huang, X.; You, H.

    2017-09-01

    Bundle adjustment with additional parameters is identified as a critical step for precise orthoimage generation and 3D reconstruction of Dunhuang wall paintings. Due to the introduction of self-calibration parameters and quasi-planar constraints, the structure of coefficient matrix of the reduced normal equation is banded-bordered, making the solving process of bundle adjustment complex. In this paper, Conjugate Gradient Bundle Adjustment (CGBA) method is deduced by calculus of variations. A preconditioning method based on improved incomplete Cholesky factorization is adopt to reduce the condition number of coefficient matrix, as well as to accelerate the iteration rate of CGBA. Both theoretical analysis and experimental results comparison with conventional method indicate that, the proposed method can effectively conquer the ill-conditioned problem of normal equation and improve the calculation efficiency of bundle adjustment with additional parameters considerably, while maintaining the actual accuracy.

  17. IMPROVED CONJUGATE GRADIENT BUNDLE ADJUSTMENT OF DUNHUANG WALL PAINTING IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Hu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Bundle adjustment with additional parameters is identified as a critical step for precise orthoimage generation and 3D reconstruction of Dunhuang wall paintings. Due to the introduction of self-calibration parameters and quasi-planar constraints, the structure of coefficient matrix of the reduced normal equation is banded-bordered, making the solving process of bundle adjustment complex. In this paper, Conjugate Gradient Bundle Adjustment (CGBA method is deduced by calculus of variations. A preconditioning method based on improved incomplete Cholesky factorization is adopt to reduce the condition number of coefficient matrix, as well as to accelerate the iteration rate of CGBA. Both theoretical analysis and experimental results comparison with conventional method indicate that, the proposed method can effectively conquer the ill-conditioned problem of normal equation and improve the calculation efficiency of bundle adjustment with additional parameters considerably, while maintaining the actual accuracy.

  18. Ultrasonographic evaluation of displaced neurovascular bundle in Dupuytren disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehara, Kosuke; Miura, Toshiki; Morizaki, Yutaka; Miyamoto, Hideaki; Ohe, Takashi; Tanaka, Sakae

    2013-01-01

    Neurovascular injury is a serious complication after surgery for Dupuytren disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the cord and the neurovascular bundle ultrasonographically. We included 22 healthy volunteers and 14 Dupuytren disease patients (25 fingers) in this study. We evaluated the cord and the digital artery with high-resolution ultrasound. We first investigated the effect of the angle of metacarpophalangeal joint on the position of the radial and ulnar digital arteries in volunteers without evidence of Dupuytren disease. We compared 3 parameters of the radial and ulnar digital arteries, including differences in depth, differences in lateral shift, and the shape of the cross-section of the artery, between volunteers and patients with Dupuytren disease. None of these parameters changed with flexion of the metacarpophalangeal joint of 0°, 30°, and 60°. Digital arteries and cords could be identified ultrasonographically in all patients, and we confirmed ultrasonographic findings by operative findings in 13 fingers. We classified the fingers into 3 subgroups based on the ultrasonographic findings: type A (n = 13), in which the cord was above the artery; type B (n = 5), in which the cord was below the artery; and type C (n = 7), in which the cord was located between the radial and ulnar digital arteries. Types A, B, and C corresponded to natatory cord/abductor digiti minimi cord, spiral cord, and central cord, respectively. Comparisons among volunteers and patient subgroups showed that the difference in depth in type B patients was significantly larger than that of the other groups. When we set the cutoff point of the difference in depth to 3 mm, sensitivity and specificity to detect the spiral cord were 80% and 76%, respectively. The relationship between the neurovascular bundle and the type of Dupuytren disease cord can be evaluated by high-resolution ultrasound. Diagnostic III. Copyright © 2013 American Society for

  19. Uncovering Ecosystem Service Bundles through Social Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-López, Berta; Iniesta-Arandia, Irene; García-Llorente, Marina; Palomo, Ignacio; Casado-Arzuaga, Izaskun; Amo, David García Del; Gómez-Baggethun, Erik; Oteros-Rozas, Elisa; Palacios-Agundez, Igone; Willaarts, Bárbara; González, José A.; Santos-Martín, Fernando; Onaindia, Miren; López-Santiago, Cesar; Montes, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Ecosystem service assessments have increasingly been used to support environmental management policies, mainly based on biophysical and economic indicators. However, few studies have coped with the social-cultural dimension of ecosystem services, despite being considered a research priority. We examined how ecosystem service bundles and trade-offs emerge from diverging social preferences toward ecosystem services delivered by various types of ecosystems in Spain. We conducted 3,379 direct face-to-face questionnaires in eight different case study sites from 2007 to 2011. Overall, 90.5% of the sampled population recognized the ecosystem’s capacity to deliver services. Formal studies, environmental behavior, and gender variables influenced the probability of people recognizing the ecosystem’s capacity to provide services. The ecosystem services most frequently perceived by people were regulating services; of those, air purification held the greatest importance. However, statistical analysis showed that socio-cultural factors and the conservation management strategy of ecosystems (i.e., National Park, Natural Park, or a non-protected area) have an effect on social preferences toward ecosystem services. Ecosystem service trade-offs and bundles were identified by analyzing social preferences through multivariate analysis (redundancy analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis). We found a clear trade-off among provisioning services (and recreational hunting) versus regulating services and almost all cultural services. We identified three ecosystem service bundles associated with the conservation management strategy and the rural-urban gradient. We conclude that socio-cultural preferences toward ecosystem services can serve as a tool to identify relevant services for people, the factors underlying these social preferences, and emerging ecosystem service bundles and trade-offs. PMID:22720006

  20. Uncovering ecosystem service bundles through social preferences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berta Martín-López

    Full Text Available Ecosystem service assessments have increasingly been used to support environmental management policies, mainly based on biophysical and economic indicators. However, few studies have coped with the social-cultural dimension of ecosystem services, despite being considered a research priority. We examined how ecosystem service bundles and trade-offs emerge from diverging social preferences toward ecosystem services delivered by various types of ecosystems in Spain. We conducted 3,379 direct face-to-face questionnaires in eight different case study sites from 2007 to 2011. Overall, 90.5% of the sampled population recognized the ecosystem's capacity to deliver services. Formal studies, environmental behavior, and gender variables influenced the probability of people recognizing the ecosystem's capacity to provide services. The ecosystem services most frequently perceived by people were regulating services; of those, air purification held the greatest importance. However, statistical analysis showed that socio-cultural factors and the conservation management strategy of ecosystems (i.e., National Park, Natural Park, or a non-protected area have an effect on social preferences toward ecosystem services. Ecosystem service trade-offs and bundles were identified by analyzing social preferences through multivariate analysis (redundancy analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis. We found a clear trade-off among provisioning services (and recreational hunting versus regulating services and almost all cultural services. We identified three ecosystem service bundles associated with the conservation management strategy and the rural-urban gradient. We conclude that socio-cultural preferences toward ecosystem services can serve as a tool to identify relevant services for people, the factors underlying these social preferences, and emerging ecosystem service bundles and trade-offs.

  1. Uncovering ecosystem service bundles through social preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-López, Berta; Iniesta-Arandia, Irene; García-Llorente, Marina; Palomo, Ignacio; Casado-Arzuaga, Izaskun; Amo, David García Del; Gómez-Baggethun, Erik; Oteros-Rozas, Elisa; Palacios-Agundez, Igone; Willaarts, Bárbara; González, José A; Santos-Martín, Fernando; Onaindia, Miren; López-Santiago, Cesar; Montes, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Ecosystem service assessments have increasingly been used to support environmental management policies, mainly based on biophysical and economic indicators. However, few studies have coped with the social-cultural dimension of ecosystem services, despite being considered a research priority. We examined how ecosystem service bundles and trade-offs emerge from diverging social preferences toward ecosystem services delivered by various types of ecosystems in Spain. We conducted 3,379 direct face-to-face questionnaires in eight different case study sites from 2007 to 2011. Overall, 90.5% of the sampled population recognized the ecosystem's capacity to deliver services. Formal studies, environmental behavior, and gender variables influenced the probability of people recognizing the ecosystem's capacity to provide services. The ecosystem services most frequently perceived by people were regulating services; of those, air purification held the greatest importance. However, statistical analysis showed that socio-cultural factors and the conservation management strategy of ecosystems (i.e., National Park, Natural Park, or a non-protected area) have an effect on social preferences toward ecosystem services. Ecosystem service trade-offs and bundles were identified by analyzing social preferences through multivariate analysis (redundancy analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis). We found a clear trade-off among provisioning services (and recreational hunting) versus regulating services and almost all cultural services. We identified three ecosystem service bundles associated with the conservation management strategy and the rural-urban gradient. We conclude that socio-cultural preferences toward ecosystem services can serve as a tool to identify relevant services for people, the factors underlying these social preferences, and emerging ecosystem service bundles and trade-offs.

  2. GPU Parallel Bundle Block Adjustment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHENG Maoteng

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available To deal with massive data in photogrammetry, we introduce the GPU parallel computing technology. The preconditioned conjugate gradient and inexact Newton method are also applied to decrease the iteration times while solving the normal equation. A brand new workflow of bundle adjustment is developed to utilize GPU parallel computing technology. Our method can avoid the storage and inversion of the big normal matrix, and compute the normal matrix in real time. The proposed method can not only largely decrease the memory requirement of normal matrix, but also largely improve the efficiency of bundle adjustment. It also achieves the same accuracy as the conventional method. Preliminary experiment results show that the bundle adjustment of a dataset with about 4500 images and 9 million image points can be done in only 1.5 minutes while achieving sub-pixel accuracy.

  3. Single-bundle nanofiber based OFETs fabricated from a cyclic conjugated organogelator with high field-effect mobility and high photoresponsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Ying-Shi; Qin, Yunke; Sun, Yuanhui; Wang, Chao; Xu, Wei; Zhu, Daoben

    2015-08-07

    Single-bundle nanofiber based OFETs were fabricated from a cyclic conjugated organogelator, using a simple gelation method. The devices exhibited typical p-type semiconductor properties with dominant hole transport both in the dark and upon illumination under ambient conditions.

  4. Twist-off purification of hair bundles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jung-Bum; Pagana, James; Gillespie, Peter G

    2009-01-01

    Purification of hair bundles from inner-ear organs allows biochemical analysis of bundle constituents, including proteins and lipids. We describe here the "twist-off" method of bundle isolation, where dissected inner-ear organs are embedded in agarose, then subjected to a mechanical disruption that shears off bundles and leaves them in agarose blocks. With care in the dissection and in clean-up of the isolated bundles, contamination from cell bodies can be kept to a minimum. Isolated bundles can be analyzed by a variety of techniques, including immunocytochemistry, SDS-PAGE, immunoblotting, and mass spectrometry.

  5. Principal bundles the classical case

    CERN Document Server

    Sontz, Stephen Bruce

    2015-01-01

    This introductory graduate level text provides a relatively quick path to a special topic in classical differential geometry: principal bundles.  While the topic of principal bundles in differential geometry has become classic, even standard, material in the modern graduate mathematics curriculum, the unique approach taken in this text presents the material in a way that is intuitive for both students of mathematics and of physics. The goal of this book is to present important, modern geometric ideas in a form readily accessible to students and researchers in both the physics and mathematics communities, providing each with an understanding and appreciation of the language and ideas of the other.

  6. Effects of difructose anhydride III (DFA III) administration on bile acids and growth of DFA III-assimilating bacterium Ruminococcus productus on rat intestine.

    OpenAIRE

    Minamida, Kimiko; Kaneko, Maki; Ohashi, Midori; Sujaya I., Nengah; Sone, Teruo; Wada, Masaru; Yokota, Atsushi; Hara, Hiroshi; ASANO, Kozo; Tomita, Fusao

    2005-01-01

    The growth of DFA III-assimilating bacteria in the intestines of rats fed 3% DFA III for 2 weeks was examined. Sixty-four percent of the DFA III intake had been assimilated on day 3 of ingestion, and almost all of the DFA III was assimilated at the end of the experiment. The DFA III-assimilating bacterium, Ruminococcus productus, in DFA III-fed rats was in the stationary state of the 8th power of 10– the 9th power of 10 cells/g dry feces within a week from the 6th power of 10 cells/g dry fece...

  7. Translating Pressure Ulcer Prevention Into Intensive Care Nursing Practice: Overlaying a Care Bundle Approach With a Model for Research Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayyib, Nahla; Coyer, Fiona

    This article reports on the development and implementation process used to integrate a care bundle approach (a pressure ulcer [PU] prevention bundle to improve patients' skin integrity in intensive care) and the Ottawa Model of Research Use (OMRU). The PU prevention care bundle demonstrated significant reduction in PU incidence, with the OMRU model providing a consolidated framework for the implementation of bundled evidence in an effective and consistent manner into daily clinical nursing practice.

  8. Effects of difructose anhydride III (DFA III) administration on bile acids and growth of DFA III-assimilating bacterium Ruminococcus productus on rat intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamida, Kimiko; Kaneko, Maki; Ohashi, Midori; Sujaya, I Nengah; Sone, Teruo; Wada, Masaru; Yokota, Atsushi; Hara, Hiroshi; Asano, Kozo; Tomita, Fusao

    2005-06-01

    The growth of DFA III-assimilating bacteria in the intestines of rats fed 3% DFA III for 2 weeks was examined. Sixty-four percent of the DFA III intake had been assimilated on day 3 of ingestion, and almost all of the DFA III was assimilated at the end of the experiment. The DFA III-assimilating bacterium, Ruminococcus productus, in DFA III-fed rats was in the stationary state of 10(8)-10(9) cells/g dry feces within a week from 10(6) cells/g dry feces on day 1 of DFA III ingestion. The number of R. productus cells was associated with the amount of DFA III excreted in the feces. The acetic acid produced from DFA III by R. productus lowered the cecal pH to 5.8. In control-fed rats and DFA III-fed rats, 94% of secondary bile acids and 94% of primary bile acids, respectively, were accounted for in the total bile acids analyzed. DFA III ingestion increased the ratio of primary bile acids and changed the composition of fecal bile acids. In conclusion, R. productus assimilated DFA III, produced short chain fatty acids, and the cecal pH was lowered. The acidification of rat intestine perhaps inhibited secondary bile acid formation and decreased the ratio of secondary bile acids. Therefore, it is expected that DFA III may prevent colorectal cancer and be a new prebiotic candidate.

  9. ADE bundles over surfaces with ADE singularities

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yunxia; Leung, Naichung Conan

    2012-01-01

    Given a complex projective surface with an ADE singularity and p_{g}=0, we construct ADE bundles over it and its minimal resolution. Furthermore, we descibe their minuscule representation bundles in terms of configurations of (reducible) (-1)-curves.

  10. PDS4 Bundle Creation Governance Using BPMN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radulescu, C.; Levoe, S. R.; Algermissen, S. S.; Rye, E. D.; Hardman, S. H.

    2015-06-01

    The AMMOS-PDS Pipeline Service (APPS) provides a Bundle Builder tool, which governs the process of creating, and ultimately generates, PDS4 bundles incrementally, as science products are being generated.

  11. Effects upon metabolic pathways and energy production by Sb(III and As(III/Sb(III-oxidase gene aioA in Agrobacterium tumefaciens GW4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingxin Li

    Full Text Available Agrobacterium tumefaciens GW4 is a heterotrophic arsenite [As(III]/antimonite [Sb(III]-oxidizing strain. The As(III oxidase AioAB is responsible for As(III oxidation in the periplasm and it is also involved in Sb(III oxidation in Agrobacterium tumefaciens 5A. In addition, Sb(III oxidase AnoA and cellular H2O2 are also responsible for Sb(III oxidation in strain GW4. However, the deletion of aioA increased the Sb(III oxidation efficiency in strain GW4. In the present study, we found that the cell mobility to Sb(III, ATP and NADH contents and heat release were also increased by Sb(III and more significantly in the aioA mutant. Proteomics and transcriptional analyses showed that proteins/genes involved in Sb(III oxidation and resistance, stress responses, carbon metabolism, cell mobility, phosphonate and phosphinate metabolism, and amino acid and nucleotide metabolism were induced by Sb(III and were more significantly induced in the aioA mutant. The results suggested that Sb(III oxidation may produce energy. In addition, without periplasmic AioAB, more Sb(III would enter bacterial cells, however, the cytoplasmic AnoA and the oxidative stress response proteins were significantly up-regulated, which may contribute to the increased Sb(III oxidation efficiency. Moreover, the carbon metabolism was also activated to generate more energy against Sb(III stress. The generated energy may be used in Sb transportation, DNA repair, amino acid synthesis, and cell mobility, and may be released in the form of heat.

  12. Effects upon metabolic pathways and energy production by Sb(III) and As(III)/Sb(III)-oxidase gene aioA in Agrobacterium tumefaciens GW4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingxin; Yang, Birong; Shi, Manman; Yuan, Kai; Guo, Wei; Li, Mingshun; Wang, Gejiao

    2017-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens GW4 is a heterotrophic arsenite [As(III)]/antimonite [Sb(III)]-oxidizing strain. The As(III) oxidase AioAB is responsible for As(III) oxidation in the periplasm and it is also involved in Sb(III) oxidation in Agrobacterium tumefaciens 5A. In addition, Sb(III) oxidase AnoA and cellular H2O2 are also responsible for Sb(III) oxidation in strain GW4. However, the deletion of aioA increased the Sb(III) oxidation efficiency in strain GW4. In the present study, we found that the cell mobility to Sb(III), ATP and NADH contents and heat release were also increased by Sb(III) and more significantly in the aioA mutant. Proteomics and transcriptional analyses showed that proteins/genes involved in Sb(III) oxidation and resistance, stress responses, carbon metabolism, cell mobility, phosphonate and phosphinate metabolism, and amino acid and nucleotide metabolism were induced by Sb(III) and were more significantly induced in the aioA mutant. The results suggested that Sb(III) oxidation may produce energy. In addition, without periplasmic AioAB, more Sb(III) would enter bacterial cells, however, the cytoplasmic AnoA and the oxidative stress response proteins were significantly up-regulated, which may contribute to the increased Sb(III) oxidation efficiency. Moreover, the carbon metabolism was also activated to generate more energy against Sb(III) stress. The generated energy may be used in Sb transportation, DNA repair, amino acid synthesis, and cell mobility, and may be released in the form of heat.

  13. Developing the bundled glass column

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oikonomopoulou, F.; Bristogianni, T; Veer, F.A.; Nijsse, R.; da Sousa Cruz, Paulo J.

    In this paper a bundled glass column is presented as a promising solution for a completely transparent, almost dematerialized structural compressive element. The aim is to ob-tain a glass column that can safely carry loads, achieve a high visual result and be relatively eas-ily manufactured.

  14. Line bundles and flat connections

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    /fulltext/pmsc/127/03/0547-0549. Keywords. Calabi–Yau threefold; torsion; cocompact lattice; unitary representation. Abstract. We prove that there are cocompact lattices Γ in S L ( 2 , C ) with the property that there are holomorphic line bundles ...

  15. Line bundles and flat connections

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Calabi–Yau threefold; torsion; cocompact lattice; unitary representation. 2000 Mathematics Subject Classification. 81T30, 14D21, 53C07. 1. Stable bundles and unitary flat connections. 1.1 Admitting flat connections. Let X be a compact connected complex manifold of complex dimension δ. Let ω be the. (1, 1)-form on X ...

  16. Chemical vapor infiltration in single fiber bundles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devlin, D.J.; Barbero, R.S.; Currier, R.P.

    1990-01-01

    Chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) in single fiber bundles is studied under isothermal conditions. Understanding infiltration dynamics in single bundles is essential to process design and modeling efforts. Deposition of pyrolytic carbon in carbon-fiber bundles is chosen as the experimental system, with densification data obtained from thermogravimetric analysis. Data are then compared to predictions from a recently proposed CVI model for fiber bundle densification. 10 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  17. New models of droplet deposition and entrainment for prediction of CHF in cylindrical rod bundles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Haibin, E-mail: hb-zhang@xjtu.edu.cn [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Department of Chemical Engineering, Imperial College, London SW7 2BY (United Kingdom); Hewitt, G.F. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Imperial College, London SW7 2BY (United Kingdom)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • New models of droplet deposition and entrainment in rod bundles is developed. • A new phenomenological model to predict the CHF in rod bundles is described. • The present model is well able to predict CHF in rod bundles. - Abstract: In this paper, we present a new set of model of droplet deposition and entrainment in cylindrical rod bundles based on the previously proposed model for annuli (effectively a “one-rod” bundle) (2016a). These models make it possible to evaluate the differences of the rates of droplet deposition and entrainment for the respective rods and for the outer tube by taking into account the geometrical characteristics of the rod bundles. Using these models, a phenomenological model to predict the CHF (critical heat flux) for upward annular flow in vertical rod bundles is described. The performance of the model is tested against the experimental data of Becker et al. (1964) for CHF in 3-rod and 7-rod bundles. These data include tests in which only the rods were heated and data for simultaneous uniform and non-uniform heating of the rods and the outer tube. It was shown that the predicted CHFs by the present model agree well with the experimental data and with the experimental observation that dryout occurred first on the outer rods in 7-rod bundles. It is expected that the methodology used will be generally applicable in the prediction of CHF in rod bundles.

  18. Enhancement of optical Faraday effect of nonanuclear Tb(III) complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Takayuki; Suzuki, Yuki; Doi, Yoshihiro; Seki, Tomohiro; Koizumi, Hitoshi; Fushimi, Koji; Fujita, Koji; Hinatsu, Yukio; Ito, Hajime; Tanaka, Katsuhisa; Hasegawa, Yasuchika

    2014-07-21

    The effective magneto-optical properties of novel nonanuclear Tb(III) complexes with Tb-O lattice (specifically, [Tb9(sal-R)16(μ-OH)10](+)NO3(-), where sal-R = alkyl salicylate (R = -CH3 (Me), -C2H5 (Et), -C3H7 (Pr), or -C4H9 (Bu)) are reported. The geometrical structures of these nonanuclear Tb(III) complexes were characterized using X-ray single-crystal analysis and shape-measure calculation. Optical Faraday rotation was observed in nonanuclear Tb(III) complexes in the visible region. The Verdet constant per Tb(III) ion of the Tb9(sal-Me) complex is 150 times larger than that of general Tb(III) oxide glass. To understand their large Faraday rotation, electron paramagnetic resonance measurements of Gd(III) complexes were carried out. In this Report, the magneto-optical relation to the coordination geometry of Tb ions is discussed.

  19. Principal G-bundles on nodal curves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Springer Verlag Heidelberg #4 2048 1996 Dec 15 10:16:45

    If Y is reducible these notions depend on parameters a = (a1,...,aI ). The study of G-bundles on Y is done by extending the notion of (generalized) parabolic vector bundles [U1] to generalized parabolic principal G-bundles (called GPGs in short) on the curve C and using the correspondence between them and principal ...

  20. Medium effect on cyclohexene hydrocarbomethoxylation catalyzed by ruthenium (III) chloride

    OpenAIRE

    Sevostyanova N.; Batashev S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents influence of some solvents on cyclohexene hydrocarbomethoxylation catalyzed by ruthenium(III) chloride. The objective of the work was contained in the determination of medium influence on the reaction rate and yield of product — methyl cyclohexanecarboxylate. The kinetic method was used as the main method of investigation. The gas–liquid chromatography method was used to analyze the reaction mass. Influence of methanol, toluene, acetone and water on the hydrocarmothoxy...

  1. Possible effects of basel III accord on Turkish banking system

    OpenAIRE

    Çölgezen, Petek

    2013-01-01

    138 pages Bu tez Basel Komitesinin Basel I ve Basel II uzlaşılarında görülen eksiklikleri gidermek için Basel III Uzlaşısı adı altında getirdiği yeni düzenlemelere, uygulanmış olan uzlaşıların Türkiye ve bütün dünyada yarattığı pozitif ve negatif etkilere ve henüz uygulanmamış olan Basel III Uzlaşısının olası etkilerine değinmek amacıyla hazırlanmıştır. Bu amaçla akademik araştırma yapılarak Basel I, Basel II, Basel 2.5 ve Basel III uzlaşılarının temel kuralları ve hedefleri ayrıntılı b...

  2. Classroom Interaction in Effective and Ineffective Schools: Preliminary Results from Phase III of the Louisiana School Effectiveness Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringfield, Samuel; Teddlie, Charles; Suarez, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    A major focus in Phase III of the Louisiana School Effectiveness Study is on the relationship between classroom interaction patterns and school effectiveness. This paper presents observations on similarities and differences between prior teacher and school effectiveness studies, the LSES-III methodology, and preliminary results from one of the…

  3. Harder Roads to Trek? Paradoxical Slowing of an Atrioventricular Reentrant Tachycardia With Contralateral Bundle Branch Block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divakara Menon, Syamkumar M; Ayati, Maryam; Healey, Jeff S

    2017-04-01

    Slowing of the tachycardia with increase in cycle length and increase in VA time with ipsilateral bundle branch block is a characteristic feature of accessory pathway mediated AVRT. Contralateral bundle branch block has no effect on the tachycardia as it is not a part of the tachycardia circuit. We present an interesting phenomenon in which contralateral bundle branch block resulted in tachycardia slowing in a case of WPW syndrome. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. The Atiyah bundle and connections on a principal bundle

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    INDRANIL BISWAS. School of Mathematics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road,. Mumbai 400 005 .... (U) on A(EG)(U) and (U, g ⊕ Rd) defined by multiplication. Therefore, the sheaf A(EG) is locally free over FC∞. (M) of rank dim(g ⊕ Rd). Hence. A(EG) defines a C. ∞ vector bundle over M of rank ...

  5. SCADOP: Phenomenological modeling of dryout in nuclear fuel rod bundles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dasgupta, Arnab, E-mail: arnie@barc.gov.in; Chandraker, D.K., E-mail: dineshkc@barc.gov.in; Vijayan, P.K., E-mail: vijayanp@barc.gov.in

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Phenomenological model for annular flow dryout is presented. • The model evaluates initial entrained fraction using a new methodology. • The history effect in annular flow is predicted and validated. • Rod bundle dryout is predicted using subchannel methodology. • Model is validated against experimental dryout data in tubes and rod bundles. - Abstract: Analysis and prediction of dryout is of important consequence to safety of nuclear fuel clusters of boiling water type of reactors. Traditionally, experimental correlations are used for dryout predictions. Since these correlations are based on operating parameters and do not aim to model the underlying phenomena, there has been a proliferation of the correlations, each catering to some specific bundle geometry under a specific set of operating conditions. Moreover, such experiments are extremely costly. In general, changes in tested bundle geometry for improvement in thermal-hydraulic performance would require re-experimentation. Understanding and modeling the basic processes leading to dryout in flow boiling thus has great incentive. Such a model has the ability to predict dryout in any rod bundle geometry, unlike the operating parameter based correlation approach. Thus more informed experiments can be carried out. A good model can, reduce the number of experiments required during the iterations in bundle design. In this paper, a phenomenological model as indicated above is presented. The model incorporates a new methodology to estimate the Initial Entrained Fraction (IEF), i.e., entrained fraction at the onset of annular flow. The incorporation of this new methodology is important since IEF is often assumed ad-hoc and sometimes also used as a parameter to tune the model predictions to experimental data. It is highlighted that IEF may be low under certain conditions against the general perception of a high IEF due to influence of churn flow. It is shown that the same phenomenological model is

  6. Higher order jet prolongations type gauge natural bundles over vector bundles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kurek

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Let $rgeq 3$ and $mgeq 2$ be natural numbers and $E$ be a vector bundle with $m$-dimensional basis. We find all gauge natural bundles ``similar" to the $r$-jet prolongation bundle $J^rE$ of $E$. We also find all gauge natural bundles ``similar" to the vector $r$-tangent bundle $(J^r_{fl}(E,R_0^*$ of $E$.

  7. Effect of iron(III) ion on moso bamboo pyrolysis under microwave irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Qing; Li, Xiangqian; Wang, Zhaoyu; Bi, Yanhong; Yang, Rongling; Zhang, Jinfeng; Luo, Hongzhen; Niu, Miaomiao; Qi, Bo; Lu, Chen

    2017-11-01

    The effect of iron(III) ion on microwave pyrolysis of moso bamboo was investigated. Hydrofluoric acid washing was used as a pilot process to demineralize moso bamboo in order to eliminate the influences of the other inorganics contained in moso bamboo itself. The results indicated that the addition of iron(III) ion increased the maximal reaction temperatures under microwave condition dependent on the amount of the added iron(III) ion. The production of the non-condensable gases was promoted by the addition of iron(III) ion mainly at the expense of liquid products. Iron(III) ion exhibited the positive effect for syngas production and inhibited the formation of CO2 and CH4. The formation of Fe2O3 and Fe3O4 was found during microwave pyrolysis and the mechanism of the two metallic oxides formation was described in this work. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Multipath packet switch using packet bundling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berger, Michael Stubert

    2002-01-01

    The basic concept of packet bundling is to group smaller packets into larger packets based on, e.g., quality of service or destination within the packet switch. This paper presents novel applications of bundling in packet switching. The larger packets created by bundling are utilized to extend...... switching capacity by use of parallel switch planes. During the bundling operation, packets will experience a delay that depends on the actual implementation of the bundling and scheduling scheme. Analytical results for delay bounds and buffer size requirements are presented for a specific scheduling...

  9. Effects of ingestion of difructose anhydride III (DFA III) and the DFA III-assimilating bacterium Ruminococcus productus on rat intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamida, Kimiko; Ohashi, Midori; Hara, Hiroshi; Asano, Kozo; Tomita, Fusao

    2006-02-01

    We have isolated a difructose anhydride III (DFA III)-assimilating bacterium, Ruminococcus productus AHU1760, from human. After an acclimation period of 1 week, male Sprague-Dawley rats (5 weeks old) were divided into four groups (control diet, R. productus diet, DFA III diet, and R. productus + DFA III diet; n = 8) and fed the assigned test diets for 2 weeks. The viable count of administered R. productus was 4.9 x 10(7) CFU/d in R. productus-fed rats and 4.7 x 10(7) CFU/d in R. productus + DFA III-fed rats. Survival in cecal content of this strain was confirmed by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA. The ratio of secondary bile acids in feces in R. productus + DFA III-fed rats decreased the same as that in rats fed only DFA III. The viable count of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria, known as beneficial bacteria, increased more in R. productus + DFA III-fed rats than in control or R. productus-fed rats. A combination of R. productus and DFA III might improve the balance of intestinal microbiota to a healthier condition.

  10. Effects of ionic strength and fulvic acid on adsorption of Tb(III) and Eu(III) onto clay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poetsch, Maria; Lippold, Holger

    2016-09-01

    High salinity and natural organic matter are both known to facilitate migration of toxic or radioactive metals in geochemical systems, but little is known on their combined effect. We investigated complexation of Tb(III) and Eu(III) (as analogues for trivalent actinides) with fulvic acid and their adsorption onto a natural clay in the presence of NaCl, MgCl2 and CaCl2 up to very high ionic strengths. 160Tb, 152Eu and 14C-labelled fulvic acid were employed as radiotracers, allowing investigations at very low concentrations according to probable conditions in far-field scenarios of nuclear waste repositories. A combined Kd approach (Linear Additive Model) was tested for suitability in predicting solid-liquid distribution of metals in the presence of organic matter based on the interactions in the constituent subsystems. In this analysis, it could be shown that high ionic strength does not further enhance the mobilizing potential of humic matter. A quantitative reproduction of the influence of fulvic acid failed for most systems under study. Assumptions and limitations of the model are discussed.

  11. Design and evaluate finned tube bundles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganapathy, V. [ABCO Industries, Abilene, TX (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Finned tube bundles are widely used in heat exchangers, air coolers, waste heat boilers and fired heaters where energy transfer occurs between clean flue gases and a fluid with a high heat-transfer coefficient. They have several advantages including compactness, low gas pressure drop and low weight for a given duty compared to bare tube bundles. Choosing a fin type, arrangement and fin configuration requires a thorough analysis and economic evaluation. The solution is not unique since it depends on material and labor costs. Surface areas vary widely in finned tube designs for the same duty and gas pressure drop. Therefore, decisions should not be based on surface area alone. Plant engineers and consultants should consider operating costs in their evaluation because they accrue year after year. Selecting a boiler based on initial costs alone is not prudent. The paper discusses heat transfer and gas pressure drop with finned tubes, determining fin efficiency and effectiveness,g as pressure drop, tube wall and fin top temperatures, an example calculation, the effect of fin configuration on design, the effect of inline versus staggered arrangements and solid versus serrated fins, and concerns with high fin-density designs.

  12. Structural Studies of Amphiphilic 4-Helix Bundle Peptides Incorporating Designed Extended Chromophores for Nonlinear Optical Biomolecular Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strzalka,J.; Xu, T.; Tronin, A.; Wu, S.; Miloradovic, I.; Kuzmenko, I.; Gog, T.; Therien, M.; Blasie, K.

    2006-01-01

    Extended conjugated chromophores containing (porphinato)zinc components that exhibit large optical polarizabilities and hyperpolarizabiliites are incorporated into amphiphilic 4-helix bundle peptides via specific axial histidyl ligation of the metal. The bundle's designed amphiphilicity enables vectorial orientation of the chromophore/peptide complex in macroscopic monolayer ensembles. The 4-helix bundle structure is maintained upon incorporation of two different chromophores at stoichiometries of 1-2 per bundle. The axial ligation site appears to effectively control the position of the chromophore along the length of the bundle.

  13. The effect of Galleria mellonella apolipophorin III on yeasts and filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdybicka-Barabas, Agnieszka; Stączek, Sylwia; Mak, Pawel; Piersiak, Tomasz; Skrzypiec, Krzysztof; Cytryńska, Małgorzata

    2012-01-01

    Galleria mellonella apolipophorin III (apoLp-III) has been implicated in the innate immune response against bacterial infections. The protein binds components of bacterial cell wall and inhibits growth of selected Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Interaction of apoLp-III with fungal β-1,3-glucan suggests antifungal properties of the protein. In the present study, the effect of apoLp-III on the growth, metabolic activity and cell surface characteristics of selected yeasts and filamentous fungi was investigated using light, confocal and atomic force microscopy. ApoLp-III bound to the cell surface of different yeasts and filamentous fungi as confirmed by immunoblotting with anti-apoLp-III antibodies. Incubation of the fungi in the presence of apoLp-III induced alterations in growth morphology. Candida albicans underwent transition from yeast-like to hyphal growth with formation of true hyphae, whereas Fusarium oxysporum hyphae exhibited decreased metabolic activity, increased vacuolization and appearance of numerous monophialids with microconidia. Atomic force microscopy imaging demonstrated evident alterations in the fungal cell surface after incubation with apoLp-III, suggesting that the protein affected the cell wall components. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of femoral bone tunnel characteristics on graft-bending angle in double-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a comparison of the outside-in and transportal techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niki, Yasuo; Nagai, Katsuya; Harato, Kengo; Suda, Yasunori; Nakamura, Masaya; Matsumoto, Morio

    2017-04-01

    Bone tunnel creation techniques influence the 3-dimensional (3D) position of bone tunnels and graft-bending angle in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. This study assessed graft-bending angle and 3D characteristics of femoral bone tunnels and compared them between outside-in (OI) and transportal (TP) techniques. Participants comprised 64 patients who underwent anatomic double-bundle ACL reconstruction, allocated to OI and TP groups (n = 32 each). The graft orientation plane exhibiting the largest graft-bending angle at the femoral tunnel aperture with the knee in extension was reconstructed from CT data using 3D imaging software. In this plane, graft-bending angle was compared between the OI and TP techniques. Although positionings of the intra-articular apertures of the femoral and tibial bone tunnels were similar, several spatial parameters of bone tunnels differed between techniques. Graft-bending angles of both anteromedial and posterolateral bundles were significantly more acute with the OI technique than with the TP technique. On coronal-plane CT, angle of the bone tunnel axis relative to the distal condylar axis correlated negatively with graft-bending angle, while in the axial plane, angle of the bone tunnel axis relative to the posterior condylar axis correlated positively with graft-bending angle. Lysholm score, pivot shift test, and anteroposterior laxity at >2.5-year follow-up demonstrated no significant differences between techniques. Different bone tunnel directions in OI and TP techniques substantially affected graft-bending angle , despite similar positionings of the intra-articular apertures. Graft-bending angle with the OI technique was acute, but risk of posterior blowout of the lateral femoral condyle was decreased. Surgeons should create the femoral tunnel while considering an obtuse graft-bending angle without increasing the risk of posterior blowout. III.

  15. Improvements to Wire Bundle Thermal Modeling for Ampacity Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickman, Steve L.; Iannello, Christopher J.; Shariff, Khadijah

    2017-01-01

    Determining current carrying capacity (ampacity) of wire bundles in aerospace vehicles is critical not only to safety but also to efficient design. Published standards provide guidance on determining wire bundle ampacity but offer little flexibility for configurations where wire bundles of mixed gauges and currents are employed with varying external insulation jacket surface properties. Thermal modeling has been employed in an attempt to develop techniques to assist in ampacity determination for these complex configurations. Previous developments allowed analysis of wire bundle configurations but was constrained to configurations comprised of less than 50 elements. Additionally, for vacuum analyses, configurations with very low emittance external jackets suffered from numerical instability in the solution. A new thermal modeler is presented allowing for larger configurations and is not constrained for low bundle infrared emissivity calculations. Formulation of key internal radiation and interface conductance parameters is discussed including the effects of temperature and air pressure on wire to wire thermal conductance. Test cases comparing model-predicted ampacity and that calculated from standards documents are presented.

  16. Short communication: effect of difructose anhydride III on serum immunoglobulin G concentration in newborn calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, T; Hanada, M; Ohtani, M; Nakai, T; Teramura, M; Sadoya, H; Takahashi, T; Hongo, A

    2012-09-01

    Difructose anhydride (DFA) III is an indigestible disaccharide that promotes paracellular absorption of calcium, magnesium, and other minerals in the intestine by acting on epithelial tight junctions. This study aimed to elucidate the effect of DFA III on serum IgG concentration. One hundred and twenty Holstein and Holstein/Japanese Black crossbred calves were randomly divided into 4 groups of 30 to receive untreated colostrum (DFA0) or colostrum containing 3, 6, or 18 g of DFA III (DFA3, DFA6, or DFA18, respectively). At 24 h after birth, both serum IgG (ranging from 16.4 to 21.2 mg/mL) and apparent efficiency of absorption (26.0 to 37.2%) showed increases with the amount of DFA III intake. By multiple regression analysis, the standardized partial regression coefficient for DFA III was 0.25, the second highest following that for the colostrum IgG concentration (0.80), indicating a positive effect of DFA III on serum IgG. A positive linear regression was found between colostrum IgG and serum IgG concentrations at 24h of age. These results indicate that IgG absorption occurred as a nonsaturable process, which might be characteristic of gradient-dependent paracellular transport. Thus, it was concluded that DFA III improves not only minerals but IgG absorption in calves. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of oxygen plasma treatment on domestic aramid fiber III reinforced bismaleimide composite interfacial properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Chen; Wang, Jing; Chen, Ping; Feng, Jiayue; Cui, Jinyuan; Yang, Faze

    2017-12-01

    Domestic Aramid Fiber III (DAF III) was modified by oxygen plasma treatment. The fiber surface characteristics was observed by Scanning Electron Microscopy. The results showed that oxygen plasma treatment changed surface morphologies. The effects of oxygen plasma treatment on DAF III reinforced bismaleimides (BMI) composite bending and interfacial properties were investigated, respectively. The ILSS value increased from 49.3 MPa to 56.0 MPa (by 13.5%) after oxygen plasma treatment. The bending strength changed a little. Furthermore, the composite rupture mode changed from interfacial rupture to fiber or resin bulk rupture.

  18. Iron (III) Matrix Effects on Mineralization and Immobilization of Actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cynthia-May S. Gong; Tyler A. Sullens; Kenneth R. Czerwinski

    2006-01-01

    Abstract - A number of models for the Yucca Mountain Project nuclear waste repository use studies of actinide sorption onto well-defined iron hydroxide materials. In the case of a waste containment leak, however, a complex interaction between dissolved waste forms and failed containment vessel components can lead to immediate precipitation of migratory iron and uranyl in the silicate rich near-field environment. Use of the Fe(III) and UO22+ complexing agent acetohydroxamic acid (AHA) as a colorimetric agent for visible spectrophotometry is well-known. Using the second derivative of these spectra a distinct shift in iron complexation in the presence of silicate is seen that is not seen with uranyl or alone. Silica also decreases the ability of uranyl and ferric solutions to absorb hydroxide, hastening precipitation. These ferric silicate precipitates are highly amorphous and soluble. Precipitates formed in the presence of uranyl below ~1 mol% exhibit lower solubility than precipitates from up to 50 mol % and of uranyl silicates alone.

  19. Narrow muon bundles from muon pair production in rock

    CERN Document Server

    Kudryavtsev, V A; Spooner, N J C

    1999-01-01

    We revise the process of muon pair production by high-energy muons in rock using the recently published cross-section. The three- dimensional Monte Carlo code MUSIC has been used to obtain the characteristics of the muon bundles initiated via this process. We have compared them with those of conventional muon bundles initiated in the atmosphere and shown that large underground detectors, capable of collecting hundreds of thousands of multiple muon events, can discriminate statistically muon induced bundles from conventional ones. However, we find that the enhancement of the measured muon decoherence function over that predicted at small distances, recently reported by the MACRO experiment, cannot be explained by the effect of muon pair production alone, unless its cross-section is underestimated by a factor of 3. (20 refs).

  20. Effects of a novel magnetic orthopedic appliance (MOA-III) on the dentofacial complex in mild to moderate skeletal class III children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ning; Feng, Jing; Hu, Zheng; Chen, Rongjing; Shen, Gang

    2015-10-14

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the changes of skeletal and dental structures in mild to moderate skeletal Class III children following the use of a new magnetic orthopedic appliance (MOA-III). A total of 36 patients (14 boys and 22 girls, mean age 9 years and 5 months) who presented with a mild to moderate skeletal Class III jaw discrepancy were treated with MOA-III. Another group of 20 untreated patients (9 boys and 11 girls, mean age 9 years and 2 months) with the same level of deformity served as the control group. The average treatment time was 6.6 months. Radiographs were taken at the same time intervals for both groups. A paired t test was used to determine the significant differences before and after treatment, and a two-sample t test was used to analyze the differences between the treatment and control groups. The anterior crossbite in all subjects was corrected after MOA-III therapy. The maxillomandibular relationship showed favorable changes (ANB, Wits, overjet increased significantly, P  0.05). Significant upper incisor proclination and lower incisor retroclination were observed (UI-NA increased, P III appliance compared to the untreated group. The MOA-III was effective for the early treatment of a mild to moderate Class III malocclusion in children.

  1. Static stress analysis of CANFLEX fuel bundles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suk, Ho Chun; Kang, Hee Young; Sim, Ki Seop; Jeong, Jang Hwan; Jun, Gi Su; Park, Ju Hwan; Lee, Che Han; Kim, Tae Hyoung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-02-01

    The static stress analysis of CANFLEX bundles is performed to evaluate the fuel structural integrity during the refuelling service. The structure analysis is carried out by predicting the drag force, stress and displacements of the fuel bundle. By the comparison of strength tests and analysis results, the displacement values are well agreed within 15%. The analysis shows that the CANFLEX fuel bundle keep its structural integrity. 24 figs., 6 tabs., 12 refs. (Author) .new.

  2. The Games Children Play III: More Comments on Effective Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, Charlotte A.; Ashy, Madge

    2013-01-01

    In the years since the authors published two articles with tips for effective teaching, they have acquired and developed more advice and impressions on teaching. This article presents ideas that can help physical educators become increasingly effective in their teaching.

  3. Ulrich Schur bundles on flag varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Coskun, Izzet; Costa, Laura; Huizenga, Jack; Miró-Roig, Rosa Maria; Woolf, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we study equivariant vector bundles on partial flag varieties arising from Schur functors. We show that a partial flag variety with three or more steps does not admit an Ulrich bundle of this form with respect to the minimal ample class. We classify Ulrich bundles of this form on two-step flag varieties F(1,n-1;n), F(2,n-1;n), F(2,n-2;n), F(k,k+1;n) and F(k,k+2;n). We give a conjectural description of the two-step flag varieties which admit such Ulrich bundles.

  4. Equivariant Ulrich bundles on flag varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Coskun, Izzet; Huizenga, Jack; Woolf, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we study equivariant vector bundles on partial flag varieties arising from Schur functors. We show that a partial flag variety with three or more steps does not admit an Ulrich bundle of this form with respect to the minimal ample class. We classify Ulrich bundles of this form on two-step flag varieties F(2,n;n+1), F(2,n;n+2), F(k,k+1;n), and F(k,k+2;n). We give a conjectural description of the two-step flag varieties which admit such Ulrich bundles. Our results provide counter...

  5. Axis deviation without left bundle branch block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patanè, Salvatore; Marte, Filippo; Mancuso, Antonia

    2010-04-15

    It has been rarely reported changing axis deviation in the presence of left bundle branch block also during atrial fibrillation and with acute myocardial infarction too. It has also been rarely reported changing axis deviation with changing bundle branch block with onset of atrial fibrillation during acute myocardial infarction. We present a case of axis deviation without left bundle branch block and without atrial fibrillation and acute myocardial infarction in a 65-year-old Italian man. To our knowledge, this is the first report of axis deviation without left bundle branch block and without atrial fibrillation and acute myocardial infarction. Copyright 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of the application of a bundle of three measures (intraperitoneal lavage with antibiotic solution, fascial closure with Triclosan-coated sutures and Mupirocin ointment application on the skin staples) on the surgical site infection after elective laparoscopic colorectal cancer surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Tovar, Jaime; Llavero, Carolina; Morales, Vicente; Gamallo, Carlos

    2018-01-18

    Surgical site infection (SSI) prevention bundles include the simultaneous use of different measures, which individually have demonstrated an effect on prevention of SSI. The implementation of bundles can yield superior results to the implementation of individual measures. The aim of this study was to address the effect of the application of a bundle including intraperitoneal lavage with antibiotic solution, fascial closure with Triclosan-coated sutures and Mupirocin ointment application on the skin staples, on the surgical site infection after elective laparoscopic colorectal cancer surgery. A prospective, randomized study was performed, including patients with diagnosis of colorectal neoplasms and plans to undergo an elective laparoscopic surgery. The patients were randomized into two groups: those patients following standard bundles (Group 1) and those ones following the experimental bundle with three additional measures, added to the standard bundle. Incisional and organ space SSI were investigated. The study was assessor-blinded. A total of 198 patients were included in the study, 99 in each group. The incisional SSI rate was 16% in Group 1 and 2% in Group 2 [p = 0.007; RR = 5.6; CI 95% (1.4-17.8)]. The organ-space SSI rate was 4% in Group 1 and 0% in Group 2 [p = 0.039; RR = 1.7; CI 95% (1.1-11.6)]. Median hospital stay was 5.5 days in Group 1 and 4 days in Group 2 (p = 0.028). The addition of intraperitoneal lavage with antibiotic solution, fascial closure with Triclosan-coated sutures and Mupirocin ointment application on the skin staples, to a standard bundle of SSI prevention, reduces the incisional and organ-space SSI and consequently the hospital stay, after elective laparoscopic colorectal cancer surgery (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03081962).

  7. III. Biological effects of radiation from external and internal sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, R.S.

    1948-05-24

    This report focuses on the hemotological effects of total body irradiation from external and internal sources observed in patients treated for arthritis with radioactive phosphorus administered intravenously.

  8. Effectiveness of interceptive treatment of class III malocclusions with skeletal anchorage: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jorge Rodríguez de Guzmán-Barrera; Carla Sáez Martínez; Montserrat Boronat-Catalá; Jose María Montiel-Company; Vanessa Paredes-Gallardo; José Luís Gandía-Franco; José Manuel Almerich-Silla; Carlos Bellot-Arcís

    2017-01-01

      Recently, new strategies for treating class III malocclusions have appeared. Skeletal anchorage appears to reduce the dentoalveolar effects while maximising the orthopaedic effect in growing patients...

  9. Temperature response of bundle-sheath conductance in maize leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yin, Xinyou; Putten, Van Der Peter E.L.; Struik, Paul C.; Driever, Steven M.

    2016-01-01

    A small bundle-sheath conductance (g bs) is essential for the C4 CO2-concentrating mechanism to suppress photorespiration effectively. To predict the productivity of C4 crops accurately under global warming, it is necessary to examine whether and how g

  10. Multicell slug flow heat transfer analysis of finite LMFBR bundles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeung, M.K.; Wolf, L.

    1978-12-01

    An analytical two-dimensional, multi-region, multi-cell technique has been developed for the thermal analysis of LMFBR rod bundles. Local temperature fields of various unit cells were obtained for 7, 19, and 37-rod bundles of different geometries and power distributions. The validity of the technique has been verified by its excellent agreement with the THTB calculational result. By comparing the calculated fully-developed circumferential clad temperature distribution with those of the experimental measurements, an axial correction factor has been derived to account for the entrance effect for practical considerations. Moreover, the knowledge of the local temperature field of the rod bundle leads to the determination of the effective mixing lengths L/sub ij/ for adjacent subchannels of various geometries. It was shown that the implementation of the accurately determined L/sub ij/ into COBRA-IIIC calculations has fairly significant effects on intersubchannel mixing. In addition, a scheme has been proposed to couple the 2-D distributed and lumped parameter calculation by COBRA-IIIC such that the entrance effect can be implanted into the distributed parameter analysis. The technique has demonstrated its applicability for a 7-rod bundle and the results of calculation were compared to those of three-dimensional analyses and experimental measurements.

  11. On the classification of complex vector bundles of stable rank

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This classification becomes more effective on generalized flag manifolds, where the Lie algebra formalism and concrete integrability conditions describe in constructive terms the Chern classes of a vector bundle. ... Since deceased; Mathematics Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106, USA ...

  12. [Intermittent bundle branch block: a clinical model for the study of electrophysiological phenomena].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, Marcello

    2014-01-01

    uncommon to observe long periods of sinus rhythm with regular PP interval, conducted with alternating (2:1) bundle branch block. Intermittent left bundle branch block is a clinical model of cardiac memory: in these cases, negative T waves in the antero-septal leads during normal conduction are often evident. This negativity is an expression of cardiac memory, and not of ischemia as initially interpreted. Intermittent bundle branch block is an excellent model to study in vivo the effects of antiarrhythmic drugs on the pathological bundle branches. Narrowing of the QRS complex in the presence of bundle branch block is not always an expression of intermittent aberrancy: beware of late ectopic beats originating from the ipsilateral ventricle to the blocked branch, that merging with the antegrade beat conducted with bundle branch block, restrict the QRS, simulating intermittent aberrancy.

  13. Effectiveness of Urban Shelter-in-Place. III: Commercial Districts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Wanyu R.; Chan, Wanyu R.; Nazaroff, William W.; Price, Phillip N.; Gadgil, Ashok J.

    2007-12-28

    In the event of a toxic chemical release to the atmosphere, shelter-in-place (SIP) is an emergency response option available to protect public health. This paper is the last in a three-part series that examines the effectiveness of SIP at reducing adverse health effects in communities. We model a hypothetical chemical release in an urban area, and consider SIP effectiveness in protecting occupants of commercial buildings. Building air infiltration rates are predicted from empirical data using an existing model. We consider the distribution of building air infiltration rates both with mechanical ventilation systems turned off and with the systems operating. We also consider the effects of chemical sorption to indoor surfaces and nonlinear chemical dose-response relationships. We find that commercial buildings provide effective shelter when ventilation systems are off, but that any delay in turning off ventilation systems can greatly reduce SIP effectiveness. Using a two-zone model, we find that there can be substantial benefit by taking shelter in the inner parts of a building that do not experience direct air exchange with the outdoors. Air infiltration rates vary substantially among buildings and this variation is important in quantifying effectiveness for emergency response. Community-wide health metrics, introduced in the previous papers in this series, can be applied in pre-event planning and to guide real-time emergency response.

  14. Large-scale structure and gravitational waves. III. Tidal effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Fabian; Pajer, Enrico; Zaldarriaga, Matias

    2014-04-01

    The leading locally observable effect of a long-wavelength metric perturbation corresponds to a tidal field. We derive the tidal field induced by scalar, vector, and tensor perturbations, and use second-order perturbation theory to calculate the effect on the locally measured small-scale density fluctuations. For subhorizon scalar perturbations, we recover the standard perturbation theory result (F2 kernel). For tensor modes of wavenumber kL, we find that effects persist for kLτ ≫1, i.e. even long after the gravitational wave has entered the horizon and redshifted away ("fossil effect"). We then use these results, combined with the "ruler perturbations" of F. Schmidt and D. Jeong [Phys. Rev. D 86, 083527 (2012)], to predict the observed distortion of the small-scale matter correlation function induced by a long-wavelength tensor mode. We also estimate the observed signal in the B mode of the cosmic shear from a gravitational wave background, including both tidal (intrinsic alignment) and projection (lensing) effects. The nonvanishing tidal effect in the kLτ≫1 limit significantly increases the intrinsic alignment contribution to shear B modes, especially at low redshifts z≲2.

  15. Effects of Class III malocclusion on young male adults' vocal tract development: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Steve An; Lam, Connie W-Y; Whitehill, Tara L; Samman, Nabil

    2011-03-01

    To compare the vocal tract configuration between male speakers with Class III malocclusion and their normally developing counterparts and to investigate the concomitant acoustic changes caused by the alterations in vocal tract configuration. Eight young male patients with Class III malocclusion and 8 normally developing counterparts participated in this study. Acoustic reflection technology was used to measure vocal tract dimensions in the 2 groups. A continuous speech sample and 4 sustained vowels (/a/, /æ/, /i/, and /u/) were recorded from each participant to obtain the fundamental frequency and the first 3 formant frequencies (F1, F2, and F3). The results showed significantly greater oral length and oral volume for young male patients with Class III malocclusion than their cohorts. The F1 of vowel /u/ was found to be significantly higher in male patients with Class III malocclusion than their cohorts. The vowel space of the 4 recorded vowels was reduced and the F1-F2 formant map for /u/ was relatively more scattered in male patients with Class III malocclusion than in the control speakers. This study has provided preliminary information on the effects of Class III malocclusion on vocal tract configuration and concomitant acoustic changes in young male patients. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. On the connection between mode II and mode III effective thresholds in metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Vojtek

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available . Closure-free long cracks under the remote mode III loading grow in a more complicated way than those under the remote mode II. For bcc metals, a coplanar in-plane spreading of tongues driven by the local mode II loading components at crack-front asperities prevails while twisting of crack-front segments to mode I, often leading to factory-roof morphology, is typical for other materials. In bcc metals, therefore, the formulation of a quantitative relationship connecting effective thresholds in modes II and III demands to calculate the local mode II components of stress intensity factors at typical asperities of a crack front loaded in the remote mode III. Therefore, a numerical model of a serrated crack front was created and the results were compared with experimentally determined ratio of mode II and III effective thresholds for the ARMCO iron. Although the calculated crack-front roughness needs an experimental verification, the preliminary results indicate that the model can provide a quantitative explanation of the experimentally observed ratio of mode II and mode III effective thresholds in bcc metals.

  17. Effects of Orange II and Sudan III azo dyes and their metabolites on Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Hongmiao; Feng, Jinhui; Cerniglia, Carl E; Chen, Huizhong

    2011-10-01

    Azo dyes are widely used in the plastic, paper, cosmetics, food, and pharmaceutical industries. Some metabolites of these dyes are potentially genotoxic. The toxic effects of azo dyes and their potential reduction metabolites on Staphylococcus aureus ATCC BAA 1556 were studied. When the cultures were incubated with 6, 18, and 36 μg/ml of Orange II and Sudan III for 48 h, 76.3, 68.5, and 61.7% of Orange II and 97.8, 93.9, and 75.8% of Sudan III were reduced by the bacterium, respectively. In the presence of 36 μg/ml Sudan III, the cell viability of the bacterium decreased to 61.9% after 48 h of incubation, whereas the cell viability of the control culture without the dye was 71.5%. Moreover, the optical density of the bacterial cultures at 10 h decreased from 0.74 to 0.55, indicating that Sudan III is able to inhibit growth of the bacterium. However, Orange II had no significant effects on either cell growth or cell viability of the bacterium at the tested concentrations. 1-Amino-2-naphthol, a metabolite common to Orange II and Sudan III, was capable of inhibiting cell growth of the bacterium at 1 μg/ml and completely stopped bacterial cell growth at 24-48 μg/ml. On the other hand, the other metabolites of Orange II and Sudan III, namely sulfanilic acid, p-phenylenediamine, and aniline, showed no significant effects on cell growth. p-Phenylenediamine exhibited a synergistic effect with 1-amino-2-naphthol on cell growth inhibition. All of the dye metabolites had no significant effects on cell viability of the bacterium.

  18. A Secondary Flow Effect on the Heat and Mass Transfer Processes in the Finned Rod Bundles of Gas-cooled Reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Dunaitsev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In nuclear power engineering a need to justify an operability of products and their components is of great importance. In high-temperature gas reactors, the critical element affecting the facility reliability is the fuel rod cladding, which in turn leads to the need to gain knowledge in the field of gas dynamics and heat transfer in the reactor core and to increase the detail of the calculation results. For the time being, calculations of reactor core are performed using the proven techniques of per-channel calculations, which show good representativeness and count rate. However, these techniques require additional experimental studies to describe correctly the inter-channel exchange, which, being taken into account, largely affects the pattern of the temperature fields in the region under consideration. Increasingly more relevant and demandable are numerical simulation methods of fluid and gas dynamics, as well as of heat exchange, which consist in the direct solution of the system of differential equations of mass balance, kinetic moment, and energy. Calculation of reactor cores or rod bundles according these techniques does not require additional experimental studies and allows us to obtain the local distributions of flow characteristics in the bundle and the flow characteristics that are hard to measure in the physical experiment.The article shows the calculation results and their analysis for an infinite rod lattice of the reactor core. The results were obtained by the technique of modelling one rod of a regular lattice using the periodic boundary conditions, followed by translating the results to the neighbouring rods. In channels of complex shape, there are secondary flows caused by changes in the channel geometry along the flow and directed across the main front of the flow. These secondary flows in the reactor cores with rods spaced by the winding wire lead to a redistribution of the coolant along the channel section, which in turn

  19. The Effect of Chin-cup Therapy in Class III Malocclusion: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousoulea, Sophia; Tsolakis, Ioannis; Ferdianakis, Efstratios; Tsolakis, Apostolos I

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of Class III malocclusion has been challenging for orthodontists. Among a plethora of treatment modalities, the chin-cup is considered a traditional appliance for early orthopedic intervention. The present study aims to investigate the current scientific evidence regarding the effectiveness of chin-cup therapy in Class III malocclusion of prognathic growing patients. A systematic review of the literature was conducted using PubMed/Medline and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials from January 1954 to October 2015. Articles were selected based on established inclusion/ exclusion criteria. The search strategy resulted in 3285 articles.14 studies were selected for the final analysis. They were all CCTs, 13 of retrospective and 1 of prospective design. Methodological quality was evaluated by a risk of bias assessment, as suggested by the Cochrane Risk of Bias Assessment Tool for Non-Randomized Studies on Interventions. The reported evidence presented favorable short-term outcomes both in hard and soft tissues improving the Class III profile, as well as desirable dento-alveolar changes, positively affecting the Class III malocclusion. There is considerable agreement between studies that chin-cup therapy can be considered for the short-term treatment of growing patients with Class III malocclusion, as indicated by favorable changes both in the hard and soft tissues. The existence of considerable risk of bias in all selected studies and the unclear long-term effectiveness of chin-cup therapy highlight the need for further investigation to draw reliable conclusions.

  20. Electrochemistry of active chromium. Part III. Effects of temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. POPIC

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available It was shown that the temperature in the range 20 – 65 ºC has considerable effects on the electrochemical anodic dissolution of chromium in the active potential range as well as on the electrochemical hydrogen evolution reactions on bare and oxide covered chromium surfaces. Also, the chemical dissolution of chromium is strongly affected. The apparent energy of activation for anodic dissolution is 63.1 kJ mol-1, for hydrogen evolution on a bare Cr surface 19.5 kJ mol-1, for the same reaction on an oxide covered surface 44.0 kJ mol-1 and for the chemical (“anomalous” dissolution 66.9 kJ mol-1. The temperature dependences of the total corrosion rate, and the electrochemical corrosion rate alone, are presented in polynomial forms with the appropriate constants obtained by the best fit of the experimental data. For the hydrogen evolution reaction on both bare and oxide covered chromium, the Volmer-Heyrovsky reaction mechanism with the second step as rate determining was proposed.

  1. Fission yeast Scp3 potentially maintains microtubule orientation through bundling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanako Ozaki

    Full Text Available Microtubules play important roles in organelle transport, the maintenance of cell polarity and chromosome segregation and generally form bundles during these processes. The fission yeast gene scp3+ was identified as a multicopy suppressor of the cps3-81 mutant, which is hypersensitive to isopropyl N-3-chlorophenylcarbamate (CIPC, a poison that induces abnormal multipolar spindle formation in higher eukaryotes. In this study, we investigated the function of Scp3 along with the effect of CIPC in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Microscopic observation revealed that treatment with CIPC, cps3-81 mutation and scp3+ gene deletion disturbed the orientation of microtubules in interphase cells. Overexpression of scp3+ suppressed the abnormal orientation of microtubules by promoting bundling. Functional analysis suggested that Scp3 functions independently from Ase1, a protein largely required for the bundling of the mitotic spindle. A strain lacking the ase1+ gene was more sensitive to CIPC, with the drug affecting the integrity of the mitotic spindle, indicating that CIPC has a mitotic target that has a role redundant with Ase1. These results suggested that multiple systems are independently involved to ensure microtubule orientation by bundling in fission yeast.

  2. Reminiscences Of The First His Bundle Electrography In India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nambiar C.A

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Dr Onkar Narula was making a huge wave those days with his work on His Bundle Electrocardiography and Corrected Sinus Node Recovery Time. He visited us in late 1972 or early 1973,probably the latter date. Till then venous catheterizations (including pacing were done by open cut down. I remember the first time we used venous sheath through right femoral vein. Dr Bhatia was the operator and I was assisting him and Dr Savithri Srivasthava was the senior Registrar. With Dr Narula showing the way we did the first His Bundle Recording and I analysed the whole roll manually as was the method those days. We had to improvise a junction box as the recording equipment did not have a proper connecting accessory at that time. After Dr Narula left we did His Bundle recording on many more patients and undertook a study. This was published as: Effect of acute digitalization on His Bundle Intervals and Corrected Sinus Node Recovery Time in young adults.M.L.Bhatia,C.Ashokan Nambiar,S.Shrivastava and Sujoy B.Roy: Indian Heart Journal:Vol-2:1977.1The article was received for publication on 29/11/1973 as acknowledged underneath, but strangely it took a long time to come in print. I have preserved some of the cath rolls and reprint of the article.

  3. [The effect of antithrombin iii concentrations during cardiopulmonary surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonzogni, V; Bellavita, P; Carrara, B; Cossolini, M; Ferri, F; Fabretti, F; Mamprin, F; Pelliccioli, I

    2000-01-01

    Evaluation of influence of pre-op continuous e.v. heparin infusion in patients undergoing urgent myocardial surgical revascularization, on the anticoagulation threshold needed for cardiopulmonary bypass. Analysis of the efficacy of ATIII substitutional therapy to allow best ACT values during extracorporeal circulation, and to reduce intra and post-op bleeding and need for homologus transfusion. Operative room and ICU of a cardiac surgery unit in a regional hospital. Two groups of coronary patients in preoperative treatment with heparin were randomized in a prospective double blind study for an intraoperative treatment with heparin and ATIII (Group A) and heparin plus placebo (Group B). An investigation was made on the influence of preoperative heparin treatment regarding extracorporeal circulation, the variation of the coagulation parameters in CEC with substitutive therapy of ATIII and the reduction of the therapeutic strength of heparin during perfusion, the problem of bleeding and the incidence of blood transfusions and lastly the economic questions of the two procedures. The study showed the necessity of repeated bolus of heparin during CEC and the rapid loss of its effect in the group not subjected ATIII therapy. A less incidence of bleeding in Group A was observed; for this reason the patients received significantly less packed red cells and FFP and a discrete number of patients of this group were not transfused. Surely the method of using the ATIII is much more expensive from the economic point of view, but the benefits of avoiding the problems of a blood transfusion (infections, immunodepression etc.), of the reduced stay in the Intensive Care Unit, of the riduced risk involved with problems of bleeding and the need of repeated operative procedures make this method fundamental in patients with reduced plasma levels of ATIII such as coronary patients who are under heparin treatment for several days. Intraoperative administration of ATIII can reduce most

  4. The severe sepsis bundles as processes of care: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Diane J; Willis, Eileen M; Bersten, Andrew B

    2011-11-01

    The use of the sepsis bundles in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock has been controversial in the last decade. Clinical studies have reported beneficial, as well as negative results. We conducted a meta-analysis to assess the clinical evidence and to evaluate survival effects. Database searches (2004-current) of Medline, CINAHL, Pubmed, Cochrane, Scopus and Google scholar databases which covered full publications, abstracts from conferences and digital thesis were performed using the search terms sepsis, septic shock and/or bundles, processes of care, guidelines, early goal directed therapy, resuscitation. From 253 identified studies, 21 sepsis bundle original studies were selected and included 23,438 patients. The Resuscitation 6 hour Bundle pooled analysis (1819 patients) achieved the greatest survival benefit (odds ratio (OR) 2.124, 95% CI 1.701-2.651, p<0.000) with the Management 24 hour Bundle pooled analysis the lowest survival benefit (16,521 patients) (OR 1.646, 95% CI 1.036-2.614, p<0.035). Both bundles together (Complete Bundle) achieved a combined survival benefit (OR 1.744, 95% CI 1.421-2.141, p<0.000). ScvO2 and blood glucose components were analysed individually to assess their contribution to survival. The Resuscitation 6 hour bundle in the context of the patient population at hand is unlikely to do harm and is yet to be established in primary research in Australia. The Management 24 hour Bundle could not establish a strong enough survival benefit above current routine practice. The sepsis guidelines and bundles have demanded more credible process measurements and debate to induce positive changes in the intervention and treatment care of patients with severe sepsis. Copyright © 2011 Australian College of Critical Care Nurses Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The effect of an outer-element bow on dryout power and post-dryout heat transfer of a 37-element bundle string

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutradhar, S.C. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2000-07-01

    Dryout and post-dryout tests were performed with a modified 37-element simulated CANDU fuel string, with one outer element of the last bundle gradually bowed toward the flow tube wall. The element had 8% higher heat flux than the remaining outer ring elements and had the narrowest gap between it and the flow-tube wall. The initial dryout occurred on the bowed element for all element-to-wall gap sizes. The dryout power decreased moderately (4% average) as the gap size was reduced to 13.5% of the nominal (unbowed) gap. For smaller than 13.5% gaps, however, the dryout power increased slightly (1.2%) at the low (10.5 kg/s) flow rate and decreased by 5% at the high (16.0 kg/s) flow rate, compared to the nominal gap dryout power. Surface temperatures of the bowed element were recorded for different gap sizes and up to 20% overpower (maximum). The temperature increased by 26% at the maximum overpower as the element was moved from nominal to zero gap position. (author)

  6. Why (almost) all bundles are chiral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kost-Smith, Zachary V.; Blackwell, Robert A.; Glaser, Matthew A.

    2014-03-01

    We examine the self assembly of bundles of achiral hard rods with distributed, short-range attractive interactions. We show that in the majority of cases the equilibrium state of the bundle is chiral, with a double twist structure. We use biased Monte Carlo techniques and cell theory to compute the free energy as a function of an appropriately defined twist order parameter, and show that the formation of spontaneously chiral bundles is driven by maximization of orientational entropy. The finite curvature of the bundle boundary permits orientational escape, in which the circumferential angular range of motion of the rods is maximized for some finite average tilt. We map out the phase diagram of bundles in terms of the density, the ratio of rod length to bundle radius, L / R , and rod aspect ratio, L / D , and find transitions between untwisted, weakly twisted, and strongly twisted states. This work helps explain the common observation of twisted macroscopic bundles, and may provide insight into observations of twist in self-assembled membranes of colloidal rods.[2] This work funded by NSF MRSEC Grant DMR-0820579.

  7. Effectiveness of phosphate removal during anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge by dosing iron(III).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiang; Wang, Jue; Chen, Bing; Wang, Yu; Liu, Jiaqi; Liu, Lubo

    2017-05-15

    Phosphate-Fe(II) precipitation induced by Fe(III) reduction during the anaerobic digestion of excess activated sludge was investigated for the removal of phosphorus and its possible recovery. The experiments were conducted with three Fe(III) sources at 35 °C and 55 °C. The results show that ferrihydrite-Fe(III) was effectively reduced during the anaerobic sludge digestion by 63% and 96% under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions, respectively. Whereas FeCl3-Fe(III) was only mesophilically reducible and the reduction of hematite-Fe(III) was unnoticeable at either temperature. Efficient precipitation of vivianite was not observed although high saturation index values, e.g., >14 (activity reduction not considered), had been reached. This reveals the complexity of vivianite precipitation in anaerobic digestion systems; for example, Fe(II) complexation and organic interference could not be ignored. With ferrihydrite amendments at a Fe/TP of 1.5, methane production from sludge digestion was reduced by 35.1% at 35 °C, and was unaffected when the digestion temperature went up to 55 °C. But, acidic FeCl3 severely inhibited the methane production and consequently the sludge biomass degradation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of Ge autodoping during III-V MOVPE growth on Ge substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrutia, Laura; Barrigón, Enrique; García, Iván; Rey-Stolle, Ignacio; Algora, Carlos

    2017-10-01

    During the MOVPE growth of III-V layers on Ge substrates, Ge atoms can be evaporated or etched from the back of the wafer and reach the growth surface, becoming incorporated into the epilayers. This is the so-called Ge autodoping effect, which we have studied through a set of growth experiments of GaInP and Ga(In)As layers lattice matched to Ge substrates, which have been characterized by Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy. The role of V/III ratio and growth rate on Ge autodoping has been studied and a MOVPE reactor pre-conditioning prior to the epitaxial growth of III-V semiconductor layers that mitigates this Ge autodoping has been identified. In addition, the use of 2-in. versus 4-in. Ge substrates has been compared and the use of a Si3N4 backside coating for the Ge substrates has been evaluated.

  9. Effect of alkaline precipitation on Cr species of Cr(III)-bearing complexes typically used in the tannery industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dandan; Ye, Yuxuan; Liu, Hui; Ma, Hongrui; Zhang, Weiming

    2017-11-03

    Various organic compounds extensively used in the leather industry could influence the performance of alkaline precipitation with Cr(III). This study focused on two typical Cr(III)-bearing complexes (Cr(III)-collagen and Cr(III)-citrate) ubiquitous in tannery effluent yet with distinct treatment efficiencies, as Cr(III) was much more difficult to remove in the Cr(III)-citrate solution. Comprehensive analytical methods were employed to explore the intrinsic mechanism. It was found that a lower removal efficiency towards Cr(III) was significantly associated with higher oligomers. The molecular size of the Cr(III)-citrate complex continued to increase with rising pH, making it larger overall than Cr(III)-collagen species. The growing oligomer moiety of dissolved Cr(III)-complex species could persist in the stronger basic pH range, leading to the large amount of residual Cr(III) in the Cr(III)-citrate system. Combining this result with potentiometric titration and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data, it was believed that the polymeric species other than monomers facilitated resisting the attack from hydroxide ions, and the postulated Cr(III)-citrate species towards higher oligomers were discovered. Beyond that, both charge neutralization and sweeping effects were presented among the gradually emerging flocs in the Cr(III)-collagen system together with the electric double layer compression effect derived from salinity, thus resulting in a larger floc size and higher Cr(III) removal efficiency in saline solutions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Lower complication rates for cranioplasty with peri-operative bundle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Catherine; Guppy, Kern H; Axelrod, Yekaterina V; Hawk, Mark W; Silverthorn, James; Inacio, Maria C; Akins, Paul T

    2014-05-01

    The overall benefits of craniectomy must include procedural risks from cranioplasty. Cranioplasty carries a high risk of surgical site infections (SSI) particularly with antibiotic resistant bacteria. The goal of this study was to measure the effect of a cranioplasty bundle on peri-operative complications. The authors queried a prospective, inpatient neurosurgery database at Kaiser Sacramento Medical Center for craniectomy and cranioplasty over a 7 year period. 57 patients who underwent cranioplasties were identified. A retrospective chart review was completed for complications, including surgical complications such as SSI, wound dehiscence, and re-do cranioplasty. We measured cranioplasty complication rates before and after implementation of a peri-operative bundle, which consisted of peri-operative vancomycin (4 doses), a barrier dressing through post-operative day (POD) 3, and de-colonization of the surgical incision using topical chlorhexidine from POD 4 to 7. The rate of MRSA colonization in cranioplasty patients is three times higher than the average seen on ICU admission screening (19% vs. 6%). The cranioplasty surgical complication rate was 22.8% and SSI rate was 10.5%. The concurrent SSI rate for craniectomy was 1.9%. Organisms isolated were methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (4), methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (1), Propionibacterium acnes (1), and Escherichia coli (1). Factors associated with SSI were peri-operative vancomycin (68.6% vs. 16.7%, p=0.0217). Complication rates without (n=21) and with (n=36) the bundle were: SSI (23.8% vs. 2.8%, p=0.0217) and redo cranioplasty (19% vs. 0%, p=0.0152). Bundle use did not affect rates for superficial wound dehiscence, seizures, or hydrocephalus. The cranioplasty bundle was associated with reduced SSI rates and the need for re-do cranioplasties. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of Le Fort III osteotomy on mandibular growth in patients with Crouzon and Apert syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, B H; Kaban, L B; Vargervik, K

    1989-07-01

    Midface advancement by Le Fort III osteotomy is a common procedure in craniofacial surgery. However, little data exist concerning the effect of midface advancement on mandibular growth. This is a retrospective study of 38 patients from two craniofacial centers who had Le Fort III osteotomy. The aims of this investigation were to document the size and shape of the mandible in Crouzon and Apert syndromes and to determine the effect on these parameters of downward and forward movement of the midface. The syndrome patients had increased gonial angle, increased MP-SN, increased ramus height, and increased ratio of ramus height to body length when compared with normal standards. Patients operated during growth and those operated when growth was completed had similar mandibular size and shape indicating that Le Fort III osteotomy had no measurable effect on these parameters. Inclination of the mandible to the anterior cranial base was increased by the operation and remained unchanged during the follow-up period. The results of this study indicate that the size and morphology of the mandible are similar in Crouzon and Apert syndromes. The pattern of growth is more vertical in the syndrome patients than in normals. Le Fort III osteotomy in growing children does not result in altered mandibular size and shape despite backward rotation of the mandible as a result of midface advancement.

  12. Food bundling as a health nudge: Investigating consumer fruit and vegetable selection using behavioral economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Kathryn A; Samek, Anya; Zepeda, Lydia

    2018-02-01

    Displaying bundles of healthy foods at the grocery store is a health nudge that simplifies shopping and may have the potential for increasing fruit and vegetable (F&V) purchasing. To evaluate the impact of food bundling, we conduct an artefactual field experiment with community participants in a laboratory set up as a grocery store. Dual-self theory suggests that food choices may differ depending on whether shoppers are under cognitive load - in our experiment, we exogenously vary whether bundles are displayed (with and without a price discount) and whether shoppers are under cognitive load. Our findings align with prior studies that suggest unhealthy options are more likely to be selected when cognitive resources are constrained. When bundles are displayed, we observe increased F&V purchasing. We also observe a significant interaction between cognitive load and price discounting. We find discounted bundles are more effective in the absence of cognitive load, but non-discounted bundles are more effective when shoppers are under cognitive load. Although more research is warranted, our findings suggest that when shopping under cognitive load, it is possible that discounts impose additional cognitive strain on the shopping experience. For retailers and policymakers, our results point to the potential power of bundling as a strategy for increasing healthy food purchasing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Late onset sepsis in newborn babies: epidemiology and effect of a bundle to prevent central line associated bloodstream infections in the neonatal intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resende, Daiane Silva; Peppe, Anna Laura Gil; dos Reis, Heloisio; Abdallah, Vânia Olivetti Steffen; Ribas, Rosineide Marques; Gontijo Filho, Paulo Pinto

    2015-01-01

    We assessed late onset sepsis (LOS) rates of neonates in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) before and after implementing an evidence-based bundle to prevent these infections in a country with poor resources. We evaluate trends of LOS between October 2010 and August 2012 in a large tertiary hospital in Brazil. We designed a protocol based of CDC guidelines for insertion of maintenance of central venous catheter targeted to reduction of bloodstream infections. During this period two major events occurred: a great increase of LOS rates in January months and relocation of the unit to a provisory place. Additionally we evaluated the risk factors and etiology of these infections. A total of 112 (20.3%) cases defined as LOS were found. The overall incidence rate of LOS in the study was 16.1/1000 patient/days and 23.0/1000 CVC-days. Our monthly rates data of LOS/1000 patient-day reveal fluctuations over the studied period, with incidence rates of these infections in staff vacation period (January 2011 and 2012) significantly higher (59.6/1000 patients-days) than compared with the other months rates (16.6/1000 patients-days) (IRR=3.59; p<0.001). As opposite, the incidence rates of LOS during relocation period was lower (10.3/1000 patients-days) when compared with baseline period 26.7/1000 patients-days (IRR=2.59; p=0.007). After the intervention period, these rates decreased in the post intervention period, when compared with preintervention 14.7/1000 patients-days and 23.4/1000 patients-days, respectively (IRR=1.59; p=0.04). Through simple infection control measures, LOS can be successfully controlled especially in NICUs of limited resources countries such as ours. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  14. Implementation of a children's hospital-wide central venous catheter insertion and maintenance bundle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Helder MScN (Onno); R.F. Kornelisse (René); C. van der Starre (Cynthia); D. Tibboel (Dick); C.W.N. Looman (Caspar); R.M.H. Wijnen (René); M.J. Poley (Marten); E. Ista (Erwin)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Central venous catheter-associated bloodstream infections in children are an increasingly recognized serious safety problem worldwide, but are often preventable. Central venous catheter bundles have proved effective to prevent such infections. Successful implementation

  15. Two Dimensional Modeling of III-V Heterojunction Gate All Around Tunnel Field Effect Transistor

    OpenAIRE

    Manjula Vijh; R.S. Gupta; Sujata Pandey

    2017-01-01

    Tunnel Field Effect Transistor is one of the extensively researched semiconductor devices, which has captured attention over the conventional Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor. This device, due to its varied advantages, is considered in applications where devices are scaled down to deep sub-micron level. Like MOSFETs, many geometries of TFETs have been studied and analyzed in the past few years. This work, presents a two dimensional analytical model for a III-V Heterojunction ...

  16. Einstein metrics on tangent bundles of spheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dancer, Andrew S [Jesus College, Oxford University, Oxford OX1 3DW (United Kingdom); Strachan, Ian A B [Department of Mathematics, University of Hull, Hull HU6 7RX (United Kingdom)

    2002-09-21

    We give an elementary treatment of the existence of complete Kaehler-Einstein metrics with nonpositive Einstein constant and underlying manifold diffeomorphic to the tangent bundle of the (n+1)-sphere.

  17. Dynamic bi-product bundle pricing problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafiei Hamed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses bundle pricing problem of two products in a stochastic environment so as to maximize net profit of a retailer. In the considered problem, it is assumed that customers are received upon a Poisson distribution and their demands follow a bi-variant distribution function. Also, it is assumed that products are sold individually or in the form of a bundle, which are offered from an initial stock of the products. To tackle the problem, a stochastic dynamic program is developed in which optimum values of the initial stock and order quantities of every planning period are determined. Moreover, prices of the individual products and their bundle are optimized. Also, the proposed dynamic program tackles bundling/ unbundling decisions taken in every planning period. A numerical example of a two planning period horizon is considered to validate the proposed model.

  18. Is It Complete Left Bundle Branch Block? Just Ablate the Right Bundle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Hussam; Lupo, Pierpaolo; Foresti, Sara; De Ambroggi, Guido; Epicoco, Gianluca; Fundaliotis, Angelica; Cappato, Riccardo

    2017-03-01

    Complete left bundle branch block (LBBB) is established according to standard electrocardiographic criteria. However, functional LBBB may be rate-dependent or can perpetuate during tachycardia due to repetitive concealed retrograde penetration of impulses through the contralateral bundle "linking phenomenon." In this brief article, we present two patients with basal complete LBBB in whom ablating the right bundle unmasked the actual antegrade conduction capabilities of the left bundle. These cases highlight intriguing overlap between electrophysiological concepts of complete block, linking, extremely slow, and concealed conduction. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Physiological mechanisms of QRS narrowing in bundle branch block patients undergoing permanent His bundle pacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Alexandra E; Massoud, Louis; Ajijola, Olujimi A

    2016-01-01

    His bundle pacing is increasingly used to avoid chronic right ventricular pacing, and electrically resynchronize ventricular activation by narrowing or normalizing the QRS interval in left and right bundle branch block. The mechanisms by which this occurs remain poorly understood. In this review, the proposed mechanisms and evidence supporting them are discussed. Also discussed are aspects of mechanisms that are not completely supported by the evidence. We also review the differences and physiological bases for direct vs. indirect His bundle capture, and the physiological mechanisms for QRS narrowing vs. normalization following His bundle pacing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Coupling and elastic loading affect the active response by the inner ear hair cell bundles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clark Elliott Strimbu

    Full Text Available Active hair bundle motility has been proposed to underlie the amplification mechanism in the auditory endorgans of non-mammals and in the vestibular systems of all vertebrates, and to constitute a crucial component of cochlear amplification in mammals. We used semi-intact in vitro preparations of the bullfrog sacculus to study the effects of elastic mechanical loading on both natively coupled and freely oscillating hair bundles. For the latter, we attached glass fibers of different stiffness to the stereocilia and observed the induced changes in the spontaneous bundle movement. When driven with sinusoidal deflections, hair bundles displayed phase-locked response indicative of an Arnold Tongue, with the frequency selectivity highest at low amplitudes and decreasing under stronger stimulation. A striking broadening of the mode-locked response was seen with increasing stiffness of the load, until approximate impedance matching, where the phase-locked response remained flat over the physiological range of frequencies. When the otolithic membrane was left intact atop the preparation, the natural loading of the bundles likewise decreased their frequency selectivity with respect to that observed in freely oscillating bundles. To probe for signatures of the active process under natural loading and coupling conditions, we applied transient mechanical stimuli to the otolithic membrane. Following the pulses, the underlying bundles displayed active movement in the opposite direction, analogous to the twitches observed in individual cells. Tracking features in the otolithic membrane indicated that it moved in phase with the bundles. Hence, synchronous active motility evoked in the system of coupled hair bundles by external input is sufficient to displace large overlying structures.

  1. The effect of lanthanum(III) and cerium(III) ions between layers of manganese oxide on water oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafpour, Mohammad Mahdi; Isaloo, Mohsen Abbasi; Hołyńska, Małgorzata; Shen, Jian-Ren; Allakhverdiev, Suleyman I; Allakhverdiev, Suleyman

    2015-12-01

    Manganese oxide structure with lanthanum(III) or cerium(III) ions between the layers was synthesized by a simple method. The ratio of Mn to Ce or La in samples was 0.00, 0.04, 0.08, 0.16, 0.32, 0.5, 0.82, or 1.62. The compounds were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction studies, and atomic absorption spectroscopy. The compounds show efficient catalytic activity of water oxidation in the presence of cerium(IV) ammonium nitrate with a turnover frequency of 1.6 mmol O2/mol Mn.s. In contrast to the water-oxidizing complex in Photosystem II, calcium(II) has no specific role to enhance the water-oxidizing activity of the layered manganese oxides and other cations can be replaced without any significant decrease in water-oxidizing activities of these layered Mn oxides. Based on this and previously reported results from oxygen evolution in the presence of H 2 (18) O, we discuss the mechanism and the important factors influencing the water-oxidizing activities of the manganese oxides.

  2. Biomechanics of the porcine triple bundle anterior cruciate ligament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Yuki; Ingham, Sheila J M; Linde-Rosen, Monica; Smolinski, Patrick; Horaguchi, Takashi; Fu, Freddie H

    2010-01-01

    Several species of animals are used as a model to study human anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. In many animals, three bundles were clearly discernible during dissection in the ACL. However, there are few reports about the biomechanical role of each bundle in the porcine knee. The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of each of the three bundles in the porcine knee, especially the intermediate bundle. Ten porcine knees were tested using a robotic/universal forcemoment sensor system. This system applied anterior loading of 89 N at 30 degrees, 60 degrees and 90 degrees of flexion, and a combined 7 Nm valgus and 4 Nm internal tibial torque at 30 degrees and 60 degrees of flexion before and after each bundle was selectively cut. The in situ force (N) for each bundle of the ACL was measured. Both intermediate (IM) bundle and postero-lateral (PL) bundle had significantly lower in situ force than the antero-medial (AM) bundle in anterior loading. The IM and PL bundles carried a larger proportion of the force under the torsional loads than the anterior loads. But IM bundle had a significant lower in situ force during the combined torque at 60 degrees of knee flexion, when compared intact ACL. In summary, IM bundle has a subordinate role to the AM and PL bundles. AM bundle is more dominant than IM and PL bundles. The porcine knee is a suitable model for ACL studies, especially for AP stability.

  3. The effects of K2SO4 solution on the compressive strength of dental gypsum type III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeilina, T.; Triaminingsih, S.; Indrani, D. J.

    2017-08-01

    Dental gypsum type III is used as a material for manufacturing working models of dentures. The aim of this study was to identify the effects of the addition of a K2SO4 solution on the compressive strength of gypsum type III. A compressive strength test was performed using a universal testing machine with a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. The data were analyzed using a one-way ANOVA. The results showed that the compressive strength of gypsum type III with a 1.5% K2SO4 solution added was higher than for gypsum type III alone but lower than the compressive strength of gypsum type IV.

  4. Stability of Picard bundle over moduli space of stable vector bundles ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Springer Verlag Heidelberg #4 2048 1996 Dec 15 10:16:45

    Stability of Picard bundle over moduli space of stable vector bundles of rank two over a curve. INDRANIL BISWAS and TOM ´AS L G ´OMEZ. School of Mathematics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road,. Mumbai 400 005, India. E-mail: indranil@math.tifr.res.in; tomas@math.tifr.res.in. MS received 14 ...

  5. Stability of Picard bundle over moduli space of stable vector bundles ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Answering a question of [BV] it is proved that the Picard bundle on the moduli space of stable vector bundles of rank two, on a Riemann surface of genus at least three, with fixed determinant of odd degree is stable.

  6. Cosmic multi-muon bundles measured at DELPHI

    CERN Document Server

    Travnicek, Petr

    2002-01-01

    The DELPHI detector at LEP, located 100 $m$ underground, has been used to detect the multi-muon bundles by cathode readout of its hadron calorimeter and its tracking detectors (TPC, muon chambers). The experimental apparatus allows us to study muon bundles originating from primary cosmic particles with energies in the interval $10^{14}$ - $10^{17} eV$. The cosmic events registered during the years 1999 and 2000 correspond roughly to $1.6 10^6 s$ of effective run time. The aim of the work is to compare the measured muon multiplicity distributions and predictions of high energy interaction models for different types of primary particles and also to determine the absolute flux of events in certain muon multiplicity range. The presentation describes the current status of the analysis.

  7. An improved partial bundle method for linearly constrained minimax problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunming Tang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose an improved partial bundle method for solving linearly constrained minimax problems. In order to reduce the number of component function evaluations, we utilize a partial cutting-planes model to substitute for the traditional one. At each iteration, only one quadratic programming subproblem needs to be solved to obtain a new trial point. An improved descent test criterion is introduced to simplify the algorithm. The method produces a sequence of feasible trial points, and ensures that the objective function is monotonically decreasing on the sequence of stability centers. Global convergence of the algorithm is established. Moreover, we utilize the subgradient aggregation strategy to control the size of the bundle and therefore overcome the difficulty of computation and storage. Finally, some preliminary numerical results show that the proposed method is effective.

  8. Benzene oxidation by Fe(III)-catalyzed sodium percarbonate: matrix constituent effects and degradation pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiaori; Gu, Xiaogang; Lu, Shuguang; Sharma, Virender K; Brusseau, Mark L; Xue, Yunfei; Danish, Muhammad; Fu, George Y; Qiu, Zhaofu; Sui, Qian

    2017-02-01

    Complete degradation of benzene by the Fe(III)-activated sodium percarbonate (SPC) system is demonstrated. Removal of benzene at 1.0 mM was seen within 160 min, depending on the molar ratios of SPC to Fe(III). A mechanism of benzene degradation was elaborated by free-radical probe-compound tests, free-radical scavengers tests, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) analysis, and determination of Fe(II) and H2O2 concentrations. The degradation products were also identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method. The hydroxyl radical (HO.) was the leading species in charge of benzene degradation. The formation of HO. was strongly dependent on the generation of the organic compound radical (R.) and superoxide anion radical (O.). Benzene degradation products included hydroxylated derivatives of benzene (phenol, hydroquinone, benzoquinone, and catechol) and aliphatic acids (oxalic and fumaric acids). The proposed degradation pathways are consistent with radical formation and identified products. The investigation of selected matrix constituents showed that the Cl and HCO3 had inhibitory effects on benzene degradation. Natural organic matter (NOM) had accelerating influence in degrading benzene. The developed system was tested with groundwater samples and it was found that the Fe(III)-activated SPC has a great potential in effective remediation of benzene-contaminated groundwater while more further studies should be done for its practical application in the future because of the complex subsurface environment.

  9. The design of self-collapsed super-strong nanotube bundles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugno, Nicola Maria

    2010-09-01

    The study reported in this paper suggests that the influence of the surrounding nanotubes in a bundle is nearly identical to that of a liquid having surface tension equal to the surface energy of the nanotubes. This surprising behaviour is supported by the calculation of the polygonization and especially of the self-collapse diameters, and related dog-bone configurations, of nanotubes in a bundle, in agreement with atomistic simulations and nanoscale experiments. Accordingly, we have evaluated the strength of the nanotube bundle, with or without collapsed nanotubes, assuming a sliding failure: the self-collapse can increase the strength up to a value of about ˜30%, suggesting the design of self-collapsed super-strong nanotube bundles. Other systems, such as peapods and fullerites, can be similarly treated, including the effect of the presence of a liquid, as reported in the appendices.

  10. Integrated Care Pathways and Care Bundles for Dementia in Acute Care: Concept Versus Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Dawn O; Mannix, Mary; Timmons, Suzanne

    2017-06-01

    Caring for people with dementia in acute settings is challenging and confounded by multiple comorbidities and difficulties transitioning between community and acute care. Recently, there has been an increase in the development and use of integrated care pathways (ICPs) and care bundles for defined illnesses and medical procedures, and these are now being promoted for use in dementia care in acute settings. We present a review of the literature on ICPs and/or care bundles for dementia care in the acute sector. This includes a literature overview including "gray literature" such as relevant websites, reports, and government publications. Taken together, there is clearly a growing interest in and clinical use of ICPs and care bundles for dementia. However, there is currently insufficient evidence to support the effectiveness of ICPs for dementia care in acute settings and limited evidence for care bundles for dementia in this setting.

  11. Dynamically Switching among Bundled and Single Tickets with Time-Dependent Demand Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhan Duran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The most important market segmentation in sports and entertainment industry is the competition between customers that buy bundled and single tickets. A common selling practice is starting the selling season with bundled ticket sales and switching to selling single tickets later on. The aim of this practice is to increase the number of customers that buy bundles, which in return increases the load factor of the events with low demand. In this paper, we investigate the effect of time dependent demand on dynamic switching times from bundled to single ticket sales and the potential revenue gain over the case where the demand rate of events is assumed to be constant with time.

  12. GPS-supported Bundle Adjustment Method of UAV by Considering Exposure Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Chunsen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The existing GPS-supported bundle adjustment method does not take into account the influence of camera exposure delay error impact in UAV photogrammetry is inconsistent which leading to the actual adjustment results are worse than the theoretical results. The mechanism of exposure delay is studied. The impact of exposure delay on GPS-supported bundle adjustment is analyzed. And a GPS-supported bundle adjustment method by considering the exposure delay is proposed. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by a typical dataset of 142 images. The meaning of the proposed method is that it can achieve the better aero-triangulation accuracy than the traditional GPS-supported bundle adjustment method.

  13. Energy Band Gap Study of Semiconducting Single Walled Carbon Nanotube Bundle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkadi, Asmaa; Decrossas, Emmanuel; El-Ghazaly, Samir

    2013-01-01

    The electronic properties of multiple semiconducting single walled carbon nanotubes (s-SWCNTs) considering various distribution inside a bundle are studied. The model derived from the proposed analytical potential function of electron density for na individual s-SWCNT is general and can be easily applied to multiple nanotubes. This work demonstrates that regardless the number of carbon nanotubes, the strong coupling occurring between the closet neighbors reduces the energy band gap of the bundle by 10%. As expected, the coupling is strongly dependent on the distance separating the s-SWCNTs. In addition, based on the developed model, it is proposed to enhance this coupling effect by applying an electric field across the bundle to significantly reduce the energy band gap of the bundle by 20%.

  14. Determinants of contractile forces generated in disorganized actomyosin bundles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taeyoon

    2015-04-01

    Actomyosin machinery is a fundamental engine consisting mostly of actin filaments, molecular motors, and passive cross-linkers, generating mechanical forces required for biological processes of non-muscle cells such as cell migration, cytokinesis, and morphogenesis. Although the molecular and physical properties of key elements in the actomyosin machinery have been characterized well, it still remains unclear how macroscopic force buildup and dissipation in actomyosin networks and bundles depend on the microscopic properties of individual cytoskeletal components and their local interactions. To bridge such a gap between macroscopic and microscopic scales, we have developed a three-dimensional computational model of actomyosin bundles clamped to an elastic substrate with minimal components: actin filaments, passive cross-linkers, and active motors. Our model accounts for several key features neglected by previous studies despite their significance for force generation, such as realistic structure and kinetics of the motors. Using the model, we systematically investigated how net tension in actomyosin bundles is governed via interplay between motors and cross-linkers. We demonstrated motors can generate large tension on a bundle in the absence of cross-linkers in a very inefficient, unstable manner. Cross-linkers help motors to generate their maximum potential forces as well as enhance overall connectivity, leading to much higher efficiency and stability. We showed further that the cross-linkers behave as a molecular clutch with tunable friction which has quite distinct effects on net tension depending on their cross-linking angles. We also examined the source of symmetry breaking between tensile and compressive forces during tension generation process and discussed how the length and dynamics of actin filaments and the stiffness of the elastic substrate can affect the generated tension.

  15. HYDRODISSECTION FOR PRESERVATION OF NEUROVASCULAR BUNDLE DURING RADICAL PROSTATECTOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. S. Gevorgyan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy is one of the high-tech operations in urology, and the challenge of the surgeon is not only to remove the prostate tumor, but also to provide a high quality of life. The fact that most questions devoted from patients in a conversation with the surgeon before the operation are devoted to this issue, shows the importance and relevance. At present, the diagnostic methods allow significantly more likely to detect early  prostate cancer, making finding and treatment of these patients more affordable and allows to apply this operation.Lately, it seems urgent to explore the possibility of water jet dissection in the field of urology, in particular, for nerve-sparing prostatectomy. Preservation of erectile function depends largely on the quality of separating the neurovascular bundle. Standard use of electrocautery is associated with damage to the neurovascular bundle.  When performing operations using water-jet mobilization of prostate the selective dissection of tissue is performed. This avoids injury of neurovascular bundle and further postoperative complications. The use of this technique may allow the surgeon to provide a more accurate mobilization prostate and selectively controlled intersection vessels heading to the prostate from the neurovascular bundle, reduce intraoperative blood loss,  maintaining continence, erectile function.This literature review is considered by the experience of using nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy using a water-jet dissector, estimated intraoperative parameters using this method.However, we have the lack of extensive research capabilities of this technique when performing nerve-preserving radical prostatectomy, that does not allow to make a comprehensive presentation on the benefits of this technique and its effects on erectile function and quality of urination, further study of this issue in such a difficult category of patients.

  16. The effects of two methods of Class III malocclusion treatment on temporomandibular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt, Hanefi; Alioğlu, Ceylan; Karayazgan, Banu; Tuncer, Necat; Kılıçoğlu, Hülya

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate, within a controlled clinical study, the effects of a Delaire-type facemask or a modified Jasper Jumper (JJ) used in the treatment of children with Class III malocclusions due to maxillary retrognathia on temporomandibular disorders (TMDs). Forty-six patients with Class III malocclusions referred for orthodontic treatment were divided into two groups, a test and a control. The test group comprised 33 randomly chosen patients (15 females, 18 males) aged 8-11 years. The control group included 13 patients (eight females, five males) with similar features. TMD assessment was performed before and after treatment using a two-axis questionnaire, the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMDs). Qualitative data were evaluated using chi-square and McNemar tests. No statistically significant differences related to the presence of TMD were observed pre- or post-treatment (P > 0.05). The most commonly encountered diagnosis was arthralgia in the JJ group both before and after treatment. Evaluation of joint and muscle regions showed decreased symptoms, apart from the diagnosed discomforts, in the JJ group (P Class III malocclusion treatment did not result in TMD.

  17. The effect of tibolone on the lipoprotein profile of postmenopausal women with type III hyperlipoproteinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beer, F; Smelt, A H M; van Vark, L C; Hoogerbrugge, N; Havekes, L M; Gevers Leuven, J A

    2002-02-01

    To investigate the short-term effect of treatment with tibolone on plasma lipid and lipoprotein levels in postmenopausal women with type III hyperlipoproteinemia (HLP). Patients were randomized to receive, in a double-blind cross-over fashion, a fixed dose of tibolone, 2.5 mg once daily or placebo for 8 weeks. The two treatment periods were separated by a wash-out period of 6 weeks. At each visit body weight and blood pressure were determined. Before and after each treatment period, fasting venous blood samples were obtained from the patients for biochemical measurements. The Leiden University Medical Center. Postmenopausal women with type III HLP (aged < or = 65 years) were recruited from the Lipid Clinics of the Leiden University Medical Center, the Amsterdam Medical Center, the Utrecht Medical Center and the University Hospital Rotterdam. Five out of 25 women with type III HLP were eligible to be included in the study. Four of the five included patients completed the study according to the protocol. One patient was excluded from blinded therapy because total cholesterol levels increased above 20 mmol L(-1). A significant reduction of plasma triglyceride, total cholesterol, VLDL cholesterol and VLDL triglyceride levels. Plasma triglyceride and total cholesterol levels decreased from 6.82 +/- 3.58 to 2.45 +/- 1.36 mmol L(-1) and from 13.53 +/- 3.64 to 6.61 +/- 2.03 mmol L(-1), respectively (both P < 0.05). The body mass index remained unchanged. The glycated haemoglobin percentage decreased significantly from 5.8 to 5.3%. Treatment with tibolone resulted in a profound reduction in plasma apolipoprotein E, VLDL cholesterol and VLDL triglyceride levels (mean reductions of 66, 77 and 70%, respectively, P < 0.05). Tibolone is a valuable adjuvant to current therapy in postmenopausal women with type III HLP.

  18. Balance Ability and Proprioception after Single-Bundle, Single-Bundle Augmentation, and Double-Bundle ACL Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yubao Ma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The present study sought to determine the influences of single-bundle (SB, single-bundle augmentation (SBA, and double-bundle (DB reconstructions on balance ability and proprioceptive function. Methods. 67 patients who underwent a single- or double-bundle ACL reconstruction or a SBA using multistranded autologous hamstring tendons were included in this study with a 1-year follow-up. Body sway and knee kinesthesia (using the threshold to detect passive motion test (TTDPM were measured to indicate balance ability and proprioceptive function, respectively. Additionally, within-subject differences in anterior-posterior stability of the tibia and lower extremity muscle strength were evaluated before and after surgery. Results. At 6 and 12 months after surgery, DB reconstruction resulted in better balance and proprioceptive function than SB reconstruction (P<0.05. Although no significant difference was observed in balance ability or proprioceptive function between the SBA and DB reconstructions, knee stability was significantly better with SBA and DB reconstructions than SB reconstruction (P<0.05. No significant differences were found in quadriceps and hamstrings strength among the three reconstruction techniques. Conclusions. Our findings consider that joint stability, proprioceptive function, and balance ability were superior with SBA and DB reconstructions compared to SB reconstruction at 6 and 12 months after surgery.

  19. Tuning of "antenna effect" of Eu(III) in ternary systems in aqueous medium through binding with protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorai, Shyamal Kr; Samanta, Swarna Kamal; Mukherjee, Manini; Saha Sardar, Pinki; Ghosh, Sanjib

    2013-02-04

    A simple ternary system containing a protein [human serum albumin (HSA)/bovine serum albumin (BSA)], tetracycline hydrochloride (TC), and Eu(III) in suitable aqueous buffer medium at physiological pH (= 7.2) has been shown to exhibit highly efficient "antenna effect" compared to the binary complex of TC with Eu(III) (Eu(3)TC). The ternary system containing E. coli alkaline phosphatase (AP), TC, and Eu(III), however, shows a slight enhancement of Eu(III) emission, although the binding constant of AP with TC is 2 orders of magnitude greater than with BSA/HSA. The enhanced emission of bound TC in the binary systems containing proteins and TC gets quenched in the ternary systems containing HSA/BSA, showing the efficient energy transfer (ET) from TC to Eu(III). Steady state and time-resolved emission studies of each component in all the ternary systems in H(2)O and in D(2)O medium reveal that Eu(III) is very well protected from the O-H oscillator in the ternary system containing HSA/BSA compared to that containing AP. The docking studies locating the binding site of TC in the proteins suggest that TC binds near the surface of AP. In the case of HSA/BSA, TC resides in the interior of the protein resulting in a large shielding effect of Eu(III). The rotational correlation time (θ(c)) determined from the anisotropy decay of bound TC in the complexes and the accessible surface area (ASA) of the ligand in the complexes obtained from the docking studies also support the contention that Eu(3)TC is more exposed to solvent in the case of the ternary system consisting of AP, TC, and Eu(III). The calculated radiative lifetime and the sensitization efficiency ratio of Eu(III) in all the systems clearly demonstrate the protein mediated tuning of "antenna effect" in Eu(III).

  20. Cadherin-23 may be dynamic in hair bundles of the model sea anemone Nematostella vectensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Ciao Tang

    Full Text Available Cadherin 23 (CDH23, a component of tip links in hair cells of vertebrate animals, is essential to mechanotransduction by hair cells in the inner ear. A homolog of CDH23 occurs in hair bundles of sea anemones. Anemone hair bundles are located on the tentacles where they detect the swimming movements of nearby prey. The anemone CDH23 is predicted to be a large polypeptide featuring a short exoplasmic C-terminal domain that is unique to sea anemones. Experimentally masking this domain with antibodies or mimicking this domain with free peptide rapidly disrupts mechanotransduction and morphology of anemone hair bundles. The loss of normal morphology is accompanied, or followed by a decrease in F-actin in stereocilia of the hair bundles. These effects were observed at very low concentrations of the reagents, 0.1-10 nM, and within minutes of exposure. The results presented herein suggest that: (1 the interaction between CDH23 and molecular partners on stereocilia of hair bundles is dynamic and; (2 the interaction is crucial for normal mechanotransduction and morphology of hair bundles.

  1. Cadherin-23 may be dynamic in hair bundles of the model sea anemone Nematostella vectensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Pei-Ciao; Watson, Glen M

    2014-01-01

    Cadherin 23 (CDH23), a component of tip links in hair cells of vertebrate animals, is essential to mechanotransduction by hair cells in the inner ear. A homolog of CDH23 occurs in hair bundles of sea anemones. Anemone hair bundles are located on the tentacles where they detect the swimming movements of nearby prey. The anemone CDH23 is predicted to be a large polypeptide featuring a short exoplasmic C-terminal domain that is unique to sea anemones. Experimentally masking this domain with antibodies or mimicking this domain with free peptide rapidly disrupts mechanotransduction and morphology of anemone hair bundles. The loss of normal morphology is accompanied, or followed by a decrease in F-actin in stereocilia of the hair bundles. These effects were observed at very low concentrations of the reagents, 0.1-10 nM, and within minutes of exposure. The results presented herein suggest that: (1) the interaction between CDH23 and molecular partners on stereocilia of hair bundles is dynamic and; (2) the interaction is crucial for normal mechanotransduction and morphology of hair bundles.

  2. Compactifications of the Heterotic string with unitary bundles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weigand, T.

    2006-05-23

    In this thesis we investigate a large new class of four-dimensional supersymmetric string vacua defined as compactifications of the E{sub 8} x E{sub 8} and the SO(32) heterotic string on smooth Calabi-Yau threefolds with unitary gauge bundles and heterotic five-branes. The first part of the thesis discusses the implementation of this idea into the E{sub 8} x E{sub 8} heterotic string. After specifying a large class of group theoretic embeddings featuring unitary bundles, we analyse the effective four-dimensional N=1 supergravity upon compactification. From the gauge invariant Kaehler potential for the moduli fields we derive a modification of the Fayet-Iliopoulos D-terms arising at one-loop in string perturbation theory. From this we conjecture a one-loop deformation of the Hermitian Yang-Mills equation and introduce the idea of {lambda}-stability as the perturbatively correct stability concept generalising the notion of Mumford stability valid at tree-level. We then proceed to a definition of SO(32) heterotic vacua with unitary gauge bundles in the presence of heterotic five-branes and find agreement of the resulting spectrum with the S-dual framework of Type I/Type IIB orientifolds. A similar analysis of the effective four-dimensional supergravity is performed. Further evidence for the proposed one-loop correction to the stability condition is found by identifying the heterotic corrections as the S-dual of the perturbative part of {pi}-stability as the correct stability concept in Type IIB theory. After reviewing the construction of holomorphic stable vector bundles on elliptically fibered Calabi-Yau manifolds via spectral covers, we provide semi-realistic examples for SO(32) heterotic vacua with Pati-Salam and MSSM-like gauge sectors. We finally discuss the construction of realistic vacua with flipped SU(5) GUT and MSSM gauge group within the E{sub 8} x E{sub 8} framework, based on the embedding of line bundles into both E{sub 8} factors. Some of the appealing

  3. Dendritic bundling in layer I of granular retrosplenial cortex: intracellular labeling and selectivity of innervation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyss, J M; Van Groen, T; Sripanidkulchai, K

    1990-05-01

    The extrinsic projections to and from the retrosplenial cortex have been studied in detail, but the intrinsic circuitry within this region has been characterized less completely. To further define the internal connections, small injections of the retrograde, fluorescent tracer Fluorogold were made into the retrosplenial cortex of the rat. These injections label neurons in layers II-V of the contralateral homotopic cortex. In layers III-V, the labeled neurons are present over an area much larger than the injection site, but in layer II neurons are labeled in a very precise homotopic pattern. Following these injections, only the neurons in layer II display heavily labeled apical dendrites, and these labeled dendrites form tight bundles in layer Ic and Ib of the cortex and spread out in layer Ia. An examination of Golgi-stained material demonstrates that most of the neurons in layer II are small pyramidal cells with 2-3 small basal dendrites and a single, large apical dendrite that arborizes extensively in layer Ia. To verify the structure of the layer II neurons, they were intracellularly filled with Lucifer yellow. Examination of these labeled cells confirms the observations from the Golgi-stained material and demonstrates that many apical dendrites of the layer II cells angle acutely, apparently to join a bundle and/or avoid an interbundle space. Tract tracing experiments demonstrate that the anteroventral nucleus of the thalamus appears to project selectively to the region containing the dendritic bundles, whereas intracortical projections appear to terminate in layers Ib and Ic in the 30-200 microns spaces between the bundles. Furthermore, the areas containing the bundles display dense AChE staining, but the interbundle spaces are almost free of AChE staining. These findings demonstrate a form of dendritic bundling that is input and output specific and may play an important role in the regulation of thalamic inputs to the cingulate cortex.

  4. Treatment Effects of Occipitomental Anchorage Appliance of Maxillary Protraction Combined with Chincup Traction in Children with Class III Malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiang-Chien Lin

    2007-05-01

    Conclusion: Our results suggest that the OMA orthopedic appliance can correct the mesial jaw relationship and negative incisal overjet. This appliance is effective for correcting skeletal Class III malocclusion with both midface deficiency and Mn prognathism in growing children.

  5. Combined effects of Lanthanum(III) and elevated Ultraviolet-B radiation on root nitrogen nutrient in soybean seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guangrong; Wang, Lihong; Sun, Zhaoguo; Li, Xiaodong; Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiaohua

    2015-02-01

    Rare earth element pollution and elevated ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation occur simultaneously in some regions, but the combined effects of these two factors on plants have not attracted enough attention. Nitrogen nutrient is vital to plant growth. In this study, the combined effects of lanthanum(III) and elevated UV-B radiation on nitrate reduction and ammonia assimilation in soybean (Glycine max L.) roots were investigated. Treatment with 0.08 mmol L(-1) La(III) did not change the effects of elevated UV-B radiation on nitrate reductase (NR), nitrite reductase (NiR), glutamine synthetase (GS), glutamate synthase (GOGAT), glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), nitrate, ammonium, amino acids, or soluble protein in the roots. Treatment with 0.24 mmol L(-1) La(III) and elevated UV-B radiation synergistically decreased the NR, NiR, GS, and GOGAT activities as well as the nitrate, amino acid, and soluble protein levels, except for the GDH activity and ammonium content. Combined treatment with 1.20 mmol L(-1) La(III) and elevated UV-B radiation produced severely deleterious effects on all test indices, and these effects were stronger than those induced by La(III) or elevated UV-B radiation treatment alone. Following the withdrawal of La(III) and elevated UV-B radiation, all test indices for the combined treatments with 0.08/0.24 mmol L(-1) La(III) and elevated UV-B radiation recovered to a certain extent, but they could not recover for treatments with 1.20 mmol L(-1) La(III) and elevated UV-B radiation. In summary, combined treatment with La(III) and elevated UV-B radiation seriously affected nitrogen nutrition in soybean roots through the inhibition of nitrate reduction and ammonia assimilation.

  6. Treatment Effects of Occipitomental Anchorage Appliance of Maxillary Protraction Combined with Chincup Traction in Children with Class III Malocclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Hsiang-Chien Lin; Hong-Po Chang; Hsin-Fu Chang

    2007-01-01

    Little information related to the treatment effects of the occipitomental anchorage (OMA) appliance of maxillary (Mx) protraction combined with chincup traction is available. The aim of this study was to investigate the treatment effects of the OMA orthopedic appliance on patients with Class III malocclusion. Methods: Pretreatment and post-treatment cephalometric records of 20 consecutively treated patients with Class III malocclusions were evaluated and compared with a matched sample of u...

  7. Reduction of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid iron(III) by Klebsiella sp. FD-3 immobilized on iron(II, III) oxide poly (styrene-glycidyl methacrylate) magnetic porous microspheres: effects of inorganic compounds and kinetic study of effective diffusion in porous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zuo-Ming; Wang, Xiao-Yan; Lin, Tian-Ming; Jing, Guo-Hua

    2014-11-01

    Fe3O4 poly (styrene-glycidyl methacrylate) magnetic porous microspheres (MPPMs) were introduced to immobilize Klebsiella sp. FD-3, an iron-reducing bacterium applied to reduce Fe(III)EDTA. The effects of potential inhibitors (S(2-), SO3(2-), NO3(-), NO2(-) and Fe(II)EDTA-NO) on Fe(III)EDTA reduction were investigated. S(2-) reacted with Fe(III)EDTA as an electron-shuttling compound and enhanced the reduction. But Fe(III)EDTA reduction was inhibited by SO3(2-) and Fe(II)EDTA-NO due to their toxic to microorganisms. Low concentrations of NO3(-) and NO2(-) accelerated Fe(III)EDTA reduction, but high concentrations inhibited the reduction, whether by free or immobilized FD-3. The immobilized FD-3 performed better than freely-suspended style. The substrate mass transfer and diffusion kinetics in the porous microspheres were calculated. The value of Thiele modulus and effectiveness factors showed that the intraparticle diffusion was fairly small and neglected in this carrier. Fe(III)EDTA reduction fitted first-order model at low Fe(III)EDTA concentration, and changed to zero-order model at high concentrations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of Fe(III) on biofilm and its extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in fixed bed biofilm reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xuewei; Chen, Kai; Lai, Xinke; Ji, Siping; Kaiser, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    The effects of Fe(III) on the biofilm mass and activity, the biofilm micromorphology as well as the composition and functional groups characteristics of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in biofilm were investigated in laboratory-scale fixed bed biofilm reactors. The results showed that 2 mg/L of Fe(III) promoted the biofilm mass and improved the biofilm activity, but 16 mg/L of Fe(III) adversely affected biofilm development. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) study indicated a high concentration (16 mg/L) of Fe(III) led to significant reduction of the filaments, great promotion of the EPS secretion in biofilm. The result of the EPS composition suggested 2 mg/L of Fe(III) increased soluble EPS and loosely bound EPS which contributed to the microbial aggregation, while 16 mg/L of Fe(III) promoted tightly bound EPS production unfavourable for substrate mass transfer. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis demonstrated that Fe(III) exerted a significant influence on the -CONH- groups of proteins and the C-O groups of polysaccharides in EPS. This study reveals that Fe(III) influences biofilm development and activity not only by directly impacting the microbial physiology but by indirectly affecting the EPS constituents, and it helps to provide theoretical guidance for iron ion containing wastewater treatment.

  9. Medial Forebrain Bundle Deep Brain Stimulation has Symptom-specific Anti-depressant Effects in Rats and as Opposed to Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex Stimulation Interacts With the Reward System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edemann-Callesen, Henriette; Voget, Mareike; Empl, Laura; Vogel, Martin; Wieske, Franziska; Rummel, Julia; Heinz, Andreas; Mathé, Aleksander A; Hadar, Ravit; Winter, Christine

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, deep brain stimulation (DBS) has emerged as a promising treatment option for patients suffering from treatment-resistant depression (TRD). Several stimulation targets have successfully been tested in clinical settings, including the subgenual cingulum (Cg25) and the medial forebrain bundle (MFB). MFB-DBS has led to remarkable results, surpassing the effect of previous targets in terms of response latency and number of responders. However, the question remains as to which mechanisms underlie this difference. The aim of the present study was to thoroughly study the anti-depressant effect of MFB-DBS in the Flinders sensitive line (FSL) rat model of depression as well as to investigate whether MFB-DBS and Cg25-DBS operate through the same neurobiological circuits. FSL and control rats received bilateral high-frequency stimulation to the MFB at the level of the lateral hypothalamus, while being subjected to a variety of depression- and anxiety-related behavioral paradigms. To further compare the effects of MFB-DBS and Cg25-DBS on reward-related behavior, animals were stimulated in either the MFB or ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC, rodent analog to Cg25), while being tested in the intra-cranial self-stimulation paradigm. A marked symptom-specific anti-depressant effect of MFB-DBS was demonstrated. The ICSS-paradigm revealed that MFB-DBS, as opposed to vmPFC-DBS interacts with the reward system. Our data suggest that MFB-DBS and Cg25-DBS do not operate via the same neurobiological circuits. This differentiation might be of interest when selecting patients for either Cg25- or MFB-DBS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Differential effects of arsenic(III) and chromium(VI) on nuclear transcription factor binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltreider, R C; Pesce, C A; Ihnat, M A; Lariviere, J P; Hamilton, J W

    1999-07-01

    The toxic metals arsenic(III) and chromium(VI) are considered human carcinogens, although they may act through different mechanisms. We previously showed that when administered at single low, non-overtly toxic doses, chromium, arsenic, and several other chemical carcinogens preferentially alter expression of several model inducible genes in both whole-animal and cell-culture systems. In this study, we assessed whether chromium and arsenic target specific signaling pathways within cells to selectively modulate gene expression. We examined the effects of non-cytotoxic and cytotoxic doses of arsenic(III) and chromium(VI) on nuclear binding of the transcription factors AP-1, NF-kappaB, Sp1, and YB-1 in human MDA-MB-435 breast cancer and rat H4IIE hepatoma cells. These transcription factors were chosen because they may regulate many inducible genes, including those previously shown to be altered by metal treatments. We report that both arsenic and chromium significantly altered nuclear binding levels of these factors to their respective cis-acting elements. However, there were qualitative and quantitative differences in these effects that were dependent on the metal, time, dose, transcription factor, and cell line. These effects may play a significant role in metal-induced alterations in gene expression.

  11. Sorption of Eu(III) and Am(III) on attapulgite. Effect of pH, ionic strength and fulvic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Q.H.; Wu, W.S. [Radiochemistry Lab., School of Nuclear Science and Tech., Lanzhou Univ., GS (China); State Key Lab. of Applied Organic Chemistry, Lanzhou Univ., GS (China); Zhang, M.L.; Zhang, Y.Y.; Ding, K.F.; Yang, Z.Q. [Radiochemistry Lab., School of Nuclear Science and Tech., Lanzhou Univ., GS (China)

    2010-07-01

    Sorption of Eu(III) and Am(III) on attapulgite were studied as a function of pH, ionic strength, the liquid-to-solid ratio (V/m), and Eu(III) and Am(III) concentrations under ambient conditions using batch technique. The sorption of Eu(III) and Am(III) was quickly and {proportional_to} 4 hours were enough to achieve the sorption equilibrium. The K' values were 6.57 x 10{sup 6} g mg{sup -1} h{sup -1} for Eu(III) and 6.67 x 106 g mg{sup -1} h{sup -1} for Am(III), respectively; and q{sub e} values were 4.46 x 10{sup -7} mg/g for Eu(III) and 1.0 x 10{sup -6} mg/g for Am(III), respectively. Sorption of Eu(III) and Am(III) on attapulgite were strongly affected by pH values, and weakly dependent on ionic strength. Sorption of Eu(III) and Am(III) were mainly dominated by surface complexation. although ion exchange also contributed to Eu(III) and Am(III) sorption. In the presence of fulvic acid (FA), the sorption edge of Eu(III) and Am(III) was obviously shifted to lower pH. The results showed that the sorption of Eu(III) and Am(III) to attapulgite was enhanced significantly in the range of pH 0.5 to 6. (orig.)

  12. Graph Bundling by Kernel Density Estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hurter, C.; Ersoy, O.; Telea, A.

    We present a fast and simple method to compute bundled layouts of general graphs. For this, we first transform a given graph drawing into a density map using kernel density estimation. Next, we apply an image sharpening technique which progressively merges local height maxima by moving the convolved

  13. Permanent His-Bundle Pacing: Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayaraman, Pugazhendhi; Dandamudi, Gopi

    2016-12-01

    His bundle pacing (HBP) is a physiological alternative to right ventricular pacing. In addition to patients with normal His-Purkinje conduction, HBP can be valuable in patients with infranodal atrioventricular (AV) block and patients undergoing AV node ablation. The following case studies illustrate the challenges associated with HBP. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Fluxes, bundle gerbes and 2-Hilbert spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunk, Severin; Szabo, Richard J.

    2017-10-01

    We elaborate on the construction of a prequantum 2-Hilbert space from a bundle gerbe over a 2-plectic manifold, providing the first steps in a programme of higher geometric quantisation of closed strings in flux compactifications and of M5-branes in C-fields. We review in detail the construction of the 2-category of bundle gerbes and introduce the higher geometrical structures necessary to turn their categories of sections into 2-Hilbert spaces. We work out several explicit examples of 2-Hilbert spaces in the context of closed strings and M5-branes on flat space. We also work out the prequantum 2-Hilbert space associated with an M-theory lift of closed strings described by an asymmetric cyclic orbifold of the SU(2) WZW model, providing an example of sections of a torsion gerbe on a curved background. We describe the dimensional reduction of M-theory to string theory in these settings as a map from 2-isomorphism classes of sections of bundle gerbes to sections of corresponding line bundles, which is compatible with the respective monoidal structures and module actions.

  15. The unintended consequences of bundled payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, William B; Rauh, Stephen S; Wadsworth, Eric B; Weinstein, James N

    2013-01-01

    Consensus is building that episode-based bundled payments can produce substantial Medicare savings, and the Center for Medicare & Medicaid Innovation's Bundled Payment Initiative endorses this concept. The program generates potential cost savings by reducing the historic cost of time-defined episodes of care, provided through a discount. Although bundled payments can reduce waste primarily in the postacute care setting, concerns arise that, in an effort to maintain income levels that are necessary to cover fixed costs, providers may change their behaviors to increase the volume of episodes. Such actions would mitigate the savings that Medicare might have accrued and may perpetuate the fee-for-service payment mechanism, with episodes of care becoming the new service. Although bundled payments have some advantages over the current reimbursement system, true cost-savings to Medicare will be realized only when the federal government addresses the use issue that underlies much of the waste inherent in the system and provides ample incentives to eliminate capacity and move toward capitation.

  16. Capacity efficiency of recovery request bundling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Dittmann, Lars; Berger, Michael Stübert

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison of recovery methods in terms of capacity efficiency. In particular, a method where recovery requests are bundled towards the destination (Shortcut Span Protection) is evaluated against traditional recovery methods. Our simulation results show that Shortcut Span...

  17. Meromorphic connections on vector bundles over curves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Descartes,. 67084 Strasbourg Cedex, France. *Correspond author. E-mail: indranil@math.tifr.res.in; heu@math.unistra.fr. MS received 17 July 2013; revised 20 October 2013. Abstract. We give a criterion for filtered vector bundles over curves to admit a ...

  18. Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with double bundle versus single bundle: experimental study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roberto F. Mota e Albuquerque; Sandra Umeda Sasaki; Marco Martins Amatuzzi; Fabio Janson Angelini

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test an intra-articular reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament of the knee in 10 human cadavers by replacing 2 anterior cruciate ligament bundles, with the purpose of producing...

  19. Functional aspects of His bundle physiology and pathophysiology: Clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherlag, Benjamin J; Lazzara, Ralph

    In this review we present evidence from many experimental studies which challenge the concept of predestination of His bundle fibers. Using both intra- and extracellular His bundle pacing in the context of atrio-ventricular block and the development of bundle branch blocks these experimental studies provide the underlying mechanisms for the recent clinical findings showing the benefits of permanent His bundle pacing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A case of 'Masquerading' bundle branch block: a forgotten concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Dinesh; Namboodiri, Narayanan; Tharakan, Jaganmohan A

    2014-01-01

    'Masquerading' bundle branch block (right bundle branch block in the precordial leads with left bundle branch block in frontal leads and left axis deviation) is seen most commonly with coronary artery disease and hypertension. No definite explanation is available so far for these changes. We are presenting a case of rare congenital intranuclear inclusion myopathy with congestive heart failure and 'Masquerading' bundle branch block in ECG. Copyright © 2013 Cardiological Society of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Bundling revisited: substitute products and inter-firm discounts

    OpenAIRE

    Armstrong, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This paper extends the standard model of bundling to allow products to be substitutes and for products to be supplied by separate sellers. Whether integrated or separate, firms have an incentive to introduce bundling discounts when demand for the bundle is elastic relative to demand for stand-alone products. When products are partial substitutes, this typically gives an integrated firm a greater incentive to offer a bundle discount (relative to the standard model with additive preferences), w...

  2. Distinct Effects of Type I and III Interferons on Enteric Viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harshad Ingle

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Interferons (IFNs are key host cytokines in the innate immune response to viral infection, and recent work has identified unique roles for IFN subtypes in regulating different aspects of infection. Currently emerging is a common theme that type III IFNs are critical in localized control of infection at mucosal barrier sites, while type I IFNs are important for broad systemic control of infections. The intestine is a particular site of interest for exploring these effects, as in addition to being the port of entry for a multitude of pathogens, it is a complex tissue with a variety of cell types as well as the presence of the intestinal microbiota. Here we focus on the roles of type I and III IFNs in control of enteric viruses, discussing what is known about signaling downstream from these cytokines, including induction of specific IFN-stimulated genes. We review viral strategies to evade IFN responses, effects of IFNs on the intestine, interactions between IFNs and the microbiota, and briefly discuss the role of IFNs in controlling viral infections at other barrier sites. Enhanced understanding of the coordinate roles of IFNs in control of viral infections may facilitate development of antiviral therapeutic strategies; here we highlight potential avenues for future exploration.

  3. Effects of chromium(III) on enzyme activities and bacterial communities during swine manure composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yanan; Gu, Jie; Wang, Xiaojuan; Song, Wen; Zhang, Kaiyu; Zhang, Xin; Lu, Chunya; Liu, Jiayao

    2017-11-01

    The present study investigated the effects of different concentrations of chromium (i.e., 200 and 700mgkg-1 Cr corresponding to Cr200 and Cr700, respectively) on the microorganisms in swine manure compost. The results demonstrated that a high concentration of Cr(III) could inhibit the activity of key microbial enzymes (i.e., dehydrogenase, cellulase, and urease) in the early composting stages, with maximal inhibition rates of 54.9%, 32.8%, and 46.7% for cellulase, urease, and dehydrogenase, respectively. Furthermore, the bacterial abundances were determined by quantitative PCR and their compositions were evaluated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Cr200 and Cr700 had significant inhibitory effects on the abundances of bacteria. The DGGE results showed that Cr200 and Cr700 changed the bacterial community structure and diversity, where Cr(III) might enhance the abundance of pathogenic bacteria (e.g., Saccharomonospora) and decrease the abundances of bacteria that degrade cellulose and lignin (e.g., Paenibacillus) during composting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Compactifications of reductive groups as moduli stacks of bundles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martens, Johan; Thaddeus, Michael

    Let G be a reductive group. We introduce the moduli problem of "bundle chains" parametrizing framed principal G-bundles on chains of lines. Any fan supported in a Weyl chamber determines a stability condition on bundle chains. Its moduli stack provides an equivariant toroidal compactification of ...... studied by Losev-Manin....

  5. Turkish and Native English Academic Writers' Use of Lexical Bundles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztürk, Yusuf; Köse, Gül Durmusoglu

    2016-01-01

    Lexical bundles such as "on the other hand" and "as a result of" are extremely common and important in academic discourse. The appropriate use of lexical bundles typical of a specific academic discipline is important for writers and the absence of such bundles may not sound fluent and native-like. Recent studies (e.g. Adel…

  6. Quillen bundle and geometric prequantization of non-abelian ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper we prequantize the moduli space of non-abelian vortices. We explicitly calculate the symplectic form arising from 2 metric and we construct a prequantum line bundle whose curvature is proportional to this symplectic form. The prequantum line bundle turns out to be Quillen's determinant line bundle with a ...

  7. The Bundle of His in Prosthetic Heart Valve Replacement*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1973-01-27

    Jan 27, 1973 ... ventricular seplUm which transected the bundle of His. Blocks were then fashioned backwards and forwards.. to include the whole of the bundle and the AV node. as well as the bifurcation of the bundle into its left and right branches. According to Davies: in order to study the whole conduction system in an ...

  8. Real parabolic vector bundles over a real curve

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    weights are integral multiples of 1/N, and the category of real -equivariant vector bundles on (Y,σY ). ... The notion of parabolic vector bundles over a compact Riemann surface was introduced by Seshadri [4] and their .... stable. If F is a direct sum of stable vector bundles having the same slope, then F is called polystable.

  9. Geometry of torus bundles in integrable Hamiltonian systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lukina, Olga

    2008-01-01

    Thesis is concerned with global properties of Lagrangian bundles, i.e. symplectic n-torus bundles, as these occur in integrable Hamiltonian systems. It treats obstructions to triviality and concerns with classification of such bundles, as well as with manifestations of global invariants in

  10. Masquerading bundle branch block: a variety of right bundle branch block with left anterior fascicular block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizari, Marcelo V; Baranchuk, Adrian; Chiale, Pablo A

    2013-01-01

    The so-called 'masquerading' type of right bundle branch block is caused by the simultaneous presence of a high-degree left anterior fascicular block often accompanied with severe left ventricular enlargement and/or fibrotic block in the anterolateral wall of the left ventricle. These conditions tend to reorient the terminal electrical forces of the QRS complex towards the left and upwards, in such a way that the characteristic slurred S wave in lead I becomes smaller or even disappears. In many cases of standard masquerading right bundle branch block, a small Q wave in lead I is present due to the initial forces of the left anterior fascicular block, which are oriented rightwards and inferiorly. However, in some cases, the Q wave in lead I also vanishes, and the mimicking of a left bundle branch block becomes perfect in standard leads. This is commonly associated with an inferior myocardial infarction or severe inferior fibrosis in cardiomyopathies. The typical QRS changes of right bundle branch block may eventually be concealed even in the right precordial leads; under such circumstances, the ECG diagnosis may be mistaken and the right bundle branch block totally missed. The masquerading right bundle branch block carries a poor prognosis, since it always implies the presence of a severe underlying heart disease.

  11. Bundling of harvesting residues and whole-trees and the treatment of bundles; Hakkuutaehteiden ja kokopuiden niputus ja nippujen kaesittely

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaipainen, H.; Seppaenen, V.; Rinne, S.

    1996-12-31

    The conditions on which the bundling of the harvesting residues from spruce regeneration fellings would become profitable were studied. The calculations showed that one of the most important features was sufficient compaction of the bundle, so that the portion of the wood in the unit volume of the bundle has to be more than 40 %. The tests showed that the timber grab loader of farm tractor was insufficient for production of dense bundles. The feeding and compression device of the prototype bundler was constructed in the research and with this device the required density was obtained.The rate of compaction of the dry spruce felling residues was about 40 % and that of the fresh residues was more than 50 %. The comparison between the bundles showed that the calorific value of the fresh bundle per unit volume was nearly 30 % higher than that of the dry bundle. This means that the treatment of the bundles should be done of fresh felling residues. Drying of the bundles succeeded well, and the crushing and chipping tests showed that the processing of the bundles at the plant is possible. The treatability of the bundles was also excellent. By using the prototype, developed in the research, it was possible to produce a bundle of the fresh spruce harvesting residues, the diameter of which was about 50 cm and the length about 3 m, and the rate of compaction over 50 %. By these values the reduction target of the costs is obtainable

  12. Cytogenotoxic effects of two potential anticancer Ruthenium(III Schiff Bases complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izet Eminovic

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Treatment of cancer has been subject of great interest. Researchers are continuously searching for new medicines. In this sense, ruthenium complexes have big potential. Some evidences suggest that ruthenium compounds possess anticancer activities. We synthesized two recently published ruthenium(III complexes with bidentate O,N and tridentate O,O,N Schiff bases derived from 5-substituted salicylaldehyde and aminophenol or anilineare. These compounds showed affinity for binding to the DNA molecule, however, insufficient data are available regarding their possible toxic effects on biological systems.Methods: In the present study we evaluated genotoxic, cytotoxic, and cytostatic effects of Na[RuCl2(L12] and Na[Ru(L22], using the Allium cepa assay.Results: Different toxic effects were observed depending on the substance, tested concentration, and endpoint measured. In general, the tested compounds significantly lowered the root growth and mitotic index values as compared to the control group. Additionally, a wide range of abnormal mitotic stages, both clastogenic and non-clastogenic were observed in the treated cells. Na[RuCl2(L12] significantly increased the frequency of sticky metaphases, chromosome bridges, micronuclei, impaired chromosome segregation, as well as number of apoptotic and necrotic cells over the controls. In contrast, Na[Ru(L22] did not show significant evidence of genotoxicity with regard to chromosome aberrations and micronuclei, however, significant differences were detected in the number of apoptotic and necrotic cells when the highest concentration was applied.Conclusions: In this study we demonstrated antiproliferative effects of Na[RuCl2(L12] and Na[Ru(L22]. At clinical level, these results could be interesting for further studies on anticancer potential of the ruthenium(III complexes using animal models.

  13. Treatment effects of occipitomental anchorage appliance of maxillary protraction combined with chincup traction in children with Class III malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsiang-Chien; Chang, Hong-Po; Chang, Hsin-Fu

    2007-05-01

    Little information related to the treatment effects of the occipitomental anchorage (OMA) appliance of maxillary (Mx) protraction combined with chincup traction is available. The aim of this study was to investigate the treatment effects of the OMA orthopedic appliance on patients with Class III malocclusion. Pretreatment and post-treatment cephalometric records of 20 consecutively treated patients with Class III malocclusions were evaluated and compared with a matched sample of untreated Class III control subjects. The OMA appliance is effective for correcting skeletal Class III malocclusion in growing children. The treatment effects of this orthopedic appliance were considered to be from both skeletal and dentoalveolar changes. The skeletal effects were mainly obtained by stimulating forward growth of the Mx complex with negligible rotation of the Mx plane and restraining forward advancement of the mandible (Mn) with backward and downward rotation of the Mn plane. The observed dentoalveolar effects were mostly due to the labial tipping movement of the Mx incisors. Our results suggest that the OMA orthopedic appliance can correct the mesial jaw relationship and negative incisal over jet. This appliance is effective for correcting skeletal Class III malocclusion with both midface deficiency and Mn prognathism in growing children.

  14. The effect of bundling medication-assisted treatment for opioid addiction with mHealth: study protocol for a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, David H; Landucci, Gina; McTavish, Fiona; Kornfield, Rachel; Johnson, Roberta A; Mares, Marie-Louise; Westergaard, Ryan P; Quanbeck, Andrew; Alagoz, Esra; Pe-Romashko, Klaren; Thomas, Chantelle; Shah, Dhavan

    2016-12-12

    Opioid dependence has devastating and increasingly widespread consequences and costs, and the most common outcome of treatment is early relapse. People who inject opioids are also at disproportionate risk for contracting the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV). This study tests an approach that has been shown to improve recovery rates: medication along with other supportive services (medication-assisted treatment, or MAT) against MAT combined with a smartphone innovation called A-CHESS (MAT + A-CHESS). This unblinded study will randomly assign 440 patients to receive MAT + A-CHESS or MAT alone. Eligible patients will meet criteria for having an opioid use disorder of at least moderate severity and will be taking methadone, injectable naltrexone, or buprenorphine. Patients with A-CHESS will have smartphones for 16 months; all patients will be followed for 24 months. The primary outcome is the difference between patients in the two arms in percentage of days using illicit opioids during the 24-month intervention. Secondary outcomes are differences between patients receiving MAT + A-CHESS versus MAT in other substance use, quality of life, retention in treatment, health service use, and, related to HIV and HCV, screening and testing rates, medication adherence, risk behaviors, and links to care. We will also examine mediators and moderators of the effects of MAT + A-CHESS. We will measure variables at baseline and months 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, and 24. At each point, patients will respond to a 20- to 30-min phone survey; urine screens will be collected at baseline and up to twice a month thereafter. We will use mixed-effects to evaluate the primary and secondary outcomes, with baseline scores functioning as covariates, treatment condition as a between-subject factor, and the outcomes reflecting scores for a given assessment at the six time points. Separate analyses will be conducted for each outcome. A-CHESS has been shown to

  15. Intersection cohomology of moduli spaces of vector bundles over curves

    OpenAIRE

    Mozgovoy, Sergey; Reineke, Markus

    2015-01-01

    We compute the intersection cohomology of the moduli spaces $M(r,d)$ of semistable vector bundles of arbitrary rank $r$ and degree $d$ over a curve. To do this, we introduce new invariants, called Donaldson-Thomas invariants of a curve, which can be effectively computed by methods going back to Harder, Narasimhan, Desale and Ramanan. Our main result relates the Hodge-Euler polynomial of the intersection cohomology of $M(r,d)$ to the Donaldson-Thomas invariants. More generally, we introduce Do...

  16. Reducing hospital-acquired pressure ulcers using bundle methodology in pediatric and neonatal patients receiving extracorporeal membrane oxygenation therapy: An integrative review and call to action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtwright, Suzanne E; Mastro, Kari A; Preuster, Christa; Dardashti, Navid; McGill, Sandra; Madelon, Myrlene; Johnson, Donna

    2017-10-01

    This review focuses on identifying (1) evidence of the effectiveness of care bundle methodology to reduce hospital-acquired pressure ulcers (HAPUs) in pediatric and neonatal patients receiving extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) therapy and (2) barriers to implementing HAPU care bundles in this at-risk population. An integrative review was conducted and reported following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. A search of the scientific literature was performed. Studies included were published between January 2011 and February 2016. A total of seven articles met inclusion criteria. Data were extracted from each published article and analyzed to identify common themes, specifically bundle methodology and barriers to implementing HAPU bundles, in this population. There is limited research on effectiveness of care bundle methodology in reducing HAPUs in children, and no research specific to its effectiveness in pediatric or neonatal ECMO patients. No research was identified studying barriers to implementation of HAPU care bundles in this population. Nurses are well poised to test innovative strategies to prevent HAPUs. Nurses should consider implementing and testing bundle methodology to reduce HAPU in this at-risk population, and conduct research to identify any barriers to implementing this strategy. There is literature to support the use of nurses as unit-based skin care champions to facilitate teamwork and reliable use of the bundle, both critical components to the success of bundle methodology. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Baseline left bundle branch block with right bundle branch escape complexes in a patient with coronary artery disease, presents like an alternating bundle branch block: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhimaraj, Arvind; Abusin, Salaheldin; Margeta, Bosko

    2008-01-01

    Alternating bundle branch block (ABBB) is a less commonly encountered phenomenon with the advent of re-perfusion therapy for acute myocardial infarction. ECGs simulating the appearance of an ABBB need to be carefully analysed. We present an ECG showing a baseline Left Bundle Branch Block(LBBB) progressing to a high grade AV block with escape complexes having a Right Bundle Branch Block (RBBB) morphology. Such an ECG can be mistaken for an ABBB if not analysed carefully. PMID:19116014

  18. Non-abelian higher gauge theory and categorical bundle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viennot, David

    2016-12-01

    A gauge theory is associated with a principal bundle endowed with a connection permitting to define horizontal lifts of paths. The horizontal lifts of surfaces cannot be defined into a principal bundle structure. An higher gauge theory is an attempt to generalize the bundle structure in order to describe horizontal lifts of surfaces. A such attempt is particularly difficult for the non-abelian case. Some structures have been proposed to realize this goal (twisted bundle, gerbes with connection, bundle gerbe, 2-bundle). Each of them uses a category in place of the total space manifold of the usual principal bundle structure. Some of them replace also the structure group by a category (more precisely a Lie crossed module viewed as a category). But the base space remains still a simple manifold (possibly viewed as a trivial category with only identity arrows). We propose a new principal categorical bundle structure, with a Lie crossed module as structure groupoid, but with a base space belonging to a bigger class of categories (which includes non-trivial categories), that we called affine 2-spaces. We study the geometric structure of the categorical bundles built on these categories (which are a more complicated structure than the 2-bundles) and the connective structures on these bundles. Finally we treat an example interesting for quantum dynamics which is associated with the Bloch wave operator theory.

  19. Dentofacial effects of bone-anchored maxillary protraction: a controlled study of consecutively treated Class III patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Clerck, Hugo; Cevidanes, Lucia; Baccetti, Tiziano

    2010-11-01

    In this cephalometric investigation, we analyzed the treatment effects of bone-anchored maxillary protraction (BAMP) with miniplates in the maxilla and mandible connected by Class III elastics in patients with Class III malocclusion. The treated sample consisted of 21 Class III patients consecutively treated with the BAMP protocol before the pubertal growth spurt (mean age, 11.10 ± 1.8 years) and reevaluated after BAMP therapy, about 1 year later. The treated group was compared with a matched control group of 18 untreated Class III subjects. Significant differences between the treated and control groups were assessed with independent-sample t tests (P maxillary structures of about 4 mm, and favorable mandibular changes exceeded 2 mm. Copyright © 2010 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. SIKAP KONSUMEN TERHADAP PRODUK BUNDLING AGRIBISNIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didi Junaedi

    2017-04-01

    implementation to Dekalb brand hybrid corn and Round-up brand herbicide. By analyzes how consumer attitudes toward buying intention in this regard farmers as buyer and retailers as products services. The data used is primary data. Primary data is obtained using 2 kind of respondents are retailers and farmers. The data obtained by distributed 30 questionnaires for retailers and 110 farmers in Grobogan. The descriptive statistic employed to analyzed data by using multiple linear regressions with t test, F test and coefficient of determination. The result showed that on retailers respondents attribute the product bundling has no significant influence to consumer buying intention but consumer attitudes significantly influence the buying intention. On the farmers respondents showed that attributes of the product bundling and consumer attitudes positive and significant influence to buying intention.

  1. Covariance and the hierarchy of frame bundles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estabrook, Frank B.

    1987-01-01

    This is an essay on the general concept of covariance, and its connection with the structure of the nested set of higher frame bundles over a differentiable manifold. Examples of covariant geometric objects include not only linear tensor fields, densities and forms, but affinity fields, sectors and sector forms, higher order frame fields, etc., often having nonlinear transformation rules and Lie derivatives. The intrinsic, or invariant, sets of forms that arise on frame bundles satisfy the graded Cartan-Maurer structure equations of an infinite Lie algebra. Reduction of these gives invariant structure equations for Lie pseudogroups, and for G-structures of various orders. Some new results are introduced for prolongation of structure equations, and for treatment of Riemannian geometry with higher-order moving frames. The use of invariant form equations for nonlinear field physics is implicitly advocated.

  2. Client Provider Collaboration for Service Bundling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LETIA, I. A.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The key requirement for a service industry organization to reach competitive advantages through product diversification is the existence of a well defined method for building service bundles. Based on the idea that the quality of a service or its value is given by the difference between expectations and perceptions, we draw the main components of a frame that aims to support the client and the provider agent in an active collaboration meant to co-create service bundles. Following e3-value model, we structure the supporting knowledge around the relation between needs and satisfying services. We deal with different perspectives about quality through an ontological extension of Value Based Argumentation. The dialog between the client and the provider takes the form of a persuasion whose dynamic object is the current best configuration. Our approach for building service packages is a demand driven approach, allowing progressive disclosure of private knowledge.

  3. Twisted vector bundles on pointed nodal curves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    DEFINITION 2.5. Let C → S be an n-pointed nodal curve over a k-scheme S and let ξ be a principal G- bundle on Cgen. A chart (U, η, ) for ξ is called balanced, if for each ... branches is via multiplication with primitive roots of unity which are inverse to each other. ...... Condition (16) implies that A0 is a block matrix of the form.

  4. Principal bundles on the projective line

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M. Senthilkumar (Newgen Imaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    LetX be a complete nonsingular curve over the algebraic closurek ofk andGa reductive group over k. Let E → X be a principal G-bundle on X. E is said to be semistable if, for every reduction of structure group EP ⊂ E to a maximal parabolic subgroup P of G, we have degree EP (p) ≤ 0, where p is the Lie algebra of P and EP ...

  5. Abelian conformal field theory and determinant bundles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jørgen Ellegaard; Ueno, K.

    2007-01-01

    are up to a scale the same as the curvature of the connections constructed in [14, 16]. We study the sewing construction for nodal curves and its explicit relation to the constructed connections. Finally we construct preferred holomorphic sections of these line bundles and analyze their behaviour near...... nodal curves. These results are used in [4] to construct modular functors form the conformal field theories given in [14, 16] by twisting with an appropriate factional power of this Abelian theory....

  6. Bundling harvester; Harvennuspuun automaattisen nippukorjausharvesterin kehittaeminen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koponen, K. [Eko-Log Oy, Kuopio (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    The starting point of the project was to design and construct, by taking the silvicultural point of view into account, a harvesting and processing system especially for energy-wood, containing manually driven bundling harvester, automating of the harvester, and automated loading. The equipment forms an ideal method for entrepreneur`s-line harvesting. The target is to apply the system also for owner`s-line harvesting. The profitability of the system promotes the utilisation of the system in both cases. The objectives of the project were: to construct a test equipment and prototypes for all the project stages, to carry out terrain and strain tests in order to examine the usability and durability, as well as the capacity of the machine, to test the applicability of the Eko-Log system in simultaneous harvesting of energy and pulp woods, and to start the marketing and manufacturing of the products. The basic problems of the construction of the bundling harvester have been solved using terrain-tests. The prototype machine has been shown to be operable. Loading of the bundles to form sufficiently economically transportable loads has been studied, and simultaneously, the branch-biomass has been tried to be utilised without loosing the profitability of transportation. The results have been promising, and will promote the profitable utilisation of wood-energy. (orig.)

  7. An analytical fiber bundle model for pullout mechanics of root bundles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, D.; Schwarz, M.; Or, D.

    2011-09-01

    Roots in soil contribute to the mechanical stability of slopes. Estimation of root reinforcement is challenging because roots form complex biological networks whose geometrical and mechanical characteristics are difficult to characterize. Here we describe an analytical model that builds on simple root descriptors to estimate root reinforcement. Root bundles are modeled as bundles of heterogeneous fibers pulled along their long axes neglecting root-soil friction. Analytical expressions for the pullout force as a function of displacement are derived. The maximum pullout force and corresponding critical displacement are either derived analytically or computed numerically. Key model inputs are a root diameter distribution (uniform, Weibull, or lognormal) and three empirical power law relations describing tensile strength, elastic modulus, and length of roots as functions of root diameter. When a root bundle with root tips anchored in the soil matrix is pulled by a rigid plate, a unique parameter, ?, that depends only on the exponents of the power law relations, dictates the order in which roots of different diameters break. If ? 1, large roots break first. When ? = 1, all fibers break simultaneously, and the maximum tensile force is simply the roots' mean force times the number of roots in the bundle. Based on measurements of root geometry and mechanical properties, the value of ? is less than 1, usually ranging between 0 and 0.7. Thus, small roots always fail first. The model shows how geometrical and mechanical characteristics of roots and root diameter distribution affect the pullout force, its maximum and corresponding displacement. Comparing bundles of roots that have similar mean diameters, a bundle with a narrow variance in root diameter will result in a larger maximum force and a smaller displacement at maximum force than a bundle with a wide diameter distribution. Increasing the mean root diameter of a bundle without changing the distribution's shape increases

  8. Hydrodynamic behavior of a bare rod bundle. [LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartzis, J.G.; Todreas, N.E.

    1977-06-01

    The temperature distribution within the rod bundle of a nuclear reactor is of major importance in nuclear reactor design. However temperature information presupposes knowledge of the hydrodynamic behavior of the coolant which is the most difficult part of the problem due to complexity of the turbulence phenomena. In the present work a 2-equation turbulence model--a strong candidate for analyzing actual three dimensional turbulent flows--has been used to predict fully developed flow of infinite bare rod bundle of various aspect ratios (P/D). The model has been modified to take into account anisotropic effects of eddy viscosity. Secondary flow calculations have been also performed although the model seems to be too rough to predict the secondary flow correctly. Heat transfer calculations have been performed to confirm the importance of anisotropic viscosity in temperature predictions. All numerical calculations for flow and heat have been performed by two computer codes based on the TEACH code. Experimental measurements of the distribution of axial velocity, turbulent axial velocity, turbulent kinetic energy and radial Reynolds stresses were performed in the developing and fully developed regions. A 2-channel Laser Doppler Anemometer working on the Reference mode with forward scattering was used to perform the measurements in a simulated interior subchannel of a triangular rod array with P/D = 1.124. Comparisons between the analytical results and the results of this experiment as well as other experimental data in rod bundle array available in literature are presented. The predictions are in good agreement with the results for the high Reynolds numbers.

  9. Size scaling of failure strength with fat-tailed disorder in a fiber bundle model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kádár, Viktória; Danku, Zsuzsa; Kun, Ferenc

    2017-09-01

    We investigate the size scaling of the macroscopic fracture strength of heterogeneous materials when microscopic disorder is controlled by fat-tailed distributions. We consider a fiber bundle model where the strength of single fibers is described by a power law distribution over a finite range. Tuning the amount of disorder by varying the power law exponent and the upper cutoff of fibers' strength, in the limit of equal load sharing an astonishing size effect is revealed: For small system sizes the bundle strength increases with the number of fibers, and the usual decreasing size effect of heterogeneous materials is restored only beyond a characteristic size. We show analytically that the extreme order statistics of fibers' strength is responsible for this peculiar behavior. Analyzing the results of computer simulations we deduce a scaling form which describes the dependence of the macroscopic strength of fiber bundles on the parameters of microscopic disorder over the entire range of system sizes.

  10. Effect of metal ion Fe(III on the performance of chlorophyll as photosensitizers on dye sensitized solar cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harsasi Setyawati

    Full Text Available The energy crisis is a major problem facing the world today and will need a renewable energy source that is environmentally friendly; one of these is the dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC. DSSC is photochemical electric cell that can convert solar energy into electrical energy. This research aims to study the characteristics of chlorophyll compounds with the addition of metal ions Fe(III and to determine the effect of Fe(III on the performance of chlorophyll as a photosensitizer in the DSSC. The formation of complex compounds of Fe(III-chlorophyll is shown by the phenomenon of metal ligand charge transfer (MLCT at a wavelength of 263.00 nm and absorption transition d-d at 745.00 nm. Fourier transform infrared characterization of the binding of Fe-O complex compounds appears at 486.06 cm−1. The complex compound of Fe(III-chlorophyll has a magnetic moment value of 9.62 Bohr Magneton (BM. The existence of ion Fe(III in chlorophyll can improve the performance of chlorophyll as a dye sensitizer with a maximum current of 4.00 mA/cm2, maximum voltage of 0.18 volts and efficiency values of 1.35%. Keywords: Fe(III-chlorophyll, Dye sensitized solar cell, Metal ligand charge transfer, Photosensitizer

  11. The effects of a K2SO4 solution on the surface hardness of gypsum type III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permana, B. N.; Triaminingsih, S.; Indrani, D. J.

    2017-08-01

    Gypsum type III is commonly used for working models and as a tool for restorations or dentures manufacturing in the laboratory. K2SO4 solution is recommended to be added to gypsum type III because it can accelerate the setting time. The aim of this study was to identify the effects of a K2SO4 solution on the surface hardness of gypsum type III. The surface hardness was tested using a Vickers Hardness Tester with a load of 500 gf. The results were analyzed using a one-way ANOVA. The surface hardness of gypsum type III manipulated using a 1.5% K2SO4 solution was higher than the surface hardness of gypsum type III manipulated without K2SO4 but lower than the surface hardness of gypsum type IV. Therefore, the use of a 1.5% K2SO4 solution can increase the hardness of gypsum type III but not enough to make it equivalent to the surface hardness of gypsum type IV.

  12. Effects of dissimilatory sulfate reduction on FeIII (hydr)oxide reduction and microbial community development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Man Jae; Boyanov, Maxim I.; Antonopoulos, Dionysios A.; Brulc, Jennifer M.; Johnston, Eric R.; Skinner, Kelly A.; Kemner, Kenneth M.; O'Loughlin, Edward J.

    2014-03-01

    Although dissimilatory iron and sulfate reduction (DIR and DSR) profoundly affect the biogeochemical cycling of C, Fe, and S in subsurface systems, the dynamics of DIR and DSR in the presence of both FeIII (hydr)oxides and sulfate have not been well-studied with mixed microbial populations. This study examined the response of native microbial communities in subsurface sediment from the U.S. Department of Energy’s Integrated Field Research Challenge site in Rifle, CO to the availability of sulfate and specific FeIII (hydr)oxide minerals in experimental systems containing lactate as the electron donor, with ferrihydrite, goethite, or lepidocrocite and high (10.2 mM) or low (0.2 mM) sulfate as electron acceptors. We observed rapid fermentation of lactate to acetate and propionate. FeIII reduction was slow and limited in the presence of low-sulfate, but the extent of FeIII reduction increased more than 10 times with high-sulfate amendments. Furthermore, the extent of FeIII reduction was higher in ferrihydrite or lepidocrocite incubations than in goethite incubations. Propionate produced during fermentation of lactate was used as the electron donor for DSR. The concurrence of sulfate reduction and FeII production suggests that FeII production was driven primarily by reduction of FeIII by biogenic sulfide. X-ray absorption fine-structure analysis confirmed the formation of ferrous sulfide and the presence of O-coordinated ferrous species. 16S rRNA-based microbial community analysis revealed the development of distinct communities with different FeIII (hydr)oxides. These results highlight the highly coupled nature of C, Fe, and S biogeochemical cycles during DIR and DSR and provide new insight into the effects of electron donor utilization, sulfate concentration, and the presence of specific FeIII (hydr)oxide phases on microbial community development.

  13. Effects of a Combination Therapy of Sclerostin Antibody III and Raloxifene on Bone Formation Markers in Ovariectomized Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gad Allam, Hayam Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    To determine the systemic effect of sclerostin monoclonal antibody (Scl-AbIII) administration on markers of bone formation and compare it with a combination of sclerostin antibody and raloxifene. Experimental study. Medical College Animal House at King Khaled University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, from January to November 2014. Forty-five female rats were divided into 5 groups equally; 1 control group and 4 groups of ovariectomized (OVX) rats: control OVX rats and OVX rats treated by Scl-AbIII, raloxifene or Scl-AbIII+raloxifene one month after ovariectomy, continued for 4 weeks. At the end of treatment, serum levels of Bone Specific Alkaline Phosphatase (BSAP), alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1), Parathyroid Hormone (PTH), Ca2+ and phosphorus were measured. Uterus was weighed and body weight change was calculated. Scl-AbIII or raloxifene treatment produced significant increase of serum BSAP, osteocalcin, IGF-1, PTH and Ca2+ levels. Raloxifene, either alone or combined with Scl-AbIII attenuated the decrease in uterus wet weight, and the increase in body weight seen in OVX rats. Combination therapy of Scl-AbIII, and raloxifene produced significant increase of serum alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin and IGF-1 levels than treatment with either Scl-AbIII or raloxifene alone. Combination therapy of Scl-AbIII and raloxifene is an attractive strategy to enhance bone formation and can offer better gain over treatment with either one of them alone. Confirmation of these preliminary observations must await careful long-term studies.

  14. Thoracoscopic Decortication of Stage III Tuberculous Empyema Is Effective and Safe in Selected Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Arvind; Asaf, Belal B; Lingaraju, Vijay C; Yendamuri, Sai; Pulle, Mohan V; Sood, Jayashree

    2017-09-27

    Open decortication of advanced tuberculous empyema remains standard of care. As with other aspects of thoracic surgery, minimally invasive approaches are making inroads into procedures traditionally performed open. In this retrospective analysis, we sought to examine feasibility, efficacy, and outcomes of thoracoscopic decortication of stage III tuberculous empyema in our experience. The records of all patients in whom thoracoscopic decortication of stage III tuberculous empyema was performed between March 2012 and December 2015 were examined. Demographic and perioperative data were analyzed to assess the surgical outcomes of this study group. To assess long-term efficacy, patients were followed for a minimum of 6 months. One hundred patients fit the study criteria, of these 67 were men. Ninety cases were successfully completed thoracoscopically. Mean operative time was 204 ± 34.2 minutes with mean blood loss of 384 ± 28 mL. Median chest drain duration and hospital stay was 7 days. There was no perioperative deaths. Morbidity rate was 33%, composed mostly of prolonged air leak (29%). Six-month follow-up revealed completely expanded lung in all patients except one with small apical asymptomatic air space. Intraoperative cultures were positive for mycobacteria in 25% patients. Six (6%) of these patients had multidrug-resistant tuberculosis and required a modification in their antituberculous therapy. Thoracoscopic decortication of advanced tuberculous empyema is feasible, safe, and effective with good short- and long-term results in selected patients. In a substantial portion of patients, operative cultures required modifying drug treatment to treat underlying tuberculosis. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Automating Quality Metrics in the Era of Electronic Medical Records: Digital Signatures for Ventilator Bundle Compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Haitao; Thongprayoon, Charat; Ahmed, Adil; Herasevich, Vitaly; Sampathkumar, Priya; Gajic, Ognjen; O'Horo, John C

    2015-01-01

    Ventilator-associated events (VAEs) are associated with increased risk of poor outcomes, including death. Bundle practices including thromboembolism prophylaxis, stress ulcer prophylaxis, oral care, and daily sedation breaks and spontaneous breathing trials aim to reduce rates of VAEs and are endorsed as quality metrics in the intensive care units. We sought to create electronic search algorithms (digital signatures) to evaluate compliance with ventilator bundle components as the first step in a larger project evaluating the ventilator bundle effect on VAE. We developed digital signatures of bundle compliance using a retrospective cohort of 542 ICU patients from 2010 for derivation and validation and testing of signature accuracy from a cohort of random 100 patients from 2012. Accuracy was evaluated against manual chart review. Overall, digital signatures performed well, with median sensitivity of 100% (range, 94.4%-100%) and median specificity of 100% (range, 100%-99.8%). Automated ascertainment from electronic medical records accurately assesses ventilator bundle compliance and can be used for quality reporting and research in VAE.

  16. BEIR-III report and the health effects of low-level radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1980-01-01

    The present BEIR-III Committee has not highlighted any controversy over the health effects of low-level radiation. In its evaluation of the experimental data and epidemiological surveys, the Committee has carefully reviewed and assessed the value of all the available scientific evidence for estimating numerical risk coefficients for the health hazards to human populations exposed to low levels of ionizing radiation. Responsible public awareness of the possible health effects of ionizing radiations from medical and industrial radiation exposure, centers on three important matters of societal concern: (1) to place into perspective the extent of harm to the health of man and his descendants to be expected in the present and in the future from those societal activities involving ionizing radiation; (2) to develop quantitative indices of harm based on dose-effect relationships; such indices could then be used with prudent caution to introduce concepts of the regulation of population doses on the basis of somatic and genetic risks; and (3) to identify the magnitude and extent of radiation activities which could cause harm, to assess their relative significance, and to provide a framework for recommendations on how to reduce unnecessary radiation exposure to human populations. The main difference of the BEIR Committee Report is not so much from new data or new interpretations of existing data, but rather from a philosophical approach and appraisal of existing and future radiation protection resulting from an atmosphere of constantly changing societal conditions and public attitudes. (PCS)

  17. Steric Effect on the Nucleophilic Reactivity of Nickel(III) Peroxo Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jalee; Shin, Bongki; Kim, Hyunjeong; Lee, Junhyung; Kang, Joongoo; Yanagisawa, Sachiko; Ogura, Takashi; Masuda, Hideki; Ozawa, Tomohiro; Cho, Jaeheung

    2015-07-06

    A set of nickel(III) peroxo complexes bearing tetraazamacrocyclic ligands, [Ni(III)(TBDAP)(O2)](+) (TBDAP = N,N'-di-tert-butyl-2,11-diaza[3.3](2,6)pyridinophane) and [Ni(III)(CHDAP)(O2)](+) (CHDAP = N,N'-dicyclohexyl-2,11-diaza[3.3](2,6)pyridinophane), were prepared by reacting [Ni(II)(TBDAP)(NO3)(H2O)](+) and [Ni(II)(CHDAP)(NO3)](+), respectively, with H2O2 in the presence of triethylamine. The mononuclear nickel(III) peroxo complexes were fully characterized by various physicochemical methods, such as UV-vis, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, resonance Raman, electron paramagnetic resonance, and X-ray analysis. The spectroscopic and structural characterization clearly shows that the NiO2 cores are almost identical where the peroxo ligand is bound in a side-on fashion. However, the different steric properties of the supporting ligands were confirmed by X-ray crystallography, where the CHDAP ligand gives enough space around the Ni core compared to the TBDAP ligand. The nickel(III) peroxo complexes showed reactivity in the oxidation of aldehydes. In the aldehyde deformylation reaction, the nucleophilic reactivity of the nickel(III) peroxo complexes was highly dependent on the steric properties of the macrocyclic ligands, with a reactivity order of [Ni(III)(TBDAP)(O2)](+) < [Ni(III)(CHDAP)(O2)](+). This result provides fundamental insight into the mechanism of the structure (steric)-reactivity relationship of metal peroxo intermediates.

  18. Systemic effects of angiotensin III in conscious dogs during acute double blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Iben; Wamberg, Søren; Bie, Peter

    2006-01-01

    by radioimmunoassay using a cross-reacting antibody to AngII. During ongoing peptide infusion, candesartan (2 mg kg(-1)) was administered to block the AT1-receptors. RESULTS: Angiotensin immunoactivity in plasma increased to 60 +/- 10 pg mL(-1) during infusion of AngII or infusion of AngIII. AngII significantly...... was statistically indistinguishable from those of AngII. All measured effects of both peptides were blocked by candesartan. CONCLUSION: At the present arterial plasma concentrations, AngIII is equipotent to AngII with regard to effects on blood pressure, aldosterone secretion and renal functions, and these Ang...

  19. Pool boiling of distilled water over tube bundle with variable heat flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Abhilas; Mohanty, Rajiva Lochan; Das, Mihir Kumar

    2017-08-01

    The experimental investigation of saturated pool boiling heat transfer of distilled water over plain tube bundle, under uniform and varying heat flux condition along the height are presented in this article. Experiments are carried out under various heat flux configurations applied to rows of tube bundles and pitch distance to diameter ratios of 1.25, 1.6 and 1.95. The wall superheats and pool boiling heat transfer coefficients over individual rows are determined. The pool boiling heat transfer coefficients for variable heat flux and uniform heat flux conditions are compared. The results indicate that the bundle effect is found to exist for uniform as well as variable heat flux under all operating conditions in the present investigation. The variable heat flux resulted in range of wall superheat being highest for decreasing heat flux from bottom to top and lowest for increasing heat flux from bottom to top.

  20. Bundle adjustment with additional constraints applied to imagery of the Dunhuang wall paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongjun; Hu, Kun; Huang, Rongyong

    2012-08-01

    In the digital conservation of the Dunhuang wall painting, bundle adjustment is a critical step in precise orthoimage generation. The error propagation of the adjustment model is accelerated because the near-planar photographic object intensifies correlation of the exterior orientation parameters and the less than 60% forward overlap of adjacent images weakens the geometric connection of the network. According to the photographic structure adopted in this paper, strong correlation of the exterior orientation parameters can be verified theoretically. In practice, the additional constraints of near-planarity and exterior orientation parameters are combined with bundle adjustment to control the error propagation. The positive effects of the additional constraints are verified by experiments, which show that the introduction of weighted observation equations into bundle adjustment contributes a great deal to the theoretical and actual accuracies of the unknowns as well as the stability of the adjustment model.

  1. Field Emission Characteristics of the Structure of Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotube Bundles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Pao-Hung; Sie, Cong-Lin; Chen, Ching-An; Chang, Hsuan-Chen; Shih, Yi-Ting; Chang, Hsin-Yueh; Su, Wei-Jhih; Lee, Kuei-Yi

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we performed thermal chemical vapor deposition for growing vertically aligned carbon nanotube (VACNT) bundles for a field emitter and applied photolithography for defining the arrangement pattern to simultaneously compare square and hexagonal arrangements by using two ratios of the interbundle distance to the bundle height (R) of field emitters. The hexagon arrangement with R = 2 had the lowest turn-on electric field (E to) and highest enhancement factor, whereas the square arrangement with R = 3 had the most stable field emission (FE) characteristic. The number density can reveal the correlation to the lowest E to and highest enhancement factor more effectively than can the R or L. The fluorescent images of the synthesized VACNT bundles manifested the uniformity of FE currents. The results of our study indicate the feasibility of applying the VACNT field emitter arrangement to achieve optimal FE performance.

  2. Design of automatic labeling system on the end surfaces of bundles of round steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuxiang ZHANG

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available To achieve automatic labeling on the end surfaces of bundles of round steels for the steel plants, on the basis of the analysis of round steel production process, a set of automatic system for labeling on the round steel end surfaces of bundles is designed. The system includes the robot visual location unit, the label supply unit, the pressure supply unit, the automatic labeling unit, the laser ranging unit, and the host computer communication control unit, etc.. In the system, the robot visual location unit provides the round steel center location, and the automatic labeling unit implements automatic labeling on the round steel. The system is tested under lab condition, which shows the system can effectively solve the artificial labeling problems such as fault paste and leakage paste of workers, and realize efficient and stable automatic labeling. The system can be used in sleel plants for automatic labeling on the end surfaces of bundles of round steels.

  3. Influence of Bundle Diameter and Attachment Point on Kinematic Behavior in Double Bundle Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Using Computational Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oh Soo Kwon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A protocol to choose the graft diameter attachment point of each bundle has not yet been determined since they are usually dependent on a surgeon’s preference. Therefore, the influence of bundle diameters and attachment points on the kinematics of the knee joint needs to be quantitatively analyzed. A three-dimensional knee model was reconstructed with computed tomography images of a 26-year-old man. Based on the model, models of double bundle anterior cruciate ligament (ACL reconstruction were developed. The anterior tibial translations for the anterior drawer test and the internal tibial rotation for the pivot shift test were investigated according to variation of bundle diameters and attachment points. For the model in this study, the knee kinematics after the double bundle ACL reconstruction were dependent on the attachment point and not much influenced by the bundle diameter although larger sized anterior-medial bundles provided increased stability in the knee joint. Therefore, in the clinical setting, the bundle attachment point needs to be considered prior to the bundle diameter, and the current selection method of graft diameters for both bundles appears justified.

  4. Addition effect of erbium(III) trifluoromethanesulfonate in the homopolymerization kinetics of a DGEBA resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, S.J. [Area de Ciencia de los Materiales, Departament d' Enginyeria de Sistemes Industrials i Disseny, Universitat Jaume I, Avda. Vicent Sos Baynat s/n, 12071 Castellon (Spain)]. E-mail: espallar@sg.uji.es; Ramis, X. [Laboratori de Termodinamica, Escola Tecnica Superior Enginyeria Industrial Barcelona, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Serra, A. [Departament de Q. Analitica i Q. Organica, Facultat de Quimica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, C/Marcel.li Domingo s/n, 43007 Tarragona (Spain); Suay, J. [Centro de Biomateriales, Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, E-46071 Valencia (Spain)

    2006-02-01

    Solid bisphenol-A epoxy resin of medium molecular weight was cured using a Lewis acid initiator (erbium(III) trifluoromethanesulfonate) in three different proportions (0.5, 1 and 2 phr). A kinetic study was performed in a differential scanning calorimeter. The complete kinetic triplet was determined (activation energy, pre-exponential factor, and integral function of the deg.ree of conversion) for each system. A kinetic analysis was performed with an integral isoconversional procedure (model-free), and the kinetic model was determined both with the Coats-Redfern method (the obtained isoconversional E value being accepted as the effective activation energy) and through the compensation effect. All the systems followed the same isothermal curing model simulated from non-isothermal ones. The 'nucleation and growth' Avrami kinetic model A {sub 3/2} has been proposed as the polymerization kinetic model. The addition of initiator accelerated the reaction having higher influence when low temperatures were applied.

  5. Bismuth(III) deferiprone effectively inhibits growth of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ATCC 27774.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Larry L; Lyle, Daniel A; Ritz, Nathaniel L; Granat, Alex S; Khurshid, Ali N; Kherbik, Nada; Hider, Robert; Lin, Henry C

    2016-04-01

    Sulfate-reducing bacteria have been implicated in inflammatory bowel diseases and ulcerative colitis in humans and there is an interest in inhibiting the growth of these sulfide-producing bacteria. This research explores the use of several chelators of bismuth to determine the most effective chelator to inhibit the growth of sulfate-reducing bacteria. For our studies, Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ATCC 27774 was grown with nitrate as the electron acceptor and chelated bismuth compounds were added to test for inhibition of growth. Varying levels of inhibition were attributed to bismuth chelated with subsalicylate or citrate but the most effective inhibition of growth by D. desulfuricans was with bismuth chelated by deferiprone, 3-hydroxy-1,2-dimethyl-4(1H)-pyridone. Growth of D. desulfuricans was inhibited by 10 μM bismuth as deferiprone:bismuth with either nitrate or sulfate respiration. Our studies indicate deferiprone:bismuth has bacteriostatic activity on D. desulfuricans because the inhibition can be reversed following exposure to 1 mM bismuth for 1 h at 32 °C. We suggest that deferiprone is an appropriate chelator for bismuth to control growth of sulfate-reducing bacteria because deferiprone is relatively nontoxic to animals, including humans, and has been used for many years to bind Fe(III) in the treatment of β-thalassemia.

  6. Enhancing and inhibiting effects of benzenediols on chemiluminescence of a novel cyclometallated iridium(III) complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yong Ping; Huang, Li; Tong, Bi Hai; Shi, Ming Juan; Zhang, Wang Bing; Zhang, Qian Feng

    2012-01-01

    A novel chemiluminescence (CL) system, including the cyclometallated iridium(III) complex {tris[1-(2,6-dimethylphenoxy)-4-(4-chlorophenyl)phthalazine]iridium}, potassium permanganate and oxalic acid, is proposed for the determination of benzenediols. This method is based on the fact that hydroquinone and catechol exhibited an inhibiting effect, while resorcinol exhibited an enhancing effect on CL intensity. The optimum conditions for CL emission were investigated. Under optimal conditions, the detection limits of hydroquinone, catechol and resorcinol were 6.4 × 10(-8), 2.7 × 10(-9) and 8.1 × 10(-7)  mol/L, respectively. The method has been successfully applied to the determination of benzenediols in different types of water sample. The luminophors of the CL systems were all identified as the metal-ligand charge-transfer (MLCT) excited state of the iridium complex. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Monopoles and Modifications of Bundles over Elliptic Curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey M. Levin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Modifications of bundles over complex curves is an operation that allows one to construct a new bundle from a given one. Modifications can change a topological type of bundle. We describe the topological type in terms of the characteristic classes of the bundle. Being applied to the Higgs bundles modifications establish an equivalence between different classical integrable systems. Following Kapustin and Witten we define the modifications in terms of monopole solutions of the Bogomolny equation. We find the Dirac monopole solution in the case R × (elliptic curve. This solution is a three-dimensional generalization of the Kronecker series. We give two representations for this solution and derive a functional equation for it generalizing the Kronecker results. We use it to define Abelian modifications for bundles of arbitrary rank. We also describe non-Abelian modifications in terms of theta-functions with characteristic.

  8. Trivalent Cation Induced Bundle Formation of Filamentous fd Phages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkmaz Zirpel, Nuriye; Park, Eun Jin

    2015-09-01

    Bacteriophages are filamentous polyelectrolyte viral rods infecting only bacteria. In this study, we investigate the bundle formation of fd phages with trivalent cations having different ionic radii (Al(3+) , La(3+) and Y(3+) ) at various phage and counterion concentrations, and at varying bundling times. Aggregated phage bundles were detected at relatively low trivalent counterion concentrations (1 mM). Although 10 mM and 100 mM Y(3+) and La(3+) treatments formed larger and more intertwined phage bundles, Al(3+) and Fe(3+) treatments lead to the formation of networking filaments. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analyses confirmed the presence of C, N and O peaks on densely packed phage bundles. Immunofluorescence labelling and ELISA analyses with anti-p8 antibodies showed the presence of phage filaments after bundling. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Isomonodromic Deformations and Very Stable Vector Bundles of Rank Two

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Indranil; Heu, Viktoria; Hurtubise, Jacques

    2017-12-01

    For the universal isomonodromic deformation of an irreducible logarithmic rank two connection over a smooth complex projective curve of genus at least two, consider the family of holomorphic vector bundles over curves underlying this universal deformation. In a previous work we proved that the vector bundle corresponding to a general parameter of this family is stable. Here we prove that the vector bundle corresponding to a general parameter is in fact very stable, meaning it does not admit any nonzero nilpotent Higgs field.

  10. Bundling Products and Services Through Modularization Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bask, Anu; Hsuan, Juliana; Rajahonka, Mervi

    2012-01-01

    Modularity has been recognized as a powerful tool in improving the efficiency and management of product design and manufacturing. However, the integrated view on covering both, product and service modularity for product-service systems (PSS), is under researched. Therefore, in this paper our...... objective is to contribute to the PSS modularity. Thus, we describe configurations of PSSs and the bundling of products and services through modularization strategies. So far there have not been tools to analyze and determine the correct combinations of degrees of product and service modularities....

  11. Differential geometry bundles, connections, metrics and curvature

    CERN Document Server

    Taubes, Clifford Henry

    2011-01-01

    Bundles, connections, metrics and curvature are the 'lingua franca' of modern differential geometry and theoretical physics. This book will supply a graduate student in mathematics or theoretical physics with the fundamentals of these objects. Many of the tools used in differential topology are introduced and the basic results about differentiable manifolds, smooth maps, differential forms, vector fields, Lie groups, and Grassmanians are all presented here. Other material covered includes the basic theorems about geodesics and Jacobi fields, the classification theorem for flat connections, the

  12. Affine Flag Manifolds and Principal Bundles

    CERN Document Server

    Schmitt, Alexander HW

    2010-01-01

    Affine flag manifolds are infinite dimensional versions of familiar objects such as Gramann varieties. The book features lecture notes, survey articles, and research notes - based on workshops held in Berlin, Essen, and Madrid - explaining the significance of these and related objects (such as double affine Hecke algebras and affine Springer fibers) in representation theory (e.g., the theory of symmetric polynomials), arithmetic geometry (e.g., the fundamental lemma in the Langlands program), and algebraic geometry (e.g., affine flag manifolds as parameter spaces for principal bundles). Novel

  13. Vector bundles on complex projective spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Okonek, Christian; Spindler, Heinz

    1980-01-01

    This expository treatment is based on a survey given by one of the authors at the Séminaire Bourbaki in November 1978 and on a subsequent course held at the University of Göttingen. It is intended to serve as an introduction to the topical question of classification of holomorphic vector bundles on complex projective spaces, and can easily be read by students with a basic knowledge of analytic or algebraic geometry. Short supplementary sections describe more advanced topics, further results, and unsolved problems.

  14. Discontinuous conduction in mouse bundle branches is caused by bundle-branch architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veen, Toon A. B.; van Rijen, Harold V. M.; van Kempen, Marjan J. A.; Miquerol, Lucile; Opthof, Tobias; Gros, Daniel; Vos, Marc A.; Jongsma, Habo J.; de Bakker, Jacques M. T.

    2005-01-01

    Background - Recordings of the electrical activity of mouse bundle branches ( BBs) suggest reduced conduction velocity ( CV) in the midseptal compared with the proximal part of the BB. The present study was performed to elucidate the mechanism responsible for this slowing of conduction. Methods and

  15. An Examination of the Effect of Coach Leadership Behaviors on the Psychosocial Development of Division III College Football Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gary P.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between student athlete development and coach leadership behaviors in NCAA Division III football players. Three key elements support this study. The first, Thelma Horn's model of coaching effectiveness, provided the framework for the impact of coaching behaviors on student athlete development. The second,…

  16. Effects of H content on the tensile properties and fracture behavior of SA508-III steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia-hua; Wang, Lei; Liu, Yang; Song, Xiu; Luo, Jiong; Yuan, Dan

    2015-08-01

    SA508-III steel was charged with different hydrogen (H) contents using a high-pressure thermal charging method to study the effects of H content on the tensile properties and evaluate the H embrittlement behavior of the steel. The results indicate that the ultimate tensile strength remains nearly unchanged with the addition of H. In contrast, the yielding strength slightly increases, and the elongation significantly decreases with increasing H content, especially at concentrations exceeding 5.6 × 10-6. On the basis of fractographic analysis, it is clear that the addition of H changes the fracture mode from microvoid coalescence to a mixture of river patterns and dimples. Carbides are strong traps for H; thus, the H atoms easily migrate in the form of Cottrell atmosphere toward the carbides following moving dislocations during tensile deformation. In addition, stress-induced H atoms accumulate at the interface between carbides and the matrix after necking under three-dimensional stress, which weakens the interfacial bonding force. Consequently, when the local H concentration reaches a critical value, microcracks occur at the interface, resulting in fracture.

  17. EGFR and EGFRvIII Promote Angiogenesis and Cell Invasion in Glioblastoma: Combination Therapies for an Effective Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Keller

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR and the mutant EGFRvIII are major focal points in current concepts of targeted cancer therapy for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM, the most malignant primary brain tumor. The receptors participate in the key processes of tumor cell invasion and tumor-related angiogenesis and their upregulation correlates with the poor prognosis of glioma patients. Glioma cell invasion and increased angiogenesis share mechanisms of the degradation of the extracellular matrix (ECM through upregulation of ECM-degrading proteases as well as the activation of aberrant signaling pathways. This review describes the role of EGFR and EGFRvIII in those mechanisms which might offer new combined therapeutic approaches targeting EGFR or EGFRvIII together with drug treatments against proteases of the ECM or downstream signaling to increase the inhibitory effects of mono-therapies.

  18. The sorption of inorganic arsenic on modified sepiolite: Effect of hydrated iron(III-oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Nikola I.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The sorption of inorganic arsenic species, As(III and As(V, from water by sepiolite modified with hydrated iron(III oxide was investigated at 25 °C through batch studies. The influence of the initial pH value, the initial As concentrations, the contact time and types of water on the sorption capacity was investigated. Two types of water were used, deionized and groundwater. The maximal sorption capacity for As(III from deionized water was observed at initial and final pH value 7.0, while the bonding of As(V was observed to be almost pH independent for pH value in the range from 2.0 to 7.0, and the significant decrease in the sorption capacity was observed at pH values above 7.0. The sorption capacity at initial pH 7.0 was about 10 mg gˉ1 for As(III and 4.2 mg gˉ1 for As(V in deionized water. The capacity in groundwater was decreased by 40 % for As(III and by 20 % for As(V. The Langmuir model and pseudo-second order kinetic model revealed good agreement with the experimental results. The results show that Fe(III-modified sepiolite exhibits significant affinity for arsenic removal and it has a potential for the application in water purification processes. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 45019, III 43009 i TR 37010

  19. Single Institution Early Experience with the Bundled Payments for Care Improvement Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iorio, Richard; Bosco, Joseph; Slover, James; Sayeed, Yousuf; Zuckerman, Joseph D

    2017-01-04

    The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) implemented the Bundled Payments for Care Improvement (BPCI) initiative in 2011. Through BPCI, organizations enlisted into payment agreements that include both performance and financial accountability for episodes of care. To succeed, BPCI requires quality maintenance and care delivery at lower costs. This necessitates physicians and hospitals to merge interests. Orthopaedic surgeons must assume leadership roles in cost containment, surgical safety, and quality assurance to deliver cost-effective care. Because most orthopaedic surgeons practice independently and are not employed by hospitals, models of physician-hospital alignment (e.g., physician-hospital organizations) or contracted gainsharing arrangements between practices and hospitals may be necessary for successful bundled pricing. Under BPCI, hospitals, surgeons, or third parties share rewards but assume risks for the bundle.For patients, cost savings must be associated with maintenance or improvement in quality metrics. However, the definition of quality can vary, as can the rewards for processes and outcomes. Risk stratification for potential complications should be considered in bundled pricing agreements to prevent the exclusion of patients with substantial comorbidities and higher care costs (e.g., hip fractures treated with prostheses). Bundled pricing depends on economies of scale for success; smaller institutions must be cautious, as 1 costly patient could substantially impact the finances of its entire program. CMS recommends a minimum of 100 to 200 cases yearly. We also suggest that participants utilize technologies to maximize efficiency and provide the best possible environment for implementation of bundled payments. Substantial investment in infrastructure is required to develop programs to improve coordination of care, manage quality data, and distribute payments. Smaller institutions may have difficulty devoting resources to these

  20. Tube bundle vibrations due to cross flow under the influence of turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popp, K.; Romberg, O. [Institute of Mechanics, University of Hannover (Germany)

    1998-10-01

    Tube bundles are often used in heat exchangers and chemical reactors. Besides of large heat transfer capacities and small pressure drops in the apparatus a safe design against vibration damages is demanded. For many years extensive investigations concerning the dynamical behaviour of tube bundles subjected to cross-flow have been carried out in the wind tunnel of the Institute of Mechanics at the University of Hannover. In the last years the investigations were concentrated on the experimental investigations of different flow excitation mechanisms in a fully flexible bundle as well as in a bundle with one single flexibly mounted tube in an otherwise fixed array with variable geometry and changing equilibrium position. The aim of the studies was the determination of the stability boundaries, i.e. the critical reduced fluid velocity depending on the reduced damping coefficient in a wide parameter region. Theoretical investigations of the stability behaviour on the basis of an one dimensional flow model as well as experimental investigations of the influence of turbulence on the stability boundaries have been carried out. Here, for certain tube bundle configurations an increased turbulence has a stabilizing effect and leads to a shift of the stability boundaries to higher velocities. The change of the turbulence was realised by using turbulence grids at the inlet of the bundles or thin Prandtl-tripwires at the tube surfaces. Flow visualization studies at the original experimental set-up under relevant Reynolds numbers give an impression of the flow pattern. At this time an investigation of the exciting fluid forces is carried out using a flexibly mounted pressure test tube. A survey about some recent investigations is given. (orig.)

  1. Molybdenum-99-producing 37-element fuel bundle neutronically and thermal-hydraulically equivalent to a standard CANDU fuel bundle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichita, E., E-mail: Eleodor.Nichita@uoit.ca; Haroon, J., E-mail: Jawad.Haroon@uoit.ca

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • A 37-element fuel bundle modified for {sup 99}Mo production in CANDU reactors is presented. • The modified bundle is neutronically and thermal-hydraulically equivalent to the standard bundle. • The modified bundle satisfies all safety criteria satisfied by the standard bundle. - Abstract: {sup 99m}Tc, the most commonly used radioisotope in diagnostic nuclear medicine, results from the radioactive decay of {sup 99}Mo which is currently being produced at various research reactors around the globe. In this study, the potential use of CANDU power reactors for the production of {sup 99}Mo is investigated. A modified 37-element fuel bundle, suitable for the production of {sup 99}Mo in existing CANDU-type reactors is proposed. The new bundle is specifically designed to be neutronically and thermal-hydraulically equivalent to the standard 37-element CANDU fuel bundle in normal, steady-state operation and, at the same time, be able to produce significant quantities of {sup 99}Mo when irradiated in a CANDU reactor. The proposed bundle design uses fuel pins consisting of a depleted-uranium centre surrounded by a thin layer of low-enriched uranium. The new molybdenum-producing bundle is analyzed using the lattice transport code DRAGON and the diffusion code DONJON. The proposed design is shown to produce 4081 six-day Curies of {sup 99}Mo activity per bundle when irradiated in the peak-power channel of a CANDU core, while maintaining the necessary reactivity and power rating limits. The calculated {sup 99}Mo yield corresponds to approximately one third of the world weekly demand. A production rate of ∼3 bundles per week can meet the global demand of {sup 99}Mo.

  2. Development boiling to sprinkled tube bundle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kracík Petr

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results of a studied heat transfer coefficient at the surface of a sprinkled tube bundle where boiling occurs. Research in the area of sprinkled exchangers can be divided into two major parts. The first part is research on heat transfer and determination of the heat transfer coefficient at sprinkled tube bundles for various liquids, whether boiling or not. The second part is testing of sprinkle modes for various tube diameters, tube pitches and tube materials and determination of individual modes’ interface. All results published so far for water as the falling film liquid apply to one to three tubes for which the mentioned relations studied are determined in rigid laboratory conditions defined strictly in advance. The sprinkled tubes were not viewed from the operational perspective where there are more tubes and various modes may occur in different parts with various heat transfer values. The article focuses on these processes. The tube is located in a low-pressure chamber where vacuum is generated using an exhauster via ejector. The tube consists of smooth copper tubes of 12 mm diameter placed horizontally one above another.

  3. Physiologic Insights and Clinical Consequences of Mechanical Discoordination in Left Bundle Brranch Block

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenders, G.E.H.

    2016-01-01

    Conduction disturbances are present in a large number of heart failure patients. In particular left bundle branch block has subsequent deleterious effects on cardiac structure, function, and efficiency. Cardiac resynchronization therapy is a device based therapy that aims to improve cardiac

  4. Sugar in disguise or healthy indulgence: A cross-cultural comparision of the perceptions of dietary vice/virtue bundles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiraporn Napatsorn

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Consumers often choose virtue food to attain health goals and vice food to achieve indulgence goals. However, food and beverage companies have begun to nullify the vice and virtue categories by bundling vice and virtue ingredients into a single item (e.g. Yogurt with Oreo topping. This research contrasts how consumers from Asian and Western cultures evaluate such vice/virtue food bundles. Building on the perceptual processes and regulatory focus literatures, two cross-cultural experiments using participants in Thailand and the U.S. shows that Westerners prefer virtue-heavy bundles to vice-heavy bundles while Asians show similar preference across both types of bundle. Process measures revealed that Asians perceive greater fit between vice and virtue components in the bundles than Westerners and this perceived fit mediates the effect of culture on their food choice. Study 2 reveals the boundary condition. Specifically, when regulatory focus was manipulated, the effect of culture is no longer significant. The findings provide managerial implications for food and beverage companies as well as contributions to consumer behavior literature.

  5. ACL-PCL and intercondylar notch impingement: magnetic resonance imaging of native and double-bundle ACL-reconstructed knees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kropf, Eric J; Shen, Wei; van Eck, Carola F; Musahl, Volker; Irrgang, James J; Fu, Freddie H

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to: (1) define the relationship between the ACL and PCL in normal knees; (2) determine whether ACL-PCL impingement occurs in native knees; and (3) determine whether there is a difference in impingement between double-bundle reconstructed and native knees. Eight subjects were identified (age 20-50; 6 females, 2 males). All were at least 1-year status postanatomic double-bundle ACL reconstruction (allograft; AM = 8 mm; PL = 7 mm) and had no history of injury or surgery to the contralateral knee. MRIs of both knees were performed with the knee at 0 and 30° of flexion. The images were evaluated by a non-treating surgeon and two musculoskeletal radiologists. Coronal and sagittal angles of AM and PL bundles, Liu's PCL index and the distance between ACL and PCL on modified axial oblique images were recorded. Impingement was graded (1) no contact; (2) contact without deformation; or (3) contact and distortion of PCL contour. Seventy-five percent (6) of the native ACL's showed no contact with the roof of the intercondylar notch or PCL, compared to 25 % (2) of the double-bundle reconstructed ACLs. One double-bundle reconstructed ACL showed intercondylar notch roof and ACL-PCL impingement (12.5 %). Significant differences were found between the native ACL and the double-bundle reconstructed ACL for the coronal angle of the AM (79° vs. 72°, p = 0.002) and PL bundle (75° vs. 58°, p = 0.001). No differences in ROM or stability were noted at any follow-up interval between groups based on MRI impingement grade. ACL-PCL contact occurred in 25 % of native knees. Contact between the ACL graft and PCL occurred in 75 % of double-bundle reconstructed knees. ACL-PCL impingement, both contact and distortion of the PCL, occurred in one knee after double-bundle reconstruction. This study offers perspective on what can be considered normal contact between the ACL and PCL and how impingement after ACL reconstruction can be detected on MRI

  6. A Family of {Cr(III)2Ln(III)2} Butterfly Complexes: Effect of the Lanthanide Ion on the Single-Molecule Magnet Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, Stuart K; Wielechowski, Daniel P; Chilton, Nicholas F; Moubaraki, Boujemaa; Murray, Keith S

    2015-11-02

    We report the synthesis of several heterometallic 3d-4f complexes which result from the replacement of the Dy(III) ions in the [Cr(III)2Dy(III)2(OMe)2(mdea)2(O2CPh)4(NO3)2] single-molecule magnet (SMM) by the trivalent Pr, Nd, Gd, Tb, Ho, and Er lanthanide ions. The parent {Cr2Dy(III)2} compound displayed an anisotropy barrier to magnetization reversal of 53 cm(-1), with magnetic hysteresis observed up to 3.5 K and with large coercive fields at low temperatures (2.7 T at 1.8 K). Magnetic studies for the new complexes revealed significantly different static and dynamic magnetic behavior in comparison to the parent {Cr(III)2Dy(III)2} complex. When Ln(III) = Pr, a complete loss of SMM behavior is found, but when Ln(III) = Nd or Er, frequency-dependent tails in the out-of-phase susceptibility at low temperatures are observed, indicative of slow magnetic relaxation, but with very small anisotropy barriers and fast relaxation times. When Ln(III) = Tb and Ho, SMM behavior is clearly revealed with anisotropy barriers of 44 and 36 cm(-1), respectively. Magnetic hysteresis is also observed up to 2.5 and 1.8 K (0.003 T/s) for the Tb and Ho complexes, respectively. A large loss of the magnetization is, however, observed at zero-field, and as a result, the large coercivity which is present in the {Cr2Dy2} example is lost. The {Cr2Tb2} and {Cr2Ho2} complexes are rare examples of Tb- and Ho-based SMMs which reveal both slow relaxation in the absence of a static dc field (ac susceptibility) and open hysteresis loops above 1.8 K.

  7. Evaluation of Single-Bundle versus Double-Bundle PCL Reconstructions with More Than 10-Year Follow-Up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masataka Deie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL injuries are not rare in acute knee injuries, and several recent anatomical studies of the PCL and reconstructive surgical techniques have generated improved patient results. Now, we have evaluated PCL reconstructions performed by either the single-bundle or double-bundle technique in a patient group followed up retrospectively for more than 10 years. Methods. PCL reconstructions were conducted using the single-bundle (27 cases or double-bundle (13 cases method from 1999 to 2002. The mean age at surgery was 34 years in the single-bundle group and 32 years in the double-bundle group. The mean follow-up period was 12.5 years. Patients were evaluated by Lysholm scoring, the gravity sag view, and knee arthrometry. Results. The Lysholm score after surgery was 89.1±5.6 points for the single-bundle group and 91.9±4.5 points for the double-bundle group. There was no significant difference between the methods in the side-to-side differences by gravity sag view or knee arthrometer evaluation, although several cases in both groups showed a side-to-side difference exceeding 5 mm by the latter evaluation method. Conclusions. We found no significant difference between single- and double-bundle PCL reconstructions during more than 10 years of follow-up.

  8. Boiling on a tube bundle: heat transfer, pressure drop and flow patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Royen Van, E.

    2011-11-15

    The complexity of two-phase flow boiling on a tube bundle presents many challenges to the understanding of the physical phenomena taking place. It is important to quantify these numerous heat flow mechanisms in order to better describe the performance of tube bundles as a function of the operational conditions. In the present study, the bundle boiling facility at the Laboratory of Heat and Mass Transfer (LTCM) was modified to obtain high-speed videos to characterise the two-phase regimes and some bubble dynamics of the boiling process. It was then used to measure heat transfer on single tubes and in bundle boiling conditions. Pressure drop measurements were also made during adiabatic and diabatic bundle conditions. New enhanced boiling tubes from Wolverine Tube Inc. (Turbo-B5) and the Wieland-Werke AG (Gewa-B5) were investigated using R134a and R236fa as test fluids. The tests were carried out at saturation temperatures T{sub sat} of 5 °C and 15 °C, mass flow rates from 4 to 35 kg/m{sup 2}s and heat fluxes from 15 to 70 kW/m{sup 2}, typical of actual operating conditions. The flow pattern investigation was conducted using visual observations from a borescope inserted in the middle of the bundle. Measurements of the light attenuation of a laser beam through the intertube two-phase flow and local pressure fluctuations with piezo-electric pressure transducers were also taken to further help in characterising the complex flow. Pressure drop measurements and data reduction procedures were revised and used to develop new, improved frictional pressure drop prediction methods for adiabatic and diabatic two-phase conditions. The physical phenomena governing the enhanced tube evaporation process and their effects on the performance of tube bundles were investigated and insight gained. A new method based on a theoretical analysis of thin film evaporation was used to propose a new correlating parameter. A large new database of local heat transfer coefficients were obtained

  9. Strong fascin expression promotes metastasis independent of its F-actin bundling activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, Lisa S; Muhs, Stefanie; Schiewek, Johanna; Grüb, Saskia; Nalaskowski, Marcus; Lin, Yuan-Na; Wikman, Harriet; Oliveira-Ferrer, Leticia; Lange, Tobias; Wellbrock, Jasmin; Konietzny, Anja; Mikhaylova, Marina; Windhorst, Sabine

    2017-12-15

    High expression of the actin bundling protein Fascin increases the malignancy of tumor cells. Here we show that fascin expression is up-regulated in more malignant sub-cell lines of MDA-MB-231 cells as compared to parental cells. Since also parental MDA-MB-231 cells exhibit high fascin levels, increased fascin expression was termed as "hyperexpression". To examine the effect of fascin hyperexpression, fascin was hyperexpressed in parental MDA-MB-231 cells and metastasis was analyzed in NOD scid gamma (NSG) mice. In addition, the effect of fascin mutants with inactive or constitutively active actin bundling activity was examined. Unexpectedly, we found that hyperexpression of both, wildtype (wt) and mutant fascin strongly increased metastasis in vivo , showing that the effect of fascin hyperexpression did not depend on its actin bundling activity. Cellular assays revealed that hyperexpression of wt and mutant fascin increased adhesion of MDA-MB-231 cells while transmigration and proliferation were not affected. Since it has been shown that fascin controls adhesion by directly interacting with microtubules ( MTs), we analyzed if fascin hyperexpression affects MT dynamics. We found that at high concentrations fascin significantly increased MT dynamics in cells and in cell-free approaches. In summary our data show that strong expression of fascin in breast cancer cells increases metastasis independent of its actin bundling activity. Thus, it seems that the mechanism of fascin-stimulated metastasis depends on its concentration.

  10. Color stability and colorant effect on maxillofacial elastomers. Part III: weathering effect on color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, S P; Andres, C J; Moore, B K

    1999-04-01

    Maxillofacial prostheses are serviceable for approximately 6 months, after which they need to be refabricated because of the deterioration of color and physical properties. This third article in a 3-part series evaluated the color stability of commonly used colorant-elastomer combinations as a result of exposure to weathering. Fifteen specimens were fabricated for each of the 3 elastomers (Silastic medical adhesive type A, Silastic 4-4210, and Silicone A-2186) and 6 colorants (dry earth pigments, rayon fiber flocking, artist's oil paints, kaolin, liquid cosmetics, and no colorant) for a total of 270 specimens (18 groups of 15 specimens). The 15 specimens of each elastomer-colorant combination were separated into 3 test condition groups (control, time passage, and natural weathering) of 5 specimens per test condition group. Control specimens were evaluated within 1 month of fabrication. The time passage group was sealed in glass containers and kept in the dark for 6 months before testing. The natural weathering groups were placed on the roof of the dental school for 6 months and exposed to sunlight and weathering. Color and optical density data for each elastomer-colorant combination were subjected to a 1-way analysis of variance to examine effects among test conditions (control, time passage, and weathering). When significant differences were observed, the Student-Newman-Keuls multiple range test was performed to identify differences in elastomer-colorant combinations among each test condition at a significance level of .05. Changes in color, as a result of weathering, were noted in many of the colorant-elastomer combinations. Also, color change occurred not only to the colored, but also to uncolored materials over time without exposure to weathering. Clinically, the addition of colorants could have a stabilizing effect on the elastomer color when it is exposed to weathering.

  11. Alignment of Multiple Electrospun Piezoelectric Fiber Bundles Across Serrated Gaps at an Incline: A Method to Generate Textile Strain Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yu-Hsiang; Chan, Chen-Hao; Tang, William C

    2017-11-13

    In this paper, we report a new type of electrospinning collector that allows simultaneous collection and alignment of multiple poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) piezoelectric fiber bundles with a controlled separation. The key enabling feature is the serrated teeth along the edges across an inclined gap as a part of the conductive collector. As a result, the electrical field across the gap is shaped to direct the electrospun fibers to merge into multiple bundles. The sharp points on the serrated teeth provide favorable charge dissipation points and thus fibers are preferentially formed bridging two closest sharp points across the gap. To investigate the effectiveness of serrated teeth on the formation of multiple fiber bundles, three-dimensional finite element simulations are conducted. The corresponding collectors are implemented to experimentally study the resulting electrospun fibers. Both simulation and experimental results suggest that multiple fiber bundles can be formed under the condition of a low teeth pitch to gap distance ratio. Furthermore, a sharper tooth angle results in a higher preferential formation of fiber bundles. Finally, the total electrospinning time should be less than 60 seconds to maintain favorable electric field profile. We also demonstrate that these piezoelectric fiber bundles can serve as ultra-flexible textile sensors.

  12. Dicer 1, ribonuclease type III modulates a reprogramming effect in colorectal cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewi, Dyah Laksmi; Ishii, Hideshi; Haraguchi, Naotsugu; Nishikawa, Shimpei; Kano, Yoshihiro; Fukusumi, Takahito; Ozaki, Miyuki; Saito, Toshiyuki; Sakai, Daisuke; Satoh, Taroh; Doki, Yuichiro; Mori, Masaki

    2012-06-01

    Complete cell reprogramming can be achieved by the introduction of specific transcription factors, Oct4 [also known as POU class 5 homeobox 1 (Pou5f1)]; sex-determining region Y (SRY)-box 2 (Sox2); Kruppel-like factor 4 (Klf4); and myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog (c-Myc), into terminally differentiated mouse somatic fibroblasts. This reprogramming process may be accelerated or suppressed by various factors, including microRNAs (miRNAs). Introduction of these transcription factors or miRNAs considerably modifies the malignant phenotype of cancer cells. We studied the effect of introducing these transcription factors into two distinct colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines, HCT116 and DLD-1, in the presence and absence of Dicer 1, ribonuclease type III (Dicer1), a critical miRNA processing enzyme. We assessed cell reprogramming based on the number of cells exhibiting alkaline phosphatase staining and an increase in embryonic stem cell-like gene expression, indicating the return of cells to an immature state. Dicer1-deficient CRC cells showed a reduced number of alkaline phosphatase-positive reprogrammed cells than wild-type (WT) cells. Before reprogramming, endogenous expression of an immature carbohydrate epitope, TRA-1-60, was high in Dicer1-deficient CRC cells, whereas after reprogramming, the expression of this epitope was increased in Dicer1-sufficient more than in Dicer1-deficient CRC cells. Our data demonstrate the critical role of miRNAs in the reprogramming process and determination of a differentiated phenotype of CRC cells.

  13. An integral Riemann-Roch theorem for surface bundles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ib Henning

    2010-01-01

    This paper is a response to a conjecture by T. Akita about an integral Riemann–Roch theorem for surface bundles.......This paper is a response to a conjecture by T. Akita about an integral Riemann–Roch theorem for surface bundles....

  14. Restriction Theorem for Principal bundles in Arbitrary Characteristic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gurjar, Sudarshan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to prove two basic restriction theorem for principal bundles on smooth projective varieties in arbitrary characteristic generalizing the analogues theorems of Mehta-Ramanathan for vector bundles. More precisely, let G be a reductive algebraic group over an algebraically c...

  15. Phase Space Reduction of Star Products on Cotangent Bundles.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kowalzig, N.; Neumaier, N.; Pflaum, M.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we construct star products on Marsden-Weinstein reduced spaces in case both the original phase space and the reduced phase space are (symplectomorphic to) cotangent bundles. Under the assumption that the original cotangent bundle $T^*Q$ carries a symplectic structure of form

  16. Lexical Bundles in L1 and L2 Academic Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Hua; Baker, Paul

    2010-01-01

    This paper adopts an automated frequency-driven approach to identify frequently-used word combinations (i.e., "lexical bundles") in academic writing. Lexical bundles retrieved from one corpus of published academic texts and two corpora of student academic writing (one L1, the other L2), were investigated both quantitatively and qualitatively.…

  17. Lexical Bundles: Facilitating University "Talk" in Group Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, Chan Swee; Kashiha, Hadi; Tan, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Group discussion forms an integral language experience for most language learners, providing them with an opportunity to express themselves in a naturalistic setting. Multi-word expressions are commonly used and one of them is lexical bundles. Lexical bundles are types of extended collocations that occur more commonly than we expect; they are…

  18. A novel microbond bundle pullout technique to evaluate the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-07-26

    Jul 26, 2017 ... to be a need to develop a microbond bundle pullout test that is comparable in all aspects to the semi-empirical resin slab/fibre bundle pullout approach [9]. The improvement of the known draw backs of the single fibre microbond pullout method [7], such as the difficulty in formulation and testing (with lack.

  19. Hair bundles are specialized for ATP delivery via creatine kinase.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shin, J.B.; Streijger, F.; Beynon, A.J.; Peters, T.; Gadzala, L.; McMillen, D.; Bystrom, C.; Zee, C.E.E.M. van der; Wallimann, T.; Gillespie, P.G.

    2007-01-01

    When stimulated strongly, a hair cell's mechanically sensitive hair bundle may consume ATP too rapidly for replenishment by diffusion. To provide a broad view of the bundle's protein complement, including those proteins participating in energy metabolism, we used shotgun mass spectrometry methods to

  20. Smooth Bundling of Large Streaming and Sequence Graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hurter, C.; Ersoy, O.; Telea, A.

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic graphs are increasingly pervasive in modern information systems. However, understanding how a graph changes in time is difficult. We present here two techniques for simplified visualization of dynamic graphs using edge bundles. The first technique uses a recent image-based graph bundling

  1. Computational imaging through a fiber-optic bundle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodhi, Muhammad A.; Dumas, John Paul; Pierce, Mark C.; Bajwa, Waheed U.

    2017-05-01

    Compressive sensing (CS) has proven to be a viable method for reconstructing high-resolution signals using low-resolution measurements. Integrating CS principles into an optical system allows for higher-resolution imaging using lower-resolution sensor arrays. In contrast to prior works on CS-based imaging, our focus in this paper is on imaging through fiber-optic bundles, in which manufacturing constraints limit individual fiber spacing to around 2 μm. This limitation essentially renders fiber-optic bundles as low-resolution sensors with relatively few resolvable points per unit area. These fiber bundles are often used in minimally invasive medical instruments for viewing tissue at macro and microscopic levels. While the compact nature and flexibility of fiber bundles allow for excellent tissue access in-vivo, imaging through fiber bundles does not provide the fine details of tissue features that is demanded in some medical situations. Our hypothesis is that adapting existing CS principles to fiber bundle-based optical systems will overcome the resolution limitation inherent in fiber-bundle imaging. In a previous paper we examined the practical challenges involved in implementing a highly parallel version of the single-pixel camera while focusing on synthetic objects. This paper extends the same architecture for fiber-bundle imaging under incoherent illumination and addresses some practical issues associated with imaging physical objects. Additionally, we model the optical non-idealities in the system to get lower modelling errors.

  2. Frobenius pull backs of vector bundles in higher dimensions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Frobenius pull backs; instability degree, vector bundles. 1. Introduction. Let X be a nonsingular projective variety defined over an algebraically closed field k of an arbitrary characteristic, and let H be a very ample line bundle on X. Let E be a torsion free sheaf on X. Then the notion of E being stable (resp. semistable) is well- ...

  3. On Harder–Narasimhan reductions for Higgs principal bundles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    in Ramanathan's paper. The aim of this paper is to generalize the methods of Biswas and Holla to give a unified approach to the case of principal bundles with Higgs structure on smooth projective varieties as well as the case of ramified bundles on smooth curves [4] (see §2, §5 for definitions). Recall that for the case of ...

  4. Holding the Hunger Games Hostage at the Gym: An Evaluation of Temptation Bundling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milkman, Katherine L; Minson, Julia A; Volpp, Kevin G M

    2014-02-01

    We introduce and evaluate the effectiveness of temptation bundling-a method for simultaneously tackling two types of self-control problems by harnessing consumption complementarities. We describe a field experiment measuring the impact of bundling instantly gratifying but guilt-inducing "want" experiences (enjoying page-turner audiobooks) with valuable "should" behaviors providing delayed rewards (exercising). We explore whether such bundles increase should behaviors and whether people would pay to create these restrictive bundles. Participants were randomly assigned to a full treatment condition with gym-only access to tempting audio novels, an intermediate treatment involving encouragement to restrict audiobook enjoyment to the gym, or a control condition. Initially, full and intermediate treatment participants visited the gym 51% and 29% more frequently, respectively, than control participants, but treatment effects declined over time (particularly following Thanksgiving). After the study, 61% of participants opted to pay to have gym-only access to iPods containing tempting audiobooks, suggesting demand for this commitment device.

  5. [Bundle-branch block depending on the heart rate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolov, L

    1975-01-01

    Five patients are reported, admitted to the hospital, with diseases predominantly of the cardio-vascular system. During the electrocardiographic examinations bundle branch block was established, depending on heart rate. It fluctuated within the physiological limits from 50 to 90/min. In three of the patients, the bundle branch block appeared with the quickening of the heart rate (tachycardia-depending bundle branch block) and in two of the patients--the bundle branch block appeared during the slowing down of the heart action and disappeared with its quickening (bradicardia-depending bundle branch block). A brief literature review is presented and attention is paid to the possible diagnostic errors and the treatment mode of those patients with cardiac tonic and antiarrhythmic medicaments.

  6. Bundles over Quantum RealWeighted Projective Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Brzeziński

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The algebraic approach to bundles in non-commutative geometry and the definition of quantum real weighted projective spaces are reviewed. Principal U(1-bundles over quantum real weighted projective spaces are constructed. As the spaces in question fall into two separate classes, the negative or odd class that generalises quantum real projective planes and the positive or even class that generalises the quantum disc, so do the constructed principal bundles. In the negative case the principal bundle is proven to be non-trivial and associated projective modules are described. In the positive case the principal bundles turn out to be trivial, and so all the associated modules are free. It is also shown that the circle (coactions on the quantum Seifert manifold that define quantum real weighted projective spaces are almost free.

  7. Artificial ciliary bundles with nano fiber tip links

    CERN Document Server

    Asadnia, Mohsen; Miao, Jianmin; Triantafyllou, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Mechanosensory ciliary bundles in fishes are the inspiration for carefully engineered artificial flow sensors. We report the development of a new class of ultrasensitive MEMS flow sensors that mimic the intricate morphology of the ciliary bundles, including the stereocilia, tip links, and the cupula, and thereby achieve threshold detection limits that match the biological example. An artificial ciliary bundle is achieved by fabricating closely-spaced arrays of polymer micro-pillars with gradiating heights. Tip links that form the fundamental sensing elements are realized through electrospinning aligned PVDF piezoelectric nano-fibers that link the distal tips of the polymer cilia. An optimized synthesis of hyaluronic acid-methacrylic anhydride hydrogel that results in properties close to the biological cupula, together with drop-casting method are used to form the artificial cupula that encapsulates the ciliary bundle. In testing, fluid drag force causes the ciliary bundle to slide, stretching the flexible nan...

  8. Superconductivity in an Inhomogeneous Bundle of Metallic and Semiconducting Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilya Grigorenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Using Bogoliubov-de Gennes formalism for inhomogeneous systems, we have studied superconducting properties of a bundle of packed carbon nanotubes, making a triangular lattice in the bundle's transverse cross-section. The bundle consists of a mixture of metallic and doped semiconducting nanotubes, which have different critical transition temperatures. We investigate how a spatially averaged superconducting order parameter and the critical transition temperature depend on the fraction of the doped semiconducting carbon nanotubes in the bundle. Our simulations suggest that the superconductivity in the bundle will be suppressed when the fraction of the doped semiconducting carbon nanotubes will be less than 0.5, which is the percolation threshold for a two-dimensional triangular lattice.

  9. Modified Einstein and Finsler Like Theories on Tangent Lorentz Bundles

    CERN Document Server

    Stavrinos, Panayiotis; Vacaru, Sergiu I.

    2014-01-01

    We study modifications of general relativity, GR, with nonlinear dispersion relations which can be geometrized on tangent Lorentz bundles. Such modified gravity theories, MGTs, can be modeled by gravitational Lagrange density functionals $f(\\mathbf{R},\\mathbf{T},F)$ with generalized/ modified scalar curvature $\\mathbf{R}$, trace of matter field tensors $\\mathbf{T}$ and modified Finsler like generating function $F$. In particular, there are defined extensions of GR with extra dimensional "velocity/ momentum" coordinates. For four dimensional models, we prove that it is possible to decouple and integrate in very general forms the gravitational fields for $f(\\mathbf{R},\\mathbf{T},F)$--modified gravity using nonholonomic 2+2 splitting and nonholonomic Finsler like variables $F$. We study the modified motion and Newtonian limits of massive test particles on nonlinear geodesics approximated with effective extra forces orthogonal to the four-velocity. We compute the constraints on the magnitude of extra-acceleration...

  10. Effects of long-term ingestion of difructose anhydride III (DFA III) on intestinal bacteria and bile acid metabolism in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamida, Kimiko; Asakawa, Chikako; Sujaya, I Nengah; Kaneko, Maki; Abe, Ayumi; Sone, Teruo; Hara, Hiroshi; Asano, Kozo; Tomita, Fusao

    2006-02-01

    Changes in the intestinal microbiota of 10 human subjects with long-term ingestion of 3 g/d difructose anhydride III (DFA III; 4 persons, 2 months; 3 persons, 6 months; and 3 persons, 12 months) were examined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). According to the answers to questionnaires, the subjects were divided into two groups (constipated and normal). The DGGE profile was different for every individual and each subject had unique profiles of intestinal microbiota. In the DGGE profiles of constipated subjects, the intensities of bands related to Bacteroides spp. increased. Moreover, the DFA III-assimilating bacteria, Ruminococcus sp. were isolated from subjects who ingested DFA III for 12 months. These strains showed 95% similarity of their 16S rDNA sequences with that of Ruminococcus obeum ATCC 29174(T) (X85101) and produced large amounts of acetic acid. DFA III ingestion for 2 months tended to increase total organic acids in feces, and tended to decrease fecal pH and the secondary bile acid (SBA) ratio in total bile acids. The SBA ratio in total bile acids corresponded to fecal pH. The production of SBA was decreased by low pH in vitro. These results indicated that DFA III ingestion in humans tended to lower intestinal pH, inhibited bile acid 7alpha-dehydroxylation activities and also tended to decrease the SBA ratios in total bile acids. Moreover, as another cause for the decrease in the SBA ratio in total bile acids, it was suggested that the number of bile acid 7alpha-dehydroxylating bacteria were decreased by DFA III ingestion.

  11. Framework for shape analysis of white matter fiber bundles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glozman, Tanya; Bruckert, Lisa; Pestilli, Franco; Yecies, Derek W; Guibas, Leonidas J; Yeom, Kristen W

    2017-12-02

    Diffusion imaging coupled with tractography algorithms allows researchers to image human white matter fiber bundles in-vivo. These bundles are three-dimensional structures with shapes that change over time during the course of development as well as in pathologic states. While most studies on white matter variability focus on analysis of tissue properties estimated from the diffusion data, e.g. fractional anisotropy, the shape variability of white matter fiber bundle is much less explored. In this paper, we present a set of tools for shape analysis of white matter fiber bundles, namely: (1) a concise geometric model of bundle shapes; (2) a method for bundle registration between subjects; (3) a method for deformation estimation. Our framework is useful for analysis of shape variability in white matter fiber bundles. We demonstrate our framework by applying our methods on two datasets: one consisting of data for 6 normal adults and another consisting of data for 38 normal children of age 11 days to 8.5 years. We suggest a robust and reproducible method to measure changes in the shape of white matter fiber bundles. We demonstrate how this method can be used to create a model to assess age-dependent changes in the shape of specific fiber bundles. We derive such models for an ensemble of white matter fiber bundles on our pediatric dataset and show that our results agree with normative human head and brain growth data. Creating these models for a large pediatric longitudinal dataset may improve understanding of both normal development and pathologic states and propose novel parameters for the examination of the pediatric brain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Bundling of elastic filaments induced by hydrodynamic interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Yi; Page, William; Poole, Robert J.; Lauga, Eric

    2017-12-01

    Peritrichous bacteria swim in viscous fluids by rotating multiple helical flagellar filaments. As the bacterium swims forward, all its flagella rotate in synchrony behind the cell in a tight helical bundle. When the bacterium changes its direction, the flagellar filaments unbundle and randomly reorient the cell for a short period of time before returning to their bundled state and resuming swimming. This rapid bundling and unbundling is, at its heart, a mechanical process whereby hydrodynamic interactions balance with elasticity to determine the time-varying deformation of the filaments. Inspired by this biophysical problem, we present in this paper what is perhaps the simplest model of bundling whereby two or more straight elastic filaments immersed in a viscous fluid rotate about their centerline, inducing rotational flows which tend to bend the filaments around each other. We derive an integrodifferential equation governing the shape of the filaments resulting from mechanical balance in a viscous fluid at low Reynolds number. We show that such equation may be evaluated asymptotically analytically in the long-wavelength limit, leading to a local partial differential equation governed by a single dimensionless bundling number. A numerical study of the dynamics predicted by the model reveals the presence of two configuration instabilities with increasing bundling numbers: first to a crossing state where filaments touch at one point and then to a bundled state where filaments wrap along each other in a helical fashion. We also consider the case of multiple filaments and the unbundling dynamics. We next provide an intuitive physical model for the crossing instability and show that it may be used to predict analytically its threshold and adapted to address the transition to a bundling state. We then use a macroscale experimental implementation of the two-filament configuration in order to validate our theoretical predictions and obtain excellent agreement. This long

  13. Critical Power in 7-Rod Tight Lattice Bundle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Kureta, Masatoshi; Akimoto, Hajime

    The Reduced-Moderation Water Reactor (RMWR) has recently becomes of great concern. The RMWR is expected to promote the effective utilization of uranium recourse. The RMWR is based on water-cooled reactor technology, with achieved under lower core water volume and water flow rate. In comparison with the current light water reactors whose water-to-fuel volume ratio is about 2-3, in the RMWR, this value is reduced to less than 0.5. Thereby, there is a need to research its cooling characteristics. Experimental research on critical power in tight lattice bundle that simulates the RMWR has been carried out in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). The bundle consists one center rod and six peripheral rods. The 7 rods are arranged on a 14.3mm equilateral triangular pitch. Each rod is 13mm in outside diameter. An axial 12-step power distribution is employed to simulate the complicate heating condition in RMWR. Experiments are carried out under G=100-1400kg/m2s, Pex=2-8.5MPa. Effects of mass velocity, inlet temperature, pressure, radial peaking factor and axial peaking factor on critical power and critical quality are discussed. Compared with axial uniform heating condition, the axial non-uniform heating condition causes an obvious decrease in critical quality. Arai correlation, which is the only correlation that has been optimized for tight lattice condition, is verified with the present experimental data. The correlation is found to be able to give reasonable prediction only around RMWR nominal operating condition.

  14. The effects of di-D-fructofuranose-1,2':2,3'-dianhydride (DFA III) administration on human intestinal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamida, Kimiko; Sujaya, I Nengah; Tamura, Akiko; Shigematsu, Norihiro; Sone, Teruo; Yokota, Atsushi; Asano, Kozo; Benno, Yoshimi; Tomita, Fusao

    2004-01-01

    Di-D-fructofuranose-1,2':2,3'-dianhydride (DFA III) was shown to enhance Ca absorption in rat and human intestine. The effects of DFA III administration (9 g per day for 4 weeks that corresponded to 3-fold the optimal dosage of DFA III) on human intestinal microbiota were studied using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The major groups of human intestinal microbiota reported previously: the Bacteroides, the Clostridium coccoides group (Clostridium cluster XIVa), the Clostridium leptum group (Clostridium cluster IV), and the Bifidobacterium group were detected. The similarity of 30 DGGE profiles based on the V3 region (before and after administration to the 15 subjects) of the 16S rDNA were calculated using Pearson's correlation based on numbers, positions and intensity of bands, and then a dendrogram of DGGE profiles was constructed by the unweighted pair group method using arithmetic average (UPGMA) clustering method. By these analyses, no difference in DGGE profiles after DFA III administration was observed in healthy subjects, while two subjects with chronic constipation showed different profiles, namely on numbers, positions and the intensity of some bands. Their stools were softer and stool frequencies increased and they obtained relief from constipation.

  15. Restriction of Preferences to the Set of Consumption Bundles, In a Model with Production and Consumption Bundles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schalk, S.

    1999-01-01

    In contrast to the neo-classical theory of Arrow and Debreu, a model of a private ownership economy is presented, in which production and consumption bundles are treated separately. Each of the two types of bundles is assumed to establish a con- vex cone. Production technologies can convert

  16. Single-Bundle Versus Double-Bundle Reconstruction for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Rupture: A Meta-Analysis-Does Anatomy Matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eck, Carola F. Van; Kopf, Sebastian; Irrgang, James J.; Blankevoort, Leendert; Bhandari, Mohit; Fu, Freddie H.; Poolman, Rudolf W.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether double-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction leads to better restoration of anterior and rotational laxity and range of motion than single-bundle reconstruction. Methods: A search was performed in the Medline, Embase, CINAHL, and Cochrane databases. All

  17. Effect of aging on the structure and phosphate retention of Fe(III)-precipitates formed by Fe(II) oxidation in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senn, Anna-Caterina; Kaegi, Ralf; Hug, Stephan J.; Hering, Janet G.; Mangold, Stefan; Voegelin, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    Iron(III)-precipitates formed by Fe(II) oxidation in aqueous solutions affect the cycling and impact of Fe and other co-precipitated elements in environmental systems. Fresh Fe(III)-precipitates are metastable and their transformation into more stable phases during aging may result in the release of initially co-precipitated ions. Phosphate, silicate, Mg and Ca play key roles in determining the structure and composition of fresh Fe(III)-precipitates. Here we examine how these ions affect the structure and phosphate retention of Fe(III)-precipitates formed by oxidation of 0.5 mM dissolved Fe(II) at pH 7.0 after aging for 30 days at 40 °C. Iron K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) shows that aged precipitates consist of the same structural units as fresh precipitates: Amorphous Fe(III)- or Ca-Fe(III)-phosphate, ferrihydrite, and poorly crystalline lepidocrocite. Mg, Ca, and dissolved phosphate stabilize (Ca-)Fe(III)-phosphate against transformation into ferrihydrite. Silicate further attenuates (Ca-)Fe(III)-phosphate transformation. The crystallinity of lepidocrocite formed in phosphate- and silicate-free solutions slightly increases during aging. The transformation of Fe(III)- and Ca-Fe(III)-phosphate into ferrihydrite and ongoing ferrihydrite crystallization during aging result in the release of co-precipitated phosphate. Dissolved Ca on the other hand limits phosphate concentrations to values consistent with solubility control by octacalciumphosphate. Owing to the combined effects of Ca and silicate, phosphate is most effectively retained by Fe(III)-precipitates formed and aged in Ca- and silicate-containing solutions. The results from this study contribute to an improved understanding of the formation and transformation of Fe(III)-precipitates and emphasize that the complexity of Fe(III)-precipitate dynamics in the presence of multiple interfering solutes must be considered when addressing their impact on major and trace elements in environmental systems.

  18. Combinative effects of a bacterial type-III effector and a biocontrol ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Expression of HpaGXoo, a bacterial type-III effector, in transgenic plants induces disease resistance. Resistance also can be elicited by biocontrol bacteria. In both cases, plant growth is often promoted. Here we address whether biocontrol bacteria and HpaGXoo can act together to provide better results in crop improvement ...

  19. Combinative effects of a bacterial type-III effector and a biocontrol ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhu

    acts to suppress salicylic acid-mediated SAR (Xiong and. Yang 2003). SAR, however, serves as a pathway of type-III effectors in harpin group to induce disease resistance when the proteins are applied to plants (Strobel et al 1996; Dong et al 1999) or produced in transgenic plants (Peng et al. 2004b). Nevertheless, plant ...

  20. Effects of National Fadama III Programme on the Scope and Scale of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Abstracted by: EBSCOhost, Electronic Journals Service (EJS), ... (CDD) approach with extensive participation of stakeholders at the early stage of the project. This approach is in line with policies and development strategies for Nigeria ... Fadama III Project was a comprehensive five-year action programme developed by.

  1. Complexation Effect on Redox Potential of Iron(III)-Iron(II) Couple: A Simple Potentiometric Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Masood Ahmad; Syed, Raashid Maqsood; Khan, Badruddin

    2011-01-01

    A titration curve with multiple inflection points results when a mixture of two or more reducing agents with sufficiently different reduction potentials are titrated. In this experiment iron(II) complexes are combined into a mixture of reducing agents and are oxidized to the corresponding iron(III) complexes. As all of the complexes involve the…

  2. Intramedullary rodding in type III osteogenesis imperfecta. Effects on neuromotor development in 10 children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelbert, R. H.; Helders, P. J.; Keessen, W.; Pruijs, H. E.; Gooskens, R. H.

    1995-01-01

    We studied retrospectively gross motor development and the impact of intramedullary rodding in 10 children with type III osteogenesis imperfecta (OI). There was a pronounced delay in motor development and the order in achieving gross motor milestones differed from the normal developmental sequence.

  3. Molecular Recognition of Cobalt(III)-ligated Peptides by Serine Proteases: The Role of Electrostatic Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Sven; Wagner, Kim

    1998-01-01

    A series of peptides with a positively charged cobalt(III)-complex group attached to the carboxylate terminal was synthesized. The behaviour of these metallopeptides as acceptor nucleophiles in acyl transfer reactions catalyzed by the three serine proteases bovine pancreatic à-chymotrypsin, porcine...

  4. Revisiting The First Galaxies: The effects of Population III stars on their host galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muratov, Alexander L. [U. Michigan, Dept. Astron.; Gnedin, Oleg Y. [U. Michigan, Dept. Astron.; Gnedin, Nickolay Y. [Chicago U., Astron. Astrophys. Ctr.; Zemp, Marcel [Beijing, KITPC

    2013-07-12

    We revisit the formation and evolution of the first galaxies using new hydrodynamic cosmological simulations with the adaptive refinement tree code. Our simulations feature a recently developed model for H2 formation and dissociation, and a star formation recipe that is based on molecular rather than atomic gas. Here, we develop and implement a recipe for the formation of metal-free Population III (Pop III) stars in galaxy-scale simulations that resolve primordial clouds with sufficiently high density. We base our recipe on the results of prior zoom-in simulations that resolved the protostellar collapse in pre-galactic objects. We find the epoch during which Pop III stars dominated the energy and metal budget of the first galaxies to be short-lived. Galaxies that host Pop III stars do not retain dynamical signatures of their thermal and radiative feedback for more than 108 years after the lives of the stars end in pair-instability supernovae, even when we consider the maximum reasonable efficiency of the feedback. Though metals ejected by the supernovae can travel well beyond the virial radius of the host galaxy, they typically begin to fall back quickly, and do not enrich a large fraction of the intergalactic medium. Galaxies with a total mass in excess of 3 × 106 M re-accrete most of their baryons and transition to metal-enriched Pop II star formation.

  5. Is alternate rapid maxillary expansion and constriction an effective protocol in the treatment of Class III malocclusion? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pithon, Matheus Melo; Santos, Nathalia de Lima; Santos, Camila Rangel Barreto Dos; Baião, Felipe Carvalho Souza; Pinheiro, Murilo Costa Rangel; Matos, Manoel; Souza, Ianderlei Andrade; Paula, Rafael Pereira de

    2016-01-01

    the treatment of Class III malocclusion in early age is one of the greatest challenges for orthodontists, and the establishment of more effective treatment method is a constant concern for these professionals. Thus, the objective of this systematic review is to verify the effectiveness of the therapy protocol for alternate rapid maxillary expansion and constriction (Alt-RAMEC) in the early treatment of Class III malocclusion. searches were performed in the following electronic databases: Cochrane Library, Medline (EBSCO and PubMed), SciELO, LILACS and Scopus. The following inclusion criteria were used: in vivo studies conducted with early intervention (patient in craniofacial development phase) with the use of the Alt-RAMEC protocol. Reviews, case reports, editorials, and studies with syndromic patients or under use of systemic drug were excluded. Duplicates were also excluded. The studies were assessed for methodological quality using the Cochrane tool for assessment of risk of bias, and classified as high or low risk of bias. 53 articles were found. Duplicates exclusion was thus performed and 35 articles remained. After inclusion analysis, only 5 matched the criteria. Two articles were classified as low risk of bias and three as high risk of bias. It was observed that the Alt-RAMEC enable protraction in less time and with better results, promoting greater effectiveness in the protraction treatment of Class III malocclusion. Although there is positive evidence of the effectiveness of early treatment with the Alt-RAMEC protocol in patients with Class III malocclusion, further studies are needed to confirm its effectiveness using long-term methodology.

  6. Comparative investigations on the biological effects of As (III) and As (V) in clam Ruditapes philippinarum using multiple biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Chenglong; Xu, Hai'e; Wang, Qing; Zhao, Jianmin; Wu, Huifeng

    2015-11-01

    Inorganic arsenic is a known pollutant with two chemical forms, arsenite (As (III)) and arsenate (As (V)), in marine environment. Clam Ruditapes philippinarum is an important fishery species along the Bohai coast. In this study, the biological effects induced by the two arsenic chemical forms (arsenite and arsenate) were compared using multiple biochemical indices in the digestive glands of clam R. philippinarum. The production of reactive oxygen species, antioxidant enzyme activities and metabolic responses exhibited that both As (III) and As (V) induced immune, oxidative and osmotic stresses in clam digestive glands. The differential metabolic biomarkers, histidine and taurine, indicated the differential responsive mechanisms in osmotic regulation in clam digestive glands. In addition, both arsenic treatments enhanced the anaerobiosis metabolism in clam digestive glands. Overall, this work illustrated that arsenite and arsenate induced similar biological effects in clams, which might be accounted for the biological transformation of arsenate to arsenite in clams. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Reflood experiments in rod bundles with flow blockages due to clad ballooning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, S.K.; Kim, J.; Kim, K.; Kim, B.J.; Park, J.K.; Youn, Y.J.; Choi, H.S.; Song, C.H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    Clad ballooning and the resulting partial flow blockage are one of the major thermal-hydraulic concerns associated with the coolability of partially blocked cores during a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). Several in-pile tests have shown that fuel relocation causes a local power accumulation and a high thermal coupling between the clad and fuel debris in the ballooned regions. However, previous experiments in the 1980s did not take into account the fuel relocation phenomena and resulting local power increase in the ballooned regions. The present paper presents the results of systematic investigations on the coolability of rod bundles with flow blockages. The experiments were mainly performed in 5 x 5 rod bundles, 2 x 2 rod bundles and other test facilities. The experiments include a reflood heat transfer, single-phase convective heat transfer, flow redistributions phenomena, and droplet break-up behavior. The effects of the fuel relocation and resulting local power increase were investigated using a 5 x 5 rod bundle. The fuel relocation phenomena increase the peak cladding temperature.

  8. Bundling hand hygiene interventions and measurement to decrease health care-associated infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincock, Ted; Bernstein, Paul; Warthman, Shawn; Holst, Elizabeth

    2012-05-01

    Proper performance of hand hygiene at key moments during patient care is the most important means of preventing health care-associated infections (HAIs). With increasing awareness of the cost and societal impact caused by HAIs has come the realization that hand hygiene improvement initiatives are crucial to reducing the burden of HAIs. Multimodal strategies have emerged as the best approach to improving hand hygiene compliance. These strategies use a variety of intervention components intended to address obstacles to complying with good hand hygiene practices, and to reinforce behavioral change. Although research has substantiated the effectiveness of the multimodal design, challenges remain in promoting widespread adoption and implementation of a coordinated approach. This article reviews elements of a multimodal approach to improve hand hygiene and advocates the use of a "bundled" strategy. Eight key components of this bundle are proposed as a cohesive program to enable the deployment of synergistic, coordinated efforts to promote good hand hygiene practice. A consistent, bundled methodology implemented at multiple study centers would standardize processes and allow comparison of outcomes, validation of the methodology, and benchmarking. Most important, a bundled approach can lead to sustained infection reduction. Copyright © 2012 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of calcium on adsorptive removal of As(III) and As(V) by iron oxide-based adsorbents

    KAUST Repository

    Uwamariya, V.

    2014-06-25

    The effects of calcium on the equilibrium adsorption capacity of As(III) and As(V) onto iron oxide-coated sand (IOCS) and granular ferric hydroxide (GFH) were investigated through batch experiments, rapid small-scale column tests (RSSCT) and kinetics modelling. Batch experiments showed that at calcium concentrations≤20 mg/L, high As(III) and As(V) removal efficiencies by IOCS and GFH are achieved at pH 6. An increase of the calcium concentration to 40 and 80 mg/L reversed this trend, giving higher removal efficiencies at higher pH (8). The adsorption capacities of IOCS and GFH at an equilibrium arsenic concentration of 10 g/L were found to be between 2.0 and 3.1 mg/g for synthetic water without calcium and between 2.8 and 5.3 mg/g when 80 mg/L of calcium was present at the studied pH values. After 10 hours of filter run in RSSCT, approximately 1000 empty bed volumes, the ratios of C/Co for As(V) were 26% and 18% for calcium-free model water; and only 1% and 0.2% after addition of 80 mg/L of Ca for filter columns with IOCS and GFH, respectively. The adsorption of As(III) and As(V) onto GFH follows a second-order reaction, with and without addition of calcium. The adsorption of As(III) and As(V) onto IOCS follows a first-order reaction without calcium addition, and moves to the second-reaction-order kinetics when calcium is added. Based on the intraparticle diffusion model, the main controlling mechanism for As(III) adsorption is intraparticle diffusion, while surface diffusion contributes greatly to the adsorption of As(V).

  10. Effect of Dermal Thickness on Scars in Women with Type III-IV Fitzpatrick Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ince, Bilsev; Dadaci, Mehmet; Oltulu, Pembe; Altuntas, Zeynep; Bilgen, Fatma

    2015-06-01

    Both patients and physicians desire minimal scarring after surgical procedures. The removal of foreign bodies from around the wound, prevention of infection, and wound closure without tension is recommended for reducing scarring. The reasons underlying the differing appearance of scars between different anatomical regions of the same individual are not fully understood. Moreover, to our knowledge, the relationship between incision width and dermal thickness in different anatomical regions has yet to be investigated. Hence, in the present study, we aimed to determine the effect of dermal thickness on scar formation. Fifty patients who were treated and followed up for breast hypertrophy between 2010 and 2013 were retrospectively investigated. In all patients, a 2 × 2-cm skin biopsy specimen was obtained from the medial right breast at the horizontal line of the T scar. A routine superomedial pedicle breast reduction was subsequently performed. The extracted excision materials and skin biopsy specimens were examined pathologically. Dermal thickness was measured from the starting point of the subcutaneous tissue to the end point of the epidermis, at four different sites. The average dermal thickness was then calculated for each patient. The skin color of all patients was determined according to the Fitzpatrick classification. Scar width was measured in three different regions, including a combination of the vertical and horizontal portions of the T scar and the flap confluence. After the measurements, the scars were evaluated for vascularity, pigmentation, elasticity, thickness, and height by two plastic surgeons and a clinical nurse, who were blinded to patient data. The mean age of the 50 female patients was 40.8 years (range 18-65 years). The average follow-up period was 16 months (range 12-18 months). An average of 987.5 g (range 505-1621 g) of breast and fatty tissue was removed. The average dermal thickness was 4.99 mm (range 3.5-6.8 mm). The most common skin

  11. Non-selective His bundle pacing with a biphasic waveform: enhancing septal resynchronization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Daniel F; Barja, Luis D; Logarzo, Emilio; Mangani, Nicolas; Paolucci, Analia; Bonomini, Maria P

    2017-05-17

    His bundle pacing has shown to prevent detrimental effects from right ventricular apical pacing (RVA) and proved to resynchronize many conduction disturbances cases. However, the extent of His bundle pacing resynchronization is limited. An optimized stimulation waveform could expand this limit when implemented in His bundle pacing sets. In this work, we temporarily implemented RVA and Non-selective His bundle pacing with a biphasic anodal-first waveform (AF-nHB) and compared their effects against sinus rhythm (SR). Fifteen patients referred for electrophysiologic study with conduction disturbances, cardiomyopathy and ejection fraction below 35% were enrolled for the study. The following acute parameters were measured: QRS duration, left ventricular activation (RLVT), time of isovolumic contraction (IVCT), ejection fraction (EF), and dP/dtmax. QRS duration and RLVT decreased markedly under AF-nHB (SR: 169 ± 34 ms vs. nHB: 116 ± 31 ms, P < 0.0005) while RVA significantly increased QRS duration (SR: 169 ms vs. RVA: 198 ms, P < 0.05) and did not change RLVT (P = NS). Consistently, IVCT moderately decreased under AF-nHB (SR: 238 ms vs. RVA: 184 ms, P < 0.05 vs. SR) and dP/dtmax showed a 93.35 [mmHg] average increase under AF-nHB against SR. Also, T-wave inversions were observed during AF-nHB immediately after SR and RVA pacing suggesting the occurrence of cardiac memory. AF-nHB corrected bundle branch blocks in patients with severe conduction disturbances, even in those with dilated cardiomiopathy, outstanding from RVA. Also, the occurrence of cardiac memory during AF-nHB turned up as an observational finding of this study.

  12. Bundling Actin Filaments From Membranes: Some Novel Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clément eThomas

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Progress in live-cell imaging of the cytoskeleton has significantly extended our knowledge about the organization and dynamics of actin filaments near the plasma membrane of plant cells. Noticeably, two populations of filamentous structures can be distinguished. On the one hand, fine actin filaments which exhibit an extremely dynamic behavior basically characterized by fast polymerization and prolific severing events, a process referred to as actin stochastic dynamics. On the other hand, thick actin bundles which are composed of several filaments and which are comparatively more stable although they constantly remodel as well. There is evidence that the actin cytoskeleton plays critical roles in trafficking and signaling at both the cell cortex and organelle periphery but the exact contribution of actin bundles remains unclear. A common view is that actin bundles provide the long-distance tracks used by myosin motors to deliver their cargo to growing regions and accordingly play a particularly important role in cell polarization. However, several studies support that actin bundles are more than simple passive highways and display multiple and dynamic roles in the regulation of many processes, such as cell elongation, polar auxin transport, stomatal and chloroplast movement, and defense against pathogens. The list of identified plant actin-bundling proteins is ever expanding, supporting that plant cells shape structurally and functionally different actin bundles. Here I review the most recently characterized actin-bundling proteins, with a particular focus on those potentially relevant to membrane trafficking and/or signaling.

  13. Effect of the apolipoprotein C-II/C-III1 ratio on the capacity of purified milk lipoprotein lipase to hydrolyse triglycerides in monolayer vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, D A; Catapano, A L; Smith, L C; Sparrow, J T; Gotto, A M

    1996-12-20

    The effect of the apolipoprotein C-II/C-III1 ratio on the capacity of purified bovine milk lipoprotein lipase to hydrolyse triglycerides was measured in a controlled model of pyrene-labeled nonanoyltriglycerides (1-2 ditetradecyl 3-pyrene nonanoyl glyceride) monolayer vesicles. Monolayer was composed of triglycerides, a non-hydrolysable phospholipid ether and cholesterol, a model system where the quality of the interface can be controlled. LPL released fatty acids from pyrene-triglycerides which were transferred from the lipoprotein structure to albumin. This transfer induces a decrease in the excimer production and in the excimer fluorescence intensity. Apolipoprotein C-II and C-III0 and C-III1 were purified from apolipoprotein VLDL. The 2 fragments, C-III1 A (peptide 1-40) and C-III1 B (peptide 41-79), were obtained after thrombin cleavage. Apolipoproteins C-III0 and C-III1 had a similar inhibitory effect on LPL. Inhibition with apo C-III0 or apo C-III1 was 85% of full LPL activity without inhibitor: Apo C-III1 B inhibited 62% of basal activity. It was 27% less effective than apo C-III1. Fragment C-III1 A did not inhibit LPL. The effect of change in both apo C-II (0-0.6 microM) and apo C-III1 (0-1.0 microM) on triglyceride hydrolysis shows the importance of the apo C-II/C-III1 ratio for the release of free fatty acids from triglycerides by LPL. The activating effect of apo C-II in the absence of the apo C-III inhibitor was maximal at 0.06 microM. No further activation was obtained between 0.06 and 0.30 microM. Higher concentrations decreased LPL activity. Apo C-III1 (0.1 microM) decreased the maximum activation by apo C-II from 0.0196 to 0.063 nmol/min/nmol LPL. Higher concentrations of apo C-III1 (0.1-0.5 microM) required higher apo C-II concentrations (0.30 microM instead of 0.06 microM) for maximal activation than when apo C-III1 was absent. The activity of the enzyme without apo C-II was decreased by 65% by 0.12 microM apo C-III1. Increasing the apo C

  14. The Effect of the Pucker Sign on Outcomes of Type III Extension Supracondylar Fractures in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smuin, Dallas M; Hennrikus, William L

    2017-06-01

    The pucker sign, also called skin tenting, indicates significant displacement of the supracondylar fracture and can be a cause for alarm. The purpose of this study is to compare a cohort of patients with type III supracondylar fractures presenting with a pucker sign to a group without a pucker sign by evaluating neurovascular injury at presentation, need for open reduction, persistent neurovascular injury, range of motion, and carrying angle at final follow-up. A retrospective review was performed for Gartland type III extension type supracondylar fractures. Those with a pucker sign were identified and evaluated. Type III supracondylar fractures with a pucker sign were compared with a similar cohort without a pucker sign. In total, 12 patients with a pucker sign at an average age of 5.2 years were evaluated. A total of 11 patients (92%) had diminished or absent pulses, and 2 (17%) had weakness in the median nerve distribution. Nine (75%) patients in this group were transferred to the university hospital. Average time to surgery was 8.9 hours with an average operating time of 25.1 minutes. Open reduction was not needed in any case. At an average follow-up of 4.7 months no patients had persistent neurovascular compromise. Two patients lacked sign, in the context of a supracondylar fracture of the humerus, is a soft tissue defect with potential entrapment of median nerve and brachial artery. At a maximum time of 16 hours from injury to surgery we report excellent outcomes and no long-term complications. Using the techniques of gradual traction, and milking the soft tissue, the pucker sign can be eliminated. Closed reduction and percutaneous pinning were performed in all the cases. Level III-retrospective comparative study.

  15. Investigation on the co-luminescence effect of europium (III)-lanthanum(III)-dopamine-sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate system and its application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Hailin; Zhao, Fang; Cai, Huan

    2013-01-01

    A novel luminescence, enhancement phenomenon in the europium(III)-dopamine-sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate system was observed when lanthanum(III) was added. Based on this, a sensitive co-luminescence method was established for the determination of dopamine. The luminescence signal for the europium (III)-lanthanum(III)-dopamine-sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate system was monitored at λ(ex) = 300 nm, λ(em) = 618 nm and pH 8.3. Under optimized conditions, the enhanced luminescence signal responded linearly to the concentration of dopamine in the range 1.0 × 10(-10)-5.0 × 10(-7) mol/L with a correlation coefficient of 0.9993 (n = 11). The detection limit (3σ) was 2.7 × 10(-11) mol/L and the relative standard deviation for 11 parallel measurements of 3.0 × 10(-8) mol/L dopamine was 1.9%. The presented method was successfully applied for the estimation of dopamine in samples of pharmaceutical preparations, human serum and urine. The possible luminescence enhancement mechanism of the system is discussed briefly. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. DRD4-exonIII-VNTR moderates the effect of childhood adversities on emotional resilience in young-adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debjani Das

    Full Text Available Most individuals successfully maintain psychological well-being even when exposed to trauma or adversity. Emotional resilience or the ability to thrive in the face of adversity is determined by complex interactions between genetic makeup, previous exposure to stress, personality, coping style, availability of social support, etc. Recent studies have demonstrated that childhood trauma diminishes resilience in adults and affects mental health. The Dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4 exon III variable number tandem repeat (VNTR polymorphism was reported to moderate the impact of adverse childhood environment on behaviour, mood and other health-related outcomes. In this study we investigated whether DRD4-exIII-VNTR genotype moderates the effect of childhood adversities (CA on resilience. In a representative population sample (n = 1148 aged 30-34 years, we observed an interactive effect of DRD4 genotype and CA (β = 0.132; p = 0.003 on resilience despite no main effect of the genotype when effects of age, gender and education were controlled for. The 7-repeat allele appears to protect against the adverse effect of CA since the decline in resilience associated with increased adversity was evident only in individuals without the 7-repeat allele. Resilience was also significantly associated with approach-/avoidance-related personality measures (behavioural inhibition/activation system; BIS/BAS measures and an interactive effect of DRD4-exIII-VNTR genotype and CA on BAS was observed. Hence it is possible that approach-related personality traits could be mediating the effect of the DRD4 gene and childhood environment interaction on resilience such that when stressors are present, the 7-repeat allele influences the development of personality in a way that provides protection against adverse outcomes.

  17. DRD4-exonIII-VNTR moderates the effect of childhood adversities on emotional resilience in young-adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Debjani; Cherbuin, Nicolas; Tan, Xiaoyun; Anstey, Kaarin J; Easteal, Simon

    2011-01-01

    Most individuals successfully maintain psychological well-being even when exposed to trauma or adversity. Emotional resilience or the ability to thrive in the face of adversity is determined by complex interactions between genetic makeup, previous exposure to stress, personality, coping style, availability of social support, etc. Recent studies have demonstrated that childhood trauma diminishes resilience in adults and affects mental health. The Dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) exon III variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphism was reported to moderate the impact of adverse childhood environment on behaviour, mood and other health-related outcomes. In this study we investigated whether DRD4-exIII-VNTR genotype moderates the effect of childhood adversities (CA) on resilience. In a representative population sample (n = 1148) aged 30-34 years, we observed an interactive effect of DRD4 genotype and CA (β = 0.132; p = 0.003) on resilience despite no main effect of the genotype when effects of age, gender and education were controlled for. The 7-repeat allele appears to protect against the adverse effect of CA since the decline in resilience associated with increased adversity was evident only in individuals without the 7-repeat allele. Resilience was also significantly associated with approach-/avoidance-related personality measures (behavioural inhibition/activation system; BIS/BAS) measures and an interactive effect of DRD4-exIII-VNTR genotype and CA on BAS was observed. Hence it is possible that approach-related personality traits could be mediating the effect of the DRD4 gene and childhood environment interaction on resilience such that when stressors are present, the 7-repeat allele influences the development of personality in a way that provides protection against adverse outcomes.

  18. [Effect of maxillary protraction with or without rapid palatal expansion in treating early skeletal Class III malocclusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wen-Sheng; Lu, Hai-Yan; Dong, Fu-Sheng; Hu, Xiao-Ying; Li, Xing-Chao

    2009-04-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of treatment with maxillary protraction with or without rapid palatal expansion (RPE) for skeletal Class III malocclusion in mixed dentition. A total of 31 children with Class III malocclusion in mixed dentition were selected, and 15 (group A) received maxillary protraction treatment with RPE, the other 16 (group B) received maxillary protraction without RPE. Cephalometric films were taken before and after treatment, and traditional and Pancherz analysis were used. The average duration of treatment was 10.14 months in group A and 9.77 months in group B respectively (P>0.05). According to Pancherz analysis, maxillary basal bone moved forwards by 2.99 mm in group A and 3.33 mm in group B respectively (P>0.05), mandibular basal bone moved backwards by 0.07 mm in group A, while forwards by 0.80 mm in group B (P>0.05), the overjet increased by 4.51 mm in group A and 6.37 mm in group B respectively (P0.05). The effects were clinically satisfactory in the both groups. Lower molar moved forwards by 1.18 mm in basal bone in group A, while backwards by 1.20 mm in group B (PClass III malocclusion.

  19. Electrochemical Studies of the Inhibition and Activation Effects of Al (III on the Activity of Bovine Liver Glutamate Dehydrogenase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuping Bi

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the study of Al3+ ion on the enzyme activity by using of electrochemical techniques was rarely found in available literatures, the differential-pulse polarography (DPP technique was applied to study the effects of Al3+ ion on the glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH activity in the catalytical reaction of α-KG +NADH+NH4 + ⇔ L-Glu+NAD++H2O by monitoring the DPP reduction current of NAD+. At the plant and animal physiologically relevant pH values (pH=6.5 and 7.5, the GDH enzyme activities were strongly depended on the concentrations of the metal ion in the assay mixture solutions. In the lower Al (III concentration solutions (80μM, the inhibition effects of Al (III were shown again. The cyclic voltammetry of NAD+ and NAD+-GDH in the presence of Al (III can help to explain some biological phenomena. According to the differential-pulse polarography and cyclic voltammetry experiments, the present research confirmed that the electrochemical technique is a convenient and reliable sensor for accurate determination of enzyme activity in biological and environmental samples.

  20. Effects of gelatin sponge combined with moist wound-healing nursing intervention in the treatment of phase III bedsore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanling; Yao, Meiying; Wang, Xia; Zhao, Yanqing

    2016-06-01

    Pressure sore pertains to tissue damage or necrosis that occurs due to lack of adequate nutrition following long-term exposure to pressure and decreased blood circulation. The aim of the study was to examine the effects of gelatin sponge combined with moist wound-healing nursing intervention in the treatment of phase III bedsore. In total, 50 patients with phase III bedsore were included in the present study. The patients were randomly divided into the control (n=25) and observation (n=25) groups. Patients in the control group received conventional nursing, while those in the observation group received gelatin sponge combined with moist wound healing nursing. The effects of the two nursing methods were compared and analyzed. The results showed that the improvement rate of the observation group was significantly higher than that of the control group (Pfrequency and time of dressing change and the average cost of hospitalization of the observation group were significantly lower than those of the control group (Phealing nursing intervention may significantly improve the treatment of phase III bedsore.

  1. The effect of types I and III interferons on adrenocortical cells and its possible implications for autoimmune Addison's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellesen, A; Edvardsen, K; Breivik, L; Husebye, E S; Bratland, E

    2014-06-01

    Autoimmune Addison's disease (AAD) is caused by selective destruction of the hormone-producing cells of the adrenal cortex. As yet, little is known about the potential role played by environmental factors in this process. Type I and/or type III interferons (IFNs) are signature responses to virus infections, and have also been implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune endocrine disorders such as type 1 diabetes and autoimmune thyroiditis. Transient development of AAD and exacerbation of established or subclinical disease, as well as the induction of autoantibodies associated with AAD, have been reported following therapeutic administration of type I IFNs. We therefore hypothesize that exposure to such IFNs could render the adrenal cortex susceptible to autoimmune attack in genetically predisposed individuals. In this study, we investigated possible immunopathological effects of type I and type III IFNs on adrenocortical cells in relation to AAD. Both types I and III IFNs exerted significant cytotoxicity on NCI-H295R adrenocortical carcinoma cells and potentiated IFN-γ- and polyinosine-polycytidylic acid [poly (I : C)]-induced chemokine secretion. Furthermore, we observed increased expression of human leucocyte antigen (HLA) class I molecules and up-regulation of 21-hydroxylase, the primary antigenic target in AAD. We propose that these combined effects could serve to initiate or aggravate an ongoing autoimmune response against the adrenal cortex in AAD. © 2014 British Society for Immunology.

  2. Moduli of Parabolic Higgs Bundles and Atiyah Algebroids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Logares, Marina; Martens, Johan

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we study the geometry of the moduli space of (non-strongly) parabolic Higgs bundles over a Riemann surface with marked points. We show that this space possesses a Poisson structure, extending the one on the dual of an Atiyah algebroid over the moduli space of parabolic vector bundles....... By considering the case of full flags, we get a Grothendieck–Springer resolution for all other flag types, in particular for the moduli spaces of twisted Higgs bundles, as studied by Markman and Bottacin and used in the recent work of Laumon–Ngô. We discuss the Hitchin system, and demonstrate that all...

  3. Impact of 6-Hour Sepsis Resuscitation Bundle Compliance on Hospital Mortality in a Saudi Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javed I. Memon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To assess the effect of improved compliance with 6-hour sepsis resuscitation bundle on mortality in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock. Materials and Methods. A quasi-experimental prospective study was conducted at a 10-bedded combined medical and surgical intensive care unit. The historical group included all consecutive patients with severe sepsis and septic shock admitted from January 2008 to March 2009. Intervention included evidence-based written sepsis pathway, antibiotic recommendations, and an educational program.The post-intervention group included all consecutive patients admitted from July 2009 to June 2011. The primary outcome measures were the overall compliance to seven 6-hour sepsis resuscitation bundle elements and 30-day hospital mortality. There were 99 patients in the historical group and 199 in the post-intervention group. Results. The baseline patients' characteristics were similar. Overall compliance to all seven sepsis resuscitation bundle elements in historical group was 5.1% [95% confidence interval (CI, 2.1–11.3] which improved after intervention to 23.6% (95% CI, 17.9–30.1; . The overall compliance to 6-hour sepsis resuscitation bundle elements was associated with improved survival [odds ratio (OR, 5.8 (95% CI, 2.2–15.1; ]. 30-day hospital mortality reduced from 31.3% in the historical group to 21.1% in the intervention group; . Conclusion. Improvement in compliance to 6-hour sepsis resuscitation bundle was associated with a reduction in 30-day hospital mortality.

  4. Management of acute Achilles tendon rupture with tendon-bundle technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun-Guang; Li, Bing; Yang, Yun-Feng

    2017-02-01

    Objective * These authors contributed equally to this work. To explore tendon-bundle technique for treating Achilles tendon rupture with no defects. Methods Patients with full unilateral Achilles tendon rupture with no defects were included. The Achilles tendon medial edge surgical repair approach was used, revealing horsetail-like rupture bundles. Tendon bundles were anatomically realigned and repaired end-to-end using 5-0 sutures. Patients were followed-up for 1 year, and assessed for differences between the repaired versus healthy limb. Results Out of 24 patients (18 male, 6 female; aged 19-56 years) at 1 year following surgery, mean American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society score was 92.4 ± 5.9; mean differences between the surgically repaired versus contralateral side in dorsiflexion and plantarflexion angle were 3.5 ± 2.3° and 5.6 ± 3.2°, respectively; mean difference in calf circumference between the two sides was 0.9 ± 0.5 cm; and mean increase in Achilles tendon width versus the healthy side was 0.8 ± 0.2 cm. By 1 year post-surgery, there were no significant between-side differences in dorsiflexion and plantarflexion angle, or calf circumference. Conclusions Tendon-bundle surgery resulted in good ankle function restoration and low complication rates. Tendon-bundle surgery may reduce blood supply destruction and maximally preserve Achilles tendon length, and may be effective for treating Achilles tendon rupture with no defects.

  5. A community-based cluster randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of different bundles of nutrition-specific interventions in improving mean length-for-age z score among children at 24 months of age in rural Bangladesh: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sk Masum Billah

    2017-05-01

    -RCT explores the effectiveness of bundles of preventive nutrition intervention approaches addressing the critical window of opportunity to mitigate childhood stunting. The results will provide robust evidence as to which bundle(s can have significant effect on linear growth of children. Our study also will have policy-level implications for prioritising intervention(s tackling stunting. Trial registration The study was retrospectively registered on May 2, 2016 and is available online at ClinicalTrials.gov (ID: NCT02768181 .

  6. A community-based cluster randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of different bundles of nutrition-specific interventions in improving mean length-for-age z score among children at 24 months of age in rural Bangladesh: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billah, Sk Masum; Ferdous, Tarana E; Karim, Mohd Anisul; Dibley, Michael J; Raihana, Shahreen; Moinuddin, Md; Choudhury, Nuzhat; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Hoque, D M Emdadul; Menon, Purnima; Arifeen, Shams El

    2017-05-02

    Prevalence of stunting among under-five children in Bangladesh is 36%, varying with geographic and socio-economic characteristics. Previously, research groups statistically modelled the effect of 10 individual nutrition-specific interventions targeting the critical first 1000 days of life from conception, on lives saved and costs incurred in countries with the highest burden of stunted children. However, primary research on the combined effects of these interventions is limited. Our study directly addresses this gap by examining the effect of combinations of 5 preventive interventions on length-for-age z-scores (LAZ) among 2-years old children. This community-based cluster randomised trial (c-RCT) compares 4 intervention combinations against one comparison arm. Intervention combinations are: 1) Behaviour change communication (BCC) on maternal nutrition during pregnancy, exclusive breastfeeding, and complementary feeding, along with prenatal nutritional supplement (PNS) and complementary food supplement (CFS); 2) BCC with PNS; 3) BCC with CFS; and 4) BCC alone. The comparison arm receives only routine health and nutrition services. From a rural district, 125 clusters were selected and randomly assigned to any one of the five study arms by block randomisation. A bespoke automated tab-based system was developed linking data collection, intervention delivery and project supervision. Total sample size is 1500 pregnant women, with minimum 1050 resultant children expected to be retained, powered to detect a difference of at least 0.4 in the mean LAZ score of children at 24 months, the main outcome variable, between the comparison arm and each intervention arm. Length and other anthropometric measurements, nutritional intake and other relevant data on mother and children are being collected during enrolment, twice during pregnancy, postpartum monthly till 6 months, and every third month thereafter till 24 months. This c-RCT explores the effectiveness of bundles of

  7. Long-term skeletal and dental effects of facemask versus chincup treatment in Class III patients : A retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendl, B; Stampfl, M; Muchitsch, A P; Droschl, H; Winsauer, H; Walter, A; Wendl, M; Wendl, T

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the skeletal and dental changes during chincup versus facemask treatment, to compare the long-term effects of the two appliances, and to document the impact of each on treatment success. In all, 61 patients with Class III syndrome were retrospectively analyzed at three examination times: 7.8 ± 1.7 years of age (T0, pretreatment), 9.6 ± 2.4 years of age (T1, posttreatment), and around 15-20 years later (T2, long-term follow-up). Significant changes of specific cephalometric parameters for all treatment times: T0-T1 (SNA, interbase and gonial angle, Björk's sum angle, maxillomandibular differential, and distance of upper lip to esthetic line), T1-T2 (NL-NSL, SNB, mandibular-body length, effective mandibular length, and effective maxillary length), and T0-T2 (mandibular-body length, effective mandibular length, effective maxillary length, maxillomandibular differential, SNB, ANB, gonial angle, Björk's sum angle, and Wits appraisal). The T1-T2 results illustrate that in both treatment groups the typical Class III growth pattern often reappeared after treatment, including gains in SNB angle, condylion-gnathion length, and gonion-menton distance. Either a facemask or a chincup may be effectively used to treat Class III malocclusion. There were differences in long-term stability. Maxillary development was similarly favorable in both groups of patients with successful outcome. The subgroup in whom chincup treatment had failed were mainly characterized by excessive mandibular growth, or lack of maxillary catch-up growth, with deterioration of the maxillomandibular relationship notably in the initial phase of treatment. Early chincup treatment did not have an adverse impact on the temporomandibular joints.

  8. Roles of the Espin Actin-Bundling Proteins in the Morphogenesis and Stabilization of Hair Cell Stereocilia Revealed in CBA/CaJ Congenic Jerker Mice: e1002032

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gabriella Sekerková; Claus-Peter Richter; James R Bartles

    2011-01-01

    .... To investigate the roles of the espin class of actin-bundling protein, we used a genetic approach that benefited from a judicious selection of mouse background strain and an examination of the effects of heterozygosity...

  9. Roles of the espin actin-bundling proteins in the morphogenesis and stabilization of hair cell stereocilia revealed in CBA/CaJ congenic jerker mice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sekerková, Gabriella; Richter, Claus-Peter; Bartles, James R

    2011-01-01

    .... To investigate the roles of the espin class of actin-bundling protein, we used a genetic approach that benefited from a judicious selection of mouse background strain and an examination of the effects of heterozygosity...

  10. Kinetic spectrophotometric determination of Bi(III based on its catalytic effect on the oxidation of phenylfluorone by hydrogen peroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOFIJA M. RANČIĆ

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A new reaction was suggested and a new kinetic method was elaborated for determination of Bi(III in solution, based on its catalytic effect on the oxidation of phenyl-fluorone (PF by hydrogen peroxide in ammonia buffer. By application of spectrophotometric technique, a limit of quantification (LQ of 128 ng cm-3 was reached, and the limit of detection (LD of 37 ng cm-3 was obtained, where LQ was defined as the ratio signal:noise = 10:1 and LD was defined as signal 3:1 against the blank. The RSD value was found to be in the range 2.8–4.8 % for the investigated concentration range of Bi(III. The influence of some ions upon the reaction rate was tested. The method was confirmed by determining Bi(III in a stomach ulcer drug (“Bicit HP”, Hemofarm A.D.. The obtained results were compared to those obtained by AAS and good agreement of results was obtained.

  11. Effect of nitrate addition on reductive transformation of pentachlorophenol in paddy soil in relation to iron(III) reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Huan-Yun; Wang, Yong-kui; Chen, Peng-cheng; Li, Fang-bai; Chen, Man-jia; Hu, Min; Ouyang, Xiaoguang

    2014-01-01

    Reductive dechlorination is a crucial pathway for anaerobic biodegradation of highly chlorinated organic contaminants. Under an anoxic environment, reductive dechlorination of organic contaminants can be affected by many redox processes such as nitrate reduction and iron reduction. In the present study, batch incubation experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of nitrate addition on reductive dechlorination of PCP in paddy soil with consideration of iron transformation. Study results demonstrate that low concentrations (0, 0.5 and 1 mM) of nitrate addition can enhance the reductive dechlorination of PCP and Fe(III) reduction, while high concentrations (5, 10, 20 and 30 mM) of nitrate addition caused the contrary. Significant positive correlations between PCP degradation rates and the formation rates of dissolved Fe(II) (pearson correlation coefficients r = 0.965) and HCl-extractable Fe(II) (r = 0.921) suggested that Fe(III) reduction may enhance PCP dechlorination. Furthermore, consistent variation trends of PCP degradation and the abundances of the genus Comamonas, capable of Fe(III) reduction coupled to reductive dechlorination, and of the genus Dehalobacter indicated the occurrence of microbial community variation induced by nitrate addition as a response to PCP dechlorination. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Bundles of Norms About Teen Sex and Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollborn, Stefanie; Sennott, Christie

    2015-09-01

    Teen pregnancy is a cultural battleground in struggles over morality, education, and family. At its heart are norms about teen sex, contraception, pregnancy, and abortion. Analyzing 57 interviews with college students, we found that "bundles" of related norms shaped the messages teens hear. Teens did not think their communities encouraged teen sex or pregnancy, but normative messages differed greatly, with either moral or practical rationalizations. Teens readily identified multiple norms intended to regulate teen sex, contraception, abortion, childbearing, and the sanctioning of teen parents. Beyond influencing teens' behavior, norms shaped teenagers' public portrayals and post hoc justifications of their behavior. Although norm bundles are complex to measure, participants could summarize them succinctly. These bundles and their conflicting behavioral prescriptions create space for human agency in negotiating normative pressures. The norm bundles concept has implications for teen pregnancy prevention policies and can help revitalize social norms for understanding health behaviors. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Some applications on tangent bundle with Kaluza-Klein metric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Altunbaş

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, differential equations of geodesics; parallelism, incompressibility and closeness conditions of the horizontal and complete lift of the vector fields are investigated with respect to Kaluza-Klein metric on tangent bundle.

  14. Algebraic Frobenius splitting of cotangent bundles of flag varieties

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hague, Chuck

    2013-01-01

    Following the program of algebraic Frobenius splitting begun by Kumar and Littelmann, we use representation-theoretic techniques to construct a Frobenius splitting of the cotangent bundle of the flag...

  15. Design and synthesis of DNA four-helix bundles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangnekar, Abhijit; Gothelf, Kurt V; LaBean, Thomas H

    2011-06-10

    The field of DNA nanotechnology has evolved significantly in the past decade. Researchers have succeeded in synthesizing tile-based structures and using them to form periodic lattices in one, two and three dimensions. Origami-based structures have also been used to create nanoscale structures in two and three dimensions. Design and construction of DNA bundles with fixed circumference has added a new dimension to the field. Here we report the design and synthesis of a DNA four-helix bundle. It was found to be extremely rigid and stable. When several such bundles were assembled using appropriate sticky-ends, they formed micrometre-long filaments. However, when creation of two-dimensional sheet-like arrays of the four-helix bundles was attempted, nanoscale rings were observed instead. The exact reason behind the nanoring formation is yet to be ascertained, but it provides an exciting prospect for making programmable circular nanostructures using DNA.

  16. CANFLEX fuel bundle cross-flow endurance test (test report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Sung Deok; Chung, C. H.; Chang, S. K.; Kim, B. D.

    1997-04-01

    As part of the normal refuelling sequence of CANDU nuclear reactor, both new and irradiated bundles can be parked in the cross-flow region of the liner tubes. This situation occurs normally for a few minutes. The fuel bundle which is subjected to the cross-flow should be capable of withstanding the consequences of cross flow for normal periods, and maintain its mechanical integrity. The cross-flow endurance test was conducted for CANFLEX bundle, latest developed nuclear fuel, at CANDU-Hot Test Loop. The test was carried out during 4 hours at the inlet cross-flow region. After the test, the bundle successfully met all acceptance criteria after the 4 hours cross-flow test. (author). 2 refs., 3 tabs.

  17. Bohr--Sommerfeld Lagrangians of moduli spaces of Higgs bundles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biswas, Indranil; Gammelgaard, Niels Leth; Logares, Marina

    Let $X$ be a compact connected Riemann surface of genus at least two. Let $M_H(r,d)$ denote the moduli space of semistable Higgs bundles on $X$ of rank $r$ and degree $d$. We prove that the compact complex Bohr-Sommerfeld Lagrangians of $M_H(r,d)$ are precisely the irreducible components of the n......Let $X$ be a compact connected Riemann surface of genus at least two. Let $M_H(r,d)$ denote the moduli space of semistable Higgs bundles on $X$ of rank $r$ and degree $d$. We prove that the compact complex Bohr-Sommerfeld Lagrangians of $M_H(r,d)$ are precisely the irreducible components...... of the nilpotent cone in $M_H(r,d)$. This generalizes to Higgs $G$-bundles and also to the parabolic Higgs bundles....

  18. Design and synthesis of DNA four-helix bundles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rangnekar, Abhijit; Gothelf, Kurt V [Department of Chemistry, Centre for DNA Nanotechnology (CDNA) and Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (iNANO), Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); LaBean, Thomas H, E-mail: kvg@chem.au.dk, E-mail: thl@cs.duke.edu [Department of Chemistry, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States)

    2011-06-10

    The field of DNA nanotechnology has evolved significantly in the past decade. Researchers have succeeded in synthesizing tile-based structures and using them to form periodic lattices in one, two and three dimensions. Origami-based structures have also been used to create nanoscale structures in two and three dimensions. Design and construction of DNA bundles with fixed circumference has added a new dimension to the field. Here we report the design and synthesis of a DNA four-helix bundle. It was found to be extremely rigid and stable. When several such bundles were assembled using appropriate sticky-ends, they formed micrometre-long filaments. However, when creation of two-dimensional sheet-like arrays of the four-helix bundles was attempted, nanoscale rings were observed instead. The exact reason behind the nanoring formation is yet to be ascertained, but it provides an exciting prospect for making programmable circular nanostructures using DNA.

  19. Arthroscopic discopexy is effective in managing temporomandibular joint internal derangement in patients with Wilkes stage II and III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCain, Joseph P; Hossameldin, Reem H; Srouji, Samer; Maher, Amr

    2015-03-01

    Disc repositioning for temporomandibular joint (TMJ) internal derangement (ID) is a well-established surgical technique with variable success. The purpose of the present study was to assess the outcomes after arthroscopic disc repositioning (discopexy) for TMJ ID. This was a prospective, cohort, single-institutional clinical study. The study included patients with TMJ ID in whom diagnostic arthroscopy had failed. These patients were presented and treated at Miami Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Baptist Hospital (Miami FL). The predictive variable was the Wilkes diagnostic categories, presented in 2 groups: II and III versus IV and V. The primary outcome variable was the absence of joint pain at 12 months postoperatively. The secondary outcome variables included joint function, maximum interincisal opening, medication use, joint loading sign, and muscle pain. The patients were followed for 1 year postoperatively. The statistical analyses included paired and independent sample Student's t test, χ(2) test, and logistic regression analysis. A total of 32 subjects (42 joints), with a mean age of 31 years, were included in the present study; 28 (87.5%) were women. Of the 42 joints, 71.4% were classified as Wilkes stage II and III. A successful outcome was seen in 69% of the studied subjects and in 86.7% of the Wilkes II and III group versus 25% of the Wilkes IV and V group (P = .001). The results of the present study have shown that TMJ arthroscopic discopexy is an effective and predictable treatment of patients with TMJ ID in whom primary TMJ arthroscopy failed. Our results have also shown that patients with Wilkes II or III TMD will have the most successful outcome. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of surface reconstruction on the epitaxial growth of III-Sb on GaAs using interfacial misfit array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Bo Wen, E-mail: jiab0001@e.ntu.edu.sg; Tan, Kian Hua; Loke, Wan Khai; Wicaksono, Satrio; Yoon, Soon Fatt

    2017-03-31

    Highlights: • Low-defected GaSb and InSb were grown on GaAs by MBE using interfacial misfit dislocations. • X-ray reciprocal space mapping can be used to characterize misfit dislocations at the III-Sb/GaAs interface. • Uniform interfacial misfit dislocation array were observed by TEM and x-ray RSM. • (2 × 8) pre-growth Sb reconstruction promoted the formation of 90° misfit dislocations at the III-Sb/GaAs interface. • The electron mobility in GaSb and InSb layers on GaAs can be enhanced through optimizing pre-growth Sb reconstruction. - Abstract: The effects of pre-growth Sb reconstruction on a GaAs surface on the epitaxial growth of III-Sb (GaSb and InSb) on a (100) GaAs substrate using interfacial misfit array were investigated. All samples exhibited smooth surface with a root mean square (r.m.s.) roughness below 1.5 nm and nearly 100% relaxation. Modeling indicated that the distribution and types of misfit dislocations can be evaluated using a reciprocal space map (RSM) of the x-ray measurements. The interfacial misfit (IMF) arrays in III-Sb/GaAs samples were characterized by RSMs of high-resolution x-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The RSM results suggest that all samples exhibited highly uniformly distributed misfit dislocations, and pre-growth (2 × 8) Sb surface reconstruction promoted the formation of 90° dislocations in an IMF array. Hall measurements of unintentionally doped GaSb and InSb layers also suggested that the highest motilities at both 77 K and 300 K were achieved at the samples grown on GaAs with pre-growth (2 × 8) Sb reconstruction.

  1. Effect of different solutes, natural organic matter, and particulate Fe(III) on ferrate(VI) decomposition in aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yanjun; Goodwill, Joseph E; Tobiason, John E; Reckhow, David A

    2015-03-03

    This study investigated the impacts of buffer ions, natural organic matter (NOM), and particulate Fe(III) on ferrate(VI) decomposition and characterized Fe(VI) decomposition kinetics and exposure in various waters. Homogeneous and heterogeneous Fe(VI) decomposition can be described as a second- and first-order reaction with respect to Fe(VI), respectively. Fe(VI) decay was catalyzed by Fe(VI) decomposition products. Solutes capable of forming complexes with iron hydroxides retarded Fe(VI) decay. Fractionation of the resulting solutions from Fe(VI) self-decay and ferric chloride addition in borate- and phosphate-buffered waters showed that phosphate could sequester Fe(III). The nature of the iron precipitate from Fe(VI) decomposition was different from that of freshly precipitated ferric hydroxide from ferric chloride solutions. The stabilizing effects of different solutes on Fe(VI) are in the following order: phosphate > bicarbonate > borate. The constituents of colored and alkaline waters (NOM and bicarbonate) inhibited the catalytic effects of Fe(VI) decomposition products and stabilized Fe(VI) in natural waters. Because of the stabilizing effects of solutes, moderate doses of Fe(VI) added to natural waters at pH 7.5 resulted in exposures that have been shown to be effective for inactivation of target pathogens. Preformed ferric hydroxide was less effective than freshly dosed ferric chloride in accelerating Fe(VI) decomposition.

  2. A Discrete Theory of Connections on Principal Bundles

    OpenAIRE

    Leok, M; Marsden, JE; Weinstein, AD

    2017-01-01

    Connections on principal bundles play a fundamental role in expressing the equations of motion for mechanical systems with symmetry in an intrinsic fashion. A discrete theory of connections on principal bundles is constructed by introducing the discrete analogue of the Atiyah sequence, with a connection corresponding to the choice of a splitting of the short exact sequence. Equivalent representations of a discrete connection are considered, and an extension of the pair groupoid composition, t...

  3. On the Geometry of Cotangent Bundles of Lie Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Manga, Bakary

    2015-01-01

    Lie groups of automorphisms of cotangent bundles of Lie groups are completely characterized and interesting results are obtained. We give prominence to the fact that the Lie groups of automorphisms of cotangent bundles of Lie groups are super symmetric Lie groups. In the cases of orthogonal Lie lgebras, semi-simple Lie algebras and compact Lie algebras we recover by simple methods interesting co-homological known results. The Lie algebra of prederivations encompasses the one of derivations as...

  4. CHF prediction in rod bundles using round tube data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Wallen F.; Veloso, Maria A.F.; Pereira, Cláubia; Costa, Antonella L., E-mail: wallenfds@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: mdora@nuclear.ufmg.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear

    2017-07-01

    The present work concerns the use of 1995 CHF table for uniformly heated round tubes, developed jointly by Canadian and Russian researchers, for the prediction of critical heat fluxes in rod bundles geometries. Comparisons between measured and calculated critical heat fluxes indicate that this table could be applied to rod bundles provided that a suitable correction factor is employed. The tolerance limits associated with the departure from nucleate boiling ratio (DNBR) are evaluated by using statistical analysis. (author)

  5. Page 1 Moduli for bundles over curves - 325 through the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (B End V, with the reduced structure. Note that C is an open subscheme in C and C is a multicone in G) End V. By the hypothesis of the lemma and assumption Mo = G, for te Twe have an isomorphism (p, Eo- ºr, We can interpret p, as a section of the fiber bundle (e. X ..) (G) with fiber G associated to the G × G. bundle Eo * Č, ...

  6. [Short-term effects on reconstruction of Paprosky type III severe acetabulum bone defect with tantalum metal block].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhong-yao; Li, Peng; Cha, Xiao-feng

    2015-12-01

    To investigate methods and short-term effects on tantalum metal block for reconstruction of Paprosky type III severe acetabulum bone defect. Twelve patients (12 hips) with Paprosky type III severe acetabulum bone defect,treated with tantalum metal block in revision of total hip arthroplasty, were retrospectively analyzed from March 2009 to December 2012. Among the patients, there were 5 males and 7 females aged from 45 to 78 years old with an average of 64 years old; the courses of disease ranged from 3 to 32 months with an average of 16 months. According to classification of Paprosky, all patients were Paprosky type III acetabulum bone defect. All patients were used tantalum metal block in revision of total hip arthroplasty, and large diameter biological acetabulum cups were used in combination. Operative time,blood loss and postoperative complications were recorded and compared, Harris score were used to evaluate clinical effects. Eleven patients ( 11 hips) were followed up from 9 to 36 months with an average of 25 months, 1 case was lost to follow-up for dying in car accident. The incisions were healed at stage I . Operative time ranged from 2 to 6 h with an average of 3 h; blood loss was 300 to 1 600 ml with an average of 900 ml. No deep venous thrombosis, periprosthetic femoral fracture and infection, sciatic nerve injury occurred after operation. Harris score were improved from (46.25 ± 8.99) before operation to (83.75 ± 6.76) after operation. There was significant difference in Harris score before and after operation (t = 3.14, P = 0.00 Tantalum metal block is suitable for revision of Paprosky III acetabulum bone defect, could repair different kinds of acetabulum cup defect, could fill up inclusive defect of inner wall combined with particulate bone graft, induce bone growth pressured between metal block and metal cup, provide a new further choose for the treatment of Paprosky type III severe acetabulum bone defect.

  7. Experimental Approach to Visualize Flow in a Stacked Hollow Fiber Bundle of an Artificial Lung With Particle Image Velocimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaesler, Andreas; Schlanstein, Peter C; Hesselmann, Felix; Büsen, Martin; Klaas, Michael; Roggenkamp, Dorothee; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas; Steinseifer, Ulrich; Arens, Jutta

    2017-06-01

    Flow distribution is key in artificial lungs, as it directly influences gas exchange performance as well as clot forming and blood damaging potential. The current state of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in artificial lungs can only give insight on a macroscopic level due to model simplification applied to the fiber bundle. Based on our recent work on wound fiber bundles, we applied particle image velocimetry (PIV) to the model of an artificial lung prototype intended for neonatal use to visualize flow distribution in a stacked fiber bundle configuration to (i) evaluate the feasibility of PIV for artificial lungs, (ii) validate CFD in the fiber bundle of artificial lungs, and (iii) give a suggestion how to incorporate microscopic aspects into mainly macroscopic CFD studies. To this end, we built a fully transparent model of an artificial lung prototype. To increase spatial resolution, we scaled up the model by a factor of 5.8 compared with the original size. Similitude theory was applied to ensure comparability of the flow distribution between the device of original size and the scaled-up model. We focused our flow investigation on an area (20 × 70 × 43 mm) in a corner of the model with a Stereo-PIV setup. PIV data was compared to CFD data of the original sized artificial lung. From experimental PIV data, we were able to show local flow acceleration and declaration in the fiber bundle and meandering flow around individual fibers, which is not possible using state-of-the-art macroscopic CFD simulations. Our findings are applicable to clinically used artificial lungs with a similar stacked fiber arrangement (e.g., Novalung iLa and Maquet QUADROX-I). With respect to some limitations, we found PIV to be a feasible experimental flow visualization technique to investigate blood-sided flow in the stacked fiber arrangement of artificial lungs. © 2016 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Mitotic spindle: kinetochore fibers hold on tight to interpolar bundles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolić, Iva M

    2017-07-19

    When a cell starts to divide, it forms a spindle, a micro-machine made of microtubules, which separates the duplicated chromosomes. The attachment of microtubules to chromosomes is mediated by kinetochores, protein complexes on the chromosome. Spindle microtubules can be divided into three major classes: kinetochore microtubules, which form k-fibers ending at the kinetochore; interpolar microtubules, which extend from the opposite sides of the spindle and interact in the middle; and astral microtubules, which extend towards the cell cortex. Recent work in human cells has shown a close relationship between interpolar and kinetochore microtubules, where interpolar bundles are attached laterally to kinetochore fibers almost all along their length, acting as a bridge between sister k-fibers. Most of the interpolar bundles are attached to a pair of sister kinetochore fibers and vice versa. Thus, the spindle is made of modules consisting of a pair of sister kinetochore fibers and a bundle of interpolar microtubules that connects them. These interpolar bundles, termed bridging fibers, balance the forces acting at kinetochores and support the rounded shape of the spindle during metaphase. This review discusses the structure, function, and formation of kinetochore fibers and interpolar bundles, with an emphasis on how they interact. Their connections have an impact on the force balance in the spindle and on chromosome movement during mitosis because the forces in interpolar bundles are transmitted to kinetochore fibers and hence to kinetochores through these connections.

  9. Splitting 3-plane sub-bundles over the product of two real projective spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Hermínia de Paula Leite Mello

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Let α be a real vector bundle of fiber dimension three over the product RP(m×RP(n which splits as a Whitney sum of line bundles. We show that the necessary and sufficient conditions for α to embed as a sub-bundle of a certain family of vector bundles β of fiber dimension m+n is the vanishing of the last three Stiefel-Whitney classes of the virtual bundle0 β−α. Among the target bundles β we consider the tangent bundle.

  10. Nurse-led implementation of a ventilator-associated pneumonia care bundle in a children's critical care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Charlotte

    2016-05-09

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is the leading cause of death with hospital-acquired infections, and preventing it is one of the Saving Lives initiatives ( Department of Health 2007 ). This article discusses the implementation of a purpose-designed VAP care bundle in a children's intensive care unit and examines the unique role of nurses in the management of the change process. A nurse-led VAP education, implementation and surveillance programme was set up. Nurse education was paramount, as nursing staff acceptance and involvement was a key feature. A multi-method training strategy was implemented, providing staff with multiple training opportunities and introducing VAP project education as a routine part of staff induction. Bundle compliance was monitored regularly and graphs of the results produced quarterly; feedback proved to be useful in keeping staff informed and engaged in VAP reduction. Comparison of VAP incidence before and after introduction of the care bundle showed a reduction after its implementation. With a co-ordinated, multidisciplinary approach, VAP care bundles can result in significant and sustained reductions in VAP rates in the paediatric intensive care unit. Effective co-ordination and leadership is crucial to successful implementation of the VAP bundle, and nurses are well placed to undertake this role.

  11. Synthesis and Characterization of Flower-Like Bundles of ZnO Nanosheets by a Surfactant-Free Hydrothermal Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jijun Qiu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Flower-like bundles of ZnO nanosheets have been prepared by using preheating hydrothermal process without any surfactants. The flower-like bundles consist of many thin and uniform hexagonal-structured ZnO nanosheets, with a thickness of 50 nm. The selected area electronic diffraction (SAED and high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM images indicate that the ZnO nanosheets are single crystal in nature. The growth mechanism of the flower-like bundles of ZnO nanosheets is discussed based on the morphology evolution with growth times and reaction conditions. It is believed that the formation of flower-like bundles of ZnO nanosheets is related to the shielding effect of OH− ions and the self-assembly process, which is dominated by a preheating time. Room temperature photoluminescence spectra results show that the annealing atmosphere strongly affects the visible emission band, which is sensitive to intrinsic and surface defects, especially oxygen interstitials, in flower-like bundles of ZnO nanosheets.

  12. Pre-Practice Hydration Status and the Effects of Hydration Regimen on Collegiate Division III Male Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Meir Magal; Rebekah J. Cain, Josh C. Long, Kathleen S. Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Pre-practice euhydration is key in the prevention of heat related injuries. The pre-practice hydration status of male National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA)-Division III athletes and the effects of a direct hydration regimen have yet to be investigated therefore; the aim of the study was 1) to analyze the pre-practice hydration status of current NCAA-DIII male athletes and 2) assess the impact of a directed intervention on pre-practice hydration status. The study was divided into bas...

  13. The Effect of Intraoperative Graft Coverage With Preserved Remnant Tissue on the Results of the Pivot-Shift Test After Anatomic Double-Bundle Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: Quantitative Evaluations With an Electromagnetic Sensor System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Nobuto; Yasuda, Kazunori; Yokota, Masashi; Goto, Keiko; Wada, Susumu; Onodera, Jun; Kondo, Eiji

    2017-08-01

    Remnant tissue preservation may be important in improving graft healing after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, but it has yet to be established whether remnant tissue preservation improves the control of pivot-shift laxity. The amount of ACL graft coverage with preserved remnant tissue improves the control of pivot-shift laxity, as qualitatively determined with an electromagnetic device. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. The 3-dimensional kinematics were evaluated intraoperatively using an electromagnetic sensor system in 38 patients at the time of anatomic double-bundle ACL reconstruction with remnant tissue preservation and again at a minimum of 12 months postoperatively. The magnitude of the peak coupled anterior tibial translation (pCAT) and the maximal acceleration of posterior translation (APT) during the pivot-shift test were evaluated. The degree of graft coverage by remnant tissue was determined arthroscopically at the end of surgery, which was evaluated quantitatively using a scoring system (0-9 points). The relationship between the values during the pivot-shift test and preoperative and intraoperative factors were assessed. The mean (±SD) side-to-side difference of the pCAT (ΔpCAT) was significantly ( P electromagnetic device. This improvement was significantly affected by the degree of intraoperative graft coverage with preserved remnant tissue.

  14. Improving Hospital Survival and Reducing Brain Dysfunction at Seven California Community Hospitals: Implementing PAD Guidelines Via the ABCDEF Bundle in 6,064 Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes-Daly, Mary Ann; Phillips, Gary; Ely, E Wesley

    2017-02-01

    To track compliance by an interprofessional team with the Awakening and Breathing Coordination, Choice of drugs, Delirium monitoring and management, Early mobility, and Family engagement (ABCDEF) bundle in implementing the Pain, Agitation, and Delirium guidelines. The aim was to study the association between ABCDEF bundle compliance and outcomes including hospital survival and delirium-free and coma-free days in community hospitals. A prospective cohort quality improvement initiative involving ICU patients. Seven community hospitals within California's Sutter Health System. Ventilated and nonventilated general medical and surgical ICU patients enrolled between January 1, 2014, and December 31, 2014. Total and partial bundle compliance were measured daily. Random effects regression was used to determine the association between ABCDEF bundle compliance accounting for total compliance (all or none) or for partial compliance ("dose" or number of bundle elements used) and outcomes of hospital survival and delirium-free and coma-free days, after adjusting for age, severity of illness, and presence of mechanical ventilation. Of 6,064 patients, a total of 586 (9.7%) died before hospital discharge. For every 10% increase in total bundle compliance, patients had a 7% higher odds of hospital survival (odds ratio, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.04-1.11; p coma with both total bundle compliance (incident rate ratio, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.01-1.04; p = 0.004) and partial bundle compliance (incident rate ratio, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.09-1.22; p Pain, Agitation, and Delirium guidelines. Higher bundle compliance was independently associated with improved survival and more days free of delirium and coma after adjusting for age, severity of illness, and presence of mechanical ventilation.

  15. Differential effects of buffer pH on Ca2+-induced ROS emission with inhibited mitochondrial complex I and III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P Lindsay

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Excessive mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS emission is a critical component in the etiolo-gy of ischemic injury. Complex I and complex III of the electron transport chain are considered the primary sources of ROS emission during cardiac ischemia and reperfusion (IR injury. Several factors modulate ischemic ROS emission, such as an increase in extra-matrix Ca2+, a decrease in extra-matrix pH, and a change in substrate utilization. Here we examined the combined effects of these factors on ROS emission from respiratory complex I and III under conditions of simulated IR injury. Guinea pig heart mitochondria were suspended in experimental buffer at a given pH and incubated with or without CaCl2. Mitochondria were then treated with either pyruvate, a complex I substrate, followed by rote-none, a complex I inhibitor, or succinate, a complex II substrate, followed by antimycin A, a complex III inhibitor. H2O2 release rate and matrix volume were compared with and without adding CaCl2 and at pH 7.15, 6.9, or 6.5 with pyruvate + rotenone or succinate + antimycin A to simulate conditions that may occur during in vivo cardiac IR injury. We found a large increase in H2O2 release with high [CaCl2] and pyruvate + rotenone at pH 6.9, but not at pHs 7.15 or 6.5. Large increases in H2O2 release rate also occurred at each pH with high [CaCl2] and succinate + antimycin A, with the highest levels observed at pH 7.15. The increases in H2O2 release were associated with significant mitochondrial swelling, and both H2O2 release and swelling were abolished by cyclosporine A, a desensitizer of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore. These results indicate that ROS production by complex I and by III is differently affected by buffer pH and Ca2+ loading with mPTP opening. The study sug-gests that changes in the levels of cytosolic Ca2+ and pH during IR alter the relative amounts of ROS produced at mitochondrial respiratory complex I and complex III.

  16. A quantitative histopathological study of right bundle branch block complicating acute anteroseptal myocardial infarction.

    OpenAIRE

    Okabe, M; Fukuda, K; Nakashima, Y; Hiroki, T; Arakawa, K; Kikuchi, M

    1991-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether necrosis of the right bundle branch is responsible for development of right bundle branch block in acute myocardial infarction. Twenty patients with acute anteroseptal myocardial infarction were studied--10 with right bundle branch block (group A) and 10 without (group B)--to evaluate by serial sectioning the pathological extent of myocardial infarction surrounding the right bundle branch and also that of right bundle branch necrosis. Myoca...

  17. On rationality of moduli spaces of vector bundles on real Hirzebruch ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    These projective bundles are called Hirzebruch surfaces. See Chapter. 5 of [3] for a detailed exposition on Hirzebruch surfaces. We recall the definition of the divisor C0 on P(ξ). The inclusion of OXR in OXR ⊕ L defines an irreducible effective divisor on P(ξ). This divisor will be denoted by C0. Note that C0 is defined over R.

  18. Adsorption of Eu(III) onto TiO{sub 2}: Effect of pH, concentration, ionic strength and soil fulvic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan Xiaoli, E-mail: tanxl@ipp.ac.cn [Key Lab of New Thin Film Solar Cells, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1126, Hefei, 230031 Anhui (China); School of Nuclear Science and Engineering, North China Electric Power University, Beijing, 102206 (China); Fang Ming [Institute of Solid States Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1129, Hefei, 230031 Anhui (China); Li Jiaxing; Lu Yi [Key Lab of New Thin Film Solar Cells, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1126, Hefei, 230031 Anhui (China); Wang Xiangke, E-mail: xkwang@ipp.ac.cn [Key Lab of New Thin Film Solar Cells, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1126, Hefei, 230031 Anhui (China); School of Nuclear Science and Engineering, North China Electric Power University, Beijing, 102206 (China)

    2009-08-30

    The effects of pH, initial Eu(III) concentration, ionic strength and fulvic acid (FA) on the adsorption of Eu(III) on TiO{sub 2} are investigated by using batch techniques. The results indicate that the presence of FA strongly enhances the adsorption of Eu(III) on TiO{sub 2} at low pH values. Besides, the adsorption of Eu(III) on TiO{sub 2} is significantly dependent on pH values and independent of ionic strength. The adsorption of Eu(III) on TiO{sub 2} is attributed to inner-sphere surface complexation. The diffuse layer model (DLM) is applied to simulate the adsorption data, and fits the experimental data well with the aid of FITEQL 3.2. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is performed to study the species of Eu(III) adsorbed on the surfaces of TiO{sub 2}/FA-TiO{sub 2} hybrids at a molecular level, which suggest that FA act as 'bridge' between Eu(III) and TiO{sub 2} particles to enhance the ability to adsorb Eu(III) in solution.

  19. Richard III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Palle Schantz

    2017-01-01

    Kort analyse af Shakespeares Richard III med fokus på, hvordan denne skurk fremstilles, så tilskuere (og læsere) langt henad vejen kan føle sympati med ham. Med paralleller til Netflix-serien "House of Cards"......Kort analyse af Shakespeares Richard III med fokus på, hvordan denne skurk fremstilles, så tilskuere (og læsere) langt henad vejen kan føle sympati med ham. Med paralleller til Netflix-serien "House of Cards"...

  20. Enhancement effects of reducing agents on the degradation of tetrachloroethene in the Fe(II)/Fe(III) catalyzed percarbonate system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao, Zhouwei [State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Environmental Risk Assessment and Control on Chemical Process, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Soil, Water and Environmental Science Department, School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, The University of Arizona, 429 Shantz Building, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Gu, Xiaogang [State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Environmental Risk Assessment and Control on Chemical Process, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Lu, Shuguang, E-mail: lvshuguang@ecust.edu.cn [State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Environmental Risk Assessment and Control on Chemical Process, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Brusseau, Mark L. [Soil, Water and Environmental Science Department, School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, The University of Arizona, 429 Shantz Building, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Yan, Ni [Hydrology and Water Resources Department, School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Arizona, 429 Shantz Building, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Qiu, Zhaofu; Sui, Qian [State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Environmental Risk Assessment and Control on Chemical Process, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China)

    2015-12-30

    Highlights: • PCE degradation by reducing-agent modified Fe-catalyzed percarbonate was studied. • The addition of reducing agents significantly increased PCE degradation. • Hydroxylamine hydrochloride showed the best effect on enhancing PCE degradation. • The primary PCE degradation mechanism was oxidation by hydroxyl radical. • O{sub 2}·{sup −} participated in the degradation of PCE in reducing-agent modified system. - Abstract: In this study, the effects of reducing agents on the degradation of tetrachloroethene (PCE) were investigated in the Fe(II)/Fe(III) catalyzed sodium percarbonate (SPC) system. The addition of reducing agents, including hydroxylamine hydrochloride, sodium sulfite, ascorbic acid and sodium ascorbate, accelerated the Fe(III)/Fe(II) redox cycle, leading to a relatively steady Fe(II) concentration and higher production of free radicals. This, in turn, resulted in enhanced PCE oxidation by SPC, with almost complete PCE removal obtained for appropriate Fe and SPC concentrations. The chemical probe tests, using nitrobenzene and carbon tetrachloride, demonstrated that HO· was the predominant radical in the system and that O{sub 2}·{sup −} played a minor role, which was further confirmed by the results of electron spin resonance measurements. PCE degradation decreased significantly with the addition of isopropanol, a HO· scavenger, supporting the hypothesis that HO· was primarily responsible for PCE degradation. It is noteworthy that Cl{sup −} release was slightly delayed in the first 20 min, indicating that intermediate products were produced. However, these intermediates were further degraded, resulting in the complete conversion of PCE to CO{sub 2}. In conclusion, the use of reducing agents to enhance Fe(II)/Fe(III) catalyzed SPC oxidation appears to be a promising approach for the rapid degradation of organic contaminants in groundwater.

  1. Hydrothermal synthesis of amorphous MoS2nanofiber bundles via acidification of ammonium heptamolybdate tetrahydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tharamani CN

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractMoS2nanofiber bundles have been prepared by hydrothermal method using ammonium molybdate with sulfur source in acidic medium and maintained at 180 °C for several hours. The obtained black crystalline products are characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD, Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The PXRD pattern of the sample can be readily indexed as hexagonal 2H-MoS2. FTIR spectrum of the MoS2shows the band at 480 cm−1corresponds to the γas(Mo-S. SEM/TEM images of the samples exhibit that the MoS2nanofiber exist in bundles of 120–300 nm in diameter and 20–25 μm in length. The effects of temperature, duration and other experimental parameters on the morphology of the products are investigated.

  2. Biogenic synthesis of selenium nanoparticles and their effect on As(III)-induced toxicity on human lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Kumar Suranjit; Selvaraj, Kaliaperumal

    2014-03-01

    A bioreductive capacity of a plant, Terminalia arjuna leaf extract, was utilized for preparation of selenium nanoparticles. The leaf extract worked as good capping as well as stabilizing agent and facilitated the formation of stable colloidal nanoparticles. Resulting nanoparticles were characterized using UV-Vis spectrophotometer, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), respectively. The colloidal solution showed the absorption maximum at 390 nm while TEM and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) indicated the formation of polydispersed, crystalline selenium nanoparticles of size raging from 10 to 80 nm. FT-IR analysis suggested the involvement of O-H, N-H, C=O, and C-O functional group of the leaf extract in particle formation while EDAX analysis indicated the presence of selenium in synthesized nanoparticles. The effect of nanoparticles on human lymphocytes treated with arsenite, As(III), has been studied. Studies on cell viability using MTT assay and DNA damage using comet assay revealed that synthesized selenium nanoparticles showed protective effect against As(III)-induced cell death and DNA damage. Chronic ingestion of arsenic infested groundwater, and prevalence of arsenicosis is a serious public health issue. The synthesized benign nanoselenium can be a promising agent to check the chronic toxicity caused due to arsenic exposure.

  3. Effective As(III) Removal by A Multi-Charged Hydroacid Complex Draw Solute Facilitated Forward Osmosis-Membrane Distillation (FO-MD) Processes

    KAUST Repository

    Ge, Qingchun

    2016-01-29

    © 2016 American Chemical Society. Effective removal of As(III) from water by an oxalic acid complex with the formula of Na3[Cr(C2O4)3] (Na-Cr-OA) is demonstrated via an forward osmosis-membrane distillation (FO-MD) hybrid system in this study. Na-Cr-OA first proved its superiority as a draw solute with high water fluxes and negligible reverse fluxes in FO, then a systematic investigation of the Na-Cr-OA promoted FO process was conducted to ascertain the factors in As(III) removal. Relatively high water fluxes of 28 LMH under the FO mode and 74 LMH under the pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) mode were achieved when using a 1000 ppm As(III) solution as the feed and 1.0 M Na-Cr-OA as the draw solution at 60 °C. As(III) removal with a water recovery up to 21.6% (FO mode) and 48.3% (PRO mode) were also achieved in 2 h. An outstanding As(III) rejection with 30-3000 μg/L As(III) in the permeate was accomplished when As(III) feed solutions varied from 5 × 104 to 1 × 106 μg/L, superior to the best FO performance reported for As(III) removal. Incorporating MD into FO not only makes As(III) removal sustainable by reconcentrating the Na-Cr-OA solution simultaneously, but also reduces the As(III) concentration below 10 μg/L in the product water, meeting the WHO standard.

  4. Effect of fibroblast activation protein and alpha2-antiplasmin cleaving enzyme on collagen types I, III, and IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Victoria J; Jackson, Kenneth W; Lee, Kyung N; McKee, Patrick A

    2007-01-15

    The circulating enzyme, alpha2-antiplasmin cleaving enzyme (APCE), has very similar sequence homology and proteolytic specificity as fibroblast activation protein (FAP), a membrane-bound proteinase. FAP is expressed on activated fibroblasts associated with rapid tissue growth as in embryogenesis, wound healing, and epithelial-derived malignancies, but not in normal tissues. Its presence on stroma suggests that FAP functions to remodel extracellular matrix (ECM) during neoplastic growth. Precise biologic substrates have not been defined for FAP, although like APCE, it cleaves alpha2-antiplasmin to a derivative more easily cross-linked to fibrin. While FAP has been shown to cleave gelatin, evidence for cleavage of native collagen, the major ECM component, remains indistinct. We examined the potential proteolytic effects of FAP or APCE alone and in concert with selected matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) on collagens I, III, and IV. SDS-PAGE analyses demonstrated that neither FAP nor APCE cleaves collagen I. Following collagen I cleavage by MMP-1, however, FAP or APCE digested collagen I into smaller peptides. These peptides were analogous to, yet different from, those produced by MMP-9 following MMP-1 cleavage. Amino-terminal sequencing and mass spectrometry analyses of digestion mixtures identified several peptide fragments within the sequences of the two collagen chains. The proteolytic synergy of APCE in the cleavage of collagen I and III was not observed with collagen IV. We conclude that FAP works in synchrony with other proteinases to cleave partially degraded or denatured collagen I and III as ECM is excavated, and that derivative peptides might function to regulate malignant cell growth and motility.

  5. Model selection and averaging of nonlinear mixed-effect models for robust phase III dose selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Yasunori; Röshammar, Daniel; Hamrén, Bengt; Hooker, Andrew C

    2017-12-01

    Population model-based (pharmacometric) approaches are widely used for the analyses of phase IIb clinical trial data to increase the accuracy of the dose selection for phase III clinical trials. On the other hand, if the analysis is based on one selected model, model selection bias can potentially spoil the accuracy of the dose selection process. In this paper, four methods that assume a number of pre-defined model structure candidates, for example a set of dose-response shape functions, and then combine or select those candidate models are introduced. The key hypothesis is that by combining both model structure uncertainty and model parameter uncertainty using these methodologies, we can make a more robust model based dose selection decision at the end of a phase IIb clinical trial. These methods are investigated using realistic simulation studies based on the study protocol of an actual phase IIb trial for an oral asthma drug candidate (AZD1981). Based on the simulation study, it is demonstrated that a bootstrap model selection method properly avoids model selection bias and in most cases increases the accuracy of the end of phase IIb decision. Thus, we recommend using this bootstrap model selection method when conducting population model-based decision-making at the end of phase IIb clinical trials.

  6. Europium (III) and Uranium (VI) complexation by natural organic matter (NOM): Effect of source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kautenburger, Ralf; Sander, Jonas M; Hein, Christina

    2017-03-01

    For the safe long-term storage of high-level radioactive waste (HLW), detailed information about geo-chemical behavior of radioactive and toxic metal ions under environmental conditions is important. Natural organic matter (NOM) can play a crucial role in the immobilization or mobilization of these metal ions due to its complexation and colloid formation tendency. In this study, the complexation of europium (as chemical homologue of trivalent actinides such as americium) and uranium (as main component of HLW) by ten humic acids (HA) from different sources and Suwannee NOM river extract has been analyzed. Capillary electrophoresis in combination with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry has been used for the evaluation of complex stability constants log β. In order to determine the complex stability constants a conservative single site model was used in this study. In dependence of their source and thus of NOM structure the log β values for the analyzed humic acids are in the range of 6.1-7.0 for Eu(III) and 5.2-6.4 for U(VI) (UO 2 2+ ), respectively. In contrast to the results for HA the used Suwannee river NOM reveals log β values in the range of nearly two orders of magnitude lower (4.6 for Eu 3+ and 4.5 for UO 2 2+ ) under the geochemical conditions applied in this study. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Effects of anchor structure and glycosylation of Fcγ receptor III on ligand binding affinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ning; Chen, Wei; Jothikumar, Prithiviraj; Patel, Jaina M.; Shashidharamurthy, Rangaiah; Selvaraj, Periasamy; Zhu, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Isoforms of the Fcγ receptor III (FcγRIII or CD16) are cell surface receptors for the Fc portion of IgG and important regulators of humoral immune responses. Different ligand binding kinetics of FcγRIII isoforms are obtained in three dimensions by surface plasmon resonance and in two dimensions by a micropipette adhesion frequency assay. We show that the anchor structure of CD16 isoforms isolated from the cell membrane affects their binding affinities in a ligand-specific manner. Changing the receptor anchor structure from full to partial to none decreases the ligand binding affinity for human IgG1 (hIgG1) but increases it for murine IgG2a (mIgG2a). Removing N-glycosylation from the CD16 protein core by tunicamycin also increases the ligand binding affinity. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that deglycosylation at Asn-163 of CD16 removes the steric hindrance for the CD16-hIgG1 Fc binding and thus increases the binding affinity. These results highlight an unexpected sensitivity of ligand binding to the receptor anchor structure and glycosylation and suggest their respective roles in controlling allosterically the conformation of the ligand binding pocket of CD16. PMID:27582391

  8. Lateral and vertical thermal diffusivities in a dense fluidized bed with tubes bundle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collantes, M.A.; Martin, G.; Le Gal, J.H. [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France)

    1995-07-01

    Dense fluidized beds are acknowledge as homogeneous systems from both temperature and composition aspects. However, some situation such as very large units or fluidized beds with tubes bundle lead to thermal gradients within the bed. These thermal gradients are due to solids motion limitation and may have detrimental effects on the process. This paper relates investigations aiming an determining lateral and vertical thermal diffusivities in a dense fluidized bed with an without a tubes bundle. These investigations have been carried out with an experimental setup of significant size (bed size = 0.6 x 1.1 x 1.3) and with small particles (less 500 microns) so as to fill some gaps of the literature. Thermal diffusivities have been deduced from temperature gradients measured between a hot wall and a cold wall in a perpendicular fluidized bed and by applying a conventional 2-D conduction model. Lateral thermal conductivities as well as vertical thermal conductivities increase with the gas velocity and the height of the bed, and when the particle size decreases. Immersing a vertical tube bundle into the fluidized bed leads to a significant reduction of the lateral thermal diffusivity, while there is no effect on the vertical thermal diffusivity. Correlations have been drawn from the experimental results. They would have to be applied for calculation of any system running at gas velocity ranging from 0.05 to 0.3 m/s and with particle size between 50 and 300 microns. (authors). 14 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Effects of 14-day treatment with the schedule III anorectic phendimetrazine on choice between cocaine and food in rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Matthew L; Blough, Bruce E; Negus, S Stevens

    2013-08-01

    The clinical utility of monoamine releasers such as phenmetrazine or d-amphetamine as candidate agonist medications for cocaine dependence is hindered by their high abuse liability. Phendimetrazine is a clinically available schedule III anorectic that functions as a prodrug for phenmetrazine and thus may have lower abuse liability. This study determined the effects of continuous 14-day treatment with phendimetrazine on cocaine vs. food choice in rhesus monkeys (N=4). Responding was maintained under a concurrent schedule of food delivery (1-g pellets, fixed-ratio 100 schedule) and cocaine injections (0-0.1mg/kg/injection, fixed-ratio 10 schedule). Cocaine choice dose-effect curves were determined daily before and during 14-day periods of continuous intravenous treatment with saline or (+)-phendimetrazine (0.32-1.0mg/kg/h). Effects of 14-day treatment with (+)-phenmetrazine (0.1-0.32 mg/kg/h; N=5) and d-amphetamine (0.032-0.1mg/kg/h; N=6) were also examined for comparison. During saline treatment, food was primarily chosen during availability of low cocaine doses (0, 0.0032, and 0.01 mg/kg/injection), and cocaine was primarily chosen during availability of higher cocaine doses (0.032 and 0.1mg/kg/injection). Phendimetrazine initially decreased overall responding without significantly altering cocaine choice. Over the course of 14 days, tolerance developed to rate decreasing effects, and phendimetrazine dose-dependently decreased cocaine choice (significant at 0.032 mg/kg/injection cocaine). Phenmetrazine and d-amphetamine produced qualitatively similar effects. These results demonstrate that phendimetrazine can produce significant, though modest, reductions in cocaine choice in rhesus monkeys. Phendimetrazine may be especially suitable as a candidate medication for human studies because of its schedule III clinical availability. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. An in vitro biomechanical comparison of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: single bundle versus anatomical double bundle techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Umeda Sasaki

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Anterior cruciate ligament ruptures are frequent, especially in sports. Surgical reconstruction with autologous grafts is widely employed in the international literature. Controversies remain with respect to technique variations as continuous research for improvement takes place. One of these variations is the anatomical double bundle technique, which is performed instead of the conventional single bundle technique. More recently, there has been a tendency towards positioning the two bundles through double bone tunnels in the femur and tibia (anatomical reconstruction. OBJECTIVES: To compare, through biomechanical tests, the practice of anatomical double bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with a patellar graft to conventional single bundle reconstruction with the same amount of patellar graft in a paired experimental cadaver study. METHODS: Nine pairs of male cadaver knees ranging in age from 44 to 63 years were randomized into two groups: group A (single bundle and group B (anatomical reconstruction. Each knee was biomechanically tested under three conditions: intact anterior cruciate ligament, reconstructed anterior cruciate ligament, and injured anterior cruciate ligament. Maximum anterior dislocation, rigidity, and passive internal tibia rotation were recorded with knees submitted to a 100 N horizontal anterior dislocation force applied to the tibia with the knees at 30, 60 and 90 degrees of flexion. RESULTS: There were no differences between the two techniques for any of the measurements by ANOVA tests. CONCLUSION: The technique of anatomical double bundle reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament with bone-patellar tendon-bone graft has a similar biomechanical behavior with regard to anterior tibial dislocation, rigidity, and passive internal tibial rotation.

  11. The 2-Hilbert space of a prequantum bundle gerbe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunk, Severin; Sämann, Christian; Szabo, Richard J.

    We construct a prequantum 2-Hilbert space for any line bundle gerbe whose Dixmier-Douady class is torsion. Analogously to usual prequantization, this 2-Hilbert space has the category of sections of the line bundle gerbe as its underlying 2-vector space. These sections are obtained as certain morphism categories in Waldorf’s version of the 2-category of line bundle gerbes. We show that these morphism categories carry a monoidal structure under which they are semisimple and abelian. We introduce a dual functor on the sections, which yields a closed structure on the morphisms between bundle gerbes and turns the category of sections into a 2-Hilbert space. We discuss how these 2-Hilbert spaces fit various expectations from higher prequantization. We then extend the transgression functor to the full 2-category of bundle gerbes and demonstrate its compatibility with the additional structures introduced. We discuss various aspects of Kostant-Souriau prequantization in this setting, including its dimensional reduction to ordinary prequantization.

  12. Anatomy of an Oligourea Six-Helix Bundle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Caterina M; Collie, Gavin W; Pulka-Ziach, Karolina; Rosu, Frederic; Gabelica, Valerie; Mackereth, Cameron D; Guichard, Gilles

    2016-08-24

    Non-natural synthetic oligomers that adopt well-defined secondary structures (i.e., foldamers) represent appealing components for the fabrication of bioinspired self-assembled architectures at the nanometer scale. Recently, peptidomimetic N,N'-linked oligourea helices have been designed de novo with the ability to fold into discrete helix bundles in aqueous conditions. In order to gain better insight into the determinants of oligourea helix bundle formation, we have investigated the sequence-to-structure relationship of an 11-mer oligourea previously shown to assemble into a six-helix bundle. Using circular dichroism, NMR spectroscopy, native mass-spectrometry and X-ray crystallography, we studied how bundle formation was affected by systematic replacement of the hydrophobic surface of the oligourea helix with either polar or different hydrophobic side chains. The molecular information gathered here has revealed several key requirements for foldamer bundle formation in aqueous conditions, and provides valuable insight toward the development of foldamer quaternary assemblies with improved (bio)physical properties and divergent topologies.

  13. Ecosystem service bundles for analyzing tradeoffs in diverse landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raudsepp-Hearne, C.; Peterson, G. D.; Bennett, E. M.

    2010-01-01

    A key challenge of ecosystem management is determining how to manage multiple ecosystem services across landscapes. Enhancing important provisioning ecosystem services, such as food and timber, often leads to tradeoffs between regulating and cultural ecosystem services, such as nutrient cycling, flood protection, and tourism. We developed a framework for analyzing the provision of multiple ecosystem services across landscapes and present an empirical demonstration of ecosystem service bundles, sets of services that appear together repeatedly. Ecosystem service bundles were identified by analyzing the spatial patterns of 12 ecosystem services in a mixed-use landscape consisting of 137 municipalities in Quebec, Canada. We identified six types of ecosystem service bundles and were able to link these bundles to areas on the landscape characterized by distinct social–ecological dynamics. Our results show landscape-scale tradeoffs between provisioning and almost all regulating and cultural ecosystem services, and they show that a greater diversity of ecosystem services is positively correlated with the provision of regulating ecosystem services. Ecosystem service-bundle analysis can identify areas on a landscape where ecosystem management has produced exceptionally desirable or undesirable sets of ecosystem services. PMID:20194739

  14. Syntheses of Nanostructure Bundles Based on Semiconducting Metal Silicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen; Ishikawa, Daisuke; Tatsuoka, Hirokazu

    2013-08-01

    A variety of nanostructure bundles and arrays based on semiconducting metal silicides have been synthesized using abundant and non-toxic starting materials. Three types of fabrication techniques of the nanostructure bundles or arrays, including direct growth, template synthesis using natural nanostructured materials and template synthesis using artificially fabricated nanostructured materials are demonstrated. CrSi2 nanowire bundles were directly grown by the exposure of Si substrates to CrCl2 vapor at atmospheric pressure. A hexagonal MoSi2 nanosheet, Mg2Si/MgO composite nanowire and Mg2Si nanowire bundles and MnSi1.7 nanowire array were synthesized using a MoS2 layered material, a SiOx nanofiber bundle, a Si nanowire array, and a Si nanowire array as the templates, respectively. Additionally, the fabrication phenomenon and structural properties of the nanostructured semiconducting metal silicides were investigated. These reactions provided the low-cost and controllable synthetic techniques to synthesize large scale and one-dimensional semiconducting metal silicides for thermoelectric applications.

  15. A prospective comparative study of clinical and functional outcomes between anatomic double bundle and single bundle hamstring grafts for arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morey, Vivek M; Nag, Hira Lal; Chowdhury, Buddhadev; Sankineani, Sukesh Rao; Naranje, Sameer M

    2015-09-01

    Despite a number of studies comparing postoperative stability and function after anatomic single bundle and double bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, it remains unclear whether double bundle reconstruction has better functional outcome than single bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. To compare the subjective functional outcome as well as clinical stability in patients treated with either anatomic single bundle or anatomic double bundle anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. We hypothesized that there would be no difference in the postoperative functional outcome and clinical stability between anatomical double bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions when compared to single bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions. We prospectively followed 40 patients out of which, 20 patients were operated for anatomic single bundle ACL reconstruction and other 20 patients underwent anatomic double bundle ACL reconstruction. Patient evaluation using the laxity tests and outcome scales was done preoperatively and at 12, 24 and 48 months after the surgery. Clinical stability was assessed by Lachman test, Pivot shift test and Delhi active test. Functional outcome was assessed by International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC), Lysholm and Modified Cincinnati scores. Patients in both groups were evaluated at regular intervals for a minimum period of 48 months (mean 51 months, range 48-56 months). For all subjective scores, double bundle group patients reported statistically significant higher scores compared to single bundle group patients. Graded stability results of the Lachman, and Pivot shift tests were significantly higher in the anatomically reconstructed double bundle patient group. We suggest that functional outcome and clinical stability may be better with anatomical double bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction as compared to anatomical single bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Copyright

  16. Effect of NOM on arsenic adsorption by TiO(2) in simulated As(III)-contaminated raw waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guojing; Zhang, Xiangru; Talley, Jeffrey W; Neal, Clive R; Wang, Hangyao

    2008-04-01

    The effect of natural organic matter (NOM) on arsenic adsorption by a commercial available TiO(2) (Degussa P25) in various simulated As(III)-contaminated raw waters was examined. Five types of NOM that represent different environmental origins were tested. Batch adsorption experiments were conducted under anaerobic conditions and in the absence of light. Either with or without the presence of NOM, the arsenic adsorption reached steady-state within 1h. The presence of 8 mg/L NOM as C in the simulated raw water, however, significantly reduced the amount of arsenic adsorbed at the steady-state. Without NOM, the arsenic adsorption increased with increasing solution pH within the pH range of 4.0-9.4. With four of the NOMs tested, the arsenic adsorption firstly increased with increasing pH and then decreased after the adsorption reached the maximum at pH 7.4-8.7. An appreciable amount of arsenate (As(V)) was detected in the filtrate after the TiO(2) adsorption in the simulated raw waters that contained NOM. The absolute amount of As(V) in the filtrate after TiO(2) adsorption was pH dependent: more As(V) was presented at pH>7 than that at pHNOM were modelled by both Langmuir and Frendlich adsorption equations, with Frendlich adsorption equation giving a better fit for the water without NOM and Langmuir adsorption equation giving a better fit for the waters with NOM. The modelling implies that NOM can occupy some available binding sites for arsenic adsorption on TiO(2) surface. This study suggests that in an As(III)-contaminated raw water, NOM can hinder the uptake of arsenic by TiO(2), but can facilitate the As(III) oxidation to As(V) at TiO(2) surface under alkaline conditions and in the absence of O(2) and light. TiO(2) thus can be used in situ to convert As(III) to the less toxic As(V) in NOM-rich groundwaters.

  17. COLLISION STRENGTHS AND EFFECTIVE COLLISION STRENGTHS FOR TRANSITIONS WITHIN THE GROUND-STATE CONFIGURATION OF S III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, C. E.; Ramsbottom, C. A.; Scott, M. P., E-mail: c.hudson@qub.ac.uk, E-mail: c.ramsbottom@qub.ac.uk, E-mail: p.scott@qub.ac.uk [Department of Applied Maths and Theoretical Physics, The Queen' s University of Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom)

    2012-05-01

    We have carried out a 29-state R-matrix calculation in order to calculate collision strengths and effective collision strengths for the electron impact excitation of S III. The recently developed parallel RMATRX II suite of codes have been used, which perform the calculation in intermediate coupling. Collision strengths have been generated over an electron energy range of 0-12 Ryd, and effective collision strength data have been calculated from these at electron temperatures in the range 1000-100,000 K. Results are here presented for the fine-structure transitions between the ground-state configurations of 3s {sup 2}3p {sup 23} P{sub 0,1,2}, {sup 1}D{sub 2}, and {sup 1} S{sub 0}, and the values given resolve a discrepancy between two previous R-matrix calculations.

  18. Outcome after implantation of cardiac resynchronization/defibrillation systems in patients with congestive heart failure and left bundle-branch block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfau, Giselher; Schilling, Thomas; Kozian, Alf; Lux, Anke; Götte, A; Huth, Christof; Hachenberg, Thomas

    2010-02-01

    The implantation of cardiac resynchronization/defibrillation devices (CRT-Ds) increasingly is used in patients with congestive heart failure and left bundle-branch block. There are no data on the effects of anesthesia and surgery on outcome after implantation. A retrospective, observational study; postoperative survey. University hospital. Three hundred forty-one patients (258 men/83 women, 63 +/- 9 years) with congestive heart failure and left bundle-branch block who underwent CRT-D implantation in 1996 to 2005. Perioperative data were retrieved from the patients' records. Cardiologists caring for the patients were contacted to obtain information on current New York Heart Association (NYHA) status and mortality after CRT-D implantation. Preoperatively, 45 patients were classified as NYHA II, 246 as NYHA III, and 50 as NYHA IV. CRT was performed via thoracotomy in 100 and transvenously in 241 cases. General anesthesia (propofol or sevoflurane and remifentanil) was performed in 273 and local anesthesia (lidocaine) in 68 patients. Hypotension occurred mainly during general anesthesia (43% v 4%). The 30-day mortality was 0%. The postoperative survey started in 2006 and was completed by 215 patients. The mean survival time was 77 months; 151 patients survived the study period. Outcome was not influenced by local and general anesthesia. Presence of preoperative NYHA class >II (odds ratio [OR] = 1.6, confidence interval [CI] = 0.5-5.1), mitral regurgitation (OR = 2.5, CI = 1.2-5.5), and serum creatinine >1.1 mg/dL (OR = 3.0, CI = 1.5-6.2) resulted in an inferior prognosis. In patients with severely impaired cardiac function, general anesthesia for the implantation of a biventricular pacing device can be used with justifiable risk. The method of anesthesia did not influence outcome. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Psychophysiological adaptation of the patient with the remote effect of the III degree acute radiation syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metlyaeva N.A.

    2013-12-01

    putation of both shins at level in top / 3, late beam buttock, right hip ulcers, a beam cataract of the III degree of both eyes, stabilized. The assessment of the efficiency of psychophysiological adaptation in dynamics with 2009 indicates emergence of prevalence of hypochondriac tendencies over a demonstration with accession of high uneasiness and autistic lines at preservation of the leading role of an hypochondriac somatization of alarm with considerable decrease in an emotionality, an integration, a freedom of behavior. The changes revealed in dynamics correspond to the specific increase weight of violations of mental adaptation, characteristic for the period of adaptation exhaustion. The high intelligence, good figurative and logical thinking, well-mannered forms of behavior, high control over the emotional sphere, restraint of emotions, independence, self-sufficiency, organization, behavior taking into account environment requirements provided the patient M. firmness before a heavy illness, promoted good adaptation to an environment with confidence in myself, high social adaptability, opportunity successfully to carry out duties, hold the work account (worked 39 years after accident. Comparative assessment of operator ability of the patient M. showed good average time of common and difficult sensorimotor reactions with 2 mistakes, high time of reaction for moving object, however decrease in accuracy of reaction from 10-13% to 2% testifies to manifestation in dynamics of insufficiency of real functional reserves of nervous system. Conclusions. Efficiency of psychophysiological adaptation depends not only on a dose of radiation and weight of the transferred disease, but, mostly, on premorbid properties of the identity of the victim and his social and labor installation.

  20. Effects of blood sample anticoagulants on lateral flow assays using luminescent photon-upconverting and Eu(III) nanoparticle reporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juntunen, Etvi; Arppe, Riikka; Kalliomäki, Laura; Salminen, Teppo; Talha, Sheikh M; Myyryläinen, Tiina; Soukka, Tero; Pettersson, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Many quantitative and semiquantitative lateral flow (LF) assays have been introduced for clinical analytes such as biomarkers for cancer or acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Various detection technologies involving quantitative analyzing devices have been reported to have sufficient analytical sensitivity and quantification capability for clinical point-of-care tests. Fluorescence-based detection technologies such as quantum dots, Eu(III) nanoparticles, and photon-upconverting nanoparticles (UCNPs) have been introduced as promising solutions for point-of-care devices because of their high detectability by optical sensors. Lateral flow assays can be used for various sample types, e.g., urine, saliva, cerebrospinal fluid, and blood. This study focuses on the properties of serum and plasma because of their relevance in cancer and AMI diagnostics. The limit of detection was compared in LF assays having Eu(III) nanoparticles or UCNPs as reporters and the antibody configurations for two different analytes (prostate-specific antigen and cardiac troponin I (cTnI)). The results indicate a significant effect of anticoagulants in venipuncture tubes. The samples in K3EDTA tubes resulted in significant interference by decreased reporter particle mobility, and thus the limit of detection was up to eightfold less sensitive compared to serum samples. Despite the matrix interference in the cTnI assay with UCNP reporters, limits of detection of 41 ng/L with serum and 66 ng/L with the Li-heparin sample were obtained. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The effect of heterocyclic S,S’-ligands on the electrochemical properties of some cobalt(III complexes in acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. JOVANOVIC

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Eight mixed-ligand cobalt(III complexes with the macrocyclic amine 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane (cyclam and a heterocyclic dithiocarbamate (Rdtc- i.e., morpholine- (Morphdtc, thiomorpholine- (Timdtc, piperazine- (Pzdtc, N-methylpiperazine-(Mepzdtc, piperidine- (Pipdtc, 2-, 3- or 4-methylpiperidine- (2-, 3- and 4-Mepipdtc carbodithionato-S,S ions, of the general formula [Co(cyclamRdtc](ClO42, were investigated in deoxygenated 0.1MHClO4 solutions. Cyclic voltammetry data at a glassy carbon (GC electrode demonstrate a redox reaction of cobalt(III from the complexes at potentials strongly influenced by the presence of different heterocyclic Rdtc- ligands. In this respect, the complexes were separated into two groups: the first, with a heteroatom O, S or N in the heterocyclic ring, and the second, with a methyl group on the piperidine ring of the Rdtc- ligand. Anodic polarization of an Fe electrode in the presence of the complexes shows their influence not only on the dissolution of iron but also on the hydrogen evolution reactions and on this basis complexes the complexes could be divided into the same two groups. It was found that the weaker the inhibiting effect of the free heterocyclic amines is, the significantly higher is the efficiency of the corresponding complexes.

  2. Influence of knee flexion angle and transverse drill angle on creation of femoral tunnels in double-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using the transportal technique: Three-dimensional computed tomography simulation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Chong Hyuk; Kim, Sung-Jae; Chun, Yong-Min; Kim, Sung-Hwan; Lee, Su-Keon; Eom, Nam-Kyu; Jung, Min

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find appropriate flexion angle and transverse drill angle for optimal femoral tunnels of anteromedial (AM) bundle and posterolateral (PL) bundle in double-bundle ACL reconstruction using transportal technique. Thirty three-dimensional knee models were reconstructed. Knee flexion angles were altered from 100° to 130° at intervals of 10°. Maximum transverse drill angle (MTA), MTA minus 10° and 20° were set up. Twelve different tunnels were determined by four flexion angles and three transverse drill angles for each bundle. Tunnel length, wall breakage, inter-tunnel communication and graft-bending angle were assessed. Mean tunnel length of AM bundle was >30mm at 120° and 130° of flexion in all transverse drill angles. Mean tunnel length of PL bundle was >30mm during every condition. There were ≥1 cases of wall breakage except at 120° and 130° of flexion with MTA for AM bundle. There was no case of wall breakage for PL bundle. Considering inter-tunnel gap of >2mm without communication and obtuse graft-bending angle, 120° of flexion and MTA could be recommended as optimal condition for femoral tunnels of AM and PL bundles. Flexion angle and transverse drill angle had combined effect on femoral tunnel in double-bundle ACL reconstruction using transportal technique. Achieving flexion angle of 120° and transverse drill angle close to the medial femoral condyle could be recommended as optimal condition for femoral tunnels of AM and PL bundles to avoid insufficient tunnel length, wall breakage, inter-tunnel communication and acute graft-bending angle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The Impact of Bundled High Performance Human Resource Practices on Intention to Leave: Mediating Role of Emotional Exhaustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyoti, Jeevan; Rani, Roomi; Gandotra, Rupali

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the mediating effect of emotional exhaustion (EE) in between bundled high-performance human resource practices (HPHRPs) and intention to leave (ITL) in the education sector. Design/methodology/approach: A survey questionnaire method was used to collect data from a sample of 514 teachers working in…

  4. Heat transfer and visualization of falling film evaporation on a tube bundle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christians, M.

    2010-07-01

    Horizontal falling film evaporators have the potential of displacing flooded evaporators in industry, due to advantages such as lower required refrigerant charge and lower pressure drop. However, there is a need to improve the understanding of falling film evaporation mechanisms to provide accurate thermal design methods. In this work, the existing LTCM falling film facility was utilized to perform falling film evaporation measurements on a single tube, a vertical row of horizontal tubes and a small tube bundle. Two enhanced boiling tubes, namely the Wolverine Turbo-B5 and the Wieland Gewa-B5, were tested using R-134a and R-236fa. The tests were carried out at a constant saturation temperature of T{sub sat} = 5 °C, liquid film Reynolds numbers ranging from 0 to 3000, and heat fluxes between 15 and 90 kW/m{sup 2} in pool boiling and falling film configurations. A visualization study was performed under adiabatic and diabatic conditions (in both single-array and bundle configurations) to study the flow. The physical phenomena governing the falling film evaporation process have been studied, and insight into their effects on the performance of tube bundles has been gained. Measurements of the local heat transfer coefficient were obtained and utilized to generate new prediction methods, including a method for predicting the onset-of-dryout film flow rate during falling film evaporation, local pool boiling and falling film heat transfer prediction methods and a falling film multiplier prediction method. (author)

  5. Modeling and Mechanism of Rain-Wind Induced Vibration of Bundled Conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Under the certain rain-wind conditions, bundled conductors exhibit a rain-wind induced large-amplitude vibration. This type of vibration can cause the fatigue fractures of conductors and fatigue failures of spacers, which threaten the safety operation and serviceability of high-voltage transmission line. To reveal the mechanism of rain-wind induced vibration of bundled conductors, a series of 2-dimensional CFD models about the twin bundled conductors with rivulets are developed to obtain the curves of aerodynamic coefficients with the upper rivulet angle. The influences of the forward conductor’s aerodynamic shielding and the upper rivulet’s aerodynamic characteristics on the leeward conductor are discussed. Furthermore, a 2-dimensional 3DOF model for the rain-wind induced vibration of the leeward conductor is established. The model is solved by finite element method and Newmark method, and the effects of the wind velocity and the upper rivulet’s motion on vibration amplitude of the leeward conductor are analyzed. By contrast with the wake-induced vibration, it can easily find that the characteristics of rain-wind vibration are obviously different from those of the wake-induced vibration, and the main reason of the rain-induced vibration may be due to the upper rivulet’s motion.

  6. Single-Phase Bundle Flows Including Macroscopic Turbulence Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Jun; Yoon, Han Young [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Seok Jong; Cho, Hyoung Kyu [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    To deal with various thermal hydraulic phenomena due to rapid change of fluid properties when an accident happens, securing mechanistic approaches as much as possible may reduce the uncertainty arising from improper applications of the experimental models. In this study, the turbulence mixing model, which is well defined in the subchannel analysis code such as VIPRE, COBRA, and MATRA by experiments, is replaced by a macroscopic k-e turbulence model, which represents the aspect of mathematical derivation. The performance of CUPID with macroscopic turbulence model is validated against several bundle experiments: CNEN 4x4 and PNL 7x7 rod bundle tests. In this study, the macroscopic k-e model has been validated for the application to subchannel analysis. It has been implemented in the CUPID code and validated against CNEN 4x4 and PNL 7x7 rod bundle tests. The results showed that the macroscopic k-e turbulence model can estimate the experiments properly.

  7. Symposium on Singularities, Representation of Algebras, and Vector Bundles

    CERN Document Server

    Trautmann, Günther

    1987-01-01

    It is well known that there are close relations between classes of singularities and representation theory via the McKay correspondence and between representation theory and vector bundles on projective spaces via the Bernstein-Gelfand-Gelfand construction. These relations however cannot be considered to be either completely understood or fully exploited. These proceedings document recent developments in the area. The questions and methods of representation theory have applications to singularities and to vector bundles. Representation theory itself, which had primarily developed its methods for Artinian algebras, starts to investigate algebras of higher dimension partly because of these applications. Future research in representation theory may be spurred by the classification of singularities and the highly developed theory of moduli for vector bundles. The volume contains 3 survey articles on the 3 main topics mentioned, stressing their interrelationships, as well as original research papers.

  8. Product bundling as a customer loyalty strategy; Kundenbindung durch Produktbuendel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, H.G. [Arthur Andersen Business Consulting GmbH, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2000-12-01

    In the deregulated market in electricity, all marketers and energy-related service providers are competing not only for new customers, but also for customer loyalty. The article sets out concepts and strategies developed by a business consulting firm, for maintaing or enhancing customer loyalty in the end-use market segment, focusing on customized product bundling. A four-tier approach for product bundle development and implementation is discussed. (orig./CB) [German] Fuer Energieversorger und -dienstleister ergibt sich neben der Neukundengewinnung der strategische Zwang zur Bindung bestehender Kunden. An praktischen Ansaetzen fuer Privatkunden stehen neben Value-Added-Services und Incentives (Kundenclub, -karte) nicht zuletzt Produktbuendel (Bundles) zur Verfuegung. Zur erfolgreichen Entwicklung und Implementierung von Produktbuendeln wird ein vierphasiges Vorgehensmodell erlaeutert. (orig./CB)

  9. Transient Left Bundle Branch Block due to Severe Hyperkalemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Kishore; Biyyam, Madhavi; Singh, Amandeep; Bajantri, Bharat; Tariq, Hassan; Nayudu, Suresh Kumar; Chilimuri, Sridhar

    2017-04-01

    Hyperkalemia is a potentially life-threatening electrolyte imbalance that can lead to sudden death from cardiac arrhythmias and asystole. We present a case of transient left bundle branch block pattern on an electrocardiogram (ECG) secondary to hyperkalemia in a patient with history of end-stage renal disease. A 52-year-old man presented to the emergency room (ER) with chief complaints of weakness and lethargy after missing his regularly scheduled session of hemodialysis. A 12-lead ECG in the ER showed sinus tachycardia at 118 beats/min, wide QRS complexes, peaked T waves and left bundle branch block-like pattern. The initial basic metabolic panel revealed a serum potassium level of 8.8 mEq/L. Subsequently, the patient underwent emergent hemodialysis. Serum chemistry after hemodialysis showed improvement in serum potassium to 4.3 mEq/L. Repeat ECG performed after correcting potassium showed dissolution of left bundle branch block finding.

  10. Measurement of secondary flow vortices on a rod bundle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vonka, V.

    1988-02-01

    Secondary flow vortices in infinite rod bundles have been predicted by a number of theoretical analyses. Nevertheless experimental verification was difficult, since the magnitude of the secondary velocities appeared to be less than the accuracy of the experimental techniques used. Only indications of the maximum velocity magnitude have been available but no report on successful direct measurement is known to the author. At ECN, laser Doppler velocimetry is successfully used for measurement of secondary flow vortices in two regular subchannels of a triangularly arranged bare rod bundle with pitch-to-diameter ratio P/D-1.3 under the Reynolds number conditions 60,000 and 175,000. One single secondary vortex, having the average tangential velocity slightly less than 0.1% of the mean bulk velocity, is resolved per minimum symmetry sector of the bundle geometry. Ensemble averages are made to obtain quantitative description of the vortex and to form a data base for comparison with calculations.

  11. Gradient Bundle Analysis: A Full Topological Approach to Chemical Bonding

    CERN Document Server

    Morgenstern, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    The "chemical bond" is a central concept in molecular sciences, but there is no consensus as to what a bond actually is. Therefore, a variety of bonding models have been developed, each defining the structure of molecules in a different manner with the goal of explaining and predicting chemical properties. This thesis describes the initial development of gradient bundle analysis (GBA), a chemical bonding model that creates a high resolution picture of chemical interactions within the charge density framework. GBA is based on concepts from the quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM), but uses a more complete picture of the topology and geometry of the electron charge density to understand and predict bonding interactions. Gradient bundles are defined as volumes bounded by zero-flux surfaces (ZFSs) in the gradient of the charge density with well-defined energies. The structure of gradient bundles provides an avenue for detecting the locations of valence electrons, which correspond to reactive regions in a ...

  12. Failure of a MEA reclaimer tube bundle due to corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaban, H.; Abdo, M.S.E.; Lal, D.P.

    1988-08-01

    The removal of sulphur compounds from natural gas used in ammonia production is carried out by scrubbing with monoethanol amine (MEA). To avoid build up of corrosion and degradation products, a portion of the circulating MEA solution is passed through a reclaimer. This is essentially a kettle-type reboiler with a tube bundle made of 316L stainless steel. Occasional failures of the tube bundle due to pitting corrosion have been reported. It is suggested that the excessive pitting corrosion observed on the upper rows of the tube bundle could be partly due to high steam temperature but mainly due to the liquid level falling below the tubes leaving an accumulation of corrosive degradation products on the exposed surfaces, normally these corrosive products remain diluted in the MEA solution and cause little corrosion of the covered tubes. Their concentration on the dry upper layers of the hot metal tubes, however, leads to excessive corrosion. (U.K.).

  13. Designing cooperatively folded abiotic uni- and multimolecular helix bundles

    Science.gov (United States)

    de, Soumen; Chi, Bo; Granier, Thierry; Qi, Ting; Maurizot, Victor; Huc, Ivan

    2018-01-01

    Abiotic foldamers, that is foldamers that have backbones chemically remote from peptidic and nucleotidic skeletons, may give access to shapes and functions different to those of peptides and nucleotides. However, design methodologies towards abiotic tertiary and quaternary structures are yet to be developed. Here we report rationally designed interactional patterns to guide the folding and assembly of abiotic helix bundles. Computational design facilitated the introduction of hydrogen-bonding functionalities at defined locations on the aromatic amide backbones that promote cooperative folding into helix-turn-helix motifs in organic solvents. The hydrogen-bond-directed aggregation of helices not linked by a turn unit produced several thermodynamically and kinetically stable homochiral dimeric and trimeric bundles with structures that are distinct from the designed helix-turn-helix. Relative helix orientation within the bundles may be changed from parallel to tilted on subtle solvent variations. Altogether, these results prefigure the richness and uniqueness of abiotic tertiary structure behaviour.

  14. The concept of double bundle ACL simulation with a single bundle patellar tendon graft. A cadaveric feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobi, Matthias; Magnussen, Robert A; Villa, Vincent; Demey, Guillaume; Neyret, Philippe

    2012-06-07

    There is significant interest in the restoration of the double-bundle anatomy of the native ACL when performing ACL reconstruction. Possible techniques include those utilizing two separate grafts with independent tunnels and those that attempt to mimic this anatomy with a single graft and fewer tunnels. Many of the latter techniques require specific instrumentation and are technically challenging. We demonstrate that the double-bundle anatomy of the native ACL can theoretically be mimicked by a single-bundle reconstruction. We performed single bundle ACL reconstruction with a bone-patellar tendon-bone (BTB) graft in two cadaveric knees. Both grafts were placed to mimic the native ACL footprints - one reconstruction was performed with rectangular bone blocks and oval tunnels and one was performed utilizing a standard BTB graft and round tunnels. Qualitative assessment of graft behavior was made as the knees were taken through a range of motion. The ACL graft was able to qualitatively mimic the behavior of the native ACL in both knees provided the bone blocks were correctly orientated. ACL reconstruction with a single BTB graft can qualitatively mimic the behavior of the two bundles of the native ACL. The key to ensuring this behavior was noted to be appropriate orientation of the graft in the tunnels. Quantitative biomechanical investigations are necessary to evaluate the impact of graft orientation on function.

  15. The concept of double bundle ACL simulation with a single bundle patellar tendon graft. A cadaveric feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobi Matthias

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is significant interest in the restoration of the double-bundle anatomy of the native ACL when performing ACL reconstruction. Possible techniques include those utilizing two separate grafts with independent tunnels and those that attempt to mimic this anatomy with a single graft and fewer tunnels. Many of the latter techniques require specific instrumentation and are technically challenging. We demonstrate that the double-bundle anatomy of the native ACL can theoretically be mimicked by a single-bundle reconstruction. Methods We performed single bundle ACL reconstruction with a bone-patellar tendon-bone (BTB graft in two cadaveric knees. Both grafts were placed to mimic the native ACL footprints – one reconstruction was performed with rectangular bone blocks and oval tunnels and one was performed utilizing a standard BTB graft and round tunnels. Qualitative assessment of graft behavior was made as the knees were taken through a range of motion. Results The ACL graft was able to qualitatively mimic the behavior of the native ACL in both knees provided the bone blocks were correctly orientated. Conclusions ACL reconstruction with a single BTB graft can qualitatively mimic the behavior of the two bundles of the native ACL. The key to ensuring this behavior was noted to be appropriate orientation of the graft in the tunnels. Quantitative biomechanical investigations are necessary to evaluate the impact of graft orientation on function.

  16. The effect of 17β-estradiol on the expression of dipeptidyl peptidase III and heme oxygenase 1 in liver of CBA/H mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mačak Šafranko, Ž; Sobočanec, S; Šarić, A; Jajčanin-Jozić, N; Krsnik, Ž; Aralica, G; Balog, T; Abramić, M

    2015-04-01

    17β-estradiol (E₂) has well-established cardioprotective, antioxidant and neuroprotective role, and exerts a vast range of biological effects in both sexes. Dipeptidyl peptidase III (DPP III) is protease involved as activator in Keap1-Nrf2 signalling pathway, which is important in cellular defense to oxidative and electrophilic stress. It is generally accepted that oxidative stress is crucial in promoting liver diseases. To examine the effect of E₂ on the expression of DPP III and haeme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) in liver of adult CBA/H mice of both sexes. Gene and protein expressions of studied enzymes were determined by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot analysis. Immunohistochemistry was performed to analyse the localization of both proteins in different liver cell types. Ovariectomy diminished expression of DPP III and HO-1 proteins. E₂ administration abolished this effect, and even increased these proteins above the control. A significant enhancement in DPP III protein was found in E₂-treated males, as well. A decrease in the expression of HO-1, but not of the DPP III gene, was detected in the liver of ovariectomized females. HO-1 protein was found localized in the pericentral areas of hepatic lobules (Kupffer cells and hepatocytes), whilst DPP III showed a uniform distribution within hepatic tissue. We demonstrate for the first time that E₂ influences the protein level of DPP III in vivo, and confirm earlier finding on HO-1 gene upregulation by 17β-estradiol. These results additionally confer new insights into complexity of protective action of E₂.

  17. Bundled payments for care improvement initiative: the next evolution of payment formulations: AAHKS Bundled Payment Task Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froimson, Mark I; Rana, Adam; White, Richard E; Marshall, Amanda; Schutzer, Steve F; Healy, William L; Naas, Peggy; Daubert, Gail; Iorio, Richard; Parsley, Brian

    2013-09-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act contains a number of provision for improving the delivery of healthcare in the United States, among the most impactful of which may be the call for modifications in the packaging of and payment for care that is bundled into episodes. The move away from fee for service payment models to payment for coordinated care delivered as comprehensive episodes is heralded as having great potential to enhance quality and reduce cost, thereby increasing the value of the care delivered. This effort builds on the prior experience around delivering care for arthroplasty under the Acute Care Episode Project and offers extensions and opportunities to modify the experience moving forward. Total hip and knee arthroplasties are viewed as ideal treatments to test the effectiveness of this payment model. Providers must learn the nuances of these modified care delivery concepts and evaluate whether their environment is conducive to success in this arena. This fundamental shift in payment for care offers both considerable risk and tremendous opportunity for physicians. Acquiring an understanding of the recent experience and the determinants of future success will best position orthopaedic surgeons to thrive in this new environment. Although this will remain a dynamic exercise for some time, early experience may enhance the chances for long term success, and physicians can rightfully lead the care delivery redesign process. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Mechanical Stresses and Forces in Stereocilia Bundles of Inner and Outer Hair Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, R.; Maier, H.; Boehnke, F.; Arnold, W.

    2003-02-01

    The precise mechanism of mechanoelectrical transduction in stereocilia bundles is not known. It is very difficult to measure the extremely small stresses, which occur at the stereocilia bundles. Therefore we developed 3-D finite element models of stereocilia bundles (guinea pig) to obtain quantitative results. The stereocilia bundles of the outer hair cells show a characteristic W-form. Therefore, it is interesting to compare the mechanical behavior of the stereocilia bundle of an outer hair cell with that of an inner hair cell with its linear arrangement. Our analysis provides estimates of forces and stresses on the transducer channels of mammalian hair bundles, although the model does not include active mechanisms yet.

  19. The Analysis of SBWR Critical Power Bundle Using Cobrag Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohannes Sardjono

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The coolant mechanism of SBWR is similar with the Dodewaard Nuclear Power Plant (NPP in the Netherlands that first went critical in 1968. The similarity of both NPP is cooled by natural convection system. These coolant concept is very related with same parameters on fuel bundle design especially fuel bundle length, core pressure drop and core flow rate as well as critical power bundle. The analysis was carried out by using COBRAG computer code. COBRAG computer code is GE Company proprietary. Basically COBRAG computer code is a tool to solve compressible three-dimensional, two fluid, three field equations for two phase flow. The three fields are the vapor field, the continuous liquid field, and the liquid drop field. This code has been applied to analyses model flow and heat transfer within the reactor core. This volume describes the finitevolume equations and the numerical solution methods used to solve these equations. This analysis of same parameters has been done i.e.; inlet sub cooling 20 BTU/lbm and 40 BTU/lbm, 1000 psi pressure and R-factor is 1.038, mass flux are 0.5 Mlb/hr.ft2, 0.75 Mlb/hr.ft2, 1.00 Mlb/hr.ft2 and 1.25 Mlb/hr.ft2. Those conditions based on history operation of some type of the cell fuel bundle line at GE Nuclear Energy. According to the results, it can be concluded that SBWR critical power bundle is 10.5 % less than current BWR critical power bundle with length reduction of 12 ft to 9 ft.

  20. Learning Bundled Care Opportunities from Electronic Medical Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, You; Kho, Abel N; Liebovitz, David; Ivory, Catherine; Osmundson, Sarah; Bian, Jiang; Malin, Bradley A

    2017-11-22

    The traditional fee-for-service approach to healthcare can lead to the management of a patient's conditions in a siloed manner, inducing various negative consequences. It has been recognized that a bundled approach to healthcare - one that manages a collection of health conditions together - may enable greater efficacy and cost savings. However, it is not always evident which sets of conditions should be managed in a bundled manner. In this study, we investigate if a data-driven approach can automatically learn potential bundles. We designed a framework to infer health condition collections (HCCs) based on the similarity of their clinical workflows, according to electronic medical record (EMR) utilization. We evaluated the framework with data from over 16,500 inpatient stays from Northwestern Memorial Hospital in Chicago, Illinois. The plausibility of the inferred HCCs for bundled care was assessed through an online survey of a panel of five experts, whose responses were analyzed via an analysis of variance (ANOVA) at a 95% confidence level. We further assessed the face validity of the HCCs using evidence in the published literature. The framework inferred four HCCs, indicative of 1) fetal abnormalities, 2) late pregnancies, 3) prostate problems, and 4) chronic diseases, with congestive heart failure featuring prominently. Each HCC was substantiated with evidence in the literature and was deemed plausible for bundled care by the experts at a statistically significant level. The findings suggest that an automated EMR data-driven framework conducted can provide a basis for discovering bundled care opportunities. Still, translating such findings into actual care management will require further refinement, implementation, and evaluation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Identification of factors that support successful implementation of care bundles in the acute medical setting: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Stuart A; Bell, Derek; Mays, Nicholas

    2017-02-07

    Clinical guidelines offer an accessible synthesis of the best evidence of effectiveness of interventions, providing recommendations and standards for clinical practice. Many guidelines are relevant to the diagnosis and management of the acutely unwell patient during the first 24-48 h of admission. Care bundles are comprised of a small number of evidence-based interventions that when implemented together aim to achieve better outcomes than when implemented individually. Care bundles that are explicitly developed from guidelines to provide a set of related evidence-based actions have been shown to improve the care of many conditions in emergency, acute and critical care settings. This study aimed to review the implementation of two distinct care bundles in the acute medical setting and identify the factors that supported successful implementation. Two initiatives that had used a systematic approach to quality improvement to successfully implement care bundles within the acute medical setting were selected as case studies. Contemporaneous data generated during the initiatives included the review reports, review minutes and audio recordings of the review meetings at different time points. Data were subject to deductive analysis using three domains of the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research to identify factors that were important in the implementation of the care bundles. Several factors were identified that directly influenced the implementation of the care bundles. Firstly, the availability of resources to support initiatives, which included training to develop quality improvement skills within the team and building capacity within the organisation more generally. Secondly, the perceived sustainability of changes by stakeholders influenced the embedding new care processes into existing clinical systems, maximising their chance of being sustained. Thirdly, senior leadership support was seen as critical not just in supporting implementation but also in

  2. Fast bundle algorithm for multiple-instance learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Charles; Moore, Gregory; Zaretzki, Jed; Breneman, Curt M; Bennett, Kristin P

    2012-06-01

    We present a bundle algorithm for multiple-instance classification and ranking. These frameworks yield improved models on many problems possessing special structure. Multiple-instance loss functions are typically nonsmooth and nonconvex, and current algorithms convert these to smooth nonconvex optimization problems that are solved iteratively. Inspired by the latest linear-time subgradient-based methods for support vector machines, we optimize the objective directly using a nonconvex bundle method. Computational results show this method is linearly scalable, while not sacrificing generalization accuracy, permitting modeling on new and larger data sets in computational chemistry and other applications. This new implementation facilitates modeling with kernels.

  3. On a Lie Algebraic Characterization of Vector Bundles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre B.A. Lecomte

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We prove that a vector bundle π: E→M is characterized by the Lie algebra generated by all differential operators on E which are eigenvectors of the Lie derivative in the direction of the Euler vector field. Our result is of Pursell-Shanks type but it is remarkable in the sense that it is the whole fibration that is characterized here. The proof relies on a theorem of [Lecomte P., J. Math. Pures Appl. (9 60 (1981, 229-239] and inherits the same hypotheses. In particular, our characterization holds only for vector bundles of rank greater than 1.

  4. 11 CFR 104.22 - Disclosure of bundling by Lobbyists/Registrants and Lobbyist/Registrant PACs (2 U.S.C. 434(i)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and Lobbyist/Registrant PACs (2 U.S.C. 434(i)). 104.22 Section 104.22 Federal Elections FEDERAL... Disclosure of bundling by Lobbyists/Registrants and Lobbyist/Registrant PACs (2 U.S.C. 434(i)). (a... candidate as defined at 11 CFR 100.5(f)(1); (ii) A leadership PAC as defined at 11 CFR 100.5(e)(6); or (iii...

  5. [COMPARISON OF EFFECTIVENESS BETWEEN TWO OPERATIVE TECHNIQUES OF CORACOCLAVICULAR LIGAMENT RECONSTRUCTION FOR TREATMENT OF Tossy TYPE III ACROMIOCLAVICULAR JOINT DISLOCATION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hongwei; Gao, Sheng; Yin, Yong; Li, Yunfei; Han, Qingtian; Li, Huizhang

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate and compare the effectiveness of double Endobutton technique and suture anchor combined Endobutton plate in the treatment of Tossy type III acromioclavicular joint dislocation. Between May 2010 and March 2014, a retrospective study was preformed on 56 patients with Tossy type III acromioclavicular joint dislocation. The coracoclavicular ligament was reconstructed with double Endobutton technique in 31 cases (Endobutton group), and with suture anchor combined Endobutton plate in 25 cases (Anchor group). There was no significant difference in age, gender, injury causes, injury side, associated injury, medical comorbidities, and disease duration between 2 groups (P>0.05). The operation time, medical device expenses, postoperative complications, preoperative and postoperative Constant-Murley scores, and postoperative Karlsson grading of the injured shoulder were compared between 2 groups. The average operation time in Endobutton group was significantly greater than that in Anchor group (t = 4.285, P = 0.000); there was no significant difference in the medical device expenses between 2 groups (t = 1.555, P = 0.126). Primary healing of incision was obtained in all patients of 2 groups; no early complications of infection and skin necrosis occurred. All patients were followed up 15.6 months on average (range, 11-35 months). During follow-up, some loss of reduction and ectopic ossification in the coracoclavicular gap were observed in 1 case and 6 cases of Endobutton group, respectively. No recurrence of acromioclavicular joint dislocation, implant fixation loosening and broken, and secondary fractures occurred in the other patients. There was significant difference in the incidence of postoperative complications between 2 groups (P = 0.013). Constant-Murley scores of the injured shoulder significantly increased at 9 months after operation when compared with preoperative values in 2 groups (P 0.05). At last follow-up, there was no significant difference in

  6. Effect of III-nitride polarization on V{sub OC} in p-i-n and MQW solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Namkoong, Gon; Boland, Patrick; Foe, Kurniawan; Latimer, Kevin [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Old Dominion University, Applied Research Center, 12050 Jefferson Avenue, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Bae, Si-Young; Shim, Jae-Phil; Lee, Dong-Seon [School of Information and Communications, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, 261 Cheomdan-gwagiro (Oryong-dong), Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Seong-Ran [Korea Photonics Technology Institute, 971-35, Wolchul-dong, Buk-gu, Gwangju, 500-779 (Korea, Republic of); Doolittle, W. Alan [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States)

    2011-02-15

    We performed detailed studies of the effect of polarization on III-nitride solar cells. Spontaneous and piezoelectric polarizations were assessed to determine their impacts upon the open circuit voltages (V{sub OC}) in p-i(InGaN)-n and multi-quantum well (MQW) solar cells. We found that the spontaneous polarization in Ga-polar p-i-n solar cells strongly modifies energy band structures and corresponding electric fields in a way that degrades V{sub OC} compared to non-polar p-i-n structures. In contrast, we found that piezoelectric polarization in Ga-polar MQW structures does not have a large influence on V{sub OC} compared to non-polar MQW structures. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  7. Combined effects of lanthanum (III) chloride and acid rain on photosynthetic parameters in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lihong; Wang, Wen; Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiaohua

    2014-10-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) pollution and acid rain are environmental issues, and their deleterious effects on plants attract worldwide attention. These two issues exist simultaneously in many regions, especially in some rice-growing areas. However, little is known about the combined effects of REEs and acid rain on plants. Here, the combined effects of lanthanum chloride (LaCl3), one type of REE salt, and acid rain on photosynthesis in rice were investigated. We showed that the combined treatment of 81.6 μM LaCl3 and acid rain at pH 4.5 increased net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatic conductance (Gs), intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci), Hill reaction activity (HRA), apparent quantum yield (AQY) and carboxylation efficiency (CE) in rice. The combined treatment of 81.6 μM LaCl3 and acid rain at pH 3.5 began to behave toxic effects on photosynthesis (decreasing Pn, Gs, HRA, AQY and CE, and increasing Ci), and the maximally toxic effects were observed in the combined treatment of 2449.0 μM LaCl3 and acid rain at pH 2.5. Moreover, the combined effects of LaCl3 and acid rain on photosynthesis in rice depended on the growth stage of rice, with the maximal effects occurring at the booting stage. Furthermore, the combined treatment of high-concentration LaCl3 and low-pH acid rain had more serious effects on photosynthesis in rice than LaCl3 or acid rain treatment alone. Finally, the combined effect of LaCl3 and acid rain on Pn in rice resulted from the changes in stomatic (Gs, Ci) and non-stomatic (HRA, AQY and CE) factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of Iron Fe (II and Fe (III in a Binary System Evaluated Bioluminescent Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Sorokina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of iron ions Fe2+ and Fe3+ on the bioluminescent recombinant strain of Escherichia coli in a single-component and binary system. Found that for the bacteria E. coli Fe3+ ions are more toxic than Fe2+. Under the combined effect of iron toxicity increases, the percentage of luminescence quenching increases, but the value is much less than the sum of the indicator for the Fe2+ and Fe3+. The biological effect of insertion of iron is not proportional to their content in the mixture.

  9. First-principles study lone-pair effects of Sb (III)-S chromophore influence on SHG response in quaternary potassium containing silver antimony sulfides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Junben [Key Laboratory of Functional Materials and Devices for Special Environments of CAS,, Xinjiang Key Laboratory of Electronic Information Materials and Devices, Xinjiang Technical Institute of Physics & Chemistry of CAS, 40-1 South Beijing Road, Urumqi 830011 (China); School of Physics Science and Technology, Xinjiang University, Urumqi 830046 (China); Su, Xin; Hou, Dianwei; Lei, Binghua [Key Laboratory of Functional Materials and Devices for Special Environments of CAS,, Xinjiang Key Laboratory of Electronic Information Materials and Devices, Xinjiang Technical Institute of Physics & Chemistry of CAS, 40-1 South Beijing Road, Urumqi 830011 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Yang, Zhihua, E-mail: zhyang@ms.xjb.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Functional Materials and Devices for Special Environments of CAS,, Xinjiang Key Laboratory of Electronic Information Materials and Devices, Xinjiang Technical Institute of Physics & Chemistry of CAS, 40-1 South Beijing Road, Urumqi 830011 (China); Pan, Shilie, E-mail: slpan@ms.xjb.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Functional Materials and Devices for Special Environments of CAS,, Xinjiang Key Laboratory of Electronic Information Materials and Devices, Xinjiang Technical Institute of Physics & Chemistry of CAS, 40-1 South Beijing Road, Urumqi 830011 (China)

    2017-05-15

    First-principles studies of the geometric structures, electronic structures and optical properties of non-centrosymmetrical (NCS) KAg{sub 2}SbS{sub 4}, K{sub 2}AgSbS{sub 4} and K{sub 2}Ag{sub 3}Sb{sub 3}S{sub 7} and centrosymmetrical (CS) KAg{sub 2}SbS{sub 3} and K{sub 3}Ag{sub 9}Sb{sub 4}S{sub 12} have been performed by means of density functional theory. It is indicated that although they have similarity in their anionic groups and, the electronic structures, prominent features of the optical anisotropy or second-order nonlinear optical (NLO) susceptibilities are apparently different. The calculated birefringences are 0.0537, 0.0343, 0.1324, 0.2217 and 0.0604 which are attributed to the different anionic groups [SbS{sub 3}] and triangles [AgS{sub 3}]. Also, the calculated NLO responses are about 0.5×, 1.0× and 2.0× times than that commercial AgGaS{sub 2} (AGS, d{sub 36}=11 pm/V) for K{sub 2}AgSbS{sub 4}, KAg{sub 2}SbS{sub 4} and K{sub 2}Ag{sub 3}Sb{sub 3}S{sub 7}, respectively. In comparison with the absolute magnitude of second harmonic generation (SHG) coefficients, the order K{sub 2}Ag{sub 3}Sb{sub 3}S{sub 7}>KAg{sub 2}SbS{sub 4}>K{sub 2}AgSbS{sub 4} is clearly established in the SHG response. Further analysis based on the real-space atom-cutting method reveals that the main sources of the SHG properties of these compounds are from the Sb-S group, especially K{sub 2}Ag{sub 3}Sb{sub 3}S{sub 7} is mainly attributed to the lone pair stereochemical activity of Sb (III)-S group. - Graphical abstract: Compounds K{sub 2}AgSbS{sub 4}, KAg{sub 2}SbS{sub 4} and K{sub 2}Ag{sub 3}Sb{sub 3}S{sub 7} exhibit second-order NLO response: 15×, 30× and 62× times than that KDP (KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}, d{sub 36}=0.39 pm/V), respectively. First-principles methods reveal that the large SHG response of K{sub 2}Ag{sub 3}Sb{sub 3}S{sub 7} is dominated by the Sb-S chromophore with lone pairs.

  10. High-degree atrioventricular block in patients with preexisting bundle branch block or bundle branch block occurring during transcatheter aortic valve implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egger, Florian; Nürnberg, Michael; Rohla, Miklos; Weiss, Thomas W; Unger, Gerhard; Smetana, Peter; Geppert, Alexander; Gruber, Susanne C; Bambazek, Anton; Falkensammer, Jürgen; Waldenberger, Ferdinand R; Huber, Kurt; Freynhofer, Matthias K

    2014-12-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has become the standard therapy for high-risk and non-operable patients with severe aortic stenosis. However, the procedure involves several adverse effects, such as rhythm and conduction disturbances. Patients with postprocedural left bundle branch block may have an increased mortality risk, whereas patients with preprocedural right bundle branch block display a higher rate of postinterventional bradyarrhythmias. The purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence of high-degree atrioventricular block (AVB) in patients with preexisting bundle branch block (BBB) or BBB occurring during TAVI. In this prospective single-center study, 50 consecutive patients undergoing TAVI with the Medtronic CoreValve Revalving System were included. Of these patients, 17 with preexisting BBB or BBB occurring during TAVI received a primary prophylactic permanent DDD pacemaker, programmed to the SafeR-mode and featuring dual-channel event counters as well as stored intracardiac electrograms. Pacemaker readouts and intracardiac electrograms were analyzed for the occurrence of high-degree AVB. Ten of 17 patients (58.8%) with preexisting BBB or BBB occurring during TAVI developed episodes of high-degree AVB that were immediately terminated due to switch into DDD backup pacing. In 5 of the cases (29.4%), the first documented episode of high-degree AVB occurred after hospital discharge. Mean follow-up period was 578.1 ± 294.9 days. Development of high-degree AVB is a common complication in patients with preexisting BBB or BBB occurring during TAVI. Accordingly, intensified monitoring might be reasonable, especially in patients treated with the self-expandable Medtronic CoreValve Revalving System. Copyright © 2014 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Randomized controlled trial of care bundles with chlorhexidine dressing and advanced dressings to prevent catheter-related bloodstream infections in pediatric hematology-oncology patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerçeker, Gülçin Özalp; Yardımcı, Figen; Aydınok, Yeşim

    2017-06-01

    To compare the effects of the care bundles including chlorhexidine dressing and advanced dressings on the catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI) rates in pediatric hematology-oncology patients with central venous catheters (CVCs). Twenty-seven PHO patients were recruited to participate in a prospective, randomized study in Turkey. The researcher used care bundles with chlorhexidine dressing in the experimental group (n = 14), and care bundles with advanced dressings in the control group (n = 13). According to the study results, 28.6% of the patients in the experimental group had CRBSI, while this rate was 38.5% in the control group patients. The CRBSI rate in the experimental group was 3.9, and the control group had 4.4 per 1000 inpatient catheter days. There was no exit-site infection in the experimental group. However, the control group had 1.7 per 1000 inpatient catheter days. Even though there was no difference between the two groups in which the researcher implemented care bundles with chlorhexidine dressing and advanced dressings in terms of CRBSI development, there was reduction in the CRBSI rates thanks to the care bundle approach. It is possible to control the CRBSI rates using care bundles in pediatric hematology-oncology patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Page 1 Parabolic ample bundlesIII 45 Now assume that E, is ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    with Galois group G. Proposition 3.2 says that V is numerically flat, i.e., both V and V" are nef. Now Proposition 2.6 says that V is semistable with c1(W) = 0 = cz (V). Since V is semistable, from [Bill it follows that E, is parabolic semistable. Since the first and the second Chern class of V vanish, from [Bi:3] it follows that the first ...

  13. Insulin sensitizing effects of oligomannuronate-chromium (III complexes in C2C12 skeletal muscle cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Hao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It was known that the insulin resistance in skeletal muscle is a major pathogenic factor in diabetes mellitus. Therefore prevention of metabolic disorder caused by insulin resistance and improvement of insulin sensitivity are very important for the therapy of type 2 diabetes. In the present study, we investigated the ability of marine oligosaccharides oligomannuronate and its chromium (III complexes from brown alga to enhance insulin sensitivity in C2C12 skeletal muscle cells. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We demonstrated that oligomannuronate, especially its chromium (III complexes, enhanced insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and increased the mRNA expression of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4 and insulin receptor (IR after their internalization into C2C12 skeletal muscle cells. Additionally, oligosaccharides treatment also significantly enhanced the phosphorylation of proteins involved in both AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK/acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K/protein kinase B (Akt signaling pathways in C2C12 cells, indicating that the oligosaccharides activated both the insulin signal pathway and AMPK pathways as their mode of action. Moreover, oligosaccharides distributed to the mitochondria after internalization into C2C12 cells and increased the expression of transcriptional regulator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α, carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1 (CPT-1, and phosphorylated acetyl-CoA carboxylase (p-ACC, which suggested that the actions of these oligosaccharides might be associated with mitochondria through increasing energy expenditure. All of these effects of marine oligosaccharides were comparable to that of the established anti-diabetic drug, metformin. In addition, the treatment with oligosaccharides showed less toxicity than that of metformin. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings indicate that oligomannuonate and its chromium (III complexes improved

  14. Disclosure of double exchange bias effect in chromium (III) oxide nanoparticles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rinaldi-Montes, N.; Gorria, P.; Fuertes, A.B.; Martinez-Blanco, D.; Olivi, L.; Puente-Orench, I.; Alonso, J.M.; Phan, M.-H.; Skrikanth, H.; Martí, Xavier; Blanco, J.A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 1 (2017), s. 1-4, č. článku 2300204. ISSN 0018-9464 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-37427G Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : antiferromagnetism * exchange bias (EB) * magnetic nanoparticles * magnetoelectric effect Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.243, year: 2016

  15. Detecting effects of filaments on galaxy properties in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yen-Chi; Ho, Shirley; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Bahcall, Neta A.; Brownstein, Joel R.; Freeman, Peter E.; Genovese, Christopher R.; Schneider, Donald P.; Wasserman, Larry

    2017-04-01

    We study the effects of filaments on galaxy properties in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 12 using filaments from the 'Cosmic Web Reconstruction' catalogue, a publicly available filament catalogue for SDSS. Since filaments are tracers of medium- to high-density regions, we expect that galaxy properties associated with the environment are dependent on the distance to the nearest filament. Our analysis demonstrates that a red galaxy or a high-mass galaxy tends to reside closer to filaments than a blue or low-mass galaxy. After adjusting the effect from stellar mass, on average, early-forming galaxies or large galaxies have a shorter distance to filaments than late-forming galaxies or small galaxies. For the main galaxy sample, all signals are very significant (>6σ). For the LOWZ and CMASS sample, the stellar mass and size are significant (>2σ). The filament effects we observe persist until z = 0.7 (the edge of the CMASS sample). Comparing our results to those using the galaxy distances from redMaPPer galaxy clusters as a reference, we find a similar result between filaments and clusters. Moreover, we find that the effect of clusters on the stellar mass of nearby galaxies depends on the galaxy's filamentary environment. Our findings illustrate the strong correlation of galaxy properties with proximity to density ridges, strongly supporting the claim that density ridges are good tracers of filaments.

  16. Effect of strong electrolytes on edible oils part III: viscosity of canola ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of strong electrolytes on the viscosity of canola oil in 1,4 dioxane was undertaken. The viscosity of oil in 1,4 dioxane was found to increase with the concentration of oil and decrease with rise in temperature. Strong electrolytes reduce the rate of flow of oil in 1,4 dioxane. It was noted that amongst these electrolytes, ...

  17. 78 FR 4094 - Effective Date of Requirement for Premarket Approval for Two Class III Preamendments Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    .... 110-85), and the Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act (FDASIA) (Pub. L. 112-144... patients with metal/metal hip systems in comparison to other bearing surface combinations, addresses... performance standard to provide a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness for metal/metal hip systems...

  18. Icosapent ethyl (eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl ester): Effects on plasma apolipoprotein C-III levels in patients from the MARINE and ANCHOR studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantyne, Christie M; Bays, Harold E; Braeckman, Rene A; Philip, Sephy; Stirtan, William G; Doyle, Ralph T; Soni, Paresh N; Juliano, Rebecca A

    2016-01-01

    Apolipoprotein C-III (ApoC-III) regulates lipoprotein and triglyceride (TG) metabolism and may have a causal role in cardiovascular disease. In the Multi-Center, Placebo-Controlled, Randomized, Double-Blind, 12-Week Study With an Open-Label Extension (MARINE) and ANCHOR studies, icosapent ethyl, a high-purity prescription eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl ester, reduced TG, and other atherogenic lipid parameters without increasing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) compared with placebo. To evaluate the effects of icosapent ethyl on plasma ApoC-III levels in patients from 2 phase 3 studies. MARINE and ANCHOR were 12-week double-blind studies of icosapent ethyl in adult patients. Patients in MARINE had very high TG levels (≥500 and ≤2000 mg/dL) and patients in ANCHOR had high TG levels (≥200 and ANCHOR assessed the median percent change from baseline in plasma ApoC-III levels vs placebo and includes subgroup analyses by statin use/efficacy and median ApoC-III levels. We assessed ApoC-III levels in 148 and 612 patients in the MARINE and ANCHOR studies, respectively. In MARINE, the approved prescription dose of icosapent ethyl (4 g/day) significantly reduced ApoC-III levels by 25.1% (P ANCHOR, icosapent ethyl 4 g/day significantly reduced ApoC-III levels by 19.2% (P ANCHOR studies. Copyright © 2016 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. EXTERNAL VERIFICATION OF THE BUNDLE ADJUSTMENT IN PHOTOGRAMMETRIC SOFTWARE USING THE DAMPED BUNDLE ADJUSTMENT TOOLBOX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Börlin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate whether the Matlab-based Damped Bundle Adjustment Toolbox (DBAT can be used to provide independent verification of the BA computation of two popular software—PhotoModeler (PM and PhotoScan (PS. For frame camera data sets with lens distortion, DBAT is able to reprocess and replicate subsets of PM results with high accuracy. For lens-distortion-free data sets, DBAT can furthermore provide comparative results between PM and PS. Data sets for the discussed projects are available from the authors. The use of an external verification tool such as DBAT will enable users to get an independent verification of the computations of their software. In addition, DBAT can provide computation of quality parameters such as estimated standard deviations, correlation between parameters, etc., something that should be part of best practice for any photogrammetric software. Finally, as the code is free and open-source, users can add computations of their own.

  20. Innovative Defense Acquisition Concept Deployer Equipment Bundle (DEB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    METHODOLOGY This project reviewed a substantial amount of literature , to include applicable concept plans, memorandums, cost benefit analyses, organizational...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA MBA PROFESSIONAL REPORT INNOVATIVE DEFENSE ACQUISITION CONCEPT DEPLOYER...ACQUISITION CONCEPT DEPLOYER EQUIPMENT BUNDLE (DEB) 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Frederic Albesa, Isaac J. Ortman, and Stephen F. Kirouac 7

  1. Quillen bundle and geometric prequantization of non-abelian ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E-mail: rkmn@mri.ernet.in; rukmini.dey@gmail.com; smr@bose.res.in. MS received 7 September 2010; revised 23 November 2010. Abstract. In this paper we prequantize the moduli space of non-abelian vortices. We explicitly calculate the symplectic form arising from L2 metric and we construct a prequantum line bundle ...

  2. Metallic/semiconducting ratio of carbon nanotubes in a bundle ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SWCNTs) in a bundle by resonant Raman spectroscopy. The calculation has been done for the three peak positions in radial breathing mode (RBM) spectra obtained by using a laser excitation wavelength () of 633 nm from He–Ne laser on ...

  3. The fibre bundle anatomy of human cruciate ligaments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mommersteeg, T. J.; Kooloos, J. G.; Blankevoort, L.; Kauer, J. M.; Huiskes, R.; Roeling, F. Q.

    1995-01-01

    The cruciate ligaments of the knee consist of numerous fascicles, groups of which comprise fibre bundles. The stabilising function of these ligaments is established by changes in the lengths and orientations of the fascicles. Understanding the function of knee ligaments thus requires an

  4. Metabolic profiling of laser microdissected vascular bundles of Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiehn Oliver

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Laser microdissection is a useful tool for collecting tissue-specific samples or even single cells from animal and plant tissue sections. This technique has been successfully employed to study cell type-specific expression at the RNA, and more recently also at the protein level. However, metabolites were not amenable to analysis after laser microdissection, due to the procedures routinely applied for sample preparation. Using standard tissue fixation and embedding protocols to prepare histological sections, metabolites are either efficiently extracted by dehydrating solvents, or washed out by embedding agents. Results In this study, we used cryosectioning as an alternative method that preserves sufficient cellular structure while minimizing metabolite loss by excluding any solute exchange steps. Using this pre-treatment procedure, Arabidopsis thaliana stem sections were prepared for laser microdissection of vascular bundles. Collected samples were subsequently analyzed by gas chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF MS to obtain metabolite profiles. From 100 collected vascular bundles (~5,000 cells, 68 metabolites could be identified. More than half of the identified metabolites could be shown to be enriched or depleted in vascular bundles as compared to the surrounding tissues. Conclusion This study uses the example of vascular bundles to demonstrate for the first time that it is possible to analyze a comprehensive set of metabolites from laser microdissected samples at a tissue-specific level, given that a suitable sample preparation procedure is used.

  5. AdS 3-manifolds and Higgs bundles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alessandrini, Daniele; Li, Qiongling

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the relationships between closed AdS $3$-manifolds and Higgs bundles. We have a new way to construct AdS structures that allows us to see many of their properties explicitly, for example we can recover the very recent formula by Tholozan for their volume. We give natu...

  6. Heat transfer and fluid friction in bundles of twisted tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzyubenko, B. V.; Dreitser, G. A.

    1986-06-01

    The results of heat-transfer and friction studies in bundles of twisted tubes and rods with spiral wire-wrap spacers are analyzed, and recommendations are given for calculating the heat-transfer coefficient in heat exchangers using twisted tubes.

  7. MYOCARDIAL DEFORMATION AND COMPLETE LEFT BUNDLE BRANCH BLOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Pavlyukova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tissue Doppler imaging is evolving as a useful echocardiographic tool for quantitative assessment of left ventricular systolic and diastolic function. Over the last 10 years, myocardial deformation imaging has become possible initially with tissue Doppler , and more recently with myocardial speckle-tracking using 2D echocardiography. Unlike simple tissue velocity measurements, deformation measurements are specific for the region of interest. Strain rate or strain measurements have been used as sensitive indicators for subclinical diseases, and it is the most widely used tool to assess mechanical dyssynchrony. Left bundle branch block is a frequent, etiologically heterogeneous, clinically hostile and diagnostically challenging entity. About 2% of patients underwent cardiac stress testing show stable or intermittent left bundle branch block. Presence of left bundle branch block is associated with a lower and slower diastolic coronary flow velocity especially during hyperemia. Stress echocardiography is the best option for the diagnosis of ischemic heart disease, albeit specificity and sensitivity reduce in patients with left bundle branch block in the territory of left anterior descending artery in presence of initial septum dyskinesia.

  8. Anatomic Double-Bundle Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofbauer, Marcus; Muller, Bart; Wolf, Megan; Forsythe, Brian; Fu, Freddie H.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decade, intense research of the function of the 2 distinct bundles, the anteromedial and posterolateral, of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) has led to pronounced changes in the technical concepts of ACL reconstruction. Recently, the renewed focus of ACL reconstruction has been to

  9. Frobenius pull backs of vector bundles in higher dimensions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... of a Frobenius pull back of is a refinement of the Frobenius pull back of the Harder–Narasimhan filtration of , provided there is a lower bound on the characteristic (in terms of rank of and the slope of the destabilizing sheaf of the cotangent bundle of ). We also recall some examples, due to Raynaud and Monsky, ...

  10. The Roach muscle bundle and umbilical cord coiling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Laat, Monique W. M.; Nikkels, Peter G. J.; Franx, Arie; Visser, Gerard H. A.

    2007-01-01

    To determine if presence of the Roach muscle, a small muscle bundle lying just beside the umbilical artery, contributes to umbilical cord coiling. 251 umbilical cords were examined. The umbilical coiling index (UCI) was calculated as the number of coils divided by the cord length in cm. Cords were

  11. Subanalytic bundles and tubular neighbourhoods of zero-loci

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Abstract. We introduce the natural and fairly general notion of a subanalytic bundle. (with a finite dimensional vector space P of sections) on a subanalytic subset X of a real analytic manifold M, and prove that when M is compact, there is a Baire subset U of sections in P whose zero-loci in X have tubular neighbourhoods, ...

  12. On infinitesimal conformal transformations of the tangent bundles ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The metric. ˜g, which is called a synectic lift of the Riemannian metric g, was introduced by Talantova and Shirokov [4] to study the differential geometry of tangent bundles of Riemannian manifolds (for details, also see [5]). Their paper is concerned with the geometry of the space of n dual variables. The concept of a dual ...

  13. On the classification of complex vector bundles of stable rank

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    According to previous observations, this would imply (under the above torsion conditions) a classification of all rank r complex vector bundles on X, for stable rank r ≥ n/2. A few partial answers to this question are known. For instance, a classical result of. Wu asserts that any couple of cohomology classes (c1,c2) ∈ H2(X, ...

  14. Exploring the temporal effects of seasonal water availability on the snail kite of Florida: Part III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooij, Wolf M.; Martin, Julien; Kitchens, Wiley M.; DeAngelis, Donald L.; Bissonette, John A.; Storch, Ilse

    2007-01-01

    The Florida snail kite (Rostrhamus sociabilis) is an endangered raptor that occurs as an isolated population, currently of about 2,000 birds, in the wetlands of southern and central Florida, USA. Its exclusive prey species, the apple snail (Pomacea paludosa) is strongly influenced by seasonal changes in water abundance. Droughts during the snail kite breeding season have a direct negative effect on snail kite survival and reproduction, but droughts are also needed to maintain aquatic vegetation types favorable to snail kite foraging for snails. We used a spatially explicit matrix model to explore the effects of temporal variation in water levels on the viability of the snail kite population under different temporal drought regimes in its wetland breeding habitat. We focused on three aspects of variations in water levels that were likely to affect kites: (1) drought frequency; (2) drought duration; and (3) drought timing within the year. We modeled a 31-year historical scenario using four different scenarios in which the average water level was maintained constant, but the amplitude of water level fluctuations was modified. Our results reveal the complexity of the effects of temporal variation in water levels on snail kite population dynamics. Management implications of these results are discussed. In particular, management decisions should not be based on annual mean water levels alone, but must consider the intra-annual variability.

  15. Dissolution of cerium(IV)-lanthanide(III) oxides: comparative effect of chemical composition, temperature, and acidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horlait, D; Clavier, N; Szenknect, S; Dacheux, N; Dubois, V

    2012-03-19

    The dissolution of Ce(1-x)Ln(x)O(2-x/2) solid solutions was undertaken in various acid media in order to evaluate the effects of several physicochemical parameters such as chemical composition, temperature, and acidity on the reaction kinetics. The normalized dissolution rates (R(L,0)) were found to be strongly modified by the trivalent lanthanide incorporation rate, due to the presence of oxygen vacancies decreasing the samples cohesion. Conversely, the nature of the trivalent cation considered only weakly impacted the R(L,0) values. The dependence of the normalized dissolution rates on the temperature then appeared to be of the same order of magnitude than that of chemical composition. Moreover, it allowed determining the corresponding activation energy (E(A) ≈ 60-85 kJ·mol(-1)) which accounts for a dissolution driven by surface-controlled reactions. A similar conclusion was made regarding the acidity of the solution: the partial order related to (H(3)O(+)) reaching about 0.7. Finally, the prevailing effect of the incorporation of aliovalent cations in the fluorite-type CeO(2) matrix on the dissolution kinetics precluded the observation of slight effects such as those linked to the complexing agents or to the crystal structure of the samples. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  16. Indication of the Hanle Effect by Comparing the Scattering Polarization Observed by CLASP in the Ly α and Si iii 120.65 nm Lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, R.; Kubo, M.; Kano, R.; Narukage, N.; Bando, T.; Katsukawa, Y.; Giono, G.; Suematsu, Y.; Hara, H. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, National Institutes of Natural Science, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Bueno, J. Trujillo [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Uitenbroek, H. [National Solar Observatory, 3665 Discovery Drive, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States); Tsuneta, S.; Ishikawa, S.; Shimizu, T.; Sakao, T. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Goto, M. [National Institute for Fusion Science, National Institutes of Natural Sciences, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Winebarger, A.; Kobayashi, K. [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, ZP 13, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Cirtain, J. [University of Virginia, Department of Astronomy, 530 McCormick Road, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Champey, P. [University of Alabama in Huntsville, 301 Sparkman Drive, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States); and others

    2017-05-20

    The Chromospheric Lyman-Alpha Spectro-Polarimeter is a sounding rocket experiment that has provided the first successful measurement of the linear polarization produced by scattering processes in the hydrogen Ly α line (121.57 nm) radiation of the solar disk. In this paper, we report that the Si iii line at 120.65 nm also shows scattering polarization and we compare the scattering polarization signals observed in the Ly α and Si iii lines in order to search for observational signatures of the Hanle effect. We focus on four selected bright structures and investigate how the U / I spatial variations vary between the Ly α wing, the Ly α core, and the Si iii line as a function of the total unsigned photospheric magnetic flux estimated from Solar Dynamics Observatory /Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager observations. In an internetwork region, the Ly α core shows an antisymmetric spatial variation across the selected bright structure, but it does not show it in other more magnetized regions. In the Si iii line, the spatial variation of U / I deviates from the above-mentioned antisymmetric shape as the total unsigned photospheric magnetic flux increases. A plausible explanation of this difference is the operation of the Hanle effect. We argue that diagnostic techniques based on the scattering polarization observed simultaneously in two spectral lines with very different sensitivities to the Hanle effect, like Ly α and Si iii, are of great potential interest for exploring the magnetism of the upper solar chromosphere and transition region.

  17. A case of ‘Masquerading’ bundle branch block: A forgotten concept

    OpenAIRE

    Dinesh Choudhary; Narayanan Namboodiri; Jaganmohan A. Tharakan

    2014-01-01

    ‘Masquerading’ bundle branch block (right bundle branch block in the precordial leads with left bundle branch block in frontal leads and left axis deviation) is seen most commonly with coronary artery disease and hypertension. No definite explanation is available so far for these changes. We are presenting a case of rare congenital intranuclear inclusion myopathy with congestive heart failure and ‘Masquerading’ bundle branch block in ECG.

  18. Structural Causes of Right Bundle Branch Block?Time for a Closer Look?

    OpenAIRE

    Ker, James

    2010-01-01

    Right bundle branch block is an electrocardiographic phenomenon with specific criteria. Currently, two specific forms of right bundle branch block are acknowledged, a proximal and a distal variant. A vast array of pathologies can cause proximal, distal or even combined forms of right bundle branch block. In this study it is suggested that a third type of right bundle branch block exist: one caused by a subaortic muscular tendon in the left ventricle, leading to an increased velocity of conduc...

  19. The Effect of Grade Norms in College Students: Using the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cressman, Markus N.; Liljequist, Laura

    2014-01-01

    The "Woodcock-Johnson III" Tests of Achievement grade norms versus age norms were examined in the calculation of discrepancy scores in 202 college students. Difference scores were calculated between the "Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-3rd Edition" Full Scale IQ and the "Woodcock-Johnson III" Total Achievement,…

  20. Combined Effects of Lanthanum (III) and Acid Rain on Antioxidant Enzyme System in Soybean Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuanbo; Du, Yuping; Wang, Lihong; Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiaohua; Sun, Zhaoguo

    2015-01-01

    Rare earth element pollution (REEs) and acid rain (AR) pollution simultaneously occur in many regions, which resulted in a new environmental issue, the combined pollution of REEs and AR. The effects of the combined pollution on the antioxidant enzyme system of plant roots have not been reported. Here, the combined effects of lanthanum ion (La3+), one type of REE, and AR on the antioxidant enzyme system of soybean roots were investigated. In the combined treatment of La3+ (0.08 mM) and AR, the cell membrane permeability and the peroxidation of cell membrane lipid of soybean roots increased, and the superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase and reduced ascorbic acid served as scavengers of reactive oxygen species. In other combined treatments of La3+ (0.40 mM, 1.20 mM) and AR, the membrane permeability, malonyldialdehyde content, superoxide dismutase activity, peroxidase activity and reduced ascorbic acid content increased, while the catalase activity decreased. The increased superoxide dismutase activity, peroxidase activity and reduced ascorbic acid content were inadequate to scavenge the excess hydrogen peroxide and superoxide, leading to the damage of the cell membrane, which was aggravated with the increase in the concentration of La3+ and the level of AR. The deleterious effects of the combined treatment of La3+ and AR were stronger than those of the single treatment of La3+ or AR. Moreover, the activity of antioxidant enzyme system in the combined treatment group was affected directly and indirectly by mineral element content in soybean plants.

  1. Effective methods of parameter identification for creep models with account of III stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grishchenko Alexey I.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The account of tertiary (third stage of creep is important for the failure analysis of structures. The correct description of third stage of creep is based on taking into account of damage accumulation process. An identification of the parameters of coupled creep-damage model leads to the optimization problem of finding the global minimum of a functional, having a complex, non-linear structure and a large number of local minimums. The Nelder–Mead method is applied to the solution to the multiparameter identification problem. The effectiveness and robustness of the applied approach are illustrated on examples of mechanical and civil engineering.

  2. Effect of hypertonic medium on human cell growth: III. Changes in cell kinetics of EUE cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellicciari, C; Mazzini, G; Fuhrman Conti, A M; De Grada, L; Manfredi Romanini, M G

    1989-04-01

    The effects of hypertonicity on cell kinetics of EUE cells in culture have been investigated. After 4 days of growth in a hypertonic medium, the plating efficiency of EUE cells was reduced and cell growth was significantly slowed. Flow cytometric measurements of DNA content in synchronized cells, as well as flow cytometric determinations of DNA content and bromodeoxyuridine incorporation in asynchronous cells, also showed that the cell cycle is slowed in a hypertonic medium. In addition, the fraction of cycling cells is smaller and their progression through the S phase slower than in an isotonic medium.

  3. Aspects of psychodynamic neuropsychiatry III: magic spells, the placebo effect, and neurobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockman, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Through a case study, the importance of supporting the positive transference is stressed-from both a psychological and neurobiological perspective. The article argues that the neurobiology of expectation underlies transference. This neurobiology has been investigated particularly over the past several decades in work concerning the placebo effect. By understanding the neurobiology of expectation, one gains a better understanding of the neurobiology of the transference. This enables clinical predictions-and decisions-that are informed not just by the teachings of psychology but also by the science of biology.

  4. Early Results of Anatomic Double Bundle Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demet Pepele

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The goal in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR is to restore the normal anatomic structure and function of the knee. In the significant proportion of patients after the traditional single-bundle ACLR, complaints of instability still continue. Anatomic double bundle ACLR may provide normal kinematics in knees, much closer to the natural anatomy. The aim of this study is to clinically assess the early outcomes of our anatomical double bundle ACLR. Material and Method: In our clinic between June 2009 and March 2010, performed the anatomic double bundle ACLR with autogenous hamstring grafts 20 patients were evaluated prospectively with Cincinnati, IKDC and Lysholm scores and in clinically for muscle strength and with Cybex II dynamometer. Results: The mean follow-up is 17.8 months (13-21 months. Patients%u2019 scores of Cincinnati, IKDC and Lysholm were respectively, preoperative 18.1, 39.3 and 39.8, while the post-op increased to 27.2, 76.3 and 86.3. In their last check, 17 percent of the patients according to IKDC scores (85% A (excellent and B (good group and 3 patients took place as C (adequate group. The power measurements of quadriceps and hamstring muscle groups of patients who underwent surgery showed no significant difference compared with the intact knees. Discussion: Double-bundle ACL reconstruction is a satisfactory method. There is a need comparative, long-term studies in large numbers in order to determine improving clinical outcome, preventing degeneration and restoring the knee biomechanics better.

  5. Primate translational vestibuloocular reflexes. III. Effects of bilateral labyrinthine electrical stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelaki, D. E.; McHenry, M. Q.; Dickman, J. D.; Perachio, A. A.

    2000-01-01

    The effects of functional, reversible ablation and potential recruitment of the most irregular otolith afferents on the dynamics and sensitivity of the translational vestibuloocular reflexes (trVORs) were investigated in rhesus monkeys trained to fixate near and far targets. Translational motion stimuli consisted of either steady-state lateral and fore-aft sinusoidal oscillations or short-lasting transient lateral head displacements. Short-duration (usually <2 s) anodal (inhibitory) and cathodal (excitatory) currents (50-100 microA) were delivered bilaterally during motion. In the presence of anodal labyrinthine stimulation, trVOR sensitivity and its dependence on viewing distance were significantly decreased. In addition, anodal currents significantly increased phase lags. During transient motion, anodal stimulation resulted in significantly lower initial eye acceleration and more sluggish responses. Cathodal currents tended to have opposite effects. The main characteristics of these results were simulated by a simple model where both regularly and irregularly discharging afferents contribute to the trVORs. Anodal labyrinthine currents also were found to decrease eye velocity during long-duration, constant velocity rotations, although results were generally more variable compared with those during translational motion.

  6. Blueberry Improves the Therapeutic Effect of Etanercept on Patients with Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis: Phase III Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yingjie; Wang, Ye; Guo, Jun; Chu, Haifeng; Gao, Yong; Pang, Limin

    2015-11-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most common arthritis in the adolescents under the age of 16. Etanercept, an inhibitor of tumor necrosis factor, is often used to treat JIA despite its significant side effects. Homeopathic remedies, such as blueberries, have anti-inflammatory properties with fewer unwanted effects and should be considered as a primary treatment. We aimed to explore the efficacy and safety of combination therapy of blueberry and etanercept for JIA. Two hundred and one JIA patients were selected, and randomly and evenly assigned to three groups: ETA (50 mg of etanercept twice weekly), ETABJ (matched etanercept and 50 ml blueberry juice daily) and ETAPJ (matched etanercept and placebo juice). The severity of JIA was measured using American College of Rheumatology scales (ACR) 20, 50 and 70. The levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-1 (IL1) alpha and IL1 beta, and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL1RA) were measured by qRT-PCR and ELISA. After a 6-month follow-up, the ACR20, ACR50 and ACR70 in an ETABJ group were higher than those in other two groups (P Blueberries reduced the levels of IL1 alpha and beta, and increased the level of IL1RA. Thus, a combination therapy of blueberry and etanercept can reduce the severity of JIA and should be developed as a new method for JIA therapy.

  7. Temperature effect on fluorescence and UV-vis absorption spectroscopic properties of Dy(III) in molten LiCl-KCl eutectic salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bong Young [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, KAIST, 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Jong-Il, E-mail: jiyun@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, KAIST, 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    The spectroscopic properties of Dy(III) in molten LiCl-KCl eutectic salt at high temperature were investigated by time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS) and UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. For the first time, a visible fluorescence of Dy(III) in high-temperature LiCl-KCl eutectic salt was measured due to the electronic transitions from {sup 4}I{sub 13/2} and {sup 4}F{sub 9/2} to {sup 6}H{sub J/2} (J=7, Horizontal-Ellipsis ,15). The effect of temperature on hypersensitivity for the electronic transitions from the {sup 4}I{sub 13/2} excited state ({approx}25700 cm{sup -1}) of Dy(III) was confirmed by altering temperature in chloride eutectic salt in accord with optical absorption measurements. The molar absorptivity of {sup 4}I{sub 13/2} Leftwards-Arrow {sup 6}H{sub 15/2} was enhanced with increasing temperature. The fluorescence intensity of Dy(III) followed a simple mono-exponential decay curve, suggesting the formation of a single chemical species in high-temperature LiCl-KCl molten salt. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spectroscopic characteristics of Dy(III) in the high-temperature LiCl-KCl salt. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In-situ chemical analysis of Dy(III) by fluorescence and absorbance measurement. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Temperature effect on hypersensitivity for electronic transitions from {sup 4}I{sub 13/2} excited state. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Single chemical species of Dy(III) exists in high-temperature LiCl-KCl salt.

  8. Erk regulation of actin capping and bundling by Eps8 promotes cortex tension and leader bleb-based migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logue, Jeremy S; Cartagena-Rivera, Alexander X; Baird, Michelle A; Davidson, Michael W; Chadwick, Richard S; Waterman, Clare M

    2015-01-01

    Within the confines of tissues, cancer cells can use blebs to migrate. Eps8 is an actin bundling and capping protein whose capping activity is inhibited by Erk, a key MAP kinase that is activated by oncogenic signaling. We tested the hypothesis that Eps8 acts as an Erk effector to modulate actin cortex mechanics and thereby mediate bleb-based migration of cancer cells. Cells confined in a non-adhesive environment migrate in the direction of a very large ‘leader bleb.’ Eps8 bundling activity promotes cortex tension and intracellular pressure to drive leader bleb formation. Eps8 capping and bundling activities act antagonistically to organize actin within leader blebs, and Erk mediates this effect. An Erk biosensor reveals concentrated kinase activity within leader blebs. Bleb contents are trapped by the narrow neck that separates the leader bleb from the cell body. Thus, Erk activity promotes actin bundling by Eps8 to enhance cortex tension and drive the bleb-based migration of cancer cells under non-adhesive confinement. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.08314.001 PMID:26163656

  9. Erk regulation of actin capping and bundling by Eps8 promotes cortex tension and leader bleb-based migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logue, Jeremy S; Cartagena-Rivera, Alexander X; Baird, Michelle A; Davidson, Michael W; Chadwick, Richard S; Waterman, Clare M

    2015-07-11

    Within the confines of tissues, cancer cells can use blebs to migrate. Eps8 is an actin bundling and capping protein whose capping activity is inhibited by Erk, a key MAP kinase that is activated by oncogenic signaling. We tested the hypothesis that Eps8 acts as an Erk effector to modulate actin cortex mechanics and thereby mediate bleb-based migration of cancer cells. Cells confined in a non-adhesive environment migrate in the direction of a very large 'leader bleb.' Eps8 bundling activity promotes cortex tension and intracellular pressure to drive leader bleb formation. Eps8 capping and bundling activities act antagonistically to organize actin within leader blebs, and Erk mediates this effect. An Erk biosensor reveals concentrated kinase activity within leader blebs. Bleb contents are trapped by the narrow neck that separates the leader bleb from the cell body. Thus, Erk activity promotes actin bundling by Eps8 to enhance cortex tension and drive the bleb-based migration of cancer cells under non-adhesive confinement.

  10. A Case Study of Wind-PV-Thermal-Bundled AC/DC Power Transmission from a Weak AC Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, H. W.; Du, W. J.; Wang, H. F.; Song, Y. T.; Wang, Q.; Ding, J.; Chen, D. Z.; Wei, W.

    2017-05-01

    Wind power generation and photovoltaic (PV) power generation bundled with the support by conventional thermal generation enables the generation controllable and more suitable for being sent over to remote load centre which are beneficial for the stability of weak sending end systems. Meanwhile, HVDC for long-distance power transmission is of many significant technique advantages. Hence the effects of wind-PV-thermal-bundled power transmission by AC/DC on power system have become an actively pursued research subject recently. Firstly, this paper introduces the technical merits and difficulties of wind-photovoltaic-thermal bundled power transmission by AC/DC systems in terms of meeting the requirement of large-scale renewable power transmission. Secondly, a system model which contains a weak wind-PV-thermal-bundled sending end system and a receiving end system in together with a parallel AC/DC interconnection transmission system is established. Finally, the significant impacts of several factors which includes the power transmission ratio between the DC and AC line, the distance between the sending end system and receiving end system, the penetration rate of wind power and the sending end system structure on system stability are studied.

  11. The determinant bundle on the moduli space of stable triples over a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We construct a holomorphic Hermitian line bundle over the moduli space of stable triples of the form (1, 2, ), where 1 and 2 are holomorphic vector bundles over a fixed compact Riemann surface , and : 2 → 1 is a holomorphic vector bundle homomorphism. The curvature of the Chern connection of this ...

  12. Lexical Bundles in Chinese Undergraduate Academic Writing at an English Medium University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Zhoulin

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the use of lexical bundles in Chinese students' academic writing across different levels of studies at an English medium university. Frequency-based bundles were retrieved from a corpus of student academic texts written at four points of time between Year 1 and Year 4, and the structures and functions of the bundles were…

  13. Central auditory processing. III. The "cocktail party" effect and anterior temporal lobectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efron, R; Crandall, P H; Koss, B; Divenyi, P L; Yund, E W

    1983-07-01

    The capacity to selectively attend to only one of multiple, spatially separated. simultaneous sound sources--the "cocktail party" effect--was evaluated in normal subjects and in those with anterior temporal lobectomy using common environmental sounds. A significant deficit in this capacity was observed for those stimuli located on the side of space contralateral to the lobectomy, a finding consistent with the hypothesis that within each anterior temporal lobe is a mechanism that is normally capable of enhancing the perceptual salience of one acoustic stimulus on the opposite side of space, when other sound sources are present on that side. Damage to this mechanism also appears to be associated with a deficit of spatial localization for sounds contralateral to the lesion.

  14. Effect of modified and conventional facemask therapy on condylar position in Class III patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagci, A; Uysal, T

    2010-11-01

    To assess the effects of varying force direction of maxillary orthopedic protraction on mandibular condylar position. The conventional facemask group (Group 1) comprised 22 patients, 11 girls, and 11 boys (mean age: 9.3 ± 1.3 years); the modified facemask group (Group 2) comprised 22 patients, 12 girls, and 10 boys (mean age: 9.4 ± 1.5 years); and the control group (Group 3) comprised 21 subjects, 11 girls, and 10 boys (mean age: 9.8 ± 1.9 years). Changes in mandibular position indicator (MPI ®) measurements of the SAM ® 3 articulator were evaluated. Treatment and control changes within groups and between groups were analyzed statistically. Intra-group comparisons were tested with the non-parametric Wilcoxon's test and inter-group changes with Kruskal-Wallis. The statistical significance of inter-group differences was further assessed with the Mann-Whitney test for independent samples with Bonferroni's correction. Antero-posterior positional changes of the left condyle were found higher in the controls than in Group 1 (p<0.016). Superior-inferior positional changes of the left condyle were also found significantly higher in controls than in Group 2 (p<0.016). No other significant changes in condylar position were determined in either group. In the treatment groups, asymmetrical condylar position diminished and became symmetrical with treatment in the antero-posterior direction (Group 1: 13.64%, Group 2: 36.37%) plane. In controls, the antero-posterior change of asymmetry was smaller (antero-posterior change: 7.60%). These findings generally suggest that modified and conventional facemask therapy with expansion had no adverse effects on the temporomandibular and masticatory system. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  15. TREAT Neutronics Analysis of Water-Loop Concept Accommodating LWR 9-rod Bundle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, Connie M.; Woolstenhulme, Nicolas E.; Parry, James R.; Bess, John D.; Housley, Gregory K.

    2016-09-01

    Abstract. Simulation of a variety of transient conditions has been successfully achieved in the Transient Reactor Test (TREAT) facility during operation between 1959 and 1994 to support characterization and safety analysis of nuclear fuels and materials. A majority of previously conducted tests were focused on supporting sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) designs. Experiments evolved in complexity. Simulation of thermal-hydraulic conditions expected to be encountered by fuels and materials in a reactor environment was realized in the development of TREAT sodium loop experiment vehicles. These loops accommodated up to 7-pin fuel bundles and served to simulate more closely the reactor environment while safely delivering large quantities of energy into the test specimen. Some of the immediate TREAT restart operations will be focused on testing light water reactor (LWR) accident tolerant fuels (ATF). Similar to the sodium loop objectives, a water loop concept, developed and analyzed in the 1990’s, aimed at achieving thermal-hydraulic conditions encountered in commercial power reactors. The historic water loop concept has been analyzed in the context of a reactivity insertion accident (RIA) simulation for high burnup LWR 2-pin and 3-pin fuel bundles. Findings showed sufficient energy could be deposited into the specimens for evaluation. Similar results of experimental feasibility for the water loop concept (past and present) have recently been obtained using MCNP6.1 with ENDF/B-VII.1 nuclear data libraries. The old water loop concept required only two central TREAT core grid spaces. Preparation for future experiments has resulted in a modified water loop conceptual design designated the TREAT water environment recirculating loop (TWERL). The current TWERL design requires nine TREAT core grid spaces in order to place the water recirculating pump under the TREAT core. Due to the effectiveness of water moderation, neutronics analysis shows that removal of seven additional

  16. Temperature during the last week of incubation. III. Effects on chicken embryo physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maatjens, C M; van Roovert-Reijrink, I A M; Engel, B; van der Pol, C W; Kemp, B; van den Brand, H

    2017-05-01

    We investigated effects of eggshell temperature (EST) of 35.6, 36.7, 37.8, or 38.9°C applied from d of incubation (E) 15, E17, or E19 onward on chicken embryo physiology. A total of 2,850 first-grade eggs of a 43-week-old Ross 308 broiler breeder flock were incubated at an EST of 37.8°C until E15. From E15, E17, or E19 onward, eggs were incubated at an EST of 35.6, 36.7, 37.8, or 38.9°C. Plasma glucose, uric acid, and lactate concentrations, and hepatic glycogen amount and concentration were measured at E15, E17, E19, internal pipping (IP), external pipping (EP), and hatch.An EST of 38.9°C applied from E15 onward decreased the amount of hepatic glycogen from E19 to IP and resulted in a lower glycogen amount at IP compared to all other EST. At EP, when oxygen (O2) becomes largely available, an EST of 38.9°C resulted in a higher glycogen amount and concentration compared to IP, which suggests that plasma glucose between IP and EP might be used for building up hepatic glycogen reserves. However, hepatic glycogen levels remained considerably lower at IP, EP, and hatch at an EST of 38.9°C, compared to an EST of 35.6 and 36.7°C.Opposite to an EST of 38.9°C, from IP onward, an EST of 35.6°C resulted in a higher glycogen amount and concentration compared to all other EST, which might be caused by the higher O2 availability relative to the lower metabolic rate, which provided time to build up glycogen stores from excessive glucose. A higher availability of hepatic glycogen might contribute to an improved physiological status of the broiler chicken embryo toward hatch. Hepatic gluconeogenesis is crucial for developing embryos, as glucose is the major energy source from IP until hatch. At hatch, no effect of EST was found for glucose, uric acid, or lactate.Results of this study emphasize that EST of 35.6 and 36.7°C from E15 onward appear to be beneficial for chicken embryo physiology. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  17. Zebrafish Models for the Mechanosensory Hair Cell Dysfunction in Usher Syndrome 3 Reveal That Clarin-1 Is an Essential Hair Bundle Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopal, Suhasini R; Chen, Daniel H-C; Chou, Shih-Wei; Zang, Jingjing; Neuhauss, Stephan C F; Stepanyan, Ruben; McDermott, Brian M; Alagramam, Kumar N

    2015-07-15

    Usher syndrome type III (USH3) is characterized by progressive loss of hearing and vision, and varying degrees of vestibular dysfunction. It is caused by mutations that affect the human clarin-1 protein (hCLRN1), a member of the tetraspanin protein family. The missense mutation CLRN1(N48K), which affects a conserved N-glycosylation site in hCLRN1, is a common causative USH3 mutation among Ashkenazi Jews. The affected individuals hear at birth but lose that function over time. Here, we developed an animal model system using zebrafish transgenesis and gene targeting to provide an explanation for this phenotype. Immunolabeling demonstrated that Clrn1 localized to the hair cell bundles (hair bundles). The clrn1 mutants generated by zinc finger nucleases displayed aberrant hair bundle morphology with diminished function. Two transgenic zebrafish that express either hCLRN1 or hCLRN1(N48K) in hair cells were produced to examine the subcellular localization patterns of wild-type and mutant human proteins. hCLRN1 localized to the hair bundles similarly to zebrafish Clrn1; in contrast, hCLRN1(N48K) largely mislocalized to the cell body with a small amount reaching the hair bundle. We propose that this small amount of hCLRN1(N48K) in the hair bundle provides clarin-1-mediated function during the early stages of life; however, the presence of hCLRN1(N48K) in the hair bundle diminishes over time because of intracellular degradation of the mutant protein, leading to progressive loss of hair bundle integrity and hair cell function. These findings and genetic tools provide an understanding and path forward to identify therapies to mitigate hearing loss linked to the CLRN1 mutation. Mutations in the clarin-1 gene affect eye and ear function in humans. Individuals with the CLRN1(N48K) mutation are born able to hear but lose that function over time. Here, we develop an animal model system using zebrafish transgenesis and gene targeting to provide an explanation for this phenotype

  18. Cerium (III) doping effects on optical and thermal properties of PVA films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelaziz, M.

    2011-03-01

    Cerium chloride (CeCl 3) doped polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) films were prepared by casting technique. The effect of CeCl 3 concentrations on the structural, optical and thermal properties of the PVA films was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), FT-IR, UV-visible, transmittance ( T), reflectance ( R), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetry (TG). Both of the XRD and the DSC results affirm the increase in amorphousity. Absorption spectra of the doped films have shown an absorption band at 260 nm assigned to the trivalent state of cerium ions. Absorption, transmittance and reflectance spectra were used for the determination of the optical constants. The results indicate that the optical band gap ( Eg) was derived from Tauc's extrapolation and decreases with the cerium content. The refractive index increases with monotonic behavior as the cerium content increases. The dispersion of the refractive index is discussed in terms of the single-oscillator Wemple-DiDomernico model for obtaining the dispersion parameters. The obtained optical parameters were found to be strongly affected by CeCl 3 dopant. Thermal analysis showed that the thermal parameters of PVA are enhanced by CeCl 3. The dependence of the activation energy of the decomposition temperature on doping level was estimated.

  19. Short-term effects of a modified Alt-RAMEC protocol for early treatment of Class III malocclusion: a controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masucci, C; Franchi, L; Giuntini, V; Defraia, E

    2014-11-01

    To assess the effects of a modified alternate rapid maxillary expansion and constriction (Alt-RAMEC) protocol in combination with facemask (FM) in Class III growing patients. Thirty one Class III patients (17 males, 14 females) were treated with a modified Alt-RAMEC/FM protocol at the Department of Orthodontics of the University of Florence. All patients were evaluated at the beginning (T1, mean age 6.4 ± 0.8 years) and at the end of orthopedic therapy (T2, mean age 8.1 ± 0.9 years), and they were compared to a matched sample of 31 Class III patients (16 males and 15 females) treated with rapid maxillary expansion and facemask (RME/FM) and to a matched control group of 21 subjects (9 males and 12 females) with untreated Class III malocclusion. The three groups were compared with anova with Benjamini-Hochberg correction for multiple tests. Both the Alt-RAMEC/FM and the RME/FM protocols showed significantly favorable effects leading to correction of the Class III malocclusion. The Alt-RAMEC/FM protocol produced a more effective advancement of the maxilla (SNA +1.2°) and greater intermaxillary changes (ANB +1.7°) vs. the RME/FM protocol. No significant differences were recorded as for mandibular skeletal changes and vertical skeletal relationships. The Alt-RAMEC/FM protocol induced more favorable skeletal short-term effects compared with RME/FM therapy in Class III growing patients. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. GASP. III. JO36: A Case of Multiple Environmental Effects at Play?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Jacopo; Moretti, Alessia; Gullieuszik, Marco; Poggianti, Bianca; Bruzual, Gustavo; Vulcani, Benedetta; Nicastro, Fabrizio; Jaffé, Yara; Cervantes Sodi, Bernardo; Bettoni, Daniela; Biviano, Andrea; Fasano, Giovanni; Charlot, Stéphane; Bellhouse, Callum; Hau, George

    2017-10-01

    The so-called jellyfish galaxies are objects exhibiting disturbed morphology, mostly in the form of tails of gas stripped from the main body of the galaxy. Several works have strongly suggested ram pressure stripping to be the mechanism driving this phenomenon. Here, we focus on one of these objects, drawn from a sample of optically selected jellyfish galaxies, and use it to validate sinopsis, the spectral fitting code that will be used for the analysis of the GASP (GAs Stripping Phenomena in galaxies with MUSE) survey, and study the spatial distribution and physical properties of the gas and stellar populations in this galaxy. We compare the model spectra to those obtained with gandalf, a code with similar features widely used to interpret the kinematics of stars and gas in galaxies from IFU data. We find that sinopsis can reproduce the pixel-by-pixel spectra of this galaxy at least as well as gandalf does, providing reliable estimates of the underlying stellar absorption to properly correct the nebular gas emission. Using these results, we find strong evidences of a double effect of ram pressure exerted by the intracluster medium onto the gas of the galaxy. A moderate burst of star formation, dating between 20 and 500 Myr ago and involving the outer parts of the galaxy more strongly than the inner regions, was likely induced by a first interaction of the galaxy with the intracluster medium. Stripping by ram pressure, plus probable gas depletion due to star formation, contributed to create a truncated ionized gas disk. The presence of an extended stellar tail on only one side of the disk points instead to another kind of process, likely gravitational interaction by a fly-by or a close encounter with another galaxy in the cluster.