International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Transient thermohydraulic events often control the design of piping systems in nuclear power plants. Water hammers due to valve closure, pressure transients caused by steam collapse and pipe break all result in structural loads that are characterised by a high frequency content. What also characterises these pressures/forces is the specific spatial and time dependence that is acting on the piping system and found in the wave propagation in the contained fluid. The aim with this project has been to develop recommendations for analysis of the stress response in piping systems subjected to thermohydraulic transients. Basis for this work is that the so called two-step-method is applied and that the structural response is calculated with modal superposition. Derived analysis criteria are based on the assumption that the associated volume strain energy in the wave propagation for the contained fluid may be well defined by a parameter, here called εPN. The stress response in the piping system is assumed to be completely determined with certain accuracy for that part of the volume strain energy in the wave propagation associated with this parameter. A comprehensive work has been done to determine the accuracy in loadings calculated with RELAP5. Properties such as period elongation and associated spurious oscillations in the pressure wave transient have been investigated. Furthermore, has the characteristics of the artificial numerical damping in RELAP5 been identified. Based on desired accuracy of the thermohydraulic analysis together with knowledge about the duration of the thermohydraulic perturbation, the lowest upper frequency limit fPipe, in the modal base that is required for the structure model is calculated. With perturbation is meant such as a valve closure. According to suggested criteria and with the upper frequency limit set, the essential parameters i) largest size of the elements in the structure model and ii) the largest applicable time step in the
Lesson Eleven Transient and intermittent left bundle branch block
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
鲁端; 王劲
2004-01-01
@@ In transient left bundle branch block,normal intraventricular conduction subsequently returns,if only1temporarily.The condition has also been called paroxysmal,unstable,or temporary left bundle branch block. Its etiology is similar to that of the stable variety2, with the great majority of the patients having ischemic or hypertensive heart disease or both. Transient bundle branch block may complicate acute myocardial infarction or may occur during attacks of angina. It may appear during an episode of congestive heart failure and disappear with improvement of the cardiac status. Most patients eventually develop permanent block. Occasionally,however, the patient may revert to normal conduction even years after consistently demonstrating the block.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Large system simulation codes are needed for design and safety analysis. A thermal-hydraulic simulation code for systems transient in ''Monju'' (COPD code) was developed and verified with experimental data from an experimental LMFBR ''Joyo'', 50 MWt steam generator test facility and scaled test sections of reactor vessel plenum. This paper summarizes numerical models of this code and their verifications with experimental data. Especially, a simplified analytical model to predict the transient behavior in a reactor vessel plenum is presented in detail, since this behavior has an important effect that must be taken into account in a plant thermal transient, while the reactor is tripped. The COPD is applied to design and safety analysis in ''Monju'' as follows ; (1) Safety analysis with regard to core cooling in anticipated incidents. (2) Plant thermo-hydraulic analysis for setting the design condition in thermal stress analysis and evaluation of components and pipings. (3) Control performance analysis on plant operation for design and evaluation of plant control system. Each of the above analyses requires different predictions of plant response to be analyzed. Therefore, appropriate models and input data are used in the design and evaluation according to the purpose of the analysis. This code was developed and verified under a contract with PNC. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The safety of nuclear power plants has always been a concern when this technology is considered as an option for power generation. As a contribution to the improvement of its safety performance, a System for Identification and Classification of Transients (SICT) is being developed. This system is based in neural networks particularly Self-Organizing Maps and has as goal to assist the operation of nuclear plants. The development of this system has several phases and one of them is the demonstration of the capability of SICT to respond on time for transients being able to warn the operator. This demonstration will be achieved using experiments in a thermo-hydraulic facility - CT1 - in CDTN, having the SICT coupled to it. Before coupling the SICT with CT1 instrumentation it has to be trained to recognize different operational states possible in the installation. This training is performed using results of simulation of experiments with the RELAP5 code, in the same way as the SICT for the Nuclear Power Plant shall be preliminarily trained using results of simulations. This paper presents the description of such facility, with the coupled SICT, the carried out experiments, as well as, their simulations with RELAP5 and the overall performance of SICT. (author)
Trost, Nico; Jiménez, Javier; Imke, Uwe; Sanchez, Victor
2014-06-01
TWOPORFLOW is a thermo-hydraulic code based on a porous media approach to simulate single- and two-phase flow including boiling. It is under development at the Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology (INR) at KIT. The code features a 3D transient solution of the mass, momentum and energy conservation equations for two inter-penetrating fluids with a semi-implicit continuous Eulerian type solver. The application domain of TWOPORFLOW includes the flow in standard porous media and in structured porous media such as micro-channels and cores of nuclear power plants. In the latter case, the fluid domain is coupled to a fuel rod model, describing the heat flow inside the solid structure. In this work, detailed profiling tools have been utilized to determine the optimization potential of TWOPORFLOW. As a result, bottle-necks were identified and reduced in the most feasible way, leading for instance to an optimization of the water-steam property computation. Furthermore, an OpenMP implementation addressing the routines in charge of inter-phase momentum-, energy- and mass-coupling delivered good performance together with a high scalability on shared memory architectures. In contrast to that, the approach for distributed memory systems was to solve sub-problems resulting by the decomposition of the initial Cartesian geometry. Thread communication for the sub-problem boundary updates was accomplished by the Message Passing Interface (MPI) standard.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The model developed using point kinetics and simulate various transients interactively, such as the firing of feed water turbo-pumps or the closing of the valves of main steam (MSIVs). Developed models allow to visualize, through different screens, the behavior of the whole plant as well as its control system.
Hall, Michael L.; Doster, Joseph M.
1986-01-01
Many proposed space reactor designs employ heat pipes as a means of conveying heat. Previous researchers have been concerned with steady state operation, but the transient operation is of interest in space reactor applications due to the necessity of remote startup and shutdown. A model is being developed to study the dynamic behavior of high temperature heat pipes during startup, shutdown and normal operation under space environments. Model development and preliminary results for a hypothetical design of the system are presented.
Thermohydraulic analysis of pressurized water reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The computer program PANTERA is applied in the thermo-hydraulic analysis of Pressurized Water Reactor Cores (PWR). It is a version of COBRA-IIIC in which a new thermal conduction model for fuel rods was introduced. The results calculated by this program are compared with experimental data obtained from bundles of fuel rods, simulating reactor conditions. The validity of the new thermal model is checked too. The PANTERA code, through a simplified procedure of calculation, is used in the thermo-hydraulic analysis of Indian Point, Unit 2, reactor core, in stationary conditions. The results are discussed and compared with design data. (Autor)
Proceedings of the 6. National Meeting of Reactor Physics and Thermohydraulic
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The proceedings of the 6. National Meeting of Reactor Physics and Thermohydraulic - 6. ENFIR - allow to evaluate the present status of development in reactor physics and thermohydraulic fields. The mathematical models and methods for calculating neutronic of nuclear reactors, safety reactor analysis, measuring methods of neutronic parameters, computerized simulation of accidents, transients and thermohydraulic analysis are presented. (M.C.K.)
LMFR core thermohydraulics: Status and prospects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
One of the fundamental steps for a successful reactor core thermohydraulic design is the capability to predict, reliably and accurately, the temperature distribution in the core assemblies. A detailed knowledge of the assembly and fuel pin thermohydraulic behaviour in the steady state and transient conditions is an indispensable prerequisite to safe and stable operation of the reactor. Considerable experimental and theoretical studies on various aspects of LMFR core thermohydraulics are necessary to acquire such knowledge. During the last decade, there have been substantial advances in fast reactor core thermohydraulic design and operation in several countries with fast reactor programmes (notably in France, the Russian Federation, Japan, the United Kingdom, Germany and the United States of America). Chief among these has been the demonstration of reliable operation of reactor cores at a high burnup. During the last years, some additional countries such as China, India and the Republic of Korea have launched new fast reactor programmes. International exchange of information and experience on LMFR development including core thermohydraulic design is becoming of increasing importance to these countries. It is with this focus that the IAEA convened the Technical Committee on 'Methods and Codes for Calculations of Thermohydraulic Parameters for Fuel, Absorber Pins and Assemblies of LMFR's with Traditional and Burner Cores'. This meeting, attended by participants from seven countries, brought together a group of international experts to review and discuss the thermohydraulic advances and design approaches providing a reliable, safe and robust reactor core, as well as to exchange the experience accumulated in different countries of using the codes for thermohydraulic calculations and to discuss the issues requiring further research and development. A total of thirty technical papers presented covered theoretical and computational issues as well as experiments under
Physical modeling of thermohydraulic phenomena in LMFBR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A simulation method of thermohydraulic problems in LMFBR is illustrated by a dimensional analysis of the different equations. For steady state and transient regimes on the reactor, it is shown how some experiments on small scale models with usual fluid permit a tentative solution to these problems
A thermal-hydraulic code for transient analysis in a channel with a rod bundle
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Khodjaev, I.D. [Research & Engineering Centre of Nuclear Plants Safety, Electrogorsk (Russian Federation)
1995-09-01
The paper contains the model of transient vapor-liquid flow in a channel with a rod bundle of core of a nuclear power plant. The computer code has been developed to predict dryout and post-dryout heat transfer in rod bundles of nuclear reactor core under loss-of-coolant accidents. Economizer, bubble, dispersed-annular and dispersed regimes are taken into account. The computer code provides a three-field representation of two-phase flow in the dispersed-annular regime. Continuous vapor, continuous liquid film and entrained liquid drops are three fields. For the description of dispersed flow regime two-temperatures and single-velocity model is used. Relative droplet motion is taken into account for the droplet-to-vapor heat transfer. The conservation equations for each of regimes are solved using an effective numerical technique. This technique makes it possible to determine distribution of the parameters of flows along the perimeter of fuel elements. Comparison of the calculated results with the experimental data shows that the computer code adequately describes complex processes in a channel with a rod bundle during accident.
Transient heat transfer behavior during reflood phase in a 2x2 ballooned rod bundle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The coolability of the ballooned region is entirely different with that of the normal ones. Therefore, in this study, the transient heat transfer behavior during the reflood phase of ballooned fuel rods was experimentally investigated in a 2x2 rod bundle test facility. The coolability depends greatly on the blockage characteristics (blockage ratio, blockage length, blockage shape, and blockage configuration) and the system conditions of the test facility (flow, system pressure, and inlet temperature). Among them, the blockage ratio effect on the coolabiltiy is carefully examined varying the reflood rate in the present study, since the blockage ratio plays a significant role on the coolability under the low reflood rate condition (2.5 cm/s). The test results were analyzed with the transient temperature profiles of the fuel rods and the local heat transfer coefficient calculated using a 1-D cylindrical coordinates FVM (Finite-Volume-Method) code. Forced reflood tests with various reflood rates were performed to understand the transient heat transfer behavior and to investigate the influence of the blockage ratio on the coolability in the 2x2 rod bundle test facility. The transient temperature profiles and the local heat transfer coefficients at the upstream and downstream region of the blockage simulator were examined for non-blockage, 90% blockage, and 62% blockage conditions. In the downstream region, the coolability was greatly enhanced except for a low reflood rate (1.0 cm/s). In the upstream region, the cooling performance decreased smoothly with decreasing the reflood rate. When the reflood rate is 1.0 cm/s, the coolabilities at the both upstream and downstream region were significantly reduced regardless of the blockage ratio. As a conclusion, the coolability at the low reflood rate (1.0 cm/s) should be carefully examined with the droplet behavior as a future work
Heart Failure with Transient Left Bundle Branch Block in the Setting of Left Coronary Fistula
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stephen P. Juraschek
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Coronary arterial fistulas are rare communications between vessels or chambers of the heart. Although cardiac symptoms associated with fistulas are well described, fistulas are seldom considered in the differential diagnosis of acute myocardial ischemia. We describe the case of a 64-year-old man who presented with left shoulder pain, signs of heart failure, and a new left bundle branch block (LBBB. Cardiac catheterization revealed a small left anterior descending (LAD-to-pulmonary artery (PA fistula. Diuresis led to subjective improvement of the patient's symptoms and within several days the LBBB resolved. We hypothesize that the coronary fistula in this patient contributed to transient ischemia of the LAD territory through a coronary steal mechanism. We elected to observe rather than repair the fistula, as his symptoms and ECG changes resolved with treatment of his heart failure.
Coolant mixing in LMFBR rod bundles and outlet plenum mixing transients. Progress report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Todreas, N.E.; Golay, M.W.; Wold, L.
1981-02-01
Four tasks are reported on: bundle geometry (wrapped and bare rods), subchannel geometry (bare rods), LMFBR outlet plenum flow mixing, and theoretical determination of local temperature fields in LMFBR fuel rod bundles. (DLC)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bates, J.M.; Khan, E.U.
1980-10-01
An experimental study was performed to obtain local fluid velocity and temperature measurements in the mixed (combined free and forced) convection regime for specific flow coastdown transients. A brief investigation of steady-state flows for the purely free-convection regime was also completed. The study was performed using an electrically heated 2 x 6 rod bundle contained in a flow housing. In addition a transient data base was obtained for evaluating the COBRA-WC thermal-hydraulic computer program (a modified version of the COBRA-IV code).
Coolant mixing in LMFBR rod bundles and outlet plenum mixing transients
Todreas, N. E.; Cheng, S. K.; Basehore, K.
1984-08-01
The thermal hydraulic performance of wire wrapped fuel bundles of LMFBR configuration was investigated. Results obtained included phenomenological models for friction factors, flow split and mixing characteristics; correlations for predicting these characteristics suitable for insertion in design codes; numerical codes for analyzing bundle behavior both of the lumped subchannel and distributed parameter categories and experimental techniques for pressure velocity, flow split, salt conductivity and temperature measurement in water cooled mockups of bundles and subchannels. Flow regimes investigated included laminar, transition and turbulent flow under forced convection and mixed convection conditions. Forced convections conditions are emphasized. Outlet plenum behavior is also investigated.
Coolant mixing in LMFBR rod bundles and outlet plenum mixing transients. Final report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Todreas, N.E.; Cheng, S.K.; Basehore, K.
1984-08-01
This project principally undertook the investigation of the thermal hydraulic performance of wire wrapped fuel bundles of LMFBR configuration. Results obtained included phenomenological models for friction factors, flow split and mixing characteristics; correlations for predicting these characteristics suitable for insertion in design codes; numerical codes for analyzing bundle behavior both of the lumped subchannel and distributed parameter categories and experimental techniques for pressure velocity, flow split, salt conductivity and temperature measurement in water cooled mockups of bundles and subchannels. Flow regimes investigated included laminar, transition and turbulent flow under forced convection and mixed convection conditions. Forced convections conditions were emphasized. Continuing efforts are underway at MIT to complete the investigation of the mixed convection regime initiated here. A number of investigations on outlet plenum behavior were also made. The reports of these investigations are identified.
Coolant mixing in LMFBR rod bundles and outlet plenum mixing transients. Final report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This project principally undertook the investigation of the thermal hydraulic performance of wire wrapped fuel bundles of LMFBR configuration. Results obtained included phenomenological models for friction factors, flow split and mixing characteristics; correlations for predicting these characteristics suitable for insertion in design codes; numerical codes for analyzing bundle behavior both of the lumped subchannel and distributed parameter categories and experimental techniques for pressure velocity, flow split, salt conductivity and temperature measurement in water cooled mockups of bundles and subchannels. Flow regimes investigated included laminar, transition and turbulent flow under forced convection and mixed convection conditions. Forced convections conditions were emphasized. Continuing efforts are underway at MIT to complete the investigation of the mixed convection regime initiated here. A number of investigations on outlet plenum behavior were also made. The reports of these investigations are identified
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Saltos, N.T.; Christensen, R.N.; Aldemir, T.
1988-10-01
A methodology is presented to determine the transient temperature distributions in fuel bundles under loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) conditions using a recently developed variational technique for the solution of radial-azimuthal heat conduction in the fuel rods and the modified view factor concept proposed by Uchida and Nakamure to model the radiative heat transfer between the rods. The variational technique is based on the Lebron-Labermont restricted variational principle and represents the temperature distribution in the rods at a given time during the LOCA via parabolic and circular trial functions in the radial and azimuthal directions, respectively. The methodology is implemented to a 4 x 4 boiling water reactor fuel bundle under typical LOCA conditions to investigate the effects of changes in rod heat transfer characteristics and simplifying modeling assumptions on predicted rod temperature distributions. The results show that these effects depend on the rod location in the assembly and LOCA phase under consideration and indicate that same degree of modelling detail may not be necessary for all the rods in the bundle at all times during the LOCA.
Seminar on experimental thermohydraulics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Considerations on reactor safety are made. Problems related to the project and assembling of facilities for experiments in steady state and transient conditions are discussed. The advantages of using model fluids are finally, analysed. (Author)
Transient non-boiling heat transfer in a fuel rod bundle during accidental power excursions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The physical problem studied is the transient non-boiling heat transfer of a cylindrical fuel rod consisting of fuel, gap, and cladding to a steady, fully developed turbulent flow. The fuel pin is assumed to be located in the interior region of a subassembly with regular triangular or square arrangements. The turbulent velocity field as well as turbulent transport properties are specified as functions of the coordinates normal to the axial flow direction. The heat generation within the fuel may be specified as an arbitrary function of the three spatial coordinates and time. A digital computer program has been developed. On the basis of finite-difference techniques, to solve the governing partial differential equations with their associated subsidiary conditions. Results have been obtained for a series of exponential power transients of interest to safety of liquid-metal and water cooled nuclear reactors. The general physical features of transient convective heat transfer as explored by previous investigators have qualitatively been substantiated by the present analysis. Emphasis has been devoted to investigate the differences of heat-transfer (coefficient) results from multi-region analysis including a realistic fuel rod model and single-region analysis for the coolant region only. A comparison with the engineering relationships for turbulent liquid-metal cooling by Stein, which are an extension of the heat transfer coefficient concept to account for transient heat fluxes, clearly demonstrates that, at the parameters studied, Stein's approach tends to largely overestimate the convective heat transfer at early times
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Todreas, N.E.; Golay, M.W.; Wolf, L.
1981-02-01
Four tasks are reported: bundle geometry (wrapped and bare rods), subchannel geometry (bare rods), subchannel geometry (bare rods), LMFBR outlet plenum flow mixing, and theoretical determination of local temperature fields in LMFBR fuel rod bundles. (DLC)
Containment severe accident thermohydraulic phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This report describes and discusses the containment accident progression and the important severe accident containment thermohydraulic phenomena. The overall objective of the report is to provide a rather detailed presentation of the present status of phenomenological knowledge, including an account of relevant experimental investigations and to discuss, to some extent, the modelling approach used in the MAAP 3.0 computer code. The MAAP code has been used in Sweden as the main tool in the analysis of severe accidents. The dependence of the containment accident progression and containment phenomena on the initial conditions, which in turn are heavily dependent on the in-vessel accident progression and phenomena as well as associated uncertainties, is emphasized. The report is in three parts dealing with: * Swedish reactor containments, the severe accident mitigation programme in Sweden and containment accident progression in Swedish PWRs and BWRs as predicted by the MAAP 3.0 code. * Key non-energetic ex-vessel phenomena (melt fragmentation in water, melt quenching and coolability, core-concrete interaction and high temperature in containment). * Early containment threats due to energetic events (hydrogen combustion, high pressure melt ejection and direct containment heating, and ex-vessel steam explosions). The report concludes that our understanding of the containment severe accident progression and phenomena has improved very significantly over the parts ten years and, thereby, our ability to assess containment threats, to quantify uncertainties, and to interpret the results of experiments and computer code calculations have also increased. (au)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Highlights: • A 3-D CFD is adopted to simulate transient behaviors in an SFP under the accident. • This model realistically simulates a 17 × 17 bundle, rid of porous media approach. • The loss of external cooling system accident for an SFP is assumed in this paper. • Thermal–hydraulic characteristics in a bundle are strongly influenced by grids. • The results confirm temperature rising rate used in Maanshan NPP is conservative. - Abstract: This paper develops a three-dimensional (3-D) transient computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model to simulate the thermal–hydraulic characteristics in a fuel bundle located in a spent fuel pool (SFP) under the loss of external cooling system accident. The SFP located in the Maanshan nuclear power plant (NPP) is selected herein. Without adopting the porous media approach usually used in the previous CFD works, this model uses a real-geometry simulation of a 17 × 17 fuel bundle, which can obtain the localized distributions of the flow and heat transfer during the accident. These distribution characteristics include several peaks in the axial distributions of flow, pressure, temperature, and Nusselt number (Nu) near the support grids, the non-uniform distribution of secondary flow, and the non-uniform temperature distribution due to flow mixing between rods, etc. According to the conditions adopted in the Procedure 597.1 (MNPP Plant Procedure 597.1, 2010) for the management of the loss-of-cooling event of the spent fuel pool in the Maanshan NPP, the temperature rising rate predicted by the present model can be equivalent to 1.26 K/h, which is the same order as that of 3.5 K/h in the this procedure. This result also confirms that the temperature rising rate used in the Procedure 597.1 for the Maanshan NPP is conservative. In addition, after the loss of external cooling system, there are about 44 h for the operator to repair the malfunctioning system or provide the alternative water source for the pool inventory to
Thermohydraulic relationships for advanced water cooled reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This report was prepared in the context of the IAEA's Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on Thermohydraulic Relationships for Advanced Water Cooled Reactors, which was started in 1995 with the overall goal of promoting information exchange and co-operation in establishing a consistent set of thermohydraulic relationships which are appropriate for use in analyzing the performance and safety of advanced water cooled reactors. For advanced water cooled reactors, some key thermohydraulic phenomena are critical heat flux (CHF) and post CHF heat transfer, pressure drop under low flow and low pressure conditions, flow and heat transport by natural circulation, condensation of steam in the presence of non-condensables, thermal stratification and mixing in large pools, gravity driven reflooding, and potential flow instabilities. The objectives of the CRP are (1) to systematically list the requirements for thermohydraulic relationships in support of advanced water cooled reactors during normal and accident conditions, and provide details of their database where possible and (2) to recommend and document a consistent set of thermohydraulic relationships for selected thermohydraulic phenomena such as CHF and post-CHF heat transfer, pressure drop, and passive cooling for advanced water cooled reactors. Chapter 1 provides a brief discussion of the background for this CRP, the CRP objectives and lists the participating institutes. Chapter 2 provides a summary of important and relevant thermohydraulic phenomena for advanced water cooled reactors on the basis of previous work by the international community. Chapter 3 provides details of the database for critical heat flux, and recommends a prediction method which has been established through international co-operation and assessed within this CRP. Chapter 4 provides details of the database for film boiling heat transfer, and presents three methods for predicting film boiling heat transfer coefficients developed by institutes
Advanced thermohydraulic simulation code for pool-type LMFBRs (SSC-P code)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Madni, I.K.; Cazzoli, E.G.
1980-09-01
Models for components and processes that are needed for simulation of thermohydraulic transient in a pool-type liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) plant are described in this report. A computer code, SSC-P, has been developed as a part of the Super System Code (SSC) development project. A user's manual is being prepared as a separate document. 27 refs., 26 figs., 1 tab.
Thermohydraulic calculation of WWER-type NPP
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Technique of thermohydraulic calculation of the WWER-type NPP in unsteady processes is described. Effective algorithm for solving hydrodynamics equations without regard for acoustic effects permitting to use enough large time integration step is given. Calculation of two-dimensional temperature fields in fuel element is considered. Method for calculating a pressurizer, steam generators and pumps is described as well
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Escriva, A.; Munoz-cobo, J. L.; Concejal, A.; Soler, A.; Melara, J.; Albendea, M.
2013-07-01
The model developed using point kinetics and simulate various transients interactively, such as the firing of feed water turbo-pumps or the closing of the valves of main steam (MSIVs). Developed models allow to visualize, through different screens, the behavior of the whole plant as well as its control system.
Library thermohydraulic components for training simulators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The thermohydraulic components Library was modeled in MatLab/Simulink®. This library owns Pipe type components (pump, control valve and / or heaters), storage tanks (Open, Closed and Equilibrium Water Vapor-Air) and Heat Exchangers (Co-Current, Counter-Current and U-tubes). Each component can be attached to other components through the component library Header, in order to create a more complex thermal-hydraulic system which in turn can interact with other thermal-hydraulic systems. (author)
Analysis of three-dimensional thermo-hydraulic phenomena in the reactor core of LMFBR
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hu, S.; Lee, Y. B.; Jang, W. P.; Ha, K. S.; Jung, H. Y. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)
2004-07-01
The mismatch between power and flow under the transient condition of LMFBR (Liquid Metal cooled Fast Breeder Reactor) core results in thermal stratification in hot pool. Since the fluid of hot pool enters IHXs, the temperature distribution of hot pool can alter the overall system response, therefore three-dimensional analysis of thermo-hydraulic phenomena is necessary. In this study, the thermo-hydraulic phenomena under normal operating condition and unprotected transient condition of LMFBR is investigated using which is the three-dimensional analysis code, COMMIX-1AR/P. The basic input data is based on the design data of KALIMER-600, which is sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor developed by KAERI. COMMIX-1AR/P code has not a reactivity model and the power and core flowrate must be supplied in the input data. In this study, results of SSC-K calculation is used. The temperature and velocity distributions are calculated and compared with those of SSC-K calculation results. The UTOF(Unprotected Loss Of Flow) accident is calculated using COMMIX-1AR/P and the temperature and velocity distributions in the total reactor core are calculated and the natural circulation mode under this transient condition is investigated.
TRAWA, LWR Dynamic by Coupled Neutron Diffusion and Thermohydraulics Calculation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1 - Description of problem or function: The purpose of the program is to study reactor dynamics in thermal water-cooled reactors. It treats the core as one or a few axially one-dimensional subregions. The two group neutron diffusion equations are solved simultaneously with the heat conduction equations and the two-phase hydraulic equations for one or more channels. Neither thermal nor hydraulic mixing appear between channels. Doppler, coolant density, coolant temperature, and soluble poison density feedbacks due to the thermo- hydraulics of the channels are described by using polynomial expansions for the group constants. The hydraulic circuit outside the reactor core consists of by-pass channels and risers with two- phase flow and of pump lines with incompressible flow. Various transients can be calculated by applying external disturbances. They can affect e.g. on movements of control rods, core inlet hydraulic conditions, system pressure or coefficients of neutronic shape function expansion between subregions. 2 - Method of solution: Nontrivial implicit methods are employed in the discretization of the equations to allow for sparse spatial mesh and flexible choice of time steps. The same spatial and temporal discretization is used for neutronics and thermohydraulics. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The dimensions of the program variable tables can easily be extended. Now the main dimensions are: 52 axial mesh points in core; 3 subregions; 10 axial regions with different fuel compositions; 7 radial mesh points in fuel rod; 6 delayed neutron groups; 6 coupled legs in pressure balance calculation; No flow reversals are allowed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The integral pressurized water reactor (PWR) concept, which incorporates the nuclear steam supply systems within the reactor vessel, is one of the innovative reactor types with high potential for near term deployment. An International Collaborative Standard Problem (ICSP) on Integral PWR Design, Natural Circulation Flow Stability and Thermohydraulic Coupling of Primary System and Containment during Accidents was established in 2010. Oregon State University, which made available the use of its experimental facility built to demonstrate the feasibility of the Multi-application Small Light Water Reactor (MASLWR) design, and sixteen institutes from seven Member States participated in this ICSP. The objective of the ICSP is to assess computer codes for reactor system design and safety analysis. This objective is achieved through the production of experimental data and computer code simulation of experiments. A loss of feedwater transient with subsequent automatic depressurization system blowdown and long term cooling was selected as the reference event since many different modes of natural circulation phenomena, including the coupling of primary system, high pressure containment and cooling pool are expected to occur during this transient. The power maneuvering transient is also tested to examine the stability of natural circulation during the single and two phase conditions. The ICSP was conducted in three phases: pre-test (with designed initial and boundary conditions established before the experiment was conducted), blind (with real initial and boundary conditions after the experiment was conducted) and open simulation (after the observation of real experimental data). Most advanced thermohydraulic system analysis codes such as TRACE, RELAPS and MARS have been assessed against experiments conducted at the MASLWR test facility. The ICSP has provided all participants with the opportunity to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of their system codes in the transient
Study on Unigraphics Drawing Modeling Method for 37-Element and CANFLEX Fuel Bundle
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jeon, Yu Mi; Park, Joo Hwan
2010-03-15
The CANFLEX bundle contains 43 elements of two different diameters. It has two rings of small diameter elements on the outside, and eight elements (with diameter slightly larger than those in the standard 37-Element bundle) in the center. This larger number of small diameter elements on the outside of the CANFLEX bundle enhances thermo-hydraulic capability, resulting in a higher power capability and an improvement in operating safety margins. As a Result of advanced fuel design for CANFLEX fuel bundles, components consisting of fuel bundles are more complicated. Hence, the detailed modeling of components is inevitable in order to analyze the fuel performance by computational fluid dynamics. In this report, the basic design of the advanced fuel for CANDU reactors was carried out and the methodology for the modeling of fuel bundle were described. Firstly, the components consisting of fuel bundles were separately modeled and saved with different file names. The final feature of fuel bundle was accomplished by an assembling process of components. Since this report developed the modeling methodology based on the Unigraphics program, the basic explanations for the software were given first, and the complete modeling of 37-elements and CANFLEX fuel bundles were provided. The components of CANFLEX fuel bundles were also compared with that of 37-elements fuel bundles. Although, in this report, the modeling methodology is applied only to 37-elements and CANFLEX fuel bundles, this methodology may be applicable to the newly designed fuel bundles which are to be developed in the future
CASSANDRE, 2-D Reactor Dynamic FEM Program with Thermohydraulic Feedback
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1 - Description of program or function: CASSANDRE is a two-dimensional (x-y or r-z) finite-elements neutronics code with thermohydraulic feedback for reactor dynamics prior to the disassembly phase. The code was conceived in order to be coupled with any thermohydraulics module, although thermohydraulics feedback is only considered in r-z geometry. In the steady state, criticality search is possible either by control-rod insertion or by homogeneous poisoning of the coolant. 2 - Method of solution: The program uses multigroup diffusion theory. Its main characteristics are the use of a generalized quasi-static model, the use of a flexible multigroup point-kinetics algorithm allowing for spectral matching, and the use of a finite elements description. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The user must prepare a cross section library
Heal, Geoffrey
2002-01-01
Biodiversity provides essential services to human societies. Many of these services are provided as public goods, so that they will typically be underprovided both by market mechanisms (because of the impossibility of excluding non-payers from using the services) and by government-run systems (because of the free rider problem). I suggest here that in some cases the public goods provided by biodiversity conservation can be bundled with private goods and their value to consumers captured in th...
Thermohydraulic and nuclear modeling of natural fission reactors
Viggato, Jason Charles
Experimental verification of proposed nuclear waste storage schemes in geologic repositories is not possible, however, a natural analog exists in the form of ancient natural reactors that existed in uranium-rich ores. Two billion years ago, the enrichment of natural uranium was high enough to allow a sustained chain reaction in the presence of water as a moderator. Several natural reactors occurred in Gabon, Africa and were discovered in the early 1970's. These reactors operated at low power levels for hundreds of thousands of years. Heated water generated from the reactors also leached uranium from the surrounding rock strata and deposited it in the reactor cores. This increased the concentration of uranium in the core over time and served to "refuel" the reactor. This has strong implications in the design of modern geologic repositories for spent nuclear fuel. The possibility of accidental fission events in man-made repositories exists and the geologic evidence from Oklo suggests how those events may progress and enhance local concentrations of uranium. Based on a review of the literature, a comprehensive code was developed to model the thermohydraulic behavior and criticality conditions that may have existed in the Oklo reactor core. A two-dimensional numerical model that incorporates modeling of fluid flow, temperatures, and nuclear fission and subsequent heat generation was developed for the Oklo natural reactors. The operating temperatures ranged from about 456 K to about 721 K. Critical reactions were observed for a wide range of concentrations and porosity values (9 to 30 percent UO2 and 10 to 20 percent porosity). Periodic operation occurred in the computer model prediction with UO2 concentrations of 30 percent in the core and 5 percent in the surrounding material. For saturated conditions and 30 percent porosity, the model predicted temperature transients with a period of about 5 hours. Kuroda predicted 3 to 4 hour durations for temperature transients
Observation and control system of the thermohydraulic assays laboratory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Thermohydraulic Assays Laboratory (L.E.T.) is an installation whose purpose will be the components testing and the CAREM-25 reactor thermohydraulic processes operation dynamics. This plant is located at Pilcaniyeu, province of Rio Negro. Part of the tests which will be carried out consist in the use of different control strategies. The control of the systems by digital processors (control by software) has been decided to proceed with a maximum flexibility and capacity to make changes in the algorithms. This work describes the design and implementation of a digital control system to command the three circuits of the installation. (Author)
Development of software for the thermohydraulic analysis of air coolers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Šerbanović Slobodan P.
2003-01-01
Full Text Available Air coolers consume much more energy compared to other heat exchangers due to the large fan power required. This is an additional reason to establish reliable methods for the rational design and thermohydraulic analysis of these devices. The optimal values of the outlet temperature and air flow rate are of particular importance. The paper presents a methodology for the thermohydraulic calculation of air cooler performances, which is incorporated in the "Air Cooler" software module. The module covers two options: cooling and/or condensation of process fluids by ambient air. The calculated results can be given in various ways ie. in the tabular and graphical form.
Thermohydraulic modeling and simulation of breeder reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper deals with the modeling and simulation of system-wide transients in LMFBRs. Unprotected events (i.e., the presumption of failure of the plant protection system) leading to core-melt are not considered in this paper. The existing computational capabilities in the area of protected transients in the US are noted. Various physical and numerical approximations that are made in these codes are discussed. Finally, the future direction in the area of model verification and improvements is discussed
Systems for neutronic, thermohydraulic and shielding calculation in personal computers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The MTR-PC (Materials Testing Reactors-Personal Computers) system has been developed by the Nuclear Engineering Division of INVAP S.E. with the aim of providing working conditions integrated with personal computers for design and neutronic, thermohydraulic and shielding analysis for reactors employing plate type fuel. (Author)
Characteristics of liquid and boiling sodium flows in heating pin bundles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This study is related to cooling accidents which could occur in sodium cooled fast reactors. Thermo-hydraulic aspects of boiling experiments in pin bundles with helical wire-wrap spacer systems, in the case of undamaged geometries, are analyzed. Differences and analogies in the behavior of multi-rod bundle flows and one-dimensional channel flows are studied. A boiling model is developed for bundle geometries, and predictions obtained with the FLICA code using this models are presented. These predictions are compared with experimental results obtained in a water 19-rod bundle. Then, results of sodium boiling experiments through a 19-rod bundle are interpreted. Both cases of high power and reduced power are envisaged
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
郭小江; 赵丽莉; 汤奕; 申洪
2013-01-01
风火打捆交直流外送是未来千万千瓦级风电能源基地电力外送的重要方式之一，亟需掌握风火打捆交直流外送系统的稳定特性及其机理。文章分析了不同风电比例和不同直流控制方式下系统的暂态功角稳定特性，探讨了风电、火电和直流系统间的交互作用，并基于扩展等面积(extended equal-area criterion，EEAC)理论分析了送受端机组惯量对系统功角暂态稳定性的影响机理。结果表明：在受端电网为无穷大系统的场景下，系统暂态功角稳定性随风电比例增加而改善；在送受端机组惯量可比场景下，存在最优风电与火电配置比例，使得系统暂态功角稳定性最好。%For the 10 GW wind power bases in China, wind-thermal-bundled power transmission by AC/DC system is regarded as one of feasible ways, but the stability characteristic of this kind of transmission systems should be investigated. In the paper, the angle transient stability characteristics were studied in the scenarios with different wind power penetration and DC control modes through simulations, and the interaction among wind power, thermal power and DC systems was discussed. Besides, the effects of the inertias of sending and receiving end systems on the angle transient stability characteristics were studied based on extended equal-area criterion (EEAC). When the receiving end power grid is equated to an infinite system, the system angle transient stability is improved with the increase of wind power penetration, while the equivalent inertia of the sending end can be comparable to that of the receiving end, there is an optimal wind power penetration with which the system has the highest angle transient stability.
Annular burnout data from rod bundle experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burnout data for annular flow in a rod bundle are presented for both transient and steady-state conditions. Tests were performed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the Thermal Hydraulic Test Facility (THTF), a pressurized-water loop containing an electrically heated 64-rod bundle. The bundle configuration is typical of later generation pressurized-water reactors with 17 x 17 fuel arrays. Both axial and radial power profiles are flat. All experiments were carried out in upflow with subcooled inlet conditions, insuring accurate flow measurement. Conditions within the bundle were typical of those which could be encountered during a nuclear reactor loss-of-coolant accident. Level average fluid conditions within the test section were calculated using steady-state mass and energy conservation considerations for the steady-state tests and a transient, homogeneous, equilibrium computer code for the transient tests. Unlike tube dryout, burnout within a rod bundle does not necessarily occur at one distinct axial level. The location of individual rod dryout was determined by scanning rods axially and locating the position where rod superheat increased from approx. =0 to 30 K or greater. Thermocouple instrumentation within the bundle allows the location of dryout to be determined to within approximately +.5 cm for many of the tests
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Highlights: • Transient thermal–hydraulic characteristics of PRHR HX were analyzed and evaluated. • Low-Re SST model with near-wall multi-sublayer grid was recommended for simulations. • New overall scaled separate effect IRWST & PRHR HX experiments were conducted. • Experimental data provided a benchmark for the validation of numerical results. • Comparison of Nu values indicated that vertical section had better heat transfer effect. - Abstract: The heat transfer effect of Passive Residual Heat Removal Heat Exchanger (PRHR HX) and buoyancy-induced flow in the In-containment Refueling Water Storage Tank (IRWST) are of great importance for the efficient and safe removal of the residual heat in the AP1000 reactor. Although some numerical studies have been conducted, only the standard k–ε model has been applied. Experimental validation of the simulation results was also not sufficient because of the lack of appropriate experimental data. In the present work, the applicability of different Reynolds Average Navier–Stokes (RANS) turbulence models and Large Eddy Simulation (LES) were examined, utilizing the commercial CFD software CFX 14.5. Further, two types of grids were built for the high/low-Reynolds turbulence models, and the y+ values as well as grids sensitivity were carefully analyzed. Meanwhile, overall scaled IRWST and PRHR HX models were built to simulate the thermal–hydraulic process in the residual heat removal accident, which was a new overall scaled separate effect IRWST&PRHR HX experiment. More than 150 thermocouples were utilized to measure the temperature in the key regions, and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) was utilized for the measurement of the flow velocity. Based on the validation of turbulence models in simulating the overall variations of temperature and velocity field in the IRWST model, the transient heat transfer capacity of PRHR HX was then analyzed. The results indicated that the low-Reynolds Shear Stress Transport (SST
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The increase of bundle supply has become widespread in several sectors (for instance in telecommunications and energy fields). This paper review relates strategic aspects of bundling. The main purpose of this paper is to analyze profitability of bundling strategies according to the degree of competition and the characteristics of goods. Moreover, bundling can be used as price discrimination tool, screening device or entry barriers. In monopoly case bundling strategy is efficient to sort consumers in different categories in order to capture a maximum of surplus. However, when competition increases, the profitability on bundling strategies depends on correlation of consumers' reservations values. (author)
Bundling in Telecommunications
Begoña García-Mariñoso; Xavier Martinez-Giralt; Pau Olivella
2008-01-01
The paper offers an overview of the literature on bundling in the telecommunications sector and its application in the Spanish market. We argue that the use of bundling in the provision of services is associated to technological reasons. Therefore, there appears no need to regulate bundling activities. However, this is not to say that other related telecom markets should not be scrutinized and regulated, or that the regulator should not pay attention to other bundling-related anticompetitive ...
Annular burnout data from rod-bundle experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burnout data for annular flow in a rod bundle are presented for both transient and steady-state conditions. Tests were performed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the Thermal Hydraulic Test Facility (THTF), a pressurized-water loop containing an electrically heated 64-rod bundle. The bundle configuration is typical of later generation pressurized-water reactors with 17 x 17 fuel arrays. Both axial and radial power profiles are flat. All experiments were carried out in upflow with subcooled inlet conditions, insuring accurate flow measurement. Conditions within the bundle were typical of those which could be encountered during a nuclear reactor loss-of-coolant accident
Thermo-Hydraulic behaviour of dual-channel superconducting Cable-In-Conduit Conductors for ITER
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In an effort to optimise the cryogenics of large superconducting coils for fusion applications (ITER), dual channel Cable-In-Conduit Conductors (CICC) are designed with a central channel spiral to provide low hydraulic resistance and faster helium circulation. The qualitative and economic rationale of the conductor central channel is here justified to limit the superconductor temperature increase, but brings more complexity to the conductor cooling characteristics. The pressure drop of spirals is experimentally evaluated in nitrogen and water and an explicit hydraulic friction model is proposed. Temperatures in the cable must be quantified to guarantee superconductor margin during coil operation under heat disturbance and set adequate inlet temperature. Analytical one-dimensional thermal models, in steady state and in transient, allow to better understand the thermal coupling of CICC central and annular channels. The measurement of a heat transfer characteristic space and time constants provides cross-checking experimental estimations of the internal thermal homogenization. A simple explicit model of global inter-channel heat exchange coefficient is proposed. The risk of thermosyphon between the two channels is considered since vertical portions of fusion coils are subject to gravity. The new hydraulic model, heat exchange model and gravitational risk ratio allow the thermohydraulic improvement of CICC central spirals. (author)
Thermohydraulic stability coupled to the neutronic in a BWR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In a BWR type reactor the phenomenon of the nuclear fission is presented, in which are liberated in stochastic form neutrons, originating that the population of the same ones varies in statistic form around a mean value. This variation will cause that when the neutron flow impacts on the neutron detectors, its are had as a result neutron flow signals with fluctuations around an average value. In this article it is shown that it conforms it lapses the time, this variations in the neutron flow (and therefore, in the flow signal due only to the fission), they presented oscillations inside a stable range, which won't be divergent. Considering that the BWR is characterized because boiling phenomena are presented, which affect the moderation of the neutrons, additional variations will be had in the signal coming from the neutron detectors, with relationship to the fission itself, which will be influenced by the feedback of the moderator's reactivity and of the temperature of the fuel pellet. Also, as the BWR it has coupled control systems to maintain the coolant level one and of the thermal power of the reactor, for each control action it was affected the neutron population. This means that the reactor could end up straying of a stable state condition. By it previously described, the study of the thermohydraulic stability coupled to the neutronic is complex. In this work it is shown the phenomenology, the mathematical models and the theoretical behavior associated to the stability of the BWR type reactor; the variables that affect it are identified, the models that reproduce the behavior of the thermohydraulic stability coupled to the neutronic, the way to maintain stable the reactor and the instrumentation that can settle to detect and to suppress uncertainties is described. In particular, is make reference to the evolution of the methods to maintain the stability of the reactor and the detection system and suppression of uncertainties implemented in the Laguna Verde
Thermohydraulic assessment of the RP-10 reactor core to determine the maximum power
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thermohydraulic parameters assessment of the RP-10 reactor core from the most thermally demanded (hot channel). Determination of the operation thermal maximum power considering security margins and statistical treatment of uncertainty factors
Biswas, Indranil
2011-01-01
We construct projectivization of a parabolic vector bundle and a tautological line bundle over it. It is shown that a parabolic vector bundle is ample if and only if the tautological line bundle is ample. This allows us to generalize the notion of a k-ample bundle, introduced by Sommese, to the context of parabolic bundles. A parabolic vector bundle $E_*$ is defined to be k-ample if the tautological line bundle ${\\mathcal O}_{{\\mathbb P}(E_*)}(1)$ is $k$--ample. We establish some properties of parabolic k-ample bundles.
Lerman, Eugene
2003-01-01
We define contact fiber bundles and investigate conditions for the existence of contact structures on the total space of such a bundle. The results are analogous to minimal coupling in symplectic geometry. The two applications are construction of K-contact manifolds generalizing Yamazaki's fiber join construction and a cross-section theorem for contact moment maps
Principal noncommutative torus bundles
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Echterhoff, Siegfried; Nest, Ryszard; Oyono-Oyono, Herve
2008-01-01
action) and give necessary and sufficient conditions for any non-commutative principal torus bundle being RKK-equivalent to a commutative one. As an application of our methods we shall also give a K-theoretic characterization of those principal torus-bundles with H-flux, as studied by Mathai...... and Rosenberg which possess "classical" T-duals....
Study of Transients in an Enrichment Closed Loop
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In the present thesis a mathematic model is presented in order to describe the dynamic behavior inside a closed enrichment loop, the latter representing a single stage of an uranium gaseous diffusion enrichment cascade.The analytical model is turned into a numerical model, and implemented through a computational code.For the verification of the model, measurements were taken in an experimental circuit using air as the process fluid.This circuit was instrumented so as to register its characteristic thermohydraulic variables.The measured transients were simulated, comparing the numerical results with the experimental measurements.A good agreement between the characteristic setting times and the thermohydraulic parameters evolution was observed.Besides, other transients of two species separation were numerically analyzed, including setting times of each magnitude, behavior of each one of them during different transients, and redistribution of concentrations
Latest developments for a computer aided thermohydraulic network
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thermohydraulic networks are I-D systems characterized by a small number of basic components (pumps, valves, heat exchangers, etc) connected by pipes and limited spatially by a defined number of boundary conditions (tanks, atmosphere, etc). The network system is simulated by the well known computer program RELAPS/mod3. Information concerning the network geometry component behaviour, initial and boundary conditions are usually supplied to the RELAPS code using an ASCII input file by means of 'input cards'. CATNET (Computer Aided Thermalhydraulic NETwork) is a graphically user interface that, under specific user guidelines which completely define its range of applicability, permits a very high level of standardization and simplification of the RELAPS/mod3 input deck development process as well as of the output processing. The characteristics of the components (pipes, valves, pumps etc), defining the network system can be entered through CATNET. The CATNET interface is provided by special functions to compute form losses in the most typical bending and branching configurations. When the input of all system components is ready, CATNET is able to generate the RELAPS/mod3 input file. Finally, by means of CATNET, the RELAPS/mod3 code can be run and its output results can be transformed to an intuitive display form. The paper presents an example of application of the CATNET interface as well as the latest developments which greatly simplified the work of the users and allowed to reduce the possibility of input errors. (authors)
Thermohydraulic design of saturated temperature capsule for IASCC irradiation test
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ide, Hiroshi; Matsui, Yoshinori; Itabashi, Yukio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment] [and others
2002-10-01
An advanced water chemistry controlled irradiation research device is being developed in JAERI, to perform irradiation tests for irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) research concerned with aging of LWR. This device enables the irradiation tests under the water chemistry condition and the temperature, which simulate the conditions for BWR core internals. The advanced water chemistry controlled irradiation research device is composed of saturated temperature capsule inserted into the JMTR core and the water chemistry control unit installed in the reactor building. Regarding the saturated temperature capsule, the Thermohydraulic design of capsule structure was done, aimed at controlling the specimen's temperature, feeding water velocity on specimen's surface to the environment of BWR nearer. As the result of adopting the new capsule structure based on the design study, it was found out that feeding water velocity at the surface of specimen's is increased to about 10 times as much as before, and nuclear heat generated in the capsule components can be removed safely even in the abnormal event such as the case of loss of feeding water. (author)
Restrictions of stable bundles
Balaji, V
2011-01-01
The Mehta-Ramanathan theorem ensures that the restriction of a stable vector bundle to a sufficiently high degree complete intersection curve is again stable. We improve the bounds for the "sufficiently high degree" and propose a possibly optimal conjecture.
Voltage- and calcium-dependent motility of saccular hair bundles
Quiñones, Patricia M.; Meenderink, Sebastiaan W. F.; Bozovic, Dolores
2015-12-01
Active bundle motility, which is hypothesized to supply feedback for mechanical amplification of signals, is thought to enhance sensitivity and sharpen tuning in vestibular and auditory organs. To study active hair bundle motility, we combined high-speed camera recordings of bullfrog sacculi, which were mounted in a two-compartment chamber, and voltage-clamp of the hair cell membrane potential. Using this paradigm, we measured three types of bundle motions: 1) spontaneous oscillations which can be analyzed to measure the physiological operating range of the transduction channel; 2) a sustained quasi-static movement of the bundle that depends on membrane potential; and 3) a fast, transient and asymmetric movement that resets the bundle position and depends on changes in the membrane potential. These data support a role for both calcium and voltage in the transduction-channel function.
Subtleties Concerning Conformal Tractor Bundles
Graham, C Robin
2012-01-01
The realization of tractor bundles as associated bundles in conformal geometry is studied. It is shown that different natural choices of principal bundle with normal Cartan connection corresponding to a given conformal manifold can give rise to topologically distinct associated tractor bundles for the same inducing representation. Consequences for homogeneous models and conformal holonomy are described. A careful presentation is made of background material concerning standard tractor bundles and equivalence between parabolic geometries and underlying structures.
Nuclear reactors transients identification and classification system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This work describes the study and test of a system capable to identify and classify transients in thermo-hydraulic systems, using a neural network technique of the self-organizing maps (SOM) type, with the objective of implanting it on the new generations of nuclear reactors. The technique developed in this work consists on the use of multiple networks to do the classification and identification of the transient states, being each network a specialist at one respective transient of the system, that compete with each other using the quantization error, that is a measure given by this type of neural network. This technique showed very promising characteristics that allow the development of new functionalities in future projects. One of these characteristics consists on the potential of each network, besides responding what transient is in course, could give additional information about that transient. (author)
AREVA's thermo-hydraulic platform qualified as test and inspection body
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ganzman, Ingo; Herr, Wolfgang; Schmidt, Holger; Stecher, Willi; Walter, Dirk; Umminger, Klaus [AREVA NP GmbH, Erlangen (Germany); Beisiegel, Achim; Wich, Michael [AREVA NP GmbH, Karlstein (Germany); Dolleans, Phillipe; Muller, Thierry [AREVA NP S.A.S., Le Creusot (France)
2011-07-01
AREVA runs an internationally unique test and qualification infrastructure for power plant components. The associated thermo-hydraulic platform has been certified as test and inspection body according to ISO 17025 and ISO 17020. It comprises integral test loops for pressurised water reactors and boiling water reactors. The maximum operational parameters of the test loops in the thermo-hydraulic platform are heating capacities of up to 22 megawatts, electrical currents of up to 80 kilo amperes, pressures of up to 300 bar and temperatures of up to 600 C. The accreditation thereby covers tests and assessments as well as expert concept evaluations with appropriate support programmes. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The thermo-hydraulic characteristics of ship nuclear reactors are very important to the safety and reliability of ship voyage under the ocean conditions. Therefore, many countries have carried out plentiful investigations. This paper is based on some Asia open literature of investigations on thermo-hydraulic characteristics of ship nuclear reactors under the ocean conditions, reviews and sums up those main progresses such as the method, contents and typical results in this field, analyzes their insufficiency, and puts forward advices on the future investigation based on the known research findings. (authors)
DRESDYN - A new platform for sodium related thermohydraulic studies and measurement developments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The safe and reliable operation of liquid metal systems in innovative reactor concepts like sodium cooled fast breeder reactors or lead-bismuth targets in transmutation systems requires appropriate measuring systems and control units, both for the liquid metal single-phase flow as well as for gas bubble liquid metal two-phase flows. We report on the liquid sodium facility DRESDYN (DREsden Sodium facility for DYNamo and thermohydraulic studies), presently under construction, that will comprise experiments with geo- and astrophysical background as well as experiments for thermohydraulic studies and for the development and the test of measurement techniques for sodium flows. (author)
Thermohydraulic relationships for advanced water cooled reactors, and the role of IAEA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) a Coordinated Research Program (CRP) on Thermohydraulic Relationships for Advanced Water-Cooled Reactors was carried out from 1995-1999. It was included into the IAEA's Programme following endorsement in 1995 by the IAEA's International Working Group on Advanced Technologies for Water Cooled Reactors. The overall goal was to promote international information exchange and cooperation in establishing a consistent set of thermohydraulic relationships that are appropriate for use in analyzing the performance and safety of advanced water cooled reactors. (authors)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bussink, Barbara E; Holst, Anders Gaarsdal; Jespersen, Lasse;
2013-01-01
AimsTo determine the prevalence, predictors of newly acquired, and the prognostic value of right bundle branch block (RBBB) and incomplete RBBB (IRBBB) on a resting 12-lead electrocardiogram in men and women from the general population.Methods and resultsWe followed 18 441 participants included.......5%/2.3% in women, P Right bundle branch block was associated with significantly...... increased all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in both genders with age-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) of 1.31 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.11-1.54] and 1.87 (95% CI, 1.48-2.36) in the gender pooled analysis with little attenuation after multiple adjustment. Right bundle branch block was associated...
Principal -bundles on Nodal Curves
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Usha N Bhosle
2001-08-01
Let be a connected semisimple affine algebraic group defined over . We study the relation between stable, semistable -bundles on a nodal curve and representations of the fundamental group of . This study is done by extending the notion of (generalized) parabolic vector bundles to principal -bundles on the desingularization of and using the correspondence between them and principal -bundles on . We give an isomorphism of the stack of generalized parabolic bundles on with a quotient stack associated to loop groups. We show that if is simple and simply connected then the Picard group of the stack of principal -bundles on is isomorphic to ⊕ , being the number of components of .
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. W. Kitchen
1994-01-01
Full Text Available We study bundles of Banach algebras π:A→X, where each fiber Ax=π−1({x} is a Banach algebra and X is a compact Hausdorff space. In the case where all fibers are commutative, we investigate how the Gelfand representation of the section space algebra Γ(π relates to the Gelfand representation of the fibers. In the general case, we investigate how adjoining an identity to the bundle π:A→X relates to the standard adjunction of identities to the fibers.
On projective space bundle with nef normalized tautological line bundle
Yasutake, Kazunori
2011-01-01
In this paper, we study the structure of projective space bundles whose relative anti-canonical line bundle is nef. As an application, we get a characterization of abelian varieties up to finite etale covering.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A hybrid bundle divertor design is presented that produces <0.3% magnetic ripple at the center of the plasma while providing adequate space for the coil shielding and structure for a tokamak fusion test reactor similar to the International Tokamak Reactor and the Engineering Test Facility (with R = 5 m, B = 5 T, and a /SUB wall/ = 1.5 m, in particular). This hybrid divertor consists of a set of quadrupole ''wing'' coils running tangent to the tokamak plasma on either side of a bundle divertor. The wing coils by themselves pull the edge of the plasma out 1.5 m and spread the thickness of the scrape-off layer from 0.1 to 0.7 m at the midplane. The clear aperture of the bundle divertor throat is 1.0 m high and 1.8 m wide. For maintenance or replacement, the hybrid divertor can be disassembled into three parts, with the bundle divertor part pulling straight out between toroidal field coils and the wing coils then sliding out through the same opening
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Iosif DUMITRESCU
2015-05-01
Full Text Available In municipal solid waste, aluminum is the main nonferrous metal, approximately 80- 85% of the total nonferrous metals. The income per ton gained from aluminum recuperation is 20 times higher than from glass, steel boxes or paper recuperation. The object of this paper is the design of a 300 kN press for aluminum box bundling.
Sepe, D.
2013-01-01
The obstruction to construct a Lagrangian bundle over a fixed integral affine manifold was constructed by Dazord and Delzant (J Differ Geom 26:223–251, 1987) and shown to be given by ‘twisted’ cup products in Sepe (Differ GeomAppl 29(6): 787–800, 2011). This paper uses the topology of universal Lagr
Rod bundle burnout data and correlation comparisons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rod bundle burnout data from 30 steady-state and 3 transient tests were obtained from experiments performed in the Thermal Hydraulic Test Facility at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The tests covered a parameter range relevant to intact core reactor accidents ranging from large break to small break loss-ofcoolant conditions. Instrumentation within the 64-rod test section indicated that burnout occurred over an axial range within the bundle. The distance from the point where the first dry rod was detected to the point where all rods were dry was up to 60 cm in some of the tests. The burnout data should prove useful in developing new correlations for use in reactor thermalhydraulic codes. Evaluation of several existing critical heat flux correlations using the data show that three correlations, the Barnett, Bowring, and Katto correlations, perform similarly and correlate the data better than the Biasi correlation
Analysis of Subchannel and Rod Bundle PSBT Experiments with CATHARE 3
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Valette
2012-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the assessment of CATHARE 3 against PWR subchannel and rod bundle tests of the PSBT benchmark. Noticeable measurements were the following: void fraction in single subchannel and rod bundle, multiple liquid temperatures at subchannel exit in rod bundle, and DNB power and location in rod bundle. All these results were obtained both in steady and transient conditions. Void fraction values are satisfactory predicted by CATHARE 3 in single subchannels with the pipe module. More dispersed predictions of void values are obtained in rod bundles with the CATHARE 3 3D module at subchannel scale. Single-phase liquid mixing tests and DNB tests in rod bundle are also analyzed. After calibrating the mixing in liquid single phase with specific tests, DNB tests using void mixing give mitigated results, perhaps linked to inappropriate use of CHF lookup tables in such rod bundles with many spacers.
Numerical model for thermal and mechanical behaviour of a CANDU 37-element bundle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prediction of transient fuel bundle deformations is important for assessing the integrity of fuel and the surrounding structural components under different operating conditions including accidents. For numerical simulation of the interactions between fuel bundle and pressure tube, a reliable numerical bundle model is required to predict thermal and mechanical behaviour of the fuel bundle assembly under different thermal loading conditions. To ensure realistic representations of the bundle behaviour, this model must include all of the important thermal and mechanical features of the fuel bundle, such as temperature-dependent material properties, thermal viscoplastic deformation in sheath, fuel-to-sheath interactions, endplate constraints and contacts between fuel elements. In this paper, we present a finite element based numerical model for predicting macroscopic transient thermal-mechanical behaviour of a complete 37-element CANDU nuclear fuel bundle under accident conditions and demonstrate its potential for being used to investigate fuel bundle to pressure tube interaction in future nuclear safety analyses. This bundle model has been validated against available experimental and numerical solutions and applied to various simulations involving steady-state and transient loading conditions. (author)
On framed quantum principal bundles
Durdevic, M
1995-01-01
A noncommutative-geometric formalism of framed principal bundles is sketched, in a special case of quantum bundles (over quantum spaces) possessing classical structure groups. Quantum counterparts of torsion operators and Levi-Civita type connections are analyzed. A construction of a natural differential calculus on framed bundles is described. Illustrative examples are presented.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vazquez, M.; Martin-Fuertes, F.
2013-07-01
As a complement to the attached code 3D neutron-CIEMAT thermohydraulic added a module to simulate transient. Temporary kinetics is resolved by factoring flow in a spatial part and another storm. MCNP provides the reactivity and updated spatial function and COBRA-IV calculates the temperature distribution. Temporary dependence of amplitude is calculated using time delayed neutron Kinetic equations. As an example of application, examines a transient loss of flow in MYRRHA, a lead-cooled experimental reactor.
State space model extraction of thermohydraulic systems – Part I: A linear graph approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thermohydraulic simulation codes are increasingly making use of graphical design interfaces. The user can quickly and easily design a thermohydraulic system by placing symbols on the screen resembling system components. These components can then be connected to form a system representation. Such system models may then be used to obtain detailed simulations of the physical system. Usually this kind of simulation models are too complex and not ideal for control system design. Therefore, a need exists for automated techniques to extract lumped parameter models useful for control system design. The goal of this first paper, in a two part series, is to propose a method that utilises a graphical representation of a thermohydraulic system, and a lumped parameter modelling approach, to extract state space models. In this methodology each physical domain of the thermohydraulic system is represented by a linear graph. These linear graphs capture the interaction between all components within and across energy domains – hydraulic, thermal and mechanical. These linear graphs are analysed using a graph-theoretic approach to derive reduced order state space models. These models capture the dominant dynamics of the thermohydraulic system and are ideal for control system design purposes. The proposed state space model extraction method is demonstrated by considering a U-tube system. A non-linear state space model is extracted representing both the hydraulic and thermal domain dynamics of the system. The simulated state space model is compared with a Flownex® model of the U-tube. Flownex® is a validated systems thermal-fluid simulation software package. - Highlights: • A state space model extraction methodology based on graph-theoretic concepts. • An energy-based approach to consider multi-domain systems in a common framework. • Allow extraction of transparent (white-box) state space models automatically. • Reduced order models containing only independent state variables
Deformation quantization of principal bundles
Aschieri, Paolo
2016-01-01
We outline how Drinfeld twist deformation techniques can be applied to the deformation quantization of principal bundles into noncommutative principal bundles, and more in general to the deformation of Hopf-Galois extensions. First we twist deform the structure group in a quantum group, and this leads to a deformation of the fibers of the principal bundle. Next we twist deform a subgroup of the group of authomorphisms of the principal bundle, and this leads to a noncommutative base space. Considering both deformations we obtain noncommutative principal bundles with noncommutative fiber and base space as well.
Rudakov, A N
1990-01-01
This volume is devoted to the use of helices as a method for studying exceptional vector bundles, an important and natural concept in algebraic geometry. The work arises out of a series of seminars organised in Moscow by A. N. Rudakov. The first article sets up the general machinery, and later ones explore its use in various contexts. As to be expected, the approach is concrete; the theory is considered for quadrics, ruled surfaces, K3 surfaces and P3(C).
Hirsch, Gregory
2002-01-01
A plurality of glass or metal wires are precisely etched to form the desired shape of the individual channels of the final polycapillary optic. This shape is created by carefully controlling the withdrawal speed of a group of wires from an etchant bath. The etched wires undergo a subsequent operation to create an extremely smooth surface. This surface is coated with a layer of material which is selected to maximize the reflectivity of the radiation being used. This reflective surface may be a single layer of material, or a multilayer coating for optimizing the reflectivity in a narrower wavelength interval. The collection of individual wires is assembled into a close-packed multi-wire bundle, and the wires are bonded together in a manner which preserves the close-pack configuration, irrespective of the local wire diameter. The initial wires are then removed by either a chemical etching procedure or mechanical force. In the case of chemical etching, the bundle is generally segmented by cutting a series of etching slots. Prior to removing the wire, the capillary array is typically bonded to a support substrate. The result of the process is a bundle of precisely oriented radiation-reflecting hollow channels. The capillary optic is used for efficiently collecting and redirecting the radiation from a source of radiation which could be the anode of an x-ray tube, a plasma source, the fluorescent radiation from an electron microprobe, a synchrotron radiation source, a reactor or spallation source of neutrons, or some other source.
Bundling harvester; Nippukorjausharvesteri
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Koponen, K. [Eko-Log Oy, Kuopio (Finland)
1996-12-31
The staring point of the project was to design and construct, by taking the silvicultural point of view into account, a harvesting and processing system especially for energy-wood, containing manually driven bundling harvester, automatizing of the harvester, and automatized loading. The equipment forms an ideal method for entrepreneur`s-line harvesting. The target is to apply the system also for owner`s-line harvesting. The profitability of the system promotes the utilization of the system in both cases. The objectives of the project were: to construct a test equipment and prototypes for all the project stages, to carry out terrain and strain tests in order to examine the usability and durability, as well as the capacity of the machine, to test the applicability of the Eko-Log system in simultaneous harvesting of energy and pulp woods, and to start the marketing and manufacturing of the products. The basic problems of the construction of the bundling harvester have been solved using terrain-tests. The prototype machine has been shown to be operable. Loading of the bundles to form sufficiently economically transportable loads has been studied, and simultaneously, the branch-biomass has been tried to be utilized without loosing the profitability of transportation. The results have been promising, and will promote the profitable utilization of wood-energy
Numerical modeling of secondary side thermohydraulics of horizontal steam generator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Melikhov, V.I.; Melikhov, O.I.; Nigmatulin, B.I. [Research and Engineering Centre of LWR Nuclear Plants Safety, Moscow (Russian Federation)
1995-12-31
A mathematical model for the transient three-dimensional secondary side thermal hydraulics of the horizontal steam generator has been developed. The calculations of the steam generator PGV-1000 and PGV-4 nominal regimes and comparison of numerical and experimental results have been carried out. 7 refs.
Draper, Andrew
2011-04-01
Results of Medicare's ACE demonstration project and Geisinger Health System's ProvenCare initiative provide insight into the challenges hospitals will face as bundled payment proliferates. An early analysis of these results suggests that hospitals would benefit from bringing full automation using clinical IT tools to bear in their efforts to meet these challenges. Other important factors contributing to success include board and physician leadership, organizational structure, pricing methodology for bidding, evidence-based medical practice guidelines, supply cost management, process efficiency management, proactive and aggressive case management, business development and marketing strategy, and the financial management system.
Draper, Andrew
2011-04-01
Results of Medicare's ACE demonstration project and Geisinger Health System's ProvenCare initiative provide insight into the challenges hospitals will face as bundled payment proliferates. An early analysis of these results suggests that hospitals would benefit from bringing full automation using clinical IT tools to bear in their efforts to meet these challenges. Other important factors contributing to success include board and physician leadership, organizational structure, pricing methodology for bidding, evidence-based medical practice guidelines, supply cost management, process efficiency management, proactive and aggressive case management, business development and marketing strategy, and the financial management system. PMID:21548437
Cassou-Nogues, Ph.; Erez, B.; Taylor, M. J.
2004-01-01
We establish comparison results between the Hasse-Witt invariants w_t(E) of a symmetric bundle E over a scheme and the invariants of one of its twists E_{\\alpha}. For general twists we describe the difference between w_t(E) and w_t(E_{\\alpha}) up to terms of degree 3. Next we consider a special kind of twist, which has been studied by A. Fr\\"ohlich. This arises from twisting by a cocycle obtained from an orthogonal representation. We show how to explicitly describe the twist for representatio...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The save operation of liquid metal systems in innovative reactor concepts requires appropriate measuring systems and instrumentation, both for the liquid metal single-phase flow as well as for gas bubble liquid metal two-phase flows. At HZDR the large-scale liquid sodium facility DRESDYN (DREsden Sodium facility for DYNamo and thermohydraulic studies) is under construction that will comprise experiments with geo- and astrophysical background as well as experiments for thermohydraulic studies of sodium flows. The development of flow measurement techniques has a long tradition at HZDR. It covers contactless flow-rate sensors, local velocity measurements such as the Ultrasound Doppler Velocimetry (UDV), the Contactless Inductive Flow Tomography (CIFT), as well as X-ray visualizations of liquid metal two-phase flows, which all will be exploited and further developed at an In-Service-Inspection experiment in the framework of DRESDYN. (author)
Influence of the outlet air temperature on the thermohydraulic behaviour of air coolers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Đorđević Emila M.
2003-01-01
Full Text Available The determination of the optimal process conditions for the operation of air coolers demands a detailed analysis of their thermohydraulic behaviour on the one hand, and the estimation of the operating costs, on the other. One of the main parameters of the thermohydraulic behaviour of this type of equipment, is the outlet air temperature. The influence of the outlet air temperature on the performance of air coolers (heat transfer coefficient overall heat transfer coefficient, required surface area for heat transfer air-side pressure drop, fan power consumption and sound pressure level was investigated in this study. All the computations, using AirCooler software [1], were applied to cooling of the process fluid and the condensation of a multicomponent vapour mixture on two industrial devices of known geometries.
Differential calculi on noncommutative bundles
Pflaum, Markus J.; Schauenburg, Peter
1996-01-01
We introduce a category of noncommutative bundles. To establish geometry in this category we construct suitable noncommutative differential calculi on these bundles and study their basic properties. Furthermore we define the notion of a connection with respect to a differential calculus and consider questions of existence and uniqueness. At the end these constructions are applied to basic examples of noncommutative bundles over a coquasitriangular Hopf algebra.
Neutronics and thermohydraulics of the reactor C.E.N.E. Part II
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this report the analysis of neutronics thermohydraulics and shielding of the 10 HWt swimming pool reactor C.E.N.E is included. In each of these chapters is given a short description of the theoretical model used, along with the theoretical versus experimental checking carried out, whenever possible, with the reactors JEN-I and JEN-II of Junta de Energia Nuclear. (Author) 11 refs
State space model extraction of thermohydraulic systems Part I: a linear graph approach
Uren, Kenneth Richard; Schoor, George van
2013-01-01
This second paper in a two part series presents the application of a developed state space model extraction methodology applied to a Brayton cycle-based PCU (power conversion unit) of a PBMR (pebble bed modular reactor). The goal is to investigate if the state space extraction methodology can cope with larger and more complex thermohydraulic systems. In Part I the state space model extraction methodology for the purpose of control was described in detail and a state space represen...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This report is a summary of experimental investigations describing the fuel rod behavior in the refilling and reflooding phase of a loss-of-coolant accident of a PWR. The experiments were performed with 5x5 and 7x7 rod bundles, using indirectly electrically heated fuel rod simulators of full length with original PWR-KWU-geometry, original grid spacers and Zircaloy-4-claddings (Type Biblis B). The fuel rod simulators showed a cosine shaped axial power profile in 7 steps and continuous, respectively. The results describe the influence of the different parameters such as bundle size on the maximum coolant channel blockage, that of the cooling on the size of the circumferential strain of the cladding (azimuthal temperature distribution) a cold control rod guide thimble and the flow direction (axial temperature distribution) on the resulting coolant channel blockage. The rewetting behavior of different fuel rod simulators including ballooned and burst Zircaloy claddings is discussed as well as the influence of thermocouples on the cladding temperature history and the rewetting behavior. All results prove the coolability of a PWR in the case of a LOCA. Therefore, it can be concluded that the ECC-criteria established by licensing authorities can be fulfilled. (orig./HP)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The supercritical water cooled reactor (SCWR) is an innovative water cooled reactor concept which uses water pressurized above its thermodynamic critical pressure as the reactor coolant. This concept offers high thermal efficiencies and a simplified reactor system, and is hence expected to help to improve economic competitiveness. Various kinds of SCWR concepts have been developed, with varying combinations of reactor type (pressure vessel or pressure tube) and core spectrum (thermal, fast or mixed). There is great interest in both developing and developed countries in the research and development (R&D) and conceptual design of SCWRs. Considering the high interest shown in a number of Member States, the IAEA established in 2008 the Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Heat Transfer Behaviour and Thermo-hydraulics Code Testing for SCWRs. The aim was to foster international collaboration in the R&D of SCWRs in support of Member States’ efforts and under the auspices of the IAEA Nuclear Energy Department’s Technical Working Groups on Advanced Technologies for Light Water Reactors (TWG-LWR) and Heavy Water Reactors (TWG-HWR). The two key objectives of the CRP were to establish accurate databases on the thermohydraulics of supercritical pressure fluids and to test analysis methods for SCWR thermohydraulic behaviour to identify code development needs. In total, 16 institutes from nine Member States and two international organizations were involved in the CRP. The thermohydraulics phenomena investigated in the CRP included heat transfer and pressure loss characteristics of supercritical pressure fluids, development of new heat transfer prediction methods, critical flow during depressurization from supercritical conditions, flow stability and natural circulation in supercritical pressure systems. Two code testing benchmark exercises were performed for steady state heat transfer and flow stability in a heated channel. The CRP was completed with the planned outputs in
Fiber Bundles and Parseval Frames
Agrawal, Devanshu; Knisley, Jeff
2015-01-01
Continuous frames over a Hilbert space have a rich and sophisticated structure that can be represented in the form of a fiber bundle. The fiber bundle structure reveals the central importance of Parseval frames and the extent to which Parseval frames generalize the notion of an orthonormal basis.
Bundle Security Protocol for ION
Burleigh, Scott C.; Birrane, Edward J.; Krupiarz, Christopher
2011-01-01
This software implements bundle authentication, conforming to the Delay-Tolerant Networking (DTN) Internet Draft on Bundle Security Protocol (BSP), for the Interplanetary Overlay Network (ION) implementation of DTN. This is the only implementation of BSP that is integrated with ION.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bianchi, Paulo Henrique
2008-07-01
This work describes the study and test of a system capable to identify and classify transients in thermo-hydraulic systems, using a neural network technique of the self-organizing maps (SOM) type, with the objective of implanting it on the new generations of nuclear reactors. The technique developed in this work consists on the use of multiple networks to do the classification and identification of the transient states, being each network a specialist at one respective transient of the system, that compete with each other using the quantization error, that is a measure given by this type of neural network. This technique showed very promising characteristics that allow the development of new functionalities in future projects. One of these characteristics consists on the potential of each network, besides responding what transient is in course, could give additional information about that transient. (author)
Twisted Vector Bundles on Pointed Nodal Curves
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Ivan Kausz
2005-05-01
Motivated by the quest for a good compactification of the moduli space of -bundles on a nodal curve we establish a striking relationship between Abramovich’s and Vistoli’s twisted bundles and Gieseker vector bundles.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oh, Dirk Joo; Jeong, Chang Joon; Lee, Kang Moon; Suk, Ho Chun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)
1997-12-31
Fission product release (FPR) assessment for End Fitting Failure (EFF) in CANDU reactor loaded with CANFLEX-natural uranium (NU) fuel bundles has been performed. The predicted results are compared with those for the reactor loaded with standard 37-element bundles. The total channel I-131 release at the end of transient for EFF accident is calculated to be 380.8 TBq and 602.9 TBq for the CANFLEX bundle and standard bundle channel cases, respectively. They are 4.9% and 7.9% of total inventory, respectively. The lower total releases of the CANFLEX bundle O6 channel are attributed to the lower initial fuel temperatures caused by the lower linear element power of the CANFLEX bundle compared with the standard bundle. 4 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs. (Author)
Thermohydraulics and fuel rod behavior during reflood/quench situations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hering, W.; Homann, C.; Sanchez, V.; Sengpiel, W.; Struwe, D. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Inst. fuer Reaktorsicherheit; Lamy, J.S. [EDF, Paris (France)
2001-07-01
At the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (FZKA) the Institute for Reactor Safety (IRS) supports the experimental activities focused on the safety features of existing and advanced light water reactors by plant calculations using SCDAP/RELAP5 (S/R5) mod3.2 and RELAP5 (R5) mod 3.3. These codes are continuously validated by comparison with various experiments. In the area of design basis safety R5 mod3.3.b code validation and code application for the high performance LWR (HPLWR, 5{sup th} European Framework Programme is ongoing), extending the capability of RELAP5 to simulate conditions of supercritical water. Best estimate safety analyses for severe accidents with the in-house version S/R5 mod 3.2.irs were performed successfully and documented for the European Pressurized Water Reactor. (FZK-6299, -6315, -6567, http://bibliothek.fzk.de/zb/berichte). Analytical support for bundle experiments in the QUENCH facility at FZK is ongoing with S/R5 mod3.2.irs to define test parameters and to support experimental analyses. A fine discretization with 5 cm meshes has been developed to better simulate reflood conditions. The improved shattering model works fairly well for an intact rod geometry, but is not adequate for damaged fuel rods. Furthermore, S/R5 is used for test analyses especially for QUENCH-06, basis for the OECD/NEA/CSNI International Standard Problem No. 45 ISP-45, and for QUENCH-07 as contribution to EU-program COLOSS. A code extension to simulate B4C oxidation is planned, but postponed until 2003 due to limited man power caused by the OECD/NEA ISP-45 benchmark. Besides, ICARE2V3 is used to support S/R5 analyses with respect to QUENCH and Phebus analyses. The blind phase of the OECD/NEA/CSNI International Standard Problem No. 45 ISP-45 (QUENCH-06) is finished, the preparation of the OECD Interpretation and Comparison report is under way. The current state of code to code comparison reveals strong variation within the same code family probably attributed to user effects
Thermohydraulics of emergency core cooling in light water reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This report, by a group of experts of the OECD-NEA Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations, reviews the current state-of-knowledge in the field of emergency core cooling (ECC) for design-basis, loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCA) and core uncover transients in pressurized- and boiling-water reactors. An overview of the LOCA scenarios and ECC phenomenology is provided for each type of reactor, together with a brief description of their ECC systems. Separate-effects and integral-test facilities, which contribute to understanding and assessing the phenomenology, are reviewed together with similarity and scaling compromises. All relevant LOCA phenomena are then brought together in the form of tables. Each phenomenon is weighted in terms of its importance to the course of a LOCA, and appraised for the adequacy of its data base and analytical modelling. This qualitative procedure focusses attention on the modelling requirements of dominant LOCA phenomena and the current capabilities of the two-fluid models in two-phase flows. This leads into the key issue with ECC: quantitative code assessment and the application of system codes to predict with a well defined uncertainty the behaviour of a nuclear power plant. This issue, the methodologies being developed for code assessment and the question of how good is good enough are discussed in detail. Some general conclusions and recommendations for future research activities are provided
Semiflexible Biopolymers in Bundled Arrangements
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jörg Schnauß
2016-07-01
Full Text Available Bundles and networks of semiflexible biopolymers are key elements in cells, lending them mechanical integrity while also enabling dynamic functions. Networks have been the subject of many studies, revealing a variety of fundamental characteristics often determined via bulk measurements. Although bundles are equally important in biological systems, they have garnered much less scientific attention since they have to be probed on the mesoscopic scale. Here, we review theoretical as well as experimental approaches, which mainly employ the naturally occurring biopolymer actin, to highlight the principles behind these structures on the single bundle level.
The Atiyah Bundle and Connections on a Principal Bundle
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Indranil Biswas
2010-06-01
Let be a ∞ manifold and a Lie a group. Let $E_G$ be a ∞ principal -bundle over . There is a fiber bundle $\\mathcal{C}(E_G)$ over whose smooth sections correspond to the connections on $E_G$. The pull back of $E_G$ to $\\mathcal{C}(E_G)$ has a tautological connection. We investigate the curvature of this tautological connection.
A Thermo-Hydraulic Tool for Automatic Virtual Hazop Evaluation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pugi L.
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Development of complex lubrication systems in the Oil&Gas industry has reached high levels of competitiveness in terms of requested performances and reliability. In particular, the use of HazOp (acronym of Hazard and Operability analysis represents a decisive factor to evaluate safety and reliability of plants. The HazOp analysis is a structured and systematic examination of a planned or existing operation in order to identify and evaluate problems that may represent risks to personnel or equipment. In particular, P&ID schemes (acronym of Piping and Instrument Diagram according to regulation in force ISO 14617 are used to evaluate the design of the plant in order to increase its safety and reliability in different operating conditions. The use of a simulation tool can drastically increase speed, efficiency and reliability of the design process. In this work, a tool, called TTH lib (acronym of Transient Thermal Hydraulic Library for the 1-D simulation of thermal hydraulic plants is presented. The proposed tool is applied to the analysis of safety relevant components of compressor and pumping units, such as lubrication circuits. Opposed to the known commercial products, TTH lib has been customized in order to ease simulation of complex interactions with digital logic components and plant controllers including their sensors and measurement systems. In particular, the proposed tool is optimized for fixed step execution and fast prototyping of Real Time code both for testing and production purposes. TTH lib can be used as a standard SimScape-Simulink library of components optimized and specifically designed in accordance with the P&ID definitions. Finally, an automatic code generation procedure has been developed, so TTH simulation models can be directly assembled from the P&ID schemes and technical documentation including detailed informations of sensor and measurement system.
Bundling ecosystem services in Denmark
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Turner, Katrine Grace; Odgaard, Mette Vestergaard; Bøcher, Peder Klith;
2014-01-01
We made a spatial analysis of 11 ecosystem services at a 10 km × 10 km grid scale covering most of Denmark. Our objective was to describe their spatial distribution and interactions and also to analyze whether they formed specific bundle types on a regional scale in the Danish cultural landscape....... We found clustered distribution patterns of ecosystem services across the country. There was a significant tendency for trade-offs between on the one hand cultural and regulating services and on the other provisioning services, and we also found the potential of regulating and cultural services...... to form synergies. We identified six distinct ecosystem service bundle types, indicating multiple interactions at a landscape level. The bundle types showed specialized areas of agricultural production, high provision of cultural services at the coasts, multifunctional mixed-use bundle types around urban...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Risum, Niels; Strauss, David; Sogaard, Peter;
2013-01-01
The relationship between myocardial electrical activation by electrocardiogram (ECG) and mechanical contraction by echocardiography in left bundle-branch block (LBBB) has never been clearly demonstrated. New strict criteria for LBBB based on a fundamental understanding of physiology have recently...
Kun, Ferenc; Zapperi, Stefano; Herrmann, Hans J.
1999-01-01
We introduce a continuous damage fiber bundle model that gives rise to macroscopic plasticity and compare its behavior with that of dry fiber bundles. Several interesting constitutive behaviors are found in this model depending on the value of the damage parameter and on the form of the disorder distribution. In addition, we compare the behavior of global load transfer models with local load transfer models and study in detail the damage evolution before failure. We emphasize the analogies be...
Studies of a larger fuel bundle for the ABWR improved evolutionary reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Studies for an Improved Evolutionary Reactor (IER) based on the Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR) were initiated in 1990. The author summarizes the current status of the core and fuel design. A core and fuel design based on a BWR K-lattice fuel bundle with a pitch larger than the conventional BWR fuel bundle pitch is under investigation. The core and fuel design has potential for improved core design flexibility and improved reactor transient response. Furthermore, the large fuel bundle, coupled with a functional control rod layout, can achieve improvement of operation and maintenance, as well as improvement of overall plant economy
Heat flux: thermohydraulic investigation of solar air heaters used in agro-industrial applications
Rahmati Aidinlou, H.; Nikbakht, A. M.
2016-07-01
A new design of solar air heater simulator is presented to comply with the extensive applications inagro-industry. A wise installation of increased heat transfer surface area provided uniform and efficient heat diffusion over the duct. Nusselt number and friction factor have been investigated based on the constant roughness parameters such as relative roughness height (e/D), relative roughness pitch (P/e), angle of attack (α) and aspect ratio with Reynolds numbers ranging from 5000 to 19,000 in the fully developed region. Heat fluxes of 800, 900 and 1000 Wm-2 were provided. The enhancement in friction factor is observed to be 3.1656, 3.47 and 3.0856 times, and for the Nusselt number either, augmentation is calculated to be 1.4437, 1.4963 and 1.535 times, respectively, over the smooth duct for 800, 900 and 1000 Wm-2 heat fluxes. Thermohydraulic performance is plotted versus the Reynolds number based on the aforementioned roughness parameters at varying heat fluxes. The results show up that thermohydraulic performance is found to be maximum for 1000 Wm-2 at the average Reynolds number of 5151. Based on the results, we can verify that the introduced solar simulator can help analyzing and developing solar collector installations at the simulated heat fluxes.
Neutronics and thermo-hydraulic design of supercritical-water cooled solid breeder TBM
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cheng, Jie; Wu, Yingwei, E-mail: wyw810@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Tian, Wenxi; Su, Guanghui; Qiu, Suizheng
2015-03-15
Highlights: • A supercritical-water cooled solid breeder test blanket module (SWCB TBM) was designed. • The neutronics calculations show that the tritium breeding ratio (TBR) of SWCB TBM is 1.17. • The outlet temperature of SWCB TBM can reach as high as 500 °C. • Both thermal stress and deformation of the SWCB TBM design are within safety limits. - Abstract: In this paper, the supercritical-water cooled solid breeder test blanket module (SWCB TBM), using the supercritical water as the coolant, Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} lithium ceramic pebbles as a breeder, and beryllium pebbles as a neutron multiplier, was designed and analyzed for ITER. The results of neutronics, thermo-hydraulic and thermo-mechanical analysis are presented for the SWCB TBM. Neutronics calculations show that the proposed TBM has high tritium breeding ratio and power density. The tritium breeding ratio (TBR) of the proposed design is 1.17, which is greater than that of 1.15 required for tritium self-sufficiency. The thermo-hydraulic calculation proved that the TBM components can be effectively cooled to the allowable temperature with the temperature of outlet reaching 500 °C. According to thermo-mechanics calculation results, the first wall with the width of 17 mm is safe and the deformation of first wall is far below the limited value. All the results showed that the current TBM design was reasonable under the ITER normal condition.
Dittmar, N.; Haberstroh, Ch.; Hesse, U.; Krzyzowski, M.
2016-10-01
In part one of this publication experimental results for a single-channel transfer line used at liquid helium (LHe) decant stations are presented. The transfer of LHe into mobile dewars is an unavoidable process since the places of storage and usage are generally located apart from each other. The experimental results have shown that reasonable amounts of LHe evaporate due to heat leak and pressure drop. Thus, generated helium cold gas has to be collected and reliquefied, demanding a huge amount of electrical energy. Although this transfer process is common in cryogenic laboratories, no existing code could be found to model it. Therefore, a thermohydraulic model has been developed to model the LHe flow at operating conditions using published heat transfer and pressure drop correlations. This paper covers the basic equations used to calculate heat transfer and pressure drop, as well as the validation of the thermohydraulic code, and its application within the optimisation process. The final transfer line design features reduced heat leak and pressure drop values based on a combined measurement and modelling campaign in the range of 0.112 < pin < 0.148 MPa, 190 < G < 450 kg/(m2 s), and 0.04 < xout < 0.12.
Investigation of the thermohydraulic systems in MATLAB & Simulink using developed library
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lavicka D.
2013-04-01
Full Text Available Recent developments in the designing of the thermohydraulic systems have heightened the need for special software tools. Possibility of incorporating the measured data, easy and quick rearrangement of the system and short simulation time play a key role in successful progress in designing of the thermohydraulic systems. Commercial software sometimes does not fit to our special tasks or it lacks some utilities. This paper attempts to show usefulness of MATLAB and Simulink in the development of the “drag and drop” software. In the Simulink it is possible to develop specialized libraries containing graphical blocks representing parts of the real systems. Easy cooling circuit was designed using developed graphical blocks. The main parts of the circuit consist of the heat source and heat exchanger/cooler. Another parts such as pumps, pipes and properties of the cooling medium etc. are taken into account in the investigated system. These results obtained by the developed software are presented for similar circuits with different heat exchangers/coolers. Simulations for different heat exchangers were solved with different initial conditions. These results are consequently compared. Characteristic properties (heating/cooling power and pressure drop according to flow rate of the heat exchangers/coolers were obtained experimentally in our laboratory and by the numerical CFD simulation in ANSYS/FLUENT software.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Nagaraju
2015-04-01
Full Text Available Solar heat has been thrust area of research to explore renewable energy utilisation for the past few decades. In solar air heaters artificial roughness is tried on the surface of the absorber plate by adding small roughness elements to enhance the heat transfer rate. In the present work triangular protrusion are provided to act as roughness elements over the surface of the aluminum absorber plate. The experimental study is carried out on the effect of change in apex angle of protrusions on the heat transfer rate by keeping the other design parameters unchanged. Maximum heat transfer rate and thermo-hydraulic performance between the range of apex angle 300 and 600 is studied. The Nusselt number is between 50 and 110, friction factor 4.5-6.7x10-3 , Stanton number is 6- 14x10-3 . The heat transfer rate and thermo-hydraulic performance are observed to be maximum for 450 apex angle and least for the 600 plate.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Highlights: • A new Th–U mixed fuel assembly for SCWR has been introduced and investigated. • Neutronic and thermohydraulic characteristics of the new assembly have been studied. • The new fuel assembly satisfies design rules of SCWR. • The introduced fuel assembly can fulfill the sustainable breeding Th–U cycle. • The new fuel assembly also has advantages with respect to lower generation of minor actinides and reactor safety. - Abstract: The exploitation of thorium fuel is a promising way to overcome the pressing problems of nuclear fuel supply, nuclear waste and nuclear proliferation. In this paper, a novel conceptual design of a breeding thorium–uranium (Th–U) mixed fuel assembly in SCWR is proposed, which is aimed to achieve the breeding ratio bigger than 1.0, so as to fulfill the sustainable breeding thorium–uranium cycle. Through the calculations of neutronics and neutronic/thermohydraulic (N–T) coupling, the results indicate that the introduced conceptual design of a breeding Th–U mixed fuel assembly in SCWR satisfies design rules of SCWR, with considerable advantages with respect to breeding performance, lower minor actinide generation and reactor safety
Neutronics and thermo-hydraulic design of supercritical-water cooled solid breeder TBM
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Highlights: • A supercritical-water cooled solid breeder test blanket module (SWCB TBM) was designed. • The neutronics calculations show that the tritium breeding ratio (TBR) of SWCB TBM is 1.17. • The outlet temperature of SWCB TBM can reach as high as 500 °C. • Both thermal stress and deformation of the SWCB TBM design are within safety limits. - Abstract: In this paper, the supercritical-water cooled solid breeder test blanket module (SWCB TBM), using the supercritical water as the coolant, Li4SiO4 lithium ceramic pebbles as a breeder, and beryllium pebbles as a neutron multiplier, was designed and analyzed for ITER. The results of neutronics, thermo-hydraulic and thermo-mechanical analysis are presented for the SWCB TBM. Neutronics calculations show that the proposed TBM has high tritium breeding ratio and power density. The tritium breeding ratio (TBR) of the proposed design is 1.17, which is greater than that of 1.15 required for tritium self-sufficiency. The thermo-hydraulic calculation proved that the TBM components can be effectively cooled to the allowable temperature with the temperature of outlet reaching 500 °C. According to thermo-mechanics calculation results, the first wall with the width of 17 mm is safe and the deformation of first wall is far below the limited value. All the results showed that the current TBM design was reasonable under the ITER normal condition
Tone, Florentina
2011-01-01
Pursuing our work in [18], [17], [20], [5], we consider in this article the two-dimensional thermohydraulics equations. We discretize these equations in time using the implicit Euler scheme and we prove that the global attractors generated by the numerical scheme converge to the global attractor of the continuous system as the time-step approaches zero.
Cohomology of line bundles: Applications
Blumenhagen, Ralph; Jurke, Benjamin; Rahn, Thorsten; Roschy, Helmut
2012-01-01
Massless modes of both heterotic and Type II string compactifications on compact manifolds are determined by vector bundle valued cohomology classes. Various applications of our recent algorithm for the computation of line bundle valued cohomology classes over toric varieties are presented. For the heterotic string, the prime examples are so-called monad constructions on Calabi-Yau manifolds. In the context of Type II orientifolds, one often needs to compute cohomology for line bundles on finite group action coset spaces, necessitating us to generalize our algorithm to this case. Moreover, we exemplify that the different terms in Batyrev's formula and its generalizations can be given a one-to-one cohomological interpretation. Furthermore, we derive a combinatorial closed form expression for two Hodge numbers of a codimension two Calabi-Yau fourfold.
Bundle Formation in Biomimetic Hydrogels.
Jaspers, Maarten; Pape, A C H; Voets, Ilja K; Rowan, Alan E; Portale, Giuseppe; Kouwer, Paul H J
2016-08-01
Bundling of single polymer chains is a crucial process in the formation of biopolymer network gels that make up the extracellular matrix and the cytoskeleton. This bundled architecture leads to gels with distinctive properties, including a large-pore-size gel formation at very low concentrations and mechanical responsiveness through nonlinear mechanics, properties that are rarely observed in synthetic hydrogels. Using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), we study the bundle formation and hydrogelation process of polyisocyanide gels, a synthetic material that uniquely mimics the structure and mechanics of biogels. We show how the structure of the material changes at the (thermally induced) gelation point and how factors such as concentration and polymer length determine the architecture, and with that, the mechanical properties. The correlation of the gel mechanics and the structural parameters obtained from SAXS experiments is essential in the design of future (synthetic) mimics of biopolymer networks.
Principal bundles the classical case
Sontz, Stephen Bruce
2015-01-01
This introductory graduate level text provides a relatively quick path to a special topic in classical differential geometry: principal bundles. While the topic of principal bundles in differential geometry has become classic, even standard, material in the modern graduate mathematics curriculum, the unique approach taken in this text presents the material in a way that is intuitive for both students of mathematics and of physics. The goal of this book is to present important, modern geometric ideas in a form readily accessible to students and researchers in both the physics and mathematics communities, providing each with an understanding and appreciation of the language and ideas of the other.
Exploring Bundling Theory with Geometry
Eckalbar, John C.
2006-01-01
The author shows how instructors might successfully introduce students in principles and intermediate microeconomic theory classes to the topic of bundling (i.e., the selling of two or more goods as a package, rather than separately). It is surprising how much students can learn using only the tools of high school geometry. To be specific, one can…
Study on the transient behaviours of MNSR reactor for control rod withdrawal
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The transient behaviours of Miniature Neutron Source Reactor MNSR are analyzed and calculated with the reactor thermohydraulics RETRAN-02 program and the reactor physics MARIA program. The obtained event sequence and consequence from the calculation are compared with the experiments. The effective resonance integral for study on Doppler effect is taken into account. The reactivity temperature coefficient weighting factors are computed. The transient parameters related to reactor power peaking, coolant inlet temperatures, outlet temperatures and coolant mass flow, etc. are computed and compared with the experimental results. (6 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.)
Fundamental study on thermo-hydraulic phenomena concerning passive safety of advanced marine reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The objective of this study is to investigate the thermo-hydraulic behavior of a fluid region confined in a rectangular parallelepiped cavity equipped with a heater and a cooler. The motivation of this study is to clarify a thermal buffer effect for an innovative marine nuclear reactor to realize passive safety. In the present study, experiments were carried out with conditions of laminar convection. Temperature and flow behavior was visualized by the liquid-crystal suspension method, by which the temperature distribution in liquid can be observed as a colored map. Thermal plumes from the heater and the cooler, global natural circulation in the cavity and thermal stratification were observed as elements of the complicated phenomena. Using a code which solves the Navier-Stokes and energy equations, numerical simulations under steady and unsteady condition were carried out to predict the experimental results for two-dimensional, laminar situations, and a good agreement was obtained. (author)
Particle and thermo-hydraulic maldistribution of nanofluids in parallel microchannel systems
Maganti, Lakshmi Sirisha; sundararajan, T; Das, Sarit K
2016-01-01
Fluidic maldistribution in microscale multichannel devices requires deep understanding to achieve optimized flow and heat transfer characteristics. A thorough computational study has been performed to understand the concentration and thermohydraulic maldistribution of nanofluids in parallel microchannel systems using an Eulerian Lagrangian twin phase model. The study reveals that nanofluids cannot be treated as homogeneous single phase fluids in such complex flow domains and effective property models fail drastically to predict the performance parameters. To comprehend the distribution of the particulate phase, a novel concentration maldistribution factor has been proposed. It has been observed that distribution of particles need not essentially follow the flow pattern, leading to higher thermal performance than expected from homogeneous models. Particle maldistribution has been conclusively shown to be due to various migration and diffusive phenomena like Stokesian drag, Brownian motion, thermophoretic drift...
Thermo-hydraulic Quench Propagation at the LHC Superconducting Magnet String
Rodríguez-Mateos, F; Serio, L
1998-01-01
The superconducting magnets of the LHC are protected by heaters and cold by-pass diodes. If a magnet quenches, the heaters on this magnet are fired and the magnet chain is de-excited in about two minu tes by opening dump switches in parallel to a resistor. During the time required for the discharge, adjacent magnets might quench due to thermo-hydraulic propagation in the helium bath and/or heat con duction via the bus bar. The number of quenching magnets depends on the mechanisms for the propagation. In this paper we report on quench propagation experiments from a dipole magnet to an adjacent ma gnet. The mechanism for the propagation is hot helium gas expelled from the first quenching magnet. The propagation changes with the pressure opening settings of the quench relief valves.
Full Scale Thermo-hydraulic Simulation of a Helium-Helium Printed Circuit Heat Exchanger
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Injun; Hong, Sungyull; Bai, Cheolho; Shim, Jaesool [Yeungnam Univ., Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chansoo; Hong, Sungdeok; Kim, Minhwan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2014-05-15
In this paper, the thermo-hydraulic full scale simulation is performed to study the temperature distributions, thermal stress, pressure drop and outlet temperature in a Helium-Helium printed circuit heat exchanger (PCHE) in a VHTR simulate helium loop. The entire PCHE is composed of 40 stacks of rectangular shaped micro-channels for helium gas [type A] (inlet temperature, 400 .deg. C) and 40 stacks of semi-ellipse shaped micro-channels for helium [type B] (inlet temperature, 300 .deg. C). The experimental result is compared to that of computer simulation, COMSOL multi-physics software. The Helium-Helium PCHE is considered a prototype of the newly developed PCHE by Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). The full scale thermo-hydraulic simulation was successfully performed to obtain temperature distribution, pressure drop and thermal stress in 40 sets of flow channel stacks in a helium-helium printed circuit heat exchanger in a VHTR simulate helium loop. We obtained a quite similar temperature distribution with the 3D measured infrared temperature distribution. To our knowledge, this is the first full scale numerical study on the PCHE, which considers all microchannels, that the convection effect on the outside surfaces of the PCHE is applied. The very high-temperature reactor (VHTR) or high-temperature gas-cooled reactor(HTGR) is a fourth-generation nuclear power reactor that uses the ceramic coated fuel, TRISO, in which the fission gas does not leak even at temperatures higher than 1600 .deg. C. The VHTR necessarily requires an intermediate loop composed of a hot gas duct (HGD), an intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) and a process heat exchanger (PHE). The IHX is one of the important components of VHTR system because the IHX transfers the 950 .deg. C of high temperature massive heat to a hydrogen production plant or power conversion unit at high system pressure.
Bundling Information Goods: Pricing, Profits, and Efficiency
Yannis Bakos; Erik Brynjolfsson
1999-01-01
We study the strategy of bundling a large number of information goods, such as those increasingly available on the Internet, and selling them for a fixed price. We analyze the optimal bundling strategies for a multiproduct monopolist, and we find that bundling very large numbers of unrelated information goods can be surprisingly profitable. The reason is that the law of large numbers makes it much easier to predict consumers' valuations for a bundle of goods than their valuations for the indi...
Failure properties of fiber bundle models
Pradhan, Srutarshi; Chakrabarti, Bikas K.
2003-01-01
We study the failure properties of fiber bundles when continuous rupture goes on due to the application of external load on the bundles. We take the two extreme models: equal load sharing model (democratic fiber bundles) and local load sharing model. The strength of the fibers are assumed to be distributed randomly within a finite interval. The democratic fiber bundles show a solvable phase transition at a critical stress (load per fiber). The dynamic critical behavior is obtained analyticall...
Quantum principal bundles and corresponding gauge theories
Durdevic, M
1995-01-01
A generalization of classical gauge theory is presented, in the framework of a noncommutative-geometric formalism of quantum principal bundles over smooth manifolds. Quantum counterparts of classical gauge bundles, and classical gauge transformations, are introduced and investigated. A natural differential calculus on quantum gauge bundles is constructed and analyzed. Kinematical and dynamical properties of corresponding gauge theories are discussed.
Simulation of flow across complicated domain between tube bundles by the discrete vortex method
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2003-01-01
On the basis of the analysis of numerical simulation methods for the complicated domain between tube bundles, an improved Lagragian discrete vortex method (DVM) and corresponding algorithm are put forward to solve the practical difficulties of flow across tube bundles. With this method the amount of vortices can be reduced considerably, which makes quick calculation possible. Applied to the practical configuration of horizontal tube bundles, the DVM simulation is carried out and compared with the experimental results. Both the transient flow field and the profile of mean velocity and fluctuations are in good agreement with experimental results, which indicate that the DVM is suitable for the simulation of single-phase flow across tube bundles.
Higher order jet prolongations type gauge natural bundles over vector bundles
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jan Kurek
2004-05-01
Full Text Available Let $rgeq 3$ and $mgeq 2$ be natural numbers and $E$ be a vector bundle with $m$-dimensional basis. We find all gauge natural bundles ``similar" to the $r$-jet prolongation bundle $J^rE$ of $E$. We also find all gauge natural bundles ``similar" to the vector $r$-tangent bundle $(J^r_{fl}(E,R_0^*$ of $E$.
Quantum bundles and their symmetries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wave functions in the domain of observables such as the Hamiltonian are not always smooth functions on the classical configuration space Q. Rather, they are often best regarded as functions on a G bundle EG over Q or as sections of an associated bundle. If H is a classical group which acts on Q, its quantum version HG, which acts on EG, is not always H, but an extension of H by G. A powerful and physically transparent construction of EG and HG, where G = U(1) and H1(Q,Z) = 0, has been developed using the path space P. (P consists of paths on Q from a fixed point). In this paper the authors show how to construct EG and HG when G is U(1) or U(1) x π1(Q) and there is no restriction on H1(Q,Z). The method is illustrated with concrete examples, such as a system of charges and monopoles. The method is illustrated with concrete examples, such as a system of charges and monopoles. The authors argue also that P is a sort of superbundle from which a large variety of bundles can be obtained by imposing suitable equivalence relations
Photonic bandgap fiber bundle spectrometer
Hang, Qu; Syed, Imran; Guo, Ning; Skorobogatiy, Maksim
2010-01-01
We experimentally demonstrate an all-fiber spectrometer consisting of a photonic bandgap fiber bundle and a black and white CCD camera. Photonic crystal fibers used in this work are the large solid core all-plastic Bragg fibers designed for operation in the visible spectral range and featuring bandgaps of 60nm - 180nm-wide. 100 Bragg fibers were chosen to have complimentary and partially overlapping bandgaps covering a 400nm-840nm spectral range. The fiber bundle used in our work is equivalent in its function to a set of 100 optical filters densely packed in the area of ~1cm2. Black and white CCD camera is then used to capture spectrally "binned" image of the incoming light at the output facet of a fiber bundle. To reconstruct the test spectrum from a single CCD image we developed an algorithm based on pseudo-inversion of the spectrometer transmission matrix. We then study resolution limit of this spectroscopic system by testing its performance using spectrally narrow test peaks (FWHM 5nm-25nm) centered at va...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The computer codes used in construction of nuclear reactors projects, specifically with regard to the thermo-hydraulics concepts part of your core, whose main goal reproduce actual operating conditions in order to predict quantitatively the limiting conditions of operation so that the safety limit is not exceeded. Computational methods for studies of fluid flow are developed around the world, including Brazil. With the evolution of computers application of numerical methods greatly reduced response time results, and tends to further decrease the extent that the computers and processors develop, making it feasible to use programming accident simulations of heat transfer reactors. The software developed in this paper presents a method for analyzing the thermo-hydraulic behavior of the Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB) after its shutdown. The software solves the conservations equations applied to the core and also the lower and upper regions of the RMB. The thermo-hydraulics characteristics studied are: the temperatures of the core, cladding and refrigerant, the mass flow and the heat transfer. The numerical resolution was performed using the Matlab language and the outputs are presented in graphs and tables forms. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nam, Seung Hyun; Choi, Jae Young; Venneria, Paolo F.; Jeong, Yong Hoon; Chang, Soon Heung [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2015-05-15
NTR engines have continued as a main stream based on the mature technology. The typical core design of the NERVA derived engines uses hexagonal shaped fuel elements with circular cooling channels and structural tie-tube elements for supporting the fuel elements, housing moderator and regeneratively cooling the moderator. The state-of-the-art NTR designs mostly use a fast or epithermal neutron spectrum core utilizing a HEU fuel to make a high power reactor with small and simple core geometry. Nuclear propulsion is the most promising and viable option to achieve challenging deep space missions. Particularly, the attractions of a NTR include excellent thrust and propellant efficiency, bimodal capability, proven technology, and safe and reliable performance. The KANUTER-HEU and -LEU are the innovative and futuristic NTR engines to reduce the reactor size and to implement a LEU fuel in the reactor by using thermal neutron spectrum. The KANUTERs have some features in the reactor design such as the integrated fuel element and the regeneratively cooling channels to increase room for moderator and heat transfer in the core, and ensuing rocket performance. To study feasible design points in terms of thermo-hydraulics and to estimate rocket performance of the KANUTERs, the NSES is under development. The model of the NSES currently focuses on thermo-hydraulic analysis of the peculiar and complex EHTGR design during the propulsion mode in steady-state. The results indicate comparable performance for future applications, even though it uses the heavier LEU fuel. In future, the NSES will be modified to obtain temperature distribution of the entire reactor components and then more extensive design analysis of neutronics, thermohydraulics and their coupling will be conducted to validate design feasibility and to optimize the reactor design enhancing the rocket performance.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
a main stream based on the mature technology. The typical core design of the NERVA derived engines uses hexagonal shaped fuel elements with circular cooling channels and structural tie-tube elements for supporting the fuel elements, housing moderator and regeneratively cooling the moderator. The state-of-the-art NTR designs mostly use a fast or epithermal neutron spectrum core utilizing a HEU fuel to make a high power reactor with small and simple core geometry. Nuclear propulsion is the most promising and viable option to achieve challenging deep space missions. Particularly, the attractions of a NTR include excellent thrust and propellant efficiency, bimodal capability, proven technology, and safe and reliable performance. The KANUTER-HEU and -LEU are the innovative and futuristic NTR engines to reduce the reactor size and to implement a LEU fuel in the reactor by using thermal neutron spectrum. The KANUTERs have some features in the reactor design such as the integrated fuel element and the regeneratively cooling channels to increase room for moderator and heat transfer in the core, and ensuing rocket performance. To study feasible design points in terms of thermo-hydraulics and to estimate rocket performance of the KANUTERs, the NSES is under development. The model of the NSES currently focuses on thermo-hydraulic analysis of the peculiar and complex EHTGR design during the propulsion mode in steady-state. The results indicate comparable performance for future applications, even though it uses the heavier LEU fuel. In future, the NSES will be modified to obtain temperature distribution of the entire reactor components and then more extensive design analysis of neutronics, thermohydraulics and their coupling will be conducted to validate design feasibility and to optimize the reactor design enhancing the rocket performance
TRAWA, a transient analysis code for water reactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
TRAWA is a transient analysis code for water reactors. It solves the two-group neutron diffusion equations simultaneously with the heat conduction equations and the two-phase hydraulic equations for one or more channels. At most one-dimensional submodels are used. Neither thermal nor hydraulic mixing appear between channels. Doppler, coolant density, coolant temperature, and soluble poison density feedbacks due to the thermohydraulics of the channels are described by using polynomial expansions for the group constants. The hydraulic circuit outside the reactor core consists of by-pass channel and risers with two-phase flow and of pump lines with incompressible flow. Nontrivial implicit methods are employed in the discretization of the equations to allow for sparse spatial mesh and flexible choice of time steps. Various transients can be calculated by applying external disturbances. The code is extensively supplied by input and output capabilities. TRAWA is written in FORTRAN V for UNIVAC 1108 computer. (author)
3-dimensional thermohydraulic analysis of KALIMER reactor pool during unprotected accidents
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Yong Bum; Hahn Do Hee
2003-01-01
During a normal reactor scram, the heat generation is reduced almost instantaneously while the coolant flow rate follows the pump coastdown. This mismatch between power and flow results in a situation where the core flow entering the hot pool is at a lower temperature than the temperature of the bulk pool sodium. This temperature difference leads to thermal stratification. Thermal stratification can occur in the hot pool region if the entering coolant is colder than the existing hot pool coolant and the flow momentum is not large enough to overcome the negative buoyancy force. Since the fluid of hot pool enters IHXs, the temperature distribution of hot pool can alter the overall system response. Hence, it is necessary to predict the pool coolant temperature distribution with sufficient accuracy to determine the inlet temperature conditions for the IHXs and its contribution to the net buoyancy head. Therefore, two-dimensional hot pool thermohydraulic model named HP2D has been developed. In this report code-to-code comparison analysis between HP2D and COMMIX-1AR/P has been performed in the case of steady-state and UTOP.
Thermo-Hydraulic Characteristics of Anatase Titania Nanofluids Flowing Through a Circular Conduit.
Kristiawan, Budi; Kamal, Samsul; Yanuar
2016-06-01
The thermo-hydraulic characteristics of anatase titanium dioxide dispersed into distilled water with particle concentration of 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5 vol.% were investigated experimentally in this work. The influence of rheological behavior on hydrodynamic and convective heat transfer characteristics was evaluated under both laminar and turbulent flow conditions in a plain conduit and with twisted tape insert for twist ratio of 7. The nanofluids exhibited a strong shear-thinning behavior at low shear rate particularly higher particle concentration. The non-Newtonian titania nanofluids have also demonstrated a drag reduction phenomena in turbulent flow. At equal Reynolds number, the values of performance evaluation criterion in a conduit inserted a twisted tape were lower than those of in a plain conduit. It implies the unfavourable energy budget for twisted tape insert. The convective heat transfer coefficient does not gradually enhance with an increase of particle concentration. The flow features due mainly to the rheology of colloidal dispersions might be a reason for this phenomenon.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The objective of the project was to draw up an instrumentation plan for the French core melting programme PHEBUS FP. This instrumentation plan essentially was to include proven and reliable instruments for recording various thermohydraulic, aerosol and hydrogen phenomena. The candidate measuring methods, which are known mainly from reactor safety programmes, have been described and examined for their usefulness in PHEBUS. Each method and instrument has been described in detail under various aspects such as measuring principle, measuring range, technical design, evaluation model, calibration procedure, accuracy, previous experience, commercial availability, etc. Special attention has been paid to the behaviour of the measuring transducers when exposed to radiation. First, the performance of the instruments was compared with the requirements of PHEBUS. The results of this comparison served as the basis for a measuring concept in tabular form, giving the locations of the measurements, the measuring tasks, and the number and kind of instruments that are recommended. Redundancy and cost-benefit aspects have been taken into account in qualitative terms
Thermohydraulic behavior of the liquid metal target of a spallation neutron source
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Takeda, Y.
1996-06-01
The author presents work done on three main problems. (1) Natural circulation in double coaxial cylindircal container: The thermohydraulic behaviour of the liquid metal target of the spallation neutron source at PSI has been investigated. The configuration is a natural-circulation loop in a concentric double-tube-type container. The results show that the natural-circulation loop concept is valid for the design phase of the target construction, and the current specified design criteria will be fulfilled with the proposed parameter values. (2) Flow around the window: Water experiments were performed for geometry optimisation of the window shape of the SINQ container for avoiding generating recirculation zones at peripheral area and the optimal cooling of the central part of the beam entrance window. Flow visualisation technique was mainly used for various window shapes, gap distance between the window and the guide tube edge. (3) Flow in window cooling channels: Flows in narrow gaps of cooling channels of two different types of windows were studied by flow visualisation techniques. One type is a slightly curved round cooling channel and the other is hemispherical shape, both of which have only 2 mm gap distance and the water inlet is located on one side and flows out from the opposite side. In both cases, the central part of the flow area has lower velocity than peripheral area.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The APACHE code (Automatic Analysis of Failures of Hydraulic and Thermohydraulic Circuits more particularly of Water) situates in an important program of computer codes development in the field of studies on reliability and safety of systems in nuclear power plants. APACHE is an automatic generation code of failure pattern and of their effects. After a presentation of the theoretical basis, the methodological principles of the theory of networks are developed. Then, the model of the code is developed: model of individual behavior of each classical model component of normal behavior and model of failure pattern with specifications. The global model of hydraulic systems and the resolution systems are then developed. More particularly, some aspects of the theory of graphs, and the algorithms developed for the automatic construction of the equation systems and especially the algorithm of the research of meshes are presented. The computer aspect of the code and the programming of the code with its limits and some specifications are described. The practical aspect of utilization is finally presented
Bundling and joint marketing by rival firms
Jeitschko, Thomas D.; Jung, Yeonjei; Kim, Jaesoo
2014-01-01
We study joint marketing arrangements by competing firms who engage in price discrimination between consumers who patronize only one firm (single purchasing) and those who purchase from both competitors (bundle purchasers). Two types of joint marketing are considered. Firms either commit to a component-price that applies to bundle-purchasers and then firms set stand-alone prices for single purchasers; or firms commit to a rebate off their stand alone price that will be applied to bundle-purch...
Static stress analysis of CANFLEX fuel bundles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The static stress analysis of CANFLEX bundles is performed to evaluate the fuel structural integrity during the refuelling service. The structure analysis is carried out by predicting the drag force, stress and displacements of the fuel bundle. By the comparison of strength tests and analysis results, the displacement values are well agreed within 15%. The analysis shows that the CANFLEX fuel bundle keep its structural integrity. 24 figs., 6 tabs., 12 refs. (Author) .new
Damping Properties of the Hair Bundle
Baumgart, Johannes; Kozlov, Andrei S.; Risler, Thomas; Hudspeth, A. James
2015-01-01
The viscous liquid surrounding a hair bundle dissipates energy and dampens oscillations, which poses a fundamental physical challenge to the high sensitivity and sharp frequency selectivity of hearing. To identify the mechanical forces at play, we constructed a detailed finite-element model of the hair bundle. Based on data from the hair bundle of the bullfrog's sacculus, this model treats the interaction of stereocilia both with the surrounding liquid and with the liquid in the narrow gaps b...
General frame structures on quantum principal bundles
Durdevic, M
1996-01-01
A noncommutative-geometric generalization of the classical formalism of frame bundles is developed, incorporating into the theory of quantum principal bundles the concept of the Levi-Civita connection. The construction of a natural differential calculus on quantum principal frame bundles is presented, including the construction of the associated differential calculus on the structure group. General torsion operators are defined and analyzed. Illustrative examples are presented.
Statistical Constitutive Equation of Aramid Fiber Bundles
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
熊杰; 顾伯洪; 王善元
2003-01-01
Tensile impact tests of aramid (Twaron) fiber bundles were carried om under high strain rates with a wide range of 0. 01/s～1000/s by using MTS and bar-bar tensile impact apparatus. Based on the statistical constitutive model of fiber bundles, statistical constitutive equations of aramid fiber bundles are derived from statistical analysis of test data at different strain rates. Comparison between the theoretical predictions and experimental data indicates statistical constitutive equations fit well with the experimental data, and statistical constitutive equations of fiber bundles at different strain rates are valid.
Parallel transport on principal bundles over stacks
Collier, Brian; Lerman, Eugene; Wolbert, Seth
2016-09-01
In this paper we introduce a notion of parallel transport for principal bundles with connections over differentiable stacks. We show that principal bundles with connections over stacks can be recovered from their parallel transport thereby extending the results of Barrett, Caetano and Picken, and Schreiber and Waldorf from manifolds to stacks. In the process of proving our main result we simplify Schreiber and Waldorf's original definition of a transport functor for principal bundles with connections over manifolds and provide a more direct proof of the correspondence between principal bundles with connections and transport functors.
Hydraulic characteristics of HANARO fuel bundles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cho, S.; Chung, H. J.; Chun, S. Y.; Yang, S. K.; Chung, M. K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)
1997-12-31
This paper presents the hydraulic characteristics measured by using LDV (Laser Doppler Velocimetry) in subchannels of HANARO, KAERI research reactor, fuel bundle. The fuel bundle consists of 18 axially finned rods with 3 spacer grids, which are arranged in cylindrical configuration. The effects of the spacer grids on the turbulent flow were investigated by the experimental results. Pressure drops for each component of the fuel bundle were measured, and the friction factors of fuel bundle and loss coefficients for the spacer grids were estimated from the measured pressure drops. Implications regarding the turbulent thermal mixing were discussed. Vibration test results measured by using laser vibrometer were presented. 9 refs., 12 figs. (Author)
Jacobi Structures on Affine Bundles
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
J. GRABOWSKI; D. IGLESIAS; J. C. MARRERO; E. PADR(O)N; P. URBA(N)SKI
2007-01-01
We study affine Jacobi structures (brackets) on an affine bundle π: A→M, i.e. Jacobi brackets that close on affine functions. We prove that if the rank of A is non-zero, there is a one-to- one correspondence between affine Jacobi structures on A and Lie algebroid structures on the vector bundle A+=∪p∈M Aff(Ap, R) of affine functionals. In the case rank A = 0, it is shown that there is a one-to-one correspondence between affins Jacobi structures on A and local Lie algebras on A+. Some examples and applications, also for the linear case, are discussed. For a special type of affine Jacobi structures which are canonically exhibited (strongly-affine or affine-homogeneous Jacobi structures) over a real vector space of finite dimension, we describe the leaves of its characteristic foliation as the orbits of an affine representation. These afline Jacobi structures can be viewed as an analog of the Kostant-Arnold-LiouviUe linear Poisson structure on the dual space of a real finite-dimensional Lie algebra.
Anatomic Double-bundle ACL Reconstruction
V.M. Schreiber; C.F. van Eck; F.H. Fu
2010-01-01
Rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is one of the most frequent forms of knee trauma. The traditional surgical treatment for ACL rupture is single-bundle reconstruction. However, during the past few years there has been a shift in interest toward double-bundle reconstruction to closely r
The Verlinde formula for Higgs bundles
Andersen, Jørgen Ellegaard; Pei, Du
2016-01-01
We propose and prove the Verlinde formula for the quantization of the Higgs bundle moduli spaces and stacks for any simple and simply-connected group. This generalizes the equivariant Verlinde formula for the case of $SU(n)$ proposed previously by the second and third author. We further establish a Verlinde formula for the quantization of parabolic Higgs bundle moduli spaces and stacks.
Principal Bundles on the Projective Line
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
V B Mehta; S Subramanian
2002-08-01
We classify principal -bundles on the projective line over an arbitrary field of characteristic ≠ 2 or 3, where is a reductive group. If such a bundle is trivial at a -rational point, then the structure group can be reduced to a maximal torus.
Fock modules and noncommutative line bundles
Landi, Giovanni
2016-09-01
To a line bundle over a noncommutative space there is naturally associated a Fock module. The algebra of corresponding creation and annihilation operators is the total space algebra of a principal U(1) -bundle over the noncommutative space. We describe the general construction and illustrate it with examples.
Damping Properties of the Hair Bundle
Baumgart, Johannes; Kozlov, Andrei S.; Risler, Thomas; Hudspeth, A. J.
2011-11-01
The viscous liquid surrounding a hair bundle dissipates energy and dampens oscillations, which poses a fundamental physical challenge to the high sensitivity and sharp frequency selectivity of hearing. To identify the mechanical forces at play, we constructed a detailed finite-element model of the hair bundle. Based on data from the hair bundle of the bullfrog's sacculus, this model treats the interaction of stereocilia both with the surrounding liquid and with the liquid in the narrow gaps between the individual stereocilia. The investigation revealed that grouping stereocilia in a bundle dramatically reduces the total drag. During hair-bundle deflections, the tip links potentially induce drag by causing small but very dissipative relative motions between stereocilia; this effect is offset by the horizontal top connectors that restrain such relative movements at low frequencies. For higher frequencies the coupling liquid is sufficient to assure that the hair bundle moves as a unit with a low total drag. This work reveals the mechanical characteristics originating from hair-bundle morphology and shows quantitatively how a hair bundle is adapted for sensitive mechanotransduction.
Line bundle embeddings for heterotic theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Groot Nibbelink, Stefan [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics; Ruehle, Fabian [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)
2016-03-15
In heterotic string theories consistency requires the introduction of a non-trivial vector bundle. This bundle breaks the original ten-dimensional gauge groups E{sub 8} x E{sub 8} or SO(32) for the supersymmetric heterotic string theories and SO(16) x SO(16) for the non-supersymmetric tachyon-free theory to smaller subgroups. A vast number of MSSM-like models have been constructed up to now, most of which describe the vector bundle as a sum of line bundles. However, there are several different ways of describing these line bundles and their embedding in the ten-dimensional gauge group. We recall and extend these different descriptions and explain how they can be translated into each other.
Requirements for disordered actomyosin bundle contractility
Lenz, Martin
2011-01-01
Actomyosin contractility is essential for biological force generation, and is well understood in highly ordered structures such as striated muscle. In vitro experiments have shown that non-sarcomeric bundles comprised only of F-actin and myosin thick filaments can also display contractile behavior, which cannot be described by standard muscle models. Here we investigate the microscopic symmetries underlying this process in large non-sarcomeric bundles with long actin filaments. We prove that contractile behavior requires non-identical motors that generate large enough forces to probe the nonlinear elastic behavior of F-actin. A simple disordered bundle model demonstrates a contraction mechanism based on these assumptions and predicts realistic bundle deformations. Recent experimental observations of F-actin buckling in in vitro contractile bundles support our model.
Double Fell bundles and Spectral triples
Martins, Rachel A D
2007-01-01
As a natural and canonical extension of Kumjian's Fell bundles over groupoids \\cite{fbg}, we give a definition for a double Fell bundle (a double category) over a double groupoid. We show that finite dimensional double category Fell line bundles tensored with their dual with $S^o$-reality satisfy the finite real spectral triples axioms but not necessarily orientability. This means that these product bundles with noncommutative algebras can be regarded as noncommutative compact manifolds more general than real spectral triples as they are not necessarily orientable. By construction, they unify the noncommutative geometry axioms and hence provide an algebraic enveloping structure for finite spectral triples to give the Dirac operator $D$ new algebraic and geometric structures that are otherwise missing in the transition from Fredholm operator to Dirac operator. The Dirac operator in physical applications as a result becomes less ad hoc. The new noncommutative space we present is a complex line bundle over a dou...
Line bundle embeddings for heterotic theories
Nibbelink, Stefan Groot
2016-01-01
In heterotic theories consistency requires the introduction of a non-trivial vector bundle. This bundle breaks the original ten-dimensional gauge groups E_8 x E_8 or SO(32) for the supersymmetric heterotic theories and SO(16) x SO(16) for the non-supersymmetric tachyon-free theory to smaller subgroups. A vast number of MSSM-like models have been constructed up to now, most of which describe the vector bundle as a sum of line bundles. However, there are several different ways of describing these line bundles and their embedding in the ten-dimensional gauge group. We recall and extend these different descriptions and explain how they can be translated into each other.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In a liquid metal fast reactor (LMFR), temperature fluctuations in the fluid close to a structure occur in many areas: core outlet zone, lower part of hot pool, free surface of pool, IHX outlet, secondary circuit, water steam interface in steam generators. In some conditions, these temperature fluctuations can lead to mechanical damage to structures. Consequently, knowledge of temperature fluctuations and induced thermomechanical damage to structures is essential to support design and maintenance during the plant life-time. In response to a recommendation from the IWGFR, the IAEA convened a Specialist Meeting on 'Correlation between material properties and thermohydraulics conditions in LMFRs' in November 1994. The purpose of the meeting was to exchange information on the state of the art on thermalhydraulic aspects of temperature fluctuations (mixing jet phenomena, temperature gradient fluctuations, transfer of fluctuations from the fluid to the wall), and associated thermomechanical studies (thermal striping, thermal ratchetting, high strain fatigue) as well as design criteria to avoid damage. The main areas discussed by the delegates were: thermalhydraulics and thermomechanics. The objective of thermalhydraulic activities is the characterization of the temperature fluctuations on the wall. Three main items can be identified, for which both the experimental and calculational approaches were considered: identification of the areas where the fluctuations may occur; characterization of the fluctuations in the fluid; and transfer of the fluid fluctuations to the walls. For thermomechanical studies, which cover the effect of the fluctuations in the structures, the following subjects are of great importance: determination of the damage modes induced by thermal loadings in structures (thermal striping, ratchetting, high strain fatigue), and study of all damage modes so as to take them into account in the design criteria and to provide rules for avoiding failure of the
On Harder–Narasimhan Reductions for Higgs Principal Bundles
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Arijit Dey; R Parthasarathi
2005-05-01
The existence and uniqueness of – reduction for the Higgs principal bundles over nonsingular projective variety is shown. We also extend the notion of – reduction for (, )-bundles and ramified -bundles over a smooth curve.
Flow and heat transfer thermohydraulic modelisation during the reflooding phase of a P.W.R.'s core
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Some generalities about L.O.C.A. are first recalled. The French experimental studies about Emergency Core Cooling System are briefly described. The different heat transfer mechanisms to take into account, according to the flow pattern in the dry zone, and the correlations or methods to calculate them, are defined. Then the Thermohydraulic code computer: FLIRA, which describe the reflooding phase, and a modelisation taking into account the different flow patterns are setted. A first interpretation of ERSEC experiments with a tubular test section shows that it is possible, with this modelisation and some classical heat transfer correlations, to describe the reflooding phase.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This report describes the results of the steady state thermohydraulic analysis of upgraded JRR-3 core under natural convective cooling mode, using COOLOD-N code. In the code, function to calculate flow-rate under natural convective cooling mode, and a heat transfer package have been newly added to the COOLOD code which has been developed in JAERI. And this report describes outline of the COOLOD-N code. The results of analysis show that the thermohydraulics of upgraded JRR-3 core, under natural convective cooling mode have enough margine to ONB temperature, DNB heat flux and occurance of blisters in fuel meats, which are design criterion of upgraded JRR-3. (author)
Prioritary omalous bundles on Hirzebruch surfaces
Aprodu, Marian; Marchitan, Marius
2016-01-01
An irreducible algebraic stack is called unirational if there exists a surjective morphism, representable by algebraic spaces, from a rational variety to an open substack. We prove unirationality of the stack of prioritary omalous bundles on Hirzebruch surfaces, which implies also the unirationality of the moduli space of omalous H-stable bundles for any ample line bundle H on a Hirzebruch surface (compare with Costa and Miro-Ŕoig, 2002). To this end, we find an explicit description of the duals of omalous rank-two bundles with a vanishing condition in terms of monads. Since these bundles are prioritary, we conclude that the stack of prioritary omalous bundles on a Hirzebruch surface different from P1 ×P1 is dominated by an irreducible section of a Segre variety, and this linear section is rational (Ionescu, 2015). In the case of the space quadric, the stack has been explicitly described by N. Buchdahl. As a main tool we use Buchdahl's Beilinson-type spectral sequence. Monad descriptions of omalous bundles on hypersurfaces in P4, Calabi-Yau complete intersection, blowups of the projective plane and Segre varieties have been recently obtained by A.A. Henni and M. Jardim (Henni and Jardim, 2013), and monads on Hirzebruch surfaces have been applied in a different context in Bartocci et al. (2015).
Singular hermitian metrics on vector bundles
De Cataldo, M A A
1997-01-01
We introduce a notion of singular hermitian metrics (s.h.m.) for holomorphic vector bundles and define positivity in view of $L^2$-estimates. Associated with a suitably positive s.h.m. there is a (coherent) sheaf 0-th kernel of a certain $d''$-complex. We prove a vanishing theorem for the cohomology of this sheaf. All this generalizes to the case of higher rank known results of Nadel for the case of line bundles. We introduce a new semi-positivity notion, $t$-nefness, for vector bundles, establish some of its basic properties and prove that on curves it coincides with ordinary nefness. We particularize the results on s.h.m. to the case of vector bundles of the form $E=F \\otimes L$, where $F$ is a $t$-nef vector bundle and $L$ is a positive (in the sense of currents) line bundle. As applications we generalize to the higher rank case 1) Kawamata-Viehweg Vanishing Theorem, 2) the effective results concerning the global generation of jets for the adjoint to powers of ample line bundles, and 3) Matsusaka Big Theor...
Deformations of the generalised Picard bundle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Let X be a nonsingular algebraic curve of genus g ≥ 3, and let Mξ denote the moduli space of stable vector bundles of rank n ≥ 2 and degree d with fixed determinant ξ over X such that n and d are coprime. We assume that if g = 3 then n ≥ 4 and if g = 4 then n ≥ 3, and suppose further that n0, d0 are integers such that n0 ≥ 1 and nd0 + n0d > nn0(2g - 2). Let E be a semistable vector bundle over X of rank n0 and degree d0. The generalised Picard bundle Wξ(E) is by definition the vector bundle over Mξ defined by the direct image pMξ *(Uξ x pX*E) where Uξ is a universal vector bundle over X x Mξ. We obtain an inversion formula allowing us to recover E from Wξ(E) and show that the space of infinitesimal deformations of Wξ(E) is isomorphic to H1(X, End(E)). This construction gives a locally complete family of vector bundles over Mξ parametrised by the moduli space M(n0,d0) of stable bundles of rank n0 and degree d0 over X. If (n0,d0) = 1 and Wξ(E) is stable for all E is an element of M(n0,d0), the construction determines an isomorphism from M(n0,d0) to a connected component M0 of a moduli space of stable sheaves over Mξ. This applies in particular when n0 = 1, in which case M0 is isomorphic to the Jacobian J of X as a polarised variety. The paper as a whole is a generalisation of results of Kempf and Mukai on Picard bundles over J, and is also related to a paper of Tyurin on the geometry of moduli of vector bundles. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moon, Kang Hoon; Oezdemir, Erdal; Oh, Seung Jong [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)
2014-10-15
The subchannel code is used to assess the safety of a reactor core at the steady-state and transient conditions. KEPCO Nuclear Fuel (KNF) has been developed new subchannel code, THALES, for PWR core design application. In this study, we are comparing the THALES result with VIPRE-01 code result utilizing bundle test data. VIPRE-01 was developed under EPRI sponsorship and has been used by U.S. PWR commercial nuclear utilities, historically. THALES and VIPRE-01 codes were benchmarked to two kind of bundle test data which were at the steady-state and transient conditions. THALES predicted fluid velocity and temperature profile of bundle test data well and the error rate between THALES and VIPRE-01 was very small.
Geometry of quantum principal bundles, 1
Durdevic, M
1995-01-01
A theory of principal bundles possessing quantum structure groups and classical base manifolds is presented. Structural analysis of such quantum principal bundles is performed. A differential calculus is constructed, combining differential forms on the base manifold with an appropriate differential calculus on the structure quantum group. Relations between the calculus on the group and the calculus on the bundle are investigated. A concept of (pseudo)tensoriality is formulated. The formalism of connections is developed. In particular, operators of horizontal projection, covariant derivative and curvature are constructed and analyzed. Generalizations of the first structure equation and of the Bianchi identity are found. Illustrative examples are presented.
Weak equivalence classes of complex vector bundles
Hông-Vân Lê
2006-01-01
For any complex vector bundle Ek of rank k over a manifold Mm with Chern classes ci Î H2i(Mm, Z) and any non-negative integers l1, . . ., lk we show the existence of a positive number p(m, k) and the existence of a complex vector bundle Êk over Mm whose Chern classes are p(m, k) × li × ci Î H2i(Mm, Z). We also discuss a version of this statement for holomorphic vector bundles over projective algebraic manifolds.
Vector supersymmetry in the universal bundle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present a vector supersymmetry for Witten-type topological gauge theories, and examine its algebra in terms of a superconnection formalism. When covariant constraints on the supercurvature are chosen, a correspondence is established with the universal bundle construction of Atiyah and Singer. The vector supersymmetry represents a certain shift operator in the curvature of the universal bundle, and can be used to generate the hierarchy of observables in these theories. This formalism should lead to the construction of vector supergravity theories, and perhaps to the gravitational analogue of the universal bundle. (orig.)
Transient response of a high-capacity heat pipe for Space Station Freedom
Ambrose, J. H.; Holmes, H. R.
1991-01-01
High-capacity heat pipe radiator panels have been proposed as the primary means of heat rejection for Space Station Freedom. In this system, the heat pipe would interface with the thermal bus condensers. Changes in system heat load can produce large temperature and heat load variations in individual heat pipes. Heat pipes could be required to start from an initially cold state, with heat loads temporarily exceeding their low-temperature transport capacity. The present research was motivated by the need for accurate prediction of such transient operating conditions. In this work, the cold startup of a 6.7-meter long high-capacity heat pipe is investigated experimentally and analytically. A transient thermohydraulic model of the heat pipe was developed which allows simulation of partially-primed operation. The results of cold startup tests using both constant temperature and constant heat flux evaporator boundary conditions are shown to be in good agreement with predicted transient response.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The objectives of this paper are to make clear the thermo-hydraulic behaviors of boiling two-phase flow under transient conditions and its effects on the burnout phenomena. First, the critical heat flux in slug flow pattern, which is regarded as one kind of transient states microscopically, has been obtained. Also the critical heat flux for parallel channels has been studied considering the instability of flow. Next, the critical heat fluxes have been investigated for increasing heat input, for rapid depressurization and for loss of flow. Also the critical heat flux for increasing heat input has been made clear at elevated pressure in which the heat input has been loaded rampwise or stepwise. Through those studies the burnout behaviors and critical heat fluxes under transient conditions have been clarified fairly well. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gamez, Abel; Rojas, Leorlen; Rosales, Jesus; Castro, Landy Y.; Gonzalez, Daniel; Garcia, Carlos, E-mail: agamezgmf@gmail.com, E-mail: leored1984@gmail.com, E-mail: jrosales@instec.cu, E-mail: lcastro@instec.cu, E-mail: danielgonro@gmail.com, E-mail: cgr@instec.cu [Instituto Superior de Tecnologias y Ciencias Aplicadas (InSTEC), La Habana (Cuba); Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Oliveira, Carlos B. de, E-mail: cabol@ufpe.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Dominguez, Dany S., E-mail: dsdominguez@gmail.com [Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz (UESC), Ilheus, BA (Brazil)
2015-07-01
The high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR) is one of candidates of next generation of nuclear reactor according to IAEA report 2013. Evaluation of thermohydraulic performance and an experimental comparison results were proposed to the international research community. In this article, the tree dimensional CFD thermohydraulic modelation of steady state of HTR-10 modular reactor, using ANSYS CFX v14.0, has been done. Code-to-code and Code-to-experiment benchmark analyses, related to the testing program of the HTR-10 plant including steady state temperature distribution with the reactor at full power, were developed. The 3D real scale representation of reflector zone and fluid path flow inner and outer reflector blocks and cold helium cavity were carried out. The porous medium model was used to simulate the core zone in the reactor. The power distribution of the initial core published by IAEA-TECDOC-1694 obtained by Chief Scientific Investigators (CSIs) from China was used as heat sources in the core zone. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This report is a summary of the work performed under a co-ordinated research project (CRP) entitled Harmonization and Validation of Fast Reactor Thermomechanical and Thermo-Hydraulic Codes and Relations using Experimental Data. The project was organized by the IAEA on the recommendation of the IAEA's Technical Working Group on Fast Reactors (TWGFR) and carried out from 1996 to 1999. In certain conditions, temperature fluctuations in the coolant close to a structure caused by thermal striping can lead to thermomechanical damage to structures. Institutes from a number of Member States have an interest in improving engineering tools and prediction techniques concerning the characterization of the thermal striping effects, in which numerical models have a major role. Therefore, the IAEA through its advanced reactor technology development programme supports the activities of Member States in this area. Design analyses applied to thermal striping phenomena need to be firmly established, and the CRP provided a valuable tool in assessing their reliability. Eleven institutes from France, India, Italy, Japan, the Republic of Korea, the Russian Federation and the United Kingdom co-operated in this CRP. This report documents the CRP activities, provides the main results and recommendations and includes the work carried out by the research groups at the participating institutes within the CRP on harmonization and validation of fast reactor thermomechanical and thermohydraulic codes and relations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
One of the main issues related to the conception of a superconducting magnet cooled by a superfluid helium bath (like the Iseult magnet) is to insure the magnet safety as well as the whole cryogenic facility safety in case of accidental quench. In order to find a solution to this problem, we first have to identify the physical mechanisms which drive the pressure rise during a quench. This is why our study deals with the modeling of the thermohydraulic phenomena taking place during such a magnet quench. First of all, we performed and analyzed local pressure rise experiments in a heated helium channel. A numerical thermohydraulic model was developed for this study. Quench experiments were then performed on an 8-T (Seht) superconducting coil cooled by a superfluid helium bath. These experiments allowed us to make a detailed analysis of the physical mechanisms which drive the global pressure rise in case of quench as well as the strong coupling between this pressure rise and the normal zone propagation. Following this analysis, a complete model of normal zone propagation and pressure rising during a quench was developed. This model is a first step toward predictive modeling of the pressure rise during the quench of a superconducting magnet cooled by a superfluid helium bath. (author)
Loss of feed flow, steam generator tube rupture and steam line break thermohydraulic experiments
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mendler, O J; Takeuchi, K; Young, M Y
1986-10-01
The Westinghouse Model Boiler No. 2 (MB-2) steam generator test model at the Engineering Test Facility in Tampa, Florida, was reinstrumented and modified for performing a series of tests simulating steam generator accident transients. The transients simulated were: loss of feed flow, steam generator tube rupture, and steam line break events. This document presents a description of (1) the model boiler and the associated test facility, (2) the tests performed, and (3) the analyses of the test results.
Loss of feed flow, steam generator tube rupture and steam line break thermohydraulic experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Westinghouse Model Boiler No. 2 (MB-2) steam generator test model at the Engineering Test Facility in Tampa, Florida, was reinstrumented and modified for performing a series of tests simulating steam generator accident transients. The transients simulated were: loss of feed flow, steam generator tube rupture, and steam line break events. This document presents a description of (1) the model boiler and the associated test facility, (2) the tests performed, and (3) the analyses of the test results
Transients analysis by reactivity insertion in research reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
PARET code was used to simulate accidental situations arising from positive reactivity insertions, in order to analyze the behavior of RP-10 reactor. The simulations considered three different cases: First is for the reactor operating at 10 Mw nominal power with 3 pumps in use, the second, at 6.6 Mw with only one pump working. In all cases the reactor trip was assumed when a 12 Mw power level is reached. An additional simulation for the reactor operating at 50w before the reactivity insertion, showed to be the worst accidental situation of all cases because of the higher temperature and power rise. Hot channel thermohydraulic and kinetic parameters have been evaluated at each axial mesh point and transient time step. None of the cases showed melting of fuel plates
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YU Wei-dong; YAN Hao-jing; Ron Postle; Yang Shouren
2002-01-01
Due to the effects of samples and testing conditions on fibre-bundle tensile behaviour, it is necessary to investigate the relationships between experimental factors and tensile properties for the fibre-bumdle tensile tester (TENSOR). The effects of bundle sample preparation, fibre bundle mass and fibre alignment have been tested. The experimental results indicated that (1) the low damage in combing and no free-end fibres in the cut bundle are most important for the sample preparation; (2) the reasonable bundle mass is 400- 700tex, but the tensile properties measured should bemodified with the bundle mass because a small amount of bundle mass causes the scatter results, while the larger is the bundle mass, the more difficult to comb fibres parallel and to clamp fibre evenly; and (3) the fibre irregular arrangement forms a slack bundle resulting in interaction between fibres, which will affect the reproducibility and accuracy of the tensile testing.
Liquid Flow in Shaped Fiber Bundle
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Yan; WANG Hua-ping; CHEN Yue-hua
2006-01-01
By computation and comparison of the critical spreading coefficient parameter, it was found that shaped fiber bundle is better for wetting. Liquid-air interface tension of liquid arising the shaped fiber bundle body is considered as one critical factor besides liquid viscosity, inertia force and liquid-fiber interface tension. Experimental result simulation demonstrated that the liquid-air interface tension is correlated with the geometric size of the liquid arising in body, φ0 (x) and which is affected by the cross sectional shape of fiber and the radius of single fiber. The shaped fiber bundle model is introduced to investigate liquid flow in fiber assembly. The model is generated based on a random function for stochastic forming of fibers in bundle and it is necessary to combine this fundamental model with physical explanation for investigation of liquid flow in fiber assembly.
Mobility of Taxol in Microtubule Bundles
Ross, J.
2003-06-01
Mobility of taxol inside microtubules was investigated using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) on flow-aligned bundles. Bundles were made of microtubules with either GMPCPP or GTP at the exchangeable site on the tubulin dimer. Recovery times were sensitive to bundle thickness and packing, indicating that taxol molecules are able to move laterally through the bundle. The density of open binding sites along a microtubule was varied by controlling the concentration of taxol in solution for GMPCPP samples. With > 63% sites occupied, recovery times were independent of taxol concentration and, therefore, inversely proportional to the microscopic dissociation rate, k_{off}. It was found that 10*k_{off} (GMPCPP) ~ k_{off} (GTP), consistent with, but not fully accounting for, the difference in equilibrium constants for taxol on GMPCPP and GTP microtubules. With taxol along the microtubule interior is hindered by rebinding events when open sites are within ~7 nm of each other.
Quantum Bundle Description of Quantum Projective Spaces
Ó Buachalla, Réamonn
2012-12-01
We realise Heckenberger and Kolb's canonical calculus on quantum projective ( N - 1)-space C q [ C p N-1] as the restriction of a distinguished quotient of the standard bicovariant calculus for the quantum special unitary group C q [ SU N ]. We introduce a calculus on the quantum sphere C q [ S 2 N-1] in the same way. With respect to these choices of calculi, we present C q [ C p N-1] as the base space of two different quantum principal bundles, one with total space C q [ SU N ], and the other with total space C q [ S 2 N-1]. We go on to give C q [ C p N-1] the structure of a quantum framed manifold. More specifically, we describe the module of one-forms of Heckenberger and Kolb's calculus as an associated vector bundle to the principal bundle with total space C q [ SU N ]. Finally, we construct strong connections for both bundles.
A Geometric Approach to Noncommutative Principal Bundles
Wagner, Stefan
2011-01-01
From a geometrical point of view it is, so far, not sufficiently well understood what should be a "noncommutative principal bundle". Still, there is a well-developed abstract algebraic approach using the theory of Hopf algebras. An important handicap of this approach is the ignorance of topological and geometrical aspects. The aim of this thesis is to develop a geometrically oriented approach to the noncommutative geometry of principal bundles based on dynamical systems and the representation theory of the corresponding transformation group.
Parahoric bundles on a compact Riemann surface
Balaji, V
2010-01-01
Let $X$ be a compact Riemann surface of genus $g \\geq 2$. The aim of this paper is to study homomorphisms of certain discrete subgroups of $PSL(2, {\\mathbb R})$ into maximal compact subgroups of semisimple simply connected algebraic groups and relate them to torsors under a Bruhat-Tits group scheme. We also construct the moduli spaces of semistable parahoric bundles. These results generalize the theorem of Mehta and Seshadri on parabolic vector bundles.
LMFR core and heat exchanger thermohydraulic design: former USSR and present Russian approaches
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The information presented in this report is dealing with liquid metal cooled fast reactors some of which are in operation (France, Japan, Russian federation) or under construction. Comprehensive thermal hydraulic research both experimental and numeric applied to such reactors was carried out in the Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE), Obninsk, Russian Federation. The IAEA Working Group on fast Reactors (IWGFR) recommended that IPPE should generalize its thermal hydraulic studies as well as results of other countries published previously in the field of liquid metal flow distribution and heat transfer in fuel pin and heat exchanger rod bundles (France, Germany, Japan, India, Russian Federation, United Kingdom and United States). The validity of computer codes and design approaches was proven by comparison of calculated results with measured values of velocity, pressure, temperature distributions in rod bundles cooled/heated by liquid metal, usually sodium. The report includes the methodology and philosophy of the analytical and experimental investigations when applied to core and heat exchanger thermal hydraulic design of Light Water Moderated Fast Reactors (LMFRs)
K-Theories for Certain Infinite Rank Bundles
Larrain-Hubach, Andres
2011-01-01
Several authors have recently constructed characteristic classes for classes of infinite rank vector bundles appearing in topology and physics. These include the tangent bundle to the space of maps between closed manifolds, the infinite rank bundles in the families index theorem, and bundles with pseudodifferential operators as structure group. In this paper, we construct the corresponding K-theories for these types of bundles. We develop the formalism of these theories and use their Chern ch...
Effect of left bundle branch block on TIMI frame count
Hatice Tolunay; Ahmet Kasapkara; İsa Öner Yüksel; Nurcan Başar; Ayşe Saatcı Yaşar; Mehmet Bilge
2010-01-01
Aim: Left bundle branch block is an independent risk factorfor cardiac mortality. In this study we aimed to evaluatecoronary blood flow with TIMI frame count in patients with left bundle branch block and angiographically proven normal coronary arteries.Materials and methods: We retrospectively studied 17 patients with left bundle branch block and as a control group 16 patients without left bundle branch block. All patientshad angiographically proven normal coronary arteries.Left bundle branch...
Seiler, J. M.; Rameau, B.
Bundle sodium boiling in nominal geometry for different accident conditions is reviewed. Voiding of a subassembly is controlled by not only hydrodynamic effects but mainly by thermal effects. There is a strong influence of the thermal inertia of the bundle material compared to the sodium thermal inertia. Flow instability, during a slow transient, can be analyzed with numerical tools and estimated using simplified approximations. Stable boiling operational conditions under bundle mixed convection (natural convection in the reactor) can be predicted. Voiding during a fast transient can be approximated from single channel calculations. The phenomenology of boiling behavior for a subassembly with inlet completely blocked, submitted to decay heat and lateral cooling; two-phase sodium flow pressure drop in a tube of large hydraulic diameter under adiabatic conditions; critical flow phenomena and voiding rate under high power, slow transient conditions; and onset of dry out under local boiling remains problematical.
Review of thermohydraulic research of fuel assemblies with partial blocking of flow cross-section
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A review is presented of the theoretical and experimental investigation of blockage formation and of velocity and temperature fields in fuel rod bundles with partial blockage of the flow section. The temperature and velocity fields in cases of flow blockage are analyzed and the range of the recirculation zone length behind the blockage is shown. Formulas for the evaluation of the coolant flow rate changes and the temperature increments in dependence on the operating parameters and the blocked area are given. Questions of blockage identification and of prevention of emergency situations are discussed. Results of the analysis emphasize the necessity to continue research of blockage formation problems and of velocity and temperature conditions in blocked assemblies. (author)
Temperature Distributions in LMR Fuel Pin Bundles as Modeled by COBRA-IV-I
Wright, Steven A.; Stout, Sherry
2005-02-01
Most pin type reactor designs for space power or terrestrial applications group the fuel pins into a number of relatively large fuel pin bundles or subassemblies. Fuel bundles for terrestrial liquid metal fast breeders reactors typically use 217 - 271 pins per sub-assembly, while some SP100 designs use up to 331 pins in a central subassembly that was surrounded by partial assemblies. Because thermal creep is exponentially related to temperature, small changes in fuel pin cladding temperature can make large differences in the lifetime in a high temperature liquid metal reactor (LMR). This paper uses the COBRA-IV-I computer code to determine the temperature distribution within LMR fuel bundles. COBRA-IV-I uses the sub-channel analysis approach to determine the enthalpy (or temperature) and flow distribution in rod bundles for both steady-state and transient conditions. The COBRA code runs in only a few seconds and has been benchmarked and tested extensively over a wide range of flow conditions. In this report the flow and temperature distributions for two types of lithium cooled space reactor core designs were calculated. One design uses a very tight fuel pin packing that has a pitch to diameter ratio of 1.05 (small wire wrap with a diameter of 392 μm) as proposed in SP100. The other design uses a larger pitch to diameter ratio of 1.09 with a larger more conventional sized wire wrap diameter of 1 mm. The results of the COBRA pin bundle calculations show that the larger pitch-to-diameter fuel bundle designs are more tolerant to local flow blockages, and in addition they are less sensitive to mal-flow distributions that occur near the edges of the subassembly.
Cooperative retraction of bundled type IV pili enables nanonewton force generation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nicolas Biais
2008-04-01
Full Text Available The causative agent of gonorrhea, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, bears retractable filamentous appendages called type IV pili (Tfp. Tfp are used by many pathogenic and nonpathogenic bacteria to carry out a number of vital functions, including DNA uptake, twitching motility (crawling over surfaces, and attachment to host cells. In N. gonorrhoeae, Tfp binding to epithelial cells and the mechanical forces associated with this binding stimulate signaling cascades and gene expression that enhance infection. Retraction of a single Tfp filament generates forces of 50-100 piconewtons, but nothing is known, thus far, on the retraction force ability of multiple Tfp filaments, even though each bacterium expresses multiple Tfp and multiple bacteria interact during infection. We designed a micropillar assay system to measure Tfp retraction forces. This system consists of an array of force sensors made of elastic pillars that allow quantification of retraction forces from adherent N. gonorrhoeae bacteria. Electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy were used in combination with this novel assay to assess the structures of Tfp. We show that Tfp can form bundles, which contain up to 8-10 Tfp filaments, that act as coordinated retractable units with forces up to 10 times greater than single filament retraction forces. Furthermore, single filament retraction forces are transient, whereas bundled filaments produce retraction forces that can be sustained. Alterations of noncovalent protein-protein interactions between Tfp can inhibit both bundle formation and high-amplitude retraction forces. Retraction forces build over time through the recruitment and bundling of multiple Tfp that pull cooperatively to generate forces in the nanonewton range. We propose that Tfp retraction can be synchronized through bundling, that Tfp bundle retraction can generate forces in the nanonewton range in vivo, and that such high forces could affect infection.
Safety analysis report of the irradiation test of Type-B bundle
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Choong Sung; Lim, I. C.; Lee, B. C.; Ryu, J. S.; Kim, H. R
2000-06-01
The HANARO fuel, U{sub 3}Si-A1, has been developed by AECL and tested in NRU reactor. In the course of the fuel qualification tests, only one case was performed under the higher power condition than maximum linear power which was expected in the design stage. The Korea regulatory body, KINS imposed that HANARO shall be operated at the power level less than 24MW which is 80% of the design full power until HANARO shows the repetitive performance of the fuel at the power condition abov e 112.8KW/m. To resolve this imposition, KAERI designed two types of special test bundles: two non-instrumented(Type-A) and one instrumented(Type-B) test bundles. Two Type-A bundles were irradiated in HANARO: one of them has finished PIE and the other is under PIE. Type-B bundle was loaded in the core during 1.32 day at 1996, but outstanding FIV(flow induced vibration) was observed at the pool top because of long guide tube attached to the top of the bundle. The successful installation of the chimney fastener to fix the guide tube resulted in conducting the irradiation test of Type-B bundle again. The test will start at mid- July, 2000. In order to safely do the Type-B irradiation test, the safety analysis for the nuclear, mechanical and thermal-hydraulic aspects was performed. The reactivity worth and the maximum 1 near power predicted by VENTURE are 6.3mk/k and 121.6kW/m, respectively. Thermal margins for normal and transient conditions using MATRA-h, are assessed to satisfy the safety criteria.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Calleros M, G.; Zapata Y, M.; Gomez H, R.A.; Mendez M, A. [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Central Nucleoelectrica de Laguna Verde, Carretera Cardel-Nautla Km. 42.5, Mpio. Alto Lucero, Veracruz (Mexico); Castlllo D, R. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca Km 36.5, La Marquesa, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: gcm9acpp@cfe.gob.mx
2006-07-01
In a BWR type reactor the phenomenon of the nuclear fission is presented, in which are liberated in stochastic form neutrons, originating that the population of the same ones varies in statistic form around a mean value. This variation will cause that when the neutron flow impacts on the neutron detectors, its are had as a result neutron flow signals with fluctuations around an average value. In this article it is shown that it conforms it lapses the time, this variations in the neutron flow (and therefore, in the flow signal due only to the fission), they presented oscillations inside a stable range, which won't be divergent. Considering that the BWR is characterized because boiling phenomena are presented, which affect the moderation of the neutrons, additional variations will be had in the signal coming from the neutron detectors, with relationship to the fission itself, which will be influenced by the feedback of the moderator's reactivity and of the temperature of the fuel pellet. Also, as the BWR it has coupled control systems to maintain the coolant level one and of the thermal power of the reactor, for each control action it was affected the neutron population. This means that the reactor could end up straying of a stable state condition. By it previously described, the study of the thermohydraulic stability coupled to the neutronic is complex. In this work it is shown the phenomenology, the mathematical models and the theoretical behavior associated to the stability of the BWR type reactor; the variables that affect it are identified, the models that reproduce the behavior of the thermohydraulic stability coupled to the neutronic, the way to maintain stable the reactor and the instrumentation that can settle to detect and to suppress uncertainties is described. In particular, is make reference to the evolution of the methods to maintain the stability of the reactor and the detection system and suppression of uncertainties implemented in the
Twistor bundle theory and its application
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2004-01-01
Over an oriented even dimensional Riemannian manifold (M2m, ds2), in terms of the Levi-Civita connection form Ω and the canonical form Θ on the bundle of positive or→ J+(M, ds2) → M. The integrability on an almost complex structure J compatible with the metric and the orientation, is shown to be equivalent to the fact that the corresponding cross section of the twistor bundle is holomorphic with respect to J and the canonical almost complex structure J1 on J+(M, ds2), by using moving frame theory. Moreover, for various metrics and a fixed orientation on M, a canonical bundle isomorphism is established. As a consequence, we generalize a celebrated theorem of LeBrun.
Tangent bundle formulation of a charged gas
Sarbach, Olivier
2013-01-01
We discuss the relativistic kinetic theory for a simple, collisionless, charged gas propagating on an arbitrary curved spacetime geometry. Our general relativistic treatment is formulated on the tangent bundle of the spacetime manifold and takes advantage of its rich geometric structure. In particular, we point out the existence of a natural metric on the tangent bundle and illustrate its role for the development of the relativistic kinetic theory. This metric, combined with the electromagnetic field of the spacetime, yields an appropriate symplectic form on the tangent bundle. The Liouville vector field arises as the Hamiltonian vector field of a natural Hamiltonian. The latter also defines natural energy surfaces, called mass shells, which turn out to be smooth Lorentzian submanifolds. A simple, collisionless, charged gas is described by a distribution function which is defined on the mass shell and satisfies the Liouville equation. Suitable fibre integrals of the distribution function define observable fie...
Porous Silicon and Denim Fiber Bundle Characterization
Deuro, Randi Ellen
My thesis research aims to characterize and exploit materials in an efficient, rapid, non-destructive manner. Part I of this document summarizes my research on porous silicon (pSi) design, fabrication, and surface modification for use as a novel chemical sensor. The optimization of fabrication process parameters (etching time, etching solution, electrode shape, and the fixing process) on pSi photoluminescence (PL) is presented. I have also investigated the effects of analyte vapors (acetonitrile, toluene, methanol, acetone) on the pSi PL and surface chemistry using luminescence and Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and microscopy methods. The mechanism and benefits of one method of pSi surface modification and protection (ultraviolet (UV) hydrosilylation) will also be presented. Finally, high thorough-put methods of pSi sensor production are described. In Part II of this document, I introduce a novel technique for analyzing and discriminating among denim fiber bundles. An investigation into the benefits of luminescence-based multispectral imaging (LMSI) for denim fiber bundle identification has been conducted. I explore the power of nitromethane (CH 3NO2) based quenching in fiber bundle classification and identify the quenching mechanism. The luminescence spectra (450 - 850 nm) and images from the denim fiber bundles were obtained while exciting at 325 nm or 405 nm. Here, LMSI data were recorded in < 10 s and subsequently assessed by principal component analysis (PCA) and rendered red, green, blue (RGB) component histograms. The results show that LMSI data can be used to rapidly and uniquely classify all the fiber bundle types studied in this research. These non-destructive techniques eliminate extensive sample preparation and allow for rapid multispectral image collection, analysis, and assessment. The quenching data also revealed that the dye molecules within the individual fiber bundles exhibited dramatically different accessibilities to CH 3NO2.
Chung, Peter J.; Song, Chaeyeon; Deek, Joanna; Miller, Herbert P.; Li, Youli; Choi, Myung Chul; Wilson, Leslie; Feinstein, Stuart C.; Safinya, Cyrus R.
2016-01-01
Tau, an intrinsically disordered protein confined to neuronal axons, binds to and regulates microtubule dynamics. Although there have been observations of string-like microtubule fascicles in the axon initial segment (AIS) and hexagonal bundles in neurite-like processes in non-neuronal cells overexpressing Tau, cell-free reconstitutions have not replicated either geometry. Here we map out the energy landscape of Tau-mediated, GTP-dependent ‘active' microtubule bundles at 37 °C, as revealed by synchrotron SAXS and TEM. Widely spaced bundles (wall-to-wall distance Dw–w≈25–41 nm) with hexagonal and string-like symmetry are observed, the latter mimicking bundles found in the AIS. A second energy minimum (Dw–w≈16–23 nm) is revealed under osmotic pressure. The wide spacing results from a balance between repulsive forces, due to Tau's projection domain (PD), and a stabilizing sum of transient sub-kBT cationic/anionic charge–charge attractions mediated by weakly penetrating opposing PDs. This landscape would be significantly affected by charge-altering modifications of Tau associated with neurodegeneration. PMID:27452526
CFD analyses of flow structures in air-ingress and rod bundle problems
Wei, Hong-Chan
Two topics from nuclear engineering field are included in this dissertation. One study is the air-ingress phenomenon during a loss of coolant accident (LOCA) scenario, and the other is a 5-by-5 bundle assembly with a PWR design. The objectives were to investigate the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability of the gravity-driven stratified flows inside a coaxial pipe and the effects caused by two types of spacers at the downstream of the rod bundle. Richardson extrapolation was used for the grid independent study. The simulation results show good agreements with the experiments. Wavelet analysis and Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) were used to study the flow behaviors and flow patterns. For the air-ingress phenomenon, Brunt-Vaisala frequency, or buoyancy frequency, predicts a frequency of 2.34 Hz; this is confirmed by the dominant frequency of 2.4 Hz obtained from the wavelet analysis between times 1.2 s and 1.85 s. For the rod bundle study, the dominant frequency at the center of the subchannel was determined to be 2.4 Hz with a secondary dominant frequency of 4 Hz and a much minor frequency of 6 Hz. Generally, wavelet analysis has much better performance than POD, in the air-ingress phenomenon, for a strongly transient scenario; they are both appropriate for the rod bundle study. Based on this study, when the fluid pair in a real condition is used, the time which air intrudes into the reactor is predictable.
Characteristic classes of quantum principal bundles
Durdevic, M
1995-01-01
A noncommutative-geometric generalization of classical Weil theory of characteristic classes is presented, in the conceptual framework of quantum principal bundles. A particular care is given to the case when the bundle does not admit regular connections. A cohomological description of the domain of the Weil homomorphism is given. Relations between universal characteristic classes for the regular and the general case are analyzed. In analogy with classical geometry, a natural spectral sequence is introduced and investigated. The appropriate counterpart of the Chern character is constructed, for structures admitting regular connections. Illustrative examples and constructions are presented.
Are Medicare bundles in your future?
Mulvany, Chad
2015-08-01
To ensure they are well-positioned for an expansion by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services of bundled payment, hospitals that are not participants in the Bundled Payments for Care Improvement initiative should take the following steps: Understand which organizations in their markets are already participating and which might participate. Understand care utilization patterns within their care delivery networks and how those patterns affect cost per episode. Identify high-quality, cost-efficient postacute care providers and begin collaborating with them to further improve outcomes. Educate discharging physicians about the impact that choices related to postacute settings have on both beneficiary out-of-pocket obligations and overall cost of care.
A bundle of sticks in my garden
Farran, Sue
2012-01-01
The English law of property is often described as a ‘bundle of sticks’ in which each ‘stick’ represents a particular right. Gardens challenge these rights and wreak havoc on the ‘bundle of sticks’. This paper looks at the twenty-first century manifestations of community engagement with ground and explores how ‘gardening’ is undermining concepts of ownership, possession and management of land and how the fence between what is private and what is public is being encroached and challenged by com...
Bundling in semiflexible polymers: A theoretical overview.
Benetatos, Panayotis; Jho, YongSeok
2016-06-01
Supramolecular assemblies of polymers are key modules to sustain the structure of cells and their function. The main elements of these assemblies are charged semiflexible polymers (polyelectrolytes) generally interacting via a long(er)-range repulsion and a short(er)-range attraction. The most common supramolecular structure formed by these polymers is the bundle. In the present paper, we critically review some recent theoretical and computational advances on the problem of bundle formation, and point a few promising directions for future work. PMID:26813628
TRIGA spent fuel bundles safe storage
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
TRIGA-SSR is a steady state research and material test reactor that has been in operation since 1980. The original TRIGA fuel was HEU (highly enriched uranium) with a U235 enrichment of 93 per cent. Almost all TRIGA HEU fuel bundles are now burned-up. Part of the spent fuel was loaded and transferred to US, in a Romania - DOE arrangement. The rest of the TRIGA fuel bundles have to be temporarily stored in the TRIGA facility. As the storage conditions had to be established with caution, neutron and thermal hydraulic evaluations of the storage conditions were required. Some criticality evaluations were made based on the SAR (Safety Analysis Report) data. Fuel constant axial temperature approximation effect is usual for criticality computations. TRIGA-SSR fuel bundle geometry and materials model for SCALE5-CSAS module allows the introduction of a fuel temperature dependency for the entire fuel active height, using different materials for each fuel bundle region. Previous RELAP5 thermal hydraulic computations for an axial and radial power distribution in the TRIGA fuel pin were done. Fuel constant temperature approximation overestimates pin factors for every core operating at high temperatures. From the thermal hydraulic point of view the worst condition of the storage grid occurs when the transfer channel is accidentally emptied of water from the pool, or the bundle is handled accidentally to remain in air. All the residual heat from the bundles has to be removed without fuel overheating and clad failure. RELAP5 computer code for residual heat removal was used in the assessment of residual heat removal. We made a couple of evaluations of TRIGA bundle clad temperatures in air cooling conditions, with different residual heat levels. The criticality computations have shown that the spent TRIGA fuel bundles storage grid is strongly sub-critical with k(eff) = 0.5951. So, there is no danger for a criticality accident for this storage grid type. The assessment is done for
Yoo, Yon-Sik; Song, Si Young; Yang, Cheol Jung; Ha, Jong Mun; Kim, Yoon Sang
2016-01-01
Purpose The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical outcomes of arthroscopic anatomical double bundle (DB) anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction with either selective anteromedial (AM) or posterolateral (PL) bundle reconstruction while preserving a relatively healthy ACL bundle. Materials and Methods The authors evaluated 98 patients with a mean follow-up of 30.8±4.0 months who had undergone DB or selective bundle ACL reconstructions. Of these, 34 cases underwent DB ACL reconstruction (group A), 34 underwent selective AM bundle reconstruction (group B), and 30 underwent selective PL bundle reconstructions (group C). These groups were compared with respect to Lysholm and International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) score, side-to-side differences of anterior laxity measured by KT-2000 arthrometer at 30 lbs, and stress radiography and Lachman and pivot shift test results. Pre- and post-operative data were objectively evaluated using a statistical approach. Results The preoperative anterior instability measured by manual stress radiography at 90° of knee flexion in group A was significantly greater than that in groups B and C (all panterior instability measured by KT-2000 arthrometer, pivot shift, or functional scores. Conclusion Selective bundle reconstruction in partial ACL tears offers comparable clinical results to DB reconstruction in complete ACL tears. PMID:27401652
Impact of bundle deformation on CHF: ASSERT-PV assessment of extended burnup Bruce B bundle G85159W
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper presents a subchannel thermalhydraulic analysis of the effect on critical heat flux (CHF) of bundle deformation such as element bow and diametral creep. The bundle geometry is based on the post-irradiation examination (PIE) data of a single bundle from the Bruce B Nuclear Generating Station, Bruce B bundle G85159W, which was irradiated for more than two years in the core during reactor commissioning. The subchannel code ASSERT-PV IST is used to assess changes in CHF and dryout power due to bundle deformation, compared to the reference, undeformed bundle. (author)
The unintended consequences of bundled payments.
Weeks, William B; Rauh, Stephen S; Wadsworth, Eric B; Weinstein, James N
2013-01-01
Consensus is building that episode-based bundled payments can produce substantial Medicare savings, and the Center for Medicare & Medicaid Innovation's Bundled Payment Initiative endorses this concept. The program generates potential cost savings by reducing the historic cost of time-defined episodes of care, provided through a discount. Although bundled payments can reduce waste primarily in the postacute care setting, concerns arise that, in an effort to maintain income levels that are necessary to cover fixed costs, providers may change their behaviors to increase the volume of episodes. Such actions would mitigate the savings that Medicare might have accrued and may perpetuate the fee-for-service payment mechanism, with episodes of care becoming the new service. Although bundled payments have some advantages over the current reimbursement system, true cost-savings to Medicare will be realized only when the federal government addresses the use issue that underlies much of the waste inherent in the system and provides ample incentives to eliminate capacity and move toward capitation.
Graph Bundling by Kernel Density Estimation
Hurter, C.; Ersoy, O.; Telea, A.
2012-01-01
We present a fast and simple method to compute bundled layouts of general graphs. For this, we first transform a given graph drawing into a density map using kernel density estimation. Next, we apply an image sharpening technique which progressively merges local height maxima by moving the convolved
Optimization of a bundle divertor for FED
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Optimal double-T bundle divertor configurations have been obtained for the Fusion Engineering Device (FED). On-axis ripple is minimized, while satisfying a series of engineering constraints. The ensuing non-linear optimization problem is solved via a sequence of quadratic programming subproblems, using the VMCON algorithm. The resulting divertor designs are substantially improved over previous configurations
η-Invariant and Flat Vector Bundles
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2006-01-01
We present an alternate definition of the mod Z component of the AtiyahPatodi-Singer η invariant associated to (not necessary unitary) fiat vector bundles, which identifies explicitly its real and imaginary parts. This is done by combining a deformation of flat connections introduced in a previous paper with the analytic continuation procedure appearing in the original article of Atiyah, Parodi and Singer.
Capacity efficiency of recovery request bundling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Dittmann, Lars; Berger, Michael Stübert;
2010-01-01
This paper presents a comparison of recovery methods in terms of capacity efficiency. In particular, a method where recovery requests are bundled towards the destination (Shortcut Span Protection) is evaluated against traditional recovery methods. Our simulation results show that Shortcut Span...
Computations in intersection rings of flag bundles
Grayson, Daniel R; Stillman, Michael E
2012-01-01
Intersection rings of flag varieties and of isotropic flag varieties are generated by Chern classes of the tautological bundles modulo the relations coming from multiplicativity of total Chern classes. In this paper we describe the Groebner bases of the ideals of relations and give applications to computation of intersections, as implemented in Macaulay2.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lazaro, A.; Ammirabile, L.; Martorell, S.
2014-07-01
The article describes the changes implemented in the TRACE code to include thermodynamic tables of liquid lead drawn from experimental results. He then explains the process for developing a thermohydraulic model for the prototype ALFRED and analysis of a selection of representative transient conducted within the framework of international research projects. The study demonstrates the applicability of TRACE code to simulate designs of cooled lead fast reactors and exposes the high safety margins are there in this technology to accommodate the most severe transients identified in their security study. (Author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Caro, R.
1976-07-01
In this report the analysis of neutronics thermohydraulics and shielding of the 10 HWt swimming pool reactor C.E.N.E is included. In each of these chapters is given a short description of the theoretical model used, along with the theoretical versus experimental checking carried out, whenever possible, with the reactors JEN-I and JEN-II of Junta de Energia Nuclear. (Author) 11 refs.
Uren, Kenneth Richard; Schoor, George van
2013-01-01
This second paper in a two part series presents the application of a developed state space model extraction methodology applied to a Brayton cycle-based PCU (power conversion unit) of a PBMR (pebble bed modular reactor). The goal is to investigate if the state space extraction methodology can cope with larger and more complex thermohydraulic systems. In Part I the state space model extraction methodology for the purpose of control was described in detail and a state space represen...
Babitz Philip; Choe Dongok; Jevremovic Tatjana
2013-01-01
The thermodynamic conditions of the University of Utah's TRIGA Reactor were simulated using SolidWorks Flow Simulation, Ansys, Fluent and PARET-ANL. The models are developed for the reactor's currently maximum operating power of 90 kW, and a few higher power levels to analyze thermohydraulics and heat transfer aspects in determining a design basis for higher power including the cost estimate. It was found that the natural convection current becomes much mor...
Interplanetary Overlay Network Bundle Protocol Implementation
Burleigh, Scott C.
2011-01-01
The Interplanetary Overlay Network (ION) system's BP package, an implementation of the Delay-Tolerant Networking (DTN) Bundle Protocol (BP) and supporting services, has been specifically designed to be suitable for use on deep-space robotic vehicles. Although the ION BP implementation is unique in its use of zero-copy objects for high performance, and in its use of resource-sensitive rate control, it is fully interoperable with other implementations of the BP specification (Internet RFC 5050). The ION BP implementation is built using the same software infrastructure that underlies the implementation of the CCSDS (Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems) File Delivery Protocol (CFDP) built into the flight software of Deep Impact. It is designed to minimize resource consumption, while maximizing operational robustness. For example, no dynamic allocation of system memory is required. Like all the other ION packages, ION's BP implementation is designed to port readily between Linux and Solaris (for easy development and for ground system operations) and VxWorks (for flight systems operations). The exact same source code is exercised in both environments. Initially included in the ION BP implementations are the following: libraries of functions used in constructing bundle forwarders and convergence-layer (CL) input and output adapters; a simple prototype bundle forwarder and associated CL adapters designed to run over an IPbased local area network; administrative tools for managing a simple DTN infrastructure built from these components; a background daemon process that silently destroys bundles whose time-to-live intervals have expired; a library of functions exposed to applications, enabling them to issue and receive data encapsulated in DTN bundles; and some simple applications that can be used for system checkout and benchmarking.
Holomorphic Vector Bundle on Hopf Manifolds with Abelian Fundamental Groups
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xiang Yu ZHOU; Wei Ming LIU
2004-01-01
Let X be a Hopf manifolds with an Abelian fundamental group. E is a holomorphic vector bundle of rank r with trivial pull-back to W = Cn - {0}. We prove the existence of a non-vanishing section of L(×) E for some line bundle on X and study the vector bundles filtration structure of E. These generalize the results of D. Mall about structure theorem of such a vector bundle E.
In-pile test of Qinshan PWR fuel bundle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In-pile test of Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant PWR fuel bundle has been conducted in HWRR HTHP Test loop at CIAE. The test fuel bundle was irradiated to an average burnup of 25000 Mwd/tU. The authors describe the structure of (3 x 3-2) test fuel bundle, structure of irradiation rig, fuel fabrication, irradiation conditions, power and fuel burnup. Some comments on the in-pile performance for fuel bundle, fuel rod and irradiation rig were made
Anatomic Double-Bundle Posterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction
Chahla, Jorge; Nitri, Marco; Civitarese, David; Dean, Chase S.; Moulton, Samuel G.; LaPrade, Robert F.
2016-01-01
The posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) is known to be the main posterior stabilizer of the knee. Anatomic single-bundle PCL reconstruction, focusing on reconstruction of the larger anterolateral bundle, is the most commonly performed procedure. Because of the residual posterior and rotational tibial instability after the single-bundle procedure and the inability to restore the normal knee kinematics, an anatomic double-bundle PCL reconstruction has been proposed in an effort to re-create the n...
Thermohydraulic analysis of the IAEA standard problem test on the PMK-NHV facility
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has supported a standard test problem simulating small break loss of coolant accident on the test facility PMH-NHV in Budapest. The present pretest analysis of that transient was done using the computer code RELAP4/MOD6. The results were compared to the measurements data and to data of 19 other laboratories around the world that have performed the same analysis. The correspondence of the results to the measured data is reasonable. There are bigger discrepancies, which in turn influence other variables. (author)
Experimental studies on heat transfer to supercritical water in 2 × 2 rod bundle with two channels
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gu, H.Y., E-mail: guhanyang@sjtu.edu.cn [School of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Dongchuan Road 800, 200240, Shanghai (China); Hu, Z.X.; Liu, D.; Xiao, Y. [School of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Dongchuan Road 800, 200240, Shanghai (China); Cheng, X. [Institute of Fusion and Reactor Technologies (IFRT), Karlsruhe Institute of Technologies (KIT), Karlsruhe, 76131 (Germany)
2015-09-15
Highlights: • Heat transfer to supercritical water in a 2 × 2 rod bundle is investigated. • Effects of system parameters on heat transfer in bundle are analyzed. • The test data were compared with twenty heat transfer correlations. - Abstract: The experiment of heat transfer to supercritical water in 2 × 2 rod bundle is performed at Shanghai Jiao Tong University. The test section consists of two channels separated by a square steel assembly box with rounded corners. Water flows downward in the first channel and then turns upward in the second channel to cool the 2 × 2 rod bundle installed inside the assembly box. The bundle consists of four heated rods of 10 mm in O.D. and 1.18 in pitch-to-diameter ratio. The fluid enthalpy in the first channel increases due to the heat transfer through the assembly box when flowing downward. The minimum fluid enthalpy increase in the first channel appears at the pseudo-critical region due to the small temperature difference between the two channels. Effects of various parameters on heat transfer behavior inside the 2 × 2 rod bundle are similar to those observed in tube or annuli. No special phenomenon in heat transfer is observed during the mass flux and power transient. The steady-state heat transfer correlation is applicable to predict the heat transfer in the mass or power transient sequence. In addition, the importance of several dimensionless numbers and the accuracy of 20 heat transfer correlations are assessed. It is concluded that the buoyancy parameter proposed by Cheng et al. (2009) shows unique effect on heat transfer coefficient. Among the 20 selected heat transfer correlations, the correlations of Jackson and Fewster (1975) and Bishop et al. (1964) give the best predictions when compared with the experimental data.
Yoo, Yon-Sik; Song, Si Young; Yang, Cheol Jung; Ha, Jong Mun; Kim, Yoon Sang
2016-01-01
Purpose The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical outcomes of arthroscopic anatomical double bundle (DB) anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction with either selective anteromedial (AM) or posterolateral (PL) bundle reconstruction while preserving a relatively healthy ACL bundle. Materials and Methods The authors evaluated 98 patients with a mean follow-up of 30.8±4.0 months who had undergone DB or selective bundle ACL reconstructions. Of these, 34 cases underwent DB ACL reconstruction (group A), 34 underwent selective AM bundle reconstruction (group B), and 30 underwent selective PL bundle reconstructions (group C). These groups were compared with respect to Lysholm and International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) score, side-to-side differences of anterior laxity measured by KT-2000 arthrometer at 30 lbs, and stress radiography and Lachman and pivot shift test results. Pre- and post-operative data were objectively evaluated using a statistical approach. Results The preoperative anterior instability measured by manual stress radiography at 90° of knee flexion in group A was significantly greater than that in groups B and C (all pACL tears offers comparable clinical results to DB reconstruction in complete ACL tears. PMID:27401652
Geometry of torus bundles in integrable Hamiltonian systems
Lukina, Olga
2008-01-01
Thesis is concerned with global properties of Lagrangian bundles, i.e. symplectic n-torus bundles, as these occur in integrable Hamiltonian systems. It treats obstructions to triviality and concerns with classification of such bundles, as well as with manifestations of global invariants in real-worl
Compactifications of reductive groups as moduli stacks of bundles
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Martens, Johan; Thaddeus, Michael
Let G be a reductive group. We introduce the moduli problem of "bundle chains" parametrizing framed principal G-bundles on chains of lines. Any fan supported in a Weyl chamber determines a stability condition on bundle chains. Its moduli stack provides an equivariant toroidal compactification of G...
VECTOR BUNDLE, KILLING VECTOR FIELD AND PONTRYAGIN NUMBERS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
周建伟
1991-01-01
Let E be a vector bundle over a compact Riemannian manifold M. We construct a natural metric on the bundle space E and discuss the relationship between the killing vector fields of E and M. Then we give a proof of the Bott-Baum-Cheeger Theorem for vector bundle E.
Stability of Picard Bundle Over Moduli Space of Stable Vector Bundles of Rank Two Over a Curve
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Indranil Biswas; Tomás L Gómez
2001-08-01
Answering a question of [BV] it is proved that the Picard bundle on the moduli space of stable vector bundles of rank two, on a Riemann surface of genus at least three, with fixed determinant of odd degree is stable.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nam, Seung Hyun; Lee, Jeong Ik; Chang, Soon Heung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2014-05-15
{sub th} power and electricity generation with 100 kW{sub th} idle power. Consequently, KANUTER has the characteristics of a compact and lightweight system, excellent propellant efficiency, bimodal capability, and mission versatility as indicated in the reference design parameters. This thermo-hydraulic design analysis was carried out to estimate the optimum FWT of the unique SLHC fuel design in the core and thereby the maximum rocket performance. The FWT affects the mechanical strength of the SLHC fuel assembly as well as the thermo-hydraulic capability mainly depending on the heat transfer area of fuel. The thicker fuel wafer is mechanically strong with low pressure drop, while the thinner fuel wafer is thermally robust with less mechanical strength and higher shear stress in the core.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kaipainen, H.; Seppaenen, V.; Rinne, S.
1996-12-31
The conditions on which the bundling of the harvesting residues from spruce regeneration fellings would become profitable were studied. The calculations showed that one of the most important features was sufficient compaction of the bundle, so that the portion of the wood in the unit volume of the bundle has to be more than 40 %. The tests showed that the timber grab loader of farm tractor was insufficient for production of dense bundles. The feeding and compression device of the prototype bundler was constructed in the research and with this device the required density was obtained.The rate of compaction of the dry spruce felling residues was about 40 % and that of the fresh residues was more than 50 %. The comparison between the bundles showed that the calorific value of the fresh bundle per unit volume was nearly 30 % higher than that of the dry bundle. This means that the treatment of the bundles should be done of fresh felling residues. Drying of the bundles succeeded well, and the crushing and chipping tests showed that the processing of the bundles at the plant is possible. The treatability of the bundles was also excellent. By using the prototype, developed in the research, it was possible to produce a bundle of the fresh spruce harvesting residues, the diameter of which was about 50 cm and the length about 3 m, and the rate of compaction over 50 %. By these values the reduction target of the costs is obtainable
Multiwalled carbon nanotube reinforced biomimetic bundled gel fibres.
Kim, Young-Jin; Yamamoto, Seiichiro; Takahashi, Haruko; Sasaki, Naruo; Matsunaga, Yukiko T
2016-08-19
This work describes the fabrication and characterization of hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC)-based biomimetic bundled gel fibres. The bundled gel fibres were reinforced with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). A phase-separated aqueous solution with MWCNT and HPC was transformed into a bundled fibrous structure after being injected into a co-flow microfluidic device and applying the sheath flow. The resulting MWCNT-bundled gel fibres consist of multiple parallel microfibres. The mechanical and electrical properties of MWCNT-bundled gel fibres were improved and their potential for tissue engineering applications as a cell scaffold was demonstrated. PMID:27200527
Comparison of ASSERT subchannel code with Marviken bundle data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper ASSERT predictions are compared with the Marviken 6-rod bundle and 36+1 rod bundle. The predictions are presented for two experiments in the 6-rod bundle and four experiments in the 36+1 rod bundle. For low inlet subcooling, the void predictions are in good agreement with the experimental data. For high inlet subcooling, however, the agreement is not as good. This is attributed to the fact that in the high inlet subcooling experiments, single phase turbulent mixing plays a more important role in determining flow conditions in the bundle
Effectiveness of Hair Bundle Motility as the Cochlear Amplifier
Sul, Bora; Iwasa, Kuni H.
2009-01-01
The effectiveness of hair bundle motility in mammalian and avian ears is studied by examining energy balance for a small sinusoidal displacement of the hair bundle. The condition that the energy generated by a hair bundle must be greater than energy loss due to the shear in the subtectorial gap per hair bundle leads to a limiting frequency that can be supported by hair-bundle motility. Limiting frequencies are obtained for two motile mechanisms for fast adaptation, the channel re-closure mode...
Anatomic Double-Bundle Posterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.
Chahla, Jorge; Nitri, Marco; Civitarese, David; Dean, Chase S; Moulton, Samuel G; LaPrade, Robert F
2016-02-01
The posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) is known to be the main posterior stabilizer of the knee. Anatomic single-bundle PCL reconstruction, focusing on reconstruction of the larger anterolateral bundle, is the most commonly performed procedure. Because of the residual posterior and rotational tibial instability after the single-bundle procedure and the inability to restore the normal knee kinematics, an anatomic double-bundle PCL reconstruction has been proposed in an effort to re-create the native PCL footprint more closely and to restore normal knee kinematics. We detail our technique for an anatomic double-bundle PCL reconstruction using Achilles and anterior tibialis tendon allografts. PMID:27284530
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In consequence of activities on uncovering the reasons for through faults formation in cooling tubes of reactor control and protection system (CPS) channels of Bilibino-2 reactor the conclusion is made that corrosion failure development takes place against the backdrop of periodic increase of total moisture in reactor space at transient and standby modes at top of cooling tubes of CPS channels. Formation of corrosion defects in cooling tubes of four CPS channels of unit 2 in 2011-2012 is specific factor for this plant unit and do not effect on operation of other plant units. It is pointed out that ingress of moisture into gas system of the reactor is the critical factor providing integrity of structure elements of EhPG-6 reactor core cooling system. This fact agrees nicely with the results obtained during operation AM reactor of the First NPP
Reactor application of an improved bundle divertor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A Bundle Divertor was chosen as the impurity control and plasma exhaust system for the beam driven Demonstration Tokamak Hybrid Reactor - DTHR. In the context of a preconceptual design study of the reactor and associated facility a bundle divertor concept was developed and integrated into the reactor system. The overall system was found feasible and scalable for reactors with intermediate torodial field strengths on axis. The important design characteristics are: the overall average current density of the divertor coils is 0.73 kA for each tesla of toroidal field on axis; the divertor windings are made from super-conducting cables supported by steel structures and are designed to be maintainable; the particle collection assembly and auxiliary cryosorption vacuum pump are dual systems designed such that they can be reactivated alterntively to allow for continuous reactor operation; and the power requirement for energizing and operating the divertor is about 5 MW
Heterotic String Compactification and New Vector Bundles
Lin, Hai; Wu, Baosen; Yau, Shing-Tung
2016-07-01
We propose a construction of Kähler and non-Kähler Calabi-Yau manifolds by branched double covers of twistor spaces. In this construction we use the twistor spaces of four-manifolds with self-dual conformal structures, with the examples of connected sum of n {mathbb{P}2}s. We also construct K3-fibered Calabi-Yau manifolds from the branched double covers of the blow-ups of the twistor spaces. These manifolds can be used in heterotic string compactifications to four dimensions. We also construct stable and polystable vector bundles. Some classes of these vector bundles can give rise to supersymmetric grand unified models with three generations of quarks and leptons in four dimensions.
Venereau polynomials and related fiber bundles
Kaliman, Shulim; ZAIDENBERG, MIKHAIL
2003-01-01
The Venereau polynomials v-n:=y+x^n(xz+y(yu+z^2)), n>= 1, on A4 have all fibers isomorphic to the affine space A3. Moreover, for all n>= 1 the map (v-n, x) : A4 -> A2 yields a flat family of affine planes over A2. In the present note we show that over the punctured plane A2\\0, this family is a fiber bundle. This bundle is trivial if and only if v-n is a variable of the ring C[x][y,z,u] over C[x]. It is an open question whether v1 and v2 are variables of the polynomial ring C[x,y,z,u]. S. Vene...
Covariance and the hierarchy of frame bundles
Estabrook, Frank B.
1987-01-01
This is an essay on the general concept of covariance, and its connection with the structure of the nested set of higher frame bundles over a differentiable manifold. Examples of covariant geometric objects include not only linear tensor fields, densities and forms, but affinity fields, sectors and sector forms, higher order frame fields, etc., often having nonlinear transformation rules and Lie derivatives. The intrinsic, or invariant, sets of forms that arise on frame bundles satisfy the graded Cartan-Maurer structure equations of an infinite Lie algebra. Reduction of these gives invariant structure equations for Lie pseudogroups, and for G-structures of various orders. Some new results are introduced for prolongation of structure equations, and for treatment of Riemannian geometry with higher-order moving frames. The use of invariant form equations for nonlinear field physics is implicitly advocated.
Deformations of Fell bundles and twisted graph algebras
Raeburn, Iain
2016-11-01
We consider Fell bundles over discrete groups, and the C*-algebra which is universal for representations of the bundle. We define deformations of Fell bundles, which are new Fell bundles with the same underlying Banach bundle but with the multiplication deformed by a two-cocycle on the group. Every graph algebra can be viewed as the C*-algebra of a Fell bundle, and there are are many cocycles of interest with which to deform them. We thus obtain many of the twisted graph algebras of Kumjian, Pask and Sims. We demonstate the utility of our approach to these twisted graph algebras by proving that the deformations associated to different cocycles can be assembled as the fibres of a C*-bundle.
Radiological evidence for the triple bundle anterior cruciate ligament.
MacKay, James W; Whitehead, Harry; Toms, Andoni P
2014-10-01
The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) has traditionally been described as having two bundles--one anteromedial and one posterolateral. This has been challenged by studies proposing the existence of a third, intermediate, bundle with distinct functional significance, an arrangement that has been described in a number of domesticated animal species. No radiological evidence for the triple bundle ACL has previously been described. A prevalence study was carried out on 73 consecutive human knee magnetic resonance (MR) studies to determine the number of visible bundles, excluding individuals with a history of ACL injury or mucoid degeneration. A triple bundle ACL was demonstrated in 15 out of 73 human knees (20.5%, 95% confidence interval 12.9-31.2%). This is the first radiological description of the human triple bundle ACL. There was MR imaging evidence of a triple bundle ACL in approximately one fifth of human knees in this study. PMID:24890455
Using Advanced Fuel Bundles in CANDU Reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Improving the exit fuel burnup in CANDU reactors was a long-time challenge for both bundle designers and performance analysts. Therefore, the 43-element design together with several fuel compositions was studied, in the aim of assessing new reliable, economic and proliferation-resistant solutions. Recovered Uranium (RU) fuel is intended to be used in CANDU reactors, given the important amount of slightly enriched Uranium (~0.96% w/o U235) that might be provided by the spent LWR fuel recovery plants. Though this fuel has a far too small U235 enrichment to be used in LWR's, it can be still used to fuel CANDU reactors. Plutonium based mixtures are also considered, with both natural and depleted Uranium, either for peacefully using the military grade dispositioned Plutonium or for better using Plutonium from LWR reprocessing plants. The proposed Thorium-LEU mixtures are intended to reduce the Uranium consumption per produced MW. The positive void reactivity is a major concern of any CANDU safety assessment, therefore reducing it was also a task for the present analysis. Using the 43-element bundle with a certain amount of burnable poison (e.g. Dysprosium) dissolved in the 8 innermost elements may lead to significantly reducing the void reactivity. The expected outcomes of these design improvements are: higher exit burnup, smooth/uniform radial bundle power distribution and reduced void reactivity. Since the improved fuel bundles are intended to be loaded in existing CANDU reactors, we found interesting to estimate the local reactivity effects of a mechanical control absorber (MCA) on the surrounding fuel cells. Cell parameters and neutron flux distributions, as well as macroscopic cross-sections were estimated using the transport code DRAGON and a 172-group updated nuclear data library. (author)
Effective freeness of adjoint line bundles
Heier, Gordon
2001-01-01
In this note we establish a new Fujita-type effective bound for the base point freeness of adjoint line bundles on a compact complex projective manifold of complex dimension $n$. The bound we obtain (approximately) differs from the linear bound conjectured by Fujita only by a factor of the cube root of $n$. As an application, a new effective statement for pluricanonical embeddings is derived.
On Complex Supermanifolds with Trivial Canonical Bundle
Groeger, Josua
2016-01-01
We give an algebraic characterisation for the triviality of the canonical bundle of a complex supermanifold in terms of a certain Batalin-Vilkovisky superalgebra structure. As an application, we study the Calabi-Yau case, in which an explicit formula in terms of the Levi-Civita connection is achieved. Our methods include the use of complex integral forms and the recently developed theory of superholonomy.
Uncovering ecosystem service bundles through social preferences.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Berta Martín-López
Full Text Available Ecosystem service assessments have increasingly been used to support environmental management policies, mainly based on biophysical and economic indicators. However, few studies have coped with the social-cultural dimension of ecosystem services, despite being considered a research priority. We examined how ecosystem service bundles and trade-offs emerge from diverging social preferences toward ecosystem services delivered by various types of ecosystems in Spain. We conducted 3,379 direct face-to-face questionnaires in eight different case study sites from 2007 to 2011. Overall, 90.5% of the sampled population recognized the ecosystem's capacity to deliver services. Formal studies, environmental behavior, and gender variables influenced the probability of people recognizing the ecosystem's capacity to provide services. The ecosystem services most frequently perceived by people were regulating services; of those, air purification held the greatest importance. However, statistical analysis showed that socio-cultural factors and the conservation management strategy of ecosystems (i.e., National Park, Natural Park, or a non-protected area have an effect on social preferences toward ecosystem services. Ecosystem service trade-offs and bundles were identified by analyzing social preferences through multivariate analysis (redundancy analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis. We found a clear trade-off among provisioning services (and recreational hunting versus regulating services and almost all cultural services. We identified three ecosystem service bundles associated with the conservation management strategy and the rural-urban gradient. We conclude that socio-cultural preferences toward ecosystem services can serve as a tool to identify relevant services for people, the factors underlying these social preferences, and emerging ecosystem service bundles and trade-offs.
Quantum principal bundles and their characteristic classes
Durdevic, M
1996-01-01
A brief exposition of the general theory of characteristic classes of quantum principal bundles is given. The theory of quantum characteristic classes incorporates ideas of classical Weil theory into the conceptual framework of non-commutative differential geometry. A purely cohomological interpretation of the Weil homomorphism is given, together with a standard geometrical interpretation via quantum invariant polynomials. A natural spectral sequence is described. Some quantum phenomena appearing in the formalism are discussed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Arndt, S.A.
1997-07-01
The real-time reactor simulation field is currently at a crossroads in terms of the capability to perform real-time analysis using the most sophisticated computer codes. Current generation safety analysis codes are being modified to replace simplified codes that were specifically designed to meet the competing requirement for real-time applications. The next generation of thermo-hydraulic codes will need to have included in their specifications the specific requirement for use in a real-time environment. Use of the codes in real-time applications imposes much stricter requirements on robustness, reliability and repeatability than do design and analysis applications. In addition, the need for code use by a variety of users is a critical issue for real-time users, trainers and emergency planners who currently use real-time simulation, and PRA practitioners who will increasingly use real-time simulation for evaluating PRA success criteria in near real-time to validate PRA results for specific configurations and plant system unavailabilities.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The real-time reactor simulation field is currently at a crossroads in terms of the capability to perform real-time analysis using the most sophisticated computer codes. Current generation safety analysis codes are being modified to replace simplified codes that were specifically designed to meet the competing requirement for real-time applications. The next generation of thermo-hydraulic codes will need to have included in their specifications the specific requirement for use in a real-time environment. Use of the codes in real-time applications imposes much stricter requirements on robustness, reliability and repeatability than do design and analysis applications. In addition, the need for code use by a variety of users is a critical issue for real-time users, trainers and emergency planners who currently use real-time simulation, and PRA practitioners who will increasingly use real-time simulation for evaluating PRA success criteria in near real-time to validate PRA results for specific configurations and plant system unavailabilities
Neutronic and thermo-hydraulic analyses of a small, long-life HTGR for passive decay-heat removal
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Since the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in 2011, design concepts for nuclear reactors have been reconsidered with much greater emphasis placed upon passive systems for decay-heat removal. By considering this issue, the design parameter conditions for high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs) with passive safety features of decay-heat removal were obtained by residual-heat transfer calculation using equations for fundamental heat transfer mechanisms in our previous works. In the present study, the appropriate size of reactor core for a 100 MWt reactor operating at 1123 K of the initial core temperature was found using the conditions. Consequently, neutronics and thermo-hydraulic analyses for the proposed reactor core were performed and the proper optimizations to control the excess reactivity and flatten the change in power peaking factor during operation were done successfully. By the systematic method to decide the core design which satisfies the condition for passive decay-heat removal, a long-life small HTGR concept whose excess reactivity was small during the operation was shown. The small excess reactivity is a significant advantage from the view point of safety in reactivity accident. (author)
Abelian conformal field theory and determinant bundles
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Jørgen Ellegaard; Ueno, K.
2007-01-01
Following [10], we study a so-called bc-ghost system of zero conformal dimension from the viewpoint of [14, 16]. We show that the ghost vacua construction results in holomorphic line bundles with connections over holomorphic families of curves. We prove that the curvature of these connections are...... nodal curves. These results are used in [4] to construct modular functors form the conformal field theories given in [14, 16] by twisting with an appropriate factional power of this Abelian theory.......Following [10], we study a so-called bc-ghost system of zero conformal dimension from the viewpoint of [14, 16]. We show that the ghost vacua construction results in holomorphic line bundles with connections over holomorphic families of curves. We prove that the curvature of these connections...... are up to a scale the same as the curvature of the connections constructed in [14, 16]. We study the sewing construction for nodal curves and its explicit relation to the constructed connections. Finally we construct preferred holomorphic sections of these line bundles and analyze their behaviour near...
Bundling harvester; Harvennuspuun automaattisen nippukorjausharvesterin kehittaeminen
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Koponen, K. [Eko-Log Oy, Kuopio (Finland)
1997-12-01
The starting point of the project was to design and construct, by taking the silvicultural point of view into account, a harvesting and processing system especially for energy-wood, containing manually driven bundling harvester, automating of the harvester, and automated loading. The equipment forms an ideal method for entrepreneur`s-line harvesting. The target is to apply the system also for owner`s-line harvesting. The profitability of the system promotes the utilisation of the system in both cases. The objectives of the project were: to construct a test equipment and prototypes for all the project stages, to carry out terrain and strain tests in order to examine the usability and durability, as well as the capacity of the machine, to test the applicability of the Eko-Log system in simultaneous harvesting of energy and pulp woods, and to start the marketing and manufacturing of the products. The basic problems of the construction of the bundling harvester have been solved using terrain-tests. The prototype machine has been shown to be operable. Loading of the bundles to form sufficiently economically transportable loads has been studied, and simultaneously, the branch-biomass has been tried to be utilised without loosing the profitability of transportation. The results have been promising, and will promote the profitable utilisation of wood-energy. (orig.)
Transient pseudohypoaldosteronism
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stajić Nataša
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Introduction. Infants with urinary tract malformations (UTM presenting with urinary tract infection (UTI are prone to develop transient type 1 pseudohypoaldosteronism (THPA1. Objective. Report on patient series with characteristics of THPA1, UTM and/or UTI and suggestions for the diagnosis and therapy. Methods. Patients underwent blood and urine electrolyte and acid-base analysis, serum aldosterosterone levels and plasma rennin activity measuring; urinalysis, urinoculture and renal ultrasound were done and medical and/or surgical therapy was instituted. Results. Hyponatraemia (120.9±5.8 mmol/L, hyperkalaemia (6.9±0.9 mmol/L, metabolic acidosis (plasma bicarbonate, 11±1.4 mmol/L, and a rise in serum creatinine levels (145±101 μmol/L were associated with inappropriately high urinary sodium (51.3±17.5 mmol/L and low potassium (14.1±5.9 mmol/L excretion. Elevated plasma aldosterone concentrations (170.4±100.5 ng/dL and the very high levels of the plasma aldosterone to potassium ratio (25.2±15.6 together with diminished urinary K/Na values (0.31±0.19 indicated tubular resistance to aldosterone. After institution of appropriate medical and/or surgical therapy, serum electrolytes, creatinine, and acid-base balance were normalized. Imaging studies showed ureteropyelic or ureterovesical junction obstruction in 3 and 2 patients, respectively, posterior urethral valves in 3, and normal UT in 1 patient. According to our knowledge, this is the first report on THPA1 in the Serbian literature. Conclusion. Male infants with hyponatraemia, hyperkalaemia and metabolic acidosis have to have their urine examined and the renal ultrasound has to be done in order to avoid both, the underdiagnosis of THPA1 and the inappropriate medication.
An analytical fiber bundle model for pullout mechanics of root bundles
Cohen, D.; Schwarz, M.; Or, D.
2011-09-01
Roots in soil contribute to the mechanical stability of slopes. Estimation of root reinforcement is challenging because roots form complex biological networks whose geometrical and mechanical characteristics are difficult to characterize. Here we describe an analytical model that builds on simple root descriptors to estimate root reinforcement. Root bundles are modeled as bundles of heterogeneous fibers pulled along their long axes neglecting root-soil friction. Analytical expressions for the pullout force as a function of displacement are derived. The maximum pullout force and corresponding critical displacement are either derived analytically or computed numerically. Key model inputs are a root diameter distribution (uniform, Weibull, or lognormal) and three empirical power law relations describing tensile strength, elastic modulus, and length of roots as functions of root diameter. When a root bundle with root tips anchored in the soil matrix is pulled by a rigid plate, a unique parameter, ?, that depends only on the exponents of the power law relations, dictates the order in which roots of different diameters break. If ? 1, large roots break first. When ? = 1, all fibers break simultaneously, and the maximum tensile force is simply the roots' mean force times the number of roots in the bundle. Based on measurements of root geometry and mechanical properties, the value of ? is less than 1, usually ranging between 0 and 0.7. Thus, small roots always fail first. The model shows how geometrical and mechanical characteristics of roots and root diameter distribution affect the pullout force, its maximum and corresponding displacement. Comparing bundles of roots that have similar mean diameters, a bundle with a narrow variance in root diameter will result in a larger maximum force and a smaller displacement at maximum force than a bundle with a wide diameter distribution. Increasing the mean root diameter of a bundle without changing the distribution's shape increases
Spacetime foam induced collective bundling of intense fields
Oniga, Teodora; Wang, Charles H.-T.
2016-09-01
The influence of spacetime foam on a broad class of bosonic fields with arbitrary numbers of particles in the low-energy regime is investigated. Based on a recently formulated general description of open quantum gravitational systems, we analyze the propagation of scalar, electromagnetic, and gravitational waves on both long and short time scales with respect to their mean frequencies. For the long time propagation, the Markov approximation that neglects the effects of initial conditions of these waves is employed. In this case, despite intuitively expected decoherence and dissipation from the noisy spacetime, we show that such phenomena turn out to be completely suppressed for scalar bosons, photons, and gravitons, which are coupled to gravity but otherwise free. The short time effects are then recovered through the transient non-Markovian evolution. Focusing on scalar bosons in initially incoherent states, we find that the resulting quantum dissipation depends strongly on the distribution of the particle momentum states. We further identify a hitherto undiscovered collective antidissipation mechanism for a large number of particles. The surprising new effect tends to "bundle" identical particles within sharply distributed momentum states having a width inversely proportional to the particle number due to the thermal fluctuations, or its square root due to the vacuum fluctuations of spacetime.
Three dimensional neutronic/thermal-hydraulic coupled simulation of MSR in transient state condition
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhou, Jianjun [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xianning Road, 28, Xi’an 710049, Shaanxi (China); College of Mechanical and Power Engineering, China Three Gorges University, No 8, Daxue road, Yichang, Hubei 443002 (China); Zhang, Daling, E-mail: dlzhang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xianning Road, 28, Xi’an 710049, Shaanxi (China); Qiu, Suizheng; Su, Guanghui; Tian, Wenxi; Wu, Yingwei [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xianning Road, 28, Xi’an 710049, Shaanxi (China)
2015-02-15
Highlights: • Developed a three dimensional neutronic/thermal-hydraulic coupled transient analysis code for MSR. • Investigated the neutron distribution and thermal-hydraulic characters of the core under transient condition. • Analyzed three different transient conditions of inlet temperature drop, reactivity jump and pump coastdown. - Abstract: MSR (molten salt reactor) use liquid molten salt as coolant and fuel solvent, which was the only one liquid reactor of six Generation IV reactor types. As a liquid reactor the physical property of reactor was significantly influenced by fuel salt flow and the conventional analysis methods applied in solid fuel reactors are not applicable for this type of reactors. The present work developed a three dimensional neutronic/thermal-hydraulic coupled code investigated the neutronics and thermo-hydraulics characteristics of the core in transient condition based on neutron diffusion theory and numerical heat transfer. The code consists of two group neutron diffusion equations for fast and thermal neutron fluxes and six group balance equations for delayed neutron precursors. The code was separately validated by neutron benchmark and flow and heat transfer benchmark. Three different transient conditions was analyzed with inlet temperature drop, reactivity jump and pump coastdown. The results provide some valuable information in design and research this kind of reactor.
The simulation of thermohydraulic phenomena in a pressurized water reactor primary loop
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Popp, M
1987-01-01
Several important fluid flow and heat transfer phenomena essential to nuclear power reactor safety were investigated. Scaling and modeling laws for pressurized water reactors are reviewed and a new scaling approach focusing on the overall loop behavior is presented. Scaling criteria for one- and two-phase natural circulation are developed, as well as a simplified model describing the first phase of a small break loss of coolant accident. Reactor vessel vent valve effects are included in the analysis of steady one-phase natural circulation flow. Two new dimensionless numbers, which uniquely describe one-phase flow in natural circulation loops, were deduced and are discussed. A scaled model of the primary loop of a typical Babcock and Wilcox reactor was designed, built, and tested. The particular prototype modeled was the TMI unit 2 reactor. The electrically heated, stainless steel model operates at a maximum pressure of 300 psig and has a maximum heat input of 188 kW. The model is about 4 times smaller in height than the prototype reactor, with a nominal volume scale of 1:500. Experiments were conducted establishing subcooled natural circulation in the model loop. Both steady flow and power transients were investigated.
The simulation of thermohydraulic phenomena in a pressurized water reactor primary loop
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Several important fluid flow and heat transfer phenomena essential to nuclear power reactor safety were investigated. Scaling and modeling laws for pressurized water reactors are reviewed and a new scaling approach focusing on the overall loop behavior is presented. Scaling criteria for one- and two-phase natural circulation are developed, as well as a simplified model describing the first phase of a small break loss of coolant accident. Reactor vessel vent valve effects are included in the analysis of steady one-phase natural circulation flow. Two new dimensionless numbers, which uniquely describe one-phase flow in natural circulation loops, were deduced and are discussed. A scaled model of the primary loop of a typical Babcock and Wilcox reactor was designed, built, and tested. The particular prototype modeled was the TMI unit 2 reactor. The electrically heated, stainless steel model operates at a maximum pressure of 300 psig and has a maximum heat input of 188 kW. The model is about 4 times smaller in height than the prototype reactor, with a nominal volume scale of 1:500. Experiments were conducted establishing subcooled natural circulation in the model loop. Both steady flow and power transients were investigated
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sepold, L.; Hagen, S.; Hofmann, P.; Schanz, G.
2009-01-15
The CORA experiments carried out in an out-of-pile facility at the Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (KfK), Federal Republic of Germany, are part of the ''Severe Fuel Damage'' (SFD) program. The experimental program is to provide information on the failure mechanisms of Light Water Reactor (LWR) fuel elements in a temperature range from 1200 C to 2000 C and in a few cases up to 2400 C. In the CORA experiments two different bundle configurations are tested: PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor) and BWR (Boiling Water Reactor) bundles. The PWR-type assemblies usually consist of 25 rods with 16 electrically heated fuel rod simulators and nine unheated rods (full-pellet and absorber rods). Bundle CORA-5 contained one Ag/In/Cd - steel absorber rod whereas two absorber rods were used in CORA-12, CORA-15, and CORA-9. The larger bundle CORA-7 contained 5 absorber rods. CORA-12 was terminated by quenching with water from the bottom. In CORA-15 the heated and unheated rods were pressurized to achieve pronounced clad ballooning. Bundle CORA-9 was tested with a system pressure of 1.0 MPa instead of 0.22 MPa. The test bundles were subjected to temperature transients of a slow heatup rate in a steam environment. Thus, an accident sequence is simulated, which may develop from a small-break loss-of-coolant accident of a LWR. The transient phases of the tests were initiated with a temperature ramp rate of 1 K/s. The temperature escalation due to the exothermal zircaloy (Zry)-steam reaction started at about 1100 C, leading the bundles to maximum temperatures of approximately 2000 C. Rod destruction started with the failure of the absorber rod cladding at about 1200 C, i.e. about 250 K below the melting regime of steel. Penetration of the steel cladding was presumably caused by a eutectic interaction between steel and the zircaloy guide tube. The test bundles resulted in severe oxidation and partial melting of the cladding, fuel dissolution by Zry/UO{sub 2} interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An accurate subchannel database is crucial for modeling the multidimensional two-phase flow in a rod bundle and for validating subchannel analysis codes. Based on available reference, it can be said that a point-measurement sensor for acquiring void fractions and bubble velocity distributions do not infer interactions of the subchannel flow dynamics, such as a cross flow and flow distribution, etc. In order to acquire multidimensional two-phase flow in a 10×10 rod bundle with an o.d. of 10 mm and 3110 mm length, a new sensor consisting of 11-wire by 11-wire and 10-rod by 10-rod electrodes was developed. Electric potential in the proximity region between two wires creates a void fraction in the center subchannel region, like a so-called wire mesh sensor. A unique aspect of the devised sensor is that the void fraction near the rod surface can be estimated from the electric potential in the proximity region between one wire and one rod. The additional 400 points of void fraction and phasic velocity in 10×10 bundle can therefore be acquired. The devised sensor exhibits the quasi three-dimensional flow structures, i.e. void fraction, phasic velocity and bubble chord length distributions. These quasi three-dimensional structures exhibit the complexity of two-phase flow dynamics, such as coalescence and the breakup of bubbles in transient phasic velocity distributions. (author)
CFD Turbulence Study of PWR Spacer-Grids in a Rod Bundle
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. Peña-Monferrer
2014-01-01
the flow dynamics and heat transfer phenomena along the fuel rods. This work presents the analysis of the turbulence effects of a split-type and swirl-type spacer-grid geometries on single phase in a PWR (pressurized water reactor rod bundle. Various computational fluid dynamics (CFD calculations have been performed and the results validated with the experiments of the OECD/NEA-KAERI rod bundle CFD blind benchmark exercise on turbulent mixing in a rod bundle with spacers at the MATiS-H facility. Simulation of turbulent phenomena downstream of the spacer-grid presents high complexity issues; a wide range of length scales are present in the domain increasing the difficulty of defining in detail the transient nature of turbulent flow with ordinary turbulence models. This paper contains a complete description of the procedure to obtain a validated CFD model for the simulation of the spacer-grids. Calculations were performed with the commercial code ANSYS CFX using large eddy simulation (LES turbulence model and the CFD modeling procedure validated by comparison with measurements to determine their suitability in the prediction of the turbulence phenomena.
Iden, Sascha C.; Peters, Andre; Durner, Wolfgang
2015-11-01
The prediction of unsaturated hydraulic conductivity from the soil water retention curve by pore-bundle models is a cost-effective and widely applied technique. One problem for conductivity predictions from retention functions with continuous derivatives, i.e. continuous water capacity functions, is that the hydraulic conductivity curve exhibits a sharp drop close to water saturation if the pore-size distribution is wide. So far this artifact has been ignored or removed by introducing an explicit air-entry value into the capillary saturation function. However, this correction leads to a retention function which is not continuously differentiable. We present a new parameterization of the hydraulic properties which uses the original saturation function (e.g. of van Genuchten) and introduces a maximum pore radius only in the pore-bundle model. In contrast to models using an explicit air entry, the resulting conductivity function is smooth and increases monotonically close to saturation. The model concept can easily be applied to any combination of retention curve and pore-bundle model. We derive closed-form expressions for the unimodal and multimodal van Genuchten-Mualem models and apply the model concept to curve fitting and inverse modeling of a transient outflow experiment. Since the new model retains the smoothness and continuous differentiability of the retention model and eliminates the sharp drop in conductivity close to saturation, the resulting hydraulic functions are physically more reasonable and ideal for numerical simulations with the Richards equation or multiphase flow models.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
When performing transient analysis in heterogeneous nuclear reactors loaded with different types of fuel bundles is necessary to model the reactor core by a few representative fuel elements with average properties of a region containing a large number of fuel elements. The properties of these representative fuel bundles are obtained by averaging the thermal-hydraulic properties of the fuel elements contained in each region. In this paper we study the different ways to perform the averaging of the thermal-hydraulic properties that can have an influence on the transient results for licence purposes. Also we study the influence of the different averaging methods on the peak clad temperature (PCT) evolution for a LOCA, and on the critical power ratio (CPR) in the hot channels for a turbine trip transient without bypass credit.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The COBRA-IV-I computer code uses the subchannel analysis approach to determine the enthalpy and flow distribution in rod bundles for both steady-state and transient conditions. The steady-state and transient solution schemes used in COBRA-IIIC are still available in COBRA-IV-I as the implicit solution scheme option. In addition to these techniques, a new explicit solution scheme is now available which allows the calculation of severe transients involving flow reversals, recirculations, expulsion and reentry flows, with a pressure or flow boundary condition specified. Significant storage compaction and reduced running times have been achieved to allow the calculation of problems involving hundreds of subchannels
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nam, Seung Hyun; Choi, Jae Young; Venneria, Paolo F.; Jeong, Yong Hoon; Chang, Soon Heung [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2015-10-15
The Korea Advanced NUclear Thermal Engine Rocket utilizing an LEU fuel (KANUTER-LEU) is a non-proliferative and comparably efficient NTR engine with relatively low thrust levels of 40 - 50 kN for in-space transportation. The small modular engine can expand mission versatility, when flexibly used in a clustered engine arrangement, so that it can perform various scale missions from low-thrust robotic science missions to high-thrust manned missions. In addition, the clustered engine system can enhance engine redundancy and ensuing crew safety as well as the thrust. The propulsion system is an energy conversion system to transform the thermal energy of the reactor into the kinetic energy of the propellant to produce the powers for thrust, propellant feeding and electricity. It is mainly made up of a propellant Feeding System (PFS) comprising a Turbo-Pump Assembly (TPA), a Regenerative Nozzle Assembly (RNA), etc. For this core design study, an expander cycle is assumed to be the propulsion system. The EGS converts the thermal energy of the EHTGR in the idle operation (only 350 kW{sub th} power) to electric power during the electric power mode. This paper presents a preliminary thermohydraulic design analysis to explore the design space for the new reactor and to estimate the referential engine performance. The new non-proliferative NTR engine concept, KANUTER-LEU, is under designing to surmount the nuclear proliferation obstacles on allR and Dactivities and eventual commercialization for future generations. To efficiently implement a heavy LEU fuel for the NTR engine, its reactor design innovatively possesses the key characteristics of the high U density fuel with high heating and H{sub 2} corrosion resistances, the thermal neutron spectrum core and also minimizing non-fission neutron loss, and the compact reactor design with protectively cooling capability. To investigate feasible design space for the moderated EHTGR-LEU and resultant engine performance, the
A Tannakian approach to dimensional reduction of principal bundles
Álvarez-Cónsul, Luis; García-Prada, Oscar
2016-01-01
Let $P$ be a parabolic subgroup of a connected simply connected complex semisimple Lie group $G$. Given a compact K\\"ahler manifold $X$, the dimensional reduction of $G$-equivariant holomorphic vector bundles over $X\\times G/P$ was carried out by the first and third authors. This raises the question of dimensional reduction of holomorphic principal bundles over $X\\times G/P$. The method used for equivariant vector bundles does not generalize to principal bundles. In this paper, we adapt to equivariant principal bundles the Tannakian approach of Nori, to describe the dimensional reduction of $G$-equivariant principal bundles over $X\\times G/P$, and to establish a Hitchin--Kobayashi type correspondence. In order to be able to apply the Tannakian theory, we need to assume that $X$ is a complex projective manifold.
Monopoles and Modifications of Bundles over Elliptic Curves
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andrey M. Levin
2009-06-01
Full Text Available Modifications of bundles over complex curves is an operation that allows one to construct a new bundle from a given one. Modifications can change a topological type of bundle. We describe the topological type in terms of the characteristic classes of the bundle. Being applied to the Higgs bundles modifications establish an equivalence between different classical integrable systems. Following Kapustin and Witten we define the modifications in terms of monopole solutions of the Bogomolny equation. We find the Dirac monopole solution in the case R × (elliptic curve. This solution is a three-dimensional generalization of the Kronecker series. We give two representations for this solution and derive a functional equation for it generalizing the Kronecker results. We use it to define Abelian modifications for bundles of arbitrary rank. We also describe non-Abelian modifications in terms of theta-functions with characteristic.
Amplitude death of coupled hair bundles with stochastic channel noise
Kim, Kyung-Joong
2014-01-01
Hair cells conduct auditory transduction in vertebrates. In lower vertebrates such as frogs and turtles, due to the active mechanism in hair cells, hair bundles(stereocilia) can be spontaneously oscillating or quiescent. Recently, the amplitude death phenomenon has been proposed [K.-H. Ahn, J. R. Soc. Interface, {\\bf 10}, 20130525 (2013)] as a mechanism for auditory transduction in frog hair-cell bundles, where sudden cessation of the oscillations arises due to the coupling between non-identical hair bundles. The gating of the ion channel is intrinsically stochastic due to the stochastic nature of the configuration change of the channel. The strength of the noise due to the channel gating can be comparable to the thermal Brownian noise of hair bundles. Thus, we perform stochastic simulations of the elastically coupled hair bundles. In spite of stray noisy fluctuations due to its stochastic dynamics, our simulation shows the transition from collective oscillation to amplitude death as inter-bundle coupling str...
Differential geometry of complex vector bundles
Kobayashi, Shoshichi
2014-01-01
Holomorphic vector bundles have become objects of interest not only to algebraic and differential geometers and complex analysts but also to low dimensional topologists and mathematical physicists working on gauge theory. This book, which grew out of the author's lectures and seminars in Berkeley and Japan, is written for researchers and graduate students in these various fields of mathematics. Originally published in 1987. The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeto
Riemann Surfaces: Vector Bundles, Physics, and Dynamics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sikander, Shehryar
We construct quantum representation of a subgroup of the mapping class group of a genus two surface. Our construction relies on realizing this subgroup as the orbifold fundamental group of a Teichmueller curve, pulling back the Hitchin connection to this Tecihmueller curve, and computing...... the monodromy with respect to the pulled back connection. The formula for the representation includes a series with coefficients as iterated integrals. This series is closely related to the cyclotomic version of the Drinfel'd associator. The geodesic flow in the unit the tangent bundle of this Teichmueller...
Compression of a bundle of light rays.
Marcuse, D
1971-03-01
The performance of ray compression devices is discussed on the basis of a phase space treatment using Liouville's theorem. It is concluded that the area in phase space of the input bundle of rays is determined solely by the required compression ratio and possible limitations on the maximum ray angle at the output of the device. The efficiency of tapers and lenses as ray compressors is approximately equal. For linear tapers and lenses the input angle of the useful rays must not exceed the compression ratio. The performance of linear tapers and lenses is compared to a particular ray compressor using a graded refractive index distribution.
Tiling spaces are Cantor set fiber bundles
Sadun, Lorenzo; Williams, R F
2001-01-01
We prove that fairly general spaces of tilings of R^d are fiber bundles over the torus T^d, with totally disconnected fiber. This was conjectured (in a weaker form) in [W3], and proved in certain cases. In fact, we show that each such space is homeomorphic to the d-fold suspension of a Z^d subshift (or equivalently, a tiling space whose tiles are marked unit d-cubes). The only restrictions on our tiling spaces are that 1) the tiles are assumed to be polygons (polyhedra if d>2) that meet full-...
Higher order mechanics on graded bundles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper we develop a geometric approach to higher order mechanics on graded bundles in both, the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formalism, via the recently discovered weighted algebroids. We present the corresponding Tulczyjew triple for this higher order situation and derive in this framework the phase equations from an arbitrary (also singular) Lagrangian or Hamiltonian, as well as the Euler–Lagrange equations. As important examples, we geometrically derive the classical higher order Euler–Lagrange equations and analogous reduced equations for invariant higher order Lagrangians on Lie groupoids. (paper)
The equivalence of bundling and advance sales
Alexandrov, Alexei; Bedre-Defolie, Özlem
2013-01-01
We show that a monopolist's problem of optimal advance selling strategy can be mathematically transformed into a problem of optimal bundling strategy if four conditions hold: i. consumers and the firm agree on the probability of the states occurring, ii. the firm pre-commits to the spot prices to be charged in the advance selling stage, iii. consumers are risk-neutral, and iv. consumers and the firm do not have time preferences or when they do have time preferences, they discount future at th...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Worldwide there is considerable experience in nuclear power technology, especially in water cooled reactor technology. Of the operating plants, in September 1998, 346 were light water reactors (LWRs) totalling 306 GW(e) and 29 were heavy water reactors (HWRs) totalling 15 GW(e). The accumulated experience and lessons learned from these plants are being incorporated into new advanced reactor designs. Utility requirements documents have been formulated to guide these design activities by incorporating this experience, and results from research and development programmes, with the aim of reducing costs and licensing uncertainties by establishing the technical bases for the new designs. Common goals for advanced designs are high availability, user-friendly features, competitive economics and compliance with internationally recognized safety objectives. Large water cooled reactors with power outputs of 1300 MW(e) and above, which possess inherent safety characteristics (e.g. negative Doppler moderator temperature coefficients, and negative moderator void coefficient) and incorporate proven, active engineered systems to accomplish safety functions are being developed. Other designs with power outputs from, for example, 220 MW(e) up to about 1300 MW(e) which also possess inherent safety characteristics and which place more emphasis on utilization of passive safety systems are being developed. Passive systems are based on natural forces and phenomena such as natural convection and gravity, making safety functions less dependent on active systems and components like pumps and diesel generators. In some cases, further experimental tests for the thermohydraulic conditions of interest in advanced designs can provide improved understanding of the phenomena. Further, analytical methods to predict reactor thermohydraulic behaviour can be qualified for use by comparison with the experimental results. These activities should ultimately result in more economical designs. The
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Experiments were made on a setup consisting of a large-scale twin-assembly model of the primary circuit of an integral reactor and of a model of a containment shell which is a means for confining the outflow of coolant from the reactor. The large-scale model of an AST-500 reactor has vertical dimensions close to the actual dimensions and similar coefficients of hydraulic resistance and volume ratios of the principal elements the circuit with natural circulation. The model of the containment shell is a vertical cylindrical vessel with a size of 426 x 12 mm, a height of 9.78 m, and a volume of 1.24 m3. The volume scale of the reactor model and of the model of the containment shell is 1:170. The elements of the latter model are made from steel 20. The models of the reactor and of the containment shell are joined through two pipelines with a size of 57 x 3.5 mm and shut-off valves with a diameter of 50 mm mounted thereon. A total of 70 experiments were made to simulate leakage of the primary circuit of the integrated reactor and the outflow of coolant into the containment shell. The authors have provided detailed information on the large-scale model, have described the experimental conditions, and have reported on the main results of their study of the development of an accident involving the loss of coolant in the reactor-containment shell system. The present article reports on a study of the thermohydraulic processes and the gas distribution in the containment shell. Since the designs of the model and of the actual containment shell of the AST-500 reactor are not identical, the authors assume that the results reported can be used in appropriate computer programs describing the processes which occur in containment vessels of atomic power stations (containment shells, protective shells, sealed assemblies)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Apurba Layek
2010-07-01
Full Text Available The use of an artificial roughness on a surface is an effective technique to enhance the rate of heat transfer to fluid flow in the duct of solar air heater. However, the increase in thermal energy gain is always accompanied by increase in pumping power. This paper is concerned with optimization of roughness parameters of solar air heater based on effective efficiency criterion. Effective efficiency of a solar air heater having repeated transverse chamfered rib–groove roughness on one broad wall has been computed using the correlations for heat transfer and friction factor developed within the investigated range of operating and system parameters. Roughness parameters viz. relative roughness pitch P/e, relative groove position g/P, chamfer angle , relative roughness height e/Dh and flow Reynolds number Re, have a combined effect on the heat transfer as well as fluid friction. The thermo-hydraulic performance of an air heater in terms of effective efficiency is determined on the basis of actual thermal energy gain subtracted by the primary energy required to generate power needed for pumping air through the roughened duct. Based on energy transfer mechanism to the absorber plate, a mathematical model is developed to compute effective efficiency. The selection of the optimal values of the roughness parameters involves the comparison of the enhancement of thermal performance and the increase of pumping losses as a result of using roughness in the collector system with that of the system without roughness. The effective efficiency criterion is maximized and reasonably optimized designs of roughness are found.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Layek, Apurba [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Durgapur 713 209 (India)
2010-07-01
The use of an artificial roughness on a surface is an effective technique to enhance the rate of heat transfer to fluid flow in the duct of solar air heater. However, the increase in thermal energy gain is always accompanied by increase in pumping power. This paper is concerned with optimization of roughness parameters of solar air heater based on effective efficiency criterion. Effective efficiency of a solar air heater having repeated transverse chamfered rib-groove roughness on one broad wall has been computed using the correlations for heat transfer and friction factor developed within the investigated range of operating and system parameters. Roughness parameters viz. relative roughness pitch P/e, relative groove position g/P, chamfer angle, relative roughness height e/Dh and flow Reynolds number Re, have a combined effect on the heat transfer as well as fluid friction. The thermo-hydraulic performance of an air heater in terms of effective efficiency is determined on the basis of actual thermal energy gain subtracted by the primary energy required to generate power needed for pumping air through the roughened duct. Based on energy transfer mechanism to the absorber plate, a mathematical model is developed to compute effective efficiency. The selection of the optimal values of the roughness parameters involves the comparison of the enhancement of thermal performance and the increase of pumping losses as a result of using roughness in the collector system with that of the system without roughness. The effective efficiency criterion is maximized and reasonably optimized designs of roughness are found.
Current interruption transients calculation
Peelo, David F
2014-01-01
Provides an original, detailed and practical description of current interruption transients, origins, and the circuits involved, and how they can be calculated Current Interruption Transients Calculationis a comprehensive resource for the understanding, calculation and analysis of the transient recovery voltages (TRVs) and related re-ignition or re-striking transients associated with fault current interruption and the switching of inductive and capacitive load currents in circuits. This book provides an original, detailed and practical description of current interruption transients, origins,
Non-commutative P-1-bundles over commutative schemes
Van den Bergh, Michel
2012-01-01
In this paper we develop the theory of non-commutative P-1-bundles over commutative (smooth) schemes. Such non-commutative P-1-bundles occur in the theory of D-modules but our definition is more general. We can show that every non-commutative deformation of a Hirzebruch surface is given by a non-commutative P-1-bundle over P-1 in our sense.
Bohr--Sommerfeld Lagrangians of moduli spaces of Higgs bundles
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Biswas, Indranil; Gammelgaard, Niels Leth; Logares, Marina
Let $X$ be a compact connected Riemann surface of genus at least two. Let $M_H(r,d)$ denote the moduli space of semistable Higgs bundles on $X$ of rank $r$ and degree $d$. We prove that the compact complex Bohr-Sommerfeld Lagrangians of $M_H(r,d)$ are precisely the irreducible components of the n...... of the nilpotent cone in $M_H(r,d)$. This generalizes to Higgs $G$-bundles and also to the parabolic Higgs bundles....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The computer code NAIADQ is designed to simulate the course and consequences of non-destructive reactivity accidents in low power, experimental, water-cooled reactor cores fuelled with metal plate elements. It is a coupled neutron kinetics-hydrodynamics-heat transfer code which uses point kinetics and one-dimensional thermohydraulic equations. Nucleate boiling, which occurs at the fuel surface during transients, is modelled by the growth of a superheated layer of water in which vapour is generated at a non-equilibrium rate. It is assumed that this vapour is formed at its saturation temperature and that it mixes homogeneously with the water in this layer. The code is written in FORTRAN IV and has been programmed to run as a catalogued procedure on an IBM operating system such as MVT or MVS, with facility for the inclusion of user routines
TRAC-PF1/EN MOD 3, Best Estimate Coupled 3-D Neutronics-Thermohydraulics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1 - Description of program or function: TRAC-PF1-EN/MOD3 is a combined computer program comprising a revised version of the TRAC-PF1 transient reactor analysis code and a specially implemented three-dimensional two-group neutron kinetics code (QUANDF). Starting from either a critical steady-state (k-effective or critical dilute Boron problem) or a subcritical steady-state (fixed source problem) in a PWR plant, the code allows to simulate the neutronic and thermal-hydraulic core transient response to reactivity accidents initiated both inside the vessel (such as a control rod ejection) and outside the vessel (such as the sudden circulation of a stagnant slug of un-borated water), involving all of the primary system individual components. 2 - Methods: The TRAC two-phase, two-fluid non-equilibrium hydrodynamics model with a non-condensable gas field is based on six partial differential equations that describe the transfer of mass, energy and momentum between the water liquid and vapor phases and the interaction of the individual phases with the system structures. Because these interactions are dependent on the flow topology, a flow-regime dependent constitutive equation package has been incorporated into the code. The one-dimensional (z) or three-dimensional (r, *, z) fluid dynamics equations as well as the one-dimensional (r or z) or two-dimensional (r, z) equations that model the heat transfer in solid structures are approximated by finite differences. The fluid dynamics equations in the one-dimensional components use a multistep procedure that allows the material Courant condition to be violated. The optional three-dimensional component (vessel) uses a semi-implicit scheme, subject to the Courant condition, The finite-difference equations for hydrodynamic phenomena form a system of coupled nonlinear equations that are solved by a Newton-Raphson iteration procedure. The heat-transfer equations are treated implicitly in the radial direction and explicitly in the
VSOP, Neutron Spectra, 2-D Flux Synthesis, Fuel Management, Thermohydraulics Calculation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1 - Description of problem or function: VSOP (Very Superior Old Programs) is a system of codes linked together for the simulation of reactor life histories. It comprises neutron cross section libraries and processing routines, repeated neutron spectrum evaluation, 2-D and 3-D diffusion calculation, depletion and shut-down features, in- core and out-of-pile fuel management, fuel cycle cost analysis, and thermal hydraulics (steady state and transient). Various techniques have been employed to accelerate the iterative processes and to optimize the internal data transfer. The code system has been used extensively for comparison studies of thermal reactors, their fuel cycles, thermal transients, and safety assessment. Besides its use in research and development work for the Gas Cooled High Temperature Reactor, the system has been applied successfully to Light Water and Heavy Water Reactors, MAGNOX, and RBMK. 2 - Method of solution: The nuclear data for 184 isotopes are contained in two libraries. Fast and epithermal data in a 68 group GAM-I structure have been prepared mainly from ENDF/B-V and JEF-1. Resonance cross section data are given as input. Thermal data in a 30 group THERMOS structure have been collapsed from a 96 group THERMALIZATION (GATHER) library by a relevant neutron energy spectrum generated by the THERMALIZATION code. Graphite scattering matrices are based on the Young phonon spectrum in graphite. The neutron spectrum is calculated by a combination of the GAM and THERMOS codes. They can simultaneously be employed for many core regions differing in temperature, burnup, and fuel element lay-out. The thermal cell code THERMOS has been extended to treat the grain structure of the coated particles inside the fuel elements, and the epithermal GAM code uses modified cross sections for the resonance absorbers prepared from double heterogeneous ZUT-DGL calculations. The diffusion module of the code is CITATION with 2 - 8 energy groups. It provides the neutron
Robust Mapping of Incoherent Fiber-Optic Bundles
Roberts, Harry E.; Deason, Brent E.; DePlachett, Charles P.; Pilgrim, Robert A.; Sanford, Harold S.
2007-01-01
A method and apparatus for mapping between the positions of fibers at opposite ends of incoherent fiber-optic bundles have been invented to enable the use of such bundles to transmit images in visible or infrared light. The method is robust in the sense that it provides useful mapping even for a bundle that contains thousands of narrow, irregularly packed fibers, some of which may be defective. In a coherent fiber-optic bundle, the input and output ends of each fiber lie at identical positions in the input and output planes; therefore, the bundle can be used to transmit images without further modification. Unfortunately, the fabrication of coherent fiber-optic bundles is too labor-intensive and expensive for many applications. An incoherent fiber-optic bundle can be fabricated more easily and at lower cost, but it produces a scrambled image because the position of the end of each fiber in the input plane is generally different from the end of the same fiber in the output plane. However, the image transmitted by an incoherent fiber-optic bundle can be unscrambled (or, from a different perspective, decoded) by digital processing of the output image if the mapping between the input and output fiber-end positions is known. Thus, the present invention enables the use of relatively inexpensive fiber-optic bundles to transmit images.
Bundle formation in parallel aligned polymers with competing interactions
Dutta, Sandipan; Benetatos, P.; Jho, Y. S.
2016-04-01
Aggregation of like-charged polymers is widely observed in biological- and soft-matter systems. In many systems, bundles are formed when a short-range attraction of diverse physical origin like charge bridging, hydrogen bonding or hydrophobic interaction, overcomes the longer-range charge repulsion. In this letter, we present a general mechanism of bundle formation in these systems as the breaking of the translational invariance in parallel aligned polymers with competing interactions of this type. We derive a criterion for finite-sized bundle formation as well as for macroscopic phase separation (formation of infinite bundles).
Steady-flow characteristics of bundle fluid in drawing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Huh, You; Kim, Jong Seong [Kyunghee University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)
2006-07-15
Drawing is a mechanical operation attenuating material thickness to an appropriate level for the next processing or end usage. When the input material has a form of bundle or bundles made of very thin and long shaped wires or fibers, this attenuation operation is called 'bundle drawing' or 'drafting'. Bundle drawing is being used widely in manufacturing micro sized wires or staple yarns. However, the bundle processed by this operation has more or less defects in the evenness of linear density. Such irregularities cause many problems not only for the product quality but also for the efficiency of the next successive processes. In this research a mathematical model for the dynamic behavior of the bundle fluid is to be set up on the basis of general physical laws containing physical variables, i.e. linear density and velocity as the dynamic state variables of the bundle fluid. The governing equations resulting from the modeling show that they appear in a slightly different form from what they do in a continuum fluid. Then, the governing equations system is simplified in a steady state and the bundle dynamics is simulated, showing that the shape of the velocity profiles depends on two model parameters. Experiments confirm that the model parameters are to be well adjusted to show a coincidence with the theoretical analysis. The higher the drawing ratio and drawing speed are, the more sensitive becomes the bundle flow to exogenous disturbances.
Enthalpy and void distributions in subchannels of PHWR fuel bundles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Park, J. W.; Choi, H.; Rhee, B. W. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)
1998-12-31
Two different types of the CANDU fuel bundles have been modeled for the ASSERT-IV code subchannel analysis. From calculated values of mixture enthalpy and void fraction distribution in the fuel bundles, it is found that net buoyancy effect is pronounced in the central region of the DUPIC fuel bundle when compared with the standard CANDU fuel bundle. It is also found that the central region of the DUPIC fuel bundle can be cooled more efficiently than that of the standard fuel bundle. From the calculated mixture enthalpy distribution at the exit of the fuel channel, it is found that the mixture enthalpy and void fraction can be highest in the peripheral region of the DUPIC fuel bundle. On the other hand, the enthalpy and the void fraction were found to be highest in the central region of the standard CANDU fuel bundle at the exit of the fuel channel. This study shows that the subchannel analysis is very useful in assessing thermal behavior of the fuel bundle that could be used in CANDU reactors. 10 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs. (Author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Coragem, Helio Boemer de Oliveira
1980-07-01
A thermohydraulic study of MTR fuel element is presented as a basic requirement for the development of an irradiation facility for testing fuel elements. A computer code named 'Thermo' has been developed for this purpose, which can stimulate different working conditions, such as, cooling, power elements and neutron flux, performing all pertinent thermohydraulic calculations. Thermocouples were used to measure the temperature gradients of the cooling fluid throughout the IEAR-1 reactor core. All experimental data are in good agreement with the theoretical model applied in this work. Finally, a draft of the proposed facility and its safety system is presented. (author)
Confinement-dependent friction in peptide bundles.
Erbaş, Aykut; Netz, Roland R
2013-03-19
Friction within globular proteins or between adhering macromolecules crucially determines the kinetics of protein folding, the formation, and the relaxation of self-assembled molecular systems. One fundamental question is how these friction effects depend on the local environment and in particular on the presence of water. In this model study, we use fully atomistic MD simulations with explicit water to obtain friction forces as a single polyglycine peptide chain is pulled out of a bundle of k adhering parallel polyglycine peptide chains. The whole system is periodically replicated along the peptide axes, so a stationary state at prescribed mean sliding velocity V is achieved. The aggregation number is varied between k = 2 (two peptide chains adhering to each other with plenty of water present at the adhesion sites) and k = 7 (one peptide chain pulled out from a close-packed cylindrical array of six neighboring peptide chains with no water inside the bundle). The friction coefficient per hydrogen bond, extrapolated to the viscous limit of vanishing pulling velocity V → 0, exhibits an increase by five orders of magnitude when going from k = 2 to k = 7. This dramatic confinement-induced friction enhancement we argue to be due to a combination of water depletion and increased hydrogen-bond cooperativity. PMID:23528088
Development boiling to sprinkled tube bundle
Kracík, Petr; Pospíšil, Jiří
2016-03-01
This paper presents results of a studied heat transfer coefficient at the surface of a sprinkled tube bundle where boiling occurs. Research in the area of sprinkled exchangers can be divided into two major parts. The first part is research on heat transfer and determination of the heat transfer coefficient at sprinkled tube bundles for various liquids, whether boiling or not. The second part is testing of sprinkle modes for various tube diameters, tube pitches and tube materials and determination of individual modes' interface. All results published so far for water as the falling film liquid apply to one to three tubes for which the mentioned relations studied are determined in rigid laboratory conditions defined strictly in advance. The sprinkled tubes were not viewed from the operational perspective where there are more tubes and various modes may occur in different parts with various heat transfer values. The article focuses on these processes. The tube is located in a low-pressure chamber where vacuum is generated using an exhauster via ejector. The tube consists of smooth copper tubes of 12 mm diameter placed horizontally one above another.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Masataka Deie
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Background. Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL injuries are not rare in acute knee injuries, and several recent anatomical studies of the PCL and reconstructive surgical techniques have generated improved patient results. Now, we have evaluated PCL reconstructions performed by either the single-bundle or double-bundle technique in a patient group followed up retrospectively for more than 10 years. Methods. PCL reconstructions were conducted using the single-bundle (27 cases or double-bundle (13 cases method from 1999 to 2002. The mean age at surgery was 34 years in the single-bundle group and 32 years in the double-bundle group. The mean follow-up period was 12.5 years. Patients were evaluated by Lysholm scoring, the gravity sag view, and knee arthrometry. Results. The Lysholm score after surgery was 89.1±5.6 points for the single-bundle group and 91.9±4.5 points for the double-bundle group. There was no significant difference between the methods in the side-to-side differences by gravity sag view or knee arthrometer evaluation, although several cases in both groups showed a side-to-side difference exceeding 5 mm by the latter evaluation method. Conclusions. We found no significant difference between single- and double-bundle PCL reconstructions during more than 10 years of follow-up.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The need for a multi dimensional analysis of transient thermal hydraulic phenomena in a component of a nuclear reactor is increasing with the advanced design features. Motivated by this, the development of a new thermal hydraulic analysis code, named CUPID, is in progress at KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute). The simulation of the passive secondary cooling system, PAFS (Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System) has been considered as one of the practical applications of CUPID. In order to validate the two phase flow models of CUPID, the PASCAL test facility was simulated with a porous media model in our previous study. In the present study, the heat exchanger bundle effect on the natural circulation heat transfer was investigated using CUPID for the passive condensate cooling tank (PCCT) of the PAFS. The calculation results with the porous media model, such as the liquid temperature and velocity, were imposed as boundary conditions of the detailed flow simulation near the single heat exchanger tube of the PASCAL facility. Thereafter, the bundle effect was investigated by comparing the calculation result of the unit cell of the PAFS tube bundle and that of the single tube. This paper presents the two dimensional porous media analysis result for the PCCT of the PASCAL facility, two dimensional open media analysis result for a single heat exchanger tube, and two dimensional open media analysis result for the unit cell of the heat exchanger bundle
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Del Nevo
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Accurate prediction of steam volume fraction and of the boiling crisis (either DNB or dryout occurrence is a key safety-relevant issue. Decades of experience have been built up both in experimental investigation and code development and qualification; however, there is still a large margin to improve and refine the modelling approaches. The qualification of the traditional methods (system codes can be further enhanced by validation against high-quality experimental data (e.g., including measurement of local parameters. One of these databases, related to the void fraction measurements, is the pressurized water reactor subchannel and bundle tests (PSBT conducted by the Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC in Japan. Selected experiments belonging to this database are used for the OECD/NRC PSBT benchmark. The activity presented in the paper is connected with the improvement of current approaches by comparing system code predictions with measured data on void production in PWR-type fuel bundles. It is aimed at contributing to the validation of the numerical models of CATHARE 2 code, particularly for the prediction of void fraction distribution both at subchannel and bundle scale, for different test bundle configurations and thermal-hydraulic conditions, both in steady-state and transient conditions.
TRACE assessment of the ACHILLES ISP-25 reflood transient
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The purpose of this paper is to assess the capability of the best estimate thermal-hydraulic code TRACE Version 5.211 to predict the reflood process in a rod bundle test section using ACHILLES experimental data from the ISP-25 reflood transient. For the purpose of this assessment study, two detailed TRACE models representing the entire ACHILLES test section without the downcomer were developed and applied to simulate the ISP-25 transient. The TRACE models differed only in the hydrodynamic components, VESSEL and PIPE, which were used to represent the rod bundle region of the test section. Code predictions were compared against ISP-25 test measurements for both local- and integral-type quantities. These measurements included rod surface temperatures for individual rods at various axial elevations, sub-channel steam temperatures at different axial elevations, test section exit liquid and steam mass flow rates, quench front location, test section collapsed liquid level, test section overall pressure drop, and differential pressure drops across various axial sections of the test bundle. Considering the involvement of a non-uniform axial power profile combined with radial temperature variations among individual rods in the experimental rod surface temperature data, TRACE exhibited reasonable capability in predicting the ACHILLES ISP-25 reflood transient implementing an average-rod test bundle modeling approach. Consistent with other reflood simulations obtained with recent TRACE code versions, major differences between ACHILLES ISP-25 simulation results and experimental data for rod surface temperatures were observed mainly for the upper part of test section, also caused by lack of spacer grid models in TRACE. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
When performing a level 1 Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) on a standard power plant, in order to model plant response to the potential occurrence of the various initiating events postulated in a PSA, reference documentation applicable to the type of plant in question is frequently consulted. Because of the specific design characteristics of the Jose Cabrera NPP, most of the reference documentation for the W-PWR-type power plants is not applicable to this plant. To fill in these gaps in the documentation and to construct the most realistic model of plant behaviour possible, assistance was sought from Union Fenosa by way of infrastructure, capabilities and thermohydraulic experience of the Nuclear Engineering and Fuel Group, and especially the use of calculations performed with the RELAP5/ MOD2 code. This paper will provide an overview of the general assistance rendered to the PSA by the technical experts in thermohydraulics, the calculations performed with RELAP5/MOD2 and the influence all of this has had on the development, quality and results of the Jose Cabrera NPP level 1 PSA Project. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Raj Kumar
2016-05-01
Full Text Available In this work, the effect of angle of attack ( α a of the discrete V-pattern baffle on thermohydraulic performance of rectangular channel has been studied experimentally. The baffle wall was constantly heated and the other three walls of the channel were kept insulated. The experimentations were conducted to collect the data on Nusselt number ( N u b and friction factor ( f b by varying the Reynolds number (Re = 3000–21,000 and angle of attack ( α a from 30° to 70°, for the kept values of relative baffle height ( H b / H = 0 . 50 , relative pitch ratio ( P b / H = 1 . 0 , relative discrete width ( g w / H b = 1 . 5 and relative discrete distance ( D d / L v = 0 . 67 . As compared to the smooth wall, the V-pattern baffle roughened channel enhances the Nusselt number ( N u b and friction factor ( f b by 4.2 and 5.9 times, respectively. The present discrete V-pattern baffle shapes with angle of attack ( α a of 60° equivalent to flow Reynolds number of 3000 yields the greatest thermohydraulic performance. Discrete V-pattern baffle has improved thermal performance as compared to other baffle shapes’ rectangular channel.
On the Classification of Complex Vector Bundles of Stable Rank
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Constantin Bǎnicǎ; Mihai Putinar
2006-08-01
One describes, using a detailed analysis of Atiyah–Hirzebruch spectral sequence, the tuples of cohomology classes on a compact, complex manifold, corresponding to the Chern classes of a complex vector bundle of stable rank. This classification becomes more effective on generalized flag manifolds, where the Lie algebra formalism and concrete integrability conditions describe in constructive terms the Chern classes of a vector bundle.
Lexical Bundles in L1 and L2 Academic Writing
Chen, Yu-Hua; Baker, Paul
2010-01-01
This paper adopts an automated frequency-driven approach to identify frequently-used word combinations (i.e., "lexical bundles") in academic writing. Lexical bundles retrieved from one corpus of published academic texts and two corpora of student academic writing (one L1, the other L2), were investigated both quantitatively and qualitatively.…
Presenting Lexical Bundles for Explicit Noticing with Schematic Linguistic Representation
Thomson, Haidee Elizabeth
2016-01-01
Lexical bundles are essential for fluency, but their incompleteness is a stumbling block for learners. In this study, two presentation methods to increase awareness of lexical bundles through explicit noticing are explored and compared with incidental exposure. The three conditions in this study were as follows: noticing with schematic linguistic…
Quantum principal bundles as Hopf-Galois extensions
Durdevic, M
1995-01-01
It is shown that every quantum principal bundle with a compact structure group is a Hopf-Galois extension. This property naturally extends to the level of general differential structures, so that every differential calculus over a quantum principal bundle with a compact structure group is a graded-differential variant of the Hopf-Galois extension.
Subanalytic Bundles and Tubular Neighbourhoods of Zero-Loci
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Vishwambhar Pati
2003-08-01
We introduce the natural and fairly general notion of a subanalytic bundle (with a finite dimensional vector space of sections) on a subanalytic subset of a real analytic manifold , and prove that when is compact, there is a Baire subset of sections in whose zero-loci in have tubular neighbourhoods, homeomorphic to the restriction of the given bundle to these zero-loci.
Skeleton-Based Edge Bundling for Graph Visualization
Ersoy, Ozan; Hurter, Christophe; Paulovich, Fernando V.; Cantareira, Gabriel; Telea, Alexandru
2011-01-01
In this paper, we present a novel approach for constructing bundled layouts of general graphs. As layout cues for bundles, we use medial axes, or skeletons, of edges which are similar in terms of position information. We combine edge clustering, distance fields, and 2D skeletonization to construct p
CANDU bundle junction. Misalignment probability and pressure-drop correlation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The pressure drop over the bundle junction is an important component of the pressure drop in a CANDU (Canada Deuterium Uranium) fuel channel. This component can represent from ∼ 15% for aligned bundles to ∼ 26% for rotationally misaligned bundles, and is dependent on the degree of misalignment. The geometry of the junction increases the mixing between subchannels, and hence improves the thermal performance of the bundle immediately downstream. It is therefore important to model the junction's performance adequately. This paper summarizes a study sponsored by COG (CANDU Owners Group) and an NSERC (National Science and Engineering Research Council) Industrial Research Grant, undertaken, at CRL (Chalk River Laboratories) to identify and develop a bundle-junction model for potential implementation in the ASSERT (Advanced Solution of Subchannel Equations in Reactor Thermalhydraulics) subchannel code. The work reported in this paper consists of two components of this project: an examination of the statistics of bundle misalignment, demonstrating that there are no preferred positions for the bundles and therefore all misalignment angles are equally possible; and, an empirical model for the single-phase pressure drop across the junction as a function of the misalignment angle. The second section of this paper includes a brief literature review covering the experimental, analytical and numerical studies concerning the single-phase pressure drop across bundle junctions. 32 refs., 9 figs
On the general elephant conjecture for Mori conic bundles
Prokhorov, Yu G
1996-01-01
Let $f:X\\to S$ be an extremal contraction from a threefolds with terminal singularities onto a surface (so called Mori conic bundle). We study some particular cases of such contractions: quotients of usual conic bundles and index two contractions. Assuming Reid's general elephants conjecture we also obtain a rough classification. We present many examples.
Phase Space Reduction of Star Products on Cotangent Bundles.
N. Kowalzig; N. Neumaier; M. Pflaum
2005-01-01
In this paper we construct star products on Marsden-Weinstein reduced spaces in case both the original phase space and the reduced phase space are (symplectomorphic to) cotangent bundles. Under the assumption that the original cotangent bundle $T^*Q$ carries a symplectic structure of form $\\omega_{B
Parabolic stable Higgs bundles over complete noncompact Riemann surfaces
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李嘉禹; 王友德
1999-01-01
Let M be an open Riemann surface with a finite set of punctures, a complete Poincar(?)-like metric is introduced near the punctures and the equivalence between the stability of an indecomposable parabolic Higgs bundle, and the existence of a Hermitian-Einstein metric on the bundle is established.
Moduli of Parabolic Higgs Bundles and Atiyah Algebroids
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Logares, Marina; Martens, Johan
2010-01-01
In this paper we study the geometry of the moduli space of (non-strongly) parabolic Higgs bundles over a Riemann surface with marked points. We show that this space possesses a Poisson structure, extending the one on the dual of an Atiyah algebroid over the moduli space of parabolic vector bundles...
Helical twist controls the thickness of F-actin bundles
Claessens, M.M.A.E.; Semmrich, C.; Ramos, L.; Bausch, A.R.
2008-01-01
In the presence of condensing agents such as nonadsorbing polymer, multivalent counter ions, and specific bundling proteins, chiral biopolymers typically form bundles with a finite thickness, rather than phase-separating into a polymer-rich phase. Although short-range repulsive interactions or geome
The behaviour of Phenix fuel pin bundle under irradiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An entire Phenix sub-assembly has been mounted and sectioned after irradiation. The examination of cross-sections revealed the effects of mechanical interaction in the bundle (ovalisations and contacts between clads). According to analysis of the sodium channels, cooling of the pin bundle remained uniform. (author)
Non-abelian higher gauge theory and categorical bundle
Viennot, David
2012-01-01
A gauge theory is associated with a principal bundle endowed with a connection permitting to define horizontal lifts of paths. The horizontal lifts of surfaces cannot be defined into a principal bundle structure. An higher gauge theory is an attempt to generalize the bundle structure in order to describe horizontal lifts of surfaces. A such attempt is particularly difficult for the non-abelian case. Some structures have been proposed to realize this goal (twisted bundle, gerbes with connection, bundle gerbe, 2-bundle). Each of them uses a category in place of the total space manifold of the usual principal bundle structure. Some of them replace also the structure group by a category (more precisely a Lie crossed module viewed as a category). But the base space remains still a simple manifold (possibly viewed as a trivial category with only identity arrows). We propose a new principal categorical bundle structure, with a Lie crossed module as structure groupoid, but with a base space belonging to a bigger clas...
Bundled slaty cleavage in laminated argillite, north-central minnesota
Southwick, D.L.
1987-01-01
Exceptional bundled slaty cleavage (defined herein) has been found in drill cores of laminated, folded, weakly metamorphosed argillite at several localities in the early Proterozoic Animikie basin of north-central Minnesota. The cleavage domains are more closely spaced within the cleavage bundles than outside them, the mean tectosilicate grain size of siltstone layers, measured normal to cleavage, is less in the cleavage bundles than outside them, and the cleavage bundles are enriched in opaque phases and phyllosilicates relative to extra-bundle segments. These facts suggest that pressure solution was a major factor in bundle development. If it is assumed that opaque phases have been conserved during pressure solution, the modal differences in composition between intra-bundle and extra-bundle segments of beds provide a means for estimating bulk material shortening normal to cleavage. Argillite samples from the central part of the Animikie basin have been shortened a minimum of about 22%, as estimated by this method. These estimates are similar to the shortening values derived from other strain markers in other rock types interbedded with the argillite, and are also consistent with the regional pattern of deformation. ?? 1987.
... lungs - newborns; Retained fetal lung fluid; Transient RDS; Prolonged transition; Neonatal - transient tachypnea ... The mother's pregnancy and labor history are important to make the diagnosis. Tests performed on the baby may include: Blood count ...
Theories of the dorsal bundle extinction effect.
Mason, S T; Iversen, S D
1979-07-01
Selective destruction of the noradrenaline systems in the rat brain using the neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine has been found to cause resistance to extinction in a number of behavioural situations. Several theories concerning the behavioural mechanism altered by the lesion, and hence about the role of noradrenaline in normal brain functioning, are proposed and evaluated. Theories suggesting a role for noradrenaline in activity, perseveration, internal inhibition, frustrative non-reward, motivation, or secondary reinforcement, fail to explain all the available evidence and direct tests of each theory fails to support its predictions. A model which suggests that noreadrenaline is involved in attentional behaviour, specifically in filtering out or learning to ignore irrelevant environmental stimuli, is successful in explaining all available data and direct tests of the lesioned rats' attentional capacity serve to confirm many of the predictions of an attentional theory of the dorsal bundle extinction effect.
Bundled automobile insurance coverage and accidents.
Li, Chu-Shiu; Liu, Chwen-Chi; Peng, Sheng-Chang
2013-01-01
This paper investigates the characteristics of automobile accidents by taking into account two types of automobile insurance coverage: comprehensive vehicle physical damage insurance and voluntary third-party liability insurance. By using a unique data set in the Taiwanese automobile insurance market, we explore the bundled automobile insurance coverage and the occurrence of claims. It is shown that vehicle physical damage insurance is the major automobile coverage and affects the decision to purchase voluntary liability insurance coverage as a complement. Moreover, policyholders with high vehicle physical damage insurance coverage have a significantly higher probability of filing vehicle damage claims, and if they additionally purchase low voluntary liability insurance coverage, their accident claims probability is higher than those who purchase high voluntary liability insurance coverage. Our empirical results reveal that additional automobile insurance coverage information can capture more driver characteristics and driving behaviors to provide useful information for insurers' underwriting policies and to help analyze the occurrence of automobile accidents.
Geometries and applications of active fiber bundles
Giglmayr, Josef
2001-10-01
Active fiber bundles (FBs) are aimed to model photonic switching and processing in 3-D without the restrictions of the photonic technology. The 2-D photonic architectures are assumed to be implemented by networks of directional couplers (DCs) and Mach-Zehnder interferometers (MZIs), respectively. For the implementation several crucial problems are expected: (1) proper operation of the spatial couplers/switches (nonblocking interconnections) and (2) coupling in the interstage interconnection section mainly caused by parallel and crossing fibers/waveguides (WGs). For the design of proper operating switches (refinement of couplers) the application of decoupling concepts of modern control theory is proposed. The final goal is to translate the refined couplers into integrated photonic architectures rather than into additional lightwave circuits (LWCs) which simply would increase the coupling. The decoupling concepts are reviewed. The paper is an attempt to prepare for applying well-known system engineering concepts to the upcoming technology of photonics.
Habibi, Somayeh
2011-01-01
Let $G$ be a reductive algebraic group over a perfect field $k$ and $\\mathcal{G}$ a $G$-bundle over a scheme $X/k$. The main aim of this article is to study the motive associated with $\\mathcal{G}$, inside the Veovodsky Motivic categories. We consider the case that $\\charakt k=0$ (resp. $\\charakt k\\geq 0$), the motive associated to $X$ is geometrically mixed Tate (resp. geometrically cellular) and $\\mathcal{G}$ is locally trivial for the Zariski (resp. \\'etale) topology on $X$ and show that the motive of $\\mathcal{G}$ is a geometrically mixed Tate motive. Moreover for a general $X$ we construct a filtration on the motive associated to $\\mathcal{G}$ in terms of weight polytopes. Along the way we give some applications and examples.
Extendability of parallel sections in vector bundles
Kirschner, Tim
2016-01-01
I address the following question: Given a differentiable manifold M, what are the open subsets U of M such that, for all vector bundles E over M and all linear connections ∇ on E, any ∇-parallel section in E defined on U extends to a ∇-parallel section in E defined on M? For simply connected manifolds M (among others) I describe the entirety of all such sets U which are, in addition, the complement of a C1 submanifold, boundary allowed, of M. This delivers a partial positive answer to a problem posed by Antonio J. Di Scala and Gianni Manno (2014). Furthermore, in case M is an open submanifold of Rn, n ≥ 2, I prove that the complement of U in M, not required to be a submanifold now, can have arbitrarily large n-dimensional Lebesgue measure.
Bundles over Quantum RealWeighted Projective Spaces
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tomasz Brzeziński
2012-09-01
Full Text Available The algebraic approach to bundles in non-commutative geometry and the definition of quantum real weighted projective spaces are reviewed. Principal U(1-bundles over quantum real weighted projective spaces are constructed. As the spaces in question fall into two separate classes, the negative or odd class that generalises quantum real projective planes and the positive or even class that generalises the quantum disc, so do the constructed principal bundles. In the negative case the principal bundle is proven to be non-trivial and associated projective modules are described. In the positive case the principal bundles turn out to be trivial, and so all the associated modules are free. It is also shown that the circle (coactions on the quantum Seifert manifold that define quantum real weighted projective spaces are almost free.
Artificial ciliary bundles with nano fiber tip links
Asadnia, Mohsen; Miao, Jianmin; Triantafyllou, Michael
2015-01-01
Mechanosensory ciliary bundles in fishes are the inspiration for carefully engineered artificial flow sensors. We report the development of a new class of ultrasensitive MEMS flow sensors that mimic the intricate morphology of the ciliary bundles, including the stereocilia, tip links, and the cupula, and thereby achieve threshold detection limits that match the biological example. An artificial ciliary bundle is achieved by fabricating closely-spaced arrays of polymer micro-pillars with gradiating heights. Tip links that form the fundamental sensing elements are realized through electrospinning aligned PVDF piezoelectric nano-fibers that link the distal tips of the polymer cilia. An optimized synthesis of hyaluronic acid-methacrylic anhydride hydrogel that results in properties close to the biological cupula, together with drop-casting method are used to form the artificial cupula that encapsulates the ciliary bundle. In testing, fluid drag force causes the ciliary bundle to slide, stretching the flexible nan...
Superconductivity in an Inhomogeneous Bundle of Metallic and Semiconducting Nanotubes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ilya Grigorenko
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Using Bogoliubov-de Gennes formalism for inhomogeneous systems, we have studied superconducting properties of a bundle of packed carbon nanotubes, making a triangular lattice in the bundle's transverse cross-section. The bundle consists of a mixture of metallic and doped semiconducting nanotubes, which have different critical transition temperatures. We investigate how a spatially averaged superconducting order parameter and the critical transition temperature depend on the fraction of the doped semiconducting carbon nanotubes in the bundle. Our simulations suggest that the superconductivity in the bundle will be suppressed when the fraction of the doped semiconducting carbon nanotubes will be less than 0.5, which is the percolation threshold for a two-dimensional triangular lattice.
HORIZONTAL LAPLACE OPERATOR IN REAL FINSLER VECTOR BUNDLES
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2008-01-01
A vector bundle F over the tangent bundle TM of a manifold M is said to be a Finsler vector bundle if it is isomorphic to the pull-back π*E of a vector bundle E over M([1]). In this article the authors study the h-Laplace operator in Finsler vector bundles.An h-Laplace operator is defined, first for functions and then for horizontal Finsler forms on E. Using the h-Laplace operator, the authors define the h-harmonic function and h-harmonic horizontal Finsler vector fields, and furthermore prove some integral formulas for the h-Laplace operator, horizontal Finsler vector fields, and scalar fields on E.
Development of nuclear fuel. Development of CANDU advanced fuel bundle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In order to develop CANDU advanced fuel, the agreement of the joint research between KAERI and AECL was made on February 19, 1991. AECL conceptual design of CANFLEX bundle for Bruce reactors was analyzed and then the reference design and design drawing of the advanced fuel bundle with natural uranium fuel for CANDU-6 reactor were completed. The CANFLEX fuel cladding was preliminarily investigated. The fabricability of the advanced fuel bundle was investigated. The design and purchase of the machinery tools for the bundle fabrication for hydraulic scoping tests were performed. As a result of CANFLEX tube examination, the tubes were found to be meet the criteria proposed in the technical specification. The dummy bundles for hydraulic scoping tests have been fabricated by using the process and tools, where the process parameters and tools have been newly established. (Author)
Introduction to the theory of fiber bundles and connections I
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In lectures 1 and 2 we discuss basic concepts of topology and differential geometry: definition of a topological space and of Hausdorff, compact, connected and paracompact spaces; topological groups and actions of groups on spaces; differentiable manifolds, tangent vectors and 1 forms; partitions of unity and Lie groups. In lecture 3 we present the concept of a fiber bundle and discuss vector bundles and principal bundles. The concept of a connection on a smooth vector bundle is defined in lecture 4, together with the associated concepts of curvature and parallel transport; as an illustration we present the Levi-Civita connection on a Riemannian manifold. Finally, in lecture 5 we define connections on principal bundles and present examples with the Lie groups U(1) and SU(2). For reasons of space the present article only includes lectures 1, 2 and 3. Lectures 4 and 5 will be published in a forthcoming paper. (Author)
The 2-Hilbert Space of a Prequantum Bundle Gerbe
Bunk, Severin; Szabo, Richard J
2016-01-01
We construct a prequantum 2-Hilbert space for any line bundle gerbe whose Dixmier-Douady class is torsion. Analogously to usual prequantisation, this 2-Hilbert space has the category of sections of the line bundle gerbe as its underlying 2-vector space. These sections are obtained as certain morphism categories in Waldorf's version of the 2-category of line bundle gerbes. We show that these morphism categories carry a monoidal structure under which they are semisimple and abelian. We introduce a dual functor on the sections, which yields a closed structure on the morphisms between bundle gerbes and turns the category of sections into a 2-Hilbert space. We discuss how these 2-Hilbert spaces fit various expectations from higher prequantisation. We then extend the transgression functor to the full 2-category of bundle gerbes and demonstrate its compatibility with the additional structures introduced. We discuss various aspects of Kostant-Souriau prequantisation in this setting, including its dimensional reductio...
Fiber bundle model under fluid pressure
Amitrano, David; Girard, Lucas
2016-03-01
Internal fluid pressure often plays an important role in the rupture of brittle materials. This is a major concern for many engineering applications and for natural hazards. More specifically, the mechanisms through which fluid pressure, applied at a microscale, can enhance the failure at a macroscale and accelerate damage dynamics leading to failure remains unclear. Here we revisit the fiber bundle model by accounting for the effect of fluid under pressure that contributes to the global load supported by the fiber bundle. Fluid pressure is applied on the broken fibers, following Biot's theory. The statistical properties of damage avalanches and their evolution toward macrofailure are analyzed for a wide range of fluid pressures. The macroscopic strength of the new model appears to be strongly controlled by the action of the fluid, particularly when the fluid pressure becomes comparable with the fiber strength. The behavior remains consistent with continuous transition, i.e., second order, including for large pressure. The main change concerns the damage acceleration toward the failure that is well modeled by the concept of sweeping of an instability. When pressure is increased, the exponent β characterizing the power-law distribution avalanche sizes significantly decreases and the exponent γ characterizing the cutoff divergence when failure is approached significantly increases. This proves that fluid pressure plays a key role in failure process acting as destabilization factor. This indicates that macrofailure occurs more readily under fluid pressure, with a behavior that becomes progressively unstable as fluid pressure increases. This may have considerable consequences on our ability to forecast failure when fluid pressure is acting.
Fiber bundle model under fluid pressure.
Amitrano, David; Girard, Lucas
2016-03-01
Internal fluid pressure often plays an important role in the rupture of brittle materials. This is a major concern for many engineering applications and for natural hazards. More specifically, the mechanisms through which fluid pressure, applied at a microscale, can enhance the failure at a macroscale and accelerate damage dynamics leading to failure remains unclear. Here we revisit the fiber bundle model by accounting for the effect of fluid under pressure that contributes to the global load supported by the fiber bundle. Fluid pressure is applied on the broken fibers, following Biot's theory. The statistical properties of damage avalanches and their evolution toward macrofailure are analyzed for a wide range of fluid pressures. The macroscopic strength of the new model appears to be strongly controlled by the action of the fluid, particularly when the fluid pressure becomes comparable with the fiber strength. The behavior remains consistent with continuous transition, i.e., second order, including for large pressure. The main change concerns the damage acceleration toward the failure that is well modeled by the concept of sweeping of an instability. When pressure is increased, the exponent β characterizing the power-law distribution avalanche sizes significantly decreases and the exponent γ characterizing the cutoff divergence when failure is approached significantly increases. This proves that fluid pressure plays a key role in failure process acting as destabilization factor. This indicates that macrofailure occurs more readily under fluid pressure, with a behavior that becomes progressively unstable as fluid pressure increases. This may have considerable consequences on our ability to forecast failure when fluid pressure is acting. PMID:27078437
Birefringence of single and bundled microtubules.
Oldenbourg, R; Salmon, E D; Tran, P T
1998-01-01
We have measured the birefringence of microtubules (MTs) and of MT-based macromolecular assemblies in vitro and in living cells by using the new Pol-Scope. A single microtubule in aqueous suspension and imaged with a numerical aperture of 1.4 had a peak retardance of 0.07 nm. The peak retardance of a small bundle increased linearly with the number of MTs in the bundle. Axonemes (prepared from sea urchin sperm) had a peak retardance 20 times higher than that of single MTs, in accordance with the nine doublets and two singlets arrangement of parallel MTs in the axoneme. Measured filament retardance decreased when the filament was defocused or the numerical aperture of the imaging system was decreased. However, the retardance "area," which we defined as the image retardance integrated along a line perpendicular to the filament axis, proved to be independent of focus and of numerical aperture. These results are in good agreement with a theory that we developed for measuring retardances with imaging optics. Our theoretical concept is based on Wiener's theory of mixed dielectrics, which is well established for nonimaging applications. We extend its use to imaging systems by considering the coherence region defined by the optical set-up. Light scattered from within that region interferes coherently in the image point. The presence of a filament in the coherence region leads to a polarization dependent scattering cross section and to a finite retardance measured in the image point. Similar to resolution measurements, the linear dimension of the coherence region for retardance measurements is on the order lambda/(2 NA), where lambda is the wavelength of light and NA is the numerical aperture of the illumination and imaging lenses. PMID:9449366
Effect of Reynolds number and bundle geometry on the turbulent flow in tight lattice bundle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The flow structure in tight lattice is still of great interest to nuclear industry. The accurate prediction of flow parameter in subchannels of tight lattice is likable. Unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (URANS) is a promising approach to achieve this goal. The implementation of URANS (Unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes) approach will be validated by comparing computational results with the experimental data of Krauss (1998). In this paper, the turbulent flow with different Reynolds number (5000~215000) and different P/D(1.005~1.2) are simulated with CFD code CFX12.The effects of the Reynolds number and the bundle geometry(P/D) on wall shear stress, turbulent kinetic energy, turbulent mixing and large scale coherent structure in tight lattice are analyzed in details. It is hoped that the present work will contribute to the understanding of these important flow phenomena and facilitate the prediction and design of rod bundles. (author)
Delisle, Dennis R
2013-01-01
With passage of the Affordable Care Act, the ever-evolving landscape of health care braces for another shift in the reimbursement paradigm. As health care costs continue to rise, providers are pressed to deliver efficient, high-quality care at flat to minimally increasing rates. Inherent systemwide inefficiencies between payers and providers at various clinical settings pose a daunting task for enhancing collaboration and care coordination. A change from Medicare's fee-for-service reimbursement model to bundled payments offers one avenue for resolution. Pilots using such payment models have realized varying degrees of success, leading to the development and upcoming implementation of a bundled payment initiative led by the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Innovation. Delivery integration is critical to ensure high-quality care at affordable costs across the system. Providers and payers able to adapt to the newly proposed models of payment will benefit from achieving cost reductions and improved patient outcomes and realize a competitive advantage.
Transient drainage summary report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This report summarizes the history of transient drainage issues on the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. It defines and describes the UMTRA Project disposal cell transient drainage process and chronicles UMTRA Project treatment of the transient drainage phenomenon. Section 4.0 includes a conceptual cross section of each UMTRA Project disposal site and summarizes design and construction information, the ground water protection strategy, and the potential for transient drainage
Thermal Characteristics of Tube Bundles in Ultra-Supercritical Boilers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Seok Min Choi
2016-09-01
Full Text Available In this study, flow and thermal characteristics of tube bundles in ultra-supercritical boilers were analyzed. The local heat transfer around the tube bundles was measured to predict the local temperature distribution and vulnerable positions of the superheated tube bundles. The maximally superheated tube bundles were simulated in the laboratory and local heat transfer was measured by using the naphthalene sublimation method. The experiment was conducted on three lines of tube bundles, all with in-line arrangements. Each line consist of six tubes. The distance in the streamwise direction (Sx/∅ was 1.99 and that in the spanwise direction (Sz/∅ was 5.45. The Reynolds number varied from 5000 to 30,000, which covers a range of different operating conditions. Thermal and stress analyses were conducted numerically, based on the experimental data. The results showed that the flow characteristic changes the local heat transfer of the tube bundles. The flow impinged on the stagnation point of Tube 1 and reattached at 60° of Tube 2. The high heat transfer occurred at those positions of the tube bundles. The temperature and stress distributions on the surface of each tube bundle also varied. The reattachment point on Tube 2 had the highest heat transfer and temperature distribution. That position on Tube 2 was subjected to the highest stress due to the large temperature gradient. This result indicates that Tube 2 of the ultra-supercritical (USC boiler is the weakest of the tube bundles, changing the pitch of the streamwise direction of Tube 2 is one method to reduce the highest stress in superheater tube bundles in the USC boiler.
CHF Enhancement of Advanced 37-Element Fuel Bundles
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Joo Hwan Park
2015-01-01
Full Text Available A standard 37-element fuel bundle (37S fuel bundle has been used in commercial CANDU reactors for over 40 years as a reference fuel bundle. Most CHF of a 37S fuel bundle have occurred at the elements arranged in the inner pitch circle for high flows and at the elements arranged in the outer pitch circle for low flows. It should be noted that a 37S fuel bundle has a relatively small flow area and high flow resistance at the peripheral subchannels of its center element compared to the other subchannels. The configuration of a fuel bundle is one of the important factors affecting the local CHF occurrence. Considering the CHF characteristics of a 37S fuel bundle in terms of CHF enhancement, there can be two approaches to enlarge the flow areas of the peripheral subchannels of a center element in order to enhance CHF of a 37S fuel bundle. To increase the center subchannel areas, one approach is the reduction of the diameter of a center element, and the other is an increase of the inner pitch circle. The former can increase the total flow area of a fuel bundle and redistributes the power density of all fuel elements as well as the CHF. On the other hand, the latter can reduce the gap between the elements located in the middle and inner pitch circles owing to the increasing inner pitch circle. This can also affect the enthalpy redistribution of the fuel bundle and finally enhance CHF or dry-out power. In this study, the above two approaches, which are proposed to enlarge the flow areas of the center subchannels, were considered to investigate the impact of the flow area changes of the center subchannels on the CHF enhancement as well as the thermal characteristics by applying a subchannel analysis method.
Feasibility evaluation of x-ray imaging for measurement of fuel rod bowing in CFTL test bundles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Core Flow Test Loop (CFTL) is a high temperature, high pressure, out-of-reactor helium-circulating system. It is designed for detailed study of the thermomechanical performance, at prototypic steady-state and transient operating conditions, of electrically heated rods that simulate segments of core assemblies in the Gas-Cooled Fast Breeder reactor demonstration plant. Results are presented of a feasibility evaluation of x-ray imaging for making measurements of the displacement (bowing) of fuel rods in CFTL test bundles containing electrically heated rods. A mock-up of a representative CFTL test section consisting of a test bundle and associated piping was fabricated to assist in this evaluation
Two-categorical bundles and their classifying spaces
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Baas, Nils A.; Bökstedt, M.; Kro, T.A.
2012-01-01
For a 2-category 2C we associate a notion of a principal 2C-bundle. In case of the 2-category of 2-vector spaces in the sense of M.M. Kapranov and V.A. Voevodsky this gives the the 2-vector bundles of N.A. Baas, B.I. Dundas and J. Rognes. Our main result says that the geometric nerve of a good 2......-category is a classifying space for the associated principal 2-bundles. In the process of proving this we develop a lot of powerful machinery which may be useful in further studies of 2-categorical topology. As a corollary we get a new proof of the classification of principal bundles. A calculation based...... on the main theorem shows that the principal 2-bundles associated to the 2-category of 2-vector spaces in the sense of J.C. Baez and A.S. Crans split, up to concordance, as two copies of ordinary vector bundles. When 2C is a cobordism type 2-category we get a new notion of cobordism-bundles which turns out...
ERP-IV-A program for transient thermal-hydraulic analysis of PWR plant
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The author deal with the descriptions of physical model of transient process in PWR plant and the function of ERP-IV (ERR-IV Transient Thermo-Hydraulic Analysis Code). The code has been developed for safety analysis and design transient. The code is characterized by the multi-loop long-term, short term, wide-range plant simulation with the capability to analyze natural circulation condition. The description of ERP-IV includes following parts: reactor, primary coolant loops, pressurizer, steam generators, main steam system, turbine, feedwater system, steam dump, relive valves, and safety valves in secondary side, etc.. The code can use for accident analysis, such as loss of all A.C. power to power plant auxiliaries (a station blackout), loss of normal feedwater, loss of load, loss of condenser vacuum and other events causing a turbine trip, complete loss of forced reactor coolant flow, uncontrolled rod cluster control assembly bank withdrawal. It can also be used for accident analysis of the emergency and limiting conditions, such as feedwater line break and main steam line rupture. It can also be utilized as a tool for system design studies, component design, setpoint studies and design transition studies, etc
The Geometry of Tangent Bundles: Canonical Vector Fields
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tongzhu Li
2013-01-01
Full Text Available A canonical vector field on the tangent bundle is a vector field defined by an invariant coordinate construction. In this paper, a complete classification of canonical vector fields on tangent bundles, depending on vector fields defined on their bases, is obtained. It is shown that every canonical vector field is a linear combination with constant coefficients of three vector fields: the variational vector field (canonical lift, the Liouville vector field, and the vertical lift of a vector field on the base of the tangent bundle.
Systematic evaluation of bundled SPC water for biomolecular simulations.
Gopal, Srinivasa M; Kuhn, Alexander B; Schäfer, Lars V
2015-04-01
In bundled SPC water models, the relative motion of groups of four water molecules is restrained by distance-dependent potentials. Bundled SPC models have been used in hybrid all-atom/coarse-grained (AA/CG) multiscale simulations, since they enable to couple atomistic SPC water with supra-molecular CG water models that effectively represent more than a single water molecule. In the present work, we systematically validated and critically tested bundled SPC water models as solvent for biomolecular simulations. To that aim, we investigated both thermodynamic and structural properties of various biomolecular systems through molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Potentials of mean force of dimerization of pairs of amino acid side chains as well as hydration free energies of single side chains obtained with bundled SPC and standard (unrestrained) SPC water agree closely with each other and with experimental data. Decomposition of the hydration free energies into enthalpic and entropic contributions reveals that in bundled SPC, this favorable agreement of the free energies is due to a larger degree of error compensation between hydration enthalpy and entropy. The Ramachandran maps of Ala3, Ala5, and Ala7 peptides are similar in bundled and unrestrained SPC, whereas for the (GS)2 peptide, bundled water leads to a slight overpopulation of extended conformations. Analysis of the end-to-end distance autocorrelation times of the Ala5 and (GS)2 peptides shows that sampling in more viscous bundled SPC water is about two times slower. Pronounced differences between the water models were found for the structure of a coiled-coil dimer, which is instable in bundled SPC but not in standard SPC. In addition, the hydration of the active site of the serine protease α-chymotrypsin depends on the water model. Bundled SPC leads to an increased hydration of the active site region, more hydrogen bonds between water and catalytic triad residues, and a significantly slower exchange of water
Bondage Numbers of C4 Bundles over a Cycle Cn
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Moo Young Sohn
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Graph bundles generalize the notion of covering graphs and graph products. Graph bundles have been applied in computer architecture and communication networks. The bondage number is an important parameter for measuring the vulnerability and stability of the network domination under link failure. The bondage number b(G of a graph G is the minimum number of edges whose removal enlarges the domination number. In this paper, we show that the bondage number of every C4 bundles over a cycle Cn (n≥4 is equal to 4.
Thermomagnetic Siphoning on a Bundle of Current-Carrying Wires
Boulware, Jeffrey C.; Jensen, Scott
2010-01-01
Using COMSOL Multiphysics 3.5a, thermomagnetic siphoning (TMS) was shown to be a sufficient manner of regulating the temperature of a bundle of current-carrying wires wrapped with a magnetorheological fluid (MRF) jacket. As the bundle heated up, cooler MRF on the outside of the jacket was drawn towards the center due to Curie’s Law and the induced magnetic field. The process convected heat from the bundle as the MRF warmed up and was pushed out towards an isothermal jacket wall. Assuming an o...
Shatz, L F
2000-03-01
The relationship between size and shape of the hair bundle of a hair cell in the inner ear and its sensitivity at asymptotically high and low frequencies was determined, thereby extending the results of an analysis of hair bundle hydrodynamics in two dimensions (Freeman and Weiss, 1990. Hydrodynamic analysis of a two-dimensional model for micromechanical resonance of free-standing hair bundles. Hear. Res. 48, 37-68) to three dimensions. A hemispheroid was used to represent the hair bundle. The hemispheroid had a number of advantages: it could represent shapes that range from thin, pencil-like shapes, to wide, flat, disk-like shapes. Also analytic methods could be used in the high frequency range to obtain an exact solution to the equations of motion. In the low frequency range, where an approximate solution was found using boundary element methods, the sensitivity of the responses of hair cells was mainly proportional to the cube of the heights of their hair bundles, and at high frequencies, the sensitivity of the hair cells was mainly proportional to the inverse of their heights. An excellent match was obtained between measurements of sensitivity curves in the basillar papilla of the alligator and bobtail lizards and the model's predictions. These results also suggest why hair bundles of hair cells in vestibular organs which are sensitive to low frequencies have ranges of heights that are an order of magnitude larger than the range of heights of hair bundles of hair cells found in auditory organs.
Development of multidimensional two-phase flow measurement sensor in rod bundle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In order to acquire multidimensional two-phase flow in 10x10 bundle, SubChannel Void Sensor (SCVC) consisting of 11-wire by 11-wire and 10-rod by 10-rod electrodes is developed. A conductance value in a proximity region of one wire and another gives void fraction in the center of subchannel region. A phasic velocity can be estimated by using two layers of wire meshes, like as so-called wire mesh sensor. 121 points (=11x11) of void fraction as well as those of phasic velocity are acquired. It is peculiarity of the devised sensor that void fraction near rod surface can be estimated by a conductance value in a proximity region of one wire and one rod. 400 additional points of void fraction in 10x10 bundle can be, therefore, acquired. The time resolution of measurement is up to 1250 frames (cross sections) per second. We capability in a 10x10 bundle with o.d. 10 mm and 3110 mm long is demonstrated. The devised sensor is installed in 8 height levels to acquire the two-phase flow dynamics along axial direction. A pair of sensor layers is mounted in each level and is placed by 30 mm apart with each other to estimate a phasic velocity distribution on the basis of cross-correlation function of the two layers. Air bubbles are injected through sintered metal nozzles from the bottom end of 10x10 rods. Air flow rate distribution can vary with a controlled valves connected to each nozzle. The devised sensor exhibited the quasi three-dimensional flow structures, i.e. void fraction, phasic velocity and bubble chord length distributions. These quasi three-dimensional structures explorer complexity of two-phase flow dynamics such as coalescence and breakup of bubbles in the transient phasic velocity distributions. (author)
LVRF fuel bundle manufacture for Bruce
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pant, A. [Zircatec Precision Industries, Port Hope, Ontario (Canada)
2005-12-15
In response to the Power Uprate program at Bruce Power, Zircatec has committed to introduce, by Spring 2006 a new manufacturing line for the production of 43 element Bruce LVRF bundles containing Slightly Enriched Uranium (SEU) with a centre pin of blended dysprosia/urania (BDU). This is a new fuel design and is the first change in fuel design since the introduction of the current 37-element fuel over 20 years ago. Introduction of this new line has involved the introduction of significant changes to an environment that is not used to rapid changes with significant impact. At ZPI we have been able to build on our innovative capabilities in new fuel manufacturing, the strength and experience of our core team, and on our prevailing management philosophy of 'support the doer'. The presentation will discuss some of the novel aspects of this fuel introduction and the mix of innovative and classical project management methods that are being used to ensure that project deliveries are being met. Supporting presentations will highlight some of the issues in more detail. (author)
Grenier, Christophe; Rühaak, Wolfram
2016-04-01
Climate change impacts in permafrost regions have received considerable attention recently due to the pronounced warming trends experienced in recent decades and which have been projected into the future. Large portions of these permafrost regions are characterized by surface water bodies (lakes, rivers) that interact with the surrounding permafrost often generating taliks (unfrozen zones) within the permafrost that allow for hydrologic interactions between the surface water bodies and underlying aquifers and thus influence the hydrologic response of a landscape to climate change. Recent field studies and modeling exercises indicate that a fully coupled 2D or 3D Thermo-Hydraulic (TH) approach is required to understand and model past and future evolution such units (Kurylyk et al. 2014). However, there is presently a paucity of 3D numerical studies of permafrost thaw and associated hydrological changes, which can be partly attributed to the difficulty in verifying multi-dimensional results produced by numerical models. A benchmark exercise was initialized at the end of 2014. Participants convened from USA, Canada, Europe, representing 13 simulation codes. The benchmark exercises consist of several test cases inspired by existing literature (e.g. McKenzie et al., 2007) as well as new ones (Kurylyk et al. 2014; Grenier et al. in prep.; Rühaak et al. 2015). They range from simpler, purely thermal 1D cases to more complex, coupled 2D TH cases (benchmarks TH1, TH2, and TH3). Some experimental cases conducted in a cold room complement the validation approach. A web site hosted by LSCE (Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement) is an interaction platform for the participants and hosts the test case databases at the following address: https://wiki.lsce.ipsl.fr/interfrost. The results of the first stage of the benchmark exercise will be presented. We will mainly focus on the inter-comparison of participant results for the coupled cases TH2 & TH3. Both cases
Grenier, Christophe; Roux, Nicolas; Anbergen, Hauke; Collier, Nathaniel; Costard, Francois; Ferrry, Michel; Frampton, Andrew; Frederick, Jennifer; Holmen, Johan; Jost, Anne; Kokh, Samuel; Kurylyk, Barret; McKenzie, Jeffrey; Molson, John; Orgogozo, Laurent; Rivière, Agnès; Rühaak, Wolfram; Selroos, Jan-Olof; Therrien, René; Vidstrand, Patrik
2015-04-01
The impacts of climate change in boreal regions has received considerable attention recently due to the warming trends that have been experienced in recent decades and are expected to intensify in the future. Large portions of these regions, corresponding to permafrost areas, are covered by water bodies (lakes, rivers) that interact with the surrounding permafrost. For example, the thermal state of the surrounding soil influences the energy and water budget of the surface water bodies. Also, these water bodies generate taliks (unfrozen zones below) that disturb the thermal regimes of permafrost and may play a key role in the context of climate change. Recent field studies and modeling exercises indicate that a fully coupled 2D or 3D Thermo-Hydraulic (TH) approach is required to understand and model the past and future evolution of landscapes, rivers, lakes and associated groundwater systems in a changing climate. However, there is presently a paucity of 3D numerical studies of permafrost thaw and associated hydrological changes, and the lack of study can be partly attributed to the difficulty in verifying multi-dimensional results produced by numerical models. Numerical approaches can only be validated against analytical solutions for a purely thermic 1D equation with phase change (e.g. Neumann, Lunardini). When it comes to the coupled TH system (coupling two highly non-linear equations), the only possible approach is to compare the results from different codes to provided test cases and/or to have controlled experiments for validation. Such inter-code comparisons can propel discussions to try to improve code performances. A benchmark exercise was initialized in 2014 with a kick-off meeting in Paris in November. Participants from USA, Canada, Germany, Sweden and France convened, representing altogether 13 simulation codes. The benchmark exercises consist of several test cases inspired by existing literature (e.g. McKenzie et al., 2007) as well as new ones. They
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Perraud, S
2007-12-15
This study aims at characterizing helium two phase flows, and to identify the dependence of their characteristics on various thermo-hydraulic parameters: vapour velocity, liquid height, vapour density, specificities of superfluidity. Both the engineer and the physicist's points of view are taken into consideration: the first one in terms of optimization of a particular cooling scheme based on a two-phase flow, and these second one in terms of more fundamental atomization-related questions. It has been shown that for velocities around 3 to 4 m/s, the liquid phase that was initially stratified undergoes an atomization through the presence of a drop haze carried by the vapor phase.This happens for superfluid helium as well as for normal helium without main differences on atomization.
Heat transfer to water from a vertical tube bundle under natural-circulation conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The natural circulation heat transfer data for longitudinal flow of water outside a vertical rod bundle are needed for developing correlations which can be used in best estimate computer codes to model thermal-hydraulic behavior of nuclear reactor cores under accident or shutdown conditions. The heat transfer coefficient between the fuel rod surface and the coolant is the key parameter required to predict the fuel temperature. Because of the absence of the required heat transfer coefficient data base under natural circulation conditions, experiments have been performed in a natural circulation loop. A seven-tube bundle having a pitch-to-diameter ratio of 1.25 was used as a test heat exchanger. A circulating flow was established in the loop, because of buoyancy differences between its two vertical legs. Steady-state and transient heat transfer measurements have been made over as wide a range of thermal conditions as possible with the system. Steady state heat transfer data were correlated in terms of relevant dimensionless parameters. Empirical correlations for the average Nusselt number, in terms of Reynolds number, Rayleigh number and the ratio of Grashof to Reynolds number are given
Effect of Flow Blockage on the Coolability during Reflood in a 2 × 2 Rod Bundle
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kihwan Kim
2014-01-01
Full Text Available During the reflood phase of a large-break loss-of-coolant accident (LBLOCA in a pressurized-water reactor (PWR, the fuel rods can be ballooned or rearranged owing to an increase in the temperature and internal pressure of the fuel rods. In this study, an experimental study was performed to understand the thermal behavior and effect of the ballooned region on the coolability using a 2 × 2 rod bundle test facility. The electrically heated rod bundle was used and the ballooning shape of the rods was simulated by superimposing hollow sleeves, which have a 90% blockage ratio. Forced reflood tests were performed to examine the transient two-phase heat transfer behavior for different reflood rates and rod powers. The droplet behaviors were also investigated by measuring the velocity and size of droplets near the blockage region. The results showed that the heat transfer was enhanced in the downstream of the blockage region, owing to the reduced flow area of the subchannel, intensification of turbulence, and deposition of the droplet.
Bundles of Norms About Teen Sex and Pregnancy.
Mollborn, Stefanie; Sennott, Christie
2015-09-01
Teen pregnancy is a cultural battleground in struggles over morality, education, and family. At its heart are norms about teen sex, contraception, pregnancy, and abortion. Analyzing 57 interviews with college students, we found that "bundles" of related norms shaped the messages teens hear. Teens did not think their communities encouraged teen sex or pregnancy, but normative messages differed greatly, with either moral or practical rationalizations. Teens readily identified multiple norms intended to regulate teen sex, contraception, abortion, childbearing, and the sanctioning of teen parents. Beyond influencing teens' behavior, norms shaped teenagers' public portrayals and post hoc justifications of their behavior. Although norm bundles are complex to measure, participants could summarize them succinctly. These bundles and their conflicting behavioral prescriptions create space for human agency in negotiating normative pressures. The norm bundles concept has implications for teen pregnancy prevention policies and can help revitalize social norms for understanding health behaviors. PMID:25387911
Zeta Functions for Elliptic Curves I. Counting Bundles
Weng, Lin
2012-01-01
To count bundles on curves, we study zetas of elliptic curves and their zeros. There are two types, i.e., the pure non-abelian zetas defined using moduli spaces of semi-stable bundles, and the group zetas defined for special linear groups. In lower ranks, we show that these two types of zetas coincide and satisfy the Riemann Hypothesis. For general cases, exposed is an intrinsic relation on automorphism groups of semi-stable bundles over elliptic curves, the so-called counting miracle. All this, together with Harder-Narasimhan, Desale-Ramanan and Zagier's result, gives an effective way to count semi-stable bundles on elliptic curves not only in terms of automorphism groups but more essentially in terms of their $h^0$'s. Distributions of zeros of high rank zetas are also discussed.
On exact triangles consisting of stable vector bundles on tori
Kobayashi, Kazushi
2016-01-01
In this paper, we consider the exact triangles consisting of stable holomorphic vector bundles on one-dimensional complex tori, and discuss their relations with the corresponding Fukaya category via the homological mirror symmetry.
Topological T-duality for torus bundles with monodromy
Baraglia, David
2015-05-01
We give a simplified definition of topological T-duality that applies to arbitrary torus bundles. The new definition does not involve Chern classes or spectral sequences, only gerbes and morphisms between them. All the familiar topological conditions for T-duals are shown to follow. We determine necessary and sufficient conditions for existence of a T-dual in the case of affine torus bundles. This is general enough to include all principal torus bundles as well as torus bundles with arbitrary monodromy representations. We show that isomorphisms in twisted cohomology, twisted K-theory and of Courant algebroids persist in this general setting. We also give an example where twisted K-theory groups can be computed by iterating T-duality.
Mechanical Models of Microtubule Bundle Collapse in Alzheimer's Disease
Sendek, Austin; Singh, Rajiv; Cox, Daniel
2013-03-01
Amyloid-beta aggregates initiate Alzheimer's disease, and downstream trigger degradation of tau proteins that act as microtubule bundle stabilizers and mechanical spacers. Currently it is unclear which of tau cutting by proteases, tau phosphorylation, or tau aggregation are responsible for cytoskeleton degradation., We construct a percolation simulation of the microtubule bundle using a molecular spring model for the taus and including depletion force attraction between microtubules and membrane/actin cytoskeletal surface tension. The simulation uses a fictive molecular dynamics to model the motion of the individual microtubules within the bundle as a result of random tau removal, and calculates the elastic modulus of the bundle as the tau concentration falls. We link the tau removal steps to kinetic tau steps in various models of tau degradation. Supported by US NSF Grant DMR 1207624
Infinitely stably extendable vector bundles on projective spaces
Coanda, Iustin
2009-01-01
According to Horrocks (1966), a vector bundle E on the projective n-space extends stably to the projective N-space, N>n, if there exists a vector bundle on the larger space whose restriction to the smaller one is isomorphic to E plus a direct sum of line bundles. We show that E extends stably to the projective N-space for every N>n if and only if E is the cohomology of a free monad (with three terms). The proof uses the method of Coanda and Trautmann (2006). Combining this result with a theorem of Mohan Kumar, Peterson and Rao (2003), we get a new effective version of the Babylonian tower theorem for vector bundles on projective spaces.
The canonical Cartan bundle and connection in CR geometry
Herzlich, Marc
2009-01-01
minor changes ; wrong author in reference [7] corrected; International audience; We give a differential geometric description of the Cartan (or tractor) bundle and its canonical connection in CR geometry, thus offering a direct, alternative, definition to the usual abstract approach.
Deformation Quantization of Principal Fibre Bundles and Classical Gauge Theories
Wei\\ss, Stefan
2010-01-01
In this dissertation the notion of deformation quantization of principal fibre bundles is established and investigated in order to find a geometric formulation of classical gauge theories on noncommutative space-times. As a generalization, the notion of deformation quantization of surjective submersions is also discussed. It is shown that deformation quantizations of surjective submersions and principal fibre bundles always exist and are unique up to equivalence. These statements concerning complex-valued functions are moreover formulated and proved for sections of arbitrary vector bundles over the total space, in particular equivariant vector bundles. The commutants of the deformed right module structures within the differential operators, playing an inportant role with regard to the infinitesimal gauge transformations, are computed explicitly in each case. Depending on the choice of specific covariant derivatives and connections the commutants are isomorphic to the formal power series of the respective vert...
National Partnership for Maternal Safety: Consensus Bundle on Venous Thromboembolism.
D'Alton, Mary E; Friedman, Alexander M; Smiley, Richard M; Montgomery, Douglas M; Paidas, Michael J; D'Oria, Robyn; Frost, Jennifer L; Hameed, Afshan B; Karsnitz, Deborah; Levy, Barbara S; Clark, Steven L
2016-10-01
Obstetric venous thromboembolism is a leading cause of severe maternal morbidity and mortality. Maternal death from thromboembolism is amenable to prevention, and thromboprophylaxis is the most readily implementable means of systematically reducing the maternal death rate. Observational data support the benefit of risk-factor-based prophylaxis in reducing obstetric thromboembolism. This bundle, developed by a multidisciplinary working group and published by the National Partnership for Maternal Safety under the guidance of the Council on Patient Safety in Women's Health Care, supports routine thromboembolism risk assessment for obstetric patients, with appropriate use of pharmacologic and mechanical thromboprophylaxis. Safety bundles outline critical clinical practices that should be implemented in every maternity unit. The safety bundle is organized into four domains: Readiness, Recognition, Response, and Reporting and Systems Learning. Although the bundle components may be adapted to meet the resources available in individual facilities, standardization within an institution is strongly encouraged. PMID:27636577
Bundles of Norms About Teen Sex and Pregnancy.
Mollborn, Stefanie; Sennott, Christie
2015-09-01
Teen pregnancy is a cultural battleground in struggles over morality, education, and family. At its heart are norms about teen sex, contraception, pregnancy, and abortion. Analyzing 57 interviews with college students, we found that "bundles" of related norms shaped the messages teens hear. Teens did not think their communities encouraged teen sex or pregnancy, but normative messages differed greatly, with either moral or practical rationalizations. Teens readily identified multiple norms intended to regulate teen sex, contraception, abortion, childbearing, and the sanctioning of teen parents. Beyond influencing teens' behavior, norms shaped teenagers' public portrayals and post hoc justifications of their behavior. Although norm bundles are complex to measure, participants could summarize them succinctly. These bundles and their conflicting behavioral prescriptions create space for human agency in negotiating normative pressures. The norm bundles concept has implications for teen pregnancy prevention policies and can help revitalize social norms for understanding health behaviors.
Interactive hypermedia training manual for spent-fuel bundle counters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Spent-fuel bundle counters, developed by the Canadian Safeguards Support Program for the International Atomic Energy Agency, provide a secure and independent means of counting the number of irradiated fuel bundles discharged into the fuel storage bays at CANDU nuclear power stations. Paper manuals have been traditionally used to familiarize IAEA inspectors with the operation, maintenance and extensive reporting capabilities of the bundle counters. To further assist inspectors, an interactive training manual has been developed on an Apple Macintosh computer using hypermedia software. The manual uses interactive animation and sound, in conjunction with the traditional text and graphics, to simulate the underlying operation and logic of the bundle counters. This paper presents the key features of the interactive manual and highlights the advantages of this new technology for training
Steric effects induce geometric remodeling of actin bundles in filopodia
Dobramysl, Ulrich; Erban, Radek
2016-01-01
Filopodia are ubiquitous fingerlike protrusions, spawned by many eukaryotic cells, to probe and interact with their environments. Polymerization dynamics of actin filaments, comprising the structural core of filopodia, largely determine their instantaneous lengths and overall lifetimes. The polymerization reactions at the filopodial tip require transport of G-actin, which enter the filopodial tube from the filopodial base and diffuse toward the filament barbed ends near the tip. Actin filaments are mechanically coupled into a tight bundle by cross-linker proteins. Interestingly, many of these proteins are relatively short, restricting the free diffusion of cytosolic G-actin throughout the bundle and, in particular, its penetration into the bundle core. To investigate the effect of steric restrictions on G-actin diffusion by the porous structure of filopodial actin filament bundle, we used a particle-based stochastic simulation approach. We discovered that excluded volume interactions result in partial and the...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gomez-Espina, R.; Villar, M. V.
2013-09-01
The thermo-hydraulic tests reproduce the thermal and hydraulic conditions to which bentonite is subjected in the engineered barrier of a deep geological repository of radioactive waste. The results of thermo-hydraulic test TBT1500, which was running for approximately 1500 days, are presented. This is a continuation to the Technical Report Ciemat 1199, which presented results of test TBT500, performed under similar conditions but with duration of 500 days. In both tests the MX-80 bentonite was used with initial density and water content similar to those of the large-scale test TBT. The bentonite column was heated at the bottom at 140 degree centigrade and hydrated on top with deionized water. At the end of the test a sharp water content gradient was observed along the column, as well as an inverse dry density gradient. Hydration modified also the bentonite microstructure. Besides, an overall decrease of the smectite content with respect to the initial value took place, especially in the most hydrated areas where the percentage of interest ratified illite increased and in the longer test. On the other hand, the content of cristobalite, feldspars and calcite increased. Smectite dissolution processes (probably colloidal) occurred, particularly in the more hydrated areas and in the longer test. Due to the dissolution of low-solubility species and to the loss of exchangeable positions in the smectite, the content of soluble salts in the pore water increased with respect to the original one, especially in the longer test. The solubilized ions were transported; sodium, calcium, magnesium and sulphate having a similar mobility, which was in turn lower than that of potassium and chloride. The cationic exchange complex was also modified. (Author)
Wire-wrapped rod-bundle heat-transfer analysis for LMFBR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Helical wire wraps are widely used in the LMFBR fuel and blanket assemblies to provide coolant mixing and maintain proper spacing between fuel pins. The presence of the helical wire, however, may possibly induce heat transfer problems, such as the uncertainty of the maximum clad temperature as a result of the contact between the wires and the pins. In this study, the detailed transient three dimensional velocity and temperature distributions for the coolant around the pin will be determined by solving the governing momentum and energy equation numerically. A computer code HEATRAN has been developed to perform this calculation. Before the computer code HEATRAN is applied to the wire wrapped rod bundle problem, it is used to analyze a wide range of fluid and heat transfer problem to verify its capabilities
Quantum principal bundles and Tannaka-Krein duality theory
Durdevic, M
1995-01-01
The structure of quantum principal bundles is studied, from the viewpoint of Tannaka-Krein duality theory. It is shown that if the structure quantum group is compact, principal G-bundles over a quantum space M are in a natural correspondence with certain contravariant functors defined on the category of finite-dimensional unitary representations of G, with the values in the category of finite projective bimodules over a *-algebra representing the base space.
Quantized gauge-affine gravity in the superfiber bundle approach
Meziane, A.; Tahiri, M
2004-01-01
The quantization of gauge-affine gravity within the superfiber bundle formalism is proposed. By introducing an even pseudotensorial 1-superform over a principal superfibre bundle with superconnection, we obtain the geometrical Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) and anti-BRST transformations of the fields occurring in such a theory. Reducing the four-dimensional general affine group double-covering to the Poincare group double-covering we also find the BRST and anti-BRST transformations of the f...
Bondage Numbers of C4 Bundles over a Cycle Cn
Moo Young Sohn; Fu-Tao Hu; Jaeun Lee
2013-01-01
Graph bundles generalize the notion of covering graphs and graph products. Graph bundles have been applied in computer architecture and communication networks. The bondage number is an important parameter for measuring the vulnerability and stability of the network domination under link failure. The bondage number $b\\left(G\\right)$ of a graph $G$ is the minimum number of edges whose removal enlarges the domination number. In this paper, we show that the bondage number of every ${C}_{4}$ bu...
Simplified modeling of EM field coupling to complex cable bundles
Schetelig, B.; J. Keghie; Kanyou Nana, R.; Fichte, L.-O.; S. Potthast; Dickmann, S.
2010-01-01
In this contribution, the procedure "Equivalent Cable Bundle Method" is used for the simplification of large cable bundles, and it is extended to the application on differential signal lines. The main focus is on the reduction of twisted-pair cables. Furthermore, the process presented here allows to take into account cables with wires that are situated quite close to each other. The procedure is based on a new approach to calculate the geometry of the simplified cable and us...
Filler metals for containers holding irradiated fuel bundles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
One of the procedures being considered for the disposal of Canadian deuterium uranium (CANDU) irradiated fuel bundles is to place the bundles in containers, fill the containers with metal, and place them underground. This investigation deals with the selection of the filler metal with particular reference to the reaction rate with, and bonding of the filler metal to, the fuel sheathing (Zircaloy 4) and potential container materials. Lead, zinc, and aluminium alloys were examined as potential filler metals. (U.K.)
Intra-His bundle block: clinical, electrocardiographic, and electrophysiologic characteristics
Andréa Eduardo M.; Atié Jacob; Maciel Washington A.; Oliveira Jr Nilson A. de; Camanho Luiz Eduardo; Belo Luís Gustavo; Carvalho Hecio Affonso de; Siqueira Leonardo; Saad Eduardo; Venancio Ana Claudia
2002-01-01
OBJECTIVE: To assess the clinical, electrocardiographic, and electrophysiologic characteristics of patients (pt) with intra-His bundle block undergoing an electrophysiologic study (EPS). METHODS: We analyzed the characteristics of 16 pt with second-degree atrioventricular block and symptoms of syncope or dyspnea, or both, undergoing conventional EPS. RESULTS: Intra-His bundle block was documented in 16 pt during an EPS. In 15 (94%) pt, the atrioventricular block was recorded in sinus rhythm; ...
Principal 2-bundles and their gauge 2-groups
Wockel, Christoph
2008-01-01
In this paper we introduce principal 2-bundles and show how they are classified by non-abelian Cech cohomology. Moreover, we show that their gauge 2-groups can be described by 2-group-valued functors, much like in classical bundle theory. Using this, we show that, under some mild requirements, these gauge 2-groups possess a natural smooth structure. In the last section we provide some explicit examples.
BiSet: Semantic Edge Bundling with Biclusters for Sensemaking.
Sun, Maoyuan; Mi, Peng; North, Chris; Ramakrishnan, Naren
2016-01-01
Identifying coordinated relationships is an important task in data analytics. For example, an intelligence analyst might want to discover three suspicious people who all visited the same four cities. Existing techniques that display individual relationships, such as between lists of entities, require repetitious manual selection and significant mental aggregation in cluttered visualizations to find coordinated relationships. In this paper, we present BiSet, a visual analytics technique to support interactive exploration of coordinated relationships. In BiSet, we model coordinated relationships as biclusters and algorithmically mine them from a dataset. Then, we visualize the biclusters in context as bundled edges between sets of related entities. Thus, bundles enable analysts to infer task-oriented semantic insights about potentially coordinated activities. We make bundles as first class objects and add a new layer, "in-between", to contain these bundle objects. Based on this, bundles serve to organize entities represented in lists and visually reveal their membership. Users can interact with edge bundles to organize related entities, and vice versa, for sensemaking purposes. With a usage scenario, we demonstrate how BiSet supports the exploration of coordinated relationships in text analytics.
A Radiologist's Primer on Bundles and Care Episodes.
Seidenwurm, David; Lexa, Frank James
2016-09-01
Bundled or episode payments are among the most heavily emphasized approaches to aligning incentives and promoting care coordination, efficiency, and accountability in health care redesign. Bundled or episode payments price a market basket of services for an entire episode of care with both a clearly defined trigger and termination. Because the radiologist is "ancillary" in many bundles, the specialty is often unaware of the phenomenon. This is likely to change rapidly. Radiology is pivotal in high-prevalence, high-impact care areas such as low back pain and stroke that are focuses of widely used system performance metrics. More important, radiology is central to the diagnosis and management of a wide range of important diagnostic issues in areas such as breast cancer, pulmonary nodules, and incidental findings. Three models of bundled care will probably involve radiology intimately in the near future. Pure radiology bundles might be constructed for breast cancer screening and diagnosis, and these could be priced on the basis of guideline-based best-practice frequencies of care events such as recall and biopsy. Clinical bundles, for example low back pain, could be priced on the basis of optimal imaging frequencies. Finally, pricing of imaging studies might include evidence-based frequencies of follow-up imaging for incidental findings. PMID:27210231
Combustor having mixing tube bundle with baffle arrangement for directing fuel
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hughes, Michael John; McConnaughhay, Johnie Franklin
2016-08-23
A combustor includes a tube bundle that extends radially across at least a portion of the combustor. The tube bundle includes an upstream surface axially separated from a downstream surface, and a plurality of tubes extend from the upstream surface through the downstream surface to provide fluid communication through the tube bundle. A barrier extends radially inside the tube bundle between the upstream and downstream surfaces, and a baffle extends axially inside the tube bundle between the upstream surface and the barrier.
How Buyers Evaluate Product Bundles: A Model of Anchoring and Adjustment.
Yadav, Manjit S
1994-01-01
Bundling, the joint offering of two or more items, is a common selling strategy, yet little research has been conducted on buyers' evaluation of bundle offers. We developed and tested a model of bundle evaluation in which the buyers anchored their evaluation on the item perceived as most important and then made adjustments on the basis of their evaluations of the remaining bundle items. The results of two computerized laboratory experiments suggested that people tend to examine bundle items i...
BUTRAN: a multirod code for studying core uncovery transients
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The computer code BUTRAN is described. This is a fast running computer code designed to study boildown transients in bundles of fuel pins under accident conditions. The effects of rod to rod and rod to vapour thermal radiation are considered. During the heat up phase of the accident the zircaloy cladding reacts chemically with the steam coolant. The heat and the hydrogen produced by this reaction are calculated and the effect of the hydrogen concentration considered. Input instrumentations for BUTRAN are given together with two sample test cases to enable a user to set up an input deck
Hagg, Heather (Woodward); El-Harit, Jamie; Vanni, Chris; Scott, Penny
2007-01-01
Within healthcare, clinical practice bundles have been used to implement standardized, nursing driven protocols resulting in standardized patient care and improved patient outcomes. Examples of these types of bundles include clinical practices shown through evidence based medicine to reduce occurrences of Ventilator Associated Pneumonia – VAP bundle; those shown to reduce the occurrences of central line infections – CL bundle; and those shown to significantly improve the outcomes of patients...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grundmann, U.; Kliem, S.; Krepper, E.; Mittag, S; Rohde, U.; Schaefer, F.; Seidel, A.
1998-03-01
The nuclear reactor core model DYN3D with 3D neutron kinetics has been coupled to the thermohydraulic system code ATHLET. In the report, activities on qualification of the coupled code complex ATHLET-DYN3D as a validated tool for the accident analysis of russian VVER type reactors are described. That includes: - Contributions to the validation of the single codes ATHLET and DYN3D by the analysis of experiments on natural circulation behaviour in thermohydraulic test facilities and solution of benchmark tasks on reactivity initiated transients, - the acquisition and evaluation of measurement data on transients in nuclear power plants, the validation of ATHLET-DYN3D by calculating an accident with delayed scram and a pump trip in VVER plants, - the complementary improvement of the code DYN3D by extension of the neutron physical data base, implementation of an improved coolant mixing model, consideration of decay heat release and xenon transients, - the analysis of steam leak scenarios for VVER-440 type reactors with failure of different safety systems, investigation of different model options. The analyses showed, that with realistic coolant mixing modelling in the downcomer and the lower plenum, recriticality of the scramed reactor due to overcooling can be reached. The application of the code complex ATHLET-DYN3D in Czech Republic, Bulgaria and the Ukraine has been started. Future work comprises the verification of ATHLET-DYN3D with a DYN3D version for the square fuel element geometry of western PWR. (orig.) [Deutsch] Das Reaktorkernmodell DYN3D mit 3D Neutronenkinetik wurde an den Thermohydraulik-Systemcode ATHLET angekoppelt. Im vorliegenden Bericht werden Arbeiten zur Qualifizierung des gekoppelten Codekomplexes zu einem validierten Hilfsmittel fuer Stoerfallablaufanalysen zu Reaktoren des russischen Typs WWER dargestellt. Diese umfassten im einzelnen: - Beitraege zur Validierung der Einzelcodes ATHLET und DYN3D anhand der Nachrechnung von Experimenten zum
Börlin, Niclas; Grussenmeyer, Pierre
2016-06-01
The aim of this paper is to investigate whether the Matlab-based Damped Bundle Adjustment Toolbox (DBAT) can be used to provide independent verification of the BA computation of two popular software—PhotoModeler (PM) and PhotoScan (PS). For frame camera data sets with lens distortion, DBAT is able to reprocess and replicate subsets of PM results with high accuracy. For lens-distortion-free data sets, DBAT can furthermore provide comparative results between PM and PS. Data sets for the discussed projects are available from the authors. The use of an external verification tool such as DBAT will enable users to get an independent verification of the computations of their software. In addition, DBAT can provide computation of quality parameters such as estimated standard deviations, correlation between parameters, etc., something that should be part of best practice for any photogrammetric software. Finally, as the code is free and open-source, users can add computations of their own.
Location of test bundle instrumentation and anticipated experimental values for the CFTL AG-1 bundle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The placement of instrumentation within the Core Flow Test Loop (CFTL) AG-1 test section to meet the following objectives is described. The objectives are threefold: (1) to provide values for the evaluation of the performance of the test section, (2) to compare the experimental data with value determined by pretest calulations to indicate the approach to conditions that can lead to a bundle failure, and (3) to acquire data during testing that will form a data base for subsequent use in the verification of computational procedures used in the licensing of the Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor. Anticipated values for the various instruments have been determined using the computational procedure SAGAPO modified for the AG-1 geometry. These results are used as the basis for the specification of differential pressure cells and the range of readings anticipated from the thermocouples. Part of the results for the full-flow, full-power case is presented
Photochemical properties of mesophyll and bundle sheath chloroplasts of maize.
Bazzaz, M B; Govindjee
1973-09-01
Several photochemical and spectral properties of maize (Zea mays) bundle sheath and mesophyll chloroplasts are reported that provide a better understanding of the photosynthetic apparatus of C(4) plants. The difference absorption spectrum at 298 K and the fluorescence excitation and emission spectra of chlorophyll at 298 K and 77 K provide new information on the different forms of chlorophyll a in bundle sheath and mesophyll chloroplasts: the former contain, relative to short wavelength chlorophyll a forms, more long wavelength chlorophyll a form (e.g. chlorophyll a 693 and chlorophyll a 705) and less chlorophyll b than the latter. The degree of polarization of chlorophyll a fluorescence is 6% in bundle sheath and 4% in mesophyll chloroplasts. This result is consistent with the presence of relatively high amounts of oriented long wavelength forms of chlorophyll a in bundle sheath compared to mesophyll chloroplasts. The relative yield of variable, with respect to constant, chorophyll a fluorescence in mesophyll chloroplasts is more than twice that in bundle sheath chloroplast. Furthermore, the relative yield of total chlorophyll a fluorescence is 40% lower in bundle sheath compared to that in mesophyll chloroplasts. This is in agreement with the presence of the higher ratio of the weakly fluorescent pigment system I to pigment system II in bundle sheath than in mesophyll chloroplast. The efficiency of energy transfer from chlorophyll b and carotenoids to chlorophyll a are calculated to be 100 and 50%, respectively, in both types of chloroplasts. Fluorescence quenching of atebrin, reflecting high energy state of chloroplasts, is 10 times higher in mesophyll chloroplasts than in bundle sheath chloroplasts during noncyclic electron flow but is equal during cyclic flow. The entire electron transport chain is shown to be present in both types of chloroplasts, as inferred from the antagonistic effect of red (650 nm) and far red (710 nm) lights on the absorbance changes at
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sandra Umeda Sasaki
2008-01-01
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Anterior cruciate ligament ruptures are frequent, especially in sports. Surgical reconstruction with autologous grafts is widely employed in the international literature. Controversies remain with respect to technique variations as continuous research for improvement takes place. One of these variations is the anatomical double bundle technique, which is performed instead of the conventional single bundle technique. More recently, there has been a tendency towards positioning the two bundles through double bone tunnels in the femur and tibia (anatomical reconstruction. OBJECTIVES: To compare, through biomechanical tests, the practice of anatomical double bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with a patellar graft to conventional single bundle reconstruction with the same amount of patellar graft in a paired experimental cadaver study. METHODS: Nine pairs of male cadaver knees ranging in age from 44 to 63 years were randomized into two groups: group A (single bundle and group B (anatomical reconstruction. Each knee was biomechanically tested under three conditions: intact anterior cruciate ligament, reconstructed anterior cruciate ligament, and injured anterior cruciate ligament. Maximum anterior dislocation, rigidity, and passive internal tibia rotation were recorded with knees submitted to a 100 N horizontal anterior dislocation force applied to the tibia with the knees at 30, 60 and 90 degrees of flexion. RESULTS: There were no differences between the two techniques for any of the measurements by ANOVA tests. CONCLUSION: The technique of anatomical double bundle reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament with bone-patellar tendon-bone graft has a similar biomechanical behavior with regard to anterior tibial dislocation, rigidity, and passive internal tibial rotation.
Hair-bundle friction from transduction channels' gating forces
Bormuth, Volker; Barral, Jérémie; Joanny, Jean-François; Jülicher, Frank; Martin, Pascal
2015-12-01
Hearing starts when sound-evoked mechanical vibrations of the hair-cell bundle activate mechanosensitive ion channels, giving birth to an electrical signal. As for any mechanical system, friction impedes movements of the hair bundle and thus constrains the sensitivity and frequency selectivity of auditory transduction. We have shown recently that the opening and closing of the transduction channels produce internal frictional forces that can dominate viscous drag on the micrometer-sized hair bundle and thus provide a major source of damping [2]. We develop here a physical theory of passive hair-bundle mechanics that explains the origin of channel friction. We show that channel friction can be understood quantitatively by coupling the dynamics of the conformational change associated with channel gating to tip-link tension. As a result, varying channel properties affects friction, with faster channels producing smaller friction. The analysis emphasizes the dual role of transduction channels' gating forces, which affect both hair-bundle stiffness and drag. Friction originating from gating of ion channels is a general concept that is relevant to all mechanosensitive channels.
Variable recruitment in bundles of miniature pneumatic artificial muscles.
DeLaHunt, Sylvie A; Pillsbury, Thomas E; Wereley, Norman M
2016-01-01
The natural compliance and force generation properties of pneumatic artificial muscles (PAMs) allow them to operate like human muscles in anthropomorphic robotic manipulators. Traditionally, manipulators use a single PAM or multiple PAMs actuated in unison in place of a human muscle. However, these standard manipulators can experience significant efficiency losses when operated outside their target performance ranges at low actuation pressures. This study considers the application of a variable recruitment control strategy to a parallel bundle of miniature PAMs as an attempt to mimic the selective recruitment of motor units in a human muscle. Bundles of miniature PAMs are experimentally characterized, their actuation behavior is modeled, and the efficiency gains and losses associated with the application of a variable recruitment control strategy are assessed. This bio-inspired control strategy allows muscle bundles to operate the fewest miniature PAMs necessary to achieve a desired performance objective, improving the muscle bundle's operating efficiency over larger ranges of force generation and displacement. The study also highlights the need for improved PAM fabrication techniques to facilitate the production of identical miniature PAMs for inclusion in muscle bundles. PMID:27623216
Pressure Loss across Tube Bundles in Two-phase Flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sim, Woo Gun; Banzragch, Dagdan [Hannam Univ., Daejon (Korea, Republic of)
2016-03-15
An analytical model was developed by Sim to estimate the two-phase damping ratio for upward two-phase flow perpendicular to horizontal tube bundles. The parameters of two-phase flow, such as void fraction and pressure loss evaluated in the model, were calculated based on existing experimental formulations. However, it is necessary to implement a few improvements in the formulations for the case of tube bundles. For the purpose of the improved formulation, we need more information about the two-phase parameters, which can be found through experimental test. An experiment is performed with a typical normal square array of cylinders subjected to the two-phase flow of air-water in the tube bundles, to calculate the two-phase Euler number and the two-phase friction multiplier. The pitch-to-diameter ratio is 1.35 and the diameter of cylinder is 18mm. Pressure loss along the flow direction in the tube bundles is measured with a pressure transducer and data acquisition system to calculate the two-phase Euler number and the two-phase friction multiplier. The void fraction model by Feenstra et al. is used to estimate the void fraction of the two-phase flow in tube bundles. The experimental results of the two phase friction multiplier and two-phase Euler number for homogeneous and non-homogeneous two-phase flows are compared and evaluated against the analytical results given by Sim's model.
Experimental study for convective heat transfer of staged tube bundles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The lack of potable water is one of the most serious problems the world is facing at present. SMART which is a 330 MWt advanced integral PWR, was developed by the KAERI for electricity generation and seawater desalination. SMART adopted a passive system to enhance its safety. The passive system can passively remove a decay heat from a reactor core to an emergency cooldown tank through the heat exchanger. Tube bundles of the heat exchanger, which is submerged in an emergency cooldown tank, transfer heat to an emergency cooldown tank by natural circulation. Heat transfer tests for the upward straight tube bundle were performed to confirm the capability of the SMART design under natural circulation conditions. The heat transfer at the tube bundle was affected by the fluid temperature in the emergency cooldown tank and the radial location of tube bundle. However, it had nearly the same value at the inlet region regardless of the tube location. The average heat transfer at the tube bundle was slightly higher than that at the single tube. (author)
Thermal hydraulics of rod bundles: The effect of eccentricity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chauhan, Amit K., E-mail: amit_fmlab@yahoo.co.in [Fluid Mechanics Laboratory, Department of Applied Mechanics, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Prasad, B.V.S.S.S., E-mail: prasad@iitm.ac.in [Thermal Turbomachines Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Patnaik, B.S.V., E-mail: bsvp@iitm.ac.in [Fluid Mechanics Laboratory, Department of Applied Mechanics, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India)
2013-10-15
Highlights: • Present CFD investigation explores, whole bundle eccentricity for the first time. • Fluid flow and thermal characteristics in various subchannels are analyzed. • Mass flux distribution is particularly analyzed to study eccentricity effect. • Higher eccentricity resulted in a shoot up in rod surface temperature distribution. • Both tangential and radial flow in rod bundles has resulted due to eccentricity. -- Abstract: The effect of eccentricity on the fluid flow and heat transfer through a 19-rod bundle is numerically carried out. When the whole bundle shifts downwards with respect to the outer (pressure) tube, flow redistribution happens. This in turn is responsible for changes in mass flux, pressure and differential flow development in various subchannels. The heat flux imposed on the surface of the fuel rods and the mass flux through the subchannels determines the coolant outlet temperatures. The simulations are performed for a coolant flow Reynolds number of 4 × 10{sup 5}. For an eccentricity value of 0.7, the mass flux in the bottom most subchannel (l) was found to decrease by 10%, while the surface temperature of the fuel rod in the vicinity of this subchannel increased by 250% at the outlet section. Parameters of engineering interest including skin friction coefficient, Nusselt number, etc., have been systematically explored to study the effect of eccentricity on the rod bundle.
Numerical calculation of gas-liquid transient flow in channels and bends
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An accurate prediction of transient two-phase flow phenomena is quite important in safety analyses of nuclear reactors under normal, off-normal or accident conditions. In general, the ability to predict these thermohydraulic phenomena of two-phase flow depends on the availability of mathematical models and experimental correlations. The fluid flow and heat transfer encountered in reactor safety analyses are often very complex due to reactor geometries. Furthermore, full scale experiments with sufficient instrumentations are often extremely difficult to perform due to its size and adverse conditions. These indicate the importance of accurate two-phase flow models and constitutive relations which take into account the widely varying properties, system scales and geometrical effects. The algorithm used in this paper is Newton Block Gauss Seidel (NBGS) method, which has been applied to both simple and complex flow conditions in two-phase flow. This paper contains a description of difference techniques and iterative solution algorithm that is used to solve the field and constitutive equations of the two-fluid model. In practice this solution procedure has been proven to be stable and capable of generating solutions in problems where other schemes have failed. Examples of transient two dimensional air-water flow with in channels and bends with variation of inlet slip ratio and void fraction is being presented in this paper
FEED 1.6: modelling of hydrogen diffusion and precipitation in fuel bundle zircaloy components
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An as-fabricated Zircaloy component in a CANDU® fuel bundle has certain amount of hydrogen. In addition, the Zircaloy component pickups hydrogen during operation, where sheath oxidation occurs on the water side. Hydrogen content in the Zircaloy component will change due to the diffusion under gradients of concentration and temperature. A hydrostatic stress gradient may also have some effect on hydrogen diffusion. When the local concentration of hydrogen exceeds the terminal solid solubility (TSS), hydrides will start to form (i.e., hydride precipitation). Because hydrides have a negative effect on material properties (e.g., lower ductility), the hydrogen content in Zircaloy sheath needs to be limited to ensure that the sheath strength is not affected. The FEED (Finite Element Estimate for Diffusion) code was developed to predict the local hydrogen concentration and formation of hydride. The FEED 1.6 code has the following capabilities: Model transient Hydrogen/Deuterium (H/D) diffusion in Zircaloy components (e.g., fuel sheath, endcap and endcap weld); Model H/D pickup in Zircaloy sheath; Account for the effect of gradients of concentration, temperature and stress; and, Model transient hydride precipitation and re-dissolutions. This paper describes the FEED 1.6 code, including theory, models, and some validation examples. (author)
FEED 1.6: modelling of hydrogen diffusion and precipitation in fuel bundle zircaloy components
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lai, L.; Xu, Z.; Jiang, Q.; Cheng, G. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Mississauga, Ontario (Canada)
2010-07-01
An as-fabricated Zircaloy component in a CANDU® fuel bundle has certain amount of hydrogen. In addition, the Zircaloy component pickups hydrogen during operation, where sheath oxidation occurs on the water side. Hydrogen content in the Zircaloy component will change due to the diffusion under gradients of concentration and temperature. A hydrostatic stress gradient may also have some effect on hydrogen diffusion. When the local concentration of hydrogen exceeds the terminal solid solubility (TSS), hydrides will start to form (i.e., hydride precipitation). Because hydrides have a negative effect on material properties (e.g., lower ductility), the hydrogen content in Zircaloy sheath needs to be limited to ensure that the sheath strength is not affected. The FEED (Finite Element Estimate for Diffusion) code was developed to predict the local hydrogen concentration and formation of hydride. The FEED 1.6 code has the following capabilities: Model transient Hydrogen/Deuterium (H/D) diffusion in Zircaloy components (e.g., fuel sheath, endcap and endcap weld); Model H/D pickup in Zircaloy sheath; Account for the effect of gradients of concentration, temperature and stress; and, Model transient hydride precipitation and re-dissolutions. This paper describes the FEED 1.6 code, including theory, models, and some validation examples. (author)
Bhat, N D R
2011-01-01
Exploration of the transient Universe is an exciting and fast-emerging area within radio astronomy. Known transient phenomena range in time scales from sub-nanoseconds to years or longer, thus spanning a huge range in time domain and hinting a rich diversity in their underlying physical processes. Transient phenomena are likely locations of explosive or dynamic events and they offer tremendous potential to uncover new physics and astrophysics. A number of upcoming next-generation radio facilities and recent advances in computing and instrumentation have provided a much needed impetus for this field which has remained a relatively uncharted territory for the past several decades. In this paper we focus mainly on the class of phenomena that occur on very short time scales (i.e. from $\\sim$ milliseconds to $\\sim$ nanoseconds), known as {\\it fast transients}, the detections of which involve considerable signal processing and data management challenges, given the high time and frequency resolutions required in the...
Full Text Available ... TIA , or transient ischemic attack, is a "mini stroke" that occurs when a blood clot blocks an ... a short time. The only difference between a stroke and TIA is that with TIA the blockage ...
Shu, Fang-Jie; Özdemir, Şahin Kaya; Yang, Lan; Guo, Guang-Can
2015-01-01
A transient and high sensitivity sensor based on high-Q microcavity is proposed and studied theoretically. There are two ways to realize the transient sensor: monitor the spectrum by fast scanning of probe laser frequency or monitor the transmitted light with fixed laser frequency. For both methods, the non-equilibrium response not only tells the ultrafast environment variance, but also enable higher sensitivity. As examples of application, the transient sensor for nanoparticles adhering and passing by the microcavity is studied. It's demonstrated that the transient sensor can sense coupling region, external linear variation together with the speed and the size of a nanoparticle. We believe that our researches will open a door to the fast dynamic sensing by microcavity.
Multi-scale strain-stiffening of semiflexible bundle networks
Piechocka, I K; Broedersz, C P; Kurniawan, N A; MacKintosh, F C; Koenderink, G H
2015-01-01
Bundles of polymer filaments are responsible for the rich and unique mechanical behaviors of many biomaterials, including cells and extracellular matrices. In fibrin biopolymers, whose nonlinear elastic properties are crucial for normal blood clotting, protofibrils self-assemble and bundle to form networks of semiflexible fibers. Here we show that the extraordinary strain-stiffening response of fibrin networks is a direct reflection of the hierarchical architecture of the fibrin fibers. We measure the rheology of networks of unbundled protofibrils and find excellent agreement with an affine model of extensible wormlike polymers. By direct comparison with these data, we show that physiological fibrin networks composed of thick fibers can be modeled as networks of tight protofibril bundles. We demonstrate that the tightness of coupling between protofibrils in the fibers can be tuned by the degree of enzymatic intermolecular crosslinking by the coagulation Factor XIII. Furthermore, at high stress, the protofibri...
Magnetic Propulsion of Microswimmers with DNA-Based Flagellar Bundles.
Maier, Alexander M; Weig, Cornelius; Oswald, Peter; Frey, Erwin; Fischer, Peer; Liedl, Tim
2016-02-10
We show that DNA-based self-assembly can serve as a general and flexible tool to construct artificial flagella of several micrometers in length and only tens of nanometers in diameter. By attaching the DNA flagella to biocompatible magnetic microparticles, we provide a proof of concept demonstration of hybrid structures that, when rotated in an external magnetic field, propel by means of a flagellar bundle, similar to self-propelling peritrichous bacteria. Our theoretical analysis predicts that flagellar bundles that possess a length-dependent bending stiffness should exhibit a superior swimming speed compared to swimmers with a single appendage. The DNA self-assembly method permits the realization of these improved flagellar bundles in good agreement with our quantitative model. DNA flagella with well-controlled shape could fundamentally increase the functionality of fully biocompatible nanorobots and extend the scope and complexity of active materials. PMID:26821214
Real Parabolic Vector Bundles over a Real Curve
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Sanjay Amrutiya
2014-02-01
We define real parabolic structures on real vector bundles over a real curve. Let $(X, _X)$ be a real curve, and let $S\\subset X$ be a non-empty finite subset of such that $_X(S) = S$. Let ≥ 2 be an integer. We construct an -fold cyclic cover : $Y→ X$ in the category of real curves, ramified precisely over each point of , and with the property that for any element of the Galois group , and any $y\\in Y$, one has $_Y(gy) = g^{-1}_Y(y)$. We established an equivalence between the category of real parabolic vector bundles on $(X,_X)$ with real parabolic structure over , all of whose weights are integral multiples of 1/, and the category of real -equivariant vector bundles on $(Y, _Y)$.
A class of Poisson Nijenhuis structures on a tangent bundle
Sarlet, W.; Vermeire, F.
2004-06-01
Equipping the tangent bundle TQ of a manifold with a symplectic form coming from a regular Lagrangian L, we explore how to obtain a Poisson-Nijenhuis structure from a given type (1, 1) tensor field J on Q. It is argued that the complete lift Jc of J is not the natural candidate for a Nijenhuis tensor on TQ, but plays a crucial role in the construction of a different tensor R, which appears to be the pullback under the Legendre transform of the lift of J to T*Q. We show how this tangent bundle view brings new insights and is capable also of producing all important results which are known from previous studies on the cotangent bundle, in the case when Q is equipped with a Riemannian metric. The present approach further paves the way for future generalizations.
Betti numbers of graded modules and cohomology of vector bundles
Eisenbud, David; Schreyer, Frank-Olaf
2009-07-01
In the remarkable paper Graded Betti numbers of Cohen-Macaulay modules and the multiplicity conjecture, Mats Boij and Jonas Soederberg conjectured that the Betti table of a Cohen-Macaulay module over a polynomial ring is a positive linear combination of Betti tables of modules with pure resolutions. We prove a strengthened form of their conjectures. Applications include a proof of the Multiplicity Conjecture of Huneke and Srinivasan and a proof of the convexity of a fan naturally associated to the Young lattice. With the same tools we show that the cohomology table of any vector bundle on projective space is a positive rational linear combination of the cohomology tables of what we call supernatural vector bundles. Using this result we give new bounds on the slope of a vector bundle in terms of its cohomology.
Symposium on Singularities, Representation of Algebras, and Vector Bundles
Trautmann, Günther
1987-01-01
It is well known that there are close relations between classes of singularities and representation theory via the McKay correspondence and between representation theory and vector bundles on projective spaces via the Bernstein-Gelfand-Gelfand construction. These relations however cannot be considered to be either completely understood or fully exploited. These proceedings document recent developments in the area. The questions and methods of representation theory have applications to singularities and to vector bundles. Representation theory itself, which had primarily developed its methods for Artinian algebras, starts to investigate algebras of higher dimension partly because of these applications. Future research in representation theory may be spurred by the classification of singularities and the highly developed theory of moduli for vector bundles. The volume contains 3 survey articles on the 3 main topics mentioned, stressing their interrelationships, as well as original research papers.
Simulation of bundle test Quench-12 with integral code MELCOR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The past NRI analyses cover the Quench-01, Quench-03 and Quench-06 with version MELCOR 1.8.5 (including reflood model), and Quench-01 and Quench-11 tests with the latest version MELCOR 1.8.6. The Quench-12 test is specific, because it has different bundle configuration related to the VVER bundle configuration with hexagonal grid of pins and also used E110 cladding material. Specificity of Quench-12 test is also in the used material of fuel rod cladding - E110. The test specificities are a reason for the highest concern, because the VVER reactors are operated in the Czech Republic. The new input model was developed with the taking into account all experience from previous simulations of the Quench bundle tests. The recent version MELCOR 1.8.6 YU2911 was used for the simulation with slightly modified ELHEAT package. Sensitivity studies on input parameters and oxidation kinetics were performed. (author)
Gradient Bundle Analysis: A Full Topological Approach to Chemical Bonding
Morgenstern, Amanda
2016-01-01
The "chemical bond" is a central concept in molecular sciences, but there is no consensus as to what a bond actually is. Therefore, a variety of bonding models have been developed, each defining the structure of molecules in a different manner with the goal of explaining and predicting chemical properties. This thesis describes the initial development of gradient bundle analysis (GBA), a chemical bonding model that creates a high resolution picture of chemical interactions within the charge density framework. GBA is based on concepts from the quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM), but uses a more complete picture of the topology and geometry of the electron charge density to understand and predict bonding interactions. Gradient bundles are defined as volumes bounded by zero-flux surfaces (ZFSs) in the gradient of the charge density with well-defined energies. The structure of gradient bundles provides an avenue for detecting the locations of valence electrons, which correspond to reactive regions in a ...
The Family Problem: Hints from Heterotic Line Bundle Models
Constantin, Andrei; Mishra, Challenger
2015-01-01
Within the class of heterotic line bundle models, we argue that N=1 vacua which lead to a small number of low-energy chiral families are preferred. By imposing an upper limit on the volume of the internal manifold, as required in order to obtain finite values of the four-dimensional gauge couplings, and validity of the supergravity approximation we show that, for a given manifold, only a finite number of line bundle sums are consistent with supersymmetry. By explicitly scanning over this finite set of line bundle models on certain manifolds we show that, for a sufficiently small volume of the internal manifold, the family number distribution peaks at small values, consistent with three chiral families. The relation between the maximal number of families and the gauge coupling is discussed, which hints towards a possible explanation of the family problem.
Magnetic Propulsion of Microswimmers with DNA-Based Flagellar Bundles.
Maier, Alexander M; Weig, Cornelius; Oswald, Peter; Frey, Erwin; Fischer, Peer; Liedl, Tim
2016-02-10
We show that DNA-based self-assembly can serve as a general and flexible tool to construct artificial flagella of several micrometers in length and only tens of nanometers in diameter. By attaching the DNA flagella to biocompatible magnetic microparticles, we provide a proof of concept demonstration of hybrid structures that, when rotated in an external magnetic field, propel by means of a flagellar bundle, similar to self-propelling peritrichous bacteria. Our theoretical analysis predicts that flagellar bundles that possess a length-dependent bending stiffness should exhibit a superior swimming speed compared to swimmers with a single appendage. The DNA self-assembly method permits the realization of these improved flagellar bundles in good agreement with our quantitative model. DNA flagella with well-controlled shape could fundamentally increase the functionality of fully biocompatible nanorobots and extend the scope and complexity of active materials.
DTI Image Registration under Probabilistic Fiber Bundles Tractography Learning
Lei, Tao; Fan, Yangyu; Zhang, Xiuwei
2016-01-01
Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) image registration is an essential step for diffusion tensor image analysis. Most of the fiber bundle based registration algorithms use deterministic fiber tracking technique to get the white matter fiber bundles, which will be affected by the noise and volume. In order to overcome the above problem, we proposed a Diffusion Tensor Imaging image registration method under probabilistic fiber bundles tractography learning. Probabilistic tractography technique can more reasonably trace to the structure of the nerve fibers. The residual error estimation step in active sample selection learning is improved by modifying the residual error model using finite sample set. The calculated deformation field is then registered on the DTI images. The results of our proposed registration method are compared with 6 state-of-the-art DTI image registration methods under visualization and 3 quantitative evaluation standards. The experimental results show that our proposed method has a good comprehensive performance.
Keane, E. F.
2010-01-01
Here I will review the high time resolution radio sky, focusing on millisecond scales. This is primarily occupied by neutron stars, the well-known radio pulsars and the recently identified group of transient sources known as Rotating RAdio Transients (RRATs). The RRATs appear to be abundant in the Galaxy, which at first glance may be difficult to reconcile with the observed supernova rate. However, as I will discuss, it seems that the RRATs can be explained as pulsars which are either extreme...
Quillen Bundle and Geometric Prequantization of Non-Abelian Vortices on a Riemann Surface
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Rukmini Dey; Samir K Paul
2011-02-01
In this paper we prequantize the moduli space of non-abelian vortices. We explicitly calculate the symplectic form arising from 2 metric and we construct a prequantum line bundle whose curvature is proportional to this symplectic form. The prequantum line bundle turns out to be Quillen’s determinant line bundle with a modified Quillen metric. Next, as in the case of abelian vortices, we construct line bundles over the moduli space whose curvatures form a family of symplectic forms which are parametrized by $\\Psi_0$, a section of a certain bundle. The equivalence of these prequantum bundles are discussed.
The Determinant Bundle on the Moduli Space of Stable Triples over a Curve
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Indranil Biswas; N Raghavendra
2002-08-01
We construct a holomorphic Hermitian line bundle over the moduli space of stable triples of the form (1, 2, ), where 1 and 2 are holomorphic vector bundles over a fixed compact Riemann surface , and : 2 → 1 is a holomorphic vector bundle homomorphism. The curvature of the Chern connection of this holomorphic Hermitian line bundle is computed. The curvature is shown to coincide with a constant scalar multiple of the natural Kähler form on the moduli space. The construction is based on a result of Quillen on the determinant line bundle over the space of Dolbeault operators on a fixed ∞ Hermitian vector bundle over a compact Riemann surface.
Cellulosic Fibers: Effect of Processing on Fiber Bundle Strength
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thygesen, Anders; Madsen, Bo; Thomsen, Anne Belinda;
2011-01-01
A range of differently processed cellulosic fibers from flax and hemp plants were investigated to study the relation between processing of cellulosic fibers and fiber bundle strength. The studied processing methods are applied for yarn production and include retting, scutching, carding, and cotto......A range of differently processed cellulosic fibers from flax and hemp plants were investigated to study the relation between processing of cellulosic fibers and fiber bundle strength. The studied processing methods are applied for yarn production and include retting, scutching, carding...
Stable bundles of rank 2 with 4 sections
Grzegorczyk, I; Newstead, P E
2010-01-01
This paper contains results on stable bundles of rank $2$ with space of sections of dimension $4$ on a smooth irreducible projective algebraic curve $C$. There is a known lower bound on the degree for the existence of such bundles; the main result of the paper is a geometric criterion for this bound to be attained. For a general curve $C$ of genus $10$, we show that the bound cannot be attained, but that there exist Petri curves of this genus for which the bound is sharp. We interpret the main results for various curves and in terms of Clifford indices and coherent systems.
Stable bundles of rank 2 with 4 sections
Grzegorczyk, I.; Mercat, V.; Newstead, P. E.
2010-01-01
This paper contains results on stable bundles of rank 2 with space of sections of dimension 4 on a smooth irreducible projective algebraic curve $C$. There is a known lower bound on the degree for the existence of such bundles; the main result of the paper is a geometric criterion for this bound to be attained. For a general curve $C$ of genus 10, we show that the bound cannot be attained, but that there exist Petri curves of this genus for which the bound is sharp. We interpret the main resu...
Normal Bundle of Rational Curves and Waring Decomposition
Bernardi, Alessandro
2012-01-01
The problem to determine the splitting of the normal bundle of rational curves has been considered in the 80s in a series of papers by Ghione and Sacchiero and in another series by Eisenbud and Van de Ven in the case of rational space curves. With our approach we are able to obtain results for curves enbedded in $\\bbP^m$ for $m\\geq 3$ we find an interesting interplay between the Waring decomposition and the splitting of the normal bundle.
Failure process of a bundle of plastic fibers
F. Raischel; Kun, F; Herrmann, H. J.
2006-01-01
We present an extension of fiber bundle models considering that failed fibers still carry a fraction $0 \\leq \\alpha \\leq 1$ of their failure load. The value of $\\alpha$ interpolates between the perfectly brittle failure $(\\alpha = 0)$ and perfectly plastic behavior $(\\alpha=1)$ of fibers. We show that the finite load bearing capacity of broken fibers has a substantial effect on the failure process of the bundle. In the case of global load sharing it is found that for $\\alpha \\to 1$ the macros...
Einstein Manifolds, Abelian Instantons, Bundle Reduction, and the Cosmological Constant
Soo, C P
2001-01-01
The anti-self-dual projection of the spin connections of certain four-dimensional Einstein manifolds can be Abelian in nature. These configurations signify bundle reductions. By a theorem of Kobayashi and Nomizu such a process is predicated on the existence of a covariantly constant field. It turns out that even without fundamental Higgs fields and other physical matter, gravitational self-interactions can generate this mechanism if the cosmological constant is non-vanishing. This article identifies the order parameter, and clarifies how these Abelian instanton solutions are associated with a Higgs triplet which causes the bundle reduction from SO(3) gauge group to U(1).
Chop-leach fuel bundle residues densification by melting
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nelson, R.G.; Griggs, B.
1976-11-01
Two melting processes were investigated for the densification of fuel bundle residues: Industoslag melting and graphite crucible melting. The Industoslag process, with prior decontamination and sorting, can produce ingots of Zircaloy, stainless steel and Inconel of a quality suitable for refabrication and reuse. The process can also melt oxidized mixtures of fuel bundle residues for direct storage. Eutectic mixtures of these materials can be melted in graphite at temperatures of 1300/sup 0/C. Hydrogen absorption experiments with the zirconium-rich alloys show the alloys to be potential tritium reservoirs. 13 figures.
ASSERT and COBRA predictions of flow distribution in vertical bundles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
COBRA and ASSERT are subchannel codes which compute flow and enthalpy distributions in rod bundles. COBRA is a well known code, ASSERT is under development at CRNL. This paper gives a comparison of the two codes with boiling experiments in vertical seven rod bundles. ASSERT predictions of the void distribution are shown to be in good agreement with reported experimental results, while COBRA predictions are unsatisfactory. The mixing models in both COBRA and ASSERT are briefly discussed. The reasons for the failure of COBRA-IV and the success of ASSERT in simulating the experiments are highlighted
Capillary Micro-Flow Through a Fiber Bundle(Ⅰ)
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHU Ying-dan; WANG Ji-hui; TAN Hua; GAO Guo-qiang
2004-01-01
The present work considered the capillary micro-flow through a fiber bundle. The resin heights in the fiber bundle as a function of time were used to determine the experimental values of capillary pressure and the permeability by the nonlinear regression fitting method. The fitting curves showed a good agreement with experiments. However, these values of capillary pressure from short- time experiments were much lower than the theoretical results from the Yang-Laplace Equation. More accurate capillary pressure was predicted from the presented long-run experiment.
Phase Space Reduction of Star Products on Cotangent Bundles
Kowalzig, Niels; Neumaier, Nikolai; Pflaum, Markus J.
2004-01-01
In this paper we construct star products on Marsden-Weinstein reduced spaces in case both the original phase space and the reduced phase space are (symplectomorphic to) cotangent bundles. Under the assumption that the original cotangent bundle $T^*Q$ carries a symplectique structure of form $\\omega_{B_0}=\\omega_0 + \\pi^*B_0$ with $B_0$ a closed two-form on $Q$, is equipped by the cotangent lift of a proper and free Lie group action on $Q$ and by an invariant star product that admits a $G$-equ...
BUNDLE ADJUSTMENTS CCD CAMERA CALIBRATION BASED ON COLLINEARITY EQUATION
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Liu Changying; Yu Zhijing; Che Rensheng; Ye Dong; Huang Qingcheng; Yang Dingning
2004-01-01
The solid template CCD camera calibration method of bundle adjustments based on collinearity equation is presented considering the characteristics of space large-dimension on-line measurement. In the method, a more comprehensive camera model is adopted which is based on the pinhole model extended with distortions corrections. In the process of calibration, calibration precision is improved by imaging at different locations in the whole measurement space, multi-imaging at the same location and bundle adjustments optimization. The calibration experiment proves that the calibration method is able to fulfill calibration requirement of CCD camera applied to vision measurement.
Reaction–diffusion model of hair-bundle morphogenesis
Jacobo, Adrian; Hudspeth, A. J.
2014-01-01
Our senses of hearing and balance rest upon the activity of hair cells, the ear’s sensory receptors. Each hair cell detects mechanical stimuli with its hair bundle, an organelle comprising 10–300 cylindrical, actin-filled stereocilia. A bundle’s structure is highly stereotyped: the stereocilia stand erect in a regular, hexagonal array and display a monotonic gradient in length along one axis. This precise organization is key to the operation of the hair bundle: mutations that disturb the morp...
Dialytic Separation of Bundled, Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes from Carbonaceous Impurities
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Justin Mulvey
2014-11-01
Full Text Available Separating functionalized single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs from functionalized amorphous carbon is challenging, due to their polydispersity and similar physicochemical properties. We describe a single-step, dialytic separation method that takes advantage of the ability of heavily functionalized SWCNTs to bundle in a polar environment while maintaining their solubility. Experiments on functionalized SWCNTs were compared with functionalized, C60 fullerenes (buckyballs to probe the general applicability of the method and further characterize the bundling process. This approach may simultaneously be used to purify a functionalization reaction mixture of unreacted small molecules and of residual solvents, such as dimethylformamide.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sanchez-Cervera, S.; Garcia Herranz, N.; Cuervo, D.; Ahnert, C.
2014-07-01
In this paper evaluates the impact that has a certain mesh on a transient in a PWR reactor in the expulsion of a control bar. Have been used for this purpose the coupled codes neutronic and Thermo-hydraulic COBAYA3/COBRA-TF. This objective has been chosen the OECD/NEA PWR MOX/UO{sub 2} rod ejection transient benchmark provides isotopic compositions and defined geometric configurations that allow the use of codes lattice to generate own bookstores. The code used for this transport has been the code APOLLO2.8. The results show large discrepancies when using the benchmark library or libraries own by comparing them to the other participants solutions. The source of these discrepancies is the nodal effective sections provided in the benchmark. (Author)
The effect of radial power profile of DUPIC bundle on CHF
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The axial and ring power profiles of DUPIC bundle are much different from those of reference 37-element fuel bundle since a DUPIC fuel bundle is re-fabricated using spent PWR fuel and 2-bundle shift refuelling scheme is proposed to CANDU-6 reactor. In case that the ring power profile of a fuel bundle is altered, the flow and enthalpy distribution of subchannels and the radial position of CHF occurrence will be changed. Similarly, the axial power profile of a fuel channel affects CHF and axial position of CHF occurrence as well as axial enthalpy, quality and pressure distribution. The ring power profile of the DUPIC bundle as increasing burnup is altered and flattened compared to 37-element bundle and each fuel bundle in a fuel channel has a different ring power profile from the other bundles at different axial position in the same fuel channel. Therefore, how to consider the burnup or ring power effect on CHF is very important to DUPIC thermalhydraulic analysis. At present study, thermalhydraulic analysis of the DUPIC bundle was performed in consideration of ring power profile effect on CHF. The subchannel enthalpy, mass flux and CHF distribution for 0 burnup to discharged burnup (18,000 MWD/THM) of DUPIC bundle were evaluated using ASSERT subchannel code. The results were compared to those of 37-element bundle and the compatability of DUPIC bundle with an existing CANDU-6 was presented in a CHF point of view
Swinbank, John D.; Staley, Tim D.; Molenaar, Gijs J.; Rol, Evert; Rowlinson, Antonia; Scheers, Bart; Spreeuw, Hanno; Bell, Martin E.; Broderick, Jess W.; Carbone, Dario; Garsden, Hugh; van der Horst, Alexander J.; Law, Casey J.; Wise, Michael; Breton, Rene P.; Cendes, Yvette; Corbel, Stéphane; Eislöffel, Jochen; Falcke, Heino; Fender, Rob; Grießmeier, Jean-Mathias; Hessels, Jason W. T.; Stappers, Benjamin W.; Stewart, Adam J.; Wijers, Ralph A. M. J.; Wijnands, Rudy; Zarka, Philippe
2015-06-01
Current and future astronomical survey facilities provide a remarkably rich opportunity for transient astronomy, combining unprecedented fields of view with high sensitivity and the ability to access previously unexplored wavelength regimes. This is particularly true of LOFAR, a recently-commissioned, low-frequency radio interferometer, based in the Netherlands and with stations across Europe. The identification of and response to transients is one of LOFAR's key science goals. However, the large data volumes which LOFAR produces, combined with the scientific requirement for rapid response, make automation essential. To support this, we have developed the LOFAR Transients Pipeline, or TraP. The TraP ingests multi-frequency image data from LOFAR or other instruments and searches it for transients and variables, providing automatic alerts of significant detections and populating a lightcurve database for further analysis by astronomers. Here, we discuss the scientific goals of the TraP and how it has been designed to meet them. We describe its implementation, including both the algorithms adopted to maximize performance as well as the development methodology used to ensure it is robust and reliable, particularly in the presence of artefacts typical of radio astronomy imaging. Finally, we report on a series of tests of the pipeline carried out using simulated LOFAR observations with a known population of transients.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Silva, Alexandro S.; Dominguez, Dany S., E-mail: alexandrossilva@gmail.com, E-mail: dsdominguez@gmail.com [Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz (UESC), Ilheus, BA (Brazil); Mazaira, Leorlen Y. Rojas; Hernandez, Carlos R.G., E-mail: leored1984@gmail.com, E-mail: cgh@instec.cu [Instituto Superior de Tecnologias y Ciencias Aplicadas, La Habana (Cuba); Lira, Carlos Alberto Brayner de Oliveira, E-mail: cabol@ufpe.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)
2015-07-01
High-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs) have the potential to be used as possible energy generation sources in the near future, owing to their inherently safe performance by using a large amount of graphite, low power density design, and high conversion efficiency. However, safety is the most important issue for its commercialization in nuclear energy industry. It is very important for safety design and operation of an HTGR to investigate its thermal–hydraulic characteristics. In this article, it was performed the thermal–hydraulic simulation of compressible flow inside the core of the pebble bed reactor HTR (High Temperature Reactor)-10 using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The realistic approach was used, where every closely packed pebble is realistically modelled considering a graphite layer and sphere of fuel. Due to the high computational cost is impossible simulate the full core; therefore, the geometry used is a column of FCC (Face Centered Cubic) cells, with 41 layers and 82 pebbles. The input data used were taken from the thermohydraulic IAEA Benchmark (TECDOC-1694). The results show the profiles of velocity and temperature of the coolant in the core, and the temperature distribution inside the pebbles. The maximum temperatures in the pebbles do not exceed the allowable limit for this type of nuclear fuel. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Patil, Anil K.; Saini, J.S.; Kumar, K. [D.I.T., Dehradun (India). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering
2011-07-01
Application of artificial roughness on underside of absorber surface has been found to be effective technique to improve thermo hydraulic performance of solar air heaters. In progression to the previous researches, the present study discloses the effect of broken V-rib roughness combined with staggered ribs on heat transfer and friction in a flow through artificially roughened solar air heater duct. The experimentations were performed to collect the data on heat transfer and friction by varying the Reynolds number (Re) between 3000 and 17,000, relative gap position (s'/s) from 0.2 to 0.8, for the fixed values of relative staggered rib pitch p'/p = 0.6, relative staggered rib size r/e = 1, relative roughness pitch p/e = 10, relative roughness height e/D{sub h} = 0.043, relative gap size g/e = 1, and angle of attack {alpha} = 60 . The present roughness geometry with relative gap position (s'/s) of 0.6 corresponding to flow Reynolds number (Re) of 13,150 yields the best thermohydraulic performance. (orig.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Babitz Philip
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The thermodynamic conditions of the University of Utah's TRIGA Reactor were simulated using SolidWorks Flow Simulation, Ansys, Fluent and PARET-ANL. The models are developed for the reactor's currently maximum operating power of 90 kW, and a few higher power levels to analyze thermohydraulics and heat transfer aspects in determining a design basis for higher power including the cost estimate. It was found that the natural convection current becomes much more pronounced at higher power levels with vortex shedding also occurring. A departure from nucleate boiling analysis showed that while nucleate boiling begins near 210 kW it remains in this state and does not approach the critical heat flux at powers up to 500 kW. Based on these studies, two upgrades are proposed for extended operation and possibly higher reactor power level. Together with the findings from Part I studies, we conclude that increase of the reactor power is highly feasible yet dependable on its purpose and associated investments.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vianna Neto, Armando M.; Santos, Arnaldo M.; Mercon, Eduardo G. [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transportes, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
2003-07-01
This paper presents the development of an integrated simulation model, for the numerical calculation of thermal-hydraulic behaviors in the Brazilian southeast onshore gas pipeline flow system, remotely operated by TRANSPETRO's Gas Pipeline Control Centre (CCG). In its final application, this model is supposed to provide simulated results at the closer range to reality, in order to improve gas pipeline simulation studies and evaluations for the system in question. Considering the fact that numerical thermo-hydraulic simulation becomes the CCG's most important tool to analyze the boundary conditions to adjust the mentioned gas flow system, this paper seeks and takes aim to the optimization of the following prime attributions of a gas pipeline control centre: verification of system behaviors, face to some unit maintenance stop or procedure, programmed or not, or to some new gas outlet or inlet connection to the system; daily operational compatibility analysis between programmed and realized gas volumes; gas technical expedition and delivery analysis. Finally, all this work was idealized and carried out within the one-phase flow domain (dry gas) (author)
AdS 3-manifolds and Higgs bundles
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Alessandrini, Daniele; Li, Qiongling
2015-01-01
In this paper we investigate the relationships between closed AdS 3-manifolds and Higgs bundles. We have a new way to construct AdS structures that allows us to see many of their properties explicitly, for example we can recover the very recent formula by Tholozan for the volumes. We also find...
Signal Integrity Analysis in Single and Bundled Carbon Nanotube Interconnects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carbon nanotube (CN T) can be considered as an emerging interconnect material in current nano scale regime. They are more promising than other interconnect materials such as Al or Cu because of their robustness to electromigration. This research paper aims to address the crosstalk-related issues (signal integrity) in interconnect lines. Different analytical models of single- (SWCNT), double- (DWCNT), and multiwalled CNTs (MWCNT) are studied to analyze the crosstalk delay at global interconnect lengths. A capacitively coupled three-line bus architecture employing CMOS driver is used for accurate estimation of crosstalk delay. Each line in bus architecture is represented with the equivalent RLC models of single and bundled SWCNT, DWCNT, and MWCNT interconnects. Crosstalk delay is observed at middle line (victim) when it switches in opposite direction with respect to the other two lines (aggressors). Using the data predicted by ITRS 2012, a comparative analysis on the basis of crosstalk delay is performed for bundled SWCNT/DWCNT and single MWCNT interconnects. It is observed that the overall crosstalk delay is improved by 40.92% and 21.37% for single MWCNT in comparison to bundled SWCNT and bundled DWCNT interconnects, respectively.
Dendritic bundles, minicolumns, columns, and cortical output units
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Giorgio Innocenti
2010-03-01
Full Text Available The search for the fundamental building block of the cerebral cortex has highlighted three structures, perpendicular to the cortical surface: i columns of neurons with radially invariant response properties, e.g., receptive field position, sensory modality, stimulus orientation or direction, frequency tuning etc. ii minicolumns of radially aligned cell bodies and iii bundles, constituted by the apical dendrites of pyramidal neurons with cell bodies in different layers. The latter were described in detail, and sometimes quantitatively, in several species and areas. It was recently suggested that the dendritic bundles consist of apical dendrites belonging to neurons projecting their axons to specific targets. We review the concept above and suggest that another structural and computational unit of cerebral cortex is the cortical output unit (COU, i.e. an assembly of bundles of apical dendrites and their parent cell bodies including each of the outputs to distant cortical or subcortical structures, of a given cortical locus (area or part of an area. This somato-dendritic assembly receives inputs some of which are common to the whole assembly and determine its radially invariant response properties, others are specific to one or more dendritic bundles, and determine the specific response signature of neurons in the different cortical layers and projecting to different targets.
A Method of Assembling Compact Coherent Fiber-Optic Bundles
Martin, Stefan; Liu, Duncan; Levine, Bruce Martin; Shao, Michael; Wallace, James
2007-01-01
A method of assembling coherent fiber-optic bundles in which all the fibers are packed together as closely as possible is undergoing development. The method is based, straightforwardly, on the established concept of hexagonal close packing; hence, the development efforts are focused on fixtures and techniques for practical implementation of hexagonal close packing of parallel optical fibers.
Almost Lie structures on an anchored Banach bundle
Cabau, Patrick
2011-01-01
Under appropriate assumptions, we generalize the concept of linear almost Poisson struc- tures, almost Lie algebroids, almost differentials in the framework of Banach anchored bundles and the relation between these objects. We then obtain an adapted formalism for mechanical systems which is illustrated by the evolutionary problem of the "Hilbert snake"
Rigidity of Minimal Submanifolds with Flat Normal Bundle
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Hai-Ping Fu
2010-09-01
Let $M^n(n≥ 3)$ be an -dimensional complete immersed $\\frac{n-2}{n}$-superstable minimal submanifold in an $(n+p)$-dimensional Euclidean space $\\mathbb{R}^{n+p}$ with flat normal bundle. We prove that if the second fundamental form of satisfies some decay conditions, then is an affine plane or a catenoid in some Euclidean subspace.
Assembly and operation experience of EVA II steam reforming bundle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The main test component of the experimental facility EVA-II/ADAM-II is a helium heated steam reformer bundle with 30 tubes. The tubes are filled with a catalyst of raschig ring type. The main test of the component were related to the power dependence. A series of experiment dealt with the influence of steam/methane ratio on the carbon deposit formation
Euler-Lagrange Forms and Cohomology Groups on Jet Bundles
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHEN Jing-Bo
2005-01-01
@@ Using the language of jet bundles, we generalize the definitions of Euler-Lagrange one-form and the associated cohomology which were introduced by Guo et al. [Commun. Theor. Phys. 37(2002)1]. Continuous and discreteLagrange mechanics and field theory are presented. Higher order Euler-Lagrange cohomology groups are also introduced.
Quantum nonsymmetric gravity and the superfiber bundle formalism
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The formalism of the principal super fiber-bundle is applied to quantum Nonsymmetric gravitational theory. It is shown that the metric and Fadeev-Popov fields arise as superfield components of the super connection. Moreover the BRST and anti-BRST transformations are shown to be the gauge transformations of the parameters of the ghost and anti-ghost superfields. (authors)
Quantum Nonsymmetric Gravity and The Superfiber Bundle Formalism
Mebarki, N
1999-01-01
The formalism of the principal superfiber-bundle is applied to quantum Nonsymmetric gravitationl theory. It is shown that the metric and Faddev-Popov fields arise as superfields components of the superconnection. Moreover,the BRST and anti-BRST transformations are shown to be the gauge transformations of parameters the ghost and anti-ghost superfields.
Elliptic open books on torus bundles over the circle
Etgü, Tolga
2006-01-01
As an application of the construction of open books on plumbed 3-manifolds, we construct elliptic open books on torus bundles over the circle. In certain cases these open books are compatible with Stein fillable contact structures and have minimal genus.
Heat transfer and fluid friction in bundles of twisted tubes
Dzyubenko, B. V.; Dreitser, G. A.
1986-06-01
The results of heat-transfer and friction studies in bundles of twisted tubes and rods with spiral wire-wrap spacers are analyzed, and recommendations are given for calculating the heat-transfer coefficient in heat exchangers using twisted tubes.
Self-adjointness of the Gaffney Laplacian on Vector Bundles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bandara, Lashi, E-mail: lashi.bandara@chalmers.se [Chalmers University of Technology and University of Gothenburg, Mathematical Sciences (Sweden); Milatovic, Ognjen, E-mail: omilatov@unf.edu [University of North Florida, Department of Mathematics and Statistics (United States)
2015-12-15
We study the Gaffney Laplacian on a vector bundle equipped with a compatible metric and connection over a Riemannian manifold that is possibly geodesically incomplete. Under the hypothesis that the Cauchy boundary is polar, we demonstrate the self-adjointness of this Laplacian. Furthermore, we show that negligible boundary is a necessary and sufficient condition for the self-adjointness of this operator.
Multicell slug flow heat transfer analysis of finite LMFBR bundles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yeung, M.K.; Wolf, L.
1978-12-01
An analytical two-dimensional, multi-region, multi-cell technique has been developed for the thermal analysis of LMFBR rod bundles. Local temperature fields of various unit cells were obtained for 7, 19, and 37-rod bundles of different geometries and power distributions. The validity of the technique has been verified by its excellent agreement with the THTB calculational result. By comparing the calculated fully-developed circumferential clad temperature distribution with those of the experimental measurements, an axial correction factor has been derived to account for the entrance effect for practical considerations. Moreover, the knowledge of the local temperature field of the rod bundle leads to the determination of the effective mixing lengths L/sub ij/ for adjacent subchannels of various geometries. It was shown that the implementation of the accurately determined L/sub ij/ into COBRA-IIIC calculations has fairly significant effects on intersubchannel mixing. In addition, a scheme has been proposed to couple the 2-D distributed and lumped parameter calculation by COBRA-IIIC such that the entrance effect can be implanted into the distributed parameter analysis. The technique has demonstrated its applicability for a 7-rod bundle and the results of calculation were compared to those of three-dimensional analyses and experimental measurements.
Coupling Systems of Five CARA Fuel Bundles for Atucha I
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper describe the mechanical design of two options for the coupling systems of five CARA fuel bundles, to be used in the Atucha I nuclear power plant. These systems will be hydraulic tested in a low pressure loop to know their hydraulic loss of pressure
Fission yeast Scp3 potentially maintains microtubule orientation through bundling.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kanako Ozaki
Full Text Available Microtubules play important roles in organelle transport, the maintenance of cell polarity and chromosome segregation and generally form bundles during these processes. The fission yeast gene scp3+ was identified as a multicopy suppressor of the cps3-81 mutant, which is hypersensitive to isopropyl N-3-chlorophenylcarbamate (CIPC, a poison that induces abnormal multipolar spindle formation in higher eukaryotes. In this study, we investigated the function of Scp3 along with the effect of CIPC in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Microscopic observation revealed that treatment with CIPC, cps3-81 mutation and scp3+ gene deletion disturbed the orientation of microtubules in interphase cells. Overexpression of scp3+ suppressed the abnormal orientation of microtubules by promoting bundling. Functional analysis suggested that Scp3 functions independently from Ase1, a protein largely required for the bundling of the mitotic spindle. A strain lacking the ase1+ gene was more sensitive to CIPC, with the drug affecting the integrity of the mitotic spindle, indicating that CIPC has a mitotic target that has a role redundant with Ase1. These results suggested that multiple systems are independently involved to ensure microtubule orientation by bundling in fission yeast.
Frame-independent mechanics:geometry on affine bundles
Grabowska, K.; Grabowski, J.; Urbanski, P.
2005-01-01
Main ideas of the differential geometry on affine bundles are presented. Affine counterparts of Lie algebroid and Poisson structures are introduced and discussed. The developed concepts are applied in a frame-independent formulation of the time-dependent and the Newtonian mechanics.
MYOCARDIAL DEFORMATION AND COMPLETE LEFT BUNDLE BRANCH BLOCK
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E. N. Pavlyukova
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Tissue Doppler imaging is evolving as a useful echocardiographic tool for quantitative assessment of left ventricular systolic and diastolic function. Over the last 10 years, myocardial deformation imaging has become possible initially with tissue Doppler , and more recently with myocardial speckle-tracking using 2D echocardiography. Unlike simple tissue velocity measurements, deformation measurements are specific for the region of interest. Strain rate or strain measurements have been used as sensitive indicators for subclinical diseases, and it is the most widely used tool to assess mechanical dyssynchrony. Left bundle branch block is a frequent, etiologically heterogeneous, clinically hostile and diagnostically challenging entity. About 2% of patients underwent cardiac stress testing show stable or intermittent left bundle branch block. Presence of left bundle branch block is associated with a lower and slower diastolic coronary flow velocity especially during hyperemia. Stress echocardiography is the best option for the diagnosis of ischemic heart disease, albeit specificity and sensitivity reduce in patients with left bundle branch block in the territory of left anterior descending artery in presence of initial septum dyskinesia.
Regularity for The CR Vector Bundle Problem I
Gong, Xianghong; Webster, S. M.
2009-01-01
We give a new solution to the local integrability problem for CR vector bundles over strictly pseudoconvex real hypersurfaces of dimension seven or greater. It is based on a KAM rapid convergence argument and avoids the previous more difficult Nash-Moser methods. The solution is sharp as to H\\"older continuity.
A note on stochastic calculus in vector bundles
Catuogno, Pedro J; Ruffino, Paulo R
2011-01-01
The aim of these notes is to relate covariant stochastic integration in a vector bundle $E$ (as in Norris \\cite{Norris}) with the usual Stratonovich calculus via the connector $\\K:TE \\rightarrow E$ (cf. e.g. Paterson \\cite{Paterson} or Poor \\cite{Poor}) which carries the connection dependence.
Negotiating over bundles and prices using aggregate knowledge
Somefun, D.J.A.; Klos, T.B.; La Poutré, J.A.
2004-01-01
Combining two or more items and selling them as one good, a practice called bundling, can be a very effective strategy for reducing the costs of producing, marketing, and selling goods. In this paper, we consider a form of multi-issue negotiation where a shop negotiates both the contents and the pri
Product Bundling and Shared Information Goods: A Pricing Exercise
Morrison, William G.
2016-01-01
In this article, the author describes an exercise in which two pricing problems (product bundling and the sharing of digital information goods) can be understood using the same analytical approach. The exercise allows students to calculate the correct numerical answers with relative ease, while the teaching plan demonstrates the importance of the…
Exposure Control Using Adaptive Multi-Stage Item Bundles.
Luecht, Richard M.
This paper presents a multistage adaptive testing test development paradigm that promises to handle content balancing and other test development needs, psychometric reliability concerns, and item exposure. The bundled multistage adaptive testing (BMAT) framework is a modification of the computer-adaptive sequential testing framework introduced by…
Etournay, Raphaël; Lepelletier, Léa; Boutet de Monvel, Jacques; Michel, Vincent; Cayet, Nadège; Leibovici, Michel; Weil, Dominique; Foucher, Isabelle; Hardelin, Jean-Pierre; Petit, Christine
2010-04-01
Epithelial cells acquire diverse shapes relating to their different functions. This is particularly relevant for the cochlear outer hair cells (OHCs), whose apical and basolateral shapes accommodate the functioning of these cells as mechano-electrical and electromechanical transducers, respectively. We uncovered a circumferential shape transition of the apical junctional complex (AJC) of OHCs, which occurs during the early postnatal period in the mouse, prior to hearing onset. Geometric analysis of the OHC apical circumference using immunostaining of the AJC protein ZO1 and Fourier-interpolated contour detection characterizes this transition as a switch from a rounded-hexagon to a non-convex circumference delineating two lateral lobes at the neural side of the cell, with a negative curvature in between. This shape tightly correlates with the 'V'-configuration of the OHC hair bundle, the apical mechanosensitive organelle that converts sound-evoked vibrations into variations in cell membrane potential. The OHC apical circumference remodeling failed or was incomplete in all the mouse mutants affected in hair bundle morphogenesis that we tested. During the normal shape transition, myosin VIIa and myosin II (A and B isoforms) displayed polarized redistributions into and out of the developing lobes, respectively, while Shroom2 and F-actin transiently accumulated in the lobes. Defects in these redistributions were observed in the mutants, paralleling their apical circumference abnormalities. Our results point to a pivotal role for actomyosin cytoskeleton tensions in the reshaping of the OHC apical circumference. We propose that this remodeling contributes to optimize the mechanical coupling between the basal and apical poles of mature OHCs.
2010-02-24
... Price Index Adjustments for Expenditure Limitations and Lobbyist Bundling Disclosure Threshold AGENCY: Federal Election Commission. ACTION: Notice of adjustments to expenditure limitations and lobbyist... Commission'') is adjusting certain expenditure limitations and the lobbyist bundling disclosure threshold...
2012-02-21
... Price Index Adjustments for Expenditure Limitations and Lobbyist Bundling Disclosure Threshold AGENCY: Federal Election Commission. ACTION: Notice of adjustments to expenditure limitations and lobbyist... Commission'') is adjusting certain expenditure limitations and the lobbyist bundling disclosure threshold...
A comprehensive comparison on vibration and heat transfer of two elastic heat transfer tube bundles
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
闫柯; 葛培琪; 翟强
2015-01-01
Elastic heat transfer tube bundles are widely used in the field of flow-induced vibration heat transfer enhancement. Two types of mainly used tube bundles, the planar elastic tube bundle and the conical spiral tube bundle were comprehensively compared in the condition of the same shell side diameter. The natural mode characteristics, the effect of fluid−structure interaction, the stress distribution, the comprehensive heat transfer performance and the secondary fluid flow of the two elastic tube bundles were all concluded and compared. The results show that the natural frequency and the critical velocity of vibration buckling of the planar elastic tube bundle are larger than those of the conical spiral tube bundle, while the stress distribution and the comprehensive heat transfer performance of the conical spiral tube bundle are relatively better.
Twisted Partial Actions, A Classification of Stable C*-Algebraic Bundles (Preliminary Version)
Exel, Ruy
1994-01-01
We introduce the notion of continuous twisted partial actions of a locally compact group on a C*-algebra. With such, we construct an associated C*-algebraic bundle called the semidirect product bundle. Our main theorem shows that, given any C*-algebraic bundle which is second countable and whose unit fiber algebra is stable, there is a continuous twisted partial action of the base group on the unit fiber algebra, whose associated semidirect product bundle is isomorphic to the given one.
Equilibrium Bundle Size of Rodlike Polyelectrolytes with Counterion-Induced Attractive Interactions
Henle, Mark L.; Pincus, Philip A.
2004-01-01
Multivalent counterions can induce an effective attraction between like-charged rodlike polyelectrolytes, leading to the formation of polelectrolyte bundles. In this paper, we calculate the equilibrium bundle size using a simple model in which the attraction between polyelectrolytes (assumed to be pairwise additive) is treated phenomenologically. If the counterions are point-like, they almost completely neutralize the charge of the bundle, and the equilibrium bundle size diverges. When the co...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Highlights: • COBTA-SC code shows good suitability for the blockage analysis of SCWR fuel bundle. • Several thermal-hydraulic models are incorporated and evaluated for the flow blockage of SCWR-FQT bundle. • The axial/circumferential heat conduction of fuel and heat transfer correlation are identified as the important models. • The peak cladding temperature can be reduced effectively by the safety measures of SCWR-FQT. - Abstract: Sub-channel code is nowadays the most applied method for safety analysis and thermal-hydraulic simulation of fuel assembly. It plays an indispensable role to predict the detail thermal-hydraulic behavior of the supercritical water-cooled reactor (SCWR) fuel assembly because of the strong non-uniformity within the fuel bundle. Since the coolant shows a strong variation of physical thermal property near the pseudo critical line, the local blockage in an assembly of a SCWR is of importance to safety analysis. Due to the low specific heat of supercritical water with high temperature, the blockage and the subsequent flow reduction at the downstream of the blockage will yield particular high cladding temperature. To analyze the local thermal-hydraulic parameters in the supercritical water reactor-fuel qualification test (SCWR-FQT) fuel bundle with a flow blockage caused by detachment of the wire wrap, the sub-channel code COBRA-SC is unitized. The code is validated by some blockage experiments, and it reveals a good feasibility and accuracy for the SCWR and blockage flow analysis. Some new models, e.g. the axial and circumferential heat conduction model, turbulent mixing models, pressure friction models and heat transfer correlations, are incorporated in COBRA-SC code. And their influence on the cladding temperature and mass flow distribution are evaluated and discussed. Based on the results, the appropriate models for description of the flow blockage phenomenon in SCWR assembly is identified and recommended. A transient analysis of the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Full text of publication follows: Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) has been developing a numerical simulation system in order to offer methodologies to clarify thermal-hydraulic phenomena in fuel subassemblies of sodium-cooled fast reactors under various operating conditions such as normal operation, transient condition or deformed geometry condition from the viewpoint of the assessment of fuel pin structure integrity. This paper describes the validation study of SPIRAL that is one component code of the numerical simulation system and contributes to detailed simulations of local flow and temperature fields in a wire-wrapped fuel pin bundle. SPIRAL is a multi-dimensional finite element method code that can treat complicated geometries like a fuel pin bundle. For numerical stabilization, one can choose Streamline Upwind Petrov Galerkin method and Balancing Tensor Diffusivity method. Semi-implicit solution scheme (fractional step method) developed by Ramaswamy is used for time integration. As the pressure equation matrix solver, ICCG or Gaussian elimination is applied. Energy conservation equations of coolant and structure are also solved and therefore temperature distributions of both coolant and fuel pins can be calculated. Several turbulence models, high/low Reynolds number isotropic/anisotropic models, were incorporated to the code. The code was parallelized using MPI for enhancing simulation efficiency. Pre-processor is also available for numerical grid generation for wire-wrapped fuel pin bundles by curvilinear coordinate system. Fundamental validity related to solving mass, momentum and energy conservation equations and applicability of turbulence models were confirmed by simulating several basic problems. As typical examples, two kinds of simulations using high Re number models, backward facing step flow and 4- fuel-pin bundle in rectangular duct, are introduced in this paper. The simulation results indicate that RNG k-ε model shows relatively
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Highlights: • Capability to perform 3D neutronics/thermal–hydraulic analysis for WWER-1000 m446. • Good agreement was observed between the coupled codes results and FSAR data. • Capability to perform multi-dimensional analysis of complex transients such as a CREA. • WWER-1000 m446 shows a safe response during these transients performance. - Abstract: By using the Best Estimate (BE) method instead of conservative assumptions for the evaluation of reactor safety, significant economic considerations with optimal fuel burn-up could be obtained in addition to reactor safety. In this method, due to the detailed simulation and feedback considerations, special attention has been paid to the coupling of neutronic and thermo-hydraulic codes to achieve more reliable results. In this study, the Control Rod Ejection (CRE) transient has been simulated for Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant (BNPP) as a WWER-1000 power plant model 446 according to Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR). CRE is a transient of Reactivity Initiated Accidents (RIA) category. In this study, the reactor thermo-hydraulic system has been simulated by RELAP5/mod3.3, while the neutron kinetic system of the reactor core has been simulated by the PARCSv2.6 code. These codes have been coupled utilizing Parallel Virtual Machine (PVM) interface software to consider the effects of thermal hydraulic and neutronic feedbacks. Thus, the power calculated by the PARCS code is used by the RELAP5 code and the obtained thermal hydraulic parameters are inserted to the PARCS code for macroscopic cross-section calculations. A computer program written by C++ has been used for the cycle execution of the WIMS code to produce the macroscopic cross-section library with the format required by the PARCS code. After the three-dimensional (3D) thermo-neutronic modeling of the reactor core, the Hot Zero Power (HZP) and Hot Full Power (HFP) versions of CRE transients, which have been considered in the plant’s FSAR, have been
On the Topology of Real Bundle Pairs over Nodal Symmetric Surfaces
Georgieva, Penka
2015-01-01
We give an alternative argument for the classification of real bundle pairs over smooth symmetric surfaces and extend this classification to nodal symmetric surfaces. We also classify the homotopy classes of automorphisms of real bundle pairs over symmetric surfaces. The two statements together describe the isomorphisms between real bundle pairs over symmetric surfaces up to deformation.
Semistability of Certain Bundles on Second Symmetric Power of a Curve
Dan, Krishanu; Pal, Sarbeswar
2015-01-01
Let $C$ be a smooth irreducible projective curve and $E$ be a rank 2 stable vector bundle on $C$. Then one can associate a rank 4 vector bundle $\\mathcal{F}_2(E)$ on $S^2(C)$, second symmetric power of $C$. Our goal in this article is to study semistability of this bundle.
A Semi-implicit Numerical Scheme for a Two-dimensional, Three-field Thermo-Hydraulic Modeling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hwang, Moonkyu; Jeong, Jaejoon
2007-07-15
The behavior of two-phase flow is modeled, depending on the purpose, by either homogeneous model, drift flux model, or separated flow model, Among these model, in the separated flow model, the behavior of each flow phase is modeled by its own governing equation, together with the interphase models which describe the thermal and mechanical interactions between the phases involved. In this study, a semi-implicit numerical scheme for two-dimensional, transient, two-fluid, three-field is derived. The work is an extension to the previous study for the staggered, semi-implicit numerical scheme in one-dimensional geometry (KAERI/TR-3239/2006). The two-dimensional extension is performed by specifying a relevant governing equation set and applying the related finite differencing method. The procedure for employing the semi-implicit scheme is also described in detail. Verifications are performed for a 2-dimensional vertical plate for a single-phase and two-phase flows. The calculations verify the mass and energy conservations. The symmetric flow behavior, for the verification problem, also confirms the momentum conservation of the numerical scheme.
Formation of transient lamellipodia.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Juliane Zimmermann
Full Text Available Cell motility driven by actin polymerization is pivotal to the development and survival of organisms and individual cells. Motile cells plated on flat substrates form membrane protrusions called lamellipodia. The protrusions repeatedly appear and retract in all directions. If a lamellipodium is stabilized and lasts for some time, it can take over the lead and determine the direction of cell motion. Protrusions traveling along the cell perimeter have also been observed. Their initiation is in some situations the effect of the dynamics of the pathway linking plasma membrane receptors to actin filament nucleation, e.g. in chemotaxis. However, lamellipodia are also formed in many cells incessantly during motion with a constant state of the signaling pathways upstream from nucleation promoting factors (NPFs, or spontaneously in resting cells. These observations strongly suggest protrusion formation can also be a consequence of the dynamics downstream from NPFs, with signaling setting the dynamic regime but not initiating the formation of individual protrusions. A quantitative mechanism for this kind of lamellipodium dynamics has not been suggested yet. Here, we present a model exhibiting excitable actin network dynamics. Individual lamellipodia form due to random supercritical filament nucleation events amplified by autocatalytic branching. They last for about 30 seconds to many minutes and are terminated by filament bundling, severing and capping. We show the relevance of the model mechanism for experimentally observed protrusion dynamics by reproducing in very good approximation the repetitive protrusion formation measured by Burnette et al. with respect to the velocities of leading edge protrusion and retrograde flow, oscillation amplitudes, periods and shape, as well as the phase relation between protrusion and retrograde flow. Our modeling results agree with the mechanism of actin bundle formation during lamellipodium retraction suggested by
Transients and safety testing of LMFBR fuel pins in the reactor BR2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Testing of the behaviour of LMFBR fuel pins under operational transients has been performed in the reactor BR2 at S.C.K./C.E.N.-Mol (Belgium) since 1981 in the framework of the DEBENE programme ''SNR-Betriebstransienten-experimente''. A special purpose sodium loop, called ''VIC'', has therefore been developed to allow off-nominal and transient experiments on single fuel pins under realistic fast reactor operating conditions. Two basic types of tests can be run, either separately or simultaneously: fission power alteration, e.g. steady overpower runs, power cycling and fast transient overpower (TOP); mismatch of the sodium cooling, e.g. operation with reduced sodium flow and transient loss of flow (LOF). The loop allows the loading and testing of pre-irradiated fuel pins. In the field of safety oriented tests, the programme ''MOL 7 C'' investigates the LMFBR fuel element behaviour under locally blocked cooling conditions and the possible failure propagation. The work is jointly carried out by the Karlsruhe center KfK (FRG) and S.C.K./C.E.N.-Mol (Belgium). The related in-pile tests in the reactor BR2 have started in 1977 and are performed in a fully integrated sodium loop. The test section contains a 30-rod bundle with fresh or pre-irradiated fuel pins. A local porous blockage within the fuel bundle initiates severe local damage to the central rods. Important informations are obtained with respect to the problems of pin to pin propagation and the long term behaviour of a fuel subassembly with defect pins. The MOL 7 C loop system can also be used to run operational transients on a fuel bundle with representative fuel pins. The paper describes the irradiation devices VIC and MOL 7 C from their technological point of view and depicts their field of testing applications. Also the major experiments already performed and relevant irradiation data are reviewed
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rode, Carsten
1998-01-01
Analytical theory of transient heat conduction.Fourier's law. General heat conducation equation. Thermal diffusivity. Biot and Fourier numbers. Lumped analysis and time constant. Semi-infinite body: fixed surface temperature, convective heat transfer at the surface, or constant surface heat flux...
Belanger, G
2013-01-01
Transient phenomena are interesting and potentially highly revealing of details about the processes under observation and study that could otherwise go unnoticed. It is therefore important to maximise the sensitivity of the method used to identify such events. In this article we present a general procedure based on the use of the likelihood function for identifying transients that is particularly suited for real-time applications because it requires no grouping or pre-processing of the data. The method is optimal in the sense that all the information that is available in the data is used in the statistical decision making process, and is suitable for a wide range of applications. We here consider those most common in astrophysics which involve searching for transient sources, events or features in images, time series, energy spectra and power spectra, and demonstrate the use of the method in the cases of a transient in a time series or in a power spectrum. We derive a fit statistic that is ideal for fitting a...
Transient cavitation in pipelines
Kranenburg, C.
1974-01-01
The aim of the present study is to set up a one-dimensional mathematical model, which describes the transient flow in pipelines, taking into account the influence of cavitation and free gas. The flow will be conceived of as a three-phase flow of the liquid, its vapour and non-condensible gas. The wa
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Highlights: • Models for large interfaces in two-phase CFD were developed for PTS. • The COSI experiment is used for NEPTUNECFD integral validation. • COSI is a PWR cold leg scaled 1/100 for volume. • Fifty runs are calculated, covering a large range of flow configurations. • The CFD predicting capability is analysed using global and local measurements. - Abstract: In the context of the Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) life duration safety studies, some models were developed to address the Pressurized Thermal Shock (PTS) from the two-phase CFD angle, dealing with interfaces much larger than cells size and with direct contact condensation. Such models were implemented in NEPTUNECFD, a 3D transient Eulerian two-fluid model. The COSI experiment is used for its integral validation. It represents a cold leg scaled 1/100 for volume and power from a 900 MW PWR under a large range of LOCA PTS conditions. In this study, the CFD is evaluated in the whole range of parameters and flow configurations covered by the experiment. In a first step, a single choice of mesh and CFD models parameters is fixed and justified. In a second step, fifty runs are calculated. The CFD predicting capability is analysed, comparing the liquid temperature and the total condensation rate with the experiment, discussing their dependency on the inlet cold liquid rate, on the liquid level in the cold leg and on the difference between co-current and counter-current runs. It is shown that NEPTUNECFD 1.0.8 calculates with a fair agreement a large range of flow configurations related to ECCS injection and steam condensation
Frobenius Pull Backs of Vector Bundles in Higher Dimensions
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
V Trivedi
2012-11-01
We prove that for a smooth projective variety of arbitrary dimension and for a vector bundle over , the Harder–Narasimhan filtration of a Frobenius pull back of is a refinement of the Frobenius pull back of the Harder–Narasimhan filtration of , provided there is a lower bound on the characteristic (in terms of rank of and the slope of the destabilizing sheaf of the cotangent bundle of ). We also recall some examples, due to Raynaud and Monsky, to show that some lower bound on is necessary. We also give a bound on the instability degree of the Frobenius pull back of in terms of the instability degree of and well defined invariants of .
Dimer model for Tau proteins bound in microtubule bundles
Hall, Natalie; Kluber, Alexander; Hayre, N. Robert; Singh, Rajiv; Cox, Daniel
2013-03-01
The microtubule associated protein tau is important in nucleating and maintaining microtubule spacing and structure in neuronal axons. Modification of tau is implicated as a later stage process in Alzheimer's disease, but little is known about the structure of tau in microtubule bundles. We present preliminary work on a proposed model for tau dimers in microtubule bundles (dimers are the minimal units since there is one microtubule binding domain per tau). First, a model of tau monomer was created and its characteristics explored using implicit solvent molecular dynamics simulation. Multiple simulations yield a partially collapsed form with separate positively/negatively charged clumps, but which are a factor of two smaller than required by observed microtubule spacing. We argue that this will elongate in dimer form to lower electrostatic energy at a cost of entropic ``spring'' energy. We will present preliminary results on steered molecular dynamics runs on tau dimers to estimate the actual force constant. Supported by US NSF Grant DMR 1207624.
Balanced metrics for vector bundles and polarised manifolds
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Garcia Fernandez, Mario; Ross, Julius
2012-01-01
We consider a notion of balanced metrics for triples (X, L, E) which depend on a parameter α, where X is smooth complex manifold with an ample line bundle L and E is a holomorphic vector bundle over X. For generic choice of α, we prove that the limit of a convergent sequence of balanced metrics...... leads to a Hermitian-Einstein metric on E and a constant scalar curvature Kähler metric in c_1(L). For special values of α, limits of balanced metrics are solutions of a system of coupled equations relating a Hermitian-Einstein metric on E and a Kähler metric in c1(L). For this, we compute the top two...
Nuclear spin relaxation due to random motion of vortex bundles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The dependence of nuclear-spin-relaxation rate T1 on NMR resonant frequency for a layered superconducting sample has been analyzed theoretically. In the considered arrangement the Zeeman field has been applied in the plane of superconducting layers while the relaxation was due to interactions between the spin systems and moving flux bundles, created by the transport current flowing along superconducting layers. It has been found that the functional form of a dependence of spin-relaxation rate on the Zeeman field has two components, a Lorentzian and an oscillatory one. The characteristic rolloff frequency of the Lorentzian component depends on the pinning properties of the sample. The period of oscillations of the oscillatory component is of the order of the inverse of interaction time of flowing flux bundles with a probe nucleus. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society
On phenomena of turbulent flow through rod bundles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Experimental studies have shown that the axial and azimuthal turbulence intensities in the gap regions of rod bundles increase strongly with decreasing rod spacing; the fluctuating velocities in the axial and azimuthal directions have a quasi-periodic behavior. To determine the origin of this phenomenon and its characteristic as a function of the geometry and the Reynolds number, an experimental investigation was performed on the turbulent flow in several rod bundles with different aspect ratios (P/D, W/D). Hot-wires and microphones were used for the measurements of velocity and wall pressure fluctuations. The data were evaluated to obtain spectra as well as auto and cross correlations. Based on the results, a phenomenological model is proposed to explain this phenomenon. By means of the model, the mass exchange between neighbouring subchannels is explained. (orig.)
A class of recursion operators on a tangent bundle
Vermeire, F.; Sarlet, W.; Crampin, M.
2006-06-01
We generalize the construction of a class of type (1, 1) tensor fields R on a tangent bundle which was introduced in a preceding paper. The generalization comes from the fact that, apart from a given Lagrangian, the further data consist of a type (1, 1) tensor J along the tangent bundle projection τ: TQ →Q, rather than a tensor on Q. The main features under investigation are two kinds of recursion properties of R, namely its potential invariance under the flow of the given dynamics and the property of having vanishing Nijenhuis torsion. The theory is applied, in particular, to the case of second-order dynamics coming from a Finsler metric.
A class of recursion operators on a tangent bundle
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vermeire, F [Department of Mathematical Physics and Astronomy, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Sarlet, W [Department of Mathematical Physics and Astronomy, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Crampin, M [Department of Mathematical Physics and Astronomy, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium)
2006-06-09
We generalize the construction of a class of type (1, 1) tensor fields R on a tangent bundle which was introduced in a preceding paper. The generalization comes from the fact that, apart from a given Lagrangian, the further data consist of a type (1, 1) tensor J along the tangent bundle projection {tau}: TQ {yields}Q, rather than a tensor on Q. The main features under investigation are two kinds of recursion properties of R, namely its potential invariance under the flow of the given dynamics and the property of having vanishing Nijenhuis torsion. The theory is applied, in particular, to the case of second-order dynamics coming from a Finsler metric.
Pressure effects on single wall carbon nanotube bundles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Teredesai, P.V. [Indian Inst. of Science, Bangalore (India). Dept. of Physics; Sood, A.K. [Indian Inst. of Science, Bangalore (India). Dept. of Physics; Chemistry and Physics of Materials Unit, Jawaharlal Nehru Center for Advanced Scientific Research, Jakkur Campus, Jakkur (India); Sharma, S.M.; Karmakar, S.; Sikka, S.K. [High Pressure Physics Div., Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Mumbai (India); Govindaraj, A.; Rao, C.N.R. [Chemistry and Physics of Materials Unit, Jawaharlal Nehru Center for Advanced Scientific Research, Jakkur Campus, Jakkur (India)
2001-01-01
We report high pressure Raman studies on single wall carbon nanotube bundles under hydrostatic conditions using two different pressure transmitting media, alcohol mixture and pure water. The radial and tangential modes show a blue shift when SWNT bundle is immersed in the liquids at ambient pressures. The pressure dependence of the radial modes is the same in both liquids. However, the pressure derivatives d{omega}/dP of the tangential modes are slightly higher for the water medium. Raman results are compared with studies under non-hydrostatic conditions and with recent high-pressure X-ray studies. It is seen that the mode frequencies of the recovered sample after pressure cycling from 26 GPa are downshifted by {proportional_to}7-10 cm{sup -1} as compared to the starting sample. (orig.)
An improved partial bundle method for linearly constrained minimax problems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chunming Tang
2016-02-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we propose an improved partial bundle method for solving linearly constrained minimax problems. In order to reduce the number of component function evaluations, we utilize a partial cutting-planes model to substitute for the traditional one. At each iteration, only one quadratic programming subproblem needs to be solved to obtain a new trial point. An improved descent test criterion is introduced to simplify the algorithm. The method produces a sequence of feasible trial points, and ensures that the objective function is monotonically decreasing on the sequence of stability centers. Global convergence of the algorithm is established. Moreover, we utilize the subgradient aggregation strategy to control the size of the bundle and therefore overcome the difficulty of computation and storage. Finally, some preliminary numerical results show that the proposed method is effective.
Attribute-based edge bundling for visualizing social networks
Guo, Lin; Zuo, Wanli; Peng, Tao; Adhikari, Binod Kumar
2015-11-01
Most nodes in complex networks have multiple attributes, which make them hard to analyze. Because general edge bundling algorithms fail to handle complex networks as a result of their intricate features, network simplification is extremely important. This paper proposes an attribute-based edge bundling algorithm that displays similar edges in nearby locations. Meanwhile, by analyzing complex networks at a community level, the overlapping clustering of nodes is well implemented, and better clustering effects can be achieved by grouping similar edges together. On the basis of datasets with different types and sizes, the experiments illustrate the simplification degree of the intricate graphs created by the algorithm proposed, which outperforms established competitors in correctness and effectiveness.
Field emission from nanotube bundle emitters at low fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Q.H.; Corrigan, T.D.; Dai, J.Y.; Chang, R.P. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Krauss, A.R. [Materials Science and Chemistry Divisions, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)
1997-06-01
The fabrication of nanotube field emitters with an onset field as low as 0.8 V/{mu}m is described and the low-field electron emission mechanism is discussed. These emitters are made using nanotube cathode deposit with the addition of epoxy resin. The preferred orientation of nanotubes in nanotube bundles of the deposit is preserved. The nanotube tips are sharpened by exposing the nanotube bundle surface to a microwave oxygen plasma. The local-field enhancement factor is estimated to be 8000 by using the Fowler{endash}Nordheim equation. The low onset field is attributed to the well-distributed, highly orientated sharp tips at the sample surface. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}
CAT reconstruction and potting comparison of a LMFBR fuel bundle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A standard Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) subassembly used in the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) was investigated, by remote techniques, for fuel bundle distortion by both nondestructive and destructive methods, and the results from both methods were compared. The non-destructive method employed neutron tomography to reconstruct the locations of fuel elements through the use of a maximum entropy reconstruction algorithm known as MENT. The destructive method consisted of ''potting'' (a technique that embeds and permanently fixes the fuel elements in a solid matrix) the subassembly, and then cutting and polishing the individual sections. The comparison indicated that the tomography reconstruction provided good results in describing the bundle geometry and spacer-wire locations, with the overall resolution being on the order of a spacer-wire diameter. A dimensional consistency check indicated that the element and spacer-wire dimensions were accurately reproduced in the reconstruction
Persistence Length and Nanomechanics of Random Bundles of Nanotubes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yakobson, Boris I. [Rice University, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Department of Chemistry, and Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology (United States)], E-mail: biy@rice.edu; Couchman, Luise S. [Naval Research Laboratory, Code 7130 (United States)
2006-02-15
A connection between the stiffness of carbon nanotubes (CNT) and their mesoscopic physical behaviour is presented. Persistence lengths of CNT and bundles are calculated and shown to be in macroscopic range (0.03-1 mm for an individual tube), exceeding by many orders of magnitude the typical diameters (around 1-3 nm). Consequently, thermal fluctuations can be neglected when scaling analysis is applied to randomly packed (as produced) CNT network, leading to an approximate equation of state for such material. Beyond the linear elasticity, the outmost CNT are shown to gradually split from the bent bundles; this permits access of solvent or reacting species to the CNT walls, an important mechanism promoting solubilization and chemical functionalization of nanotubes.
Multiplexed holographic memory by use of fiber bundle referencing
Zhang, Jiasen; Aruga, Tadashi
2005-04-01
We propose a volume holographic storage technique, in which a fiber bundle is used to guide the reference beam. Multiplexing is implemented by changing the incident direction of the laser beam upon the fiber bundle in the reference arm. In the technique, we make the system more compact by using a wedge prism to change the direction of the laser beam. This method has a large accessible angular scanning range and a large geometric storage bandwidth. Multiple images are stored in a LiNbO3:Fe crystal with an angular separation of 0.05° between successive holograms using a wedge prism with a deviation angle of 8°. This method is useful as a new image storage technique because of its compactness and simplicity.
Infinitesimal moduli of G2 holonomy manifolds with instanton bundles
de la Ossa, Xenia; Svanes, Eirik Eik
2016-01-01
We describe the infinitesimal moduli space of pairs $(Y, V)$ where $Y$ is a manifold with $G_2$ holonomy, and $V$ is a vector bundle on $Y$ with an instanton connection. These structures arise in connection to the moduli space of heterotic string compactifications on compact and non-compact seven dimensional spaces, e.g. domain walls. Employing the canonical $G_2$ cohomology $H^*_{{\\check{\\rm d}}_E}(Y,E)$ developed by Reyes-Carri\\'on and Fern\\'andez and Ugarte, we show that the moduli space decomposes into the sum of the bundle moduli $H^1_{{\\check{\\rm d}}_A}(Y,{\\rm End}(V))$ plus the moduli of the $G_2$ structure preserving the instanton condition. The latter piece is contained in $H^1_{{\\check{\\rm d}}_\
The special linear version of the projective bundle theorem
Ananyevskiy, Alexey
2012-01-01
A special linear Grassmann variety SGr(k,n) is the complement to the zero section of the determinant of the tautological vector bundle over Gr(k,n). For a representable ring cohomology theory A(-) with a special linear orientation and invertible stable Hopf map \\eta, including Witt groups and MSL[\\eta^{-1}], we have A(SGr(2,2n+1))=A(pt)[e]/(e^{2n}), and A(SGr(2,2n)) is a truncated polynomial algebra in two variables over A(pt). A splitting principle for such theories is established. We use the computations for the special linear Grassmann varieties to calculate A(BSL_n) in terms of the homogeneous power series in certain characteristic classes of the tautological bundle.
Wu, Jing; Wang, Heng; Guo, Xuan; Chen, Jiong
2016-08-15
The actin bundle is an array of linear actin filaments cross-linked by actin-bundling proteins, but its assembly and dynamics are not as well understood as those of the branched actin network. Here we used the Drosophila bristle as a model system to study actin bundle formation. We found that cofilin, a major actin disassembly factor of the branched actin network, promotes the formation and positioning of actin bundles in the developing bristles. Loss of function of cofilin or AIP1, a cofactor of cofilin, each resulted in increased F-actin levels and severe defects in actin bundle organization, with the defects from cofilin deficiency being more severe. Further analyses revealed that cofilin likely regulates actin bundle formation and positioning by the following means. First, cofilin promotes a large G-actin pool both locally and globally, likely ensuring rapid actin polymerization for bundle initiation and growth. Second, cofilin limits the size of a nonbundled actin-myosin network to regulate the positioning of actin bundles. Third, cofilin prevents incorrect assembly of branched and myosin-associated actin filament into bundles. Together these results demonstrate that the interaction between the dynamic dendritic actin network and the assembling actin bundles is critical for actin bundle formation and needs to be closely regulated.
Linear duals of graded bundles and higher analogues of (Lie) algebroids
Bruce, Andrew James; Grabowska, Katarzyna; Grabowski, Janusz
2016-03-01
Graded bundles are a class of graded manifolds which represent a natural generalisation of vector bundles and include the higher order tangent bundles as canonical examples. We present and study the concept of the linearisation of graded bundle which allows us to define the notion of the linear dual of a graded bundle. They are examples of double structures, graded-linear (GL) bundles, including double vector bundles as a particular case. On GL-bundles we define what we shall call weighted algebroids, which are to be understood as algebroids in the category of graded bundles. They can be considered as a geometrical framework for higher order Lagrangian mechanics. Canonical examples are reductions of higher tangent bundles of Lie groupoids. Weighted algebroids represent also a generalisation of VB-algebroids as defined by Gracia-Saz & Mehta and the LA-bundles of Mackenzie. The resulting structures are strikingly similar to Voronov's higher Lie algebroids, however our approach does not require the initial structures to be defined on supermanifolds.
Investigations on flow induced vibration of simulated CANDU fuel bundles in a pipe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper, vibration of a two-bundle string consisting of simulated CANDU fuel bundles subjected to turbulent liquid flow is investigated through numerical simulations and experiments. Large eddy simulation is used to solve the three-dimensional turbulent flow surrounding the fuel bundles for determining fluid excitations. The CFD model includes pipe flow, flow through the inlet fuel bundle along with its two endplates, half of the second bundle and its upstream endplate. The fluid excitation obtained from the fluid model is subsequently fed into a fuel bundle vibration code written in FORTRAN. Fluid structure interaction terms for the fuel elements are approximated using the slender body theory. Simulation results are compared to measurements conducted on the simulated fuel bundles in a testing hydraulic loop. (author)
Bagger-Witten line bundles on moduli spaces of elliptic curves
Gu, W
2016-01-01
In this paper we discuss Bagger-Witten line bundles over moduli spaces of SCFTs. We review how in general they are `fractional' line bundles, not honest line bundles, twisted on triple overlaps. We discuss the special case of moduli spaces of elliptic curves in detail. There, the Bagger-Witten line bundles does not exist as an ordinary line bundle, but rather is necessarily fractional. As a fractional line bundle, it is nontrivial (though torsion) over the uncompactified moduli stack, and its restriction to the interior, excising corners with enhanced stabilizers, is also fractional. We review and compare to results of recent work arguing that well-definedness of the worldsheet metric implies that the Bagger-Witten line bundle is torsion, and give general arguments on the existence of universal structures on moduli spaces of SCFTs, in which superconformal deformation parameters are promoted to nondynamical fields ranging over the SCFT moduli space.
Integral Canonical Models for Automorphic Vector Bundles of Abelian Type
Lovering, Tom
2016-01-01
We define and construct integral canonical models for automorphic vector bundles over Shimura varieties of abelian type. More precisely, we first build on Kisin's work to construct integral canonical models over rings of integers of number fields with finitely many primes inverted for Shimura varieties of abelian type with hyperspecial level at all primes we do not invert, compatible with Kisin's construction. We then define a notion of an integral canonical model for the standard principal b...
Lateral mechanical coupling of stereocilia in cochlear hair bundles.
Langer, M G; Fink, S.; Koitschev, A; Rexhausen, U; Hörber, J K; Ruppersberg, J P
2001-01-01
For understanding the gating process of transduction channels in the inner ear it is essential to characterize and examine the functional properties of the ultrastructure of stereociliary bundles. There is strong evidence that transduction channels in hair cells are gated by directly pulling at the so-called tip links. In addition to these tip links a second class of filamentous structures was identified in the scanning and transmission electron microscope: the side-to-side links. These links...
Universality Class of Fiber Bundle Model on Complex Networks
Kim, Dong-Hee; Kim, Beom Jun; Jeong, Hawoong
2004-01-01
We investigate the failure characteristics of complex networks within the framework of the fiber bundle model subject to the local load sharing rule in which the load of the broken fiber is transferred only to its neighbor fibers. Although the load sharing is strictly local, it is found that the critical behavior belongs to the universality class of the global load sharing where the load is transferred equally to all fibers in the system. From the numerical simulations and the analytical appr...
"Bundle Data" Approach at GES DISC Targeting Natural Hazards
Shie, C. L.; Shen, S.; Kempler, S. J.
2015-12-01
Severe natural phenomena such as hurricane, volcano, blizzard, flood and drought have the potential to cause immeasurable property damages, great socioeconomic impact, and tragic loss of human life. From searching to assessing the "Big", i.e., massive and heterogeneous scientific data (particularly, satellite and model products) in order to investigate those natural hazards, it has, however, become a daunting task for Earth scientists and applications researchers, especially during recent decades. The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Service Center (GES DISC) has served "Big" Earth science data, and the pertinent valuable information and services to the aforementioned users of diverse communities for years. In order to help and guide our users to online readily (i.e., with a minimum effort) acquire their requested data from our enormous resource at GES DISC for studying their targeted hazard/event, we have thus initiated a "Bundle Data" approach in 2014, first targeting the hurricane event/topic. We have recently worked on new topics such as volcano and blizzard. The "bundle data" of a specific hazard/event is basically a sophisticated integrated data package consisting of a series of proper datasets containing a group of relevant ("knowledge-based") data variables readily accessible to users via a system-prearranged table linking those data variables to the proper datasets (URLs). This online approach has been developed by utilizing a few existing data services such as Mirador as search engine; Giovanni for visualization; and OPeNDAP for data access, etc. The online "Data Cookbook" site at GES DISC is the current host for the "bundle data". We are now also planning on developing an "Automated Virtual Collection Framework" that shall eventually accommodate the "bundle data", as well as further improve our management in "Big Data".
The Business of Bundling: Joining Forces on Joint Replacement.
Kaldy, Joanne
2016-03-01
A mandated bundled-payment program for joint replacement is in place in several regions across the country, and practitioners such as pharmacists are still sorting out their roles in this federal initiative. To get involved, pharmacists need to establish connections with area hospitals and physician groups to promote and document their ability to manage medications, reduce and eliminate medication-related problems and rehospitalizations, and work with patients to maximize adherence and improve communication for those undergoing hip and knee replacement.
Bundling telecommunications services : competitive strategies for converging markets.
Krämer, Jan
2009-01-01
With the advent of digital convergence, incumbent telephone and cable companies have begun to offer their services, such as voice telephony, Internet and TV in so-called triple play packages. While carefully recognizing the technological, legal and economic framework of the fixed-line telecommunications industry, this book investigates whether bundling is indeed a profitable pricing strategy for the firms and if it can possibly facilitate the leverage of market power into neighboring markets.
The effects of fee bundling on dental utilization.
Porter, J.; Coyte, P. C.; Barnsley, J.; Croxford, R.
1999-01-01
OBJECTIVE: To examine dental utilization following an adjustment to the provincial fee schedule in which preventive maintenance (recall) services were bundled at lower fees. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING: Blue Cross dental insurance claims for claimants associated with four major Ontario employers using a common insurance plan over the period 1987-1990. STUDY DESIGN: This before-and-after design analyzes the dental claims experience over a four-year period for 4,455 individuals 18 years of age a...
Continuous damage fiber bundle model for strongly disordered materials
Raischel, F.; Kun Ferenc (1966-) (fizikus); Herrmann, Hans J.
2008-01-01
We present an extension of the continuous damage fiber bundle model to describe the gradual degradation of highly heterogeneous materials under an increasing external load. Breaking of a fiber in the model is preceded by a sequence of partial failure events occurring at random threshold values. In order to capture the subsequent propagation and arrest of cracks, furthermore, the disorder of the number of degradation steps of material constituents, the failure thresholds of single fibers are s...
Image processing for cameras with fiber bundle image relay.
Olivas, Stephen J; Arianpour, Ashkan; Stamenov, Igor; Morrison, Rick; Stack, Ron A; Johnson, Adam R; Agurok, Ilya P; Ford, Joseph E
2015-02-10
Some high-performance imaging systems generate a curved focal surface and so are incompatible with focal plane arrays fabricated by conventional silicon processing. One example is a monocentric lens, which forms a wide field-of-view high-resolution spherical image with a radius equal to the focal length. Optical fiber bundles have been used to couple between this focal surface and planar image sensors. However, such fiber-coupled imaging systems suffer from artifacts due to image sampling and incoherent light transfer by the fiber bundle as well as resampling by the focal plane, resulting in a fixed obscuration pattern. Here, we describe digital image processing techniques to improve image quality in a compact 126° field-of-view, 30 megapixel panoramic imager, where a 12 mm focal length F/1.35 lens made of concentric glass surfaces forms a spherical image surface, which is fiber-coupled to six discrete CMOS focal planes. We characterize the locally space-variant system impulse response at various stages: monocentric lens image formation onto the 2.5 μm pitch fiber bundle, image transfer by the fiber bundle, and sensing by a 1.75 μm pitch backside illuminated color focal plane. We demonstrate methods to mitigate moiré artifacts and local obscuration, correct for sphere to plane mapping distortion and vignetting, and stitch together the image data from discrete sensors into a single panorama. We compare processed images from the prototype to those taken with a 10× larger commercial camera with comparable field-of-view and light collection. PMID:25968031
The existence of a kind of bundle map
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
3 By means of the theory of Postnikov resolution, a sufficient condition for the existence of a kind of bundle maps is obtained. Some applications of the result are given. Particularly, it is proven that the deleted products as well as configuration spaces of two simply connected manifolds with suitable dimension have the same homotopy type when the original manifolds are homotopically equivalent.
Prostaglandins temporally regulate cytoplasmic actin bundle formation during Drosophila oogenesis
Spracklen, Andrew J.; Kelpsch, Daniel J.; Chen, Xiang; Spracklen, Cassandra N.; Tootle, Tina L.
2014-01-01
Prostaglandins (PGs)—lipid signals produced downstream of cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes—regulate actin dynamics in cell culture and platelets, but their roles during development are largely unknown. Here we define a new role for Pxt, the Drosophila COX-like enzyme, in regulating the actin cytoskeleton—temporal restriction of actin remodeling during oogenesis. PGs are required for actin filament bundle formation during stage 10B (S10B). In addition, loss of Pxt results in extensive early actin ...
Topological Aharonov-Bohm Effect and Pseudo-Particle Bundles
Payandeh, Farrin
2016-10-01
Exploiting a topological approach, we discuss the outstanding Aharonov-Bohm effect and try to explain it in the context of the principal P(M, U(1)) bundle. We show that this could be done by excluding a specific region from the main manifold which acts as the solenoid around which the effect is observed. Moreover, we discuss the impacts of pseudo-particles in this topological approach.
Wrap groups of fiber bundles over quaternions and octonions
Ludkovsky, S. V.
2008-01-01
This article is devoted to the investigation of wrap groups of connected fiber bundles over the fields of real $\\bf R$, complex $\\bf C$ numbers, the quaternion skew field $\\bf H$ and the octonion algebra $\\bf O$. These groups are constructed with mild conditions on fibers. Their examples are given. It is shown, that these groups exist and for differentiable fibers have the infinite dimensional Lie groups structure, that is, they are continuous or differentiable manifolds and the composition $...
Heat transfer augmentation in rod bundles near grid spacers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heat transfer augmentation by straight grid spacers in rod bundles is studied for single phase flow and for post critical heat flux dispersed flow. The heat transfer effect of swirling grid spacers in single phase flow is also examined. Governing heat transfer mechanisms are analyzed, and predictive formulations are established. For single phase flow, the local heat transfer at a straight spacer and at its upstream or downstream locations are treated separately. 18 refs
Conductive Polymer Combined Silk Fiber Bundle for Bioelectrical Signal Recording
Shingo Tsukada; Hiroshi Nakashima; Keiichi Torimitsu
2012-01-01
Electrode materials for recording biomedical signals, such as electrocardiography (ECG), electroencephalography (EEG) and evoked potentials data, are expected to be soft, hydrophilic and electroconductive to minimize the stress imposed on living tissue, especially during long-term monitoring. We have developed and characterized string-shaped electrodes made from conductive polymer with silk fiber bundles (thread), which offer a new biocompatible stress free interface with living tissue in bot...
ETA INVARIANTS, DIFFERENTIAL CHARACTERS AND FLAT VECTOR BUNDLES
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
J.M.BISMUT
2005-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to give a refinement of the Atiyah-Singer families index theorem at the level of differential characters. Also a Riemann-Roch-Grothendieck theorem for the direct image of flat vector bundles by proper submersions is proved,with Chern classes with coefficients in C/Q. These results are much related to prior work of Gillet-Soule, Bismut-Lott and Lott.
Mass Transport Through Carbon Nanotube-Polystyrene Bundles
Lin, Rongzhou; Tran, Tuan
2016-05-01
Carbon nanotubes have been widely used as test channels to study nanofluidic transport, which has been found to have distinctive properties compared to transport of fluids in macroscopic channels. A long-standing challenge in the study of mass transport through carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is the determination of flow enhancement. Various experimental investigations have been conducted to measure the flow rate through CNTs, mainly based on either vertically aligned CNT membranes or individual CNTs. Here, we proposed an alternative approach that can be used to quantify the mass transport through CNTs. This is a simple method relying on the use of carbon nanotube-polystyrene bundles, which are made of CNTs pulled out from a vertically aligned CNT array and glued together by polystyrene. We experimentally showed by using fluorescent tagging that the composite bundles allowed measureable and selective mass transport through CNTs. This type of composite bundle may be useful in various CNT research areas as they are simple to fabricate, less likely to form macroscopic cracks, and offer a high density of CNT pores while maintaining the aligned morphology of CNTs.
Gaining Surgical Access for Repositioning the Inferior Alveolar Neurovascular Bundle
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Saif Yousif Abdullah Al-Siweedi
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This study is aimed at determining anatomical landmarks that can be used to gain access to the inferior alveolar neurovascular (IAN bundle. Scanned CBCT (i-CAT machine data of sixty patients and reconstructions performed using the SimPlant dental implant software were reviewed. Outcome variables were the linear distances of the mandibular canal to the inferior border and the buccal cortex of the mandible, measured immediately at the mental foramen (D1 and at 10, 20, 30, and 40 mm (D2–D5 distal to it. Predictor variables were age, ethnicity, and gender of subjects. Apicobasal assessment of the canal reveals that it is curving downward towards the inferior mandibular border until 20 mm (D3 distal to the mental foramen where it then curves upwards, making an elliptic-arc curve. The mandibular canal also forms a buccolingually oriented elliptic arc in relation to the buccal cortex. Variations due to age, ethnicity, and gender were evident and this study provides an accurate anatomic zone for gaining surgical access to the IAN bundle. The findings indicate that the buccal cortex-IAN distance was greatest at D3. Therefore, sites between D2 and D5 can be used as favorable landmarks to access the IAN bundle with the least complications to the patient.
Conservation of helical bundle structure between the exocyst subunits.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nicole J Croteau
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The exocyst is a large hetero-octomeric protein complex required for regulating the targeting and fusion of secretory vesicles to the plasma membrane in eukaryotic cells. Although the sequence identity between the eight different exocyst subunits is less than 10%, structures of domains of four of the subunits revealed a similar helical bundle topology. Characterization of several of these subunits has been hindered by lack of soluble protein for biochemical and structural studies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using advanced hidden Markov models combined with secondary structure predictions, we detect significant sequence similarity between each of the exocyst subunits, indicating that they all contain helical bundle structures. We corroborate these remote homology predictions by identifying and purifying a predicted domain of yeast Sec10p, a previously insoluble exocyst subunit. This domain is soluble and folded with approximately 60% alpha-helicity, in agreement with our predictions, and capable of interacting with several known Sec10p binding partners. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Although all eight of the exocyst subunits had been suggested to be composed of similar helical bundles, this has now been validated by our hidden Markov model structure predictions. In addition, these predictions identified protein domains within the exocyst subunits, resulting in creation and characterization of a soluble, folded domain of Sec10p.