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Sample records for bundle divertors

  1. Textor bundle divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, T.F.; Wan, A.; Gierszewski, P.; Rapperport, E.; Montgomery, D.B.

    1982-01-01

    This report presents a preliminary bundle divertor conceptual design for installation on the TEXTOR tokamak. An advanced cascade T-shaped coil configuration is used. This divertor design has the following important characteristics: (1) the current density in the conductor is less than 6 kAmp/cm 2 , and the maximum field is less than 6 Tesla; (2) the divertor can be operated at steady-state either for copper or superconducting conductors; (3) the power consumption is about 7 MW for a normal conductor; (4) the divertor can be inserted into the existing geometry of TEXTOR; (5) the ripple on axis is only 0.3% and the mirror ratio is 2 to 4; (6) the stagnation axis is concave toward the plasma, therefore q/sub D/ is smaller, the acceptance angle is larger, and the efficiency may be better than the conventional circular coil design

  2. TEXTOR bundle divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, T.F.; Wan, A.; Gierszewski, P.; Rapperport, E.; Montgomery, D.B.

    1982-01-01

    This report presents a preliminary bundle divertor conceptual design for installation on the TEXTOR tokamak. An advanced cascade T-shaped coil configuration is used. This divertor design has the following important characteristics: (1) the current density in the conductor is less than 6 kAmp/cm 2 , and the maximum field is less than 6 Tesla; (2) the divertor can be operated at steady-state either for copper or superconducting conductors; (3) the power consumption is about 7 MW for a normal conductor; (4) the divertor can be inserted into the existing geometry of TEXTOR; (5) the ripple on axis is only 0.3% and the mirror ratio is 2 to 4; (6) the stagnation axis is concave toward the plasma, therefore q/sub D/ is smaller, the acceptance angle is larger, and the efficiency may be better than the conventional circular coil design

  3. Optimization of a bundle divertor for FED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hively, L.M.; Rothe, K.E.; Minkoff, M.

    1982-01-01

    Optimal double-T bundle divertor configurations have been obtained for the Fusion Engineering Device (FED). On-axis ripple is minimized, while satisfying a series of engineering constraints. The ensuing non-linear optimization problem is solved via a sequence of quadratic programming subproblems, using the VMCON algorithm. The resulting divertor designs are substantially improved over previous configurations

  4. Reactor application of an improved bundle divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, T.F.; Ruck, G.W.; Lee, A.Y.; Smeltzer, G.; Prevenslik, T.

    1978-11-01

    A Bundle Divertor was chosen as the impurity control and plasma exhaust system for the beam driven Demonstration Tokamak Hybrid Reactor - DTHR. In the context of a preconceptual design study of the reactor and associated facility a bundle divertor concept was developed and integrated into the reactor system. The overall system was found feasible and scalable for reactors with intermediate torodial field strengths on axis. The important design characteristics are: the overall average current density of the divertor coils is 0.73 kA for each tesla of toroidal field on axis; the divertor windings are made from super-conducting cables supported by steel structures and are designed to be maintainable; the particle collection assembly and auxiliary cryosorption vacuum pump are dual systems designed such that they can be reactivated alterntively to allow for continuous reactor operation; and the power requirement for energizing and operating the divertor is about 5 MW

  5. Constrained ripple optimization of Tokamak bundle divertors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hively, L.M.; Rome, J.A.; Lynch, V.E.; Lyon, J.F.; Fowler, R.H.; Peng, Y-K.M.; Dory, R.A.

    1983-02-01

    Magnetic field ripple from a tokamak bundle divertor is localized to a small toroidal sector and must be treated differently from the usual (distributed) toroidal field (TF) coil ripple. Generally, in a tokamak with an unoptimized divertor design, all of the banana-trapped fast ions are quickly lost due to banana drift diffusion or to trapping between the 1/R variation in absolute value vector B ω B and local field maxima due to the divertor. A computer code has been written to optimize automatically on-axis ripple subject to these constraints, while varying up to nine design parameters. Optimum configurations have low on-axis ripple ( 0 ) are lost. However, because finite-sized TF coils have not been used in this study, the flux bundle is not expanded

  6. FLP: a field line plotting code for bundle divertor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruchti, C.

    1981-01-01

    A computer code was developed to aid in the design of bundle divertors. The code can handle discrete toroidal field coils and various divertor coil configurations. All coils must be composed of straight line segments. The code runs on the PDP-10 and displays plots of the configuration, field lines, and field ripple. It automatically chooses the coil currents to connect the separatrix produced by the divertor to the outer edge of the plasma and calculates the required coil cross sections. Several divertor designs are illustrated to show how the code works

  7. Structural evaluation of a DTHR bundle divertor particle collector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prevenslik, T.V.

    1980-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to present a structural evaluation of the current bundle divertor particle collector BDPC design under a peak heat flux in relation to criteria that protect against coolant leakage into the plasma over replacement schedules planned during DTHR operation. In addition, an assessment of the BDPC structural integrity at higher heat fluxes is presented. Further, recommendations for modifications in the current BDPC design that would improve design reliability to be considered in future design studies are described. Finally, experimental test programs directed to establishing materials data necessary in providing greater confidence in subsequent structural evaluations of BDPC designs in relation to coolant leakage over planned replacement schedules are identified

  8. Design of an advanced bundle divertor for the Demonstration Tokamak Hybrid Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, T.F.; Lee, A.Y.; Ruck, G.W.; Prevenslik, T.V.; Smeltzer, G.

    1979-01-01

    The conclusion of this work is that a bundle divertor, using an improved method of designing the magnetic field configuration, is feasible for the Demonstration Tokamak Hybrid Reactor (DTHR) investigated by Westinghouse. The most significant achievement of this design is the reduction in current density (1 kA/cm 2 ) in the divertor coils in comparison to the overall averaged current densities per tesla of field to be nulled for DITE (25 kA/cm 2 ) and for ISX-B 2 (11 kA/cm 2 ). Therefore, superconducting magnets can be built into the tight space available with a sound mechanical structure

  9. Sizing of the thermal and electrical systems for an FED bundle divertor design with MgO insulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    The high-order dependence of toroidal ripple from a bundle divertor on the magnet shield thickness increases the desirability of a magnet technology with minimal shielding requirements. A jacketed conductor with MgO powder insulation has been used successfully in highly irradiated environments. Its properties and limitations are described. A thermal and electrical sizing code has been developed for magnet design with this technology. Two design examples for ETF and FED missions show reduced recirculating power from previously reported designs

  10. Versator divertor experiment: preliminary designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, A.S.; Yang, T.F.

    1984-08-01

    The emergence of magnetic divertors as an impurity control and ash removal mechanism for future tokamak reactors bring on the need for further experimental verification of the divertor merits and their ability to operate at reactor relevant conditions, such as with auxiliary heating. This paper presents preliminary designs of a bundle and a poloidal divertor for Versator II, which can operate in conjunction with the existing 150 kW of LHRF heating or LH current drive. The bundle divertor option also features a new divertor configuration which should improve the engineering and physics results of the DITE experiment. Further design optimization in both physics and engineering designs are currently under way

  11. NSTX Tangential Divertor Camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roquemore, A.L.; Ted Biewer; Johnson, D.; Zweben, S.J.; Nobuhiro Nishino; Soukhanovskii, V.A.

    2004-01-01

    Strong magnetic field shear around the divertor x-point is numerically predicted to lead to strong spatial asymmetries in turbulence driven particle fluxes. To visualize the turbulence and associated impurity line emission near the lower x-point region, a new tangential observation port has been recently installed on NSTX. A reentrant sapphire window with a moveable in-vessel mirror images the divertor region from the center stack out to R 80 cm and views the x-point for most plasma configurations. A coherent fiber optic bundle transmits the image through a remotely selected filter to a fast camera, for example a 40500 frames/sec Photron CCD camera. A gas puffer located in the lower inboard divertor will localize the turbulence in the region near the x-point. Edge fluid and turbulent codes UEDGE and BOUT will be used to interpret impurity and deuterium emission fluctuation measurements in the divertor

  12. Divertor detachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasheninnikov, Sergei

    2015-11-01

    The heat exhaust is one of the main conceptual issues of magnetic fusion reactor. In a standard operational regime the large heat flux onto divertor target reaches unacceptable level in any foreseeable reactor design. However, about two decades ago so-called ``detached divertor'' regimes were found. They are characterized by reduced power and plasma flux on divertor targets and look as a promising solution for heat exhaust in future reactors. In particular, it is envisioned that ITER will operate in a partly detached divertor regime. However, even though divertor detachment was studied extensively for two decades, still there are some issues requiring a new look. Among them is the compatibility of detached divertor regime with a good core confinement. For example, ELMy H-mode exhibits a very good core confinement, but large ELMs can ``burn through'' detached divertor and release large amounts of energy on the targets. In addition, detached divertor regimes can be subject to thermal instabilities resulting in the MARFE formation, which, potentially, can cause disruption of the discharge. Finally, often inner and outer divertors detach at different plasma conditions, which can lead to core confinement degradation. Here we discuss basic physics of divertor detachment including different mechanisms of power and momentum loss (ionization, impurity and hydrogen radiation loss, ion-neutral collisions, recombination, and their synergistic effects) and evaluate the roles of different plasma processes in the reduction of the plasma flux; detachment stability; and an impact of ELMs on detachment. We also evaluate an impact of different magnetic and divertor geometries on detachment onset, stability, in- out- asymmetry, and tolerance to the ELMs. Supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences under Award Number DE-DE-FG02-04ER54739 at UCSD.

  13. Advanced divertor concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohyabu, N.; Komori, A.; Sagara, A.; Suzuki, H.; Morisaki, T.; Masuzaki, S.; Watanabe, T.; Noda, N.; Motojima, O.

    1996-01-01

    LHD divertor development program has generated various innovative divertor concepts and technologies which will help to improve the plasma performance in both helical and tokamak devices. They are two divertor operational scenarios (confinement improvement by generating high temperature divertor plasma and simultaneous achievement of radiative cooling and H-mode-like confinement improvement). Local island divertor geometry has also been proposed. This new divertor has been successfully tested in the CHS device and is planned to be installed in the LHD device. In addition, technological development of new efficient hydrogen pumping schemes (carbon sheet pump and membrane pump) are being pursued for enhancement of the divertor control capability. 17 refs., 8 figs

  14. Comparison study of toroidal-field divertors for a compact reversed-field pinch reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bathke, C.G.; Krakowski, R.A.; Miller, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    Two divertor configurations for the Compact Reversed-Field Pinch Reactor (CRFPR) based on diverting the minority (toroidal) field have been reported. A critical factor in evaluating the performance of both poloidally symmetric and bundle divertor configurations is the accurate determination of the divertor connection length and the monitoring of magnetic islands introduced by the divertors, the latter being a three-dimensional effect. To this end the poloidal-field, toroidal-field, and divertor coils and the plasma currents are simulated in three dimensions for field-line tracings in both the divertor channel and the plasma-edge regions. The results of this analysis indicate a clear preference for the poloidally symmetric toroidal-field divertor. Design modifications to the limiter-based CRFPR design that accommodate this divertor are presented

  15. LHD helical divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohyabu, N.; Watanabe, T.; Ji Hantao

    1993-07-01

    The Large Helical Device (LHD) now under construction is a heliotron/torsatron device with a closed divertor system. The edge LHD magnetic structure has been studied in detail. A peculiar feature of the configuration is existence of edge surface layers, a complicated three dimensional magnetic structure which does not, however, seem to hamper the expected divertor functions. Two divertor operational modes are being considered for the LHD experiment, high density, cold radiative divertor operation as a safe heat removal scheme and high temperature divertor plasma operation. In the latter operation, a divertor plasma with temperature of a few kev, generated by efficient pumping, expects to lead to significant improvement in core plasma confinement. Conceptual designs of the LHD divertor components are under way. (author)

  16. Models for poloidal divertors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post, D.E.; Heifetz, D.; Petravic, M.

    1982-07-01

    Recent progress in models for poloidal divertors has both helped to explain current divertor experiments and contributed significantly to design efforts for future large tokamak (INTOR, etc.) divertor systems. These models range in sophistication from zero-dimensional treatments and dimensional analysis to two-dimensional models for plasma and neutral particle transport which include a wide variety of atomic and molecular processes as well as detailed treatments of the plasma-wall interaction. This paper presents a brief review of some of these models, describing the physics and approximations involved in each model. We discuss the wide variety of physics necessary for a comprehensive description of poloidal divertors. To illustrate the progress in models for poloidal divertors, we discuss some of our recent work as typical examples of the kinds of calculations being done

  17. Models for poloidal divertors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Post, D.E.; Heifetz, D.; Petravic, M.

    1982-07-01

    Recent progress in models for poloidal divertors has both helped to explain current divertor experiments and contributed significantly to design efforts for future large tokamak (INTOR, etc.) divertor systems. These models range in sophistication from zero-dimensional treatments and dimensional analysis to two-dimensional models for plasma and neutral particle transport which include a wide variety of atomic and molecular processes as well as detailed treatments of the plasma-wall interaction. This paper presents a brief review of some of these models, describing the physics and approximations involved in each model. We discuss the wide variety of physics necessary for a comprehensive description of poloidal divertors. To illustrate the progress in models for poloidal divertors, we discuss some of our recent work as typical examples of the kinds of calculations being done.

  18. Polyelectrolyte bundles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limbach, H J; Sayar, M; Holm, C [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Polymerforschung, Ackermannweg 10, 55128 Mainz (Germany)

    2004-06-09

    Using extensive molecular dynamics simulations we study the behaviour of polyelectrolytes with hydrophobic side chains, which are known to form cylindrical micelles in aqueous solution. We investigate the stability of such bundles with respect to hydrophobicity, the strength of the electrostatic interaction and the bundle size. We show that for the parameter range relevant for sulfonated poly(para-phenylenes) (PPP) one finds a stable finite bundle size. In a more generic model we also show the influence of the length of the precursor oligomer on the stability of the bundles. We also point out that our model has close similarities to DNA solutions with added condensing agents, hinting at the possibility that the size of DNA aggregates is, under certain circumstances, thermodynamically limited.

  19. Polyelectrolyte bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limbach, H J; Sayar, M; Holm, C

    2004-01-01

    Using extensive molecular dynamics simulations we study the behaviour of polyelectrolytes with hydrophobic side chains, which are known to form cylindrical micelles in aqueous solution. We investigate the stability of such bundles with respect to hydrophobicity, the strength of the electrostatic interaction and the bundle size. We show that for the parameter range relevant for sulfonated poly(para-phenylenes) (PPP) one finds a stable finite bundle size. In a more generic model we also show the influence of the length of the precursor oligomer on the stability of the bundles. We also point out that our model has close similarities to DNA solutions with added condensing agents, hinting at the possibility that the size of DNA aggregates is, under certain circumstances, thermodynamically limited

  20. Polyelectrolyte bundles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limbach, H. J.; Sayar, M.; Holm, C.

    2004-06-01

    Using extensive Molecular Dynamics simulations we study the behavior of polyelectrolytes with hydrophobic side chains, which are known to form cylindrical micelles in aqueous solution. We investigate the stability of such bundles with respect to hydrophobicity, the strength of the electrostatic interaction, and the bundle size. We show that for the parameter range relevant for sulfonated poly-para-phenylenes (PPP) one finds a stable finite bundle size. In a more generic model we also show the influence of the length of the precursor oligomer on the stability of the bundles. We also point out that our model has close similarities to DNA solutions with added condensing agents, hinting to the possibility that the size of DNA aggregates is under certain circumstances thermodynamically limited.

  1. Divertor cooling device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, Tadakazu; Hayashi, Katsumi; Handa, Hiroyuki

    1993-01-01

    Cooling water for a divertor cooling system cools the divertor, thereafter, passes through pipelines connecting the exit pipelines of the divertor cooling system and the inlet pipelines of a blanket cooling system and is introduced to the blanket cooling system in a vacuum vessel. It undergoes emission of neutrons, and cooling water in the divertor cooling system containing a great amount of N-16 which is generated by radioactivation of O-16 is introduced to the blanket cooling system in the vacuum vessel by way of pipelines, and after cooling, passes through exit pipelines of the blanket cooling system and is introduced to the outside of the vacuum vessel. Radiation of N-16 in the cooling water is decayed sufficiently with passage of time during cooling of the blanket, thereby enabling to decrease the amount of shielding materials such as facilities and pipelines, and ensure spaces. (N.H.)

  2. 'EU divertor celebration day'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merola, M.

    2002-01-01

    The meeting 'EU divertor celebration day' organized on 16 January 2002 at Plansee AG, Reutte, Austria was held on the occasion of the completion of manufacturing activities of a complete set of near full-scale prototypes of divertor components including the vertical target, the dome liner and the cassette body. About 30 participants attended the meeting including Dr. Robert Aymar, ITER Director, representatives from EFDA, CEA, ENEA, IPP and others

  3. T-12 divertor experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bortnikov, A V; Brevnov, N N; Gerasimov, S N; Zhukovskii, V G; Kuznetsov, N V; Naftulin, S M; Pergament, V I; Khimchenko, L N [Gosudarstvennyj Komitet po Ispol' zovaniyu Atomnoj Ehnergii SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Atomnoj Ehnergii

    1981-01-01

    In designing tokamak devices and reactors, in the last few years, the use of elongated-cross-section plasma discharges has been proposed to improve the economic and physical parameters. Application of a quadrupole poloidal magnetic field necessary for sustaining the elongated discharge cross-section serves, in this case, to create the magnetic configuration of an axisymmetric poloidal divertor. To-day, the creation of such a combination, including an elongated plasma cross-section and a divertor and using the outer poloidal magnetic field coils, seems to be the most reasonable approach, from the point of view of design and technology. Such a divertor was produced and studied at the T-12 tokamak. A stable equilibrium configuration of a finger-ring tokamak with a divertor has been produced by superposing the magnetic fields of the plasma current, the external quadrupole coils and the copper shell currents; the reactor blanket can fulfil the function of the latter. It is shown that both a symmetric magnetic configuration with two divertors and a droplet configuration with a single divertor may be realized by controlling the plasma column position with respect to the equatorial plane. The stability of the plasma column against vertical displacement depends on this position and the distance between the separatrix points. Vertical instability stabilization has been observed. The divertor layer efficiently screens the plasma from the impurity influx from the wall and unloads the wall from particle and energy fluxes. The results obtained from the tokamak T-12 experiment have demonstrated the capability of a system with outer poloidal field coils and a copper shell providing an elongated-cross-section plasma column with poloidal divertors.

  4. Magnetic divertor design for the compact reversed-field pinch reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bathke, C.G.; Miller, R.L.; Krakowski, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    A recently completed design of a pumped-limiter-based Compact Reversed-Field Pinch Reactor is used to estimate for the first time the impact of magnetic divertors. A range of divertor options for the low-toroidal-field RFP is examined, and a design selection is made constrained by consideration of field ripple (magnetic island), blanket displacement, recirculating power, cost, heat flux, and access. Design choices based on diversion of minority (toroidal) field lead to a preference for (poloidally) symmetric or bundle divertor geometries

  5. Plans of LHD divertor experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohyabu, Nobuyoshi; Komori, Akio; Sagara, Akio; Noda, Nobuaki; Motojima, Osamu

    1996-01-01

    Scenarios of the LHD divertor experiment are presented. In the LHD divertor experimental program, various innovative divertor concepts and technologies, developed during its design phase will be utilized to improve the plasma performance. Two divertor operational scenarios (confinement improvement by generating high temperature divertor plasma and simultaneous achievement of radiative cooling and H-mode-like confinement improvement) are among them. Local island divertor geometry has also been proposed. This new divertor has been successfully tested in the CHS device and is planned to be installed in the LHD device. In addition, technological development of new efficient hydrogen pumping schemes (carbon sheet pump and membrane pump) are being pursued for enhancement of the divertor control capability. (author)

  6. Innovative divertor concepts for LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohyabu, N.; Komori, A.; Akaishi, K.

    1994-07-01

    We are developing various innovative divertor concepts which improve the LHD plasma performance. These are two divertor magnetic geometries (helical and local island divertors), three operational scenarios (radiative cooling in the high density, cold boundary, confinement improvement by generating high temperature divertor plasma and simultaneous achievement of radiative cooling and H-mode like confinement improvement) and technological development of new efficient hydrogen pumping schemes. (author)

  7. Upgraded divertor Thomson scattering system on DIII-D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glass, F., E-mail: glassf@fusion.gat.com; Carlstrom, T. N.; Du, D.; Taussig, D. A.; Boivin, R. L. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); McLean, A. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    A design to extend the unique divertor Thomson scattering system on DIII-D to allow measurements of electron temperature and density in high triangularity plasmas is presented. Access to this region is selectable on a shot-by-shot basis by redirecting the laser beam of the existing divertor Thomson system inboard — beneath the lower floor using a moveable, high-damage threshold, in-vacuum mirror — and then redirecting again vertically. The currently measured divertor region remains available with this mirror retracted. Scattered light is collected from viewchords near the divertor floor using in-vacuum, high temperature optical elements and relayed through the port window, before being coupled into optical fiber bundles. At higher elevations from the floor, measurements are made by dynamically re-focusing the existing divertor system collection optics. Nd:YAG laser timing, analysis of the scattered light spectrum via polychromators, data acquisition, and calibration are all handled by existing systems or methods of the current multi-pulse Thomson scattering system. Existing filtered polychromators with 7 spectral channels are employed to provide maximum measurement breadth (T{sub e} in the range of 0.5 eV–2 keV, n{sub e} in the range of 5 × 10{sup 18}–1 × 10{sup 21} m{sup 3}) for both low T{sub e} in detachment and high T{sub e} measurement up beyond the separatrix.

  8. Snowflake Divertor Configuration in NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soukhanovskii, V.A.; Ahn, Joonwook; Bell, R.E.; Gates, D.A.; Gerhardt, S.; Kaita, R.; Kolemen, E.; Kugel, H.W.; LeBlanc, B.; Maingi, Rajesh; Maqueda, R.J.; McLean, Adam G.; Menard, J.E.; Mueller, D.; Paul, S.F.; Raman, R.; Roquemore, L.; Ryutov, D.D.; Scott, H.A.

    2011-01-01

    Steady-state handling of divertor heat flux is a critical issue for present and future conventional and spherical tokamaks with compact high power density divertors. A novel 'snowflake' divertor (SFD) configuration that takes advantage of magnetic properties of a second-order poloidal null has been predicted to have a larger plasma-wetted area and a larger divertor volume, in comparison with a standard first-order poloidal X-point divertor configuration. The SFD was obtained in 0.8 MA, 4-6 MW NBI-heated H-mode discharges in NSTX using two divertor magnetic coils. The SFD led to a partial detachment of the outer strike point even in low-collisionality scrape-off layer plasma obtained with lithium coatings in NSTX. Significant divertor peak heat flux reduction and impurity screening have been achieved simultaneously with good core confinement and MHD properties.

  9. 'Snowflake' divertor configuration in NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soukhanovskii, V.A.; Ahn, J.-W.; Bell, R.E.; Gates, D.A.; Gerhardt, S.; Kaita, R.; Kolemen, E.; Kugel, H.W.; LeBlanc, B.P.; Maingi, R.; Maqueda, R.; McLean, A.; Menard, J.E.; Mueller, D.M.; Paul, S.F.; Raman, R.; Roquemore, A.L.; Ryutov, D.D.; Scott, H.A.

    2011-01-01

    Steady-state handling of divertor heat flux is a critical issue for present and future conventional and spherical tokamaks with compact high power density divertors. A novel 'snowflake' divertor (SFD) configuration that takes advantage of magnetic properties of a second-order poloidal null has been predicted to have a larger plasma-wetted area and a larger divertor volume, in comparison with a standard first-order poloidal X-point divertor configuration. The SFD was obtained in 0.8 MA, 4-6 MW NBI-heated H-mode discharges in NSTX using two divertor magnetic coils. The SFD led to a partial detachment of the outer strike point even in low-collisionality scrape-off layer plasma obtained with lithium coatings in NSTX. Significant divertor peak heat flux reduction and impurity screening have been achieved simultaneously with good core confinement and MHD properties.

  10. "Snowflake" divertor configuration in NSTX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soukhanovskii, V. A.; Ahn, J.-W.; Bell, R. E.; Gates, D. A.; Gerhardt, S.; Kaita, R.; Kolemen, E.; Kugel, H. W.; Leblanc, B. P.; Maingi, R.; Maqueda, R.; McLean, A.; Menard, J. E.; Mueller, D. M.; Paul, S. F.; Raman, R.; Roquemore, A. L.; Ryutov, D. D.; Scott, H. A.

    2011-08-01

    Steady-state handling of divertor heat flux is a critical issue for present and future conventional and spherical tokamaks with compact high power density divertors. A novel "snowflake" divertor (SFD) configuration that takes advantage of magnetic properties of a second-order poloidal null has been predicted to have a larger plasma-wetted area and a larger divertor volume, in comparison with a standard first-order poloidal X-point divertor configuration. The SFD was obtained in 0.8 MA, 4-6 MW NBI-heated H-mode discharges in NSTX using two divertor magnetic coils. The SFD led to a partial detachment of the outer strike point even in low-collisionality scrape-off layer plasma obtained with lithium coatings in NSTX. Significant divertor peak heat flux reduction and impurity screening have been achieved simultaneously with good core confinement and MHD properties.

  11. The MAST improved divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darke, A.C.; Hayward, R.J.; Counsell, G.F.; Hawkins, K.

    2005-01-01

    The Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak (MAST) at Culham is one of the leading world machines studying the spherical tokamak (ST) concept. At the time of the initial construction in 1998 little was known about the sort of divertor structures that would be required in an ST. The machine was therefore provided with relatively rudimentary structures that were designed mostly to protect important components from the hot plasma. While these have served the machine well it was accepted that they might not be suitable when operating MAST to its full potential. The years of experience of operating MAST have led to the design, manufacture and now installation of a new divertor, the MAST improved divertor (MID), that should be able to cope with the full performance of the machine. The design is based on imbricated (fan-shaped) disks of tiles at the top and bottom of the machine for the outer strike points, giving an excellent compromise between power handling and diagnostic access, with substantial new centre column strike point armour and a shaped plate in between. High purity graphite is chosen as the plasma facing material in preference to CFC since in this case it has a better balance of performance and cost. The lower imbricated disk is insulated in alternate sectors for studies of divertor biasing and extensive diagnostics and additional inboard gas injection are included

  12. The ITER divertor concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janeschitz, G.; Borrass, K.; Federici, G.; Igitkhanov, Y.; Kukushkin, A.; Pacher, H.D.; Pacher, G.W.; Sugihara, M.

    1995-01-01

    The ITER divertor must exhaust most of the alpha particle power and the He ash at acceptable erosion rates. The high recycling regime of the ITER-CDA for present parameters would yield high power loads and erosion rates on conventional targets. Improvement by radiation in the SOL at constant pressure is limited in principle. To permit a higher radiation fraction, the plasma pressure along the field must be reduced by more than a factor 10, reducing also the target ion flux. This pressure reduction can be obtained by strong plasma-neutral interaction below the X-point. Under these conditions T e in the divertor can be reduced to <5 eV along a flame like ionisation front by impurity radiation and CX losses. Downstream of the front, neutrals undergo more CX or i-n collisions than ionisation events, resulting in significant momentum loss via neutrals to the divertor chamber wall. The pressure reduction by this mechanism depends on the along-field length for neutral-plasma interaction, the parallel power flux, the neutral density, the ratio of neutral-neutral collision length to the plasma-wall distance and on the Mach number of ions and neutrals. A supersonic transition in the main plasma-neutral interaction region, expected to occur near the ionisation front, would be beneficial for momentum removal. The momentum transfer fraction to the side walls is calculated: low Knudsen number is beneficial. The impact of the different physics effects on the chosen geometry and on the ITER divertor design and the lifetime of the various divertor components are discussed. ((orig.))

  13. Divertor characterization experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, G.D.; Allen, S.; Fenstermacher, M.; Hill, D.; Brown, M.; Jong, R.A.; Rognlien, T.; Rensink, M.; Smith, G.; Stambaugh, R.; Mahdavi, M.A.; Leonard, A.; West, P., Evans, T.

    1996-01-01

    Recent DIII-D experiments with enhanced Scrape-off Layer (SOL) diagnostics permit detailed characterization of the SOL and divertor plasma under various operating conditions. We observe two distinct plasma modes: attached and detached divertor plasmas. Detached plasmas are characterized by plate temperatures of only 1 to 2 eV. Simulation of detached plasmas using the UEDGE code indicate that volume recombination and charge exchange play an important role in achieving detachment. When the power delivered to the plate is reduced by enhanced radiation to the point that recycled neutrals can no longer be efficiently ionized, the plate temperature drops from around 10 eV to 1-2 eV. The low temperature region extends further off the plate as the power continues to be reduced, and charge exchange processes remove momentum, reducing the plasma flow. Volume recombination becomes important when the plasma flow is reduced sufficiently to permit recombination to compete with flow to the plate

  14. The JET divertor coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Last, J.R.; Froger, C.; Sborchia, C.

    1989-01-01

    The divertor coil is mounted inside the Jet vacuum vessel and is able to carry 1 MA turns. It is of conventional construction - water cooled copper, epoxy glass insulation -and is contained in a thin stainless steel case. The coil has to be assembled, insulated and encased inside the Jet vacuum vessel. A description of the coil is given, together with technical information (including mechanical effects on the vacuum vessel), an outline of the manufacture process and a time schedule. (author)

  15. CIT divertor conceptual design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wesley, J.C.; Sevier, D.L.

    1988-06-01

    A conceptual design of the divertor target assembly for the 1.75-m CIT baseline device has been developed. The divertor target assembly consists of four toroidal arrays of pyrolytic graphite plates that cover the inside surface of the ends of the vacuum vessel in the locations where the magnetic separatrices of the plasma intersect the vessel wall. During the course of the plasma discharge, the currents on the poloidal field coils that establish the plasma equilibrium are varied to sweep the separatrix strike locations across the divertor targets. This spreads the plasma heat loading over sufficient area to keep the peak target surface temperature within allowable limits. The required magnetic sweep (/+-/5 cm for the inside strike location and /+-/12 cm for the outside strike location) can be affected by programming either the external poloidal strike location) can be effected by programming either the external poloidal field (PF) coils or the internal PF control coils plus the external PF solenoid coils (PF1 and PF2). The ensuing variations in the elongation and triangularity of the plasma are modest, and fall within the ranges of plasma elongation and triangularity specified in the CIT General Requirements Document. 17 figs., 13 tabs

  16. A supersonic gas target for a bundle divertor plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, F.R.; Fisher, J.L.

    1982-01-01

    A novel gas target concept for recovering both energy and particles from a high-energy plasma stream is presented. This concept includes the maintenance of a pressure discontinuity by a normal shock and a very high mass flow rate in a relatively small system. The pressure discontinuity allows the exhaust plasma stream to minimize backflow into the plasma, by interacting with the target in a low-pressure region; the high mass flow rate allows exit temperatures that are reasonable from a materials viewpoint and suitable for energy recovery. (author)

  17. Numerical studies on divertor experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, N.; Itoh, K.; Itoh, S.-I.; Tanaka, M.; Hasegawa, M.; Shoji, T.; Sugihara, M.

    1988-04-01

    Numerical analysis on the divertor experiments such as JFT-2M tokamak is made by use of the two-dimensional time-dependent simulation code. The plasma in the scrape-off layer (SOL) and divertor region is solved for the given particle and heat sources from the main plasma, Γ p and Q T . Effect of the direction of the toroidal magnetic field is studied. It is found that the heat flux which is proportional to b vector x ∇T i has influences on the divertor plasmas, but has a small effect on the parameters on the midplane in the framework of the fluid model. Parameter survey on Γ p and Q T is made. The transient response of the SOL/divertor plasma to the sudden change of Γ p and Q T is studied. Time delay in the SOL and divertor region is calculated. (author)

  18. Nonabelian bundle 2-gerbes

    OpenAIRE

    Jurco, Branislav

    2009-01-01

    We define 2-crossed module bundle 2-gerbes related to general Lie 2-crossed modules and discuss their properties. A 2-crossed module bundle 2-gerbe over a manifold is defined in terms of a so called 2-crossed module bundle gerbe, which is a crossed module bundle gerbe equipped with an extra sructure. It is shown that string structures can be described and classified using 2-crossed module bundle 2-gerbes.

  19. Innovations in the LHD divertor program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohyabu, N.; Komori, A.; Noda, N.; Morisaki, T.; Sagara, A.; Suzuki, H.; Watanabe, T.; Motojima, O.; Takase, H.

    1995-01-01

    Various innovative divertor concepts have been developed to improve the LHD plasma performance. They are two divertor magnetic geometries (helical divertor configurations with and without n/m=1/1 island) and two operational scenarios (confinement improvement by generating high temperature divertor plasma and simultaneous achievement of radiative cooling and H-mode-like confinement improvement). In addition, technological development of new efficient hydrogen pumping schemes are being pursued for enhancing the divertor control capability. 16 refs., 4 figs

  20. High temperature divertor plasma operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohyabu, Nobuyoshi.

    1991-02-01

    High temperature divertor plasma operation has been proposed, which is expected to enhance the core energy confinement and eliminates the heat removal problem. In this approach, the heat flux is guided through divertor channel to a remote area with a large target surface, resulting in low heat load on the target plate. This allows pumping of the particles escaping from the core and hence maintaining of the high divertor temperature, which is comparable to the core temperature. The energy confinement is then determined by the diffusion coefficient of the core plasma, which has been observed to be much lower than the thermal diffusivity. (author)

  1. Divertor development for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janeschitz, G.; Ando, T.; Antipenkov, A.; Barabash, V.; Chiocchio, S.; Federici, G.; Ibbott, C.; Jakeman, R.; Matera, R.; Martin, E.; Parker, R.; Tivey, R.; Pacher, H.D.

    1998-01-01

    The requirements for the ITER divertor design, i.e. power and He ash exhaust, neutral leakage control, lifetime, disruption load resistance and exchange by remote handling, are described in this paper. These requirements and the physics requirements for detached and semi-attached operation result in the vertical target configuration. This is realised by a concept incorporating 60 cassettes carrying the high heat flux components. The armour choice for these components is CFC monoblock in the strike zone near at the lower part of the vertical target, and a W brush elsewhere. Cooling is by swirl tubes or hypervapotrons depending on the component. The status of the heat sink and joining technology R and D is given. Finally, the resulting design of the high heat flux components is presented. (orig.)

  2. The divertor remote maintenance project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maisonnier, D.; Martin, E.; Akou, K.

    2001-01-01

    Remote replacement of the ITER divertor will be required several times during the life of ITER. To facilitate its regular exchange, the divertor is assembled in the ITER vacuum vessel from 60 cassettes. Radial movers transport each cassette along radial rails through the handling ports and into the vessel where a toroidal mover lifts and transports the cassette around a pair of toroidal rails. Once at its final position the cassette is locked to the toroidal rails and is accurately aligned in both poloidal and toroidal directions. A further requirement on the divertor is to minimise the amount of activated waste to be sent to a repository. To this end the cassettes have been designed to allow the remote replacement, in a hot cell, of their plasma facing components. The paper describes the two facilities built at ENEA Brasimone, Italy, whose aim is to demonstrate the reliable remote maintenance of the divertor cassettes. (author)

  3. The divertor remote maintenance project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maisonnier, D.; Martin, E.; Akou, K.

    1999-01-01

    Remote replacement of the ITER divertor will be required several times during the life of ITER. To facilitate its regular exchange, the divertor is assembled in the ITER vacuum vessel from 60 cassettes. Radial movers transport each cassette along radial rails through the handling ports and into the vessel where a toroidal mover lifts and transports the cassette around a pair of toroidal rails. Once at its final position the cassette is locked to the toroidal rails and is accurately aligned in both poloidal and toroidal directions. A further requirement on the divertor is to minimise the amount of activated waste to be sent to a repository. To this end the cassettes have been designed to allow the remote replacement, in a hot cell, of their plasma facing components. The paper describes the two facilities built at ENEA Brasimone, Italy, whose aim is to demonstrate the reliable remote maintenance of the divertor cassettes. (author)

  4. Strategic Aspects of Bundling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podesta, Marion

    2008-01-01

    The increase of bundle supply has become widespread in several sectors (for instance in telecommunications and energy fields). This paper review relates strategic aspects of bundling. The main purpose of this paper is to analyze profitability of bundling strategies according to the degree of competition and the characteristics of goods. Moreover, bundling can be used as price discrimination tool, screening device or entry barriers. In monopoly case bundling strategy is efficient to sort consumers in different categories in order to capture a maximum of surplus. However, when competition increases, the profitability on bundling strategies depends on correlation of consumers' reservations values. (author)

  5. Bundle Branch Block

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... known cause. Causes can include: Left bundle branch block Heart attacks (myocardial infarction) Thickened, stiffened or weakened ... myocarditis) High blood pressure (hypertension) Right bundle branch block A heart abnormality that's present at birth (congenital) — ...

  6. Latest status of manufacturing activity of ITER divertor and engineering issues on tungsten divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Satoshi

    2011-01-01

    Divertors for ITER are now in construction. In the present chapter, the specification and the latest status of manufacturing of ITER divertors are presented. In addition, issues in the development of divertors for the fusion demo reactor are given on the basis of experiences on the ITER divertor development. (J.P.N.)

  7. Advanced divertor experiments on DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaffer, M.J.; Mahdavi, M.A.; Osborne, T.; Petrie, T.W.; Stambaugh, R.D.; Buchenauer, D.; Hill, D.N.; Klepper, C.C.

    1991-01-01

    The poloidal divertor is presently favored for next-step, high-power tokamaks. The DIII-D Advanced Divertor Program (ADP) aims to gain increased control over the divertor plasma and tokamak boundary conditions. This paper reports experiments done in the first phase of the ADP. The DIII-D lower divertor was modified by the addition of a toroidally symmetric, graphite-armoured, water-cooled divertor-biasing ring electrode at the entrance to a gas plenum. (In the past DIII-D operated with an open divertor.) The plenum will eventually contain a He cryogenic loop for active divertor pumping. The separatrix 'strike' position is controlled by the lower poloidal field shaping coils and can be varied smoothly from the ring electrode upper surface to the divertor floor far from the entrance aperture. External power, at up to 550 V and 8 kA separately, has been applied to the electrode to date. (author) 5 refs., 5 figs

  8. TCV divertor upgrade for alternative magnetic configurations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Reimerdes

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Swiss Plasma Center (SPC is planning a divertor upgrade for the TCV tokamak. The upgrade aims at extending the research of conventional and alternative divertor configurations to operational scenarios and divertor regimes of greater relevance for a fusion reactor. The main elements of the upgrade are the installation of an in-vessel structure to form a divertor chamber of variable closure and enhanced diagnostic capabilities, an increase of the pumping capability of the divertor chamber and the addition of new divertor poloidal field coils. The project follows a staged approach and is carried out in parallel with an upgrade of the TCV heating system. First calculations using the EMC3-Eirene code indicate that realistic baffles together with the planned heating upgrade will allow for a significantly higher compression of neutral particles in the divertor, which is a prerequisite to test the power dissipation potential of various divertor configurations.

  9. Theory of Advanced Magnetic Divertors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotschenreuther, Michael; Valanju, Prashant; Mahajan, Swadesh; Covele, Brent

    2013-10-01

    The magnetic field structure in the SOL is the most important determinant of divertor physics. A comprehensive analytical and numerical methodology is developed to investigate SOL magnetic fields in the backdrop of two advanced divertor geometries- the X-divertor (XD) proposed and discussed in 2004, and the snowflake divertor (SFD) of 2007-2010. The analysis shows that XD and SFD represent very distinct and readily distinguishable magnetic geometries, epitomized through a differentiating metric, the Divertor Index (DI). In terms of this simple metric, the XD (DI > 1) and the SFD (DI XD flux surfaces are less convergent, in fact, divergent (flaring). These different SOL magnetics imply different physics, particularly with respect to detachment dynamics. It is also shown that some experiments on NSTX and DIII-D match both the prescription and the predictions of the 2004 XD paper. Work supported under US-DOE projects DE-FG02-04ER54742 and DE-FG02-04ER54754.

  10. The ITER divertor cassette project meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merola, M.; Riccardi, B.; Tivey, R.

    1999-01-01

    The Divertor Cassette Project topical meeting was held on May 26-28, 1999 at the ENEA Brasimone Research Centre in Camugnano (Bologna), Italy. Specialists from all the four Parties and the JCT participated in the meeting. It was concluded that the Divertor Cassette Project has significantly contributed to solving a large part of the critical issues of the ITER divertor design

  11. Divertor design through shape optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dekeyser, W.; Baelmans, M.; Reiter, D.

    2012-01-01

    Due to the conflicting requirements, complex physical processes and large number of design variables, divertor design for next step fusion reactors is a challenging problem, often relying on large numbers of computationally expensive numerical simulations. In this paper, we attempt to partially automate the design process by solving an appropriate shape optimization problem. Design requirements are incorporated in a cost functional which measures the performance of a certain design. By means of changes in the divertor shape, which in turn lead to changes in the plasma state, this cost functional can be minimized. Using advanced adjoint methods, optimal solutions are computed very efficiently. The approach is illustrated by designing divertor targets for optimal power load spreading, using a simplified edge plasma model (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  12. Detached divertor plasmas in JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horton, L D; Borrass, K; Corrigan, G; Gottardi, N; Lingertat, J; Loarte, A; Simonini, R; Stamp, M F; Taroni, A [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Stangeby, P C [Toronto Univ., ON (Canada). Inst. for Aerospace Studies

    1994-07-01

    In simulations with high radiated power fractions, it is possible to produce the drop in ion current to the divertor targets typical of detached plasmas. Despite the fact that these experiments are performed on beryllium target tiles, radiation from deuterium and beryllium cannot account for the measured power losses. The neutral deuterium levels in the SOL in these plasmas are higher than the model predicts. This may be due to leakage from the divertor or to additional wall sources related to the non-steady nature of these plasmas. In contrast, a surprisingly high level of carbon is present in these discharges; higher even than would be predicted are the divertor target tiles pure carbon. This level may well be large enough to produce the measured radiation. (authors). 6 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Actively convected liquid metal divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Michiya; Hirooka, Yoshi

    2014-01-01

    The use of actively convected liquid metals with j × B force is proposed to facilitate heat handling by the divertor, a challenging issue associated with magnetic fusion experiments such as ITER. This issue will be aggravated even more for DEMO and power reactors because the divertor heat load will be significantly higher and yet the use of copper would not be allowed as the heat sink material. Instead, reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel alloys with heat conductivities substantially lower than that of copper, will be used as the structural materials. The present proposal is to fill the lower part of the vacuum vessel with liquid metals with relatively low melting points and low chemical activities including Ga and Sn. The divertor modules, equipped with electrodes and cooling tubes, are immersed in the liquid metal. The electrode, placed in the middle of the liquid metal, can be biased positively or negatively with respect to the module. The j × B force due to the current between the electrode and the module provides a rotating motion for the liquid metal around the electrodes. The rise in liquid temperature at the separatrix hit point can be maintained at acceptable levels from the operation point of view. As the rotation speed increases, the current in the liquid metal is expected to decrease due to the v × B electromotive force. This rotating motion in the poloidal plane will reduce the divertor heat load significantly. Another important benefit of the convected liquid metal divertor is the fast recovery from unmitigated disruptions. Also, the liquid metal divertor concept eliminates the erosion problem. (letter)

  14. Snowflake divertor plasmas on TCV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piras, F; Coda, S; Furno, I; Moret, J-M; Sauter, O; Turri, G; Bencze, A; Duval, B P; Felici, F; Pochelon, A; Zucca, C; Pitts, R A; Tal, B

    2009-01-01

    Starting from a standard single null X-point configuration, a second order null divertor (snowflake (SF)) has been successfully created on the Tokamak a Configuration Variable (TCV) tokamak. The magnetic properties of this innovative configuration have been analysed and compared with a standard X-point configuration. For the SF divertor, the connection length and the flux expansion close to the separatrix exceed those of the standard X-point by more than a factor of 2. The magnetic shear in the plasma edge is also larger for the SF configuration.

  15. A review of progress towards radiative divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagorski, Roman

    1997-07-01

    A solution of the problem of the power and particle exhaust from the next step tokamaks, will require new techniques which redistribute the power entering the SOL onto much larger surface area than conventional divertor design permits, while maintaining good impurity retention in divertor volume and allowing for efficient helium pumping. Progress made in developing such techniques is discussed. Status of the modelling studies of dynamic gas target divertor and impurity seeded radiating divertors is presented. Recent results of experiments on radiative and gas target divertors are reviewed

  16. VUV Spectroscopy in DIII-D Divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkesh Punjabi; Nelson Jalufka

    2004-01-01

    The research carried out on this grant was motivated by the high power emission from the CIV doublet at 155 nm in the DIII-D divertor and to study the characteristics of the radiative divertor. The radiative divertor is designed to reduce the heat load to the target plates of the divertor by reducing the energy in the divertor plasma using upstream scrape-off-layer (SOL) radiation. In some cases, particularly in Partially Detached Divertor (PDD) operations, this emission accounts for more than 50% of the total radiation from the divertor. In PDD operation, produced by neutral gas injection, the particle flow to the target plate and the divertor temperature are significantly reduced. A father motivation was to study the CIV emission distribution in the lower, open divertor and the upper baffled divertor. Two Vacuum Ultra Violet Tangential viewing Television cameras (VUV TTV) were constructed and installed in the upper, baffled and the lower, open divertor. The images recorded by these cameras were then inverted to produce two-dimensional distributions of CIV in the poloidal plane. Results obtained in the project are summarized in this report

  17. Advanced divertor experiments on DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaffer, M.J.; Mahdavi, M.A.; Osborne, T.; Petrie, T.W.; Stambaugh, R.D.; Buchenauer, D.; Hill, D.N.; Klepper, C.C.

    1991-04-01

    The poloidal divertor is presently favored for next-step, high-power tokamaks. The DIII-D Advanced Divertor Program (ADP) aims to gain increased control over the divertor plasma and tokamak boundary conditions. This paper reports experiments done in the first phase of the ADP. The DIII-D lower divertor was modified by the addition of a toroidally symmetric, graphite-armoured, water-cooled divertor-biasing ring electrode at the entrance to a gas plenum. The plenum will eventually contain a He cryogenic loop for active divertor pumping. The separatrix ''strike'' position is controlled by the lower poloidal field shaping coils and can be varied smoothly from the ring electrode upper surface to the divertor floor far from the entrance aperture. External power, at up to 550 V and 8 kA separately, has been applied to the electrode to date. 5 refs., 5 figs

  18. Polycation induced actin bundles

    OpenAIRE

    Muhlrad, Andras; Grintsevich, Elena E.; Reisler, Emil

    2011-01-01

    Three polycations, polylysine, the polyamine spermine and the polycationic protein lysozyme were used to study the formation, structure, ionic strength sensitivity and dissociation of polycation-induced actin bundles. Bundles form fast, simultaneously with the polymerization of MgATP-G-actins, upon addition of polycations to solutions of actins at low ionic strength conditions. This indicates that nuclei and/or nascent filaments bundle due to attractive, electrostatic effect of polycations an...

  19. Polycation induced actin bundles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhlrad, Andras; Grintsevich, Elena E; Reisler, Emil

    2011-04-01

    Three polycations, polylysine, the polyamine spermine and the polycationic protein lysozyme were used to study the formation, structure, ionic strength sensitivity and dissociation of polycation-induced actin bundles. Bundles form fast, simultaneously with the polymerization of MgATP-G-actins, upon the addition of polycations to solutions of actins at low ionic strength conditions. This indicates that nuclei and/or nascent filaments bundle due to attractive, electrostatic effect of polycations and the neutralization of repulsive interactions of negative charges on actin. The attractive forces between the filaments are strong, as shown by the low (in nanomolar range) critical concentration of their bundling at low ionic strength. These bundles are sensitive to ionic strength and disassemble partially in 100 mM NaCl, but both the dissociation and ionic strength sensitivity can be countered by higher polycation concentrations. Cys374 residues of actin monomers residing on neighboring filaments in the bundles can be cross-linked by the short span (5.4Å) MTS-1 (1,1-methanedyl bismethanethiosulfonate) cross-linker, which indicates a tight packing of filaments in the bundles. The interfilament cross-links, which connect monomers located on oppositely oriented filaments, prevent disassembly of bundles at high ionic strength. Cofilin and the polysaccharide polyanion heparin disassemble lysozyme induced actin bundles more effectively than the polylysine-induced bundles. The actin-lysozyme bundles are pathologically significant as both proteins are found in the pulmonary airways of cystic fibrosis patients. Their bundles contribute to the formation of viscous mucus, which is the main cause of breathing difficulties and eventual death in this disorder. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Advanced divertor configurations with large flux expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soukhanovskii, V.A., E-mail: vlad@llnl.gov [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Bell, R.E.; Diallo, A.; Gerhardt, S.; Kaye, S.; Kolemen, E.; LeBlanc, B.P. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ (United States); McLean, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Menard, J.E.; Paul, S.F.; Podesta, M. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ (United States); Raman, R. [University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Ryutov, D.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Scotti, F.; Kaita, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ (United States); Maingi, R. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mueller, D.M.; Roquemore, A.L. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ (United States); Reimerdes, H.; Canal, G.P. [Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, Association Euratom Confédération Suisse, Lausanne (Switzerland); and others

    2013-07-15

    Experimental studies of the novel snowflake divertor concept (D. Ryutov, Phys. Plasmas 14 (2007) 064502) performed in the NSTX and TCV tokamaks are reviewed in this paper. The snowflake divertor enables power sharing between divertor strike points, as well as the divertor plasma-wetted area, effective connection length and divertor volumetric power loss to increase beyond those in the standard divertor, potentially reducing heat flux and plasma temperature at the target. It also enables higher magnetic shear inside the separatrix, potentially affecting pedestal MHD stability. Experimental results from NSTX and TCV confirm the predicted properties of the snowflake divertor. In the NSTX, a large spherical tokamak with a compact divertor and lithium-coated graphite plasma-facing components (PFCs), the snowflake divertor operation led to reduced core and pedestal impurity concentration, as well as re-appearance of Type I ELMs that were suppressed in standard divertor H-mode discharges. In the divertor, an otherwise inaccessible partial detachment of the outer strike point with an up to 50% increase in divertor radiation and a peak divertor heat flux reduction from 3–7 MW/m{sup 2} to 0.5–1 MW/m{sup 2} was achieved. Impulsive heat fluxes due to Type-I ELMs were significantly dissipated in the high magnetic flux expansion region. In the TCV, a medium-size tokamak with graphite PFCs, several advantageous snowflake divertor features (cf. the standard divertor) have been demonstrated: an unchanged L–H power threshold, enhanced stability of the peeling–ballooning modes in the pedestal region (and generally an extended second stability region), as well as an H-mode pedestal regime with reduced (×2–3) Type I ELM frequency and slightly increased (20–30%) normalized ELM energy, resulting in a favorable average energy loss comparison to the standard divertor. In the divertor, ELM power partitioning between snowflake divertor strike points was demonstrated. The NSTX

  1. Principal noncommutative torus bundles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Echterhoff, Siegfried; Nest, Ryszard; Oyono-Oyono, Herve

    2008-01-01

    of bivariant K-theory (denoted RKK-theory) due to Kasparov. Using earlier results of Echterhoff and Williams, we shall give a complete classification of principal non-commutative torus bundles up to equivariant Morita equivalence. We then study these bundles as topological fibrations (forgetting the group...

  2. Magnetic geometry and physics of advanced divertors: The X-divertor and the snowflake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotschenreuther, Mike; Valanju, Prashant; Covele, Brent; Mahajan, Swadesh

    2013-01-01

    Advanced divertors are magnetic geometries where a second X-point is added in the divertor region to address the serious challenges of burning plasma power exhaust. Invoking physical arguments, numerical work, and detailed model magnetic field analysis, we investigate the magnetic field structure of advanced divertors in the physically relevant region for power exhaust—the scrape-off layer. A primary result of our analysis is the emergence of a physical “metric,” the Divertor Index DI, which quantifies the flux expansion increase as one goes from the main X-point to the strike point. It clearly separates three geometries with distinct consequences for divertor physics—the Standard Divertor (DI = 1), and two advanced geometries—the X-Divertor (XD, DI > 1) and the Snowflake (DI < 1). The XD, therefore, cannot be classified as one variant of the Snowflake. By this measure, recent National Spherical Torus Experiment and DIIID experiments are X-Divertors, not Snowflakes

  3. Magnetic geometry and physics of advanced divertors: The X-divertor and the snowflake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotschenreuther, Mike; Valanju, Prashant; Covele, Brent; Mahajan, Swadesh [Institute for Fusion Studies, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Advanced divertors are magnetic geometries where a second X-point is added in the divertor region to address the serious challenges of burning plasma power exhaust. Invoking physical arguments, numerical work, and detailed model magnetic field analysis, we investigate the magnetic field structure of advanced divertors in the physically relevant region for power exhaust—the scrape-off layer. A primary result of our analysis is the emergence of a physical “metric,” the Divertor Index DI, which quantifies the flux expansion increase as one goes from the main X-point to the strike point. It clearly separates three geometries with distinct consequences for divertor physics—the Standard Divertor (DI = 1), and two advanced geometries—the X-Divertor (XD, DI > 1) and the Snowflake (DI < 1). The XD, therefore, cannot be classified as one variant of the Snowflake. By this measure, recent National Spherical Torus Experiment and DIIID experiments are X-Divertors, not Snowflakes.

  4. Divertor plasma modification by divertor biasing and edge ergodization in JFT-2M

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoji, T.; Nagashima, K.; Tamai, H.; Ohdachi, S.; Miura, Y.; Ohasa, K.; Maeda, H.; Ohyabu, N.; Leonard, A.W.; Aikawa, H.; Fujita, T.; Hoshino, K.; Kawashima, H.; Matsuda, T.; Maeno, M.; Mori, M.; Ogawa, H.; Shimada, M.; Uehara, K.; Yamauchi, T.

    1995-01-01

    The effects of divertor biasing and edge ergodization on the divertor plasma have been investigated in the JFT-2M tokamak. Experimental results show; (1) The differential divertor biasing can change the in/out asymmetry of the divertor plasma. It especially changes the density on the ion side divertor plasma. The in/out electron pressure difference has a good correlation with the biasing current. (2) The unipolar divertor biasing can change the density profile of divertor plasma. The radial electric field and shear flow are the cause for this change. (3) The electron temperature of the divertor plasma in the H-mode with frequent ELMs induced by edge ergodization is lower than that of usual H-mode. That is due to the enhancement of the radial particle flux by frequent ELMs, ((orig.))

  5. Fabrication of divertor cassette for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanguinetti, G.P.

    2008-01-01

    The Divertor is the component located on the bottom of the ITER vacuum vessel, whose main function is to adsorb the high thermal flux generated by the plasma whilst keeping the plasma impurity at a reasonable low level. The divertor consist of 54 units, each comprising outer components, facing the plasma and a component supporting the plasma facing components (PFC) and providing coolant distribution to them (divertor cassette). The divertor cassette is a box structure, butt welded and machined, made from plates and forgins of austenitic stainless steels. The cassette fabrication, which is in detail described, includes manufacturing of the attachments of the PFC to the cassette, the coolant distribution channels, and the cassette to vacuum vessel locking system. The divertor cassette is a pressure component (the cooling water runs at 40 bar) and therefore divertor cassette design, fabrication and service shall comply with the European PED and the applicable French law for the ITER. (orig.)

  6. A Lithium Vapor Box Divertor Similarity Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Robert A.; Emdee, Eric D.; Goldston, Robert J.; Jaworski, Michael A.; Schwartz, Jacob A.

    2017-10-01

    A lithium vapor box divertor offers an alternate means of managing the extreme power density of divertor plasmas by leveraging gaseous lithium to volumetrically extract power. The vapor box divertor is a baffled slot with liquid lithium coated walls held at temperatures which increase toward the divertor floor. The resulting vapor pressure differential drives gaseous lithium from hotter chambers into cooler ones, where the lithium condenses and returns. A similarity experiment was devised to investigate the advantages offered by a vapor box divertor design. We discuss the design, construction, and early findings of the vapor box divertor experiment including vapor can construction, power transfer calculations, joint integrity tests, and thermocouple data logging. Heat redistribution of an incident plasma-based heat flux from a typical linear plasma device is also presented. This work supported by DOE Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466 and The Princeton Environmental Institute.

  7. Development of divertor remote maintenance system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Nobukazu; Oka, Kiyoshi; Akou, Kentaro; Takiguchi, Yuji [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-04-01

    The ITER divertor is categorized as a scheduled maintenance component because of extreme heat and particle loads it is exposed to by plasma. It is also highly activated by 14 MeV neutrons. Reliable remote handling equipment and tools are required for divertor maintenance under intense gamma radiation. To facilitate remote maintenance, the divertor is segmented into 60 cassettes, and each cassette weighing about 25 tons and maintained and replaced through four maintenance ports each 90 degrees. Divertor cassettes must be transported toroidally and radially for replacement through maintenance ports. Remote handling involving cassette movers and carriers for toroidal and radial transport has been developed. Under the ITER R and D program, technology critical to divertor cassette maintenance is being developed jointly by Japan, E.U., and U.S. home teams. This paper summarizes divertor remote maintenance design and the status of technology development by the Japan Home Team. (author)

  8. Development of divertor remote maintenance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Nobukazu; Oka, Kiyoshi; Akou, Kentaro; Takiguchi, Yuji

    1998-01-01

    The ITER divertor is categorized as a scheduled maintenance component because of extreme heat and particle loads it is exposed to by plasma. It is also highly activated by 14 MeV neutrons. Reliable remote handling equipment and tools are required for divertor maintenance under intense gamma radiation. To facilitate remote maintenance, the divertor is segmented into 60 cassettes, and each cassette weighing about 25 tons and maintained and replaced through four maintenance ports each 90 degrees. Divertor cassettes must be transported toroidally and radially for replacement through maintenance ports. Remote handling involving cassette movers and carriers for toroidal and radial transport has been developed. Under the ITER R and D program, technology critical to divertor cassette maintenance is being developed jointly by Japan, E.U., and U.S. home teams. This paper summarizes divertor remote maintenance design and the status of technology development by the Japan Home Team. (author)

  9. Controlling marginally detached divertor plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldon, D.; Kolemen, E.; Barton, J. L.; Briesemeister, A. R.; Humphreys, D. A.; Leonard, A. W.; Maingi, R.; Makowski, M. A.; McLean, A. G.; Moser, A. L.; Stangeby, P. C.

    2017-06-01

    A new control system at DIII-D has stabilized the inter-ELM detached divertor plasma state for H-mode in close proximity to the threshold for reattachment, thus demonstrating the ability to maintain detachment with minimal gas puffing. When the same control system was instead ordered to hold the plasma at the threshold (here defined as T e  =  5 eV near the divertor target plate), the resulting T e profiles separated into two groups with one group consistent with marginal detachment, and the other with marginal attachment. The plasma dithers between the attached and detached states when the control system attempts to hold at the threshold. The control system is upgraded from the one described in Kolemen et al (2015 J. Nucl. Mater. 463 1186) and it handles ELMing plasmas by using real time D α measurements to remove during-ELM slices from real time T e measurements derived from divertor Thomson scattering. The difference between measured and requested inter-ELM T e is passed to a PID (proportional-integral-derivative) controller to determine gas puff commands. While some degree of detachment is essential for the health of ITER’s divertor, more deeply detached plasmas have greater radiative losses and, at the extreme, confinement degradation, making it desirable to limit detachment to the minimum level needed to protect the target plate (Kolemen et al 2015 J. Nucl. Mater. 463 1186). However, the observed bifurcation in plasma conditions at the outer strike point with the ion B   ×  \

  10. Divertor scenario development for NSTX Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soukhanovskii, V. A.; McLean, A. G.; Meier, E. T.; Rognlien, T. D.; Ryutov, D. D.; Bell, R. E.; Diallo, A.; Gerhardt, S. P.; Kaita, R.; Kolemen, E.; Leblanc, B. P.; Menard, J. E.; Podesta, M.; Scotti, F.

    2012-10-01

    In the NSTX-U tokamak, initial plans for divertor plasma-facing components (PFCs) include lithium and boron coated graphite, with a staged transition to molybdenum. Steady-state peak divertor heat fluxes are projected to reach 20-30 MW/m^2 in 2 MA, 12 MW NBI-heated discharges of up to 5 s duration, thus challenging PFC thermal limits. Based on the recent NSTX divertor experiments and modeling with edge transport code UEDGE, a favorable basis for divertor power handling in NSTX-U is developed. The snowflake divertor geometry and feedback-controlled divertor impurity seeding applied to the lower and upper divertors are presently envisioned. In the NSTX snowflake experiments with lithium-coated graphite PFCs, the peak divertor heat fluxes from Type I ELMs and between ELMs were significantly reduced due to geometry effects, increased volumetric losses and null-point convective redistribution between strike points. H-mode core confinement was maintained at H98(y,2)<=1 albeit the radiative detachment. Additional CD4 seeding demonstrated potential for a further increase of divertor radiation.

  11. The ITER divertor cassette project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulrickson, M.; Tivey, R.; Akiba, M.

    2001-01-01

    The divertor ''Large Project'' was conceived with the aim of demonstrating the feasibility of meeting the lifetime requirements by employing the candidate armor materials of beryllium, tungsten (W) and carbon-fiber-composite (CFC). At the start, there existed only limited experience with constructing water-cooled high heat flux armored components for tokamaks. To this was added the complication posed by the need to use a silver-free joining technique that avoids the transmutation of n-irradiated silver to cadmium. The research project involving the four Home Teams (HTs) has focused on the design, development, manufacture and testing of full-scale Plasma Facing Components (PFCs) suitable for ITER. The task addressed all the issues facing ITER divertor design, such as providing adequate armor erosion lifetime, meeting the required armor-heat sink joint lifetime and heat sink fatigue life, sustaining thermal-hydraulic and electromechanical loads, and seeking to identify the most cost-effective manufacturing options. This paper will report the results of the divertor large project. (author)

  12. The ITER divertor cassette project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulrickson, M.; Tivey, R.; Akiba, M.

    1999-01-01

    The divertor 'Large Project' was conceived with the aim of demonstrating the feasibility of meeting the lifetime requirements by employing the candidate armor materials of beryllium, tungsten (W) and carbon-fiber-composite (CFC). At the start, there existed only limited experience with constructing water-cooled high heat flux armored components for tokamaks. To this was added the complication posed by the need to use a silver-free joining technique that avoids the transmutation of n-irradiated silver to cadmium. The research project involving the four Home Teams (HTs) has focused on the design, development, manufacture and testing of full-scale Plasma Facing Components (PFCs) suitable for ITER. The task addressed all the issues facing ITER divertor design, such as providing adequate armor erosion lifetime, meeting the required armor-heat sink joint lifetime and heat sink fatigue life, sustaining thermal-hydraulic and electromechanical loads, and seeking to identify the most cost-effective manufacturing options. This paper will report the results of the divertor large project. (author)

  13. Divertor plate for thermonuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Seiichiro; Sato, Keisuke; Nishio, Satoshi.

    1993-01-01

    In a divertor plate for a thermonuclear reactor, adjacent cooling pipes are electrically insulated from each other and pipes made of a gradient functional material prepared by compositing ceramics having an insulation property and metals are metallurgically joined to at least one portion of each of the cooling pipes. Electric current caused upon occurrence of plasma disruption is interrupted by the insulation portion, so that a large circuit is not formed and electromagnetic force is decreased to such a extent that the divertor plate is not ruptured. Since a header of the cooling pipes can be installed at any optional position, the installation space can be reduced. Further, since inlet and exit collection headers can be disposed on both ends of the cooling pipes, it is possible to shorten the length of the cooling pipe of the divertor plate corresponded to high heat fluxes and reduce the pressure loss on the side of coolants to about 1/2. Further, turn back portions of small radius of curvature of the cooling pipes are eliminated to reduce the cost and extend the lifetime and, in addition, protection tiles can be attached easily. (N.H.)

  14. The lithium vapor box divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldston, R J; Schwartz, J; Myers, R

    2016-01-01

    It has long been recognized that volumetric dissipation of the plasma heat flux from a fusion power system is preferable to its localized impingement on a material surface. Volumetric dissipation mitigates both the anticipated very high heat flux and intense particle-induced damage due to sputtering. Recent projections to a tokamak demonstration power plant suggest an immense upstream parallel heat flux, of order 20 GW m −2 , implying that fully detached operation may be a requirement for the success of fusion power. Building on pioneering work on the use of lithium by Nagayama et al and by Ono et al as well as earlier work on the gas box divertor by Watkins and Rebut, we present here a concept for a lithium vapor box divertor, in which lithium vapor extracts momentum and energy from a fusion-power-plant divertor plasma, using fully volumetric processes. At the high powers and pressures that are projected this requires a high density of lithium vapor, which must be isolated from the main plasma in order to avoid lithium build-up on the chamber walls or in the plasma. Isolation is achieved through a powerful multi-box differential pumping scheme available only for condensable vapors. The preliminary box-wise calculations are encouraging, but much more work is required to demonstrate the practical viability of this scheme, taking into account at least 2D plasma and vapor flows within and between the vapor boxes and out of the vapor boxes to the main plasma. (paper)

  15. Engineering of the divertor injection tokamak experiment (DITE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plummer, K.M.; Bayes, D.V.; Bell, D.; Burt, J.; Galloway, F.; Sanders, B.C.; Skelton, D.E.; Varley, G.L.

    1976-01-01

    The DITE assembly has been constructed to study the effect of powerful neutral injection and the use of magnetic divertors in Tokamak systems. In addition, the plasma is stabilized by a position controlled feed-back vertical field system developed from results on the CLEO experiment, and added to DITE later in the design stage. The machine is designed for an ultimate plasma current of 340 kA, having a minor radius of 23 cm at q = 2, on a major radius of 113 cm. The 28 kG Bphi field, from 16 liquid nitrogen cooled coils has a 2% ripple at the edge of the plasma. The divertor is a ''bundle'' type, the present design of which is limited to operating in a Bphi field of 18 kG. Neutral Injection, initially by two, and ultimately by four injectors, is intended to supply about 1,500 kW of beam power. The engineering is now complete and the machine commissioned; this paper describes the up-to-date design of the machine and includes some of our experiences during design, construction and commissioning

  16. Model of divertor biasing and control of scrape-off layer and divertor plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagasaki, K.; Itoh, K.; Itoh, S.

    1991-02-01

    Analytic model of the divertor biasing is described. For the given plasma and energy sources from the core plasma, the heat and particle flux densities on the divertor plate as well as scrape-off-layer (SOL)/divertor plasmas are analyzed in a slab model. Using a two-dimensional model, the effects of the divertor biasing and SOL current are studied. The conditions to balance the plasma temperature or sheath potential on different divertor plates are obtained. Effect of the SOL current on the heat channel width is also discussed. (author)

  17. Vibration of fuel bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.S.

    1975-06-01

    Several mathematical models have been proposed for calculating fuel rod responses in axial flows based on a single rod consideration. The spacing between fuel rods in liquid metal fast breeder reactors is small; hence fuel rods will interact with one another due to fluid coupling. The objective of this paper is to study the coupled vibration of fuel bundles. To account for the fluid coupling, a computer code, AMASS, is developed to calculate added mass coefficients for a group of circular cylinders based on the potential flow theory. The equations of motion for rod bundles are then derived including hydrodynamic forces, drag forces, fluid pressure, gravity effect, axial tension, and damping. Based on the equations, a method of analysis is presented to study the free and forced vibrations of rod bundles. Finally, the method is applied to a typical LMFBR fuel bundle consisting of seven rods

  18. Engineering conceptual design of CFETR divertor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Xuebing, E-mail: pengxb@ipp.cas.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shushanhu Road 350, 230031 Hefei Anhui (China); Ye, Minyou [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Jinzhai Road 96, 230026 Hefei Anhui (China); Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shushanhu Road 350, 230031 Hefei Anhui (China); Song, Yuntao [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shushanhu Road 350, 230031 Hefei Anhui (China); School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Jinzhai Road 96, 230026 Hefei Anhui (China); Mao, Xin [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shushanhu Road 350, 230031 Hefei Anhui (China); Chen, Peiming; Qian, Xinyuan [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Jinzhai Road 96, 230026 Hefei Anhui (China)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Three divertor structures for two plasma configurations, ITER-like and snowflake. • Property of enlarging wet area for all three divertors is analyzed. • The divertor accommodating with both the plasma configurations is unfeasible. • Divertor cooling system is developed. - Abstract: The China Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR), which is in conceptual design phase, aims at producing fusion power of 50–200 MW with tritium breeding ratio of ∼1.2 and duty cycle time of 0.3–0.5. Its designed main parameters are major/minor radii of 5.7 m/1.6 m and plasma current of 10 MA. Although the fusion power is lower than the one of ITER, the relative smaller machine dimensions and planed much higher auxiliary heating power of 100–140 MW make that the power exhausting for the CFETR divertor is a very critical issue. To solve this issue, the divertor should be better designed with advanced physical operation mode, advanced configuration/geometry or high efficient cooling structure. In the paper, much effort was put on the divertor configuration and geometry. With designed magnet system, three divertor configurations can be realized, ITER-like, snowflake and super-X. However, considering structural design feasibility and remote handling compatibility, only the first two configurations were selected for the first step of engineering design. Three divertors were designed. They have different first wall geometries to accommodate with different plasma configurations, one for the ITER-like, one for the snowflake and the third one for both the configurations. All three divertors employ the same cassette body as the support and the cooling water manifold for the first wall. This feature simplifies the interface of the divertor to other components in the vacuum vessel. Besides, the cooling structure and the remote maintenance concept are also introduced in the paper.

  19. A large divertor manipulator for ASDEX Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, Albrecht, E-mail: albrecht.herrmann@ipp.mpg.de; Jaksic, Nikola; Leitenstern, Peter; Greuner, Henri; Krieger, Karl; Marné, Pascal de; Oberkofler, Martin; Rohde, Volker; Schall, Gerd

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • A large divertor manipulator for ASDEX Upgrade is developed and tested. • It allows replacing a relevant part of the divertor by dedicated targets and probes. • Modified solid standard targets. • Electrical and mechanical probes for dedicated investigations. • Test of actively cooled component. - Abstract: In 2013 a new bulk tungsten divertor, Div-III, was installed in ASDEX Upgrade (AUG). During the concept and design phase of Div-III the option of adaptable divertor instrumentation and divertor modification as contribution for divertor investigations in preparation of ITER was given a high priority. To gain flexibility for the test of divertor modifications without affecting the operational space of AUG, the large divertor manipulator, DIM-II, was designed and installed. DIM-II allows to retract 2 out of 128 outer divertor target tiles including the water cooled support structure into a target exchange box and to replace these targets without breaking the vacuum of the AUG vessel. DIM-II is based on a carriage-rail system with a driving rod pushing a front-end with the target module into the divertor position for plasma operation. Three types of front-ends are foreseen for physics investigations: (i) modified standard targets clamped to the standard cooling structure, (ii) dedicated front-ends making use of the whole available volume of about 230 × 160 × 80 mm{sup 3} and (iii) actively cooled/heated targets for cooling water temperatures up to 230 °C. This paper presents the DIM-II design including the FEM calculations for the modified divertor support structure and the front-end options, as well as the test procedure and operation mode.

  20. Measurement of impurity ion densities and energies in the divertor and edge regions of Alcator C-Mod tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griem, H.R.; Moreno, J.; Welch, B.L.

    1992-01-01

    A study to investigate impurity production and transport in the divertor and edge regions of the Alcator C-Mod tokamak through spectroscopic techniques is described. A 0.75-meter Czerny-Turner spectrometer with a 1200-g/mm grating and a 35-meter quartz optic bundle transmission line were tested. A high-resolution 2-meter spectrometer will be ordered. Data acquisition considerations are being addressed

  1. Moving Divertor Plates in a Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zweben, S.J.; Zhang, H.

    2009-01-01

    Moving divertor plates could help solve some of the problems of the tokamak divertor through mechanical ingenuity rather than plasma physics. These plates would be passively heated on each pass through the tokamak and cooled and reprocessed outside the tokamak. There are many design options using varying plate shapes, orientations, motions, coatings, and compositions

  2. Moving Divertor Plates in a Tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.J. Zweben, H. Zhang

    2009-02-12

    Moving divertor plates could help solve some of the problems of the tokamak divertor through mechanical ingenuity rather than plasma physics. These plates would be passively heated on each pass through the tokamak and cooled and reprocessed outside the tokamak. There are many design options using varying plate shapes, orientations, motions, coatings, and compositions.

  3. Rapidly Moving Divertor Plates In A Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zweben, S.

    2011-01-01

    It may be possible to replace conventional actively cooled tokamak divertor plates with a set of rapidly moving, passively cooled divertor plates on rails. These plates would absorb the plasma heat flux with their thermal inertia for ∼10-30 sec, and would then be removed from the vessel for processing. When outside the tokamak, these plates could be cooled, cleaned, recoated, inspected, and then returned to the vessel in an automated loop. This scheme could provide nearoptimal divertor surfaces at all times, and avoid the need to stop machine operation for repair of damaged or eroded plates. We describe various possible divertor plate designs and access geometries, and discuss an initial design for a movable and removable divertor module for NSTX-U.

  4. Evaluating Stellarator Divertor Designs with EMC3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, Aaron; Anderson, D. T.; Feng, Y.; Hegna, C. C.; Talmadge, J. N.

    2013-10-01

    In this paper various improvements of stellarator divertor design are explored. Next step stellarator devices require innovative divertor solutions to handle heat flux loads and impurity control. One avenue is to enhance magnetic flux expansion near strike points, somewhat akin to the X-Divertor concept in Tokamaks. The effect of judiciously placed external coils on flux deposition is calculated for configurations based on the HSX stellarator. In addition, we attempt to optimize divertor plate location to facilitate the external coil placement. Alternate areas of focus involve altering edge island size to elucidate the driving physics in the edge. The 3-D nature of stellarators complicates design and necessitates analysis of new divertor structures with appropriate simulation tools. We evaluate the various configurations with the coupled codes EMC3-EIRENE, allowing us to benchmark configurations based on target heat flux, impurity behavior, radiated power, and transitions to high recycling and detached regimes. Work supported by DOE-SC0006103.

  5. Comparison between stellarator and tokamak divertor transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Y.; Lunt, T.; Kobayashi, M.; Reiter, D.

    2010-11-01

    The paper compares the essential divertor transport features of the poloidal divertor, which is well-developed for tokamaks, and the non-axisymmetric divertors currently investigated on helical devices. It aims at surveying the fundamental similarities and differences in divertor concept and geometry, and their consequences for how the divertor functions. In particular, the importance of various transport terms governing axisymmetric and helical scrape-off-layers (SOLs) is examined, with special attention being paid to energy, momentum and impurity transport. Tokamak and stellarator SOLs are compared by identifying key geometric parameters through which the governing physics can be illustrated by simple models and estimates. More quantitative assessments rely nevertheless on the modeling using EMC3-EIRENE code. Most of the theoretical results are discussed in conjunction with experimental observations. (author)

  6. Snowflake divertor experiments on TCV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piras, F; Coda, S; Duval, B P; Labit, B; Marki, J; Moret, J-M; Pitzschke, A; Sauter, O; Medvedev, S Yu

    2010-01-01

    An ELMy H-mode 'snowflake' (SF) divertor is established and studied for the first time in the TCV tokamak. The H-mode access and the edge localized mode (ELM) dynamics are compared with a conventional single-null diverted configuration. The SF configuration exhibits 15% higher confinement and 2-3 times lower ELM frequency. Ideal MHD stability analysis suggests enhanced stability of the SF H-mode pedestal to mid- to high-toroidal-mode-number modes. The capability of the SF to redistribute the edge power on the additional strike points has been confirmed experimentally.

  7. Scrape-off layer and divertor theory meeting: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    This report contains viewgraphs on the following topics: fluid modelling of neutrals in the SOL and divertor; instabilities of gas-fueled divertors: theory and adaptive simulations; stability of ionization fronts of gaseous divertor plasmas; monte carlo calculation of heat transport; reduced charge model for edge impurity flows; thermally collapsed solutions for gaseous/radiative divertors; adaptive grid methods in transport simulation; advanced numerical solution algorithms applied to the multispecies edge plasma equations; two-dimensional edge plasma simulation using the multigrid method; neutral behavior and the effects of neutral-neutral and neutral-ion elastic scattering in the ITER gaseous divertor; particle throughput in the TPX divertor; marfes in tokamaks; a comparative study of the limiter and divertor edge plasmas in TEXT-U; issues of toroidal tokamak-type divertor simulators; ASDEX upgrade; the ITER divertor; the DIII-D divertor program and TPX divertor; DEGAS 2: a transmission/escape probabilities model for neutral particle transport: comparison with DEGAS 2; a collisional radiative model of hydrogen for high recycling divertors; comparison of fluid and non- fluid neutral models in B2.5; DIII-D radiative divertor simulations; 3-D fluid simulations of turbulence from conducting wall mode; turbulence and drifts in SOL plasmas; recent results for 1 1/2-D ITER gas target divertor modelling; evaluation of pumping and fueling in coupled core, SOL, and divertor chamber calculations; and ITER gas target divertors: comparison of volume recombination and large radial transport scenarios using DEGAS

  8. Operating windows of pebble divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuhiro, K.; Isobe, M.; Ohtsuka, Y.; Ueda, Y.; Nishikawa, M.

    2001-01-01

    A marked feature of the pebble divertor is an effect by use of functional multi-layer coated pebble, which consists of a surface plasma facing layer, an intermediate tritium permeation barrier layer, and a kernel for heat removal. The dimensions, structure and the irradiation conditions of pebbles are the important issues for the development of the pebble divertor. From the view point of resistance of the induced thermal stress, the pebble is taken as small as possible in size. On the other hand, from the view point of the pumping performance, the suitable irradiation temperature range of the surface layer of pebble was estimated from the experiments and the numerical analysis. The pumping process enhanced by dynamic retention is available to extend the higher allowable irradiation temperature range from 900K to 1100K. As taking the temperature rise limitation due to pumping effect and the fractural strength due to the induced thermal stress limitation, it was found that the diameter of the pebble is possible to be 1-2 mm in about 20 MW/m 2 for the SiC kernel and 2-3 mm in less than 30 MW/m 2 for the graphite kernel. (author)

  9. Multiple equilibria of divertor plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vu, H.X.; Prinja, A.K.

    1993-01-01

    A one-dimensional, two-fluid transport model with a temperature-dependent neutral recycling coefficient is shown to give rise to multiple equilibria of divertor plasmas (bifurcation). Numerical techniques for obtaining these multiple equilibria and for examining their stability are presented. Although these numerical techniques have been well known to the scientific community, this is the first time they have been applied to divertor plasma modeling to show the existence of multiple equilibria as well as the stability of these solutions. Numerical and approximate analytical solutions of the present one-dimensional transport model both indicate that there exists three steady-state solutions corresponding to (1) a high-temperature, low-density equilibrium, (2) a low-temperature, high-density equilibrium, and (3) an intermediate-temperature equilibrium. While both the low-temperature and the high-temperature equilibria are stable, with respect to small perturbations in the plasma conditions, the intermediate-temperature equilibrium is physically unstable, i.e., any small perturbation about this equilibrium will cause a transition toward either the high-temperature or low-temperature equilibrium

  10. Divertor radiation in the ASDEX upgrade tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sehmer, Till; Bernert, Matthias; Koll, Juergen; Meister, Hans; Wischmeier, Marco; Fantz, Ursel [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstrasse 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Reimold, Felix [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Institut fuer Energie- und Klimaforschung - Plasmaphysik, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Collaboration: The ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2016-07-01

    To reduce in ITER the expected power flux density onto the divertor target, the plasma-wall interaction in the divertor needs to be strongly reduced. The fundamental path to achieve this is using radiation from seeded impurities, whereas the localization of this radiation (e.g. inside/outside confined region), which could have an impact onto the power balance, is a key challenge. The absolute radiated power distribution can be measured by foil bolometers. To study at the ASDEX Upgrade tungsten divertor the localization and quantification of radiation, the respective line of sight density of the bolometers has been improved by two additional cameras. The divertor radiation enhanced by nitrogen (N{sub 2}) seeding has been investigated, using variations of (1) the external heating power or (2) the N{sub 2} seeding rate. While in both cases the inner divertor stays fully detached, measurements indicate that the region of dominant radiation moves from the inner divertor through the X-Point into the confined region. In the outer divertor however, the measurements indicate either an immediate upwards shift or a continuous movement of the radiation away from the target, depending on experimental conditions.

  11. Flow in rod bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazi, G.; Mayer, G.

    2005-01-01

    For power upgrading VVER-440 reactors we need to know exactly how the temperature measured by the thermocouples is related to the average outlet temperature of the fuel assemblies. Accordingly, detailed knowledge on mixing process in the rod bundles and in the fuel assembly head have great importance. Here we study the hydrodynamics of rod bundles based on the results of direct numerical and large eddy simulation of flows in subchannels. It is shown that secondary flow and flow pulsation phenomena can be observed using both methodologies. Some consequences of these observations are briefly discussed. (author)

  12. Standard-model bundles

    CERN Document Server

    Donagi, Ron; Pantev, Tony; Waldram, Dan; Donagi, Ron; Ovrut, Burt; Pantev, Tony; Waldram, Dan

    2002-01-01

    We describe a family of genus one fibered Calabi-Yau threefolds with fundamental group ${\\mathbb Z}/2$. On each Calabi-Yau $Z$ in the family we exhibit a positive dimensional family of Mumford stable bundles whose symmetry group is the Standard Model group $SU(3)\\times SU(2)\\times U(1)$ and which have $c_{3} = 6$. We also show that for each bundle $V$ in our family, $c_{2}(Z) - c_{2}(V)$ is the class of an effective curve on $Z$. These conditions ensure that $Z$ and $V$ can be used for a phenomenologically relevant compactification of Heterotic M-theory.

  13. Design of DIII-D advanced divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.P.; Baxi, C.B.; Reis, E.; Schaffer, M.; Thruston, G.

    1989-01-01

    The Advanced Divertor is a modification being designed for the plasma chamber of the DIII-D tokamak in order to optimize the divertor configuration and allow a broader range of experiments to be carried out. The Advanced Divertor will enable two classes of physics experiments to be run in DIII-D: Divertor biasing and Divertor baffing. The Advanced Divertor has two principal components: ( 1) a toroidally symmetric baffle; and (2) a continuous ring electrode. The tokamak can be run in baffle, bias, or standard DIII-D divertor modes by accurate positioning of the outer divertor strike point through the use of the DIII-D plasma control system. The baffle will contain approximately 50,000 l/s pumping for particle removal in the outer bottom corner of the vacuum vessel. The strike point will be positioned at the entrance aperture for the baffle mode. The aperture geometry is designed to facilitate a large particle influx plus a high probability that backstreaming particles will be reionized and redirected to the aperture. Where the baffling plates meet, gas sealing is required to prevent recycling of neutrals back into the plasma. The electrode is a continuous water-cooled ring, armored with graphite. The ring is electrically isolated from the vessel wall and is biasable to 1 kV and 20 kA. The outer leg of the divertor will be positioned on the graphite covered ring during biasing experiments. The supports for the ring are radially flexible to handle the differential thermal growth between the ring and the vessel wall but stiff in the vertical direction to restrain the ring against large disruption forces. The coolant and electrical feeds are designed in a similar manner. 2 refs., 4 figs

  14. Design of DIII-D Advanced Divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.P.; Baxi, C.B.; Reis, E.; Schaffer, M.; Thurston, G.

    1989-11-01

    The Advanced Divertor is a modification being designed for the plasma chamber of the DIII-D tokamak in order to optimize the divertor configuration and allow a broader range of experiments to be carried out. The Advanced Divertor will enable two classes of physics experiments to be run in DIII-D: Divertor biasing and Divertor baffling. The Advanced Divertor has two principal components: a toroidally symmetric baffle; and a continuous ring electrode. The tokamak can be run in baffle, bias, or standard DIII-D divertor modes by accurate positioning of the outer divertor strike point through the use of the DIII-D plasma control system. The baffle will contain approximately 50,000 l/s pumping for particle removal in the outer bottom corner of the vacuum vessel. The strike point will be positioned at the entrance aperture for the baffle mode. The aperture geometry is designed to facilitate a large particle influx plus a high probability that backstreaming particles will be reionized and redirected to the aperture. Where the baffling plates meet, gas sealing is required to prevent recycling of neutrals back into the plasma. The electrode is a continuous water-cooled ring, armored with graphite. The ring is electrically isolated from the vessel wall and is biasable to 1 kV and 20 kA. The outer leg of the divertor will be positioned on the graphite covered ring during biasing experiments. The supports for the ring are radially flexible to handle the differential thermal growth between the ring and the vessel wall but stiff in the vertical direction to restrain the ring against large disruption forces. The coolant and electrical feeds are designed in a similar manner. All the feeds are supported from and maintain a 5 kV isolation to the vessel wall. 2 refs., 4 figs

  15. Engineering design of a radiative divertor for DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.P.; Baxi, C.B.; Bozek, A.S.

    1995-10-01

    A new divertor configuration is being developed for the DIII-D tokamak. This divertor will operate in the radiative mode. Experiments and modeling form the basis for the new design. The Radiative Divertor reduces the heat flux on the divertor plates by dispersing the power with radiation in the divertor region. In addition, the Radiative Divertor structure will allow density control in plasma shapes required for advanced tokamak operation. The divertor structure allows for operation in either double-null or single-null plasma configurations. Four independently controlled divertor cryopumps will enable pumping at either the inboard (upper and lower) or the outboard (upper and lower) divertor plates. An upgrade to the DIII-D cryogenic system is part of this project. The increased capabilities of the cryogenic system will allow delivery of liquid helium and nitrogen to the three new cryopumps. The Radiative Divertor design is very flexible, and will allow physics studies of the effects of slot width and length. Radiative Divertor diagnostics are being designed in parallel to provide comprehensive measurements for diagnosing the divertor. The Radiative divertor installation is scheduled for late 1996. Engineering experience gained in the DIII-D Advanced Divertor program form a foundation for the design work on the Radiative Divertor

  16. An Asdex-type divertor for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, T.K.

    1989-01-01

    An Asdex-type local divertor is proposed for ITER consisting of a copper poloidal field coil adjacent to the plasma. Estimates indicate that the power consumption is acceptable. Advantages would be a much reduced heat load not very sensitive to magnetic perturbations. A disadvantage is the finite lifetime under neutron bombardment that would require periodic replacement of the divertor coils in a reactor, but probably not in ITER because of its limited fluence. Another disadvantage would be poorer blanket coverage unless the divertor coil itself incorporates breeding material. 3 figs

  17. Irradiated fuel bundle counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J.W.; Todd, J.L.

    1975-01-01

    The design of a prototype safeguards instrument for determining the number of irradiated fuel assemblies leaving an on-power refueled reactor is described. Design details include radiation detection techniques, data processing and display, unattended operation capabilities and data security methods. Development and operating history of the bundle counter is reported. (U.S.)

  18. Irradiated fuel bundle counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J.W.; Todd, J.L.

    1975-01-01

    The design of a prototype safeguards instrument for determining the number of irradiated fuel assemblies leaving an on-power refueled reactor is described. Design details include radiation detection techniques, data processing and display, unattended operation capabilities and data security methods. Development and operating history of the bundle counter is reported

  19. ALUMINUM BOX BUNDLING PRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iosif DUMITRESCU

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In municipal solid waste, aluminum is the main nonferrous metal, approximately 80- 85% of the total nonferrous metals. The income per ton gained from aluminum recuperation is 20 times higher than from glass, steel boxes or paper recuperation. The object of this paper is the design of a 300 kN press for aluminum box bundling.

  20. Kernel bundle EPDiff

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Stefan Horst; Lauze, Francois Bernard; Nielsen, Mads

    2011-01-01

    In the LDDMM framework, optimal warps for image registration are found as end-points of critical paths for an energy functional, and the EPDiff equations describe the evolution along such paths. The Large Deformation Diffeomorphic Kernel Bundle Mapping (LDDKBM) extension of LDDMM allows scale space...

  1. Stability, divertors and innovative concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirnov, S.

    2003-01-01

    This paper contains a short resume of the sections on 'Stability, Divertors and Innovative Concepts' presented at the 19th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference. The main conclusions are: (1) the problem of type I ELMs in tokamaks seems to be not so dramatic; (2) it was demonstrated that the working pulse length of large thermonuclear devices can achieve 100 s and more; (3) the problem of tritium retention seems to be not so dramatic now; probable approaches of its solution are visible; (4) active methods of plasma instabilities suppression (NTM, RWM, sawteeth, external MHD) work successfully; (5) new methods of mitigation of the disruption consequences were offered. New technological ideas and new ideas on magnetic confinement were presented. (author)

  2. Divertor cassette movers prototypes for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogusch, E.; Batz, R.; Bieber, O.; Gottfried, R.; Cerdan, G.

    1998-01-01

    Following competitive tendering, in October 1996 Siemens was contracted by the European Commission to design and supply an assembly of four Divertor Cassette Movers Prototypes including the control and command systems for the movers proper. The assembly consisting of one Cassette Toroidal Mover (CTM), one Radial Mover Tractor (TRC), one Second Cassette Carrier (SCC), and one Radial Cassette Carrier (RCC) represents key components of the Divertor Test Platform at Brasimone, one of the seven large R+D projects for ITER. By detailed design, high-precision manufacturing and testing of these devices, Siemens contributed to the verification of an important task within the European R and D program towards ITER construction. Replacement of the divertor cassettes is a scheduled maintenance operation throughout the life of ITER. The successful fabrication and testing of the Divertor Cassette Movers Prototypes is all important milestone to verify this delicate operation. (authors)

  3. A solid tungsten divertor for ASDEX Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, A; Greuner, H; Jaksic, N; Böswirth, B; Maier, H; Neu, R; Vorbrugg, S

    2011-01-01

    The conceptual design of a solid tungsten divertor for ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) is presented. The Div-III design is compatible with the existing divertor structure. It re-establishes the energy and heat receiving capability of a graphite divertor and overcomes the limitations of tungsten coatings. In addition, a solid tungsten divertor allows us to investigate erosion and bulk deuterium retention as well as test castellation and target tilting. The design criteria as well as calculations of forces due to halo and eddy currents are presented. The thermal properties of the proposed sandwich structure are calculated with finite element method models. After extensive testing of a target tile in the high heat flux test facility GLADIS, two solid tungsten tiles were installed in AUG for in-situ testing.

  4. Stochasticity about a poloidal divertor separatrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, D.A.; Osborne, T.H.; Prager, S.C.; Park, W.

    1986-10-01

    The stochasticization of the magnetic separatrix due to the presence of a helical perturbation in a poloidal divertor tokamak is illustrated by a numerical computation which traces magnetic field lines

  5. ARIES-III divertor engineering design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, C.P.C.; Schultz, K.R.; Cheng, E.T.; Grotz, S.; Hasan, M.A.; Najmabadi, F.; Sharafat, S.; Herring, J.S.; Valenti, M.; Steiner, D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports the engineering design of the ARIES-III double- null divertor. The divertor coolant tubes are made from W-3Re alloy and cooled by subcooled flow boiling of organic coolant. A coating of 4 mm thick tungsten is plasma sprayed onto the divertor surface. This W layer can withstand the thermal deposition of a few disruptions. At a maximum surface heat flux of 5.4 MW/m 2 , a conventional divertor design can be used. The divertor surface is contoured to have a constant heat flux of 5.4 MW/m 2 . The net erosion of the W-surface was found to be negligible at about 0.1 mm/year. After 3 years of operation, the W-3Re alloy ARIES-III divertor can be disposed of as Class A waste. In order to control the prompt dose release at site boundary to less than 200 Rem, isotopic tailoring of the W-alloy will be needed

  6. ARIES-III divertor engineering design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, C.P.C.; Schultz, K.R. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Cheng, E.T. [TSI Research, Solana Beach, CA (United States); Grotz, S.; Hasan, M.A.; Najmabadi, F.; Sharafat, S. [California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical, Aerospace and Nuclear Engineering; Brooks, J.N.; Ehst, D.A.; Sze, D.K. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Herring, J.S. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Valenti, M.; Steiner, D. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States). Plasma Dynamics Lab.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports the engineering design of the ARIES-III double- null divertor. The divertor coolant tubes are made from W-3Re alloy and cooled by subcooled flow boiling of organic coolant. A coating of 4 mm thick tungsten is plasma sprayed onto the divertor surface. This W layer can withstand the thermal deposition of a few disruptions. At a maximum surface heat flux of 5.4 MW/m{sup 2}, a conventional divertor design can be used. The divertor surface is contoured to have a constant heat flux of 5.4 MW/m{sup 2}. The net erosion of the W-surface was found to be negligible at about 0.1 mm/year. After 3 years of operation, the W-3Re alloy ARIES-III divertor can be disposed of as Class A waste. In order to control the prompt dose release at site boundary to less than 200 Rem, isotopic tailoring of the W-alloy will be needed.

  7. FINAL REPORT FOR THE DIII-D RADIATIVE DIVERTOR PROJECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'NEIL, RC; STAMBAUGH, RD

    2002-01-01

    OAK A271 FINAL REPORT FOR THE DIII-D RADIATIVE DIVERTOR PROJECT. The Radiative Divertor Project originated in 1993 when the DIII-D Five Year Plan for the period 1994--1998 was prepared. The Project Information Sheet described the objective of the project as ''to demonstrate dispersal of divertor power by a factor of then with sufficient diagnostics and modeling to extend the results to ITER and TPX''. Key divertor components identified were: (1) Carbon-carbon and graphite armor tiles; (2) The divertor structure providing a gas baffle and cooling; and (3) The divertor cryopumps to pump fuel and impurities

  8. Application of the radiating divertor approach to innovative tokamak divertor concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrie, T.W., E-mail: petrie@fusion.gat.com [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Allen, S.L.; Fenstermacher, M.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 700 East Ave, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Groebner, R.J. [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Holcomb, C.T. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 700 East Ave, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Kolemen, E. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, PO Box 451, Princeton, NJ 08543-0451 (United States); La Haye, R.J. [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Lasnier, C.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 700 East Ave, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Leonard, A.W.; Luce, T.C. [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); McLean, A.G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 700 East Ave, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Maingi, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, PO Box 451, Princeton, NJ 08543-0451 (United States); Moyer, R.A. [University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, CA 92093-0417 (United States); Solomon, W.M. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, PO Box 451, Princeton, NJ 08543-0451 (United States); Soukhanovskii, V.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 700 East Ave, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Turco, F. [Columbia University, 2960 Broadway, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Watkins, J.G. [Sandia National Laboratory, PO Box 5800, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    We survey the results of recent DIII-D experiments that tested the effectiveness of three innovative tokamak divertor concepts in reducing divertor heat flux while still maintaining acceptable energy confinement under neon/deuterium-based radiating divertor (RD) conditions: (1) magnetically unbalanced high performance double-null divertor (DND) plasmas, (2) high performance double-null “Snowflake” (SF-DN) plasmas, and (3) single-null H-mode plasmas having different isolation from their divertor targets. In general, all three concepts adapt well to RD conditions, achieving significant reduction in divertor heat flux (q{sub ⊥p}) and maintaining high performance metrics, e.g., 50–70% reduction in peak divertor heat flux for DND and SF-DN plasmas that are characterized by β{sub N} ≅ 3.0 and H{sub 98(y,2)} ≈ 1.35. It is also demonstrated that q{sub ⊥p} could be reduced ≈50% by extending the parallel connection length (L{sub ||-XPT}) in the scrape-off layer between the X-point and divertor targets over a variety of the RD and non-RD environments tested.

  9. Right bundle branch block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bussink, Barbara E; Holst, Anders Gaarsdal; Jespersen, Lasse

    2013-01-01

    AimsTo determine the prevalence, predictors of newly acquired, and the prognostic value of right bundle branch block (RBBB) and incomplete RBBB (IRBBB) on a resting 12-lead electrocardiogram in men and women from the general population.Methods and resultsWe followed 18 441 participants included...... in the Copenhagen City Heart Study examined in 1976-2003 free from previous myocardial infarction (MI), chronic heart failure, and left bundle branch block through registry linkage until 2009 for all-cause mortality and cardiovascular outcomes. The prevalence of RBBB/IRBBB was higher in men (1.4%/4.7% in men vs. 0.......5%/2.3% in women, P block was associated with significantly...

  10. Bundling harvester; Nippukorjausharvesteri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koponen, K. [Eko-Log Oy, Kuopio (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The staring point of the project was to design and construct, by taking the silvicultural point of view into account, a harvesting and processing system especially for energy-wood, containing manually driven bundling harvester, automatizing of the harvester, and automatized loading. The equipment forms an ideal method for entrepreneur`s-line harvesting. The target is to apply the system also for owner`s-line harvesting. The profitability of the system promotes the utilization of the system in both cases. The objectives of the project were: to construct a test equipment and prototypes for all the project stages, to carry out terrain and strain tests in order to examine the usability and durability, as well as the capacity of the machine, to test the applicability of the Eko-Log system in simultaneous harvesting of energy and pulp woods, and to start the marketing and manufacturing of the products. The basic problems of the construction of the bundling harvester have been solved using terrain-tests. The prototype machine has been shown to be operable. Loading of the bundles to form sufficiently economically transportable loads has been studied, and simultaneously, the branch-biomass has been tried to be utilized without loosing the profitability of transportation. The results have been promising, and will promote the profitable utilization of wood-energy

  11. Bundling harvester; Nippukorjausharvesteri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koponen, K [Eko-Log Oy, Kuopio (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The staring point of the project was to design and construct, by taking the silvicultural point of view into account, a harvesting and processing system especially for energy-wood, containing manually driven bundling harvester, automatizing of the harvester, and automatized loading. The equipment forms an ideal method for entrepreneur`s-line harvesting. The target is to apply the system also for owner`s-line harvesting. The profitability of the system promotes the utilization of the system in both cases. The objectives of the project were: to construct a test equipment and prototypes for all the project stages, to carry out terrain and strain tests in order to examine the usability and durability, as well as the capacity of the machine, to test the applicability of the Eko-Log system in simultaneous harvesting of energy and pulp woods, and to start the marketing and manufacturing of the products. The basic problems of the construction of the bundling harvester have been solved using terrain-tests. The prototype machine has been shown to be operable. Loading of the bundles to form sufficiently economically transportable loads has been studied, and simultaneously, the branch-biomass has been tried to be utilized without loosing the profitability of transportation. The results have been promising, and will promote the profitable utilization of wood-energy

  12. Snowflake divertor configuration studies in National Spherical Torus Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soukhanovskii, V. A.; McLean, A. G.; Rognlien, T. D.; Ryutov, D. D.; Umansky, M. V. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Bell, R. E.; Diallo, A.; Gerhardt, S.; Kaye, S.; Kolemen, E.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Menard, J. E.; Paul, S. F.; Podesta, M.; Roquemore, A. L.; Scotti, F.; Battaglia, D.; Bell, M. G.; Gates, D. A.; Kaita, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); and others

    2012-08-15

    Experimental results from NSTX indicate that the snowflake divertor (D. Ryutov, Phys. Plasmas 14, 064502 (2007)) may be a viable solution for outstanding tokamak plasma-material interface issues. Steady-state handling of divertor heat flux and divertor plate erosion remains to be critical issues for ITER and future concept devices based on conventional and spherical tokamak geometry with high power density divertors. Experiments conducted in 4-6 MW NBI-heated H-mode plasmas in NSTX demonstrated that the snowflake divertor is compatible with high-confinement core plasma operation, while being very effective in steady-state divertor heat flux mitigation and impurity reduction. A steady-state snowflake divertor was obtained in recent NSTX experiments for up to 600 ms using three divertor magnetic coils. The high magnetic flux expansion region of the scrape-off layer (SOL) spanning up to 50% of the SOL width {lambda}{sub q} was partially detached in the snowflake divertor. In the detached zone, the heat flux profile flattened and decreased to 0.5-1 MW/m{sup 2} (from 4-7 MW/m{sup 2} in the standard divertor) indicative of radiative heating. An up to 50% increase in divertor, P{sub rad} in the snowflake divertor was accompanied by broadening of the intrinsic C III and C IV radiation zones, and a nearly order of magnitude increase in divertor high-n Balmer line emission indicative of volumetric recombination onset. Magnetic reconstructions showed that the x-point connection length, divertor plasma-wetted area and divertor volume, all critical parameters for geometric reduction of deposited heat flux, and increased volumetric divertor losses were significantly increased in the snowflake divertor, as expected from theory.

  13. Atomic and molecular processes in JT-60U divertor plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takenaga, H.; Shimizu, K.; Itami, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment] [and others

    1997-01-01

    Atomic and molecular data are indispensable for the understanding of the divertor characteristics, because behavior of particles in the divertor plasma is closely related to the atomic and molecular processes. In the divertor configuration, heat and particles escaping from the main plasma flow onto the divertor plate along the magnetic field lines. In the divertor region, helium ash must be effectively exhausted, and radiation must be enhanced for the reduction of the heat load onto the divertor plate. In order to exhaust helium ash effectively, the difference between behavior of neutral hydrogen (including deuterium and tritium) and helium in the divertor plasma should be understood. Radiation from the divertor plasma generally caused by the impurities which produced by the erosion of the divertor plate and/or injected by gas-puffing. Therefore, it is important to understand impurity behavior in the divertor plasma. The ions hitting the divertor plate recycle through the processes of neutralization, reflection, absorption and desorption at the divertor plates and molecular dissociation, charge-exchange reaction and ionization in the divertor plasma. Behavior of hydrogen, helium and impurities in the divertor plasmas can not be understood without the atomic and molecular data. In this report, recent results of the divertor study related to the atomic and molecular processes in JT-60U were summarized. Behavior of neural deuterium and helium was discussed in section 2. In section 3, the comparisons between the modelling of the carbon impurity transport and the measurements of C II and C IV were discussed. In section 4, characteristics of the radiative divertor using Ne puffing were reported. The new diagnostic method for the electron density and temperature in the divertor plasmas using the intensity ratios of He I lines was described in section 5. (author)

  14. Snowflake divertor configuration studies for NSTX-Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soukhanovskii, V.A.

    2011-01-01

    Snowflake divertor experiments in NSTX provide basis for PMI development toward NSTX-Upgrade. Snowflake configuration formation was followed by radiative detachment. Significant reduction of steady-state divertor heat flux observed in snowflake divertor. Impulsive heat loads due to Type I ELMs are partially mitigated in snowflake divertor. Magnetic control of snowflake divertor configuration is being developed. Plasma material interface development is critical for NSTX-U success. Four divertor coils should enable flexibility in boundary shaping and control in NSTX-U. Snowflake divertor experiments in NSTX provide good basis for PMI development in NSTX-Upgrade. FY 2009-2010 snowflake divertor experiments in NSTX: (1) Helped understand control of magnetic properties; (2) Core H-mode confinement unchanged; (3) Core and edge carbon concentration reduced; and (4) Divertor heat flux significantly reduced - (a) Steady-state reduction due to geometry and radiative detachment, (b) Encouraging results for transient heat flux handling, (c) Combined with impurity-seeded radiative divertor. Outlook for snowflake divertor in NSTX-Upgrade: (1) 2D fluid modeling of snowflake divertor properties scaling - (a) Edge and divertor transport, radiation, detachment threshold, (b) Compatibility with cryo-pump and lithium conditioning; (2) Magnetic control development; and (3) PFC development - PFC alignment and PFC material choice.

  15. Integrated core-edge-divertor modeling studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stacey, W.M.

    2001-01-01

    An integrated calculation model for simulating the interaction of physics phenomena taking place in the plasma core, in the plasma edge and in the SOL and divertor of tokamaks has been developed and applied to study such interactions. The model synthesises a combination of numerical calculations (1) the power and particle balances for the core plasma, using empirical confinement scaling laws and taking into account radiation losses (2), the particle, momentum and power balances in the SOL and divertor, taking into account the effects of radiation and recycling neutrals, (3) the transport of feeling and recycling neutrals, explicitly representing divertor and pumping geometry, and (4) edge pedestal gradient scale lengths and widths, evaluation of theoretical predictions (5) confinement degradation due to thermal instabilities in the edge pedestals, (6) detachment and divertor MARFE onset, (7) core MARFE onsets leading to a H-L transition, and (8) radiative collapse leading to a disruption and evaluation of empirical fits (9) power thresholds for the L-H and H-L transitions and (10) the width of the edge pedestals. The various components of the calculation model are coupled and must be iterated to a self-consistent convergence. The model was developed over several years for the purpose of interpreting various edge phenomena observed in DIII-D experiments and thereby, to some extent, has been benchmarked against experiment. Because the model treats the interactions of various phenomena in the core, edge and divertor, yet is computationally efficient, it lends itself to the investigation of the effects of different choices of various edge plasma operating conditions on overall divertor and core plasma performance. Studies of the effect of feeling location and rate, divertor geometry, plasma shape, pumping and over 'edge parameters' on core plasma properties (line average density, confinement, density limit, etc.) have been performed for DIII-D model problems. A

  16. The Atiyah bundle and connections on a principal bundle

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    be the fiber bundle constructed as in (1.1) for the universal principal G-bundle. In a work in progress, we hope to show that the universal G-connection can be realized as a fiber bundle over C(EG). Turning this ... a G-invariant vector field on EG|U . In other words, we get a bijective linear map between. A(EG)(U) (the space of ...

  17. First results from the dynamic ergodic divertor at TEXTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehnen, M.; Abdullaev, S.S.; Biel, W.; Brezinsek, S.; Finken, K.H.; Harting, D.; Hellermann, M. von; Jakubowski, M.; Jaspers, R.; Kobayashi, M.; Koslowski, H.R.; Kraemer-Flecken, A.; Matsunaga, G.; Pospieszczyk, A.; Reiter, D.; Van Rompuy, T.; Samm, U.; Schmitz, O.; Sergienko, G.; Unterberg, B.; Wolf, R.; Zimmermann, O.

    2005-01-01

    Experimental results from the dynamic ergodic divertor (DED) at TEXTOR are given, describing the complex structure of the edge plasma and the properties of the divertor as well as its influence on the plasma rotation

  18. Divertor scaling laws for tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catto, P.J.; Krasheninnikov, S.I.; Connor, J.W.

    1997-01-01

    The breakdown of two body scaling laws is illustrated by using the two dimensional plasma code UEDGE coupled to an advanced Navier-Stokes neutrals transport package to model attached and detached regimes in a simplified geometry. Two body similarity scalings are used as benchmarks for runs retaining non-two body modifications due to the effects of (i) multi-step processes altering ionization and radiation via the excited states of atomic hydrogen and (ii) three body recombination. Preliminary investigations indicate that two body scaling interpretations of experimental data fail due to (i) multi-step processes when a significant region of the plasma exceeds a plasma density of 10 19 m -3 , or (ii) three body recombination when there is a significant region in which the temperature is ≤1 eV while the plasma density is ≥10 20 m -3 . These studies demonstrate that two body scaling arguments are often inappropriate in the divertor and the first results for alternate scalings are presented. (orig.)

  19. Geometrical properties of a 'snowflake' divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryutov, D. D.

    2007-01-01

    Using a simple set of poloidal field coils, one can reach the situation in which the null of the poloidal magnetic field in the divertor region is of second order, not of first order as in the usual X-point divertor. Then, the separatrix in the vicinity of the null point splits the poloidal plane not into four sectors, but into six sectors, making the whole structure look like a snowflake (hence the name). This arrangement allows one to spread the heat load over a much broader area than in the case of a standard divertor. A disadvantage of this configuration is that it is topologically unstable, and, with the current in the plasma varying with time, it would switch either to the standard X-point mode, or to the mode with two X-points close to each other. To avoid this problem, it is suggested to have a current in the divertor coils that is roughly 5% higher than in an ''optimum'' regime (the one in which a snowflake separatrix is formed). In this mode, the configuration becomes stable and can be controlled by varying the current in the divertor coils in concert with the plasma current; on the other hand, a strong flaring of the scrape-off layer still remains in force. Geometrical properties of this configuration are analyzed. Potential advantages and disadvantages of this scheme are discussed

  20. EU R and D on divertor components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merola, M.; Daenner, W.; Pick, M.

    2005-01-01

    Since the last SOFT conference held in Helsinki in 2002, substantial progress has been made in the EU R and D on the divertor components. A number of activities have been completed and new ones have been launched. The present paper gives an update of the works carried out by the EU Participating Team in support of the development of the divertor, which is one of the most challenging components of the next-step ITER machine. The following topics are covered: (1) the further development and consolidation of suitable technologies for the production of high heat-flux components, which culminated with the successful manufacturing and testing of a full-scale vertical target prototype; (2) the completion of the post-irradiation testing of divertor mock-ups and samples; (3) the preparation for the hydraulic and assembly tests of a complete set of full-scale divertor components; (4) the on-going R and D on the definition of workable acceptance criteria for the procurement of ITER high heat-flux components; (5) the activities in support of the divertor design

  1. Managing bundled payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, Andrew

    2011-04-01

    Results of Medicare's ACE demonstration project and Geisinger Health System's ProvenCare initiative provide insight into the challenges hospitals will face as bundled payment proliferates. An early analysis of these results suggests that hospitals would benefit from bringing full automation using clinical IT tools to bear in their efforts to meet these challenges. Other important factors contributing to success include board and physician leadership, organizational structure, pricing methodology for bidding, evidence-based medical practice guidelines, supply cost management, process efficiency management, proactive and aggressive case management, business development and marketing strategy, and the financial management system.

  2. Muon bundles from the Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kankiewicz P.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently the CERN ALICE experiment, in its dedicated cosmic ray run, observed muon bundles of very high multiplicities, thereby confirming similar findings from the LEP era at CERN (in the CosmoLEP project. Significant evidence for anisotropy of arrival directions of the observed high multiplicity muonic bundles is found. Estimated directionality suggests their possible extragalactic provenance. We argue that muonic bundles of highest multiplicity are produced by strangelets, hypothetical stable lumps of strange quark matter infiltrating our Universe.

  3. Infinitesimal bundles and projective relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, G.T.

    1973-01-01

    An intrinsic and global presentation of five-dimensional relativity theory is developed, in which special coordinate conditions are replaced by conditions of Lie invariance. The notion of an infinitesimal bundle is introduced, and the theory of connexions on principal bundles is extended to infinitesimal bundles. Global aspects of projective relativity are studied: it is shown that projective relativity can describe almost any space-time. In particular, it is not necessary to assume that the electromagnetic field have a global potential. (author)

  4. Analysis of particle transport in a gas target divertor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohtsu, Shigeki; Tanaka, Satoru [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-01

    2-dimensional modelling of divertor plasma was performed with three types of the divertor geometry configuration. Pumping is effective to reduce neutral recycling to core region in the configuration without baffle. In baffle configuration, a good shielding of neutrals in the divertor region can be achieved. The dome configuration reduces plasma density near the null region and flow shear near the separatrix. (author)

  5. Experimental studies of the snowflake divertor in TCV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Labit, B.; Canal, G. P.; Christen, N.; Duval, B. P.; Lipschultz, B.; Lunt, T.; Nespoli, F.; Reimerdes, H.; Sheikh, U.; Theiler, C.; Tsui, C. K.; Verhaegh, K.; Vijvers, W. A. J.

    2017-01-01

    To address the risk that, in a fusion reactor, the conventional single-null divertor (SND) configuration may not be able to handle the power exhaust, alternative divertor configurations, such as the Snowflake divertor (SFD), are investigated in TCV. The expected benefits of the SFD-minus in terms of

  6. Neutral particle retention in the JET MK I divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrenberg, J.K.; Campbell, D.J.; Harbour, P.J.; Horton, L.D.; Loarte, A.; McCormick, G.K.; Monk, R.D.; Saibene, G.R.; Simonini, R.; Taroni, A.; Stamp, M.F.

    1997-01-01

    Retention of neutral deuterium and nitrogen in the JET MK I divertor has been investigated. Results show that ohmic plasma detachment reduces deuterium retention, that the magnetic divertor configuration has some influence on the achievable deuterium retention, and that nitrogen in nitrogen-seeded steady state detached H-mode discharges accumulates in the divertor. (orig.)

  7. Thermal effects of runaway electrons in an armoured divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stad, R.C.L. van der.

    1993-12-01

    This report describes the results of a numerical thermal analysis of the heat deposition of runaway electrons accompanying plasma disruptions in a armoured divertor. The divertor concepts studied are carbon on molybdenum and beryllium on copper. The conclusion is that the runaway electrons can cause melting of the armour as well as melting of the structure and can damage the divertor severely. (orig.)

  8. Liquid metal cooled divertor for ARIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muraviev, E.

    1995-01-01

    A liquid metal, Ga-cooled divertor design was completed for the double null ARIES-II divertor design. The design analysis indicated a surface heat flux removal capability of up to 15 MW/m 2 , and its relative easy maintenance. Design issues of configuration, thermal hydraulics, thermal stresses, liquid metal loop and safety effects were evaluated. For coolant flow control, it was found that it is necessary to use some part of the blanket cooling ducts for the draining of liquid metal from the top divertor. In order to minimize the inventory of Ga, it was recommended that the liquid metal loop equipment should be located as close to the torus as possible. More detailed analysis of transient conditions especially under accident conditions was identified as an issue that will need to be addressed

  9. Design integration of liquid surface divertors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nygren, R.E.; Cowgill, D.F.; Ulrickson, M.A.; Nelson, B.E.; Fogarty, P.J.; Rognlien, T.D.; Rensink, M.E.; Hassanein, A.; Smolentsev, S.S.; Kotschenreuther, M.

    2004-01-01

    The US Enabling Technology Program in fusion is investigating the use of free flowing liquid surfaces facing the plasma. We have been studying the issues in integrating a liquid surface divertor into a configuration based upon an advanced tokamak, specifically the ARIES-RS configuration. The simplest form of such a divertor is to extend the flow of the liquid first wall into the divertor and thereby avoid introducing additional fluid streams. In this case, one can modify the flow above the divertor to enhance thermal mixing. For divertors with flowing liquid metals (or other electrically conductive fluids) MHD (magneto-hydrodynamics) effects are a major concern and can produce forces that redirect flow and suppress turbulence. An evaluation of Flibe (a molten salt) as a working fluid was done to assess a case in which the MHD forces could be largely neglected. Initial studies indicate that, for a tokamak with high power density, an integrated Flibe first wall and divertor does not seem workable. We have continued work with molten salts and replaced Flibe with Flinabe, a mixture of lithium, sodium and beryllium fluorides, that has some potential because of its lower melting temperature. Sn and Sn-Li have also been considered, and the initial evaluations on heat removal with minimal plasma contamination show promise, although the complicated 3D MHD flows cannot yet be fully modeled. Particle pumping in these design concepts is accomplished by conventional means (ports and pumps). However, trapping of hydrogen in these flowing liquids seems plausible and novel concepts for entrapping helium are also being studied

  10. REBEKA bundle experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiehr, K.

    1988-05-01

    This report is a summary of experimental investigations describing the fuel rod behavior in the refilling and reflooding phase of a loss-of-coolant accident of a PWR. The experiments were performed with 5x5 and 7x7 rod bundles, using indirectly electrically heated fuel rod simulators of full length with original PWR-KWU-geometry, original grid spacers and Zircaloy-4-claddings (Type Biblis B). The fuel rod simulators showed a cosine shaped axial power profile in 7 steps and continuous, respectively. The results describe the influence of the different parameters such as bundle size on the maximum coolant channel blockage, that of the cooling on the size of the circumferential strain of the cladding (azimuthal temperature distribution) a cold control rod guide thimble and the flow direction (axial temperature distribution) on the resulting coolant channel blockage. The rewetting behavior of different fuel rod simulators including ballooned and burst Zircaloy claddings is discussed as well as the influence of thermocouples on the cladding temperature history and the rewetting behavior. All results prove the coolability of a PWR in the case of a LOCA. Therefore, it can be concluded that the ECC-criteria established by licensing authorities can be fulfilled. (orig./HP) [de

  11. Numerical exploration of non-axisymmetric divertor closure in the small angle slot (SAS) divertor at DIII-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frerichs, H.; Schmitz, O.; Covele, B.; Feng, Y.; Guo, H. Y.; Hill, D.

    2018-05-01

    Numerical simulations of toroidal asymmetries in a tightly baffled small angle slot (SAS) divertor on the DIII-D tokamak show that toroidal asymmetries in divertor closure result in (non-axisymmetric) local onset of detachment within a density window of 10-15% on top of the nominal threshold separatrix density. The SAS divertor is explored at DIII-D for improving access to cold, dissipative/detached divertor conditions. The narrow width of the slot divertor coupled with a small magnetic field line-to-target angle facilitates the buildup of neutral density, thereby increasing radiative and neutrals-related (atoms and molecules) losses in the divertor. Small changes in the strike point location can be expected to have a large impact on divertor conditions. The combination of misaligned slot structure and non-axisymmetric perturbations to the magnetic field configuration causes the strike point to move along the divertor target plate, possibly leaving the divertor slot at some locations. The latter extreme case essentially introduces an opening in the divertor slot from where recycling neutrals can easily escape, and thereby degrade the performance of the slot divertor. Such a strike point dislocation is approximated by a finite gap in the divertor baffle for which 3D edge plasma and neutral gas simulations are performed with the EMC3-EIRENE code.

  12. Nefness of adjoint bundles for ample vector bundles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidetoshi Maeda

    1995-11-01

    Full Text Available Let E be an ample vector bundle of rank >1 on a smooth complex projective variety X of dimension n. This paper gives a classification of pairs (X,E whose adjoint bundles K_X+det E are not nef in the case when  r=n-2.

  13. Engineering design of a Radiative Divertor for DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.P.; Allen, S.L.; Anderson, P.M.; Baxi, C.B.; Chin, E.; Fenstermacher, M.E.; Hill, D.N.; Hollerbach, M.A.; Hyatt, A.W.; Junge, R.; Mahdavi, M.A.; Porter, G.D.; Redler, K.; Reis, E.E.; Schaffer, M.J.; Sevier, D.L.; Stambaugh, R.D.

    1995-01-01

    A new divertor called the Radiative Divertor is presently being designed for the DIII-D tokamak. Input from tokamak experiments and modeling form the basis for the new design. The Radiative Divertor is intended to reduce the heat flux on the divertor plates by dispersing the power with radiation. Gas puffing experiments in the current open divertor have shown a reduction of the divertor heat flux with either deuterium or impurity puffing. However, either the plasma density (D 2 ) or the core Z eff (impurities) increases in these experiments. The radiative divertor uses a slot structure to isolate the divertor plasma region from the area surrounding the core plasma. Modeling has shown that the Radiative Divertor hardware will provide better baffling and particle control and thereby minimize the effect of the gas puffing in the divertor region on the plasma core. In addition, the Radiative Divertor structure will allow density control in plasma shapes with high triangularity (>0.8) required for advanced tokamak operation. The divertor structure allows for operation in either double or single-null plasma configurations. Four independently controlled divertor cryopumps will enable pumping at either the inboard (upper and lower) or the outboard (upper and lower) divertor plates. Biasing is an integral part of the design and is based on experience at the Tokamak de Varennes (TdeV) and DIII-D. Boron nitride tiles electrically insulate the inner and outer strike points and a low current electrode is used to apply a radial electric field to the scrape-off layer. TdeV has shown that biasing can provide particle and impurity control. The design is extremely flexible, and will allow physics studies of the effect of slot width and height. This is extremely important, as the amount of chamber volume needed for the divertor in future machines such as International Thermonuclear Experiment Reactor (ITER) and Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) must be determined. (orig./WL)

  14. Towards the procurement of the ITER divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merola, M.; Tivey, R.; Martin, A.; Pick, M.

    2006-01-01

    The procurement of the ITER divertor is planned to start in 2009. On the basis of the present common understanding of the sharing of the ITER components, the Japanese Participating Team (JAPT) will supply the outer vertical target, the Russian Federation (RF) PT the dome liner and will perform the high heat flux testing, the EU PT will supply the inner vertical targets and the cassette bodies, including final assembly of the divertor plasma-facing components (PFCs). The manufacturing of the PFCs of the ITER divertor represents a challenging endeavor due to the high technologies which are involved, and due to the unprecedented series production. To mitigate the associated risks, special arrangements need to be put in place prior to and during procurement to ensure quality and to keep to the time schedule. Before procurement can start, an ITER review of the qualification and production capability of each candidate PT is planned. Well in advance of the assumed start of the procurement, each PT which would like to contribute to the divertor PFC procurement, should first demonstrate its technical qualification to carry out the procurement with the required quality, and in an efficient and timely manner. Appropriate precautions, like subdivision of the procurement into stages, are also to be adopted during the procurement phase to mitigate the consequences of possible unexpected manufacturing problems. In preparation for writing the procurement specification for the vertical targets, the topic of setting acceptance criteria is also being addressed. This activity has the objective of defining workable acceptance criteria for the PFC armour joints. A complete set of analyses is also in progress to assess the latest design modifications against the design requirements. This task includes neutronic, shielding, thermo-mechanical and electromagnetic analyses. More than half of the ITER plasma parameters that must be measured and the related diagnostics are located in the

  15. Local island divertor experiments on LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morisaki, T.; Masuzaki, S.; Komori, A.; Ohyabu, N.; Kobayashi, M.; Feng, Y.; Sardei, F.; Narihara, K.; Tanaka, K.; Ida, K.; Peterson, B.J.; Yoshinuma, M.; Ashikawa, N.; Emoto, M.; Funaba, H.; Goto, M.; Ikeda, K.; Inagaki, S.; Kaneko, O.; Kawahata, K.; Kubo, S.; Miyazawa, J.; Morita, S.; Nagaoka, K.; Nagayama, Y.; Nakanishi, H.; Ohkubo, K.; Oka, Y.; Osakabe, M.; Shimozuma, T.; Shoji, M.; Takeiri, Y.; Sakakibara, S.; Sakamoto, R.; Sato, K.; Toi, K.; Tsumori, K.; Watababe, K.Y.; Yamada, H.; Yamada, I.; Yoshimura, Y.; Motojima, O.

    2005-01-01

    A local island divertor (LID) experiment has begun on LHD, with the aims of controlling edge recycling and improving the plasma confinement. The fundamental divertor functions of the LID have been demonstrated in the recent experiments. From the particle flux profile measurements on the LID head it was found that the particles diffusing out from the core region are well guided along the island separatrix to the LID head. Owing to the closed configuration around the LID head, evidence of the high efficient pumping was observed, together with a strong capacity to screen impurities. The first results of edge modeling using the EMC3-EIRENE code are also presented

  16. Control of divertor configuration in JT-60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshino, R.; Kukuchi, M.; Ninomiya, H.; Yoshida, H.; Tsuji, S.; Hosogane, N.; Seki, S.

    1985-01-01

    The control algorithm of JT-60 divertor configuration is presented. JT-60 has five types of poloidal magnetic field coil with each power supply in order to regulate the control objectives mentioned above. However, if one controls each objective by each coil current independently, there must inevitably occur large interaction between control objectives. Because the relation between control objectives and coil currents is complicated. This situation may be the same with a fusion reactor device. For making it possible to control each objective independently without causing large interaction, the authors adopt the noninteracting control algorithm. Hence, this report demonstrates the availability of this method to the control of JT-60 divertor configuration

  17. Safety characteristics of the monolithic CFC divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucchetti, M.; Merola, M.; Matera, R.

    1994-01-01

    The main distinguishing feature of the monolithic CFC divertor is the use of a single material, a carbon fibre reinforced carbon, for the protective armour, the heat sink and the cooling channels. This removes joint interface problems which are one of the most important concerns related to the reference solutions of the ITER CDA divertor. An activation analysis of the different coolant options for this concept is presented. It turns out that neither short-term nor long-term activation are a concern for any coolants investigated. Therefore the proposed concept proves to be attractive from a safety stand-point also. ((orig.))

  18. Safety characteristics of the monolithic CFC divertor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucchetti, M.; Merola, M.; Matera, R.

    1994-09-01

    The main distinguishing feature of the monolithic CFC divertor is the use of a single material, a carbon fibre reinforced carbon, for the protective armour, the heat sink and the cooling channels. This removes joint interface problems which are one of the most important concerns related to the reference solutions of the ITER CDA divertor. An activation analysis of the different coolant options for this concept is presented. It turns out that neither short-term nor long-term activation are a concern for any coolants investigated. Therefore the proposed concept proves to be attractive from a safety stand-point also.

  19. Bundle Security Protocol for ION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burleigh, Scott C.; Birrane, Edward J.; Krupiarz, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    This software implements bundle authentication, conforming to the Delay-Tolerant Networking (DTN) Internet Draft on Bundle Security Protocol (BSP), for the Interplanetary Overlay Network (ION) implementation of DTN. This is the only implementation of BSP that is integrated with ION.

  20. CANFLEX fuel bundle impact test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Seok Kyu; Chung, C. H.; Park, J. S.; Hong, S. D.; Kim, B. D.

    1997-08-01

    This document outlines the test results for the impact test of the CANFLEX fuel bundle. Impact test is performed to determine and verify the amount of general bundle shape distortion and defect of the pressure tube that may occur during refuelling. The test specification requires that the fuel bundles and the pressure tube retain their integrities after the impact test under the conservative conditions (10 stationary bundles with 31kg/s flow rate) considering the pressure tube creep. The refuelling simulator operating with pneumatic force and simulated shield plug were fabricated and the velocity/displacement transducer and the high speed camera were also used in this test. The characteristics of the moving bundle (velocity, displacement, impacting force) were measured and analyzed with the impact sensor and the high speed camera system. The important test procedures and measurement results were discussed as follows. 1) Test bundle measurements and the pressure tube inspections 2) Simulated shield plug, outlet flange installation and bundle loading 3) refuelling simulator, inlet flange installation and sensors, high speed camera installation 4) Perform the impact test with operating the refuelling simulator and measure the dynamic characteristics 5) Inspections of the fuel bundles and the pressure tube. (author). 8 refs., 23 tabs., 13 figs

  1. Connections on discrete fibre bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manton, N.S.; Cambridge Univ.

    1987-01-01

    A new approach to gauge fields on a discrete space-time is proposed, in which the fundamental object is a discrete version of a principal fibre bundle. If the bundle is twisted, the gauge fields are topologically non-trivial automatically. (orig.)

  2. Sasakian and Parabolic Higgs Bundles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Indranil; Mj, Mahan

    2018-03-01

    Let M be a quasi-regular compact connected Sasakian manifold, and let N = M/ S 1 be the base projective variety. We establish an equivalence between the class of Sasakian G-Higgs bundles over M and the class of parabolic (or equivalently, ramified) G-Higgs bundles over the base N.

  3. Conceptual design of CFETR divertor remote handling compatible structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Huaichu; Yao, Damao; Cao, Lei; Zhou, Zibo; Li, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Conceptual design for the CFETR divertor have been proposed, especially the divertor remote handling compatible structure. • The degrees of freedom of the divertor are analyzed in order to validate the design the divertor supports structure. • Besides the ITER-like scheme, a new scheme for the divertor remote handling compatible supports is proposed, that is the rack and pinion mechanism. • The installation/removel process is verified through simulation in Delmia in order to check design quality for remote handling requirements. - Abstract: Divertor is one of key components of tokamak fusion reactor. The CFETR is China Fusion Engineering Test Reactor. Its divertor will expose to tritium environment and neutron radiation. Materials of the divertor will be radioactived, and cannot be handled by personnel directly. To develop structure which compatible with robots handle for installation, maintenance and removing is required. This paper introduces a conceptual design of CFETR divertor module which compatible with remote handling end-effectors. The divertor module is confined by inner and outer support. The inner support is only confined divertor module radial, toroidal and vertical moving freedom degrees, but not confined rotating freedom degrees. The outer support is the structure that can confine rotating freedom degrees and should also be compatible with remote handling end-effectors.

  4. Conceptual design of CFETR divertor remote handling compatible structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Huaichu, E-mail: yaodm@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei (China); Yao, Damao; Cao, Lei; Zhou, Zibo; Li, Lei [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Conceptual design for the CFETR divertor have been proposed, especially the divertor remote handling compatible structure. • The degrees of freedom of the divertor are analyzed in order to validate the design the divertor supports structure. • Besides the ITER-like scheme, a new scheme for the divertor remote handling compatible supports is proposed, that is the rack and pinion mechanism. • The installation/removel process is verified through simulation in Delmia in order to check design quality for remote handling requirements. - Abstract: Divertor is one of key components of tokamak fusion reactor. The CFETR is China Fusion Engineering Test Reactor. Its divertor will expose to tritium environment and neutron radiation. Materials of the divertor will be radioactived, and cannot be handled by personnel directly. To develop structure which compatible with robots handle for installation, maintenance and removing is required. This paper introduces a conceptual design of CFETR divertor module which compatible with remote handling end-effectors. The divertor module is confined by inner and outer support. The inner support is only confined divertor module radial, toroidal and vertical moving freedom degrees, but not confined rotating freedom degrees. The outer support is the structure that can confine rotating freedom degrees and should also be compatible with remote handling end-effectors.

  5. Small angle slot divertor concept for long pulse advanced tokamaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, H. Y.; Sang, C. F.; Stangeby, P. C.; Lao, L. L.; Taylor, T. S.; Thomas, D. M.

    2017-04-01

    SOLPS-EIRENE edge code analysis shows that a gas-tight slot divertor geometry with a small-angle (glancing-incidence) target, named the small angle slot (SAS) divertor, can achieve cold, dissipative/detached divertor conditions at relatively low values of plasma density at the outside midplane separatrix. SAS exhibits the following key features: (1) strong enhancement of the buildup of neutral density in a localized region near the plasma strike point on the divertor target; (2) spreading of the cooling front across the divertor target with the slot gradually flaring out from the strike point, thus effectively reducing both heat flux and erosion on the entire divertor target surface. Such a divertor may potentially provide a power and particle handling solution for long pulse advanced tokamaks.

  6. Twisted Vector Bundles on Pointed Nodal Curves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Motivated by the quest for a good compactification of the moduli space of -bundles on a nodal curve we establish a striking relationship between Abramovich's and Vistoli's twisted bundles and Gieseker vector bundles.

  7. Divertor design for the Tokamak Physics Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, D.N.; Braams, B.

    1994-05-01

    In this paper we discuss the present divertor design for the planned TPX tokamak, which will explore the physics and technology of steady-state (1000s pulses) heat and particle removal in high confinement (2--4x L-mode), high beta (β N ≥ 3) divertor plasmas sustained by non-inductive current drive. The TPX device will operate in the double-null divertor configuration, with actively cooled graphite targets forming a deep (0.5 m) slot at the outer strike point. The peak heat flux on, the highly tilted (74 degrees from normal) re-entrant (to recycle ions back toward the separatrix) will be in the range of 4--6 MW/m 2 with 18 MW of neutral beams and RF heating power. The combination of active pumping and gas puffing (deuterium plus impurities), along with higher heating power (45 MW maximum) will allow testing of radiative divertor concepts at ITER-like power densities

  8. An X-point ergodic divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, M.S.; Jensen, T.H.; La Haye, R.J.; Taylor, T.S.; Evans, T.E.

    1991-10-01

    A new ergodic divertor is proposed. It utilizes a system of external (n = 3) coils arranged to generate overlapping magnetic islands in the edge region of a diverted tokamak and connect the randomized field lines to the external (cold) divertor plate. The novel feature in the configuration is the placement of the external coils close to the X-point. A realistic design of the external coil set is studied by using the field line tracing method for a low aspect ratio (A ≅ 3) tokamak. Two types of effects are observed. First, by placing the coils close to the X-point, where the poloidal magnetic field is weak and the rational surfaces are closely packed only a moderate amount of current in the external coils is needed to ergodize the edge region. This ergodized edge enhances the edge transport in the X-point region and leads to the potential of edge profile control and the avoidance of edge localized modes (ELMs). Furthermore, the trajectories of the field lines close to the X-point are modified by the external coil set, causing the hit points on the external divertor plates to be randomized and spread out in the major radius direction. A time-dependent modulation of the currents in the external (n = 3) coils can potentially spread the heat flux more uniformly on the divertor plate avoiding high concentration of the heat flux. 10 refs., 9 figs

  9. The ITER Divertor Cassette Project meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiba, M.; Tivey, R.

    2000-01-01

    The Divertor Cassette Project topical meeting took place on April 5-7, 2000 at the JAERI Naka site in Japan. The meeting focused on the progress made by the three parties under task agreements on the development of carbon-fibre composite and tungsten armored high flux plasma-facing components

  10. Compact poloidal divertor reference design for TNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, T.F.; Lee, A.Y.; Ruck, G.W.; Lange, W.J.

    1977-01-01

    A compact poloidal divertor concept has been developed for TNS tokamaks and its feasibility has been demonstrated by sufficient detailed magnetic, thermal, mechanical and vacuum analyses. This particular divertor is formed by a pair of opposing coil sets which define a magnetic flux slot where the particle burial chamber is located. The magnetic flux in the space between the coil sets is compressed vertically to limit the height and to expand the horizontal width of the particle and energy burial chamber. The intensity of the poloidal field is increased to make the pitch angle of the flux lines very large so that the diverted particles can be intercepted by a large number of panels oriented at a small angle with respect to the flux lines. Large collecting surface areas can be obtained so that the thermal load and particle flux are reduced to a practical level. Flowing lithium film and solid metal panels have been considered as the particle collector and the latter is preferred. This divertor allows for most economical use of the available space inside the TF coils and thus has minor impact on the overall size of the tokamak. The divertor design is essentially independent of the tokamak system, although analyses were performed based on TNS

  11. Divertor erosion in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whyte, D.G.; Bastasz, R.; Wampler, W.R.; Brooks, J.N.; West, W.P.; Wong, C.P.C.; Buzhinskij, O.I.; Opimach, I.V.

    1998-08-01

    Net erosion rates of carbon target plates have been measured in situ for the DIII-D lower divertor. The principal method of obtaining this data is the DiMES sample probe. Recent experiments have focused on erosion at the outer strike-point (OSP) of two divertor plasma conditions: attached (T e > 40 eV) ELMing plasmas, and detached (T e 2 . In this case, measurements and modeling agree for both gross and net carbon erosion, showing the near-surface transport and redeposition of the carbon is well understood. In the attached cases, physical sputtering (with enhancement from self-sputtering and oblique incidence) is dominant, and the effective sputtering yield, Y, is greater than 10%. In ELM-free discharges, the total OSP net erosion rate is equal to the rate of carbon accumulation in the core plasma. For the detached divertor cases, the cold incident plasma eliminates physical sputtering. Attempts to measure chemically eroded hydrocarbon molecules spectroscopically indicate an upper limit of Y ≤ 0.1% for the chemical sputtering yield. Net erosion is suppressed at the outer strike-point, which becomes a region of net redeposition (∼ 4 cm/exposure-year). The private flux wall is measured to be a region of net redeposition with dense, high neutral pressure, attached divertor plasmas. Leading edges intercepting parallel heat flux (∼ 50 MW/m 2 ) have very high net erosion rates at the OSP of an attached plasma (∼ 10 microm/s > 1,000x erosion rate of aligned surfaces). Leading edge erosion, and subsequent carbon redeposition, caused by tile gaps can account for half of the deuterium codeposition in the DIII-D divertor

  12. Divertor erosion in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whyte, D.G.; Bastasz, R.; Wampler, W.R.; Brooks, J.N.; West, W.P.; Wong, C.P.C.

    1998-05-01

    Net erosion rates of carbon target plates have been measured in situ for the DIII-D lower divertor. The principal method of obtaining this data is the DiMES sample probe. Recent experiments have focused on erosion at the outer strike-point of two divertor plasma conditions: (1) attached (Te > 40 eV) ELMing plasmas and (2) detached (Te 10 cm/year, even with incident heat flux 2 . In this case, measurements and modeling agree for both gross and net carbon erosion, showing the near-surface transport and redeposition of the carbon is well understood and that effective sputtering yields are > 10%. In ELM-free discharges, this erosion rate can account for the rate of carbon accumulation in the core plasma. Divertor plasma detachment eliminates physical sputtering, while spectroscopically measured chemical erosion yields are also found to be low (Y(C/D + ) ≤ 2.0 x 10 -3 ). This leads to suppression of net erosion at the outer strike-point, which becomes a region of net redeposition (∼ 4 cm/year). The private flux wall is measured to be a region of net redeposition with dense, high neutral pressure, attached divertor plasmas. Leading edges intercepting parallel heat flux (∼ 50 MW/m 2 ) have very high net erosion rates (∼ 10 microm/s) at the OSP of an attached plasma. Leading edge erosion, and subsequent carbon redeposition, caused by tile gaps can account for half of the deuterium codeposition in the DIII-D divertor

  13. Operating conditions of the BPX divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, D.N.; Milovich, J.; Rognlien, T.; Braams, B.J.; Brooks, J.N.; Campbell, R.; Haines, J.; Knoll, D.; Prinja, A.; Stotler, D.P.; Ulrickson, M.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the expected operating conditions at the divertor of the BPX tokamak (Burning Plasma Experiment), the next- step US tokamak proposed for the study of self-heated plasmas at Q ≅ 5 to ignition. In this double-null device (κ ≅ 2), the predicted first-wall loading is high because of is compact size (R = 2.6m, α = 0.8m, I p = 10.6 MA, and B T ) and its high projected fusion power output (100--500 MW with up to 20 MW of ICRH). Present designs call for inertially cooled carbon-based target plate material and X-point sweeping to handle the divertor heat flux during the 3--5 s flat-top at full power. The X-point is maintained about 15--20 cm off the target plates (a distance of ∼5m along field lines), which represents a reasonable compromise between lowering the divertor electron temperature (T e,d ) by increasing the connection length, and lowering the peak divertor heat flux (q d ) by increasing the magnetic flux expansion (which is about 15--20 in this case). It is planned for the BPX device to operate with H-mode confinement; ELMs are expected because of the relatively high power flow through the edge plasma (P sep ≅ 0.6 MW/m 2 for P fus = 500 MW). The ELMs will help reduce the impurity concentration in the core plasma (Z eff ≅ 1.7) and keep the density down, but should not add significantly to the divertor heat flux since their measured contribution to the global power balance drops with increasing input power

  14. Dissipative divertor operation in the Alcator C-Mod tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipschultz, B.; Goetz, J.; LaBombard, B.; McCracken, G.M.; Terry, J.L.; Graf, M.; Granetz, R.S.; Jablonski, D.; Kurz, C.; Niemczewski, A.; Snipes, J.

    1995-01-01

    The achievement of large volumetric power losses (dissipation) in the Alcator C-Mod divertor region is demonstrated in two operational modes: radiative divertor and detached divertor. During radiative divertor operation, the fraction of SOL power lost by radiation is P R /P SOL ∼0.8 with single null plasmas, n e 20 m -3 and I p e,div ≤6x10 20 m -3 . As the divertor radiation and density increase, the plasma eventually detaches abruptly from the divertor plates: I SAT drops at the target and the divertor radiation peak moves to the X-point region. Probe measurements at the divertor plate show that the transition occurs when T e ∼5 eV. The critical n e for detachment depends linearly on the input power. This abrupt divertor detachment is preceded by a comparatively long period ( similar 1-200 ms) where a partial detachment is observed to grow at the outer divertor plate. ((orig.))

  15. Evaluating big deal journal bundles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergstrom, Theodore C; Courant, Paul N; McAfee, R Preston; Williams, Michael A

    2014-07-01

    Large commercial publishers sell bundled online subscriptions to their entire list of academic journals at prices significantly lower than the sum of their á la carte prices. Bundle prices differ drastically between institutions, but they are not publicly posted. The data that we have collected enable us to compare the bundle prices charged by commercial publishers with those of nonprofit societies and to examine the types of price discrimination practiced by commercial and nonprofit journal publishers. This information is of interest to economists who study monopolist pricing, librarians interested in making efficient use of library budgets, and scholars who are interested in the availability of the work that they publish.

  16. Divertors for Helical Devices: Concepts, Plans, Results, and Problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, R.; Grigull, P.; McCormick, K.

    2004-01-01

    With Large Helical Device (LHD) and Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X), the development of helical devices is now taking a large step forward on the path to a steady-state fusion reactor. Important issues that need to be settled in these machines are particle flux and heat control and the impact of divertors on plasma performance in future continuously burning fusion plasmas. The divertor concepts that will initially be explored in these large machines were prepared in smaller-scale devices like Heliotron E, Compact Helical System (CHS), and Wendelstein 7-AS (W7-AS). While advanced divertor scenarios relevant for W7-X were already studied in W7-AS, other smaller-scale experiments like Heliotron-J, CHS, and National Compact Stellarator Experiment will be used for the further development of divertor concepts. The two divertor configurations that are being investigated are the helical and the island divertor, as well as the local island divertor, which was successfully demonstrated on CHS and just went into operation on LHD. At present, on its route to a fully closed helical divertor, LHD operates in an open helical divertor configuration. W7-X will be equipped right from the start with an actively cooled discrete island divertor that will allow quasi-continuous operation. The divertor design is very similar to the one explored on W7-AS. For sufficiently large island sizes and not too long field line connection lengths, this divertor gives access to a partially detached quasi-steady-state operating scenario in a newly found high-density H-mode operating regime, which benefits from high energy and low impurity confinement times, with edge radiation levels of up to 90% and sufficient neutral compression in the subdivertor region (>10) for active pumping. The basic physics of the different divertor concepts and associated implementation problems, like asymmetries due to drifts, accessibility of essential operating scenarios, toroidal asymmetries due to symmetry breaking error fields

  17. Divertors for helical devices: Concepts, plans, results and problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, R.; Grigull, P.; McCormick, K.

    2003-01-01

    With LHD and W7-X stellarator development is now taking a large leap forward on the path to a steady-state fusion reactor. Important issues that need to be settled in these machines are particle flux and heat control, and the impact of divertors on plasma performance in future continuously burning fusion plasmas. The divertor concepts that will initially be explored in these large stellarators were carefully prepared in smaller scale devices like Heliotron E, CHS and W7-AS. While advanced divertor scenarios relevant for W7-X were already studied in W7-AS, other smaller scale experiments like Heliotron-J, CHS and NCSX will be used for the further development of divertor concepts. The two divertor configurations that are presently being investigated, are the helical and the island divertor, as well as the local island divertor (LID), which was successfully demonstrated on CHS and just went into operation on LHD. Presently, on its route to a fully closed helical divertor, LHD operates in an open helical divertor configuration. W7-X will be equipped right from the start with an actively cooled discrete island divertor which will allow quasi continuous operation. The divertor design is very similar to the one explored on W7-AS. For sufficiently large island sizes and not too long field line connection lengths, this divertor gives access to a partially detached quasi steady-state operating scenario in a newly found high density H-mode operating regime, which benefits from high energy and extremely low impurity confinement times, with edge radiation levels of up to 90 % and sufficient neutral compression in the subdivertor region (> 10) for active pumping. The basic physics of the different divertor concepts and associated implementation problems, like asymmetries due to drifts, accessibility of essential operating scenarios and toroidal asymmetries due to symmetry breaking error fields, etc. will be discussed. (orig.)

  18. R(and)D on full tungsten divertor and beryllium wall for JET ITER-like Wall Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirai, T.; Maier, H.; Rubel, M.

    2006-01-01

    The ITER-like Wall Project was initiated at JET, with the goal of testing the reference material combination chosen for ITER: beryllium (Be) in the main chamber (wall and limiters) and tungsten (W) in the divertor. The major aims are to study the tritium retention, material mixing, melt layer behavior and to optimize plasma operation scenarios with a full metal wall. The project requires major design and engineering efforts in R(and)D: (i) bulk W tile, (ii) W coatings on carbon fibre composites (CFC) (iii) Be coatings on Inconel, (iv) Be marker tiles. For the W divertor, two R(and)D tasks were initiated: (1) development of a conceptual design for a bulk W tile as the main outer divertor target plate, and (2) W coating selection from 14 different samples produced by various techniques for the other divertor plates and neutral beam shine. The bulk W tile must withstand power loads of 7 MW/m 2 for 10 s. JET divertor plates are not actively cooled, therefore, heat capacity of the tiles is an important design parameter. In addition to power handling, mechanical structural stability under electromagnetic forces and compatibility with remote handling are the key requirements in the design. The design has been completed. The test-tile survived 100 pulses at 7 MW/m 2 for 10 s in the electron beam facility, JUDITH. The W coatings with different thickness, thin ( 2 and 200 pulses at 10 MW/m 2 for 5 s. In all tested samples cracks developed perpendicularly to the fiber bundles in CFC because of contraction of the coating in the cooling phase. Coatings were also exposed to 1000 ELM-like loading pulses. The thin coatings showed fatigue leading to delamination, whereas for thick coatings better resistance in ELM-like loading. As a result of R(and)D a full W divertor was decided: bulk metal at the outer divertor and W coating at other areas. Be-related R(and)D activities are in two areas. Production of 8-9 μm layers on inner wall cladding Inconel tiles ensures the full coating of

  19. The isotope effect on divertor conditions and neutral pumping in horizontal divertor configurations in JET-ILW Ohmic plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Uljanovs

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the impact of isotope mass and divertor configuration on the divertor conditions and neutral pressures is critical for predicting the performance of the ITER divertor in DT operation. To address this need, ohmically heated hydrogen and deuterium plasma experiments were conducted in JET with the ITER-like wall in varying divertor configurations. In this study, these plasmas are simulated with EDGE2D-EIRENE outfitted with a sub-divertor model, to predict the neutral pressures in the plenum with similar fashion to the experiments. EDGE2D-EIRENE predictions show that the increased isotope mass results in up to a 25% increase in peak electron densities and 15% increase in peak ion saturation current at the outer target in deuterium when compared to hydrogen for all horizontal divertor configurations. Indicating that a change from hydrogen to deuterium as main fuel decreases the neutral mean free path, leading to higher neutral density in the divertor. Consequently, this mechanism also leads to higher neutral pressures in the sub-divertor. The experimental data provided by the hydrogen and deuterium ohmic discharges shows that closer proximity of the outer strike point to the pumping plenum results in a higher neutral pressure in the sub-divertor. The diaphragm capacitance gauge pressure measurements show that a two to three-fold increase in sub-divertor pressure was achieved in the corner and nearby horizontal configurations compared to the far-horizontal configurations, likely due to ballistic transport (with respect to the plasma facing components of the neutrals into the sub-divertor. The corner divertor configuration also indicates that a neutral expansion occurs during detachment, resulting in a sub-divertor neutral density plateau as a function of upstream density at the outer-mid plane.

  20. Left bundle-branch block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risum, Niels; Strauss, David; Sogaard, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between myocardial electrical activation by electrocardiogram (ECG) and mechanical contraction by echocardiography in left bundle-branch block (LBBB) has never been clearly demonstrated. New strict criteria for LBBB based on a fundamental understanding of physiology have recently...

  1. MAVEN EUV Modelled Data Bundle

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This bundle contains solar irradiance spectra in 1-nm bins from 0-190 nm. The spectra are generated based upon the Flare Irradiance Spectra Model - Mars (FISM-M)...

  2. MAVEN SEP Calibrated Data Bundle

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The maven.sep.calibrated Level 2 Science Data Bundle contains fully calibrated SEP data, as well as the raw count data from which they are derived, and ancillary...

  3. Bundling ecosystem services in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turner, Katrine Grace; Odgaard, Mette Vestergaard; Bøcher, Peder Klith

    2014-01-01

    We made a spatial analysis of 11 ecosystem services at a 10 km × 10 km grid scale covering most of Denmark. Our objective was to describe their spatial distribution and interactions and also to analyze whether they formed specific bundle types on a regional scale in the Danish cultural landscape....... We found clustered distribution patterns of ecosystem services across the country. There was a significant tendency for trade-offs between on the one hand cultural and regulating services and on the other provisioning services, and we also found the potential of regulating and cultural services...... to form synergies. We identified six distinct ecosystem service bundle types, indicating multiple interactions at a landscape level. The bundle types showed specialized areas of agricultural production, high provision of cultural services at the coasts, multifunctional mixed-use bundle types around urban...

  4. Line bundles and flat connections

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1School of Mathematics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, .... sequence for complex analytic bundles, Appendix to Topological Methods ... Society of Japan 15 (1987) (Iwanami Shoten Publishers and Princeton ...

  5. Examining Innovative Divertor and Main Chamber Options for a National Divertor Test Tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labombard, B.; Umansky, M.; Brunner, D.; Kuang, A. Q.; Marmar, E.; Wallace, G.; Whyte, D.; Wukitch, S.

    2016-10-01

    The US fusion community has identified a compelling need for a National Divertor Test Tokamak. The 2015 Community Planning Workshop on PMI called for a national working group to develop options. Important elements of a NDTT, adopted from the ADX concept, include the ability to explore long-leg divertor `solutions for power exhaust and particle control' (Priority Research Direction B) and to employ inside-launch RF actuators combined with double-null topologies as `plasma solution for main chamber wall components, including tools for controllable sustained operation' (PRD-C). Here we examine new information on these ideas. The projected performance of super-X and X-point target long-leg divertors is looking very promising; a stable fully-detached divertor condition handling an order-of-magnitude increase in power handling over conventional divertors may be possible. New experiments on Alcator C-Mod are addressing issues of high-field side versus low-field side heat flux sharing in double-null topologies and the screening of impurities that might originate from RF actuators placed in the high-field side - both with favorable results. Supported by USDoE Awards DE-FC02-99ER54512 and DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  6. Development of a radiative divertor for DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, S.L.; Brooks, N.H.; Campbell, R.B.; Fenstermacher, M.E.; Hill, D.N.; Hyatt, A.W.; Knoll, D.; Lasnier, C.J.; Lazarus, E.A.; Leonard, A.W.; Lippmann, S.I.; Mahdavi, M.A.; Maingi, R.; Meyer, W.; Moyer, R.A.; Petrie, T.W.; Porter, G.D.; Rensink, M.E.; Rognlien, T.D.; Schaffer, M.J.; Smith, J.P.; Staebler, G.M.; Stambaugh, R.D.; West, W.P.; Wood, R.D.

    1995-01-01

    We have used experiments and modeling to develop a new radiative divertor configuration for DIII-D. Gas puffing experiments with the existing open divertor have shown the creation of a localized ( similar 10 cm diameter) radiation zone which results in substantial reduction (3-10) in the divertor heat flux while τ E remains similar 2 times ITER-89P scaling. However, n e increases with D 2 puffing, and Z eff increases with neon puffing. Divertor structures are required to minimize the effects on the core plasma. The UEDGE fluid code, benchmarked with DIII-D data, and the DEGAS neutrals transport code are used to estimate the effectiveness of divertor configurations; slots reduce the core ionization more than baffles. The overall divertor shape is set by confinement studies which indicate that high triangularity (δ∼0.8) is important for high τ E VH-modes. Results from engineering feasibility studies, including diagnostic access, will be presented. ((orig.))

  7. Characteristics of the Secondary Divertor on DIII-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, J. G.; Lasnier, C. J.; Leonard, A. W.; Evans, T. E.; Pitts, R.; Stangeby, P. C.; Boedo, J. A.; Moyer, R. A.; Rudakov, D. L.

    2009-11-01

    In order to address a concern that the ITER secondary divertor strike plates may be insufficiently robust to handle the incident pulses of particles and energy from ELMs, we performed dedicated studies of the secondary divertor plasma and scrape-off layer (SOL). Detailed measurements of the ELM energy and particle deposition footprint on the secondary divertor target plates were made with a fast IR camera and Langmuir probes and SOL profile and transport measurements were made with reciprocating probes. The secondary divertor and SOL conditions depended on changes in the magnetic balance and the core plasma density. Larger density resulted in smaller ELMs and the magnetic balance affected how many ELM particles coupled to the secondary SOL and divertor. Particularly striking are the images from a new fast IR camera that resolve ELM heat pulses and show spiral patterns with multiple peaks during ELMs in the secondary divertor.

  8. Modeling detachment physics in the NSTX snowflake divertor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, E.T., E-mail: emeier@wm.edu [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Soukhanovskii, V.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Bell, R.E.; Diallo, A.; Kaita, R.; LeBlanc, B.P. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); McLean, A.G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Podestà, M. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Rognlien, T.D.; Scotti, F. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    The snowflake divertor is a proposed technique for coping with the tokamak power exhaust problem in next-step experiments and eventually reactors, where extreme power fluxes to material surfaces represent a leading technological and physics challenge. In lithium-conditioned National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) discharges, application of the snowflake divertor typically induced partial outer divertor detachment and severalfold heat flux reduction. UEDGE is used to analyze and compare conventional and snowflake divertor configurations in NSTX. Matching experimental upstream profiles and divertor measurements in the snowflake requires target recycling of 0.97 vs. 0.91 in the conventional case, implying partial saturation of the lithium-based pumping mechanism. Density scans are performed to analyze the mechanisms that facilitate detachment in the snowflake, revealing that increased divertor volume provides most of the parallel heat flux reduction. Also, neutral gas power loss is magnified by the increased wetted area in the snowflake, and plays a key role in generating volumetric recombination.

  9. ITER tungsten divertor design development and qualification program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirai, T., E-mail: takeshi.hirai@iter.org [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, F-13115 Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Escourbiac, F.; Carpentier-Chouchana, S.; Fedosov, A.; Ferrand, L.; Jokinen, T.; Komarov, V.; Kukushkin, A.; Merola, M.; Mitteau, R.; Pitts, R.A.; Shu, W.; Sugihara, M. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, F-13115 Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Riccardi, B. [F4E, c/ Josep Pla, n.2, Torres Diagonal Litoral, Edificio B3, E-08019 Barcelona (Spain); Suzuki, S. [JAEA, Fusion Research and Development Directorate JAEA, 801-1 Mukouyama, Naka, Ibaragi 311-0193 (Japan); Villari, R. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, Via Enrico Fermi 45, I-00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • Detailed design development plan for the ITER tungsten divertor. • Latest status of the ITER tungsten divertor design. • Brief overview of qualification program for the ITER tungsten divertor and status of R and D activity. -- Abstract: In November 2011, the ITER Council has endorsed the recommendation that a period of up to 2 years be set to develop a full-tungsten divertor design and accelerate technology qualification in view of a possible decision to start operation with a divertor having a full-tungsten plasma-facing surface. To ensure a solid foundation for such a decision, a full tungsten divertor design, together with a demonstration of the necessary high performance tungsten monoblock technology should be completed within the required timescale. The status of both the design and technology R and D activity is summarized in this paper.

  10. Role of molecular effects in divertor plasma recombination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Kukushkin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Molecule-Activated Recombination (MAR effect is re-considered in view of divertor plasma conditions. A strong isotopic effect is demonstrated. In deuterium plasmas, the reaction chain through D2+ formation, usually considered dominant and included in 2D edge plasma models, is negligible. However, in this case the other branch, through D−, usually neglected in modelling, becomes relatively strong. The overall share of MAR in divertor plasma recycling stays within 20%. The operational parameters of the divertor plasmas, such as the peak power loading on the divertor targets or the pressure limit for partial detachment of the divertor plasma, are insensitive to the presence of MAR, although the latter may be important for correct interpretation of the divertor diagnostics.

  11. Divertor, thermonuclear device and method of neutralizing high temperature plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikegami, Hideo.

    1995-01-01

    The thermonuclear device comprises a thermonuclear reactor for taking place fusion reactions to emit fusion plasmas, and a divertor made of a hydrogen occluding material, and the divertor is disposed at a position being in contact with the fusion plasmas after nuclear fusion reaction. The divertor is heated by fusion plasmas after nuclear fusion reaction, and hydrogen is released from the hydrogen occluding material as a constituent material. A gas blanket is formed by the released hydrogen to cool and neutralize the supplied high temperature nuclear fusion plasmas. This prevents the high temperature plasmas from hitting against the divertor, elimination of the divertor by melting and evaporation, and solve a problem of processing a divertor activated by neutrons. In addition, it is possible to utilize hydrogen isotopes of fuels effectively and remove unnecessary helium. Inflow of impurities from out of the system can also be prevented. (N.H.)

  12. Holomorphic bundles over elliptic manifolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, J.W.

    2000-01-01

    In this lecture we shall examine holomorphic bundles over compact elliptically fibered manifolds. We shall examine constructions of such bundles as well as (duality) relations between such bundles and other geometric objects, namely K3-surfaces and del Pezzo surfaces. We shall be dealing throughout with holomorphic principal bundles with structure group GC where G is a compact, simple (usually simply connected) Lie group and GC is the associated complex simple algebraic group. Of course, in the special case G = SU(n) and hence GC = SLn(C), we are considering holomorphic vector bundles with trivial determinant. In the other cases of classical groups, G SO(n) or G = Sympl(2n) we are considering holomorphic vector bundles with trivial determinant equipped with a non-degenerate symmetric, or skew symmetric pairing. In addition to these classical cases there are the finite number of exceptional groups. Amazingly enough, motivated by questions in physics, much interest centres around the group E8 and its subgroups. For these applications it does not suffice to consider only the classical groups. Thus, while often first doing the case of SU(n) or more generally of the classical groups, we shall extend our discussions to the general semi-simple group. Also, we shall spend a good deal of time considering elliptically fibered manifolds of the simplest type, namely, elliptic curves

  13. SLAC divertor channel entrance thermal stress analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, G.L.; Stein, W.; Lu, S.C.; Riddle, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    X-ray beams emerging from the new SLAC electron-positron storage ring (PEP) impinge on the entrance to tangential divertor channels causing highly localized heating in the channel structure. Analyses were completed to determine the temperatures and thermally-induced stresses due to this heating. These parts are cooled with water flowing axially over them at 30 0 C. The current design and operating conditions should result in the entrance to the new divertor channel operating at a peak temperature of 123 0 C with a peak thermal stress at 91% of yield. Any micro-cracks that form due to thermally-induced stresses should not propagate to the coolant wall nor form a path for the coolant to leak into the storage ring vacuum. 34 figs., 4 tabs

  14. NSTX Plasma Response to Lithium Coated Divertor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H.W. Kugel, M.G. Bell, J.P. Allain, R.E. Bell, S. Ding, S.P. Gerhardt, M.A. Jaworski, R. Kaita, J. Kallman, S.M. Kaye, B.P. LeBlanc, R. Maingi, R. Majeski, R. Maqueda, D.K. Mansfield, D. Mueller, R. Nygren, S.F. Paul, R. Raman, A.L. Roquemore, S.A. Sabbagh, H. Schneider, C.H. Skinner, V.A. Soukhanovskii, C.N. Taylor, J.R. Timberlak, W.R. Wampler, L.E. Zakharov, S.J. Zweben, and the NSTX Research Team

    2011-01-21

    NSTX experiments have explored lithium evaporated on a graphite divertor and other plasma facing components in both L- and H- mode confinement regimes heated by high-power neutral beams. Improvements in plasma performance have followed these lithium depositions, including a reduction and eventual elimination of the HeGDC time between discharges, reduced edge neutral density, reduced plasma density, particularly in the edge and the SOL, increased pedestal electron and ion temperature, improved energy confinement and the suppression of ELMs in the H-mode. However, with improvements in confinement and suppression of ELMs, there was a significant secular increase in the effective ion charge Zeff and the radiated power in H-mode plasmas as a result of increases in the carbon and medium-Z metallic impurities. Lithium itself remained at a very low level in the plasma core, <0.1%. Initial results are reported from operation with a Liquid Lithium Divertor (LLD) recently installed.

  15. Thermal effects of divertor sweeping in ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wesley, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, thermal effects of magnetically sweeping the separatrix strike point on the outer divertor target of the International Thermonuclear Fusion Reactor (ITER) are calculated. For the 0. 2 Hz x ± 12 cm sweep scenario proposed for ITER operations, the thermal capability of a generic target design is found to be slightly inadequate (by ∼ 5%) to accommodate the full degree of plasma scrape-off peaking postulated as a design basis. The principal problem identified is that the 5 s sweep period is long relative to the 1. 4 s thermal time constant of the divertor target. An increase of the sweep frequency to ∼ 1 Hz is suggested: this increase would provide a power handling margin of ∼ 25% relative to present operational criteria

  16. He-cooled divertor development for DEMO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norajitra, P.; Giniyatulin, R.; Ihli, T.; Janeschitz, G.; Krauss, W.; Kruessmann, R.; Kuznetsov, V.; Mazul, I.; Widak, V.; Ovchinnikov, I.; Ruprecht, R.; Zeep, B.

    2007-01-01

    Goal of the He-cooled divertor development for future fusion power plants is to resist a high heat flux of at least 10 MW/m 2 . The development includes the fields of design, analyses, and experiments. A helium-cooled modular jet concept (HEMJ) has been defined as reference solution, which is based on jet impingement cooling. In cooperation with the Efremov Institute, work was aimed at construction and high heat flux tests of prototypical tungsten mockups to demonstrate their manufacturability and their performances. A helium loop was built for this purpose to simulate the realistic thermo-hydraulics conditions close to those of DEMO (10 MPa He, 600 deg. C). The first high heat flux test results confirm the feasibility and the performance of the divertor design

  17. Module of lithium divertor for KTM tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyublinski, I., E-mail: yublinski@yandex.ru [FSUE ' Red Star' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Vertkov, A.; Evtikhin, V.; Balakirev, V.; Ionov, D.; Zharkov, M. [FSUE ' Red Star' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Tazhibayeva, I. [IAE NNC RK, Kurchatov (Kazakhstan); Mirnov, S. [TRINITI, Troitsk, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Khomiakov, S.; Mitin, D. [OJSC Dollezhal Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Mazzitelli, G. [ENEA RC Frascati (Italy); Agostini, P. [ENEA RC Brasimone (Italy)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Problems of PFE degradation, tritium accumulation and plasma pollution can be overcome by the use of liquid lithium-metal with low Z. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Capillary-porous system (CPS) - new material in which liquid lithium fill a solid matrix from porous material. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lithium divertor module for KTM tokamak is under development. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lithium filled tungsten felt is offered as the base plasma facing material of divertor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results of this project addresses to the progress in the field of fusion neutrons source and fusion energy source creation. - Abstract: Activity on projects of ITER and DEMO reactors has shown that solution of problems of divertor target plates and other plasma facing elements (PFEs) based on the solid plasma facing materials cause serious difficulties. Problems of PFE degradation, tritium accumulation and plasma pollution can be overcome by the use of liquid lithium-metal with low Z. Application of lithium will allow to create a self-renewal and MHD stable liquid metal surface of the in-vessel devices possessing practically unlimited service life; to reduce power flux due to intensive re-irradiation on lithium atoms in plasma periphery that will essentially facilitate a problem of heat removal from PFE; to reduce Z{sub eff} of plasma to minimally possible level close to 1; to exclude tritium accumulation, that is provided with absence of dust products and an opportunity of the active control of the tritium contents in liquid lithium. Realization of these advantages is based on use of so-called lithium capillary-porous system (CPS) - new material in which liquid lithium fill a solid matrix from porous material. The progress in development of lithium technology and also activity in lithium experiments in the tokamaks TFTR, T-11M, T-10, FTU, NSTX, HT-7 and stellarator TJ II permits of solving the problems in development of

  18. NSTX plasma response to lithium coated divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugel, H.W.; Bell, M.G.; Allain, J.P.; Bell, R.E.; Ding, S.; Gerhardt, S.P.; Jaworski, M.A.; Kaita, R.; Kallman, J.; Kaye, S.M.; LeBlanc, B.P.; Maingi, Rajesh; Majeski, R.; Maqueda, R.J.; Mansfield, D.K.; Mueller, D.; Nygren, R.E.; Paul, S.F.; Raman, R.; Roquemore, A.L.; Sabbagh, S.A.; Schneider, H.; Skinner, C.H.; Soukhanovskii, V.A.; Taylor, C.N.; Timberlake, J.; Wampler, W.R.; Zakharov, L.E.; Zweben, S.J.

    2011-01-01

    NSTX experiments have explored lithium evaporated on a graphite divertor and other plasma-facing components in both L- and H- mode confinement regimes heated by high-power neutral beams. Improvements in plasma performance have followed these lithium depositions, including a reduction and eventual elimination of the HeGDC time between discharges, reduced edge neutral density, reduced plasma density, particularly in the edge and the SOL, increased pedestal electron and ion temperature, improved energy confinement and the suppression of ELMs in the H-mode. However, with improvements in confinement and suppression of ELMs, there was a significant secular increase in the effective ion charge Z(eff) and the radiated power in H-mode plasmas as a result of increases in the carbon and medium-Z metallic impurities. Lithium itself remained at a very low level in the plasma core, < 0.1%. Initial results are reported from operation with a Liquid Lithium Divertor (LLD) recently installed.

  19. Boundary plasma control with the ergodic divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghendrih, Ph.; Becoulet, M.; Beyer, P.

    1999-01-01

    Ergodic divertor experiments on Tore Supra provide evidence of significant control of plasma-wall interaction. Theoretical investigation of the laminar region (i.e. governed by parallel transport) indicates that control of the plasma state at the target plate can be achieved with plasma states similar to that observed with the axisymmetric divertor. Analysis of the temperature field with a 2-D test particle code allows one to recover the observed spatial modulation and shows that an intrinsic barrier appears to develop at the separatrix. Energy deposition peaking, analysed with a 3-D code, is strongly reduced when moderate transverse transport is considered. Possible control of upstream parameters can thus be achieved in the ergodic region, for instance a lowering of the parallel energy flux by cross field transport. (author)

  20. Boundary plasma control with the ergodic divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghendrih, Ph.; Becoulet, M.; Beyer, P.

    2001-01-01

    Ergodic divertor experiments on Tore Supra provide evidence of significant control of plasma-wall interaction. Theoretical investigation of the laminar region (i.e. governed by parallel transport) indicates that control of the plasma state at the target plate can be achieved with plasma states similar to that observed with the axisymmetric divertor. Analysis of the temperature field with a 2-D test particle code allows one to recover the observed spatial modulation and shows that an intrinsic barrier appears to develop at the separatrix. Energy deposition peaking, analysed with a 3-D code, is strongly reduced when moderate transverse transport is considered. Possible control of upstream parameters can thus be achieved in the ergodic region, for instance a lowering of the parallel energy flux by cross field transport. (author)

  1. Electron beam facility for divertor target experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anisimov, A.; Gagen-Torn, V.; Giniyatulin, R.N.

    1994-01-01

    To test different concepts of divertor targets and bumpers an electron beam facility was assembled in Efremov Institute. It consists of a vacuum chamber (3m 3 ), vacuum pump, electron beam gun, manipulator to place and remove the samples, water loop and liquid metal loop. The following diagnostics of mock-ups is stipulated: (1) temperature distribution on the mock-up working surface (scanning pyrometer and infra-red imager); (2) temperature distribution over mocked-up thickness in 3 typical cross-sections (thermo-couples); (3) cracking dynamics during thermal cycling (acoustic-emission method), (4) defects in the mock-up before and after tests (ultra-sonic diagnostics, electron and optical microscopes). Carbon-based and beryllium mock-ups are made for experimental feasibility study of water and liquid-metal-cooled divertor/bumper concepts

  2. Plasma diagnostics for the DIII-D divertor upgrade (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, D.N.; Futch, A.; Buchenauer, D.; Doerner, R.; Lehmer, R.; Schmitz, L.; Klepper, C.C.; Menon, M.; Leikind, B.; Lippmann, S.; Mahdavi, M.A.; Schaffer, M.; Smith, J.; Salmonson, J.; Watkins, J.

    1990-01-01

    The DIII-D tokamak is being upgraded to allow for divertor biasing, baffling, and pumping experiments. This paper gives an overview of the new diagnostics added to DIII-D as part of this advanced divertor program. They include tile current monitors, fast reciprocating Langmuir probes, a fixed probe array in the divertor, fast neutral pressure gauges, and H α measurements with TV cameras and fiber optics coupled to a high-resolution spectrometer

  3. Comparative divertor-transport study for helical devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Y.; Sardei, F.; Kobayashi, M.

    2008-10-01

    Using the island divertors (ID) of W7-AS and W7-X and the helical divertor (HD) of LHD as examples, the paper presents a comparative divertor transport study for three typical helical devices of different machine-size following two distinct divertor concepts, aiming at identifying common physics issues/effects for mutual validation and combined studies. Based on EMC3/EIRENE simulations supported by experimental results, the paper first reviews and compares the essential transport features of the W7-AS ID and the LHD HD in order to build a base and framework for a predictive study of W7-X. Revealed is the fundamental role of the low-order magnetic islands in both divertor concepts. Preliminary EMC3/EIRENE simulation results for W7-X are presented and discussed with respect to W7-AS and LHD in order to show how the individual field and divertor topologies affect the divertor transport and performance. For instance, a high recycling regime which is absent from W7-AS and LHD is expected for W7-X. Topics addressed are restricted to the basic function elements of a divertor such as particle flux enhancement and impurity retention. In particular, the divertor function on reducing the influx of intrinsic impurities is examined for all the three devices under different divertor plasma conditions. Special attention is paid to examining the island screening potential of intrinsic impurities which has been predicted for all the three devices under high divertor collisionality conditions. The results are discussed in conjunction with the experimental observations for high density divertor plasmas in W7-AS and LHD. (author)

  4. Experimental studies of the snowflake divertor in TCV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Labit

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available To address the risk that, in a fusion reactor, the conventional single-null divertor (SND configuration may not be able to handle the power exhaust, alternative divertor configurations, such as the Snowflake divertor (SFD, are investigated in TCV. The expected benefits of the SFD-minus in terms of power load and peak heat flux are discussed and compared to experimental measurements. In addition, key results obtained during the last years are summarized.

  5. Divertor experiment for impurity control in DIVA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagami, Masayuki

    1979-04-01

    Divertor actions of controlling the impurities and the transport of impurity ions in the plasma have been investigated in the DIVA device. Following are the results: (1) The radial transport of impurity ions is not described only by neoclassical theory, but it is strongly influenced by anomalous process. Radial diffusion of impurity ions across the whole minor radius is well described by a neoclassical diffusion superposed by the anomalous diffusion for protons. Due to this anomalous process, which spreads the radial density profile of impurity ions, 80 to 90% of the impurity flux in the plasma outer edge is shielded even in a nondiverted discharge. (2) The divertor reduces the impurity flux entering the main plasma by a factor of 2 to 4. The impurity ions shielded by the scrape-off plasma are rapidly guided into the burial chamber with a poloidal excursion time roughly equal to that of the scrape-off plasma. (3) The divertor reduces the impurity ion flux onto the main vacuum chamber by guiding the impurity ions diffusing from the main plasma into the burial chamber, thereby reducing the plasma-wall interaction caused by diffusing impurity ions at the main vacuum chamber. The impurity ions produced in the burial chamber may flow back to the main plasma through the scrape-off layer. However, roughly only 0.3% of the impurity flux into the scrape-off plasma in the burial chamber penetrates into the main plasma due to the impurity backflow. (4) A slight cooling of the scrape-off plasma with light-impurity injection effectively reduces the metal impurity production at the first wall by reducing the potential difference between the plasma and the wall, thereby reducing the accumulation of the metal impurity in the discharge. Radiation cooling by low-Z impurities in the plasma outer edge, which may become an important feature in future large tokamaks both with and without divertor, is numerically evaluated for carbon, oxygen and neon. (author)

  6. Two-point model for divertor transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galambos, J.D.; Peng, Y.K.M.

    1984-04-01

    Plasma transport along divertor field lines was investigated using a two-point model. This treatment requires considerably less effort to find solutions to the transport equations than previously used one-dimensional (1-D) models and is useful for studying general trends. It also can be a valuable tool for benchmarking more sophisticated models. The model was used to investigate the possibility of operating in the so-called high density, low temperature regime

  7. Divertor and scoop limiter experiments on PDX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuire, K.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Bell, M.

    1985-01-01

    Routine operation in the enhanced energy confinement (or H-mode) regime during neutral beam injection was achieved by modifying the PDX divertor hardware to inhibit the influx of neutral gas from the divertor region to the main plasma chamber. A particle scoop limiter has been studied as a mechanical means of controlling particles at the plasma edge, and neutral beam heated discharges with this limiter show similar confinement times (normalized to tau/sub E//I/sub p/) to average H-mode plasmas. Two new instabilities are observed near the plasma edge in PDX during H-mode operation. The first, a quasicoherent fluctuation, occurred in bursts at well-defined frequencies (Δω/ω less than or equal to 0.1) in the range 50 to 180 kHz, and had no obvious effects on confinement. The second instability, the edge relaxation phenomena (ERP), did cause deterioration in the global confinement time. The ERP's are characterized by sharp spikes in the divertor plasma density, H/sub α/ emission, and on the x-ray signals they appear as sawtoothlike relaxations at the plasma edge with an inversion radius near the separatrix. Attempts to obtain high β/sub T/ in the H-mode discharges were hampered by a deterioration in the H-mode confinement and major disruptions which limited the achievable β/sub T/. A study of the stability of both the limiter L-mode and divertor H-mode discharges close to the theoretical β boundary, showed that the major disruptions observed there are sometimes caused by a fast growing m/n = 1/1 mode with no observable external precursor oscillations

  8. Divertor and scoop limiter experiments on PDX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuire, K.; Beirsdorfer, P.; Bell, M.

    1985-01-01

    Routine operation in the enhanced-energy-confinement (or H-mode) regime during neutral-beam injection was achieved by modifying the PDX divertor hardware to inhibit the influx of neutral gas from the divertor region to the main plasma chamber. A particle scoop limiter has been studied as a mechanical means of controlling particles at the plasma edge, and neutral-beam-heated discharges with this limiter show similar confinement times (normalized to tausub(E)/Isub(p)) to average H-mode plasma. Two new instabilities are observed near the plasma edge in PDX during H-mode operation. The first, a quasi-coherent fluctuation, occurred in bursts at well-defined frequencies (Δω/ω<=0.1) in the range 50 to 180 kHz, and had no obvious effects on confinement. The second instability, the edge relaxation phenomena (ERP), did cause deterioration in the global confinement time. The ERPs are characterized by sharp spikes in the divertor plasma density, Hsub(α) emission, and on the X-ray signals they appear as sawtooth-like relaxations at the plasma edge with an inversion radius near the separatrix. Attempts to obtain high βsub(T) in the H-mode discharges were hampered by a deterioration in the H-mode confinement and major disruptions which limited the achievable βsub(T). A study of the stability of both the limiter L-mode and divertor H-mode discharge close to the theoretical β boundary showed that the major disruptions observed there are sometimes caused by a fast growing m/n=1/1 mode with no observable external precursor oscillations. (author)

  9. The remote exchange of the JET divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pick, M.

    1999-01-01

    In 1997 a series of experiments were performed in the JET machine using deuterium-tritium (D-T) mixtures and resulting in discharges with record breaking fusion power and fusion energy. The experiments demonstrated a key technology required for fusion, namely the on-line operation of a tritium fuel re-processing plant. These experiments left the inside of the JET vessel inaccessible to manned access for approximately one year. During this time, the complete Mark IIA divertor, a major system within the torus, was successfully removed and replaced with a new divertor design, the Mark II Gas Box divertor, using only remote handling techniques. This was the first application of the JET remote handling system and a demonstration of a further key ITER technology. The paper explains the methodology and operational approach taken to achieve the results using the remote handling system developed at JET. It describes the remote handling equipment including the force-reflecting servo-manipulator, the specialised tools designed, the facilities needed, and the trials, planning and training carried out to ensure the safe, reliable and rapid completion of the remote handling tasks. The planned tasks are outlined including the execution of the novel procedure for a remote, sub-millimetre precision, dimensional survey of the divertor support structure using digital photogrammetry. Furthermore the paper shows how the adaptability of the system was used to successfully undertake a large number of unplanned tasks including the removal of damaged tiles, a damaged diagnostic system and the vacuum cleaning of diagnostic windows. (author)

  10. Low energy neutral particle fluxes in the JET divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichle, R.; Horton, L.D.; Ingesson, L.C.; Jaeckel, H.J.; McCormick, G.K.; Loarte, A.; Simonini, R.; Stamp, M.F.

    1997-01-01

    First measurements are presented of the total power loss through neutral particles and their average energy in the JET divertor. The method used distinguishes between the heat flux and the electromagnetic radiation on bolometers. This is done by comparing measurements from inside the divertor either with opposite lines of sight or with a tomographic reconstruction of the radiation. The typical value of the total power loss in the divertor through neutrals is about 1 MW. The average energy of the neutral particles at the inner divertor leg is 1.5-3 eV when detachment is in progress, which agrees with EDGE2D/NIMBUS modelling. (orig.)

  11. Divertor heat flux mitigation in the National Spherical Torus Experimenta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soukhanovskii, V. A.; Maingi, R.; Gates, D. A.; Menard, J. E.; Paul, S. F.; Raman, R.; Roquemore, A. L.; Bell, M. G.; Bell, R. E.; Boedo, J. A.; Bush, C. E.; Kaita, R.; Kugel, H. W.; Leblanc, B. P.; Mueller, D.; NSTX Team

    2009-02-01

    Steady-state handling of divertor heat flux is a critical issue for both ITER and spherical torus-based devices with compact high power density divertors. Significant reduction of heat flux to the divertor plate has been achieved simultaneously with favorable core and pedestal confinement and stability properties in a highly shaped lower single null configuration in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) [M. Ono et al., Nucl. Fusion 40, 557 2000] using high magnetic flux expansion at the divertor strike point and the radiative divertor technique. A partial detachment of the outer strike point was achieved with divertor deuterium injection leading to peak flux reduction from 4-6MWm-2to0.5-2MWm-2 in small-ELM 0.8-1.0MA, 4-6MW neutral beam injection-heated H-mode discharges. A self-consistent picture of the outer strike point partial detachment was evident from divertor heat flux profiles and recombination, particle flux and neutral pressure measurements. Analytic scrape-off layer parallel transport models were used for interpretation of NSTX detachment experiments. The modeling showed that the observed peak heat flux reduction and detachment are possible with high radiated power and momentum loss fractions, achievable with divertor gas injection, and nearly impossible to achieve with main electron density, divertor neutral density or recombination increases alone.

  12. Towards a physics-integrated view on divertor pumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, Chr.; Gleason-González, C.; Hauer, V.; Igitkhanov, Y.; Kalupin, D.; Varoutis, S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Physics-integrated design approaches are to be preferred over approaches based on simple requirement lists. • A physics-integrated assessment is presented for the divertor vacuum pumping system based on detachment onset conditions for the divertor. • This approach considers density dependent pump albedo to reflect the effects of gas recycling at the divertor and the changes in flow regime with density. • A comparison with DEMO indicates that the divertor pumping system for a pulsed DEMO scales less than linearly with fusion power. - Abstract: One key requirement to design the inner fuel cycle of a divertor tokamak is defined by the torus vessel gas throughput and composition, and the sub-divertor neutral pressure at which the exhaust gas has to be pumped. This paper illustrates how divertor physics aspects can be translated to requirements on the divertor vacuum pumping system. An example workflow is presented that links the realization of detachment conditions with the sub-divertor neutral gas flow patterns in order to determine the appropriate number of torus vacuum pumps. For the example case of a fusion DEMO size machine, it was found that 7 actively pumping cryopumps (ITER-type) are necessary to handle the gas throughput that is needed to manage the heat flux and densities related to detachment onset

  13. Influence of stray light for divertor spectroscopy in ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajita, Shin; Veshchev, Evgeny; Lisgo, Steve; Barnsley, Robin; Morgan, Philip; Walsh, Michael; Ogawa, Hiroaki; Sugie, Tatsuo; Itami, Kiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    The influence of stray light in the divertor spectroscopy system in ITER is quantitatively investigated using a ray tracing simulation. Simulation results show that the stray light is negligible at positions in the divertor where the plasma emission is strong. However, it is also shown that the stray light can be significantly greater than the real signal if the plasma intensity is low. Deuterium and beryllium emissions are used for the assessment; for beryllium cases in particular, since the emission profile may be non-uniform in the divertor region, the influence of stray light can be non-negligible at some positions, e.g., above the divertor dome

  14. Technological development of the Monobloc Divertor Concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiPietro, E.; Brossa, M.; Guerreschi, U.; Suresh, D.; Cardella, A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on a technological program devoted to the assessment of the feasibility and the qualification of the Monobloc Divertor Concept for the divertor of the NET/ITER Machine which has been developed with the joint collaboration between ENEA, the NET Team, Ansaldo DNT and Metallwerk Plansee. The basic idea guiding the development of the monobloc divertor consists in obtaining a component suitable to sustain the operation thermal loads, attaining peak values in the range of 15 MW/2 in steady state conditions, by a proper arrangement of refractory tiles (acting as an armour) directly brazed to the cooling pipes. In the first phase the main activities have been devoted to find a reliable joint between the armour and the cooling pipes. A number of candidate armour materials have been investigated chosen among the most promising CFC currently available in combination with molybdenum alloys (T2M and Mo41Re) and dispersion strengthened copper. The most relevant results of the test activity including the comparison of different brazing alloys and techniques and the evaluation of suitable NDE techniques are reported

  15. Westinghouse compact poloidal divertor reference design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, T.F.; Lee, A.Y.; Ruck, G.W.

    1977-08-01

    A feasible compact poloidal divertor system has been designed as an impurity control and vacuum vessel first-wall protection option for the TNS tokamak. The divertor coils are inside the TF coil array and vacuum vessel. The poloidal divertor is formed by a pair of coil sets with zero net current. Each set consists of a number of coils forming a dish-shaped washer-like ring. The magnetic flux in the space between the coil sets is compressed vertically to limit the height and to expand the horizontal width of the particle and energy burial chamber which is located in the gap between the coil sets. The intensity of the poloidal field is increased to make the pitch angle of the flux lines very large so that the diverted particles can be intercepted by a large number of panels oriented at a small angle with respect to the flux lines. They are carefully shaped and designed such that the entire surfaces are exposed to the incident particles and are not shadowed by each other. Large collecting surface areas can be obtained. Flowing liquid lithium film and solid metal panels have been considered as the particle collectors. The power density for the former is designed at 1 MW/m 2 and for the latter 0.5 MW/m 2 . The major mechanical, thermal, and vacuum problems have been evaluated in sufficient detail so that the advantages and difficulties are identified. A complete functional picture is presented

  16. THERMAL HYDRAULIC ANALYSIS OF FIRE DIVERTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C.B. bAXI; M.A. ULRICKSON; D.E. DRIMEYER; P. HEITZENROEDER

    2000-01-01

    The Fusion Ignition Research Experiment (FIRE) is being designed as a next step in the US magnetic fusion program. The FIRE tokamak has a major radius of 2 m, a minor radius of 0.525 m, and liquid nitrogen cooled copper coils. The aim is to produce a pulse length of 20 s with a plasma current of 6.6 MA and with alpha dominated heating. The outer divertor and baffle of FIRE are water cooled. The worst thermal condition for the outer divertor and baffle is the baseline D-T operating mode (10 T, 6.6 MA, 20 s) with a plasma exhaust power of 67 MW and a peak heat flux of 20 MW/m 2 . A swirl tape (ST) heat transfer enhancement method is used in the outer divertor cooling channels to increase the heat transfer coefficient and the critical heat flux (CHF). The plasma-facing surface consists of tungsten brush. The finite element (FE) analysis shows that for an inlet water temperature of 30 C, inlet pressure of 1.5 MPa and a flow velocity of 10 m/s, the incident critical heat flux is greater than 30 MW/m 2 . The peak copper temperature is 490 C, peak tungsten temperature is 1560 C, and the pressure drop is less than 0.5 MPa. All these results fulfill the design requirements

  17. A new scaling for divertor detachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldston, R. J.; Reinke, M. L.; Schwartz, J. A.

    2017-05-01

    The ITER design, and future reactor designs, depend on divertor ‘detachment,’ whether partial, pronounced or complete, to limit heat flux to plasma-facing components and to limit surface erosion due to sputtering. It would be valuable to have a measure of the difficulty of achieving detachment as a function of machine parameters, such as input power, magnetic field, major radius, etc. Frequently the parallel heat flux, estimated typically as proportional to P sep/R or P sep B/R, is used as a proxy for this difficulty. Here we argue that impurity cooling is dependent on the upstream density, which itself must be limited by a Greenwald-like scaling. Taking this into account self-consistently, we find the impurity fraction required for detachment scales dominantly as power divided by poloidal magnetic field. The absence of any explicit scaling with machine size is concerning, as P sep surely must increase greatly for an economic fusion system, while increases in the poloidal field strength are limited by coil technology and plasma physics. This result should be challenged by comparison with 2D divertor codes and with measurements on existing experiments. Nonetheless, it suggests that higher magnetic field, stronger shaping, double-null operation, ‘advanced’ divertor configurations, as well as alternate means to handle heat flux such as metallic liquid and/or vapor targets merit greater attention.

  18. Island divertor studies on W7-AS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sardei, F.; Feng, Y.; Grigull, P.; Herre, G.; Hildebrandt, D.; Hofmann, J.V.; Kisslinger, J.; Brakel, R.; Das, J.; Geiger, J.; Heinrich, O.; Kuehner, G.; Niedermeyer, H.; Reiter, D.; Richter-Gloetzl, M.; Runov, A.; Schneider, R.; Stroth, U.; Verbeek, H.; Wagner, F.; Wolf, R.

    1997-01-01

    Basic topological features of the island divertor concept for low shear stellarators are discussed with emphasis on the differences to tokamak divertors. Extensive measurements of the edge structures by two-dimensional plasma spectroscopy and by target calorimetry are in excellent agreement with predicted vacuum and equilibrium configurations, which are available up to central β values of ∝1%. For this β value the calculated field-line pitch inside the islands is twice that of the corresponding vacuum case. Video observations of the strike points indicate stability of the island structures for central β values up to ∝3.7%. The interpretation of the complex island divertor physics of W7-AS has become possible by the development of the three-dimensional plasma transport code EMC3 (Edge Monte Carlo 3D), which has been coupled self-consistently to the EIRENE neutral gas code. Analysis of high density NBI discharges gives strong indications of stable high recycling conditions for n e ≥10 20 m -3 . The observations are reproduced by the EMC3/EIRENE code and supported by calculations with the B2/EIRENE code adapted to W7-AS. Improvement of recycling, pumping and target load distribution is expected from the new optimized target plates and baffles to be installed in W7-AS. (orig.)

  19. Heat flux management via advanced magnetic divertor configurations and divertor detachment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolemen, E., E-mail: ekolemen@princeton.edu [Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Allen, S.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Bray, B.D. [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Fenstermacher, M.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Humphreys, D.A.; Hyatt, A.W. [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Lasnier, C.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Leonard, A.W. [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Makowski, M.A.; McLean, A.G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Maingi, R.; Nazikian, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Petrie, T.W. [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Soukhanovskii, V.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Unterberg, E.A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, PO Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    The snowflake divertor (SFD) control and detachment control to manage the heat flux at the divertor are successfully demonstrated at DIII-D. Results of the development and implementation of these two heat flux reduction control methods are presented. The SFD control algorithm calculates the position of the two null-points in real-time and controls shaping coil currents to achieve and stabilize various snowflake configurations. Detachment control stabilizes the detachment front fixed at specified distance between the strike point and the X-point throughout the shot.

  20. Divertor plasma studies on DIII-D: Experiment and modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, W.P.; Brooks, N.H.; Allen, S.L.

    1996-09-01

    In a magnetically diverted tokamak, the scrape-off layer (SOL) and divertor plasma provides separation between the first wall and the core plasma, intercepting impurities generated at the wall before they reach the core plasma. The divertor plasma can also serve to spread the heat and particle flux over a large area of divertor structure wall using impurity radiation and neutral charge exchange, thus reducing peak heat and particle fluxes at the divertor strike plate. Such a reduction will be required in the next generation of tokamaks, for without it, the divertor engineering requirements are very demanding. To successfully demonstrate a radiative divertor, a highly radiative condition with significant volume recombination must be achieved in the divertor, while maintaining a low impurity content in the core plasma. Divertor plasma properties are determined by a complex interaction of classical parallel transport, anomalous perpendicular transport, impurity transport and radiation, and plasma wall interaction. In this paper the authors describe a set of experiments on DIII-D designed to provide detailed two dimensional documentation of the divertor and SOL plasma. Measurements have been made in operating modes where the plasma is attached to the divertor strike plate and in highly radiating cases where the plasma is detached from the divertor strike plate. They also discuss the results of experiments designed to influence the distribution of impurities in the plasma using enhanced SOL plasma flow. Extensive modeling efforts will be described which are successfully reproducing attached plasma conditions and are helping to elucidate the important plasma and atomic physics involved in the detachment process

  1. Plasma flow in the DIII-D divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boedo, J.A.; Porter, G.D.; Schaffer, M.J.

    1998-07-01

    Indications that flows in the divertor can exhibit complex behavior have been obtained from 2-D modeling but so far remain mostly unconfirmed by experiment. An important feature of flow physics is that of flow reversal. Flow reversal has been predicted analytically and it is expected when the ionization source arising from neutral or impurity ionization in the divertor region is large, creating a high pressure zone. Plasma flows arise to equilibrate the pressure. A radiative divertor regime has been proposed in order to reduce the heat and particle fluxes to the divertor target plates. In this regime, the energy and momentum of the plasma are dissipated into neutral gas introduced in the divertor region, cooling the plasma by collisional, radiative and other atomic processes so that the plasma becomes detached from the target plates. These regimes have been the subject of extensive studies in DIII-D to evaluate their energy and particle transport properties, but only recently it has been proposed that the energy transport over large regions of the divertor must be dominated by convection instead of conduction. It is therefore important to understand the role of the plasma conditions and geometry on determining the region of convection-dominated plasma in order to properly control the heat and particle fluxes to the target plates and hence, divertor performance. The authors have observed complex structures in the deuterium ion flows in the DIII-D divertor. Features observed include reverse flow, convective flow over a large volume of the divertor and stagnant flow. They have measured large gradients in the plasma potential across the separatrix in the divertor and determined that these gradients induce poloidal flows that can potentially affect the particle balance in the divertor

  2. The DIII-D Radiative Divertor Project: Status and plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.P.; Baxi, C.B.; Bozek, A.S.

    1996-10-01

    New divertor hardware is being designed and fabricated for the Radiative Divertor modification of the DIII-D tokamak. The installation of the hardware has been separated into two phases, the first phase starting in October of 1996 and the second and final phase, in 1998. The phased approach enables the continuation of the divertor characterization research in the lower divertor while providing pumping for density control in high triangularity, single- or double-null advanced tokamak discharges. When completed, the Radiative Divertor Project hardware will provide pumping at all four strike points of a double-null, high triangularity discharge and provide baffling of the neutral particles from transport back to the core plasma. By puffing neutral gas into the divertor region, a reduction in the heat flux on the target plates will be be demonstrated without a large rise in core density. This reduction in heat flux is accomplished by dispersing the power with radiation in the divertor region. Experiments and modeling have formed the basis for the new design. The capability of the DIII-D cryogenic system is being upgraded as part of this project. The increased capability of the cryogenic system will allow delivery of liquid helium and nitrogen to three new cryopumps. Physics studies on the effects of slot width and length can be accomplished easily with the design of the Radiative Divertor. The slot width can be varied by installing graphite tiles of different geometry. The change in slot length, the distance from the X-point to the target plate, requires relocating the structure vertically and can be completed in about 6-8 weeks. Radiative Divertor diagnostics are being designed to provide comprehensive measurements for diagnosing the divertor. Required diagnostic modifications will be minimal for Phase 1, but extensive for Phase 2 installation. These Phase 2 diagnostics will be required to fully diagnose the high triangularity discharges in the divertor slots

  3. GPU Parallel Bundle Block Adjustment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHENG Maoteng

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available To deal with massive data in photogrammetry, we introduce the GPU parallel computing technology. The preconditioned conjugate gradient and inexact Newton method are also applied to decrease the iteration times while solving the normal equation. A brand new workflow of bundle adjustment is developed to utilize GPU parallel computing technology. Our method can avoid the storage and inversion of the big normal matrix, and compute the normal matrix in real time. The proposed method can not only largely decrease the memory requirement of normal matrix, but also largely improve the efficiency of bundle adjustment. It also achieves the same accuracy as the conventional method. Preliminary experiment results show that the bundle adjustment of a dataset with about 4500 images and 9 million image points can be done in only 1.5 minutes while achieving sub-pixel accuracy.

  4. Advantages and Challenges of Radiative Liquid Lithium Divertor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Masayuki

    2017-10-01

    Steady-state fusion power plant designs present major divertor technology challenges, including high divertor heat flux both in steady-state and during transients. In addition to these concerns, there are the unresolved technology issues of long term dust accumulation and associated tritium inventory and safety issues. The application of lithium (Li) in NSTX resulted in improved H-mode confinement, H-mode power threshold reduction, and reduction in the divertor peak heat flux while maintaining essentially Li-free core plasma operation even during H-modes. These promising results in NSTX and related modeling calculations motivated the radiative liquid Li divertor (RLLD) concept and its variant, the active liquid Li divertor concept (ARLLD), taking advantage of the enhanced Li radiation in relatively poorly confined divertor plasmas. It has been suggested that radiation-based liquid lithium (LL) divertor concepts with a modest Li-loop could provide a possible solution for the outstanding fusion reactor technology issues such as divertor heat flux mitigation and real time dust removal, while potentially improving the reactor plasma performance. Laboratory tests are also planned to investigate the Li-T recover efficiency and other relevant research topics of the RLLD. This work supported by DoE Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  5. Variation of particle exhaust with changes in divertor magnetic balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrie, T.W.; Allen, S.L.; Brooks, N.H.

    2006-01-01

    Recent experiments on DIII-D point to the importance of two factors in determining how effectively the deuterium particle inventory in a tokamak plasma can be controlled through pumping at the divertor target(s): (1) the divertor magnetic balance, i.e. the degree to which the divertor topology is single-null or double-null (DN) and (2) the direction of the of B x ∇B ion drift with respect to the X-point(s). Changes in divertor magnetic balance near the DN shape have a much stronger effect on the particle exhaust rate at the inner divertor target(s) than on the particle exhaust rate at the outer divertor target(s). The particle exhaust rate for the DN shape is strongest at the outer strike point opposite the B x ∇B ion particle drift direction. Our data suggests that the presence of B x ∇B and E x B ion particle drifts in the scrape-off layer and divertor(s) play an important role in the particle exhaust rates of DN and near-DN plasmas. Particle exhaust rates are shown to depend strongly on the edge (pedestal) density. These results have implications for particle control in ITER and other future tokamaks

  6. Engineering design of the Aries-IV gaseous divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasan, M.Z.; Najmabadi, F.; Sharafat, S.

    1994-01-01

    ARIES-IV is a conceptual, D-T burning, steady-state tokamak fusion reactor producing 1000 MWe net. It operates in the second plasma stability regime. The structural material is SiC composite and the primary coolant is helium at 10MPa base pressure. ARIES-IV uses double-null divertors for particle control. Total thermal power recovered from the divertors is 425MW, which is 16% of the total reactor thermal power. Among the desirable goals of divertor design were to avoid the use of tungsten and to use the same structural material and primary coolant as in the blanket design. In order to reduce peak heat flux, the innovative gaseous divertor has been used in ARIES-IV. A gaseous divertor reduces peak heat flux by increasing the surface area and by distributing particle and radiation energy more uniformly. Another benefit of gaseous divertor is the reduction of plasma temperature in the divertor chamber, so that material erosion due to sputtering, can be diminished. This makes the use of low-Z material possible in a gaseous divertor

  7. Divertor plasma physics experiments on the DIII-D tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahdavi, M.A.; Allen, S.L.; Evans, T.E.

    1996-10-01

    In this paper we present an overview of the results and conclusions of our most recent divertor physics and development work. Using an array of new divertor diagnostics we have measured the plasma parameters over the entire divertor volume and gained new insights into several divertor physics issues. We present direct experimental evidence for momentum loss along the field lines, large heat convection, and copious volume recombination during detachment. These observations are supported by improved UEDGE modeling incorporating impurity radiation. We have demonstrated divertor exhaust enrichment of neon and argon by action of a forced scrape off layer (SOL) flow and demonstrated divertor pumping as a substitute for conventional wall conditioning. We have observed a divertor radiation zone with a parallel extent that is an order of magnitude larger than that estimated from a 1-D conduction limited model of plasma at coronal equilibrium. Using density profile control by divertor pumping and pellet injection we have attained H-mode confinement at densities above the Greenwald limit. Erosion rates of several candidate ITER plasma facing materials are measured and compared with predictions of a numerical model

  8. Divertor impurity monitor for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugie, T.; Ogawa, H.; Nishitani, T.; Kasai, S.; Katsunuma, J.; Maruo, M.; Ebisawa, K.; Ando, T.; Kita, Y.

    1999-01-01

    The divertor impurity monitoring system of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor has been designed. The main functions of this system are to identify impurity species and to measure the two-dimensional distributions of the particle influxes in the divertor plasmas. The wavelength range is 200-1000 nm. The viewing fans are realized by molybdenum mirrors located in the divertor cassette. With additional viewing fans seeing through the gap between the divertor cassettes, the region approximately from the divertor leg to the x point will be observed. The light from the divertor region passes through the quartz windows on the divertor port plug and the cryostat, and goes through the dog-leg optics in the biological shield. Three different type of spectrometers: (i) survey spectrometers for impurity species monitoring, (ii) filter spectrometers for the particle influx measurement with the spatial resolution of 10 mm and the time resolution of 1 ms, and (iii) high dispersion spectrometers for high resolution wavelength measurements are designed. These spectrometers are installed just behind the biological shield (for λthe transmission loss in fiber and in the diagnostic room (for λ⩾450 nm) from the point of view of accessibility and flexibility. The optics have been optimized by a ray trace analysis. As a result, 10-15 mm spatial resolution will be achieved in all regions of the divertor.

  9. Physics design and experimental study of tokamak divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Jiancheng; Gao Qingdi; Yan Longwen; Wang Mingxu; Deng Baiquan; Zhang Fu; Zhang Nianman; Ran Hong; Cheng Fayin; Tang Yiwu; Chen Xiaoping

    2007-06-01

    The divertor configuration of HL-2A tokamak is optimized, and the plasma performance in divertor is simulated with B2-code. The effects of collisionality on plasma-wall transition in the scrape-off layer of divertor are investigated, high performances of the divertor plasma in HL-2A are simulated, and a quasi- stationary RS operation mode is established with the plasma controlled by LHCD and NBI. HL-2A tokamak has been successfully operated in divertor configuration. The major parameters: plasma current I p =320 kA, toroidal field B t =2.2 T, plasma discharger duration T d =1580 ms ware achieved at the end of 2004. The preliminary experimental researches of advanced diverter have been carried out. Design studies of divertor target plate for high power density fusion reactor have been carried out, especially, the physical processes on the surface of flowing liquid lithium target plate. The exploration research of improving divertor ash removal efficiency and reducing tritium inventory resulting from applying the RF ponderomotive force potential is studied. The optimization structure design studies of FEB-E reactor divertor are performed. High flux thermal shock experiments were carried on tungsten and carbon based materials. Hot Isostatic Press (HIP) method was employed to bond tungsten to copper alloys. Electron beam simulated thermal fatigue tests were also carried out to W/Cu bondings. Thermal desorption and surface modification of He + implanted into tungsten have been studied. (authors)

  10. Principal bundles the classical case

    CERN Document Server

    Sontz, Stephen Bruce

    2015-01-01

    This introductory graduate level text provides a relatively quick path to a special topic in classical differential geometry: principal bundles.  While the topic of principal bundles in differential geometry has become classic, even standard, material in the modern graduate mathematics curriculum, the unique approach taken in this text presents the material in a way that is intuitive for both students of mathematics and of physics. The goal of this book is to present important, modern geometric ideas in a form readily accessible to students and researchers in both the physics and mathematics communities, providing each with an understanding and appreciation of the language and ideas of the other.

  11. Particle control in the DIII-D advanced divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaffer, M.J.; Lippmann, S.I.; Mahdavi, M.A.; Petrie, T.W.; Stambaugh, R.D.; Hogan, J.; Klepper, C.C.; Mioduszewski, P.; Owen, L.; Hill, D.N.; Rensink, M.; Buchenauer, D.

    1991-11-01

    A new, electrically biasable, semi-closed divertor was installed and operated in the D3-D lower outside divertor location. The semi-closed divertor has yielded static gas pressure buildups in the pumping plenum in excess of 10 mtorr. (The planned cryogenic pumping is not yet installed). Electrical bias controls the distribution of particle recycle between the inner and outer divertors by rvec E x rvec B drifts. Depending on sign, bias increases or decreases the plenum gas pressure. Bias greatly reduce the sensitivity of plenum pressure to separatrix position. In particular, rvec E x rvec B drifts in the D3-D geometry can direct plasma across a divertor target and then optimally into the pumping aperture. Bias, even without active pumping, has also demonstrated a limited control of ELMing H-mode plasma density. 5 refs., 8 figs

  12. Divertor design for the TITAN reversed-field-pinch reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooke, P.I.H.; Bathke, C.G.; Blanchard, J.P.; Creedon, R.L.; Grotz, S.P.; Hasan, M.Z.; Orient, G.; Sharafat, S.; Werley, K.A.

    1987-01-01

    The design of the toroidal-field divertor for the TITAN high-power-density reversed-field-pinch reactor is described. The heat flux on the divertor target is limited to acceptable levels (≤ 10 MW/m 2 ) for liquid-lithium cooling by use of an open divertor geometry, strong radiation from the core and edge plasma, and careful shaping of the target surface. The divertor coils are based on the Integrated-Blanket-Coil approach to minimize the loss in breeding-blanket coverage due to the divertor. A tungsten-rhenium armour plate, chosen for reasons of sputtering resistance, and good thermal and mechanical properties, protects the vanadium-alloy coolant tubes

  13. Structural analysis of the ITER Divertor toroidal rails

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viganò, F., E-mail: Fabio.Vigano@LTCalcoli.it [L.T. Calcoli SaS, Piazza Prinetti 26/B, 23807 Merate (Italy); Escourbiac, F.; Gicquel, S.; Komarov, V. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St. Paul lez Durance (France); Lucca, F. [L.T. Calcoli SaS, Piazza Prinetti 26/B, 23807 Merate (Italy); Merola, M. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St. Paul lez Durance (France); Ngnitewe, R. [L.T. Calcoli SaS, Piazza Prinetti 26/B, 23807 Merate (Italy)

    2013-10-15

    The Divertor is one of the most technically challenging components of the ITER machine, which has the main function of extracting the power conducted in the scrape-off layer while maintaining the plasma purity. There are 54 Divertor cassettes installed in the vacuum vessel (VV). Each cassette body (CB) is fastened on the inner and outer concentric Divertor toroidal rails. The comprehensive assessment (in accordance with the Structural Design Criteria for ITER In-vessel Components: ITER SDC-IC) of the Divertor toroidal rails has been performed during design activity based on performing of thermal and stress analyses at operating conditions of neutron stage of ITER operation. This paper outlines the engineering aspects of the ITER Divertor toroidal rails and focuses on some critical regions of the present design highlighted by the performed structural assessment. The structural assessment has been performed with help of using Finite Element (FE) Abaqus code and based on criteria given by ITER SDC-IC.

  14. Alternative divertor target concepts for next step fusion devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazul, I. V.

    2016-12-01

    The operational conditions of a divertor target in the next steps of fusion devices are more severe in comparison with ITER. The current divertor designs and technologies have a limited application concerning these conditions, and so new design concepts/technologies are required. The main reasons which practically prevent the use of the traditional motionless solid divertor target are analyzed. We describe several alternative divertor target concepts in this paper. The comparative analysis of these concepts (including the advantages and the drawbacks) is made and the prospects for their practical implementation are prioritized. The concept of the swept divertor target with a liquid metal interlayer between the moving armour and motionless heat-sink is presented in more detail. The critical issues of this design are listed and outlined, and the possible experiments are presented.

  15. Simulation of the ASDEX divertor performance after hardening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, W.; Lackner, K.; Neuhauser, J.; Wunderlich, R.

    1985-05-01

    Two combined computer models - a fluid description of the plasma scrape-off layer (SOLID) and a Monte-Carlo code for the neutral gas dynamics (DEGAS) - are used to assess changes in the divertor performance expected from the modifications in geometry needed for hardening the ASDEX divertor chamber for long-pulse, high-power heating. Stand-alone DEGAS calculations with assumed fixed scrape-off plasma parameters predict a doubling of the neutral escape probability, which, however, still remains so low, that achievement of the high divertor recycling regime can be expected over roughly the same operational regime as before modifications. This conclusion is also supported by fully self-consistent calculations with the combined model. Due to the reduced divertor, a significant reduction is predicted in the divertor time constant, which is expected to affect transient phenomena. (orig.)

  16. Divertor heat flux control and plasma-material interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Yusuke; Nagata, Masayoshi; Sawada, Keiji; Takamura, Shuichi; Ueda, Yoshio

    2014-01-01

    Development of reliable radiative-cooling divertors is essential in DEMO reactor because it uses low-activation materials with low heat removal and the plasma heat flux exhausted from the confined region is 5 times as large as in ITER. It is important to predict precisely the heat and particle flux toward the divertor plate by simulation. In this present article, theoretical and experimental data of the reflection, secondary emission and surface recombination coefficients of the divertor plate by ion bombardment are given and their effects on the power transmission coefficient are discussed. In addition, some topics such as the erosion process of the divertor plate by ELM and the plasma disruption, the thermal shielding due to the vapor layer on the divertor plate and the formation of fuzz structure on W by helium plasma irradiation, are described. (author)

  17. Study of the radiation in divertor plasmas; Etude du rayonnement dans les plasmas de divertor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laugier, F

    2000-10-19

    We have studied the cooling of the edge plasma by radiation in the divertor volume, in order to optimize the extraction of power in tokamaks and to limit the wall erosion. In attached divertor plasmas experiments, the concentration of intrinsic impurities at the edge is related to the response of the wall to the incident energy flow of plasma, depending on a phenomenological law. We carried out an analysis of the radiation according to this law and to the control parameters of the discharges. The largest radiated fraction and best synergy are obtained when the concentration of intrinsic impurities strongly increases with the energy of incident plasma. On the other hand, the erosion of the wall is stronger. In detached plasmas, we proved that the performances in terms of incident plasma energy loss and pressure loss are optimal when the density of the slowest neutrals is strong at the edge and when their radial penetration is small. On Tore Supra, we highlighted the correlations between the maximum Mach number of incident plasma flow, the radiation front and the penetration of the neutrals. A simple diagnostic based on the localization of the maximum Mach number proves that detached mode is not optimal on Tore Supra, because the radial penetration of the slowest neutrals is not sufficiently small. In the last part, we obtained the three-dimensional topology of the radiation in the ergodic divertor using a spectral analysis code and boundary conditions consistent with the temperature distribution on the wall. The radiation is maximum in front of the divertor modules. As a consequence, radiated power is underestimated by standards measurements of Tore Supra that are located between the modules. We finally showed that the profiles of temperature along the field lines are modulated, this is specific to the ergodic divertor. (author)

  18. Numerical exploration of non-axisymmetric divertor closure in the small angle slot (SAS) divertor at DIII-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frerichs, Heinke; Schmitz, Oliver; Covele, Brent; Guo, Houyang; Hill, David; Feng, Yuhe

    2017-10-01

    In the Small Angle Slot (SAS) divertor in DIII-D, the combination of misaligned slot structure and non-axisymmetric perturbations to the magnetic field causes the strike point to vary radially along the divertor slot and even leave it at some toroidal locations. This effect essentially introduces an opening in the divertor slot from where recycling neutrals can easily escape, and thereby degrade performance of the slot divertor. This effect has been approximated by a finite gap in the divertor baffle. Simulations with EMC3-EIRENE show that a toroidally localized loss of divertor closure can result in non-axisymmetric divertor densities and temperatures. This introduces a density window of 10-15% on top of the nominal threshold separatrix density during which a non-axisymmetric onset of local detachment occurs, initially leaving the gap and up to 60 deg beyond that still attached. Conversely, the impact of such toroidally localized divertor perturbations on the toroidal symmetry of midplane separatrix conditions is small. This work has been funded by the U.S. Department of Energy under Early Career Award Grant DE-SC0013911, and Grant DE-FC02-04ER54698.

  19. Design analysis of the ITER divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuelli, G.; Marin, A.; Roccella, M.; Lucca, F.; Merola, M.; Riccardi, B.; Petrizzi, L.; Villari, R.

    2007-01-01

    The divertor is one of the most challenging components of the ITER machine. Its function is to reduce the impurity in the plasma and consists essentially of two parts: the plasma facing components (PFCs) and a massive support structure called the cassette body (CB). Considerable R and D effort (developed by EFDA CSU GARCHING and the ITER International Team together with the EU Associations and the EU Industries) has been spent in designing divertor components capable of withstanding the expected electromagnetic (EM) loads and to take into account the latest ITER design conditions. In support of such efforts extensive and very detailed Neutronic, Thermal, EM and Structural analyses have been performed. A summary of the analyses performed will be presented. One of the main result is a typical exercise of integration between the different kind of analyses and the importance of keeping the consistency between the different assumptions and simplifications. The models used for the numerical analyses include a detailed geometrical description of the CB, the inlet, outlet hydraulic manifolds, the CB to vacuum vessel locking system and three configurations of the PFU. The effect of electrical bridging, both in poloidal and toroidal direction, of the PFU castellation, due to a possible melting at the W mono-block or tiles, occurring during the plasma disruptions, has been analyzed. For all these configurations 2 VDE scenarios including the effect of the Toroidal Field Variation and the HaloCurrent with the related out of plane induced EM forces have been extensively analyzed and a detailed poloidal and radial distribution of the nuclear heating has been used for the neutronic flux on the divertor components. The aim of this activity is to produce a comprehensive design and assessment of the ITER divertor via: -The estimation of the neutronic heat deposition and shielding capability; -The calculation of the related thermal and mechanical effects and the comparison of the

  20. Design analysis of the ITER divertor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuelli, G.; Marin, A.; Roccella, M.; Lucca, F. [L.T. Calcoli SaS, Merate (Lecco) (Italy); Merola, M. [ITER Team, Cadarache (France); Riccardi, B. [EFDA CSU Garching (Germany); Petrizzi, L.; Villari, R. [CRE ENEA sulla Fusione Frascati, Roma (Italy)

    2007-07-01

    The divertor is one of the most challenging components of the ITER machine. Its function is to reduce the impurity in the plasma and consists essentially of two parts: the plasma facing components (PFCs) and a massive support structure called the cassette body (CB). Considerable R and D effort (developed by EFDA CSU GARCHING and the ITER International Team together with the EU Associations and the EU Industries) has been spent in designing divertor components capable of withstanding the expected electromagnetic (EM) loads and to take into account the latest ITER design conditions. In support of such efforts extensive and very detailed Neutronic, Thermal, EM and Structural analyses have been performed. A summary of the analyses performed will be presented. One of the main result is a typical exercise of integration between the different kind of analyses and the importance of keeping the consistency between the different assumptions and simplifications. The models used for the numerical analyses include a detailed geometrical description of the CB, the inlet, outlet hydraulic manifolds, the CB to vacuum vessel locking system and three configurations of the PFU. The effect of electrical bridging, both in poloidal and toroidal direction, of the PFU castellation, due to a possible melting at the W mono-block or tiles, occurring during the plasma disruptions, has been analyzed. For all these configurations 2 VDE scenarios including the effect of the Toroidal Field Variation and the HaloCurrent with the related out of plane induced EM forces have been extensively analyzed and a detailed poloidal and radial distribution of the nuclear heating has been used for the neutronic flux on the divertor components. The aim of this activity is to produce a comprehensive design and assessment of the ITER divertor via: -The estimation of the neutronic heat deposition and shielding capability; -The calculation of the related thermal and mechanical effects and the comparison of the

  1. On the refuelling of large divertor experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staebler, A.; Haas, G.; Ott, W.; Speth, E.

    1976-01-01

    The use of fast hydrogen atoms, molecules and clusters for refuelling large divertor-experiments like ASDEX is investigated. Three criteria for the choice among the various methods are discussed. It is shown that clusters suffer from lack of penetration. Molecules, created by fragmentation of clusters, offer the advantage of plasma-like energy combined with appreciable penetration. Large penetration and high ionization efficiency can only be achieved at energies for above the plasma temperature with H 0 -atoms of several tens of keV

  2. PDS4 Bundle Creation Governance Using BPMN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radulescu, C.; Levoe, S. R.; Algermissen, S. S.; Rye, E. D.; Hardman, S. H.

    2015-06-01

    The AMMOS-PDS Pipeline Service (APPS) provides a Bundle Builder tool, which governs the process of creating, and ultimately generates, PDS4 bundles incrementally, as science products are being generated.

  3. Exploring Bundling Theory with Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckalbar, John C.

    2006-01-01

    The author shows how instructors might successfully introduce students in principles and intermediate microeconomic theory classes to the topic of bundling (i.e., the selling of two or more goods as a package, rather than separately). It is surprising how much students can learn using only the tools of high school geometry. To be specific, one can…

  4. Episodic payments (bundling): PART I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacofsky, D J

    2017-10-01

    Episodic, or bundled payments, is a concept now familiar to most in the healthcare arena, but the models are often misunderstood. Under a traditional fee-for-service model, each provider bills separately for their services which creates financial incentives to maximise volumes. Under a bundled payment, a single entity, often referred to as a convener (maybe the hospital, the physician group, or a third party) assumes the risk through a payer contract for all services provided within a defined episode of care, and receives a single (bundled) payment for all services provided for that episode. The time frame around the intervention is variable, but defined in advance, as are included and excluded costs. Timing of the actual payment in a bundle may either be before the episode occurs (prospective payment model), or after the end of the episode through a reconciliation (retrospective payment model). In either case, the defined costs over the defined time frame are borne by the convener. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2017;99-B:1280-5. ©2017 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  5. Deformation quantization of principal fibre bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, S.

    2007-01-01

    Deformation quantization is an algebraic but still geometrical way to define noncommutative spacetimes. In order to investigate corresponding gauge theories on such spaces, the geometrical formulation in terms of principal fibre bundles yields the appropriate framework. In this talk I will explain what should be understood by a deformation quantization of principal fibre bundles and how associated vector bundles arise in this context. (author)

  6. Output commitment through product bundling : Experimental evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hinloopen, Jeroen; Mueller, Wieland; Normann, Hans-Theo

    We analyze the impact of product bundling in experimental markets. One firm has monopoly power in a first market but competes with another firm la Cournot in a second market. We compare treatments where the multi-product firm (i) always bundles, (ii) never bundles, and (iii) chooses whether to

  7. Evaluation of divertor conceptual designs for a fusion power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrari, M.; Giancarli, L.; Kleefeldt, K.; Nardi, C.; Roedig, M.; Reimann, J.; Salavy, J.F.

    2001-01-01

    In the frame of the preliminary study of plants suitable for the energy production from the fusion power, particular emphasis has been given on the divertor studies. Since a significant percentage of the power generated from the fusion process is absorbed in the divertor, the thermal efficiency of the power conversion cycle requires a high coolant outlet temperature of the divertor, leading to solutions that are different from those adopted for the present experimental fusion plants. Therefore, copper alloys having extremely high thermal conductivity, cannot be used as structural material for this kind of devices. The most suitable coolants to be used in the divertor are water, helium and liquid metals. A conceptual design study has been developed for each of these three fluids, with the aim to evaluate the maximum allowable thermal flux at the divertor target plate and the R and D requirements for each solution. While a water-cooled divertor can be designed with a limited R and D effort, the development of helium or liquid metal cooled divertors requires a more engaging R and D program

  8. Operation method for thermonuclear device and divertor for it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotake, Michiko; Yoshioka, Ken; Fukumoto, Hideshi; Okazaki, Takashi; Kinoshita, Shigemi; Takeuchi, Kazuhiro.

    1992-01-01

    Divertor plates are disposed subsequently along with circumferential direction of a vacuum vessel in a region where magnetic fluxed generated from the divertor coils are injected toward a container wall. Each of the divertor plates is moved in a state that the injection position of the magnetic fluxes enter to the vacuum vessel is kept constant. Alternatively, each of the divertor plates is inclined at an angle facing the injection direction of plasma particle fluxes, or it is inclined so that the angle between the injection surface and the magnetic fluxes makes an acute angle. Since each of the divertor coils is moved in the state of keeping the injection position of the magnetic fluxes during firing of plasmas, in other words, with on change of the current of the divertor coils, the position of the magnetic fluxed is kept at a predetermined condition. Accordingly, charged particles are prevented from concentrating locally without causing eddy current in the coils and the vacuum vessel, which can contribute to the reduction of the wear of the divertor plates. (N.H.)

  9. Physical study of experimental fusion breeder FEB divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Yukun; Zhou Xiaobing; Huang Jinhua; Feng Kaiming; Deng Peizhi; Huo Tiejun

    1999-10-01

    The physical study of FEB divertor is presented. In order to improve the impurity control and increase ion-neutral interactions in the divertor, the configuration of the divertor is optimized to be the close type in the engineering design activity compared with the open type in the early conceptual activity. The operation mode of the divertor is designed to be partial detached plasma mode under conditions of combination gas-puffing with impurity injection. The position of gas-puffing is optimized to be at the torus mid-plane with NEWT1D code from the viewpoint of impurity retention and radiation in the scrape-off layer/divertor region. Boron is chosen as the injected impurity. The effect of boron impurity injection is evaluated from the reduced heat load on the divertor target. The plasma pressure drop along the scrape-off layer/divertor region is estimated with the two-point transport model and impurity radiation model in the dynamic gas target concept. The simulation results show that the plasma pressure drop factor f p is not only related to the radiation fraction f rad but also related greatly to the stagnation point density n s

  10. Higher order jet prolongations type gauge natural bundles over vector bundles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kurek

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Let $rgeq 3$ and $mgeq 2$ be natural numbers and $E$ be a vector bundle with $m$-dimensional basis. We find all gauge natural bundles ``similar" to the $r$-jet prolongation bundle $J^rE$ of $E$. We also find all gauge natural bundles ``similar" to the vector $r$-tangent bundle $(J^r_{fl}(E,R_0^*$ of $E$.

  11. Co-Higgs bundles on P^1

    OpenAIRE

    Rayan, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Co-Higgs bundles are Higgs bundles in the sense of Simpson, but with Higgs fields that take values in the tangent bundle instead of the cotangent bundle. Given a vector bundle on P^1, we find necessary and sufficient conditions on its Grothendieck splitting for it to admit a stable Higgs field. We characterize the rank-2, odd-degree moduli space as a universal elliptic curve with a globally-defined equation. For ranks r=2,3,4, we explicitly verify the conjectural Betti numbers emerging from t...

  12. Disruption characteristics in PDX with limiter and divertor discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couture, P.; McGuire, K.

    1986-09-01

    A comparison has been made between the characteristics of disruptions with limiter and divertor configurations in PDX. A large data base on disruptions has been collected over four years of machine operation, and a total of 15,000 discharges are contained in the data file. It was found that divertor discharges have less disruptions during ramp up and flattop of the plasma current. However, for divertor discharges a large number of fast, low current disruptions take place during the current ramp down. These disruptions are probably caused by the deformation of the plasma shape

  13. Comparison of 2D simulations of detached divertor plasmas with divertor Thomson measurements in the DIII-D tokamak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.D. Rognlien

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A modeling study is reported using new 2D data from DIII-D tokamak divertor plasmas and improved 2D transport model that includes large cross-field drifts for the numerically difficult low anomalous transport regime associated with the H-mode. The data set, which spans a range of plasma densities for both forward and reverse toroidal magnetic field (Bt, is provided by divertor Thomson scattering (DTS. Measurements utilizing X-point sweeping give corresponding 2D profiles of electron temperature (Te and density (ne across both divertor legs for individual discharges. The simulations focus on the open magnetic field-line regions, though they also include a small region of closed field lines. The calculations show the same features of in/out divertor plasma asymmetries as measured in the experiment, with the normal Bt direction (ion ∇B drift toward the X-point having higher ne and lower Te in the inner divertor leg than outer. Corresponding emission data for total radiated power shows a strong inner-divertor/outer-divertor asymmetry that is reproduced by the simulations. These 2D UEDGE transport simulations are enabled for steep-gradient H-mode conditions by newly implemented algorithms to control isolated grid-scale irregularities.

  14. Boiling heat transfer on horizontal tube bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    Nucleate boiling heat transfer characteristics for a tube in a bundle differ from that for a single tube in a pool and this difference is known as 'tube bundle effect.' There exist two bundle effects, positive and negative. The positive bundle effect enhances heat transfer due to convective flow induced by rising bubbles generated from the lower tubes, while the negative bundle effect deteriorates heat transfer due to vapor blanketing caused by accumulation of bubbles. Staggered tube bundles tested and found that the upper tubes in bundles have higher heat transfer coefficients than the lower tubes. The effects of various parameters such as pressure, tube geometry and oil contamination on heat transfer have been examined. Some workers attempted to clarify the mechanism of occurrence of 'bundle effect' by testing tube arrangements of small scale. All reported only enhancement in heat transfer but results showed the symptom of heat transfer deterioration at higher heat fluxes. As mentioned above, it has not been clarified so far even whether the 'tube bundle effect' should serve as enhancement or deterioration of heat transfer in nucleate boiling. In this study, experiments are performed in detail by using bundles of small scale, and effects of heat flux distribution, pressure and tube location are clarified. Furthermore, some consideration on the mechanisms of occurrence of 'tube bundle effect' is made and a method for prediction of heat transfer rate is proposed

  15. Fluid structure interaction in tube bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brochard, D.; Jedrzejewski, F.; Gibert, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    A lot of industrial components contain tube bundles immersed in a fluid. The mechanical analysis of such systems requires the study of the fluid structure interaction in the tube bundle. Simplified methods, based on homogenization methods, have been developed to analyse such phenomenon and have been validated through experimental results. Generally, these methods consider only the fluid motion in a plan normal to the bundle axis. This paper will analyse, in a first part, the fluid structure interaction in a tube bundle through a 2D finite element model representing the bundle cross section. The influence of various parameters like the bundle size, and the bundle confinement will be studied. These results will be then compared with results from homogenization methods. Finally, the influence of the 3D fluid motion will be investigated, in using simplified methods. (authors). 11 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Development of CANFLEX fuel bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suk, Ho Chun; Hwang, Woan; Jeong, Young Hwan

    1991-12-01

    This research project is underway in cooperation with AECL to develop the CANDU advanced fuel bundle(so-called CANFLEX) which can enhance reactor safety and fuel economy in comparison with the current CANDU fuel and which can be used with natural uranium, slightly enriched uranium and other advanced fuel cycle. As the final schedule, the advanced fuel will be verified by carrying out a large scale demonstration of the bundle irradiation in a commercial CANDU reactors for 1996 and 1997, and consequently will be used in the existing and future reactors in Korea. The research activities during this year include the basic design of CANFLEX fuel with slightly enriched uranium(CANFLEX-SEU), with emphasis on the extension of fuel operation limit. Based on this basic design, CANFLEX fuel was mocked up. Out-of-pile hydraulic scoping tests were conducted with the fuel. (Author)

  17. Competitive nonlinear pricing and bundling

    OpenAIRE

    Armstrong, Mark; Vickers, John

    2006-01-01

    We examine the impact of multiproduct nonlinear pricing on profit, consumer surplus and welfare in a duopoly. When consumers buy all their products from one firm (the one-stop shopping model), nonlinear pricing leads to higher profit and welfare, but often lower consumer surplus, than linear pricing. By contrast, in a unit-demand model where consumers may buy one product from one firm and another product from another firm, bundling generally acts to reduce profit and welfare and to boost cons...

  18. Heat and particle transport of sol/divertor plasma in the W-shaped divertor on JT-60U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asakura, N.; Sakurai, S.; Hosogane, N.

    1999-01-01

    The plasma profile and parallel flow in the scrape-off layer (SOL) were systematically measured using Mach probes installed at the midplane and the divertor x-point. Quantitative evaluation of a parallel flow: naturally produced in a torus to keep the pressure constant along the field line, was consistent with the measurement. Geometry effects of the W-shaped divertor on the divertor plasma and particle recycling at the newly installed baffle plates were evaluated quantitatively using the edge plasma data. (author)

  19. Resonant island divertor experiments on text

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    deGrassie, J.S.; Evans, T.E.; Jackson, G.L.

    1988-09-01

    The first experimental tests of the resonant island divertor (RID) concept have been carried out on the Texas Experimental Tokamak (TEXT). Modular perturbation coils produce static resonant magnetic fields at the tokamak boundary. The resulting magnetic islands are used to guide heat and particle fluxes around a small scoop limiter head. An enhancement in the limiter collection efficiency over the nonisland operation, as evidenced by enhanced neutral density within the limiter head, of up to a factor of 4 is obtained. This enhancement is larger than one would expect given the measured magnitude of the cross-field particle transport in TEXT. It is proposed that electrostatic perturbations occur which enhance the ion convection rate around the islands. Preliminary experiments utilizing electron cyclotron heating (ECH) in conjunction with RID operation have also have been performed. 6 refs., 3 figs

  20. ELM induced divertor heat loads on TCV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marki, J.; Pitts, R. A.; Horacek, J.; Tskhakaya, D.; TCV Team

    2009-06-01

    Results are presented for heat loads at the TCV outer divertor target during ELMing H-mode using a fast IR camera. Benefitting from a recent surface cleaning of the entire first wall graphite armour, a comparison of the transient thermal response of freshly cleaned and untreated tile surfaces (coated with thick co-deposited layers) has been performed. The latter routinely exhibit temperature transients exceeding those of the clean ones by a factor ˜3, even if co-deposition throughout the first days of operation following the cleaning process leads to the steady regrowth of thin layers. Filaments are occasionally observed during the ELM heat flux rise phase, showing a spatial structure consistent with energy release at discrete toroidal locations in the outer midplane vicinity and with individual filaments carrying ˜1% of the total ELM energy. The temporal waveform of the ELM heat load is found to be in good agreement with the collisionless free streaming particle model.

  1. ELM induced divertor heat loads on TCV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marki, J., E-mail: janos.marki@epfl.c [Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas (CRPP), Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Association Euratom - Confederation Suisse, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Pitts, R.A. [Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas (CRPP), Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Association Euratom - Confederation Suisse, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Horacek, J. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Association EUROATOM-IPP.CR, Za Slovankou 3, 182 00 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Tskhakaya, D. [Association EURATOM-OAW, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

    2009-06-15

    Results are presented for heat loads at the TCV outer divertor target during ELMing H-mode using a fast IR camera. Benefitting from a recent surface cleaning of the entire first wall graphite armour, a comparison of the transient thermal response of freshly cleaned and untreated tile surfaces (coated with thick co-deposited layers) has been performed. The latter routinely exhibit temperature transients exceeding those of the clean ones by a factor approx3, even if co-deposition throughout the first days of operation following the cleaning process leads to the steady regrowth of thin layers. Filaments are occasionally observed during the ELM heat flux rise phase, showing a spatial structure consistent with energy release at discrete toroidal locations in the outer midplane vicinity and with individual filaments carrying approx1% of the total ELM energy. The temporal waveform of the ELM heat load is found to be in good agreement with the collisionless free streaming particle model.

  2. Evaluation of helium cooling for fusion divertors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxi, C.B.

    1993-09-01

    The divertors of future fusion reactors will have a power throughput of several hundred MW. The peak heat flux on the diverter surface is estimated to be 5 to 15 MW/m 2 at an average heat flux of 2 MW/m 2 . The divertors have a requirement of both minimum temperature (100 degrees C) and maximum temperature. The minimum temperature is dictated by the requirement to reduce the absorption of plasma, and the maximum temperature is determined by the thermo-mechanical properties of the plasma facing materials. Coolants that have been considered for fusion reactors are water, liquid metals and helium. Helium cooling has been shown to be very attractive from safety and other considerations. Helium is chemically and neutronically inert and is suitable for power conversion. The challenges associated with helium cooling are: (1) Manifold sizes; (2) Pumping power; and (3) Leak prevention. In this paper the first two of the above design issues are addressed. A variety of heat transfer enhancement techniques are considered to demonstrate that the manifold sizes and the pumping power can be reduced to acceptable levels. A helium-cooled diverter module was designed and fabricated by GA for steady-state heat flux of 10 MW/m 2 . This module was recently tested at Sandia National Laboratories. At an inlet pressure of 4 MPa, the module was tested at a steady-state heat flux of 10 MW/m 2 . The pumping power required was less than 1% of the power removed. These results verified the design prediction

  3. Transport and divertor studies in the FM-1 spherator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, K.; Ejima, S.; Davis, S.; Hawryluk, R.; Hsuan, H.; Meade, D.; Okabayaski, M.; Sauthoff, N.; Schmidt, J.; Sinnis, J.

    1974-10-01

    Fundamental problems of toroidal fusion devices have been investigated in the FM-1 Spherator. These subjects include the transport due to drift wave turbulence in the trapped electron regime, poloidal divertor and impurities, and lower hybrid heating. (auth)

  4. Status of National Spherical Torus Experiment Liquid Lithium Divertor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugel, H. W.; Viola, M.; Ellis, R.; Bell, M.; Gerhardt, S.; Kaita, R.; Kallman, J.; Majeski, R.; Mansfield, D.; Roquemore, A. L.; Schneider, H.; Timberlake, J.; Zakharov, L.; Nygren, R. E.; Allain, J. P.; Maingi, R.; Soukhanovskii, V.

    2009-11-01

    Recent NSTX high power divertor experiments have shown significant and recurring benefits of solid lithium coatings on plasma facing components to the performance of divertor plasmas in both L- and H- mode confinement regimes heated by high-power neutral beams. The next step in this work is the 2009 installation of a Liquid Lithium Divertor (LLD). The 20 cm wide LLD located on the lower outer divertor, consists of four, 80 degree sections; each section is separated by a row of graphite diagnostic tiles. The temperature controlled LLD structure consists of a 0.01cm layer of vacuum flame-sprayed, 50 percent porous molybdenum, on top of 0.02 cm, 316-SS brazed to a 1.9 cm Cu base. The physics design of the LLD encompasses the desired plasma requirements, the experimental capabilities and conditions, power handling, radial location, pumping capability, operating temperature, lithium filling, MHD forces, and diagnostics for control and characterization.

  5. Two-dimensional divertor modeling and scaling laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catto, P.J.; Connor, J.W.; Knoll, D.A.

    1996-01-01

    Two-dimensional numerical models of divertors contain large numbers of dimensionless parameters that must be varied to investigate all operating regimes of interest. To simplify the task and gain insight into divertor operation, we employ similarity techniques to investigate whether model systems of equations plus boundary conditions in the steady state admit scaling transformations that lead to useful divertor similarity scaling laws. A short mean free path neutral-plasma model of the divertor region below the x-point is adopted in which all perpendicular transport is due to the neutrals. We illustrate how the results can be used to benchmark large computer simulations by employing a modified version of UEDGE which contains a neutral fluid model. (orig.)

  6. Electron beam irradiation experiments of monoblock divertor mock-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satoh, Kazuyoshi; Akiba, Masato; Araki, Masanori; Suzuki, Satoshi; Yokoyama, Kenji; Smid, I.; Cardella, A.; Duwe, R.; Di Pietro, E.

    1993-03-01

    It is one of the key issues for ITER to develop the divertor plate. Electron beam irradiation tests were carried out on a NET divertor mock-up using JEBIS at JAERI under a collaboration between The NET team, JAERI and KFA Juelich. Screening tests (maximum heat flux of 23 MW/m 2 ) and thermal cycling tests (18 MW/m 2 , 30s, 1000cycle) were carried out. As a result of the screening tests, the erosion caused by sublimation of C/C was observed on the surface of armor tile. No serious damage such as cracks or detachments, however, were found. As a result of the thermal cycling tests, no major damage was detected on the C/C surface. However cooling time constant of the divertor mock-up increased over 600cycle. Therefore it implies that some defects would occur at the brazing interface of the divertor mock-up. (author)

  7. Divertor pumping system with NBI cryopump for JT-60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akino, Noboru; Kuriyama, Masaaki; Ohga, Tokumichi; Seki, Hiroshi; Tanai, Yutaka

    1998-08-01

    The pumping system for JT-60 W-shape divertor with the NBI cryopump have been developed. The pumping speed achieved in the divertor region was 13-15 m 3 /s for deuterium gas with three units of the NBI cryopumps. In a simulation experiment of helium ash exhaust through the divertor, pumping of a mixed gas of helium and deuterium has been demonstrated using the NBI cryosorption pumps covered with an argon condensed layer. Control of neutral particle pressure in the divertor region became possible by having remodeled an aperture of the existing fast shutter, which is installed between the JT-60 vacuum vessel and NBI beam-line, to be regulated. (author)

  8. Development of liquid lithium divertor for fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evtihkin, V. A.; Lyublinskij, I. E.; Vertkov, A.V.; Chumanov, A.V.; Shpolyanskij, V.N.

    2000-01-01

    Development of divertor is one of the most acute problems of the tokamak fusion reactor. The use of such materials as tungsten, beryllium, graphite and CFC's enabled to solve the problem to a certain extent fulfilling the need of the ITER project. The problem still rests unsolved for the DEMO-type reactors. Lithium if used as a material for high heat flux components may provide a successful solution of the problem. A concept of Li divertor based on the use of capillary-pore structures (CPS) is proposed and is being validated by a complex of experimental research and engineering developments. An optional concept of Li divertor for power removal at 400 MW in steady-state (DEMO-S project) is presented. The complex of experimental research is under way to prove the serviceability of the Li CPS in different conditions that would be realized in divertor

  9. Compatibility of detached divertor operation with robust edge pedestal performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, A.W., E-mail: leonard@fusion.gat.com [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Makowski, M.A.; McLean, A.G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Osborne, T.H.; Snyder, P.B. [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    The compatibility of detached radiative divertor operation with a robust H-mode pedestal is examined in DIII-D. A density scan produced low temperature plasmas at the divertor target, T{sub e} ⩽ 2 eV, with high radiation leading to a factor of ⩾4 drop in peak divertor heat flux. The cold radiative plasma was confined to the divertor and did not extend across the separatrix in X-point region. A robust H-mode pedestal was maintained with a small degradation in pedestal pressure at the highest densities. The response of the pedestal pressure to increasing density is reproduced by the EPED pedestal model. However, agreement of the EPED model with experiment at high density requires an assumption of reduced diamagnetic stabilization of edge Peeling–Ballooning modes.

  10. Divertor IR thermography on Alcator C-Moda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, J. L.; LaBombard, B.; Brunner, D.; Payne, J.; Wurden, G. A.

    2010-10-01

    Alcator C-Mod is a particularly challenging environment for thermography. It presents issues that will similarly face ITER, including low-emissivity metal targets, low-Z surface films, and closed divertor geometry. In order to make measurements of the incident divertor heat flux using IR thermography, the C-Mod divertor has been modified and instrumented. A 6° toroidal sector has been given a 2° toroidal ramp in order to eliminate magnetic field-line shadowing by imperfectly aligned divertor tiles. This sector is viewed from above by a toroidally displaced IR camera and is instrumented with thermocouples and calorimeters. The camera provides time histories of surface temperatures that are used to compute incident heat-flux profiles. The camera sensitivity is calibrated in situ using the embedded thermocouples, thus correcting for changes and nonuniformities in surface emissivity due to surface coatings.

  11. Thermomechanical simulation of WEST actively cooled upper divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batal, T.; Richou, M.; Guilhem, D.; Firdaouss, M.; Larroque, S.; Ferlay, F.; Missirlian, M.; Bucalossi, J.

    2016-01-01

    The Tore Supra tokamak is being transformed in an x-point divertor fusion device in the frame of the WEST (W-for tungsten-Environment in Steady-state Tokamak) project, launched in support to the ITER tungsten divertor strategy. The WEST project aims to test ITER-like W monoblock Plasma Facing Units (PFU). This ITER-like divertor will be tested under long plasma discharge up to 1000 s, with high heat flux density up to 20 MW/m 2 . This paper presents the results of ANSYS thermal-structural simulations of the WEST upper divertor. The upper divertor is made of twelve 30° sectors, each one composed of 38 PFU. The PFUs are actively cooled CuCrZr heat sinks and the incidence surface is coated with a thin tungsten layer. The fixing system is made of pins engaged in slotted holes. Besides, the fixing system of the sector assembly is the same as WEST lower divertor, so one upper divertor sector can be used indifferently in upper or Lower position during transitional operation phases in WEST. The total surface of the upper divertor is 8 m 2 , and it has to be able to extract up to 4 MW in steady-state, with peak heat flux values up to 8 MW/m 2 . The fixing system was designed to handle structural loads such as forces and torques resulting from halo and eddy current, respectively, especially during disruptions and Vertical Displacement Event (VDE). The torque resulting from eddy current is first calculated thanks to an internal CEA ANSYS APDL routine. Then the ANSYS structural and thermal-structural simulations of the PFU are presented, and its design is validated thanks to A-level RCC-MRx criteria. Finally, the most conservative load case is determined in order to validate the design of the pins and the support structure.

  12. Thermomechanical simulation of WEST actively cooled upper divertor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batal, T., E-mail: tristan.batal@cea.fr; Richou, M.; Guilhem, D.; Firdaouss, M.; Larroque, S.; Ferlay, F.; Missirlian, M.; Bucalossi, J.

    2016-11-15

    The Tore Supra tokamak is being transformed in an x-point divertor fusion device in the frame of the WEST (W-for tungsten-Environment in Steady-state Tokamak) project, launched in support to the ITER tungsten divertor strategy. The WEST project aims to test ITER-like W monoblock Plasma Facing Units (PFU). This ITER-like divertor will be tested under long plasma discharge up to 1000 s, with high heat flux density up to 20 MW/m{sup 2}. This paper presents the results of ANSYS thermal-structural simulations of the WEST upper divertor. The upper divertor is made of twelve 30° sectors, each one composed of 38 PFU. The PFUs are actively cooled CuCrZr heat sinks and the incidence surface is coated with a thin tungsten layer. The fixing system is made of pins engaged in slotted holes. Besides, the fixing system of the sector assembly is the same as WEST lower divertor, so one upper divertor sector can be used indifferently in upper or Lower position during transitional operation phases in WEST. The total surface of the upper divertor is 8 m{sup 2}, and it has to be able to extract up to 4 MW in steady-state, with peak heat flux values up to 8 MW/m{sup 2}. The fixing system was designed to handle structural loads such as forces and torques resulting from halo and eddy current, respectively, especially during disruptions and Vertical Displacement Event (VDE). The torque resulting from eddy current is first calculated thanks to an internal CEA ANSYS APDL routine. Then the ANSYS structural and thermal-structural simulations of the PFU are presented, and its design is validated thanks to A-level RCC-MRx criteria. Finally, the most conservative load case is determined in order to validate the design of the pins and the support structure.

  13. Non-ambipolar divertor flows in heliotron E

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chechkin, V.V.; Voitsenya, V.S.; Smirnova, M.S.; Sorokovoj, E.L.; Mizuuchi, T.; Nagasaki, K.; Okada, H.; Funaba, H.; Hamada, T.; Sano, F.; Zushi, H.; Nakasuga, M.; Kondo, K.; Masuzaki, S.; Motojima, O.

    1999-01-01

    The object of the work is to find out (1) the poloidal distributions of PEC in different poloidal cross-sections of the torus within one field period; (2) the link between PEC in the divertor flows (DF) and the characteristics of the divertor field lines; (3) the effect of different methods and regimes of heating on PEC. The data having been obtained enable us to understand at least partially the nature of PEC in the diverted plasma of H-E

  14. Signal detection by active, noisy hair bundles

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Maoiléidigh, Dáibhid; Salvi, Joshua D.; Hudspeth, A. J.

    2018-05-01

    Vertebrate ears employ hair bundles to transduce mechanical movements into electrical signals, but their performance is limited by noise. Hair bundles are substantially more sensitive to periodic stimulation when they are mechanically active, however, than when they are passive. We developed a model of active hair-bundle mechanics that predicts the conditions under which a bundle is most sensitive to periodic stimulation. The model relies only on the existence of mechanotransduction channels and an active adaptation mechanism that recloses the channels. For a frequency-detuned stimulus, a noisy hair bundle's phase-locked response and degree of entrainment as well as its detection bandwidth are maximized when the bundle exhibits low-amplitude spontaneous oscillations. The phase-locked response and entrainment of a bundle are predicted to peak as functions of the noise level. We confirmed several of these predictions experimentally by periodically forcing hair bundles held near the onset of self-oscillation. A hair bundle's active process amplifies the stimulus preferentially over the noise, allowing the bundle to detect periodic forces less than 1 pN in amplitude. Moreover, the addition of noise can improve a bundle's ability to detect the stimulus. Although, mechanical activity has not yet been observed in mammalian hair bundles, a related model predicts that active but quiescent bundles can oscillate spontaneously when they are loaded by a sufficiently massive object such as the tectorial membrane. Overall, this work indicates that auditory systems rely on active elements, composed of hair cells and their mechanical environment, that operate on the brink of self-oscillation.

  15. Turbulent Simulations of Divertor Detachment Based On BOUT + + Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin; Xu, Xueqiao; Xia, Tianyang; Ye, Minyou

    2015-11-01

    China Fusion Engineering Testing Reactor is under conceptual design, acting as a bridge between ITER and DEMO. The detached divertor operation offers great promise for a reduction of heat flux onto divertor target plates for acceptable erosion. Therefore, a density scan is performed via an increase of D2 gas puffing rates in the range of 0 . 0 ~ 5 . 0 ×1023s-1 by using the B2-Eirene/SOLPS 5.0 code package to study the heat flux control and impurity screening property. As the density increases, it shows a gradually change of the divertor operation status, from low-recycling regime to high-recycling regime and finally to detachment. Significant radiation loss inside the confined plasma in the divertor region during detachment leads to strong parallel density and temperature gradients. Based on the SOLPS simulations, BOUT + + simulations will be presented to investigate the stability and turbulent transport under divertor plasma detachment, particularly the strong parallel gradient driven instabilities and enhanced plasma turbulence to spread heat flux over larger surface areas. The correlation between outer mid-plane and divertor turbulence and the related transport will be analyzed. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-675075.

  16. Multi-fluid modeling of low-recycling divertor regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, R.D.; Pigarov, A.Yu.; Krasheninnikov, S.I.; Rognlien, T.D.; Soukhanovskii, V.A.; Rensink, M.E.; Maingi, R.; Skinner, C.H.; Stotler, D.P.; Bell, R.E.; Kugel, H.W.

    2010-01-01

    The low-recycling regimes of divertor operation in a single-null NSTX magnetic configuration are studied using computer simulations with the edge plasma transport code UEDGE. The edge plasma transport properties pertinent to the low-recycling regimes are demonstrated. These include the flux-limited character of the parallel heat transport and the high plasma temperatures with the flattened profiles in the scrape-off-layer. It is shown that to maintain the balance of particle fluxes at the core interface the deuterium gas puffing rate should increase as the divertor recycling coefficient decreases. The radial profiles of the heat load to the outer divertor plate, the upstream radial plasma profiles, and the effects of the cross-field plasma transport in the low-recycling regimes are discussed. It is also shown that recycling of lithium impurities evaporating from the divertor plate at high surface temperatures can reverse the low-recycling divertor operational regime to the high-recycling one and may cause thermal instability of the divertor plate (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  17. Multi-Fluid Modeling of Low-Recycling Divertor Regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, R.D.; Pigarov, A.Y.; Krasheninnikov, S.I.; Rognlien, T.D.; Soukhanovskii, V.A.; Rensink, M.E.; Maingi, R.; Skinner, C.H.; Stotler, D.P.; Bell, R.E.; Kugel, H.W.

    2010-01-01

    The low-recycling regimes of divertor operation in a single-null NSTX magnetic configuration are studied using computer simulations with the edge plasma transport code UEDGE. The edge plasma transport properties pertinent to the low-recycling regimes are demonstrated. These include the flux-limited character of the parallel heat transport and the high plasma temperatures with the flattened profiles in the scrape-off-layer. It is shown that to maintain the balance of particle fluxes at the core interface the deuterium gas puffing rate should increase as the divertor recycling coefficient decreases. The radial profiles of the heat load to the outer divertor plate, the upstream radial plasma profiles, and the effects of the cross-field plasma transport in the low-recycling regimes are discussed. It is also shown that recycling of lithium impurities evaporating from the divertor plate at high surface temperatures can reverse the low-recycling divertor operational regime to the high-recycling one and may cause thermal instability of the divertor plate.

  18. JET with a pumped divertor -- Technical issues and main results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertolini, E.

    1995-01-01

    The most recent modification to JET has been the installation of a single-null pumped divertor, for active control of plasma impurities. This is to address central physics issues relevant to the design of a next step tokamak. Experiments conducted during the 1994--95 campaign, with plasma currents up to 6MA, have shown that the Mark I divertor, which makes use of strike point sweeping across the target plates, is a suitable tool to control the influx of impurities in the plasma core. The operation of a tokamak with a pumped divertor has been characterized in detail. However the divertor configuration must be optimized to better meet ITER requirements. Therefore an improved (more closed) divertor structure, which may not require sweeping, is under assembly at present (Mark II). It is designed, in addition, to allow divertor tile structures to be fully replaceable by remote handling techniques, following D-T fusion experiments. New types of events involving electromechanical interactions of plasma with the vessel and in-vessel structural components have been encountered, due to plasma vertical instabilities and disruptions (such as toroidal asymmetries of vacuum vessel forces and side-ways vessel displacements). The physics and engineering experimental work performed in JET is primarily dedicated to the finalization of the ITER design

  19. Development of a radiative divertor for DIII-D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, S.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Brooks, N.H. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Campbell, R.B. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fenstermacher, M.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Hill, D.N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Hyatt, A.W. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Knoll, D.; Lasnier, C.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Lazarus, E.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Leonard, A.W. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Lippmann, S.I. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Mahdavi, M.A. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Maingi, R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Meyer, W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Moyer, R.A. [California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (United States); Petrie, T.W. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Porter, G.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Rensink, M.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Rognlien, T.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Schaffer, M.J. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Smith, J.P. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Staebler, G.M. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Stambaugh, R.D. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); West, W.P. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Wood, R.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-04-01

    We have used experiments and modeling to develop a new radiative divertor configuration for DIII-D. Gas puffing experiments with the existing open divertor have shown the creation of a localized ( similar 10 cm diameter) radiation zone which results in substantial reduction (3-10) in the divertor heat flux while {tau}{sub E} remains similar 2 times ITER-89P scaling. However, n{sub e} increases with D{sub 2} puffing, and Z{sub eff} increases with neon puffing. Divertor structures are required to minimize the effects on the core plasma. The UEDGE fluid code, benchmarked with DIII-D data, and the DEGAS neutrals transport code are used to estimate the effectiveness of divertor configurations; slots reduce the core ionization more than baffles. The overall divertor shape is set by confinement studies which indicate that high triangularity ({delta}{approx}0.8) is important for high {tau}{sub E} VH-modes. Results from engineering feasibility studies, including diagnostic access, will be presented. ((orig.)).

  20. Structural design of the DIII-D radiative divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reis, E.E.; Smith, J.P.; Baxi, C.B.; Bozek, A.S.; Chin, E.; Hollerbach, M.A.; Laughon, G.J.; Sevier, D.L.

    1996-10-01

    The divertor of the DIII-D tokamak is being modified to operate as a slot type, dissipative divertor. This modification, called the Radiative Divertor Program (RDP) is being carried out in two phases. The design and analysis is complete and hardware is being fabricated for the first phase. This first phase consists of an upper divertor baffle and cryopump to provide some density control for high triangularity, single or double null discharges. Installation of the first phase is scheduled to start in October, 1996. The second phase provides pumping at all four divertor strike points of double null high triangularity discharges and baffling of the neutral particles from transport back to the core plasma. Studies of the effects of varying the slot length and width of the divertor can be easily accomplished with the design of RDP hardware. Static and dynamic analyses of the baffle structures, new cryopumps, and feedlines were performed during the preliminary and final design phases. Disruption loads and differential thermal displacements must be accommodated in the design of these components. With the full RDP hardware installed, the plasma current in DIII-D will be a maximum of 3.0 MA. Plasma disruptions induce toroidal currents in the cryopump, producing complex dynamic loads. Simultaneously, the vacuum vessel vibrations impose a sinusoidal base excitation to the supports for the cryopump. Static and dynamic analyses of the cryopump demonstrate that the stresses due to disruption and thermal loadings satisfy the stress and deflection criteria

  1. The effect of density on divertor conditions in ASDEX-Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitcher, C.S.; Bosch, H.-S.; Buechl, K.; Field, A.; Fuchs, C.; Haas, G.; Junker, W.; Neu, R.; Neuhauser, J.; Wenzel, U.

    1995-01-01

    Detailed experimental divertor data are presented on the profiles of density and temperature in the inner and outer divertor fans, the radiated power distribution, the gas pressure and the spectroscopically derived particle fluxes, all as a function of the discharge density. At low and medium density, the inner divertor is cold and dense compared to the outer divertor. At high density, strong X-point MARFE and separatrix radiation partially detaches the inner divertor. Probe measurements which penetrate into the X-point MARFE at the outer divertor are presented. ((orig.))

  2. Job Management and Task Bundling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Evan; Jansen, Gustav R.; McElvain, Kenneth; Walker-Loud, André

    2018-03-01

    High Performance Computing is often performed on scarce and shared computing resources. To ensure computers are used to their full capacity, administrators often incentivize large workloads that are not possible on smaller systems. Measurements in Lattice QCD frequently do not scale to machine-size workloads. By bundling tasks together we can create large jobs suitable for gigantic partitions. We discuss METAQ and mpi_jm, software developed to dynamically group computational tasks together, that can intelligently backfill to consume idle time without substantial changes to users' current workflows or executables.

  3. Job Management and Task Bundling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berkowitz Evan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available High Performance Computing is often performed on scarce and shared computing resources. To ensure computers are used to their full capacity, administrators often incentivize large workloads that are not possible on smaller systems. Measurements in Lattice QCD frequently do not scale to machine-size workloads. By bundling tasks together we can create large jobs suitable for gigantic partitions. We discuss METAQ and mpi_jm, software developed to dynamically group computational tasks together, that can intelligently backfill to consume idle time without substantial changes to users’ current workflows or executables.

  4. Fuel bundle for nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, J.W.; Flora, B.S.; Ford, K.L.

    1977-01-01

    The invention concerns a new, simple and inexpensive system for assembling and dismantling a nuclear reactor fuel bundle. Several fuel rods are fitted in parallel rows between two retaining plates which secure the fuel rods in position and which are maintained in an assembled position by means of several stays fixed to the two end plates. The invention particularly refers to an improved apparatus for fixing the stays to the upper plate by using locking fittings secured to rotating sleeves which are applied against this plate [fr

  5. Reduction of symplectic principal R-bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacirasella, Ignazio; Marrero, Juan Carlos; Padrón, Edith

    2012-01-01

    We describe a reduction process for symplectic principal R-bundles in the presence of a momentum map. These types of structures play an important role in the geometric formulation of non-autonomous Hamiltonian systems. We apply this procedure to the standard symplectic principal R-bundle associated with a fibration π:M→R. Moreover, we show a reduction process for non-autonomous Hamiltonian systems on symplectic principal R-bundles. We apply these reduction processes to several examples. (paper)

  6. ACM Bundles on Del Pezzo surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Pons-Llopis

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available ACM rank 1 bundles on del Pezzo surfaces are classified in terms of the rational normal curves that they contain. A complete list of ACM line bundles is provided. Moreover, for any del Pezzo surface X of degree less or equal than six and for any n ≥ 2 we construct a family of dimension ≥ n − 1 of non-isomorphic simple ACM bundles of rank n on X.

  7. Bundling and mergers in energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granier, Laurent; Podesta, Marion

    2010-01-01

    Does bundling trigger mergers in energy industries? We observe mergers between firms belonging to various energy markets, for instance between gas and electricity providers. These mergers enable firms to bundle. We consider two horizontally differentiated markets. In this framework, we show that bundling strategies in energy markets create incentives to form multi-market firms in order to supply bi-energy packages. Moreover, we find that this type of merger is detrimental to social welfare. (author)

  8. Entropy for frame bundle systems and Grassmann bundle systems induced by a diffeomorphism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN; Weniang(孙文祥)

    2002-01-01

    ALiao hyperbolic diffeomorphism has equal measure entropy and topological entropy to that ofits induced systems on frame bundles and Grassmann bundles. This solves a problem Liao posed in 1996 forLiao hyperbolic diffeomorphisms.

  9. Comment on “Magnetic geometry and physics of advanced divertors: The X-divertor and the snowflake” [Phys. Plasmas 20, 102507 (2013)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryutov, D. D.; Cohen, R. H.; Rognlien, T. D.; Soukhanovskii, V. A.; Umansky, M. V.

    2014-01-01

    In the recently published paper “Magnetic geometry and physics of advanced divertors: The X-divertor and the snowflake” [Phys. Plasmas 20, 102507 (2013)], the authors raise interesting and important issues concerning divertor physics and design. However, the paper contains significant errors: (a) The conceptual framework used in it for the evaluation of divertor “quality” is reduced to the assessment of the magnetic field structure in the outer Scrape-Off Layer. This framework is incorrect because processes affecting the pedestal, the private flux region and all of the divertor legs (four, in the case of a snowflake) are an inseparable part of divertor operation. (b) The concept of the divertor index focuses on only one feature of the magnetic field structure and can be quite misleading when applied to divertor design. (c) The suggestion to rename the divertor configurations experimentally realized on NSTX (National Spherical Torus Experiment) and DIII-D (Doublet III-D) from snowflakes to X-divertors is not justified: it is not based on comparison of these configurations with the prototypical X-divertor, and it ignores the fact that the NSTX and DIII-D poloidal magnetic field geometries fit very well into the snowflake “two-null” prescription

  10. Hydraulic characteristics of HANARO fuel bundles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, S.; Chung, H. J.; Chun, S. Y.; Yang, S. K.; Chung, M. K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents the hydraulic characteristics measured by using LDV (Laser Doppler Velocimetry) in subchannels of HANARO, KAERI research reactor, fuel bundle. The fuel bundle consists of 18 axially finned rods with 3 spacer grids, which are arranged in cylindrical configuration. The effects of the spacer grids on the turbulent flow were investigated by the experimental results. Pressure drops for each component of the fuel bundle were measured, and the friction factors of fuel bundle and loss coefficients for the spacer grids were estimated from the measured pressure drops. Implications regarding the turbulent thermal mixing were discussed. Vibration test results measured by using laser vibrometer were presented. 9 refs., 12 figs. (Author)

  11. Hydraulic characteristics of HANARO fuel bundles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, S; Chung, H J; Chun, S Y; Yang, S K; Chung, M K [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    This paper presents the hydraulic characteristics measured by using LDV (Laser Doppler Velocimetry) in subchannels of HANARO, KAERI research reactor, fuel bundle. The fuel bundle consists of 18 axially finned rods with 3 spacer grids, which are arranged in cylindrical configuration. The effects of the spacer grids on the turbulent flow were investigated by the experimental results. Pressure drops for each component of the fuel bundle were measured, and the friction factors of fuel bundle and loss coefficients for the spacer grids were estimated from the measured pressure drops. Implications regarding the turbulent thermal mixing were discussed. Vibration test results measured by using laser vibrometer were presented. 9 refs., 12 figs. (Author)

  12. Cotangent bundle approach to noninertial frames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeFacio, B.; Retzloff, D.

    1980-01-01

    The most general possible noninertial acceleration in special relativity is formulated with differential forms in the cotangent bundle. We show that the Lie derivative plays the same role in the cotangent bundle that the covariant derivative plays in the tangent bundle. We also show that a cotangent bundle analog of Fermi--Walker transport can be based upon the, ''cotangent-geodesic'' equation, L/sub u/ω=0. This gives a generalization of the work by Kiehn on classical Hamiltonian mechanics to special relativity

  13. Divertor characteristics and control on the W-shaped divertor with pump of JT-60U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosogane, N.; Kubo, H.; Higashijima, S.

    1999-01-01

    Roles of the inner leg pumping and the private dome, which are special features of the W-shaped divertor of JT-60U, have been investigated. The following observations were made: The inner leg pumping functions well in attached states or partially detached states with weak X-point MARFE where the inner particle recycling is enhanced. A combination of main gas puff and inner leg pump is effective in reduction of intrinsic carbon impurity. Geometrical effects of the private dome on transport of hydrocarbons in the private flux region was confirmed by spectroscopic measurements of CD-band intensity profile and impurity transport simulation code using experimental data. (author)

  14. Variation of Particle Control with Changes in Divertor Geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrie, T W; Allen, S L; Brooks, N H; Fenstermacher, M E; Ferron, J R; Greenfield, C M; Groth, M; Hyatt, A W; Leonard, A W; Luce, T C; Mahdavi, M A; Murakami, M; Porter, G D; Rensink, M E; Schaffer, M J; Wade, M R; Watkins, J G; West, W P; Wolf, N S

    2004-01-01

    Recent experiments on DIII-D point to the importance of two factors in determining how effectively the deuterium particle inventory in a tokamak plasma can be controlled through pumping at the divertor target(s): (1) the divertor magnetic balance, i.e., the degree to which the divertor topology is single-null (SN) or double-null (DN), and (2) the direction of the of Bx(divergent)B ion drift with respect to the X-point(s). Changes in divertor magnetic balance near the DN shape have a much stronger effect on the particle exhaust rate at the inner divertor target(s) than on the particle exhaust rate at the outer divertor target(s). The particle exhaust rate for the DN shape is strongest at the outer strike point opposite the Bx(divergent)B ion particle drift direction. Our data suggests that the presence of Bx(divergent)B and ExB ion particle drifts in the scrapeoff layer (SOL) and divertors play an important role in the particle exhaust rates of DN and near-DN plasmas. Particle exhaust rates are shown to depend strongly on the edge (pedestal) density n e,PED . In the lower range of densities considered in this study, i.e., n e,PED / n GREENWALD <0.4, particle exhaust rates are also found to be approximately proportional to the deuterium recycling intensity in front of the respective plenum entrance. Our results are shown to have implications for particle control in ITER and other future tokamaks

  15. Variation of particle control with changes in divertor geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrie, T.W.; Allen, S.L.; Brooks, N.H.; Fenstermacher, M.E.; Groth, M.; Porter, G.D.; Rensink, M.E.; Wolf, N.S.; Ferron, J.R.; Greenfield, C.M.; Hyatt, A.W.; Leonard, A.W.; Luce, T.C.; Mahdavi, M.A.; Schaffer, M.J.; West, W.P.; Murakami, M.; Wade, M.R.; Watkins, J.G.

    2005-01-01

    Recent experiments on DIII-D point to the importance of two factors in determining how effectively the deuterium particle inventory in a tokamak plasma can be controlled through pumping at the divertor target(s): (1) the divertor magnetic balance, i.e., the degree to which the divertor topology is single-null (SN) or double-null (DN), and (2) the direction of the of Bx∇B ion drift with respect to the X-point(s). Changes in divertor magnetic balance near the DN shape have a much stronger effect on the particle exhaust rate at the inner divertor target(s) than on the particle exhaust rate at the outer divertor target(s). The particle exhaust rate for the DN shape is strongest at the outer strike point opposite the Bx∇B ion particle drift direction. Our data suggests that the presence of Bx∇B and ExB ion particle drifts in the scrapeoff layer (SOL) and divertors play an important role in the particle exhaust rates of DN and near-DN plasmas. Particle exhaust rates are shown to depend strongly on the edge (pedestal) density n e,PED . In the lower range of densities considered in this study, i.e., n e,PED /n GREENWALD <0.4, particle exhaust rates are also found to be approximately proportional to the deuterium recycling intensity in front of the respective plenum entrance. Our results are shown to have implications for particle control in ITER and other future tokamaks. (author)

  16. Design, R&D and commissioning of EAST tungsten divertor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, D. M.; Luo, G. N.; Zhou, Z. B.; Cao, L.; Li, Q.; Wang, W. J.; Li, L.; Qin, S. G.; Shi, Y. L.; Liu, G. H.; Li, J. G.

    2016-02-01

    After commissioning in 2005, the EAST superconducting tokamak had been operated with its water cooled divertors for eight campaigns up to 2012, employing graphite as plasma facing material. With increase in heating power over 20 MW in recent years, the heat flux going to the divertors rises rapidly over 10 MW m-2 for steady state operation. To accommodate the rapid increasing heat load in EAST, the bolting graphite tile divertor must be upgraded. An ITER-like tungsten (W) divertor has been designed and developed; and firstly used for the upper divertor of EAST. The EAST upper W divertor is modular structure with 80 modules in total. Eighty sets of W/Cu plasma-facing components (PFC) with each set consisting of an outer vertical target (OVT), an inner vertical target (IVT) and a DOME, are attached to 80 stainless steel cassette bodies (CB) by pins. The monoblock W/Cu-PFCs have been developed for the strike points of both OVT and IVT, and the flat type W/Cu-PFCs for the DOME and the baffle parts of both OVT and IVT, employing so-called hot isostatic pressing (HIP) technology for tungsten to CuCrZr heat sink bonding, and electron beam welding for CuCrZr to CuCrZr and CuCrZr to other material bonding. Both monoblock and flat type PFC mockups passed high heat flux (HHF) testing by means of electron beam facilities. The 80 divertor modules were installed in EAST in 2014 and results of the first commissioning are presented in this paper.

  17. A computational study of operating regimes for poloidal divertors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petravic, M.; Heifetz, D.; Post, D.

    1982-01-01

    We have identified three theoretical operating regimes for poloidal divertors. These regimes are determined by the geometry of the divertor and the input energy and particle fluxes, and are characterized by the divertor plasma density and temperature. A fully self-consistent two-dimensional model for the plasma and neutral atom and molecule transport was used to study poloidal divertor operation. Extensions of our previous calculations important to this study were the inclusion of parallel electron and ion thermal conduction. We find that the key physics in divertor operation is the neutral recycling near the neutralizer plate. This can be parametrized by R = GAMMAsub(P)/GAMMAsub(O), the ratio of particle flux striking the neutralizer plate to the particle flux entering the divertor. Values of R approx. equal to 1 can be produced by large pumping rates near the neutralizer plates resulting in low neutral recycling and a high temperature, low density divertor plasma. By decreasing the pumping near the neutralizer plate, R can be raised to an intermediate value of 5-10, the plasma temperature lowered by the same factor, and the density raised by a factor of 10-30. In this regime, escape of the neutrals back to the main plasma is virtually blocked. By further restricting the pumping, R can be raised to twenty or more, thereby lowering the temperature by a factor of twenty or more and raising the density by a factor of ninety or more. Such high density regimes have been observed on D-III and appear to offer the most promise for impurity control and particle control on large reactor experiments such as INTOR or FED. In this paper, we explore the range 3 < R < 16. (orig.)

  18. Two-dimensional impurity transport calculations for a high recycling divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, J.N.

    1986-04-01

    Two dimensional analysis of impurity transport in a high recycling divertor shows asymmetric particle fluxes to the divertor plate, low helium pumping efficiency, and high scrapeoff zone shielding for sputtered impurities

  19. Efficiency of water coolant for DEMO divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fetzer, Renate; Igitkhanov, Yuri; Bazylev, Boris

    2015-01-01

    Up to now, water-cooled divertor concepts have been developed for limited incident fluxes without taking into account transient power loadings. In this paper we analyzed the efficiency of water as a coolant for the particular PFC tungsten monoblock shield with a cooling tube made from Cu alloy (Cu OFHC) as a laminate adjacent to W and a low activation martensitic steel (Eurofer) as inner tube contacting the coolant. Thermal analysis is carried out by using the code MEMOS, which simulates W armour damage under the repetitive ELM heat loads. We consider cooling conditions which allow one to keep relatively high material temperatures (in the range 300–600 °C) thus minimizing Eurofer embrittlement under neutron irradiation. Expected DEMO I and DEMO II heat loads including type I ELMs are found to cause melting of the W surface during unmitigated ELMs. By mitigation of the ELMs melting of W is avoided. DEMO I operation under these conditions is save for cooling at water pressure 15.5 MPa and temperature 325 °C, while for DEMO II with mitigated ELMs the critical heat flux is exceeded and safe operation is not provided.

  20. The edge plasma and divertor in TIBER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barr, W.L.

    1987-10-16

    An open divertor configuration has been adopted for TIBER. Most recent designs, including DIII-D, NET and CIT use open configurations and rely on a dense edge plasma to shield the plasma from the gas produced at the neutralizer plate. Experiments on ASDEX, PDX, D-III, and recently on DIII-D have shown that a dense edge plasma can be produced by re-ionizing most of the gas produced at the plate. This high recycling mode allows a large flux of particles to carry the heat to the plate, so that the mean energy per particle can be low. Erosion of the plate can be greatly reduced if the average impact energy of the ions at the plate can be reduced to near or below the threshold for sputtering of the plate material. The present configuration allows part of the flux of edge plasma ions to be neutralized at the entrance to the pumping duct so that helium is pumped as well as hydrogen. 7 refs., 3 figs.

  1. Efficiency of water coolant for DEMO divertor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fetzer, Renate, E-mail: renate.fetzer@kit.edu; Igitkhanov, Yuri; Bazylev, Boris

    2015-10-15

    Up to now, water-cooled divertor concepts have been developed for limited incident fluxes without taking into account transient power loadings. In this paper we analyzed the efficiency of water as a coolant for the particular PFC tungsten monoblock shield with a cooling tube made from Cu alloy (Cu OFHC) as a laminate adjacent to W and a low activation martensitic steel (Eurofer) as inner tube contacting the coolant. Thermal analysis is carried out by using the code MEMOS, which simulates W armour damage under the repetitive ELM heat loads. We consider cooling conditions which allow one to keep relatively high material temperatures (in the range 300–600 °C) thus minimizing Eurofer embrittlement under neutron irradiation. Expected DEMO I and DEMO II heat loads including type I ELMs are found to cause melting of the W surface during unmitigated ELMs. By mitigation of the ELMs melting of W is avoided. DEMO I operation under these conditions is save for cooling at water pressure 15.5 MPa and temperature 325 °C, while for DEMO II with mitigated ELMs the critical heat flux is exceeded and safe operation is not provided.

  2. The edge plasma and divertor in TIBER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barr, W.L.

    1987-01-01

    An open divertor configuration has been adopted for TIBER. Most recent designs, including DIII-D, NET and CIT use open configurations and rely on a dense edge plasma to shield the plasma from the gas produced at the neutralizer plate. Experiments on ASDEX, PDX, D-III, and recently on DIII-D have shown that a dense edge plasma can be produced by re-ionizing most of the gas produced at the plate. This high recycling mode allows a large flux of particles to carry the heat to the plate, so that the mean energy per particle can be low. Erosion of the plate can be greatly reduced if the average impact energy of the ions at the plate can be reduced to near or below the threshold for sputtering of the plate material. The present configuration allows part of the flux of edge plasma ions to be neutralized at the entrance to the pumping duct so that helium is pumped as well as hydrogen. 7 refs., 3 figs

  3. Divertor conceptual designs for a fusion power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norajitra, P.; Ihli, T.; Janeschitz, G.; Abdel-Khalik, S.; Mazul, I.; Malang, S.

    2007-01-01

    The development of a divertor concept for post-ITER fusion power plants is deemed to be an urgent task to meet the EU Fast Track scenario. Developing a divertor is particularly challenging due to the wide range of requirements to be met including the high incident peak heat flux, the blanket design with which the divertor has to be integrated, sputtering erosion of the plasma-facing material caused by the incident a particles, radiation effects on the properties of structural materials, and efficient recovery and conversion of the divertor thermal power (∝15% of the total fusion thermal power) by maximizing the coolant operating temperature while minimizing the pumping power. In the course of the EU PPCS, three near-term (A, B and AB) and two advanced power plant models (C, D) were investigated. Model A utilizes a water-cooled lead-lithium (WCLL) blanket and a water-cooled divertor with a peak heat flux of 15 MW/m 2 . Model B uses a He-cooled ceramics/beryllium pebble bed (HCPB) blanket and a He-cooled divertor concept (10 MW/m 2 ). Model AB uses a He-cooled lithium-lead (HCLL) blanket and a He-cooled divertor concept (10 MW/m 2 ). Model C is based on a dual-coolant (DC) blanket (lead/lithium self-cooled bulk and He-cooled structures) and a He-cooled divertor (10 MW/m 2 ). Model D employs a self-cooled lead/lithium (SCLL) blanket and lead-lithiumcooled divertor (5 MW/m 2 ). The values in parenthesis correspond to the maximum peak heat fluxes required. It can be noted that the helium-cooled divertor is used in most of the EU plant models; it has also been proposed for the US ARIES-CS reactor study. Since 2002, it has been investigated extensively in Europe under the PPCS with the goal of reaching a maximum heat flux of at least 10 MW/m2. Work has covered many areas including conceptual design, analysis, material and fabrication issues, and experiments. Generally, the helium-cooled divertor is considered to be a suitable solution for fusion power plants, as it

  4. Theory and Simulations of ELM Control with a Snowflake Divertor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryutov, D.; Cohen, B.; Cohen, R.; Makowski, M. A.; Menard, J.; Rognlien, T.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Umansky, M.; Xu, X., E-mail: ryutov1@llnl.gov [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore (United States); Kolemen, E. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton (United States)

    2012-09-15

    Full text: This paper is concerned with the use of a snowflake (SF) divertor for the control and mitigation of edge localized modes (ELMs). Our research is focused on the following three issues: 1. Effect of the SF geometry on neoclassical ion orbits near the separatrix, including prompt ion losses and the related control mechanism for the electric field and plasma flow in the pedestal; 2. Influence of the thereby modified flow and of high poloidal plasma beta in the divertor region on plasma turbulence and transport in the snowflake-plus geometry; 3. Reaction of the SF divertor to type-1 ELM events. Neoclassical ion orbits in the vicinity of the SF separatrix are changed due to a much weaker poloidal field near the null and much longer particle dwell-time in this area. This leads to an increase of the prompt ion loss, which then affects the radial electric field profile near the separatrix. The resulting E x B flow shear in the pedestal region affects the onset of ELMs. The electric field and velocity shear are then used as a background for two-fluid simulations of the edge plasma turbulence in a realistic geometry with the 3D BOUT code. A SF-plus geometry is chosen, so that the separatrix topology remains the same as for the standard X-point divertor, whereas the magnetic shear both inside and outside the separatrix increases dramatically. It is found that mesoscale instabilities are suppressed when the geometry is close to a perfect SF. In situations where complete suppression of ELMs is impossible, the SF divertor offers a path to reducing heat loads during ELM events to an acceptable level. Two effects, both related to the weakness of the poloidal field near the SF null, act synergistically in the same favorable direction. The first is the onset of strong, curvature-driven convection in the divertor, triggered by the increase of the poloidal pressure during the ELM and leading to the splitting of the heat flux between all four (as is the case in a SF geometry

  5. Probabilistic analysis of divertor plate lifetime in tokamak reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golinescu, R.P.; Kazimi, M.S.

    1994-01-01

    Defining a methodology for a reliability estimate of the International Tokamak Experimental Reactor (ITER) divertor is the objective of the study summarized in this paper. If ITER could be designed such that no transients of any type occurred, the divertor reliability would be controlled by erosion of material during normal operation. The occurrence of several transient events results in important contribution to the expected divertor failure rate. Some transients cause the temperature in the divertor plate (DP) to rise; if these temperatures get too high, the structural elements in the DP will weaken and subsequently suffer structural failure and possibly reach the melting temperature. Using the limited data available leads to the result that there is a high probability that the DP will reliably withstand a peak heat flux of 11 MW/m 2 . However, transient events will lead to a much shorter lifetime than desirable for DP's, mainly due to the expected severe effects of plasma disruptions. If transients occurred, but the shutdown mechanism succeeded to perform without inducing a disruption, divertor reliability could be significantly improved. Improved characterization of the disruption conditions, and enlarged scope of failure modes should be pursued to gain confidence in the present conclusions

  6. Optimal thermal-hydraulic performance for helium-cooled divertors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izenson, M.G.; Martin, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    Normal flow heat exchanger (NFHX) technology offers the potential for cooling divertor panels with reduced pressure drops (<0.5% Δp/p), reduced pumping power (<0.75% pumping/thermal power), and smaller duct sizes than conventional helium heat exchangers. Furthermore, the NFHX can easily be fabricated in the large sizes required for divertors in large tokamaks. Recent experimental and computational results from a program to develop NFHX technology for divertor coolings using porous metal heat transfer media are described. We have tested the thermal and flow characteristics of porous metals and identified the optimal heat transfer material for the divertor heat exchanger. Methods have been developed to create highly conductive thermal bonds between the porous material and a solid substrate. Computational fluid dynamics calculations of flow and heat transfer in the porous metal layer have shown the capability of high thermal effectiveness. An 18-kW NFHX, designed to meet specifications for the international Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor divertor, has been fabricated and tested for thermal and flow performance. Preliminary results confirm design and fabrication methods. 11 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab

  7. Analysis of sweeping heat loads on divertor plate materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassanein, A.

    1991-01-01

    The heat flux on the divertor plate of a fusion reactor is probably one of the most limiting constraints on its lifetime. The current heat flux profile on the outer divertor plate of a device like ITER is highly peaked with narrow profile. The peak heat flux can be as high as 30--40 MW/m 2 with full width at half maximum (FWHM) is in the order of a few centimeters. Sweeping the separatrix along the divertor plate is one of the options proposed to reduce the thermomechanical effects of this highly peaked narrow profile distribution. The effectiveness of the sweeping process is investigated parametrically for various design values. The optimum sweeping parameters of a particular heat load will depend on the design of the divertor plate as well as on the profile of such a heat load. In general, moving a highly peaked heat load results in substantial reduction of the thermomechanical effects on the divertor plate. 3 refs., 8 figs

  8. Toroidal asymmetries in divertor impurity influxes in NSTX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Scotti

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Toroidal asymmetries in divertor carbon and lithium influxes were observed in NSTX, due to toroidal differences in surface composition, tile leading edges, externally-applied three-dimensional (3D fields and toroidally-localized edge plasma modifications due to radio frequency heating. Understanding toroidal asymmetries in impurity influxes is critical for the evaluation of total impurity sources, often inferred from measurements with a limited toroidal coverage. The toroidally-asymmetric lithium deposition induced asymmetries in divertor lithium influxes. Enhanced impurity influxes at the leading edge of divertor tiles were the main cause of carbon toroidal asymmetries and were enhanced during edge localized modes. Externally-applied 3D fields led to strike point splitting and helical lobes observed in divertor impurity emission, but marginal changes to the toroidally-averaged impurity influxes. Power coupled to the scrape-off layer SOL plasma during radio frequency (RF heating of H-mode discharges enhanced impurity influxes along the non-axisymmetric divertor footprint of flux tubes connecting to plasma in front of the RF antenna.

  9. CANFLEX fuel bundle junction pressure drop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, H. J.; Chung, C. H.; Jun, J. S.; Hong, S. D.; Chang, S. K.; Kim, B. D.

    1996-11-01

    This report describes the junction pressure drop test results which are to used to determine the alignment angle between bundles to achieve the most probable fuel string pressure drop for randomly aligned bundles for use in the fuel string total pressure drop test. (author). 4 tabs., 17 figs

  10. Anatomic Double-bundle ACL Reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreiber, Verena M.; van Eck, Carola F.; Fu, Freddie H.

    2010-01-01

    Rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is one of the most frequent forms of knee trauma. The traditional surgical treatment for ACL rupture is single-bundle reconstruction. However, during the past few years there has been a shift in interest toward double-bundle reconstruction to closely

  11. CANFLEX fuel bundle strength tests (test report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Seok Kyu; Chung, C. H.; Kim, B. D.

    1997-08-01

    This document outlines the test results for the strength tests of the CANFLEX fuel bundle. Strength tests are performed to determine and verify the amount of the bundle shape distortion which is against the side-stops when the bundles are refuelling. There are two cases of strength test; one is the double side-stop test which simulates the normal bundle refuelling and the other is the single side-stop test which simulates the abnormal refuelling. the strength test specification requires that the fuel bundle against the side-stop(s) simulators for this test were fabricated and the flow rates were controlled to provide the required conservative hydraulic forces. The test rig conditions of 120 deg C, 11.2 MPa were retained for 15 minutes after the flow rate was controlled during the test in two cases, respectively. The bundle loading angles of number 13- number 15 among the 15 bundles were 67.5 deg CCW and others were loaded randomly. After the tests, the bundle shapes against the side-stops were measured and inspected carefully. The important test procedures and measurements were discussed as follows. (author). 5 refs., 22 tabs., 5 figs

  12. CANFLEX fuel bundle junction pressure drop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, H. J.; Chung, C. H.; Jun, J. S.; Hong, S. D.; Chang, S. K.; Kim, B. D.

    1996-11-01

    This report describes the junction pressure drop test results which are to used to determine the alignment angle between bundles to achieve the most probable fuel string pressure drop for randomly aligned bundles for use in the fuel string total pressure drop test. (author). 4 tabs., 17 figs.

  13. Output commitment through product bundling: experimental evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hinloopen, J.; Mueller, W.; Normann, H.T.

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the impact of product bundling in experimental markets. A firm has monopoly power in one market but faces competition by a second firm in another market. We compare treatments where the monopolist can bundle its two products to treatments where it cannot, and we contrast simultaneous and

  14. Fuel bundle movement due to reverse flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahba, N N; Akalin, O [Ontario Hydro, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    When a break occurs in the inlet feeder or inlet header, the rapid depressurization will cause the channel flow to reverse forcing the string of bundles to accelerate and impact with upstream shield plug. A model has been developed to predict the bundle motion due to the channel flow reversal. The model accounts for various forces acting on the bundle. A series of five reverse flow, bundle acceleration experiments have been conducted simulating a break in the inlet feeder of a CANDU fuel channel. The model has been validated against the experiments. The predicted impact velocities are in good agreement with the measured values. It is demonstrated that the model may be successfully used in predicting bundle relocation timing following a large LOCA (loss of coolant). (author). 7 refs., 3 tabs., 11 figs.

  15. A study on the fusion reactor - A study on the design feature of fusion reactor divertor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyung Jin [Chosun University, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of); Paek, Won Pil; Jang, Soon Hong [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Sim, Young Jae [Kyungsang University, Jinju (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-09-01

    The contents and scope of the project can be summarized as, - study on the trend of divertor design - study on characteristics of coolant materials - study on characteristics of divertor materials - study on the thermal analysis method of divertor design. 36 refs., 12 tabs., 16 figs. (author)

  16. Chiral equations and fiber bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mateos, T.; Becerril, R.

    1992-01-01

    Using the hypothesis g = g (lambda i ), the chiral equations (rhog, z g -1 ), z -bar + (rhog, z -barg -1 ), z = 0 are reduced to a Killing equation of a p-dimensional space V p , being lambda i lambda i (z, z-bar) 'geodesic' parameters of V p . Supposing that g belongs to a Lie group G, one writes the corresponding Lie algebra elements (F) in terms of the Killing vectors of V p and the generators of the subalgebra of F of dimension d = dimension of the Killing space. The elements of the subalgebras belong to equivalence classes which in the respective group form a principal fiber bundle. This is used to integrate the matrix g in terms of the complex variables z and z-bar ( Author)

  17. Developing physics basis for the snowflake divertor in the DIII-D tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soukhanovskii, V. A.; Allen, S. L.; Fenstermacher, M. E.; Lasnier, C. J.; Makowski, M. A.; McLean, A. G.; Meyer, W. H.; Ryutov, D. D.; Kolemen, E.; Groebner, R. J.; Hyatt, A. W.; Leonard, A. W.; Osborne, T. H.; Petrie, T. W.; Watkins, J.

    2018-03-01

    Recent DIII-D results demonstrate that the snowflake (SF) divertor geometry (see standard divertor) enables significant manipulation of divertor heat transport for heat spreading and reduction in attached and radiative divertor regimes, between and during edge localized modes (ELMs), while maintaining good H-mode confinement. Snowflake divertor configurations have been realized in the DIII-D tokamak for several seconds in H-mode discharges with heating power P_NBI ≤slant 4 -5 MW and a range of plasma currents I_p=0.8-1.2 MA. In this work, inter-ELM transport and radiative SF divertor properties are studied. Significant impact of geometric properties on SOL and divertor plasma parameters, including increased poloidal magnetic flux expansion, divertor magnetic field line length and divertor volume, is confirmed. In the SF-minus configuration, heat deposition is affected by the geometry, and peak divertor heat fluxes are significantly reduced. In the SF-plus and near-exact SF configurations, divertor peak heat flux reduction and outer strike point heat flux profile broadening are observed. Inter-ELM sharing of power and particle fluxes between the main and additional snowflake divertor strike points has been demonstrated. The additional strike points typically receive up to 10-15% of total outer divertor power. Measurements of electron pressure and poloidal beta βp support the theoretically proposed churning mode that is driven by toroidal curvature and vertical pressure gradient in the weak poloidal field region. A comparison of the 4-4.5 MW NBI-heated H-mode plasmas with radiative SF divertor and the standard radiative divertor (both induced with additional gas puffing) shows a nearly complete power detachment and broader divertor radiated power distribution in the SF, as compared to a partial detachment and peaked localized radiation in the standard divertor. However, insignificant difference in the detachment onset w.r.t. density between the SF and the standard

  18. Aberrations in preliminary design of ITER divertor impurity influx monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitazawa, Sin-iti, E-mail: kitazawa.siniti@jaea.go.jp [Naka Fusion Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, JAEA, Naka 311-0193 (Japan); Ogawa, Hiroaki [Naka Fusion Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, JAEA, Naka 311-0193 (Japan); Katsunuma, Atsushi; Kitazawa, Daisuke [Core Technology Center, Nikon Corporation, Yokohama 244-8533 (Japan); Ohmori, Keisuke [Customized Products Business Unit, Nikon Corporation, Mito 310-0843 (Japan)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Divertor impurity influx monitor for ITER (DIM) is procured by JADA. • DIM is designed to observe light from nuclear fusion plasma directly. • DIM is under preliminary design phase. • The spot diagrams were suppressed within the core of receiving fiber. • The aberration of DIM is suppressed in the preliminary design. - Abstract: Divertor impurity influx monitor for ITER (DIM) is a diagnostic system that observes light from nuclear fusion plasma directly. This system is affected by various aberrations because it observes light from the fan-array chord near the divertor in the ultraviolet–near infrared wavelength range. The aberrations should be suppressed to the extent possible to observe the light with very high spatial resolution. In the preliminary design of DIM, spot diagrams were suppressed within the core of the receiving fiber's cross section, and the resulting spatial resolutions satisfied the design requirements.

  19. Hydrogen recycling and transport in the helical divertor of TEXTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clever, Meike

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this thesis was to investigate the hydrogen recycling at the target plates of the helical divertor in TEXTOR and by this the capability of this divertor configuration to access such favourable operational regimes. In order to study the different divertor density regimes in TEXTOR, discharges were performed in which the total plasma density was increased continuously up to the density limit. The recycling was investigated in a fixed helical divertor structure where four helical strike points with a poloidal width of about 8-10 cm are created at the divertor target plates. The experimental investigation of the hydrogen recycling was carried out using mainly spectroscopic methods supplemented by Langmuir probe, interferometric and atomic beam measurements. In the framework of this thesis a spectroscopic multi camera system has been built that facilitates the simultaneous observation of four different spectral lines, recording images of the divertor target plates and the plasma volume close to the target. The system facilitates the simultaneous measurement of the poloidal and toroidal pattern of the recycling flux at the divertor target without the need for sweeping the plasma structure. The simultaneous observation of different spectral lines reduces the uncertainty in the analysis based on several lines, as the contribution from uncertainties in the reproducibility of plasma parameters in different discharges are eliminated and only the uncertainty of the measurement method limits the accuracy. The spatial resolution of the system in poloidal and toroidal direction (0.8 mm{+-}0.01 mm) is small compared to the separation of the helical strike points, the capability of the measurement method to resolve these structures is therefore limited by the line-of-sight integration and the penetration depth of the light emitting species. The measurements showed that the recycling flux increases linearly with increasing plasma density, a high recycling regime is not

  20. Neutron activation behavior of NET/ITER divertor structural materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smid, I.; Weimann, G.; Kny, E.; Kneringer, G.; Reheis, N.

    1995-01-01

    The post-activation behavior of the materials carbon, TZM (99.3 % Mo) and Mo.41Re, as well as of high temperature brazes suitable for their joining after irradiation with 14 MeV neutrons has been evaluated. The activity, dose rate and energy generation after exposure to an ignited fusion plasma is presented for various time steps after shutdown. The impact of the activity and the afterheat production on the handling and storage conditions of retired divertor components is simulated, the required protection for maintenance is discussed. Further the temperature of stored divertor elements after a full time operation in NET was calculated. No major afterheat production will occur and thus no special cooling is to be provided after approximately one month. Taking into account convection and radiation the equilibrium temperature of vertically stored environment/aircooled divertor elements is predicted to be approximately 100 degree C. (author)

  1. The simple map for a single-null divertor tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punjabi, A.; Verma, A.; Boozer, A.

    1996-01-01

    We present the simple map for a single-null divertor tokamak. The simple map is an area-preserving map based on the idea that magnetic field lines are a single-degree-of-freedom time-dependent Hamiltonian system, and that the basic features of such systems near the X-point are generic. We obtain the properties of this map and the resulting footprints of field lines on the divertor plate. These include the width of the stochastic layer, the edge safety factor, the area of the footprint and the amount of magnetic flux diverted. We give the safety factor profile, the average and median values of strike angles, lengths and the Liapunov exponents. We describe how the effects of magnetic perturbations can be included in the simple map. We show how the map can be applied to the problem of the determination of heat flux on the divertor plate in tokamaks. (Author)

  2. Charge exchange in a divertor plasma with excited particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasheninnikov, S.I.; Lisitsa, V.S.; Pigarov, A.Y.

    1988-01-01

    A model is constructed for the dynamics of neutral atoms and multicharged ions in a tokamak plasma. The influence of cascade excitation on charge exchange and ionization is taken into account. The effective rates of the resonant charge exchange of a proton with a hydrogen atom, the nonresonant charge exchange of a helium atom with a proton, and that of an α particle with atomic hydrogen are calculated as functions of the parameters of the divertor plasma in a tokamak. The charge exchange H + +He→H+He + can represent a significant fraction (∼30%) of the total helium ionization rate. Incorporating the charge exchange of He 2+ with atomic hydrogen under the conditions prevailing in the divertor plasma of the INTOR reactor can lead to substantial He 2+ →He + conversion and thereby reduce the sputtering of the divertor plates by helium ions

  3. Radiative divertor plasmas with convection in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leornard, A.W.; Porter, G.D.; Wood, R.D.

    1998-01-01

    The radiation of divertor heat flux on DIII-D is shown to greatly exceed the limits imposed by assumptions of energy transport dominated by electron thermal conduction parallel to the magnetic field. Approximately 90% of the power flowing into the divertor is dissipated through low Z radiation and plasma recombination. The dissipation is made possible by an extended region of low electron temperature in the divertor. A one-dimensional analysis of the parallel heat flux finds that the electron temperature profile is incompatible with conduction dominated parallel transport. Plasma flow at up to the ion acoustic speed, produced by upstream ionization, can account for the parallel heat flux. Modeling with the two-dimensional fluid code UEDGE has reproduced many of the observed experimental features

  4. Development of divertor pumping system with superpermeable membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Y.; Ohyabu, N.; Suzuki, H.; Nakahara, Y.; Livshits, A.; Notkin, M.; Alimov, V.; Busnyuk, A.

    2000-01-01

    A new divertor pumping system with superpermeable membranes of group Va-metals (Nb, V) is now under research and development. Properties of membrane pumping were investigated with the use of a plasma device simulating divertor plasma conditions. The deposition of metal (Fe) and non-metal (C) impurities on the membrane upstream surface results in a degradation of plasma driven superpermeation at the membrane temperature T m m ≥800 deg. C. The same temperature effect on superpermeation is observed at sputtering of membrane surface by energetic plasma ions. In addition, the first application of the membrane pumping to fusion devices has been carried out and a deuterium pumping through the membrane was demonstrated under the conditions of divertor plasma in the JFT-2M tokamak

  5. A survey of problems in divertor and edge plasma theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boozer, A.; Braams, B.; Weitzner, H.; Hazeltine, R.; Houlberg, W.; Oktay, E.; Sadowski, W.; Wootton, A.

    1992-01-01

    Theoretical physics problems related to divertor design are presented, organized by the region in which they occur. Some of the open questions in edge physics are presented from a theoretician's point of view. After a cursory sketch of the fluid models of the edge plasma and their numerical realization, the following topics are taken up: time-dependent problems, non-axisymmetric effects, anomalous transport in the scrape-off layer, edge kinetic theory, sheath effects and boundary conditions in divertors, electric field effects, atomic and molecular data issues, impurity transport in the divertor region, poloidally localized power dissipation (MARFEs and dense gas targets), helium ash removal, and neutral transport. The report ends with a summary of selected problems of particular significance and a brief bibliography of survey articles and related conference proceedings

  6. Hydrogen recycling and transport in the helical divertor of TEXTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clever, Meike

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to investigate the hydrogen recycling at the target plates of the helical divertor in TEXTOR and by this the capability of this divertor configuration to access such favourable operational regimes. In order to study the different divertor density regimes in TEXTOR, discharges were performed in which the total plasma density was increased continuously up to the density limit. The recycling was investigated in a fixed helical divertor structure where four helical strike points with a poloidal width of about 8-10 cm are created at the divertor target plates. The experimental investigation of the hydrogen recycling was carried out using mainly spectroscopic methods supplemented by Langmuir probe, interferometric and atomic beam measurements. In the framework of this thesis a spectroscopic multi camera system has been built that facilitates the simultaneous observation of four different spectral lines, recording images of the divertor target plates and the plasma volume close to the target. The system facilitates the simultaneous measurement of the poloidal and toroidal pattern of the recycling flux at the divertor target without the need for sweeping the plasma structure. The simultaneous observation of different spectral lines reduces the uncertainty in the analysis based on several lines, as the contribution from uncertainties in the reproducibility of plasma parameters in different discharges are eliminated and only the uncertainty of the measurement method limits the accuracy. The spatial resolution of the system in poloidal and toroidal direction (0.8 mm±0.01 mm) is small compared to the separation of the helical strike points, the capability of the measurement method to resolve these structures is therefore limited by the line-of-sight integration and the penetration depth of the light emitting species. The measurements showed that the recycling flux increases linearly with increasing plasma density, a high recycling regime is not

  7. Aberrations in preliminary design of ITER divertor impurity influx monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitazawa, Sin-iti; Ogawa, Hiroaki; Katsunuma, Atsushi; Kitazawa, Daisuke; Ohmori, Keisuke

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Divertor impurity influx monitor for ITER (DIM) is procured by JADA. • DIM is designed to observe light from nuclear fusion plasma directly. • DIM is under preliminary design phase. • The spot diagrams were suppressed within the core of receiving fiber. • The aberration of DIM is suppressed in the preliminary design. - Abstract: Divertor impurity influx monitor for ITER (DIM) is a diagnostic system that observes light from nuclear fusion plasma directly. This system is affected by various aberrations because it observes light from the fan-array chord near the divertor in the ultraviolet–near infrared wavelength range. The aberrations should be suppressed to the extent possible to observe the light with very high spatial resolution. In the preliminary design of DIM, spot diagrams were suppressed within the core of the receiving fiber's cross section, and the resulting spatial resolutions satisfied the design requirements.

  8. Constructing co-Higgs bundles on CP^2

    OpenAIRE

    Rayan, Steven

    2013-01-01

    On a complex manifold, a co-Higgs bundle is a holomorphic vector bundle with an endomorphism twisted by the tangent bundle. The notion of generalized holomorphic bundle in Hitchin's generalized geometry coincides with that of co-Higgs bundle when the generalized complex manifold is ordinary complex. Schwarzenberger's rank-2 vector bundle on the projective plane, constructed from a line bundle on the double cover CP^1 \\times CP^1 \\to CP^2, is naturally a co-Higgs bundle, with the twisted endom...

  9. Experimental demonstration of vector E x vector B plasma divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strait, E.J.; Kerst, D.W.; Sprott, J.C.

    1977-01-01

    The vector E x vector B drift due to an applied radial electric field in a tokamak with poloidal divertor can speed the flow of plasma out of the scrape-off region, and provide a means of externally controlling the flow rate and thus the width of the density fall-off. An experiment in the Wisconsin levitated toroidal octupole, using vector E x vector B drifts alone, demonstrates divertor-like behavior, including 70% reduction of plasma density near the wall and 40% reduction of plasma flux to the wall, with no adverse effects on confinement of the main plasma

  10. Divertor development for a future fusion power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norajitra, Prachai

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear fusion is considered as a future source of sustainable energy supply. In the first chapter, the physical principle of magnetic plasma confinement, and the function of a tokamak are described. Since the discovery of the H-mode in ASDEX experiment ''Divertor I'' in 1982, the divertor has been an integral part of all modern tokamaks and stellarators, not least the ITER machine. The goal of this work is to develop a feasible divertor design for a fusion power plant to be built after ITER. This task is particularly challenging because a fusion power plant formulates much greater demands on the structural material and the design than ITER in terms of neutron wall load and radiation. First several divertor concepts proposed in the literature e.g. the Power Plant Conceptual Study (PPCS) using different coolants are reviewed and analyzed with respect to their performance. As a result helium cooled divertor concept exhibited the best potential to come up to the highest safety requirements and therefore has been chosen for the design process. From the third chapter the necessary steps towards this goal are described. First, the boundary conditions for the arrangement of a divertor with respect to the fusion plasma are discussed, as this determines the main thermal and neutronic load parameters. Based on the loads material selection criteria are inherently formulated. In the next step, the reference design is defined in accordance with the established functional design specifications. The developed concept is of modular nature and consists of cooling fingers of tungsten using an impingement cooling in order to achieve a heat dissipation of 10 MW/m 2 . In the next step, the design was subjected to the thermal-hydraulic and thermo-mechanical calculations in order to analyze and improve the performance and the manufacturing technologies. Based on these results, a prototype was produced and experimentally tested on their cooling capacity, their thermo-cyclic loading

  11. Divertor plate concept with carbon based armour for NET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moons, F.; Howard, R.; Kneringer, G.; Stickler, R.

    1989-01-01

    A series of tests has been performed on simulated divertor elements for NET at the JET neutral beam injector test bed. The test section consisted of a water cooled main structure, the surface of which was protected with a carbon based armour in the form of tiles. The scope of these was to study the thermal behaviour of mechanically attached tiles with the use of an intermediate soft carbon layer to improve the thermal contact under divertor relevant conditions. (author). 4 refs.; 4 figs.; 1 tab

  12. Turbulence studies in tokamak boundary plasmas with realistic divertor geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, X.Q.; Cohen, R.H.; Porter, G.D.; Rognlien, T.; Ryutov, D.D.; Myra, J.R.; D'Ippolito, D.A.; Moyer, R.; Groebner, R.J.

    2001-01-01

    Results are presented from the 3D nonlocal electromagnetic turbulence code BOUT and the linearized shooting code BAL for studies of turbulence in tokamak boundary plasmas and its relationship to the L-H transition, in a realistic divertor plasma geometry. The key results include: (1) the identification of the dominant resistive X-point mode in divertor geometry and (2) turbulence suppression in the L-H transition by shear in the ExB drift speed, ion diamagnetism and nite polarization. Based on the simulation results, a parameterization of the transport is given that includes the dependence on the relevant physical parameters. (author)

  13. Turbulence studies in tokamak boundary plasmas with realistic divertor geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, X.Q.; Cohen, R.H.; Por, G.D. ter; Rognlien, T.D.; Ryutov, D.D.; Myra, J.R.; D'Ippolito, D.A.; Moyer, R.; Groebner, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    Results are presented from the 3D nonlocal electromagnetic turbulence code BOUT and the linearized shooting code BAL for studies of turbulence in tokamak boundary plasmas and its relationship to the L-H transition, in a realistic divertor plasma geometry. The key results include: (1) the identification of the dominant resistive X-point mode in divertor geometry and (2) turbulence suppression in the L-H transition by shear in the E x B drift speed, ion diamagnetism and finite polarization. Based on the simulation results, a parameterization of the transport is given that includes the dependence on the relevant physical parameters. (author)

  14. An analytic model for flow reversal in divertor plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooke, P.I.H.; Prinja, A.K.

    1987-04-01

    An analytic model is developed and used to study the phenomenon of flow reversal which is observed in two-dimensional simulations of divertor plasmas. The effect is shown to be caused by the radial spread of neutral particles emitted from the divertor target which can lead to a strong peaking of the ionization source at certain radial locations. The results indicate that flow reversal over a portion of the width of the scrape-off layer is inevitable in high recycling conditions. Implications for impurity transport and particle removal in reactors are discussed

  15. Engineering design of a toroidal divertor for the EBT-S fusion device. Final report, Phase II. EBT-S divertor project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mai, L.P.; Malick, F.S.

    1981-01-01

    The mechanical, structural, thermal, electrical, and vacuum design of a magnetic toroidal divertor system for the Elmo Bumpy Torus (EBT-S) is presented. The EBT-S is a toroidal magnetic fusion device located at the ORNL that operates under steady state conditions. The engineering of the divertor was performed during the second of three phases of a program aimed at the selection, design, fabrication, and installation of a magnetic divertor for EBT-S. The magnetic analysis of the toroidal divertor was performed during Phase I of the program and has been reported in a separate document. In addition to the details of the divertor design, the modest modifications that are required to the EBT-S device and facility to accommodate the divertor system are presented

  16. Evaluation of droplet deposition in rod bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, W.; Gu, C.Y.; Anglart, H.

    1997-01-01

    Deposition model for droplets in gas droplet two-phase flow in rod bundle is developed in this work using the Lagrangian method. The model is evaluated in a 9-rod bundle geometry. The deposition coefficient in the bundle geometry are compared with that in round tube. The influences of the droplet size and gas mass flow rate on deposition coefficient are investigated. Furthermore, the droplet motion is studied in more detail by dividing the bundle channel into sub-channels. The results show that the overall deposition coefficient in the bundle geometry is close to that in the round tube with the diameter equal to the bundle hydraulic diameter. The calculated deposition coefficient is found to be higher for higher gas mass flux and smaller droplets. The study in the sub-channels show that the ratio between the local deposition coefficient for a sub-channel and the averaged value for the whole bundle is close to a constant value, deviations from the mean value for all the calculated cases being within the range of ±13%. (author)

  17. Preliminary report: NIF laser bundle review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tietbohl, G.L.; Larson, D.W.; Erlandson, A.C.

    1995-01-01

    As requested in the guidance memo 1 , this committe determined whether there are compelling reasons to recommend a change from the NIF CDR baseline laser. The baseline bundle design based on a tradeoff between cost and technical risk, which is replicated four times to create the required 192 beams. The baseline amplifier design uses bottom loading 1x4 slab and flashlamp cassettes for amplifier maintenance and large vacuum enclosures (2.5m high x 7m wide in cross-section for each of the two spatial filters in each of the four bundles. The laser beams are arranged in two laser bays configured in a u-shape around the target area. The entire bundle review effort was performed in a very short time (six weeks) and with limited resources (15 personnel part-time). This should be compared to the effort that produced the CDR design (12 months, 50 to 100 personnel). This committee considered three alternate bundle configurations (2x2, 4x2, and 4x4 bundles), and evaluated each bundle against the baseline design using the seven requested issues in the guidance memo: Cost; schedule; performance risk; maintainability/operability; hardware failure cost exposure; activation; and design flexibility. The issues were reviewed to identify differences between each alternate bundle configuration and the baseline

  18. Thermal Analysis of the Divertor Primary Heat Transfer System Piping During the Gas Baking Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoder, Graydon L. Jr.; Harvey, Karen; Ferrada, Juan J.

    2011-01-01

    A preliminary analysis has been performed examining the temperature distribution in the Divertor Primary Heat Transfer System (PHTS) piping and the divertor itself during the gas baking process. During gas baking, it is required that the divertor reach a temperature of 350 C. Thermal losses in the piping and from the divertor itself require that the gas supply temperature be maintained above that temperature in order to ensure that all of the divertor components reach the required temperature. The analysis described in this report was conducted in order to estimate the required supply temperature from the gas heater.

  19. OEDGE modeling of plasma contamination efficiency of Ar puffing from different divertor locations in EAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pengfei, ZHANG; Ling, ZHANG; Zhenwei, WU; Zong, XU; Wei, GAO; Liang, WANG; Qingquan, YANG; Jichan, XU; Jianbin, LIU; Hao, QU; Yong, LIU; Juan, HUANG; Chengrui, WU; Yumei, HOU; Zhao, JIN; J, D. ELDER; Houyang, GUO

    2018-04-01

    Modeling with OEDGE was carried out to assess the initial and long-term plasma contamination efficiency of Ar puffing from different divertor locations, i.e. the inner divertor, the outer divertor and the dome, in the EAST superconducting tokamak for typical ohmic plasma conditions. It was found that the initial Ar contamination efficiency is dependent on the local plasma conditions at the different gas puff locations. However, it quickly approaches a similar steady state value for Ar recycling efficiency >0.9. OEDGE modeling shows that the final equilibrium Ar contamination efficiency is significantly lower for the more closed lower divertor than that for the upper divertor.

  20. Bundle duct interaction studies for fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsia, H.T.S.; Kaplan, S.

    1981-06-01

    It is known that the wire-wrapped rods and duct in an LMFBR are undergoing a gradual structural distortion from the initially uniform geometry under the combined effects of thermal expansion and irradiation induced swelling and creep. These deformations have a significant effect on flow characteristics, thus causing changes in thermal behavior such as cladding temperature and temperature distribution within a bundle. The temperature distribution may further enhance or retard irradiation induced deformation of the bundle. This report summarizes the results of the continuing effort in investigating the bundle-duct interaction, focusing on the need for the large development plant

  1. Geometry of Quantum Principal Bundles. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durdevic, M.

    1996-01-01

    A theory of principal bundles possessing quantum structure groups and classical base manifolds is presented. Structural analysis of such quantum principal bundles is performed. A differential calculus is constructed, combining differential forms on the base manifold with an appropriate differential calculus on the structure quantum group. Relations between the calculus on the group and the calculus on the bundle are investigated. A concept of (pseudo)tensoriality is formulated. The formalism of connections is developed. In particular, operators of horizontal projection, covariant derivative and curvature are constructed and analyzed. Generalizations of the first Structure Equation and of the Bianchi identity are found. Illustrative examples are presented. (orig.)

  2. Bundles of C*-categories and duality

    OpenAIRE

    Vasselli, Ezio

    2005-01-01

    We introduce the notions of multiplier C*-category and continuous bundle of C*-categories, as the categorical analogues of the corresponding C*-algebraic notions. Every symmetric tensor C*-category with conjugates is a continuous bundle of C*-categories, with base space the spectrum of the C*-algebra associated with the identity object. We classify tensor C*-categories with fibre the dual of a compact Lie group in terms of suitable principal bundles. This also provides a classification for ce...

  3. Evaluation of bundle duct interaction by out of pile compressive test of FBR bundles. FFTF type bundle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Kosuke; Yamamoto, Yuji; Nagamine, Tsuyoshi; Maeda, Koji [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    2000-10-01

    Bundle duct interaction (BDI) caused by expansion of fuel pin bundle becomes one of the main limiting factors for fuel life times. Then, it is important for the design of fast reactor fuel assembly to understand the BDI behavior in detail. In order to understand the BDI behavior, out of pile compressive tests were conducted for FFTF type bundle by use of X-ray CT equipment. In these compressive tests, two type bundles with different accuracy of initial wire position were conducted. The objective of this test is to evaluate the influence of the initial error from standard position of wire at the same axial position. The locations of the pins and the duct flats are analyzed from CT image data. Quantitative evaluation was performed at the CT image data and discussed the bundle deformation status under BDI condition. Following results are obtained. 1) The accuracy of initial wire position is strongly depends on the pin-to-duct contact behavior. In the case of bundle with large error from standard position, pin-to-duct contact is delayed. 2) The BDI mitigation of the bundle with small error from standard wire position is following: The elastic ovality is the dominant deformation in mild BDI condition, then the wire dispersion and pin dispersion are occurred in severe BDI condition. 3) The BDI mitigation of the bundle with large error from standard wire position is following: The elastic ovality and local bowing of pins with large error from standard wire position are occurred in mild BDI condition, then pin dispersion is occurred around pins with large error from standard wire position, finally wire dispersion is occurred in severe BDI condition. 4) The existence of pins with large error from standard wire position is effective to delay the pin-to-duct contact, but the existence of these pins is possible to contact of pin- to- pin. (author)

  4. Energy and particle control characteristics of the ASDEX Upgrade 'LYRA' divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufmann, M.; Bosch, H.S.; Herrmann, A.

    1999-01-01

    In 1997 the new 'LYRA' divertor went into operation at ASDEX Upgrade and the neutral beam heating power was increased to 20 MW by installation of a second injector. This leads to the relatively high value of P/R of 12 MW/m. It has been shown that the ASDEX Upgrade LYRA divertor is capable of handling such high heating powers. Measurements presented in this paper reveal a reduction of the maximum heat flux in the LYRA divertor by more than a factor of two compared to the open Divertor I. This reduction is caused by radiative losses inside the divertor region. Carbon radiation cools the divertor plasma down to a few eV where hydrogen radiation losses become significant. They are increased due to an effective reflection of neutrals into the hot separatrix region. B2-Eirene modelling of the performed experiments supports the experimental findings and refines the understanding of loss processes in the divertor region. (author)

  5. Energy and particle control characteristics of the ASDEX Upgrade 'LYRA' divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufmann, M.; Bosch, H.-S.; Herrmann, A.

    2001-01-01

    In 1997 the new 'LYRA' divertor went into operation at ASDEX Upgrade and the neutral beam heating power was increased to 20 MW by installation of a second injector. This leads to the relatively high value of P/R of 12 MW/m. It has been shown that the ASDEX Upgrade LYRA divertor is capable of handling such high heating powers. Measurements presented in this paper reveal a reduction of the maximum heat flux in the LYRA divertor by more than a factor of two compared to the open Divertor I. This reduction is caused by radiative losses inside the divertor region. Carbon radiation cools the divertor plasma down to a few eV where hydrogen radiation losses become significant. They are increased due to an effective reflection of neutrals into the hot separatrix region. B2-Eirene modelling of the performed experiments supports the experimental findings and refines the understanding of loss processes in the divertor region. (and others)

  6. Modeling results for a linear simulator of a divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooper, E.B.; Brown, M.D.; Byers, J.A.; Casper, T.A.; Cohen, B.I.; Cohen, R.H.; Jackson, M.C.; Kaiser, T.B.; Molvik, A.W.; Nevins, W.M.; Nilson, D.G.; Pearlstein, L.D.; Rognlien, T.D.

    1993-01-01

    A divertor simulator, IDEAL, has been proposed by S. Cohen to study the difficult power-handling requirements of the tokamak program in general and the ITER program in particular. Projections of the power density in the ITER divertor reach ∼ 1 Gw/m 2 along the magnetic fieldlines and > 10 MW/m 2 on a surface inclined at a shallow angle to the fieldlines. These power densities are substantially greater than can be handled reliably on the surface, so new techniques are required to reduce the power density to a reasonable level. Although the divertor physics must be demonstrated in tokamaks, a linear device could contribute to the development because of its flexibility, the easy access to the plasma and to tested components, and long pulse operation (essentially cw). However, a decision to build a simulator requires not just the recognition of its programmatic value, but also confidence that it can meet the required parameters at an affordable cost. Accordingly, as reported here, it was decided to examine the physics of the proposed device, including kinetic effects resulting from the intense heating required to reach the plasma parameters, and to conduct an independent cost estimate. The detailed role of the simulator in a divertor program is not explored in this report

  7. 2-D fluid transport simulations of gaseous/radiative divertors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rognlien, T.D.; Brown, P.N.; Campbell, R.B.; Kaiser, T.B.; Knoll, D.A.; McHugh, P.R.; Porter, G.D.; Rensink, M.E.; Smith, G.R.

    1994-01-01

    The features of the fully implicit 2-D fluid code UEDGE are described. The utility of the code is demonstrated by showing bifurcations or multiple solutions of the tokamak edge plasma for both deuterium and impurity injection in the divertor. (orig.)

  8. Modelling of radial electric field profile for different divertor configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozhansky, V; Kaveeva, E; Voskoboynikov, S; Counsell, G; Kirk, A; Meyer, H; Coster, D; Conway, G; Schirmer, J; Schneider, R

    2006-01-01

    The impact of divertor configuration on the structure of the radial electric field has been simulated by the B2SOLPS5.0 transport fluid code. It is shown that the change in the parallel flows in the scrape-off layer, which are transported through the separatrix due to turbulent viscosity and diffusivity, should result in variation of the radial electric field and toroidal rotation in the separatrix vicinity. The modelling predictions are compared with the measurements of the radial electric field for the low field side equatorial mid-plane of ASDEX Upgrade in lower, upper and double-null (DN) divertor configurations. The parallel (toroidal) flows in the scrape-off layer and mechanisms for their formation are analysed for different geometries. It is demonstrated that a spike in the electric field exists at the high field side equatorial mid-plane in the connected DN divertor configuration. Its origin is connected with different potential drops between the separatrix vicinity and divertor plates in the two disconnected scrape-off layers, while the separatrix should be at almost the same potential. The spike might be important for additional turbulent suppression

  9. Plasma/neutral gas transport in divertors and limiters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gierszewski, P.J.

    1983-09-01

    The engineering design of the divertor and first wall region of fusion reactors requires accurate knowledge of the energies and particle fluxes striking these surfaces. Simple calculations indicate that approx. 10 MW/m 2 heat fluxes and approx. 1 cm/yr erosion rates are possible, but there remain fundamental physics questions that bear directly on the engineering design. The purpose of this study was to treat hydrogen plasma and neutral gas transport in divertors and pumped limiters in sufficient detail to answer some of the questions as to the actual conditions that will be expected in fusion reactors. This was accomplished in four parts: (1) a review of relevant atomic processes to establish the dominant interactions and their data base; (2) a steady-state coupled O-D model of the plasma core, scrape-off layer and divertor exhaust to determine gross modes of operation and edge conditions; (3) a 1-D kinetic transport model to investigate the case of collisionless divertor exhaust, including non-Maxwellian ions and neutral atoms, highly collisional electrons, and a self-consistent electric field; and (4) a 3-D Monte Carlo treatment of neutral transport to correctly account for geometric effects

  10. Electron and molecular ion collisions relevant to divertor plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, H.

    2005-01-01

    We introduce the concept of the multi-channel quantum defect theory (MQDT) and show the outline of the MQDT newly extended to include the dissociative states. We investigate some molecular processes relevant to the divertor plasma by using the MQDT: the dissociative recombination, dissociative excitation, and rotation-vibrational transition in the hydrogen molecular ion and electron collisions. (author)

  11. Modular He-cooled divertor for power plant application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diegele, Eberhard; Kruessmann, R.; Malang, S.; Norajitra, P.; Rizzi, G.

    2003-01-01

    Gas cooled divertor concepts are regarded as a suitable option for fusion power plants because of an increased thermal efficiency for power conversion systems and the use of a coolant compatible with all blanket systems. A modular helium cooled divertor concept is proposed with an improved heat transfer. The concept employs small tiles made of tungsten and brazed to a finger-like structure made of Mo-alloy (TZM). Design goal was a heat flux of at least 15 MW/m 2 and a minimum temperature of the structure of 600 deg.C. The divertor has to survive a number of cycles (100-1000) between operating temperature and room temperature even for the steady state operation assumed. Thermo-hydraulic design requirements for the concepts include to keep the pumping power below 10% of the thermal power to the divertor plates, and simultaneously achieving a heat transfer coefficient in excess of 60 kW/m 2 K. Inelastic stress analysis indicates that design allowable stress limits on primary and secondary (thermal) stresses as required by the ITER structural design criteria are met even under conservative assumptions. Finally, critical issues for future development are addressed

  12. Lifetime analysis for fusion reactor first walls and divertor plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horie, T.; Tsujimura, S.; Minato, A.; Tone, T.

    1987-01-01

    Lifetime analysis of fusion reactor first walls and divertor plates is performed by (1) a one-dimensional analytical plate model, and (2) a two-dimensional elastic-plastic finite element method. Life-limiting mechanisms and the limits of applicability for these analysis methods are examined. Structural design criteria are also discussed. (orig.)

  13. Mechanical Design of the NSTX Liquid Lithium Divertor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Ellis, R. Kaita, H. Kugel, G. Paluzzi, M. Viola and R. Nygren

    2009-02-19

    The Liquid Lithium Divertor (LLD) on NSTX will be the first test of a fully-toroidal liquid lithium divertor in a high-power magnetic confinement device. It will replace part of the lower outboard divertor between a specified inside and outside radius, and ultimately provide a lithium surface exposed to the plasma with enough depth to absorb a significant particle flux. There are numerous technical challenges involved in the design. The lithium layer must be as thin as possible, and maintained at a temperature between 200 and 400 degrees Celsius to minimize lithium evaporation. This requirement leads to the use of a thick copper substrate, with a thin stainless steel layer bonded to the plasma-facing surface. A porous molybdenum layer is then plasma-sprayed onto the stainless steel, to provide a coating that facilitates full wetting of the surface by the liquid lithium. Other challenges include the design of a robust, vacuumcompatible heating and cooling system for the LLD. Replacement graphite tiles that provided the proper interface between the existing outer divertor and the LLD also had to be designed, as well as accommodation for special LLD diagnostics. This paper describes the mechanical design of the LLD, and presents analyses showing the performance limits of the LLD.

  14. Enhancing the DEMO divertor target by interlayer engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, T.R.; McIntosh, S.C.; Fursdon, M.; Hancock, D.; Timmis, W.; Coleman, M.; Rieth, M.; Reiser, J.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The European ‘near-term’ DEMO forsees a water-cooled divertor. • Divertor targets typically use an interlayer between the armour and structure. • Engineering the properties of the interlayer can yield large gains in performance. • A response surface based design search and optimisation method is used. • A new design passes linear-elastic code rules up to applied heat flux of 18 MW/m"2. - Abstract: A robust water-cooled divertor target plate solution for DEMO has to date remained elusive. Common to all contemporary concepts is an interlayer at the boundary between the tungsten armour and the cooling structure. In this paper we show by design optimisation that an effectively designed interlayer can produce dramatic gains in power handling. By engineering the interlayer as part of the design study, it is found that divertor performance is enhanced by either a low conductivity ‘Thermal Break’ interlayer or an ‘Ultra-Compliant’ interlayer. For a 10 MW/m"2 surface heat flux we find that a thermal conductivity of 15 W/mK and elastic modulus of 1 GPa are effective. A design is proposed which passes linear-elastic code rules up to an applied heat flux of 18 MW/m"2.

  15. Visible spectroscopy in the DIII-D divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, N.H.; Fehling, D.; Hillis, D.L.; Klepper, C.C.; Naumenko, N.; Tugarinov, S.; Whyte, D.G.

    1996-06-01

    Spectroscopy measurements in the DIII-D divertor have been carried out with a survey spectrometer which provides simultaneous registration of the visible spectrum over the region 400--900 nm with a resolution of 0.2 nm. Broad spectral coverage is achieved through use of a fiberoptic transformer assembly to map the curved focal plane of a fast (f/3) Rowland spectrograph into a rastered format on the rectangular sensor area of a two-dimensional CCD camera. Vertical grouping of pixels during CCD readout integrates the signal intensity over the height of each spectral segment in the rastered image, minimizing readout time. For the full visible spectrum, readout time is 50 ms. Faster response time (< 10 ms) may be obtained by selecting for readout just a small number of the twenty spectral segments in the image on the CCD. Simultaneous recording of low charge states of carbon, oxygen and injected impurities has yielded information about gas recycling and impurity behavior at the divertor strike points. Transport of lithium to the divertor region during lithium pellet injection has been studied, as well as cumulative deposition of lithium on the divertor targets from pellet injection over many successive discharges

  16. Enhancing the DEMO divertor target by interlayer engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, T.R., E-mail: tom.barrett@ccfe.ac.uk [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Oxfordshire OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); McIntosh, S.C.; Fursdon, M.; Hancock, D.; Timmis, W.; Coleman, M. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Oxfordshire OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Rieth, M.; Reiser, J. [Karlsruhe Institute for Technology, IMF-I, D-7602 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • The European ‘near-term’ DEMO forsees a water-cooled divertor. • Divertor targets typically use an interlayer between the armour and structure. • Engineering the properties of the interlayer can yield large gains in performance. • A response surface based design search and optimisation method is used. • A new design passes linear-elastic code rules up to applied heat flux of 18 MW/m{sup 2}. - Abstract: A robust water-cooled divertor target plate solution for DEMO has to date remained elusive. Common to all contemporary concepts is an interlayer at the boundary between the tungsten armour and the cooling structure. In this paper we show by design optimisation that an effectively designed interlayer can produce dramatic gains in power handling. By engineering the interlayer as part of the design study, it is found that divertor performance is enhanced by either a low conductivity ‘Thermal Break’ interlayer or an ‘Ultra-Compliant’ interlayer. For a 10 MW/m{sup 2} surface heat flux we find that a thermal conductivity of 15 W/mK and elastic modulus of 1 GPa are effective. A design is proposed which passes linear-elastic code rules up to an applied heat flux of 18 MW/m{sup 2}.

  17. Taming the plasma-material interface with the snowflake divertor.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soukhanovskii, V A

    2015-04-24

    Experiments in several tokamaks have provided increasing support for the snowflake configuration as a viable tokamak heat exhaust concept. This white paper summarizes the snowflake properties predicted theoretically and studied experimentally, and identifies outstanding issues to be resolved in existing and future facilities before the snowflake divertor can qualify for the reactor interface.

  18. Plasma shape control calculations for BPX divertor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strickler, D.J.; Neilson, G.H.; Jardin, S.C.; Pomphrey, N.

    1991-01-01

    The Burning Plasma Experiment (BPX) divertor is to be capable of withstanding heat loads corresponding to ignited operation and 500 MW of fusion power for a current rise time and flattop lasting several seconds. The poloidal field (PF), diagnostic, and feedback equilibrium control systems must provide precise X-point position control in order to sweep the separatrices across the divertor target surface and optimally distribute the heat loads. A control matrix MHD equilibrium code, BEQ, and the Tokamak Simulation Code (TSC) are used to compute preprogrammed double-null (DN) divertor sweep trajectories that maximize sweep distance while simultaneously satisfying a set of strict constraints: minimum lengths of the field lines between the X-point and strike points, minimum spacing between the inboard plasma edge and the limiter, maximum spacing between the outboard plasma edge and the ICRF antennas, minimum safety factor, and linked poloidal flux. A sequence of DN diverted equilibria and a consistent TSC fiducial discharge simulation are used in evaluating the performance of the BPX divertor shape and possible modifications. 5 refs., 10 figs

  19. Mechanical Design of the NSTX Liquid Lithium Divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, R.; Kaita, R.; Kugel, H.; Paluzzi, G.; Viola, M.; Nygren, R.

    2009-01-01

    The Liquid Lithium Divertor (LLD) on NSTX will be the first test of a fully-toroidal liquid lithium divertor in a high-power magnetic confinement device. It will replace part of the lower outboard divertor between a specified inside and outside radius, and ultimately provide a lithium surface exposed to the plasma with enough depth to absorb a significant particle flux. There are numerous technical challenges involved in the design. The lithium layer must be as thin as possible, and maintained at a temperature between 200 and 400 degrees Celsius to minimize lithium evaporation. This requirement leads to the use of a thick copper substrate, with a thin stainless steel layer bonded to the plasma-facing surface. A porous molybdenum layer is then plasma-sprayed onto the stainless steel, to provide a coating that facilitates full wetting of the surface by the liquid lithium. Other challenges include the design of a robust, vacuum compatible heating and cooling system for the LLD. Replacement graphite tiles that provided the proper interface between the existing outer divertor and the LLD also had to be designed, as well as accommodation for special LLD diagnostics. This paper describes the mechanical design of the LLD, and presents analyses showing the performance limits of the LLD.

  20. Nuclear fuel bundle disassembly and assembly tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yates, J.; Long, J.W.

    1975-01-01

    A nuclear power reactor fuel bundle is described which has a plurality of tubular fuel rods disposed in parallel array between two transverse tie plates. It is secured against disassembly by one or more locking forks which engage slots in tie rods which position the transverse plates. Springs mounted on the fuel and tie rods are compressed when the bundle is assembled thereby maintaining a continual pressure against the locking forks. Force applied in opposition to the springs permits withdrawal of the locking forks so that one tie plate may be removed, giving access to the fuel rods. An assembly and disassembly tool facilitates removal of the locking forks when the bundle is to be disassembled and the placing of the forks during assembly of the bundle. (U.S.)

  1. In-pool damaged fuel bundle recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piascik, T.G.; Patenaude, R.S.

    1988-01-01

    While preparing to rerack the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, GPU Nuclear had need to move a damaged fuel bundle. This bundle had no upper tie plate and could not be moved in the normal manner. GPU Nuclear formed a small, dedicated project team to disassemble, package and move this damaged bundle. The team was composed of key personnel from GPU Nuclear Fuels Projects, OCNGS Operations and Proto-Power / Bisco, a specialty contractor who has fuel bundle reconstitution and rod consolidation experience, remote tooling, underwater video systems and experienced technicians. Proven tooling, clear procedures and a simple approach were important, but the key element was the spirit of teamwork and leadership exhibited by the people involved

  2. In-pool damaged fuel bundle recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piascik, T.G.; Patenaude, R.S.

    1988-01-01

    While preparing to rerack the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, GPU Nuclear had need to move a damaged fuel bundle. This bundle had no upper tie plate and could not be moved in the normal manner. GPU Nuclear formed a small, dedicated project team to disassemble, package, and move this damaged bundle. The team was composed of key personnel from GPU Nuclear Fuels Projects, OCNGS Operations and Proto-Power/Bisco, a specialty contractor who has fuel bundle reconstitution and rod consolidation experience, remote tooling, underwater video systems and experienced technicians. Proven tooling, clear procedures and a simple approach were important, but the key element was the spirit of teamwork and leadership exhibited by the people involved. In spite of several emergent problems which a task of this nature presents, this small, close knit utility/vendor team completed the work on schedule and within the exposure and cost budgets

  3. Manufacturing and joining technologies for helium cooled divertors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aktaa, J.; Basuki, W.W.; Weber, T.; Norajitra, P.; Krauss, W.; Konys, J.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The manufacturing and joining technologies developed at KIT for helium cooled divertors are reviewed and critically discussed. • Various technologies have been pursued and further developed aiming divertor components with very high quality and sufficient reliability. • Very promising routes have been found for which however still R and D works are necessary. • Technologies developed are also useful for other divertor and even blanket concepts, particularly those with tungsten armor. - Abstract: In the helium cooled (HC) divertor, developed at KIT for a fusion power plant, tungsten has been selected as armor as well as structural material due to its crucial properties: high melting point, very low sputtering yield, good thermal conductivity, high temperature strength, low thermal expansion and low activation. Thereby the armor tungsten is attached to the structural tungsten by thermally conductive joint. Due to the brittleness of tungsten at low temperatures its use as structural material is limited to the high temperature part of the component and a structural joint to the reduced activation ferritic martensitic steel EUROFER97 is foreseen. Hence, to realize the selected hybrid material concept reliable tungsten–steel and tungsten–tungsten joints have been developed and will be reported in this paper. In addition, the modular design of the HC divertor requires tungsten armor tiles and tungsten structural thimbles to be manufactured in high numbers with very high quality. Due to the high strength and low temperature brittleness of tungsten special manufacturing techniques need to be developed for the production of parts with no cavities inside and/or surface flaws. The main achievement in developing the respective manufacturing technologies will be presented and discussed. To achieve the objectives mentioned above various manufacturing and joining technologies are pursued. Their later applicability depends on the level of development

  4. Group Coupons: Interpersonal Bundling on the Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Yongmin Chen; Tianle Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Sellers sometimes offer goods for sale under both a regular price and a discount for group purchase if the consumer group reaches some minimum size. This selling practice, which we term interpersonal bundling, has been popularized on the Internet by companies such as Groupon. We explain why interpersonal bundling is a profitable strategy in the presence of demand uncertainty, and how it may further boost profits by stimulating product information dissemination. Other reasons for its profitabi...

  5. A Brief Survey of Higgs Bundles

    OpenAIRE

    Zúñiga-Rojas, Ronald Alberto

    2018-01-01

    Considering a compact Riemann surface of genus greater than two, a Higgs~bundle is a pair composed of a holomorphic bundle over the Riemann surface, joint with an auxiliar vector field, so-called Higgs field. This theory started around thirty years ago, with Hitchin's work, when he reduced the self-duality equations from dimension four to dimension two, and so, studied those equations over Riemann surfaces. Hitchin baptized those fields as "Higgs fields" beacuse in the context of physics and ...

  6. Frobenius splitting of projective toric bundles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    He Xin

    2018-03-19

    Mar 19, 2018 ... Firstly it is easy to see that the image of s under the restriction map (2.5) falls in the χ-isotypical component of (Uσ , E), i.e. for all t ∈ T .... σ falls in the χ-isotypical component of (E,Uσ ). D. As mentioned in Remark 2.3, for a vector v .... The determinant of a toric bundle. LetE be a toric bundle on a toric variety X ...

  7. Dynamic behaviour of FBR fuel pin bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, P.H.; Van Dorsselaere, J.P.; Ravenet, A.

    1990-01-01

    A programme of shock tests on a fast neutron reactor subassembly model (SPX1 geometry) including a complete bundle of fuel pins (dummy elements) is being carried out in the BELIER test facility at Cadarache. The purpose of these tests is: to determine the distribution of dynamic forces applied to the fuel rod clads under the impact conditions encountered in a reactor during a earthquake; to reduce as much as possible the conservatism of the methods presently used for the calculation of those forces. The test programme, now being completed, consists of the following steps: impacts on the mock-up in air with an non-compact bundle (situation of the subassembly at beginning of life (BOL) with clearances within the bundle); impacts under the same conditions but with fluid (water) in the subassembly; impacts on the mock-up in air and with a compacted bundle (simulating the conditions of an end-of-life (EOL) bundle with no clearance within the bundle). The accelerations studied in these tests cover the range encountered in design calculations for the subassembly frequencies in beam mode. (author)

  8. Optimization and limitations of known DEMO divertor concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiser, Jens; Rieth, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Limitations of the materials. ► Improved H 2 O cooled divertor. ► Improved He cooled divertor. - Abstract: In this work we will introduce and discuss improvements for two types of DEMO divertors based on known designs: (i) gas cooled designs and (ii) liquid coolant concepts. In a first step, the advantages and disadvantages of gas cooling as well as the necessity of a jet impingement to increase the heat transfer coefficients will be discussed. Further discussion deals with the pros and cons of liquid coolant concepts, like for example, liquid metal or water cooling. Thereafter, we will present two rather contrary DEMO divertor concepts which are based on today's knowledge on refractory materials science, fabrication and joining technology. The first improved concept uses water flowing through steel pipes, typically made of Eurofer steel. It is well known that using Eurofer at low temperatures is critical due to its severe embrittlement under neutron irradiation. Here we make a proposal how it could be possible to use the Eurofer steel anyway: the solution could consist in a limited operation period followed by an annealing cycle at 550 °C for a few hours during any maintenance shut down phases. The second design is based on the known helium cooling concept using jet impingement. Drawbacks of the actual He-cooled divertor design are small scale parts as well as the necessary high helium inlet temperature of about 600–800 °C which leads to the question: How can we deal with such high helium temperatures? This paper shows a solution for large scale components as well as a new thermal management for the helium outlet gas that we call ‘cooling of the coolant’. Both concepts are discussed in terms of materials selection due to material limits and joining technology with a special focus on the material issue using already existing and available materials.

  9. Initial development of the DIII–D snowflake divertor control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolemen, E.; Vail, P. J.; Makowski, M. A.; Allen, S. L.; Bray, B. D.; Fenstermacher, M. E.; Humphreys, D. A.; Hyatt, A. W.; Lasnier, C. J.; Leonard, A. W.; McLean, A. G.; Maingi, R.; Nazikian, R.; Petrie, T. W.; Soukhanovskii, V. A.; Unterberg, E. A.

    2018-06-01

    Simultaneous control of two proximate magnetic field nulls in the divertor region is demonstrated on DIII–D to enable plasma operations in an advanced magnetic configuration known as the snowflake divertor (SFD). The SFD is characterized by a second-order poloidal field null, created by merging two first-order nulls of the standard divertor configuration. The snowflake configuration has many magnetic properties, such as high poloidal flux expansion, large plasma-wetted area, and additional strike points, that are advantageous for divertor heat flux management in future fusion reactors. However, the magnetic configuration of the SFD is highly-sensitive to changes in currents within the plasma and external coils and therefore requires complex magnetic control. The first real-time snowflake detection and control system on DIII–D has been implemented in order to stabilize the configuration. The control algorithm calculates the position of the two nulls in real-time by locally-expanding the Grad–Shafranov equation in the divertor region. A linear relation between variations in the poloidal field coil currents and changes in the null locations is then analytically derived. This formulation allows for simultaneous control of multiple coils to achieve a desired SFD configuration. It is shown that the control enabled various snowflake configurations on DIII–D in scenarios such as the double-null advanced tokamak. The SFD resulted in a 2.5×  reduction in the peak heat flux for many energy confinement times (2–3 s) without any adverse effects on core plasma performance.

  10. Plasma facing components integration studies for the WEST divertor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferlay, Fabien, E-mail: fabien.ferlay@cea.fr; Missirlian, Marc; Guilhem, Dominique; Firdaouss, Mehdi; Richou, Marianne; Doceul, Louis; Faisse, Frédéric; Languille, Pascal; Larroque, Sébastien; Martinez, André; Proust, Maxime; Louison, Céphise; Jeanne, Florian; Saille, Alain; Samaille, Frank; Verger, Jean-Marc; Bucalossi, Jérôme

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • The divertor PFU integration has been studied regarding existing environment. • Magnetic, electric, thermal, hydraulic, mechanical loads and assembly are considered. - Abstract: In the context of the Tokamak Tore-Supra evolution, the CEA aims at transforming it into a test bench for ITER actively cooled tungsten (ACW) plasma facing components (PFC). This project named WEST (Tungsten Environment in Steady state Tokamak) is especially focused on the divertor target. The modification of the machine, by adding two axisymmetric divertors will make feasible an H-mode with an X-point close to the lower divertor. This environment will allow exposing the divertor ACW components up to 20 MW/m{sup 2} heat flux during long pulse. These specifications are well suited to test the ITER-like ACW target elements, respecting the ITER design. One challenge in such machine evolution is to integrate components in an existing vacuum vessel in order to obtain the best achievable performance. This paper deals with the design integration of ITER ACW target elements into the WEST environment considering magnetic, electric, thermal and mechanical loads. The feasibility of installation and maintenance has to be strongly considered as these PFC could be replaced several times. The ports size allows entering a 30° sector of pre-installed tungsten targets which will be plugged as quickly and easily as possible. The main feature of steady state operation is the active cooling, which leads to have many embedded cooling channels and bulky pipes on the PFC module including many connections and sealings between vacuum and water channels. The 30° sector design is now finalized regarding the ITER ACW elements specifications. No major modifications are expected.

  11. Progress in ergodic divertor operation on Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghendrih, Ph.; Becoulet, M.; Colas, L.; Grosman, A.; Guirlet, R.; Gunn, J.; Loarer, T.; Azeroual, A.; Basiuk, V.; Beaumont, B.; Becoulet, A.; Bremond, S.; Bucalossi, J.; Capes, H.; Corre, Y.; Costanzo, L.; Michelis, C. de; Devynck, P.; Feron, S.; Friant, C.; Garbet, X.; Giannella, R.; Grisolia, C.; Hess, W.; Hogan, J.; Ladurelle, L.; Laugier, F.; Martin, G.; Mattioli, M.; Meslin, B.; Monier-Garbet, P.; Moulin, D.; Nguyen, F.; Pascal, J.Y.; Pecquet, A.L.; Pegourie, B.; Reichle, R.; Saint-Laurent, F.; Vallet, J.C.; Zabiego, M.

    1999-09-01

    Upgrade of the Tore ergodic divertor has led to significant progress in ergodic divertor physics. The disruptive limit governed by the stochastization of the outer magnetic surfaces is found to occur for a value of the Chirikov parameter reaching 2 on the magnetic surface q = 2 + 3 / 12. This experimentally observed robustness allows one to operate at very low safety factor on the separatrix (q ∼ 2). Numerical analysis of ballooning turbulence in a stochastic layer indicates that the decay of the density fluctuations is in associated with an increase of the fluctuating electric drift velocity. The bottom line is then an enhanced cross-field transport in the vicinity of the target plates. This lowering of confinement appears to be compensated by an intrinsic transport barrier on the electron temperature. The 3-D response of the temperature field is computed with a fluid code. The intrinsic transport barrier at the separatrix, reported experimentally, can be recovered together with small amplitude temperature modulations in the divertor volume. Experimental evidence of the 3 density regimes (linear, high recycling and detachment) is reported. The low critical density values for these transitions indicate that similar parallel physics govern the axisymmetric and ergodic divertor, despite the open configuration of the latter. Measurement and understanding of these density regimes provide a means for feedback control of plasma density and an improvement in ICRH coupling scenarios. Experimental data also indicated that particle control with the vented target plates is effective. Increase of impurity control and radiation efficiency are recalled. Global power balance has been analysed. These results confirm the enhanced radiation capacity of the ergodic divertor. (author)

  12. New achievements of the Divertor Test Platform programme for the ITER divertor remote maintenance R and D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damiani, C.; Baldi, L.; Galbiati, L.; Irving, M.; Lorenzelli, L.; Micciche, G.; Muro, L.; Nucci, S.; Varocchi, G.; Poggianti, A.; Fermani, G.; Maisonnier, D.; Palmer, J.; Martin, E.; Friconneau, J.P.; Gravez, P.; Takeda, N.

    2001-01-01

    The divertor assembly for the ITER fusion reactor consists of a number of rail mounted cassettes (54 now in ITER FEAT) located in the bottom region of the vacuum vessel. These cassettes shall be removed/installed remotely during the life of the reactor by means of specific devices. To demonstrate and optimise the feasibility of the in-vessel maintenance process the Divertor Test Platform (DTP) has been established at the ENEA Research Centre in Brasimone, Italy, as a major part of the large ITER R and D project L7. A first set of tests has been already carried out and reported during 1998, when the basic feasibility of the divertor replacement was demonstrated. In the present period (January 1999-July 2000), new activities, including both site tests and other 'external' R and D works, have been carried out in order to refine and improve the ITER divertor maintenance scenario. These include the study of abnormal maintenance operations and of possible handling equipment failure and its consequences; the procurement and testing of new sub-systems (e.g. a force reflection manipulator arm), and the development of remote handling techniques including a virtual reality system. Following a short description of the DTP, this paper reports on the new results and achievements, draws the relevant conclusions, and finally discusses future activities

  13. Divertor remote handling for DEMO: Concept design and preliminary FMECA studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carfora, D., E-mail: dario.carfora@gmail.com [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1300, FI-33101 Tampere (Finland); Tampere University of Technology, Korkeakoulunkatu 6, 33720 Tampere (Finland); ENEA/CREATE/Università degli studi Napoli Federico II, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Di Gironimo, G. [ENEA/CREATE/Università degli studi Napoli Federico II, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Järvenpää, J. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1300, FI-33101 Tampere (Finland); Huhtala, K. [Tampere University of Technology, Korkeakoulunkatu 6, 33720 Tampere (Finland); Määttä, T.; Siuko, M. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1300, FI-33101 Tampere (Finland)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Concept design of the RH system for the DEMO fusion power plant. • Divertor mover: hydraulic telescopic boom concept design. • An alternative solution to ITER rack and pinion divertor mover (CMM). • Divertor cassettes end effector studies. • FMECA studies started on the DEMO divertor mover. - Abstract: The paper describes a concept design of a remote handling (RH) system for replacing divertor cassettes and cooling pipes in future DEMO fusion power plant. In DEMO reactor design important considerations are the reactor availability and reliable maintenance operations. The proposed divertor mover is a hydraulic telescopic boom driven from the transportation cask through the maintenance tunnel of the reactor. The boom is divided in three sections and it is driving an end-effector in order to perform the scheduled operations of maintenance inside the vacuum vessel. Two alternative designs of the end effector to grip and manipulate the divertor cassette are presented in this work. Both concepts are hydraulically actuated, based on ITER previous studies. The divertor cassette end-effector consists of a lifting arm linked to the divertor mover, a tilting plate, a cantilever arm and a hook-plate. Taking advantage of the ITER RH background and experience, the proposed hydraulic RH system is compared with the rack and pinion system currently designed for ITER and is an object of simulations at Divertor Test Platform (DTP2) in VTT's Labs of Tampere, Finland. Pros and cons will be put in evidence.

  14. Preliminary concept design of the divertor remote handling system for DEMO power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carfora, D., E-mail: dario.carfora@gmail.com [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1300, FI-33101 Tampere (Finland); Tampere University of Technology, Korkeakoulunkatu 6, 33720 Tampere (Finland); ENEA/CREATE/University of Naples Federico II, 80125 Naples (Italy); Di Gironimo, G. [ENEA/CREATE/University of Naples Federico II, 80125 Naples (Italy); Järvenpää, J. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1300, FI-33101 Tampere (Finland); Huhtala, K. [Tampere University of Technology, Korkeakoulunkatu 6, 33720 Tampere (Finland); Määttä, T.; Siuko, M. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1300, FI-33101 Tampere (Finland)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Concept design of the RH system for the DEMO fusion power plant. • Divertor Mover: Hydraulic telescopic boom concept design. An alternative solution to ITER rack and pinion divertor mover (CMM). • Divertor cassettes end effector studies. • Transportation cask conceptual studies and logistic. - Abstract: This paper is based on the remote maintenance system project (WPRM) for the demonstration fusion power reactor (DEMO). Following ITER, DEMO aims to confirm the capability of generating several hundred of MW of net electricity by 2050. The main objective of these activities is to develop an efficient and reliable remote handling (RH) system for replacing the divertor cassettes. This paper presents the preliminary results of the concept design of the divertor RH system. The proposed divertor mover is a hydraulic telescopic boom driven from the transportation cask through the maintenance tunnel of the reactor. The boom is divided in three sections of 4 m each, and it is driving an end-effector in order to perform the scheduled operations of maintenance inside the vacuum vessel. Two alternative design of the end effector to grip and manipulate the divertor cassette are also presented in this work. Both the concepts are hydraulically actuated, basing on the ITER previous studies. The divertor cassette end-effector consists of a lifting arm linked to the divertor mover, a tilting plate, a cantilever arm and a hook-plate. The main objective of this paper is to illustrate the feasibility of DEMO divertor remote maintenance operations.

  15. The control of divertor carbon erosion/redeposition in the DIII-D tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whyte, D.G.; West, W.P.; Wong, C.P.C.

    2001-01-01

    The DIII-D tokamak has demonstrated an operational scenario where the graphite-covered divertor is free of net erosion. Reduction of divertor carbon erosion is accomplished using a low temperature (detached) divertor plasma that eliminates physical sputtering. Likewise, the carbon source rate arising from chemical erosion is found to be very low in the detached divertor. Near strikepoint regions, the rate of carbon deposition is ∼3 cm/burn-year, with a corresponding hydrogenic codeposition rate >1kg/m 2 /burn-year; rates both problematic for steady-state fusion reactors. The carbon net deposition rate in the divertor is consistent with carbon arriving from the core plasma region. Carbon influx from the main wall is measured to be relatively large in the high-density detached regime and is of sufficient magnitude to account for the deposition rate in the divertor. Divertor redeposition is therefore determined by non-divertor erosion and transport. Despite the success in reducing divertor erosion on DIII-D with detachment, no significant reduction is found in the core plasma carbon density, illustrating the importance of non-divertor erosion and the complex coupling between erosion/redeposition and impurity plasma transport. (author)

  16. Estimation of peak heat flux onto the targets for CFETR with extended divertor leg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Chuanjia; Chen, Bin; Xing, Zhe; Wu, Haosheng; Mao, Shifeng; Luo, Zhengping; Peng, Xuebing; Ye, Minyou

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A hypothetical geometry is assumed to extend the outer divertor leg in CFETR. • Density scan SOLPS simulation is done to study the peak heat flux onto target. • Attached–detached regime transition in out divertor occurs at lower puffing rate. • Unexpected delay of attached–detached regime transition occurs in inner divertor. - Abstract: China Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR) is now in conceptual design phase. CFETR is proposed as a good complement to ITER for demonstrating of fusion energy. Divertor is a crucial component which faces the plasmas and handles huge heat power for CFETR and future fusion reactor. To explore an effective way for heat exhaust, various methods to reduce the heat flux to divertor target should be considered for CFETR. In this work, the effect of extended out divertor leg on the peak heat flux is studied. The magnetic configuration of the long leg divertor is obtained by EFIT and Tokamak Simulation Code (TSC), while a hypothetical geometry is assumed to extend the out divertor leg as long as possible inside vacuum vessel. A SOLPS simulation is performed to study peak heat flux of the long leg divertor for CFETR. D 2 gas puffing is used and increasing of the puffing rate means increase of plasma density. Both peak heat flux onto inner and outer targets are below 10 MW/m 2 is achieved. A comparison between the peak heat flux between long leg and conventional divertor shows that an attached–detached regime transition of out divertor occurs at lower gas puffing gas puffing rate for long leg divertor. While for the inner divertor, even the configuration is almost the same, the situation is opposite.

  17. Estimation of peak heat flux onto the targets for CFETR with extended divertor leg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chuanjia; Chen, Bin [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Xing, Zhe [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Wu, Haosheng [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Mao, Shifeng, E-mail: sfmao@ustc.edu.cn [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Luo, Zhengping; Peng, Xuebing [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Ye, Minyou [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • A hypothetical geometry is assumed to extend the outer divertor leg in CFETR. • Density scan SOLPS simulation is done to study the peak heat flux onto target. • Attached–detached regime transition in out divertor occurs at lower puffing rate. • Unexpected delay of attached–detached regime transition occurs in inner divertor. - Abstract: China Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR) is now in conceptual design phase. CFETR is proposed as a good complement to ITER for demonstrating of fusion energy. Divertor is a crucial component which faces the plasmas and handles huge heat power for CFETR and future fusion reactor. To explore an effective way for heat exhaust, various methods to reduce the heat flux to divertor target should be considered for CFETR. In this work, the effect of extended out divertor leg on the peak heat flux is studied. The magnetic configuration of the long leg divertor is obtained by EFIT and Tokamak Simulation Code (TSC), while a hypothetical geometry is assumed to extend the out divertor leg as long as possible inside vacuum vessel. A SOLPS simulation is performed to study peak heat flux of the long leg divertor for CFETR. D{sub 2} gas puffing is used and increasing of the puffing rate means increase of plasma density. Both peak heat flux onto inner and outer targets are below 10 MW/m{sup 2} is achieved. A comparison between the peak heat flux between long leg and conventional divertor shows that an attached–detached regime transition of out divertor occurs at lower gas puffing gas puffing rate for long leg divertor. While for the inner divertor, even the configuration is almost the same, the situation is opposite.

  18. Deformations of the generalised Picard bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, I.; Brambila-Paz, L.; Newstead, P.E.

    2004-08-01

    Let X be a nonsingular algebraic curve of genus g ≥ 3, and let Mξ denote the moduli space of stable vector bundles of rank n ≥ 2 and degree d with fixed determinant ξ over X such that n and d are coprime. We assume that if g = 3 then n ≥ 4 and if g = 4 then n ≥ 3, and suppose further that n 0 , d 0 are integers such that n 0 ≥ 1 and nd 0 + n 0 d > nn 0 (2g - 2). Let E be a semistable vector bundle over X of rank n 0 and degree d 0 . The generalised Picard bundle W ξ (E) is by definition the vector bundle over M ξ defined by the direct image p M ξ *(U ξ x p X * E) where U ξ is a universal vector bundle over X x M ξ . We obtain an inversion formula allowing us to recover E from W ξ (E) and show that the space of infinitesimal deformations of W ξ (E) is isomorphic to H 1 (X, End(E)). This construction gives a locally complete family of vector bundles over M ξ parametrised by the moduli space M(n 0 ,d 0 ) of stable bundles of rank n 0 and degree d 0 over X. If (n 0 ,d 0 ) = 1 and W ξ (E) is stable for all E is an element of M(n 0 ,d 0 ), the construction determines an isomorphism from M(n 0 ,d 0 ) to a connected component M 0 of a moduli space of stable sheaves over M ξ . This applies in particular when n 0 = 1, in which case M 0 is isomorphic to the Jacobian J of X as a polarised variety. The paper as a whole is a generalisation of results of Kempf and Mukai on Picard bundles over J, and is also related to a paper of Tyurin on the geometry of moduli of vector bundles. (author)

  19. NIF laser bundle review. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tietbohl, G.L.; Larson, D.W.; Erlandson, A.C.

    1995-01-01

    We performed additional bundle review effort subsequent to the completion of the preliminary report and are revising our original recommendations. We now recommend that the NIF baseline laser bundle size be changed to the 4x2 bundle configuration. There are several 4x2 bundle configurations that could be constructed at a cost similar to that of the baseline 4x12 (from $11M more to about $11M less than the baseline; unescalated, no contingency) and provide significant system improvements. We recommend that the building cost estimates (particularly for the in-line building options) be verified by an architect/engineer (A/E) firm knowledgeable about building design. If our cost estimates of the in-line building are accurate and therefore result in a change from the baseline U-shaped building layout, the acceptability of the in-line configuration must be reviewed from an operations viewpoint. We recommend that installation, operation, and maintenance of all laser components be reviewed to better determine the necessity of aisles, which add to the building cost significantly. The need for beam expansion must also be determined since it affects the type of bundle packing that can be used and increases the minimum laser bay width. The U-turn laser architecture (if proven viable) offers a reduction in building costs since this laser design is shorter than the baseline switched design and requires a shorter laser bay

  20. The control of convection by fuelling and pumping in the JET pumped divertor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harbour, P J; Andrew, P; Campbell, D; Clement, S; Davies, S; Ehrenberg, J; Erents, S K; Gondhalekar, A; Gadeberg, M; Gottardi, N; Von Hellermann, M; Horton, L; Loarte, A; Lowry, C; Maggi, C; McCormick, K; O` Brien, D; Reichle, R; Saibene, G; Simonini, R; Spence, J; Stamp, M; Stork, D; Taroni, A; Vlases, G [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking

    1994-07-01

    Convection from the scrape-off layer (SOL) to the divertor will control core impurities, if it retains them in a cold, dense, divertor plasma. This implies a high impurity concentration in the divertor, low at its entrance. Particle flux into the divertor entrance can be varied systematically in JET, using the new fuelling and pumping systems. The convection ratio has been estimated for various conditions of operation. Particle convection into the divertor should increase thermal convection, decreasing thermal conduction, and temperature and density gradients along the magnetic field, hence increasing the frictional force and decreasing the thermal force on impurities. Changes in convection in the SOL, caused by gaseous fuelling, have been studied, both experimentally in the JET Mk I divertor and with EDGE2/NIMBUS. 1 ref., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Studies of impurity deposition/implantation in JET divertor tiles using SIMS and ion beam techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Likonen, J.; Lehto, S.; Coad, J.P.; Renvall, T.; Sajavaara, T.; Ahlgren, T.; Hole, D.E.; Matthews, G.F.; Keinonen, J.

    2003-01-01

    At the end of C4 campaign at JET, a 1% SiH 4 /99% D 2 mixture and pure 13 CH 4 were injected into the torus from the outer divertor wall and from the top of the vessel, respectively, in order to study material transport and scrape-off layer (SOL) flows. A set of MkIIGB tiles was removed during the 2001 shutdown for surface analysis. The tiles were analysed with secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and time-of-flight elastic recoil detection analysis (TOF-ERDA). 13 C was detected in the inner divertor wall tiles implying material transport from the top of the vessel. Silicon was detected mainly at the outer divertor wall tiles and very small amounts were found in the inner divertor wall tiles. Si amounts in the inner divertor wall tiles were so low that rigorous conclusions about material transport from divertor outboard to inboard cannot be made

  2. Interpretation of low ionized impurity distributions in the ASDEX Upgrade divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lieder, G.; Napiontek, B.; Radtke, R.; Field, A.; Fussmann, G.; Kallenbach, A.; Kiemer, K.; Mayer, H.M.

    1993-01-01

    Design studies for reactor-like devices, like ITER, have particularly emphasized the importance of erosion and transport of material from the divertor target plates. In this context experimental measurements which can lead to a better understanding of the underlying physics are highly desirable. We discuss the spatial profiles of line emission from impurities measured in the divertor of ASDEX Upgrade with a recently developed multi-chord divertor spectrometer system. These profiles are obtained from observations in the ultra-violet/visible spectral range. The divertor spectrometer system was developed particularly to measure the erosion of the divertor plates and to study transport of the impurities and the ionization and recombination processes in the divertor region. (author) 6 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  3. Interpretation of low ionized impurity distributions in the ASDEX Upgrade divertor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lieder, G; Napiontek, B; Radtke, R; Field, A; Fussmann, G; Kallenbach, A; Kiemer, K; Mayer, H M [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany)

    1994-12-31

    Design studies for reactor-like devices, like ITER, have particularly emphasized the importance of erosion and transport of material from the divertor target plates. In this context experimental measurements which can lead to a better understanding of the underlying physics are highly desirable. We discuss the spatial profiles of line emission from impurities measured in the divertor of ASDEX Upgrade with a recently developed multi-chord divertor spectrometer system. These profiles are obtained from observations in the ultra-violet/visible spectral range. The divertor spectrometer system was developed particularly to measure the erosion of the divertor plates and to study transport of the impurities and the ionization and recombination processes in the divertor region. (author) 6 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Active control of divertor heat and particle fluxes in EAST towards advanced steady state operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, L., E-mail: lwang@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Guo, H.Y. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); General Atomics, P. O. Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186 (United States); Li, J.; Wan, B.N.; Gong, X.Z.; Zhang, X.D.; Hu, J.S. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Liang, Y. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Association EURATOM-FZJ, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Xu, G.S. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Zou, X.L. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Loarte, A. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul Lez Durance (France); Maingi, R.; Menard, J.E. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Luo, G.N.; Gao, X.; Hu, L.Q.; Gan, K.F.; Liu, S.C.; Wang, H.Q.; Chen, R. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); and others

    2015-08-15

    Significant progress has been made in EAST towards advanced steady state operations by active control of divertor heat and particle fluxes. Many innovative techniques have been developed to mitigate transient ELM and stationary heat fluxes on the divertor target plates. It has been found that lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) can lead to edge plasma ergodization, striation of the stationary heat flux and lower ELM transient heat and particle fluxes. With multi-pulse supersonic molecular beam injection (SMBI) to quantitatively regulate the divertor particle flux, the divertor power footprint pattern can be actively modified. H-modes have been extended over 30 s in EAST with the divertor peak heat flux and the target temperature being controlled well below 2 MW/m{sup 2} and 250 °C, respectively, by integrating these new methods, coupled with advanced lithium wall conditioning and internal divertor pumping, along with an edge coherent mode to provide continuous particle and power exhaust.

  5. The effect of charge exchange with neutral deuterium on carbon emission in JET divertor plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maggi, C.; Horton, L.; Summers, H.

    1999-11-01

    High density, low temperature divertor plasma operation in tokamaks results in large neutral deuterium concentrations in the divertor volume. In these conditions, low energy charge transfer reactions between neutral deuterium and the impurity ions can in principle enhance the impurity radiative losses and thus help to reduce the maximum heat load to the divertor target. A quantitative study of the effect of charge exchange on carbon emission is presented, applied to the JET divertor. Total and state selective effective charge exchange recombination rate coefficients were calculated in the collisional radiative picture. These coefficients were coupled to divertor and impurity transport models to study the effect of charge exchange on the measured carbon spectral emission in JET divertor discharges. The sensitivity of the effect of charge exchange to the assumptions in the impurity transport model was also investigated. A reassessment was made of fundamental charge exchange cross section data in support of this study. (author)

  6. Results of the H-mode experiments with JT-60 outer and lower divertors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Hiroo; Tsuji, Shunji; Nagami, Masayuki

    1989-08-01

    In JT-60, hydrogen H-mode experiments with outer and lower divertors were performed. In the outer divertor, H-mode were obtained, similar to the ones observed in the other lower/upper divertors. Its threshold absorbed power and electron density were 16 MW and 1.8 x 10 19 m -3 . In the two combined heatings with NB+ICRF and NB+LHRF, H-mode discharges are also obtained. Moreover, in new configuration of lower divertor, H-mode phases without and with ELM are obtained. Typical results of the lower divertor are shown to compare the H-mode characteristics between the two configurations. Improvement of the energy confinement time in the two divertors was limited to 10 %. Analyses on ballooning/interchange instabilities were carried out with precise equlibria of JT-60. These results showed that the both modes were enough stable. (author)

  7. Engineering, installation, testing, and initial operation of the DIII-D Advanced Divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, P.M.; Baxi, C.B.; Reis, E.E.; Schaffer, M.J.; Smith, J.P.

    1990-09-01

    The Advanced Divertor (AD) for General Atomics tokamak, DIII-D, was installed in the summer of 1990. The AD has enabled two classes of physics experiments to be run: divertor biasing and divertor baffling. Both are new experiments for DIII-D. The AD has two principal components: (1) a continuous ring electrode; and (2) a toroidally symmetric baffle. The tokamak can be run in bias baffle or standard DIII-D divertor modes by accurate positioning of the outer divertor strike point through the use of the DIII-D control system. The paper covers design, analysis, fabrication, installation, instrumentation, testing, initial operation, and future plans for the Advanced Divertor from an engineering viewpoint. 2 refs., 5 figs

  8. Effect of low density H-mode operation on edge and divertor plasma parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maingi, R.; Mioduszewski, P.K.; Cuthbertson, J.W.

    1994-07-01

    We present a study of the impact of H-mode operation at low density on divertor plasma parameters on the DIII-D tokamak. The line-average density in H-mode was scanned by variation of the particle exhaust rate, using the recently installed divertor cryo-condensation pump. The maximum decrease (50%) in line-average electron density was accompanied by a factor of 2 increase in the edge electron temperature, and 10% and 20% reductions in the measured core and divertor radiated power, respectively. The measured total power to the inboard divertor target increased by a factor of 3, with the major contribution coming from a factor of 5 increase in the peak heat flux very close to the inner strike point. The measured increase in power at the inboard divertor target was approximately equal to the measured decrease in core and divertor radiation

  9. Divertor heat and particle control experiments on the DIII-D tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahdavi, M.A.; Baker, D.R.; Allen, S.L.

    1994-05-01

    In this paper we present a summary of recent DIII-D divertor physics activity and plans for future divertor upgrades. During the past year, DIII-D experimental effort was focused on areas of active heat and particle control and divertor target erosion studies. Using the DIII-D Advanced Divertor system we have succeeded for the first time to control the plasma density and demonstrate helium exhaust in H-mode plasmas. Divertor heat flux control by means of D 2 gas puffing and impurity injection were studied separately and in, both cases up to a factor of five reduction of the divertor peak heat flux was observed. Using the DiMES sample transfer system we have obtained erosion data on various material samples in well diagnosed plasmas and compared the results with predictions of numerical models

  10. Physics aspects of the dynamic ergodic divertor (DED)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finken, Karl H.; Kobayashi, Masahiro; Abdullaev, Sadrilla S.; Jakubowski, Marcin

    2003-01-01

    The Dynamic Ergonic Divertor (DED) is presently being installed in the TEXTOR tokamak. It consists of 16 helical coils wound helically around the torus at the high field side (HFS). The perturbation currents in these coils generate predominantly islands of m=10...14 and n=4 leading both to rather closed ergodic and to open laminar structures. In the 'laminar mode', the DED forms a helical divertor. 3D modelling (2D finite element/1 D finite volume) of the plasma transport in the laminar zone has started. By the 'dynamic' operation of the DED, the heat is deposited to a wide area and forces are transferred from the currents in the DED-coils to the plasma edge. (author)

  11. Stability of tokamak magnetic configuration with a poloidal divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazaeva, A.V.; Bykov, V.E.; Georgievskii, A.V.; Kaminskii, A.O.; Peletminskaya, V.G.; Pyatov, V.H.

    1979-02-01

    This paper investigates instabilities in the preseparatrix region of a tokamak magnetic configuration with a poloidal divertor with respect to perturbations produced by various irregularities in the manufacturing of tokamak magnetic systems. A computer solution, a system of differential equations describing the behavior of a force line, showed that small perturbation amplitudes may be the cause of the stochastic instability of force lines in the preseparatrix region. This instability is responsible for a number of demands on the accuracy in the manufacturing of tokamak magnetic systems. In particular, the misalignment in the divertor ring must not be larger than 0.5 0 , its displacement must be less than Δ/R = 10 -2 (Δ/R -2 ). This study can be used in the design of large thermonuclear installations

  12. Narrow power deposition profiles on the JET divertor target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lingertat, J.; Laux, M.; Monk, R.

    2001-01-01

    One of the key unresolved issues in the design of a future fusion reactor is the power handling capability of the divertor target plates. Earlier we reported on the existence of narrow power deposition profiles in JET, obtained mainly from Langmuir probe measurements. We repeated these measurements in the MkI, MkII and MkIIGB divertor configurations with an upgraded probe system, which allowed us to study the profile shape in more detail. The main results of this study are: In NB heated discharges the electron temperature and power flux at the outer target show a distinct peak of ∼5 mm half-width near the separatrix strike point. The corresponding profiles on the inner target do not show a similar feature. The height of the narrow peak increases with NB heating power and decreases with deuterium and impurity gas puffing. Ion orbit losses are suggested as a possible explanation of the observed profile shape

  13. Diagnosing transient plasma status: from solar atmosphere to tokamak divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giunta, A.S.; Henderson, S.; O'Mullane, M.; Summers, H.P.; Harrison, J.; Doyle, J.G.

    2016-01-01

    This work strongly exploits the interdisciplinary links between astrophysical (such as the solar upper atmosphere) and laboratory plasmas (such as tokamak devices) by sharing the development of a common modelling for time-dependent ionisation. This is applied to the interpretation of solar flare data observed by the UVSP (Ultraviolet Spectrometer and Polarimeter), on-board the Solar Maximum Mission and the IRIS (Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph), and also to data from B2-SOLPS (Scrape Off Layer Plasma Simulations) for MAST (Mega Ampère Spherical Tokamak) Super-X divertor upgrade. The derived atomic data, calculated in the framework of the ADAS (Atomic Data and Analysis Structure) project, allow equivalent prediction in non-stationary transport regimes and transients of both the solar atmosphere and tokamak divertors, except that the tokamak evolution is about one thousand times faster.

  14. First results of closed helical divertor experiment in LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morisaki, T.; Masuzaki, S.; Kobayashi, M.

    2012-11-01

    The baffle-structured closed Helical Divertor (CHD) is being constructed in LHD to actively control the edge plasma, which consists of ten discrete modules installed on inboard side of the torus. At this stage, two of ten modules have been constructed. In the initial experiments, performance of CHD was experimentally investigated, comparing with numerical expectations. During the continuous gas puffing discharge, it was observed the neutral pressure in the CHD was more than 10 times higher than that in the open HD, which agrees well with the numerical simulation. In the high density regime, indication of the divertor detachment was observed in CHD, which was caused by the high recycling and high density state in CHD. With a Penning discharge diagnostics, the neutral particle behaviour with different species was investigated. Little difference between hydrogen and helium was observed in transport property. (author)

  15. SOLPS simulations of X-divertor in NSTX-U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhongping; Kotschenreuther, Mike; Mahajan, Swadesh

    2017-10-01

    The X-divertor (XD) geometry in NSTX-U has demonstrated, in SOLPS simulations, a better performance than the standard divertor (SD) regarding detachment: achieving detachment with a lower upstream density and stabilizing the detachment front near the target. The benefits of such a localized front is that the power exhaust requirement can be satisfied without the radiation front encroaching on the core plasma. It is also found by our simulations that at similar states of detachment the XD outperforms the SD by reducing the heat fluxes to the target and maintaining higher upstream temperatures. These advantages are attributed to the unique geometric characteristics of XD - poloidal flaring near the target. The detailed physical mechanisms behind the better XD performance that is found in the simulations will be examined. Work supported by US DOE under DE-FG02-04ER54742 and SC 0012956.

  16. Engineering analyses of ITER divertor diagnostic rack design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modestov, Victor S., E-mail: modestov@compmechlab.com [St Petersburg State Polytechnical University, 195251 St Petersburg, 29 Polytechnicheskaya (Russian Federation); Nemov, Alexander S.; Borovkov, Aleksey I.; Buslakov, Igor V.; Lukin, Aleksey V. [St Petersburg State Polytechnical University, 195251 St Petersburg, 29 Polytechnicheskaya (Russian Federation); Kochergin, Mikhail M.; Mukhin, Eugene E.; Litvinov, Andrey E.; Koval, Alexandr N. [Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, 194021 St Petersburg, 26 Polytechnicheskaya (Russian Federation); Andrew, Philip [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • The approach developed early has been used for the assessment of new design of DTS racks and neutron shield units. • Results of most critical EM and seismic analyses indicate that introduced changes significantly improved the system behaviour under these loads. • However further research is required to finalize the design and check it upon meeting all structural, thermal, seismic, EM and fatigue requirements. -- Abstract: The divertor port racks used as a support structure of the divertor Thomson scattering equipment has been carefully analyzed to be consistent with electromagnetic and seismic loads. It follows from the foregoing simulations that namely these analyses demonstrate critical challenges associated with the structure design. Based on the results of the reference structure [2] a modified design of the diagnostic racks is proposed and updated simulation results are given. The results signify a significant improvement over the previous reference layout and the design will be continued towards finalization.

  17. Divertor armour issues: lifetime, safety and influence on ITER performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pestchanyi, S.

    2009-01-01

    Comprehensive simulations of the ITER divertor armour vaporization and brittle destruction under ELMs of different sizes have revealed that the erosion rate of CFC armour is intolerable for an industrial reactor, but it can be considerably reduced by the armour fibre structure optimization. The ITER core contamination with carbon is tolerable for medium size ELMs, but large type I ELM can run the confinement into the disruption. Erosion of tungsten, an alternative armour material, under ELMs influence is satisfactory, but the danger of the core plasma contamination with tungsten is still not enough understood and potentially it could be very dangerous. Vaporization of tungsten, its cracking and dust production during ELMs are rather urgent issues to be investigated for proper choice of the divertor armour material for ITER. However, the erosion rate under action of the disruptive heat loads is tolerable for both armour materials assuming few hundred disruptions falls out during ITER lifetime

  18. Magnetic Fluctuations during plasma current rise of divertor discharge in JT-60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ushigusa, Kenkichi; Kikuchi, Mitsuru; Hosogane, Nobuyuki; Tsuji, Syunji; Hayashi, Kazuo.

    1986-03-01

    During a current rise phase in the JT-60 divertor discharge, a series of magnetic fluctuations which do not rotate poloidally (phase-locking) is observed. They cause a cooling of plasma periphery and an enhancement of H α emission in the divertor chamber. A significant increase in β P + 1 i /2 with minor disruptions during the phase-locked magnetic fluctuation suggests a relaxation of the current profile in the current rise phase of the divertor discharge. (author)

  19. Edge plasma control: Particle channeling in Tore Supra pump limiter and ergodic divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghendrih, P.; Samain, A.; Grosman, A.; Capes, H.; Morera, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    Improved pumping efficiency can be achieved on Tore Supra by channeling process for particles, i.e. channeling of neutrals in the throat of pump limiters and channeling of plasma towards neutralizer plates in the ergodic divertor. The plugging length for the pump limiter throat is computed and numerical evidence of plasma flux channeling between the conductor bars of the ergodic divertor is presented. The effect of the Tore Supra ergodic divertor on edge plasma state and edge plasma transport is discussed. (orig.)

  20. Catheter Associated Urinary Tract Infection Prevention bundle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Zarkotou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI are among the most common healthcare-associated infections, and potentially lead to significant morbidity and mortality. Multifaceted infection control strategies implemented as bundles can prevent nosocomial infections associated with invasive devices such as CAUTIs. The components of the CAUTI bundle proposed herein, include appropriate indications for catheterization and recommendations for the procedures of catheter insertion and catheter maintenance and care. Avoiding unnecessary urinary catheter use is the most effective measure for their prevention. To minimize the risk of CAUTI, urinary catheters should be placed only when a clinical valid indication is documented and they should be removed as soon as possible; alternatives to catheterization should also be considered. Aseptic insertion technique, maintenance of closed drainage system and strict adherence to hand hygiene are essential for preventing CAUTI. The successful implementation of the bundle requires education and training for all healthcare professionals and evaluation of surveillance data.

  1. Development of CANDU advanced fuel bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suk, H. C.; Hwang, W.; Rhee, B. W.; Jung, S. H.; Chung, C. H.

    1992-05-01

    This research project is underway in cooperation with AECL to develop the CANDU advanced fuel bundle (so-called, CANFLEX) which can enhance reactor safety and fuel economy in comparison with the current CANDU fuel and which can be used with natural uranium, slightly enriched uranium and other advanced fuel cycle. As the final schedule, the advanced fuel will be verified by carrying out a large scale demonstration of the bundle irradiation in a commercial CANDU reactor for 1996 and 1997, and consequently will be used in the existing and future CANDU reactors in Korea. The research activities during this year include the detail design of CANFLEX fuel with natural enriched uranium (CANFLEX-NU). Based on this design, CANFLEX fuel was mocked up. Out-of-pile hydraulic scoping tests were conducted with the fuel in the CANDU Cold Test Loop to investigate the condition under which maximum pressure drop occurs and the maximum value of the bundle pressure drop. (Author)

  2. Thermal and structural analysis of the TPX divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reis, E.E.; Baxi, C.B.; Chin, E.; Redler, K.M.

    1995-01-01

    The high heat flux on the surfaces of the TPX divertor will require a design in which a carbon-carbon (C-C) tile material is brazed to water cooled copper tubes. Thermal and structural analyses were performed to assist in the design selection of a divertor tile concept and C-C material. The relevancy of finite element analysis (FEA) for evaluating tile design was examined by conducting a literature survey to compare FEA stress results to subsequent brazing and thermal test results. The thermal responses for five tile concepts and four C-C materials were analyzed for a steady-state heat flux of 7.5 MW/m 2 . Elastic-plastic stress analyses were performed to calculate the residual stresses due to brazing C-C tiles to soft copper heat sinks for the various tile designs. Monoblock and archblock divertor tile concepts were analyzed for residual stresses in which elevated temperature creep effects were included with the elastic-plastic behavior of the copper heat sink for an assumed braze cooldown cycle. As a result of these 2D studies, the archblock concept with a 3D fine weave C-C was initially found to be a preferred design for the divertor. A 3D elastic-plastic analysis for brazing of the arch block tile was performed to investigate the singularity effects at the C-C to copper interface in the direction of the tube axis. This analysis showed that the large residual stresses at the tube and tile edge intersection would produce cracks in the C-C and possible delamination along the braze interface. These results, coupled with the difficulties experienced in brazing archblocks for the Tore Supra Limiter, required that other tile designs be considered

  3. Method of plasma impurity control without magnetic divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schivell, J.F.

    1977-06-01

    A method is proposed for controlling impurity generation in a tokomak by skimming and pumping the scrape-off. This method avoids many of the complications of a magnetic divertor, such as specially configured magnetic fields, toroidal symmetry, and inefficient use of toroidal field volume. Estimates are given for operating parameters. Impurity reductions of as much as a factor of 10 should be achievable. The necessary high-capacity pump would employ either titanium gettering or cryocondensation

  4. Design study on divertor plates of Large Helical Device (LHD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noda, N.; Kubota, Y.; Sagara, A.

    1992-10-01

    A conceptual design has been completed for the divertor plates of the Large Helical Device (LHD, R = 3.9 m, a p = 50 ∼ 60 cm, B h = 3 ∼ 4T/ superconducting coils of NbTi) and the detailed technical design is now in progress. The design concept and the status of research and development (R and D) programs are described. (author)

  5. Surface heat loads on the ITER divertor vertical targets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gunn, J. P.; Carpentier-Chouchana, S.; Escourbiac, F.; Hirai, T.; Panayotis, S.; Pitts, R.A.; Corre, Y.; Dejarnac, Renaud; Firdaouss, M.; Kočan, M.; Komm, Michael; Kukushkin, A.; Languille, P.; Missirlian, M.; Zhao, W.; Zhong, G.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 4 (2017), č. článku 046025. ISSN 0029-5515 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : ITER * divertor * ELM heat load * inter-ELM heat load * tungsten Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 3.307, year: 2016 http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1741-4326/aa5e2a

  6. Physics conclusions in support of ITER W divertor monoblock shaping

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pitts, R.A.; Bardin, S.; Bazylev, B.; van den Berg, M.A.; Bunting, P.; Carpentier-Chouchana, S.; Coenen, J.W.; Corre, Y.; Dejarnac, Renaud; Escourbiac, F.; Gaspar, J.; Gunn, J. P.; Hirai, T.; Hong, S.-H.; Horáček, Jan; Iglesias, D.; Komm, Michael; Krieger, K.; Lasnier, C.; Matthews, G.F.; Morgan, T.W.; Panayotis, S.; Pestchanyi, S.; Podolník, Aleš; Nygren, R.E.; Rudakov, D.L.; De Temmerman, G.; Vondráček, Petr; Watkins, J.G.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 12, August (2017), s. 60-74 ISSN 2352-1791. [International Conference on Plasma Surface Interactions 2016, PSI2016 /22./. Roma, 30.05.2016-03.06.2016] Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : ITER * Tungsten * Divertor * Shaping * Melting * MEMOS Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/ article /pii/S2352179116302885

  7. Matted-fiber divertor tagets for sputter resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gierszewski, P.J.; Todreas, N.E.; Mikic, B.; Yang, T.F.

    1981-06-01

    Reductions in net sputtering yields can be obtained by altering the surface topography to maximize redeposition of sputtered atoms. A simple analysis is used to indicate a potential reduction by a factor of 2 to 5 for matted fiber divertor targets, relatively independent of incident, reflected and sputtered atom distributions. The fiber temperature is also shown to be acceptable, even up to 10 MW/m 2 , for reasonably combinations of materials, fiber diameter and fiber spacing

  8. Comparative studies of inner and outer divertor discharges and a fueling study in QUEST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitarai, O., E-mail: omitarai@ktmail.tokai-u.jp [Kumamoto Liberal Arts Education Center, Tokai University, 9-1-1 Toroku, Higashi-ku, Kumamoto 862-8652 (Japan); Nakamura, K.; Hasegawa, M.; Onchi, T.; Idei, H.; Fujisawa, A.; Hanada, K.; Zushi, H.; Higashijima, A.; Nakashima, H.; Kawasaki, S. [Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasugakoen, Kasuga 816-8580 Japan (Japan); Matsuoka, K. [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Koike, S.; Takahashi, T. [Division of Electronics and Informatics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Gunma University, 1-5-1 Tenjin-cho, Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan); Tsutsui, H. [Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Inst. Tech, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Central solenoid has a small flux in QUEST. • Large plasma current is obtained when the position is shifted to the inboard side. • Two types of divertor operation are compared. • Novel merging fueling methods are proposed. • Coaxial helicity injection (CHI) fueling was examined in QUEST divertor configuration. - Abstract: As QUEST has a small central solenoid (CS), a larger Ohmic discharge current has been obtained when the plasma shifts to the inboard side. This tendency restricts a divertor operation to the smaller plasma current regime. As the inner divertor coil has a smaller mutual inductance, it would be expected that its utilization seems to be better for easier plasma current ramp-up for a divertor operation. In this work, we made comparative studies on the plasma current ramp-up for two divertor coils. It is found that while the inner divertor coil with smaller mutual inductance needs a larger coil current, the outer divertor coil with larger mutual inductance needs a smaller coil current for divertor operation. Thus we have found that the plasma current ramp-up characteristics are almost similar for both configurations. We also propose a new fueling method for spherical tokamak (ST) using the coaxial helicity injection (CHI). The main plasma current would be generated at first, and then the CHI plasma current is created between bottom two electrode plates and merged into the main plasma current for fueling.

  9. Experimental studies on an axisymmetric divertor in DIVA(JFT-2a)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Shin

    1979-03-01

    DIVA(JFT-2a) is the first tokamak with an axisymmetric divertor in the world. Objectives of the experiments were i) Plasma production and confinement in a tokamak with a separatrix magnetic surface, and ii) divertor effects on radiation loss and plasma confinement. The results so far are as follows: i) The equilibrium with a separatrix magnetic surface is stable during the discharge. ii) There is an ergodic region near the separatrix magnetic surface due to non-axisymmetric magnetic perturbations. iii) The divertor reduces radiation loss and increases energy confinement time. iv) The divertor does not affect the transport process in the main plasma. (author)

  10. Analysis of divertor asymmetry using a simple five-point model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Nobuhiko; Takizuka, Tomonori; Hatayama, Akiyoshi; Ogasawara, Masatada.

    1997-03-01

    A simple five-point model of the scrape-off layer (SOL) plasma outside the separatrix of a diverted tokamak has been developed to study the inside/outside divertor asymmetry. The SOL current, gas pumping/puffing in the divertor region, and divertor plate biasing are included in this model. Gas pumping/puffing and biasing are shown to control divertor asymmetry. In addition, the SOL current is found to form asymmetric solutions without external controls of gas pumping/puffing and biasing. (author)

  11. Radiation loss and global energy balance of ohmically heated divertor discharge in JT-60 tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koide, Yoshihiko; Yamada, Kimio; Yoshida, Hidetoshi; Nakamura, Hiroo; Niikura, Setsuo; Tsuji, Shunji

    1986-03-01

    Divertor experiment in JT-60 with a small divertor chamber has been successfully performed up to 1.6 MA discharge. Several divertor effects were experimentally confirmed as follows. Radiation loss in main plasma saturates with the increase of plasma current and its ratio to the input power is about 20 % at 1.5 MA. The rest of input power is exhausted into the divertor chamber and a half of it is dissipated as the radiation loss. Impurity accumulation is not observed during a few sec without internal MHD activity and gross impurity confinement time is several hundred msec. (author)

  12. Limiter and divertor systems - conceptual and mechanical design for Aditya Tokamak upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Kaushal; Rathod, Kulav; Jadeja, Kumarpalsinh A.

    2015-01-01

    Existing Aditya tokamak with limiter configuration is being upgraded into a machine to have both the limiter and divertor configurations. Necessary modifications have been carried out to accommodate divertor coils by replacing the old vacuum vessel with a new circular section vacuum vessel. The upgraded Aditya tokamak will have different set of limiters and divertors, such as Safety limiter, Toroidal Inner limiter, outer limiter of smaller toroidal extent, Upper and lower divertor plates. The limiter and divertor locations inside the Aditya tokamak upgrade are decided based on the numerical simulation of the plasma equilibrium profiles. Initially graphite will be used as plasma facing material (PFM) in all the limiter and divertor plates. The dimensions of the limiter and divertor tiles are decided based on their installation inside the vacuum vessel as well as on the total plasma heat loads (∼ 1 MW) falling on them. Depending upon the heat loads; the thickness of graphite tiles for limiter and divertor plates is estimated. Shaped graphite tiles will be fixed on specially designed support structures made out of SS-304L inside the torus shaped vacuum vessel. In this paper mechanical structural design of limiter and divertor of Aditya Upgrade Tokamak is presented. (author)

  13. L-H power threshold studies with tungsten/carbon divertor on the EAST tokamak

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, L.; Xu, G. S.; Gao, W.

    2016-01-01

    The power threshold for low (L) to high (H) confinement mode transition achieved by radio-frequency heating and molybdenum first wall with lithium coating has been experimentally investigated on the EAST tokamak for two sets of divertor geometries and materials: tungsten/carbon divertor and full...... carbon divertor. For both sets of divertors, the power threshold was found to decrease with gradual accumulation of the lithium wall coating, suggesting the important role played by the low Z impurities and/or the edge neutral density on the L-H power threshold. When operating in the upper single null...

  14. Comparison of Ne and Ar seeded radiative divertor plasmas in JT-60U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, T., E-mail: nakano.tomohide@jaea.go.jp

    2015-08-15

    In H-mode plasmas with Ne, Ar and a mixture of Ne and Ar injection, the divertor radiation power fractions amongst these impurities in addition to an intrinsic impurity, C, are investigated. In plasmas with the inner divertor plasma attached, carbon is the biggest radiator, whichever impurity, Ne, Ar or a mixture of Ar and Ne is injected. In contrast, in plasmas with the inner divertor plasma detached, Ne is the biggest radiator due to a significantly high recombination radiation from Ne VIII. Ar is always a minor contributor in plasmas with the inner divertor both attached and detached.

  15. Divertor extreme ultraviolet (EUV) survey spectroscopy in DIII-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Adam; Allen, Steve; Ellis, Ron; Jarvinen, Aaro; Soukhanovskii, Vlad; Boivin, Rejean; Gonzales, Eduardo; Holmes, Ian; Kulchar, James; Leonard, Anthony; Williams, Bob; Taussig, Doug; Thomas, Dan; Marcy, Grant

    2017-10-01

    An extreme ultraviolet spectrograph measuring resonant emissions of D and C in the lower divertor has been added to DIII-D to help resolve an 2X discrepancy between bolometrically measured radiated power and that predicted by boundary codes for DIII-D, JET and ASDEX-U. With 290 and 450 gr/mm gratings, the DivSPRED spectrometer, an 0.3 m flat-field McPherson model 251, measures ground state transitions for D (the Lyman series) and C (e.g., C IV, 155 nm) which account for >75% of radiated power in the divertor. Combined with Thomson scattering and imaging in the DIII-D divertor, measurements of position, temperature and fractional power emission from plasma components are made and compared to UEDGE/SOLPS-ITER. Mechanical, optical, electrical, vacuum, and shielding aspects of DivSPRED are presented. Work supported under USDOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC02-04ER54698 and DE-AC52-07NA27344, and by the LLNL Laboratory Directed R&D Program, project #17-ERD-020.

  16. Plasma parameters in the COMPASS divertor during Ohmic plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimitrova, M. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic v.v.i., Prague (Czech Republic); Emil Djakov Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria); Dejarnac, R.; Stoeckel, J.; Havlicek, J.; Janky, F.; Panek, R. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic v.v.i., Prague (Czech Republic); Popov, Ts.K. [Faculty of Physics, St. Kl. Ohridski University of Sofia (Bulgaria); Ivanova, P.; Vasileva, E. [Emil Djakov Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria); Kovacic, J. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2014-04-15

    This paper reports on probe measurements of the electron energy distribution function and plasma potential in the divertor region of the COMPASS tokamak during D-shaped plasmas. The probe data have been processed using the novel first-derivative technique. A comparison with the results obtained by processing the same data with the classical probe technique, which assumes Maxwellian electron energy distribution functions is presented and discussed. In the vicinity of the inner and outer strike points of the divertor the electron energy distribution function can be approximated by a bi-Maxwellian, with a dominating low-energy electron population (4-7 eV) and a minority of higher energy electrons (12-25 eV). In the private flux region between the two strike points the electron energy distribution function is found to be Maxwellian with temperatures in the range of 7-10 eV. The comparative analysis using both techniques has allowed a better insight into the underlying physical processes at the divertor region of the COMPASS tokamak. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  17. Hybrid formulation of radiation transport in optically thick divertor plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosato, J.; Marandet, Y.; Bufferand, H.; Stamm, R. [PIIM, UMR 7345 Aix-Marseille Universite / CNRS, Centre de St-Jerome, Marseille (France); Reiter, D. [IEK-4 Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Juelich (Germany)

    2016-08-15

    Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations of coupled atom-radiation transport in optically thick divertor plasmas can be computationally very demanding, in particular in ITER relevant conditions or even larger devices, e.g. for power plant divertor studies. At high (∝ 10{sup 15} cm{sup -3}) atomic densities, it can be shown that sufficiently large divertors behave in certain areas like a black body near the first resonance line of hydrogen (Lyman α). This suggests that, at least in part, the use of continuum model (radiation hydrodynamics) can be sufficiently accurate, while being less time consuming. In this work, we report on the development of a hybrid model devoted to switch automatically between a kinetic and a continuum description according to the plasma conditions. Calculations of the photo-excitation rate in a homogeneous slab are performed as an illustration. The outlined hybrid concept might be also applicable to neutral atom transport, due to mathematical analogy of transport equations for neutrals and radiation. (copyright 2016 The Authors. Contributions to Plasma Physics published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA Weinheim. This)

  18. Heat removal capability of divertor coaxial tube assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibui, Masanao; Nakahira, Masataka; Tada, Eisuke; Takatsu, Hideyuki

    1994-05-01

    To deal with high power flowing in the divertor region, an advanced divertor concept with gas target has been proposed for use in ITER/EDA. The concept uses a divertor channel to remove the radiated power while allowing neutrals to recirculate. Candidate channel wall designs include a tube array design where many coaxial tubes are arranged in the toroidal direction to make louver. The coaxial tube consists of a Be protection tube encases many supply tubes wound helically around a return tube. V-alloy and hardened Cu-alloy have been proposed for use in the supply and return tubes. Some coolants have also been proposed for the design including pressurized He and liquid metals, because these coolants are consistent with the selection of coolants for the blanket and also meet the requirement of high temperature operation. In the coaxial tube design, the coolant area is restricted and brittle Be material is used under severe thermal cyclings. Thus, to obtain the coaxial tube with sufficient safety margin for the expected fusion power excursion, it is essential to understand its applicability limit. The paper discusses heat removal capability of the coaxial tube and recommends some design modifications. (author)

  19. Particle recirculation in the ergodic divertor of Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunn, J.P.; Azeoual, A.; Becoulet, M.

    1999-01-01

    The present paper addresses the issue of particle recirculation in discharges where low energy flux to ergodic divertor target plates is achieved, in highly radiating detached ohmic plasmas. Plasma temperature and particle flux are measured by flush-mounted probes in the divertor plates, and by an upstream fast scanning Mach probe. The scalings with core density of the ion flux and electron temperature are well described by the simple two-point model used in axisymmetric poloidal divertors. The detachment signature is a pressure drop that occurs when the edge temperature falls below 10 eV. The parallel ion flux gradient is always positive, indicating that recombination is unlikely to play an important role in detachment. Visible spectroscopy of a neutralizer plate shows that attainment of cold detached plasmas near the density limit coincides with an abrupt increase of fueling for both deuterium and impurities. A feedback algorithm based on real time Langmuir probe measurements has been developed to monitor detachment and avoid disruptions. (authors)

  20. Development of actively cooled divertor plates for fusion experimental devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onozuka, M. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Yokohama (Japan); Toyoda, M. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Yokohama (Japan); Tsujimura, S. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Yokohama (Japan); Inoue, M. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Yokohama (Japan); Satoh, M. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Yokohama (Japan)

    1995-12-31

    Development of high thermal resistant divertor plates using the brazing technique has been conducted. Uni-directional carbon-fiber-reinforced-carbon (CFC) has been selected as the surface material because of its high thermal conductivity and mechanical strength, while copper-alloy has been chosen as the base plate because of its high thermal conductivity. Brazing materials on CFC were examined and applied to the divertor element samples (25mm x 25mm x 35mm). Then, the samples were exposed to a high heat flux electron beam. It was found that the fabricated samples can withstand repetitive thermal shocks of 30MW/m{sup 2} x 2sec for more than 500 times. Using the developed method, two types of partial divertor models were fabricated and tested. It was shown that the models have sufficient structural integrity against thermal shocks of 9MW/m{sup 2} x 3sec-14MW/m{sup 2} x 4sec for up to 1200 times. The thermal analyses suggested that the models could withstand the steady-state heat flux of 12.6MW/m{sup 2}. In addition, the thermal stress analyses showed that the structural modification could reduce the thermal stress on the models. (orig.).

  1. Radiative divertor plasmas with convection in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, A.W.; Porter, G.D.; Wood, R.D.; Allen, S.L.; Boedo, J.; Brooks, N.H.; Evans, T.E.; Fenstermacher, M.E.; Hill, D.N.; Isler, R.C.; Lasnier, C.J.; Lehmer, R.D.; Mahdavi, M.A.; Maingi, R.; Moyer, R.A.; Petrie, T.W.; Schaffer, M.J.; Wade, M.R.; Watkins, J.G.; West, W.P.; Whyte, D.G.

    1998-01-01

    The radiation of divertor heat flux on DIII-D [J. Luxon et al., in Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 1987), p. 159] is shown to greatly exceed the limits imposed by assumptions of energy transport dominated by electron thermal conduction parallel to the magnetic field. Approximately 90% of the power flowing into the divertor is dissipated through low-Z radiation and plasma recombination. The dissipation is made possible by an extended region of low electron temperature in the divertor. A one-dimensional analysis of the parallel heat flux finds that the electron temperature profile is incompatible with conduction-dominated parallel transport. Plasma flow at up to the ion acoustic speed, produced by upstream ionization, can account for the parallel heat flux. Modeling with the two-dimensional fluid code UEDGE [T. Rognlien, J. L. Milovich, M. E. Rensink, and G. D. Porter, J. Nucl. Mater. 196 endash 198, 347 (1992)] has reproduced many of the observed experimental features. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  2. Polyelectrolyte Bundles: Finite size at thermodynamic equilibrium?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayar, Mehmet

    2005-03-01

    Experimental observation of finite size aggregates formed by polyelectrolytes such as DNA and F-actin, as well as synthetic polymers like poly(p-phenylene), has created a lot of attention in recent years. Here, bundle formation in rigid rod-like polyelectrolytes is studied via computer simulations. For the case of hydrophobically modified polyelectrolytes finite size bundles are observed even in the presence of only monovalent counterions. Furthermore, in the absence of a hydrophobic backbone, we have also observed formation of finite size aggregates via multivalent counterion condensation. The size distribution of such aggregates and the stability is analyzed in this study.

  3. Bundled payment and enhanced recovery after surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Medicare's fee-for-service (FFS) payment model may contribute to unsustainable spending growth. Payers are turning to alternative payment methods. The leading alternative payment model to the FFS problem is bundled payment. The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) is taking another step to improve healthcare quality at lower cost. The CMS's Center for Medicare and Medicaid Innovation developed four models of bundled payments and 48 discrete clinical condition episodes. Many surgical care procedures are included in the 48 different clinical condition episodes.

  4. Direct His bundle pacing post AVN ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmanadoss, Umashankar; Aggarwal, Ashim; Huang, David T; Daubert, James P; Shah, Abrar

    2009-08-01

    Atrioventricular nodal (AVN) ablation with concomitant pacemaker implantation is one of the strategies that reduce symptoms in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). However, the long-term adverse effects of right ventricular (RV) apical pacing have led to the search for alternating sites of pacing. Biventricular pacing produces a significant improvement in functional capacity over RV pacing in patients undergoing AVN ablation. Another alternative site for pacing is direct His bundle to reduce the adverse outcome of RV pacing. Here, we present a case of direct His bundle pacing using steerable lead delivery system in a patient with symptomatic paroxysmal AF with concurrent AVN ablation.

  5. Characteristics of CANDU fuel bundles that caused pressure tube fretting at the bundle midplane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennier, D; Manzer, A M [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Mississauga, ON (Canada); Koehn, E [Ontario Hydro, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    Detailed measurements on new bundles, and those that caused fretting during in- and out-reactor tests, have given insight into the factors responsible for fretting at the midplane of the inlet bundle. Bottom fuel elements that were attached near radial endplate spokes and had inboard bearing pads in the rolled joint cavity produced a significant portion of the observed fret marks. These elements are influenced by several driving forces that deflect the centre bearing pads towards the pressure tube surface. The evidence suggests that slight changes in bundle design may be possible to reduce pressure tube fretting. (author). 4 refs., 3 tabs., 8 figs.

  6. Impact of bundle deformation on CHF: ASSERT-PV assessment of extended burnup Bruce B bundle G85159W

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, Y.F.; Manzer, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a subchannel thermalhydraulic analysis of the effect on critical heat flux (CHF) of bundle deformation such as element bow and diametral creep. The bundle geometry is based on the post-irradiation examination (PIE) data of a single bundle from the Bruce B Nuclear Generating Station, Bruce B bundle G85159W, which was irradiated for more than two years in the core during reactor commissioning. The subchannel code ASSERT-PV IST is used to assess changes in CHF and dryout power due to bundle deformation, compared to the reference, undeformed bundle. (author)

  7. Optimization and limitations of known DEMO divertor concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiser, Jens, E-mail: Jens.Reiser@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Applied Materials, P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Rieth, Michael [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Applied Materials, P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Limitations of the materials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Improved H{sub 2}O cooled divertor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Improved He cooled divertor. - Abstract: In this work we will introduce and discuss improvements for two types of DEMO divertors based on known designs: (i) gas cooled designs and (ii) liquid coolant concepts. In a first step, the advantages and disadvantages of gas cooling as well as the necessity of a jet impingement to increase the heat transfer coefficients will be discussed. Further discussion deals with the pros and cons of liquid coolant concepts, like for example, liquid metal or water cooling. Thereafter, we will present two rather contrary DEMO divertor concepts which are based on today's knowledge on refractory materials science, fabrication and joining technology. The first improved concept uses water flowing through steel pipes, typically made of Eurofer steel. It is well known that using Eurofer at low temperatures is critical due to its severe embrittlement under neutron irradiation. Here we make a proposal how it could be possible to use the Eurofer steel anyway: the solution could consist in a limited operation period followed by an annealing cycle at 550 Degree-Sign C for a few hours during any maintenance shut down phases. The second design is based on the known helium cooling concept using jet impingement. Drawbacks of the actual He-cooled divertor design are small scale parts as well as the necessary high helium inlet temperature of about 600-800 Degree-Sign C which leads to the question: How can we deal with such high helium temperatures? This paper shows a solution for large scale components as well as a new thermal management for the helium outlet gas that we call 'cooling of the coolant'. Both concepts are discussed in terms of materials selection due to material limits and joining technology with a special focus on the material issue using already existing and

  8. NSTX plasma operation with a Liquid Lithium Divertor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kugel, H.W., E-mail: hkugel@pppl.gov [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Allain, J.P. [Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Bell, M.G.; Bell, R.E.; Diallo, A.; Ellis, R.; Gerhardt, S.P. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Heim, B. [Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Jaworski, M.A.; Kaita, R.; Kallman, J.; Kaye, S.; LeBlanc, B.P. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Maingi, R.; McLean, A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Menard, J.; Mueller, D. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Nygren, R. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); Ono, M.; Paul, S.F. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); and others

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NSTX 2010 experiments tested the effectiveness of maintaining the deuterium retention properties of a static liquid lithium molybdenum divertor surface when refreshed by lithium evaporation as an approximation to a flowing liquid lithium surface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Noteworthy improvements in plasma performance with the plasma strike point on the liquid lithium molybdenum divertor were obtained similar to those obtained previously with lithiated graphite. The role of lithium impurities in this result is discussed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inspection of the liquid lithium molybdenum divertor after the Campaign indicated mechanical damage to supports, and other hardware resulting from forces following plasma current disruptions. - Abstract: NSTX 2010 experiments were conducted using a molybdenum Liquid Lithium Divertor (LLD) surface installed on the outer part of the lower divertor. This tested the effectiveness of maintaining the deuterium retention properties of a static liquid lithium surface when refreshed by lithium evaporation as an approximation to a flowing liquid lithium surface. The LLD molybdenum front face has a 45% porosity to provide sufficient wetting to spread 37 g of lithium, and to retain it in the presence of magnetic forces. Lithium Evaporators were used to deposit lithium on the LLD surface. At the beginning of discharges, the LLD lithium surface ranged from solid to liquefied depending on the amount of applied and plasma heating. Noteworthy improvements in plasma performance were obtained similar to those obtained previously with lithiated graphite, e.g., ELM-free, quiescent edge, H-modes. During these experiments with the plasma outer strike point on the LLD, the rate of deuterium retention in the LLD, as indicated by the fueling needed to achieve and maintain stable plasma conditions, was the about the same as that for solid lithium coatings on the graphite prior to the installation of the

  9. Automated magnetic divertor design for optimal power exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blommaert, Maarten

    2017-07-01

    The so-called divertor is the standard particle and power exhaust system of nuclear fusion tokamaks. In essence, the magnetic configuration hereby 'diverts' the plasma to a specific divertor structure. The design of this divertor is still a key issue to be resolved to evolve from experimental fusion tokamaks to commercial power plants. The focus of this dissertation is on one particular design requirement: avoiding excessive heat loads on the divertor structure. The divertor design process is assisted by plasma edge transport codes that simulate the plasma and neutral particle transport in the edge of the reactor. These codes are computationally extremely demanding, not in the least due to the complex collisional processes between plasma and neutrals that lead to strong radiation sinks and macroscopic heat convection near the vessel walls. One way of improving the heat exhaust is by modifying the magnetic confinement that governs the plasma flow. In this dissertation, automated design of the magnetic configuration is pursued using adjoint based optimization methods. A simple and fast perturbation model is used to compute the magnetic field in the vacuum vessel. A stable optimal design method of the nested type is then elaborated that strictly accounts for several nonlinear design constraints and code limitations. Using appropriate cost function definitions, the heat is spread more uniformly over the high-heat load plasma-facing components in a practical design example. Furthermore, practical in-parts adjoint sensitivity calculations are presented that provide a way to an efficient optimization procedure. Results are elaborated for a fictituous JET (Joint European Torus) case. The heat load is strongly reduced by exploiting an expansion of the magnetic flux towards the solid divertor structure. Subsequently, shortcomings of the perturbation model for magnetic field calculations are discussed in comparison to a free boundary equilibrium (FBE) simulation

  10. Automated magnetic divertor design for optimal power exhaust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blommaert, Maarten

    2017-01-01

    The so-called divertor is the standard particle and power exhaust system of nuclear fusion tokamaks. In essence, the magnetic configuration hereby 'diverts' the plasma to a specific divertor structure. The design of this divertor is still a key issue to be resolved to evolve from experimental fusion tokamaks to commercial power plants. The focus of this dissertation is on one particular design requirement: avoiding excessive heat loads on the divertor structure. The divertor design process is assisted by plasma edge transport codes that simulate the plasma and neutral particle transport in the edge of the reactor. These codes are computationally extremely demanding, not in the least due to the complex collisional processes between plasma and neutrals that lead to strong radiation sinks and macroscopic heat convection near the vessel walls. One way of improving the heat exhaust is by modifying the magnetic confinement that governs the plasma flow. In this dissertation, automated design of the magnetic configuration is pursued using adjoint based optimization methods. A simple and fast perturbation model is used to compute the magnetic field in the vacuum vessel. A stable optimal design method of the nested type is then elaborated that strictly accounts for several nonlinear design constraints and code limitations. Using appropriate cost function definitions, the heat is spread more uniformly over the high-heat load plasma-facing components in a practical design example. Furthermore, practical in-parts adjoint sensitivity calculations are presented that provide a way to an efficient optimization procedure. Results are elaborated for a fictituous JET (Joint European Torus) case. The heat load is strongly reduced by exploiting an expansion of the magnetic flux towards the solid divertor structure. Subsequently, shortcomings of the perturbation model for magnetic field calculations are discussed in comparison to a free boundary equilibrium (FBE) simulation. These flaws

  11. Fiber bundle geometry and space-time structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, J.C.

    1977-01-01

    Within the framework of the geometric formulation of Gauge theories in fiber bundles, the general relation between the bundle connection (Gauge field) and the geometry of the base space is obtained. A possible Gauge theory for gravitation is presented [pt

  12. Automated negotiation and bundling of information goods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Somefun, D.J.A.; Gerding, E.H.; Bohté, S.M.; Poutré, la J.A.; Faratin, P.; Parkes, D.; Rodriquez-Aguilar, J.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we present a novel system for selling bundles of news items. Through the system, customers bargain with the seller over the price and quality of the delivered goods. The advantage of the developed system is that it allows for a high degree of flexibility in the price, quality, and

  13. Jacobi bundles and the BFV-complex

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Le, Hong-Van; Tortorella, A. G.; Vitagliano, L.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 121, November (2017), s. 347-377 ISSN 0393-0440 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Jacobi manifold * Jacobi bundle * coisotropic submanifolds Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 0.819, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0393044017301948

  14. Large eddy simulation of bundle turbulent flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, Y.A.; Barsamian, H.R.

    1995-01-01

    Large eddy simulation may be defined as simulation of a turbulent flow in which the large scale motions are explicitly resolved while the small scale motions are modeled. This results into a system of equations that require closure models. The closure models relate the effects of the small scale motions onto the large scale motions. There have been several models developed, the most popular is the Smagorinsky eddy viscosity model. A new model has recently been introduced by Lee that modified the Smagorinsky model. Using both of the above mentioned closure models, two different geometric arrangements were used in the simulation of turbulent cross flow within rigid tube bundles. An inlined array simulations was performed for a deep bundle (10,816 nodes) as well as an inlet/outlet simulation (57,600 nodes). Comparisons were made to available experimental data. Flow visualization enabled the distinction of different characteristics within the flow such as jet switching effects in the wake of the bundle flow for the inlet/outlet simulation case, as well as within tube bundles. The results indicate that the large eddy simulation technique is capable of turbulence prediction and may be used as a viable engineering tool with the careful consideration of the subgrid scale model. (author)

  15. Laughter-induced left bundle branch block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Grant V; Desai, Dipan; Spragg, David D; Zakaria, Sammy

    2012-10-01

    We present the case of a patient with ischemic heart disease and intermittent left bundle branch block, reproducibly induced by laughter. Following treatment of ischemia with successful deployment of a drug-eluting stent, no further episodes of inducible LBBB were seen. Transient ischemia, exacerbated by elevated intrathoracic pressure during laughter, may have contributed to onset of this phenomenon. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Radiative and SOL experiments in open and baffled divertors on DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, S.L.; Brooks, N.H.; Bastasz, R.

    1998-11-01

    The authors present recent progress towards an understanding of the physical processes in the divertor and scrape-off-layer (SOL) plasmas in DIII-D. This has been made possible by a combination of new diagnostics, improved computational models, and changes in divertor geometry. They have focused primarily on ELMing H-mode discharges. The physics of Partially Detached Divertor (PDD) plasmas, with divertor heat flux reduction by divertor radiation enhancement using D 2 puffing, has been studied in 2-D, and a model of the heat and particle transport has been developed that includes conduction, convection, ionization, recombination, and flows. Plasma and impurity particle flows have been measured with Mach probes and spectroscopy and these flows have been compared with the UEDGE model. The model now includes self-consistent calculations of carbon impurities. Impurity radiation has been increased in the divertor and SOL with puff and pump techniques using SOL D 2 puffing, divertor cryopumping, and argon puffing. The important physical processes in plasma-wall interactions have been examined with a DiMES probe, plasma characterization near the divertor plate, and the REDEP code. Experiments comparing single-null (SN) plasma operation in baffled and open divertors have demonstrated a change in the edge plasma profiles. These results are consistent with a reduction in the core ionization source calculated with UEDGE. Divertor particle control in ELMing H-mode with pumping and baffling has resulted in reduction in H-mode core densities to n e /n gw ∼ 0.25. Divertor particle exhaust and heat flux has been studied as the plasma shape was varied from a lower SN, to a balanced double null (DN), and finally to an upper SN

  17. Fiber bundles in non-relativistic quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moylan, P.

    1979-11-01

    The problem of describing a quantum-mechanical system with symmetry by a fiber bundle is considered. The quantization of a fiber bundle is introduced. Fiber bundles for the Kepler problem and the rotator are constructed. The fiber bundle concept provides a new model for a physical system: it provides a model for an elementary particle with extension having integral values of spin. 5 figures

  18. Interplanetary Overlay Network Bundle Protocol Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burleigh, Scott C.

    2011-01-01

    The Interplanetary Overlay Network (ION) system's BP package, an implementation of the Delay-Tolerant Networking (DTN) Bundle Protocol (BP) and supporting services, has been specifically designed to be suitable for use on deep-space robotic vehicles. Although the ION BP implementation is unique in its use of zero-copy objects for high performance, and in its use of resource-sensitive rate control, it is fully interoperable with other implementations of the BP specification (Internet RFC 5050). The ION BP implementation is built using the same software infrastructure that underlies the implementation of the CCSDS (Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems) File Delivery Protocol (CFDP) built into the flight software of Deep Impact. It is designed to minimize resource consumption, while maximizing operational robustness. For example, no dynamic allocation of system memory is required. Like all the other ION packages, ION's BP implementation is designed to port readily between Linux and Solaris (for easy development and for ground system operations) and VxWorks (for flight systems operations). The exact same source code is exercised in both environments. Initially included in the ION BP implementations are the following: libraries of functions used in constructing bundle forwarders and convergence-layer (CL) input and output adapters; a simple prototype bundle forwarder and associated CL adapters designed to run over an IPbased local area network; administrative tools for managing a simple DTN infrastructure built from these components; a background daemon process that silently destroys bundles whose time-to-live intervals have expired; a library of functions exposed to applications, enabling them to issue and receive data encapsulated in DTN bundles; and some simple applications that can be used for system checkout and benchmarking.

  19. Deformation quantization with separation of variables of an endomorphism bundle

    OpenAIRE

    Karabegov, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Given a holomorphic Hermitian vector bundle and a star-product with separation of variables on a pseudo-Kaehler manifold, we construct a star product on the sections of the endomorphism bundle of the dual bundle which also has the appropriately generalized property of separation of variables. For this star product we prove a generalization of Gammelgaard's graph-theoretic formula.

  20. Image-Based Edge Bundles : Simplified Visualization of Large Graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telea, A.; Ersoy, O.

    2010-01-01

    We present a new approach aimed at understanding the structure of connections in edge-bundling layouts. We combine the advantages of edge bundles with a bundle-centric simplified visual representation of a graph's structure. For this, we first compute a hierarchical edge clustering of a given graph

  1. Modeling of combined effects of divertor closure and advanced magnetic configuration on detachment in DIII-D by SOLPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, H.; Guo, H. Y.; Covele, B.; Leonard, A. W.; Watkins, J. G.; Thomas, D.; Ding, R.

    2018-05-01

    One of the major challenges facing the design and operation of next-step high-power steady-state fusion devices is to develop a divertor solution for handling power exhaust, while ensuring acceptable divertor target plate erosion, which necessitates access to divertor detachment at relative low main plasma densities compatible with current drive and high plasma confinement. Detailed modeling with SOLPS is carried out to examine the effect of divertor closure on detachment with the normal single null divertor (SD) configuration, as well as one of the advanced divertor configurations, such as x-divertor (XD) respectively. The SOLPS modeling for a high confinement plasma in DIII-D finds that increasing divertor closure with SD reduces the upstream separatrix density at the onset of detachment from 1.18× {{10}19} {{m}-3} to 0.88× {{10}19} {{m}-3} . Moreover, coupling the divertor closure with XD further promotes the onset of divertor detachment at a still lower upstream separatrix density, down to the value of 0.67× {{10}19} {{m}-3} , thus, showing that divertor closure and advanced magnetic configuration can work synergistically to facilitate divertor detachment.

  2. Scrape-off layer radiation and heat load to the ASDEX Upgrade LYRA divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallenbach, A.; Kaufmann, M.; Coster, D.P.

    1999-01-01

    In 1997 the new 'LYRA' divertor went into operation at ASDEX Upgrade and, in parallel, the neutral beam heating power was increased to 20 MW by installation of a second injector leading to a P/R value of 12 MW/m. Experiments have shown that the ASDEX Upgrade LYRA divertor is capable of handling such high heating powers. There is an overall reduction of the maximum heat flux in the LYRA divertor by about a factor of 2 compared with the previous open divertor Div I. This reduction is mainly due to increased radiative losses inside the divertor region, which are caused by an effective reflection of hydrogen neutrals into the hot separatrix region. The main channel of radiative loss is carbon radiation, which cools the divertor plasma down to a few electronvolts, where hydrogen radiation losses become significant. The radiative losses preferentially reduce the power flux at the separatrix, leading to early detachment around the strike point position. With increasing density, the detached region extends upwards on the vertical target. The power fraction radiated in the LYRA divertor is around 45% and nearly independent of the heating power. This value is a factor of 2 higher than the typical radiation fraction in Div I. B2-EIRENE modelling of the performed experiments supports the experimental finding and refines the understanding of loss processes in the divertor region. (author)

  3. Divertor power load studies for attached L-mode single-null plasmas in TCV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maurizio, R.; Elmore, S.; Fedorczak, N.; Gallo, A.; Reimerdes, H.; Labit, B.; Theiler, C.; Tsui, C. K.; Vijvers, W. A. J.; TCV team,; MST1 Team,

    2018-01-01

    This paper investigates the power loads at the inner and outer divertor targets of attached, Ohmic L-mode, deuterium plasmas in the TCV tokamak, in various experimental situations using an Infrared thermography system. The study comprises variations of the outer divertor leg length and target flux

  4. Features and Initial Results of the DIII-D Advanced Tokamak Radiative Divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R.C. O'Neill; A.S. Bozek; M.E. Friend; C.B. Baxi; E.E. Reis; M.A. Mahdavi; D.G. Nilson; S.L. Allen; W.P. West

    1999-01-01

    The Radiative Divertor Program of DIII-D is in its final phase with the installation of the cryopump and baffle structure (Phase 1B Divertor) in the upper inner radius of the DIII-D vacuum vessel at the end of this calendar year. This divertor, in conjunction with the Advanced Divertor and the Phase 1A Divertor, located in the lower and upper outer radius of the DIII-D vacuum vessel respectively, provides pumping for density control of the plasma while minimizing the effects on the core confinement. Each divertor consists of a cryobelium cooling ring and a shielded protective structure. The cryo/helium-cooled pumps of all three diverters exhaust helium from the plasma. The protective shielded structure or baffle structure, in the case of the diverters located at the top of the vacuum vessel, provides baffling of neutral charged particles and minimize the flow of impurities back into the core of the plasma. The baffles, which consist of water-cooled panels that allow for the attachment of tiles of various sizes and shapes, house gas puff systems. The intent of the puffing systems is to inject gas in and around the divertor to minimize the heat flux on specific areas on the divertor and its components. The reduction of the heat flux on the divertor minimizes the impurities that are generated from excess heat on divertor components, specifically tiles. Experiments involving the gas puff systems and the divertor structures have shown the heat flux can be spread over a large area of the divertor, reducing the peak heat flux in specific areas. The three diverters also incorporate a variety of diagnostic tools such as halo current monitors, magnetic probes and thermocouples to monitor certain plasma characteristics as well as determine the effectiveness of the cryopumps and baffle configurations. The diverters were designed to optimize pumping performance and to withstand the electromagnetic loads from both halo currents and toroidal induced currents. Incorporated also

  5. Bundling of harvesting residues and whole-trees and the treatment of bundles; Hakkuutaehteiden ja kokopuiden niputus ja nippujen kaesittely

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaipainen, H; Seppaenen, V; Rinne, S

    1997-12-31

    The conditions on which the bundling of the harvesting residues from spruce regeneration fellings would become profitable were studied. The calculations showed that one of the most important features was sufficient compaction of the bundle, so that the portion of the wood in the unit volume of the bundle has to be more than 40 %. The tests showed that the timber grab loader of farm tractor was insufficient for production of dense bundles. The feeding and compression device of the prototype bundler was constructed in the research and with this device the required density was obtained.The rate of compaction of the dry spruce felling residues was about 40 % and that of the fresh residues was more than 50 %. The comparison between the bundles showed that the calorific value of the fresh bundle per unit volume was nearly 30 % higher than that of the dry bundle. This means that the treatment of the bundles should be done of fresh felling residues. Drying of the bundles succeeded well, and the crushing and chipping tests showed that the processing of the bundles at the plant is possible. The treatability of the bundles was also excellent. By using the prototype, developed in the research, it was possible to produce a bundle of the fresh spruce harvesting residues, the diameter of which was about 50 cm and the length about 3 m, and the rate of compaction over 50 %. By these values the reduction target of the costs is obtainable

  6. Bundling of harvesting residues and whole-trees and the treatment of bundles; Hakkuutaehteiden ja kokopuiden niputus ja nippujen kaesittely

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaipainen, H.; Seppaenen, V.; Rinne, S.

    1996-12-31

    The conditions on which the bundling of the harvesting residues from spruce regeneration fellings would become profitable were studied. The calculations showed that one of the most important features was sufficient compaction of the bundle, so that the portion of the wood in the unit volume of the bundle has to be more than 40 %. The tests showed that the timber grab loader of farm tractor was insufficient for production of dense bundles. The feeding and compression device of the prototype bundler was constructed in the research and with this device the required density was obtained.The rate of compaction of the dry spruce felling residues was about 40 % and that of the fresh residues was more than 50 %. The comparison between the bundles showed that the calorific value of the fresh bundle per unit volume was nearly 30 % higher than that of the dry bundle. This means that the treatment of the bundles should be done of fresh felling residues. Drying of the bundles succeeded well, and the crushing and chipping tests showed that the processing of the bundles at the plant is possible. The treatability of the bundles was also excellent. By using the prototype, developed in the research, it was possible to produce a bundle of the fresh spruce harvesting residues, the diameter of which was about 50 cm and the length about 3 m, and the rate of compaction over 50 %. By these values the reduction target of the costs is obtainable

  7. Repair of manufacturing defects in the armor of plasma facing units of the ITER Divertor Dome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litunovsky, Nikolay; Alekseenko, Evgeny; Kuznetsov, Vladimir; Lyanzberg, Dmitriy; Makhankov, Aleksey; Rulev, Roman

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Sporadic manufacturing defects in ITER Divertor Dome PFUs may be repaired. • We have developed a repair technique for ITER Divertor Dome PFUs. • Armor repair technique for ITER Divertor Dome PFUs is successfully tested. -- Abstract: The paper describes the repair procedure developed for removal of manufacturing defects occurring sporadically during armoring of plasma facing units (PFUs) of the ITER Divertor Dome. Availability of armor repair technique is prescribed by the procurement arrangement for the ITER Divertor Dome concluded in 2009 between the ITER Organization and the ITER Domestic Agency of Russia. The paper presents the detailed description of the procedure, data on its effect on the joints of the rest part of the armor and on the grain structure of the PFU heat sink. The results of thermocycling of large-scale Dome PFU mock-ups manufactured with demonstration of armor repair are also given

  8. Radiation transport effects in divertor plasmas generated during a tokamak reactor disruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, R.R.; MacFarlane, J.J.; Wang, P.

    1994-01-01

    Vaporization of material from tokamak divertors during disruptions is a critical issue for tokamak reactors from ITER to commercial power plants. Radiation transport from the vaporized material onto the remaining divertor surface plays an important role in the total mass loss to the divertor. Radiation transport in such a vapor is very difficult to calculate in full detail, and this paper quantifies the sensitivity of the divertor mass loss to uncertainties in the radiation transport. Specifically, the paper presents the results of computer simulations of the vaporization of a graphite coated divertor during a tokamak disruption with ITER CDA parameters. The results show that a factor of 100 change in the radiation conductivity changes the mass loss by more than a factor of two

  9. Facilities for technology testing of ITER divertor concepts, models, and prototypes in a plasma environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, S.A.

    1991-12-01

    The exhaust of power and fusion-reaction products from ITER plasma are critical physics and technology issues from performance, safety, and reliability perspectives. Because of inadequate pulse length, fluence, flux, scrape-off layer plasma temperature and density, and other parameters, the present generation of tokamaks, linear plasma devices, or energetic beam facilities are unable to perform adequate technology testing of divertor components, though they are essential contributors to many physics issues such as edge-plasma transport and disruption effects and control. This Technical Requirements Documents presents a description of the capabilities and parameters divertor test facilities should have to perform accelerated life testing on predominantly technological divertor issues such as basic divertor concepts, heat load limits, thermal fatigue, tritium inventory and erosion/redeposition. The cost effectiveness of such divertor technology testing is also discussed

  10. Repair of manufacturing defects in the armor of plasma facing units of the ITER Divertor Dome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litunovsky, Nikolay, E-mail: nlitunovsky@sintez.niiefa.spb.su; Alekseenko, Evgeny; Kuznetsov, Vladimir; Lyanzberg, Dmitriy; Makhankov, Aleksey; Rulev, Roman

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • Sporadic manufacturing defects in ITER Divertor Dome PFUs may be repaired. • We have developed a repair technique for ITER Divertor Dome PFUs. • Armor repair technique for ITER Divertor Dome PFUs is successfully tested. -- Abstract: The paper describes the repair procedure developed for removal of manufacturing defects occurring sporadically during armoring of plasma facing units (PFUs) of the ITER Divertor Dome. Availability of armor repair technique is prescribed by the procurement arrangement for the ITER Divertor Dome concluded in 2009 between the ITER Organization and the ITER Domestic Agency of Russia. The paper presents the detailed description of the procedure, data on its effect on the joints of the rest part of the armor and on the grain structure of the PFU heat sink. The results of thermocycling of large-scale Dome PFU mock-ups manufactured with demonstration of armor repair are also given.

  11. Proposal of an alternative upper divertor in ASDEX Upgrade supported by EMC3-EIRENE simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Lunt

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the benefits of installing a pair of in-vessel coils with currents |Ifx| ≲ 50 kAt in the upper divertor of ASDEX Upgrade (AUG to study a series of ‘alternative’ divertor configurations, like the Snowflake (SF and the X-divertor (XD, that are currently considered as alternative solutions for the power exhaust problem. The possibility of operating the standard lower single-null (SN and double-null (DN would be preserved. Potential effects to reduce the peak parallel- and/or perpendicular heat flux are predicted from a simple geometrical-diffusive model as well as by numerical EMC3-EIRENE simulations for pure deuterium attached conditions with spatially constant diffusion coefficients. Beyond that a series of other potential transport- and radiation related heat flux mitigation effects are identified and could be studied experimentally with the modified upper divertor in the high-power divertor Tokamak AUG.

  12. The dynamical mechanical properties of tungsten under compression at working temperature range of divertors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, C. C.; Song, Y. T.; Peng, X. B.; Wei, Y. P.; Mao, X.; Li, W. X.; Qian, X. Y.

    2016-02-01

    In the divertor structure of ITER and EAST with mono-block module, tungsten plays not only a role of armor material but also a role of structural material, because electromagnetic (EM) impact will be exerted on tungsten components in VDEs or CQ. The EM loads can reach to 100 MN, which would cause high strain rates. In addition, directly exposed to high-temperature plasma, the temperature regime of divertor components is complex. Aiming at studying dynamical response of tungsten divertors under EM loads, an experiment on tungsten employed in EAST divertors was performed using a Kolsky bar system. The testing strain rates and temperatures is derived from actual working conditions, which makes the constitutive equation concluded by using John-Cook model and testing data very accurate and practical. The work would give a guidance to estimate the dynamical response, fatigue life and damage evolution of tungsten divertor components under EM impact loads.

  13. Model-based radiation scalings for the ITER-like divertors of JET and ASDEX Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aho-Mantila, L., E-mail: leena.aho-mantila@vtt.fi [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, FI-02044 VTT (Finland); Bonnin, X. [LSPM – CNRS, Université Paris 13, Sorbonne Paris Cité, F-93430 Villetaneuse (France); Coster, D.P. [Max-Planck Institut für Plasmaphysik, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Lowry, C. [EFDA JET CSU, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Wischmeier, M. [Max-Planck Institut für Plasmaphysik, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Brezinsek, S. [Forschungszentrum Jülich, Institut für Energie- und Klimaforschung Plasmaphysik, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Federici, G. [EFDA PPP& T Department, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2015-08-15

    Effects of N-seeding in L-mode experiments in ASDEX Upgrade and JET are analysed numerically with the SOLPS5.0 code package. The modelling yields 3 qualitatively different radiative regimes with increasing N concentration, when initially attached outer divertor conditions are studied. The radiation pattern is observed to evolve asymmetrically, with radiation increasing first in the inner divertor, then in the outer divertor, and finally on closed field lines above the X-point. The properties of these radiative regimes are observed to be sensitive to cross-field drifts and they differ between the two devices. The modelled scaling of the divertor radiated power with the divertor neutral pressure is similar to an experimental scaling law for H-mode radiation. The same parametric dependencies are not observed in simulations without drifts.

  14. Tungsten erosion and redeposition in the all-tungsten divertor of ASDEX Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, M; Krieger, K; Matern, G; Neu, R; Rasinski, M; Rohde, V; Sugiyama, K; Wiltner, A [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstrasse 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Andrzejczuk, M; Fortuna-Zalesna, E; Kurzydlowski, K J; Zielinski, W [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Association EURATOM-IPPLM, 02-507 Warsaw (Poland); Hakola, A; Koivuranta, S; Likonen, J [VTT Materials for Power Engineering, EURATOM Association, PO Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT (Finland); Ramos, G [CICATA-Qro, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Queretaro (Mexico); Dux, R, E-mail: matej.mayer@ipp.mpg.de

    2009-12-15

    Net erosion and deposition of tungsten (W) in the ASDEX Upgrade divertor were determined after the 2007 campaign by using thin W marker stripes. ASDEX Upgrade had full-W plasma-facing components during this campaign. The inner divertor and the roof baffle were net W deposition areas with a maximum deposition of about 1x10{sup 18} W-atoms cm{sup -2} in the private flux region below the inner strike point. Net erosion of W was observed in the whole outer divertor, with the largest erosion close to the outer strike point. Only a small fraction of the W eroded in the main chamber and in the outer divertor was found in redeposits in the inner divertor, while a large fraction was either redeposited at unidentified places in the main chamber or has formed dust.

  15. Comparison of ASSERT subchannel code with Marviken bundle data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahir, A.; Carver, M.B.

    1984-04-01

    In this paper ASSERT predictions are compared with the Marviken 6-rod bundle and 36+1 rod bundle. The predictions are presented for two experiments in the 6-rod bundle and four experiments in the 36+1 rod bundle. For low inlet subcooling, the void predictions are in good agreement with the experimental data. For high inlet subcooling, however, the agreement is not as good. This is attributed to the fact that in the high inlet subcooling experiments, single phase turbulent mixing plays a more important role in determining flow conditions in the bundle

  16. Triviality and Split of Vector Bundles on Rationally Connected Varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Xuanyu

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we give a simple proof of a triviality criterion due to I.Biswas and J.Pedro and P.Dos Santos. We also prove a vector bundle on a homogenous space is trivial if and only if the restrictions of the vector bundle to Schubert lines are trivial. Using this result and Chern classes of vector bundles, we give a general criterion of a uniform vector bundle on a homogenous space to be splitting. As an application, we prove a uniform vector bundle on classical Grassmannians and quadrics...

  17. Optimized hardware design for the divertor remote handling control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saarinen, Hannu [Tampere University of Technology, Korkeakoulunkatu 6, 33720 Tampere (Finland)], E-mail: hannu.saarinen@tut.fi; Tiitinen, Juha; Aha, Liisa; Muhammad, Ali; Mattila, Jouni; Siuko, Mikko; Vilenius, Matti [Tampere University of Technology, Korkeakoulunkatu 6, 33720 Tampere (Finland); Jaervenpaeae, Jorma [VTT Systems Engineering, Tekniikankatu 1, 33720 Tampere (Finland); Irving, Mike; Damiani, Carlo; Semeraro, Luigi [Fusion for Energy, Josep Pla 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral B3, 08019 Barcelona (Spain)

    2009-06-15

    A key ITER maintenance activity is the exchange of the divertor cassettes. One of the major focuses of the EU Remote Handling (RH) programme has been the study and development of the remote handling equipment necessary for divertor exchange. The current major step in this programme involves the construction of a full scale physical test facility, namely DTP2 (Divertor Test Platform 2), in which to demonstrate and refine the RH equipment designs for ITER using prototypes. The major objective of the DTP2 project is the proof of concept studies of various RH devices, but is also important to define principles for standardizing control hardware and methods around the ITER maintenance equipment. This paper focuses on describing the control system hardware design optimization that is taking place at DTP2. Here there will be two RH movers, namely the Cassette Multifuctional Mover (CMM), Cassette Toroidal Mover (CTM) and assisting water hydraulic force feedback manipulators (WHMAN) located aboard each Mover. The idea here is to use common Real Time Operating Systems (RTOS), measurement and control IO-cards etc. for all maintenance devices and to standardize sensors and control components as much as possible. In this paper, new optimized DTP2 control system hardware design and some initial experimentation with the new DTP2 RH control system platform are presented. The proposed new approach is able to fulfil the functional requirements for both Mover and Manipulator control systems. Since the new control system hardware design has reduced architecture there are a number of benefits compared to the old approach. The simplified hardware solution enables the use of a single software development environment and a single communication protocol. This will result in easier maintainability of the software and hardware, less dependence on trained personnel, easier training of operators and hence reduced the development costs of ITER RH.

  18. Simulation of divertor targets shielding during transients in ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pestchanyi, Sergey, E-mail: serguei.pestchanyi@kit.edu [KIT, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Pitts, Richard; Lehnen, Michael [ITER Organization,Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • We simulated plasma shielding effect during disruption in ITER using the TOKES code. • It has been found that vaporization is unavoidable under action of ITER transients, but plasma shielding drastically reduces the divertor target damage: the melt pool and the vaporization region widths reduced 10–15 times. • A simplified 1D model describing the melt pool depth and the shielded heat flux to the divertor targets have been developed. • The results of the TOKES simulations have been compared with the analytic model when the model is valid. - Abstract: Direct extrapolation of the disruptive heat flux on ITER conditions predicts severe melting and vaporization of the divertor targets causing their intolerable damage. However, tungsten vaporized from the target at initial stage of the disruption can create plasma shield in front of the target, which effectively protects the target surface from the rest of the heat flux. Estimation of this shielding efficiency has been performed using the TOKES code. The shielding effect under ITER conditions is found to be very strong: the maximal depth of the melt layer reduced 4 times, the melt layer width—more than 10 times and vaporization region shrinks 10–15 times due to shielding for unmitigated disruption of 350 MJ discharge. The simulation results show complex, 2D plasma dynamics of the shield under ITER conditions. However, a simplified analytic model, valid for rough estimation of the maximum value for the shielded flux to the target and for the melt depth at the target surface has been developed.

  19. Recent advances towards a lithium vapor box divertor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.J. Goldston

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Fusion power plants are likely to require near complete detachment of the divertor plasma from the divertor target plates, in order to have both acceptable heat flux at the target to avoid prompt damage and also acceptable plasma temperature at the target surface, to minimize long-term erosion. However hydrogenic and impurity puffing experiments show that detached operation leads easily to x-point MARFEs, impure plasmas, degradation in confinement, and lower helium pressure at the exhaust. The concept of the Lithium Vapor Box Divertor is to use local evaporation and strong differential pumping through condensation to localize low-Z gas-phase material that absorbs the plasma heat flux and so achieve detachment while avoiding these difficulties. The vapor localization has been confirmed using preliminary Navier–Stokes calculations. We use ADAS calculations of εcool, the plasma energy lost per injected lithium atom, to estimate the lithium vapor pressure, and so temperature, required for detachment, taking into account power balance. We also develop a simple model of detachment to evaluate the required upstream density, based on further taking into account dynamic pressure balance. A remarkable general result is found, not just for lithium-vapor-induced detachment, that the upstream density divided by the Greenwald-limit density scales as nup/nGW ∝ (P5/8/B3/8 Tdet1/2/(εcool+γTdet, with no explicit size scaling. Tdet is the temperature just before strong pressure loss, assumed to be ∼ ½ of the ionization potential of the dominant recycling species, and γ is the sheath heat transmission factor.

  20. Assessment of X-point target divertor configuration for power handling and detachment front control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.V. Umansky

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A study of long-legged tokamak divertor configurations is performed with the edge transport code UEDGE (Rognlien et al., J. Nucl. Mater. 196, 347, 1992. The model parameters are based on the ADX tokamak concept design (LaBombard et al., Nucl. Fusion 55, 053020, 2015. Several long-legged divertor configurations are considered, in particular the X-point target configuration proposed for ADX, and compared with a standard divertor. For otherwise identical conditions, a scan of the input power from the core plasma is performed. It is found that as the power is reduced to a threshold value, the plasma in the outer leg transitions to a fully detached state which defines the upper limit on the power for detached divertor operation. Reducing the power further results in the detachment front shifting upstream but remaining stable. At low power the detachment front eventually moves to the primary X-point, which is usually associated with degradation of the core plasma, and this defines the lower limit on the power for the detached divertor operation. For the studied parameters, the operation window for a detached divertor in the standard divertor configuration is very small, or even non-existent; under the same conditions for long-legged divertors the detached operation window is quite large, in particular for the X-point target configuration, allowing a factor of 5–10 variation in the input power. These modeling results point to possibility of stable fully detached divertor operation for a tokamak with extended divertor legs.

  1. Some problems of brazing technology for the divertor plate manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokofiev, Yu. G.; Barabash, V. R.; Khorunov, V. F.; Maksimova, S. V.; Gervash, A. A.; Fabritsiev, S. A.; Vinokurov, V. F.

    1992-09-01

    Among the different design options of the ITER reactor divertor, the joints of the carbon-based materials and molybdenum alloys and joints of tungsten and copper alloys are considered. High-temperature brazing is one of the most promising joining methods for the plasma facing and heat sink materials. The use of brazing for creation of W-Cu and graphite-Mo joints are given here. In addition, the investigation results of microstructure, microhardness and mechanical properties of the joints are presented. For W-Cu samples an influence of the neutron irradiation on the joining strength was studied.

  2. Performance characteristics of the DIII-D advanced divertor cryopump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menon, M.M.; Maingi, R.; Wade, M.R.; Baxi, C.B.; Campbell, G.L.; Holtrop, K.L.; Hyatt, A.W.; Laughon, G.J.; Makariou, C.C.; Mahdavi, M.A.; Reis, E.E.; Schaffer, M.J.; Schaubel, K.M.; Scoville, J.T.; Smith, J.P.; Stambaugh, R.D.

    1993-10-01

    A cryocondensation pump, cooled by forced flow of two-phase helium, has been installed for particle exhaust from the divertor region of the DIII-D tokamak. The Inconel pumping surface is of coaxial geometry, 25.4 mm in outer diameter and 11.65 m in length. Because of the tokamak environment, the pump is designed to perform under relatively high pulsed heat loads (300 Wm -2 ). Results of measurements made on the pumping characteristics for D 2 , H 2 , and Ar are discussed

  3. Conceptual Design for a Bulk Tungsten Divertor Tile in JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mertens, P.; Neubauer, O.; Philipps, V.; Schweer, B.; Samm, U.; Hirai, T.; Sadakov, S.

    2006-01-01

    With ITER on the verge of being build, the ITER-like Wall project (ILW) for JET aims at providing the plasma chamber of the tokamak with an environment of mixed materials which will be relevant to the support of decisions to the first wall construction and, from the point of view of plasma physics, to the corresponding investigations of possible plasma configuration and plasma-wall interaction. In both respects, tungsten plays a key role in the divertor cladding whereas beryllium will be used for the vessel's first wall. For the central tile, also called LB-SRP for '' Load-Bearing Septum Replacement Plate '', resort to bulk tungsten is envisaged in order to cope with the high loads expected (up to 10 MW/m 2 for about 10 s). This is indeed the preferred plasma-facing component for positioning the outer strike-point in the divertor. Forschungszentrum Juelich has developed a conceptual design for this tile, based on an assembly of tungsten blades or lamellae. It was selected in the frame of an extensive R-and-D study in search of a suitable, inertially cooled component(T. Hirai et al., R-and-D on full tungsten divertor and beryllium wall for JET ITER-like Wall Project: this conference). As reported elsewhere, the design is actually driven by electromagnetic considerations in the first place(S. Sadakov et al., Detailed electromagnetic analysis for optimisation of a tungsten divertor plate for JET: this conference). The lamellae are grouped in four stacks per tile which are independently attached to an equally re-designed supporting structure. A so-called adapter plate, also a new design, takes care of an appropriate interface to the base carrier of JET, onto which modules of two tiles are positioned and screwed by remote handling (RH) procedures. The compatibility of the design on the whole with RH requirements is another essential ingredient which was duly taken into account throughout. The concept and the underlying philosophy will be presented along with important

  4. Some problems of brazing technology for the divertor plate manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokofiev, Yu.G.; Barabash, V.R.; Gervash, A.A.; Khorunov, V.F.; Maksimova, S.V.; Vinokurov, V.F.; Fabritsiev, S.A.

    1992-01-01

    Among the different design options of the ITER reactor divertor, the joints of the carbon-based materials and molybdenum alloys and joints of tungsten and copper alloys are considered. High-temperature brazing is one of the most promising joining methods for the plasma facing and heat sink materials. The use of brazing for creation of W-Cu and graphite-Mo joints are given here. In addition, the investigation results of microstructure, microhardness and mechanical properties of the joints are presented. For W-Cu samples an influence of the neutron irradiation on the joining strength was studied. (orig.)

  5. Some problems of brazing technology for the divertor plate manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prokofiev, Yu.G.; Barabash, V.R.; Gervash, A.A. (D.V. Efremov Scientific Research Inst. of Electrophysical Apparatus, St. Petersburg (Russia)); Khorunov, V.F.; Maksimova, S.V. (E.O. Paton Inst. of Electronwelding, Kiev (Ukraine)); Vinokurov, V.F. (Central Scientific Research Inst. of Structural Materials ' Prometey' , St. Petersburg (Russia)); Fabritsiev, S.A.

    1992-09-01

    Among the different design options of the ITER reactor divertor, the joints of the carbon-based materials and molybdenum alloys and joints of tungsten and copper alloys are considered. High-temperature brazing is one of the most promising joining methods for the plasma facing and heat sink materials. The use of brazing for creation of W-Cu and graphite-Mo joints are given here. In addition, the investigation results of microstructure, microhardness and mechanical properties of the joints are presented. For W-Cu samples an influence of the neutron irradiation on the joining strength was studied. (orig.).

  6. Supply of a prototype component for the ITER divertor baffle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobin-Vastra, I.; Febvre, M.; Schedler, B.; Ploechl, L.; Bouveret, Y.; Cauvin, D.; Raisson, G.; Merola, M.

    2001-01-01

    The ITER divertor baffle is one of the Plasma facing components which are developed in the frame of the ITER concept. The supply consisted in the manufacturing of four panels with four First Wall geometries using macroblock or heat sink+armour concepts. DS-Copper, and CuCrZr were the materials for the heat sink, and CFC or Tungsten Plasma spray were the armour. The panels included two Copper-based tubes each. The final purpose is the comparison of the fabricability of each type and the performances of each panel under heat fluxes

  7. Surface erosion issues and analysis for dissipative divertors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, J.N.; Ruzic, D.N.; Hayden, D.B.; Turkot, R.B. Jr.

    1994-05-01

    Erosion/redeposition is examined for the sidewall of a dissipative divertor using coupled impurity transport, charge exchange, and sputtering codes, applied to a plasma solution for the ITER design. A key issue for this regime is possible runaway self-sputtering, due to the effect of a low boundary density and nearly parallel field geometry on redeposition parameters. Net erosion rates, assuming finite self-sputtering, vary with wall location, boundary conditions, and plasma solution, and are roughly of the following order: 200--2000 angstrom/s for beryllium, 10--100 angstrom/s for vanadium, and 0.3--3 angstrom/s for tungsten

  8. Equilibrium configuration for a high current pumped divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazzaro, E.; Keegan, B.

    1989-01-01

    A realistic design of a pumped divertor plasma configuration to be fitted to the JET vessel can be obtained as a compromise among various geometrical, physical and technical constraints. The possibility of reaching a satisfactory solution has been analysed for plasmas up to 6 MA. Optimisation of the plasma coupling to the RF antennae requires a largely asymmetric distribution of ampere turns in the PF coils and some mechanical flexibility. The calculations presented were carried out using the specially developed JET equilibrium and configuration analysis codes. (U.K.)

  9. Manufacture and installation of JET MKII divertor support structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celentano, G.; Altmann, H.; Macklin, B.; Miele, P.; Pick, M.A.; Tait, J.; Moletta, L.; Romagnolo, A.; Shaw, R.

    1995-01-01

    The water cooled support structure, comprising twenty-four modules is the main component of the JET MKII divertor system. It is to be installed in the vacuum vessel with high accuracy with respect to the magnetic center and the other in-vessel components. The paper describes the design and manufacturing cycle including the required tolerances, the assembly and installation method and the material production process required to ensure the accuracy and reliability of the MKII support structure system. The water cooling holes, machined into the support structure require the procurement of special material to prevent risks of leaks inside the vacuum vessel

  10. Rod bundle burnout data and correlation comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoder, G.L.; Morris, D.G.; Mullins, C.B.

    1985-01-01

    Rod bundle burnout data from 30 steady-state and 3 transient tests were obtained from experiments performed in the Thermal Hydraulic Test Facility at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The tests covered a parameter range relevant to intact core reactor accidents ranging from large break to small break loss-ofcoolant conditions. Instrumentation within the 64-rod test section indicated that burnout occurred over an axial range within the bundle. The distance from the point where the first dry rod was detected to the point where all rods were dry was up to 60 cm in some of the tests. The burnout data should prove useful in developing new correlations for use in reactor thermalhydraulic codes. Evaluation of several existing critical heat flux correlations using the data show that three correlations, the Barnett, Bowring, and Katto correlations, perform similarly and correlate the data better than the Biasi correlation

  11. The turbulent flow in rod bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, S.V.

    1989-01-01

    Experimental studies have shown that the axial and azimuthal turbulence intensities in the gap regions of rod bundles increase strongly with decreasing rod spacing; the fluctuating velocities in the axial and azimuthal directions have a quasi-periodic behaviour. To determine the origin of this phenomenon, an its characteristics as a function of the geometry and the Reynolds number, an experimental investigation was performed on the turbulent in several rod bundles with different aspect ratios (P/D, W/D). Hot-wires and microsphones were used for the measurements of velocity and wall pressure fluctuations. The data were evaluated to obtain spectra as well as auto and cross correlations. Based on the results, a phenomenological model is presented to explain this phenomenon. By means of the model, the mass exchange between neighbouring subchannels is explained [pt

  12. On stability of Kummer surfaces' tangent bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozhkov, Y.D.

    1988-10-01

    In this paper we propose an explicit approximation of the Kaehler-Einstein-Calabi-Yau metric on the Kummer surfaces, which are manifolds of type K3. It is constructed by gluing 16 pieces of the Eguchi-Hanson metric and 16 pieces of the Euclidean metric. Two estimates on its curvature are proved. Then we prove an estimate on the first eigenvalue of a covariant differential operator of second order. This enables us to apply Taubes' iteration procedure to obtain that there exists an anti-self-dual connection on the considered Kummer surface. In fact, it is a Hermitian-Einstein connection from which we conclude that Kummer surfaces' co-tangent bundle is stable and therefore their tangent bundle is stable too. (author). 40 refs

  13. SIKAP KONSUMEN TERHADAP PRODUK BUNDLING AGRIBISNIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didi Junaedi

    2017-04-01

    implementation to Dekalb brand hybrid corn and Round-up brand herbicide. By analyzes how consumer attitudes toward buying intention in this regard farmers as buyer and retailers as products services. The data used is primary data. Primary data is obtained using 2 kind of respondents are retailers and farmers. The data obtained by distributed 30 questionnaires for retailers and 110 farmers in Grobogan. The descriptive statistic employed to analyzed data by using multiple linear regressions with t test, F test and coefficient of determination. The result showed that on retailers respondents attribute the product bundling has no significant influence to consumer buying intention but consumer attitudes significantly influence the buying intention. On the farmers respondents showed that attributes of the product bundling and consumer attitudes positive and significant influence to buying intention.

  14. Tube bundle vibrations in transversal flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibert, R.J.; Sagner, M.

    1978-01-01

    This study gives important information concerning characteristic parameters about lock-in and whirling instability phenomena, in the case of tube arrays. The work is mainly an experimental one though models are also developed: 1) an equilateral pitch bundle (p=1,5 D with D=tube diameter) is tested. Tube damping (epsilon) and first eigenfrequency (f), flow velocity are explored in a large domain. Vibratory level of the tubes are measured and critical points are ploted on the fluidelastic parameters diagram. Several bundles with various usual pitches and arrangements (in line or staggered) are tested. Critical velocities are measured and the whirling instability characteristic coefficient is tabulated. A complementary experiment is made on tube rows with various pitches. This gives valuable informations concerning the look-in domain in VR and A'R diagram. Furthermore this puts in evidence the important effect of a frequency difference between two adjacent tubes on the whirling critical velocity

  15. Fiber Bundle Model Under Heterogeneous Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Subhadeep; Goswami, Sanchari

    2018-03-01

    The present work deals with the behavior of fiber bundle model under heterogeneous loading condition. The model is explored both in the mean-field limit as well as with local stress concentration. In the mean field limit, the failure abruptness decreases with increasing order k of heterogeneous loading. In this limit, a brittle to quasi-brittle transition is observed at a particular strength of disorder which changes with k. On the other hand, the model is hardly affected by such heterogeneity in the limit where local stress concentration plays a crucial role. The continuous limit of the heterogeneous loading is also studied and discussed in this paper. Some of the important results related to fiber bundle model are reviewed and their responses to our new scheme of heterogeneous loading are studied in details. Our findings are universal with respect to the nature of the threshold distribution adopted to assign strength to an individual fiber.

  16. Uncovering ecosystem service bundles through social preferences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berta Martín-López

    Full Text Available Ecosystem service assessments have increasingly been used to support environmental management policies, mainly based on biophysical and economic indicators. However, few studies have coped with the social-cultural dimension of ecosystem services, despite being considered a research priority. We examined how ecosystem service bundles and trade-offs emerge from diverging social preferences toward ecosystem services delivered by various types of ecosystems in Spain. We conducted 3,379 direct face-to-face questionnaires in eight different case study sites from 2007 to 2011. Overall, 90.5% of the sampled population recognized the ecosystem's capacity to deliver services. Formal studies, environmental behavior, and gender variables influenced the probability of people recognizing the ecosystem's capacity to provide services. The ecosystem services most frequently perceived by people were regulating services; of those, air purification held the greatest importance. However, statistical analysis showed that socio-cultural factors and the conservation management strategy of ecosystems (i.e., National Park, Natural Park, or a non-protected area have an effect on social preferences toward ecosystem services. Ecosystem service trade-offs and bundles were identified by analyzing social preferences through multivariate analysis (redundancy analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis. We found a clear trade-off among provisioning services (and recreational hunting versus regulating services and almost all cultural services. We identified three ecosystem service bundles associated with the conservation management strategy and the rural-urban gradient. We conclude that socio-cultural preferences toward ecosystem services can serve as a tool to identify relevant services for people, the factors underlying these social preferences, and emerging ecosystem service bundles and trade-offs.

  17. Principal bundles on the projective line

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M. Senthilkumar (Newgen Imaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    LetX be a complete nonsingular curve over the algebraic closurek ofk andGa reductive group over k. Let E → X be a principal G-bundle on X. E is said to be semistable if, for every reduction of structure group EP ⊂ E to a maximal parabolic subgroup P of G, we have degree EP (p) ≤ 0, where p is the Lie algebra of P and EP ...

  18. Spanning forests and the vector bundle Laplacian

    OpenAIRE

    Kenyon, Richard

    2011-01-01

    The classical matrix-tree theorem relates the determinant of the combinatorial Laplacian on a graph to the number of spanning trees. We generalize this result to Laplacians on one- and two-dimensional vector bundles, giving a combinatorial interpretation of their determinants in terms of so-called cycle rooted spanning forests (CRSFs). We construct natural measures on CRSFs for which the edges form a determinantal process. ¶ This theory gives a natural generalization of the spanning tre...

  19. Uncovering Ecosystem Service Bundles through Social Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-López, Berta; Iniesta-Arandia, Irene; García-Llorente, Marina; Palomo, Ignacio; Casado-Arzuaga, Izaskun; Amo, David García Del; Gómez-Baggethun, Erik; Oteros-Rozas, Elisa; Palacios-Agundez, Igone; Willaarts, Bárbara; González, José A.; Santos-Martín, Fernando; Onaindia, Miren; López-Santiago, Cesar; Montes, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Ecosystem service assessments have increasingly been used to support environmental management policies, mainly based on biophysical and economic indicators. However, few studies have coped with the social-cultural dimension of ecosystem services, despite being considered a research priority. We examined how ecosystem service bundles and trade-offs emerge from diverging social preferences toward ecosystem services delivered by various types of ecosystems in Spain. We conducted 3,379 direct face-to-face questionnaires in eight different case study sites from 2007 to 2011. Overall, 90.5% of the sampled population recognized the ecosystem’s capacity to deliver services. Formal studies, environmental behavior, and gender variables influenced the probability of people recognizing the ecosystem’s capacity to provide services. The ecosystem services most frequently perceived by people were regulating services; of those, air purification held the greatest importance. However, statistical analysis showed that socio-cultural factors and the conservation management strategy of ecosystems (i.e., National Park, Natural Park, or a non-protected area) have an effect on social preferences toward ecosystem services. Ecosystem service trade-offs and bundles were identified by analyzing social preferences through multivariate analysis (redundancy analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis). We found a clear trade-off among provisioning services (and recreational hunting) versus regulating services and almost all cultural services. We identified three ecosystem service bundles associated with the conservation management strategy and the rural-urban gradient. We conclude that socio-cultural preferences toward ecosystem services can serve as a tool to identify relevant services for people, the factors underlying these social preferences, and emerging ecosystem service bundles and trade-offs. PMID:22720006

  20. Bundling harvester; Harvennuspuun automaattisen nippukorjausharvesterin kehittaeminen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koponen, K [Eko-Log Oy, Kuopio (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    The starting point of the project was to design and construct, by taking the silvicultural point of view into account, a harvesting and processing system especially for energy-wood, containing manually driven bundling harvester, automating of the harvester, and automated loading. The equipment forms an ideal method for entrepreneur`s-line harvesting. The target is to apply the system also for owner`s-line harvesting. The profitability of the system promotes the utilisation of the system in both cases. The objectives of the project were: to construct a test equipment and prototypes for all the project stages, to carry out terrain and strain tests in order to examine the usability and durability, as well as the capacity of the machine, to test the applicability of the Eko-Log system in simultaneous harvesting of energy and pulp woods, and to start the marketing and manufacturing of the products. The basic problems of the construction of the bundling harvester have been solved using terrain-tests. The prototype machine has been shown to be operable. Loading of the bundles to form sufficiently economically transportable loads has been studied, and simultaneously, the branch-biomass has been tried to be utilised without loosing the profitability of transportation. The results have been promising, and will promote the profitable utilisation of wood-energy. (orig.)

  1. Experimental heat transfer in tube bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khattab, M.; Mariy, A.; Habib, M.

    1983-01-01

    Previous work has looked for the problem of heat transfer with flow parallel to rod bundle either by treating each rod individually as a separate channel or by treating the bundle as one unit. The present work will consider the existence of both the central and corner rods simultaneously inside the cluster itself under the same working conditions. The test section is geometrically similar to the fuel assembly of the Egyptian Research Reactor-1. The hydro-thermal performance of bundle having 16 - stainless steel tubes arranged in square array of 1.5 pitch to diameter ratio is investigated. Surface temperature and pressure distributions are determined. Average heat transfer coefficient for both central and corner tubes are correlated. Also, pressure drop and friction factor correlations are predicted. The maximum experimental range of the measured parameters are determined in the nonboiling region at 1400 Reynolds number and 3.64 W/cm 2 . It is found that the average heat transfer coefficient of the central tube is higher than that of the corner tube by 27%. Comparison with the previous work shows satisfactory agreement particularly with the circular tubes correlation - Dittus et al. - at 104 Reynolds number

  2. Effects of divertor geometry and pumping on plasma performance on DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, S.L.; Hill, D.N.; Porter, G.D.

    1997-06-01

    This paper reports the status of an ongoing investigation to discern the influence of the divertor and plasma geometry on the confinement of both ELM-free and ELMing discharges in DIII-D. The ultimate goal is to achieve a high-performance core plasma which coexists with an advanced divertor plasma. The divertor plasma must reduce the heat flux to acceptable levels; the current technique disperses the heat flux over a wide area by radiation (a radiative divertor). To date, we have obtained our best performance in double-null (DN) high-triangularity (δ ∼ 0.8) ELM-free discharges. As discussed in detail elsewhere, there are several advantages for both the core and divertor plasma with highly-shaped DN operation. Previous radiative-divertor experiments with D 2 injection in DN high-δ ELMing H-mode have shown that this configuration is more sensitive to gas puffing (τ decreases). Moving the X-point away from the target plate (to ∼15 cm above the plate) decreases this sensitivity. Preliminary measurements also indicate that gas puffing reduces the divertor heat flux but does not reduce the plasma pressure along the field line. The up/down heat flux balance can be varied magnetically (by changing the distance between the separatrices), with a slight magnetic imbalance required to balance the heat flux. The overall mission of the Radiative Divertor Project (RDP) is to install a fully pumped and baffled high-δ DN divertor. To date, however, both the DIII-D divertor diagnostics and pump were optimized for lower single-null (LSN) low-δ (δ∼ 0.4) plasmas, so much of the divertor physics has been performed in LSN; these results are discussed in Section 2. As part of the first phase of the RDP, we have installed a new high-δ USN divertor baffle and pump; these results are discussed in Section 3. Both divertor and core parameters are discussed in each case

  3. Study of fuel bundle geometry on inter subchannel flow in a 19 pin wire wrapped bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naveen Raj, M.; Velusamy, D.K.

    2015-01-01

    In typical sodium cooled fast reactor (SFR) fuel pin bundle, gap between the pins is maintained by helically wound wire wrap around each pin. The presence of wire induces large inter-subchannel transverse flow, eventually promoting mixing and heat transfer. The magnitude of the transverse flow is highly dependent on the various pin-bundle dimensions. Appropriate modeling of these transverse flows in subchannel codes is necessary to predict realistic temperature distribution in pin bundle. Hence, detailed parametric study of transverse flow on pin-bundle geometric parameters has been conducted. The parameters taken for the present study are pin diameter, wire diameter, helical wire pitch and edge gap. Towards this 3-D computational fluid dynamic analysis on a structured mesh of 19 pin bundle is carried out using k-epsilon turbulence model. Periodic oscillations along the primacy flow direction were found in subchannel transverse flow and peripheral pin clad temperatures with periodicity over one pitch length. Based on parametric studies, correlations for transverse flow in central subchannels are proposed. (author)

  4. Bundled payment fails to gain a foothold In California: the experience of the IHA bundled payment demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgely, M Susan; de Vries, David; Bozic, Kevin J; Hussey, Peter S

    2014-08-01

    To determine whether bundled payment could be an effective payment model for California, the Integrated Healthcare Association convened a group of stakeholders (health plans, hospitals, ambulatory surgery centers, physician organizations, and vendors) to develop, through a consensus process, the methods and means of implementing bundled payment. In spite of a high level of enthusiasm and effort, the pilot did not succeed in its goal to implement bundled payment for orthopedic procedures across multiple payers and hospital-physician partners. An evaluation of the pilot documented a number of barriers, such as administrative burden, state regulatory uncertainty, and disagreements about bundle definition and assumption of risk. Ultimately, few contracts were signed, which resulted in insufficient volume to test hypotheses about the impact of bundled payment on quality and costs. Although bundled payment failed to gain a foothold in California, the evaluation provides lessons for future bundled payment initiatives. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  5. Modelling of neutral particle transport in divertor plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakizuka, Tomonori; Shimizu, Katsuhiro

    1995-01-01

    An outline of the modelling of neutral particle transport in the diverter plasma was described in the paper. The characteristic properties of divertor plasma were largely affected by interaction between neutral particles and divertor plasma. Accordingly, the behavior of neutral particle should be investigated quantitatively. Moreover, plasma and neutral gas should be traced consistently in the plasma simulation. There are Monte Carlo modelling and the neutral gas fluid modelling as the transport modelling. The former need long calculation time, but it is able to make the physical process modelling. A ultra-large parallel computer is good for the former. In spite of proposing some kinds of models, the latter has not been established. At the view point of reducing calculation time, a work station is good for the simulation of the latter, although some physical problems have not been solved. On the Monte Carlo method particle modelling, reducing the calculation time and introducing the interaction of particles are important subjects to develop 'the evolutional Monte Carlo Method'. To reduce the calculation time, two new methods: 'Implicit Monte Carlo method' and 'Free-and Diffusive-Motion Hybrid Monte-Carlo method' have been developing. (S.Y.)

  6. Development of the armoring technique for ITER Divertor Dome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litunovsky, Nikolay, E-mail: nlitunovsky@sintez.niiefa.spb.su [D.V. Efremov Reseasch Institute, 3, Doroga na Metallostroy, Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation); Alekseenko, Evgeny; Makhankov, Alexey; Mazul, Igor [D.V. Efremov Reseasch Institute, 3, Doroga na Metallostroy, Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2011-10-15

    This paper describes the current status of the technique for armoring of Plasma Facing Units (PFUs) of the ITER Divertor Dome with flat tungsten tiles planned for application at the procurement stage. Application of high-temperature vacuum brazing for armoring of High Heat Flux (HHF) plasma facing components was traditionally developed at the Efremov Institute and successfully tried out at the ITER R and D stage by manufacturing and HHF testing of a number of W- and Be-armored mock-ups . Nevertheless, the so-called 'fast brazing' technique successfully applied in the past was abandoned at the stage of manufacturing of the Dome Qualification Prototypes (Dome QPs), as it failed to retain the mechanical properties of CuCrZr heat sink of the substrate. Another problem was a substantially increased number of armoring tiles brazed onto one substrate. Severe ITER requirements for the joints quality have forced us to refuse from production of W/Cu joints by brazing in favor of casting. These modifications have allowed us to produce ITER Divertor Dome QPs with high-quality tungsten armor, which then passed successfully the HHF testing. Further preparation to the procurement stage is in progress.

  7. Conceptual design for a bulk tungsten divertor tile in JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mertens, Ph.; Hirai, T.; Linke, J.; Neubauer, O.; Pintsuk, G.; Philipps, V.; Sadakov, S.; Samm, U.; Schweer, B.

    2007-01-01

    The ITER-like Wall project (ILW) for JET aims at providing the plasma chamber of the tokamak with an environment of mixed materials which will be relevant for the actual first wall construction on ITER. Tungsten plays a key role in the divertor cladding. For the central tile, also called LB-SRP for 'load-bearing septum replacement plate', bulk tungsten is envisaged in order to cope with the high heat loads expected (up to 10 MW/m 2 for 10 s). The outer strike-point in the divertor will be positioned on this tile for the most relevant configurations. Forschungszentrum Juelich (FZJ) has developed a conceptual design based on an assembly of tungsten blades or lamellae. An appropriate interface with the base carrier of JET, on which modules of two tiles are positioned and fixed by remote handling procedures, is a substantial part of the integral design. Important issues are the electromagnetic forces and expected temperature distributions. Material choices combine tungsten, TZM TM , Inconel and ceramic parts. The completed design has been finalised in a proposal to the ILW project, with utmost ITER-relevance

  8. Implications of steady-state operation on divertor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevier, D.L.; Reis, E.E.; Baxi, C.B.; Silke, G.W.; Wong, C.P.C.; Hill, D.N.

    1996-01-01

    As fusion experiments progress towards long pulse or steady state operation, plasma facing components are undergoing a significant change in their design. This change represents the transition from inertially cooled pulsed systems to steady state designs of significant power handling capacity. A limited number of Plasma Facing Component (PFC) systems are in operation or planning to address this steady state challenge at low heat flux. However in most divertor designs components are required to operate at heat fluxes at 5 MW/m 2 or above. The need for data in this area has resulted in a significant amount of thermal/hydraulic and thermal fatigue testing being done on prototypical elements. Short pulse design solutions are not adequate for longer pulse experiments and the areas of thermal design, structural design, material selection, maintainability, and lifetime prediction are undergoing significant changes. A prudent engineering approach will guide us through the transitional phase of divertor design to steady-state power plant components. This paper reviews the design implications in this transition to steady state machines and the status of the community efforts to meet evolving design requirements. 54 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  9. Research proposal on : amplitude modulated reflectometry system for JET divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, J.; Branas, T.; Estrada, T.; Luna, E. de la.

    1992-01-01

    Amplitude Modulated reflectometry is presented here as a tool for density profile measurements in the JET divertor plasmas. One of the main problems which has been presented in most reflectometers during the last years is the need for a coherent tracking of the phase delay: fast density fluctuations and strong modulation on the amplitude of the reflected signal usually bring to fringe jumps' in the phase signal, which are a big problem when the phase values are much larger than 2 pi. The conditions in the JET divertor plasmas: plasma geometry, access and long oversized broad-band waveguide paths makes very difficult the phase measurements at the millimeter wave range. AM reflectometry is to some extension an intermediate solution between the classical phase delay reflectometry, so far applied to small distances, and the time domain reflectometry, used for ionospheric studies and recently also proposed for fusion plasma. the main advantage is to allow the use of millimeter wave reflectometry with moderate phase shifts (approx 2 pi). (author)

  10. Initial results from the Tokapole-II poloidal divertor device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biddle, A.P.; Dexter, R.N.; Groebner, R.J.; Holly, D.J.; Lipschultz, B.; Phillips, M.W.; Prager, S.C.; Sprott, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    The latest in a series of internal-ring devices, called Tokapole II, has recently begun operation at the University of Wisconsin. Its purpose is to permit the study of the production and confinement of hot, dense plasmas in either a toroidal octupole (with or without toroidal field) or a tokamak with a four-node poloidal divertor. The characteristics of the device and the results of its initial operation are described here. Quantitative measurements of impurity concentration and radiated power have been made. Poloidal divertor equilibria of square and dee shapes have been produced, and an axisymmetric instability has been observed with the inverse dee. Electron cyclotron resonance heating is used to initiate the breakdown near the axis and to control the initial influx of impurities. A 2-MW RF source at the second harmonic of the ion cyclotron frequency is available and has been used to double the ion temperature when operated at low power with an unoptimized antenna. Initial results of operation as a pure octupole with poloidal Ohmic heating suggest a tokamak-like scaling of density (n proportional to Bsub(p)) and confinement time (tau proportional to n). (author)

  11. ITER divertor, design issues and research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tivey, R.; Ando, T.; Antipenkov, A.; Barabash, V.; Chiocchio, S.; Federici, G.; Ibbott, C.; Jakeman, R.; Janeschitz, G.; Raffray, R.; Mazul, I.; Pacher, H.; Ulrickson, M.; Vieider, G.

    1999-01-01

    Over the period of the ITER Engineering Design Activity (EDA) the results from physics experiments, modelling, engineering analyses and R and D, have been brought together to provide a design for an ITER divertor. The design satisfies all necessary requirements for steady state and transient heat flux, nuclear shielding, pumping, tritium inventory, impurity control, armour lifetime, electromagnetic loads, diagnostics, and remote maintenance. The design consists of 60 cassettes each comprising a cassette body onto which the plasma facing components (PFCs) are mounted. Each cassette is supported by toroidal rails which are attached to the vacuum vessel. For the PFCs the final armour choice is carbon-fibre-composite (CfC) for the strike point regions and tungsten in all remaining areas. R and D has demonstrated that CfC monoblocks can routinely withstand heat loads up to 20 MW m -2 10 MW m -2 . Analysis and experiment show that a CfC armour thickness of ∝20 mm will provide sufficient lifetime for at least 1000 full power pulses. The thickness of the cassette body is sufficient to shield the vacuum vessel, so that, if necessary, rewelding is possible, and also provides sufficient stiffness against electromagnetically generated loads. The cassette design provides efficient and proven remote maintenance which should allow exchange of a complete divertor within ∝6 months. (orig.)

  12. ITER divertor, design issues and research and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tivey, R.; Ando, T.; Antipenkov, A.; Barabash, V.; Chiocchio, S.; Federici, G.; Ibbott, C.; Jakeman, R.; Janeschitz, G.; Raffray, R. [ITER Joint Central Team, Garching (Germany). Joint Central Work Site; Akiba, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Naka-machi, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Mazul, I. [Efremov Institute, St Petersburg (Russian Federation); Pacher, H. [NET Team, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748, Garching (Germany); Ulrickson, M. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Vieider, G. [NET Team, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748, Garching (Germany)

    1999-11-01

    Over the period of the ITER Engineering Design Activity (EDA) the results from physics experiments, modelling, engineering analyses and R and D, have been brought together to provide a design for an ITER divertor. The design satisfies all necessary requirements for steady state and transient heat flux, nuclear shielding, pumping, tritium inventory, impurity control, armour lifetime, electromagnetic loads, diagnostics, and remote maintenance. The design consists of 60 cassettes each comprising a cassette body onto which the plasma facing components (PFCs) are mounted. Each cassette is supported by toroidal rails which are attached to the vacuum vessel. For the PFCs the final armour choice is carbon-fibre-composite (CfC) for the strike point regions and tungsten in all remaining areas. R and D has demonstrated that CfC monoblocks can routinely withstand heat loads up to 20 MW m{sup -2}10 MW m{sup -2}. Analysis and experiment show that a CfC armour thickness of {proportional_to}20 mm will provide sufficient lifetime for at least 1000 full power pulses. The thickness of the cassette body is sufficient to shield the vacuum vessel, so that, if necessary, rewelding is possible, and also provides sufficient stiffness against electromagnetically generated loads. The cassette design provides efficient and proven remote maintenance which should allow exchange of a complete divertor within {proportional_to}6 months. (orig.)

  13. Studies of a poloidal divertor reversed field pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarff, J.S.; Almagri, A.F.; Assadi, S.; Den Hartog, D.J.; Dexter, R.N.; Prager, S.C.; Sprott, J.C.

    1988-07-01

    An attempt has been made to form a reversed field pinch (RFP) in a poloidal divertor configuration which position the plasma far from a conducting wall. In this configuration, the plasma is localized within a magnetic separatrix formed by the combination of toroidal currents in the plasma and four internal aluminum rings. Plasmas were formed with plasma current /approximately/135 kA, toroidal field reversal lasting /approximately/1 msec, line-averaged density /approximately/1--2 /times/ 10 13 cm/sup /minus/3/ and central electron temperature /approximately/55 eV, but a large asymmetry in the magnetic field (δB/B /approximately/40%) onset at about the time the toroidal field reversed at the wall. Symmetric, poloidal divertor RFP equilibria were not formed. This behavior might be expected based on linear MHD stability analysis of a cylindrical plasma bounded by a large vacuum region and distant conducting wall. The symmetric equilibrium before the asymmetry develops and the asymmetry itself are described. 15 refs., 3 figs

  14. Analysis of noble gas recycling at a fusion plasma divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, J.N.

    1996-01-01

    Near-surface recycling of neon and argon atoms and ions at a divertor has been studied using impurity transport and surface interaction codes. A fixed background deuterium endash tritium plasma model is used corresponding to the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) [ITER EDA Agreement and Protocol 2, ITER EDA Documentation Series No. 5 (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 1994)] radiative plasma conditions (T e ≤10 eV). The noble gas transport depends critically on the divertor surface material. For low-Z materials (Be and C) both neon and argon recycle many (e.g., ∼100) times before leaving the near-surface region. This is also true for an argon on tungsten combination. For neon on tungsten, however, there is low recycling. These variations are due to differences in particle and energy reflection coefficients, mass, and ionization rates. In some cases a high flux of recycling atoms is ionized within the magnetic sheath and this can change local sheath parameters. Due to inhibited backflow, high recycling, and possibly high sputtering, noble gas seeding (for purposes of enhancing radiation) may be incompatible with Be or C surfaces, for fusion reactor conditions. On the other hand, neon use appears compatible with tungsten. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  15. ALPS - advanced limiter-divertor plasma-facing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allain, J. P.; Bastasz, R.; Brooks, J. N.; Evans, T.; Hassanein, A.; Luckhardt, S.; Maingi, R.; Mattas, R. F.; McCarthy, K.; Mioduszewski, P.; Mogahed, E.; Moir, R.; Molokov, S.; Morely, N.; Nygren, R.; Reed, C.; Rognlien, T.; Ruzic, D.; Sviatoslavsky, I.; Sze, D.; Tillack, M.; Ulrickson, M.; Wade, P. M.; Wong, C.; Wooley, R.

    1999-01-01

    The Advanced Limiter-divertor Plasma-facing Systems (ALPS) program was initiated in order to evaluate the potential for improved performance and lifetime for plasma-facing systems. The main goal of the program is to demonstrate the advantages of advanced limiter/divertor systems over conventional systems in terms of power density capability, component lifetime, and power conversion efficiency, while providing for safe operation and minimizing impurity concerns for the plasma. Most of the work to date has been applied to free surface liquids. A multi-disciplinary team from several institutions has been organized to address the key issues associated with these systems. The main performance goals for advanced limiters and diverters are a peak heat flux of >50 MW/m 2 ,elimination of a lifetime limit for erosion, and the ability to extract useful heat at high power conversion efficiency (approximately40%). The evaluation of various options is being conducted through a combination of laboratory experiments, modeling of key processes, and conceptual design studies. The current emphasis for the work is on the effects of free surface liquids on plasma edge performance

  16. Emission spectroscopy of hydrogen molecules in technical and divertor plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fantz, U.

    2002-01-01

    The paper gives an overview of the diagnostics of hydrogen molecules in technical plasmas (MW and RF discharges) and in divertor plasmas of fusion experiments (ASDEX Upgrade / Tokamak at the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik in Garching near Munich, Germany). The Fulcher transition in the visible spectral range was chosen for analysis since this is the most prominent band in the spectrum of molecular hydrogen. Examples for diagnostics of molecular densities will be given, and the problems arising in the interpretation of spectra will be discussed. In divertor plasmas the diagnostics of molecular.uxes will be introduced and the contribution of molecules to the plasma recombination will be discussed. Results for vibrational populations in the ground state and the correlation to the upper Fulcher state will be given, providing an electron temperature diagnostic. Finally, the in.uence of surfaces (high-grade steel and graphite) on vibrational populations and on re.ection coe.cients of atoms will be shown. Special attention is given on a comparison of the isotopes hydrogen and deuterium. (Abstract Copyright [2002], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  17. Remote operational trials with the ITER FDR divertor handling equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irving, M.; Baldi, L.; Benamati, G.; Galbiati, L.; Giacomelli, S.; Lorenzelli, L.; Micciche, G.; Muro, L.; Polverari, A.; Palmer, J.; Martin, E.

    2003-01-01

    The ITER divertor test platform (DTP) located at ENEA's Research Centre in Brasimone, Italy is a full-scale mock-up of a 72 deg. arc of the ITER 1998 vessel divertor region--the result of a major initiative over the period 1996-2000. Since the implementation of this facility, the design of the ITER vessel--and therefore much of the remote maintenance equipment--has changed substantially. However, the nature and principles of the remote handling equipment are still very similar, and hence many valuable lessons can yet be learned from the existing equipment for the future. In particular, true remote handling tests of the major maintenance subsystems were seen as an important step in determining their suitability for ITER. This paper describes and documents a series of three, discrete, remote-handling trials carried out using most of the major DTP subsystems, and presents an overview of the conclusions and suggestions for future development of ITER cassette remote handling equipment

  18. Self-sustained oscillations in the divertor plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasheninnikov, S.I.; Kukushkin, A.S.; Pistunovich, V.I.; Pozharov, V.A.

    1985-01-01

    A simple analytical model of the edge plasma with high recycling, which relays on the presence of a small parameter - the ratio of the particle flows crossing the magnetic field to those impinging onto the divertor target, is proposed. A concept of the one-dimensional steady state (OSS) is introduced as the zero approximation in the small parameter. The mean number density N-tilde of the particles - ions plus neutrals - in the magnetic flux tube is choosen as the most representative and convenient parameter of the problem. The OSS are shown to be ambiguous in some N-tilde range for sufficiently high values of the energy flow entering the scrape-off layer from the bulk plasma. An equation, that describes a quasi-steady variations in OSS, is derived and a mechanism of exciting the self-sustained oscillations is developed. Results of simulation of the edge plasma oscillations are found to be in a good agreement with this mechanism, which could be responsible for the H-mode oscillations observed in the divertor experiments

  19. An exploration of advanced X-divertor scenarios on ITER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covele, B.; Valanju, P.; Kotschenreuther, M.; Mahajan, S.

    2014-07-01

    It is found that the X-divertor (XD) configuration (Kotschenreuther et al 2004 Proc. 20th Int. Conf. on Fusion Energy (Vilamoura, Portugal, 2004) (Vienna: IAEA) CD-ROM file [IC/P6-43] www-naweb.iaea.org/napc/physics/fec/fec2004/datasets/index.html, Kotschenreuther et al 2006 Proc. 21st Int. Conf. on Fusion Energy 2006 (Chengdu, China, 2006) (Vienna: IAEA), CD-ROM file [IC/P7-12] www-naweb.iaea.org/napc/physics/FEC/FEC2006/html/index.htm, Kotschenreuther et al 2007 Phys. Plasmas 14 072502) can be made with the conventional poloidal field (PF) coil set on ITER (Tomabechi et al and Team 1991 Nucl. Fusion 31 1135), where all PF coils are outside the TF coils. Starting from the standard divertor, a sequence of desirable XD configurations are possible where the PF currents are below the present maximum design limits on ITER, and where the baseline divertor cassette is used. This opens the possibility that the XD could be tested and used to assist in high-power operation on ITER, but some further issues need examination. Note that the increased major radius of the super-X-divertor (Kotschenreuther et al 2007 Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 53 11, Valanju et al 2009 Phys. Plasmas 16 5, Kotschenreuther et al 2010 Nucl. Fusion 50 035003, Valanju et al 2010 Fusion Eng. Des. 85 46) is not a feature of the XD geometry. In addition, we present an XD configuration for K-DEMO (Kim et al 2013 Fusion Eng. Des. 88 123) to demonstrate that it is also possible to attain the XD configuration in advanced tokamak reactors with all PF coils outside the TF coils. The results given here for the XD are far more encouraging than recent calculations by Lackner and Zohm (2012 Fusion Sci. Technol. 63 43) for the Snowflake (Ryutov 2007 Phys. Plasmas 14 064502, Ryutov et al 2008 Phys. Plasmas 15 092501), where the required high PF currents represent a major technological challenge. The magnetic field structure in the outboard divertor SOL (Kotschenreuther 2013 Phys. Plasmas 20 102507) in the recently created

  20. Heat loads to divertor nearby components from secondary radiation evolved during plasma instabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sizyuk, V., E-mail: vsizyuk@purdue.edu; Hassanein, A., E-mail: hassanein@purdue.edu [Center for Materials under Extreme Environment, School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

    2015-01-15

    A fundamental issue in tokamak operation related to power exhaust during plasma instabilities is the understanding of heat and particle transport from the core plasma into the scrape-off layer and to plasma-facing materials. During abnormal and disruptive operation in tokamaks, radiation transport processes play a critical role in divertor/edge-generated plasma dynamics and are very important in determining overall lifetimes of the divertor and nearby components. This is equivalent to or greater than the effect of the direct impact of escaped core plasma on the divertor plate. We have developed and implemented comprehensive enhanced physical and numerical models in the upgraded HEIGHTS package for simulating detailed photon and particle transport in the evolved edge plasma during various instabilities. The paper describes details of a newly developed 3D Monte Carlo radiation transport model, including optimization methods of generated plasma opacities in the full range of expected photon spectra. Response of the ITER divertor's nearby surfaces due to radiation from the divertor-developed plasma was simulated by using actual full 3D reactor design and magnetic configurations. We analyzed in detail the radiation emission spectra and compared the emission of both carbon and tungsten as divertor plate materials. The integrated 3D simulation predicted unexpectedly high damage risk to the open stainless steel legs of the dome structure in the current ITER design from the intense radiation during a disruption on the tungsten divertor plate.

  1. The WEST project: Current status of the ITER-like tungsten divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Missirlian, M.; Bucalossi, J.; Corre, Y.; Ferlay, F.; Firdaouss, M.; Garin, P.; Grosman, A.; Guilhem, D.; Gunn, J.; Languille, P.; Lipa, M.; Richou, M.; Tsitrone, E.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We presented the ITER-like W components occurred for the WEST divertor. • The main features including key elements of the design were detailed. • The main results of studies investigating the integration constraints or issues were reported. • The WEST ITER-like divertor design reached a mature stage to enable the launching of the procurement phase. - Abstract: The WEST (W – for tungsten – Environment in Steady-state Tokamak) project is an upgrade of Tore Supra from a limiter based tokamak with carbon PFCs into an X-point divertor tokamak with full-tungsten armour while keeping its long discharge capability. The WEST project will primarily offer the key capability of testing for the first time the ITER technology in real plasma environment. In particular, the main divertor (i.e. the lower divertor) of the WEST project will be based on actively cooled tungsten monoblock components and will follow as closely as possible the design and the assembling technology, foreseen for the ITER divertor units. The current design of WEST ITER-like tungsten divertor has now reached a mature stage following the 2013 WEST Final Design Review. This paper presents the key elements of the design, reports the technological requirements and reviews the main design and integration issues

  2. The WEST project: Current status of the ITER-like tungsten divertor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Missirlian, M., E-mail: marc.missirlian@cea.fr; Bucalossi, J.; Corre, Y.; Ferlay, F.; Firdaouss, M.; Garin, P.; Grosman, A.; Guilhem, D.; Gunn, J.; Languille, P.; Lipa, M.; Richou, M.; Tsitrone, E.

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • We presented the ITER-like W components occurred for the WEST divertor. • The main features including key elements of the design were detailed. • The main results of studies investigating the integration constraints or issues were reported. • The WEST ITER-like divertor design reached a mature stage to enable the launching of the procurement phase. - Abstract: The WEST (W – for tungsten – Environment in Steady-state Tokamak) project is an upgrade of Tore Supra from a limiter based tokamak with carbon PFCs into an X-point divertor tokamak with full-tungsten armour while keeping its long discharge capability. The WEST project will primarily offer the key capability of testing for the first time the ITER technology in real plasma environment. In particular, the main divertor (i.e. the lower divertor) of the WEST project will be based on actively cooled tungsten monoblock components and will follow as closely as possible the design and the assembling technology, foreseen for the ITER divertor units. The current design of WEST ITER-like tungsten divertor has now reached a mature stage following the 2013 WEST Final Design Review. This paper presents the key elements of the design, reports the technological requirements and reviews the main design and integration issues.

  3. Nanotube bundle oscillators: Carbon and boron nitride nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thamwattana, Ngamta; Hill, James M.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the oscillation of a fullerene that is moving within the centre of a bundle of nanotubes. In particular, certain fullerene-nanotube bundle oscillators, namely C 60 -carbon nanotube bundle, C 60 -boron nitride nanotube bundle, B 36 N 36 -carbon nanotube bundle and B 36 N 36 -boron nitride nanotube bundle are studied using the Lennard-Jones potential and the continuum approach which assumes a uniform distribution of atoms on the surface of each molecule. We address issues regarding the maximal suction energies of the fullerenes which lead to the generation of the maximum oscillation frequency. Since bundles are also found to comprise double-walled nanotubes, this paper also examines the oscillation of a fullerene inside a double-walled nanotube bundle. Our results show that the frequencies obtained for the oscillation within double-walled nanotube bundles are slightly higher compared to those of single-walled nanotube bundle oscillators. Our primary purpose here is to extend a number of established results for carbon to the boron nitride nanostructures.

  4. Dimensional measurement of fresh fuel bundle for CANDU reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Chang Keun; Cho, Moon Sung; Suk, Ho Chun; Koo, Dae Seo; Jun, Ji Su; Jung, Jong Yeob

    2005-01-01

    This report describes the results of the dimensional measurement of fresh fuel bundles for the CANDU reactor in order to estimate the integrity of fuel bundle in two-phase flow in the CANDU-6 fuel channel. The dimensional measurements of fuel bundles are performed by using the 'CANDU Fuel In-Bay Inspection and Dimensional Measurement System', which was developed by this project. The dimensional measurements are done from February 2004 to March 2004 in the CANDU fuel storage of KNFC for the 36 fresh fuel bundles, which are produced by KNFC and are waiting for the delivery to the Wolsong-3 plant. The detail items of dimensional measurements are included fuel rod and bearing pad profiles of the outer ring in fuel bundle, diameter of fuel bundle, bowing of fuel bundle, fuel rod length, and surface profile of end plate profile. The measurement data will be compared with those of the post-irradiated bundles cooled in Wolsong-3 NPP spent fuel pool by using the same bundles and In-Bay Measurement System. So, this analysis of data will be applied for the evaluation of fuel bundle integrity in two-phase flow of the CANDU-6 fuel channel

  5. The comparison of heat flux pattern on lower divertor in KSTAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bang, Eunnam; Hong, Suk-Ho; Bak, JunGyo; Kim, Kyungmin; Kim, Hongtack; Kim, Hakkun; Yang, H.L.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The heat flux on the lower divertor is higher than upper divertor. • The heat flux on OD is decreased with IVCP. • The heat flux on CD is decreased with RMP, but that on OD is increased. • Because the strike point was shifted from CD toward OD due to the RMP. - Abstract: The heat flux in KSTAR is estimated for various discharge conditions by using thermocouple arrays. The heat flux on the divertor is higher than that on inboard limiter or passive stabilizer by a factor of 2. Although the plasma configuration in KSTAR has been set to a double-null configuration, the heat flux on lower divertor is higher than that on upper divertor by 3–8 times, indicating a lower-single-null-like configuration. It is observed that the operation of the in-vessel cryo-pump (IVCP) changes the heat flux pattern significantly: When the IVCP was not operated, the heat fluxes on inboard divertor (ID), central divertor (CD) and outboard divertor (OD) were similar, but when the IVCP was operated, the heat fluxes on ID and CD were increased slightly and that on OD was decreased by 2–3 times. The heat flux on divertor was decreased from 35 to 26 kW/m"2 with the use of the resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP), especially that on CD was decreased by 2–4 times, while that on OD is increased by 2–3 times than without RMP. For the longest H-mode pulse of 22 s shot, the heat flux on lower OD was 73 kW/m"2, which is the maximum heat flux among the shots obtained in 2013 campaign.

  6. Development of database for the divertor recycling in JT-60U and its analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takizuka, Tomonori; Shimizu, Katsuhiro; Hayashi, Nobuhiko; Asakura, Nobuyuki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment; Arakawa, Kazuya [Komatsu, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-05-01

    We have developed a database for the divertor recycling in JT-60U plasmas. This database makes it possible to investigate behaviors of the neutral-particle flux in plasmas and the ion flux to divertor plates under a condition for core-plasma parameters, such as electron density and heating power. The correlation between the electron density and the heating power is not strong in this database, and parameter scans for the density and the power in wide ranges are realized. On the basis of this database, we have analyzed the ion flux to divertor plates. The divertor-plate ion flux amplified by the recycling grows nonlinearly with the increase of the electron density n{sub e}. Its averaged dependence is a linear growth ({approx}n{sub e}{sup 1.0}) at the low density, and becomes a nonlinear growth ({approx}n{sub e}{sup 1.5}) at the high density. The spread of dependence from the averaged one is very large. This spread is caused mainly by complex physical characteristics of divertor plasmas, though it is little dependent on the heating power. The behavior of ion flux depends strongly on divertor configurations and divertor-plate/first-wall conditions. It is confirmed that the bifurcated transition takes place from the low-recycling divertor plasma at the low density to the high-recycling divertor plasma at the high density. The density at the transition is nearly proportional to the 1/4 power of the heating power. (author)

  7. Experimental study of the topological aspect of the ergodic divertor in Tore-supra tokamak; Etude experimentale des aspects topologiques du divertor ergodique de Tore Supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costanzo, L

    2001-10-01

    The control of power deposition onto plasma facing components in tokamaks is a determining factor for future thermonuclear fusion reactors. Plasma surface interaction can be performed using limiters or divertors. The ergodic divertor installed on Tore Supra is an atypical example of a magnetic divertor. It consists in applying a magnetic perturbation which establishes a particular topology of the plasma in contact with the wall (edge plasma). We carried out dedicated experiments in order to study parallel heat flux which strike the divertor neutralizers. This quantitative and qualitative analysis of heat flux as a function of experimental conditions allows to determine the profiles of power deposition along the neutralizers. The influence of plasma electron density, additional heating, impurities and injected gas was established. An experimental study of the sheath heat transmission factor {gamma} was carried out by correlating measurements made with Langmuir probes and infrared imaging. This study gave rise to a major conclusion: for ohmic discharges with deuterium injection and most of the time with helium, it was experimentally confirmed that {gamma}=7 in agreement with classical sheath theory. However, an increase of this factor with additional power has been shown. Detached plasma, which is an attractive regime in order to reduce the power deposition, requires an optimized control. A new measurement of the detachment onset has been developed. It is based on the variation of heat flux onto the plates derived from infrared measurements. A detachment cartography with the determination of a new 2D 'IR' Degree of Detachment was carried out allowing to locate the zone where the detachment starts. We can apply this concept both to other tokamaks such as JET and ITER. A comparison between the axisymmetric divertor and the ergodic divertor is also presented concerning the power deposition in the two configurations. Low heat flux with the ergodic divertor is a

  8. Stability of Picard bundle over moduli space of stable vector bundles ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Springer Verlag Heidelberg #4 2048 1996 Dec 15 10:16:45

    Since the morphism ϕ is given by the universal property of the moduli space, the pullback of the universal bundle E on X × M to X × P by the map idX × ϕ is isomorphic (up to a twist by a line bundle coming from P) to ˜E. In other words, there is an integer k such that. 0 −→ (idX × ϕ)∗E −→ W ⊠ OP (k) −→ Ox×P (k + 1) −→ 0.

  9. Overview of the divertor design and its integration into RTO/RC-ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janeschitz, G.; Tivey, R.; Antipenkov, A.; Barabash, V.; Chiocchio, S.; Federici, G.; Heidl, H.; Ibbott, C.; Martin, E.

    2000-01-01

    The design of the divertor and its integration into the reduced technical objectives/reduced cost-international thermonuclear energy reactor (RTO/RC-ITER) is based on the experience gained from the 1998 design of international thermonuclear energy reactor (ITER) and on the research and development performed throughout the engineering design activities (EDA). This paper gives an overview of the layout and functional design of the RTO/RC-ITER divertor, including the integration into the machine and the remote replacement of the divertor cassettes. Design guidelines are presented which have allowed quick preparation of divertor layouts suitable for further study using the B2-EIRENE edge plasma code. As in the 1998 design, the divertor is segmented into cassettes, and the segmentation, which is three per sector, is driven by access through the divertor level ports. Maintaining this access and avoiding interference with poloidal field coils means that the divertor level ports need to be inclined (7 deg.). This opens up the possibility of incorporating inboard and outboard baffles into the divertor cassettes. The cassettes are transported in-vessel by making use of the toroidal rails onto which the cassettes are finally clamped in position. Significant reduction of the space available between the X-point and the vacuum vessel results in re-positioning of the toroidal rails in order to retain sufficient depth for the inner and outer divertor legs. This, in turn, requires some changes to the remote handling (RH) concept. Remote handling (RH) is now based on using a cantilevered articulated gripper during the radial movement of the cassettes inside the RH ports. However, the principle to use a cassette toroidal mover (CTM) for in vessel handling is unchanged, hence maintaining the validity of previous EDA research and development. The space previously left below the cassettes for RH was also used for pumping. Elimination of this space has led to re-siting of the pumping

  10. Design and performance study of the helium-cooled T-tube divertor concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ihli, T.; Raffray, A.R.; Abdel-Khalik, S.I.; Shin, S.

    2007-01-01

    The ARIES-CS study has been launched with the goal of developing through physics and engineering optimization an attractive power plant concept based on a compact stellarator configuration. The study included an effort to characterize the divertor location and corresponding heat load distribution, and to develop a He-cooled divertor concept that could accommodate a heat flux of at least 10 MW/m 2 , and that would integrate well with the other power core components. This paper describes the design study of this divertor concept, which, although developed for a compact stellarator, is well suited for a tokamak configuration also

  11. Thermal and radiation loads on the first wall and divertor plates in the KTM tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azizov, Eh.A.; Buzhinskij, O.I.; Gladush, G.G.; Darmagraj, V.V.; Priyampol'skij, I.R.; Dvorkin, N.Ya.; Lejkin, I.N.; Tazhibaeva, I.L.; Shestakov, V.P.

    2001-01-01

    The constructing of the KTM tokamak is intended for wide scale studies of behavior both inner-chamber element materials and structures (first wall, limiters, divertor, hf-antennas, etc.) under conditions approaching to the ITER-FEAT and a future thermonuclear reactors. The KTM tokamak is designed for maintain of interaction conditions of plasma-wall, plasma flows and divertor field, stimulating conditions of ITER-FEAT; and for examination of a future tokamaks' materials. In the work the thermal loads on the first wall, divertor plates are presented

  12. Feasibility study of inside automatic welding system of cooling pipe of divertors for FER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshizawa, S.; Adachi, J.; Morishita, H.; Kakudate, S.; Taguchi, H.; Tada, E.

    1995-01-01

    In order to replace divertors for FER, cooling pipes of divertors should be cut and welded since they are too long to be replaced with divertors via horizontal maintenance ports. An inside cutting and welding system is also required because of an accessibility to pipes. A combination of an inside disc-cutting machine and an inside TIG-welding machine has been proposed as a candidate of the systems. We have made tests to confirm possibility to weld pipes which were cut with the disc-cutting machine. Possibility of welding has been proven. The tests result is described in the paper. (orig.)

  13. Influence of Bundle Diameter and Attachment Point on Kinematic Behavior in Double Bundle Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Using Computational Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oh Soo Kwon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A protocol to choose the graft diameter attachment point of each bundle has not yet been determined since they are usually dependent on a surgeon’s preference. Therefore, the influence of bundle diameters and attachment points on the kinematics of the knee joint needs to be quantitatively analyzed. A three-dimensional knee model was reconstructed with computed tomography images of a 26-year-old man. Based on the model, models of double bundle anterior cruciate ligament (ACL reconstruction were developed. The anterior tibial translations for the anterior drawer test and the internal tibial rotation for the pivot shift test were investigated according to variation of bundle diameters and attachment points. For the model in this study, the knee kinematics after the double bundle ACL reconstruction were dependent on the attachment point and not much influenced by the bundle diameter although larger sized anterior-medial bundles provided increased stability in the knee joint. Therefore, in the clinical setting, the bundle attachment point needs to be considered prior to the bundle diameter, and the current selection method of graft diameters for both bundles appears justified.

  14. A Tannakian approach to dimensional reduction of principal bundles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Cónsul, Luis; Biswas, Indranil; García-Prada, Oscar

    2017-08-01

    Let P be a parabolic subgroup of a connected simply connected complex semisimple Lie group G. Given a compact Kähler manifold X, the dimensional reduction of G-equivariant holomorphic vector bundles over X × G / P was carried out in Álvarez-Cónsul and García-Prada (2003). This raises the question of dimensional reduction of holomorphic principal bundles over X × G / P. The method of Álvarez-Cónsul and García-Prada (2003) is special to vector bundles; it does not generalize to principal bundles. In this paper, we adapt to equivariant principal bundles the Tannakian approach of Nori, to describe the dimensional reduction of G-equivariant principal bundles over X × G / P, and to establish a Hitchin-Kobayashi type correspondence. In order to be able to apply the Tannakian theory, we need to assume that X is a complex projective manifold.

  15. Analytical prediction of turbulent friction factor for a rod bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Jun Ho; Park, Joo Hwan

    2011-01-01

    An analytical calculation has been performed to predict the turbulent friction factor in a rod bundle. For each subchannel constituting a rod bundle, the geometry parameters are analytically derived by integrating the law of the wall over each subchannel with the consideration of a local shear stress distribution. The correlation equations for a local shear stress distribution are supplied from a numerical simulation for each subchannel. The explicit effect of a subchannel shape on the geometry parameter and the friction factor is reported. The friction factor of a corner subchannel converges to a constant value, while the friction factor of a central subchannel steadily increases with a rod distance ratio. The analysis for a rod bundle shows that the friction factor of a rod bundle is largely affected by the characteristics of each subchannel constituting a rod bundle. The present analytic calculations well predict the experimental results from the literature with rod bundles in circular, hexagonal, and square channels.

  16. Matrix remodeling between cells and cellular interactions with collagen bundle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jihan; Sun, Bo

    When cells are surrounded by complex environment, they continuously probe and interact with it by applying cellular traction forces. As cells apply traction forces, they can sense rigidity of their local environment and remodel the matrix microstructure simultaneously. Previous study shows that single human carcinoma cell (MDA-MB-231) remodeled its surrounding extracellular matrix (ECM) and the matrix remodeling was reversible. In this study we examined the matrix microstructure between cells and cellular interaction between them using quantitative confocal microscopy. The result shows that the matrix microstructure is the most significantly remodeled between cells consisting of aligned, and densified collagen fibers (collagen bundle)., the result shows that collagen bundle is irreversible and significantly change micromechanics of ECM around the bundle. We further examined cellular interaction with collagen bundle by analyzing dynamics of actin and talin formation along with the direction of bundle. Lastly, we analyzed dynamics of cellular protrusion and migrating direction of cells along the bundle.

  17. MODULAR BUNDLE ADJUSTMENT FOR PHOTOGRAMMETRIC COMPUTATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Börlin

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate how the residuals in bundle adjustment can be split into a composition of simple functions. According to the chain rule, the Jacobian (linearisation of the residual can be formed as a product of the Jacobians of the individual steps. When implemented, this enables a modularisation of the computation of the bundle adjustment residuals and Jacobians where each component has limited responsibility. This enables simple replacement of components to e.g. implement different projection or rotation models by exchanging a module. The technique has previously been used to implement bundle adjustment in the open-source package DBAT (Börlin and Grussenmeyer, 2013 based on the Photogrammetric and Computer Vision interpretations of Brown (1971 lens distortion model. In this paper, we applied the technique to investigate how affine distortions can be used to model the projection of a tilt-shift lens. Two extended distortion models were implemented to test the hypothesis that the ordering of the affine and lens distortion steps can be changed to reduce the size of the residuals of a tilt-shift lens calibration. Results on synthetic data confirm that the ordering of the affine and lens distortion steps matter and is detectable by DBAT. However, when applied to a real camera calibration data set of a tilt-shift lens, no difference between the extended models was seen. This suggests that the tested hypothesis is false and that other effects need to be modelled to better explain the projection. The relatively low implementation effort that was needed to generate the models suggest that the technique can be used to investigate other novel projection models in photogrammetry, including modelling changes in the 3D geometry to better understand the tilt-shift lens.

  18. Historical dynamics in ecosystem service bundles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renard, Delphine; Rhemtulla, Jeanine M; Bennett, Elena M

    2015-10-27

    Managing multiple ecosystem services (ES), including addressing trade-offs between services and preventing ecological surprises, is among the most pressing areas for sustainability research. These challenges require ES research to go beyond the currently common approach of snapshot studies limited to one or two services at a single point in time. We used a spatiotemporal approach to examine changes in nine ES and their relationships from 1971 to 2006 across 131 municipalities in a mixed-use landscape in Quebec, Canada. We show how an approach that incorporates time and space can improve our understanding of ES dynamics. We found an increase in the provision of most services through time; however, provision of ES was not uniformly enhanced at all locations. Instead, each municipality specialized in providing a bundle (set of positively correlated ES) dominated by just a few services. The trajectory of bundle formation was related to changes in agricultural policy and global trends; local biophysical and socioeconomic characteristics explained the bundles' increasing spatial clustering. Relationships between services varied through time, with some provisioning and cultural services shifting from a trade-off or no relationship in 1971 to an apparent synergistic relationship by 2006. By implementing a spatiotemporal perspective on multiple services, we provide clear evidence of the dynamic nature of ES interactions and contribute to identifying processes and drivers behind these changing relationships. Our study raises questions about using snapshots of ES provision at a single point in time to build our understanding of ES relationships in complex and dynamic social-ecological systems.

  19. Hydrodynamic behavior of a bare rod bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartzis, J.G.; Todreas, N.E.

    1977-06-01

    The temperature distribution within the rod bundle of a nuclear reactor is of major importance in nuclear reactor design. However temperature information presupposes knowledge of the hydrodynamic behavior of the coolant which is the most difficult part of the problem due to complexity of the turbulence phenomena. In the present work a 2-equation turbulence model--a strong candidate for analyzing actual three dimensional turbulent flows--has been used to predict fully developed flow of infinite bare rod bundle of various aspect ratios (P/D). The model has been modified to take into account anisotropic effects of eddy viscosity. Secondary flow calculations have been also performed although the model seems to be too rough to predict the secondary flow correctly. Heat transfer calculations have been performed to confirm the importance of anisotropic viscosity in temperature predictions. All numerical calculations for flow and heat have been performed by two computer codes based on the TEACH code. Experimental measurements of the distribution of axial velocity, turbulent axial velocity, turbulent kinetic energy and radial Reynolds stresses were performed in the developing and fully developed regions. A 2-channel Laser Doppler Anemometer working on the Reference mode with forward scattering was used to perform the measurements in a simulated interior subchannel of a triangular rod array with P/D = 1.124. Comparisons between the analytical results and the results of this experiment as well as other experimental data in rod bundle array available in literature are presented. The predictions are in good agreement with the results for the high Reynolds numbers

  20. Global properties of systems quantized via bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doebner, H.D.; Werth, J.E.

    1978-03-01

    Take a smooth manifold M and a Lie algebra action (g-ation) theta on M as the geometrical arena of a physical system moving on M with momenta given by theta. It is proposed to quantize the system with a Mackey-like method via the associated vector bundle xisub(rho) of a principal bundle xi=(P,π,M,H) with model dependent structure group H and with g-action phi on P lifted from theta on M. This (quantization) bundle xisub(rho) gives the Hilbert space equal to L 2 (xisub(rho),ω) of the system as the linear space of sections in xisub(rho) being square integrable with respect to a volume form ω on M; the usual position operators are obtained; phi leads to a vector field representation D(phisub(rho),theta) of g in an hence Hilbert space to momentum operators. So Hilbert space carries the quantum kinematics. In this quantuzation the physically important connection between geometrical properties of the system, e.g. quasi-completeness of theta and G-maximality of phisub(rho), and global properties of its quantized kinematics, e.g. skew-adjointness of the momenta and integrability of D(phisub(rho), theta) can easily be studied. The relation to Nelson's construction of a skew-adjoint non-integrable Lie algebra representation and to Palais' local G-action is discussed. Finally the results are applied to actions induced by coverings as examples of non-maximal phisub(rho) on Esub(rho) lifted from maximal theta on M which lead to direct consequences for the corresponding quantum kinematics