Sample records for bundle of his

  1. Functional aspects of His bundle physiology and pathophysiology: Clinical implications. (United States)

    Scherlag, Benjamin J; Lazzara, Ralph

    In this review we present evidence from many experimental studies which challenge the concept of predestination of His bundle fibers. Using both intra- and extracellular His bundle pacing in the context of atrio-ventricular block and the development of bundle branch blocks these experimental studies provide the underlying mechanisms for the recent clinical findings showing the benefits of permanent His bundle pacing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The Bundle of His in Prosthetic Heart Valve Replacement*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jan 27, 1973 ... ventricular seplUm which transected the bundle of His. Blocks were then fashioned backwards and forwards.. to include the whole of the bundle and the AV node. as well as the bifurcation of the bundle into its left and right branches. According to Davies: in order to study the whole conduction system in an ...

  3. Physiological mechanisms of QRS narrowing in bundle branch block patients undergoing permanent His bundle pacing. (United States)

    Teng, Alexandra E; Massoud, Louis; Ajijola, Olujimi A


    His bundle pacing is increasingly used to avoid chronic right ventricular pacing, and electrically resynchronize ventricular activation by narrowing or normalizing the QRS interval in left and right bundle branch block. The mechanisms by which this occurs remain poorly understood. In this review, the proposed mechanisms and evidence supporting them are discussed. Also discussed are aspects of mechanisms that are not completely supported by the evidence. We also review the differences and physiological bases for direct vs. indirect His bundle capture, and the physiological mechanisms for QRS narrowing vs. normalization following His bundle pacing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Reminiscences Of The First His Bundle Electrography In India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nambiar C.A


    Full Text Available Dr Onkar Narula was making a huge wave those days with his work on His Bundle Electrocardiography and Corrected Sinus Node Recovery Time. He visited us in late 1972 or early 1973,probably the latter date. Till then venous catheterizations (including pacing were done by open cut down. I remember the first time we used venous sheath through right femoral vein. Dr Bhatia was the operator and I was assisting him and Dr Savithri Srivasthava was the senior Registrar. With Dr Narula showing the way we did the first His Bundle Recording and I analysed the whole roll manually as was the method those days. We had to improvise a junction box as the recording equipment did not have a proper connecting accessory at that time. After Dr Narula left we did His Bundle recording on many more patients and undertook a study. This was published as: Effect of acute digitalization on His Bundle Intervals and Corrected Sinus Node Recovery Time in young adults.M.L.Bhatia,C.Ashokan Nambiar,S.Shrivastava and Sujoy B.Roy: Indian Heart Journal:Vol-2:1977.1The article was received for publication on 29/11/1973 as acknowledged underneath, but strangely it took a long time to come in print. I have preserved some of the cath rolls and reprint of the article.

  5. Restitution characteristics of His bundle and working myocardium in isolated rabbit hearts. (United States)

    Huang, Shangwei; Wu, Liqun; Huang, Jian; Panitchob, Nuttanont; Hu, Nan; Ranjan, Ravi; Dosdall, Derek J


    The Purkinje system (PS) and the His bundle have been recently implicated as an important driver of the rapid activation rate after 1-2 minutes of ventricular fibrillation (VF). It is unknown whether activations during VF propagate through the His-Purkinje system to other portions of the the working myocardium (WM). Little is known about restitution characteristic differences between the His bundle and working myocardium at short cycle lengths. In this study, rabbit hearts (n = 9) were isolated, Langendorff-perfused, and electromechanically uncoupled with blebbistatin (10 μM). Pacing pulses were delivered directly to the His bundle. By using standard glass microelectrodes, action potentials duration (APD) from the His bundle and WM were obtained simultaneously over a wide range of stimulation cycle lengths (CL). The global F-test indicated that the two restitution curves of the His bundle and the WM are statistically significantly different (PHis bundle was significantly shorter than that of WM throughout the whole pacing course (PHis bundle vs. the WM were shorter for the His bundle (134.2±13.1ms vs. 148.3±13.3ms, PHis bundle than in WM (130.0±10.0 vs. 145.6±14.2ms, PHis bundle APD was significantly shorter than that of WM under both slow and rapid pacing rates, which suggest that there may be an excitable gap during VF and that the His bundle may conduct wavefronts from one bundle branch to the other at short cycle lengths and during VF.

  6. The significance of dissociation of conduction in the canine His bundle. Electrophysiological studies in vivo and in vitro. (United States)

    Scherlag, B J; El-Sherif, N; Hope, R R; Lazzara, R


    Fractionated His bundle potentials were induced by ischemia or trauma in 30 anesthetized dogs, in vivo. Functional dissociation, i.e., alteration of the activation sequence of portions of these His bundle potentials was demonstrated in vivo as well as in 10 in vitro preparations of the His-Purkinje system. In vivo, plunge wire and electrode catheters were utilized to record from portions of the His bundle. During vagal-induced slowing of the heart rate, atrial pacing or His bundle pacing, His-Purkinje conduction as measured by the H-V interval was constant over a wide range of heart rates, 50-300/min. One or two hours after anterior septal artery ligation, His bundle damage manifested as split His bundle potentials (H, H'). Atrial pacing or proximal His bundle pacing induced H-H' delays with concomitant right or left bundle branch block patterns in ECG leads. However, distal His bundle pacing at comparable or even higher rates produced normal QRS complexes. In other cases, during atrial pacing or with progressive ischemia at a constant rate, H' progressively delayed during the H-V interval or even disappeared into the QRS complex with a concomitant occurrence of right or left bundle branch block. In vitro, a dissected septal preparation was studied containing the His bundle, proximal and distal right bundle and left bundle branches. Normal conduction throughout the His-Purkinje system was observed at pacing rates of 30-220/min. Punctate lesions, anatomically placed above the branching His bundle caused tachycardia-dependent, complete bundle branch blocked with concurrent temporal reversal of proximal and distal His bundle action potentials. These data suggest that ischemic or traumatic lesions in the His bundle may manifest on the electrocardiogram as bundle branch block patterns. From a clinical point of view, a critical site of lesion would markedly increase the liability for A-V blocked although the electrocardiogram alone would not indicate the actual site of

  7. The Bundle of His in Prosthetic Heart Valve Replacement*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jan 27, 1973 ... sudden deaths which occur following heart valve replace- ment. In our local cardiac surgery unit at Groote Schuur. Hospital, the hospital mortality rate for aortic valve replacement with the University of Cape Town (VeT) aortic valve prosthesis between March 1963 and October. 1968, was 120. 0 according to ...

  8. Permanent His-Bundle Pacing: Case Studies. (United States)

    Vijayaraman, Pugazhendhi; Dandamudi, Gopi


    His bundle pacing (HBP) is a physiological alternative to right ventricular pacing. In addition to patients with normal His-Purkinje conduction, HBP can be valuable in patients with infranodal atrioventricular (AV) block and patients undergoing AV node ablation. The following case studies illustrate the challenges associated with HBP. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Comparison of the effects of selective and non-selective His bundle pacing on cardiac electrical and mechanical synchrony. (United States)

    Zhang, Jinlong; Guo, Jianghong; Hou, Xiaofeng; Wang, Yao; Qian, Zhiyong; Li, Kebei; Ge, Peibing; Zou, Jiangang


    This study aimed to assess the acute effect of selective His bundle pacing (S-HBP), non-selective His bundle pacing (NS-HBP), and right ventricular septum pacing (RVSP) on electrical synchrony and left ventricular (LV) mechanical synchrony using electrocardiogram and phase analysis of gated single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI). Totally 39 patients eligible for pacemaker were enrolled. Thirty-seven patients underwent successful His bundle pacing (HBP) including S-HBP in 23 and NS-HBP in 14 patients, respectively. Thirty-one patients simultaneously underwent backup RVSP. Twenty-three patients received SPECT MPI scans under different pacing modes, including S-HBP low- and high-output, NS-HBP low- and high-output, and RVSP mode. The paced QRS duration (QRSd) in the S-HBP low- and high-output mode and in the NS-HBP high-output mode were similarly compared with the baseline intrinsic QRSd. QRS duration in the NS-HBP low-output mode was slightly longer than the baseline. QRS duration was the longest in the RVSP group. Left ventricular mechanical synchrony parameters in both the S-HBP and the NS-HBP groups were remarkably better than those in the RVSP group. Moreover, LV mechanical synchrony parameters were much better in the S-HBP groups and NS-HBP high-output group. Selective His bundle pacing and high-output NS-HBP could restore normal electrical and LV mechanical synchrony.

  10. Usefulness of His Bundle Pacing to Achieve Electrical Resynchronization in Patients With Complete Left Bundle Branch Block and the Relation Between Native QRS Axis, Duration, and Normalization. (United States)

    Teng, Alexandra E; Lustgarten, Daniel L; Vijayaraman, Pugazhendhi; Tung, Roderick; Shivkumar, Kalyanam; Wagner, Galen S; Ajijola, Olujimi A


    His Bundle pacing (HBP) restores electrical synchronization in left bundle branch block (LBBB); however, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We examined the relation between native QRS axis in LBBB, a potential indicator of the site of block, and QRS normalization in patients with LBBB. Data from patients (n = 41) undergoing HBP at 3 sites were studied (68 ± 13 years, 13 women). Study criteria included strictly defined complete LBBB and successful implantation of a permanent HBP lead. Preprocedure and postprocedure electrocardiograms were reviewed independently by 2 blinded readers. QRS axis and duration were measured to the nearest 10° and 10 ms, respectively. QRS narrowing or normalization was the primary end point. Of 29 patients meeting study criteria, 9 had frontal plane QRS axes between -60° and -80°, 10 from -40° to 0°, and 10 from +1° to +90°. QRS narrowing occurred in 24 patients (83%, 44 ± 34 ms, p block causes most cases of LBBB, or that additional mechanisms underlie HBP efficacy. Further studies are needed to better understand how to predict those patients in whom HBP will normalize LBBB. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Usefulness of His Bundle Pacing to Achieve Electrical Resynchronization in Patients with Complete Left Bundle Branch Block and the Relation Between Native QRS Axis, Duration, and Normalization (United States)

    Teng, Alexandra E.; Lustgarten, Daniel L.; Vijayaraman, Pugazhendhi; Tung, Roderick; Shivkumar, Kalyanam; Wagner, Galen S.; Ajijola, Olujimi A.


    His Bundle pacing (HBP) restores electrical synchronization in left bundle branch block (LBBB), however, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We examined the relationship between native QRS axis in LBBB, a potential indicator of the site of block, and QRS normalization in patients with LBBB. Data from patients (n=41) undergoing HBP at three sites were studied (68±13 years, 13 females). Study criteria included strictly defined complete LBBB, and successful implantation of a permanent HBP lead. Pre- and post-procedure electrocardiograms were reviewed independently by two blinded readers. QRS axis and duration were measured to the nearest 10° and 10ms, respectively. QRS narrowing or normalization was the primary endpoint. Of 29 patients meeting study criteria, 9 had frontal plane QRS axes between −60° and −80°, 10 from −40° to 0°, and 10 from +1° to +90°. QRS narrowing occurred in 24 patients (83%, 44±34ms, pblock causes most cases of LBBB, or that additional mechanisms underlie HBP efficacy. Further studies are needed to better understand how to predict those patients in whom HBP will normalize LBBB. PMID:27344272

  12. Permanent His Bundle Pacing in Intra-Hisian Conduction Block: Mechanistic Insights. (United States)

    Herweg, Bengt; Gerczuk, Paul Z; Sofi, Aamir; Vijayaraman, Pugazhendhi; Barold, S Serge


    We are reporting a patient with discrete intra-His conduction block and describe a refined technique of permanent His bundle pacing assuring reliable ventricular capture. Meticulous mapping of the site of block with lead placement distal to the site of block and non-selective His bundle pacing with local myocardial capture as an additional safety back up appears to be the technique of choice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of energy delivery via a His bundle catheter during closed chest ablation of the atrioventricular conduction system. (United States)

    Trantham, J L; Gallagher, J J; German, L D; Broughton, A; Guarnieri, T; Kasell, J


    In this paper we summarize our experience and report the characteristics of energy delivery in 23 patients who have undergone closed chest ablation of the normal atrioventricular (AV) conduction system for the treatment of refractory supraventricular arrhythmias. The induction of AV block was achieved by the synchronous delivery of electrical energy with a damped sinusoidal waveform utilizing a standard direct current defibrillator and a standard tripolar His bundle catheter. The procedure was well tolerated, though one patient experienced ventricular fibrillation, which was uneventfully converted with external paddles. Complete AV block was achieved in 20 of 23 patients and all were rendered arrhythmia free, though two still required antiarrhythmic drugs. A stable escape rhythm was seen in all patients with a cycle length of 1,294 +/- 243 ms. Creatine phosphokinase-MB was positive at low levels in 19 of 23 patients and cleared within 24 h. 99mTc pyrophosphate scans were faintly positive in only 2 of 22 patients. Left ventricular wall motion and ejection fractions were unchanged in 19 of 19 patients, two-dimensional echocardiography with microcavitation technique was unchanged in 12 of 12 patients, and a slight increase in pulmonary artery wedge pressure was seen in only 1 of 11 patients. Current, voltage, and their product (power) waveforms were recorded in 12 patients (12 recordings at a defibrillator setting of 200 J and 5 recordings at a defibrillator setting of 300 J) and revealed a complex voltage-current relationship due to changes occurring at the catheter electrode-tissue interface. At 200 J the peak values were 42.2 +/- 3.3 A, 2.16 +/- 0.11 kV, and 87.9 +/- 4.7 kW, while at 300 J the peak values were 58.2 +/- 2.8 A, 2.40 +/- 0.10 kV, and 134.4 +/- 6.7 kW, respectively. No instance of catheter disruption was seen, though "pitting" of the distal electrode (through which current passed) occurred in all but one catheter.

  14. Integrative and quantitive evaluation of the efficacy of his bundle related pacing in comparison with conventional right ventricular pacing: a meta-analysis. (United States)

    Yu, Ziqing; Chen, Ruizhen; Su, Yangang; Chen, Xueying; Qin, Shengmei; Li, Minghui; Han, Fei; Ge, Junbo


    Long-term RVP could bring adverse problems to cardiac electro-mechanics and result in inter- and intra-ventricular asynchrony, impaired labor force, and aggravation of cardiac function. HBRP including direct His bundle pacing and para-His bundle pacing was regarded as a novel physiological pacing pattern to avoid devastating cardiac function. This synthetic study was conducted to integratively and quantitatively evaluate the efficacy of His bundle related pacing (HBRP) in comparison with conventional right ventricular pacing (RVP). Published studies on comparison of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), left ventricular end diastolic volume (LVEDV), left ventricular end systolic volume (LVESV), New York Heart Association (NYHA) class, inter-ventricular asynchrony, and QRS duration, etc. between HBRP and RVP were collected and for meta-analysis. HBRP showed higher LVEF (WMD = 3.9%, 95% CI: 1.6% - 6.1%), lower NYHA class (WMD = -0.5, 95% CI: -0.7 - -0.3), WMD of LVESV = -0.1 ml, 95% CI: -3.0 - 2.8 ml), less inter-ventricular asynchrony (WMD = -13.2 ms, 95% CI: -16.4 - -10.0 ms), and shorter QRS duration for long-term (WMD = -36.9 ms, 95% CI: -40.0 - -33.8 ms), however, no significant difference of ventricular volume (WMDLVEDV = -2.4 ml, 95% CI: -5.0 - 0.2 ml; WMDLVESV = -0.1 ml, 95% CI: -3.0 - 2.8 ml) compared to RVP. The efficacy of HBRP was firstly verified by meta-analysis to date. Compared with RVP, HBRP markedly preserve LVEF, NYHA class, and QRS duration. However, it seemed to have less effect on ventricular volume.

  15. Electrocardiogram: his bundle potentials can be recorded noninvasively beat by beat on surface electrocardiogram. (United States)

    Wang, Gaopin; Liu, Renguang; Chang, Qinghua; Xu, Zhaolong; Zhang, Yingjie; Pan, Dianzhu


    The micro waveform of His bundle potential can't be recorded beat-to-beat on surface electrocardiogram yet. We have found that the micro-wavelets before QRS complex may be related to atrioventricular conduction system potentials. This study is to explore the possibility of His bundle potential can be noninvasively recorded on surface electrocardiogram. We randomized 65 patients undergoing radiofrequency catheter ablation of paroxysmal superventricular tachycardia (exclude overt Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome) to receive "conventional electrocardiogram" and "new electrocardiogram" before the procedure. His bundle electrogram was collected during the procedure. Comparative analysis of PA s (PA interval recorded on surface electrocardiogram), AH s (AH interval recorded on surface electrocardiogram) and HV s (HV interval recorded on surface electrocardiogram) interval recorded on surface "new electrocardiogram" and PA, AH, HV interval recorded on His bundle electrogram was investigated. There was no difference (P > 0.05) between groups in HV s interval (49.63 ± 6.19 ms) and HV interval (49.35 ± 6.49 ms). Results of correlational analysis found that HV S interval was significantly positively associated with HV interval (r = 0.929; P electrocardiogram. Noninvasive His bundle potential tracing might represent a new method for locating the site of atrioventricular block and identifying the origin of a wide QRS complex.

  16. His bundle activates faster than ventricular myocardium during prolonged ventricular fibrillation. (United States)

    Angel, Nathan; Li, Li; Dosdall, Derek J


    The Purkinje fiber system has recently been implicated as an important driver of the rapid activation rate during long duration ventricular fibrillation (VF>2 minutes). The goal of this study is to determine whether this activity propagates to or occurs in the proximal specialized conduction system during VF as well. An 8×8 array with 300 µm spaced electrodes was placed over the His bundles of isolated, perfused rabbit hearts (n = 12). Ventricular myocardial (VM) and His activations were differentiated by calculating Laplacian recordings from unipolar signals. Activation rates of the VM and His bundle were compared and the His bundle conduction velocity was measured during perfused VF followed by 8 minutes of unperfused VF. During perfused VF the average VM activation rate of 11.04 activations/sec was significantly higher than the His bundle activation rate of 6.88 activations/sec (pHis system activation rate (6.16, 5.53, 5.14, 5.22, 6.00, and 4.62 activations/sec significantly faster than the rate of the VM (4.67, 3.63, 2.94, 2.24, 3.45, and 2.31 activations/sec) (pHis system immediately decreased to 94% of the sinus rate during perfused VF then gradually decreased to 67% of sinus rhythm conduction at 8 minutes of unperfused VF. During prolonged VF the activation rate of the His bundle is faster than that of the VM. This suggests that the proximal conduction system, like the distal Purkinje system, may be an important driver during long duration VF and may be a target for interventional therapy.

  17. Selective versus non-selective his bundle pacing for cardiac resynchronization therapy. (United States)

    Upadhyay, Gaurav A; Tung, Roderick

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) has an established role in the device-based therapy for patients with systolic dysfunction and intraventricular conduction delay, particularly left bundle branch block (LBBB). Recently, His bundle pacing (HBP) has emerged as a viable alternative for resynchronization which can successfully narrow surface QRS and improve mechanical dyssynchrony. The role of selective (i.e., an isoelectric His-paced to QRS interval similar to native HV interval) versus non-selective capture (i.e., engagement of His along with adjacent local myocardial tissue and pseudo-delta wave) and outcome after HBP for resynchronization is not clear. In this article, we review the current literature (case reports and case series) reporting on HBP for resynchronization and comment on favorable predictors of response. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Non-selective His bundle pacing with a biphasic waveform: enhancing septal resynchronization. (United States)

    Ortega, Daniel F; Barja, Luis D; Logarzo, Emilio; Mangani, Nicolas; Paolucci, Analia; Bonomini, Maria P


    His bundle pacing has shown to prevent detrimental effects from right ventricular apical pacing (RVA) and proved to resynchronize many conduction disturbances cases. However, the extent of His bundle pacing resynchronization is limited. An optimized stimulation waveform could expand this limit when implemented in His bundle pacing sets. In this work, we temporarily implemented RVA and Non-selective His bundle pacing with a biphasic anodal-first waveform (AF-nHB) and compared their effects against sinus rhythm (SR). Fifteen patients referred for electrophysiologic study with conduction disturbances, cardiomyopathy and ejection fraction below 35% were enrolled for the study. The following acute parameters were measured: QRS duration, left ventricular activation (RLVT), time of isovolumic contraction (IVCT), ejection fraction (EF), and dP/dtmax. QRS duration and RLVT decreased markedly under AF-nHB (SR: 169 ± 34 ms vs. nHB: 116 ± 31 ms, P < 0.0005) while RVA significantly increased QRS duration (SR: 169 ms vs. RVA: 198 ms, P < 0.05) and did not change RLVT (P = NS). Consistently, IVCT moderately decreased under AF-nHB (SR: 238 ms vs. RVA: 184 ms, P < 0.05 vs. SR) and dP/dtmax showed a 93.35 [mmHg] average increase under AF-nHB against SR. Also, T-wave inversions were observed during AF-nHB immediately after SR and RVA pacing suggesting the occurrence of cardiac memory. AF-nHB corrected bundle branch blocks in patients with severe conduction disturbances, even in those with dilated cardiomiopathy, outstanding from RVA. Also, the occurrence of cardiac memory during AF-nHB turned up as an observational finding of this study.

  19. A comparison of ventricular function during high right ventricular septal and apical pacing after his-bundle ablation for refractory atrial fibrillation. (United States)

    Mera, F; DeLurgio, D B; Patterson, R E; Merlino, J D; Wade, M E; León, A R


    This study compares LV performance during high right ventricular septal (RVS) and apical (RVA) pacing in patients with LV dysfunction who underwent His-bundle ablation for chronic AF. We inserted a passive fixation pacing electrode into the RVA and an active fixation electrode in the RVS. A dual chamber, rate responsive pulse generator stimulated the RVA through the ventricular port and the RVS via the atrial port. Patients were randomized to initial RVA (VVIR) or RVS (AAIR) pacing for 2 months. The pacing site was reversed during the next 2 months. At the 2 and 4 month follow-up visit, each patient underwent a transthoracic echocardiographical study and a rest/exercise first pass radionuclide ventriculogram. We studied nine men and three women (mean age of 68 +/- 7 years) with congestive heart failure functional Class (NYHA Classification): I (3 patients), II (7 patients), and III (2 patients). The QRS duration was shorter during RVS stimulation (158 +/- 10 vs 170 +/- 11 ms, P < 0.001). Chronic capture threshold and lead impedance did not significantly differ. LV fractional shortening improved during RVS pacing (0.31 +/- 0.05 vs 0.26 +/- 0.07, P < 0.01). RVS activation increased the resting first pass LV ejection fraction (0.51 +/- 0.14 vs 0.43 +/- 0.10, P < 0.01). No significant difference was observed during RVS and RVA pacing in the exercise time (5.6 +/- 3.2 vs 5.4 +/- 3.1, P = 0.6) or the exercise first pass LV ejection fraction (0.58 +/- 0.15 vs 0.55 +/- 0.16, P = 0.2). The relative changes in QRS duration and LV ejection fraction at both pacing sites showed a significant correlation (P < 0.01). We conclude that RVS pacing produces shorter QRS duration and better chronic LV function than RVA pacing in patients with mild to moderate LV dysfunction and chronic AF after His-bundle ablation.

  20. Benefits of Permanent His Bundle Pacing Combined With Atrioventricular Node Ablation in Atrial Fibrillation Patients With Heart Failure With Both Preserved and Reduced Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction. (United States)

    Huang, Weijian; Su, Lan; Wu, Shengjie; Xu, Lei; Xiao, Fangyi; Zhou, Xiaohong; Ellenbogen, Kenneth A


    Clinical benefits from His bundle pacing (HBP) in heart failure patients with preserved and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction are still inconclusive. This study evaluated clinical outcomes of permanent HBP in atrial fibrillation patients with narrow QRS who underwent atrioventricular node ablation for heart failure symptoms despite rate control by medication. The study enrolled 52 consecutive heart failure patients who underwent attempted atrioventricular node ablation and HBP for symptomatic atrial fibrillation. Echocardiographic left ventricular ejection fraction and left ventricular end-diastolic dimension, New York Heart Association classification and use of diuretics for heart failure were assessed during follow-up visits after permanent HBP. Of 52 patients, 42 patients (80.8%) received permanent HBP and atrioventricular node ablation with a median 20-month follow-up. There was no significant change between native and paced QRS duration (107.1±25.8 versus 105.3±23.9 milliseconds, P =0.07). Left ventricular end-diastolic dimension decreased from the baseline ( P heart failure with reduced ejection fraction patients (N=20) than in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction patients (N=22). New York Heart Association classification improved from a baseline 2.9±0.6 to 1.4±0.4 after HBP in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction patients and from a baseline 2.7±0.6 to 1.4±0.5 after HBP in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction patients. After 1 year of HBP, the numbers of patients who used diuretics for heart failure decreased significantly ( P Heart Association classification and reduced diuretics use for heart failure management in atrial fibrillation patients with narrow QRS who suffered from heart failure with preserved or reduced ejection fraction. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  1. Thermodynamics of fiber bundles


    Pride, Steven R.; Toussaint, Renaud


    A recent theory that determines the properties of disordered solids as the solid accumulates damage is applied to the special case of fiber bundles with global load sharing and is shown to be exact in this case. The theory postulates that the probability of observing a given emergent damage state is obtained by maximizing the emergent entropy as defined by Shannon subject to energetic constraints. This theory yields the known exact results for the fiber-bundle model with global load sharing a...

  2. Permanent His bundle pacing: Electrophysiological and echocardiographic observations from long-term follow-up. (United States)

    Vijayaraman, Pugazhendhi; Dandamudi, Gopi; Lustgarten, Daniel; Ellenbogen, Kenneth A


    Permanent His bundle pacing (HBP) is a physiological alternative to right ventricular pacing. It is not known whether HBP can cause His-Purkinje conduction (HPC) disease. The aim of our study is to assess His bundle capture and its effect on left ventricular (LV) function in long-term follow-up and to determine HPC at the time of pulse generator change (GC) in patients with chronic HBP. HB electrograms were recorded from the pacing lead at implant and GC. HBP QRS duration (QRSd), His-ventricular (HV) intervals, and HB pacing thresholds at GC were compared with implant measurements. HPC was assessed by pacing at cycle lengths of 700 ms, 600 ms, and 500 ms at GC. LV internal diameters, ejection fraction (EF), and valve dysfunction at baseline were compared with echocardiography during follow-up. GC was performed in 20 patients (men 13; age 74 ± 14 years) with HBP at 70 ± 24 months postimplant. HV intervals remained unchanged from initial implant (44 ± 4 ms vs 45 ± 4 ms). During HBP at 700 ms, 600 ms, and 500 ms (n = 17), consistent 1:1 HPC was present. HBP QRSd remained unchanged during follow-up (117 ± 20 ms vs 118 ± 23 ms). HBP threshold at implant and GC was 1.9 ± 1.1 V and 2.5 ± 1.2 V @ 0.5 ms. Despite high pacing burden (77 ± 13%), there was no significant change in LVEF (50 ± 14% at implant) during follow-up (55 ± 6%, P = 0.06). HBP does not appear to cause new HPC abnormalities and is associated with stable HBP QRSd during long-term follow-up. Despite high pacing burden, HBP did not result in deterioration of left ventricular systolic function or cause new valve dysfunction. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Bundles of Banach algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. W. Kitchen


    Full Text Available We study bundles of Banach algebras π:A→X, where each fiber Ax=π−1({x} is a Banach algebra and X is a compact Hausdorff space. In the case where all fibers are commutative, we investigate how the Gelfand representation of the section space algebra Γ(π relates to the Gelfand representation of the fibers. In the general case, we investigate how adjoining an identity to the bundle π:A→X relates to the standard adjunction of identities to the fibers.

  4. Dynamics of flagellar bundling (United States)

    Janssen, Pieter; Graham, Michael


    Flagella are long thin appendages of microscopic organisms used for propulsion in low-Reynolds environments. For E. coli the flagella are driven by a molecular motor, which rotates the flagella in a counter-clockwise motion (CCM). When in a forward swimming motion, all flagella bundle up. If a motor reverses rotation direction, the flagella unbundle and the cell makes a tumbling motion. When all motors turn in the same CC direction again, the flagella bundle up, and forward swimming continues. To investigate the bundling, we consider two flexible helices next to each other, as well as several flagella attached to a spherical body. Each helix is modeled as several prolate spheroids connected at the tips by springs. For hydrodynamic interactions, we consider the flagella to made up of point forces, while the finite size of the body is incorporated via Fax'en's laws. We show that synchronization occurs quickly relative to the bundling process. For flagella next to each other, the initial deflection is generated by rotlet interactions generated by the rotating helices. At longer times, simulations show the flagella only wrap once around each other, but only for flagella that are closer than about 4 helix radii. Finally, we show a run-and-tumble motion of the body with attached flagella.

  5. Buying bundles: the effects of bundle attributes on the value of bundling


    Linthorst, M.M.; Telgen, Jan; Schotanus, Fredo


    We consider the situation in which a buyer has to find the optimal degree of bundling for buying goods and services. From a review of the literature we develop attributes associated with bundling. Each of these attributes has an effect on the value of a bundle. Combined, the attributes determine the value of a bundle. We describe how the various attributes of a bundle contribute to the value of a bundle given the context of the buying situation. Based on interviews, a further analysis of bund...

  6. Buying bundles: the effects of bundling attributes on the value of bundling


    Linthorst, M.M.; Telgen, Jan; Schotanus, Fredo


    We consider the situation in which a buyer has to find the optimal degree of bundling for buying goods and services. From a review of the literature we develop attributes associated with bundling. Each of these attributes has an effect on the value of a bundle. Combined, the attributes determine the value of a bundle. We describe how the various attributes of a bundle contribute to the value of a bundle given the context of the buying situation. Based on interviews, a further analysis of bund...

  7. Buying bundles: the effects of bundling attributes on the value of bundling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linthorst, M.M.; Telgen, Jan; Schotanus, Fredo


    We consider the situation in which a buyer has to find the optimal degree of bundling for buying goods and services. From a review of the literature we develop attributes associated with bundling. Each of these attributes has an effect on the value of a bundle. Combined, the attributes determine the

  8. Buying bundles: the effects of bundle attributes on the value of bundling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linthorst, M.M.; Telgen, Jan; Schotanus, Fredo


    We consider the situation in which a buyer has to find the optimal degree of bundling for buying goods and services. From a review of the literature we develop attributes associated with bundling. Each of these attributes has an effect on the value of a bundle. Combined, the attributes determine the

  9. Twist-off purification of hair bundles. (United States)

    Shin, Jung-Bum; Pagana, James; Gillespie, Peter G


    Purification of hair bundles from inner-ear organs allows biochemical analysis of bundle constituents, including proteins and lipids. We describe here the "twist-off" method of bundle isolation, where dissected inner-ear organs are embedded in agarose, then subjected to a mechanical disruption that shears off bundles and leaves them in agarose blocks. With care in the dissection and in clean-up of the isolated bundles, contamination from cell bodies can be kept to a minimum. Isolated bundles can be analyzed by a variety of techniques, including immunocytochemistry, SDS-PAGE, immunoblotting, and mass spectrometry.

  10. Strategic and welfare implications of bundling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin, Stephen


    A standard oligopoly model of bundling shows that bundling by a firm with a monopoly over one product has a strategic effect because it changes the substitution relationships between the goods among which consumers choose. Bundling in appropriate proportions is privately profitable, reduces rivals...

  11. Simultaneous His Bundle and Left Ventricular Pacing for Optimal Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy Delivery: Acute Hemodynamic Assessment by Pressure-Volume Loops. (United States)

    Padeletti, Luigi; Pieragnoli, Paolo; Ricciardi, Giuseppe; Innocenti, Lisa; Checchi, Luca; Padeletti, Margherita; Michelucci, Antonio; Picariello, Francesco; Valsecchi, Sergio


    Previous studies have investigated the role of intrinsic conduction in optimizing cardiac resynchronization therapy. We investigated the role of fusing pacing-induced activation and intrinsic conduction in cardiac resynchronization therapy by evaluating the acute hemodynamic effects of simultaneous His-bundle (HIS) and left ventricular (LV) pacing. We studied 11 patients with systolic heart failure and left bundle-branch block scheduled for cardiac resynchronization therapy implantation. On implantation, LV pressure-volume data were determined via conductance catheter. Standard leads were placed in the right atrium, at the right ventricular apex, and in a coronary vein. An additional electrode was temporarily positioned in the HIS. The following pacing configurations were systematically assessed: standard biventricular (right ventricular apex+LV), LV-only, HIS, simultaneous HIS and LV (HIS+LV). Each configuration was compared with the AAI mode at multiple atrioventricular delays (AVD). In comparison with the AAI, right ventricular apex+LV and LV-only pacing resulted in improved stroke volume (85±32 mL and 86±33 mL versus 58±23 mL; PHIS-LV pacing improved hemodynamic indexes at all AVD (stroke volume >76 mL at all fixed intervals and 88±31 mL at optimal interval; all PHIS+LV pacing yielded improvements, regardless of AVD setting. These findings support the hypothesis of the crucial role of intrinsic right ventricular conduction in optimal cardiac resynchronization therapy delivery. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. Static stress analysis of CANFLEX fuel bundles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suk, Ho Chun; Kang, Hee Young; Sim, Ki Seop; Jeong, Jang Hwan; Jun, Gi Su; Park, Ju Hwan; Lee, Che Han; Kim, Tae Hyoung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    The static stress analysis of CANFLEX bundles is performed to evaluate the fuel structural integrity during the refuelling service. The structure analysis is carried out by predicting the drag force, stress and displacements of the fuel bundle. By the comparison of strength tests and analysis results, the displacement values are well agreed within 15%. The analysis shows that the CANFLEX fuel bundle keep its structural integrity. 24 figs., 6 tabs., 12 refs. (Author) .new.

  13. Hydraulic characteristics of HANARO fuel bundles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, S.; Chung, H. J.; Chun, S. Y.; Yang, S. K.; Chung, M. K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    This paper presents the hydraulic characteristics measured by using LDV (Laser Doppler Velocimetry) in subchannels of HANARO, KAERI research reactor, fuel bundle. The fuel bundle consists of 18 axially finned rods with 3 spacer grids, which are arranged in cylindrical configuration. The effects of the spacer grids on the turbulent flow were investigated by the experimental results. Pressure drops for each component of the fuel bundle were measured, and the friction factors of fuel bundle and loss coefficients for the spacer grids were estimated from the measured pressure drops. Implications regarding the turbulent thermal mixing were discussed. Vibration test results measured by using laser vibrometer were presented. 9 refs., 12 figs. (Author)

  14. Anterograde conduction to the His bundle during right ventricular overdrive pacing distinguishes septal pathway atrioventricular reentry from atypical atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia. (United States)

    Nagashima, Koichi; Kumar, Saurabh; Stevenson, William G; Epstein, Laurence M; John, Roy M; Tedrow, Usha B; Koplan, Bruce A; Michaud, Gregory F


    Distinguishing orthodromic atrioventricular reciprocating tachycardia (ORT) using a retrograde septal accessory pathway (AP) from atypical atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT) may be challenging. Specifically, excluding the presence and participation of an AP may require multiple diagnostic maneuvers. The purpose of this study was to assess the relative value of commonly used right ventricular (RV) pacing maneuvers, including identification of anterograde His-bundle activation with entrainment, to differentiate ORT using a retrograde septal AP from atypical AVNRT. From March 2009 to June 2014, 56 patients (28 female; age 43.9 ± 17.4 years) who underwent electrophysiologic study and ablation for supraventricular tachycardia (26 ORT using septal AP and 30 atypical AVNRT) that exhibited a concentric atrial activation pattern and a septal ventriculoatrial interval >70 ms were analyzed. Overdrive pacing maneuvers or ventricular extrastimuli failed on at least 1 occasion to correctly identify a septal AP. Overall, 16 ORT patients and 26 AVNRT patients had successful RV entrainment, and 12 (75%) ORT patients showed anterograde His capture (11 patients) and/or anterograde septal ventricular capture (3 patients). None of the patients with atypical AVNRT showed anterograde conduction to the His bundle with entrainment. RV pacing maneuvers are useful to exclude an AP in patients with AVNRT having concentric atrial activation sequence and a septal ventriculoatrial interval >70 ms; however, none are consistently diagnostic. When observed in this patient population, anterograde His-bundle or septal ventricular capture during RV entrainment was diagnostic for ORT using a septal AP. Copyright © 2015 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. His-Bundle Pacing for Identifying Optimal Ablation Sites in Patients Undergoing Atrioventricular Junction Ablation: Teaching an Old Dog a New Trick. (United States)

    Kulkarni, Nitin; Moore, Curtiss; Pandey, Ambarish; Castillo, Demetrio; Ayers, Colby; Joglar, Jose; Wu, Richard


    Atrioventricular (AV) junction (AVJ) ablation is conventionally performed by localizing the His-bundle electrogram (HBE). Identification of HBE in the presence of atrial fibrillation (AF) can be difficult, and can make this simple procedure challenging. In this study, we describe our experience with an alternative approach to localize optimal ablation sites using His-bundle pacing (HBP). Between 1/1/2014 and 12/31/2015, we performed 13 AVJ ablations using the standard electrogram-guided approach and 11 ablations using HBP. All cases utilized a long femoral guiding sheath and an 8-mm-tip electrode radiofrequency (RF) energy ablation catheter. Pacing was performed at high output (10 mA at 2 ms) to initially achieve right bundle branch capture. The catheter was withdrawn until a narrow QRS morphology and increased stim-to-QRS time were observed. HBP was confirmed when paced and native QRS were identical in morphology. RF energy was applied at the site of HBP capture until AV block was observed. Baseline characteristics of patients in each arm were not significantly different. Compared with the standard approach, HBP was associated with trends toward lower RF applications (3 vs. 2, P = 0.16) and shorter mean RF time (208 seconds vs. 128 seconds, P = 0.19). HBP is an effective technique to identify optimal ablation sites during AVJ ablation and may shorten procedure time. HBP can be used to identify the AV node during AF without recording the His potential. Future studies with larger sample size are needed to better characterize the utility of this technique. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Einstein metrics on tangent bundles of spheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dancer, Andrew S [Jesus College, Oxford University, Oxford OX1 3DW (United Kingdom); Strachan, Ian A B [Department of Mathematics, University of Hull, Hull HU6 7RX (United Kingdom)


    We give an elementary treatment of the existence of complete Kaehler-Einstein metrics with nonpositive Einstein constant and underlying manifold diffeomorphic to the tangent bundle of the (n+1)-sphere.

  17. Stability of Picard bundle over moduli space of stable vector bundles ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Springer Verlag Heidelberg #4 2048 1996 Dec 15 10:16:45

    Stability of Picard bundle over moduli space of stable vector bundles of rank two over a curve. INDRANIL BISWAS and TOM ´AS L G ´OMEZ. School of Mathematics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road,. Mumbai 400 005, India. E-mail:; MS received 14 ...

  18. Stability of Picard bundle over moduli space of stable vector bundles ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Answering a question of [BV] it is proved that the Picard bundle on the moduli space of stable vector bundles of rank two, on a Riemann surface of genus at least three, with fixed determinant of odd degree is stable.

  19. Biomechanics of the porcine triple bundle anterior cruciate ligament. (United States)

    Kato, Yuki; Ingham, Sheila J M; Linde-Rosen, Monica; Smolinski, Patrick; Horaguchi, Takashi; Fu, Freddie H


    Several species of animals are used as a model to study human anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. In many animals, three bundles were clearly discernible during dissection in the ACL. However, there are few reports about the biomechanical role of each bundle in the porcine knee. The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of each of the three bundles in the porcine knee, especially the intermediate bundle. Ten porcine knees were tested using a robotic/universal forcemoment sensor system. This system applied anterior loading of 89 N at 30 degrees, 60 degrees and 90 degrees of flexion, and a combined 7 Nm valgus and 4 Nm internal tibial torque at 30 degrees and 60 degrees of flexion before and after each bundle was selectively cut. The in situ force (N) for each bundle of the ACL was measured. Both intermediate (IM) bundle and postero-lateral (PL) bundle had significantly lower in situ force than the antero-medial (AM) bundle in anterior loading. The IM and PL bundles carried a larger proportion of the force under the torsional loads than the anterior loads. But IM bundle had a significant lower in situ force during the combined torque at 60 degrees of knee flexion, when compared intact ACL. In summary, IM bundle has a subordinate role to the AM and PL bundles. AM bundle is more dominant than IM and PL bundles. The porcine knee is a suitable model for ACL studies, especially for AP stability.

  20. His bundle electrography (United States)

    ... any abnormal heartbeats ( arrhythmias ). The catheter has a sensor on the end, which is used to measure ... ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 34. Review Date 5/5/2016 Updated by: Michael A. ...

  1. Capacity efficiency of recovery request bundling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Dittmann, Lars; Berger, Michael Stübert


    This paper presents a comparison of recovery methods in terms of capacity efficiency. In particular, a method where recovery requests are bundled towards the destination (Shortcut Span Protection) is evaluated against traditional recovery methods. Our simulation results show that Shortcut Span...

  2. Compactifications of reductive groups as moduli stacks of bundles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martens, Johan; Thaddeus, Michael

    Let G be a reductive group. We introduce the moduli problem of "bundle chains" parametrizing framed principal G-bundles on chains of lines. Any fan supported in a Weyl chamber determines a stability condition on bundle chains. Its moduli stack provides an equivariant toroidal compactification of ...... studied by Losev-Manin....

  3. The unintended consequences of bundled payments. (United States)

    Weeks, William B; Rauh, Stephen S; Wadsworth, Eric B; Weinstein, James N


    Consensus is building that episode-based bundled payments can produce substantial Medicare savings, and the Center for Medicare & Medicaid Innovation's Bundled Payment Initiative endorses this concept. The program generates potential cost savings by reducing the historic cost of time-defined episodes of care, provided through a discount. Although bundled payments can reduce waste primarily in the postacute care setting, concerns arise that, in an effort to maintain income levels that are necessary to cover fixed costs, providers may change their behaviors to increase the volume of episodes. Such actions would mitigate the savings that Medicare might have accrued and may perpetuate the fee-for-service payment mechanism, with episodes of care becoming the new service. Although bundled payments have some advantages over the current reimbursement system, true cost-savings to Medicare will be realized only when the federal government addresses the use issue that underlies much of the waste inherent in the system and provides ample incentives to eliminate capacity and move toward capitation.

  4. A case of 'Masquerading' bundle branch block: a forgotten concept. (United States)

    Choudhary, Dinesh; Namboodiri, Narayanan; Tharakan, Jaganmohan A


    'Masquerading' bundle branch block (right bundle branch block in the precordial leads with left bundle branch block in frontal leads and left axis deviation) is seen most commonly with coronary artery disease and hypertension. No definite explanation is available so far for these changes. We are presenting a case of rare congenital intranuclear inclusion myopathy with congestive heart failure and 'Masquerading' bundle branch block in ECG. Copyright © 2013 Cardiological Society of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Turkish and Native English Academic Writers' Use of Lexical Bundles (United States)

    Öztürk, Yusuf; Köse, Gül Durmusoglu


    Lexical bundles such as "on the other hand" and "as a result of" are extremely common and important in academic discourse. The appropriate use of lexical bundles typical of a specific academic discipline is important for writers and the absence of such bundles may not sound fluent and native-like. Recent studies (e.g. Adel…

  6. Geometry of torus bundles in integrable Hamiltonian systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lukina, Olga


    Thesis is concerned with global properties of Lagrangian bundles, i.e. symplectic n-torus bundles, as these occur in integrable Hamiltonian systems. It treats obstructions to triviality and concerns with classification of such bundles, as well as with manifestations of global invariants in

  7. Quillen bundle and geometric prequantization of non-abelian ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper we prequantize the moduli space of non-abelian vortices. We explicitly calculate the symplectic form arising from 2 metric and we construct a prequantum line bundle whose curvature is proportional to this symplectic form. The prequantum line bundle turns out to be Quillen's determinant line bundle with a ...

  8. Bundling of harvesting residues and whole-trees and the treatment of bundles; Hakkuutaehteiden ja kokopuiden niputus ja nippujen kaesittely

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaipainen, H.; Seppaenen, V.; Rinne, S.


    The conditions on which the bundling of the harvesting residues from spruce regeneration fellings would become profitable were studied. The calculations showed that one of the most important features was sufficient compaction of the bundle, so that the portion of the wood in the unit volume of the bundle has to be more than 40 %. The tests showed that the timber grab loader of farm tractor was insufficient for production of dense bundles. The feeding and compression device of the prototype bundler was constructed in the research and with this device the required density was obtained.The rate of compaction of the dry spruce felling residues was about 40 % and that of the fresh residues was more than 50 %. The comparison between the bundles showed that the calorific value of the fresh bundle per unit volume was nearly 30 % higher than that of the dry bundle. This means that the treatment of the bundles should be done of fresh felling residues. Drying of the bundles succeeded well, and the crushing and chipping tests showed that the processing of the bundles at the plant is possible. The treatability of the bundles was also excellent. By using the prototype, developed in the research, it was possible to produce a bundle of the fresh spruce harvesting residues, the diameter of which was about 50 cm and the length about 3 m, and the rate of compaction over 50 %. By these values the reduction target of the costs is obtainable

  9. Masquerading bundle branch block: a variety of right bundle branch block with left anterior fascicular block. (United States)

    Elizari, Marcelo V; Baranchuk, Adrian; Chiale, Pablo A


    The so-called 'masquerading' type of right bundle branch block is caused by the simultaneous presence of a high-degree left anterior fascicular block often accompanied with severe left ventricular enlargement and/or fibrotic block in the anterolateral wall of the left ventricle. These conditions tend to reorient the terminal electrical forces of the QRS complex towards the left and upwards, in such a way that the characteristic slurred S wave in lead I becomes smaller or even disappears. In many cases of standard masquerading right bundle branch block, a small Q wave in lead I is present due to the initial forces of the left anterior fascicular block, which are oriented rightwards and inferiorly. However, in some cases, the Q wave in lead I also vanishes, and the mimicking of a left bundle branch block becomes perfect in standard leads. This is commonly associated with an inferior myocardial infarction or severe inferior fibrosis in cardiomyopathies. The typical QRS changes of right bundle branch block may eventually be concealed even in the right precordial leads; under such circumstances, the ECG diagnosis may be mistaken and the right bundle branch block totally missed. The masquerading right bundle branch block carries a poor prognosis, since it always implies the presence of a severe underlying heart disease.

  10. Covariance and the hierarchy of frame bundles (United States)

    Estabrook, Frank B.


    This is an essay on the general concept of covariance, and its connection with the structure of the nested set of higher frame bundles over a differentiable manifold. Examples of covariant geometric objects include not only linear tensor fields, densities and forms, but affinity fields, sectors and sector forms, higher order frame fields, etc., often having nonlinear transformation rules and Lie derivatives. The intrinsic, or invariant, sets of forms that arise on frame bundles satisfy the graded Cartan-Maurer structure equations of an infinite Lie algebra. Reduction of these gives invariant structure equations for Lie pseudogroups, and for G-structures of various orders. Some new results are introduced for prolongation of structure equations, and for treatment of Riemannian geometry with higher-order moving frames. The use of invariant form equations for nonlinear field physics is implicitly advocated.

  11. An analytical fiber bundle model for pullout mechanics of root bundles (United States)

    Cohen, D.; Schwarz, M.; Or, D.


    Roots in soil contribute to the mechanical stability of slopes. Estimation of root reinforcement is challenging because roots form complex biological networks whose geometrical and mechanical characteristics are difficult to characterize. Here we describe an analytical model that builds on simple root descriptors to estimate root reinforcement. Root bundles are modeled as bundles of heterogeneous fibers pulled along their long axes neglecting root-soil friction. Analytical expressions for the pullout force as a function of displacement are derived. The maximum pullout force and corresponding critical displacement are either derived analytically or computed numerically. Key model inputs are a root diameter distribution (uniform, Weibull, or lognormal) and three empirical power law relations describing tensile strength, elastic modulus, and length of roots as functions of root diameter. When a root bundle with root tips anchored in the soil matrix is pulled by a rigid plate, a unique parameter, ?, that depends only on the exponents of the power law relations, dictates the order in which roots of different diameters break. If ? 1, large roots break first. When ? = 1, all fibers break simultaneously, and the maximum tensile force is simply the roots' mean force times the number of roots in the bundle. Based on measurements of root geometry and mechanical properties, the value of ? is less than 1, usually ranging between 0 and 0.7. Thus, small roots always fail first. The model shows how geometrical and mechanical characteristics of roots and root diameter distribution affect the pullout force, its maximum and corresponding displacement. Comparing bundles of roots that have similar mean diameters, a bundle with a narrow variance in root diameter will result in a larger maximum force and a smaller displacement at maximum force than a bundle with a wide diameter distribution. Increasing the mean root diameter of a bundle without changing the distribution's shape increases

  12. Monopoles and Modifications of Bundles over Elliptic Curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey M. Levin


    Full Text Available Modifications of bundles over complex curves is an operation that allows one to construct a new bundle from a given one. Modifications can change a topological type of bundle. We describe the topological type in terms of the characteristic classes of the bundle. Being applied to the Higgs bundles modifications establish an equivalence between different classical integrable systems. Following Kapustin and Witten we define the modifications in terms of monopole solutions of the Bogomolny equation. We find the Dirac monopole solution in the case R × (elliptic curve. This solution is a three-dimensional generalization of the Kronecker series. We give two representations for this solution and derive a functional equation for it generalizing the Kronecker results. We use it to define Abelian modifications for bundles of arbitrary rank. We also describe non-Abelian modifications in terms of theta-functions with characteristic.

  13. Trivalent Cation Induced Bundle Formation of Filamentous fd Phages. (United States)

    Korkmaz Zirpel, Nuriye; Park, Eun Jin


    Bacteriophages are filamentous polyelectrolyte viral rods infecting only bacteria. In this study, we investigate the bundle formation of fd phages with trivalent cations having different ionic radii (Al(3+) , La(3+) and Y(3+) ) at various phage and counterion concentrations, and at varying bundling times. Aggregated phage bundles were detected at relatively low trivalent counterion concentrations (1 mM). Although 10 mM and 100 mM Y(3+) and La(3+) treatments formed larger and more intertwined phage bundles, Al(3+) and Fe(3+) treatments lead to the formation of networking filaments. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analyses confirmed the presence of C, N and O peaks on densely packed phage bundles. Immunofluorescence labelling and ELISA analyses with anti-p8 antibodies showed the presence of phage filaments after bundling. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Isomonodromic Deformations and Very Stable Vector Bundles of Rank Two (United States)

    Biswas, Indranil; Heu, Viktoria; Hurtubise, Jacques


    For the universal isomonodromic deformation of an irreducible logarithmic rank two connection over a smooth complex projective curve of genus at least two, consider the family of holomorphic vector bundles over curves underlying this universal deformation. In a previous work we proved that the vector bundle corresponding to a general parameter of this family is stable. Here we prove that the vector bundle corresponding to a general parameter is in fact very stable, meaning it does not admit any nonzero nilpotent Higgs field.

  15. Influence of Bundle Diameter and Attachment Point on Kinematic Behavior in Double Bundle Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Using Computational Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oh Soo Kwon


    Full Text Available A protocol to choose the graft diameter attachment point of each bundle has not yet been determined since they are usually dependent on a surgeon’s preference. Therefore, the influence of bundle diameters and attachment points on the kinematics of the knee joint needs to be quantitatively analyzed. A three-dimensional knee model was reconstructed with computed tomography images of a 26-year-old man. Based on the model, models of double bundle anterior cruciate ligament (ACL reconstruction were developed. The anterior tibial translations for the anterior drawer test and the internal tibial rotation for the pivot shift test were investigated according to variation of bundle diameters and attachment points. For the model in this study, the knee kinematics after the double bundle ACL reconstruction were dependent on the attachment point and not much influenced by the bundle diameter although larger sized anterior-medial bundles provided increased stability in the knee joint. Therefore, in the clinical setting, the bundle attachment point needs to be considered prior to the bundle diameter, and the current selection method of graft diameters for both bundles appears justified.

  16. Enthalpy and void distributions in subchannels of PHWR fuel bundles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J. W.; Choi, H.; Rhee, B. W. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    Two different types of the CANDU fuel bundles have been modeled for the ASSERT-IV code subchannel analysis. From calculated values of mixture enthalpy and void fraction distribution in the fuel bundles, it is found that net buoyancy effect is pronounced in the central region of the DUPIC fuel bundle when compared with the standard CANDU fuel bundle. It is also found that the central region of the DUPIC fuel bundle can be cooled more efficiently than that of the standard fuel bundle. From the calculated mixture enthalpy distribution at the exit of the fuel channel, it is found that the mixture enthalpy and void fraction can be highest in the peripheral region of the DUPIC fuel bundle. On the other hand, the enthalpy and the void fraction were found to be highest in the central region of the standard CANDU fuel bundle at the exit of the fuel channel. This study shows that the subchannel analysis is very useful in assessing thermal behavior of the fuel bundle that could be used in CANDU reactors. 10 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs. (Author)

  17. Monoubiquitination Inhibits the Actin Bundling Activity of Fascin. (United States)

    Lin, Shengchen; Lu, Shuang; Mulaj, Mentor; Fang, Bin; Keeley, Tyler; Wan, Lixin; Hao, Jihui; Muschol, Martin; Sun, Jianwei; Yang, Shengyu


    Fascin is an actin bundling protein that cross-links individual actin filaments into straight, compact, and stiff bundles, which are crucial for the formation of filopodia, stereocillia, and other finger-like membrane protrusions. The dysregulation of fascin has been implicated in cancer metastasis, hearing loss, and blindness. Here we identified monoubiquitination as a novel mechanism that regulates fascin bundling activity and dynamics. The monoubiquitination sites were identified to be Lys247 and Lys250, two residues located in a positive charge patch at the actin binding site 2 of fascin. Using a chemical ubiquitination method, we synthesized chemically monoubiquitinated fascin and determined the effects of monoubiquitination on fascin bundling activity and dynamics. Our data demonstrated that monoubiquitination decreased the fascin bundling EC50, delayed the initiation of bundle assembly, and accelerated the disassembly of existing bundles. By analyzing the electrostatic properties on the solvent-accessible surface of fascin, we proposed that monoubiquitination introduced steric hindrance to interfere with the interaction between actin filaments and the positively charged patch at actin binding site 2. We also identified Smurf1 as a E3 ligase regulating the monoubiquitination of fascin. Our findings revealed a previously unidentified regulatory mechanism for fascin, which will have important implications for the understanding of actin bundle regulation under physiological and pathological conditions. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. Frobenius pull backs of vector bundles in higher dimensions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Frobenius pull backs; instability degree, vector bundles. 1. Introduction. Let X be a nonsingular projective variety defined over an algebraically closed field k of an arbitrary characteristic, and let H be a very ample line bundle on X. Let E be a torsion free sheaf on X. Then the notion of E being stable (resp. semistable) is well- ...

  19. Evaluation of Single-Bundle versus Double-Bundle PCL Reconstructions with More Than 10-Year Follow-Up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masataka Deie


    Full Text Available Background. Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL injuries are not rare in acute knee injuries, and several recent anatomical studies of the PCL and reconstructive surgical techniques have generated improved patient results. Now, we have evaluated PCL reconstructions performed by either the single-bundle or double-bundle technique in a patient group followed up retrospectively for more than 10 years. Methods. PCL reconstructions were conducted using the single-bundle (27 cases or double-bundle (13 cases method from 1999 to 2002. The mean age at surgery was 34 years in the single-bundle group and 32 years in the double-bundle group. The mean follow-up period was 12.5 years. Patients were evaluated by Lysholm scoring, the gravity sag view, and knee arthrometry. Results. The Lysholm score after surgery was 89.1±5.6 points for the single-bundle group and 91.9±4.5 points for the double-bundle group. There was no significant difference between the methods in the side-to-side differences by gravity sag view or knee arthrometer evaluation, although several cases in both groups showed a side-to-side difference exceeding 5 mm by the latter evaluation method. Conclusions. We found no significant difference between single- and double-bundle PCL reconstructions during more than 10 years of follow-up.

  20. Phase Space Reduction of Star Products on Cotangent Bundles.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kowalzig, N.; Neumaier, N.; Pflaum, M.


    In this paper we construct star products on Marsden-Weinstein reduced spaces in case both the original phase space and the reduced phase space are (symplectomorphic to) cotangent bundles. Under the assumption that the original cotangent bundle $T^*Q$ carries a symplectic structure of form

  1. Smooth Bundling of Large Streaming and Sequence Graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hurter, C.; Ersoy, O.; Telea, A.


    Dynamic graphs are increasingly pervasive in modern information systems. However, understanding how a graph changes in time is difficult. We present here two techniques for simplified visualization of dynamic graphs using edge bundles. The first technique uses a recent image-based graph bundling

  2. Superconductivity in an Inhomogeneous Bundle of Metallic and Semiconducting Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilya Grigorenko


    Full Text Available Using Bogoliubov-de Gennes formalism for inhomogeneous systems, we have studied superconducting properties of a bundle of packed carbon nanotubes, making a triangular lattice in the bundle's transverse cross-section. The bundle consists of a mixture of metallic and doped semiconducting nanotubes, which have different critical transition temperatures. We investigate how a spatially averaged superconducting order parameter and the critical transition temperature depend on the fraction of the doped semiconducting carbon nanotubes in the bundle. Our simulations suggest that the superconductivity in the bundle will be suppressed when the fraction of the doped semiconducting carbon nanotubes will be less than 0.5, which is the percolation threshold for a two-dimensional triangular lattice.

  3. Framework for shape analysis of white matter fiber bundles. (United States)

    Glozman, Tanya; Bruckert, Lisa; Pestilli, Franco; Yecies, Derek W; Guibas, Leonidas J; Yeom, Kristen W


    Diffusion imaging coupled with tractography algorithms allows researchers to image human white matter fiber bundles in-vivo. These bundles are three-dimensional structures with shapes that change over time during the course of development as well as in pathologic states. While most studies on white matter variability focus on analysis of tissue properties estimated from the diffusion data, e.g. fractional anisotropy, the shape variability of white matter fiber bundle is much less explored. In this paper, we present a set of tools for shape analysis of white matter fiber bundles, namely: (1) a concise geometric model of bundle shapes; (2) a method for bundle registration between subjects; (3) a method for deformation estimation. Our framework is useful for analysis of shape variability in white matter fiber bundles. We demonstrate our framework by applying our methods on two datasets: one consisting of data for 6 normal adults and another consisting of data for 38 normal children of age 11 days to 8.5 years. We suggest a robust and reproducible method to measure changes in the shape of white matter fiber bundles. We demonstrate how this method can be used to create a model to assess age-dependent changes in the shape of specific fiber bundles. We derive such models for an ensemble of white matter fiber bundles on our pediatric dataset and show that our results agree with normative human head and brain growth data. Creating these models for a large pediatric longitudinal dataset may improve understanding of both normal development and pathologic states and propose novel parameters for the examination of the pediatric brain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Restriction of Preferences to the Set of Consumption Bundles, In a Model with Production and Consumption Bundles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schalk, S.


    In contrast to the neo-classical theory of Arrow and Debreu, a model of a private ownership economy is presented, in which production and consumption bundles are treated separately. Each of the two types of bundles is assumed to establish a con- vex cone. Production technologies can convert

  5. Bundling of elastic filaments induced by hydrodynamic interactions (United States)

    Man, Yi; Page, William; Poole, Robert J.; Lauga, Eric


    Peritrichous bacteria swim in viscous fluids by rotating multiple helical flagellar filaments. As the bacterium swims forward, all its flagella rotate in synchrony behind the cell in a tight helical bundle. When the bacterium changes its direction, the flagellar filaments unbundle and randomly reorient the cell for a short period of time before returning to their bundled state and resuming swimming. This rapid bundling and unbundling is, at its heart, a mechanical process whereby hydrodynamic interactions balance with elasticity to determine the time-varying deformation of the filaments. Inspired by this biophysical problem, we present in this paper what is perhaps the simplest model of bundling whereby two or more straight elastic filaments immersed in a viscous fluid rotate about their centerline, inducing rotational flows which tend to bend the filaments around each other. We derive an integrodifferential equation governing the shape of the filaments resulting from mechanical balance in a viscous fluid at low Reynolds number. We show that such equation may be evaluated asymptotically analytically in the long-wavelength limit, leading to a local partial differential equation governed by a single dimensionless bundling number. A numerical study of the dynamics predicted by the model reveals the presence of two configuration instabilities with increasing bundling numbers: first to a crossing state where filaments touch at one point and then to a bundled state where filaments wrap along each other in a helical fashion. We also consider the case of multiple filaments and the unbundling dynamics. We next provide an intuitive physical model for the crossing instability and show that it may be used to predict analytically its threshold and adapted to address the transition to a bundling state. We then use a macroscale experimental implementation of the two-filament configuration in order to validate our theoretical predictions and obtain excellent agreement. This long

  6. Cost-effectiveness of a central venous catheter care bundle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate A Halton

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A bundled approach to central venous catheter care is currently being promoted as an effective way of preventing catheter-related bloodstream infection (CR-BSI. Consumables used in the bundled approach are relatively inexpensive which may lead to the conclusion that the bundle is cost-effective. However, this fails to consider the nontrivial costs of the monitoring and education activities required to implement the bundle, or that alternative strategies are available to prevent CR-BSI. We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of a bundle to prevent CR-BSI in Australian intensive care patients. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A Markov decision model was used to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the bundle relative to remaining with current practice (a non-bundled approach to catheter care and uncoated catheters, or use of antimicrobial catheters. We assumed the bundle reduced relative risk of CR-BSI to 0.34. Given uncertainty about the cost of the bundle, threshold analyses were used to determine the maximum cost at which the bundle remained cost-effective relative to the other approaches to infection control. Sensitivity analyses explored how this threshold alters under different assumptions about the economic value placed on bed-days and health benefits gained by preventing infection. If clinicians are prepared to use antimicrobial catheters, the bundle is cost-effective if national 18-month implementation costs are below $1.1 million. If antimicrobial catheters are not an option the bundle must cost less than $4.3 million. If decision makers are only interested in obtaining cash-savings for the unit, and place no economic value on either the bed-days or the health benefits gained through preventing infection, these cost thresholds are reduced by two-thirds. CONCLUSIONS: A catheter care bundle has the potential to be cost-effective in the Australian intensive care setting. Rather than anticipating cash-savings from this intervention, decision

  7. Schuman's Europe : his frame of reference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krijtenburg, Margriet


    Schuman’s Europe: His frame of reference provides an insight into the way European unification was envisioned by its founding father Robert Schuman. The thesis makes clear why Schuman can be considered the main architect of European unification because of his thoughts, his personality, his religious

  8. Josef Steindl: An Economist of His Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Shapiro


    Full Text Available This paper discusses the life and work of Josef Steindl. It examines the development of his thought from his early writings on firm size and industrial concentration to his late work on the post-war problems of capitalist economies. Special attention is given to his seminal work on the Great Depression: Maturity and Stagnation in American Capitalism (1952. His work, which covered all the critical economic developments of the 20th century, greatly illuminated the problems of his times, and is as relevant to the problems of our own as it was to his.

  9. Algebraic Frobenius splitting of cotangent bundles of flag varieties

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hague, Chuck


    Following the program of algebraic Frobenius splitting begun by Kumar and Littelmann, we use representation-theoretic techniques to construct a Frobenius splitting of the cotangent bundle of the flag...

  10. On the Geometry of Cotangent Bundles of Lie Groups


    Manga, Bakary


    Lie groups of automorphisms of cotangent bundles of Lie groups are completely characterized and interesting results are obtained. We give prominence to the fact that the Lie groups of automorphisms of cotangent bundles of Lie groups are super symmetric Lie groups. In the cases of orthogonal Lie lgebras, semi-simple Lie algebras and compact Lie algebras we recover by simple methods interesting co-homological known results. The Lie algebra of prederivations encompasses the one of derivations as...

  11. Simulation of finite size effects of the fiber bundle model (United States)

    Hao, Da-Peng; Tang, Gang; Xun, Zhi-Peng; Xia, Hui; Han, Kui


    In theory, the macroscopic fracture of materials should correspond with the thermodynamic limit of the fiber bundle model. However, the simulation of a fiber bundle model with an infinite size is unrealistic. To study the finite size effects of the fiber bundle model, fiber bundle models of various size are simulated in detail. The effects of system size on the constitutive behavior, critical stress, maximum avalanche size, avalanche size distribution, and increased step number of external load are explored. The simulation results imply that there is no feature size or cut size for macroscopic mechanical and statistical properties of the model. The constitutive curves near the macroscopic failure for various system size can collapse well with a simple scaling relationship. Simultaneously, the introduction of a simple extrapolation method facilitates the acquisition of more accurate simulation results in a large-limit system, which is better for comparison with theoretical results.

  12. Bohr--Sommerfeld Lagrangians of moduli spaces of Higgs bundles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biswas, Indranil; Gammelgaard, Niels Leth; Logares, Marina

    Let $X$ be a compact connected Riemann surface of genus at least two. Let $M_H(r,d)$ denote the moduli space of semistable Higgs bundles on $X$ of rank $r$ and degree $d$. We prove that the compact complex Bohr-Sommerfeld Lagrangians of $M_H(r,d)$ are precisely the irreducible components of the n......Let $X$ be a compact connected Riemann surface of genus at least two. Let $M_H(r,d)$ denote the moduli space of semistable Higgs bundles on $X$ of rank $r$ and degree $d$. We prove that the compact complex Bohr-Sommerfeld Lagrangians of $M_H(r,d)$ are precisely the irreducible components...... of the nilpotent cone in $M_H(r,d)$. This generalizes to Higgs $G$-bundles and also to the parabolic Higgs bundles....

  13. Moduli of Parabolic Higgs Bundles and Atiyah Algebroids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Logares, Marina; Martens, Johan


    In this paper we study the geometry of the moduli space of (non-strongly) parabolic Higgs bundles over a Riemann surface with marked points. We show that this space possesses a Poisson structure, extending the one on the dual of an Atiyah algebroid over the moduli space of parabolic vector bundles....... By considering the case of full flags, we get a Grothendieck–Springer resolution for all other flag types, in particular for the moduli spaces of twisted Higgs bundles, as studied by Markman and Bottacin and used in the recent work of Laumon–Ngô. We discuss the Hitchin system, and demonstrate that all...

  14. Improved Conjugate Gradient Bundle Adjustment of Dunhuang Wall Painting Images (United States)

    Hu, K.; Huang, X.; You, H.


    Bundle adjustment with additional parameters is identified as a critical step for precise orthoimage generation and 3D reconstruction of Dunhuang wall paintings. Due to the introduction of self-calibration parameters and quasi-planar constraints, the structure of coefficient matrix of the reduced normal equation is banded-bordered, making the solving process of bundle adjustment complex. In this paper, Conjugate Gradient Bundle Adjustment (CGBA) method is deduced by calculus of variations. A preconditioning method based on improved incomplete Cholesky factorization is adopt to reduce the condition number of coefficient matrix, as well as to accelerate the iteration rate of CGBA. Both theoretical analysis and experimental results comparison with conventional method indicate that, the proposed method can effectively conquer the ill-conditioned problem of normal equation and improve the calculation efficiency of bundle adjustment with additional parameters considerably, while maintaining the actual accuracy.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Hu


    Full Text Available Bundle adjustment with additional parameters is identified as a critical step for precise orthoimage generation and 3D reconstruction of Dunhuang wall paintings. Due to the introduction of self-calibration parameters and quasi-planar constraints, the structure of coefficient matrix of the reduced normal equation is banded-bordered, making the solving process of bundle adjustment complex. In this paper, Conjugate Gradient Bundle Adjustment (CGBA method is deduced by calculus of variations. A preconditioning method based on improved incomplete Cholesky factorization is adopt to reduce the condition number of coefficient matrix, as well as to accelerate the iteration rate of CGBA. Both theoretical analysis and experimental results comparison with conventional method indicate that, the proposed method can effectively conquer the ill-conditioned problem of normal equation and improve the calculation efficiency of bundle adjustment with additional parameters considerably, while maintaining the actual accuracy.

  16. A Discrete Theory of Connections on Principal Bundles


    Leok, M; Marsden, JE; Weinstein, AD


    Connections on principal bundles play a fundamental role in expressing the equations of motion for mechanical systems with symmetry in an intrinsic fashion. A discrete theory of connections on principal bundles is constructed by introducing the discrete analogue of the Atiyah sequence, with a connection corresponding to the choice of a splitting of the short exact sequence. Equivalent representations of a discrete connection are considered, and an extension of the pair groupoid composition, t...

  17. Design and synthesis of DNA four-helix bundles. (United States)

    Rangnekar, Abhijit; Gothelf, Kurt V; LaBean, Thomas H


    The field of DNA nanotechnology has evolved significantly in the past decade. Researchers have succeeded in synthesizing tile-based structures and using them to form periodic lattices in one, two and three dimensions. Origami-based structures have also been used to create nanoscale structures in two and three dimensions. Design and construction of DNA bundles with fixed circumference has added a new dimension to the field. Here we report the design and synthesis of a DNA four-helix bundle. It was found to be extremely rigid and stable. When several such bundles were assembled using appropriate sticky-ends, they formed micrometre-long filaments. However, when creation of two-dimensional sheet-like arrays of the four-helix bundles was attempted, nanoscale rings were observed instead. The exact reason behind the nanoring formation is yet to be ascertained, but it provides an exciting prospect for making programmable circular nanostructures using DNA.

  18. Design and synthesis of DNA four-helix bundles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rangnekar, Abhijit; Gothelf, Kurt V [Department of Chemistry, Centre for DNA Nanotechnology (CDNA) and Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (iNANO), Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); LaBean, Thomas H, E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States)


    The field of DNA nanotechnology has evolved significantly in the past decade. Researchers have succeeded in synthesizing tile-based structures and using them to form periodic lattices in one, two and three dimensions. Origami-based structures have also been used to create nanoscale structures in two and three dimensions. Design and construction of DNA bundles with fixed circumference has added a new dimension to the field. Here we report the design and synthesis of a DNA four-helix bundle. It was found to be extremely rigid and stable. When several such bundles were assembled using appropriate sticky-ends, they formed micrometre-long filaments. However, when creation of two-dimensional sheet-like arrays of the four-helix bundles was attempted, nanoscale rings were observed instead. The exact reason behind the nanoring formation is yet to be ascertained, but it provides an exciting prospect for making programmable circular nanostructures using DNA.

  19. Bundles of Norms About Teen Sex and Pregnancy. (United States)

    Mollborn, Stefanie; Sennott, Christie


    Teen pregnancy is a cultural battleground in struggles over morality, education, and family. At its heart are norms about teen sex, contraception, pregnancy, and abortion. Analyzing 57 interviews with college students, we found that "bundles" of related norms shaped the messages teens hear. Teens did not think their communities encouraged teen sex or pregnancy, but normative messages differed greatly, with either moral or practical rationalizations. Teens readily identified multiple norms intended to regulate teen sex, contraception, abortion, childbearing, and the sanctioning of teen parents. Beyond influencing teens' behavior, norms shaped teenagers' public portrayals and post hoc justifications of their behavior. Although norm bundles are complex to measure, participants could summarize them succinctly. These bundles and their conflicting behavioral prescriptions create space for human agency in negotiating normative pressures. The norm bundles concept has implications for teen pregnancy prevention policies and can help revitalize social norms for understanding health behaviors. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Splitting 3-plane sub-bundles over the product of two real projective spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Hermínia de Paula Leite Mello


    Full Text Available Let α be a real vector bundle of fiber dimension three over the product RP(m×RP(n which splits as a Whitney sum of line bundles. We show that the necessary and sufficient conditions for α to embed as a sub-bundle of a certain family of vector bundles β of fiber dimension m+n is the vanishing of the last three Stiefel-Whitney classes of the virtual bundle0 β−α. Among the target bundles β we consider the tangent bundle.

  1. SCADOP: Phenomenological modeling of dryout in nuclear fuel rod bundles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dasgupta, Arnab, E-mail:; Chandraker, D.K., E-mail:; Vijayan, P.K., E-mail:


    Highlights: • Phenomenological model for annular flow dryout is presented. • The model evaluates initial entrained fraction using a new methodology. • The history effect in annular flow is predicted and validated. • Rod bundle dryout is predicted using subchannel methodology. • Model is validated against experimental dryout data in tubes and rod bundles. - Abstract: Analysis and prediction of dryout is of important consequence to safety of nuclear fuel clusters of boiling water type of reactors. Traditionally, experimental correlations are used for dryout predictions. Since these correlations are based on operating parameters and do not aim to model the underlying phenomena, there has been a proliferation of the correlations, each catering to some specific bundle geometry under a specific set of operating conditions. Moreover, such experiments are extremely costly. In general, changes in tested bundle geometry for improvement in thermal-hydraulic performance would require re-experimentation. Understanding and modeling the basic processes leading to dryout in flow boiling thus has great incentive. Such a model has the ability to predict dryout in any rod bundle geometry, unlike the operating parameter based correlation approach. Thus more informed experiments can be carried out. A good model can, reduce the number of experiments required during the iterations in bundle design. In this paper, a phenomenological model as indicated above is presented. The model incorporates a new methodology to estimate the Initial Entrained Fraction (IEF), i.e., entrained fraction at the onset of annular flow. The incorporation of this new methodology is important since IEF is often assumed ad-hoc and sometimes also used as a parameter to tune the model predictions to experimental data. It is highlighted that IEF may be low under certain conditions against the general perception of a high IEF due to influence of churn flow. It is shown that the same phenomenological model is

  2. A quantitative histopathological study of right bundle branch block complicating acute anteroseptal myocardial infarction.


    Okabe, M; Fukuda, K; Nakashima, Y; Hiroki, T; Arakawa, K; Kikuchi, M


    The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether necrosis of the right bundle branch is responsible for development of right bundle branch block in acute myocardial infarction. Twenty patients with acute anteroseptal myocardial infarction were studied--10 with right bundle branch block (group A) and 10 without (group B)--to evaluate by serial sectioning the pathological extent of myocardial infarction surrounding the right bundle branch and also that of right bundle branch necrosis. Myoca...

  3. A man of his country and his time: Jewish influences on Lev Semionovich Vygotsky's world view. (United States)

    Kotik-Friedgut, Bella; Friedgut, Theodore H


    Lev Semionovich Vygotsky created the cultural-historical school of psychology, yet all too few of those writing about his work take into account the family, education, and cultural tradition from which he came. The authors contend that the Jewish nature of these elements was of some importance in forming his personality and his consciousness. The 1st part of the article traces his early upbringing, describes the Jewishness of his environment, notes 3 instances in which his "otherness" was imprinted on his consciousness, and points to the sources of his determination to forge a harmonious synthesis with his environment. The 2nd part examines his writings, both earlier journalistic and mature psychological, and points to evidence of the influence of his Jewish upbringing and environment on his work.

  4. Effects of different initial bundle tensioning strategies on the outcome of double-bundle ACL reconstruction: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muneta Takeshi


    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was performed to investigate the effects of different strategies and initial tension applied to each one of the bundles, antero-medial (AM and postero-lateral (PL, on clinical outcome in double bundle (DB ACL reconstruction. Methods One hundred fifty-one primary unilateral DB ACL reconstructions performed by a single surgeon from 1994 through 2002 were included in the study with a follow-up of at least 24 months. They were divided in the following 3 groups: Group I - Higher initial tension applied manually in the AM bundle compared to PL. II - Higher tension applied in the PL bundle compared to AM. III - The 2 bundles were attempted to be equally tensioned. All fixations were performed in 30 degrees of flexion. Group I = 59 patients, group II = 53 patients and group III = 39 patients. The groups had no statistical differences concerning demographic distribution. Clinical outcome was retrospectively evaluated by use of knee range of motion, manual knee laxity tests, KT-1000, Lysholm knee scale, subjective recovery scale and sports performance recovery scale. The differences of data were analyzed among the three groups. Results Group I showed a significant extension deficit compared with groups II and III. ANOVA revealed a significant difference of anterior laxity measured by the KT-1000 (average KT difference of 2.1, 2.1 and 1.2 mm in Group I, II and III, respectively. A statistical difference was found among the three groups regarding subjective and sports performance recovery scales with Group II showing higher scores in recovery than Group I. Conclusions The current clinical study does not recommend manual maximum of initial tension applied to the anteromedial or posterolateral bundles with graft tension imbalance at 30 degrees of flexion in double-bundle ACL reconstruction to achieve a better clinical outcome.

  5. The 2-Hilbert space of a prequantum bundle gerbe (United States)

    Bunk, Severin; Sämann, Christian; Szabo, Richard J.

    We construct a prequantum 2-Hilbert space for any line bundle gerbe whose Dixmier-Douady class is torsion. Analogously to usual prequantization, this 2-Hilbert space has the category of sections of the line bundle gerbe as its underlying 2-vector space. These sections are obtained as certain morphism categories in Waldorf’s version of the 2-category of line bundle gerbes. We show that these morphism categories carry a monoidal structure under which they are semisimple and abelian. We introduce a dual functor on the sections, which yields a closed structure on the morphisms between bundle gerbes and turns the category of sections into a 2-Hilbert space. We discuss how these 2-Hilbert spaces fit various expectations from higher prequantization. We then extend the transgression functor to the full 2-category of bundle gerbes and demonstrate its compatibility with the additional structures introduced. We discuss various aspects of Kostant-Souriau prequantization in this setting, including its dimensional reduction to ordinary prequantization.

  6. Anatomy of an Oligourea Six-Helix Bundle. (United States)

    Lombardo, Caterina M; Collie, Gavin W; Pulka-Ziach, Karolina; Rosu, Frederic; Gabelica, Valerie; Mackereth, Cameron D; Guichard, Gilles


    Non-natural synthetic oligomers that adopt well-defined secondary structures (i.e., foldamers) represent appealing components for the fabrication of bioinspired self-assembled architectures at the nanometer scale. Recently, peptidomimetic N,N'-linked oligourea helices have been designed de novo with the ability to fold into discrete helix bundles in aqueous conditions. In order to gain better insight into the determinants of oligourea helix bundle formation, we have investigated the sequence-to-structure relationship of an 11-mer oligourea previously shown to assemble into a six-helix bundle. Using circular dichroism, NMR spectroscopy, native mass-spectrometry and X-ray crystallography, we studied how bundle formation was affected by systematic replacement of the hydrophobic surface of the oligourea helix with either polar or different hydrophobic side chains. The molecular information gathered here has revealed several key requirements for foldamer bundle formation in aqueous conditions, and provides valuable insight toward the development of foldamer quaternary assemblies with improved (bio)physical properties and divergent topologies.

  7. Syntheses of Nanostructure Bundles Based on Semiconducting Metal Silicides (United States)

    Li, Wen; Ishikawa, Daisuke; Tatsuoka, Hirokazu


    A variety of nanostructure bundles and arrays based on semiconducting metal silicides have been synthesized using abundant and non-toxic starting materials. Three types of fabrication techniques of the nanostructure bundles or arrays, including direct growth, template synthesis using natural nanostructured materials and template synthesis using artificially fabricated nanostructured materials are demonstrated. CrSi2 nanowire bundles were directly grown by the exposure of Si substrates to CrCl2 vapor at atmospheric pressure. A hexagonal MoSi2 nanosheet, Mg2Si/MgO composite nanowire and Mg2Si nanowire bundles and MnSi1.7 nanowire array were synthesized using a MoS2 layered material, a SiOx nanofiber bundle, a Si nanowire array, and a Si nanowire array as the templates, respectively. Additionally, the fabrication phenomenon and structural properties of the nanostructured semiconducting metal silicides were investigated. These reactions provided the low-cost and controllable synthetic techniques to synthesize large scale and one-dimensional semiconducting metal silicides for thermoelectric applications.

  8. Measurement of secondary flow vortices on a rod bundle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vonka, V.


    Secondary flow vortices in infinite rod bundles have been predicted by a number of theoretical analyses. Nevertheless experimental verification was difficult, since the magnitude of the secondary velocities appeared to be less than the accuracy of the experimental techniques used. Only indications of the maximum velocity magnitude have been available but no report on successful direct measurement is known to the author. At ECN, laser Doppler velocimetry is successfully used for measurement of secondary flow vortices in two regular subchannels of a triangularly arranged bare rod bundle with pitch-to-diameter ratio P/D-1.3 under the Reynolds number conditions 60,000 and 175,000. One single secondary vortex, having the average tangential velocity slightly less than 0.1% of the mean bulk velocity, is resolved per minimum symmetry sector of the bundle geometry. Ensemble averages are made to obtain quantitative description of the vortex and to form a data base for comparison with calculations.

  9. Failure of a MEA reclaimer tube bundle due to corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaban, H.; Abdo, M.S.E.; Lal, D.P.


    The removal of sulphur compounds from natural gas used in ammonia production is carried out by scrubbing with monoethanol amine (MEA). To avoid build up of corrosion and degradation products, a portion of the circulating MEA solution is passed through a reclaimer. This is essentially a kettle-type reboiler with a tube bundle made of 316L stainless steel. Occasional failures of the tube bundle due to pitting corrosion have been reported. It is suggested that the excessive pitting corrosion observed on the upper rows of the tube bundle could be partly due to high steam temperature but mainly due to the liquid level falling below the tubes leaving an accumulation of corrosive degradation products on the exposed surfaces, normally these corrosive products remain diluted in the MEA solution and cause little corrosion of the covered tubes. Their concentration on the dry upper layers of the hot metal tubes, however, leads to excessive corrosion. (U.K.).

  10. Symposium on Singularities, Representation of Algebras, and Vector Bundles

    CERN Document Server

    Trautmann, Günther


    It is well known that there are close relations between classes of singularities and representation theory via the McKay correspondence and between representation theory and vector bundles on projective spaces via the Bernstein-Gelfand-Gelfand construction. These relations however cannot be considered to be either completely understood or fully exploited. These proceedings document recent developments in the area. The questions and methods of representation theory have applications to singularities and to vector bundles. Representation theory itself, which had primarily developed its methods for Artinian algebras, starts to investigate algebras of higher dimension partly because of these applications. Future research in representation theory may be spurred by the classification of singularities and the highly developed theory of moduli for vector bundles. The volume contains 3 survey articles on the 3 main topics mentioned, stressing their interrelationships, as well as original research papers.

  11. An in vitro biomechanical comparison of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: single bundle versus anatomical double bundle techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Umeda Sasaki


    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Anterior cruciate ligament ruptures are frequent, especially in sports. Surgical reconstruction with autologous grafts is widely employed in the international literature. Controversies remain with respect to technique variations as continuous research for improvement takes place. One of these variations is the anatomical double bundle technique, which is performed instead of the conventional single bundle technique. More recently, there has been a tendency towards positioning the two bundles through double bone tunnels in the femur and tibia (anatomical reconstruction. OBJECTIVES: To compare, through biomechanical tests, the practice of anatomical double bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with a patellar graft to conventional single bundle reconstruction with the same amount of patellar graft in a paired experimental cadaver study. METHODS: Nine pairs of male cadaver knees ranging in age from 44 to 63 years were randomized into two groups: group A (single bundle and group B (anatomical reconstruction. Each knee was biomechanically tested under three conditions: intact anterior cruciate ligament, reconstructed anterior cruciate ligament, and injured anterior cruciate ligament. Maximum anterior dislocation, rigidity, and passive internal tibia rotation were recorded with knees submitted to a 100 N horizontal anterior dislocation force applied to the tibia with the knees at 30, 60 and 90 degrees of flexion. RESULTS: There were no differences between the two techniques for any of the measurements by ANOVA tests. CONCLUSION: The technique of anatomical double bundle reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament with bone-patellar tendon-bone graft has a similar biomechanical behavior with regard to anterior tibial dislocation, rigidity, and passive internal tibial rotation.

  12. Bohr's Creation of his Quantum Atom (United States)

    Heilbron, John


    Fresh letters throw new light on the content and state of Bohr's mind before and during his creation of the quantum atom. His mental furniture then included the atomic models of the English school, the quantum puzzles of Continental theorists, and the results of his own studies of the electron theory of metals. It also included the poetry of Goethe, plays of Ibsen and Shakespeare, novels of Dickens, and rhapsodies of Kierkegaard and Carlyle. The mind that held these diverse ingredients together oscillated between enthusiasm and dejection during the year in which Bohr took up the problem of atomic structure. He spent most of that year in England, which separated him for extended periods from his close-knit family and friends. Correspondence with his fianc'ee, Margrethe Nørlund, soon to be published, reports his ups and downs as he adjusted to J.J. Thomson, Ernest Rutherford, the English language, and the uneven course of his work. In helping to smooth out his moods, Margrethe played an important and perhaps an enabling role in his creative process.

  13. On a Lie Algebraic Characterization of Vector Bundles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre B.A. Lecomte


    Full Text Available We prove that a vector bundle π: E→M is characterized by the Lie algebra generated by all differential operators on E which are eigenvectors of the Lie derivative in the direction of the Euler vector field. Our result is of Pursell-Shanks type but it is remarkable in the sense that it is the whole fibration that is characterized here. The proof relies on a theorem of [Lecomte P., J. Math. Pures Appl. (9 60 (1981, 229-239] and inherits the same hypotheses. In particular, our characterization holds only for vector bundles of rank greater than 1.

  14. The Analysis of SBWR Critical Power Bundle Using Cobrag Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohannes Sardjono


    Full Text Available The coolant mechanism of SBWR is similar with the Dodewaard Nuclear Power Plant (NPP in the Netherlands that first went critical in 1968. The similarity of both NPP is cooled by natural convection system. These coolant concept is very related with same parameters on fuel bundle design especially fuel bundle length, core pressure drop and core flow rate as well as critical power bundle. The analysis was carried out by using COBRAG computer code. COBRAG computer code is GE Company proprietary. Basically COBRAG computer code is a tool to solve compressible three-dimensional, two fluid, three field equations for two phase flow. The three fields are the vapor field, the continuous liquid field, and the liquid drop field. This code has been applied to analyses model flow and heat transfer within the reactor core. This volume describes the finitevolume equations and the numerical solution methods used to solve these equations. This analysis of same parameters has been done i.e.; inlet sub cooling 20 BTU/lbm and 40 BTU/lbm, 1000 psi pressure and R-factor is 1.038, mass flux are 0.5 Mlb/hr.ft2, 0.75 Mlb/hr.ft2, 1.00 Mlb/hr.ft2 and 1.25 Mlb/hr.ft2. Those conditions based on history operation of some type of the cell fuel bundle line at GE Nuclear Energy. According to the results, it can be concluded that SBWR critical power bundle is 10.5 % less than current BWR critical power bundle with length reduction of 12 ft to 9 ft.

  15. Mechanical Stresses and Forces in Stereocilia Bundles of Inner and Outer Hair Cells (United States)

    Mueller, R.; Maier, H.; Boehnke, F.; Arnold, W.


    The precise mechanism of mechanoelectrical transduction in stereocilia bundles is not known. It is very difficult to measure the extremely small stresses, which occur at the stereocilia bundles. Therefore we developed 3-D finite element models of stereocilia bundles (guinea pig) to obtain quantitative results. The stereocilia bundles of the outer hair cells show a characteristic W-form. Therefore, it is interesting to compare the mechanical behavior of the stereocilia bundle of an outer hair cell with that of an inner hair cell with its linear arrangement. Our analysis provides estimates of forces and stresses on the transducer channels of mammalian hair bundles, although the model does not include active mechanisms yet.

  16. Cellulosic Fibers: Effect of Processing on Fiber Bundle Strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Anders; Madsen, Bo; Thomsen, Anne Belinda


    A range of differently processed cellulosic fibers from flax and hemp plants were investigated to study the relation between processing of cellulosic fibers and fiber bundle strength. The studied processing methods are applied for yarn production and include retting, scutching, carding, and cotto......A range of differently processed cellulosic fibers from flax and hemp plants were investigated to study the relation between processing of cellulosic fibers and fiber bundle strength. The studied processing methods are applied for yarn production and include retting, scutching, carding...

  17. On the classification of complex vector bundles of stable rank

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    According to previous observations, this would imply (under the above torsion conditions) a classification of all rank r complex vector bundles on X, for stable rank r ≥ n/2. A few partial answers to this question are known. For instance, a classical result of. Wu asserts that any couple of cohomology classes (c1,c2) ∈ H2(X, ...

  18. A prospective comparative study of clinical and functional outcomes between anatomic double bundle and single bundle hamstring grafts for arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. (United States)

    Morey, Vivek M; Nag, Hira Lal; Chowdhury, Buddhadev; Sankineani, Sukesh Rao; Naranje, Sameer M


    Despite a number of studies comparing postoperative stability and function after anatomic single bundle and double bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, it remains unclear whether double bundle reconstruction has better functional outcome than single bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. To compare the subjective functional outcome as well as clinical stability in patients treated with either anatomic single bundle or anatomic double bundle anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. We hypothesized that there would be no difference in the postoperative functional outcome and clinical stability between anatomical double bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions when compared to single bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions. We prospectively followed 40 patients out of which, 20 patients were operated for anatomic single bundle ACL reconstruction and other 20 patients underwent anatomic double bundle ACL reconstruction. Patient evaluation using the laxity tests and outcome scales was done preoperatively and at 12, 24 and 48 months after the surgery. Clinical stability was assessed by Lachman test, Pivot shift test and Delhi active test. Functional outcome was assessed by International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC), Lysholm and Modified Cincinnati scores. Patients in both groups were evaluated at regular intervals for a minimum period of 48 months (mean 51 months, range 48-56 months). For all subjective scores, double bundle group patients reported statistically significant higher scores compared to single bundle group patients. Graded stability results of the Lachman, and Pivot shift tests were significantly higher in the anatomically reconstructed double bundle patient group. We suggest that functional outcome and clinical stability may be better with anatomical double bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction as compared to anatomical single bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Copyright

  19. On the classification of complex vector bundles of stable rank

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This classification becomes more effective on generalized flag manifolds, where the Lie algebra formalism and concrete integrability conditions describe in constructive terms the Chern classes of a vector bundle. ... Since deceased; Mathematics Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106, USA ...

  20. The concept of double bundle ACL simulation with a single bundle patellar tendon graft. A cadaveric feasibility study. (United States)

    Jacobi, Matthias; Magnussen, Robert A; Villa, Vincent; Demey, Guillaume; Neyret, Philippe


    There is significant interest in the restoration of the double-bundle anatomy of the native ACL when performing ACL reconstruction. Possible techniques include those utilizing two separate grafts with independent tunnels and those that attempt to mimic this anatomy with a single graft and fewer tunnels. Many of the latter techniques require specific instrumentation and are technically challenging. We demonstrate that the double-bundle anatomy of the native ACL can theoretically be mimicked by a single-bundle reconstruction. We performed single bundle ACL reconstruction with a bone-patellar tendon-bone (BTB) graft in two cadaveric knees. Both grafts were placed to mimic the native ACL footprints - one reconstruction was performed with rectangular bone blocks and oval tunnels and one was performed utilizing a standard BTB graft and round tunnels. Qualitative assessment of graft behavior was made as the knees were taken through a range of motion. The ACL graft was able to qualitatively mimic the behavior of the native ACL in both knees provided the bone blocks were correctly orientated. ACL reconstruction with a single BTB graft can qualitatively mimic the behavior of the two bundles of the native ACL. The key to ensuring this behavior was noted to be appropriate orientation of the graft in the tunnels. Quantitative biomechanical investigations are necessary to evaluate the impact of graft orientation on function.

  1. The concept of double bundle ACL simulation with a single bundle patellar tendon graft. A cadaveric feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobi Matthias


    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is significant interest in the restoration of the double-bundle anatomy of the native ACL when performing ACL reconstruction. Possible techniques include those utilizing two separate grafts with independent tunnels and those that attempt to mimic this anatomy with a single graft and fewer tunnels. Many of the latter techniques require specific instrumentation and are technically challenging. We demonstrate that the double-bundle anatomy of the native ACL can theoretically be mimicked by a single-bundle reconstruction. Methods We performed single bundle ACL reconstruction with a bone-patellar tendon-bone (BTB graft in two cadaveric knees. Both grafts were placed to mimic the native ACL footprints – one reconstruction was performed with rectangular bone blocks and oval tunnels and one was performed utilizing a standard BTB graft and round tunnels. Qualitative assessment of graft behavior was made as the knees were taken through a range of motion. Results The ACL graft was able to qualitatively mimic the behavior of the native ACL in both knees provided the bone blocks were correctly orientated. Conclusions ACL reconstruction with a single BTB graft can qualitatively mimic the behavior of the two bundles of the native ACL. The key to ensuring this behavior was noted to be appropriate orientation of the graft in the tunnels. Quantitative biomechanical investigations are necessary to evaluate the impact of graft orientation on function.

  2. Metabolic profiling of laser microdissected vascular bundles of Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiehn Oliver


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Laser microdissection is a useful tool for collecting tissue-specific samples or even single cells from animal and plant tissue sections. This technique has been successfully employed to study cell type-specific expression at the RNA, and more recently also at the protein level. However, metabolites were not amenable to analysis after laser microdissection, due to the procedures routinely applied for sample preparation. Using standard tissue fixation and embedding protocols to prepare histological sections, metabolites are either efficiently extracted by dehydrating solvents, or washed out by embedding agents. Results In this study, we used cryosectioning as an alternative method that preserves sufficient cellular structure while minimizing metabolite loss by excluding any solute exchange steps. Using this pre-treatment procedure, Arabidopsis thaliana stem sections were prepared for laser microdissection of vascular bundles. Collected samples were subsequently analyzed by gas chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF MS to obtain metabolite profiles. From 100 collected vascular bundles (~5,000 cells, 68 metabolites could be identified. More than half of the identified metabolites could be shown to be enriched or depleted in vascular bundles as compared to the surrounding tissues. Conclusion This study uses the example of vascular bundles to demonstrate for the first time that it is possible to analyze a comprehensive set of metabolites from laser microdissected samples at a tissue-specific level, given that a suitable sample preparation procedure is used.

  3. Frobenius pull backs of vector bundles in higher dimensions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... of a Frobenius pull back of is a refinement of the Frobenius pull back of the Harder–Narasimhan filtration of , provided there is a lower bound on the characteristic (in terms of rank of and the slope of the destabilizing sheaf of the cotangent bundle of ). We also recall some examples, due to Raynaud and Monsky, ...

  4. The fibre bundle anatomy of human cruciate ligaments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mommersteeg, T. J.; Kooloos, J. G.; Blankevoort, L.; Kauer, J. M.; Huiskes, R.; Roeling, F. Q.


    The cruciate ligaments of the knee consist of numerous fascicles, groups of which comprise fibre bundles. The stabilising function of these ligaments is established by changes in the lengths and orientations of the fascicles. Understanding the function of knee ligaments thus requires an

  5. On infinitesimal conformal transformations of the tangent bundles ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The metric. ˜g, which is called a synectic lift of the Riemannian metric g, was introduced by Talantova and Shirokov [4] to study the differential geometry of tangent bundles of Riemannian manifolds (for details, also see [5]). Their paper is concerned with the geometry of the space of n dual variables. The concept of a dual ...

  6. Subanalytic bundles and tubular neighbourhoods of zero-loci

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Abstract. We introduce the natural and fairly general notion of a subanalytic bundle. (with a finite dimensional vector space P of sections) on a subanalytic subset X of a real analytic manifold M, and prove that when M is compact, there is a Baire subset U of sections in P whose zero-loci in X have tubular neighbourhoods, ...

  7. Multicell slug flow heat transfer analysis of finite LMFBR bundles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeung, M.K.; Wolf, L.


    An analytical two-dimensional, multi-region, multi-cell technique has been developed for the thermal analysis of LMFBR rod bundles. Local temperature fields of various unit cells were obtained for 7, 19, and 37-rod bundles of different geometries and power distributions. The validity of the technique has been verified by its excellent agreement with the THTB calculational result. By comparing the calculated fully-developed circumferential clad temperature distribution with those of the experimental measurements, an axial correction factor has been derived to account for the entrance effect for practical considerations. Moreover, the knowledge of the local temperature field of the rod bundle leads to the determination of the effective mixing lengths L/sub ij/ for adjacent subchannels of various geometries. It was shown that the implementation of the accurately determined L/sub ij/ into COBRA-IIIC calculations has fairly significant effects on intersubchannel mixing. In addition, a scheme has been proposed to couple the 2-D distributed and lumped parameter calculation by COBRA-IIIC such that the entrance effect can be implanted into the distributed parameter analysis. The technique has demonstrated its applicability for a 7-rod bundle and the results of calculation were compared to those of three-dimensional analyses and experimental measurements.

  8. John Dewey and His Philosophy of Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliya Sikandar


    Full Text Available This review paper on John Dewey, the pioneering educationist of the 20th century, discusses his educational thoughts, and writings, which gave a new direction to education at the turn of the century. Dewey’s contributions are immense and overwhelming in the fields of education, politics, humanism, logic, and aesthetics. This discussion will focus on Dewey and his philosophy related to educational approaches, pedagogical issues, and the linkages that he made between education, democracy, experience, and society. At the heart of his educational thought is the child. Dewey’s idea on humanism springs from his democratic bent and his quest for freedom, equity, and the value of child’s experiences.

  9. Heat transfer and fluid friction in bundles of twisted tubes (United States)

    Dzyubenko, B. V.; Dreitser, G. A.


    The results of heat-transfer and friction studies in bundles of twisted tubes and rods with spiral wire-wrap spacers are analyzed, and recommendations are given for calculating the heat-transfer coefficient in heat exchangers using twisted tubes.

  10. Temperature response of bundle-sheath conductance in maize leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yin, Xinyou; Putten, Van Der Peter E.L.; Struik, Paul C.; Driever, Steven M.


    A small bundle-sheath conductance (g bs) is essential for the C4 CO2-concentrating mechanism to suppress photorespiration effectively. To predict the productivity of C4 crops accurately under global warming, it is necessary to examine whether and how g

  11. Quillen bundle and geometric prequantization of non-abelian ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E-mail:;; MS received 7 September 2010; revised 23 November 2010. Abstract. In this paper we prequantize the moduli space of non-abelian vortices. We explicitly calculate the symplectic form arising from L2 metric and we construct a prequantum line bundle ...

  12. Metallic/semiconducting ratio of carbon nanotubes in a bundle ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SWCNTs) in a bundle by resonant Raman spectroscopy. The calculation has been done for the three peak positions in radial breathing mode (RBM) spectra obtained by using a laser excitation wavelength () of 633 nm from He–Ne laser on ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Börlin


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate whether the Matlab-based Damped Bundle Adjustment Toolbox (DBAT can be used to provide independent verification of the BA computation of two popular software—PhotoModeler (PM and PhotoScan (PS. For frame camera data sets with lens distortion, DBAT is able to reprocess and replicate subsets of PM results with high accuracy. For lens-distortion-free data sets, DBAT can furthermore provide comparative results between PM and PS. Data sets for the discussed projects are available from the authors. The use of an external verification tool such as DBAT will enable users to get an independent verification of the computations of their software. In addition, DBAT can provide computation of quality parameters such as estimated standard deviations, correlation between parameters, etc., something that should be part of best practice for any photogrammetric software. Finally, as the code is free and open-source, users can add computations of their own.

  14. Early Results of Anatomic Double Bundle Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demet Pepele


    Full Text Available Aim: The goal in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR is to restore the normal anatomic structure and function of the knee. In the significant proportion of patients after the traditional single-bundle ACLR, complaints of instability still continue. Anatomic double bundle ACLR may provide normal kinematics in knees, much closer to the natural anatomy. The aim of this study is to clinically assess the early outcomes of our anatomical double bundle ACLR. Material and Method: In our clinic between June 2009 and March 2010, performed the anatomic double bundle ACLR with autogenous hamstring grafts 20 patients were evaluated prospectively with Cincinnati, IKDC and Lysholm scores and in clinically for muscle strength and with Cybex II dynamometer. Results: The mean follow-up is 17.8 months (13-21 months. Patients%u2019 scores of Cincinnati, IKDC and Lysholm were respectively, preoperative 18.1, 39.3 and 39.8, while the post-op increased to 27.2, 76.3 and 86.3. In their last check, 17 percent of the patients according to IKDC scores (85% A (excellent and B (good group and 3 patients took place as C (adequate group. The power measurements of quadriceps and hamstring muscle groups of patients who underwent surgery showed no significant difference compared with the intact knees. Discussion: Double-bundle ACL reconstruction is a satisfactory method. There is a need comparative, long-term studies in large numbers in order to determine improving clinical outcome, preventing degeneration and restoring the knee biomechanics better.

  15. Structural Causes of Right Bundle Branch Block?Time for a Closer Look?


    Ker, James


    Right bundle branch block is an electrocardiographic phenomenon with specific criteria. Currently, two specific forms of right bundle branch block are acknowledged, a proximal and a distal variant. A vast array of pathologies can cause proximal, distal or even combined forms of right bundle branch block. In this study it is suggested that a third type of right bundle branch block exist: one caused by a subaortic muscular tendon in the left ventricle, leading to an increased velocity of conduc...

  16. The determinant bundle on the moduli space of stable triples over a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We construct a holomorphic Hermitian line bundle over the moduli space of stable triples of the form (1, 2, ), where 1 and 2 are holomorphic vector bundles over a fixed compact Riemann surface , and : 2 → 1 is a holomorphic vector bundle homomorphism. The curvature of the Chern connection of this ...

  17. A case of ‘Masquerading’ bundle branch block: A forgotten concept


    Dinesh Choudhary; Narayanan Namboodiri; Jaganmohan A. Tharakan


    ‘Masquerading’ bundle branch block (right bundle branch block in the precordial leads with left bundle branch block in frontal leads and left axis deviation) is seen most commonly with coronary artery disease and hypertension. No definite explanation is available so far for these changes. We are presenting a case of rare congenital intranuclear inclusion myopathy with congestive heart failure and ‘Masquerading’ bundle branch block in ECG.

  18. Ebn Farez and Characteristics of his Poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    سردار اصلانی


    Full Text Available Abstract     Abou Hafs Omar Ebn Ali known as Ebn Farez is one of the poets of the 6th century. He was famous in the field of poetry. Many great critics like Ebn Khallekan, the writer of Vafiyatolayan also praised him and even regarded him higher than his contemporary poets in position. In this article, we present some features of Soltan Alasheghin Ebn Farez. Ghazal and Khamriyyat are two main types of his poetry. However, his point of view in Khamriyeh is different from Abonavas and others. The reason is that Ebn Farez’s Khamriyyat is full of mystic elements. In addition, in his poetry one can find many uses of literary devices especially pun.

  19. Differential geometry of moduli spaces of quiver bundles (United States)

    Biswas, Indranil; Schumacher, Georg


    Let P be a parabolic subgroup of a semisimple affine algebraic group G defined over C and X a compact Kähler manifold. L. Álvarez-Cónsul and O. García-Prada associated to these a quiver Q and representations of Q into holomorphic vector bundles on X (Álvarez-Cónsul and García-Prada, 2003) [1, 2]. Our aim here is to investigate the differential geometric properties of the moduli spaces of representations of Q into vector bundles on X. In particular, we construct a Hermitian form on these moduli spaces. A fiber integral formula is proved for this Hermitian form; this fiber integral formula implies that the Hermitian form is Kähler. We compute the curvature of this Kähler form. Under an assumption which says that X is a complex projective manifold, this Kähler form is realized as the curvature of a certain determinant line bundle equipped with a Quillen metric.

  20. Higgs Bundles and Representations of Complex Hyperbolic Lattices


    Maubon, Julien


    International audience; This paper is an introduction to the Higgs bundle theory of Hitchin and Simpson and a survey of its applications to the study of representations of complex hyperbolic lattices into Lie groups of Hermitian type. Some material concerning representations of surface groups will be covered but we shall be mainly interested in higher dimensional lattices, in particular in the proof of the rigidity of maximal representations of such lattices. (Concerning the rigidity of maxim...

  1. A case of an infant with bundle branch reentrant ventricular tachycardia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoki Fujii


    Full Text Available Catheter ablation of the right bundle branch was performed on an 11-month-old infant for the treatment of drug-resistant bundle branch reentrant ventricular tachycardia. The occurrence of right bundle branch block could not be used as an endpoint of treatment because the patient had presented with incomplete right bundle branch block pattern during sinus rhythm. We performed ablation of the right bundle branch and utilized changes of duration and morphology of the QRS complex as indicators. Eight years have passed with no development of any atrioventricular block or tachycardia episode.

  2. Catastrophic Failure and Critical Scaling Laws of Fiber Bundle Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengwang Hao


    Full Text Available This paper presents a spring-fiber bundle model used to describe the failure process induced by energy release in heterogeneous materials. The conditions that induce catastrophic failure are determined by geometric conditions and energy equilibrium. It is revealed that the relative rates of deformation of, and damage to the fiber bundle with respect to the boundary controlling displacement ε0 exhibit universal power law behavior near the catastrophic point, with a critical exponent of −1/2. The proportion of the rate of response with respect to acceleration exhibits a linear relationship with increasing displacement in the vicinity of the catastrophic point. This allows for the prediction of catastrophic failure immediately prior to failure by extrapolating the trajectory of this relationship as it asymptotes to zero. Monte Carlo simulations are completed and these two critical scaling laws are confirmed.

  3. Transport of single cells using an actin bundle-myosin bionanomotor transport system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takatsuki, Hideyo; Rice, Kevin M; Kohama, Kazuhiro; Blough, Eric R [Department of Biological Sciences, Marshall University, Huntington, WV (United States); Tanaka, Hideyuki [Department of Molecular and Cellular Pharmacology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi (Japan); Kolli, Madhukar B; Nalabotu, Siva K [Center for Diagnostic Nanosystems, Marshall University, Huntington, WV (United States); Famouri, Parviz, E-mail: [Lane Department of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States)


    The potential of using actin bundles for the transport of liposomes and single cells across myosin-coated surfaces is investigated. Compared to that observed with filamentous actin, the liposome transport using actin bundles was more linear in nature and able to occur over longer distances. Bundles, but not filamentous actin, were capable of moving single cells. Cargo unloading from bundles was achieved by incubation with Triton X-100. These data suggest that actin bundling may improve the ability of the myosin motor system for nanotransport applications.

  4. Weak point property and sections of Picard bundles on a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Introduction. Debarre had proved that the Jacobian J0(X0) of a smooth curve X0 satisfies the diagonal property (Corollary 2.2 of [6]) i.e., there is a vector bundle of rank equal to the dimension of J0(X0) over J0(X0) × J0(X0), having a section whose zero scheme is the diagonal of J0(X0) × J0(X0). In this note, we generalize ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. S. Gevorgyan


    Full Text Available Nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy is one of the high-tech operations in urology, and the challenge of the surgeon is not only to remove the prostate tumor, but also to provide a high quality of life. The fact that most questions devoted from patients in a conversation with the surgeon before the operation are devoted to this issue, shows the importance and relevance. At present, the diagnostic methods allow significantly more likely to detect early  prostate cancer, making finding and treatment of these patients more affordable and allows to apply this operation.Lately, it seems urgent to explore the possibility of water jet dissection in the field of urology, in particular, for nerve-sparing prostatectomy. Preservation of erectile function depends largely on the quality of separating the neurovascular bundle. Standard use of electrocautery is associated with damage to the neurovascular bundle.  When performing operations using water-jet mobilization of prostate the selective dissection of tissue is performed. This avoids injury of neurovascular bundle and further postoperative complications. The use of this technique may allow the surgeon to provide a more accurate mobilization prostate and selectively controlled intersection vessels heading to the prostate from the neurovascular bundle, reduce intraoperative blood loss,  maintaining continence, erectile function.This literature review is considered by the experience of using nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy using a water-jet dissector, estimated intraoperative parameters using this method.However, we have the lack of extensive research capabilities of this technique when performing nerve-preserving radical prostatectomy, that does not allow to make a comprehensive presentation on the benefits of this technique and its effects on erectile function and quality of urination, further study of this issue in such a difficult category of patients.

  6. Buckling of a fiber bundle embedded in epoxy (United States)

    Hahn, H. T.; Sohi, M. M.


    Buckling of a fiber bundle embedded in epoxy resin was studied to gain insight into compressive failure mechanisms in unidirectional composites. The fibers used were E-glass, T300 graphite, T700 graphite, and P75 graphite. These fibers were combined with two different resins: Epon 815/V140 and Epon 828/Z. In both resins the failure mode of the bundle was found to be microbuckling of fibers for the first three types of fibers; however, the high-modulus P75 fibers failed in shear without any sign of microbuckling. The strains at which microbuckling occurred were higher than the compressive failure strains of the corresponding unidirectional composites. In the soft resin, Epon 815/V140, fibers buckled at lower strains than in the stiff resin, Epon 828/Z. The buckling strains and the segment lengths followed the trends predicted for a single filament embedded in an infinite matrix.

  7. Analyses of bundle experiment data using MATRA-h

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, In Cheol; Chea, Hee Taek [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)


    When the construction and operation license for HANARO was renewed in 1995, 25% of CHF penalty was imposed. The reason for this was that the validation work related to the CHF design calculation was not enough for the assurance of CHF margin. As a part of the works to recover this CHF penalty, MATRA-h was developed by implementing the new correlations for the heat transfer, CHF prediction, subcooled void to the MATRA-a, which is the modified version of COBRA-IV-I done by KAERI. Using MATRA-h, the subchannel analyses for the bundle experiment data were performed. The comparison of the code predictions with the experimental results, it was found that the code would give the conservative predictions as far as the CHF in the bundle geometry is concerned. (author). 12 refs., 25 figs., 16 tabs.

  8. Biomechanical comparisons of knee stability after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction between 2 clinically available transtibial procedures: anatomic double bundle versus single bundle. (United States)

    Kondo, Eiji; Merican, Azhar M; Yasuda, Kazunori; Amis, Andrew A


    Several trials have compared the clinical results between anatomic double-bundle and single-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction procedures. However, it remains controversial whether the anatomic double-bundle procedure is superior to the single-bundle procedure. The anatomic double-bundle procedure will be better than the single-bundle procedure at resisting anterior laxity, internal rotation laxity, and pivot-shift instability. Controlled laboratory study. Eight cadaveric knees were tested in a 6 degrees of freedom rig using the following loading conditions: 90-N anterior tibialforce, 5-N.m internal and external tibial torques, and a simulated pivot-shift test. Tibiofemoral kinematics during the flexion-extension cycle were recorded with an optical tracking system for (1) intact, (2) anterior cruciate ligament-deficient knee, (3) anatomic double-bundle reconstruction, and (4) single-bundle reconstruction placed at 11 o'clock in the intercondylar notch. There were significant reductions of anterior laxity of 3.5 mm at 20 degrees of flexion, internal rotational laxity of 2.5 degrees at 20 degrees of flexion, and anterior translations (2 mm) and internal rotations (5 degrees ) in the simulated pivot-shift test in the double-bundle reconstruction com-pared with the single-bundle reconstruction. There were no significant differences between the 2 procedures for external rotation laxity. The postoperative anterior translation and internal rotation stability after anatomic double-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction were significantly better than after single-bundle reconstruction, in both static tests and the pivot shift. Unlike previous laboratory studies, this work used clinical arthroscopic methods for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, and found that the anatomic reconstruction was superior to a single graft placed at 11 o'clock.

  9. Optimal bundling of transmembrane helices using sparse distance constraints


    Sale, Ken; Faulon, Jean-Loup; Genetha A. Gray; Schoeniger, Joseph S.; Young, Malin M.


    We present a two-step approach to modeling the transmembrane spanning helical bundles of integral membrane proteins using only sparse distance constraints, such as those derived from chemical cross-linking, dipolar EPR and FRET experiments. In Step 1, using an algorithm, we developed, the conformational space of membrane protein folds matching a set of distance constraints is explored to provide initial structures for local conformational searches. In Step 2, these structures refined against ...

  10. Determinants of contractile forces generated in disorganized actomyosin bundles. (United States)

    Kim, Taeyoon


    Actomyosin machinery is a fundamental engine consisting mostly of actin filaments, molecular motors, and passive cross-linkers, generating mechanical forces required for biological processes of non-muscle cells such as cell migration, cytokinesis, and morphogenesis. Although the molecular and physical properties of key elements in the actomyosin machinery have been characterized well, it still remains unclear how macroscopic force buildup and dissipation in actomyosin networks and bundles depend on the microscopic properties of individual cytoskeletal components and their local interactions. To bridge such a gap between macroscopic and microscopic scales, we have developed a three-dimensional computational model of actomyosin bundles clamped to an elastic substrate with minimal components: actin filaments, passive cross-linkers, and active motors. Our model accounts for several key features neglected by previous studies despite their significance for force generation, such as realistic structure and kinetics of the motors. Using the model, we systematically investigated how net tension in actomyosin bundles is governed via interplay between motors and cross-linkers. We demonstrated motors can generate large tension on a bundle in the absence of cross-linkers in a very inefficient, unstable manner. Cross-linkers help motors to generate their maximum potential forces as well as enhance overall connectivity, leading to much higher efficiency and stability. We showed further that the cross-linkers behave as a molecular clutch with tunable friction which has quite distinct effects on net tension depending on their cross-linking angles. We also examined the source of symmetry breaking between tensile and compressive forces during tension generation process and discussed how the length and dynamics of actin filaments and the stiffness of the elastic substrate can affect the generated tension.

  11. Heart Failure with Transient Left Bundle Branch Block in the Setting of Left Coronary Fistula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen P. Juraschek


    Full Text Available Coronary arterial fistulas are rare communications between vessels or chambers of the heart. Although cardiac symptoms associated with fistulas are well described, fistulas are seldom considered in the differential diagnosis of acute myocardial ischemia. We describe the case of a 64-year-old man who presented with left shoulder pain, signs of heart failure, and a new left bundle branch block (LBBB. Cardiac catheterization revealed a small left anterior descending (LAD-to-pulmonary artery (PA fistula. Diuresis led to subjective improvement of the patient's symptoms and within several days the LBBB resolved. We hypothesize that the coronary fistula in this patient contributed to transient ischemia of the LAD territory through a coronary steal mechanism. We elected to observe rather than repair the fistula, as his symptoms and ECG changes resolved with treatment of his heart failure.

  12. Fabrication of CANFLEX bundle kit for irradiation test in NRU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Moon Sung; Kwon, Hyuk Il; Ji, Chul Goo; Chang, Ho Il; Sim, Ki Seob; Suk, Ho Chun


    CANFLEX bundle kit was prepared at KAERI for the fabrication of complete bundle at AECL. Completed bundle will be used for irradiation test in NRU. Provisions in the `Quality Assurance Manual for HWR Fuel Projects,` `Manufacturing Plan` and `Quality Verification, Inspection and Test Plan` were implemented as appropriately for the preparation of CANFLEX kit. A set of CANFLEX kit consist of 43 fuel sheath of two different sizes with spacers, bearing pads and buttons attached, 2 pieces of end plates and 86 pieces of end caps with two different sizes. All the documents utilized as references for the fabrication such as drawings, specifications, operating instructions, QC instructions and supplier`s certificates are specified in this report. Especially, suppliers` certificates and inspection reports for the purchased material as well as KAERI`s inspection report are integrated as attachments to this report. Attached to this report are supplier`s certificates and KAERI inspection reports for the procured materials and KAERI QC inspection reports for tubes, pads, spacers, buttons, end caps, end plates and fuel sheath. (author). 37 refs.

  13. Analysis of Subchannel and Rod Bundle PSBT Experiments with CATHARE 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Valette


    Full Text Available This paper presents the assessment of CATHARE 3 against PWR subchannel and rod bundle tests of the PSBT benchmark. Noticeable measurements were the following: void fraction in single subchannel and rod bundle, multiple liquid temperatures at subchannel exit in rod bundle, and DNB power and location in rod bundle. All these results were obtained both in steady and transient conditions. Void fraction values are satisfactory predicted by CATHARE 3 in single subchannels with the pipe module. More dispersed predictions of void values are obtained in rod bundles with the CATHARE 3 3D module at subchannel scale. Single-phase liquid mixing tests and DNB tests in rod bundle are also analyzed. After calibrating the mixing in liquid single phase with specific tests, DNB tests using void mixing give mitigated results, perhaps linked to inappropriate use of CHF lookup tables in such rod bundles with many spacers.

  14. In vivo recording of Zhang's phenomenon (His electrogram alternans): a novel index of atrioventricular node dual pathway conduction. (United States)

    Zhang, Youhua


    Zhang's phenomenon (originally His electrogram alternans) is a new index of atrioventricular node dual pathway electrophysiology. This index has been described and validated in isolated hearts in vitro, but has not been recorded in vivo. This study explored the feasibility of in vivo recording of Zhang's phenomenon (His electrogram alternans) in six dogs with a custom-built bipolar electrode. The His electrogram recorded from superior His bundle domain (superior His electrogram) was high in amplitude at basic beats and long coupling intervals (i.e., fast pathway conduction) and low amplitude at short prematurities (i.e., slow pathway conduction). In contrast, His electrogram recorded from the inferior His bundle domain (inferior His electrogram) was always from low amplitude during fast pathway conduction to high amplitude during slow pathway conduction. The characteristic His electrogram alternans had been recorded in vivo in all six animals. This study provided the first data representing in vivo recording of Zhang's phenomenon (His electrogram alternans) in large animals. Clinical studies are needed before this novel index can be applied in patients.

  15. Compactifications of the Heterotic string with unitary bundles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weigand, T.


    In this thesis we investigate a large new class of four-dimensional supersymmetric string vacua defined as compactifications of the E{sub 8} x E{sub 8} and the SO(32) heterotic string on smooth Calabi-Yau threefolds with unitary gauge bundles and heterotic five-branes. The first part of the thesis discusses the implementation of this idea into the E{sub 8} x E{sub 8} heterotic string. After specifying a large class of group theoretic embeddings featuring unitary bundles, we analyse the effective four-dimensional N=1 supergravity upon compactification. From the gauge invariant Kaehler potential for the moduli fields we derive a modification of the Fayet-Iliopoulos D-terms arising at one-loop in string perturbation theory. From this we conjecture a one-loop deformation of the Hermitian Yang-Mills equation and introduce the idea of {lambda}-stability as the perturbatively correct stability concept generalising the notion of Mumford stability valid at tree-level. We then proceed to a definition of SO(32) heterotic vacua with unitary gauge bundles in the presence of heterotic five-branes and find agreement of the resulting spectrum with the S-dual framework of Type I/Type IIB orientifolds. A similar analysis of the effective four-dimensional supergravity is performed. Further evidence for the proposed one-loop correction to the stability condition is found by identifying the heterotic corrections as the S-dual of the perturbative part of {pi}-stability as the correct stability concept in Type IIB theory. After reviewing the construction of holomorphic stable vector bundles on elliptically fibered Calabi-Yau manifolds via spectral covers, we provide semi-realistic examples for SO(32) heterotic vacua with Pati-Salam and MSSM-like gauge sectors. We finally discuss the construction of realistic vacua with flipped SU(5) GUT and MSSM gauge group within the E{sub 8} x E{sub 8} framework, based on the embedding of line bundles into both E{sub 8} factors. Some of the appealing

  16. [Harvey and his theory of circulation]. (United States)

    Wolters, Frank J


    In 1628 the English physician William Harvey (1578-1657) published his revolutionary theory that blood circulates through the body driven by the heart. This challenged the long-standing teachings of Hippocrates and Galen concerning 4 different bodily fluids or 'humours' that flowed through separate arterial and venous vascular systems. Harvey gained considerable influence in society as a member of the prestigious Royal College of Physicians in London and as personal physician to King James I and King Charles I. He strove for a more empirical foundation of medicine by means of anatomic demonstrations and vivisections. Despite enduring considerable criticism he managed to disseminate his ideas around the influential universities of Europe in the course of his lifetime. However, consequent changes in practice would not be brought about until decades after Harvey's death, when Galenist treatments such as blood-letting were gradually abandoned.

  17. New models of droplet deposition and entrainment for prediction of CHF in cylindrical rod bundles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Haibin, E-mail: [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Department of Chemical Engineering, Imperial College, London SW7 2BY (United Kingdom); Hewitt, G.F. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Imperial College, London SW7 2BY (United Kingdom)


    Highlights: • New models of droplet deposition and entrainment in rod bundles is developed. • A new phenomenological model to predict the CHF in rod bundles is described. • The present model is well able to predict CHF in rod bundles. - Abstract: In this paper, we present a new set of model of droplet deposition and entrainment in cylindrical rod bundles based on the previously proposed model for annuli (effectively a “one-rod” bundle) (2016a). These models make it possible to evaluate the differences of the rates of droplet deposition and entrainment for the respective rods and for the outer tube by taking into account the geometrical characteristics of the rod bundles. Using these models, a phenomenological model to predict the CHF (critical heat flux) for upward annular flow in vertical rod bundles is described. The performance of the model is tested against the experimental data of Becker et al. (1964) for CHF in 3-rod and 7-rod bundles. These data include tests in which only the rods were heated and data for simultaneous uniform and non-uniform heating of the rods and the outer tube. It was shown that the predicted CHFs by the present model agree well with the experimental data and with the experimental observation that dryout occurred first on the outer rods in 7-rod bundles. It is expected that the methodology used will be generally applicable in the prediction of CHF in rod bundles.

  18. Intersection cohomology of moduli spaces of vector bundles over curves


    Mozgovoy, Sergey; Reineke, Markus


    We compute the intersection cohomology of the moduli spaces $M(r,d)$ of semistable vector bundles of arbitrary rank $r$ and degree $d$ over a curve. To do this, we introduce new invariants, called Donaldson-Thomas invariants of a curve, which can be effectively computed by methods going back to Harder, Narasimhan, Desale and Ramanan. Our main result relates the Hodge-Euler polynomial of the intersection cohomology of $M(r,d)$ to the Donaldson-Thomas invariants. More generally, we introduce Do...

  19. Lighthill and his Art of Mathematical Modelling

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Lighthill and his Art of Mathematical Modelling. Renuka Ravindran. Lighthill m odeled the °ow of blood through a narrow capillary involving the passage ofindivid- ualred blood cells through it in a single ¯le. T he study involved the m otion of relatively tightly. ¯tting pellets of solid m atter forced along dis- tensible tubes.

  20. Pierre Schaeffer and his theory of listening

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Igor Reis Reyner


    .... It shows the mechanics of his theory of listening, following in the author’s footsteps to highlight the creation of concepts by accumulation, a procedure he takes to extremes in the notion of quatre fonctions de l’écoute...

  1. Double-bundle depiction of the anterior cruciate ligament at 3 Tesla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adriaensen, M.E.A.P.M. [Atrium Medical Center Parkstad, Department of Radiology, Heerlen (Netherlands); Hogan, B. [Sports Surgery Clinic, Department of Radiology, Dublin (Ireland); Al-Bulushi, H.I.J. [Armed Forces Hospital, Department of Radiology, Muscat (Oman); Kavanagh, E.C. [Mater Misericordiae Hospital, Department of Radiology, Dublin (Ireland)


    Magnetic resonance imaging on 3 Tesla (3T MRI) with arthroscopic correlation has proven to adequately identify the anteromedial bundle (AMB) and posterolateral bundle (PLB) in cadaver knees. The purpose of this study was to describe the depiction of ACL bundle anatomy on 3T MRI in daily practice. In a retrospective cohort study, we included 50 consecutive patients who underwent standard 3T MRI of the knee and had an intact ACL. Two musculoskeletal radiologists independently reviewed all scans for depiction of ACL bundle anatomy using standardized forms. Descriptive statistics were used. Twenty-three right knees (46%) and 27 left knees (54%) were included in the study. Mean age of the patients was 35 years (range 12 to 68 years); 37 patients were male (74%). ACL bundle anatomy was best depicted in the axial plane in 44 knees (88%) and in the coronal plane in six knees (12%). Two bundles were seen in 47 knees (94%). The AMB was completely seen in 45 knees (90%). The PLB was completely seen in 40 knees (80%). Both bundles were completely seen in 37 knees (76%). The double-bundle anatomy of the ACL is visualized in 94% of patients on 3T MRI. Because of potentially associated clinical benefits, we advocate to report separately on the anteromedial bundle and posterolateral bundle in case of anterior cruciate ligament injury of the knee. (orig.)


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    nies of hell itself; and God, the Lord of universe, was prepared to endure the suf- fering consequent upon his son's humilia- tion and death. He was prepared .... brought a sin barrier between God and them- selves, and thereby marred the original sweet, holy fellowship they had with their Maker. (Genesis 3:8-9). The ultimate ...

  3. Modelling of fuel bundle deformation at high temperatures: requirements, models and steps for consideration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, S.; Xu, Z.; Fan, H.; Nitheanandan, T. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, MIssissauga, Ontario (Canada)


    To model thermal mechanical bundle deformation behaviour under high temperature conditions, several factors need to be considered. These are the sources of loads, deformation mechanisms, interactions within bundle components, bundle and pressure tube (PT) interaction, and boundary constraints on the fuel bundles under in-reactor conditions. This paper describes the modelling of the following three processes: Bundle slumping due to high temperature creep-sag of individual elements and endplates; Differential element expansion and fuel element bowing; and, Bundle distortion under axial loads. To model these processes, a number of key mechanisms for bundle deformation must be considered, which include: 1) Interaction of fuel elements in a bundle with their neighbours, 2) Endplate deformation, 3) Fuel elements lateral deformation under various loads and mechanisms, 4) Interaction within a fuel element, 5) Material property change at high temperatures, 6) Transient response of a bundle, and 7) Bundle configuration change. This paper summarises the new models needed for the mechanistic modelling of the key mechanisms mentioned above and provides an example to show how an endplate plasticity model is developed with results. (author)

  4. His electrogram alternans (Zhang's phenomenon) and a new model of dual pathway atrioventricular node conduction. (United States)

    Zhang, Youhua


    In contrast to the current textbook model and the current clinical index of dual pathway atrioventricular (AV) nodal conduction, here we summarize the discovery and validation of Zhang's phenomenon (originally His electrogram alternans) as a new index of dual pathway conduction. We also describe the new findings of transverse-versus-longitudinal electrical propagation within the AV node as the electrophysiological basis underlining this new index. Thus, a new index and a new model of dual pathway AV conduction are being developed. We have reviewed current literature and provided evidence supporting a new index and a new model of dual pathway AV conduction. Recent data revealed that during fast pathway conduction, electrical excitation in the AV node propagates in a superior to inferior direction across AV conduction axis and fiber orientation to reach first the superior His bundle fibers. However, this transverse conduction can fail easily within the superior nodal domain at fast rates. The failing of transverse propagation permits electrical excitation formed at the posterior/inferior nodal region to propagate longitudinally along fiber orientation in a posterior to anterior direction through the inferior nodal domain to reach the inferior His bundle (slow pathway conduction). This transverse-versus-longitudinal electrical propagation within the AV node results in a functional dissociation in the distal node and formation of dual inputs into the His bundle, providing the electrophysiological basis for the formation of Zhang's phenomenon (His electrogram alternans). Based on strong experimental data, a new index and a new model of dual pathway AV nodal conduction are emerging, although they are still awaiting clinical validation.

  5. Getting the Most from Your CD-ROM Dollars: The CD-ROM Bundle [and] The Pros and Cons of CD-ROM Bundling. (United States)

    Sarjeant, Eric W.; O'Connor, Mary Ann


    Discusses and reviews CD-ROM bundles--i.e., hardware, software and CD-ROM kits--including their features, specifications, drawbacks, and prices. Recommends buying through mail order for the best selection and price. The pros and cons of bundling as a marketing strategy are discussed and a list of vendors is provided. (EA)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In terms of safety and the efficient management of spent fuel storage, detecting failed fuel is one of the most important tasks in a CANada Deuterium Uranium (CANDU reactor operation. It has been successfully demonstrated that in a CANDU reactor, on-power failed fuel detection and location systems, along with alarm area gamma monitors, can detect and locate defective and suspect fuel bundles before discharging them from the reactor to the spent fuel storage bay. In the reception bay, however, only visual inspection has been used to identify suspect bundles. Gaseous fission product and delayed neutron monitoring systems cannot precisely distinguish failed fuel elements from each fuel bundle. This study reports the use of a sipping system in a CANDU reactor for the integrity assessment of spent fuel bundles. The integrity assessment of spent fuel bundles using this sipping system has shown promise as a nondestructive test for detecting a defective fuel bundle in a CANDU reactor.

  7. On the permeability of fractal tube bundles

    CERN Document Server

    Zinovik, I


    The permeability of a porous medium is strongly affected by its local geometry and connectivity, the size distribution of the solid inclusions and the pores available for flow. Since direct measurements of the permeability are time consuming and require experiments that are not always possible, the reliable theoretical assessment of the permeability based on the medium structural characteristics alone is of importance. When the porosity approaches unity, the permeability-porosity relationships represented by the Kozeny-Carman equations and Archie's law predict that permeability tends to infinity and thus they yield unrealistic results if specific area of the porous media does not tend to zero. The goal of this paper is an evaluation of the relationships between porosity and permeability for a set of fractal models with porosity approaching unity and a finite permeability. It is shown that the two-dimensional foams generated by finite iterations of the corresponding geometric fractals can be used to model poro...

  8. Interconnection of bundled solid oxide fuel cells (United States)

    Brown, Michael; Bessette, II, Norman F; Litka, Anthony F; Schmidt, Douglas S


    A system and method for electrically interconnecting a plurality of fuel cells to provide dense packing of the fuel cells. Each one of the plurality of fuel cells has a plurality of discrete electrical connection points along an outer surface. Electrical connections are made directly between the discrete electrical connection points of adjacent fuel cells so that the fuel cells can be packed more densely. Fuel cells have at least one outer electrode and at least one discrete interconnection to an inner electrode, wherein the outer electrode is one of a cathode and and anode and wherein the inner electrode is the other of the cathode and the anode. In tubular solid oxide fuel cells the discrete electrical connection points are spaced along the length of the fuel cell.

  9. Frobenius splitting of projective toric bundles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    isotypical component of Γ(Uσ, E), .... Let X be a smooth toric variety and 0 ∈ ̂T be the trivial character, then the restriction map. H0(X ...... Conference at the University of Michigan,, 2010.

  10. Hydrodynamic behavior of a bare rod bundle. [LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartzis, J.G.; Todreas, N.E.


    The temperature distribution within the rod bundle of a nuclear reactor is of major importance in nuclear reactor design. However temperature information presupposes knowledge of the hydrodynamic behavior of the coolant which is the most difficult part of the problem due to complexity of the turbulence phenomena. In the present work a 2-equation turbulence model--a strong candidate for analyzing actual three dimensional turbulent flows--has been used to predict fully developed flow of infinite bare rod bundle of various aspect ratios (P/D). The model has been modified to take into account anisotropic effects of eddy viscosity. Secondary flow calculations have been also performed although the model seems to be too rough to predict the secondary flow correctly. Heat transfer calculations have been performed to confirm the importance of anisotropic viscosity in temperature predictions. All numerical calculations for flow and heat have been performed by two computer codes based on the TEACH code. Experimental measurements of the distribution of axial velocity, turbulent axial velocity, turbulent kinetic energy and radial Reynolds stresses were performed in the developing and fully developed regions. A 2-channel Laser Doppler Anemometer working on the Reference mode with forward scattering was used to perform the measurements in a simulated interior subchannel of a triangular rod array with P/D = 1.124. Comparisons between the analytical results and the results of this experiment as well as other experimental data in rod bundle array available in literature are presented. The predictions are in good agreement with the results for the high Reynolds numbers.

  11. Non-properness of the functor of F-trivial bundles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This is defined by assigning a Tannaka group to the Tannaka category of essentially finite vector bundles on. X [13, 14]. In these papers, Nori had made 2 conjectures: ... For any integer n > 1, we could define on Fn-trivial bundles on X as a .... for some line bundles Li, 1 ≤ i ≤ s on R with deg L1 > deg L2 > ··· > deg Ls.

  12. Visualization of the medial forebrain bundle using diffusion tensor imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardian eHana


    Full Text Available Diffusion tensor imaging is a technique that enables physicians the portrayal of white matter tracts in vivo. We used this technique in order to depict the medial forebrain bundle in 15 consecutive patients between 2012 and 2015. Men and women of all ages were included. There were 6 women and 9 men. The mean age was 58,6 years (39-77. Nine patients were candidates for an eventual deep brain stimulation. Eight of them suffered from Parkinson`s disease and one had multiple sclerosis. The remaining 6 patients suffered from different lesions which were situated in the frontal lobe. These were 2 metastasis, 2 meningiomas, 1 cerebral bleeding and 1 glioblastoma. We used a 3DT1-sequence for the navigation. Furthermore T2- and DTI- sequences were performed. The FOV was 200 x 200 mm², slice thickness 2 mm, and an acquisition matrix of 96 x 96 yielding nearly isotropic voxels of 2 x 2 x 2 mm. 3-Tesla-MRI was carried out strictly axial using 32 gradient directions and one b0-image. We used Echo-Planar-Imaging (EPI and ASSET parallel imaging with an acceleration factor of 2. b-value was 800 s/mm². The maximal angle was 50°. Additional scanning time was less than 9 minutes. We were able to visualize the medial forebrain bundle in 12 of our patients bilaterally and in the remaining 3 patients we depicted the medial forebrain bundle on one side. It was the contralateral side of the lesion. These were 2 meningiomas and one metastasis. Portrayal of the medial forebrain bundle is possible for everyday routine for neurosurgical interventions. As part of the reward circuitry it might be of substantial importance for neurosurgeons during deep brain stimulation in patients with psychiatric disorders. Furthermore it might explain at a certain extent character changes in patients with lesions in the frontal lobe. Surgery in this part of the brain should always take the preservation of this white matter tract into account.

  13. Structural Causes of Right Bundle Branch Block—Time for a Closer Look? (United States)

    Ker, James


    Right bundle branch block is an electrocardiographic phenomenon with specific criteria. Currently, two specific forms of right bundle branch block are acknowledged, a proximal and a distal variant. A vast array of pathologies can cause proximal, distal or even combined forms of right bundle branch block. In this study it is suggested that a third type of right bundle branch block exist: one caused by a subaortic muscular tendon in the left ventricle, leading to an increased velocity of conduction in the left ventricle, with a resultant “relative” right bundle branch block. It is concluded that it is necessary (and time) to take a closer look at endoventricular structures in the assessment of structural causes of right bundle branch block. PMID:20386615

  14. Harder Roads to Trek? Paradoxical Slowing of an Atrioventricular Reentrant Tachycardia With Contralateral Bundle Branch Block. (United States)

    Divakara Menon, Syamkumar M; Ayati, Maryam; Healey, Jeff S


    Slowing of the tachycardia with increase in cycle length and increase in VA time with ipsilateral bundle branch block is a characteristic feature of accessory pathway mediated AVRT. Contralateral bundle branch block has no effect on the tachycardia as it is not a part of the tachycardia circuit. We present an interesting phenomenon in which contralateral bundle branch block resulted in tachycardia slowing in a case of WPW syndrome. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Bundle branch reentry: A rare mechanism of ventricular tachycardia in endomyocardial fibrosis, without ventricular dilation. (United States)

    Prabhu, Mukund A; Prasad, B V Srinivas; Thajudeen, Anees; Namboodiri, Narayanan


    Bundle branch reentry as a mechanism of ventricular tachycardia (VT) in endomyocardial fibrosis (EMF) is not described. A 52-year-old woman with left ventricular (LV) EMF had VT needing cardioversion. She had mitral regurgitation and left bundle branch block, but no LV dilation or heart failure. During electrophysiological study, clinical VT could be easily induced, and it was confirmed to be bundle branch reentrant VT (BBRVT). She was treated with ablation of the right bundle branch. BBRVT can occur in EMF even without cardiac dilatation. Its recognition is important, as radiofrequency ablation can be curative. Copyright © 2016 Cardiological Society of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of reward bundling on male rats' preference for larger-later food rewards. (United States)

    Stein, Jeffrey S; Smits, Rochelle R; Johnson, Patrick S; Liston, Kennan J; Madden, Gregory J


    In both humans and nonhumans, prior research demonstrates increased preference for larger-later over smaller-sooner rewards when rewards are bundled together in a series (i.e., when an operant choice produces multiple discrete reward deliveries, as opposed to only a single delivery). These findings can be predicted using a traditional hyperbolic delay-discounting model. The present study was designed to examine the parametric effects of the size of the reward bundle on larger-later reward preference in male rats. During a reward-bundling phase, rats were exposed to bundle-sizes of either 1 (i.e., no bundling), 3, or 9 rewards. Rats in the Bundle-size 9 group showed significantly greater larger-later reward preference across a range of delays (0-17.5 s) than rats in any other group, but no other significant differences in choice were observed between groups. In addition, when choice for unbundled rewards was assessed following the reward-bundling phase, rats in the Bundle-size 9 group showed a significant increase in larger-later reward preference (compared to a pre-test). Obtained data from the reward-bundling phase are compared to model-predicted data, and potential mechanisms of the observed increase in self-control for unbundled rewards are discussed. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  17. Numerical Investigation of Characteristic of Anisotropic Thermal Conductivity of Natural Fiber Bundle with Numbered Lumens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guan-Yu Zheng


    Full Text Available Natural fiber bundle like hemp fiber bundle usually includes many small lumens embedded in solid region; thus, it can present lower thermal conduction than that of conventional fibers. In the paper, characteristic of anisotropic transverse thermal conductivity of unidirectional natural hemp fiber bundle was numerically studied to determine the dependence of overall thermal property of the fiber bundle on that of the solid region phase. In order to efficiently predict its thermal property, the fiber bundle was embedded into an imaginary matrix to form a unit composite cell consisting of the matrix and the fiber bundle. Equally, another unit composite cell including an equivalent solid fiber was established to present the homogenization of the fiber bundle. Next, finite element thermal analysis implemented by ABAQUS was conducted in the two established composite cells by applying proper thermal boundary conditions along the boundary of unit cell, and influences of the solid region phase and the equivalent solid fiber on the composites were investigated, respectively. Subsequently, an optional relationship of thermal conductivities of the natural fiber bundle and the solid region was obtained by curve fitting technique. Finally, numerical results from the obtained fitted curves were compared with the analytic Hasselman-Johnson’s results and others to verify the present numerical model.

  18. Fibrillization of human tau is accelerated by exposure to lead via interaction with His-330 and His-362.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Li Zhu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neurofibrillary tangles, mainly consisted of bundles of filaments formed by the microtubule-associated protein Tau, are a hallmark of Alzheimer disease. Lead is a potent neurotoxin for human being especially for the developing children, and Pb(2+ at high concentrations is found in the brains of patients with Alzheimer disease. However, it has not been reported so far whether Pb(2+ plays a role in the pathology of Alzheimer disease through interaction with human Tau protein and thereby mediates Tau filament formation. In this study, we have investigated the effect of Pb(2+ on fibril formation of recombinant human Tau fragment Tau(244-372 and its mutants at physiological pH. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: As revealed by thioflavin T and 8-anilino-1-naphthalene sulfonic acid fluorescence, the addition of 5-40 µM Pb(2+ significantly accelerates the exposure of hydrophobic region and filament formation of wild-type Tau(244-372 on the investigated time scale. As evidenced by circular dichroism and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, fibrils formed by wild-type Tau(244-372 in the presence of 5-40 µM Pb(2+ contain more β-sheet structure than the same amount of fibrils formed by the protein in the absence of Pb(2+. However, unlike wild-type Tau(244-372, the presence of 5-40 µM Pb(2+ has no obvious effects on fibrillization kinetics of single mutants H330A and H362A and double mutant H330A/H362A, and fibrils formed by such mutants in the absence and in the presence of Pb(2+ contain similar amounts of β-sheet structure. The results from isothermal titration calorimetry show that one Pb(2+ binds to one Tau monomer via interaction with His-330 and His-362, with sub-micromolar affinity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We demonstrate for the first time that the fibrillization of human Tau protein is accelerated by exposure to lead via interaction with His-330 and His-362. Our results suggest the possible involvement of Pb(2+ in the

  19. [Intermittent bundle branch block: a clinical model for the study of electrophysiological phenomena]. (United States)

    Costantini, Marcello


    Disorders of intraventricular conduction (bundle branch block and hemiblock) are usually stable and remain unchanged irrespective of heart rate. Not infrequently, however, their appearance is related to the duration of the cardiac cycle, so that they appear and disappear with changes in heart rate. This may not even represent a pathological phenomenon, since sudden and consistent changes in cardiac cycle can result, even physiologically, in aberrant conduction. However, when a bundle branch block appears intermittently for simple and progressive increments, or even deceleration, of the sinus rate, this is related to a true bundle branch pathology, i.e. tachycardia-dependent (or phase 3) block or bradycardia-dependent (or phase 4) block, respectively. Phase 3 block is believed to express a pathological increase in the duration of the recovery period of the bundle branch. Phase 4 block was best explained on the basis of enhanced phase 4 depolarization of the bundle branch system, with inability of excitation if the cardiac cycle is particularly prolonged. The two types of block, phase 3 and phase 4, often coexist. An intraventricular conduction disturbance that appears during increasing heart rate for a phase 3 block is maintained, if frequency slows down, even for cycles greater than those that brought about its appearance. This is due to retrograde activation of the bundle branch blocked in the antegrade direction, with delay of its action potential inscription. Sometimes, in the presence of phase 3 bundle branch block, very early atrial ectopic beats are paradoxically conducted in the normal way (supernormal conduction). Perhaps, this phenomenon is related to a possible "climb over" of the injured zone of the bundle branch by the blocked impulses that arise beyond the injured area as subliminal impulses, exciting the healthy tissues if catches them during their phase of supernormal excitability. In the presence of intermittent bundle branch block, it is not

  20. Characterization of midrib vascular bundles of selected medicinal species in Rubiaceae (United States)

    Nurul-Syahirah, M.; Noraini, T.; Latiff, A.


    An anatomical study was carried out on mature leaves of five selected medicinal species of Rubiaceae from Peninsular Malaysia. The chosen medicinal species were Aidia densiflora, Aidia racemosa, Chasallia chartacea, Hedyotis auricularia and Ixora grandifolia. The objective of this study is to determine the taxonomic value of midrib anatomical characteristics. Leaves samples were collected from Taman Paku Pakis, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor and Kledang Saiong Forest Reserve, Perak, Malaysia. Leaves samples then were fixed in spirit and acetic acid (3:1), the midrib parts then were sectioned using sliding microtome, cleared using Clorox, stained in Safranin and Alcian blue, mounted in Euparal and were observed under light microscope. Findings in this study have shown all species have collateral bundles. The midrib vascular bundles characteristics that can be used as tool to differentiate between species or genus are vascular bundles system (opened or closed), shape and arrangement of main vascular bundles, presence of both additional and medullary vascular bundles, position of additional vascular bundles, shape of medullary vascular bundles, presence of sclerenchyma cells ensheathed the vascular bundles. As a conclusion, midrib anatomical characteristics can be used to identify and discriminate medicinal plants species studied in the Rubiaceae.

  1. Right bundle branch block with revelation of changing axis deviation at the end of atrial fibrillation. (United States)

    Patanè, Salvatore; Marte, Filippo; Sturiale, Mauro


    Changing axis deviation has been reported also during atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter. Changing axis deviation has been also reported during acute myocardial infarction associated with atrial fibrillation too or at the end of atrial fibrillation during acute myocardial infarction. Left bundle branch block is usually associated with normal or left axis deviation. Rarely the ECG shows a left bundle branch block with changing QRS morphology and changing axis deviation. There are several possible explanations for the intermittent shift in the QRS axis in the presence of complete left bundle branch block. The most plausible explanation is the coexistence of left posterior hemiblock and predivisional left bundle branch block. Intermittent right axis deviation has been rarely reported in the presence of left bundle branch block also during atrial fibrillation and with acute myocardial infarction too. Isolated left posterior hemiblock is a very rare finding and transient right axis deviation associated with a left posterior hemiblock pattern has been also rarely described associated with acute myocardial infarction. Changing axis deviation with changing bundle branch block and new-onset of atrial fibrillation during acute myocardial infarction has been also reported. Changing axis deviation with intermittent right bundle branch block in a patient admitted with acute myocardial infarction has been also described. We present a case of a right bundle branch block with revelation of changing axis deviation at the end of atrial fibrillation in a 68-year-old Italian man.

  2. "The Purpose of This Study Is to": Connecting Lexical Bundles and Moves in Research Article Introductions (United States)

    Cortes, Viviana


    This article presents a group of lexical bundles identified in a corpus of research article introductions as the first step in the analysis of these expressions in the different sections of the research article. A one-million word corpus of research article introductions from various disciplines was compiled and the lexical bundles identified in…

  3. Design of electric control system for automatic vegetable bundling machine (United States)

    Bao, Yan


    A design can meet the requirements of automatic bale food structure and has the advantages of simple circuit, and the volume is easy to enhance the electric control system of machine carrying bunch of dishes and low cost. The bundle of vegetable machine should meet the sensor to detect and control, in order to meet the control requirements; binding force can be adjusted by the button to achieve; strapping speed also can be adjusted, by the keys to set; sensors and mechanical line connection, convenient operation; can be directly connected with the plug, the 220V power supply can be connected to a power source; if, can work, by the transmission signal sensor, MCU to control the motor, drive and control procedures for small motor. The working principle of LED control circuit and temperature control circuit is described. The design of electric control system of automatic dish machine.

  4. Adhering to a national surgical care bundle reduces the risk of surgical site infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koek, Mayke B. G.; Hopmans, Titia E. M.; Soetens, Loes C.; Wille, Jan C.; Geerlings, Suzanne E.; Vos, Margreet C.; van Benthem, Birgit H. B.; de Greeff, Sabine C.


    In 2008, a bundle of care to prevent Surgical Site Infections (SSIs) was introduced in the Netherlands. The bundle consisted of four elements: antibiotic prophylaxis according to local guidelines, no hair removal, normothermia and 'hygiene discipline' in the operating room (i.e. number of door

  5. A simulation study on the adsorption properties of linear alkanes on closed nanotube bundles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cannon, J.J.; Vlugt, T.J.H.; Dubbeldam, D.; Maruyama, S.; Shiomi, J.


    Adsorption onto carbon nanotube bundles may find use in various applications such as gas pre-concentration and separation, and as a result it is of great interest to study the adsorption properties of such bundles. The adsorption of linear alkanes, with their systematic variation through chain

  6. The determinant bundle on the moduli space of stable triples over a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    bundles over a Riemann surface and also on the existence of a special metric on a stable triple established in [BG]. Here is a brief outline of the contents of the paper. In §2, we recall the basic notions about holomorphic triples, their stability, and their moduli spaces. In §3, we construct a natural holomorphic line bundle L on ...

  7. Unwrapping the Bundle: An Examination of Research Libraries and the "Big Deal" (United States)

    Strieb, Karla L.; Blixrud, Julia C.


    This study presents and analyzes the findings of a 2012 survey of member libraries belonging to the Association of Research Libraries (ARL) about publishers' large journal bundles and compares the results to earlier surveys. The data illuminate five research questions: market penetration, journal bundle construction, collection format shifts,…

  8. Ion-irradiation-induced defects in bundles of carbon nanotubes

    CERN Document Server

    Salonen, E; Nordlund, K


    We study the structure and formation yields of atomic-scale defects produced by low-dose Ar ion irradiation in bundles of single-wall carbon nanotubes. For this, we employ empirical potential molecular dynamics and simulate ion impact events over an energy range of 100-1000 eV. We show that the most common defects produced at all energies are vacancies on nanotube walls, which at low temperatures are metastable but long-lived defects. We further calculate the spatial distribution of the defects, which proved to be highly non-uniform. We also show that ion irradiation gives rise to the formations of inter-tube covalent bonds mediated by carbon recoils and nanotube lattice distortions due to dangling bond saturation. The number of inter-tube links, as well as the overall damage, linearly grows with the energy of incident ions.

  9. Ultrasonographic evaluation of displaced neurovascular bundle in Dupuytren disease. (United States)

    Uehara, Kosuke; Miura, Toshiki; Morizaki, Yutaka; Miyamoto, Hideaki; Ohe, Takashi; Tanaka, Sakae


    Neurovascular injury is a serious complication after surgery for Dupuytren disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the cord and the neurovascular bundle ultrasonographically. We included 22 healthy volunteers and 14 Dupuytren disease patients (25 fingers) in this study. We evaluated the cord and the digital artery with high-resolution ultrasound. We first investigated the effect of the angle of metacarpophalangeal joint on the position of the radial and ulnar digital arteries in volunteers without evidence of Dupuytren disease. We compared 3 parameters of the radial and ulnar digital arteries, including differences in depth, differences in lateral shift, and the shape of the cross-section of the artery, between volunteers and patients with Dupuytren disease. None of these parameters changed with flexion of the metacarpophalangeal joint of 0°, 30°, and 60°. Digital arteries and cords could be identified ultrasonographically in all patients, and we confirmed ultrasonographic findings by operative findings in 13 fingers. We classified the fingers into 3 subgroups based on the ultrasonographic findings: type A (n = 13), in which the cord was above the artery; type B (n = 5), in which the cord was below the artery; and type C (n = 7), in which the cord was located between the radial and ulnar digital arteries. Types A, B, and C corresponded to natatory cord/abductor digiti minimi cord, spiral cord, and central cord, respectively. Comparisons among volunteers and patient subgroups showed that the difference in depth in type B patients was significantly larger than that of the other groups. When we set the cutoff point of the difference in depth to 3 mm, sensitivity and specificity to detect the spiral cord were 80% and 76%, respectively. The relationship between the neurovascular bundle and the type of Dupuytren disease cord can be evaluated by high-resolution ultrasound. Diagnostic III. Copyright © 2013 American Society for

  10. Unpacking ecosystem service bundles : Towards predictive mapping of synergies and trade-offs between ecosystem services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spake, Rebecca; Lasseur, Rémy; Crouzat, Emilie; Bullock, James M.; Lavorel, Sandra; Parks, Katherine E.; Schaafsma, Marije; Bennett, Elena M.; Maes, Joachim; Mulligan, Mark; Mouchet, Maud; Peterson, Garry D.; Schulp, Catharina J.E.; Thuiller, Wilfried; Turner, Monica G.; Verburg, Peter H.; Eigenbrod, Felix


    Multiple ecosystem services (ES) can respond similarly to social and ecological factors to form bundles. Identifying key social-ecological variables and understanding how they co-vary to produce these consistent sets of ES may ultimately allow the prediction and modelling of ES bundles, and thus,

  11. Adhering to a national surgical care bundle reduces the risk of surgical site infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koek, M.B.G. (Mayke B. G.); Hopmans, T.E.M. (Titia E. M.); Soetens, L.C. (Loes C.); J.C. Wille (Jan); S.E. Geerlings (Suzanne); M.C. Vos (Margreet); B.H. van Benthem (Birgit); S.C. de Greeff (Sabine C.)


    textabstractBackground: In 2008, a bundle of care to prevent Surgical Site Infections (SSIs) was introduced in the Netherlands. The bundle consisted of four elements: antibiotic prophylaxis according to local guidelines, no hair removal, normothermia and ‘hygiene discipline’

  12. Atrial fibrillation with intermittent right axis deviation in the presence of complete left bundle branch block. (United States)

    Patanè, Salvatore; Marte, Filippo; Di Bella, Gianluca; Chiribiri, Amedeo


    Left bundle branch block is usually associated with normal or left axis deviation. Rarely the ecg shows an LBBB with changing QRS morphology and changing axis deviation. We describe a case of atrial fibrillation with intermittent right axis deviation in the presence of complete left bundle branch block in an 84-year-old Italian woman in the Cardiology Unit.

  13. GPU acceleration of the stochastic grid bundling method for early-exercise options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Leitao Rodriguez (Álvaro); C.W. Oosterlee (Cornelis)


    htmlabstractIn this work, a parallel graphics processing units (GPU) version of the Monte Carlo stochastic grid bundling method (SGBM) for pricing multi-dimensional early-exercise options is presented. To extend the method’s applicability, the problem dimensions and the number of bundles will be

  14. Anticommons, the Coase Theorem and the problem of bundling inefficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Major


    Full Text Available The Coase theorem is most often formulated in terms of bi-lateral monopoly, for instance between a polluting factory and an affected neighbour.  Instead, we introduce multiple affected neighbours and the concept of anticommons, in which autonomous actors with separate yet necessarily complementary inputs each has the right to deny but not to permit use.  Once we posit multiple owners possessing complementary rights, strategically maximizing against each other as well as against the actor who wishes to purchase a portion of that right, the outcome is neither efficient nor invariant.  Our finding, based on non-cooperative game theory, is sustained even under the restrictive Coase assumptions regarding complete information, perfect rationality, and zero transaction costs. The implication is that suboptimal bundling agreements in cases of multiple stakeholders is not the mere product of market imperfection, but instead is a systematic result.

  15. Local Nucleation of Microtubule Bundles through Tubulin Concentration into a Condensed Tau Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amayra Hernández-Vega


    Full Text Available Non-centrosomal microtubule bundles play important roles in cellular organization and function. Although many diverse proteins are known that can bundle microtubules, biochemical mechanisms by which cells could locally control the nucleation and formation of microtubule bundles are understudied. Here, we demonstrate that the concentration of tubulin into a condensed, liquid-like compartment composed of the unstructured neuronal protein tau is sufficient to nucleate microtubule bundles. We show that, under conditions of macro-molecular crowding, tau forms liquid-like drops. Tubulin partitions into these drops, efficiently increasing tubulin concentration and driving the nucleation of microtubules. These growing microtubules form bundles, which deform the drops while remaining enclosed by diffusible tau molecules exhibiting a liquid-like behavior. Our data suggest that condensed compartments of microtubule bundling proteins could promote the local formation of microtubule bundles in neurons by acting as non-centrosomal microtubule nucleation centers and that liquid-like tau encapsulation could provide both stability and plasticity to long axonal microtubule bundles.

  16. Local Nucleation of Microtubule Bundles through Tubulin Concentration into a Condensed Tau Phase. (United States)

    Hernández-Vega, Amayra; Braun, Marcus; Scharrel, Lara; Jahnel, Marcus; Wegmann, Susanne; Hyman, Bradley T; Alberti, Simon; Diez, Stefan; Hyman, Anthony A


    Non-centrosomal microtubule bundles play important roles in cellular organization and function. Although many diverse proteins are known that can bundle microtubules, biochemical mechanisms by which cells could locally control the nucleation and formation of microtubule bundles are understudied. Here, we demonstrate that the concentration of tubulin into a condensed, liquid-like compartment composed of the unstructured neuronal protein tau is sufficient to nucleate microtubule bundles. We show that, under conditions of macro-molecular crowding, tau forms liquid-like drops. Tubulin partitions into these drops, efficiently increasing tubulin concentration and driving the nucleation of microtubules. These growing microtubules form bundles, which deform the drops while remaining enclosed by diffusible tau molecules exhibiting a liquid-like behavior. Our data suggest that condensed compartments of microtubule bundling proteins could promote the local formation of microtubule bundles in neurons by acting as non-centrosomal microtubule nucleation centers and that liquid-like tau encapsulation could provide both stability and plasticity to long axonal microtubule bundles. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Rare Manifestation of Digoxin Toxicity: Right Bundle Branch Block (United States)

    Gill, Dalvir; Zaidi, Samana


    A 76-year-old female, with medical history significant for systolic congestive heart failure, who presented to the emergency department with lethargy and abdominal pain with diarrhea for the past 3 weeks. Due to hypotension, the patient received multiple boluses of isotonic saline and was started on norepinephrine. Laboratories were significant for severe digoxin toxicity (29 ng/mL), in setting of acute kidney injury. Electrocardiogram (EKG) revealed a new right bundle branch block (RBBB). She was given Digibind and her repeat digoxin level was 20 ng/mL. Repeat EKG showed resolved RBBB. This case identifies that patients with digoxin toxicity are at risk for RBBB. This is a rare finding and is not commonly recognized. Emergency medicine physicians are often the first to encounter patients with digoxin toxicity and need to be aware of such EKG findings. PMID:28104974

  18. On the non-existence of orthogonal instanton bundles on P^{2n+1}

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łucja Farnik


    Full Text Available In this paper we prove that there do not exist orthogonal instanton bundles on P^{2n+1} . In order to demonstrate this fact, we propose a new way of representing the invariant, introduced by L. Costa and G. Ottaviani, related to a rank 2n instanton bundle on P^{2n+1}.

  19. Artaud's Journey to Mexico and His Portrayals of the Land


    Su, Tsu-Chung


    In his article "Artaud's Journey to Mexico and His Portrayals of the Land" Tsu-Chung Su examines Artaud's visions, visualizations, descriptions, and conceptualizations of Mexico. Su argues that Artaud's writings about Mexico were his textual appropriations and cartographical remappings of the land. They embodied both the geographic wandering of his itinerary and the bodily spasms of his thought. At once geographical and psycho-physiological embodiments, they were not only texts of a questing ...

  20. Single Actin Bundle Rheology. (United States)

    Strehle, Dan; Mollenkopf, Paul; Glaser, Martin; Golde, Tom; Schuldt, Carsten; Käs, Josef A; Schnauß, Jörg


    Bundled actin structures play an essential role in the mechanical response of the actin cytoskeleton in eukaryotic cells. Although responsible for crucial cellular processes, they are rarely investigated in comparison to single filaments and isotropic networks. Presenting a highly anisotropic structure, the determination of the mechanical properties of individual bundles was previously achieved through passive approaches observing bending deformations induced by thermal fluctuations. We present a new method to determine the bending stiffness of individual bundles, by measuring the decay of an actively induced oscillation. This approach allows us to systematically test anisotropic, bundled structures. Our experiments revealed that thin, depletion force-induced bundles behave as semiflexible polymers and obey the theoretical predictions determined by the wormlike chain model. Thickening an individual bundle by merging it with other bundles enabled us to study effects that are solely based on the number of involved filaments. These thicker bundles showed a frequency-dependent bending stiffness, a behavior that is inconsistent with the predictions of the wormlike chain model. We attribute this effect to internal processes and give a possible explanation with regard to the wormlike bundle theory.

  1. Single Actin Bundle Rheology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Strehle


    Full Text Available Bundled actin structures play an essential role in the mechanical response of the actin cytoskeleton in eukaryotic cells. Although responsible for crucial cellular processes, they are rarely investigated in comparison to single filaments and isotropic networks. Presenting a highly anisotropic structure, the determination of the mechanical properties of individual bundles was previously achieved through passive approaches observing bending deformations induced by thermal fluctuations. We present a new method to determine the bending stiffness of individual bundles, by measuring the decay of an actively induced oscillation. This approach allows us to systematically test anisotropic, bundled structures. Our experiments revealed that thin, depletion force-induced bundles behave as semiflexible polymers and obey the theoretical predictions determined by the wormlike chain model. Thickening an individual bundle by merging it with other bundles enabled us to study effects that are solely based on the number of involved filaments. These thicker bundles showed a frequency-dependent bending stiffness, a behavior that is inconsistent with the predictions of the wormlike chain model. We attribute this effect to internal processes and give a possible explanation with regard to the wormlike bundle theory.

  2. Hexagonally Ordered Arrays of α-Helical Bundles Formed from Peptide-Dendron Hybrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkley, Deborah A. [Department; Rokhlenko, Yekaterina [Department; Marine, Jeannette E. [Department; David, Rachelle [Department; Sahoo, Dipankar [Department; Watson, Matthew D. [Department; Koga, Tadanori [Department; Department; Osuji, Chinedum O. [Department; Rudick, Jonathan G. [Department


    Combining monodisperse building blocks that have distinct folding properties serves as a modular strategy for controlling structural complexity in hierarchically organized materials. We combine an α-helical bundle-forming peptide with self-assembling dendrons to better control the arrangement of functional groups within cylindrical nanostructures. Site-specific grafting of dendrons to amino acid residues on the exterior of the α-helical bundle yields monodisperse macromolecules with programmable folding and self-assembly properties. The resulting hybrid biomaterials form thermotropic columnar hexagonal mesophases in which the peptides adopt an α-helical conformation. Bundling of the α-helical peptides accompanies self-assembly of the peptide-dendron hybrids into cylindrical nanostructures. The bundle stoichiometry in the mesophase agrees well with the size found in solution for α-helical bundles of peptides with a similar amino acid sequence.

  3. Evidence for two populations of hair bundles in the sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis. (United States)

    Menard, Shelcie S; Watson, Glen M


    Cytochalasin D (CD) was employed to disrupt F-actin within stereocilia of anemone hair bundles. CD treatment decreases the abundance of hair bundles (by 85%) while significantly impairing predation. The remaining hair bundles are 'CD-resistant.' Surprisingly, the morphology and F-actin content of resistant hair bundles are comparable to those of untreated controls. However, the resistant hair bundles fail to respond normally to the N-acetylated sugar, NANA, by elongating. Instead, they remain at resting length. Immediately after CD treatment, when only CD-resistant hair bundles are present, nematocyst discharge is normal into targets touched to tentacles in the absence of vibrations (i.e., baseline) but fails to increase normally in the presence of nearby vibrations at 56Hz, a key frequency. After CD treatment, the abundance of hair bundles recovers to control levels within three hours. At 2h after CD treatment, when CD-resistant and CD-sensitive hair bundles are both present, but a full-recovery is not yet complete, somewhat enhanced discharge of nematocysts occurs into targets touched to tentacles in the presence of nearby vibrations at 56Hz (at least as compared to the response of CD-treated animals to contact with test probes in the absence of vibrations). Additionally, at 2h after CD-treatment, prey capture recovers to normal. Thus, two populations of hair bundles may be present on tentacles of sea anemones: those that are CD-resistant and those that are CD-sensitive. The functions of these hair bundles may be distinct. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Arthur Lourié and his conception of revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levidou Katerina


    Full Text Available Arthur Lourié’s conception of revolution (political as well as cultural is explored through his writings, with particular emphasis on its evolution from his Russian period to his Parisian and American exiles. Analyzing Lourié’s Eurasianist views specifically I argue that through his association with Eurasianism and his engagement with Neoclassicism Lourié did not abandon his revolutionary disposition; the means through which his revolutionism was pursued as well as the ideals that shaped it were merely redefined, while remaining firmly grounded in the Silver Age.

  5. Molecular mechanism of bundle formation by the bacterial actin ParM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popp, David, E-mail: [ERATO ' Actin Filament Dynamics' Project, Japan Science and Technology Corporation, c/o RIKEN Harima Institute at Spring 8, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, 61 Biopolis Drive, Proteos, 138673 Singapore (Singapore); Narita, Akihiro [ERATO ' Actin Filament Dynamics' Project, Japan Science and Technology Corporation, c/o RIKEN Harima Institute at Spring 8, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Nagoya University Graduate School of Science, Structural Biology Research Center and Division of Biological Sciences, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Iwasa, Mitsusada [ERATO ' Actin Filament Dynamics' Project, Japan Science and Technology Corporation, c/o RIKEN Harima Institute at Spring 8, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Maeda, Yuichiro [ERATO ' Actin Filament Dynamics' Project, Japan Science and Technology Corporation, c/o RIKEN Harima Institute at Spring 8, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Nagoya University Graduate School of Science, Structural Biology Research Center and Division of Biological Sciences, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Robinson, Robert C. [Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, 61 Biopolis Drive, Proteos, 138673 Singapore (Singapore)


    The actin homolog ParM plays a microtubule-like role in segregating DNA prior to bacterial cell division. Fluorescence and cryo-electron microscopy have shown that ParM forms filament bundles between separating DNA plasmids in vivo. Given the lack of ParM bundling proteins it remains unknown how ParM bundles form at the molecular level. Here we show using time-lapse TIRF microscopy, under in vitro molecular crowding conditions, that ParM-bundle formation consists of two distinct phases. At the onset of polymerization bundle thickness and shape are determined in the form of nuclei of short helically disordered filaments arranged in a liquid-like lattice. These nuclei then undergo an elongation phase whereby they rapidly increase in length. At steady state, ParM bundles fuse into one single large aggregate. This behavior had been predicted by theory but has not been observed for any other cytomotive biopolymer, including F-actin. We employed electron micrographs of ParM rafts, which are 2-D analogs of 3-D bundles, to identify the main molecular interfilament contacts within these suprastructures. The interface between filaments is similar for both parallel and anti-parallel orientations and the distribution of filament polarity is random within a bundle. We suggest that the interfilament interactions are not due to the interactions of specific residues but rather to long-range, counter ion mediated, electrostatic attractive forces. A randomly oriented bundle ensures that the assembly is rigid and that DNA may be captured with equal efficiency at both ends of the bundle via the ParR binding protein.

  6. The severe sepsis bundles as processes of care: a meta-analysis. (United States)

    Chamberlain, Diane J; Willis, Eileen M; Bersten, Andrew B


    The use of the sepsis bundles in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock has been controversial in the last decade. Clinical studies have reported beneficial, as well as negative results. We conducted a meta-analysis to assess the clinical evidence and to evaluate survival effects. Database searches (2004-current) of Medline, CINAHL, Pubmed, Cochrane, Scopus and Google scholar databases which covered full publications, abstracts from conferences and digital thesis were performed using the search terms sepsis, septic shock and/or bundles, processes of care, guidelines, early goal directed therapy, resuscitation. From 253 identified studies, 21 sepsis bundle original studies were selected and included 23,438 patients. The Resuscitation 6 hour Bundle pooled analysis (1819 patients) achieved the greatest survival benefit (odds ratio (OR) 2.124, 95% CI 1.701-2.651, p<0.000) with the Management 24 hour Bundle pooled analysis the lowest survival benefit (16,521 patients) (OR 1.646, 95% CI 1.036-2.614, p<0.035). Both bundles together (Complete Bundle) achieved a combined survival benefit (OR 1.744, 95% CI 1.421-2.141, p<0.000). ScvO2 and blood glucose components were analysed individually to assess their contribution to survival. The Resuscitation 6 hour bundle in the context of the patient population at hand is unlikely to do harm and is yet to be established in primary research in Australia. The Management 24 hour Bundle could not establish a strong enough survival benefit above current routine practice. The sepsis guidelines and bundles have demanded more credible process measurements and debate to induce positive changes in the intervention and treatment care of patients with severe sepsis. Copyright © 2011 Australian College of Critical Care Nurses Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Measurement of influence geometry of floor convector on his performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hužvár J.


    Full Text Available The report deals with experimental measurement of influence geometry bath floor convector on his performance in the thermostatic chamber in natural convection. Purpose is to find influence of slope bath of floor convector on his performance.

  8. High-energy collision-induced dissociation of histidine ions, [His+H](+) and [His-H](-) , and histidine dimer [His2 +H](). (United States)

    Khreis, Jusuf M; Reitshammer, Julia; Vizcaino, Violaine; Klawitter, Kevin; Feketeová, Linda; Denifl, Stephan


    Histidine (His) is an essential amino acid, whose side group consists of aromatic imidazole moiety that can bind a proton or metal cation and act as a donor in intermolecular interactions in many biological processes. While the dissociation of His monomer ions is well known, information on the kinetic energy released in the dissociation has been missing. Using a new home built electrospray ionization (ESI) source adapted to a double focusing mass spectrometer of BxE geometry, we investigated the fragmentation reactions of protonated and deprotonated His, [His+H](+) and [His-H](-) , and the protonated His dimer [His2 +H](+) , accelerated to 6 keV in a high-energy collision with He gas. We have evaluated the kinetic energy release (KER) for the observed dissociation channels. ESI of the His solution in positive mode led to the formation of His clusters [Hisn +H](+) , n = 1 - 6, with notably enhanced stability of the tetramer. [His+H](+) dissociates predominantly by loss of (H2 O+CO) with a KER of 278 meV, while the dominant dissociation channel of [His-H](-) involves loss of NH3 with a high KER of 769 meV. Dissociation of [His2 +H](+) is dominated by loss of the monomer but smaller losses are also observed. The KER for HCOOH loss from both [His+H](+) and [His-H](-) is similar at 278 and 249 meV, respectively, which suggest the collision-induced dissociation takes place via a similar mechanism. The loss of COOH and C2 H5 NO2 from the dimer suggests that the dimer of His binds through a shared proton between the imidazole moieties. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. A contribution to understanding the structure of amphivasal secondary bundles in monocotyledons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Jura-Morawiec


    Full Text Available Secondary growth of monocotyledonous plants is connected with the activity of the monocot cambium that accumulates most of the derivatives inner to the cambial cylinder. These derivatives differentiate into (a secondary bundles with the amphivasal arrangement, i.e. xylem composed of tracheids surrounds the phloem cells and (b the parenchymatous secondary conjunctive tissue in which the bundles are embedded. The amphivasal secondary bundles differ in the arrangement of xylem cells as visible on single cross sections through the secondary body of the monocots. Apart from the bundles with typical ring of tracheids also the bundles where tracheids do not quite surround the phloem are present. We aimed to elucidate the cross sectional anatomy of the amphivasal secondary bundles with the use of the serial sectioning method which allowed us to follow very precisely the bundle structure along its length. The studies were carried out with the samples of secondary tissues collected from the stem of Dracaena draco L. growing in the greenhouses of the Polish Academy of Sciences Botanical Garden – CBDC in Powsin and the Adam Mickiewicz University Botanical Garden. The material was fixed in a mixture of glycerol and ethanol (1:1; v/v, dehydrated stepwise with graded ethanol series and finally embedded in epon resin. Afterwards, the material was sectioned with microtome into continuous series of thin (3 μm sections, stained with PAS/toluidine blue and examined under the light microscope. The results, described in details in Jura‑Morawiec & Wiland-Szymańska (2014, revealed novel facts about tracheids arrangement. Each amphivasal bundle is composed of sectors where tracheids form a ring as well as of such where tracheids are separated by vascular parenchyma cells. We hypothesize that strands of vascular parenchyma cells locally separating the tracheids enable radial transport of assimilates from sieve elements of the bundle towards the sink tissues, e

  10. The button effect of CANFLEX bundle on the critical heat flux and critical channel power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Joo Hwan; Jun, Jisu; Suk, Ho Chun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Dimmick, G. R.; Bullock, D. E.; Inch, W. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Ontario (Canada)


    A CANFLEX (CANdu FLEXible fuelling) 43-element bundle has developed for a CANDU-6 reactor as an alternative of 37-element fuel bundle. The design has two diameter elements (11.5 and 13.5 mm) to reduce maximum element power rating and buttons to enhance the critical heat flux (CHF), compared with the standard 37-element bundle. The freon CHF experiments have performed for two series of CANFLEX bundles with and without buttons with a modelling fluid as refrigerant R-134a and axial uniform heat flux condition. Evaluating the effects of buttons of CANFLEX bundle on CHF and Critical Channel Power (CCP) with the experimental results, it is shown that the buttons enhance CCP as well as CHF. All the CHF`s for both the CANFLEX bundles are occurred at the end of fuel channel with the high dryout quality conditions. The CHF enhancement ratio are increased with increase of dryout quality for all flow conditions and also with increase of mass flux only for high pressure conditions. It indicates that the button is a useful design for CANDU operating condition because most CHF flow conditions for CANDU fuel bundle are ranged to high dryout quality conditions. 5 refs., 11 figs. (Author)

  11. Cytoskeletal bundle mechanics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bathe, Mark; Heussinger, Claus; Claessens, Mireille Maria Anna Elisabeth; Bausch, Andreas R.; Frey, Erwin


    The mechanical properties of cytoskeletal actin bundles play an essential role in numerous physiological processes, including hearing, fertilization, cell migration, and growth. Cells employ a multitude of actin-binding proteins to actively regulate bundle dimensions and cross-linking properties to

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging of double-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poellinger, Alexander; Hamm, Bernd; Asbach, Patrick [Charite, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Scheffler, Sven [Charite, Department for Orthopaedic Surgery and Traumatology, Center for Musculoskeletal Surgery, Berlin (Germany)


    Reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) using the double-bundle technique is getting highly increasing attention. This surgical approach uses two separate tendon grafts with the intention to reconstruct both anatomic bundles in order to restore the full biomechanical function of the original ligament. With the increasing popularity of this technique, radiologists will be more frequently confronted with patients who underwent this surgical procedure. The aims of this essay are to briefly describe the basic biomechanical and surgical principles and to summarize the magnetic resonance imaging findings of the knee after double-bundle ACL reconstruction. (orig.)

  13. Adsorption behavior of ternary mixtures of noble gases inside single-walled carbon nanotube bundles (United States)

    Foroutan, Masumeh; Nasrabadi, Amir Taghavi


    In order to study the gas-storage and gas-filtering capability of carbon nanotube (CNT) bundles simultaneously, we considered the adsorption behavior of a ternary mixture of noble gases, including Argon (Ar), Krypton (Kr), and Xenon (Xe), i.e., Ar-Kr-Xe mixture, on (10, 10) single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) bundles. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations at different temperatures of (75, 100, 150, 200, 250, and 300) K were performed, and adsorption energies, self-diffusion coefficients, activation energies, and radial distribution functions (RDFs) were computed to analyze the thermodynamics, transport and structural properties of the adsorption systems. It is observed that the SWCNT bundles have larger contents of heavier noble gases compared to the lighter ones. This interesting behavior of SWCNT bundles makes them proper candidates for gas-storage and gas molecular-sieving processes.

  14. Structural Studies of Amphiphilic 4-Helix Bundle Peptides Incorporating Designed Extended Chromophores for Nonlinear Optical Biomolecular Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strzalka,J.; Xu, T.; Tronin, A.; Wu, S.; Miloradovic, I.; Kuzmenko, I.; Gog, T.; Therien, M.; Blasie, K.


    Extended conjugated chromophores containing (porphinato)zinc components that exhibit large optical polarizabilities and hyperpolarizabiliites are incorporated into amphiphilic 4-helix bundle peptides via specific axial histidyl ligation of the metal. The bundle's designed amphiphilicity enables vectorial orientation of the chromophore/peptide complex in macroscopic monolayer ensembles. The 4-helix bundle structure is maintained upon incorporation of two different chromophores at stoichiometries of 1-2 per bundle. The axial ligation site appears to effectively control the position of the chromophore along the length of the bundle.

  15. Application and Performance Analysis of a New Bundle Adjustment Model (United States)

    Sun, Y.; Liu, X.; Chen, R.; Wan, J.; Wang, Q.; Wang, H.; Li, Y.; Yan, L.


    As the basis for photogrammetry, Bundle Adjustment (BA) can restore the pose of cameras accurately, reconstruct the 3D models of environment, and serve as the criterion of digital production. For the classical nonlinear optimization of BA model based on the Euclidean coordinate, it suffers the problem of being seriously dependent on the initial values, making it unable to converge fast or converge to a global minimum. This paper first introduces a new BA model based on parallax angle feature parametrization, and then analyses the applications and performance of the model used in photogrammetry field. To discuss the impact and the performance of the model (especially in aerial photogrammetry), experiments using two aerial datasets under different initial values were conducted. The experiment results are better than some well-known software packages of BA, and the simulation results illustrate the stability of the new model than the normal BA under the Euclidean coordinate. In all, the new BA model shows promising applications in faster and more efficient aerial photogrammetry with good convergence and fast convergence speed.

  16. Myosin III-mediated cross-linking and stimulation of actin bundling activity of Espin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liu, Haiyang; Li, Jianchao; Raval, Manmeet H; Yao, Ningning; Deng, Xiaoying; Lu, Qing; Nie, Si; Feng, Wei; Wan, Jun; Yengo, Christopher M; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Mingjie


    Class III myosins (Myo3) and actin-bundling protein Espin play critical roles in regulating the development and maintenance of stereocilia in vertebrate hair cells, and their defects cause hereditary hearing impairments...

  17. Group systems, groupoids, and moduli spaces of parabolic bundles

    CERN Document Server

    Guruprasad, K; Jeffrey, L; Weinstein, A


    Let $G$ be a Lie group, with an invariant non-degenerate symmetric bilinear form on its Lie algebra, let $\\pi$ be the fundamental group of an orientable (real) surface $M$ with a finite number of punctures, and let $\\bold C$ be a family of conjugacy classes in $G$, one for each puncture. A finite-dimensional construction used earlier to obtain a symplectic structure on the moduli space of flat $G$-bundles over compact $M$ is extended to the punctured case. It yields a symplectic structure on a certain smooth manifold $\\Cal M_{\\bold C}$ containing the space $\\roman{Hom}(\\pi,G)_{\\bold C}$ of homomorphisms mapping the generators corresponding to the punctures into the corresponding conjugacy classes. It also yields a Hamiltonian $G$-action on $\\Cal M_{\\bold C}$ such that the reduced space equals the moduli space $\\roman{Rep}(\\pi,G)_{\\bold C}$ of representations. For $G$ compact, each such space, obtained by finite-dimensional symplectic reduction, is a {\\it stratified symplectic space\\/}. For $G=U(n)$ one gets m...

  18. Plasticity in bundle sheath extensions of heterobaric leaves. (United States)

    Lynch, Douglas J; McInerney, Francesca A; Kouwenberg, Lenny L R; Gonzalez-Meler, Miquel A


    Leaf venation is linked to physiological performance, playing a critical role in ecosystem function. Despite the importance of leaf venation, associated bundle sheath extensions (BSEs) remain largely unstudied. Here, we quantify plasticity in the spacing of BSEs over irradiance and precipitation gradients. Because physiological function(s) of BSEs remain uncertain, we additionally explored a link between BSEs and water use efficiency (WUE). We sampled leaves of heterobaric trees along intracrown irradiance gradients in natural environments and growth chambers and correlated BSE spacing to incident irradiance. Additionally, we sampled leaves along a precipitation gradient and correlated BSE spacing to precipitation and bulk δ(13)C, a proxy for intrinsic WUE. BSE spacing was quantified using a novel semiautomatic method on fresh leaf tissue. With increased irradiance or decreased precipitation, Liquidambar styraciflua decreased BSE spacing, while Acer saccharum showed little variation in BSE spacing. Two additional species, Quercus robur and Platanus occidentalis, decreased BSE spacing with increased irradiance in growth chambers. BSE spacing correlated with bulk δ(13)C, a proxy for WUE in L. styraciflua, Q. robur, and P. occidentalis leaves but not in leaves of A. saccharum. We demonstrated that BSE spacing is plastic with respect to irradiance or precipitation and independent from veins, indicating BSE involvement in leaf adaptation to a microenvironment. Plasticity in BSE spacing was correlated with WUE only in some species, not supporting a function in water relations. We discuss a possible link between BSE plasticity and life history, particularly canopy position.

  19. An Exploration of Human Well-Being Bundles as Identifiers of Ecosystem Service Use Patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maike Hamann

    Full Text Available We take a social-ecological systems perspective to investigate the linkages between ecosystem services and human well-being in South Africa. A recent paper identified different types of social-ecological systems in the country, based on distinct bundles of ecosystem service use. These system types were found to represent increasingly weak direct feedbacks between nature and people, from rural "green-loop" communities to urban "red-loop" societies. Here we construct human well-being bundles and explore whether the well-being bundles can be used to identify the same social-ecological system types that were identified using bundles of ecosystem service use. Based on national census data, we found three distinct well-being bundle types that are mainly characterized by differences in income, unemployment and property ownership. The distribution of these well-being bundles approximates the distribution of ecosystem service use bundles to a substantial degree: High levels of income and education generally coincided with areas characterised by low levels of direct ecosystem service use (or red-loop systems, while the majority of low well-being areas coincided with medium and high levels of direct ecosystem service use (or transition and green-loop systems. However, our results indicate that transformations from green-loop to red-loop systems do not always entail an immediate improvement in well-being, which we suggest may be due to a time lag between changes in the different system components. Using human well-being bundles as an indicator of social-ecological dynamics may be useful in other contexts since it is based on socio-economic data commonly collected by governments, and provides important insights into the connections between ecosystem services and human well-being at policy-relevant sub-national scales.

  20. Properties of the microcirculation in capillary bundles of rat spinotrapezius muscle fascia (United States)

    Jacobitz, Frank; Engebrecht, Cheryn; Metzger, Ian; Porterfield, Colin


    Properties of the microcirculation in capillary bundles of rat spinotrapezius muscle fascia are investigated using microscope observations, empirical modeling, and numerical simulations. Capillary bundles consist of a network of feeding arterioles, draining venules, and capillary vessels. A dozen samples of muscle fascia tissue were prepared for microscope observation. The chosen method of preparation allows for the long-term preservation of the tissue samples for future studies. Capillary bundles are photographed under a microscope with 40x magnification. From the images, the microvasculature of the tissue samples is reconstructed. It was found, for example, that the distribution of vessel length in a capillary bundle follows a log-normal law. In addition to a statistical analysis of the vessel data, the network topology is used for numerical simulations of the flow in the capillary bundles. The numerical approach uses a sparse-matrix solver and it considers vessel elasticity and blood rheology. The numerical simulations show, for example, a strong pressure drop across the capillary vessels of the bundle.

  1. Bundle pricing with comparable items

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grigoriev, Alexander; van Loon, Joyce; Sviridenko, Maxim; Uetz, Marc Jochen; Vredeveld, Tjark; Arge, L.; Hoffmann, M.; Welzl, E.


    We consider a revenue maximization problem where we are selling a set of items, each available in a certain quantity, to a set of bidders. Each bidder is interested in one or several bundles of items. We assume the bidders’ valuations for each of these bundles to be known. Whenever bundle prices are

  2. The design of self-collapsed super-strong nanotube bundles (United States)

    Pugno, Nicola Maria


    The study reported in this paper suggests that the influence of the surrounding nanotubes in a bundle is nearly identical to that of a liquid having surface tension equal to the surface energy of the nanotubes. This surprising behaviour is supported by the calculation of the polygonization and especially of the self-collapse diameters, and related dog-bone configurations, of nanotubes in a bundle, in agreement with atomistic simulations and nanoscale experiments. Accordingly, we have evaluated the strength of the nanotube bundle, with or without collapsed nanotubes, assuming a sliding failure: the self-collapse can increase the strength up to a value of about ˜30%, suggesting the design of self-collapsed super-strong nanotube bundles. Other systems, such as peapods and fullerites, can be similarly treated, including the effect of the presence of a liquid, as reported in the appendices.

  3. [Right Bundle Branch Block, Left Bundle Branch Block, Pace Maker in Case of Acute Coronary Syndrome - is the ECG of any Value? (United States)

    Grautoff, Steffen


    The 12 lead ECG is difficult to evaluate if there is a persistent right or even left bundle block or a pace maker continually stimulating the right ventricle. Despite these pre-existing or new ECG changes it might still be possible to detect variations which can hint to an ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Diagnosing significant ST elevations in a case of right bundle block is not very challenging. If the ECG shows a left bundle block the modified Sgarbossa criteria should be used for evaluation. These criteria can also be used in a pace maker ECG. If a patient is not pacemaker-dependent the stimulation can be paused transiently to reveal changes of the ST segment. At first medical contact it can be very important to assess these changes correctly in order to classify the ECG as a STEMI. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Napoleon: His Interest in Books and the Libraries of France. (United States)

    Montgomery, Dorothy R.

    Napoleon Bonaparte had both a personal and national interest in books, and he exerted a tremendous influence on the country's libraries during his 16 years as leader of France. In addition to collecting books for his personal libraries (including a traveling library that he took with him on his campaigns), he instituted an accelerated program for…

  5. The Intermediate Jacobian of a Three-Dimensional Conic Bundle is a Prym Variety (United States)

    Èndryushka, S. Yu


    The paper contains the computation of the intermediate Jacobian of the general conic bundle. This computation is performed in three steps: a) computation of the Betti number (§2), b) computation of the Jacobian to within isogeny (§4), and c) computation of the polarization (§4).The author's results conclude the study of the intermediate Jacobian of conic bundles and give an efficient general answer.Bibliography: 6 titles.

  6. Description of the attachment geometry of the anteromedial and posterolateral bundles of the ACL from arthroscopic perspective for anatomical tunnel placement.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luites, J.W.H.; Wymenga, A.B.; Blankevoort, L.; Kooloos, J.G.M.


    The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) consists of an anteromedial bundle (AMB) and a posterolateral bundle (PLB). A reconstruction restoring the functional two-bundled nature should be able to approximate normal ACL function better than the most commonly used single-bundle reconstructions. Accurate

  7. Description of the attachment geometry of the anteromedial and posterolateral bundles of the ACL from arthroscopic perspective for anatomical tunnel placement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luites, Joan W. H.; Wymenga, Ate B.; Blankevoort, Leendert; Kooloos, Jan G. M.


    The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) consists of an anteromedial bundle (AMB) and a posterolateral bundle (PLB). A reconstruction restoring the functional two-bundled nature should be able to approximate normal ACL function better than the most commonly used single-bundle reconstructions. Accurate

  8. GPS-supported Bundle Adjustment Method of UAV by Considering Exposure Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Chunsen


    Full Text Available The existing GPS-supported bundle adjustment method does not take into account the influence of camera exposure delay error impact in UAV photogrammetry is inconsistent which leading to the actual adjustment results are worse than the theoretical results. The mechanism of exposure delay is studied. The impact of exposure delay on GPS-supported bundle adjustment is analyzed. And a GPS-supported bundle adjustment method by considering the exposure delay is proposed. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by a typical dataset of 142 images. The meaning of the proposed method is that it can achieve the better aero-triangulation accuracy than the traditional GPS-supported bundle adjustment method.

  9. Bundling ecosystem services in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turner, Katrine Grace; Odgaard, Mette Vestergaard; Bøcher, Peder Klith


    to form synergies. We identified six distinct ecosystem service bundle types, indicating multiple interactions at a landscape level. The bundle types showed specialized areas of agricultural production, high provision of cultural services at the coasts, multifunctional mixed-use bundle types around urban...

  10. Energy Band Gap Study of Semiconducting Single Walled Carbon Nanotube Bundle (United States)

    Elkadi, Asmaa; Decrossas, Emmanuel; El-Ghazaly, Samir


    The electronic properties of multiple semiconducting single walled carbon nanotubes (s-SWCNTs) considering various distribution inside a bundle are studied. The model derived from the proposed analytical potential function of electron density for na individual s-SWCNT is general and can be easily applied to multiple nanotubes. This work demonstrates that regardless the number of carbon nanotubes, the strong coupling occurring between the closet neighbors reduces the energy band gap of the bundle by 10%. As expected, the coupling is strongly dependent on the distance separating the s-SWCNTs. In addition, based on the developed model, it is proposed to enhance this coupling effect by applying an electric field across the bundle to significantly reduce the energy band gap of the bundle by 20%.

  11. Impact of VAP bundle adherence among ventilated critically ill patients and its effectiveness in adult ICU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad Rabie Samra


    Conclusion: The application of VAP bundle is a feasible reality that produces improvement in microbiological measures and nosocomal infection rates resulting in lowering mortality, shortened lengths of hospitalization and decreased medical care costs. However, education and periodic training remain a fundamental process of improving health services. VAPs were reduced by improving bundle compliance and ensuring the same standard of care to all ICU patients. Direct, on-site observation was a more accurate method of monitoring.

  12. On the Quality and Efficiency of Approximate Solutions to Bundle Adjustment with Epipolar and Trifocal Constraints (United States)

    Schneider, J.; Stachniss, C.; Förstner, W.


    Bundle adjustment is a central part of most visual SLAM and Structure from Motion systems and thus a relevant component of UAVs equipped with cameras. This paper makes two contributions to bundle adjustment. First, we present a novel approach which exploits trifocal constraints, i.e., constraints resulting from corresponding points observed in three camera images, which allows to estimate the camera pose parameters without 3D point estimation. Second, we analyze the quality loss compared to the optimal bundle adjustment solution when applying different types of approximations to the constrained optimization problem to increase efficiency. We implemented and thoroughly evaluated our approach using a UAV performing mapping tasks in outdoor environments. Our results indicate that the complexity of the constraint bundle adjustment can be decreased without loosing too much accuracy.

  13. The Effects of Resource Bundling on Third-party Logistics Providers’ Performance


    Noorliza Karia; Chee Yew Wong; Muhammad Hasmi Abu Hassan Asaari; Kee-hung Lai


    This research develops and tests a model of the effects of resources bundling on third-party logistics (3PL) providers’ performance. Based on data from a survey of Malaysian 3PLs, basic and advanced technology and equipment resources, knowledge and relational resources, and demand management interfaces are identified. The bundling of advanced technology, knowledge resources, and demand management interface capability are found to enhance 3PLs’ customer service innovation. Similar resource ...

  14. Deconstructing the infection control bundles for the containment of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae. (United States)

    Munoz-Price, L Silvia; Quinn, John P


    Rates of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), especially Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing Gram-negatives, have increased worldwide. Infections caused by these organisms have been associated with a high mortality, which might be due in part to the limited availability of antibiotic options. Therefore, prevention of acquisition of these organisms is essential. This review summarizes published infection control interventions (bundles) that have been implemented for the control of outbreaks caused by KPC-producing organisms. A total of 15 bundles of interventions aimed at controlling CRE outbreaks are presented. The interventions included combinations of increased compliance with hand hygiene and contact precautions, environmental cleaning, early identification of asymptomatic carriers, and physical separation of CRE-positive patients and their staff. Three bundles had staggered implementation of interventions with their later phase involving a combination of rectal surveillance cultures for identification of asymptomatic CRE carriers, cohorting of CRE-positive patients, and cohorting of the staff caring for CRE carriers. All three staggered bundles successfully decreased their CRE acquisition rates after implementation of their later phases. Bundles combine multiple interventions targeting different levels of the transmission pathways and most include increased hand hygiene and contact precautions. However, bundles implemented in phases would seem to indicate that active surveillance cultures and the subsequent cohorting of patients and staff based on these results might be particularly beneficial for controlling horizontal transmission.

  15. Time evolution of damage due to environmentally assisted aging in a fiber bundle model


    Lennartz-Sassinek, Sabine; Main, Ian G.; Danku Zsuzsa (1984-) (fizikus); Kun Ferenc (1966-) (fizikus)


    Damage growth in composite materials is a complex process which is of interest in many fields of science and engineering. We consider this problem in a fiber bundle model where fibers undergo an aging process due to the accumulation of damage driven by the locally acting stress in a chemically active environment. By subjecting the bundle to a constant external load, fibers fail either when the load on them exceeds their individual intrinsic strength or when the accumulated internal damage exc...

  16. 10D massive type IIA supergravities as the uplift of parabolic M2-brane torus bundles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia del Moral, Maria Pilar [Universidad de Antofagasta (Chile). Dept. de Fisica; Restuccia, Alvaro [Universidad de Antofagasta (Chile). Dept. de Fisica; Universidad Simon Bolivar, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of). Dept. de Fisica


    We remark that the two 10D massive deformations of the N = 2 maximal type IIA supergravity (Romans and HLW supergravity) are associated to the low energy limit of the uplift to 10D of M2-brane torus bundles with parabolic monodromy linearly and non-linearly realized respectively. Romans supergravity corresponds to M2-brane compactified on a twice-punctured torus bundle. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  17. Cadherin-23 may be dynamic in hair bundles of the model sea anemone Nematostella vectensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Ciao Tang

    Full Text Available Cadherin 23 (CDH23, a component of tip links in hair cells of vertebrate animals, is essential to mechanotransduction by hair cells in the inner ear. A homolog of CDH23 occurs in hair bundles of sea anemones. Anemone hair bundles are located on the tentacles where they detect the swimming movements of nearby prey. The anemone CDH23 is predicted to be a large polypeptide featuring a short exoplasmic C-terminal domain that is unique to sea anemones. Experimentally masking this domain with antibodies or mimicking this domain with free peptide rapidly disrupts mechanotransduction and morphology of anemone hair bundles. The loss of normal morphology is accompanied, or followed by a decrease in F-actin in stereocilia of the hair bundles. These effects were observed at very low concentrations of the reagents, 0.1-10 nM, and within minutes of exposure. The results presented herein suggest that: (1 the interaction between CDH23 and molecular partners on stereocilia of hair bundles is dynamic and; (2 the interaction is crucial for normal mechanotransduction and morphology of hair bundles.

  18. Cadherin-23 may be dynamic in hair bundles of the model sea anemone Nematostella vectensis. (United States)

    Tang, Pei-Ciao; Watson, Glen M


    Cadherin 23 (CDH23), a component of tip links in hair cells of vertebrate animals, is essential to mechanotransduction by hair cells in the inner ear. A homolog of CDH23 occurs in hair bundles of sea anemones. Anemone hair bundles are located on the tentacles where they detect the swimming movements of nearby prey. The anemone CDH23 is predicted to be a large polypeptide featuring a short exoplasmic C-terminal domain that is unique to sea anemones. Experimentally masking this domain with antibodies or mimicking this domain with free peptide rapidly disrupts mechanotransduction and morphology of anemone hair bundles. The loss of normal morphology is accompanied, or followed by a decrease in F-actin in stereocilia of the hair bundles. These effects were observed at very low concentrations of the reagents, 0.1-10 nM, and within minutes of exposure. The results presented herein suggest that: (1) the interaction between CDH23 and molecular partners on stereocilia of hair bundles is dynamic and; (2) the interaction is crucial for normal mechanotransduction and morphology of hair bundles.

  19. Experimental observation of spatially resolved photo-luminescence intensity distribution in dual mode upconverting nanorod bundles (United States)

    Kumar, Pawan; Singh, Satbir; Singh, V. N.; Singh, Nidhi; Gupta, R. K.; Gupta, Bipin Kumar


    A novel method for demonstration of photoluminescence intensity distribution in upconverting nanorod bundles using confocal microscopy is reported. Herein, a strategy for the synthesis of highly luminescent dual mode upconverting/downshift Y1.94O3:Ho3+0.02/Yb3+0.04 nanorod bundles by a facile hydrothermal route has been introduced. These luminescent nanorod bundles exhibit strong green emission at 549 nm upon excitations at 449 nm and 980 nm with quantum efficiencies of ~6.3% and ~1.1%, respectively. The TEM/HRTEM results confirm that these bundles are composed of several individual nanorods with diameter of ~100 nm and length in the range of 1-3 μm. Furthermore, two dimensional spatially resolved photoluminescence intensity distribution study has been carried out using confocal photoluminescence microscope throughout the nanorod bundles. This study provides a new direction for the potential use of such emerging dual mode nanorod bundles as photon sources for next generation flat panel optical display devices, bio-medical applications, luminescent security ink and enhanced energy harvesting in photovoltaic applications.

  20. Bundled payments for care improvement initiative: the next evolution of payment formulations: AAHKS Bundled Payment Task Force. (United States)

    Froimson, Mark I; Rana, Adam; White, Richard E; Marshall, Amanda; Schutzer, Steve F; Healy, William L; Naas, Peggy; Daubert, Gail; Iorio, Richard; Parsley, Brian


    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act contains a number of provision for improving the delivery of healthcare in the United States, among the most impactful of which may be the call for modifications in the packaging of and payment for care that is bundled into episodes. The move away from fee for service payment models to payment for coordinated care delivered as comprehensive episodes is heralded as having great potential to enhance quality and reduce cost, thereby increasing the value of the care delivered. This effort builds on the prior experience around delivering care for arthroplasty under the Acute Care Episode Project and offers extensions and opportunities to modify the experience moving forward. Total hip and knee arthroplasties are viewed as ideal treatments to test the effectiveness of this payment model. Providers must learn the nuances of these modified care delivery concepts and evaluate whether their environment is conducive to success in this arena. This fundamental shift in payment for care offers both considerable risk and tremendous opportunity for physicians. Acquiring an understanding of the recent experience and the determinants of future success will best position orthopaedic surgeons to thrive in this new environment. Although this will remain a dynamic exercise for some time, early experience may enhance the chances for long term success, and physicians can rightfully lead the care delivery redesign process. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Cardiac memory during rather than after termination of left bundle branch block. (United States)

    Littmann, Laszlo; Proctor, Patrick A; Givens, Priscilla M


    An 83-year-old woman with chronic left bundle branch block and remote history of pacemaker implantation for intermittent AV block was hospitalized for fatigue and leg swelling. She had no cardiac complaints. Routine 12-lead electrocardiogram showed sinus rhythm with left bundle branch block. There were diffuse negative T waves in the inferior and anterolateral leads that were concordant with the QRS complexes. Echocardiogram was normal and nuclear perfusion heart scan showed no abnormality. It was noted that the negative T waves during left bundle branch block were in the exact same leads as were the deep negative QRS complexes during ventricular pacing. The electrocardiographic changes were consistent with cardiac memory. This case is unique because cardiac memory in patients with intermittent left bundle branch block typically occurs when the QRS complexes normalize and not during left bundle branch block itself. Our findings indicate that memory Ts can develop not only after normalization of wide complex rhythms but also with alternating wide complex rhythms as in the presented case where a ventricular paced rhythm was replaced by left bundle branch block. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Fabrication of a CANFLEX-RU designed bundle for power ramp irradiation test in NRU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Moon Sung


    The BDL-443 CANFLEX-RU bundle AKW was fabricated at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) for power ramp irradiation testing in NRU reactor. The bundle was fabricated with IDR and ADU fuel pellets in adjacent elements and contains fuel pellets enriched to 1.65 wt% {sup 235}U in the outer and intermediate rings and also contains pellets enriched to 2.00 wt% {sup 235}U in the inner ring. This bundle does not have a center element to allow for insertion on a hanger bar. KAERI produced the IDR pellets with the IDR-source UO{sub 2} powder supplied by BNFL. ADU pellets were fabricated and supplied by AECL. Bundle kits (Zircaloy-4 end plates, end plugs, and sheaths with brazed appendages) manufactured at KAERI earlier in 1996 were used for the fabrication of the bundle. The CANFLEX bundle was fabricated successfully at KAERI according to the QA provisions specified in references and as per relevant KAERI drawings and technical specification. This report covers the fabrication activities performed at KAERI. Fabrication processes performed at AECL will be documented in a separate report.

  3. The ABCDEF Implementation Bundle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annachiara Marra


    Full Text Available Long-term morbidity, long-term cognitive impairment and hospitalization-associated disability are common occurrence in the survivors of critical illness, with significant consequences for patients and for the caregivers. The ABCDEF bundle represents an evidence-based guide for clinicians to approach the organizational changes needed for optimizing ICU patient recovery and outcomes. The ABCDEF bundle includes: Assess, Prevent, and Manage Pain, Both Spontaneous Awakening Trials (SAT and Spontaneous Breathing Trials (SBT, Choice of analgesia and sedation, Delirium: Assess, Prevent, and Manage, Early mobility and Exercise, and Family engagement. The purpose of this review is to describe the core features of the ABCDEF bundle.

  4. Reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament : a clinical comparison of bone-patellar tendon-bone single bundle versus semitendinosus and gracilis double bundle technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sadoghi, Patrick; Mueller, Peter E.; Jansson, Volkmar; van Griensven, Martin; Kroepfl, Albert; Fischmeister, Martin F.

    The study hypothesis was that the outcome of semitendinosus gracilis double bundle (STG-DB) anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is advantageous in terms of clinical results and restoration of anterior-posterior and rotational laxity in comparison to bone-patellar tendon-bone

  5. A note on the tangent bundle of G/P

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Introduction. Let G be a simple linear algebraic group defined over C. Fix a proper parabolic subgroup. G/P. In [1], a Kähler–Einstein metric on G/P was constructed. This implies that the tangent bundle T (G/P ) is polystable (the definition is recalled below). We show that. T (G/P ) is stable. Since T (G/P ) is polystable, ...

  6. Design and impact of bundled payment for detox and follow-up care. (United States)

    Quinn, Amity E; Hodgkin, Dominic; Perloff, Jennifer N; Stewart, Maureen T; Brolin, Mary; Lane, Nancy; Horgan, Constance M


    Recent payment reforms promote movement from fee-for-service to alternative payment models that shift financial risk from payers to providers, incentivizing providers to manage patients' utilization. Bundled payment, an episode-based fixed payment that includes the prices of a group of services that would typically treat an episode of care, is expanding in the United States. Bundled payment has been recommended as a way to pay for comprehensive SUD treatment and has the potential to improve treatment engagement after detox, which could reduce detox readmissions, improve health outcomes, and reduce medical care costs. However, if moving to bundled payment creates large losses for some providers, it may not be sustainable. The objective of this study was to design the first bundled payment for detox and follow-up care and to estimate its impact on provider revenues. Massachusetts Medicaid beneficiaries' behavioral health, medical, and pharmacy claims from July 2010-April 2013 were used to build and test a detox bundled payment for continuously enrolled adults (N=5521). A risk adjustment model was developed using general linear modeling to predict beneficiaries' episode costs. The projected payments to each provider from the risk adjustment analysis were compared to the observed baseline costs to determine the potential impact of a detox bundled payment reform on organizational revenues. This was modeled in two ways: first assuming no change in behavior and then assuming a supply-side cost sharing behavioral response of a 10% reduction in detox readmissions and an increase of one individual counseling and one group counseling session. The mean total 90-day detox episode cost was $3743. Nearly 70% of the total mean cost consists of the index detox, psychiatric inpatient care, and short-term residential care. Risk mitigation, including risk adjustment, substantially reduced the variation of the mean episode cost. There are opportunities for organizations to gain revenue


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Еprintsev А.Т.


    Full Text Available Salt-induced changes in malatdehydrogenase system activity make the essential contribution to cell adaptation to stress condition. The enzyme systems of C4-plants are most interesting due to their ability for adaptation to environment conditions. The role of separate components of malatdehydrogenase complex of mesophyll and bundle sheath cells of corn in formation of adaptive reaction in stressful conditions is investigated in presented work.The activation of all enzymes of malatdehydrogenase system and the subsequent decrease in their activity was observed in mesophyll durring the first stage of adaptation to salt influence. In bundle sheath cells such parameters are differed from control less essentially. Fast accumulation of piruvate in cells and malate in both investigated tissues was induced. The further salinity led to falling of concentration this intermediate. The concentration of piruvate was below control level, and it was raised by the end of an exposition.The results show that sodium chloride causes induction of Krebs-cycle in mesophyll and bundle sheath cells of corn and intensification of Hatch-Slack cycle. The described differences in function malatdehydrogenase systems of mesophyll and bundle sheath cells of leaves of corn under salinity mainly consist of the activity of enzymes of a studied complex in bundle sheath cells is subject to the minimal changes in comparison with mesophyll. Role of this enzymesystem in mechanisms of adaptive reaction of various tissues of corn to salt stress is discussed.

  8. Design of automatic labeling system on the end surfaces of bundles of round steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuxiang ZHANG


    Full Text Available To achieve automatic labeling on the end surfaces of bundles of round steels for the steel plants, on the basis of the analysis of round steel production process, a set of automatic system for labeling on the round steel end surfaces of bundles is designed. The system includes the robot visual location unit, the label supply unit, the pressure supply unit, the automatic labeling unit, the laser ranging unit, and the host computer communication control unit, etc.. In the system, the robot visual location unit provides the round steel center location, and the automatic labeling unit implements automatic labeling on the round steel. The system is tested under lab condition, which shows the system can effectively solve the artificial labeling problems such as fault paste and leakage paste of workers, and realize efficient and stable automatic labeling. The system can be used in sleel plants for automatic labeling on the end surfaces of bundles of round steels.

  9. Differences in the microstructural properties of the anteromedial and posterolateral bundles of the anterior cruciate ligament. (United States)

    Skelley, Nathan W; Castile, Ryan M; York, Timothy E; Gruev, Viktor; Lake, Spencer P; Brophy, Robert H


    Tissue properties of the anteromedial (AM) and posterolateral (PL) bundles of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) have not been previously characterized with real-time dynamic testing. The current study used a novel polarized light technique to measure the material and microstructural properties of the ACL. The AM and PL bundles of the ACL have similar material and microstructural properties. Controlled laboratory study. The AM and PL bundles were isolated from 16 human cadaveric ACLs (11 male, 5 female; average age, 41 years [range, 24-53 years]). Three samples from each bundle were loaded in uniaxial tension, and a custom-built polarized light imaging camera was used to quantify collagen fiber alignment in real time. A bilinear curve fit was applied to the stress-strain data of a quasistatic ramp-to-failure to quantify the moduli in the toe and linear regions. Fiber alignment was quantified at zero strain, the transition point of the bilinear fit, and in the linear portion of the stress-strain curve by computing the degree of linear polarization (DoLP) and angle of polarization (AoP), which are measures of the strength and direction of collagen alignment, respectively. Data were compared using t tests. The AM bundle exhibited significantly larger toe-region (AM 7.2 MPa vs. PL 4.2 MPa; P ligament microstructure can be used to assess graft options for ACL reconstruction and optimize surgical reconstruction techniques. © 2015 The Author(s).

  10. Measurement of the thermal diffusivity of a silica fiber bundle using a laser and an IR camera


    Vignoles, Gérard; BRESSON, Grégory; Lorrette, Christophe; AHMADI-SENICHAULT, Azita


    International audience; We propose a lightweight method for the determination of heat diffusivity of silica fiber bundles based on the use of a laser and an IR camera. The fiber bundle is maintained in traction in a holder; exposition is made as a step function, followed by a laser shutdown. The movie obtained by the IR camera is then processed : frame averaging, backgraound computation and substraction, image smoothing, extraction of the IR signal along the fiber bundle. A 1D model has been ...

  11. Kepler's Use of Archetypes in his defence against Aristotelian Scepticism (United States)

    Martens, Rhonda M.

    In 1621, looking back over an impresive career, Johannes Kepler commented that "almost every book on astronomy which I have published since that time could be referred to one or another of the important chapters set out in this little book (the Mysterium Cosmographicum) and would contain either an illustration or a completion of it". Kepler viewed the Mysterium, his first book, as the genesis of hist later works; Here the author is focusing on the conceptual foundations it provided for his approach to physical astronomy and the Aristotelian dominant during his time. It turns out that despite Kepler's arowedly Platonic and Pythagorean sympathies, his physical astronomy comports with Aristotle's directives in the Posterior Analytics. Perhaps paradoxically, his arhetypal cosmology as expressed in the Mysterium enabled the merging Platonic and Aristotelian intuitions in his construction of the new astronomy.

  12. Effect of the Maximum Dose on White Matter Fiber Bundles Using Longitudinal Diffusion Tensor Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Tong; Chapman, Christopher H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Tsien, Christina [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University at St Louis, St Louis, Missouri (United States); Kim, Michelle; Spratt, Daniel E.; Lawrence, Theodore S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Cao, Yue, E-mail: [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)


    Purpose: Previous efforts to decrease neurocognitive effects of radiation focused on sparing isolated cortical structures. We hypothesize that understanding temporal, spatial, and dosimetric patterns of radiation damage to whole-brain white matter (WM) after partial-brain irradiation might also be important. Therefore, we carried out a study to develop the methodology to assess radiation therapy (RT)–induced damage to whole-brain WM bundles. Methods and Materials: An atlas-based, automated WM tractography analysis was implemented to quantify longitudinal changes in indices of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of 22 major WM fibers in 33 patients with predominantly low-grade or benign brain tumors treated by RT. Six DTI scans per patient were performed from before RT to 18 months after RT. The DTI indices and planned doses (maximum and mean doses) were mapped onto profiles of each of 22 WM bundles. A multivariate linear regression was performed to determine the main dose effect as well as the influence of other clinical factors on longitudinal percentage changes in axial diffusivity (AD) and radial diffusivity (RD) from before RT. Results: Among 22 fiber bundles, AD or RD changes in 12 bundles were affected significantly by doses (P<.05), as the effect was progressive over time. In 9 elongated tracts, decreased AD or RD was significantly related to maximum doses received, consistent with a serial structure. In individual bundles, AD changes were up to 11.5% at the maximum dose locations 18 months after RT. The dose effect on WM was greater in older female patients than younger male patients. Conclusions: Our study demonstrates for the first time that the maximum dose to the elongated WM bundles causes post-RT damage in WM. Validation and correlative studies are necessary to determine the ability and impact of sparing these bundles on preserving neurocognitive function after RT.

  13. LL-37 induces polymerization and bundling of actin and affects actin structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asaf Sol

    Full Text Available Actin exists as a monomer (G-actin which can be polymerized to filaments F-actin that under the influence of actin-binding proteins and polycations bundle and contribute to the formation of the cytoskeleton. Bundled actin from lysed cells increases the viscosity of sputum in lungs of cystic fibrosis patients. The human host defense peptide LL-37 was previously shown to induce actin bundling and was thus hypothesized to contribute to the pathogenicity of this disease. In this work, interactions between actin and the cationic LL-37 were studied by optical, proteolytic and surface plasmon resonance methods and compared to those obtained with scrambled LL-37 and with the cationic protein lysozyme. We show that LL-37 binds strongly to CaATP-G-actin while scrambled LL-37 does not. While LL-37, at superstoichiometric LL-37/actin concentrations polymerizes MgATP-G-actin, at lower non-polymerizing concentrations LL-37 inhibits actin polymerization by MgCl(2 or NaCl. LL-37 bundles Mg-F-actin filaments both at low and physiological ionic strength when in equimolar or higher concentrations than those of actin. The LL-37 induced bundles are significantly less sensitive to increase in ionic strength than those induced by scrambled LL-37 and lysozyme. LL-37 in concentrations lower than those needed for actin polymerization or bundling, accelerates cleavage of both monomer and polymer actin by subtilisin. Our results indicate that the LL-37-actin interaction is partially electrostatic and partially hydrophobic and that a specific actin binding sequence in the peptide is responsible for the hydrophobic interaction. LL-37-induced bundles, which may contribute to the accumulation of sputum in cystic fibrosis, are dissociated very efficiently by DNase-1 and also by cofilin.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Kuntysh


    Full Text Available The paper presents a scheme and description of a new aerodynamic stand that has a 300x300 mm cross-section operating channel. The stand is used for studying thermal and aerodynamic characteristics of bundles made of finned tubes of actual dimensions in crossflow. The paper provides results of an exploratory test pertaining to heat transfer and resistance of four row staggered bundle made of tubes with aluminium spiral fins having outside diameter of 26 mm which are used in the systems of ventilation, air-conditioning and heating of buildings and also in transport heat exchangers.

  15. Project IMPACT Pilot Report: Feasibility of Implementing a Hospital-to-Home Transition Bundle. (United States)

    Mallory, Leah A; Osorio, Snezana Nena; Prato, B Stephen; DiPace, Jennifer; Schmutter, Lisa; Soung, Paula; Rogers, Amanda; Woodall, William J; Burley, Kayla; Gage, Sandra; Cooperberg, David


    To improve hospital to home transitions, a 4-element pediatric patient-centered transition bundle was developed, including: a transition readiness checklist; predischarge teach-back education; timely and complete written handoff to the primary care provider; and a postdischarge phone call. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of bundle implementation and report initial outcomes at 4 pilot sites. Outcome measures included postdischarge caregiver ability to teach-back key home management information and 30-day reuse rates. A multisite, observational time series using multiple planned sequential interventions to implement bundle components with non-technology-supported and technology-supported patients. Data were collected via electronic health record reviews and during postdischarge phone calls. Statistical process control charts were used to assess outcomes. Four pilot sites implemented the bundle between January 2014 and May 2015 for 2601 patients, of whom 1394 had postdischarge telephone encounters. Improvement was noted in the implementation of all bundle elements with the transitions readiness checklist posing the greatest feasibility challenge. Phone contact connection rates were 69%. Caregiver ability to teach-back essential home management information postdischarge improved from 18% to 82%. No improvement was noted in reuse rates, which differed dramatically between technology-supported and non-technology-supported patients. A pediatric care transition bundle was successfully tested and implemented, as demonstrated by improvement in all process measures, as well as caregiver home management skills. Important considerations for successful implementation and evaluation of the discharge bundle include the role of local context, electronic health record integration, and subgroup analysis for technology-supported patients. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  16. Gabriel Garcia Marquez; The Significant Message of His Literary Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad B. Aghaei


    Full Text Available Gabriel Garcia Marquez’s literary discourse actually portrays the destructive domination of colonial and imperialistic powers and civil wars that led to a series of insecurities and poverty in the community. In fact, whatever he has presented in his works is related to the realities of the continent that have been portrayed in his fictional world. In his works, every single line is a reference to a certain critical point in the history of Latin American continent and provides a magnifying glass for the reader to clearly conceptualize them. His works also represent the contemporary events that are frequently happening in the society.

  17. Review of His-Purkinje System Abnormality with Case Studies. (United States)

    Tholakanahalli, Venkatakrishna N; Can, Ilknur; Asirvatham, Samuel J


    A single beat arising as extra systole within the His-Purkinje system or from ventricle or even atrium based on conduction timing can invoke delayed conduction or block within intra-Hisian or infra-Hisian sites. This may be either manifested in the form of premature atrial or ventricular complexes or concealed as with His extra systoles. It appears commonly there is disease within the His-Purkinje system. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Classification of "Quaternionic" Bloch-Bundles. Topological Quantum Systems of Type AII (United States)

    De Nittis, Giuseppe; Gomi, Kiyonori


    We provide a classification of type AII topological quantum systems in dimension d = 1, 2, 3, 4. Our analysis is based on the construction of a topological invariant, the FKMM-invariant, which completely classifies "Quaternionic" vector bundles ( a.k.a. "symplectic" vector bundles) in dimension . This invariant takes value in a proper equivariant cohomology theory and, in the case of examples of physical interest, it reproduces the familiar Fu-Kane-Mele index. In the case d = 4 the classification requires a combined use of the FKMM-invariant and the second Chern class. Among the other things, we prove that the FKMM-invariant is a bona fide characteristic class for the category of "Quaternionic" vector bundles in the sense that it can be realized as the pullback of a universal topological invariant.

  19. Field Emission Characteristics of the Structure of Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotube Bundles. (United States)

    Lin, Pao-Hung; Sie, Cong-Lin; Chen, Ching-An; Chang, Hsuan-Chen; Shih, Yi-Ting; Chang, Hsin-Yueh; Su, Wei-Jhih; Lee, Kuei-Yi


    In this study, we performed thermal chemical vapor deposition for growing vertically aligned carbon nanotube (VACNT) bundles for a field emitter and applied photolithography for defining the arrangement pattern to simultaneously compare square and hexagonal arrangements by using two ratios of the interbundle distance to the bundle height (R) of field emitters. The hexagon arrangement with R = 2 had the lowest turn-on electric field (E to) and highest enhancement factor, whereas the square arrangement with R = 3 had the most stable field emission (FE) characteristic. The number density can reveal the correlation to the lowest E to and highest enhancement factor more effectively than can the R or L. The fluorescent images of the synthesized VACNT bundles manifested the uniformity of FE currents. The results of our study indicate the feasibility of applying the VACNT field emitter arrangement to achieve optimal FE performance.

  20. Modeling of Thermal Conductivity of CVI-Densified Composites at Fiber and Bundle Level (United States)

    Guan, Kang; Wu, Jianqing; Cheng, Laifei


    The evolution of the thermal conductivities of the unidirectional, 2D woven and 3D braided composites during the CVI (chemical vapor infiltration) process have been numerically studied by the finite element method. The results show that the dual-scale pores play an important role in the thermal conduction of the CVI-densified composites. According to our results, two thermal conductivity models applicable for CVI process have been developed. The sensitivity analysis demonstrates the parameter with the most influence on the CVI-densified composites’ thermal conductivity is matrix cracking’s density, followed by volume fraction of the bundle and thermal conductance of the matrix cracks, finally by micro-porosity inside the bundles and macro-porosity between the bundles. The obtained results are well consistent with the reported data, thus our models could be useful for designing the processing and performance of the CVI-densified composites. PMID:28774130

  1. Consensus Bundle on Prevention of Surgical Site Infections After Major Gynecologic Surgery. (United States)

    Pellegrini, Joseph E; Toledo, Paloma; Soper, David E; Bradford, William C; Cruz, Deborah A; Levy, Barbara S; Lemieux, Lauren A


    Surgical site infections are the most common complication of surgery in the United states. Of surgeries in women of reproductive age, hysterectomy is one of the most frequently performed, second only to cesarean birth. Therefore, prevention of surgical site infections in women undergoing gynecologic surgery is an ideal topic for a patient safety bundle. The primary purpose of this safety bundle is to provide recommendations that can be implemented into any surgical environment in an effot to reduce the incidence of surgical site infection. This bundle was developed by a multidisciplinary team convened by the Council on Patient Safety in Women's Health Care. The bundle is organized into four domains: Readiness, Recognition and Prevention, Response, and Reporting and Systems Learning. In addition to recommendations for practice, each of the domains stresses communication and teamwork between all members of the surgical team. Although the bundle components are designed to be adaptable to work in a variety of clinical settings, standardization within institutions is encouraged. Copyright ©2016 American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists.

  2. On Vascular Bundle Modifications in Nodes and Internodes of Selected Grass Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kraehmer H.


    Full Text Available Grass nodes play an essential role as interfaces between leaf and stem. The description of the bundle course in nodes considerably contributes to understanding of the transport of assimilates, minerals, and xenobiotics in grasses. Nodes and internodes of 38 species of the subfamilies Arundinoideae, Bambusoideae, Panicoideae, and Pooideae were analyzed histologically. Free-hand sections, various staining techniques, macro- and microphotography were used to reveal a few principles underlying their anatomy. In all grass species, specific nodal zones were found in which many vascular bundles undergo characteristic transformations. This transformation starts with the augmentation of xylem in lower nodal areas and continues with the formation of specific amphivasal structures providing connections with the leaf attached to the node. The anatomy of these strands, herein called vasotubuli, has not much in common with vascular bundles in internodes any more. Transverse nodal plexus strands provide many connections between bundles and vasotubuli. The nodal plexus is also an interface of sclerenchyma bundles. The nodes of most grass species are constructed very similarly with a few exceptions: the nodes of Phragmites australis (Cav. Steud. for example have something in common with bamboo: they develop spindle-like glomeruli.

  3. Changing axis deviation with changing bundle branch block and new-onset of atrial fibrillation during acute myocardial infarction. (United States)

    Patanè, Salvatore; Marte, Filippo; Di Bella, Gianluca


    Paroxysmal atrial fibrillation is considered a frequent complication of acute myocardial infarction.It has been rarely reported alternating right and left bundle branch block associated with atrial fibrillation. It has also been rarely reported changing axis deviation with left bundle branch block also during atrial fibrillation and acute myocardial infarction. We present a case of changing axis deviation with changing bundle branch block and new-onset of atrial fibrillation in a 96-year-old Italian man with acute myocardial infarction.

  4. Frobenius Stratification of Moduli Spaces of Vector Bundles in Positive Characteristic


    Li, Lingguang


    Let $X$ be a smooth projective curve of genus $g(X)\\geq 1$ over an algebraically closed field $k$ of characteristic $p>0$ and $F_X:X\\rightarrow X$ be the absolute Frobenius morphism. Let $\\M^s_X(r,d)$ be the moduli space of stable vector bundles of rank $r$ and degree $d$ on $X$. We study the Frobenius stratification of $\\M^s_X(r,d)$ in terms of Harder-Narasimhan polygons of Frobenius pull backs of stable vector bundles and get the irreducibility, smoothness and dimension of Frobenius strata ...

  5. Leo Kanner's Mention of 1938 in His Report on Autism Refers to His First Patient (United States)

    Olmsted, Dan; Blaxill, Mark


    Leo Kanner begins his landmark 1943 case series on autistic children by stating the condition was first brought to his attention in 1938. Recent letters to "JADD" have described this reference as "mysterious" and speculated it refers to papers published that year by Despert or Asperger. In fact, as Kanner goes on to state, 1938…

  6. Automating Quality Metrics in the Era of Electronic Medical Records: Digital Signatures for Ventilator Bundle Compliance. (United States)

    Lan, Haitao; Thongprayoon, Charat; Ahmed, Adil; Herasevich, Vitaly; Sampathkumar, Priya; Gajic, Ognjen; O'Horo, John C


    Ventilator-associated events (VAEs) are associated with increased risk of poor outcomes, including death. Bundle practices including thromboembolism prophylaxis, stress ulcer prophylaxis, oral care, and daily sedation breaks and spontaneous breathing trials aim to reduce rates of VAEs and are endorsed as quality metrics in the intensive care units. We sought to create electronic search algorithms (digital signatures) to evaluate compliance with ventilator bundle components as the first step in a larger project evaluating the ventilator bundle effect on VAE. We developed digital signatures of bundle compliance using a retrospective cohort of 542 ICU patients from 2010 for derivation and validation and testing of signature accuracy from a cohort of random 100 patients from 2012. Accuracy was evaluated against manual chart review. Overall, digital signatures performed well, with median sensitivity of 100% (range, 94.4%-100%) and median specificity of 100% (range, 100%-99.8%). Automated ascertainment from electronic medical records accurately assesses ventilator bundle compliance and can be used for quality reporting and research in VAE.

  7. Dendritic bundling in layer I of granular retrosplenial cortex: intracellular labeling and selectivity of innervation. (United States)

    Wyss, J M; Van Groen, T; Sripanidkulchai, K


    The extrinsic projections to and from the retrosplenial cortex have been studied in detail, but the intrinsic circuitry within this region has been characterized less completely. To further define the internal connections, small injections of the retrograde, fluorescent tracer Fluorogold were made into the retrosplenial cortex of the rat. These injections label neurons in layers II-V of the contralateral homotopic cortex. In layers III-V, the labeled neurons are present over an area much larger than the injection site, but in layer II neurons are labeled in a very precise homotopic pattern. Following these injections, only the neurons in layer II display heavily labeled apical dendrites, and these labeled dendrites form tight bundles in layer Ic and Ib of the cortex and spread out in layer Ia. An examination of Golgi-stained material demonstrates that most of the neurons in layer II are small pyramidal cells with 2-3 small basal dendrites and a single, large apical dendrite that arborizes extensively in layer Ia. To verify the structure of the layer II neurons, they were intracellularly filled with Lucifer yellow. Examination of these labeled cells confirms the observations from the Golgi-stained material and demonstrates that many apical dendrites of the layer II cells angle acutely, apparently to join a bundle and/or avoid an interbundle space. Tract tracing experiments demonstrate that the anteroventral nucleus of the thalamus appears to project selectively to the region containing the dendritic bundles, whereas intracortical projections appear to terminate in layers Ib and Ic in the 30-200 microns spaces between the bundles. Furthermore, the areas containing the bundles display dense AChE staining, but the interbundle spaces are almost free of AChE staining. These findings demonstrate a form of dendritic bundling that is input and output specific and may play an important role in the regulation of thalamic inputs to the cingulate cortex.

  8. William Bateson: a biologist ahead of his time

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    father's shyness, for instance. The child may also have characteristics found in neither parent: a son might have the jaw of his grandmother and the moodiness of his cousin. The shuffling of discrete and supposedly inherited characteristics from one generation to the next is a com- monplace of conversation. But what about a ...

  9. Review of Ordered Anarchy: Jasay and his Surroundings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aschwin de Wolf


    Full Text Available Anthony de Jasay is among the most important social thinkers of our time. His oeuvre offers a sustained critique of government and its defenders. In the book Ordered Anarchy: Jasay and His Surroundings, colleagues and friends pay tribute to the man in the form of an inspiring collection of essays.

  10. Bundled payments in orthopedic surgery. (United States)

    Bushnell, Brandon D


    As a result of reading this article, physicians should be able to: 1. Describe the concept of bundled payments and the potential applications of bundled payments in orthopedic surgery. 2. For specific situations, outline a clinical episode of care, determine the participants in a bundling situation, and define care protocols and pathways. 3. Recognize the importance of resource utilization management, quality outcome measurement, and combined economic-clinical value in determining the value of bundled payment arrangements. 4. Identify the implications of bundled payments for practicing orthopedists, as well as the legal issues and potential future directions of this increasingly popular alternative payment method. Bundled payments, the idea of paying a single price for a bundle of goods and services, is a financial concept familiar to most American consumers because examples appear in many industries. The idea of bundled payments has recently gained significant momentum as a financial model with the potential to decrease the significant current costs of health care. Orthopedic surgery as a field of medicine is uniquely positioned for success in an environment of bundled payments. This article reviews the history, logistics, and implications of the bundled payment model relative to orthopedic surgery. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  11. Guido of Arezzo and His Influence on Music Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna J. Reisenweaver


    Full Text Available Throughout the history of Western music, Guido of Arezzo stands out as one of the most influential theorists and pedagogues of the Middle Ages. His developments of the hexachord system, solmization syllables, and music notation revolutionized the teaching and learning of music during his time and laid the foundation for our modern system of music. While previous theorists were interested in the philosophical and mathematical nature of music, Guido’s desire to aid singers in the learning process was practical. Through his innovations, students were able to classify, sight-sing, and visualize the music they were learning, ultimately resulting in an easier, simpler, and more efficient way to learn music. By building upon the theories of those before him, Guido expanded and reshaped the musical system of his day, transformed the way music was taught, and established his ideas as a vital part of our musical heritage.

  12. Preparation of porcupine-like Bi2O3 needle bundles by anodic oxidation of bismuth


    Sopha, Hanna; Podzemná, Veronika; Hromádko, Luděk; Macák, Jan


    A new Bi2O3 structure resembling bundles of needles was prepared by anodic oxidation of a bismuth substrate in H2SO4 electrolyte followed by annealing in air. Needle growth occurred on the timescale of minutes. The resulting porcupine-like needle bundles were characterized using SEM and XRD before and after annealing. The as-grown needles consisted of bismuth aqua sulfate hydroxide; however, upon annealing at 250 °C in air, tetragonal β-Bi2O3 was produced without any morphological change.

  13. Size scaling of failure strength with fat-tailed disorder in a fiber bundle model (United States)

    Kádár, Viktória; Danku, Zsuzsa; Kun, Ferenc


    We investigate the size scaling of the macroscopic fracture strength of heterogeneous materials when microscopic disorder is controlled by fat-tailed distributions. We consider a fiber bundle model where the strength of single fibers is described by a power law distribution over a finite range. Tuning the amount of disorder by varying the power law exponent and the upper cutoff of fibers' strength, in the limit of equal load sharing an astonishing size effect is revealed: For small system sizes the bundle strength increases with the number of fibers, and the usual decreasing size effect of heterogeneous materials is restored only beyond a characteristic size. We show analytically that the extreme order statistics of fibers' strength is responsible for this peculiar behavior. Analyzing the results of computer simulations we deduce a scaling form which describes the dependence of the macroscopic strength of fiber bundles on the parameters of microscopic disorder over the entire range of system sizes.

  14. Features of Gibranian Utopia in his Literary Works

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available Features of Gibranian Utopia in his Literary Works    Sardar Aslani *    Abstract  Every thinker and man of letters who pursues a goal in his or her works has a utopia. After introducing utopia by Plato, Farabi and St. Augustine, Gibran Khalil Gibran established the foundations of his own particular utopia. The features of his utopia are as follows: 1 freedom 2 kindness 3 justice 4 undue inclination towards knowing the world 5 innovative moral and human qualities and 6 the idea of eternality. The present paper attempts to elaborate on the characteristics of Gibranian Utopia in his literary works.     Key words: Gibranian utopia, human and moral values, North Mahjar literature, Messenger of letter  * Assistant Professor, Department of Arabic Language and Literature, University of IsfahanE-mail:

  15. The many faces of Maxwell, Dirac and Einstein equations a Clifford bundle approach

    CERN Document Server

    Rodrigues, Jr, Waldyr A


    This book is an exposition of the algebra and calculus of differential forms, of the Clifford and Spin-Clifford bundle formalisms, and of vistas to a formulation of important concepts of differential geometry indispensable for an in-depth understanding of space-time physics. The formalism discloses the hidden geometrical nature of spinor fields. Maxwell, Dirac and Einstein fields are shown to have representatives by objects of the same mathematical nature, namely sections of an appropriate Clifford bundle. This approach reveals unity in diversity and suggests relationships that are hidden in the standard formalisms and opens new paths for research. This thoroughly revised second edition also adds three new chapters: on the Clifford bundle approach to the Riemannian or semi-Riemannian differential geometry of branes; on Komar currents in the context of the General Relativity theory; and an analysis of the similarities and main differences between Dirac, Majorana and ELKO spinor fields. The exercises with solut...

  16. The Abilities of a Musical Savant and His Family. (United States)

    Young, R. L.; Nettelbeck, T.


    Evaluation of a 12-year-old autistic musical savant revealed that the boy had idiosyncratic levels of cognitive functioning and perfect pitch recognition. His ability to recall and perform musical pieces after listening to a tape recording were found to be exceptional, but dependent upon his familiarity with musical structure and therefore…

  17. Prevalence and Prognostic Implications of Bundle Branch Block in Comatose Survivors of Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grand, Johannes; Thomsen, Jakob Hartvig; Kjærgaard, Jesper


    This study reports the prevalence and prognostic impact of right bundle branch block (RBBB) and left bundle branch block (LBBB) in the admission electrocardiogram (ECG) of comatose survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). The present study is part of the predefined electrocardiographic...

  18. Bundle adjustment with additional constraints applied to imagery of the Dunhuang wall paintings (United States)

    Zhang, Yongjun; Hu, Kun; Huang, Rongyong


    In the digital conservation of the Dunhuang wall painting, bundle adjustment is a critical step in precise orthoimage generation. The error propagation of the adjustment model is accelerated because the near-planar photographic object intensifies correlation of the exterior orientation parameters and the less than 60% forward overlap of adjacent images weakens the geometric connection of the network. According to the photographic structure adopted in this paper, strong correlation of the exterior orientation parameters can be verified theoretically. In practice, the additional constraints of near-planarity and exterior orientation parameters are combined with bundle adjustment to control the error propagation. The positive effects of the additional constraints are verified by experiments, which show that the introduction of weighted observation equations into bundle adjustment contributes a great deal to the theoretical and actual accuracies of the unknowns as well as the stability of the adjustment model.

  19. Mafeje and 'Authentic Interlocutors': an appraisal of his epistemology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Very little is known in the South African academy about Archie Mafeje's theoretical writings. When those who knew him, or those who knew of him, do write, they very often focus on matters that have little to do with his work. This paper seeks to remedy this deficiency in the said writings by attempting to grapple with his ...

  20. Enhanced metalloadsorption of bacterial cells displaying poly-His peptides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, C.; Cebolla, A.; Lorenzo, V. de [CSIC, Madrid (Spain)


    The properties of Escherichia coli cells, acquired by cell surface presentation of one or two hexahistidine (His) clusters carried by the outer membrane LamB protein, have been examined. Strains producing LamB hybrids with the His chains accumulated greater than 11-fold more Cd{sup 2} than E. coli cells expressing the protein without the His insert. Furthermore, the hexa-His chains on the cell surface caused cells to adhere reversibly to a Ni{sup 2+}-containing solid matrix in a metal-dependent fashion. Thus, expression of poly-His peptides enables bacteria to act as a metalloaffinity adsorbent. These results open up the possibility for biosorption of heavy ions using engineered microorganisms. 32 refs., 3 figs.

  1. Structure and Mechanism of Proton Transport Through the Transmembrane Tetrameric M2 Protein Bundle of the Influenza A Virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R Acharya; V Carnevale; G Fiorin; B Levine; A Polishchuk; V Balannick; I Samish; R Lamb; L Pinto; et al.


    The M2 proton channel from influenza A virus is an essential protein that mediates transport of protons across the viral envelope. This protein has a single transmembrane helix, which tetramerizes into the active channel. At the heart of the conduction mechanism is the exchange of protons between the His37 imidazole moieties of M2 and waters confined to the M2 bundle interior. Protons are conducted as the total charge of the four His37 side chains passes through 2{sup +} and 3{sup +} with a pK{sub a} near 6. A 1.65 {angstrom} resolution X-ray structure of the transmembrane protein (residues 25-46), crystallized at pH 6.5, reveals a pore that is lined by alternating layers of sidechains and well-ordered water clusters, which offer a pathway for proton conduction. The His37 residues form a box-like structure, bounded on either side by water clusters with well-ordered oxygen atoms at close distance. The conformation of the protein, which is intermediate between structures previously solved at higher and lower pH, suggests a mechanism by which conformational changes might facilitate asymmetric diffusion through the channel in the presence of a proton gradient. Moreover, protons diffusing through the channel need not be localized to a single His37 imidazole, but instead may be delocalized over the entire His-box and associated water clusters. Thus, the new crystal structure provides a possible unification of the discrete site versus continuum conduction models.

  2. Pool boiling of distilled water over tube bundle with variable heat flux (United States)

    Swain, Abhilas; Mohanty, Rajiva Lochan; Das, Mihir Kumar


    The experimental investigation of saturated pool boiling heat transfer of distilled water over plain tube bundle, under uniform and varying heat flux condition along the height are presented in this article. Experiments are carried out under various heat flux configurations applied to rows of tube bundles and pitch distance to diameter ratios of 1.25, 1.6 and 1.95. The wall superheats and pool boiling heat transfer coefficients over individual rows are determined. The pool boiling heat transfer coefficients for variable heat flux and uniform heat flux conditions are compared. The results indicate that the bundle effect is found to exist for uniform as well as variable heat flux under all operating conditions in the present investigation. The variable heat flux resulted in range of wall superheat being highest for decreasing heat flux from bottom to top and lowest for increasing heat flux from bottom to top.

  3. Tube bundle vibrations due to cross flow under the influence of turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popp, K.; Romberg, O. [Institute of Mechanics, University of Hannover (Germany)


    Tube bundles are often used in heat exchangers and chemical reactors. Besides of large heat transfer capacities and small pressure drops in the apparatus a safe design against vibration damages is demanded. For many years extensive investigations concerning the dynamical behaviour of tube bundles subjected to cross-flow have been carried out in the wind tunnel of the Institute of Mechanics at the University of Hannover. In the last years the investigations were concentrated on the experimental investigations of different flow excitation mechanisms in a fully flexible bundle as well as in a bundle with one single flexibly mounted tube in an otherwise fixed array with variable geometry and changing equilibrium position. The aim of the studies was the determination of the stability boundaries, i.e. the critical reduced fluid velocity depending on the reduced damping coefficient in a wide parameter region. Theoretical investigations of the stability behaviour on the basis of an one dimensional flow model as well as experimental investigations of the influence of turbulence on the stability boundaries have been carried out. Here, for certain tube bundle configurations an increased turbulence has a stabilizing effect and leads to a shift of the stability boundaries to higher velocities. The change of the turbulence was realised by using turbulence grids at the inlet of the bundles or thin Prandtl-tripwires at the tube surfaces. Flow visualization studies at the original experimental set-up under relevant Reynolds numbers give an impression of the flow pattern. At this time an investigation of the exciting fluid forces is carried out using a flexibly mounted pressure test tube. A survey about some recent investigations is given. (orig.)

  4. The Effects of Resource Bundling on Third-party Logistics Providers’ Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noorliza Karia


    resource bundling (excluding advanced technology is required to achieve cost leadership. The effects of other resources on performance are mediated mainly by the demand management interface capability and knowledge resources. This is a novel attempt to justify the interaction and mediation effects of resources and capabilities on performance. The research highlights the needs for 3PL managers to focus on developing and bundling their demand management interface capability and knowledge resources in order to achieve cost leadership, and further combine advanced technology into such bundling of resources and capabilities to achieve innovation in customer service. It advances the application of resource-based view (RBV theory in logistics research by identifying resources that play supporting roles and examining the capabilities for enhancing 3PLs’ competitive performance.

  5. Effective action of heterotic compactification on K3 with non-trivial gauge bundles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schasny, Martin


    In this thesis we study the heterotic string compactified on K3 with non-trivial gauge bundles. We focus on two backgrounds, the well-known standard embedding and abelian line bundles. Using a Kaluza-Klein reduction, the six-dimensional effective action is computed up to terms of order {alpha}'{sup 2} with special attention on the hypermultiplet sector. We compute the moduli dependent couplings of the matter fields and analyze the geometry of the hyperscalar sigma model. Moreover, we prove the consistency with six-dimensional supergravity and derive the appropriate D-term scalar potential. For the line bundle backgrounds we show that the gauge flux stabilizes some geometrical moduli and renders some abelian vector multiplets massive.

  6. Cooperative retraction of bundled type IV pili enables nanonewton force generation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Biais


    Full Text Available The causative agent of gonorrhea, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, bears retractable filamentous appendages called type IV pili (Tfp. Tfp are used by many pathogenic and nonpathogenic bacteria to carry out a number of vital functions, including DNA uptake, twitching motility (crawling over surfaces, and attachment to host cells. In N. gonorrhoeae, Tfp binding to epithelial cells and the mechanical forces associated with this binding stimulate signaling cascades and gene expression that enhance infection. Retraction of a single Tfp filament generates forces of 50-100 piconewtons, but nothing is known, thus far, on the retraction force ability of multiple Tfp filaments, even though each bacterium expresses multiple Tfp and multiple bacteria interact during infection. We designed a micropillar assay system to measure Tfp retraction forces. This system consists of an array of force sensors made of elastic pillars that allow quantification of retraction forces from adherent N. gonorrhoeae bacteria. Electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy were used in combination with this novel assay to assess the structures of Tfp. We show that Tfp can form bundles, which contain up to 8-10 Tfp filaments, that act as coordinated retractable units with forces up to 10 times greater than single filament retraction forces. Furthermore, single filament retraction forces are transient, whereas bundled filaments produce retraction forces that can be sustained. Alterations of noncovalent protein-protein interactions between Tfp can inhibit both bundle formation and high-amplitude retraction forces. Retraction forces build over time through the recruitment and bundling of multiple Tfp that pull cooperatively to generate forces in the nanonewton range. We propose that Tfp retraction can be synchronized through bundling, that Tfp bundle retraction can generate forces in the nanonewton range in vivo, and that such high forces could affect infection.

  7. Masquerading bundle branch block as a presenting manifestation of complete atrioventricular block that caused syncope. (United States)

    Jiao, Zhenyu; Tian, Ying; Yang, Xinchun; Liu, Xingpeng


    A 59-year-old male patient was admitted with the main complaints of stuffiness and shortness of breath. An ECG from precordial leads on admission showed masquerading bundle branch block. Syncope frequently occurred after admission. During syncope episodes, ECG telemetry showed that the syncope was caused by intermittent complete atrioventricular block, with the longest RR interval lasting for 4.36 s. At the gap of syncope, ECG showed complete right bundle branch block accompanied by alternation of left anterior fascicular block and left posterior fascicular block. The patient was implanted with a dual-chamber permanent pacemaker. Follow-up of 9 months showed no reoccurrence of syncope.

  8. Use of the Delay-Tolerant Networking Bundle Protocol from Space (United States)

    Wood, Lloyd; Ivancic, William D.; Eddy, Wesley M.; Stewart, Dave; Northam, James; Jackson, Chris; daSilvaCuriel, Alex


    The Disaster Monitoring Constellation (DMC), constructed by Survey Satellite Technology Ltd (SSTL), is a multisatellite Earth-imaging low-Earth-orbit sensor network where captured image swaths are stored onboard each satellite and later downloaded from the satellite payloads to a ground station. Store-and-forward of images with capture and later download gives each satellite the characteristics of a node in a Delay/Disruption Tolerant Network (DTN). Originally developed for the Interplanetary Internet, DTNs are now under investigation in an Internet Research Task Force (IRTF) DTN research group (RG), which has developed a bundle architecture and protocol. The DMC is currently unique in its adoption of the Internet Protocol (IP) for its imaging payloads and for satellite command and control, based around reuse of commercial networking and link protocols. These satellites use of IP has enabled earlier experiments with the Cisco router in Low Earth Orbit (CLEO) onboard the constellation's UK-DMC satellite. Earth images are downloaded from the satellites using a custom IPbased high-speed transfer protocol developed by SSTL, Saratoga, which tolerates unusual link environments. Saratoga has been documented in the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) for wider adoption. We experiment with use of DTNRG bundle concepts onboard the UKDMC satellite, by examining how Saratoga can be used as a DTN convergence layer to carry the DTNRG Bundle Protocol, so that sensor images can be delivered to ground stations and beyond as bundles. This is the first successful use of the DTNRG Bundle Protocol in a space environment. We use our practical experience to examine the strengths and weaknesses of the Bundle Protocol for DTN use, paying attention to fragmentation, custody transfer, and reliability issues.

  9. Electrospinning preparation and properties of magnetic-photoluminescent bifunctional bistrand-aligned composite nanofibers bundles (United States)

    Gai, Guangqing; Wang, Liyan; Dong, Xiangting; Zheng, Chunmei; Yu, Wensheng; Wang, Jinxian; Xiao, Xinfu


    Fe3O4/PVP//Eu(BA)3phen/PVP magnetic-photoluminescent bifunctional bistrand-aligned composite nanofibers bundles based on ferroferric oxide(Fe3O4) nanoparticles and europium complex Eu(BA)3phen (BA = benzoic acid) were fabricated via electrospinning by employing a homemade parallel axial electrospinning setup with the side by side dual spinnerets for the first time. The structures, morphology, and properties of the as-prepared products were investigated in detail by X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), a fluorescence spectrometer, and a vibrating sample magnetometer. SEM analysis showed the average diameter of the individual-strand fiber of the bistrand-aligned composite nanofibers bundles was 200 ± 25 nm. TEM image demonstrated that Fe3O4 nanoparticles were only dispersed into one strand of the bistrand-aligned composite nanofibers bundles, and the average diameter of Fe3O4 nanoparticles was about 15 nm. Under the excitation of 274 nm ultraviolet light, Fe3O4/PVP//Eu(BA)3phen/PVP bistrand-aligned composite nanofibers bundles exhibited red emissions of predominant peaks at 592 and 616 nm, which were respectively attributed to the 5D0 → 7F1 and 5D0 → 7F2 transitions of Eu3+ ions. The fluorescence intensity of the bistrand-aligned composite nanofibers bundles was higher than that of Fe3O4/Eu(BA)3phen/PVP composite nanofibers, and was decreased with the increase of the amounts of Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The saturation magnetizations of the bistrand-aligned composite nanofibers bundles and the Fe3O4/Eu(BA)3phen/PVP composite nanofibers were about equal when the two nanostructures contained the same mass ratios of Fe3O4 nanoparticles, but the saturation magnetizations of the bistrand-aligned composite nanofibers bundles were increased with the increase of the amounts of Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The new type Fe3O4/PVP//Eu(BA)3phen/PVP bistrand-aligned composite nanofibers

  10. Evaluation of CHF experimental data for non-square lattice 7-rod bundles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Dae Hyun; Yoo, Y. J.; Kim, K. K.; Zee, S. Q


    A series of CHF experiments are conducted for 7-rod hexagonal test bundles in order to investigate the CHF characteristics of self-sustained square finned (SSF) rod bundles. The experiments are performed in the freon-loop and water-loop located at IPPE in Russia, and 609 data of freon-12 and 229 data of water are obtained from 7 kinds of test bundles classified by the combination of heated length and axial/radial power distributions. As the result of the evaluation of four representative CHF correlations, the EPRI-1 correlation reveals good prediction capability for SSF test bundles. The inlet parameter CHF correlation suggested by IPPE calculates the mean and the standard deviation of P/M for uniformly heated test bundles as 1.002 and 0.049, respectively. In spite of its excellent accuracy, the correlation has a discontinuity point at the boundary between the low velocity and high velocity conditions. KAERI's inlet parameter correlation eliminates this defect by introducing the complete evaporation model at low velocity condition, and calculates the mean and standard deviation of P/M as 0.095 and 0.062 for uniformly heated 496 data points, respectively. The mean/standard deviation of local parameter CHF correlations suggested by IPPE and KAERI are evaluated as 1.023/0.178 and 1.002/0.158, respectively. The inlet parameter correlation developed from uniformly heated test bundles tends to under-predict CHF about 3% for axially non-uniformly heated test bundles. On the other hand, the local parameter correlation reveals large scattering of P/M, and requires re-optimization of the correlation for non-uniform axial power distributions. As the result of the analysis of experimental data, it reveals that the correction model of axial power shapes suggested by IPPE is applicable to the inlet parameter correlations. For the test bundle of radial non-uniform power distribution, the physically unexpected results are obtained at some experimental conditions. In addition

  11. Absent right bundle branch block: Is it a clue of pre-excitation in Ebstein's anomaly? (United States)

    Gangurde, Pranil Bhalchandra; Tidake, Abhay; Shah, Hetan; Mahajan, Ajay; Lokhandwala, Yash; Nathani, Pratap


    A 14-year-old male with a history of symptomatic tachycardia was referred for ablation. Sinus rhythm electrocardiogram was not showing any pre-excitation. Tachycardia episode was showing antidromic tachycardia with left bundle branch block morphology. Echocardiographic examination was showing Ebstein's anomaly with septal tricuspid leaflet displaced 24mm apically. The right bundle branch block (RBBB) was concealed during sinus rhythm. The RBBB was revealed with ablation of right posterior atriofascicular accessory pathway. Copyright © 2015 Cardiological Society of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Spinor Structure of P-Oriented Space, Kustaanheimo-Stifel and Hopf Bundle - Connection between Formalisms


    Red'kov, V. M.


    In the work some relations between three techniques, Hopf's bundle, Kustaanheimo-Stiefel's bundle, 3-space with spinor structure have been examined. The spinor space is viewed as a real space that is minimally (twice as much) extended in comparison with an ordinary vector 3-space: at this instead of 2\\pi-rotation now only 4\\pi-rotation is taken to be the identity transformation in the geometrical space. With respect to a given P-orientation of an initial unextended manyfold, vector or pseudov...

  13. 3-D slug flow heat transfer analysis of coupled coolant cells in finite LMFBR bundles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, C.N.; Wolf, L.


    A three-dimensional single region slug flow heat transfer analysis for finite LMFBR rod bundles using a classical analytical solution method has been performed. According to the isolated single cell analysis, the results show that the peripheral clad temperature variation as well as the thermal entrance length are strongly dependent upon the degree of irregularity displayed by various coolant geometries. Since under the present LMFBR conditions, fully-developed temperature fields may hardly be established in such characteristic rod bundle regions, a 3-D heat transfer analysis seems to be mandatory. This implies that the results of fully developed heat transfer analyses are by far too conservative.

  14. Student assessment of teaching effectiveness of "bundle of changes"-A paired, controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Kalra


    Full Text Available Background : Inching toward optimum patient safety by training personnel is the prime aim of the ongoing medical education. Aims : To assess whether lectures targeted to improve quality care in ICU could improve ICU practitioners′ knowledge levels and to evaluate the effectiveness of teaching. Settings and Design : In this paired controlled trial, 50 ICU practitioners, i.e., anesthesia and medicine residents and nursing staff of our hospital attended a series of four lectures. Materials and Methods : Participants enrolled in the study attended lectures on "bundles of changes" in ICU, namely, introduction, ventilator bundle, central line bundle, and catheter-related blood stream infections and severe sepsis bundle. They were given a questionnaire of 15 multiple choice questions prior to and after the lectures. We evaluated their immediate knowledge acquisition and retention recall. Subsequently, they evaluated the effectiveness of the teaching programme by a questionnaire of 10 multiple choice questions. Statistical analysis used: Data for statistical analysis were tabulated and analyzed using SPSS-Pc 11.5 version software. Results : Fifty study participants completed all three questionnaires. There was an increase in the overall mean score in the post-lecture test (4.58 + 1.51 SD (P < 0.001. Overall mean score increased significantly from 8.30 + 1.34 SD in THE pre-lecture test - to 12.02 + 1.61 SD in the postlecture re-test (3.72 + 1.39 SD (P < 0.001. In the evaluation of teaching effectiveness 88% respondents agreed to most of the questions, signifying the effectiveness of the lectures. However, there were 10% who disagreed to the questions and only 2% strongly disagreed to all the questions. Conclusions : Teaching programmes such as the "bundle of changes" are effective in improving immediate knowledge acquisition and retention recall of the participants if designed keeping the target audience in mind.

  15. Portrait of a Hunter and His Dog. (United States)

    Tolbert, Peggy Manulikow


    Instructional strategies based on a portrait painting of Jean-Baptiste Oudry familiarize intermediate grade students with the techniques of portraiture and introduce the characteristics of eighteenth-century French rococo painting. (RM)

  16. Muon bundles from the Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kankiewicz P.


    Full Text Available Recently the CERN ALICE experiment, in its dedicated cosmic ray run, observed muon bundles of very high multiplicities, thereby confirming similar findings from the LEP era at CERN (in the CosmoLEP project. Significant evidence for anisotropy of arrival directions of the observed high multiplicity muonic bundles is found. Estimated directionality suggests their possible extragalactic provenance. We argue that muonic bundles of highest multiplicity are produced by strangelets, hypothetical stable lumps of strange quark matter infiltrating our Universe.

  17. Evaluation of nonequilibrium effects in bundle dispersed-flow film boiling. [PWR; BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, D.G.; Mullins, C.B.; Yoder, G.L.


    The effects of thermodynamic nonequilibrium in dispersed flow film boiling heat transfer are examined. Steady-state and transient rod-bundle data are used to evaluate several empirical heat-transfer models commonly employed to predict post-CHF behavior. The models that account for thermodynamic nonequilibrium perform adequately, while those that ignore nonequilibrium effects incur errors in wall superheat as high as 190/sup 0/K. Nonequilibrium effects can also be treated by explicitly modeling the phenomena. The thermal-hydraulic code COBRA-TF employs this approach. Using bundle data, the models in the code are evaluated. Analysis suggests that the interfacial heat transfer is overpredicted.

  18. MRI diagnosis of ACL bundle tears: value of oblique axial imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, Alex W.H.; Griffith, James F.; Hung, Esther H.Y. [Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Imaging and Interventional Radiology, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong SAR (China); Law, Kan Yip; Yung, Patrick S.H. [Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong SAR (China)


    To investigate the diagnostic accuracy of oblique axial intermediate weighting MR imaging in detecting partial thickness anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) bundle tears. The study protocol was approved by the institutional ethics committee. Sixty-one subjects (43 male, 18 female; mean age 27.4 years; range 9 to 57 years) with clinically suspected ACL tear or meniscal tear between September 2009 and January 2011 were studied with MRI and arthroscopy. Detection of partial tear for the ACL as a whole and for each ACL bundle by protocol A (standard orthogonal sequences) and protocol B (standard orthogonal sequences plus oblique axial intermediate weighted imaging) was compared in a blinded fashion. Performance characteristics for protocol A and protocol B were compared using sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and ROC curves. A two-tailed p value of <0.05 indicated statistical significance. Fifteen (24.6%) normal, 15 (24.6%) partial and 31 complete tears were diagnosed by arthroscopy. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of protocol A for the diagnosis of partial tear of the ACL was 33%, 87% and 74%, while for protocol B the values were 87%, 87% and 87% respectively. The area under the curve (AUC) for the diagnosis of partial ACL tear and individual bundle tear was higher for protocol B, although this difference did not reach statistical significance (p > 0.05). The addition of oblique axial imaging to standard MR imaging improves diagnostic accuracy for detecting partial tears of the ACL as well as individual bundle tears of the ACL. (orig.)

  19. Isolation and characterization of cellulose nanocrystals from parenchyma and vascular bundle of oil palm trunk (Elaeis guineensis). (United States)

    Lamaming, Junidah; Hashim, Rokiah; Leh, Cheu Peng; Sulaiman, Othman; Sugimoto, Tomoko; Nasir, Mohammed


    In this study cellulose nanocrystals were isolated through acid hydrolysis process from parenchyma and vascular bundle of oil palm trunk (Elaeis guineensis). The morphological properties of obtained cellulose nanocrystals were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The microscopy images showed smoother and cleaner surface of parenchyma cellulose nanocrystals when compared to vascular bundle cellulose nanocrystals. The TEM image shows a higher length and diameter for parenchyma cellulose nanocrystals compared to vascular bundle cellulose nanocrystals. The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra showed changes in functional groups after acid hydrolysis due to removal of lignin, hemicelluloses and other impurities in both type of cellulose nanocrystals. Crystallinity index of cellulose nanocrystals was observed higher for vascular bundle as compared to parenchyma. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was performed to study the thermal stability of cellulose nanocrystals and it was observed higher for parenchyma cellulose nanocrystals compared to vascular bundle. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [Results of randomized studies on cardiac resynchronization therapy and the reevaluation of cardiac ventricular activation in left bundle branch block]. (United States)

    Préda, István


    If New York Heart Association Class II-IV heart failure is present, and ejection fraction ≤35%, electrocardiographic QRS width ≥ 120 ms in the presence of left bundle branch block, cardiac resynchronization therapy is indicated. Reevaluation of the data of cardiac resynchronization trials and electrophysiologic findings in left bundle branch block provided evidence that "true" left bundle branch block requires a QRS width of ≥130 ms (in woman) and ≥140 ms (in man). In "true" left bundle branch block, after the 40th ms of the QRS notched/slurred R waves are characteristic in minimum two of I, aVL, V1, V2, V5 and V6 leads, in addition to a ≥40 ms increase of the QRS complex, as compared to the original QRS complex. In contrast, slowly and continuously widened "left bundle branch block like" QRS patterns are mostly occur in left ventricular hypertrophy or in a metabolic/infiltrative disease.

  1. Ibnu Taimiyah and His Concept of Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Hifdil Islam


    Full Text Available Human life can not be separated from economic problems which involve human relationships sswith other humans, that relationship must be based on the norms - Islamic religious norms that govern all aspects of life including issues related to mu'amalah. In this context, efforts to develop Islamic economic system, we try to look at a concept that is very brilliant idea at the time, as inspiration and guidance. To the authors try to convey the subject - the subject matter of one of the scholars are: Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah related to economic problems, despite the distance between us and the birth of her very much. He lived at the end of the 7th century and the beginning of the 8th century AH, he has a very deep knowledge about the teachings of Islam. Islam today's economy requires a clear view of what to expect and how things can be done. To achieve this required freedom in business and property rights, which are limited by moral law and supervised by the state fair and able to enforce shari'ah law. All economic activities are allowed, except those expressly prohibited by Shari'ah.

  2. Wegener and his Theory of Continental Drift

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    similarities among fauna of India, Australia and Madagascar. ... Madagascar, India, Antarctica and Australia, separated from the western part consisting of Africa and ... islands. Wegener found that longitude measurements on Sabine. Island near Greenland between 1823 and 1907 indicated apparent cumulative westward ...

  3. Molecular dynamics simulation of doxorubicin adsorption on a bundle of functionalized CNT. (United States)

    Izadyar, Akram; Farhadian, Nafiseh; Chenarani, Naser


    In this study, molecular dynamics simulation is used to investigate the adsorption of an anticancer drug, doxorubicin, on bundles of functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) in an aqueous solution. Carboxylic group has been selected as the functional group. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are performed for both separated systems containing a SWNT bundle and a functionalized carbon nanotube bundle, and results are compared with existing experimental data. MD results show that doxorubicin can be adsorbed on CNTs using different methods such as entrapment within CNT bundle, attachment to the side wall of the CNT, and adsorption on the CNT inner cavity. For functionalized CNT, the adsorption of drugs on the functional groups is essential for predicting the enhancement of drug loading on the functionalized nanotubes. Furthermore, the adsorption behavior of doxorubicin on CNTs is fitted with Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The results show that Langmuir model can predict the adsorption behavior of doxorubicin on CNTs more accurately than Freundlich model does. As predicted by this isotherm model, the adsorption process of doxorubicin on CNTs is relatively difficult, but it can be improved by increasing the functional groups on the CNTs surface.

  4. Lighthill and his Art of Mathematical Modelling

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Current Issue : Vol. 22, Issue 8 · Current Issue Volume 22 | Issue 8. August 2017. Home · Volumes & Issues · Categories · Special Issues · Search · Editorial Board · Information for Authors · Subscription ...

  5. A complex endeavour: an ethnographic study of the implementation of the Sepsis Six clinical care bundle. (United States)

    Tarrant, Carolyn; O'Donnell, Barbara; Martin, Graham; Bion, Julian; Hunter, Alison; Rooney, Kevin D


    Implementation of the 'Sepsis Six' clinical care bundle within an hour of recognition of sepsis is recommended as an approach to reduce mortality in patients with sepsis, but achieving reliable delivery of the bundle has proved challenging. There remains little understanding of the barriers to reliable implementation of bundle components. We examined frontline clinical practice in implementing the Sepsis Six. We conducted an ethnographic study in six hospitals participating in the Scottish Patient Safety Programme Sepsis collaborative. We conducted around 300 h of non-participant observation in emergency departments, acute medical receiving units and medical and surgical wards. We interviewed a purposive sample of 43 members of hospital staff. Data were analysed using a constant comparative approach. Implementation strategies to promote reliable use of the Sepsis Six primarily focused on education, engaging and motivating staff, and providing prompts for behaviour, along with efforts to ensure that equipment required was readily available. Although these strategies were successful in raising staff awareness of sepsis and engagement with implementation, our study identified that completing the bundle within an hour was not straightforward. Our emergent theory suggested that rather than being an apparently simple sequence of six steps, the Sepsis Six actually involved a complex trajectory comprising multiple interdependent tasks that required prioritisation and scheduling, and which was prone to problems of coordination and operational failures. Interventions that involved allocating specific roles and responsibilities for completing the Sepsis Six in ways that reduced the need for coordination and task switching, and the use of process mapping to identify system failures along the trajectory, could help mitigate against some of these problems. Implementation efforts that focus on individual behaviour change to improve uptake of the Sepsis Six should be supplemented

  6. CERN visit of His Excellency Mr.Kinga Singye / Bhutan

    CERN Multimedia

    Hoch, Michael


    CERN visit of His Excellency Mr Kinga Singye Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary Permanent Representative of the Kingdom of Bhutan to the United Nations Office and other international organisations in Geneva

  7. The legacy of Viktor Frankl: an appreciation upon his death. (United States)

    Gerwood, J B


    Viktor Frankl's death in September of 1997 left a void in psychology and psychiatry. Frankl stressed that meaning and purpose are of paramount importance throughout people's lives. Frankl's own life was an example of his philosophy put into action.

  8. Thomas Alva Edison (170th Anniversary of His Birth)


    V. P. Samokhin; E A. Tikhomirovа


    A brief overview of the major technical achievements of Thomas Edison, an outstanding American inventor, author of more than 1,000 US patents and several thousand patents in other countries, honorary academician of the USSR. Presents biographical information and details of the formation of Edison, his work as a telegrapher, organizing the world's first industrial research laboratory for the continuous development of technological innovations, as well as some interesting facts about his life a...

  9. Pliny the Elder and his History of Ancient Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziella Melina


    Although Pliny the Elder based his history of ancient art on all the authors mentioned above, the writings of classical philologists and archeologists often imply that he might not have always used the art history literature mentioned as primary sources, but rather cited a great deal of information from the works of his predecessor, the famous Roman encyclopedist Marcus Terentius Varro (beginning of the 1st century BC.

  10. Anatomical characteristics of fusoid cells and vascular bundles in Fargesia yunnanensis leaves (United States)

    Shuguang Wang; Hui Zhang; Shuyan Lin; Chungyun Hse; Yulong Ding


    As of today, the functions of fusoid cell, and the transport and loading pathways of photoassimilate in bamboo leaves are still not clear. In this paper, the leaves of Fargesia yunnanensis from a greenhouse and the wild were respectively used as samples to analyze the anatomical characteristics of fusoid cells and vascular bundles. The results showed that the bamboo...

  11. Symmetries of line bundles and Noether theorem for time-dependent nonholonomic systems


    Jovanovic, Bozidar


    We consider Noether symmetries of characteristic line bundles of nondegenerate 1-forms and of the associated perturbed systems. As an application, we study Noether symmetries of the mechanical systems under the influence of nonconservative forces and time-dependent holonomic and nonholonomic constraints.

  12. Implementation of a national bundle care program to reduce catheter-associated urinary tract infection in high-risk units of hospitals in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Cheng Lai


    Conclusions: The implementation of CA-UTI bundle care successfully reduced CA-UTI in Taiwanese high-risk units. A process surveillance checklist can be helpful for understanding which parts of the bundle care require improvements.

  13. Galen and his anatomic eponym: vein of Galen. (United States)

    Ustun, Cagatay


    Galen or Galenus was born at Pergamum (now Bergama in Turkey) in 129 A.D., and died in the year 200 A.D. He was a 2nd century Greek philosopher-physician who switched to the medical profession after his father dreamt of this calling for his son. Galen's training and experiences brought him to Alexandria and Rome and he rose quickly to fame with public demonstrations of anatomical and surgical skills. He became physician to emperor Marcus Aurelius and the emperor's ambitious son, Commodus. He wrote prodigiously and was able to preserve his medical research in 22 volumes of printed text, representing half of all Greek medical literature that is available to us today. The structures, the great cerebral vein and the communicating branch of the internal laryngeal nerve, bear his eponym.

  14. Spontaneous resolution of left bundle branch block and biventricular stimulation lead to reverse remodeling in dyssynchronopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloosterman, Marielle; Rienstra, Michiel; Van Gelder, Isabelle C.; Maass, Alexander H.


    Left bundle branch block (LBBB) is considered a marker of underlying structural cardiac disease. To determine whether LBBB is cause or consequence of deterioration of left ventricular (LV) function is difficult as both are often diagnosed concomitantly. We discuss a patient where reversal of LBBB

  15. Scalable synthesis of aligned carbon nanotubes bundles using green natural precursor: neem oil (United States)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Tiwari, Radhey Shyam; Srivastava, Onkar Nath


    Practical application of aligned carbon nanotubes (ACNTs) would have to be determined by a matter of its economical and large-scale preparation. In this study, neem oil (also named Margoaa oil, extracted from the seeds of the neem-- Azadirachta indica) was used as carbon source to fabricate the bundles of ACNTs. ACNTs have been synthesized by spray pyrolysis of neem oil and ferrocene mixture at 825°C. The major components of neem oil are hydrocarbon with less amount of oxygen, which provided the precursor species in spray pyrolysis growth of CNTs. The bundles of ACNTs have been grown directly inside the quartz tube. The as-grown ACNTs have been characterized through Raman spectroscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopic (SEM/TEM) techniques. SEM images reveal that the bundles of ACNTs are densely packed and are of several microns in length. High-resolution TEM analysis reveals these nanotubes to be multi-walled CNTs. These multi-walled CNTs were found to have inner diameter between 15 and 30 nm. It was found that present technique gives high yield with high density of bundles of ACNTs.

  16. Scalable synthesis of aligned carbon nanotubes bundles using green natural precursor: neem oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Rajesh


    Full Text Available Abstract Practical application of aligned carbon nanotubes (ACNTs would have to be determined by a matter of its economical and large-scale preparation. In this study, neem oil (also named Margoaa oil, extracted from the seeds of the neem--Azadirachta indica was used as carbon source to fabricate the bundles of ACNTs. ACNTs have been synthesized by spray pyrolysis of neem oil and ferrocene mixture at 825°C. The major components of neem oil are hydrocarbon with less amount of oxygen, which provided the precursor species in spray pyrolysis growth of CNTs. The bundles of ACNTs have been grown directly inside the quartz tube. The as-grown ACNTs have been characterized through Raman spectroscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopic (SEM/TEM techniques. SEM images reveal that the bundles of ACNTs are densely packed and are of several microns in length. High-resolution TEM analysis reveals these nanotubes to be multi-walled CNTs. These multi-walled CNTs were found to have inner diameter between 15 and 30 nm. It was found that present technique gives high yield with high density of bundles of ACNTs.

  17. Wind Tunnel Tests on Aerodynamic Characteristics of Ice-Coated 4-Bundled Conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xin-min


    Full Text Available Wind tunnel tests were carried out to obtain the static aerodynamic characteristics of crescent iced 4-bundled conductors with different ice thicknesses, initial ice accretion angles, bundle spaces, and wind attack angles. The test models were made of the actual conductors and have a real rough surface. Test results show that the influence of wake interference on the drag coefficients of leeward subconductors is obvious. The interference angle range is larger than 20° and the drag coefficient curves of leeward subconductors have a sudden decrease phenomenon at some certain wind attack angles. The absolute value of the lift and moment coefficient increases with the increase of the ice thickness. In addition, the galloping of the iced subconductor may occur at the angle of wind attack near ±20° and the wake increases the moment coefficient. The variation of initial ice accretion angle has a significant influence on the aerodynamic coefficients. The aerodynamic coefficient curves exhibit a “moving” phenomenon at different initial ice accretion angles. The bundle spaces have a great influence on the moment coefficient of leeward thin ice-coated conductors. With the increase of ice thickness, the bundle spaces generally have little influence on the aerodynamic coefficients.

  18. Hydrodynamic Experiments for a Flow Distribution of a 61-pin Wire-wrapped Rod Bundle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, S. K.; Euh, D. J.; Choi, H. S.; Kim, H. M.; Ko, Y. J.; Lee, D. W.; Lee, H. Y.; Choi, S. R. [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    Fuel assembly of the SFR (Sodium-cooled Fast breeder Reactor) type reactor generally has wire spacers which are wrapped around each fuel pin helically in axial direction. The configuration of a helical wire spacer guarantees the fuel rods integrity by providing the bundle rigidity, proper spacing between rods and promoting coolant mixing between subchannels. It is important to understand the flow characteristics in such a triangular array wire wrapped rod bundle in a hexagonal duct. The experimental work has been undertaken to quantify the friction and mixing parameters which characterize the flow distribution in subchannels for the KAERI's own bundle geometric configuration. This work presents the hydrodynamic experimental results for the flow distribution and the pressure drop in subchannels of a 61-pin wire wrapped rod bundle which has been fabricated considering the hydraulic similarity of the reference reactor. Hydrodynamic experiments for a 61-pin wire wrapped test assembly has been performed to provide the data of a flow distribution and pressure losses in subchannels for verifying the analysis capability of subchannel analysis codes for a KAERI's own prototype SFR reactor. Three type of sampling probes have been specially designed to conserve the shape of the flow area for each type of subchannels. All 126 subchannels have been measured to identify the characteristics of the flow distribution in a 37-pin rod assembly. Pressure drops at the interior and the edge subchannels have been also measured to recognize the friction losses of each type of subchannels.

  19. Strong fascin expression promotes metastasis independent of its F-actin bundling activity. (United States)

    Heinz, Lisa S; Muhs, Stefanie; Schiewek, Johanna; Grüb, Saskia; Nalaskowski, Marcus; Lin, Yuan-Na; Wikman, Harriet; Oliveira-Ferrer, Leticia; Lange, Tobias; Wellbrock, Jasmin; Konietzny, Anja; Mikhaylova, Marina; Windhorst, Sabine


    High expression of the actin bundling protein Fascin increases the malignancy of tumor cells. Here we show that fascin expression is up-regulated in more malignant sub-cell lines of MDA-MB-231 cells as compared to parental cells. Since also parental MDA-MB-231 cells exhibit high fascin levels, increased fascin expression was termed as "hyperexpression". To examine the effect of fascin hyperexpression, fascin was hyperexpressed in parental MDA-MB-231 cells and metastasis was analyzed in NOD scid gamma (NSG) mice. In addition, the effect of fascin mutants with inactive or constitutively active actin bundling activity was examined. Unexpectedly, we found that hyperexpression of both, wildtype (wt) and mutant fascin strongly increased metastasis in vivo , showing that the effect of fascin hyperexpression did not depend on its actin bundling activity. Cellular assays revealed that hyperexpression of wt and mutant fascin increased adhesion of MDA-MB-231 cells while transmigration and proliferation were not affected. Since it has been shown that fascin controls adhesion by directly interacting with microtubules ( MTs), we analyzed if fascin hyperexpression affects MT dynamics. We found that at high concentrations fascin significantly increased MT dynamics in cells and in cell-free approaches. In summary our data show that strong expression of fascin in breast cancer cells increases metastasis independent of its actin bundling activity. Thus, it seems that the mechanism of fascin-stimulated metastasis depends on its concentration.

  20. General Equilibrium Model with a Convex Cone as the Set of Commodity Bundles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schalk, S.


    In this paper, we present a model for an exchange economy which is an extension of the classical model as introduced by Arrow and Debreu.In the classical model, there is a nite number of commodi- ties and a nite number of consumers.The commodities are treated separately, and so a commodity bundle is

  1. Fascial bundles of the infraspinatus fascia: anatomy, function, and clinical considerations. (United States)

    Moccia, David; Nackashi, Andrew A; Schilling, Rebecca; Ward, Peter J


    The infraspinatus fascia is a tough sheet of connective tissue that covers the infraspinatus fossa of the scapula and the muscle within. Muscle fibers originate from the fossa and fascia and then travel laterally to insert on the greater tubercle of the humerus. Frequently the infraspinatus fascia is quickly removed to appreciate the underlying muscle, but the fascia is an interesting and complex structure in its own right. Despite having a characteristic set of fascial bundles, no contemporary anatomy texts or atlases describe the fascia in detail. The infraspinatus fascia was dissected in detail in 11 shoulders, to characterize the fascial bundles and connections that contribute to it. Thereafter, 70 shoulders were dissected to tabulate the variability of the fascial bundles and connections. Six characteristic features of the infraspinatus fascia were noted: a medial band, an inferior-lateral band, and superior-lateral band of fascia, insertion of the posterior deltoid into the infraspinatus fascia, a transverse connection from the posterior deltoid muscle to the infraspinatus fascia, and a retinacular sheet deep to the deltoid and superficial to the infraspinatus and teres minor muscles. Although other structures of the shoulder are more frequently injured, the infraspinatus fascia is involved in compartment syndromes and the fascial bundles of this structure are certain to impact the biomechanical function of the muscles of the posterior shoulder. © 2015 Anatomical Society.

  2. The Development of Lexical Bundle Accuracy and Production in English Second Language Speakers (United States)

    Crossley, Scott; Salsbury, Thomas Lee


    Six adult, second language (L2) English learners were observed over a period of one year to explore the development of lexical bundles (i.e., bigrams) in naturally produced, oral English. Total bigrams produced by the L2 learners over the year of observation that were shared with native speakers were compared using a frequency index to explore L2…

  3. Cu(II) Binding to the Peptide Ala-His-His, a Chimera of the Canonical Cu(II)-Binding Motifs Xxx-His and Xxx-Zzz-His. (United States)

    Gonzalez, Paulina; Vileno, Bertrand; Bossak, Karolina; El Khoury, Youssef; Hellwig, Petra; Bal, Wojciech; Hureau, Christelle; Faller, Peter


    Peptides and proteins with the N-terminal motifs NH 2 -Xxx-His and NH 2 -Xxx-Zzz-His form well-established Cu(II) complexes. The canonical peptides are Gly-His-Lys and Asp-Ala-His-Lys (from the wound healing factor and human serum albumin, respectively). Cu(II) is bound to NH 2 -Xxx-His via three nitrogens from the peptide and an external ligand in the equatorial plane (called 3N form here). In contrast, Cu(II) is bound to NH 2 -Xxx-Zzz-His via four nitrogens from the peptide in the equatorial plane (called 4N form here). These two motifs are not mutually exclusive, as the peptides with the sequence NH 2 -Xxx-His-His contain both of them. However, this chimera has never been fully explored. In this work, we use a multispectroscopic approach to analyze the Cu(II) binding to the chimeric peptide Ala-His-His (AHH). AHH is capable of forming the 3N- and 4N-type complexes in a pH dependent manner. The 3N form predominates at pH ∼ 4-6.5 and the 4N form at ∼ pH 6.5-10. NMR experiments showed that at pH 8.5, where Cu(II) is almost exclusively bound in the 4N form, the Cu(II)-exchange between AHH or the amidated AHH-NH 2 is fast, in comparison to the nonchimeric 4N form (AAH). Together, the results show that the chimeric AHH can access both Cu(II) coordination types, that minor changes in the second (or further) coordination sphere can impact considerably the equilibrium between the forms, and that Cu kinetic exchange is fast even when Cu-AHH is mainly in the 4N form.

  4. [Dr. Friedrich Keesbacher (1831-1901) ; a Tyrolean physician practicing in Slovenia. On the occasion of his 170th birthday and 100th anniversary of his death]. (United States)

    Slavec, Z Z


    With his exceptional personality, his wide knowledge and expertise, his social involvement and his generous spirit, Dr. Friedrich Keesbacher left an indelible mark on Ljubljana and Carniola. His life and work, his medical career in Ljubljana, his teaching and research work, and his involvement in both public health and health organisation are described in this jubilee commemoration. Beyond that, he was also a great connoisseur and lover of music, writing about both it and the philharmonic association of Ljubljana. He was an eminently learned and socially involved doctor of his time.

  5. Design of antimicrobial stewardship care bundles on the high dependency unit. (United States)

    Coll, Alison; Kinnear, Moira; Kinnear, Anne


    Antimicrobial guidelines aim to optimise treatment and minimise development of resistance. Care bundles support the implementation of local guidelines. Pharmacist identification of where in the prescribing, monitoring and documentation process, the quality of antimicrobial management in a High Dependency Unit of a large teaching hospital could be improved and design of antimicrobial care bundles for initiation and de-escalation of therapy to standardise care and improve practice. This study was conducted in a 10-bed, mixed medical-surgical HDU in a large Scottish (UK) teaching hospital. Quality indicators (n = 30) were agreed through multidisciplinary team review with reference to the evidence base, national strategy and local policy. Adherence to these quality indicators was measured before and after the pharmacist's contributions. Areas of non-adherence to quality indicators were used to design the care bundles. Adherence to the quality indicators before and after the pharmacist's action. Categorisation of pharmaceutical care issues ('check', 'change in drug therapy' and 'change in drug therapy process') were quantified. From 134 prescriptions, the pharmacist undertook 1,447 actions to ensure adherence to the 30 indicators. Adherence was very good (85.3 % CI 83.5, 87.1), but would have been unsatisfactory (53.5 % CI 50.9, 56.1) without the pharmacist's action (p antimicrobial prescribing quality indicators agreed by the multidisciplinary team. Prompts have been identified from the pharmaceutical care process and applied in the design of two antimicrobial care bundles proposed to support adherence with antimicrobial prescribing policies and guidelines.

  6. Input modelling of ASSERT-PV V2R8M1 for RUFIC fuel bundle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Joo Hwan; Suk, Ho Chun


    This report describes the input modelling for subchannel analysis of CANFLEX-RU (RUFIC) fuel bundle which has been developed for an advanced fuel bundle of CANDU-6 reactor, using ASSERT-PV V2R8M1 code. Execution file of ASSERT-PV V2R8M1 code was recently transferred from AECL under JRDC agreement between KAERI and AECL. SSERT-PV V2R8M1 which is quite different from COBRA-IV-i code has been developed for thermalhydraulic analysis of CANDU-6 fuel channel by subchannel analysis method and updated so that 43-element CANDU fuel geometry can be applied. Hence, ASSERT code can be applied to the subchannel analysis of RUFIC fuel bundle. The present report was prepared for ASSERT input modelling of RUFIC fuel bundle. Since the ASSERT results highly depend on user's input modelling, the calculation results may be quite different among the user's input models. The objective of the present report is the preparation of detail description of the background information for input data and gives credibility of the calculation results.

  7. Dynamic critical behavior of failure and plastic deformation in the random fiber bundle model. (United States)

    Pradhan, S; Bhattacharyya, P; Chakrabarti, B K


    The random fiber bundle (RFB) model, with the strength of the fibers distributed uniformly within a finite interval, is studied under the assumption of global load sharing among all unbroken fibers of the bundle. At any fixed value of the applied stress sigma (load per fiber initially present in the bundle), the fraction U(t)(sigma) of fibers that remain unbroken at successive time steps t is shown to follow simple recurrence relations. The model is found to have stable fixed point U*, filled (sigma) for applied stress in the range 0 point sigma = sigma(c), one finds strict power law decay (with time t) of the fraction of unbroken fibers U(t)(sigma(c)) (as t--> infinity). The avalanche size distribution for this mean-field dynamics of failure at sigma < sigma(c) has been studied. The elastic response of the RFB model has also been studied analytically for a specific probability distribution of fiber strengths, where the bundle shows plastic behavior before complete failure, following an initial linear response.

  8. Reversibility and Viscoelastic Properties of Micropillar Supported and Oriented Magnesium Bundled F-Actin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo Maier

    Full Text Available Filamentous actin is one of the most important cytoskeletal elements. Not only is it responsible for the elastic properties of many cell types, but it also plays a vital role in cellular adhesion and motility. Understanding the bundling kinetics of actin filaments is important in the formation of various cytoskeletal structures, such as filopodia and stress fibers. Utilizing a unique pillar-structured microfluidic device, we investigated the time dependence of bundling kinetics of pillar supported free-standing actin filaments. Microparticles attached to the filaments allowed the measurement of thermal motion, and we found that bundling takes place at lower concentrations than previously found in 3-dimensional actin gels, i.e. actin filaments formed bundles in the presence of 5-12 mM of magnesium chloride in a time-dependent manner. The filaments also displayed long term stability for up to hours after removing the magnesium ions from the buffer, which suggests that there is an extensive hysteresis between cation induced crosslinking and decrosslinking.

  9. Thermal conductivity of low temperature grown vertical carbon nanotube bundles measured using the three-? method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vollebregt, S.; Banerjee, S.; Beenakker, K.; Ishihara, R.


    The thermal conductivity of as-grown vertical multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNT) bundles fabricated at low temperature (500?°C) was measured using a vertical 3?-method. For this, CNT were selectively grown inside an oxide opening and sandwiched between two metal electrodes. The validity of the

  10. A global verification study of a quasi-static knee model with multi-bundle ligaments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mommersteeg, TJA; Blankevoort, L; Kooloos, JGM; Kauer, JMG; Maathuis, PGM


    The ligaments of the knee consist of fiber bundles with variable orientations, lengths and mechanical properties. In concept, however, these structures were too often seen as homogeneous structures, which are either stretched or slack during knee motions. In previous studies, we proposed a new

  11. Processing Advantages of Lexical Bundles: Evidence from Self-Paced Reading and Sentence Recall Tasks (United States)

    Tremblay, Antoine; Derwing, Bruce; Libben, Gary; Westbury, Chris


    This article examines the extent to which lexical bundles (LBs; i.e., frequently recurring strings of words that often span traditional syntactic boundaries) are stored and processed holistically. Three self-paced reading experiments compared sentences containing LBs (e.g., "in the middle of the") and matched control sentence fragments (e.g., "in…

  12. Bundling of Intellectual Capital within Human Resource Shared Services as a Mechanism to Create Value

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijerink, Jeroen Gerard; Bondarouk, Tatiana; Looise, Jan C.


    Human Resource Shared Services (HRSS) are increasingly established to reap the benefits of both centralization and decentralization. Such benefits are to be expected, as HRSS centrally bundle intellectual capital and offer HR services that are adapted to the needs of clients and end-users. As a

  13. Three-dimensional Effects of Turburlent Flow in an In-Line Tube Bundle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Knud Erik


    Velocities have been measured with laser Doppler anemometry between tubes in cross-flow in a small in-line tube bundle with longitudinal to transverse pitches of 1.5Dx1.8D and a Reynolds number based on mean velocity in minimum flow section of Re=30000. At most locations a single recirculation zone...

  14. A DEA Approach for Selecting a Bundle of Tickets for Performing Arts Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldin, Andrea


    decision is modelled on the basis of two random variables: the available time and the reservation price per perfomance. The super-efficiency DEA model will be implemented in order to find the most efficient combination of events to be bundled, defined as the one that offers the most favourable trade...

  15. Graphitization of single-wall nanotube bundles at extreme conditions: Collapse or coalescence route

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colonna, F.; Fasolino, A.; Meijer, E.J.


    We determine the reaction phase diagram and the transformation mechanism of (5,5) and (10,10) single-walled carbon nanotube bundles up to 20 GPa and 4000 K. We use Monte Carlo simulations, based on the state-of-the-art reactive potential LCBOPII, that incorporates both covalent and van der Waals

  16. Electrocardiographic markers of left ventricular systolic dysfunction in patients with left bundle branch block. (United States)

    Deniz, Ali; Özmen, Çağlar; Aktaş, Halil; Berk, İlayda Gül; Deveci, Onur Sinan; Çağlıyan, Çağlar Emre; Eker Akıllı, Rabia; Kanadaşı, Mehmet; Demir, Mesut; Usal, Ayhan


    Although some patients with left bundle branch block (LBBB) have structural heart diseases, some patients with LBBB have "normal hearts". The electrocardiography (ECG) criteria of LBBB in reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) have not been defined completely. The main purpose of this study was to differentiate patients with reduced LVEF from patients with normal left ventricular systolic function simply by analysing 12-lead ECG. Subjects admitted to our hospital with LBBB in their ECG were included in the study. The patients were categorised according to their left ventricular systolic function as group 1 (LVEF ≥ 50%) and group 2 (LVEF bundle branch, and concordance/discordance of T waves in leads V5, V6, or D1 were recorded. The ECG findings of the two groups were compared. One hundred consecutive patients with LBBB were included in the study (male/female: 56/44, age: 66 ± 15 years). In the whole group, there were 35 patients with normal left ventricular systolic function (LVEF ≥ 50%), and 65 patients had LVEF below 50%. 80% of male patients with LBBB and 45% of female patients with LBBB had their LVEF below 50% (p bundle branch was more frequent in group 2 (29% in group 1 vs. 52% in group 2, p = 0.03). Male gender, QRS duration greater than 140 ms, discordant LBBB, and residual conduction in the left bundle branch seem to be markers of reduced LVEF in patients with LBBB.

  17. The Stochastic Grid Bundling Method :Efficient pricing of Bermudan options and their Greeks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Jain (Shashi); C.W. Oosterlee (Cornelis)


    htmlabstractThis paper describes a practical simulation-based algorithm, which we call the Stochastic Grid Bundling Metho d(SGBM) for pricing multdimensional Bermudan (i.e.discretely exercisable) options. The method generates a direct estimator of the option price, an optimal early-exercise policy

  18. Holding the Hunger Games Hostage at the Gym: An Evaluation of Temptation Bundling. (United States)

    Milkman, Katherine L; Minson, Julia A; Volpp, Kevin G M


    We introduce and evaluate the effectiveness of temptation bundling-a method for simultaneously tackling two types of self-control problems by harnessing consumption complementarities. We describe a field experiment measuring the impact of bundling instantly gratifying but guilt-inducing "want" experiences (enjoying page-turner audiobooks) with valuable "should" behaviors providing delayed rewards (exercising). We explore whether such bundles increase should behaviors and whether people would pay to create these restrictive bundles. Participants were randomly assigned to a full treatment condition with gym-only access to tempting audio novels, an intermediate treatment involving encouragement to restrict audiobook enjoyment to the gym, or a control condition. Initially, full and intermediate treatment participants visited the gym 51% and 29% more frequently, respectively, than control participants, but treatment effects declined over time (particularly following Thanksgiving). After the study, 61% of participants opted to pay to have gym-only access to iPods containing tempting audiobooks, suggesting demand for this commitment device.

  19. A mathematical description of nerve fiber bundle trajectories and their variability in the human retina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansonius, N. M.; Nevalainen, J.; Selig, B.; Zangwill, L. M.; Sample, P. A.; Budde, W. M.; Jonas, J. B.; Lagreze, W. A.; Airaksinen, P. J.; Vonthein, R.; Levin, L. A.; Paetzold, J.; Schiefer, U.


    We developed a mathematical model wherein retinal nerve fiber trajectories can be described and the corresponding inter-subject variability analyzed. The model was based on traced nerve fiber bundle trajectories extracted from 55 fundus photographs of 55 human subjects. The model resembled the

  20. Haemodynamic Benefit of Cardiac Resynchronisation Therapy Requires Left Bundle Branch Block: A Case Report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogaard, M.D.; Leenders, G.E.H.; Doevendans, P.A.F.M.; Meine, M.

    A 55-year-old woman with dilated cardiomyopathy and rate-dependent left bundle branch block had a cardiac resynchronisation therapy (CRT) device implanted. During implantation, the maximum rate of left ventricular pressure rise (dP/dtmax) was measured invasively. This case presents

  1. Physiologic Insights and Clinical Consequences of Mechanical Discoordination in Left Bundle Brranch Block

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenders, G.E.H.


    Conduction disturbances are present in a large number of heart failure patients. In particular left bundle branch block has subsequent deleterious effects on cardiac structure, function, and efficiency. Cardiac resynchronization therapy is a device based therapy that aims to improve cardiac

  2. Electrocardiographic imaging-based recognition of possible induced bundle branch blocks during transcatheter aortic valve implantations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, P.M. van; Proniewska, K.; Maugenest, A.M.; Mieghem, N.M. van; Maan, A.C.; Jaegere, P.P. de; Bruining, N.


    AIMS: Conventional electrocardiogram (ECG)-based diagnosis of left bundle branch block (LBBB) in patients with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is ambiguous. Left ventricular hypertrophy is often seen in patients with severe aortic stenosis in which a transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI)

  3. A Bundle Protocol to Reduce the Incidence of Periprosthetic Joint Infections After Total Joint Arthroplasty: A Single-Center Experience. (United States)

    Bullock, Matthew W; Brown, Matthew L; Bracey, Daniel N; Langfitt, Maxwell K; Shields, John S; Lang, Jason E


    Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) represents a devastating complication of total hip arthroplasty (THA) or total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Modifiable patient risk factors as well as various intraoperative and postoperative variables have been associated with risk of PJI. In 2011, our institution formulated a "bundle" to optimize patient outcomes after THA and TKA. The purpose of this report is to describe the "bundle" protocol we implemented for primary THA and TKA patients and to analyze its impact on rates of PJI and readmission. Our bundle protocol for primary THA and TKA patients is conceptually organized about 3 chronological periods of patient care: preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative. The institutional total joint database and electronic medical record were reviewed to identify all primary THAs and TKAs performed in the 2 years before and following implementation of the bundle. Rates of PJI and readmission were then calculated. Thirteen of 908 (1.43%) TKAs performed before the bundle became infected compared to only 1 of 890 (0.11%) TKAs performed after bundle implementation (P = .0016). Ten of 641 (1.56%) THAs performed before the bundle became infected, which was not statistically different from the 4 of 675 (0.59%) THAs performed after the bundle that became infected (P = .09). The bundle protocol we describe significantly reduced PJIs at our institution, which we attribute to patient selection, optimization of modifiable risk factors, and our perioperative protocol. We believe the bundle concept represents a systematic way to improve patient outcomes and increase value in total joint arthroplasty. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Diversity in the organization of elastin bundles and intramembranous muscles in bat wings. (United States)

    Cheney, Jorn A; Allen, Justine J; Swartz, Sharon M


    Unlike birds and insects, bats fly with wings composed of thin skin that envelops the bones of the forelimb and spans the area between the limbs, digits, and sometimes the tail. This skin is complex and unusual; it is thinner than typical mammalian skin and contains organized bundles of elastin and embedded skeletal muscles. These elements are likely responsible for controlling the shape of the wing during flight and contributing to the aerodynamic capabilities of bats. We examined the arrangement of two macroscopic architectural elements in bat wings, elastin bundles and wing membrane muscles, to assess the diversity in bat wing skin morphology. We characterized the plagiopatagium and dactylopatagium of 130 species from 17 families of bats using cross-polarized light imaging. This method revealed structures with distinctive relative birefringence, heterogeneity of birefringence, variation in size, and degree of branching. We used previously published anatomical studies and tissue histology to identify birefringent structures, and we analyzed their architecture across taxa. Elastin bundles, muscles, neurovasculature, and collagenous fibers are present in all species. Elastin bundles are oriented in a predominantly spanwise or proximodistal direction, and there are five characteristic muscle arrays that occur within the plagiopatagium, far more muscle than typically recognized. These results inform recent functional studies of wing membrane architecture, support the functional hypothesis that elastin bundles aid wing folding and unfolding, and further suggest that all bats may use these architectural elements for flight. All species also possess numerous muscles within the wing membrane, but the architecture of muscle arrays within the plagiopatagium varies among families. To facilitate present and future discussion of these muscle arrays, we refine wing membrane muscle nomenclature in a manner that reflects this morphological diversity. The architecture of the

  5. Thermal-hydraulic design of tungsten rod bundles for the APT 3He neutron spallation target (United States)

    Willcutt, Gordon J. E.


    A preconceptual design has been developed for the 3He Target/Blanket System for the Accelerator Production of Tritium Project. The design use tungsten wire-wrapped rods to produce neutrons when the rods are struck by a proton beam. The rods are contained in bundles inside hexagonal Inconel ducts and cooled by D2O. Rod bundles are grouped in patterns in the proton beam inside a chamber filled with 3He that is transmuted to tritium by the neutrons coming from the tungsten rods. Additional 3He is transmuted in a blanket region surrounding the helium chamber. This paper describes the initial thermal-hydraulic design and testing that has been completed to confirm the designed calculations for pressure drop through the bundle and heat transfer in the bundle. Heat transfer tests were run to verify steady-state operation. These tests were followed by increasing power until nucleate boiling occurs to determine operating margins. Changes that improve the initial design are described.

  6. Right bundle branch block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bussink, Barbara E; Holst, Anders Gaarsdal; Jespersen, Lasse


    AimsTo determine the prevalence, predictors of newly acquired, and the prognostic value of right bundle branch block (RBBB) and incomplete RBBB (IRBBB) on a resting 12-lead electrocardiogram in men and women from the general population.Methods and resultsWe followed 18 441 participants included.......5%/2.3% in women, P Right bundle branch block was associated with significantly...... increased all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in both genders with age-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) of 1.31 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.11-1.54] and 1.87 (95% CI, 1.48-2.36) in the gender pooled analysis with little attenuation after multiple adjustment. Right bundle branch block was associated...

  7. Pierced Lasso Bundles are a new class of knot-like motifs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellinor Haglund


    Full Text Available A four-helix bundle is a well-characterized motif often used as a target for designed pharmaceutical therapeutics and nutritional supplements. Recently, we discovered a new structural complexity within this motif created by a disulphide bridge in the long-chain helical bundle cytokine leptin. When oxidized, leptin contains a disulphide bridge creating a covalent-loop through which part of the polypeptide chain is threaded (as seen in knotted proteins. We explored whether other proteins contain a similar intriguing knot-like structure as in leptin and discovered 11 structurally homologous proteins in the PDB. We call this new helical family class the Pierced Lasso Bundle (PLB and the knot-like threaded structural motif a Pierced Lasso (PL. In the current study, we use structure-based simulation to investigate the threading/folding mechanisms for all the PLBs along with three unthreaded homologs as the covalent loop (or lasso in leptin is important in folding dynamics and activity. We find that the presence of a small covalent loop leads to a mechanism where structural elements slipknot to thread through the covalent loop. Larger loops use a piercing mechanism where the free terminal plugs through the covalent loop. Remarkably, the position of the loop as well as its size influences the native state dynamics, which can impact receptor binding and biological activity. This previously unrecognized complexity of knot-like proteins within the helical bundle family comprises a completely new class within the knot family, and the hidden complexity we unraveled in the PLBs is expected to be found in other protein structures outside the four-helix bundles. The insights gained here provide critical new elements for future investigation of this emerging class of proteins, where function and the energetic landscape can be controlled by hidden topology, and should be take into account in ab initio predictions of newly identified protein targets.

  8. Higher order jet prolongations type gauge natural bundles over vector bundles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kurek


    Full Text Available Let $rgeq 3$ and $mgeq 2$ be natural numbers and $E$ be a vector bundle with $m$-dimensional basis. We find all gauge natural bundles ``similar" to the $r$-jet prolongation bundle $J^rE$ of $E$. We also find all gauge natural bundles ``similar" to the vector $r$-tangent bundle $(J^r_{fl}(E,R_0^*$ of $E$.

  9. Impact of 6-Hour Sepsis Resuscitation Bundle Compliance on Hospital Mortality in a Saudi Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javed I. Memon


    Full Text Available Purpose. To assess the effect of improved compliance with 6-hour sepsis resuscitation bundle on mortality in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock. Materials and Methods. A quasi-experimental prospective study was conducted at a 10-bedded combined medical and surgical intensive care unit. The historical group included all consecutive patients with severe sepsis and septic shock admitted from January 2008 to March 2009. Intervention included evidence-based written sepsis pathway, antibiotic recommendations, and an educational program.The post-intervention group included all consecutive patients admitted from July 2009 to June 2011. The primary outcome measures were the overall compliance to seven 6-hour sepsis resuscitation bundle elements and 30-day hospital mortality. There were 99 patients in the historical group and 199 in the post-intervention group. Results. The baseline patients' characteristics were similar. Overall compliance to all seven sepsis resuscitation bundle elements in historical group was 5.1% [95% confidence interval (CI, 2.1–11.3] which improved after intervention to 23.6% (95% CI, 17.9–30.1; . The overall compliance to 6-hour sepsis resuscitation bundle elements was associated with improved survival [odds ratio (OR, 5.8 (95% CI, 2.2–15.1; ]. 30-day hospital mortality reduced from 31.3% in the historical group to 21.1% in the intervention group; . Conclusion. Improvement in compliance to 6-hour sepsis resuscitation bundle was associated with a reduction in 30-day hospital mortality.

  10. Management of acute Achilles tendon rupture with tendon-bundle technique. (United States)

    Li, Chun-Guang; Li, Bing; Yang, Yun-Feng


    Objective * These authors contributed equally to this work. To explore tendon-bundle technique for treating Achilles tendon rupture with no defects. Methods Patients with full unilateral Achilles tendon rupture with no defects were included. The Achilles tendon medial edge surgical repair approach was used, revealing horsetail-like rupture bundles. Tendon bundles were anatomically realigned and repaired end-to-end using 5-0 sutures. Patients were followed-up for 1 year, and assessed for differences between the repaired versus healthy limb. Results Out of 24 patients (18 male, 6 female; aged 19-56 years) at 1 year following surgery, mean American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society score was 92.4 ± 5.9; mean differences between the surgically repaired versus contralateral side in dorsiflexion and plantarflexion angle were 3.5 ± 2.3° and 5.6 ± 3.2°, respectively; mean difference in calf circumference between the two sides was 0.9 ± 0.5 cm; and mean increase in Achilles tendon width versus the healthy side was 0.8 ± 0.2 cm. By 1 year post-surgery, there were no significant between-side differences in dorsiflexion and plantarflexion angle, or calf circumference. Conclusions Tendon-bundle surgery resulted in good ankle function restoration and low complication rates. Tendon-bundle surgery may reduce blood supply destruction and maximally preserve Achilles tendon length, and may be effective for treating Achilles tendon rupture with no defects.

  11. Weibull statistical analysis of tensile strength of vascular bundle in inner layer of moso bamboo culm in molecular parasitology and vector biology. (United States)

    Le, Cui; Wanxi, Peng; Zhengjun, Sun; Lili, Shang; Guoning, Chen


    Bamboo is a radial gradient variation composite material against parasitology and vector biology, but the vascular bundles in inner layer are evenly distributed. The objective is to determine the regular size pattern and Weibull statistical analysis of the vascular bundle tensile strength in inner layer of Moso bamboo. The size and shape of vascular bundles in inner layer are similar, with an average area about 0.1550 mm2. A statistical evaluation of the tensile strength of vascular bundle was conducted by means of Weibull statistics, the results show that the Weibull modulus m is 6.1121 and the accurate reliability assessment of vascular bundle is determined.

  12. Diego Rivera and his extraordinary art of medicine and surgery. (United States)

    Toledo-Pereyra, Luis H


    Diego Rivera (1886-1957), the superb Mexican muralist, made significant contributions to the art of medicine and surgery unmatched by any other painter of his stature in the world. Rivera intensively embraced medical and surgical knowledge through his legendary artistic career in a manner never seen before. Rivera's first surgical theme can be traced to 1920, when he attended and drew the wonders of the surgical operation of Dr. Fauré in Paris. The artist was particularly moved by surgical and medical events, and this surgical clinic enhanced his appetite for these important professional activities. In 1932, Rivera introduced several medico-surgical panels in Detroit automobile industry frescos. Among them, vaccination, the human embryo, the pharmaceutical industry, the germ cell, and surgery are the most representative themes included. Two years later, in Man, Controller of the Universe, the artist emphasized the effect disease and technology had on the rest of humanity. In 1944, Rivera produced The History of Cardiology, two movable extraordinary frescos that represent the history of this field of medicine. In 1953, the creative vein of this prodigious genius created The History of Medicine in Mexico, in which medicine and surgery are exceptionally well-conceived and analyzed. In brief, Rivera incorporated the best of his art and knowledge into the better understanding of medicine and surgery as he saw it during his outstanding artistic life.

  13. Effects of Angle of Rotation on Pool Boiling Heat Transfer of V-shape Tube Bundle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Myeong-Gie [Andong National University, Andong (Korea, Republic of)


    The most important facility for the systems is a passive heat exchanger that transfers core decay heat to the cold water in a water storage tank under atmospheric pressure. Since the space for the installation of the heat exchanger is usually limited, developing more efficient heat exchangers is important. In general, pool boiling is generated on the surface of the heat exchanging tube. The major design parameter of the heat exchanger is a tube arrangement. The upper tube is affected by the lower tube and the enhancement of the heat transfer on the upper tube is estimated by the bundle effect. Since heat transfer is related to the conditions of a tube surface, bundle geometries, and a liquid type, lots of studies have been carried out for the combinations of those parameters. An experimental study was performed to investigate the effects of the angle of rotation on pool boiling heat transfer of a V-shape tube bundle. For the test, two smooth stainless steel tubes of 19 mm outside diameter and the water at atmospheric pressure were used. The enhancement of the heat transfer is clearly observed when the angle becomes to 90° where the upper tube has the maximum region of influence by the lower tube. The convective flow and liquid agitation enhance heat transfer while the coalescence of the bubbles deteriorates heat transfer.

  14. Kepler's theory of force and his medical sources. (United States)

    Regier, Jonathan


    Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) makes extensive use of souls and spiritus in his natural philosophy. Recent studies have highlighted their importance in his accounts of celestial generation and astrology. In this study, I would like to address two pressing issues. The first is Kepler's context. The biological side of his natural philosophy is not naively Aristotelian. Instead, he is up to date with contemporary discussions in medically flavored natural philosophy. I will examine his relationship to Melanchthon's anatomical-theological Liber de anima (1552) and to Jean Femel's very popular Physiologia (1567), two Galenic sources with a noticeable impact on how he understands the functions of life. The other issue that will direct my article is force at a distance. Medical ideas deeply inform Kepler's theories of light and solar force (virtus motrix). It will become clear that they are not a hindrance even to the hardcore of his celestial physics. Instead, he makes use of soul and spiritus in order to develop a fully mathematized dynamics.

  15. [Application of HIS Hospital Management System in Medical Equipment]. (United States)

    Li, Yucheng


    To analyze the effect of HIS hospital management system in medical equipment. From April 2012 to 2013 in our hospital 5 100 sets of medical equipment as the control group, another 2013 in our hospital from April 2014 may 100 sets of medical equipment as the study group, comparative analysis of two groups of medical equipment scrap rate, usage, maintenance score and the score of benefit etc. Control group and taken to hospital information system, his research group equipment scrap rate, there was a significant difference, the research group of equipment maintenance score and efficiency scores were higher than those of the control group (P equipment maintenance score and efficiency scores were higher than those of the control group. HIS hospital management system for medical equipment management has positive clinical application value, can effectively improve the use of medical equipment, it is worth to draw and promote.

  16. Bundle Formation in Biomimetic Hydrogels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaspers, Maarten; Pape, A C H; Voets, Ilja K; Rowan, Alan E; Portale, Giuseppe; Kouwer, Paul H J


    Bundling of single polymer chains is a crucial process in the formation of biopolymer network gels that make up the extracellular matrix and the cytoskeleton. This bundled architecture leads to gels with distinctive properties, including a large-pore-size gel formation at very low concentrations and

  17. Bundle Security Protocol for ION (United States)

    Burleigh, Scott C.; Birrane, Edward J.; Krupiarz, Christopher


    This software implements bundle authentication, conforming to the Delay-Tolerant Networking (DTN) Internet Draft on Bundle Security Protocol (BSP), for the Interplanetary Overlay Network (ION) implementation of DTN. This is the only implementation of BSP that is integrated with ION.

  18. Unfolding intermediates of the mutant His-107-Tyr of human ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The mutant His-107-Tyr of human carbonic anhydrase II (HCA II) is highly unstable and has long been linked to a misfolding disease known as carbonic anhydrase deficiency syndrome (CADS). High temperature unfolding trajectories of the mutant are obtained from classical molecular dynamics simulationsand analyzed in ...

  19. Constancy of character and Paul's understanding of change in his ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Nov 21, 2010 ... doi: 10.4102/hts.v67i3.1002. I'm okay, you're not okay: Constancy of character and. Paul's understanding of change in his own and. Peter's behaviour. Author: Eric Stewart1,2. Affiliations: .... After fierce debate, the Antioch delegation and the leaders at Jerusalem reached agreements that showed 'that the ...

  20. Unfolding intermediates of the mutant His-107-Tyr of human ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srabani Taraphder

    Abstract. The mutant His-107-Tyr of human carbonic anhydrase II (HCA II) is highly unstable and has long been linked to a misfolding disease known as carbonic anhydrase deficiency syndrome (CADS). High temperature unfolding trajectories of the mutant are obtained from classical molecular dynamics simulations.

  1. Fiber bundle phase conjugate mirror (United States)

    Ward, Benjamin G.


    An improved method and apparatus for passively conjugating the phases of a distorted wavefronts resulting from optical phase mismatch between elements of a fiber laser array are disclosed. A method for passively conjugating a distorted wavefront comprises the steps of: multiplexing a plurality of probe fibers and a bundle pump fiber in a fiber bundle array; passing the multiplexed output from the fiber bundle array through a collimating lens and into one portion of a non-linear medium; passing the output from a pump collection fiber through a focusing lens and into another portion of the non-linear medium so that the output from the pump collection fiber mixes with the multiplexed output from the fiber bundle; adjusting one or more degrees of freedom of one or more of the fiber bundle array, the collimating lens, the focusing lens, the non-linear medium, or the pump collection fiber to produce a standing wave in the non-linear medium.

  2. The geometry of the tangent bundle and the relativistic kinetic theory of gases

    CERN Document Server

    Sarbach, Olivier


    This article discusses the relativistic kinetic theory for a simple collisionless gas from a geometric perspective. We start by reviewing the rich geometrical structure of the tangent bundle TM of a given spacetime manifold, including the splitting of the tangent spaces of TM into horizontal and vertical subspaces and the natural metric and symplectic structure it induces on TM. Based on these structures we introduce the Liouville vector field L and a suitable Hamiltonian function H on TM. The Liouville vector field turns out to be the Hamiltonian vector field associated to H. On the other hand, H also defines the mass shells as Lorentzian submanifolds of the tangent bundle. A simple collisionless gas is described by a distribution function on a particular mass shell, satisfying the Liouville equation. Together with the Liouville vector field the distribution function can be thought of as defining a fictitious incompressible fluid on the mass shells, with associated conserved current density. Finally, we disc...

  3. Hydrothermal synthesis of amorphous MoS2nanofiber bundles via acidification of ammonium heptamolybdate tetrahydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tharamani CN


    Full Text Available AbstractMoS2nanofiber bundles have been prepared by hydrothermal method using ammonium molybdate with sulfur source in acidic medium and maintained at 180 °C for several hours. The obtained black crystalline products are characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD, Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The PXRD pattern of the sample can be readily indexed as hexagonal 2H-MoS2. FTIR spectrum of the MoS2shows the band at 480 cm−1corresponds to the γas(Mo-S. SEM/TEM images of the samples exhibit that the MoS2nanofiber exist in bundles of 120–300 nm in diameter and 20–25 μm in length. The effects of temperature, duration and other experimental parameters on the morphology of the products are investigated.

  4. Modeling and Mechanism of Rain-Wind Induced Vibration of Bundled Conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Zhou


    Full Text Available Under the certain rain-wind conditions, bundled conductors exhibit a rain-wind induced large-amplitude vibration. This type of vibration can cause the fatigue fractures of conductors and fatigue failures of spacers, which threaten the safety operation and serviceability of high-voltage transmission line. To reveal the mechanism of rain-wind induced vibration of bundled conductors, a series of 2-dimensional CFD models about the twin bundled conductors with rivulets are developed to obtain the curves of aerodynamic coefficients with the upper rivulet angle. The influences of the forward conductor’s aerodynamic shielding and the upper rivulet’s aerodynamic characteristics on the leeward conductor are discussed. Furthermore, a 2-dimensional 3DOF model for the rain-wind induced vibration of the leeward conductor is established. The model is solved by finite element method and Newmark method, and the effects of the wind velocity and the upper rivulet’s motion on vibration amplitude of the leeward conductor are analyzed. By contrast with the wake-induced vibration, it can easily find that the characteristics of rain-wind vibration are obviously different from those of the wake-induced vibration, and the main reason of the rain-induced vibration may be due to the upper rivulet’s motion.

  5. On rationality of moduli spaces of vector bundles on real Hirzebruch ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    These projective bundles are called Hirzebruch surfaces. See Chapter. 5 of [3] for a detailed exposition on Hirzebruch surfaces. We recall the definition of the divisor C0 on P(ξ). The inclusion of OXR in OXR ⊕ L defines an irreducible effective divisor on P(ξ). This divisor will be denoted by C0. Note that C0 is defined over R.

  6. Use of ventilator associated pneumonia bundle and statistical process control chart to decrease VAP rate in Syria. (United States)

    Alsadat, Reem; Al-Bardan, Hussam; Mazloum, Mona N; Shamah, Asem A; Eltayeb, Mohamed F E; Marie, Ali; Dakkak, Abdulrahman; Naes, Ola; Esber, Faten; Betelmal, Ibrahim; Kherallah, Mazen


    Implementation of ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) bundle as a performance improvement project in the critical care units for all mechanically ventilated patients aiming to decrease the VAP rates. VAP bundle was implemented in 4 teaching hospitals after educational sessions and compliance rates along with VAP rates were monitored using statistical process control charts. VAP bundle compliance rates were steadily increasing from 33 to 80% in hospital 1, from 33 to 86% in hospital 2 and from 83 to 100% in hospital 3 during the study period. The VAP bundle was not applied in hospital 4 therefore no data was available. A target level of 95% was reached only in hospital 3. This correlated with a decrease in VAP rates from 30 to 6.4 per 1000 ventilator days in hospital 1, from 12 to 4.9 per 1000 ventilator days in hospital 3, whereas VAP rate failed to decrease in hospital 2 (despite better compliance) and it remained high around 33 per 1000 ventilator days in hospital 4 where VAP bundle was not implemented. VAP bundle has performed differently in different hospitals in our study. Prevention of VAP requires a multidimensional strategy that includes strict infection control interventions, VAP bundle implementation, process and outcome surveillance and education.

  7. ADE bundles over surfaces with ADE singularities


    Chen, Yunxia; Leung, Naichung Conan


    Given a complex projective surface with an ADE singularity and p_{g}=0, we construct ADE bundles over it and its minimal resolution. Furthermore, we descibe their minuscule representation bundles in terms of configurations of (reducible) (-1)-curves.

  8. Prevalence of Split Nerve Fiber Layer Bundles in Healthy People Imaged with Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirel Gür Güngör


    Full Text Available Objectives: The presence of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL split bundles was recently described in normal eyes scanned using scanning laser polarimetry and by histologic studies. Split bundles may resemble RNFL loss in healthy eyes. The aim of our study was to determine the prevalence of nerve fiber layer split bundles in healthy people. Materials and Methods: We imaged 718 eyes of 359 healthy persons with the spectral domain optical coherence tomography in this cross-sectional study. All eyes had intraocular pressure of 21 mmHg or less, normal appearance of the optic nerve head, and normal visual fields (Humphrey Field Analyzer 24-2 full threshold program. In our study, a bundle was defined as ‘split’ when there is localized defect not resembling a wedge defect in the RNFL deviation map with a symmetrically divided RNFL appearance on the RNFL thickness map. The classification was performed by two independent observers who used an identical set of reference examples to standardize the classification. Results: Inter-observer consensus was reached in all cases. Bilateral superior split bundles were seen in 19 cases (5.29% and unilateral superior split was observed in 15 cases (4.16%. In 325 cases (90.52% there was no split bundle. Conclusion: Split nerve fiber layer bundles, in contrast to single nerve fiber layer bundles, are not common findings in healthy eyes. In eyes with normal optic disc appearance, especially when a superior RNFL defect is observed in RNFL deviation map, the RNLF thickness map and graphs should also be examined for split nerve fiber layer bundles.

  9. Prevalence and long-term prognosis of patients with complete bundle branch block (right or left bundle branch) with normal left ventricular ejection fraction referred for stress echocardiography. (United States)

    Supariwala, Azhar A; Po, Jose Ricardo F; Mohareb, Sameh; Aslam, Farhan; Kaddaha, Firas; Mian, Zainab I; Chaudhry, Farhan; Otokiti, Ahmed; Chaudhry, Farooq A


    The prognostic value of stress echocardiography (SE) in patients with complete bundle branch blocks (BBB) with normal left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) has not been well described. We sought to determine the prognostic value of SE in patients with BBB and normal LVEF. We analyzed 7214 patients (58 ± 14 years; 57% female) with a mean follow-up time of 9 ± 4 years. Dobutamine SE was performed in 51% of patients and exercise SE was performed in 49%. All-cause mortality data were obtained from the Social Security Death Index. There were 222 (3%) patients with right bundle branch block (RBBB) and 50 (0.7%) patients with left bundle branch block (LBBB). Patients with LBBB were 3 times more likely to have an abnormal stress test after adjusting for age, gender, mode of stress test, and coronary artery disease risk factors (OR = 3.3; 95% CI: 1.86-5.92; P < 0.001). The mortality rates were 4.5%/year for patients with LBBB, 2.5%/year for patients with RBBB, and 1.9%/year for patients without BBB (P < 0.001). Among patients with a normal SE, those with LBBB had similar mortality to those without LBBB (HR = 0.9; 95% CI: 0.4-2.2; P = 0.8). Patients with LBBB and abnormal SE had more than 2 times greater risk of all-cause mortality (HR = 2.4; 95% CI: 1.4-4.2; P = 0.002). A normal stress echocardiogram in LBBB is associated with benign prognosis while those with LBBB and abnormal SE have the worst outcomes. © 2014, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Pan-European Management of Electricity Portfolios: Risks and Opportunities of Contract Bundling


    Gampert, Markus; Madlener, Reinhard


    Today’s European utilities not only focus on electricity supply, but also offer exchange-traded “structured products” or portfolio management for unbundling financial and physical risk positions. Many utilities are only able to provide these services inside of their home markets, but in the globalized economy, the need for a centrally organized pan-European portfolio management has arisen. In this paper, we analyze the problems to be overcome for establishing a European-wide bundling of elect...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In municipal solid waste, aluminum is the main nonferrous metal, approximately 80- 85% of the total nonferrous metals. The income per ton gained from aluminum recuperation is 20 times higher than from glass, steel boxes or paper recuperation. The object of this paper is the design of a 300 kN press for aluminum box bundling.

  12. Pan-European management of electricity portfolios: Risks and opportunities of contract bundling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gampert, Markus [Institute for Future Energy Consumer Needs and Behavior, Faculty of Business and Economics/E.ON Energy Research Center, RWTH Aachen University, Mathieustrasse 6, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Madlener, Reinhard, E-mail: RMadlener@eonerc.rwth-aachen.d [Institute for Future Energy Consumer Needs and Behavior, Faculty of Business and Economics/E.ON Energy Research Center, RWTH Aachen University, Mathieustrasse 6, 52074 Aachen (Germany)


    Due to the liberalization of energy markets in the European Union, today's European utilities not only focus on electricity supply, but also offer exchange-traded 'structured products' or portfolio management for unbundling financial and physical risk positions. Many utilities are only able to provide these services in their domestic markets. In a globalized economy, the need for a centrally organized pan-European portfolio management has arisen, as it allows a simplified commodity sourcing in combination with an optimized risk management. In this paper, we examine the challenges to be overcome for establishing a European-wide bundling of electricity contracts. For this purpose, a case study based on the business perspective of RWE Supply and Trading in Central and Eastern Europe is carried out. In a first step, we analyze general requirements for a pan-European bundling of electricity contracts. Then, RWE's situation in Europe is examined, based on which we finally propose a concept to meet customer demands in Central and Eastern Europe. - Research highlights: {yields} Analysis of electricity market liberalization in Central and Eastern Europe. {yields} Identification of requirements and problems for pan-European bundling of contracts. {yields} Case study based on RWE Supply and Trading perspective in Central and Eastern Europe. {yields} Model development for pan-European unbundling of financial/physical risk positions.

  13. Adaptive optics imaging of healthy and abnormal regions of retinal nerve fiber bundles of patients with glaucoma. (United States)

    Chen, Monica F; Chui, Toco Y P; Alhadeff, Paula; Rosen, Richard B; Ritch, Robert; Dubra, Alfredo; Hood, Donald C


    To better understand the nature of glaucomatous damage of the macula, especially the structural changes seen between relatively healthy and clearly abnormal (AB) retinal regions, using an adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscope (AO-SLO). Adaptive optics SLO images and optical coherence tomography (OCT) vertical line scans were obtained on one eye of seven glaucoma patients, with relatively deep local arcuate defects on the 10-2 visual field test in one (six eyes) or both hemifields (one eye). Based on the OCT images, the retinal nerve fiber (RNF) layer was divided into two regions: (1) within normal limits (WNL), relative RNF layer thickness within mean control values ±2 SD; and (2) AB, relative thickness less than -2 SD value. As seen on AO-SLO, the pattern of AB RNF bundles near the border of the WNL and AB regions differed across eyes. There were normal-appearing bundles in the WNL region of all eyes and AB-appearing bundles near the border with the AB region. This region with AB bundles ranged in extent from a few bundles to the entire AB region in the case of one eye. All other eyes had a large AB region without bundles. However, in two of these eyes, a few bundles were seen within this region of otherwise missing bundles. The AO-SLO images revealed details of glaucomatous damage that are difficult, if not impossible, to see with current OCT technology. Adaptive optics SLO may prove useful in following progression in clinical trials, or in disease management, if AO-SLO becomes widely available and easy to use. Copyright 2015 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  14. PDS4 Bundle Creation Governance Using BPMN (United States)

    Radulescu, C.; Levoe, S. R.; Algermissen, S. S.; Rye, E. D.; Hardman, S. H.


    The AMMOS-PDS Pipeline Service (APPS) provides a Bundle Builder tool, which governs the process of creating, and ultimately generates, PDS4 bundles incrementally, as science products are being generated.

  15. Speaking His Mind. Five Years of Commentaries on Higher Education. (United States)

    Trachtenberg, Stephen Joel

    This collection of speeches by Stephen Trachtenberg, President and Professor of Public Administration at the George Washington University in Washington, D.C., covers a wide variety of subjects important to higher education. Speeches include: "Reason and Heart Together" (remarks on the occasion of his inauguration as President of the…

  16. Original Synthetic Article: The modern man: a revision of his ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In spite of important anthropological data stored up to date, the recent human evolution is still a subject of great controversy. Here I present a revision of the definition of modern man and an attempt to estimate the date of his emergence. The anatomical feature criterion cannot be considered as a rigorous criterion for ...

  17. The growth process of regular radiated nanorod bundles hydroxyapatite formed by thermal aqueous solution approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Hui; Hao, Lijing; Zhao, Naru; Huang, Miaojun [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); National Engineering Research Center for Tissue Restoration and Reconstruction, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Du, Chang, E-mail: [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); National Engineering Research Center for Tissue Restoration and Reconstruction, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Wang, Yingjun, E-mail: [National Engineering Research Center for Tissue Restoration and Reconstruction, Guangzhou 510006 (China)


    Nanorod bundles of hydroxyapatite (nrHA) with ordered radiated structure was successfully prepared through hydrothermal treatment, with the hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and sodium citrate as surfactant and crystal modifier, respectively. The results showed that the citrate and CTAB played an important role in assembly of nanorods. Moreover, the pH value of the original solution also can influence the final morphology of products. The possible formation mechanism of nanorod bundle structure was discussed in detail. - Highlights: • Nanobundles of hydroxyapatite with ordered radiated structure was prepared. • CTAB regulates the nucleation and growth of crystal. • Calcium citrate modifies the formation of crystals. • Citrate promote the transformation of CTAB micelles. • Citrate causes a heteroepitaxial growth of crystals. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knyazyuk V. I


    Full Text Available The paper presents results of experimental research and analyses air-side thermal performance of combined tube bundles with cross inclined fins. The empirical correlations for heat transfer and flow friction of tubes with inclined fins at different orientation finned tubes relatively of air flow are presented. The errors of thermal and aerodynamic tests are 3-5% and 9.2%, respectively. The proposed correlations describe an experimental data with a coefficient of determination about 0.979-0.998. The impact of tubes arrangement in a bundle on energy performance of heat exchanger were analyzed using complete and local heat modeling methods at a stationary heat flux. Experimental research indicates that efficiency of inclined fins can be calculated by using the equation for cross rectangular fins with average deviation of ±5 %.

  19. Electron cryomicroscopy of E. coli reveals filament bundles involved in plasmid DNA segregation. (United States)

    Salje, Jeanne; Zuber, Benoît; Löwe, Jan


    Bipolar elongation of filaments of the bacterial actin homolog ParM drives movement of newly replicated plasmid DNA to opposite poles of a bacterial cell. We used a combination of vitreous sectioning and electron cryotomography to study this DNA partitioning system directly in native, frozen cells. The diffraction patterns from overexpressed ParM bundles in electron cryotomographic reconstructions were used to unambiguously identify ParM filaments in Escherichia coli cells. Using a low-copy number plasmid encoding components required for partitioning, we observed small bundles of three to five intracellular ParM filaments that were situated close to the edge of the nucleoid. We propose that this may indicate the capture of plasmid DNA within the periphery of this loosely defined, chromosome-containing region.

  20. Solution chemical properties and catecholase-like activity of the copper(II)-Ac-His-His-Gly-His-OH system, a relevant functional model for copper containing oxidases. (United States)

    Jancsó, A; Paksi, Z; Jakab, N; Gyurcsik, B; Rockenbauer, A; Gajda, T


    The solution chemical properties, superoxide dismutase and catecholase activity of the copper(ii)-Ac-His-His-Gly-His-OH (hhgh) complexes were studied to identify functional and structural models of copper-containing oxidases. The solution speciation was determined in the pH range 3-11 by two independent methods (potentiometry and pH-dependent EPR measurements). The results obtained by the two methods agree very well with each other and show the formation of differently protonated CuH(x)L complexes (where x= 2 ,1, 0, -1, -2, -3) in aqueous solution. The spectroscopic (UV-Vis, CD, EPR) data indicate that the coordination of the imidazole rings is a determinant factor in all these complexes. Amide coordinated complexes are dominant only above pH 8. This offers excellent possibilities for structural/functional modelling of copper(ii) containing metalloenzymes. Indeed, the {3N(im)} coordinated CuL species (pH = 6-7) has efficient superoxide dismutase-like activity. The {3N(im),OH(-)} coordinated CuH(-1)L possesses outstanding activity to catalyze the oxidation of 3,5-di-tert-butylcatechol (H(2)dtbc) by dioxygen in 86 wt% methanol-water, providing the first example that copper(ii)-peptide complexes are able to mimic copper containing oxidases.

  1. Transient Left Bundle Branch Block due to Severe Hyperkalemia. (United States)

    Kumar, Kishore; Biyyam, Madhavi; Singh, Amandeep; Bajantri, Bharat; Tariq, Hassan; Nayudu, Suresh Kumar; Chilimuri, Sridhar


    Hyperkalemia is a potentially life-threatening electrolyte imbalance that can lead to sudden death from cardiac arrhythmias and asystole. We present a case of transient left bundle branch block pattern on an electrocardiogram (ECG) secondary to hyperkalemia in a patient with history of end-stage renal disease. A 52-year-old man presented to the emergency room (ER) with chief complaints of weakness and lethargy after missing his regularly scheduled session of hemodialysis. A 12-lead ECG in the ER showed sinus tachycardia at 118 beats/min, wide QRS complexes, peaked T waves and left bundle branch block-like pattern. The initial basic metabolic panel revealed a serum potassium level of 8.8 mEq/L. Subsequently, the patient underwent emergent hemodialysis. Serum chemistry after hemodialysis showed improvement in serum potassium to 4.3 mEq/L. Repeat ECG performed after correcting potassium showed dissolution of left bundle branch block finding.

  2. The Influence of Consumer Goals and Marketing Activities on Product Bundling (United States)

    Haijun, Wang

    Upon entering a store, consumers are faced with the questions of whether to buy, what to buy, and how much to buy. Consumers include products from different categories in their decision process. Product categories can be related in different ways. Product bundling is a process that involves the choice of at least two non-substitutable items. In this research, the consumers' explicit product bundling activity at the point of sale is focused. We focuses on the retailers' perspective and therefore leaves out consumers' brand choice decisions, concentrating on purchase incidence and quantity. At the base of the current model of the exist researches, we integrate behavioural choice analysis and predictive choice modelling through the underlying behavioural models, called random utility maximization (RUM) models. The methodological contribution of this research lies therein to combine a nested logit choice model with a latent variable factor model. We point out several limitations for both theory and practice at the end.

  3. Systematic classification of the His-Me finger superfamily. (United States)

    Jablonska, Jagoda; Matelska, Dorota; Steczkiewicz, Kamil; Ginalski, Krzysztof


    The His-Me finger endonucleases, also known as HNH or ββα-metal endonucleases, form a large and diverse protein superfamily. The His-Me finger domain can be found in proteins that play an essential role in cells, including genome maintenance, intron homing, host defense and target offense. Its overall structural compactness and non-specificity make it a perfectly-tailored pathogenic module that participates on both sides of inter- and intra-organismal competition. An extremely low sequence similarity across the superfamily makes it difficult to identify and classify new His-Me fingers. Using state-of-the-art distant homology detection methods, we provide an updated and systematic classification of His-Me finger proteins. In this work, we identified over 100 000 proteins and clustered them into 38 groups, of which three groups are new and cannot be found in any existing public domain database of protein families. Based on an analysis of sequences, structures, domain architectures, and genomic contexts, we provide a careful functional annotation of the poorly characterized members of this superfamily. Our results may inspire further experimental investigations that should address the predicted activity and clarify the potential substrates, to provide more detailed insights into the fundamental biological roles of these proteins. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  4. A complex endeavour: an ethnographic study of the implementation of the Sepsis Six clinical care bundle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn Tarrant


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Implementation of the ‘Sepsis Six’ clinical care bundle within an hour of recognition of sepsis is recommended as an approach to reduce mortality in patients with sepsis, but achieving reliable delivery of the bundle has proved challenging. There remains little understanding of the barriers to reliable implementation of bundle components. We examined frontline clinical practice in implementing the Sepsis Six. Methods We conducted an ethnographic study in six hospitals participating in the Scottish Patient Safety Programme Sepsis collaborative. We conducted around 300 h of non-participant observation in emergency departments, acute medical receiving units and medical and surgical wards. We interviewed a purposive sample of 43 members of hospital staff. Data were analysed using a constant comparative approach. Results Implementation strategies to promote reliable use of the Sepsis Six primarily focused on education, engaging and motivating staff, and providing prompts for behaviour, along with efforts to ensure that equipment required was readily available. Although these strategies were successful in raising staff awareness of sepsis and engagement with implementation, our study identified that completing the bundle within an hour was not straightforward. Our emergent theory suggested that rather than being an apparently simple sequence of six steps, the Sepsis Six actually involved a complex trajectory comprising multiple interdependent tasks that required prioritisation and scheduling, and which was prone to problems of coordination and operational failures. Interventions that involved allocating specific roles and responsibilities for completing the Sepsis Six in ways that reduced the need for coordination and task switching, and the use of process mapping to identify system failures along the trajectory, could help mitigate against some of these problems. Conclusions Implementation efforts that focus on individual

  5. An Approximate Proximal Bundle Method to Minimize a Class of Maximum Eigenvalue Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang


    Full Text Available We present an approximate nonsmooth algorithm to solve a minimization problem, in which the objective function is the sum of a maximum eigenvalue function of matrices and a convex function. The essential idea to solve the optimization problem in this paper is similar to the thought of proximal bundle method, but the difference is that we choose approximate subgradient and function value to construct approximate cutting-plane model to solve the above mentioned problem. An important advantage of the approximate cutting-plane model for objective function is that it is more stable than cutting-plane model. In addition, the approximate proximal bundle method algorithm can be given. Furthermore, the sequences generated by the algorithm converge to the optimal solution of the original problem.

  6. An explicit Ricci potential for the Universal Moduli Space of Vector Bundles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jørgen Ellegaard; Poulsen, Niccolo Skovgård

    In this paper we modify the coordinate construction in [5] on the universal moduli space of pair consisting of a Riemann Surfaces and a stable holomorphic bundles on the Riemann Surface, so as to produce a new set of coordinates, which are in fact Kähler coordinates on this universal moduli space....... Further, we give a functional determinant formula for the Ricci potential of the universal moduli space....

  7. Steven Vogel and His Theory of Comparative Biomechanics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 21; Issue 5. Steven Vogel and His Theory of Comparative Biomechanics. Book Review Volume 21 Issue 5 May 2016 pp 467-471. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: Abstract ...

  8. A model for the anisotropic response of fibrous soft tissues using six discrete fibre bundles

    KAUST Repository

    Flynn, Cormac


    The development of constitutive models of fibrous soft-tissues is a challenging problem. Many consider the tissue to be a collection of fibres with a continuous distribution function representing their orientations. A discrete fibre model is presented consisting of six weighted fibre-bundles. Each bundle is oriented such that it passes through opposing vertices of a regular icosahedron. A novel aspect is the use of simple analytical distribution functions to simulate undulated collagen fibres. This approach yields closed-form analytical expressions for the strain energy of the collagen fibre-bundle that avoids the sometimes costly numerical integration of some statistical distribution functions. The elastin fibres are characterized by a modified neo-Hookean type strain energy function which does not allow for fibre compression. The model accurately simulates biaxial stretching of rabbit-skin (error-of-fit 8.7), uniaxial stretching of pig-skin (error-of-fit 7.6), equibiaxial loading of aortic valve cusp (error-of-fit 0.8), and simple shear of rat septal myocardium (error-of-fit 8.9). It compares favourably with previous soft-tissue models and alternative methods of representing undulated collagen fibres. Predicted collagen fibre stiffnesses range from 8.0thinspaceMPa to 930MPa. Elastin fibre stiffnesses range from 2.0 kPa to 154.4 kPa. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Study and modelling of a reactional tube bundle heated by a fluidized bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collantes Hernandez, M.A.


    Fluidized beds exhibit two important characteristics for the heating of a reactional tube bundle: homogeneous temperature within all the fluidized bed and high heat transfer coefficient with the immersed surfaces. One of the key points for their modeling is the knowledge of the vertical and horizontal thermal conductivities and the heat transfer coefficient at the wall or with the tubes of the reactor. As thermal diffusivity data about large fluidized beds are not available in the literature, we have built a large size pilot unit (0.6 m x 1.1 m x 2.8 m) to determine these values under the conditions of a catalytic treatment of petroleum products. The measure of local temperatures and the use of a two-dimensional diffusion model have permitted us to determine thermal conductivities as a function of several parameters: fluidization velocity, height of the bed, nature and granulometry of solids and geometry of the tube bundle. On the basis of the collected experimental data, the case of a petrochemical unit has been studied. A mathematical code was developed, which permitted us to acquire the data concerning the progress of the reaction in the tubes and it also allowed us to analyse the influence of size and density of the tube bundles on the conversion. (author). 72 refs., 90 figs., 15 tabs.

  10. Data Aggregation and Packet Bundling of Uplink Small Packets for Monitoring Applications in LTE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Dong Min; Sørensen, René Brandborg; Mahmood, Kashif


    In cellular massive machine-type communications, a device can transmit directly to the BS or through an aggregator (intermediate node). While direct device-BS communication has recently been the focus of 5G/3GPP research and standardization efforts, the use of aggregators remains a less explored ...... of aggregators and packet bundle size. Our results show that, in general, data aggregation can benefit the uplink massive MTC in LTE by reducing the signaling overhead....

  11. Chemical vapor infiltration in single fiber bundles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devlin, D.J.; Barbero, R.S.; Currier, R.P.


    Chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) in single fiber bundles is studied under isothermal conditions. Understanding infiltration dynamics in single bundles is essential to process design and modeling efforts. Deposition of pyrolytic carbon in carbon-fiber bundles is chosen as the experimental system, with densification data obtained from thermogravimetric analysis. Data are then compared to predictions from a recently proposed CVI model for fiber bundle densification. 10 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Kracík


    Full Text Available Water flowing on a sprinkled tube bundle forms three basic modes: the Droplet mode (the liquid drips from one tube to another, the Jet mode (with an increasing flow rate, the droplets merge into a column and the Membrane (Sheet mode (with a further increase in the flow rate of the falling film liquid, the columns merge and create sheets between the tubes. With a sufficient flow rate, the sheets merge at this stage, and the tube bundle is completely covered by a thin liquid film. There are several factors influencing both the individual modes and the heat transfer. Beside the above-mentioned falling film liquid flow rate, these are for instance the tube diameters, the tube pitches in the tube bundle, or the physical conditions of the falling film liquid. This paper presents a summary of data measured at atmospheric pressure, with a tube bundle consisting of copper tubes of 12 millimetres in diameter, and with a studied tube length of one meter. The tubes are situated horizontally one above another at a pitch of 15 to 30 mm, and there is a distribution tube placed above them with water flowing through apertures of 1.0mm in diameter at a 9.2mm span. Two thermal conditions have been tested with all pitches: 15 °C to 40 °C and 15 °C to 45 °C. The temperature of the falling film liquid, which was heated during the flow through the exchanger, was 15 °C at the distribution tube input. The temperature of the heating liquid at the exchanger input, which had a constant flow rate of approx. 7.2. litres per minute, was 40 °C, or alternatively 45 °C.

  13. The translator and the nature of his work | Ekpenyong | Global ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bilingualism without which no translation takes place enables him to do a comparative work between the languages in contact just as it permits him to break the barrier in communication between individuals. This paper seeks to bring what the translator does to the attention of the reader and to acquaint him with his modus ...

  14. Differential diagnosis of tachycardia with a typical left bundle branch block morphology (United States)

    Neiger, Jeffrey S; Trohman, Richard G


    The evaluation of wide QRS complex tachycardias (WCT) remains a common dilemma for clinicians. Numerous algorithms exist to aid in arriving at the correct diagnosis. Unfortunately, these algorithms are difficult to remember, and overreliance on them may prevent cardiologists from understanding the mechanisms underlying these arrhythmias. One distinct subcategory of WCTs are those that present with a “typical” or “classic” left bundle branch block pattern. These tachycardias may be supraventricular or ventricular in origin and arise from functional or fixed aberrancy, bystander or participating atriofascicular pre-excitation, and bundle branch reentry. This review will describe these arrhythmias, illustrate their mechanisms, and discuss their clinical features and treatment strategies. PMID:21666813

  15. Timing and Spectroscopy Requirements for a Plastic Scintillating Fiber Bundle Time-of-Flight Neutron Spectrometer (United States)


    the spinthariscope, which was first built in 1903 by Sir William Crookes. The spinthariscope featured a ZnS screen, which produced scintillations ...linearity, speed, density, transparency, and favorable costs to manufacture [1]. Over time scintillators have transformed from the ZnS of the early...TIMING AND SPECTROSCOPY REQUIREMENTS FOR A PLASTIC SCINTILLATING FIBER BUNDLE TIME-OF-FLIGHT NEUTRON SPECTROMETER THESIS Paul A. Clement, First

  16. Principal G-bundles on nodal curves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Springer Verlag Heidelberg #4 2048 1996 Dec 15 10:16:45

    If Y is reducible these notions depend on parameters a = (a1,...,aI ). The study of G-bundles on Y is done by extending the notion of (generalized) parabolic vector bundles [U1] to generalized parabolic principal G-bundles (called GPGs in short) on the curve C and using the correspondence between them and principal ...

  17. Adherence to the items in a bundle for the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia (United States)

    Sachetti, Amanda; Rech, Viviane; Dias, Alexandre Simões; Fontana, Caroline; Barbosa, Gilberto da Luz; Schlichting, Dionara


    Objective To assess adherence to a ventilator care bundle in an intensive care unit and to determine the impact of adherence on the rates of ventilatorassociated pneumonia. Methods A total of 198 beds were assessed for 60 days using a checklist that consisted of the following items: bed head elevation to 30 to 45º; position of the humidifier filter; lack of fluid in the ventilator circuit; oral hygiene; cuff pressure; and physical therapy. Next, an educational lecture was delivered, and 235 beds were assessed for the following 60 days. Data were also collected on the incidence of ventilator-acquired pneumonia. Results Adherence to the following ventilator care bundle items increased: bed head elevation from 18.7% to 34.5%; lack of fluid in the ventilator circuit from 55.6% to 72.8%; oral hygiene from 48.5% to 77.8%; and cuff pressure from 29.8% to 51.5%. The incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia was statistically similar before and after intervention (p=0.389). Conclusion The educational intervention performed in this study increased the adherence to the ventilator care bundle, but the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia did not decrease in the small sample that was assessed. PMID:25607263

  18. Holographic fiber bundle system for patterned optogenetic activation of large-scale neuronal networks. (United States)

    Farah, Nairouz; Levinsky, Alexandra; Brosh, Inbar; Kahn, Itamar; Shoham, Shy


    Optogenetic perturbation has become a fundamental tool in controlling activity in neurons. Used to control activity in cell cultures, slice preparations, anesthetized and awake behaving animals, optical control of cell-type specific activity enables the interrogation of complex systems. A remaining challenge in developing optical control tools is the ability to produce defined light patterns such that power-efficient, precise control of neuronal populations is obtained. Here, we describe a system for patterned stimulation that enables the generation of structured activity in neurons by transmitting optical patterns from computer-generated holograms through an optical fiber bundle. The system couples the optical system to versatile fiber bundle configurations, including coherent or incoherent bundles composed of hundreds of up to several meters long fibers. We describe the components of the system, a method for calibration, and a detailed power efficiency and spatial specificity quantification. Next, we use the system to precisely control single-cell activity as measured by extracellular electrophysiological recordings in ChR2-expressing cortical cell cultures. The described system complements recent descriptions of optical control systems, presenting a system suitable for high-resolution spatiotemporal optical control of wide-area neural networks in vitro and in vivo, yielding a tool for precise neural system interrogation.

  19. Effects of fuel relocation on reflood in a partially-blocked rod bundle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Byoung Jae [School of Mechanical Engineering, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34134 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jongrok; Kim, Kihwan; Bae, Sung Won [Thermal-Hydraulic Safety Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Division, 111 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34057 (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Sang-Ki, E-mail: [Thermal-Hydraulic Safety Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Division, 111 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34057 (Korea, Republic of)


    Ballooning of the fuel rods has been an important issue, since it can influence the coolability of the rod bundle in a large-break loss-of-coolant accident (LBLOCA). Numerous past studies have investigated the effect of blockage geometry on the heat transfer in a partially blocked rod bundle. However, they did not consider the occurrence of fuel relocation and the corresponding effect on two-phase heat transfer. Some fragmented fuel particles located above the ballooned region may drop into the enlarged volume of the balloon. Accordingly, the fuel relocation brings in a local power increase in the ballooned region. The present study’s objective is to investigate the effect of the fuel relocation on the reflood under a LBLOCA condition. Toward this end, experiments were performed in a 5 × 5 partially-blocked rod bundle. Two power profiles were tested: one is a typical cosine shape and the other is the modified shape considering the effect of the fuel relocation. For a typical power shape, the peak temperature in the ballooned rods was lower than that in the intact rods. On the other hand, for the modified power shape, the peak temperature in the ballooned rods was higher than that in the intact rods. Numerical simulations were also performed using the MARS code. The tendencies of the peak clad temperatures were well predicted.

  20. Heat transfer and visualization of falling film evaporation on a tube bundle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christians, M.


    Horizontal falling film evaporators have the potential of displacing flooded evaporators in industry, due to advantages such as lower required refrigerant charge and lower pressure drop. However, there is a need to improve the understanding of falling film evaporation mechanisms to provide accurate thermal design methods. In this work, the existing LTCM falling film facility was utilized to perform falling film evaporation measurements on a single tube, a vertical row of horizontal tubes and a small tube bundle. Two enhanced boiling tubes, namely the Wolverine Turbo-B5 and the Wieland Gewa-B5, were tested using R-134a and R-236fa. The tests were carried out at a constant saturation temperature of T{sub sat} = 5 °C, liquid film Reynolds numbers ranging from 0 to 3000, and heat fluxes between 15 and 90 kW/m{sup 2} in pool boiling and falling film configurations. A visualization study was performed under adiabatic and diabatic conditions (in both single-array and bundle configurations) to study the flow. The physical phenomena governing the falling film evaporation process have been studied, and insight into their effects on the performance of tube bundles has been gained. Measurements of the local heat transfer coefficient were obtained and utilized to generate new prediction methods, including a method for predicting the onset-of-dryout film flow rate during falling film evaporation, local pool boiling and falling film heat transfer prediction methods and a falling film multiplier prediction method. (author)

  1. Value-Based and Context-Aware Selection of Software-Service Bundles: A Capability Based Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jānis Grabis


    Full Text Available In many application areas, vendors offer to their clients combinations of software products and services, which can be considered as software-service bundles. The clients select a combination of software product and associated service best suited to their individual requirements and circumstances. The bundle usually has to be configured by the vendor to fit the specific situation of the client. When circumstances change, the software-service bundle or its configuration need adaptation. The article proposes a method helping clients to select the most appropriate combination or configuration. The method is based on information sharing between the vendor and client and also supports the continuous improvement of the solution in response to changing circumstances. The method applies principles and techniques of the Capability Driven Development to specify performance objectives and contextual factors affecting delivery of a software-service bundle. Application of the method is shown using an illustrative case of a data processing service from utility industries.

  2. A comparison of pain scores and medication use in patients undergoing single-bundle or double-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (United States)

    Macdonald, Simon A.; Heard, S. Mark; Hiemstra, Laurie A.; Buchko, Gregory M.L.; Kerslake, Sarah; Sasyniuk, Treny M.


    Background No gold standard exists for the management of postoperative pain following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). We compared the pain scores and medication use of patients undergoing single-bundle (SB) or double-bundle (DB) ACLR in the acute postoperative period. Pain and medication use was also analyzed for spinal versus general anesthesia approaches within both surgery types. Methods We assessed 2 separate cohorts of primary ACLR patients, SB and DB, for 14 days postoperatively. We used a standard logbook to record self-reported pain scores and medication use. Pain was assessed using a 100 mm visual analogue scale (VAS). Medications were divided into 3 categories: oral opioids, oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories and acetaminophen. Results A total of 88 patients undergoing SB and 41 undergoing DB ACLR were included in the study. We found no significant difference in VAS pain scores between the cohorts. Despite similar VAS pain scores, the DB cohort consumed significantly more opioid and analgesia medication (p = 0.011). Patients who underwent DB with spinal anesthesia experienced significantly less pain over the initial 14-day postoperative period than those who received general anesthesia (p postoperative period. Patients in the DB cohort experienced more pain, as evidenced by the significant difference in consumption of opioids and acetaminophen, than the SB cohort. Patients who underwent spinal anesthesia experienced less pain in the acute postoperative period than those who received general anesthesia. PMID:24869623

  3. A comparison of pain scores and medication use in patients undergoing single-bundle or double-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. (United States)

    Macdonald, Simon A; Heard, S M; Hiemstra, Laurie A; Buchko, Gregory M L; Kerslake, Sarah; Sasyniuk, Treny M


    No gold standard exists for the management of postoperative pain following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). We compared the pain scores and medication use of patients undergoing single-bundle (SB) or double-bundle (DB) ACLR in the acute postoperative period. Pain and medication use was also analyzed for spinal versus general anesthesia approaches within both surgery types. We assessed 2 separate cohorts of primary ACLR patients, SB and DB, for 14 days postoperatively. We used a standard logbook to record self-reported pain scores and medication use. Pain was assessed using a 100 mm visual analogue scale (VAS). Medications were divided into 3 categories: oral opioids, oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories and acetaminophen. A total of 88 patients undergoing SB and 41 undergoing DB ACLR were included in the study. We found no significant difference in VAS pain scores between the cohorts. Despite similar VAS pain scores, the DB cohort consumed significantly more opioid and analgesia medication (p = 0.011). Patients who underwent DB with spinal anesthesia experienced significantly less pain over the initial 14-day postoperative period than those who received general anesthesia (p pain relief was provided to all ACLR patients in the initial postoperative period. Patients in the DB cohort experienced more pain, as evidenced by the significant diffrence in consumption of opioids and acetaminophen, than the SB cohort. Patients who underwent spinal anesthesia experienced less pain in the acute postoperative period than those who received general anesthesia.

  4. Fabrication of an ideal nanoring from a black phosphorus nanoribbon upon movable bundling carbon nanotubes (United States)

    Cai, Kun; Shi, Jiao; Liu, Lingnan; Qin, Qing H.


    As a low dimensional material, black phosphorus (BP) continues to attract much attention from researchers due to its excellent electric properties. In particular, the one-dimensional material, in the form of a ring or tube formed from BP, has been extensively studied and found to be a perfect semiconductor. But the BP ring has never been reported in laboratories. To form an ideal ring from a rectangular BP ribbon, we choose a carbon nanotube (CNT) bundle to attract the ribbon and move one or more CNTs in the bundle to induce the unsaturated ends of the BP ribbon to become covalently bonded. Numerical experiments are applied to BP ribbons with lengths either equal to, shorter, or longer than the perimeter of the CNT bundle, to investigate the formation of a BP ring. Experiments show that if one end of the BP ribbon is attracted by a CNT, moving the other CNTs away endows the ribbon with high probability of forming an ideal ring. The conclusions drawn from these results will benefit future in situ experiments involving forming a ring from a BP ribbon.

  5. Evaluation of fiber bundle rotation for enhancing gas exchange in a respiratory assist catheter. (United States)

    Eash, Heide J; Mihelc, Kevin M; Frankowski, Brian J; Hattler, Brack G; Federspiel, William J


    Supplemental oxygenation and carbon dioxide removal through an intravenous respiratory assist catheter can be used as a means of treating patients with acute respiratory failure. We are beginning development efforts toward a new respiratory assist catheter with an insertional size mixing and enhanced gas exchange in intravenous respiratory assist catheters. Using a simple test apparatus of a rotating densely packed bundle of hollow fiber membranes, water and blood gas exchange levels were evaluated at various rotation speeds in a mock vena cava. At 12,000 RPM, maximum CO2 gas exchange rates were 449 and 523 mL/min per m2, water and blood, respectively, but the rate of increase with increasing rotation rate diminished beyond 7500 RPM. These levels of gas exchange efficiency are two- to threefold greater than achieved in our previous respiratory catheters using balloon pulsation for active mixing. In preliminary hemolysis tests, which monitored plasma-free hemoglobin levels in vitro over a period of 6 hours, we established that the rotating fiber bundle per se did not cause significant blood hemolysis compared with an intra-aortic balloon pump. Accordingly, fiber bundle rotation appears to be a potential mechanism for increasing gas exchange and reducing insertional size in respiratory catheters.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The knee joint is the most commonly injured of all joints and the ACL is the most commonly injured ligament. Arthroscopic reconstruction of ACL has become gold standard in treating these injuries. AIM 1. To compare the short-term results of ACL reconstruction using single bundle (one Tibial + one Femoral tunnel and non-anatomical double-bundle (one Tibial + two Femoral tunnels techniques using Hamstrings (Semitendinosus ± Gracilis graft. 2. To evaluate ACL graft reconstruction stability measured by laxometry and to find out an association with clinical findings. MATERIAL & METHODS We performed a prospective study between 2014-2015 of 20 case of ACL injuries & compared single bundle reconstruction with Non – anatomical double Bundle reconstruction with semitendinosus ± Gracilis, Autograft using laxometry. CONCLUSION Arthroscopic Non-anatomical double ACL Reconstruction is Bio-mechanically stable reconstruction resembling anatomy of the ACL.

  7. Systematic significance of midrib vascular bundles in some Schefflera Spreng (Araliaceae) species (United States)

    Noor-Syaheera, M. Y.; Noraini, T.; Aida-Shafreena, A. P.


    Anatomy study was undertaken on midrib vascular bundles of six Schefflera Spreng species, namely as S. obovatilimba, S. borneensis, S.kinabaluensis, S.lineamentorum, S. opacus and S.petiolosa. The genus Schefflera belongs to the family Araliaceae. The objective of this study is to determine variations in the midrib anatomical characteristics that can be used to identify species. Leaves samples were collected from various forest reserves in Sabah and Sarawak, Malaysia., were fixed in AA (Acetic acid: Alcohol, in a ratio of 1:3), the midrib parts then were sectioned using sliding microtome, were stained in Safranin and Alcian blue, been mounted in Eupharal and were observed under light microscope. Findings in this study have shown that all species have complex structure of vascular bundles. Each species has identical arrangement of vascular bundles and can be very useful for species identification. As a conclusion, variation in the midrib anatomical characteristics is outstanding and can has taxonomic value in the genus Schefflera respectively.

  8. Security Analysis of DTN Architecture and Bundle Protocol Specification for Space-Based Networks (United States)

    Ivancic, William D.


    A Delay-Tolerant Network (DTN) Architecture (Request for Comment, RFC-4838) and Bundle Protocol Specification, RFC-5050, have been proposed for space and terrestrial networks. Additional security specifications have been provided via the Bundle Security Specification (currently a work in progress as an Internet Research Task Force internet-draft) and, for link-layer protocols applicable to Space networks, the Licklider Transport Protocol Security Extensions. This document provides a security analysis of the current DTN RFCs and proposed security related internet drafts with a focus on space-based communication networks, which is a rather restricted subset of DTN networks. Note, the original focus and motivation of DTN work was for the Interplanetary Internet . This document does not address general store-and-forward network overlays, just the current work being done by the Internet Research Task Force (IRTF) and the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) Space Internetworking Services Area (SIS) - DTN working group under the DTN and Bundle umbrellas. However, much of the analysis is relevant to general store-and-forward overlays.

  9. Sugar in disguise or healthy indulgence: A cross-cultural comparision of the perceptions of dietary vice/virtue bundles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiraporn Napatsorn


    Full Text Available Consumers often choose virtue food to attain health goals and vice food to achieve indulgence goals. However, food and beverage companies have begun to nullify the vice and virtue categories by bundling vice and virtue ingredients into a single item (e.g. Yogurt with Oreo topping. This research contrasts how consumers from Asian and Western cultures evaluate such vice/virtue food bundles. Building on the perceptual processes and regulatory focus literatures, two cross-cultural experiments using participants in Thailand and the U.S. shows that Westerners prefer virtue-heavy bundles to vice-heavy bundles while Asians show similar preference across both types of bundle. Process measures revealed that Asians perceive greater fit between vice and virtue components in the bundles than Westerners and this perceived fit mediates the effect of culture on their food choice. Study 2 reveals the boundary condition. Specifically, when regulatory focus was manipulated, the effect of culture is no longer significant. The findings provide managerial implications for food and beverage companies as well as contributions to consumer behavior literature.

  10. The Philosopher as Parent: John Dewey's Observations of His Children's Language Development and the Development of His Thinking about Communication (United States)

    Dyehouse, Jeremiah; Manke, Krysten


    Can John Dewey's experiments at the University of Chicago's Laboratory School teach contemporary inquirers about "learning by making?" This article warrants an affirmative answer to this query. Unlike intellectual historians who trace the source of Dewey's and his colleagues' 1890s pedagogies to their cultural biases, we contend that…

  11. 29 CFR 780.322 - Is employed on the same farm as his parent or persons standing in the place of his parent. (United States)


    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Is employed on the same farm as his parent or persons standing in the place of his parent. 780.322 Section 780.322 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued... employed on the same farm as his parent or persons standing in the place of his parent. (a) The words...

  12. Research of heat transfer of staggered horizontal bundles of finned tubes at free air convection (United States)

    Novozhilova, A. V.; Maryna, Z. G.; Samorodov, A. V.; Lvov, E. A.


    The study of free-convective processes is important because of the cooling problem in many machines and systems, where other ways of cooling are impossible or impractical. Natural convective processes are common in the steam turbine air condensers of electric power plants located within the city limits, in dry cooling towers of circulating water systems, in condensers cooled by air and water, in radiators cooling oil of power electric transformers, in emergency cooling systems of nuclear reactors, in solar power, as well as in air-cooling of power semiconductor energy converters. All this makes actual the synthesis of the results of theoretical and experimental research of free convection for heat exchangers with finned tube bundles. The results of the study of free-convection heat transfer for two-, three- and four-row staggered horizontal bundles of industrial bimetallic finned tubes with finning factor of 16.8 and equilateral tubes arrangement are presented. Cross and diagonal steps in the bundles are the same: 58; 61; 64; 70; 76; 86; 100 mm, which corresponds to the relative steps: 1.042; 1.096; 1.152; 1.258; 1.366; 1.545; 1.797. These steps are standardized for air coolers. An equation for calculating the free-convection heat transfer, taking into account the influence of geometrical parameters in the range of Rayleigh number from 30,000 to 350,000 with an average deviation of ± 4.8%, has been obtained. The relationship presented in the article allows designing a wide range of air coolers for various applications, working in the free convection modes.

  13. Particularities of Coronary Artery Disease in Hypertensive Patients with Left Bundle Branch Block (United States)



    Objective: We mean to investigate whether the presence of hypertension could be associated with a more severe atherosclerotic coronary artery disease in patients with left bundle branch block. Material and methods: To assess the current incidence and meaning of hypertension associated with atherosclerotic coronary artery disease we performed a cross-sectional analysis that included 402 patients with left bundle branch block, admitted between January 2011 and June 2013 in the Cardiovascular Diseases Institute Iasi, Romania. Of these, 194 were hypertensive, especially grade 1 and 2; 272 patients had new or presumably new left bundle branch block on their presenting electrocardiograms. The median follow up was 7 days (hospitalization period). Results: The results of our study show that hypertensive patients were more likely to have a prior history of cardiovascular events, including myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, diabetes and obesity, with statistically significant differences. On the other hand, the normotensive patients had higher rates of current and previous smoking and congestive heart failure. Conventional coronary angiography was performed in 130 (67.01%) hypertensive patients and demonstrated that almost half (41.76%) of them have coronary artery disease, one in five patients being diagnosed with acute coronary syndromes. The majority of hypertensive patients evaluated by coronary angiography had either one or two coronary lesions (28.86%); in contrast, from 110 normotensive patients evaluated by coronary angiography, 78.36% had no vessel disease (p = 0.001). When coronary artery disease was present it was frequently localized on the left descendent artery in both groups, but with statistically significant differences (16.82% in normotensives vs. 32.47% in hypertensives, p = 0.001). With regards to systolic left ventricular function, normotensive patients were more likely to have a decreased ejection fraction (EF) bundle branch block and a clinical

  14. The circular F-actin bundles provide a track for turnaround and bidirectional movement of mitochondria in Arabidopsis root hair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhang

    Full Text Available The movement of organelles in root hairs primarily occurs along the actin cytoskeleton. Circulation and "reverse fountain" cytoplasmic streaming constitute the typical forms by which most organelles (such as mitochondria and the Golgi apparatus in plant root hair cells engage in bidirectional movement. However, there remains a lack of in-depth research regarding the relationship between the distribution of the actin cytoskeleton and turnaround organelle movement in plant root hair cells.In this paper, Arabidopsis seedlings that had been stably transformed with a GFP-ABD2-GFP (green fluorescent protein-actin-binding domain 2-green fluorescent protein construct were utilized to study the distribution of bundles of filamentous (F-actin and the directed motion of mitochondria along these bundles in root hairs. Observations with a confocal laser scanning microscope revealed that there were widespread circular F-actin bundles in the epidermal cells and root hairs of Arabidopsis roots. In root hairs, these circular bundles primarily start at the sub-apical region, which is the location where the turnaround movement of organelles occurs. MitoTracker probes were used to label mitochondria, and the dynamic observation of root hair cells with a confocal laser scanning microscope indicated that turnaround mitochondrial movement occurred along circular F-actin bundles.Relevant experimental results demonstrated that the circular F-actin bundles provide a track for the turnaround and bidirectional movement of mitochondria.

  15. Exploring the membrane fusion mechanism through force-induced disassembly of HIV-1 six-helix bundle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Kai [Key Laboratory of RNA Biology, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Beijing Key Laboratory of Noncoding RNA, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhang, Yong [Key Laboratory of RNA Biology, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Beijing Key Laboratory of Noncoding RNA, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Lou, Jizhong, E-mail: [Key Laboratory of RNA Biology, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Beijing Key Laboratory of Noncoding RNA, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China)


    Enveloped virus, such as HIV-1, employs membrane fusion mechanism to invade into host cell. HIV-1 gp41 ectodomain uses six-helix bundle configuration to accomplish this process. Using molecular dynamic simulations, we confirmed the stability of this six-helix bundle by showing high occupancy of hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Key residues and interactions important for the bundle integration were characterized by force-induced unfolding simulations of six-helix bundle, exhibiting the collapse order of these groups of interactions. Moreover, our results in some way concerted with a previous theory that the formation of coiled-coil choose a route which involved cooperative interactions between the N-terminal and C-terminal helix. -- Highlights: •Unfolding of HIV-1 gp41 six-helix bundle is studied by molecular dynamics simulations. •Specific interactions responsible for the stability of HIV-1 envelope post-fusion conformation were identified. •The gp41 six-helix bundle transition inducing membrane fusion might be a cooperative process of the three subunits.

  16. William Bateson: a biologist ahead of his time. (United States)

    Bateson, Patrick


    William Bateson coined the term genetics and, more than anybody else, championed the principles of heredity discovered by Gregor Mendel. Nevertheless, his reputation is soured by the positions he took about the discontinuities in inheritance that might precede formation of a new species and by his reluctance to accept, in its full-blooded form, the view of chromosomes as the controllers of individual development. Growing evidence suggests that both of these positions have been vindicated. New species are now thought to arise as the result of genetic interactions, chromosomal rearrangements, or both, that render hybrids less viable or sterile. Chromosomes are the sites of genes but genes move between chromosomes much more readily than had been previously believed and chromosomes are not causal in individual development. Development, like speciation, requires an understanding of the interactions between genes and the interplay between the individual and its environment.

  17. Visual classification of braided and woven fiber bundles in X-ray computed tomography scanned carbon fiber reinforced polymer specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Weissenböck


    Full Text Available In recent years, advanced composite materials such as carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRP are used in many fields of application (e.g., automotive, aeronautic and leisure industry. These materials are characterized by their high stiffness and strength, while having low weight. Especially, woven carbon fiber reinforced materials have outstanding mechanical properties due to their fabric structure. To analyze and develop the fabrics, it is important to understand the course of the individual fiber bundles. Industrial 3D X-ray computed tomography (XCT as a nondestructive testing method allows resolving these individual fiber bundles. In this paper, we show our findings when applying the method of Bhattacharya et al. [6] for extracting fiber bundles on two new types of CFRP specimens. One specimen contains triaxial braided plies in an RTM6 resin and another specimen woven bi-diagonal layers. Furthermore, we show the required steps to separate the individual bundles and the calculation of the individual fiber bundles characteristics which are essential for the posterior visual analysis and exploration. We further demonstrate the classification of the individual fiber bundles within the fabrics to support the domain experts in perceiving the weaving structure of XCT scanned specimens.

  18. Alignment of Multiple Electrospun Piezoelectric Fiber Bundles Across Serrated Gaps at an Incline: A Method to Generate Textile Strain Sensors. (United States)

    Hsu, Yu-Hsiang; Chan, Chen-Hao; Tang, William C


    In this paper, we report a new type of electrospinning collector that allows simultaneous collection and alignment of multiple poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) piezoelectric fiber bundles with a controlled separation. The key enabling feature is the serrated teeth along the edges across an inclined gap as a part of the conductive collector. As a result, the electrical field across the gap is shaped to direct the electrospun fibers to merge into multiple bundles. The sharp points on the serrated teeth provide favorable charge dissipation points and thus fibers are preferentially formed bridging two closest sharp points across the gap. To investigate the effectiveness of serrated teeth on the formation of multiple fiber bundles, three-dimensional finite element simulations are conducted. The corresponding collectors are implemented to experimentally study the resulting electrospun fibers. Both simulation and experimental results suggest that multiple fiber bundles can be formed under the condition of a low teeth pitch to gap distance ratio. Furthermore, a sharper tooth angle results in a higher preferential formation of fiber bundles. Finally, the total electrospinning time should be less than 60 seconds to maintain favorable electric field profile. We also demonstrate that these piezoelectric fiber bundles can serve as ultra-flexible textile sensors.

  19. Simulation of propagation in a bundle of skeletal muscle fibers: Modulation effects of passive fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henneberg, Kaj-åge; F.A., Roberge


    Computer simulations are used to study passive fiber modulation of propagation in a tightly packed bundle of frog skeletal muscle fibers (uniform fiber radius of 50 mu m). With T = 20 degrees C and a uniform nominal interstitial cleft width (d) over bar = 0.35 mu m, about 92% of the active fiber...... source current (I-ma) enters the passive tissue as a radial load current (I-ep) while the rest flows longitudinally in the cleft between the active and adjacent passive fibers. The conduction velocity of 1.32 m/s was about 30% lower than on an isolated fiber in a Ringer bath, in close agreement...

  20. [100 years of identification (from man to his genome)]. (United States)

    Ceccaldi, P F


    It is a set of descriptive features or traits characterising an individual that serves as the basic for the identification of his person. Some of these traits are of interest mainly in police investigations; others, of which the interest is more particularly scientific, are rapidly gaining recognition. Anthropometric methods enable the identification of recidivist criminals. Anthropometric description is based on bone measurements taken in conjunction with the spoken portrait and recorded distinguishing marks--the features concretely represented in the descriptive photograph. This method was first supplemented and then supplanted, both for description and identification, by dactyloscopy. Investigations involving corpses are often extremely difficult. Several facts concerning bone and/or teeth could be relevant in determining the race, sex, height and age of the person whose remains are examined. Traces and stains as "clues" of hereditary and congenital properties of blood (erythrocytic, enzymatic, plasmic and leucocytic systems, factors and groups) and of sperm (with, in this case, secretor and non secretor properties) do provide and increasingly precise description of an individual but only a certain degree of probability for his identification; at best, they can only exclude an individual, but cannot prove his involvement. A knowledge of the patterns of the nucleotides in the Deoxyribo Nucleic Acids, which are the same in all the cells of an individual but differ from individual to individual, provides an ultimate means of arriving at certainty in the comparison: samples-suspect.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. TREAT Neutronics Analysis of Water-Loop Concept Accommodating LWR 9-rod Bundle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, Connie M.; Woolstenhulme, Nicolas E.; Parry, James R.; Bess, John D.; Housley, Gregory K.


    Abstract. Simulation of a variety of transient conditions has been successfully achieved in the Transient Reactor Test (TREAT) facility during operation between 1959 and 1994 to support characterization and safety analysis of nuclear fuels and materials. A majority of previously conducted tests were focused on supporting sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) designs. Experiments evolved in complexity. Simulation of thermal-hydraulic conditions expected to be encountered by fuels and materials in a reactor environment was realized in the development of TREAT sodium loop experiment vehicles. These loops accommodated up to 7-pin fuel bundles and served to simulate more closely the reactor environment while safely delivering large quantities of energy into the test specimen. Some of the immediate TREAT restart operations will be focused on testing light water reactor (LWR) accident tolerant fuels (ATF). Similar to the sodium loop objectives, a water loop concept, developed and analyzed in the 1990’s, aimed at achieving thermal-hydraulic conditions encountered in commercial power reactors. The historic water loop concept has been analyzed in the context of a reactivity insertion accident (RIA) simulation for high burnup LWR 2-pin and 3-pin fuel bundles. Findings showed sufficient energy could be deposited into the specimens for evaluation. Similar results of experimental feasibility for the water loop concept (past and present) have recently been obtained using MCNP6.1 with ENDF/B-VII.1 nuclear data libraries. The old water loop concept required only two central TREAT core grid spaces. Preparation for future experiments has resulted in a modified water loop conceptual design designated the TREAT water environment recirculating loop (TWERL). The current TWERL design requires nine TREAT core grid spaces in order to place the water recirculating pump under the TREAT core. Due to the effectiveness of water moderation, neutronics analysis shows that removal of seven additional

  2. Multipath packet switch using packet bundling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berger, Michael Stubert


    The basic concept of packet bundling is to group smaller packets into larger packets based on, e.g., quality of service or destination within the packet switch. This paper presents novel applications of bundling in packet switching. The larger packets created by bundling are utilized to extend...... switching capacity by use of parallel switch planes. During the bundling operation, packets will experience a delay that depends on the actual implementation of the bundling and scheduling scheme. Analytical results for delay bounds and buffer size requirements are presented for a specific scheduling...


    Daszkiewicz, Piotr


    Jean-Emmanuel Gilibert (1741-1814) has been the subject of few biographical works. This paper presents the results of research from unpublished documents, unknown by historians until now. The information, publishedin old sources as in Gilibert autobiographical sketches or in catalogues of natural history papers auctions, is critically analyzed here. We also tried to establish a list of documents from those cited by Gilibert biographers, but lost today. The author both presents and comments letters to Antoine-Laurent de Jussieu (1748-1836) and André Thouin (1747-1824), as well as a letter to an unknown receiver, in the autograph's collection of Gustave Thuret (1747-1824) and Eduard Bornet (1828-1911)--which is conserved in the collection of the National Museum of Natural History in Paris. Precious information about Gilibert and his stay in Lithuania was found in the letters of Antoine Gouan (1733-1821) to Philippe-Isidore Picot de Lapeyrouse (1744-1818). Research were also conducted in the Museum's herbarium in order to find Gilibert's specimens from Lithuania as well as to discover more information about the naturalist himself. The documents of Jean Hermann (1738-1800) linked with Gilibert were found in Strasbourg's National and University Libraries and in the Municipal Archives; a letter from Gilibert to Antoine-Laurent de Jussieu was also discovered in this collection. Some new and interesting data came from a register of Hermann's natural history cabinet visitors Some additional information about Gilibert's life and work was obtained as a result of the analysis of manuscripts conserved in the National Academy of Medicine in Paris, more specifically in Gilibert's correspondences from Lithuania and Lyon about illnesses and epidemics. The information obtained allowed a better knowledge of the history of Gilibert floristic works in Lithuania, his zoological research, his practice of medicine and his study of different pathologies, his way of collecting and the

  4. Donald Menzel: His Founding and Funding of Solar Observatories. (United States)

    Welther, B. L.


    In January 1961 Donald Menzel wrote to his cousin, M. H. Bruckman, "I am proudest of the observatories that I have built in the West." The first of those facilities, a solar observatory, was founded in 1940 in Colorado and later came to be known as the High Altitude Observatory. The second one, also a solar observatory, was founded a dozen years later at Sacramento Peak in New Mexico. The third facility, however, established at Fort Davis, Texas, was the Harvard Radio Astronomy Observatory. Although Menzel was primarily a theoretical astrophysicist, renowned for his studies of the solar chromosphere, he was also an entrepreneur who had a talent for developing observatories and coping with numerous setbacks in funding and staffing. Where many others would have failed, Menzel succeeded in mentoring colleagues and finding sources of financial support. This paper will draw primarily on letters and other materials in the Harvard University Archives.

  5. Semiflexible Biopolymers in Bundled Arrangements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Schnauß


    Full Text Available Bundles and networks of semiflexible biopolymers are key elements in cells, lending them mechanical integrity while also enabling dynamic functions. Networks have been the subject of many studies, revealing a variety of fundamental characteristics often determined via bulk measurements. Although bundles are equally important in biological systems, they have garnered much less scientific attention since they have to be probed on the mesoscopic scale. Here, we review theoretical as well as experimental approaches, which mainly employ the naturally occurring biopolymer actin, to highlight the principles behind these structures on the single bundle level.

  6. A Piecewise Hysteresis Model for a Damper of HIS System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaidong Tian


    Full Text Available A damper of the hydraulically interconnected suspension (HIS system, as a quarter HIS, is prototyped and its damping characteristic is tested to characterize the damping property. The force-velocity characteristic of the prototype is analyzed based on a set of testing results and accordingly a piecewise hysteresis model for the damper is proposed. The proposed equivalent parametric model consists of two parts: hysteresis model in low speed region and saturation model in high speed region which are used to describe the hysteresis phenomenon in low speed and nonhysteresis phenomenon in high speed, respectively. The parameters of the model are identified based on genetic algorithm by setting the constraints of parameters according to their physical significances and the corresponding testing results. The advantages of the model are highlighted by comparing to the nonhysteresis model and the permanent hysteresis model. The numerical simulation results are compared with the testing results to validate the accuracy and effectiveness of the proposed model. Finally, to further verify the proposed model’s wide applicability under different excitation conditions, its results are compared to the testing results in three-dimensional space. The research in this paper is significant for the dynamic analysis of the HIS vehicle.

  7. Structural organization of actin in the sea urchin egg cortex: microvillar elongation in the absence of actin filament bundle formation. (United States)

    Begg, D A; Rebhun, L I; Hyatt, H


    We have investigated the relationship between the formation of actin filament bundles and the elongation of microvilli (MV) after fertilization in sea urchin eggs. In a previous study (1979, J Cell Biol. 83:241-248) we demonstrated that increased pH induced the formation of actin filaments in isolated sea urchin egg cortices with the concomitant elongation of MV. On the basis of these results we suggested that increased cytoplasmic pH after fertilization causes a reorganization of cortical actin, which in turn provides the force for MV elongation. To test this hypothesis, we compared the morphology of microvilli in eggs activated with and without the release of fertilization acid. Activation of eggs in normal sea water with the calcium ionophore A23187 causes the release of fertilization acid and the elongation of MV containing core bundles of actin filaments. Eggs activated with A23187 in NA(+)-free water do not undergo normal fertilization acid release but develop elongated, flaccid MV. These MV contain an irregular network of actin filaments rather than the parallel bundles of filaments found in normal MV. The addition of 40 mM NaCl to these eggs results in the release of H(+) and the concomitant conversion of flaccid MV to erect MV containing typical core bundles of actin filaments. Identical results are obtained when 10 mM NH(4)Cl is substituted for NaCl. The induction of cytoplasmic alkalinization in unactivated eggs with NH(4)Cl does not cause either MV elongation or the formation of actin filament bundles . These results suggest that: (a) the elongation of MV is stimulated by a rise in intracellular free Ca(++) concentration; (b) actin filament bundle formation is triggered by an increase in cytoplasmic pH; and (c) the formation of actin filament bundles is not necessary for MV elongation but is required to provide rigid support for MV.

  8. Abel’s Identity Crisis and his Journey to his Native Self in ‘House Made of Dawn’: A Critical Analysis Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irem Seklem


    Full Text Available The present paper investigates how Abel, the protagonist of House Made of Dawn, strives to establish a bond between his Native American heritage and himself. His troubles throughout his journey to belong to his culture have been depicted in the paper. The paper also discusses his failure to accommodate himself with his own culture as well as with modern life. His alcohol problem and communication problems, both with his grandfather and also with white men around him, have been shown as part of his entanglements. Attempt has also been made to investigate the transformations through which Abel is going in his journey to his native self and to his native cultural identity. Exploring the major crossroads in his life’s struggle, and the sufferings through which Abel goes, the paper depicts how Abel rests and accommodates with his native cuture after the death of his grandfather. As the novel portrays, very skillfully, the identity crisis of a Native American, the paper aims at exploring this search for identity and the struggles through which the protagonist of the novel passes in this crisis.

  9. The skull of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart predicates of his death. (United States)

    Vlcek, E; Druga, R; Smahel, Z; Bigoni, L; Velemínská, J


    W. A. Mozart died due to the consequences of chronic epidural hematoma after sustaining a dull injury to his head, probably at an early age. Exacerbation of the process was repeated over a period of many years and manifested itself as pyrexial disease, meningeal irritation with intense headaches. After the attack subsided, the illness manifested itself again. After the last attack of the likely infected nidus, Mozart died on December 5, 1791. Historic data about the composer's behavior indicate development of a temporal syndrome or temporal epilepsy with typical clinical manifestations.

  10. The effectiveness bundling of zinc with Oral Rehydration Salts (ORS) for improving adherence to acute watery diarrhea treatment in Ethiopia: cluster randomised controlled trial. (United States)

    Gebremedhin, Samson; Mamo, Girma; Gezahign, Henock; Kung'u, Jacqueline; Adish, Abdulaziz


    Presumably bundling/co-packaging of zinc with ORS encourages the combined use of the products for diarrhea treatment; however, empirical evidences are scarce. The purpose of this work is to evaluate whether co-packing using a plastic pouch can enhance the joint adherence to the treatment or not. The study also compares the cost effectiveness (CE) of two co-packaging options: 'central' and 'health center (HC)' level bundling. This cluster-randomised controlled trial was conducted in 2015 in eight districts of Ethiopia. Thirty two HCs were randomly assigned to one of the following four intervention arms: (i) 'Central bundling' (zinc and ORS bundled using a pouch that had instructional message, distributed to HCs); (ii) 'HC level bundling' (zinc, ORS and a similar pouch distributed to the HCs and bundled by health workers); (iii) 'Bundling without message' (zinc, ORS and plain pouch distributed and bundled by the health workers); and, (iv) 'Status quo' (zinc and ORS co-administered without bundling). In each of the four arms, 176 children 6-59 months of age, presented with acute diarrhea were enrolled. Twelve days after enrollment, level of adherence was assessed. A composite scale of adherence was developed and modeled using mixed effects linear regression analysis. The unit costs associated with the arms were estimated using secondary data sources. Incremental CE analysis was made by taking the cost and level of adherence in fourth arm as a base value. The follow-up rate was 95.6 %. As compared with the 'status quo' arm, the joint adherences in the 'central' and 'HC level' bundling arms raised substantially by 14.8 and 15.7 percentage points (PP), respectively (P < 0.05). No significant difference was observed between 'bundling without message' and the 'status quo' arms. The unit cost incurred by the 'central bundling' is relatively higher (USD 0.658/episode) as compared with the 'HC level bundling' approach (USD 0.608/episode). The incremental CE ratio in the


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Barbieux


    Full Text Available To compute hyperspectral orthophotos of an area, one may proceed like for standard RGB orthophotos : equip an aircraft or a drone with the appropriate camera, a GPS and an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU. The position and attitude data from the navigation sensors, together with the collected images, can be input to a bundle adjustment which refines the estimation of the parameters and allows to create 3D models or orthophotos of the scene. But most of the hyperspectral cameras are pushbrooms sensors : they acquire lines of pixels. The bundle adjustment identifies tie points (using their 2D neighbourhoods between different images to stitch them together. This is impossible when the input images are lines. To get around this problem, we propose a method that can be used when both a frame RGB camera and a hyperspectral pushbroom camera are used during the same flight. We first use the bundle adjustment theory to obtain corrected navigation parameters for the RGB camera. Then, assuming a small boresight between the RGB camera and the navigation sensors, we can estimate this boresight as well as the corrected position and attitude parameters for the navigation sensors. Finally, supposing that the boresight between these sensors and the pushbroom camera is constant during the flight, we can retrieve it by matching manually corresponding pairs of points between the current projection and a reference. Comparison between the direct georeferencing and the georeferencing with our method on three flights performed during the Leman-Baikal project shows great improvement of the ground accuracy.

  12. CFD Analysis of Localised Crud Effects on the Flow of Coolant in Nuclear Rod Bundles


    Cinosi, N; Walker, SP


    It has been suggested that crud deposits on a number of adjacent fuel rods might reduce coolant flow rates in associated sub-channels. Such reduced flow rates could then worsen thermal-hydraulic conditions, such as margin to saturated boiling, fuel surface temperature, and the DNB ratio. We report the results of a detailed computational fluid dynamics study of the flow pattern in a partially-crudded rod bundle. Values obviously depend on, for example, the thickness of crud assumed, but sub-ch...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lebedeva E. S.


    Full Text Available The article analyses the image of the Tzar, who abandoned his family name, throne and crown and hid to repent his sins, created by Alexander Pushkin in his poems "Angelo" and "Roderick".

  14. The Epistemic Virtues of the Virtuous Theorist: On Albert Einstein and His Autobiography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dongen, J.; van Dongen, J.; Paul, H.


    Albert Einstein’s practice in physics and his philosophical positions gradually reoriented themselves from more empiricist towards rationalist viewpoints. This change accompanied his turn towards unified field theory and different presentations of himself, eventually leading to his highly

  15. Characterization of analytical figures of merit of a sub-diffraction limited fiber bundle array for SERS imaging (United States)

    Languirand, Eric R.; Cullum, Brian M.


    Super resolution chemical imaging can provide high spatial resolution images that contain chemically specific information. Additionally, using a technique such as Raman scattering provides molecular specific information based on the inherent vibrations within the analyte of interest. In this work, commercially available fiber bundle arrays (1mm diameter) consisting of 30,000 individual fiber elements (4μm diameter) that are then modified to obtain surface enhanced Raman scatter are employed. This allows for the visualization of vibrational information with high spatial (i.e. sub-diffraction limited) resolution over the 30,000 individual points of interrogation covering a total imaging diameter of approximately 20μm in a non-scanning format. Using these bundles, it has been shown that dithering can increase the spatial resolution of the arrays further by obtaining several sub-element shifted images. To retain the spatial resolution of such images, cross talk associated with these tpared bundles must be kept at a negligible level. In this paper, a study of luminescent particles isolated in individual fiber wells has been performed to characterize the cross talk associated with these fiber bundles. Scanning-electron microscope (SEM) images provide nanometric characterization of the fiber array, while luminescent signals allow for the quantitation of cross talk between adjacent fiber elements. From these studies negligible cross-talk associated with both untapered and tapered bundles was found to exist.

  16. Combining QOF data with the care bundle approach may provide a more meaningful measure of quality in general practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Wet Carl


    Full Text Available Abstract Background A significant minority of patients do not receive all the evidence-based care recommended for their conditions. Health care quality may be improved by reducing this observed variation. Composite measures offer a different patient-centred perspective on quality and are utilized in acute hospitals via the ‘care bundle’ concept as indicators of the reliability of specific (evidence-based care delivery tasks and improved outcomes. A care bundle consists of a number of time-specific interventions that should be delivered to every patient every time. We aimed to apply the care bundle concept to selected QOF data to measure the quality of evidence-based care provision. Methods Care bundles and components were selected from QOF indicators according to defined criteria. Five clinical conditions were suitable for care bundles: Secondary Prevention of Coronary Heart Disease (CHD, Stroke & Transient Ischaemic Attack (TIA, Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD and Diabetes Mellitus (DM. Each bundle has 3-8 components. A retrospective audit was undertaken in a convenience sample of nine general medical practices in the West of Scotland. Collected data included delivery (or not of individual bundle components to all patients included on specific disease registers. Practice level and overall compliance with bundles and components were calculated in SPSS and expressed as a percentage. Results Nine practices (64.3% with a combined patient population of 56,948 were able to provide data in the format requested. Overall compliance with developed QOF-based care bundles (composite measures was as follows: CHD 64.0%, range 35.0-71.9%; Stroke/TIA 74.1%, range 51.6-82.8%; CKD 69.0%, range 64.0-81.4%; and COPD 82.0%, range 47.9-95.8%; and DM 58.4%, range 50.3-65.2%. Conclusions In this small study compliance with individual QOF-based care bundle components was high, but overall (‘all or nothing’ compliance was

  17. The behaviour of a tube bundle near the stability limit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klášterka H.


    Full Text Available Tube heat exchangers are inseparable components of a great number of energetic machinery, where one fluid flows through tubes and the other fluid flows around the tubes. Heat transfer occurs between these two fluids. Apart from the problem of heat transfer, the problem of fluid-structure interaction is very important too. Mainly the fluid flowing around the tubes may be very dangerous, because it causes vibrations of these tubes. Intensity of vibration depends on the velocity of the flow. Under the certain, so-called critical velocity, vibration amplitudes can have random pattern. The objective of this article is to determine the probability of up crossing of some fixed level. It is necessary to avoid such regimes of operations, in which the damage of a heat exchanger as a consequence of flow-induced vibration could be caused.

  18. Geometry of the cotangent bundle with Sasakian metrics and its ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences; Volume 124; Issue 3. Geometry of the ... F Ocak1 A A Salimov2. Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Sciences, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080 Trabzon, Turkey; Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Sciences, Ataturk University, 25240 Erzurum, Turkey ...

  19. Network harness: bundles of routes in public transport networks


    Berche, B.; von Ferber, C.; Holovatch, T.


    Public transport routes sharing the same grid of streets and tracks are often found to proceed in parallel along shorter or longer sequences of stations. Similar phenomena are observed in other networks built with space consuming links such as cables, vessels, pipes, neurons, etc. In the case of public transport networks (PTNs) this behavior may be easily worked out on the basis of sequences of stations serviced by each route. To quantify this behavior we use the recently introduced notion of...

  20. Network harness: bundles of routes in public transport networks (United States)

    Berche, B.; von Ferber, C.; Holovatch, T.


    Public transport routes sharing the same grid of streets and tracks are often found to proceed in parallel along shorter or longer sequences of stations. Similar phenomena are observed in other networks built with space consuming links such as cables, vessels, pipes, neurons, etc. In the case of public transport networks (PTNs) this behavior may be easily worked out on the basis of sequences of stations serviced by each route. To quantify this behavior we use the recently introduced notion of network harness. It is described by the harness distribution P(r, s): the number of sequences of s consecutive stations that are serviced by r parallel routes. For certain PTNs that we have analyzed we observe that the harness distribution may be described by power laws. These power laws indicate a certain level of organization and planning which may be driven by the need to minimize the costs of infrastructure and secondly by the fact that points of interest tend to be clustered in certain locations of a city. This effect may be seen as a result of the strong interdependence of the evolutions of both the city and its PTN. To further investigate the significance of the empirical results we have studied one- and two-dimensional models of randomly placed routes modeled by different types of walks. While in one dimension an analytic treatment was successful, the two dimensional case was studied by simulations showing that the empirical results for real PTNs deviate significantly from those expected for randomly placed routes.

  1. Geometry of the cotangent bundle with Sasakian metrics and its ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    F OCAK1,∗ and A A SALIMOV2. 1Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Sciences, Karadeniz Technical University,. 61080 Trabzon, Turkey. 2Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Sciences, Ataturk University,. 25240 Erzurum, Turkey. *Corresponding author. E-mail:;

  2. Bundling harvester; Nippukorjausharvesteri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koponen, K. [Eko-Log Oy, Kuopio (Finland)


    The staring point of the project was to design and construct, by taking the silvicultural point of view into account, a harvesting and processing system especially for energy-wood, containing manually driven bundling harvester, automatizing of the harvester, and automatized loading. The equipment forms an ideal method for entrepreneur`s-line harvesting. The target is to apply the system also for owner`s-line harvesting. The profitability of the system promotes the utilization of the system in both cases. The objectives of the project were: to construct a test equipment and prototypes for all the project stages, to carry out terrain and strain tests in order to examine the usability and durability, as well as the capacity of the machine, to test the applicability of the Eko-Log system in simultaneous harvesting of energy and pulp woods, and to start the marketing and manufacturing of the products. The basic problems of the construction of the bundling harvester have been solved using terrain-tests. The prototype machine has been shown to be operable. Loading of the bundles to form sufficiently economically transportable loads has been studied, and simultaneously, the branch-biomass has been tried to be utilized without loosing the profitability of transportation. The results have been promising, and will promote the profitable utilization of wood-energy

  3. The gas turbine - a bundle of energy - requires tender care

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saarinen, J.; Uronen, J.; Leisio, C. [ed.


    The ability of a power plant to generate energy economically depends to a great extent on the functioning of the turbine. These days, an increasingly large number of these power plant `motors` are gas turbines. IVO`s expertise in the operation, maintenance and repair of gas turbines is based on long practical experience and the company`s own research. And IVO is also no stranger to the design and construction of new gas turbine plants

  4. Helices and vector bundles

    CERN Document Server

    Rudakov, A N


    This volume is devoted to the use of helices as a method for studying exceptional vector bundles, an important and natural concept in algebraic geometry. The work arises out of a series of seminars organised in Moscow by A. N. Rudakov. The first article sets up the general machinery, and later ones explore its use in various contexts. As to be expected, the approach is concrete; the theory is considered for quadrics, ruled surfaces, K3 surfaces and P3(C).

  5. Conceptional design of test loop for FIV in fuel bundle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sim, W. G.; Yang, J. S.; Kim, S. W. [Hannam Univ., Taejeon (Korea)


    It is urgent to develop the analytical model for the structural/mechanical integrity of fuel rod. In general, it is not easy to develop a pure analytical model. Occasionally, experimental results have been utilized for the model. Because of this reason, it is required to design proper test loop. Using the optimized test loop, with the optimized test loop, the dynamic behaviour of the rod will be evaluated and the critical flow velocity, which the rod loses the stability in, will be measured for the design of the rod. To verify the integrity of the fuel rod, it is required to evaluate the dynamic behaviour and the critical flow velocity with the test loop. The test results will be utilized to the design of the rod. Generally, the rod has a ground vibration due to turbulence in wide range of flow velocity and the amplitude of vibration becomes larger by the resonance, in a range of the velocity where occurs vortex. The rod loses stability in critical flow velocity caused by fluid-elastic instability. For the purpose of the present work to perform the conceptional design of the test loop, it is necessary (1) to understand the mechanism of the flow-induced vibration and the related experimental coefficients, (2) to evaluate the existing test loops for improving the loop with design parameters and (3) to decide the design specifications of the major equipments of the loop. 35 refs., 23 figs., 2 tabs. (Author)

  6. Spacetime foam induced collective bundling of intense fields

    CERN Document Server

    Oniga, Teodora


    The influence of spacetime foam on a broad class of bosonic fields with arbitrary numbers of particles in the low energy regime is investigated. Based on recently formulated general description of open quantum gravitational systems, we analyse the propagation of scalar, electromagnetic, and gravitational waves on both long and short time scales with respect to their mean frequencies. For the long time propagation, the Markov approximation is employed that neglects the effects of initial conditions of these waves. In this case, despite intuitively expected decoherence and dissipation from the noisy spacetime, we show that such phenomena turn out to be completely suppressed for scalar bosons, photons, and gravitons, which are coupled to gravity but otherwise free. The short time effects are then recovered through the transient non-Markovian evolution. Focusing on scalar bosons in initially incoherent states, we find that the resulting quantum dissipation depend strongly on the distribution of the particle momen...

  7. The bumper bundle book of modelling NLP modelling made simple

    CERN Document Server

    Burgess, Fran


    A Neurolinguistic Programming textbook which focusses on the core activity of NLP - modelling. It covers the thinking behind NLP modelling, presents an extensive range of modelling methodologies and skills, offers applications of modelling, and provides specific details for model and technique construction.

  8. Projecting diffusion along the normal bundle of a plane curve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valero-Valdés, Carlos [Departamento de Matemáticas Aplicadas y Sistemas, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Cuajimalpa, México, D.F 4871, México (Mexico); Herrera-Guzmán, Rafael [Centro de Investigación en Matemáticas (CIMAT), Guanajuato, Gto, México (Mexico)


    The purpose of this paper is to provide new formulas for the effective diffusion coefficient of a generalized Fick-Jacob's equation obtained by projecting the two-dimensional diffusion equation along the normal directions of an arbitrary curve on the plane.

  9. Metallic/semiconducting ratio of carbon nanotubes in a bundle ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Since from the discovery of single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) by. Iijima and Ichihashi [1], much efforts have been devoted to improve the methods of nanotube production, and significant progress has been made to narrow the diame- ter distribution of nanotubes produced by different catalysts and growth processes.

  10. Photosynthetic activity of vascular bundles in Plantago media leaves. (United States)

    Miszalski, Zbigniew; Skoczowski, Andrzej; Silina, Ekaterina; Dymova, Olga; Golovko, Tamara; Kornas, Andrzej; Strzalka, Kazimierz


    Photosynthetic processes in the leaf lamina and midribs of Plantago media were investigated using plants grown in high light (HL) or low light (LL) conditions. The fluorescence parameters, which indicate photochemical/photosynthetic activity, were different in HL and LL grown plants, but no major differences between lamina and midribs were found. An OJIP test (chlorophyll a fluorescence transient induction) of LL grown plants, indicative of the chloroplast electron transport chain, also showed both tissues to be similar. In HL plants, a partial blockage of electron flow between QA (the primary plastoquinone electron acceptor of PSII) and QB (the secondary plastoquinone acceptor of PSII) was found, and this was less visible in midribs. The effective dissipation of quantum energy per reaction center (DI0/RC) was similar in both tissues of HL grown plants, while in the midribs of LL leaves, this process seemed to be less effective. Measurements of (13)C discrimination showed that the midrib tissues of LL and HL leaves effectively used β-carboxylation products to accumulate their biomass. Thus, the well protected activity of electron transport in midribs with their limited capacity to fix CO2 from the air may indicate the involvement of this tissue in β-carboxylation, transport or signaling. Carbon accumulated in roots showed a lower (13)C discrimination value (more negative) than the values observed in lamina. This could indicate that roots are supplied with assimilates mostly during the light phase of the day cycle with intensive C3 photosynthesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Controlling simulations of human-artifact interaction with scenario bundles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Vegte, W.F.; Rusák, Z.


    We introduce a methodology for modeling and simulating fully virtual human-artifact systems, aiming to resolve two issues in virtual prototyping: (i) integration of distinct modeling and simulation approaches, and (ii) extending the deployability of simulations towards conceptual design. We are

  12. Moduli space of Parabolic vector bundles over hyperelliptic curves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    delta$ with the variety of $2g - 1$ dimensional linear subspaces of the projective space $\\mathbb{P}(V)$, contained in the quadrics $Q1$ and $Q2$ is compatible with such $\\mathbb{Z}_2$ action. In our case the $\\mathbb{Z}_2$ action on $Y$ is ...

  13. Method and device for tensile testing of cable bundles (United States)

    Robertson, Lawrence M; Ardelean, Emil V; Goodding, James C; Babuska, Vit


    A standard tensile test device is improved to accurately measure the mechanical properties of stranded cables, ropes, and other composite structures wherein a witness is attached to the top and bottom mounting blocks holding the cable under test. The witness is comprised of two parts: a top and a bottom rod of similar diameter with the bottom rod having a smaller diameter stem on its upper end and the top rod having a hollow opening in its lower end into which the stem fits forming a witness joint. A small gap is present between the top rod and the larger diameter portion of the bottom rod. A standard extensometer is attached to the top and bottom rods of the witness spanning this small witness gap. When a force is applied to separate the mounting blocks, the gap in the witness expands the same length that the entire test specimen is stretched.

  14. Comparison of left ventricular torsion and strain with biventricular pacing in patients with underlying right bundle branch block versus those with left bundle branch block. (United States)

    De, Sabe; Popović, Zoran B; Verhaert, David; Dresing, Thomas; Wilkoff, Bruce; Starling, Randall; Tang, W H Wilson; Thomas, James D; Grimm, Richard A


    The benefits of biventricular pacing in patients with cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) remain poorly understood in those with right bundle branch block (RBBB). The aim of this study was to examine the differences in several speckle tracking-derived parameters, including left ventricular torsion and longitudinal strain with CRT on and off for patients with underlying left bundle branch block (LBBB) and RBBB. Twelve patients with CRT and RBBB were compared with a similar group of patients with underlying LBBB who were sent for evaluation and atrioventricular optimization. Echocardiographic images were acquired with biventricular pacing on and off. The 2 groups had similar baseline characteristics, including age, the ejection fraction, and QRS duration. During intrinsic conduction (CRT off), patients with LBBB had lower torsion angles than those with RBBB (2.3 ± 1.0° in those with LBBB vs 6.3 ± 1.0° in those with RBBB, p = 0.03) but trended toward improvements in torsional parameters, including torsional angle and peak untwisting velocity with CRT on, whereas these parameters worsened in patients with RBBB. Compared with CRT off, analyses of septal and lateral strain curves showed significant improvements in septal strain during 100% and 200% of systole with CRT on in patients with LBBB, whereas biventricular pacing resulted in a trend toward worsening of septal strain in patients with RBBB. Negligible changes were noted in lateral strain values. In conclusion, CRT favorably improves regional mechanics in patients with LBBB primarily involving the ventricular septum, with a negligible positive impact on cardiac function in patients with underlying RBBB. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Transverse versus longitudinal electrical propagation within the atrioventricular node during dual pathway conduction: basis of dual pathway electrophysiology and His electrogram alternans (Zhang's phenomenon). (United States)

    Zhang, Youhua


    We have discovered and validated that AV node dual pathway conduction results in a new phenomenon termed His electrogram alternans (HEA), which indicates dual inputs rather than a final common pathway from the AV node into the His bundle. However, the electrophysiological basis for AV node dual pathway conduction and HEA has not been clarified. This study was designed to elucidate the electrophysiological basis for dual pathway conduction and HEA. By using HEA as an index of dual pathway electrophysiology, action potentials from multiple locations in the superior and inferior AV nodal domains were obtained to monitor electrical propagation during dual pathway conduction in 8 isolated rabbit hearts. Fibers inside the AV node were generally aligned along the AV conduction axis. During fast pathway (FP) conduction, electrical excitation in the AV node was propagated in a superior to inferior direction across the major fiber orientation. In contrast, slow pathway (SP) conduction occurred when the superior-inferior propagation failed within the superior nodal domain, permitting electrical propagation to proceed in the inferior nodal domain along the fiber orientation in a posterior to anterior direction. In effect, FP activated first the superior distal node, while SP activated first the inferior distal node. This functional dissociation of superior-fast and inferior-slow domains in distal node produced dual inputs into the His bundle. Transverse versus longitudinal electrical propagation within the AV node produces functional dissociation in the distal node, resulting in superior-fast and inferior-slow inputs into the His bundle and HEA during dual pathway conduction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Left bundle-branch block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risum, Niels; Strauss, David; Sogaard, Peter


    The relationship between myocardial electrical activation by electrocardiogram (ECG) and mechanical contraction by echocardiography in left bundle-branch block (LBBB) has never been clearly demonstrated. New strict criteria for LBBB based on a fundamental understanding of physiology have recently...

  17. MAVEN SWEA Calibrated Data Bundle (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This bundle contains fully calibrated electron energy/angle (3D) distributions, pitch angle distributions, and omni-directional energy spectra. Tables of sensitivity...

  18. Spontaneous resolution of left bundle branch block and biventricular stimulation lead to reverse remodeling in dyssynchronopathy. (United States)

    Kloosterman, Mariëlle; Rienstra, Michiel; Van Gelder, Isabelle C; Maass, Alexander H


    Left bundle branch block (LBBB) is considered a marker of underlying structural cardiac disease. To determine whether LBBB is cause or consequence of deterioration of left ventricular (LV) function is difficult as both are often diagnosed concomitantly. We discuss a patient where reversal of LBBB and subsequent normalization of LV function was observed after 2 different therapies, first after start of heart failure medication, and years later after implantation of a cardiac resynchronization device. This indicates that LBBB per se may result in the development of non-ischemic cardiomyopathy and that LBBB resolution can lead to reverse remodeling in dyssynchronopathy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A Hybrid Approach of Bundle and Benders Applied Large Mixed Linear Integer Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Placido Rogerio Pinheiro


    Full Text Available Consider a large mixed integer linear problem where structure of the constraint matrix is sparse, with independent blocks, and coupling constraints and variables. There is one of the groups of constraints to make difficult the application of Benders scheme decomposition. In this work, we propose the following algorithm; a Lagrangian relaxation is made on the mentioned set of constraints; we presented a process heuristic for the calculation of the multiplier through the resolution of the dual problem, structured starting from the bundle methods. According to the methodology proposed, for each iteration of the algorithm, we propose Benders decomposition where quotas are provided for the value function and ε-subgradient.

  20. Multiple-particle tracking measurements of heterogeneities in solutions of actin filaments and actin bundles. (United States)

    Apgar, J; Tseng, Y; Fedorov, E; Herwig, M B; Almo, S C; Wirtz, D


    One of the central functions of actin cytoskeleton is to provide the mechanical support required for the establishment and maintenance of cell morphology. The mechanical properties of actin filament assemblies are a consequence of both the available polymer concentration and the actin regulatory proteins that direct the formation of higher order structures. By monitoring the displacement of well-dispersed microspheres via fluorescence microscopy, we probe the degree of spatial heterogeneity of F-actin gels and networks in vitro. We compare the distribution of the time-dependent mean-square displacement (MSD) of polystyrene microspheres imbedded in low- and high-concentration F-actin solutions, in the presence and absence of the F-actin-bundling protein fascin. The MSD distribution of a 2. 6-microM F-actin solution is symmetric and its standard deviation is similar to that of a homogeneous solution of glycerol of similar zero-shear viscosity. However, increasing actin concentration renders the MSD distribution wide and asymmetric, an effect enhanced by fascin. Quantitative changes in the shape of the MSD distribution correlate qualitatively with the presence of large heterogeneities in F-actin solutions produced by increased filament concentration and the presence of actin bundles, as detected by confocal microscopy. Multiple-particle tracking offers a new, quantitative method to characterize the organization of biopolymers in solution.

  1. Jupiter: His limb darkening and the magnitude of his internal energy source (United States)

    Trafton, L.M.; Wildey, R.L.


    The most accurate infrared photometric observations (8 to 14 microns) to date of the average limb darkening of Jupiter have been combined with the most refined deduction of jovian model atmospheres in which flux constancy has been closely maintained in the upper regime of radiative equilibrium and a much more accurate approximation of the 10- and 16-micron vibration-rotation bands of ammonia has been incorporated. The theoretically predicted emergent specific intensity has been multiplied by the spectral response function and folded (mathematically convolved - intersmeared) with the spatial response function of the atmosphere-telescope-photometer combination. The resulting comparison indicates that Jupiter is radiating from three to four times as much power as the planet is receiving from the sun.

  2. The evaluation of energy efficiency of convective heat transfer surfaces in tube bundles (United States)

    Grigoriev, B. A.; Pronin, V. A.; Salohin, V. I.; Sidenkov, D. V.


    When evaluating the effectiveness of the heat exchange surfaces in the main considered characteristics such as heat flow (Q, Watt), the power required for pumps (N, Watt), and surface area of heat transfer (F, m2). The most correct comparison provides a comparison “ceteris paribus”. Carried out performance comparison “ceteris paribus” in-line and staggered configurations of bundles with a circular pipes can serve as a basis for the development of physical models of flow and heat transfer in tube bundles with tubes of other geometric shapes, considering intertubular stream with attached eddies. The effect of longitudinal and transverse steps of the pipes on the energy efficiency of different configurations would take into account by mean of physical relations between the structure of shell side flow with attached eddies and intensity of transfer processes of heat and momentum. With the aim of energy-efficient placement of tubes, such an approach opens up great opportunities for the synthesis of a plurality of tubular heat exchange surfaces, in particular, the layout of the twisted and in-line-diffuser type with a drop-shaped pipes.

  3. Synthesis and Characterization of Flower-Like Bundles of ZnO Nanosheets by a Surfactant-Free Hydrothermal Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jijun Qiu


    Full Text Available Flower-like bundles of ZnO nanosheets have been prepared by using preheating hydrothermal process without any surfactants. The flower-like bundles consist of many thin and uniform hexagonal-structured ZnO nanosheets, with a thickness of 50 nm. The selected area electronic diffraction (SAED and high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM images indicate that the ZnO nanosheets are single crystal in nature. The growth mechanism of the flower-like bundles of ZnO nanosheets is discussed based on the morphology evolution with growth times and reaction conditions. It is believed that the formation of flower-like bundles of ZnO nanosheets is related to the shielding effect of OH− ions and the self-assembly process, which is dominated by a preheating time. Room temperature photoluminescence spectra results show that the annealing atmosphere strongly affects the visible emission band, which is sensitive to intrinsic and surface defects, especially oxygen interstitials, in flower-like bundles of ZnO nanosheets.

  4. Characterization of short white matter fiber bundles in the central area from diffusion tensor MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magro, Elsa [INSERM U 1099/Universite de Rennes 1, Equipe MediCIS, Faculte de Medecine, Rennes Cedex (France); CHU Cavale Blanche, Service de Neurochirurgie, Pole Neurolocomoteur, Brest (France); Moreau, Tristan; Gibaud, Bernard [INSERM U 1099/Universite de Rennes 1, Equipe MediCIS, Faculte de Medecine, Rennes Cedex (France); Seizeur, Romuald [INSERM U 1099/Universite de Rennes 1, Equipe MediCIS, Faculte de Medecine, Rennes Cedex (France); CHU Cavale Blanche, Service de Neurochirurgie, Pole Neurolocomoteur, Brest (France); INSERM UMR 1101 LaTIM, Brest (France); Morandi, Xavier [INSERM U 1099/Universite de Rennes 1, Equipe MediCIS, Faculte de Medecine, Rennes Cedex (France); CHU Pontchaillou, Service de Neurochirurgie, Rennes (France)


    Diffusion tensor imaging and tractography allow studying white matter fiber bundles in the human brain in vivo. Electrophysiological studies and postmortem dissections permit improving our knowledge about the short association fibers connecting the pre- and postcentral gyri. The aim of this study was first to extract and analyze the features of these short fiber bundles and secondly to analyze their asymmetry according to the subjects' handedness. Ten right-handed and ten left-handed healthy subjects were included. White matter fiber bundles were extracted using a streamline tractography approach, with two seed regions of interest (ROI) taken from a parcellation of the pre- and postcentral gyri. This parcellation was achieved using T1 magnetic resonance images (MRI) and semi-automatically generated three ROIs within each gyrus. MRI tracks were reconstructed between all pairs of ROIs connecting the adjacent pre- and postcentral gyri. A quantitative analysis was performed on the number of tracks connecting each ROI pair. A statistical analysis studied the repartition of these MRI tracks in the right and left hemispheres and as a function of the subjects' handedness. The quantitative analysis showed an increased density of MRI tracks in the middle part of the central area in each hemisphere of the 20 subjects. The statistical analysis showed significantly more MRI tracks for the left hemisphere, when we consider the whole population, and this difference was presumably driven by the left-handers. These results raise questions about the functional role of these MRI tracks and their relation with laterality. (orig.)

  5. Diagnosis of myocardial infarction and ischemia in the setting of bundle branch block and cardiac pacing. (United States)

    Herweg, B; Marcus, M B; Barold, S S


    The diagnosis of myocardial infarction (MI) in the presence of left bundle branch block (LBBB) or during ventricular pacing (VP) is challenging because of inherent changes in the sequence of ventricular depolarization and repolarization associated with both conditions. Although LBBB and right ventricular (RV) pacing may both produce abnormalities in the ECG, it is often possible to diagnose an acute MI (AMI) or an old MI based on selected morphologic changes. Primary ST-segment changes scoring 3 points or greater according to the Sgarbossa criteria are highly predictive of an AMI in patients with LBBB or RV pacing. The modified Sgarbossa criteria are useful for the diagnosis of AMI in patients with LBBB; however, these criteria have not yet been studied in the setting of RV pacing. Although changes of the QRS complex are not particularly sensitive for the diagnosis of an old MI in the setting of LBBB or RV pacing, the qR complex and Cabrera sign are highly specific for the presence of an old infarct. Diagnosing AMI in the setting of biventricular (BiV) pacing is challenging. To date there is minimal evidence suggesting that the traditional electrocardiographic criteria for diagnosis of AMI in bundle branch block may be applicable to patients with BiV pacing and positive QRS complexes on their ECG in lead V1. This report is a careful review of the electrocardiographic criteria facilitating the diagnosis of acute and remote MI in patients with LBBB and/or VP.

  6. The Fiber Bundle Model for Multiscale Modeling of Hydro-Mechanical Triggering of Shallow Landslides (United States)

    Cohen, D.; Or, D.; Lehmann, P.; Schwarz, M.; Michlmayr, G.


    Sudden and rapid mass movements associated with landslides and snow avalanches present a significant natural hazard to life and infrastructures in mountainous regions yet their triggering mechanisms and prediction remain poorly understood. Statistical methods and correlative studies are often used to delineate landslide susceptibility maps, many of which lack sound physical basis. Mechanistic approaches based on factor of safety fail to represent localized aspects associated with progressive failure and do not, in general, include heterogeneities associated with land-cover use and subsurface heterogeneities of material properties and hydrologic pathways. We propose the use of the fiber bundle model which provides a well-developed framework for quantifying progression from small and localized mechanical failure to global failure of a heterogeneous hillslope. Fibers represent an abstraction of a variety of soil bonding elements including friction, cementation, plant roots and more. We present numerical results simulating (1) the effect of water infiltration on soil strength by means of time-varying statistical distribution of fiber strengths, and (2) the progressive loading caused by water saturation and movement through the soil using non-uniform loading of the hypothetical fibers. The main advantages of the fiber bundle model are its ability to account for progressive failure and heterogeneities, multi-scale representation of physical processes, and a natural interpretation of acoustic emission signatures from failing slopes that could be exploited for characterization and early warning systems.

  7. Bundle of measures for external cerebral ventricular drainage-associated ventriculitis. (United States)

    Chatzi, Maria; Karvouniaris, Marios; Makris, Demosthenes; Tsimitrea, Eleni; Gatos, Charalampos; Tasiou, Anastasia; Mantzarlis, Kostas; Fountas, Kostas N; Zakynthinos, Epaminondas


    To assess the prevalence and outcome of external cerebral ventricular drainage-associated ventriculitis in neurocritical patients before and after the implementation of a bundle of external cerebral ventricular drainage-associated ventriculitis control measures. Clinical prospective case series. University Hospital of Larissa, Greece. Consecutive patients were recruited from the ICU of the hospital. Patient inclusion criteria included presence of external ventricular drainage and ICU stay more than 48 hours. The bundle of external cerebral ventricular drainage-associated ventriculitis control measures included 1) reeducation of ICU personnel on issues of infection control related to external cerebral ventricular drainage, 2) meticulous intraventricular catheter handling, 3) cerebrospinal fluid sampling only when clinically necessary, and 4) routine replacement of the drainage catheter on the seventh drainage day if the catheter was still necessary. The bundle was applied after an initial period (preintervention) where standard policy for external cerebral ventricular drainage-associated ventriculitis was established. External cerebral ventricular drainage-associated ventriculitis prevalence, external cerebral ventricular drainage-associated ventriculitis events per 1,000 drainage days (drain-associated infection rate), length of ICU stay, Glasgow Outcome Scale at 6 months, and risk factors for external cerebral ventricular drainage-associated ventriculitis. Eighty-two patients entered the study in the preintervention period and 57 patients during the intervention period. During the preintervention and intervention period, external cerebral ventricular drainage-associated ventriculitis prevalence was 28% and 10.5% (p = 0.02) and drain-associated infection rate was 18 and 7.1, respectively (p = 0.0001); mean (95% CI) length of ICU stay in patients who presented external cerebral ventricular drainage-associated ventriculitis was 44.4 days (36.4-52.4 d), whereas mean

  8. Study of hadron bundles observed in Chacaltaya two-story emulsion chamber (United States)

    Aoki, H.


    The existence of hadron-rich families associated with few gamma-ray emission named Centauro and Mini-Centauro phemonena was reported. It was investigated whether these are produced by the special type of interaction different from the ordinary pion multiple production or not. The experimental results are compared with simulation calculation based on ordinary multiple pion production model. Both hadron multiplicity distribution, obtained from the present observation and the simulation calculation, show almost the same distribution which means that hadron bundles of such smaller multiplicities are considered to originate from successive interactions of surviving nucleon with the nature of multiple production during passage through the atmosphere.

  9. Effects of an Isolated Complete Right Bundle Branch Block on Mechanical Ventricular Function. (United States)

    Zhang, Qin; Xue, Minghua; Li, Zhan; Wang, Haiyan; Zhu, Lei; Liu, Xinling; Meng, Haiyan; Hou, Yinglong


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of an isolated complete right bundle branch block on mechanical ventricular function. Two groups of participants were enrolled in this study: a block group, consisting of 98 patients with isolated complete right bundle branch blocks without structural heart disease, and a control group, consisting of 92 healthy adults. The diameter, end-diastolic area, end-systolic area, and right ventricular (RV) fractional area change were obtained to evaluate morphologic and systolic function by 2-dimensional sonographic technology. Systolic and diastolic velocities and time interval parameters were measured to assess mechanical ventricular performance using pulsed wave tissue Doppler imaging. Although there was no significant difference in the RV fractional area change between the patients with blocks and controls, the diameter, end-diastolic area, and end-systolic area of the RV were significantly larger in the patients with blocks (P blocks, the peak velocities during systole and early diastole and the ratio of the peak velocities during early and late diastole decreased. The block group had a prolonged pre-ejection period, electromechanical delay time, and isovolumic relaxation time, a decreased ejection time, and an increased pre-ejection period/ejection time ratio, and the myocardial performance index (Tei index) at the basal RV lateral wall was significantly increased. There were no significant differences in any echocardiographic parameters at different sites of the left ventricle. In patients with isolated complete right bundle branch blocks, systolic and diastolic functions are impaired in the RV, and follow-up is needed. © 2015 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  10. Jean Piaget: Images of a life and his factory. (United States)

    Burman, Jeremy Trevelyan


    In this article, I use a new book about Jean Piaget to introduce a new historical method: examining "psychological factories." I also discuss some of the ways that "Great Men" are presented in the literature, as well as opportunities for new projects if one approaches the history of the discipline differently and examines the conditions that made that greatness possible. To that end, the article includes many details about Piaget that have never before been discussed in English. Attention is drawn, in particular, to Piaget's collaborators: the hundreds of workers at his factory in Geneva, many of whom were women. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Prejudices, Philosophies and Language: Spinoza and His Strategies of Liberation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola de Cuzzani


    Full Text Available The Enlightenment idea that prejudice is to be fought with rational knowledge and the later position of hermeneutics calling for an awareness that distinguishes positive, fertile prejudices from negative, infertile ones, do not seem able to produce strategies of liberation. In order to understand why it is so difficult to fight prejudices, the author goes back to the beginning of the modern reflection about prejudice made by Spinoza and his “atypical” modernity, which can allow us to shed light on this complex phenomenon. According to Spinoza, prejudice lies at the confluence of different elements: language, habit, experience, and daily morality.

  12. Polymer-Assisted Direct Deposition of Uniform Carbon Nanotube Bundle Networks for High Performance Transparent Electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Hellstrom, Sondra L.


    Flexible transparent electrodes are crucial for touch screen, flat panel display, and solar cell technologies. While carbon nanotube network electrodes show promise, characteristically poor dispersion properties have limited their practicality. We report that addition of small amounts of conjugated polymer to nanotube dispersions enables straightforward fabrication of uniform network electrodes by spin-coating and simultaneous tuning of parameters such as bundle size and density. After treatment in thionyl chloride, electrodes have sheet resistances competitive with other reported carbon nanotube based transparent electrodes to date. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  13. Thomas Alva Edison (170th Anniversary of His Birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Samokhin


    Full Text Available A brief overview of the major technical achievements of Thomas Edison, an outstanding American inventor, author of more than 1,000 US patents and several thousand patents in other countries, honorary academician of the USSR. Presents biographical information and details of the formation of Edison, his work as a telegrapher, organizing the world's first industrial research laboratory for the continuous development of technological innovations, as well as some interesting facts about his life and work. This includes pioneering work on the creation of Edison incandescent lighting, the distribution system for their power and cinema. Edison can be considered the founder of the multimedia technology, as it was the beginning of the invention of the phonograph of phonics and disc phonograph recording of depth was the basis of mechanical recording. Name Edison are geographic features, a lot of companies and educational institutions. He was a member of many Academies of Sciences and entered the list of "100 most outstanding people for 1,000 years." Bust open in the Hall of Fame of great Americans, and a bronze statue - sculptures at the National Hall on Capitol Hill.

  14. Wellens' syndrome can indicate high-grade LAD stenosis in case of left bundle branch block. (United States)

    Grautoff, Steffen


    Diagnosing acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in left bundle branch block (LBBB) is challenging. Modified Sgarbossa criteria are known to help detect AMI in LBBB. This is a report about an electrocardiogram (ECG) with Wellens' signs in combination with a pre-existing LBBB. The ECG of a patient with fluctuating chest pain showed very subtle and one day later more obvious Wellens'signs. A left anterior descending artery (LAD) stenosis was diagnosed and successfully treated. Wellens' syndrome can be diagnosed in a case of LBBB and help detect a high-grade LAD stenosis even if modified Sgarbossa criteria are not met.

  15. Numerical Study on Influence of Cross Flow on Rewetting of AHWR Fuel Bundle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mithilesh Kumar


    Full Text Available Numerical study on AHWR fuel bundle has been carried out to assess influence of circumferential and cross flow rewetting on the conduction heat transfer. The AHWR fuel bundle quenching under accident condition is designed primarily with radial jets at several axial locations. A 3D (r, θ, z transient conduction fuel pin model has been developed to carry out the study with a finite difference method (FDM technique with alternating direction implicit (ADI scheme. The single pin has been considered to study effect of circumferential conduction and multipins have been considered to study the influence of cross flow. Both analyses are carried out with the same fluid temperature and heat transfer coefficients as boundary conditions. It has been found from the analyses that, for radial jet, the circumferential conduction is significant and due to influence of overall cross flow the reductions in fuel temperature in the same quench plane in different rings are different with same initial surface temperature. Influence of cross flow on rewetting is found to be very significant. Outer fuel pins rewetting time is higher than inner.

  16. Modeling of the energy savings of variable recruitment McKibben muscle bundles (United States)

    Meller, Michael A.; Chipka, Jordan B.; Bryant, Matthew J.; Garcia, Ephrahim


    McKibben artificial muscles are often utilized in mobile robotic applications that require compliant and light weight actuation capable of producing large forces. In order to increase the endurance of these mobile robotic platforms, actuation efficiency must be addressed. Since pneumatic systems are rarely more than 30% efficient due to the compressibility of the working fluid, the McKibben muscles are hydraulically powered. Additionally, these McKibben artificial muscles utilize an inelastic bladder to reduce the energy losses associated with elastic energy storage in the usual rubber tube bladders. The largest energy losses in traditional valve-controlled hydraulic systems are found in the valving implementation to match the required loads. This is performed by throttling, which results in large pressure drops over the control valves and significant fluid power being wasted as heat. This paper discusses how these throttling losses are reduced by grouping multiple artificial muscles to form a muscle bundle where, like in skeletal muscle, more elements that make up the muscle bundle are recruited to match the load. This greatly lessens the pressure drops by effectively changing the actuator area, leading to much higher efficiencies over a broader operation envelope. Simulations of several different loading scenarios are discussed that reveal the benefits of such an actuation scheme.

  17. Effects of a bundled Antimicrobial Stewardship Program on mortality: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Miyake Okumura

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess a bundled Antimicrobial Stewardship Program and its effect on mortality. Data:Eight months of clinical electronic medical records and Antimicrobial Stewardship Program registries were used as source of data.Method: This is a historical cohort study conducted in a Brazilian University Hospital. Eligible patients were admitted to general wards or intensive care units and had an antimicrobial therapy prescribed and assessed by different strategies: Bundled Antimicrobial Stewardship Program (bundled intervention consisted of clinical pharmacist chart review, discussion with microbiologist and infectious disease physicians, local education and continuous follow-up or Conventional Antimicrobial Stewardship Program (clinical pharmacist chart review and discussion with infectious disease physician. Primary outcome from this study was 30-day mortality, which was compared between groups, by using Kaplan-Meier survival curve and log-rank test. Other outcomes included Defined Daily Doses per 1000 patient-days and occurrence of resistant bacteria.Results: From 533 patients, 491 were eligible for the study, of which 191 patients were included to Antimicrobial Stewardship Program and 300 to Conventional strategy. In general, they were likely to be male and age was similar in groups (58.9 vs 55.5 years, p= 0.38. Likewise, Charlson Comorbidity Index was not statistically different between groups (2.6 vs 2.7, p= 0.2. Bloodstream site infections were frequently diagnosed in both groups (30.89% vs 26%, p= 0.24. Other less common sites of infections were central nervous system and lungs. The ASP group had higher survival rates (p< 0.01 and the risk difference was 10.8% (95% CI: 2.41-19.14. There were less Defined Daily Doses per 1000 patient-days (417 vs 557.2, p< 0.05 and higher rates of resistant bacteria identified in the ASP group (83% vs 17%.Conclusion: Bundled ASP was the most effective strategy, with reduced mortality and Defined Daily

  18. Henry Rudolf Hertz (the 160th anniversary of his birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Samokhin


    Full Text Available A brief overview of the main achievements of Heinrich Hertz, an outstanding German physicist, has been shown to prove to the whole world the existence of electromagnetic waves. Biographical information and details of Hertz's education, his work in Hermann Helmholtz's laboratory, as well as interesting facts from his life and work are given. These include the unique experimental work performed by Hertz, a professor at the Higher Technical School in Karlsruhe, using the emitter of electromagnetic waves - the "Hertz Vibrator" - and their own design receiver. Along with James Maxwell and Oliver Heaviside, Hertz can be considered the founder of electrodynamics: he received electromagnetic waves predicted by Maxwell's theory, showed their identity with light waves and gave a classical calculation of the electromagnetic radiation of the simplest vibrator. Hertz's discoveries formed the basis for the theory of radiation of radio waves and methods for calculating antennas, and became the basis for the birth of the era of wireless communications, radio and television.

  19. Determination of the turbulence integral model parameters for a case of a coolant angular flow in regular rod-bundle (United States)

    Bayaskhalanov, M. V.; Vlasov, M. N.; Korsun, A. S.; Merinov, I. G.; Philippov, M. Ph


    Research results of “k-ε” turbulence integral model (TIM) parameters dependence on the angle of a coolant flow in regular smooth cylindrical rod-bundle are presented. TIM is intended for the definition of efficient impulse and heat transport coefficients in the averaged equations of a heat and mass transfer in the regular rod structures in an anisotropic porous media approximation. The TIM equations are received by volume-averaging of the “k-ε” turbulence model equations on periodic cell of rod-bundle. The water flow across rod-bundle under angles from 15 to 75 degrees was simulated by means of an ANSYS CFX code. Dependence of the TIM parameters on flow angle was as a result received.

  20. ACL-PCL and intercondylar notch impingement: magnetic resonance imaging of native and double-bundle ACL-reconstructed knees. (United States)

    Kropf, Eric J; Shen, Wei; van Eck, Carola F; Musahl, Volker; Irrgang, James J; Fu, Freddie H


    The purpose of this study was to: (1) define the relationship between the ACL and PCL in normal knees; (2) determine whether ACL-PCL impingement occurs in native knees; and (3) determine whether there is a difference in impingement between double-bundle reconstructed and native knees. Eight subjects were identified (age 20-50; 6 females, 2 males). All were at least 1-year status postanatomic double-bundle ACL reconstruction (allograft; AM = 8 mm; PL = 7 mm) and had no history of injury or surgery to the contralateral knee. MRIs of both knees were performed with the knee at 0 and 30° of flexion. The images were evaluated by a non-treating surgeon and two musculoskeletal radiologists. Coronal and sagittal angles of AM and PL bundles, Liu's PCL index and the distance between ACL and PCL on modified axial oblique images were recorded. Impingement was graded (1) no contact; (2) contact without deformation; or (3) contact and distortion of PCL contour. Seventy-five percent (6) of the native ACL's showed no contact with the roof of the intercondylar notch or PCL, compared to 25 % (2) of the double-bundle reconstructed ACLs. One double-bundle reconstructed ACL showed intercondylar notch roof and ACL-PCL impingement (12.5 %). Significant differences were found between the native ACL and the double-bundle reconstructed ACL for the coronal angle of the AM (79° vs. 72°, p = 0.002) and PL bundle (75° vs. 58°, p = 0.001). No differences in ROM or stability were noted at any follow-up interval between groups based on MRI impingement grade. ACL-PCL contact occurred in 25 % of native knees. Contact between the ACL graft and PCL occurred in 75 % of double-bundle reconstructed knees. ACL-PCL impingement, both contact and distortion of the PCL, occurred in one knee after double-bundle reconstruction. This study offers perspective on what can be considered normal contact between the ACL and PCL and how impingement after ACL reconstruction can be detected on MRI

  1. Nurse-led implementation of a ventilator-associated pneumonia care bundle in a children's critical care unit. (United States)

    Hill, Charlotte


    Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is the leading cause of death with hospital-acquired infections, and preventing it is one of the Saving Lives initiatives ( Department of Health 2007 ). This article discusses the implementation of a purpose-designed VAP care bundle in a children's intensive care unit and examines the unique role of nurses in the management of the change process. A nurse-led VAP education, implementation and surveillance programme was set up. Nurse education was paramount, as nursing staff acceptance and involvement was a key feature. A multi-method training strategy was implemented, providing staff with multiple training opportunities and introducing VAP project education as a routine part of staff induction. Bundle compliance was monitored regularly and graphs of the results produced quarterly; feedback proved to be useful in keeping staff informed and engaged in VAP reduction. Comparison of VAP incidence before and after introduction of the care bundle showed a reduction after its implementation. With a co-ordinated, multidisciplinary approach, VAP care bundles can result in significant and sustained reductions in VAP rates in the paediatric intensive care unit. Effective co-ordination and leadership is crucial to successful implementation of the VAP bundle, and nurses are well placed to undertake this role.

  2. An unexplained three-dimensional percept emerging from a bundle of lines. (United States)

    Altschuler, Eric L; Huang, Abigail E; Kim, Hee J; Battaglini, Luca; Roncato, Sergio


    Perceptual grouping has been extensively studied, but some areas are still unexplored-in particular, the figural organizations that emerge when bundles of intersecting lines are drawn. Here, we will describe some figural organizations that emerge after the superimposition of bundles of lines forming the profile of regular triangular waves. By manipulating the lines' jaggedness and junction geometry (regular or irregular X junction) we could generate the following organizations: (a) a grid, or a figural configuration in which both the lines and closed contours are perceived, (b) a figure-ground organization composed of figures separated by portions of the background, and (c) a corrugated surface appearing as a multifaceted polyhedral shell crossed by ridges and valleys. An experiment was conducted with the aim at testing the role of the good-continuation and closure Gestalt factors. Good continuation prevails when the lines are straight or close to straightness, but its role is questionable in the appearance of a corrugated surface. This perceptual organization occurs despite the violation of the good-continuation rule and consists of a structure of such complexity so as to challenge algorithms of computer vision and stimulate a deeper understanding of the perceptual interpretation of groups of lines.

  3. Residence time distribution for electrokinetic flow through a microchannel comprising a bundle of cylinders. (United States)

    Hsu, Jyh-Ping; Ting, Chung-Chieh; Lee, Duu-Jong; Tseng, Shiojenn; Chen, Chur-Jen; Su, Ay


    The electrokinetic flow of an electrolyte solution through a microchannel that comprises a bundle of cylinders is investigated for the case of constant surface potential. The system under consideration is simulated by a unit cell model, and analytical expressions for the flow field and the corresponding residence time distribution under various conditions are derived. These results are readily applicable to the assessment of the performance of a microreactor such as that which comprises a bundle of optical fibers. Numerical simulations are conducted to investigate the influences of the key parameters, including the thickness of the double layer, the strength of the applied electric field, the magnitude of the applied pressure gradient, and the characteristic sizes of a microchannel, on the residence time distribution. We show that the following could result in a shorter residence time: thin double layer, strong applied electric field, large applied pressure gradient, and small number of cylinders. Based on the thickness of the double layer, criteria are proposed for whether the flow field can be treated as a laminar flow or as a plug flow, two basic limiting cases in reactor design.

  4. Calculation of Heat-Bearing Agent’s Steady Flow in Fuel Bundle (United States)

    Amosova, E. V.; Guba, G. G.


    This paper introduces the result of studying the heat exchange in the fuel bundle of the nuclear reactor’s fuel magazine. The article considers the fuel bundle of the infinite number of fuel elements, fuel elements are considered in the checkerboard fashion (at the tops of a regular triangle a fuel element is a plain round rod. The inhomogeneity of volume energy release in the rod forms the inhomogeneity of temperature and velocity fields, and pressure. Computational methods for studying hydrodynamics in magazines and cores with rod-shape fuel elements are based on a significant simplification of the problem: using basic (averaged) equations, isobaric section hypothesis, porous body model, etc. This could be explained by the complexity of math description of the three-dimensional fluid flow in the multi-connected area with the transfer coefficient anisotropy, curved boundaries and technical computation difficulties. Thus, calculative studying suggests itself as promising and important. There was developed a method for calculating the heat-mass exchange processes of inter-channel fuel element motions, which allows considering the contribution of natural convection to the heat-mass exchange based on the Navier-Stokes equations and Boussinesq approximation.

  5. Subchannel analysis and correlation of the Rod Bundle Heat Transfer (RBHT) steam cooling experimental data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, M.P.; Mohanta, L.; Miller, D.J.; Cheung, F.B. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Bajorek, S.M.; Tien, K.; Hoxie, C.L. [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research


    A subchannel analysis of the steam cooling data obtained in the Rod Bundle Heat Transfer (RBHT) test facility has been performed in this study to capture the effect of spacer grids on heat transfer. The RBHT test facility has a 7 x 7 rod bundle with heater rods and with seven spacer grids equally spaced along the length of the rods. A method based on the concept of momentum and heat transport analogy has been developed for calculating the subchannel bulk mean temperature from the measured steam temperatures. Over the range of inlet Reynolds number, the local Nusselt number was found to exhibit a minimum value between the upstream and downstream spacer grids. The presence of a spacer grid not only affects the local Nusselt number downstream of the grid but also affects the local Nusselt number upstream of the next grid. A new correlation capturing the effect of Reynolds number on the local flow restructuring downstream as well as upstream of the spacer grids was proposed for the minimum Nusselt number. In addition, a new enhancement factor accounting for the effects of the upstream as well as downstream spacer grids was developed from the RBHT data. The new enhancement factor was found to compare well with the data from the ACHILLLES test facility.

  6. Surface strain measurement of rotating objects using shearography instrumentation based on fibre-optic imaging bundles (United States)

    Francis, D.; James, S. W.; Tatam, R. P.


    Quantitative, full-field surface strain measurement is achievable using shearography instrumentation that employs at least three measurement channels. The system presented here possesses four measurement channels consisting of four views of the object. Images from the four views are ported to the shearing interferometer using fibre-optic imaging bundles. The use of fibre-optic imaging bundles simplifies the experimental arrangement considerably, allowing full-field surface strain measurements to be made using just one CCD camera and one shearing interferometer. Simultaneous capture of data from the four measurement channels using a pulsed laser source allows the measurement of surface strain on dynamic objects. In this paper the use of the instrument to make measurements of the surface strain profile of a PTFE plate rotating at 600 rpm is described. The use of the spatial carrier technique allows the deformation induced phase variation to be calculated across the field of view from just two images recorded from the object on subsequent rotations.

  7. Uncommon formation of two antiparallel sperm bundles per cyst in tenebrionid beetles (Coleoptera) (United States)

    Dias, Glenda; Yotoko, Karla S. C.; Gomes, Luiz F.; Lino-Neto, José


    Several species of Tenebrionidae are stored-grain pests. Since they belong to a specious family, the systematics of these beetles is still in doubt. In insects, spermatogenesis and the spermatozoa exhibit great diversity, and are therefore commonly used in phylogenetic and taxonomic analyses. During the spermatogenetic process in these organisms, the cells originating from a single spermatogonium develop synchronically in groups referred to as cysts. At the end of this process, there is usually only one sperm bundle per cyst, with all the cells in the same orientation. This paper details the spermiogenesis of the tenebrionid beetles Tenebrio molitor, Zophobas confusa, Tribolium castaneum and Palembus dermestoides using whole mount and histological sections of the cysts. In these species, spermatogenesis is similar to that which occurs in most insects. However, during spermiogenesis, the nuclei of the spermatids migrate to two opposite regions at the periphery of the cyst, leading to the uncommon formation of two bundles of spermatozoa per cyst. This feature is possibly an apomorphy for Tenebrionidae.

  8. Diagnostic accuracy of computer-assisted electrocardiography in the diagnosis of left ventricular hypertrophy in left bundle branch block. (United States)

    Rodríguez-Padial, Luis; Rodríguez-Picón, Blanca; Jerez-Valero, Miguel; Casares-Medrano, Julio; Akerström, Finn O; Calderon, Alberto; Barrios, Vivencio; Sarría-Santamera, Antonio; González-Juanatey, José R; Coca, Antonio; Andrés, Josep; Ruiz-Baena, Jessica


    Left ventricular hypertrophy has important prognostic implications. Although electrocardiography is the technique most often recommended in the diagnosis of hypertrophy, its diagnostic accuracy is hampered in the presence of a left bundle branch block. In 1875 consecutive patients (56±16 years) undergoing studies to rule out heart disease and/or hypertension, 2-dimensional echocardiography and electrocardiography were performed simultaneously in an outpatient clinic. Digitized electrocardiograms were interpreted using an online computer-assisted platform (ELECTROPRES). Sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratios, and predictive values of standard electrocardiographic criteria and of some diagnostic algorithms for left ventricular hypertrophy were determined and compared with the findings in patients with neither left bundle branch block nor myocardial infarction. Left bundle branch block was present in 233 (12%) patients. Left ventricular hypertrophy was detected more frequently in patients with left bundle branch block (60% vs 31%). In patients with left bundle branch block, sensitivities were low but similar to those observed in patients without it, and ranged from 6.4% to 70.9%, whereas specificities were high, ranging from 57.6% to 100%. Positive likelihood ratios ranged from 1.33 to 4.94, and negative likelihood ratios from 0.50 to 0.98. Diagnostic algorithms, voltage-duration products, and certain compound criteria had the best sensitivities. Left ventricular hypertrophy can be diagnosed in the presence of left bundle branch block with an accuracy at least similar to that observed in patients without this conduction defect. Computer-assisted interpretation of the electrocardiogram may be useful in the diagnosis of left ventricular hypertrophy as it enables the implementation of more accurate algorithms. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. Identification of factors that support successful implementation of care bundles in the acute medical setting: a qualitative study. (United States)

    Green, Stuart A; Bell, Derek; Mays, Nicholas


    Clinical guidelines offer an accessible synthesis of the best evidence of effectiveness of interventions, providing recommendations and standards for clinical practice. Many guidelines are relevant to the diagnosis and management of the acutely unwell patient during the first 24-48 h of admission. Care bundles are comprised of a small number of evidence-based interventions that when implemented together aim to achieve better outcomes than when implemented individually. Care bundles that are explicitly developed from guidelines to provide a set of related evidence-based actions have been shown to improve the care of many conditions in emergency, acute and critical care settings. This study aimed to review the implementation of two distinct care bundles in the acute medical setting and identify the factors that supported successful implementation. Two initiatives that had used a systematic approach to quality improvement to successfully implement care bundles within the acute medical setting were selected as case studies. Contemporaneous data generated during the initiatives included the review reports, review minutes and audio recordings of the review meetings at different time points. Data were subject to deductive analysis using three domains of the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research to identify factors that were important in the implementation of the care bundles. Several factors were identified that directly influenced the implementation of the care bundles. Firstly, the availability of resources to support initiatives, which included training to develop quality improvement skills within the team and building capacity within the organisation more generally. Secondly, the perceived sustainability of changes by stakeholders influenced the embedding new care processes into existing clinical systems, maximising their chance of being sustained. Thirdly, senior leadership support was seen as critical not just in supporting implementation but also in

  10. The diversion of outpatient echocardiography from private offices to higher cost hospital facilities: an unanticipated effect of code bundling. (United States)

    Levin, David C; Parker, Laurence; Halpern, Ethan J; Rao, Vijay M


    In 2009, the add-on codes for spectral Doppler and color flow Doppler echocardiography were bundled into the code for primary transthoracic echocardiography. The relative value units for the new single code were substantially lower than the previous sum for the 3 codes. The purpose of this study was to see how this affected the distribution of outpatient echocardiographic studies between cardiology offices and hospital outpatient departments (HOPDs). The 2005 to 2011 Medicare databases were used. All echocardiography Current Procedural Terminology codes were selected. Specialty codes identified those done by cardiologists (who do most echocardiographic studies). Place-of-service codes identified those done in offices and HOPDs. Procedure volumes and utilization rates per 1,000 were determined each year before and after bundling occurred in 2009. Cardiologists' office echocardiography utilization rate rose from 219.5 per 1,000 in 2005 to 257.1 in 2008 (+17%), then dropped to 100.0 in 2009 (-61%) because of bundling. Their HOPD echocardiography rate rose from 72.2 in 2005 to 76.5 in 2008 (+6%), then dropped to 35.0 in 2009 (-54%). From 2009 to 2011, cardiologists' office echocardiography rate dropped again from 100.0 to 88.8 (-11%), while their HOPD rate increased from 35.0 to 46.1 (+32%). Echocardiography code bundling produced the expected sharp drop in outpatient claims from cardiologists in 2009. But after bundling, office echocardiography rates continued to drop, while HOPD rates increased. It seems that in this instance, code bundling led to the closure of many cardiology offices and a resultant shift of echocardiography from that lower cost setting to the higher cost HOPD setting. Copyright © 2014 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Pleiotropic effect of his gene mutations on nitrogen fixation in Klebsiella pneumoniae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Stougaard; Kennedy, C


    Several his mutations were found to influence nitrogen fixation in Klebsiella pneumoniae: hisB, hisC, and hisD mutants had 50% of wild-type levels of nitrogenase activity when supplied with 30 mug or less histidine/ml although this concentration did not limit protein synthesis and the mutants...

  12. Effect of multimodal coupling in imaging micro-endoscopic fiber bundle on optical coherence tomography. (United States)

    Han, Jae-Ho; Kang, Jin U


    The effect of higher order modes in fiber bundle imager-based optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been theoretically modeled using coupled fiber mode analysis ignoring the polarization and core size variation in order to visualize the pure effect of multimodal coupling of the imaging bundle. In this model, the optical imaging fiber couples several higher order modes in addition to the fundamental one due to its high numerical aperture for achieving light confinement to the single core pixel. Those modes become evident in a distance domain using A-mode (depth) OCT based on a mirror sample experiment where multiple peaks are generated by the spatial convolution and coherence function of the light source. The distance between the peaks corresponding to each mode can be estimated by considering the effective indices of coupled (guided) modes obtained from numerically solving the fiber mode characteristics equations and the fiber length. The results have been compared for various types (fiber dimensions and wavelengths) and lengths of fibers, which have mode separation of 715 μm (1404 μm) and 764 μm (1527 μm) for the measurement and analysis, respectively in a 152.5 mm (305 mm)-long imaging fiber.

  13. Mechanical dyssynchrony is similar in different patterns of left bundle-branch block. (United States)

    Barretto, Rodrigo Bellio de Mattos; Piegas, Leopoldo Soares; Assef, Jorge Eduardo; Melo Neto, José Francisco; Resende, Thiago Uchoa; Moreira, Dalmo Antonio; Lebihan, David Costa; França, Francisco Faustino; Meneghelo, Romeu Sérgio; Sousa, Amanda Guerra Moraes Rego


    Left bundle-branch block (LBBB) and the presence of systolic dysfunction are the major indications for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). Mechanical ventricular dyssynchrony on echocardiography can help identify patients responsive to CRT. Left bundle-branch block can have different morphologic patterns. To compare the prevalence of mechanical dyssynchrony in different patterns of LBBB in patients with left systolic dysfunction. This study assessed 48 patients with ejection fraction (EF) left electrical axis deviation in the frontal plane and QRS duration > 150 ms. The patients' mean age was 60 ± 11 years, 24 were males, and mean EF was 29% ± 7%. Thirty-two had QRS > 150 ms, and22, an electrical axis between -30º and +90º. Interventricular dyssynchrony was identified in 73% of the patients, while intraventricular dyssynchrony, in 37%-98%. Patients with QRS > 150 ms had larger left atrium and ventricle, and lower EF (p Left electrical axis deviation associated with worse diastolic function and greater atrial diameter. Interventricular and intraventricular mechanical dyssynchrony (ten methods) was similar in the different LBBB patterns (p = ns). In the two different electrocardiographic patterns of LBBB analyzed, no difference regarding the presence of mechanical dyssynchrony was observed.

  14. The Vibration Analysis of Tube Bundles Induced by Fluid Elastic Excitation in Shell Side of Heat Exchanger (United States)

    Bao, Minle; Wang, Lu; Li, Wenyao; Gao, Tianze


    Fluid elastic excitation in shell side of heat exchanger was deduced theoretically in this paper. Model foundation was completed by using Pro / Engineer software. The finite element model was constructed and imported into the FLUENT module. The flow field simulation adopted the dynamic mesh model, RNG k-ε model and no-slip boundary conditions. Analysing different positions vibration of tube bundles by selecting three regions in shell side of heat exchanger. The results show that heat exchanger tube bundles at the inlet of the shell side are more likely to be failure due to fluid induced vibration.

  15. Numerical simulation of liquid metal turbulent heat transfer from an inline tube bundle in cross-flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey G. Abramov


    Full Text Available Results of the numerical simulation of turbulent flow field and heat transfer of liquid metal in cross-flow over inline tube bundles consisting of smooth round tubes are presented. Computations have been performed with CFD-code ANSYS Fluent on the base of a two-dimensional unsteady RANS formulation using the SST turbulence model by Menter and assuming constant physical properties of a fluid with the Prandtl number equal to 0.023. The Reynolds number ranged from 26,200 to 52,400. Instantaneous and time-averaged velocity and temperature fields obtained for bundles of different intertube spacing with a variation of the bundle width (number of tube rows in the cross direction were analyzed. Integral characteristics of heat transfer were compared with the experimental data.

  16. [Olavide and his work. The beginning of dermatology in Spain]. (United States)

    Conde-Salazar Gómez, Luis


    José Eugenio Olavide was the founder and promoter of Spanish dermatology, and the head of the first Department of Dermatology. He spread to his disciples the ideas of the French dermatology, especially Bazin and Hardy. He pioneered the application of laboratory techniques to diagnosis of skin diseases, being the founder of Olavide Museum, wich was of great distinction in Europe with 1500 wax models. This museum was open until the 60's, when it was closed and forgotten, being recovered in 2005 by the AEDV, wich is currently conducting its restoration. In the year 1872, Olavide becomes a member of the Royal Academy of Medicine with the speech "Parasitism or morbidly plant to reason and to facts" answered by Mariano Benavente. He owned the chair number 33 of this institution.

  17. Sir Karl Popper and his philosophy of physics (United States)

    Jammer, Max


    The eminent mathematical physicist Sir Hermann Bondi once said: “There is no more to science than its method, and there is no more to its method than Popper has said.” Indeed, many regard Sir Karl Raimund Popper the greatest philosopher of science in our generation. Much of what Popper “has said” refers to physics, but physicists, generally speaking, have little knowledge of what he has said. True, Popper's philosophy of science and, in particular, his realistic interpretation of quantum mechanics deviates considerably from the generally accepted doctrine. But as Popper, rightly I think, points out, it is precisely the proliferation of divergent theories which promotes the growth of scientific knowledge; it would be a danger for physics if physicists were dogmatically tied to a single theory or would not test their theory against alternatives. It is for this purpose that, on the occasion of the nonagenarian celebration of Popper's birthday, the present essay has been written.

  18. Optimization of thorium-uranium content in a 54-element fuel bundle for use in a CANDU-SCWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hummel, D.W.; Novog, D.R. [McMaster Univ., Dept. of Engineering Physics, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)


    A new 54-element fuel bundle design has been proposed for use in a pressure-tube supercritical water-cooled reactor, a pre-conceptual evolution of existing CANDU reactors. Pursuant to the goals of the Generation IV International Forum regarding advancement in nuclear fuel cycles, optimization of the thorium and uranium content in each ring of fuel elements has been studied with the objectives of maximizing the achievable fuel utilization (burnup) and total thorium content within the bundle, while simultaneously minimizing the linear element ratings and coolant void reactivity. The bundle was modeled within a reactor lattice cell using WIMS-AECL, and the uranium and thorium content in each ring of fuel elements was optimized using a weighted merit function of the aforementioned criteria and a metaheuristic search algorithm. (author)

  19. The roots of phylogeny: how did Haeckel build his trees? (United States)

    Dayrat, Benoît


    Haeckel created much of our current vocabulary in evolutionary biology, such as the term phylogeny, which is currently used to designate trees. Assuming that Haeckel gave the same meaning to this term, one often reproduces Haeckel's trees as the first illustrations of phylogenetic trees. A detailed analysis of Haeckel's own evolutionary vocabulary and theory revealed that Haeckel's trees were genealogical trees and that Haeckel's phylogeny was a morphological concept. However, phylogeny was actually the core of Haeckel's tree reconstruction, and understanding the exact meaning Haeckel gave to phylogeny is crucial to understanding the information Haeckel wanted to convey in his famous trees. Haeckel's phylogeny was a linear series of main morphological stages along the line of descent of a given species. The phylogeny of a single species would provide a trunk around which lateral branches were added as mere ornament; the phylogeny selected for drawing a tree of a given group was considered the most complete line of progress from lower to higher forms of this group, such as the phylogeny of Man for the genealogical tree of Vertebrates. Haeckel's phylogeny was mainly inspired by the idea of the scala naturae, or scale of being. Therefore, Haeckel's genealogical trees, which were only branched on the surface, mainly represented the old idea of scale of being. Even though Haeckel decided to draw genealogical trees after reading On the Origin of Species and was called the German Darwin, he did not draw Darwinian branching diagrams. Although Haeckel always saw Lamarck, Goethe, and Darwin as the three fathers of the theory of evolution, he was mainly influenced by Lamarck and Goethe in his approach to tree reconstruction.

  20. [Andreas Vesalius: his rich imagination and colorful detail account in his book: 'Research of the anatomical observations of Gabriel Falloppius']. (United States)

    Gilias, Guy


    In a long letter, Andreas Vesalius reacts to the comments made by Gabriel Falloppius to his work 'De Humani Corporis Fabrica'. In this letter, he proves Falloppius wrong in a number of assertions and corrects him on more than one occasion. In doing so, Vesalius as a renaissance humanist uses a classic Latin language with long elegant sentences in the style of the old Roman orator Cicero. Remarkably interesting is the fact that this whole argumentation is spiced with comparisons and examples from daily life. To make it clear to the reader what a certain part of the skeleton looks like, he compares this part with an object everybody knows. All parts of the human body are depicted in such an almost graphic way that even an interested reader without any medical or anatomic education can picture them. And Vesalius is very creative in doing so, an artist as it were with a very rich imagination. Moreover, it's remarkable how the famous anatomist manages to put himself on the level of any ordinary person, using comparative images on that level. This last work of Vesalius, which he himself considers to be a supplement to his De Humani Corporis Fabrica, deserves special attention, not only because it illustrates the scientific evolution of the anatomist Vesalius, but also because it offers an insight in the psychology of that fascinating scientist Andreas Vesalius.

  1. [The significance of multi-criteria decision analysis for the bundle treatment of severe pneumonia]. (United States)

    Xu, Junma; Zhao, Jie; Jia, Xiaomin; Wang, Haiqing; Wang, Gang; Li, Haiquan


    To determine the effect of multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) on the effect of bundle treatment for severe pneumonia. A prospective historical control observation was conducted. Seventy-five patients with severe pneumonia having received MCDA (from January 2013 to August 2014) were assigned as intervention group. MCDA group was set up by the medical staff. Bundled treatment plan was composed of the MCDA evaluation results, anti-infection, phlegm and other conventional treatment measures which was adjust on time until the patient was transferred out of the respiratory intensive care unit (RICU) or died. Seventy patients with severe pneumonia before receiving MCDA (from August 2010 to December 2012) were set as historical control group. Comparison of general condition before treatment and the incidence of hospital infection, average hospitalization cost, duration of RICU stay and mortality between these two groups were performed. There were no statistically significant differences in gender, age, past history, and acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE II) score at admission between two groups. Compared with control group, the incidence of hospital infection [1.33% (1/75) vs. 11.43% (8/70), χ2 = 4.723, P = 0.030], mean hospitalization cost in RICU (10 thousand Yuan: 3.44 ± 0.79 vs. 3.76 ± 0.91, t = 2.265, P = 0.025), length of RICU stay (days: 15.01 ± 4.22 vs. 16.92 ± 4.79, t = 2.552, P = 0.012) and mortality in RICU [8.0% (6/75) vs. 21.4% (15/70 ), χ2 = 5.272, P = 0.032] in intervention group was significantly decreased. Application of MCDA in the bundle treatment of severe pneumonia could elevate the scientificalness of decision, and reduce the medical cost. Additionally, MCDA is worth to be generalized because the implementation of guidelines can improve the clinical outcome and prognosis of the patients.

  2. Semistability of Principal Bundles on a Kähler Manifold with a Non-Connected Structure Group (United States)

    Biswas, Indranil; Gómez, Tomás L.


    We investigate principal G-bundles on a compact Kähler manifold, where G is a complex algebraic group such that the connected component of it containing the identity element is reductive. Defining (semi)stability of such bundles, it is shown that a principal G-bundle EG admits an Einstein-Hermitian connection if and only if EG is polystable. We give an equivalent formulation of the (semi)stability condition. A question is to compare this definition with that of [Gómez T.L., Langer A., Schmitt A.H.W., Sols I., Ramanujan Math. Soc. Lect. Notes Ser., Vol. 10, Ramanujan Math. Soc., Mysore, 2010, 281-371].

  3. Anatomic double-bundle and over-the-top single-bundle with additional extra-articular tenodesis: an in vivo quantitative assessment of knee laxity in two different ACL reconstructions. (United States)

    Zaffagnini, S; Signorelli, C; Lopomo, N; Bonanzinga, T; Marcheggiani Muccioli, G M; Bignozzi, S; Visani, A; Marcacci, M


    Combinations of intra- and extra-articular procedures have been proposed for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with the aim of achieving an optimal control of translational and rotational knee laxities. Recently, the need for better reproducing the structural and functional behavior of the native anterior cruciate ligament led to the definition of anatomic double-bundle surgical approach. This study aimed to quantitatively verify whether the in vivo static and dynamic behavior obtained using over-the-top single-bundle with extra-articular tenodesis reconstruction was comparable to the results achieved by anatomic double-bundle approach. Thirty-five consecutive patients, with an isolated anterior cruciate ligament injury, were included in the study. Standard clinical laxities and pivot-shift test were quantified before and after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction by means of a surgical navigation system dedicated to kinematic assessment; displacements of medial and lateral compartment during stress tests were also analyzed. Single-bundle with extra-articular tenodesis approach presented statistically better laxity reduction in varus/valgus stress test at full extension and in internal/external rotation at 90° of flexion; lateral plasty controlled better the lateral compartment during drawer test and varus/valgus stress test both at 0° and 30° of flexion and both the compartments during internal/external rotation at 90° of flexion. On the other hand, pivot-shift phenomenon was better controlled by anatomic double-bundle reconstruction. Both the reconstructions worked similarly for static knee laxity. The extra-articular procedure played an important role in better constraining the displacement of lateral tibial compartment, whereas the anatomic double-bundle reconstruction better restored the dynamic behavior of knee joint highlighted under pivot-shift stress test. Case series.

  4. Robert Heath Lock and his textbook of genetics, 1906. (United States)

    Edwards, A W F


    Robert Heath Lock (1879-1915), a Cambridge botanist associated with William Bateson and R. C. Punnett, published his book Recent Progress in the Study of Variation, Heredity, and Evolution in 1906. This was a remarkable textbook of genetics for one appearing so early in the Mendelian era. It covered not only Mendelism but evolution, natural selection, biometry, mutation, and cytology. It ran to five editions but was, despite its success, largely forgotten following Lock's early death in 1915. Nevertheless it was the book that inspired H. J. Muller to do genetics and was remembered by A. H. Sturtevant as the source of the earliest suggestion that linkage might be related to the exchange of parts between homologous chromosomes. Here we also put forward evidence that it had a major influence on the statistician and geneticist R. A. Fisher at the time he was a mathematics student at Cambridge.

  5. Fractal frontiers of bursts and cracks in a fiber bundle model of creep rupture. (United States)

    Danku, Zsuzsa; Kun, Ferenc; Herrmann, Hans J


    We investigate the geometrical structure of breaking bursts generated during the creep rupture of heterogeneous materials. Using a fiber bundle model with localized load sharing we show that bursts are compact geometrical objects; however, their external frontiers have a fractal structure which reflects their growth dynamics. The perimeter fractal dimension of bursts proved to have the universal value 1.25 independent of the external load and of the amount of disorder in the system. We conjecture that according to their geometrical features, breaking bursts fall in the universality class of loop-erased self-avoiding random walks with perimeter fractal dimension 5/4 similar to the avalanches of Abelian sand pile models. The fractal dimension of the growing crack front along which bursts occur proved to increase from 1 to 1.25 as bursts gradually cover the entire front.

  6. The Effect of Pre-teaching Extended Prefabricated Lexical Bundles on the Writing Development of

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    Seiyed Mahdi Araghi


    Full Text Available This study attempts to shed light on how a teacher’s instruction and guidance can cast aside writing inhibitions and bring about remarkable changes in the writing ability of advanced EFL students through the collaborative construction of extended chunks of language with the aim of enhancing lexical density and complexity and consequently injecting into learners a sense of satisfaction with their work. The sample included 40 TOEFL students selected out of 75 TOEFL students on the basis of their scores on a TOEFL test. The participants were randomly assigned into two groups-the control group and experimental group. After 20 instructional sessions both groups were assigned five writing tasks. The results reveal that the participants in experimental group outperformed their counterparts in control group. Overall, it is concluded that pre-teaching extended prefabricated lexical bundles can be a useful means of helping advanced students to improve their writing quality.

  7. Application of Genetic Algorithm methodologies in fuel bundle burnup optimization of Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayalal, M.L., E-mail: [Electronics, Instrumentation and Radiological Safety Group (EIRSG), Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu (India); Ramachandran, Suja [Electronics, Instrumentation and Radiological Safety Group (EIRSG), Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu (India); Rathakrishnan, S. [Reactor Physics Section, Madras Atomic Power Station (MAPS), Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu (India); Satya Murty, S.A.V. [Electronics, Instrumentation and Radiological Safety Group (EIRSG), Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu (India); Sai Baba, M. [Resources Management Group (RMG), Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu (India)


    Highlights: • We study and compare Genetic Algorithms (GA) in the fuel bundle burnup optimization of an Indian Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR) of 220 MWe. • Two Genetic Algorithm methodologies namely, Penalty Functions based GA and Multi Objective GA are considered. • For the selected problem, Multi Objective GA performs better than Penalty Functions based GA. • In the present study, Multi Objective GA outperforms Penalty Functions based GA in convergence speed and better diversity in solutions. - Abstract: The work carried out as a part of application and comparison of GA techniques in nuclear reactor environment is presented in the study. The nuclear fuel management optimization problem selected for the study aims at arriving appropriate reference discharge burnup values for the two burnup zones of 220 MWe Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR) core. Two Genetic Algorithm methodologies namely, Penalty Functions based GA and Multi Objective GA are applied in this study. The study reveals, for the selected problem of PHWR fuel bundle burnup optimization, Multi Objective GA is more suitable than Penalty Functions based GA in the two aspects considered: by way of producing diverse feasible solutions and the convergence speed being better, i.e. it is capable of generating more number of feasible solutions, from earlier generations. It is observed that for the selected problem, the Multi Objective GA is 25.0% faster than Penalty Functions based GA with respect to CPU time, for generating 80% of the population with feasible solutions. When average computational time of fixed generations are considered, Penalty Functions based GA is 44.5% faster than Multi Objective GA. In the overall performance, the convergence speed of Multi Objective GA surpasses the computational time advantage of Penalty Functions based GA. The ability of Multi Objective GA in producing more diverse feasible solutions is a desired feature of the problem selected, that helps the

  8. Developmental study of dendritic bundles in layer 1 of the rat granular retrosplenial cortex with special reference to a cell adhesion molecule, OCAM. (United States)

    Ichinohe, Noritaka; Yoshihara, Yoshihiro; Hashikawa, Tsutomu; Rockland, Kathleen S


    In the granular retrosplenial cortex (GRS) of adult rats, callosally projecting pyramidal neurons in layer 2 form dendritic bundles, 30-100 micro m wide, in layer 1. The distinctness of these bundles makes the GRS an attractive model system for investigating the developmental, microcircuitry, and basic organizational features related to dendritic modularity. In this report, we investigate the developmental time course of the dendritic bundles, visualized by immunohistochemistry for microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) and glutamate receptor subunits 2/3 (GluR2/3). Bundles in layer 1 are apparent as early as postnatal day 5, first with GluR2/3 and then, from postnatal day 14, with MAP2. As a step toward understanding the mechanisms of dendritic aggregation, we further investigated the ontogeny of expression of the cell adhesion molecule OCAM. OCAM exhibits a patchy distribution in layer 1 from postnatal day 3 to adult, and the regions of weak OCAM immunoreactivity selectively correspond to the dendritic bundles (in both GluR2/3 and MAP2). The periodic geometry of OCAM-immunoreactive regions, the time course of their appearance and the distinct localization complementary to the bundles support the possibility that this molecule is one contributor to the establishment and maintenance of dendritic modules. The interdigitating relationship between regions of high OCAM immunoreactivity and the dendritic bundles in layer 1 suggests that OCAM may have a repellent influence on the formation of these bundles.

  9. The Prognostic Significance of Right Bundle Branch Block: A Meta-analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies. (United States)

    Xiong, Yunyun; Wang, Lian; Liu, Wenyan; Hankey, Graeme J; Xu, Biao; Wang, Shang


    The prognostic significance of right bundle branch block (RBBB) is inconsistent across studies. We aimed to assess the association between RBBB (in general population and patients with heart disease) and risk of all-cause mortality, cardiac death, acute myocardial infarction (MI), and heart failure (HF). RBBB may be associated with increased risk of death. PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library up to February 2015 were searched for prospective cohort studies that reported RBBB at baseline and all-cause mortality, cardiac death, MI, and HF at follow-up. A meta-analysis of published data was undertaken primarily by means of fixed-effects models. Nineteen cohort studies including 201 437 participants were included with a mean follow-up period ranging from 1 to 246 months. For general population with RBBB, the pooled adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for all-cause mortality was 1.17 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03-1.33) compared with no BBB. General population with RBBB had an increased risk of cardiac death (HR: 1.43, 95% CI: 1.17-1.74). For patients with RBBB and acute MI, the pooled risk ratio was 2.31 (95% CI: 2.13-2.49) for in-hospital mortality, 2.85 (95% CI: 2.46-3.30) for 30-day mortality, and 1.96 (95% CI: 1.59-2.42) for longer-term mortality. For acute HF patients, the pooled risk ratio of all-cause mortality was 1.11 (95% CI: 1.06-1.16), and for chronic HF patients it was 1.75 (95% CI: 1.38-2.22). Right bundle branch block is associated with an increased risk of mortality in general population and patients with heart disease. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Influence of the diameter of single-walled carbon nanotube bundles on the optoelectronic performance of dry-deposited thin films. (United States)

    Mustonen, Kimmo; Susi, Toma; Kaskela, Antti; Laiho, Patrik; Tian, Ying; Nasibulin, Albert G; Kauppinen, Esko I


    The optoelectronic performance of thin films of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) was studied with respect to the properties of both individual nanotubes and their bundles. The SWCNTs were synthesized in a hot wire generator aerosol reactor, collected by gas filtration and dry-transferred onto various substrates. By thus completely avoiding liquid dispersion steps, we were able to avoid any artifacts from residual surfactants or sonication. We found that bundle lengths determined the thin-film performance, as would be expected for highly resistive bundle-bundle junctions. However, we found no evidence that contact resistances were affected by the bundle diameters, although they did play a secondary role by simply affecting the absorption. The individual SWCNT diameters and their graphitization level as gauged by the Raman D band intensity did not show any clear correlation with the overall performance.

  11. Integrating care by implementation of bundled payments: results from a national survey on the experience of Dutch dietitians

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    Jacqueline Tol


    Full Text Available Introduction: In the Netherlands, bundled payments were introduced as part of a strategy to redesign chronic care delivery. Under this strategy new entities of health care providers in primary care are negotiating with health insurers about the price for a bundle of services for several chronic conditions. This study evaluates the level of involvement of primary health care dietitians in these entities and the experienced advantages and disadvantages.Methods: In August 2011, a random sample of 800 Dutch dietitians were invited by email to complete an online questionnaire (net response rate 34%.Results: Two-thirds participated in a diabetes disease management programme, mostly for diabetes care, financed by bundled payments (n=130. Positive experiences of working in these programmes were an increase in: multidisciplinary collaboration (68%, efficiency of health care (40% and transparency of health care quality (25%. Negative aspects were an increase in administrative tasks (61%, absence of payment for patients with comorbidity (38% and concerns about substitution of care (32%.Discussion/conclusion: Attention is needed for payment of patients with co- or multi-morbidity within the bundled fee. Substitution of dietary care by other disciplines needs to be further examined since it may negatively affect the quality of treatment. Task delegation and substitution of care may require other competencies from dietitians. Further development of coaching and negotiation skills may help dietitians prepare for the future.

  12. Integrating care by implementation of bundled payments: results from a national survey on the experience of Dutch dietitians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Tol


    Full Text Available Introduction: In the Netherlands, bundled payments were introduced as part of a strategy to redesign chronic care delivery. Under this strategy new entities of health care providers in primary care are negotiating with health insurers about the price for a bundle of services for several chronic conditions. This study evaluates the level of involvement of primary health care dietitians in these entities and the experienced advantages and disadvantages. Methods: In August 2011, a random sample of 800 Dutch dietitians were invited by email to complete an online questionnaire (net response rate 34%. Results: Two-thirds participated in a diabetes disease management programme, mostly for diabetes care, financed by bundled payments (n=130. Positive experiences of working in these programmes were an increase in: multidisciplinary collaboration (68%, efficiency of health care (40% and transparency of health care quality (25%. Negative aspects were an increase in administrative tasks (61%, absence of payment for patients with comorbidity (38% and concerns about substitution of care (32%. Discussion/conclusion: Attention is needed for payment of patients with co- or multi-morbidity within the bundled fee. Substitution of dietary care by other disciplines needs to be further examined since it may negatively affect the quality of treatment. Task delegation and substitution of care may require other competencies from dietitians. Further development of coaching and negotiation skills may help dietitians prepare for the future.

  13. Long term results of acute Achilles repair with triple-bundle technique and early rehabilitation protocol. (United States)

    Bevoni, R; Angelini, A; D'Apote, G; Berti, L; Fusaro, I; Ellis, S; Schuh, R; Girolami, M


    The best treatment for acute rupture of the Achilles tendon is still under debate. Our purpose was to evaluate surgical triple-bundle technique in selected patients with full subcutaneous rupture of Achilles tendon. Sixty-six consecutive patients (56 men, 10 women; age range 20-61 years) with full unilateral rupture of the Achilles tendon were surgically treated by the triple-bundle technique. Seventy-four percent of the lesions occurred during sport activity. Each patient was assessed by: (1) The American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) score; (2) the Leppilahti score; (3) the range of movement measurement of ankle joint; (4) ipsilateral thigh, calf, and ankle circumferences compared to the contralateral limb; (5) functional evaluation with isokinetic dynamometry of both limbs. 80.3% of the patients were fully satisfied (AOFAS ≥90) with treatment and resumed their previous level of sport. Concerning the outcomes, (1) the mean AOFAS score at 36 months was 93.9; (2) the mean Leppilahti score at 36 months was 91.8; (3) the mean difference in dorsiflexion and plantarflexion between the healthy side and the operated side was 4.3° and 6.9°, respectively. We observed calf muscle hypotrophy in two cases and scar complication in one. No re-ruptures occurred. Isokinetic tests performed 36 months after surgery showed a good restoration of plantarflexion. At univariate analysis AOFAS was influenced by age and difference between the healthy side and the operated side in dorsiflexion, plantarflexion, and circumference at all three levels and strenght at 60°/s. At univariate analysis, Leppilahti score confirmed the significant parameters of the AOFAS with the exception of age and difference of thigh circumference. The only predictive parameters in multivariate analysis were dorsiflexion difference (O.R. = 0.831; 95% C.I. 0.694-0.995; p = 0.044) and plantarflexion difference (O.R. = 0.777; 95% C.I. 0.631-0.958; p = 0.018). In this case series the triple-bundle

  14. Frequency and prognosis of new bundle branch block induced by surgical aortic valve replacement. (United States)

    Poels, Thomas T; Houthuizen, Patrick; Van Garsse, Leen A F M; Soliman Hamad, Mohammed A; Maessen, Jos G; Prinzen, Frits W; Van Straten, Albert H M


    Recently, transcatheter aortic valve implantation has been introduced, but one of its complications is left bundle branch block (LBBB), a conduction disturbance that has been associated with increased mortality. We investigated the incidence and fate of both right bundle branch block (RBBB) and LBBB after aortic valve replacement (AVR) using a retrospective analysis. We also studied the predictive value of both disorders for all-cause mortality. All patients who underwent AVR, with or without concomitant coronary artery bypass grafting surgery, between 2002 and 2010 in our centre were included. All-cause mortality was compared between patients who did and those who did not develop persistent new bundle branch block (BBB) within 7 days postoperatively. Patients were not eligible if one of their electrocardiogram (ECG) recordings prior to AVR showed a BBB or pacemaker activity. A postoperative period of 3-12 months was used to collect follow-up ECGs. Of the 2279 AVR patients, 2033 patients were eligible for analysis. After excluding patients lacking baseline or follow-up ECG (n = 269), 1764 patients remained for analysis. Early LBBB and RBBB occurred in 71 (4.0%) and 92 (5.2%) patients, respectively. At follow-up, LBBB was persistent in 29 patients (1.6%) and RBBB in 74 patients (4.2%). During a median follow-up of 4.5 (2.4-6.5) years, the mortality rate was 16.3% (n = 271) in patients without BBB, 24.1% (n = 7) in patients with persistent LBBB and 18.9% (n = 14) in patients with persistent RBBB (log-rank P = 0.49). Though, in univariate analysis, the hazard ratio for mortality was 1.54 and 1.10 for LBBB and RBBB, respectively, the small numbers precluded identifying AVR-induced LBBB and RBBB as a predictor of mortality. In the current practice of AVR, persistent postoperative LBBB and RBBB occur infrequently (∼ 5% of cases), a percentage less than half of that in current transcatheter aortic valve implantation procedures. Given the adverse effects of LBBB, the

  15. Possible consequences of regionally based bundled payments for diabetic amputations for safety net hospitals in Texas. (United States)

    Newhall, Karina; Stone, David; Svoboda, Ryan; Goodney, Philip


    Ongoing health reform in the United States encourages quality-based reimbursement methods such as bundled payments for surgery. The effect of such changes on high-risk procedures is unknown, especially at safety net hospitals. This study quantified the burden of diabetes-related amputation and the potential financial effect of bundled payments at safety net hospitals in Texas. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of diabetic amputation burden and charges using publically available data from Centers for Medicare and Medicaid and the Texas Department of Health from 2008 to 2012. Using hospital referral region (HRR)-level analysis, we categorized the proportion of safety net hospitals within each region as very low (0%-9%), low (10%-20%), average (20%-33%), and high (>33%) and compared amputation rates across regions using nonparametric tests of trend. We then used charge data to create reimbursement rates based on HRR to estimate financial losses. We identified 51 adult hospitals as safety nets in Texas. Regions varied in the proportion of safety net hospitals from 0% in Victoria to 65% in Harlingen. Among beneficiaries aged >65, amputation rates correlated to the proportion of safety net hospitals in each region; for example, patients in the lowest quartile of safety net had a yearly rate of 300 amputations per 100,000 beneficiaries, whereas those in the highest quartile had a yearly rate of 472 per 100,000 (P = .007). Charges for diabetic amputation-related admissions varied almost 200-fold, from $5000 to $1.4 million. Using reimbursement based on HRR to estimate a bundled payment, we noted net losses would be higher at safety net vs nonsafety net hospitals ($180 million vs $163 million), representing a per-hospital loss of $1.6 million at safety nets vs $700,000 at nonsafety nets (P amputations in Texas. Changes to traditional payment models should account for the disproportionate burden of high-risk procedures performed by these hospitals. Copyright © 2016

  16. The Impact of Bundled High Performance Human Resource Practices on Intention to Leave: Mediating Role of Emotional Exhaustion (United States)

    Jyoti, Jeevan; Rani, Roomi; Gandotra, Rupali


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the mediating effect of emotional exhaustion (EE) in between bundled high-performance human resource practices (HPHRPs) and intention to leave (ITL) in the education sector. Design/methodology/approach: A survey questionnaire method was used to collect data from a sample of 514 teachers working in…

  17. [Guy de Maupassant: medical aspects of his lustful and creative life]. (United States)

    Miranda C, Marcelo; Roa V, Natalia; Bustamante C, M Leonor


    The French writer Guy de Maupassant is considered one of the most important story-tellers of all times. In his short life, he produced relevant works which are full of interesting medical descriptions, as sleep palsy and unconscious memory, depicted on his famous tale The Horla. Furthermore, many of his novels and tales contain precise and very insightful descriptions of physicians, many of whom he contacted because of suffering severe migraine. Maupassant became psychotic on his last years as a result of neurosyphilis and died in an asylum. In this review, we analyze some medical aspects of his intense life and provide references of unknown medical descriptions in his works.

  18. Axis deviation without left bundle branch block. (United States)

    Patanè, Salvatore; Marte, Filippo; Mancuso, Antonia


    It has been rarely reported changing axis deviation in the presence of left bundle branch block also during atrial fibrillation and with acute myocardial infarction too. It has also been rarely reported changing axis deviation with changing bundle branch block with onset of atrial fibrillation during acute myocardial infarction. We present a case of axis deviation without left bundle branch block and without atrial fibrillation and acute myocardial infarction in a 65-year-old Italian man. To our knowledge, this is the first report of axis deviation without left bundle branch block and without atrial fibrillation and acute myocardial infarction. Copyright 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Functioning of medial olivocochlear bundle in right- and left-handed individuals. (United States)

    Kaipa, Ramesh; Kumar, U Ajith


    Functional symmetry of medial olivocochlear bundle (MOCB) as a function of handedness remains to be well investigated. The current study aimed to assess the functional symmetry of MOCB through contralateral inhibition of otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) in right- and left-handed individuals. Thirteen left-handed and 13 right-handed individuals in the age range of 19-25 years participated. Behavioural experiment involved measuring speech perception in noise and vocal reaction time. Physiological experiment involved measuring the contralateral inhibition of OAEs in both the ears of participants. Findings of the current study revealed lack of functional asymmetry in right- as well as left-handed individuals. Results of the current study suggest that right- as well as left-handed individuals do not demonstrate functional asymmetry at the level of descending auditory pathways unlike the higher cortical centres.

  20. Left bundle branch block and right axis deviation: a report of 36 cases. (United States)

    Childers, R; Lupovich, S; Sochanski, M; Konarzewska, H


    Right axis deviation (RAD) with left bundle branch block (LBBB) is a rare combination. From a database of 636,000 electrocardiograms we report a series of 36 patients with this disorder. The majority of subjects had dilated cardiomyopathy with biventricular enlargement. LBBB was fixed in 21 of 36 cases. It was freshly acquired, episodic, intermittent, or physiologic in 15 of 36. The RAD was episodic in 30 of 36; it was fixed and concurrent with LBBB in only 2 cases, and never episodically concurrent. Reported for the first time here were 4 of 36 cases in which the combination of LBBB and RAD was elicited with atrial premature impulses as a rare form of QRS aberration. In one case where the combination was intermittent, a clear relationship with freshly acquired intermittent posterior fascicular block was demonstrated. The possible relationship of the deviation with variable degrees of right ventricular overload is discussed.