WorldWideScience

Sample records for bunches mass media

  1. Effect of Chitosan Binder on Water Absorption of Empty Fruit Bunches Filter Media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziatul Niza Sadikin; Mohd Ghazali Mohd Nawawi; Norasikin Othman

    2015-01-01

    The potential of chitosan as filter media binder was investigated in this study. Chitosan solution with different concentrations were applied to the empty fruit bunches using two different deposition techniques, namely, spray method and addition method. In this study, a water absorption test was used to study the sorption behaviour of empty fruit bunches filter media. The water absorption study showed that the water uptake for empty fruit bunches filter media without the chitosan binder increases with time, until the water sorption reaches the equilibrium state. It was observed that the water uptake decreased from 23 % to 14 % for the chitosan-filled filter media as compared to binder-less filter media, over the duration of 24 hours. For 1 % chitosan concentration, the water uptake is higher compared to 3 % chitosan-filled filter media. The water absorption is relatively lower for filter media with a higher concentration of chitosan due to the high compatibility achieved at this interfacial region between empty fruit bunches fibres and chitosan. Alkali-treated filter media showed the lowest water uptake compared to diethyl ether, ethanol and hot water pretreatment methods. (author)

  2. A study of fast bunch rotation in the negative mass region

    CERN Document Server

    Rumolo, Giovanni

    2001-01-01

    Fast bunch rotation of high-intensity proton or ion bunches above transition is - in principle - supported by the self-bunching effect of the attractive space charge force ("negative instabilities"). Due to the broad-band nature of the space charge impedance, the highest harmonics of this negative mass mode grow fast and inhibit compression, unless the bunch rotation is accelerated by a sufficiently high rf-voltage. Using particle-in-cell simulation we establish the threshold below which effective compression is still possible. We find that the required rf-voltage for compression of a given bunch above transition can be reduced at most by a factor 2 compared with compression below transition, where space charge requires extra voltage.

  3. Oil palm empty fruit bunch as media for mushroom cultivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mat Rasol Awang; Wan Badrin Wan Husin; Tajuddin Osman; Tamikazu Kume; Shinpei Matsuhashi

    1998-01-01

    The mushroom strains Pleurotus sajor caju(grey oyster mushroom), Pleurotus flavellatus((pink oyster mushroom), Pleurotus cystidiosus(abalone mushroom) and Auricularia polytricha (black jelly mushroom) grow satisfactorily on the EFB media treated with lime. Based on their Biological Efficiency (BE) or yield, the strain Pleurotus sajor caju was selected for further investigation. The BE of the Pleurotus sajor caju was 73.8 %. The lime treatment, aeration and four weeks incubation period was necessary for fruiting

  4. The Mass Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentini, Chiara; Laursen, Bo

    2012-01-01

    spaces. We postulate that citizens’ levels of awareness and knowledge of EU matters depend on the EU institutions’ ability to reach European citizens directly or indirectly through a wide range of channels, including the mass media. Citizens’ participation in political debates, however, requires more......(s). The EU institutions also need to communicate frames of interpretation around political issues. In this chapter we analyse the EU institutions’ external communication and specifically their media relations efforts, and suggest improvements in view of remedying some of the legitimacy problems that the EU......This chapter deals with the EU institutions’ external communication and how it relates to the European public sphere(s). We argue that one of the preconditions for establishing a well-functioning European public sphere is that the EU institutions’ decision-making and political debates around...

  5. Bio-composite Nonwoven Media Based on Chitosan and Empty Fruit Bunches for Wastewater Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadikin, Aziatul Niza; Nawawi, Mohd Ghazali Mohd; Othman, Norasikin

    2011-01-01

    Fibrous filter media in the form of non-woven filters have been used extensively in water treatment as pre-filters or to support the medium that does the separation. Lignocellulosic such as empty fruit bunches have potential to be used as a low cost filter media as they represent unused resources, widely available and are environmentally friendly. Laboratory filtration tests were performed to investigate the potential application of empty fruit bunches that enriched with chitosan as a fiber filter media to remove suspended solids, oil and grease, and organics in terms of chemical oxygen demand from palm oil mill effluent. The present paper studies the effect of chitosan concentration on the filter media performance. Bench-scaled experiment results indicated that pre-treatment using the fiber filtration system removed up to 67.3% of total suspended solid, 65.1% of oil and grease and 46.1% of chemical oxygen demand. The results show that the lignocellulosic fiber filter could be a potential technology for primary wastewater treatment.

  6. Mass media tours Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-07-01

    In May 1998, representatives of Japan's mass media toured Bangladesh to learn about the country's reproductive health and population programs. The goal of the visit was for the journalists to spread information about the projects to their peers, to government officials, and parliamentarians responsible for allocations of foreign aid. The 1st stage of the visit involved meetings with program officials and organizers. In the 2nd stage, the journalists toured: 1) Matlab, where the International Center for Diarrhoeal Disease Research has been implementing an intensive family planning (FP) program; 2) the Panchdona IP area, where the Integrated Family Development Project is being conducted with funding from the Japanese government; 3) an FP office and satellite clinic; and 4) a site where voluntary organizations are providing FP/maternal-child health care. The journalists also learned about how micro-credit loans operate. Participating journalists reported that they were very impressed with the people of Bangladesh, and that they had gained a new understanding of the relationship between reproductive health and human rights.

  7. Negative-mass mitigation of Coulomb repulsion for terahertz undulator radiation of electron bunches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balal, N.; Magory, E. [Ariel University, Ariel 40700 (Israel); Bandurkin, I. V. [Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 46 Ulyanov St., Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Bratman, V. L. [Ariel University, Ariel 40700 (Israel); Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 46 Ulyanov St., Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Savilov, A. V. [Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 46 Ulyanov St., Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod, 23 Gagarin Avenue, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-19

    It is proposed to utilize the effect of negative mass for stabilization of the effective axial size of very dense and short electron bunches produced by photo-injector guns by using combined undulator and strong uniform magnetic fields. It has been shown that in the “abnormal” regime, an increase in the electron energy leads to a decrease in the axial velocity of the electron; due to the negative-mass effect, the Coulomb repulsion of electrons leads to their attraction and formation of a fairly stable and compact bunch “nucleus.” An undulator with a strong uniform magnetic field providing the negative-mass effect is designed for an experimental source of terahertz radiation. The use of the negative-mass regime in this experiment should result in a long-pulse coherent spontaneous undulator emission from a short dense moderately relativistic (5.5 MeV) photo-injector electron bunch with a high (up to 20%) efficiency and a narrow frequency spectrum.

  8. Mass Media in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firth, Brian

    The teacher is provided with a range of practical suggestions for teaching about mass media. Chapters are devoted to the press, magazines, television, advertising, and film. The author argues that the teacher must start from the place of the various media in the lives of the children and not from a desire to instruct the children as to what they…

  9. Mass Media and Political Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewellen, James R.

    1976-01-01

    Research reviews and statistical analysis of a specific study suggest that the mass media play a direct role in the political socialization of adolescents insofar as overt political behavior is concerned. (Author/AV)

  10. Teaching English through Mass Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilma Tafani

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at analyzing the importance of using Mass Media in the classroom and finding the ways how to use Printed and Audio-visual Media. It is the result of an in-depth study, surveys and questionnaires thus trying to make the ideas in this article more trustworthy. It is based not only on the literature review but also on long personal experience. It is a brief description of some practical examples and some tips for novice teachers. Further more, this article tends to deal with some of the key issues of using media in the classroom. Here are included some of the findings of my research work on a post-doctorate Fulbright Program in 2001. The following issues are open for discussion: the importance of Media in general and in education in particular; Media are persuasive and pervasive, newspapers, magazines, radio, television and internet in the classroom, etc.

  11. Teaching English through Mass Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafani, Vilma

    2009-01-01

    This article aims at analyzing the importance of using Mass Media in the classroom and finding the ways how to use Printed and Audio-visual Media. It is the result of an in-depth study, surveys and questionnaires thus trying to make the ideas in this article more trustworthy. It is based not only on the literature review but also on long personal…

  12. Agricultural extension and mass media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perraton, H

    1983-12-01

    To learn more about the use of the mass media for agricultural extension, the World Bank has considered the efforts of 2 units: INADES-formation in West Africa and the Extension Aids Branch of Malawi. The INADES-formation study focuses on Cameroon but also considers work in Rwanda and the Ivory Coast. Some general conclusions emerge from a comparison of the 2 organizations. Malawi operates an extension service which reaches farmers through extension agents, through farmer training centers, and through mass media. The Extension Aids Branch (EAB) has responsibility for its media work and broadcasts 4 1/2 hours of radio each week. Its 6 regular radio programs include a general program which interviews farmers, a music request program in which the music is interspersed with farming advice, a farming family serial, and a daily broadcast of agricultural news and information. The 17 cinema vans show some agricultural films, made by EAB, some entertainment films, and some government information films from departments other than the ministry of agriculture. EAB also has a well-developed program of research and evaluation of its own work. INADES-formation, the training section of INADES, works towards social and economic development of the population. It teaches peasant farmers and extension agents and does this through running face-to-face seminars, by publishing a magazine, "Agripromo," and through correspondence courses. In 1978-79 INADES-formation enrolled some 4500 farmers and extension agents as students. Both of these organizations work to teach farmers better agriculture techniques, and both were created in response to the fact that agricultural extension agents cannot meet all the farmers in their area. Despite the similarity of objective, there are differences in methods and philosophy. The EAB works in a single country and uses a variety of mass media, with print playing a minor role. INADES-formation is an international and nongovernmental organization and its

  13. A versatile triple radiofrequency quadrupole system for cooling, mass separation and bunching of exotic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haettner, Emma; Plaß, Wolfgang R.; Czok, Ulrich; Dickel, Timo; Geissel, Hans; Kinsel, Wadim; Petrick, Martin; Schäfer, Thorsten; Scheidenberger, Christoph

    2018-02-01

    The combination of in-flight separation with a gas-filled stopping cell has opened a new field for experiments with exotic nuclei. For instance, at the SHIP/SHIPTRAP facility at GSI in Darmstadt high-precision mass measurements of rare nuclei have been successfully performed. In order to extend the reach of SHIPTRAP to exotic nuclei that are produced together with high rates of unwanted reaction products, a novel compact radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) system has been developed. It implements ion cooling, identification and separation according to mass numbers and bunching capabilities. The system has a total length of one meter only and consists of an RFQ cooler, an RFQ mass filter and an RFQ buncher. A mass resolving power (FWHM) of 240 at a transmission efficiency of 90% has been achieved. The suppression of contaminants from neighboring masses by more than four orders of magnitude has been demonstrated at rates exceeding 106 ions/s. A longitudinal emittance of 0.45 eV μs has been achieved with the RFQ buncher, which will enable improved time-of-flight mass spectrometry downstream of the device. With this triple RFQ system the measurement of e.g. N= Z nuclides in the region up to tin will become possible at SHIPTRAP. The technology is also well suited for other rare-isotope facilities with experimental setups behind a stopping cell, such as the fragment separator FRS with the FRS Ion Catcher at GSI.

  14. Biogas production from oil palm empty fruit bunches of post mushroom cultivation media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnomo, Agus; Suprihatin; Romli, M.; Hasanudin, Udin

    2018-03-01

    The Empty fruit bunches are one of the palm oil industry wastes, which can be used for mushroom cultivation. Post-cultivation of mushroom from former EFB-mushroom media (EFBMM) has the potential to be processed into biogas. The purpose of this research was to examine optimum co-digestion conditions for biogas production of EFBMM.The research was carried out in an anaerobic digester with three different conditions - dry fermentation (Water content (WC)/Total Solid (TS) ratio 1.5 - 3.5), semi-wet fermentation (WC/TS ratio = 4.0 - 5.7) and wet fermentation (WC/TS ratio> 9.0) conditions. Digester of capacity 50L was used. Fermentation was done using 20% cow feces as inoculum which then added with circulation system for 70 days. The results showed that optimum biogas production were produced in semi-wet fermentation conditions (WC/TS ratio = 4). It was produced 37.462 liters (2.420 liters CH4/Kg Volatile Solid (VS)) of biogas with methane contain about 26.231%. Total volume of inoculum during process was 19.6 liters (1: 4 w/v) with absorbed TS inoculum ratio, TS/I = 0.4 (1:2.5 w/v). The result of research also showed that biogas which was produced from control about 2.865 liters (0.041 liters CH4/KgVS), with TS absorbed inoculum ratio, TS/I = 0.5 (1: 5w/v).

  15. Mass Media: The Invisible Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glessing, Robert J.; White, William P.

    This anthology for students of media consists of essays and articles grouped under four topics: media forms, media content, media environments, and "the last word." Media forms deals with the nature of these kinds of media: electronic, print, film, music, and comics, graffiti, and clothing. Media content contains articles on the news, advertising,…

  16. Building brands without mass media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joachimsthaler, E; Aaker, D A

    1997-01-01

    Costs, market fragmentation, and new media channels that let customers bypass advertisements seem to be in league against the old ways of marketing. Relying on mass media campaigns to build strong brands may be a thing of the past. Several companies in Europe, making a virtue of necessity, have come up with alternative brand-building approaches and are blazing a trail in the post-mass-media age. In England, Nestlé's Buitoni brand grew through programs that taught the English how to cook Italian food. The Body Shop garnered loyalty with its support of environmental and social causes. Cadbury funded a theme park tied to its history in the chocolate business. Häagen-Dazs opened posh ice-cream parlors and got itself featured by name on the menus of fine restaurants. Hugo Boss and Swatch backed athletic or cultural events that became associated with their brands. The various campaigns shared characteristics that could serve as guidelines for any company hoping to build a successful brand: senior managers were closely involved with brand-building efforts; the companies recognized the importance of clarifying their core brand identity; and they made sure that all their efforts to gain visibility were tied to that core identity. Studying the methods of companies outside one's own industry and country can be instructive for managers. Pilot testing and the use of a single and continuous measure of brand equity also help managers get the most out of novel approaches in their ever more competitive world.

  17. [Mass media consumption in adolescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercedo Sanz, A; Redondo Figuero, C; Pelayo Alonso, R; Gómez Del Río, Z; Hernández Herrero, M; Cadenas González, N

    2005-12-01

    To describe mass media use in teenagers (television, mobile phones, computers, Internet and video games) and to analyze its influence on teenagers' health and development. We performed a cross sectional study by means of a survey of 884 teenagers aged between 14 and 18 years old who were in the third and fourth years of high school in six towns in Cantabria (Spain) in June 2003. The statistical analysis consisted of uni- and bivariable descriptive statistics. All the teenagers had a television set at home and 24 % of families had four or more television sets. The presence of distinct mass media in teenagers' rooms was 52.5 % for televisions, 57.8 % for computers, 52 % for the Internet and 38.7 % for games consoles. The most frequently found media in teenagers' bedrooms were radio/cassette players and compact disks with 76.8 % and 67.4 %, respectively. Teenagers watched television for an average of 3 hours per day on weekdays and 3.2 hours per day at weekends. They played games consoles for an average of 0.69 hours per day on weekdays (41 min) and an average of 1.09 hours per day (65 min) at weekends and used the Internet on weekdays for an average of 0.83 hours per day (49 min) and an average of 1.15 hours per day (69 min) at weekends. A total of 87.2 % of the teenagers, especially girls, had a mobile phone (91.6 % of girls versus 82.4 % of boys; p chatting and sending e-mails. Sixty-two percent of teenagers had been to a cybercafé and 40.8 % has visited a pornographic web site, especially boys (33.1 % of boys versus 7.7 % of girls; p video console, especially boys (87 % of boys versus 57.2 % of girls; p video games with shooting, fights, sports and driving, while girls preferred adventure video games. Nearly a quarter (22.2 %) spent money on video games and cybercafés (an average of 27.06 3 a month in boys and 16.81 3 a month in girls) with no significant differences between sexes. Society as a whole and especially health professionals should increase health

  18. Mass Media and Terrorism: Deconstructing the Relationship

    OpenAIRE

    Prayudi, Prayudi

    2008-01-01

    Issue of terrorism came to surface in this early twenty first century through a number ofacts violence that have killed hundreds and injured thousands of people. At the same time, theseevents have been dominated the mass media contents. Principally, mass media and issue ofterrorism are inseparable. This paper examines the relationship between mass media and terrorism.It is done through the deconstruction of the concept of terrorism and how terrorism isunderstood as a communicational process. ...

  19. Social education of youth with mass media

    OpenAIRE

    Ryazanova A.; Zakirova A.

    2017-01-01

    This article reveals the influence of mass media; the concepts of education, the distinctive influence and different types, methods and mechanisms of mass media. The object of the study is the social education of young people. The subject is the synthesis of social educator’s work with the youth using the mass media. The aim of the work is to analyze the social educator’s work. Methods: theoretical analysis of literature, work’s synthesis of the specialist.

  20. Mass Media for Smoking Cessation in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Laura J.; Bunn, Janice Y.; Flynn, Brian S.; Pirie, Phyllis L.; Worden, John K.; Ashikaga, Takamaru

    2009-01-01

    Theory-driven, mass media interventions prevent smoking among youth. This study examined effects of a media campaign on adolescent smoking cessation. Four matched pairs of media markets in four states were randomized to receive or not receive a 3-year television/radio campaign aimed at adolescent smoking cessation based on social cognitive theory.…

  1. Upgraded D OE calorimeter electronics for short Tevatron bunch space and the effect of pile-up on the W mass measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lokos, S.

    1992-11-01

    The high luminosity and short bunch spacing time of the upgraded Tevatron force the calorimeter to replace a significant part of the present electronics. The W mass measurement was used to study the pile-up effects

  2. Health worries: analysis of mass media influence

    OpenAIRE

    Beléndez, Marina; Martín Llaguno, Marta; Suriá Martínez, Raquel; Hernández-Ruiz, Alejandra

    2004-01-01

    Póster presentado en 18th Annual Conference of the European Health Psychology Society, 21-24 June 2004, Helsinki, Finland. During the last years, mass media have centred on health and illness information more than ever before and stories about health risks fill up newspapers, magazines, TV programmes and internet sites. Recently, much of these informations are focused on emergent health risks, such as genetically modified food. In western countries, mass media appear as one of the main ...

  3. Religious communication and hegemony of mass media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrushkevych Maria Stefanivna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Religious communication is the complex object of scientific research that involves existential component and the inextricable link with relevant historical trends. Mass culture and the information society put pressure on modern religious communication. Media is actively integrating into the system of religious communication. Hegemony of mass communication is realized through the media and religious communicative system becomes the part of this hegemony. Peculiarities of religious communication processes are conditioned by consciousness of itself impact and the need to integrate into the media system.

  4. Mass of polaritons in different dielectric media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzedolik, I V; Lapayeva, S N

    2011-01-01

    Some models of electromagnetic field interactions with linear and nonlinear dielectric media based on the approach of polarization and electromagnetic wave propagation in media are considered. It is shown that quasi-particles generated in the dielectric medium, called polaritons, have mass whose quantity depends on the efficiency of the electromagnetic field and interaction with the medium. The mass and velocity of polaritons can be controlled by the external electric field. The value of the mass of polaritons was measured in a transparent crystal

  5. Cancer patients and mass media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Rajer

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBACKGROUNDNowadays cancer patients tend to be more involved in the medical decision process. Active participation improves health outcomes and patient satisfaction. To participate effectively patients require a huge amount of information, but time limits make it impossible to satisfy all information needs at clinics. We tried to find out which kind of media cancer patients use when searching for information and how often. Lastly, we try to find out how popular the Internet is in this regard.METODSIn this research we invited cancer patients, who had regular clinic examinations at the Oncology Institute between 21st and 25th May in 2012. We carried out a prospective research by anonymous questionnaires. We were investigating which media were used and how often. We analysed results with descriptive statistics, ANOVA, the χ²-Test and the t-test.RESULTS478 of 919 questionnaires distributed among cancer patients were returned. Mean age was 59.9 years. 61 % of responders were female, and the most common level of education was high school (33 %. Most common cancer type was breast cancer (33 %, followed by gastrointestinal and lung cancer. Patients search for information most often on television (81.4% responders, followed by specialized brochures (78%, internet (70.8% and newspapers (67.6%. Patients who do not use media for information searching are older than average (62.5 years vs. 59.9 years; p<0,000.CONCLUSIONSAccording to our results patients search for information most often on television, followed by brochures, internet and newspapers. Older patients less often search for information. This data might help doctors in everyday clinical practice.

  6. New media technologies and mass media reform processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomić Boban

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews and assesses the chances for survival and development of the media in Serbia and ib the region, from the perspective of new information and communication technologies (ICT applied in media business. In the paper theoretical method is used and harmonized with the needs of describing the problems and the observed processes and phenomena, as well as empirical method which is used for collecting and interpreting concrete facts and data on the observed processes and phenomena. The starting point lies in the fact that modern media is definitely, more and more, dependent on new technologies. A part of the new technologies is used in the process of collecting, selecting and editing media content, while the other part of the technology is used in the process of dissemination and propulsion of media content to the mass audience, and also in the feedback function as well. The technology revolution, which we describe, started with mp3, jpg and avi files, and continues with internet broadcasting, social networks, cloud technologies and new digital platforms which are used by today's media for distribution of media content. The particularity of the media in the region lies in the fact that they operating in the societes with delay of political and economic transition, so all the productive resources of society, due to this backlog, are slower adapted to the new conditions of business in the digital era. The consequences that have arisen from such dynamics of development make many media in Serbia and the region quite dysfunctional, especially those who were exposed during this transition to long-standing legal, economic and program crises. That is why most of the existing media in Serbia, especially small ones, are unprepared for modernization and they are not ready for re-modeling in accordance with the new technological circumstances.

  7. Mass media for smoking cessation in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Laura J; Bunn, Janice Y; Flynn, Brian S; Pirie, Phyllis L; Worden, John K; Ashikaga, Takamaru

    2009-08-01

    Theory-driven, mass media interventions prevent smoking among youth. This study examined effects of a media campaign on adolescent smoking cessation. Four matched pairs of media markets in four states were randomized to receive or not receive a 3-year television/radio campaign aimed at adolescent smoking cessation based on social cognitive theory. The authors enrolled 2,030 adolescent smokers into the cohort (n = 987 experimental; n = 1,043 comparison) and assessed them via annual telephone surveys for 3 years. Although the condition by time interaction was not significant, the proportion of adolescents smoking in the past month was significantly lower in the experimental than comparison condition at 3-year follow-up when adjusted for baseline smoking status. The media campaign did not impact targeted mediating variables. A media campaign based on social cognitive constructs produced a modest overall effect on smoking prevalence among adolescents, but the role of theory-based constructs is unclear.

  8. Cold fusion, mass media and actual science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orefice, A. (Milan Univ. (Italy))

    1990-03-01

    The peculiar affair of cold nuclear fusion, a recent and exemplary pattern of today's scientific and public habits, is considered. An overview is proposed on the contemporary approach to science and technology, both of the mass media and research worlds. It shows how mass media with its power of suggestion and ability to raise financial resources can lead many researchers into unpredictable - if not irresponsible behaviour. Yet, an eccess of empiricism may often induce researchers to rely rather on serendipity than on deeper meditation.

  9. Assessing EU perception in Kazakhstan's mass media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakyt Ospanova

    2017-01-01

    Our main findings suggest that Kazakhstan's mass media positively perceives the role of the EU in the region. Moreover, they tend to portray the EU mainly as an economic powerhouse. Our findings support some suggestions by similar studies of the EU's external perception.

  10. Paris Commune Imagery in China's Mass Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiss, Guy T.

    The role of ideology in mass media practices is explored in an analysis of the relation between the Paris Commune of 1871 and the Shanghai Commune of 1967, two attempts to translate the philosophical concept of dictatorship of the proletariat into some political form. A review of the use of Paris Commune imagery by the Chinese to mobilize the…

  11. Bunch by bunch feedback systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobiyama, Makoto

    2006-01-01

    Outlines of bunch-by-bunch feedback systems for suppressing multibunch instabilities in electron/positron storage rings are presented. The design principles and functions of the feedback components are reviewed. Recent topics of applying very fast and dense FPGA as feedback signal processor are also shown. (author)

  12. SPEECH TACTICS IN MASS MEDIA DISCOURSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Kaptiurova

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the basic speech tactics used in mass media discourse. It has been stated that such tactics as contact establishment and speech interaction termination, yielding up initiative or its preserving are compulsory for the communicative situation of a talk show. Language personalities of television talk shows anchors and linguistic ways of the interview organisation are stressed. The material is amply illustrated with relevant examples.

  13. Role of Mass Media in Agricultural Productivity in Adamawa State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the role of mass media in agriculture in Adamawa State. Specifically, it focused on the extent to which mass media have been used to communicate agricultural information dissemination, farmers' media preference, challenges experienced in accessing information through the media and the need to ...

  14. Mass Media Orientation and External Communication Strategies: Exploring Organisational Differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wonneberger, A.; Jacobs, S.

    2016-01-01

    This study assesses relationships between mass media orientations of communication professionals in organisations and their external communication strategies. We assume that mass media orientations within an organisation may affect an organisation’s external communication strategies of bridging and

  15. Information feedback and mass media effects in cultural dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez-Avella, J. C.; Cosenza, M. G.; Klemm, K.; Eguiluz, V. M.; Miguel, M. San

    2007-01-01

    We study the effects of different forms of information feedback associated with mass media on an agent-agent based model of the dynamics of cultural dissemination. In addition to some processes previously considered, we also examine a model of local mass media influence in cultural dynamics. Two mechanisms of information feedback are investigated: (i) direct mass media influence, where local or global mass media act as an additional element in the network of interactions of each agent, and (i...

  16. A cylindrical Penning trap for capture, mass selective cooling, and bunching of radioactive ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raimbault-Hartmann, H.; Bollen, G.; Beck, D.; Koenig, M.; Kluge, H.-J.; Schwarz, S.; Schark, E.; Stein, J.; Szerypo, J.

    1997-01-01

    A Penning trap ion accumulator, cooler, and buncher for low-energy ion beams has been developed for the ISOLTRAP mass spectrometer at ISOLDE/CERN. A cylindrical electrode configuration is used for the creation of a nested trapping potential. This is required for efficient accumulation of externally produced ions and for high-mass selectivity by buffer gas cooling. The design goal of a mass resolving power of about 1 x 10 5 has been achieved. Isobar separation has been demonstrated for radioactive rare-earth ion beams delivered by the ISOLDE on-line mass separator. (orig.)

  17. A cylindrical Penning trap for capture, mass selective cooling, and bunching of radioactive ion beams

    CERN Document Server

    Raimbault-Hartmann, H; Bollen, G; König, M; Kluge, H J; Schark, E; Stein, J; Schwarz, S; Szerypo, J

    1997-01-01

    A Penning trap ion accumulator, cooler, and buncher for low energy ion beams has been developed for the ISOLTRAP mass spectrometer at ISOLDE/CERN. A cylindrical electrode configuration is used for the creation of a nested trapping potential. This is required for efficient accumulation of externally produced ions and for high mass selectivity by buffer gas cooling. The design goal of a mass resolving power of about $1\\cdot 10^{5}$ has been achieved. Isobar separation has been demonstrated for radioactive rare earth ion beams delivered by the ISOLDE on-line mass separator.

  18. MASS MEDIA''S MANIPULATIVE POTENTIAL IN POLITICAL DISCOURSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUSHCHINA L.V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the invention of telegraph, radio and television which enable contacts with a large audience, the social impact of communication via the mass media has been a subject of intense research by political and social scientists. Thus the paper discusses the nature of manipulation in political discourse and its ambivalent role in the modern society. The solution of the research tasks is carried out on the basis of the complex methodological base which defines the general orientation and the principles of research, as well as its scientific results, including the general philosophical methodological concept of dialectic materialism in accordance with the principles of unity of form and content, cause and effect, general communication of the phenomena. In conclusion, it summarizes that mentioned above phenomenon is both serious and dangerous, being capable to influence people’s consciousness, depriving them of their critical thinking, and even dooming them to the passivity of life.

  19. Practical Development of Modern Mass Media Education in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Practical development of modern mass media education in Poland. The paper analyzes the main ways of practical development of modern media education (1992-2012 years) in Poland: basic technologies, main events, etc.

  20. The Kenyan indigenous languages and the mass media ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    vernacular mass media and the Kenyan indigenous languages. ... African indigenous languages had, "against all odds", survived as media of communication ..... regulations should, of course, primarily ensure quality and ethical journalism.

  1. Body image in the mass media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Iris Bazán

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The concern about weight that characterizes most modern women stemmed from the medical research that showed the relationship between obesity and diseases such as hypertension or cardiovascular disease. As shown by the American filmmaker Michael Moore in his documentary film “Sicko” in 2007, large US health companies financially rewarded those with a thinner body and sanctioned overweight people because they had higher risks of disease and thus generate losses to their companies. From there, the emphasis on weight control and low-calorie dieting -and its association with health- reached unexpected limits. Mass Media had and have a leading role on this growing concern about weight. This article analyzes the effects of media on the aesthetic / healthy ideal, which contribute to the construction of a woman captured by endless demands. These social requirements are associated with perfection, the predominance of the aesthetic, healthy body and eternal youth, which would guarantee success. What relationship have television, women’s magazines, Internet, advertising and even children’s toys with the expansion of “the culture of light”, the ideal body and healthy behavior are some of the questions that will be addressed in this Article. To contribute to a better understanding of this phenomenon, we will make a bibliographic and Media exploration. Finally, as a possible solution to the problem, a strategy of state intervention on the current market model for promoting good use of information and prevention of Eating Disorders and other diseases related to poor diet is proposed. 

  2. Functions and Dysfunctions of Mass Communication Media | Rabiu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mass communication provides a way of interacting, distantly, with unknown audiences. It is the process of sharing experience in which a huge number of people are involved simultaneously, or almost so. It often occurs through the use of mass media channels and technology. The mass media are all around us. To live even ...

  3. Covering Science as a Mass Media Fellow

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMeeking, Gavin R.

    2006-03-01

    I remember my first unpleasant biology lab dissection in high school. I am not sure if the experience was worse for me or for the unfortunate fetal pig we dissected that day. The sights and smells of that fateful morning forever put me on a path toward the physical sciences, and probably have a lot to do with my ending up as a graduate student in atmospheric chemistry instead of at some medical school cutting up dead bodies. So imagine my horror after encountering the leg of a dead horse as I walked into a bioengineering laboratory to report on a story about artificial joint research. Subjecting myself to such biological horrors, though, was part of my duties as an AGU-sponsored American Association for the Advancement of Science Mass Media Fellow. The program places graduate students and recent graduates from scientific fields in major media outlets throughout the country. The aim of the program is to give science-trained individuals a taste of a career in science journalism as well as to help scientists develop better communication skills.

  4. User Behavior in Mass Media Websites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel GÓMEZ ZOTANO

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mass media websites can be worthy to understand user trends in web services. RTVE, the National Broadcaster in Spain is a sample of such kind of service. Trend points to a shorter user interaction over the last three years, and a more straight access to content. Besides the number of pages consumed in a visit is becoming smaller as well. This article reviews these trends with data obtained from public sources, and analyze the distribution of web pages in the client layer and the corresponding distribution observed in the server layer. The two distributions can be characterized by Zipf-like distributions and ?, the degree of disparity in the popularity distribution, is calculated for both. In all cases ? is higher to one implying a huge concentration of popularity on a few objects.

  5. [Mass media communication of biomedical advances].

    Science.gov (United States)

    P Salas, Sofía; Beca I, Juan Pablo

    2008-10-01

    The public dissemination of advances in biomedical research and clinical medicine generates several difficulties and problems. Mass media have the responsibility to report accurately and in a comprehensive way, and physicians and researchers must provide this information in a timely manner and without bias. After reviewing the literature related to this subject and discussing some examples of inadequate information in the Chilean context, the authors suggest the following recommendations: journalists should compare and evaluate the information appropriately before its publication, researchers and journalists should work together, reports should inform clearly about the state of the research and every academic institution should avoid reporting publicly preliminary experiences. If these recommendations are followed, the general public, physicians, researchers and health care institutions will be benefited.

  6. Mass Media Forces in Our society. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelker, Francis H.; Voelker, Ludmila A.

    The primary purpose of this book is to help the public become more aware and critical in their selection and appraisal of the media. Part 1 consists of a single essay by Theodore Peterson that gives a historical perspective on the development of the mass media in the United States. Part 2 deals with the print and electronic media: magazines, photo…

  7. Interaction with Mass Media: The Importance of Rhythm and Tempo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Robert P.

    1987-01-01

    Stresses that understanding the impact of interaction with mass media requires conceptualizing media as an institutionalized social form. A critical feature of this process is the grammatical character of media interaction in the form of rhythm and tempo, because these rhythms and tempos become established in everyday routine. (SKC)

  8. An Appraisal of Mass Media Role in Consolidating Democracy in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DrNneka

    The Nigerian media has been playing an active role in instituting democratic structures since the ... mass media eventually yielded positive result when on the 29th of May 1999 the ... presence of democratic or special bias in the media may have profound effect. Public ..... Issues in the 2011 general elections in Nigeria.

  9. Mass Communication: An Introduction; Theory and Practice of Mass Media in Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittner, John R.

    From the perspectives of historical, contemporary, and future interpretations of mass communication, this introduction to the theory and practice of mass media in society treats both the social context of mass communication and the hardware components that make it operable. The book discusses all mass media--newspapers, magazines, radio,…

  10. An Appraisal of Mass Media Role in Consolidating Democracy in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study therefore critically assessed the performance of Nigerian mass media in consolidating democracy. The study is of the view that the mass contributed immensely to the return of democracy in Nigeria. This the media did through their critical criticism of the military juntas, mobilization of the citizens to participate in ...

  11. Birth Order, Club Membership and Mass Media Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomeh, Aida K.

    1976-01-01

    Examines the relationship between birth order, club membership and mass media exposure for women college students in Lebanon. Findings show the total membership rate and mass media consumption are higher among last born girls than first born. Birth order differences are explained in terms of the differential socialization of children. (Author)

  12. New Ideas and Fertility Limitation: The Role of Mass Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Jennifer S.; Axinn, William G.

    2004-01-01

    This article investigates the mass media as a social change that shapes individual behavior primarily via ideational mechanisms. We construct a theoretical framework drawing on social demography and social psychology to explain how mass media may affect behavior via attitudinal change. Empirical analyses of 1,091 couples in the Chitwan Valley…

  13. Imaging Teachers: In Fact and in the Mass Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Xae Alicia; Rios, Diana I.

    2003-01-01

    The impact of mass media on public images of teachers and students is considered in a dialogue between two educational and mass media researchers. Stereotypes in films, such as teacher-savior and student-failure, and abundant reports about Latino dropout rates and low academic achievement impact teachers and the public, who accept negative images…

  14. THE IMPACT OF MASS MEDIA ON CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Katarzyna Grzegorzewska

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The 21th century from the standpoint of man is regarded as a time of domestication of new media technologies. During that era audiovisual media have displayed the traditional media. Written word has lost is place to television, video games, and in the Internet, whichare having a major impact on people of all ages including young children. The word “illusion” originates from the Latin word “illusio” which means to pretend, to elude. The media world has become independent in terms of the real word and started tolive according to its own rules. We have started to function in two separate realities: actual reality, and virtual media reality. For some people it is very hard to distinguish two types of realities, not to mention kids, which usually perceive media reality as entirely real, actual domain.

  15. How mass media attract political elites' attention

    OpenAIRE

    Sevenans, Julie

    2018-01-01

    Abstract: Political agenda-setting research has shown that policy makers are responsive vis-à-vis media priorities. However, the mechanisms behind this effect have remained understudied so far. In particular, agenda-setting scholars have difficulties determining to what extent politicians react to media coverage purely because of the information it contains (information effect), and to what extent the effect is driven not by what the media say but by the fact that certain information is in th...

  16. Mass shooting and mass media : does media coverage of mass shootings inspire copycat crimes?

    OpenAIRE

    Mesoudi, A.

    2013-01-01

    In December 2012, twenty elementary school children and six adult staff members were shot and killed by a single individual at a school in Connecticut. Although this horrific event was met with widespread shock, Americans are sadly all too familiar with such mass shootings. From Columbine in 1999, to Virginia Tech in 2007, to the Colorado cinema shootings earlier in 2012, mass shootings seem to occur with alarming regularity. And although they appear to afflict the United States more than mos...

  17. Trust to mass-media: micro- and macrolevel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Kavyerina

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Trust is the basic element of civil society.For the last decades Ukrainian social institutions, including mass media, suffering of the crisis of trust. Public informing, socialization, formation of public opinion are the main functions of mass media. Mass media takes part in a lot of social processes and spheres of society. Accuracy of the information, compliance with standards,objectivity and trust of the audience are very important because of the influence of the mass media. The paper deals with various interpretations of trust and theories of N.Luhmann, P. Sztompka and A. Seligmen, thatemphasize the importance of trust during the transformation of society. Also author considers the approaches to defining levels of trust. Attention was focused on two levels – the micro-level which represents personal trust and the macro-level with institutional trust. Author analyzes mass media as a social institution and considers social media as a type of mass media, which has its own unique characteristics such as high level of the informational participation, lack of the law regulation and the organizational structure. These characteristics bring to the foreground figure of the author. So the social media covers both levels of forming a trusting relationship with audience – micro and macrolevel.

  18. The Mass Media Influence on the Impact of Health Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin BABA

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The theme of this study is a distinct examination of the issues regarding health policy, social representations and mass media. The analysis of the mass media influence on the impact of health policy leads to a portrayal of the related programs and the way they are received by citizens through mass media. Owing to the mass media quality to be an indicator of democracy it is very important to study its role in setting people daily agenda considering how it is able to maintain and create trends merely through recurrent messages. The issues frequently conveyed by media industry influences citizens’ interest with regard to community, producing effects on public policy. We must bear in mind that the more persistent in media they are, the more relevant for community this issues will be. The authors of the study put forward a method through which diverse programmes can be analysed. A comparative analysis of mass media and citizens’ social representations and its findings provide information about the influence between them. According to agenda setting theory and many international studies on health policy the authors conclude that mass media institution highly influence the impact of the health policy in health. Moreover, it is important to mention that the impact refers to all the stages of a policy-making: beginning with the problem identification and ending with the evaluation of the implementation process.

  19. Mass media and nuclear energy - IAEA's role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyd, D.R.

    1993-11-01

    The presentation covers the following areas: the wide spectrum of media outlets that the IAEA seeks to serve and their differing needs; the resources available to the IAEA for that purpose; the way in which IAEA endeavours to disseminate authoritative, reliable nuclear-related information to media; the exceptional role the IAEA may be called on to play in emergency situations

  20. Research Questions: Women and Mass Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busby, Linda J.

    Typically, research concerning media presentations of women has involved six types of analysis: (1) content analysis (what is said), (2) cultural and social analysis (why it is said), (3) control or gatekeeper analysis (by whom it is said), (4) audience analysis (to whom it is said), (5) media analysis (in which channel), and (6) effects analysis…

  1. Mass Media as Instruments for Political and Social Control in China: Media Role in Chinese Politics

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xi

    2003-01-01

    Under the influence of Soviet media theory, Chinese media have been held under the control of the Communist Party of China ever since the Party was established in 1921. However, this practice of control was subject to change as a result of rapid economic development and many social changes brought about by economic reform after 1978. This thesis explores the current situation of media control in China. Although the mass media in China began to enjoy more autonomy and diversity after the natio...

  2. MASS MEDIA HEALTH COMMUNICATION: IMPERATIVE FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AKPOBO ODORUME

    the media subjugate themselves to the political, social, economic, cultural ... owing substantially to wide spread rumors and misconceptions among Muslims over ... these immunization sessions, health stakeholders address women on their ...

  3. Print mass media: territory of survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny V. Akhmadulin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of the survival of the print media in the information market in the conditions of intense competition with online journalism and the whole information flow on the Internet. Despite the predictions of the impending death of print periodicals, more than half of the world adult population read a daily newspaper. At the same time, the trends taking place in the media market, confirm the reduction of print media segment in favor of the Internet. According to TNS-Russia data, only in 2013 the Internet audience has grown by 6 %. At the same time the circulation of print media in the US fell by 15 % in 2008- 2014, in Western Europe – by a quarter. In Russia, subscription circulation periodicals in the second half of 2014 fell by 20.2 %, and on the basis of subscription for the first half of 2015, the national average – 22 % (data of Federal State Unitary Enterprise “Russian Post”. Finding ways to stabilize the fall of the print media, many US publishing houses see the transition from advertcentric business model to consumcentric model. It is necessary to use the specifics and advantages of newspapers and magazines (comfort, media planning logic, analytic, continuity and consistency of the content of individual and hypertext editions, and others to maintain the intellectual elite. Print media targeting to an elite audience (willing to pay for exclusiveness allows publishers to offset the rising cost of issuing paperbased, and consumers (subscribers will give a sense of communion to a certain social community, receiving verified and thorough information. In this case, the subscription to a newspaper or magazine (no retail outlet and online will be fashionable factor of association of elite communities and acquire new qualitative features in the development of civil society.

  4. The Mass Media and Political Socialization: Chile, 1970-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Amy R.

    2005-01-01

    This project seeks to determine the effect of the mass media on political attitudes and behaviors in Chile between the years 1970 and 2000. The relationship between the media and "political socialization" is just now gaining recognition in scholarly research, and Chile offers an excellent case study. This paper traces these two variables…

  5. The Mass Media of Entertainment and Human Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorney, Roderic; Steele, Gary

    Urgently needed for human survival is a means of influencing large numbers of people to put into rapid action measures which could neutralize such menances as pollution, overpopulation, and violence. Though the cumulative effect of the mass media is not fully established, media entertainment may be the most influential institution in our society.…

  6. The Roles of Mass Media in Disseminating Agricultural Information ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study further shows that access to mass media on agricultural information is through radio and television, and most of them indicated that the media sources are conventional, accessible and preferred to listen to the agricultural progammes in the night time (8pm -11.59pm).The respondents identified purchasing and ...

  7. Mass Media Agenda and Conflict Resolution in Jos, Plateau State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mass media are known to always set agenda for the public to follow; this they do by raising salient issues, occurrences and events, as they happen in the society and bringing them to public glare. The media set agenda of peace, love, unity, etc, just to mention a few. As they raise these salient issues, people begin to ...

  8. Mass Media Influences on Public Conceptions of Social Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Jeffrey C.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Explores possible relationships between the mass media of communication and social problems by three-way comparisons between the incidence of social problems suggested in media portrayals, conceptions of the incidence of these problems held by the public, and the relative frequency of such problems reflected in statistics accumulated by official…

  9. Evaluating the Effectiveness of a Mass Media Ethics Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byung; Padgett, George

    2000-01-01

    Examines the effectiveness of an ethics education component in a media law and ethics course. Suggests that a short-term mass media ethics study could not develop values considered essential for ethical behavior. Argues that students developed more complexity in their reasoning not measurable by the scale. Suggests a course or module on ethics…

  10. Mass Media Campaign Impacts Influenza Vaccine Obtainment of University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shropshire, Ali M.; Brent-Hotchkiss, Renee; Andrews, Urkovia K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To describe the effectiveness of a mass media campaign in increasing the rate of college student influenza vaccine obtainment. Participants/Methods: Students ("N" = 721) at a large southern university completed a survey between September 2011 and January 2012 assessing what flu clinic media sources were visualized and if they…

  11. Diffusion of Mass Media Messages among Brazilian Farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Ivo A.; Fett, John H.

    1978-01-01

    Reports on a study designed to discover the nature of the flow of messages about recommended agricultural practices first introduced through the mass media in a developing country, and to explore the role opinion leaders plan in the process. (GW)

  12. Impact of mass media on adoption of agricultural innovations in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed the impact of mass media extension activities on ... with the intervention of extension communication to determine small-scale farmers\\' adoption ... and film shows did not make desired significant impact on the adoption of ...

  13. A media maniac's guide to removable mass storage media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempster, Linda S.

    1996-01-01

    This paper addresses at a high level, the many individual technologies available today in the removable storage arena including removable magnetic tapes, magnetic floppies, optical disks and optical tape. Tape recorders represented below discuss logitudinal, serpantine, logitudinal serpantine,and helical scan technologies. The magnetic floppies discussed will be used for personal electronic in-box applications.Optical disks still fill the role for dense long-term storage. The media capacities quoted are for native data. In some cases, 2 KB ASC2 pages or 50 KB document images will be referenced.

  14. Social percolation and the influence of mass media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proykova, Ana; Stauffer, Dietrich

    2002-09-01

    In the marketing model of Solomon and Weisbuch, people buy a product only if their neighbours tell them of its quality, and if this quality is higher than their own quality expectations. Now we introduce additional information from the mass media, which is analogous to the ghost field in percolation theory. The mass media shift the percolative phase transition observed in the model, and decrease the time after which the stationary state is reached.

  15. Mass media influence on students' professional illusion formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermakov V.A.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available this article presents mass media activities as a possible source of professional socialization, adequateness of social process informative display in the sphere of young people professional identity. It describes pattern distortion of occupational structure, presents the problem of mass media inadequate influence on students’ understanding about the choice and perspectives of their profession. The main factors which help to create student’s understanding about their professional future are examined.

  16. ICI optical data storage tape: An archival mass storage media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruddick, Andrew J.

    1993-01-01

    At the 1991 Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies, ICI Imagedata presented a paper which introduced ICI Optical Data Storage Tape. This paper placed specific emphasis on the media characteristics and initial data was presented which illustrated the archival stability of the media. More exhaustive analysis that was carried out on the chemical stability of the media is covered. Equally important, it also addresses archive management issues associated with, for example, the benefits of reduced rewind requirements to accommodate tape relaxation effects that result from careful tribology control in ICI Optical Tape media. ICI Optical Tape media was designed to meet the most demanding requirements of archival mass storage. It is envisaged that the volumetric data capacity, long term stability and low maintenance characteristics demonstrated will have major benefits in increasing reliability and reducing the costs associated with archival storage of large data volumes.

  17. The Dynamic Cross-Correlations between Mass Media News, New Media News, and Stock Returns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuochao Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the dynamic cross-correlations between mass media news, new media news, and stock returns for the SSE 50 Index in Chinese stock market by employing the MF-DCCA method. The empirical results show that (1 there exist power-law cross-correlations between two types of news as well as between news and its corresponding SSE 50 Index return; (2 the cross-correlations between mass media news and SSE 50 Index returns show larger multifractality and more complicated structures; (3 mass media news and new media news have both complementary and competitive relationships; (4 with the rolling window analysis, we further find that there is a general increasing trend for the cross-correlations between the two types of news as well as the cross-correlations between news and returns and this trend becomes more persistent over time.

  18. Mass Media vs. Public and National Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Adamski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The media have become an integral part of social life. They have an enormous impact on it. However, they occasionally may be harmful or even―more or less consciously―their actions may lead to various distortions of the public and national safety. Under what circumstances would be such a situation possible to occur? How to prevent it? This article contains answers to those questions.

  19. The role of digital and social media within mass media anti-smoking campaigns

    OpenAIRE

    Andy Lloyd; James Mckendrick; Ailsa Rutter

    2018-01-01

    Background and challenges to implementation The evidence for mass media to raise awareness about the harm of smoking and benefits of quitting remains strong. However, pressures on budgets means TV is not always seen as an affordable option, while the emergence of digital media presents an attractive option to funders as a way of saving costs while maintaining responses. Digital and social media has provided us with learnings about the role of “push” (broadcast) and “pull” (direct responses...

  20. Mass Society/Culture/Media: An Eclectic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavner, Jerry B.

    Instructors of courses in mass society, culture, and communication start out facing three types of difficulties: the historical orientation of learning, the parochialism of various disciplines, and negative intellectually elitist attitudes toward mass culture/media. Added to these problems is the fact that many instructors have little or no…

  1. Photon anti bunching versus phantom anti bunching?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranowicz, A.; Ekert, A.; Ekert, A.; Bajer, J.; Leonski, W.

    1997-01-01

    Photon anti bunching defined by two-time correlation functions has hitherto, to our best knowledge, been considered to constitute a unique, well defined effect. We show explicitly that this is by no means the case. We analyze two of the most famous definitions showing that both anti bunching and bunching effects according to one definition can be accompanied by arbitrary photon correlation effects according to another. As an example we discuss a model of parametric frequency conversion. (authors)

  2. Mass media image of selected instruments of economic develepment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kruliš Ladislav

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is twofold. Firstly, two instruments of economic development – investment incentives and cluster initiatives – were compared according to the frequency of their occurrence in selected mass media sources in the Czech Republic in the periods 2004-2005 and 2011-2012. Secondly, the mass media image of these two instruments of economic development was evaluated with respect to the frames deductively constructed from literature review. The findings pointed out a higher occurrence of the mass media articles/news dealing with investment incentives. These articles/news were, additionally, more controversial and covered a wider spectrum of frames. Politicians were a relatively more frequent type of actors who created the media message from the articles/news. On the contrary, the mass media articles/news concerning cluster initiatives typically created the frame of positive effects of clusters. The messages were told either by economic experts or by public authority representatives who were closely connected with cluster initiatives. Spatial origin of these messages was rather limited. The definitional vagueness, intangible and uncontroversial nature of cluster initiatives restrained their media appeal.

  3. Measurement of short bunches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, D.X.

    1996-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in short electron bunches for different applications such as short wavelength FELs, linear colliders, and advanced accelerators such as laser or plasma wakefield accelerators. One would like to meet various requirements such as high peak current, low momentum spread, high luminosity, small ratio of bunch length to plasma wavelength, and accurate timing. Meanwhile, recent development and advances in RF photoinjectors and various bunching schemes make it possible to generate very short electron bunches. Measuring the longitudinal profile and monitoring bunch length are critical to understand the bunching process and longitudinal beam dynamics, and to commission and operate such short bunch machines. In this paper, several commonly used measurement techniques for subpicosecond bunches and their relative advantages and disadvantages are discussed. As examples, bunch length related measurements at Jefferson Lab are presented. At Jefferson Lab, bunch lengths as short as 84 fs have been systematically measured using a zero-phasing technique. A highly sensitive Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR) detector has been developed to noninvasively monitor bunch length for low charge bunches. Phase transfer function measurements provide a means of correcting RF phase drifts and reproducing RF phases to within a couple of tenths of a degree. The measurement results are in excellent agreement with simulations. A comprehensive bunch length control scheme is presented. (author)

  4. Measurement of short bunches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, D.X.

    1996-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in short electron bunches for different applications such as short wavelength FELs, linear colliders, and advanced accelerators such as laser or plasma wakefield accelerators. One would like to meet various requirements such as high peak current, low momentum spread, high luminosity, small ratio of bunch length to plasma wavelength, and accurate timing. Meanwhile, recent development and advances in RF photoinjectors and various bunching schemes make it possible to generate very short electron bunches. Measuring the longitudinal profile and monitoring bunch length are critical to understand the bunching process and longitudinal beam dynamics, and to commission and operate such short bunch machines. In this paper, several commonly used measurement techniques for subpicosecond bunches and their relative advantages and disadvantages are discussed. As examples, bunch length related measurements at Jefferson lab are presented. At Jefferson Lab, bunch lengths s short as 84 fs have been systematically measured using a zero-phasing technique. A highly sensitive Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR) detector has been developed to noninvasively monitor bunch length for low charge bunches. Phase transfer function measurements provide a means of correcting RF phase drifts and reproducing RF phases to within a couple of tenths of a degree. The measurement results are in excellent agreement with simulations. A comprehensive bunch length control scheme is presented

  5. [Alcohol advertising in written mass media in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes-Santiago, J; Alvarez Muñiz, M L; Baz Lomba, A

    2007-03-01

    Alcohol advertising is a powerful factor of incitation to consumption. We analyzed the alcohol advertising, especially that youth-focused, in written mass media in Spain during the period 2002-2006. Annual cross-sectional study of advertisements in 41 widely difused written mass media (average readers: 10,1 millions). Media admitting alcohol publicity were 29% in the whole. (2,9 millions of readers on average, 29% of total readers). Alcohol advertising constituted the 3,8% of global publicity and the 8,6% of the publicity in media admitting alcohol publicity. In this period only 4% of the media (2,4% of total readers) inserted antidrug campaigns. In brief, three out of 10 total readers and one out of 12 people older than 15 years suffered the impact of tobacco advertising. Young people were included in 33% of alcohol advertisements and 3 out of 6 of youth-oriented magazines permitted a such publicity. Alcohol publicity remains high in written mass media in Spain. By contrast few people received informative antidrug campaigns. Advertising was preferentially directed to young people.

  6. Mass media influence spreading in social networks with community structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candia, Julián; Mazzitello, Karina I.

    2008-07-01

    We study an extension of Axelrod's model for social influence, in which cultural drift is represented as random perturbations, while mass media are introduced by means of an external field. In this scenario, we investigate how the modular structure of social networks affects the propagation of mass media messages across a society. The community structure of social networks is represented by coupled random networks, in which two random graphs are connected by intercommunity links. Considering inhomogeneous mass media fields, we study the conditions for successful message spreading and find a novel phase diagram in the multidimensional parameter space. These findings show that social modularity effects are of paramount importance for designing successful, cost-effective advertising campaigns.

  7. Examination of the mass media process and personal factors affecting the assessment of mass media-disseminated health information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avcı, Kadriye; Çakır, Tülin; Avşar, Zakir; Üzel Taş, Hanife

    2015-06-01

    This study examined the mass media and personal characteristics leading to health communication inequality as well as the role of certain factors in health communication's mass media process. Using both sociodemographic variables and Maletzke's model as a basis, we investigated the relationship between selected components of the mass communication process, the receiving of reliable health information as a result of health communication, and the condition of its use. The study involved 1853 people in Turkey and was structured in two parts. The first part dealt with questions regarding sociodemographic characteristics, the use of the mass media and the public's ability to obtain health information from it, the public's perception of the trustworthiness of health information, and the state of translating this information into health-promoting behaviours. In the second part, questions related to the mass communication process were posed using a five-point Likert scale. This section tried to establish structural equation modelling using the judgements prepared on the basis of the mass media model. Through this study, it has been observed that sociodemographic factors such as education and age affect individuals' use of and access to communication channels; individuals' trust in and selection of health information from the programme content and their changing health behaviours (as a result of the health information) are related to both their perception of the mass communication process and to sociodemographic factors, but are more strongly related to the former. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Mass Transfer and Porous Media (MTPM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rotenberg, B.; Marry, V.; Malikova, N.; Vuilleumier, R.; Giffaut, E.; Turq, P.; Robinet, J.C.; Diaz, N.; Sardini, P.; Goutelard, F.; Menut, D.; Parneix, J.C.; Sammartino, S.; Pret, D.; Coelho, D.; Jougnot, D.; Revil, A.; Boulin, P.F.; Angulo-Jaramillo, R.; Daian, J.F.; Talandier, J.; Berne, P.; Cochepin, B.; Trotignon, L.; Bildstein, O.; Steefel, C.; Lagneau, V.; Van der Lee, J.; Birchall, D.J.; Harrington, J.F.; Noy, D.J.; Sellin, P.; Bildstein, O.; Piault, E.; Trotignon, L.; Montarnal, P.; Deville, E.; Genty, A.; Le Potier, C.; Imbert, C.; Semete, P.; Desgree, P.; Fevrier, B.; Courtois, A.; Touze, G.; Sboui, A.; Roberts, J.E.; Jaffre, J.; Glaus, M.A.; Rosse, R.; Van Loon, L.R.; Matray, J.M.; Parneix, J.C.; Tinseau, E.; Pret, D.; Mayor, J.C.; Ohkubo, T.; Kikuchi, H.; Yamaguchi, M.; Alonso, U.; Missana, T.; Garcia-Gutierrez, M.; Patelli, A.; Siitari-Kauppi, M.; Leskinen, A.; Rigato, V.; Samper, J.; Dewonck, S.; Zheng, L.; Yang, Q.; Naves, A.; Dai, Z.; Samper, J.; Wolfsberg, A.; Levitt, D.; Cormenzana, J.L.; Missana, T.; Mingarro, M.; Schampera, B.; Dultz, S.; Riebe, B.; Samper, J.; Yang, Q.; Genty, A.; Perraud, D.; Poller, A.; Mayer, G.; Croise, J.; Marschall, P.; Krooss, B.; Matray, J.M.; Tanaka, T.; Vogel, P.; Lavanchy, J.M.; Enssle, C.P.; Cruchaudet, M.; Dewonck, S.; Descostes, M.; Blin, V.; Radwan, J.; Poinssot, C.; Mibus, J.; Sachs, S.; Devol-Brown, I.; Motellier, S.; Tinseau, E.; Thoby, D.; Marsal, F.; DeWindt, L.; Tinseau, E.; Pellegrini, D.; Bauer, A.; Fiehn, B.; Marquardt, Ch.; Romer, J.; Gortzen, A.; Kienzler, B

    2007-07-01

    This session gathers 48 articles (posters) dealing with: interlayer / micro-pore exchange of water and ions in clays: a molecular dynamics study; the multi-scale characterisation of mineral and textural spatial heterogeneities in Callovo-Oxfordian argilite and its consequence on solute species diffusion modelling; the diffusion of ions in unsaturated clay rocks: Theory and application to the Callovo- Oxfordian argillite; the porous media characterization with respect to gas transfer in Callovo Oxfordian argillite; the predictions on a 2-D cementation experiment in porous medium: intercomparison on the Comedie project; the large-scale gas injection test (LASGIT) at the Aespoe hard rock laboratory in Sweden; simulating the geochemical coupling between vitrified waste, canister and near-field on the alliances platform; toward radionuclide transport calculations on whole radioactive waste disposal with CAST3M platform; the experimental study of the water permeability of a partially saturated argillite; a mixed hexahedral finite elements for Darcy flow calculation in clay porous media; the diffusive properties of stainless steel filter discs before and after use in diffusion experiments with compacted clays; the structural organization of porosity in the Opalinus clay at the Mont Terri Rock Laboratory under saturated and unsaturated conditions; the evaluation of pore structure in compacted saturated Bentonite using NMR relaxometry; diffusion coefficients measurement in consolidated clays: a combination of micro-scale profiling and solid pore structure analyses; the numerical interpretation of in-situ DIR diffusion experiments on the Callovo- Oxfordian clay at the Meuse/Haute-Marne URL the identification of relative conductivity models for water flow and solute transport in unsaturated compacted Bentonite; diffusion experiments in Callovo- Oxfordian clay from the Meuse/Haute-Marne URL, France: experimental setup and data analyses; the transport in organo

  9. Use of mass media campaigns to change health behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, Melanie A; Loken, Barbara; Hornik, Robert C

    2010-10-09

    Mass media campaigns are widely used to expose high proportions of large populations to messages through routine uses of existing media, such as television, radio, and newspapers. Exposure to such messages is, therefore, generally passive. Such campaigns are frequently competing with factors, such as pervasive product marketing, powerful social norms, and behaviours driven by addiction or habit. In this Review we discuss the outcomes of mass media campaigns in the context of various health-risk behaviours (eg, use of tobacco, alcohol, and other drugs, heart disease risk factors, sex-related behaviours, road safety, cancer screening and prevention, child survival, and organ or blood donation). We conclude that mass media campaigns can produce positive changes or prevent negative changes in health-related behaviours across large populations. We assess what contributes to these outcomes, such as concurrent availability of required services and products, availability of community-based programmes, and policies that support behaviour change. Finally, we propose areas for improvement, such as investment in longer better-funded campaigns to achieve adequate population exposure to media messages. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Mass media and challenges of sustainable development in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Being an integral part of the social system, the mass media is a major stakeholder in the realization of sustainable development in Nigeria. However, several factors like corruption, poor communication channels, illiteracy, inadequate infrastructure, poor implementation framework and political instability has continued to ...

  11. The Role of Audiovisual Mass Media News in Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrani, Taher; Sim, Tam Shu

    2011-01-01

    The present paper focuses on the role of audio/visual mass media news in language learning. In this regard, the two important issues regarding the selection and preparation of TV news for language learning are the content of the news and the linguistic difficulty. Content is described as whether the news is specialized or universal. Universal…

  12. The Mass Media and Modern Society. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, William L.; And Others

    The focus throughout this second edition is on the 1970's and the impact of mass communication on contemporary society. Analyzing the ways in which communication affects and is, in turn, affected by society, the book examines the social, economic, and intellectual environments in which the media operate. Two intellectual factors which have had the…

  13. Mass-media publicity campaign on driving while intoxicated.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesemann, P.

    1986-01-01

    Mass media publicity campaigns against driving while intoxicated have been conducted in the netherlands for a number of years. A new, more aggressive approach was introduced in 1984 with the slogan "alcohol ..... all too easily a crime". Goals of this campaign were (1) internationalization of the

  14. Desensitizing Children's Emotional Reactions to the Mass Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Barbara J.

    1989-01-01

    Assesses effectiveness of two desensitization strategies for reducing children's emotional reactions to mass media. Examines children having passive exposure, modeled exposure, or no exposure to lizards before watching a horror movie involving lizards. Finds that modeled exposure decreases emotional reactions and negative interpretations, whereas…

  15. Mining the Popular Culture: The Mass Media and Freshman Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRae, M. W.

    The study of mass media and popular culture in a composition class allows students and teachers together to develop a critical awareness of television and advertising. Jerzy Kosinski's book, "Being There," a novel about the impact of television, is a beginning point for the study of television. Using that book as if it were a collection of events,…

  16. Interpersonal versus Mass Media Communication: A False Dichotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Kathleen K.; Rogers, Everett M.

    1988-01-01

    Challenges the intellectual separation of interpersonal and mass media communication, arguing that this division rests primarily on grounds of historical convenience and university politics. Discusses the consequences of this dichotomy and suggests ways of encouraging intellectual exchange between the two subdisciplines. (MM)

  17. role of mass media in agricultural productivity in adamawa state

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BARTH

    2011-09-12

    Sep 12, 2011 ... LTD PRINTED IN NIGERIA ISSN 1596-2903 ... The study examined the role of mass media in agriculture in ..... television are cost of the hardware, cost of maintenance ... Government Area of Kebbi State: A case study of state ...

  18. Mass Media Use by College Students during Hurricane Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, Chris

    2015-01-01

    There is a dearth of studies on how college students prepare for the threat of natural disasters. This study surveyed college students' preferences in mass media use prior to an approaching hurricane. The convenience sample (n = 76) were from a university located in the hurricane-prone area of the central Gulf of Mexico coast. Interestingly,…

  19. The nuclear waste issue in Swedish mass media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedberg, P.

    1991-04-01

    This is an investigation of the representation given in the Swedish mass media of questions concerning the nuclear waste. The investigation covers the period from 1979 to 1989 of 8 newspapers of different political colours and the Swedish radio and television. (KAE)

  20. The Role of the Mass Media in Shaping Public Opinion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Michael J.

    This discussion of agenda setting reviews early theories of mass communication and traces the beginnings of agenda setting theory to the 1968 United States presidential campaign, during which researchers found a high correlation between what the media were saying about issues and what the people thought were important issues. The results of more…

  1. The interaction of financial news between mass media and new media: Evidence from news on Chinese stock market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongjie; Zhang, Zuochao; Liu, Lanbiao; Shen, Dehua

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, we investigate both the contemporaneous and the lead-lag relationships between the mass media news and the new media news of the financial news on the constitute stocks of the CSI 300. The empirical results show that: (1) there exists a strong correlation between these two types of news; (2) the granger causality direction from new media news to mass media news is increasingly obvious, while the reverse direction has a downward trend; (3) new media is playing a increasingly important role in the stock market and exhibits a trend to substitutes the mass media.

  2. Bunched beam neutralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gammel, G.M.; Maschke, A.W.; Mobley, R.M.

    1979-01-01

    One of the steps involved in producing an intense ion beam from conventional accelerators for Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) is beam bunching. To maintain space charge neutralized transport, neutralization must occur more quickly as the beam bunches. It has been demonstrated at BNL that a 60 mA proton beam from a 750 kV Cockcroft--Walton can be neutralized within a microsecond. The special problem in HIF is that the neutralization must occur in a time scale of nanoseconds. To study neutralization on a faster time scale, a 40 mA, 450 kV proton beam was bunched at 16 MHz. A biased Faraday cup sampled the bunched beam at the position where maximum bunching was nominally expected, about 2.5 meters from the buncher. Part of the drift region, about 1.8 meters, was occupied by a series of Gabor lenses. In addition to enhancing beam transport by transverse focussing, the background cloud of electrons in the lenses provided an extra degree of neutralization. With no lens, the best bunch factor was at least 20. Bunch factor is defined here as the ratio of the distance between bunches to the FWHM bunch length. With the lens, it was hoped that the increased plasma frequency would decrease the neutralization time and cause an increase in the bunch factor. In fact, with the lens, the instantaneous current increased about three times, but the bunch factor dropped to about 10. Even with the lens, the FWHM of the bunches at the position of maximum bunching was still comparable to or less than the oscillation period of the surrounding electron plasma. Thus, the electron density in the lens must increase before neutralization could be effective in this case, or bunching should be done at a lower frequency

  3. Overview topic paper on mass media energy conservation communications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vertinsky, P; Vertinsky, I

    1979-02-01

    The utilization of information diffusion strategies to increase energy conservation knowledge and practices among the general population in Canada is discussed in terms of 5 media functions: information dissemination, remedial behavior modification, lifestyle decisions, initiating conservation action, and crisis management. Each of these functions is critically addressed in terms of media mix, message content and form, timing and intensity, exposure, and specific target populations. The diffusion strategies are then organized into a matrix of policy options to enable the appropriate one to be selected. Four major categories of energy conservation information considered are the nature of the energy problem, methods of conservation, results of conservation, and the individual consumer decision-making process. Heavy television exposure suggests this medium has enormous potential for informing Canadians on conservation issues. Print seems to be the main source of detailed, specialized, and sophisticated kinds of information. However, despite wide media availability, large numbers of the population consistently escape contact with widely reported information. Behavioral modification to change undesirable energy habits is examined from the perspectives of initial change and cultural/social change required to sustain new lifestyles. The use of mass media during crisis situations may be of essential importance for implementation of future energy policies. Information dissemination and responses to the mass media do not appear to have the same patterns during crisis and non-crisis situations. 279 refs.

  4. The power of mass media in the German civil society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia‑Georgiana Zalupca

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Mass media is playing a significant role in influencing people’s mind and determining the vote’s preference of each single individual. Nowadays, mass media has become an essential part in setting up the public’s agenda. We are living in a social media era that is being governed by Facebook and Twitter. Facebook had played a key role in Germany’s society in the last year, since September 2015, by helping to increase public awareness or to collect opinions and information, and also to influence the attitude of the people towards electing the Eurosceptic political party, Alternative for Germany (AfD. The results of the regional elections in Germany from March 2016 had been strongly influenced by the party’s intense activities on Facebook. It may be said that the electoral campaign of AfD had completely taken place on Facebook, a social media channel where people and the party itself dare to speak up their mind without being afraid that their opinion could be censorship. This article is about to describe the role that the social media channel, Facebook, had had in choosing AfD as main winner of the German regional elections.

  5. Mass media interventions for preventing smoking in young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Kristin V; Ameer, Faisal; Sayehmiri, Kourosh; Hnin, Khin; van Agteren, Joseph Em; Sayehmiri, Fatemeh; Brinn, Malcolm P; Esterman, Adrian J; Chang, Anne B; Smith, Brian J

    2017-06-02

    Mass media interventions can be used as a way of delivering preventive health messages. They have the potential to reach and modify the knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of a large proportion of the community. To assess the effects of mass media interventions on preventing smoking in young people, and whether it can reduce smoking uptake among youth (under 25 years), improve smoking attitudes, intentions and knowledge, improve self-efficacy/self-esteem, and improve perceptions about smoking, including the choice to follow positive role models. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialized Register, with additional searches of MEDLINE and Embase in June 2016. This is an update of a review first published in 1998. Randomized trials, controlled trials without randomization and interrupted time-series studies that assessed the effect of mass media campaigns (defined as channels of communication such as television, radio, newspapers, social media, billboards, posters, leaflets or booklets intended to reach large numbers of people and which are not dependent on person-to-person contact) in influencing the smoking behaviour (either objective or self-reported) of young people under the age of 25 years. We define smoking behaviour as the presence or absence of tobacco smoking or other tobacco use, or both, and the frequency of tobacco use. Eligible comparators included education or no intervention. Two review authors independently extracted information relating to the characteristics and the content of media interventions, participants, outcomes, methods of the study and risks of bias. We combined studies using qualitative narrative synthesis. We assessed the risks of bias for each study using the Cochrane 'Risk of bias' tool, alongside additional domains to account for the nature of the intervention. We assessed the quality of evidence contributing to outcomes using GRADE. We identified eight eligible studies reporting information about mass media smoking

  6. Fashion alienation: older adults and the mass media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, S B; Chandler, J L

    1984-01-01

    A self-administered questionnaire including questions related to fashion alienation, frequency of use of mass media for fashion information, and demographics was completed by 209 "50-plus" aged consumers in Northern California. Fashion alienation was measured using ten separate statements related to 1) degree of identification with fashion symbols in the media and 2) feelings of social and economic estrangement from fashion. Two of the statements produced significant regression models. In both statements, age was positively related to fashion alienation, and there was an inverse relationship between frequency of use of media for fashion information and fashion alienation. The data provide implications for a conceptual distinction between information and meaning processing with regard to fashion.

  7. Mass media interventions for reducing mental health-related stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Sarah; Lassman, Francesca; Barley, Elizabeth; Evans-Lacko, Sara; Williams, Paul; Yamaguchi, Sosei; Slade, Mike; Rüsch, Nicolas; Thornicroft, Graham

    2013-07-23

    Mental health-related stigma is widespread and has major adverse effects on the lives of people with mental health problems. Its two major components are discrimination (being treated unfairly) and prejudice (stigmatising attitudes). Anti-stigma initiatives often include mass media interventions, and such interventions can be expensive. It is important to know if mass media interventions are effective. To assess the effects of mass media interventions on reducing stigma (discrimination and prejudice) related to mental ill health compared to inactive controls, and to make comparisons of effectiveness based on the nature of the intervention (e.g. number of mass media components), the content of the intervention (e.g. type of primary message), and the type of media (e.g. print, internet). We searched eleven databases: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, Issue 7, 2011); MEDLINE (OvidSP),1966 to 15 August 2011; EMBASE (OvidSP),1947 to 15 August 2011; PsycINFO (OvidSP), 1806 to 15 August 2011; CINAHL (EBSCOhost) 1981 to 16 August 2011; ERIC (CSA), 1966 to 16 August 2011; Social Science Citation Index (ISI), 1956 to 16 August 2011; OpenSIGLE (http://www.opengrey.eu/), 1980 to 18 August 2012; Worldcat Dissertations and Theses (OCLC), 1978 to 18 August 2011; metaRegister of Controlled Trials (http://www.controlled-trials.com/mrct/mrct_about.asp), 1973 to 18 August 2011; and Ichushi (OCLC), 1903 to 11 November 2011. We checked references from articles and reviews, and citations from included studies. We also searched conference abstracts and websites, and contacted researchers. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), cluster RCTs or interrupted time series studies of mass media interventions compared to inactive controls in members of the general public or any of its constituent groups (excluding studies in which all participants were people with mental health problems), with mental health as a subject of the intervention and

  8. Mass Media and Cultural Memory: Idealization of Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liljana Siljanovska

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical approach in defining the means for mass communication expressed in functionalist theory, especially in John Riley’s model, determines mass media as a social subsystem which is functionally connected with other systems in society that arises from their mutual conditionality and their causative and consequential connection with politics, economy, education, socialization and culture. The functions of articulating opinion by themselves problematize the creation of creative-thinking public because the imposition of topics, representation of individuals, values and norms of a culture, a space, a time is mediated by the ideological and functional mechanism of an organized structuring and transfer of messages simultaneously to as big an audience as possible. The vastness of the audience simply cannot by itself be understood as democratization of the culture in its broadest sense or simply because it is not a high, elite culture intended solely for a certain number of users.  It is that exact media reality, which almost always and exclusively is created through the selection of facts and values in relation to the audience and the factor of time, which simultaneously problematizes individual and collective memory. In the era of postmodernism and globalization of societies, media shaped content, in different mass media, especially on TV and the Internet, stimulate cultural development and pluralism of ideas in intercultural communication. However at the same time the setting of the stage for a media product, imposed by market logic of supply and demand erases the borders of difference, restructures the modalities of cultural identifiers and relativizes the dimensions of cultural identity through the unification of values transformed in surpassed or modern collective memories and concepts, such as – Balkanization, Americanization, Europeanization, civil society.

  9. Mass Media and Ideology Dissemination against Democracy in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songyot Buaphuean

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The study on “Mass Media and Ideology Dissemination against Democracy in Thailand” is qualitative study with the method of documentary research from text books, books, newspapers and online newspapers to find the definition of democracy which was the system of forming the elected government with the principle of sovereignty, majority, equality, freedom and laws. However, some mass media had false consciousness of democracy which included: election brought bad quality politicians; recruitment of persons to form the government was better than election; promotion of superstition; one man one vote was not for Thai society; capitalism deteriorated the nation; The Armed Forces worked for the people. Another concept was the idea that believed Thai society was praising the elite groups. The ideology said the society should obey the senior citizen who had morals, and the Armed Forces forced people to obey.

  10. Mass Media Perception of the European Union in Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakyt Ospanova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the mass media perception of the European Union (EU in Kazakhstan through the content analysis of major mass media outlets. This paper examines news reports and periodical articles from four major national Kazakh newspapers: “Yegemen Kazakhstan”, “Kazakhstanskaya Pravda”, “Zhas Alash” and “Vremya” at three measurement points. The first measurement point covers early 1990s when Kazakhstan became an independent state and started to build its foreign relations. The second measurement point covers years before and after introduction of the EU Strategy for Central Asia, namely years between 2006 and 2008. The third measurement point covers last three years (2011-2013 associated with implementation with the EU Strategy and assessing its results. The research suggests that the mass media generally positively perceives the EU, as most publications emphasize the positive role played by the EU in the region and Kazakhstan. Additionally, the initiation of the EU strategy for Central Asia led to wider coverage and therefore wider public recognition of the EU in Kazakhstan. However, discourse analysis of publications authored by the EU and Kazakhstanian elites indicates substantial variation in depiction of the European Union and its engagement in Central Asia and Kazakhstan in particular.

  11. American Mass Media and the Myth of Libertarianism: Toward an "Elite Power Group" Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhavan-Majid, Roya; Wolf, Gary

    1991-01-01

    Presents evidence of the demise of Libertarianism in the U.S. mass media system and proposes an "elite power group" model as an alternative explanation of the working of the mass media in the United States. (MG)

  12. How does the mass media report and interpret radiation data? The results of media content analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perko, T. [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK.CEN, Institute for Environment Health and Safety (Belgium); Cantone, M.C. [University of Milano, Faculty of Medicine (Italy); Tomkiv, Y. [Norwegian University of Life Sciences (Norway); Prezelj, I. [University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Social Sciences (Slovenia); Gallego, E. [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (Spain); Melekhova, E. [Russian Academy of Sciences in Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    In communication with the general population, experts often provide quantitative information related to ionizing radiation, expressed with different units of radioactivity. However, quantitative information about radiation risks may be meaningful only to people who have the ability to comprehend basic numerical concepts and possess knowledge related to radiation. Thus, the media, as a bridge between experts and the general population, has to 'translate' quantitative information into a qualitative one. How successful and accurate are the mass media in this transformation of scientific results into publicly understandable information? Our research investigates media reporting on the concept of ionizing radiation in a case of nuclear emergencies. The presentation is focused on summarizing the 'lessons learned' from the use of radiation data in media reporting about the Fukushima nuclear accident. The in-depth media content analysis was conducted in twelve quality newspapers in Belgium, Slovenia, Italy, Spain, Norway and Russia using the same scientific methodology and analyzing the same time period. Preliminary results identified miss concepts of radiation data by media and even within emergency responders and decision makers. The research is a result of FP7 project Innovative integrated tools and platforms for radiological emergency preparedness and post-accident response in Europe - PREPARE and upgraded with a Russian experience. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  13. Mass media interventions for smoking cessation in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bala, Malgorzata M; Strzeszynski, Lukasz; Topor-Madry, Roman

    2017-11-21

    Mass media tobacco control campaigns can reach large numbers of people. Much of the literature is focused on the effects of tobacco control advertising on young people, but there are also a number of evaluations of campaigns targeting adult smokers, which show mixed results. Campaigns may be local, regional or national, and may be combined with other components of a comprehensive tobacco control policy. To assess the effectiveness of mass media interventions in reducing smoking among adults. The Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group search strategy was combined with additional searches for any studies that referred to tobacco/smoking cessation, mass media and adults. We also searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and a number of electronic databases. The last search was carried out in November 2016. Controlled trials allocating communities, regions or states to intervention or control conditions; interrupted time series.Adults, 25 years or older, who regularly smoke cigarettes. Studies which cover all adults as defined in studies were included.Mass media are defined here as channels of communication such as television, radio, newspapers, billboards, posters, leaflets or booklets intended to reach large numbers of people, and which are not dependent on person-to-person contact. The purpose of the mass media campaign must be primarily to encourage smokers to quit. They could be carried out alone or in conjunction with tobacco control programmes.The primary outcome was change in smoking behaviour. This could be reported as changes in prevalence, changes in cigarette consumption, quit rates, or odds of being a smoker. Two authors independently assessed all studies for inclusion criteria and for study quality (MB, LS, RTM). One author (MB) extracted data, and a second author (LS) checked them.Results were not pooled due to heterogeneity of the included studies and are presented narratively and in table form. Eleven campaigns met the inclusion

  14. Political Tendencies of Development of Mass Media in Japan in Modern Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Станислав Сергеевич Лукин

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article the author touches upon the features of functioning of mass media in Japan. The author provides analysis of the phenomenon of keiretets and kartelization problems in the system of mass media of Japan. The tendencies of development of Japanese journalism in the context of institutionalization of management processes of mass media are being studied.

  15. The Influence of Mass Media and Interpersonal Communication on Societal and Personal Risk Judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Cynthia-Lou.

    1993-01-01

    Examines the influence of mass media, interpersonal channels, and self-efficacy on risk judgment. Confirms that mass media channels influence social-level risk judgments. Finds that personal-level risk was influenced to some degree by mass media channels and that interpersonal channels and self-efficacy account for some variance on social-level…

  16. Teachers Must Not Pass along Popular "Myths" Regarding the Supposed Omnipotence of the Mass Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinson, David L.

    2006-01-01

    High school teachers must not use that time devoted to the study of the mass media to "beat up" on the press or to "frighten" students with stories which exaggerate the power of the mass media industries. At the same time the potential enormous impact of the contemporary mass media must not be ignored. This means that teachers must not overstate…

  17. Figures of criminal offences that are committed through mass media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirvete Uka

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of information technology created endless possibilities for the information and communication between people in the world. This made possible that within few seconds information could be elaborated. In the meantime that freedom of speech and opinion are protected with all international conventions and laws, this freedom and together with it also the possibilities and actual standards endanger to put in service of the persons which in one form or another, damage the general interest. The study seeks to explain cases, forms and methods of how the presence in media can be misused. Based in the Criminal Code of Republic of Kosovo there are the range of criminal offenses which can be committed through mass communication in general and sometimes also through more serious media, written or electronic. The major number of them has to do with such acts that help terrorism, encourage race and religious hatred and in different forms, the use of children for pornography, risking in this manner the greater values of humanism anywhere in the world. The fact of abolition of special dispositions for criminal offenses that are committed through media does not mean that the danger from committing these acts does not exist. It is based in the fact that criminal responsibility lays directly on the crime committer and not on the director or publisher of certain media, in the meantime the last ones should be careful not to be in the service of crime instigators by giving space to publication.

  18. Inferring Social Influence of Anti-Tobacco Mass Media Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Qianyi; Zhang, Jiawei; Yu, Philip S; Emery, Sherry; Xie, Junyuan

    2017-07-01

    Anti-tobacco mass media campaigns are designed to influence tobacco users. It has been proved that campaigns will produce users' changes in awareness, knowledge, and attitudes, and also produce meaningful behavior change of audience. Anti-smoking television advertising is the most important part in the campaign. Meanwhile, nowadays, successful online social networks are creating new media environment, however, little is known about the relation between social conversations and anti-tobacco campaigns. This paper aims to infer social influence of these campaigns, and the problem is formally referred to as the Social Influence inference of anti-Tobacco mass mEdia campaigns (Site) problem. To address the Site problem, a novel influence inference framework, TV advertising social influence estimation (Asie), is proposed based on our analysis of two real anti-tobacco campaigns. Asie divides audience attitudes toward TV ads into three distinct stages: 1) cognitive; 2) affective; and 3) conative. Audience online reactions at each of these three stages are depicted by Asie with specific probabilistic models based on the synergistic influences from both online social friends and offline TV ads. Extensive experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of Asie.

  19. PROBLEMS OF MODERN RUSSIAN IN A MIRROR OF MASS MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Станислав Олегович Беляков

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the issues of culture of speech in terms of modern mass media: printing mass media, television and radio programs, Internet. The issues of influence of the information quality on development of communication culture and perception of information are discussed. In addition the aspects of adequate formation of information messages by the organization are considered. Influence of non-official sources of information in the Internet – social networks, forums etc. - are analyzed. This problem is up-to-date because media space is practically out of control in terms of adequate formation  of language culture, the process of change of speakers takes place because of which Soviet culture of conveying information is practically lost and new culture of conveying information has not formed yet. In the same time this problem is insufficiently covered by professional and scientific circles, and the result of it is further deterioration of the situation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2014-2-6

  20. [The perils of risk communication and the role of the mass media].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossmann, C; Brosius, H-B

    2013-01-01

    Based on theories and empirical results from communication science, the present paper provides an overview of the role of mass media in risk communication. It is guided by the following questions: How do risk issues find their way into the media and how does the media depict them? How do mass-mediated risk messages affect people's perception of risks, knowledge, attitudes, and behavior? What potential does the media have in disseminating health risk information in campaigns? Hence, the present paper aims to provide a basis for the appropriate use of mass media in health risk communication so as to make use of the potential of mass media without neglecting its limits.

  1. Mass Media in Society: The Need of Research. Reports and Papers on Mass Communication, Number 59.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    More and better research should be undertaken, nationally and internationally, on the effect of mass media upon society. Prior to such research, there needs to be an awareness of the realities of society today and of broadcasting structure. There should also be an understanding of the research that has already been done and of the gaps in that…

  2. Malay Pop: Mass Media Hegemony in Indonesia Popular Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Aziz Turhan Kariko

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Article discusses the domination of Malay pop music through textual analysis of songs, observation of musical programs, and interviews with important figures. The research data were obtained by library research and analyzed through a critical theory approach to gain an understanding of the text and its effects. The article concludes that Malay pop contains a strong uniformity which may be termed a phenomenon in the context of the culture industry, while also being dominant because of its legitimacy created by the media. The nature of Malay pop is also very profitable for those participating in it, therefore the spirit of capitalism was also quite dominant in this context. There is also resistance from the indie music movement, and its attempts to fight regressive qualities of music that are legitimized in the mainstream mass media.  

  3. Beam bunch feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambertson, G.

    1995-09-01

    When the electromagnetic fields that are excited by the passage of a bundle of charged particles persist to act upon bunches that follow, then the motions of the bunches are coupled. This action between bunches circulating on a closed orbit can generate growing patterns of bunch excursions. Such growth can often be suppressed by feedback systems that detect the excursion and apply corrective forces to the bunches. To be addressed herein is feedback that acts on motions of the bunch body centers. In addition to being useful for suppressing the spontaneous growth of coupled-bunch motions, such feedback can be used to damp transients in bunches injected into an accelerator or storage ring; for hadrons which lack strong radiation damping, feedback is needed to avoid emittance growth through decoherence. Motions excited by noise in magnetic fields or accelerating rf can also be reduced by using this feedback. Whether the action is on motions that are transverse to the closed orbit or longitudinal, the arrangement is the same. Bunch position is detected by a pickup and that signal is processed and directed to a kicker that may act upon the same bunch or some other portion of the collective beam pattern. Transverse motion is an oscillation with angular frequency ν perpendicular ω o where ω o is the orbital frequency 2π line-integral o. Longitudinal synchrotron oscillation occurs at frequency ω s = ν s ω o . The former is much more rapid, ν perpendicular being on the order of 10 while ν s is typically about 10 minus 1 to 10 minus 2

  4. ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF MASS-MEDIA AND THE CHANGES GENERATED BY THE ECONOMIC CRISIS

    OpenAIRE

    TRAIAN ALEXANDRU NASTASE

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we intend to describe the economic implications of mass-media in correlation with the recent socio-economic changes generated by the economic crisis. We take into consideration the dual market on which mass-media evolves: the mass-media products market, and the advertising market, keeping in mind that the behavior of a mass-media institution on one market, can have direct implication on the other market. We analyze the relation between mass-media and the public (audience), the c...

  5. Mass media effect on vaccines uptake during silent polio outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagy, Iftach; Novack, Victor; Gdalevich, Michael; Greenberg, Dan

    2018-03-14

    During 2013, isolation of a wild type 1 poliovirus from routine sewage sample in Israel, led to a national OPV campaign. During this period, there was a constant cover of the outbreak by the mass media. To investigate the association of media exposure and OPV and non-OPV vaccines uptake during the 2013 silent polio outbreak in Israel. We received data on daily immunization rates during the outbreak period from the Ministry of Health (MoH). We conducted a multivariable time trend analysis to assess the association between daily media exposure and vaccines uptake. Analysis was stratified by ethnicity and socio-economic status (SES). During the MoH supplemental immunization activity, 138,799 OPV vaccines were given. There was a significant association between media exposure and OPV uptake, most prominent in a lag of 3-5 days from the exposure among Jews (R.R 1.79C.I 95% 1.32-2.41) and high SES subgroups (R.R 1.71C.I 95% 1.27-2.30). These subgroups also showed increased non-OPV uptake in a lag of 3-5 days from the media exposure, in all vaccines except for MMR. Lower SES and non-Jewish subgroups did not demonstrate the same association. Our findings expand the understanding of public behaviour during outbreaks. The public response shows high variability within specific subgroups. These findings highlight the importance of tailored communication strategies for each subgroup. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF MASS-MEDIA AND THE CHANGES GENERATED BY THE ECONOMIC CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TRAIAN ALEXANDRU NASTASE

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we intend to describe the economic implications of mass-media in correlation with the recent socio-economic changes generated by the economic crisis. We take into consideration the dual market on which mass-media evolves: the mass-media products market, and the advertising market, keeping in mind that the behavior of a mass-media institution on one market, can have direct implication on the other market. We analyze the relation between mass-media and the public (audience, the cost for creating mass-media products, the ways in which mass-media reduces costs and the ways of increasing their profits. As mass-media must always adapt to the social changes and to the public, we take our analysis further and we describe how the recent economic changes influenced the mass-media consumption trends and mass-media profits on all the main communication channels: TV, radio, outdoor, internet, newspapers/magazines. This analysis is performed at both a global and a local level, for Romania. In the end we predict how other key changes may affect the economic model approach of the mass-media institutions on short and middle terms.

  7. New image of psychiatry, mass media impact and public relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakovljević, Miro; Tomić, Zoran; Maslov, Boris; Skoko, Iko

    2010-06-01

    The mass media has a powerful impact on public attitudes about mental health and psychiatry. The question of identity of psychiatry as a medical profession as well as of the future of psychiatry has been the subject of much controversial discussion. Psychiatry today has the historical opportunity to shape the future of mental health care, medicine and society. It has gained in scientific and professional status by the tremendous increase of knowledge and treatment skills. Psychiatry should build up new transdisciplinary and integrative image of a specialized profession, promote it and make it public. Good public relations are very important for the future of psychiatry.

  8. Culture of Scientific Information in Mass Media on the Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arwa 'Isa al-Yasiry

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aims at evaluating the quality of scientific information culture that introduce it the Arabic mass media in the internet and how it covering the reality of Arabic scientific information by using analysis content method for these websites then we most be know how these websites treating with information culture considering information systems has input, output and mutual relations between the elements of this system that include the following three components: 1- External relations that connecting between the culture and the reality. 2- Internal elements for this system. 3- Infrastructures for this system that represented in the cultural policy, informational , information resources and human resources

  9. Bunch identification module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    This module provides bunch identification and timing signals for the PEP Interaction areas. Timing information is referenced to the PEP master oscillator, and adjusted in phase as a function of region. Identification signals are generated in a manner that allows observers in all interaction regions to agree on an unambiguous bunch identity. The module provides bunch identification signals via NIM level logic, upon CAMAC command, and through LED indicators. A front panel ''region select'' switch allows the same module to be used in all regions. The module has two modes of operation: a bunch identification mode and a calibration mode. In the identification mode, signals indicate which of the three bunches of electrons and positrons are interacting, and timing information about beam crossing is provided. The calibration mode is provided to assist experimenters making time of flight measurements. In the calibration mode, three distinct gating signals are referenced to a selected bunch, allowing three timing systems to be calibrated against a common standard. Physically, the bunch identifier is constructed as a single width CAMAC module. 2 figs., 1 tab

  10. The Negative Impact of Social and Mass Media on People's Behaviors as Reflected in Harvey Kahn's Girl Fight

    OpenAIRE

    PUSPANINGRUM, GALUH WURI

    2013-01-01

    Keywords: media, mass media, social media, Facebook, Youtube, Socio- Psychology, behavior. Media were created to fulfill people's need of communication and information. The variety of media in this modern era makes people consider media as one of their primary need especially in their social lives. Mass media are used as tools to gain information and social media to communicate each other. This study aims to find the impact of media on people's behaviors in film entitled Girl Fight (201...

  11. Employing the Mass Media for the Promotion of Human Rights in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The place of the mass media in the promotion of human rights in any given society cannot be overemphasised; the mass media generally, can be used to bring about positive attitudinal change in the individuals. Thus, the paper examines the role of the media in the promotion of human rights in Nigeria; it explores the ...

  12. KEKB bunch feedback systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobiyama, M; Kikutani, E [National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1996-08-01

    Design and the present status of the bunch by bunch feedback systems for KEKB rings are shown. The detection of the bunch oscillation are made with the phase detection for longitudinal plane, the AM/PM method for transverse plane. Two GHz component of the bunch signal which is extracted with an analog FIR filter is used for the detection. Hardware two-tap FIR filter systems to shift the phase of the oscillation by 90deg will be used for the longitudinal signal processing. The same system will be used with no filtering but with only digital delay for transverse system. The candidate for the kicker and the required maximum power are also estimated. (author)

  13. Using the Mass Media: Need Gratification and Perceived Utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kippax, Susan; Murray, John P.

    1980-01-01

    Examines the needs of media users and the perceived helpfulness of the media in gratifying these needs. Describes the relationship between the media-related needs and the use of the media and also the relationship of media use to perceived helpfulness. (JMF)

  14. Mass-polariton theory of light in dispersive media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partanen, Mikko; Tulkki, Jukka

    2017-12-01

    We have recently shown that the electromagnetic pulse in a medium is made of mass-polariton (MP) quasiparticles, which are quantized coupled states of the field and an atomic mass density wave (MDW) [M. Partanen et al., Phys. Rev. A 95, 063850 (2017), 10.1103/PhysRevA.95.063850]. In this work, we generalize the MP theory of light for dispersive media assuming that absorption and scattering losses are very small. Following our previous work, we present two different approaches to the coupled state of light: (1) the MP quasiparticle theory, which is derived by only using the fundamental conservation laws and the Lorentz transformation; (2) the classical optoelastic continuum dynamics (OCD), which is a generalization of the electrodynamics of continuous media to include the dynamics of the medium under the influence of optical forces. We show that the total momentum and the transferred mass of the light pulse can be determined in a straightforward way if we know the field energy of the pulse and the dispersion relation of the medium. In analogy to the nondispersive case, we also find unambiguous correspondence between the MP and OCD theories. For the coupled MP state of a single photon and the medium, we obtain the total MP momentum pMP=npℏ ω /c , where np is the phase refractive index. The field's share of the MP momentum is equal to pfield=ℏ ω /(ngc ) , where ng is the group refractive index and the share of the MDW is equal to pMDW=pMP-pfield . Thus, as in a nondispersive medium, the total momentum of the MP is equal to the Minkowski momentum and the field's share of the momentum is equal to the Abraham momentum. We also show that the correspondence between the MP and OCD models and the conservation of momentum at interfaces gives an unambiguous formula for the optical force. The dynamics of the light pulse and the related MDW lead to nonequilibrium of the medium and to relaxation of the atomic density by sound waves in the same way as for nondispersive media

  15. Digital Journalism and Public Mass Media: The Bad News

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Ricardo Quiroga

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we intend to study how police and security information is presented by the News Agency, San Luis. We examined the production of police and security information produced in 2013 by the San Luis News Agency (ANSI, a state news platform created to transmit government information in the province of San Luis, Argentina in 2012. The initiatives and progress for the people in police and security matters in the mass media, has a material-functional dimension, referring exclusively to improving the detachments, the delivery of police vehicles, and operational controls. That vision is diffused by the state agency for information and does not contribute to the promotion of ideas and discussions on citizen participation in security policies and the development of democracy.

  16. Hypostases of THEM category in mass media communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanysheva Zulfira Zakievna

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the reflection of the US/THEM category in mass media communication in conditions of sharp confrontation of ideological opponents. It is aimed at revealing the potential of lingvocultural signs to be used as units of generating desirable senses in leading English periodical issues. The alien culture is shown to possess three basic hypostases with xenocultural axiological semantic space taking the lead. The article proves that intercultural massmedia communication is marked by reciprocal influence of semantic spaces and subjective evaluation of information. Xenoprecedent phenomena are viewed as supporting clamps in the process of semantic transformations of national and cultural signs designed to exert a manipulative effect on the target reader.

  17. Induced Monoculture in Axelrod Model with Clever Mass Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Arezky H.; Del Castillo-Mussot, M.; Vázquez, G. J.

    A new model is proposed, in the context of Axelrod's model for the study of cultural dissemination, to include an external vector field (VF) which describes the effects of mass media on social systems. The VF acts over the whole system and it is characterized by two parameters: a nonnull overlap with each agent in the society and a confidence value of its information. Beyond a threshold value of the confidence, there is induced monocultural globalization of the system lined up with the VF. Below this value, the multicultural states are unstable and certain homogenization of the system is obtained in opposite line up according to that we have called negative publicity effect. Three regimes of behavior for the spread process of the VF information as a function of time are reported.

  18. The mass media alone are not effective change agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruijter, J M

    1991-01-01

    Social mobilization programs for immunization have been used by African leaders, however, coverage from 20% to 70% in capitals like Mogadishu, Maputo, and Dakar were the result of short campaigns rather than the consequence of knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) improvement. One-party states relied on their network of cadres issuing decrees from the top down to enforce completion of these immunization campaigns. Sometimes resistance developed against these programs, as the military mobilized people (e.g., Somalia). These efforts became rather superficial once the temporary pressure evaporated. In Mogadishu coverage increased from 22% to 70% in 1985, and within a year it dropped back to 8% above the original level. Nigeria, Senegal, and Togo where they used regular mini campaigns had better results. Research data from Botswana, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, and Zambia were analyzed. In 1983 in Kenya 73% of health workers never advised their clients, and 82% were incompetent to do so. Data also showed that clinics provided the bulk of information to women aged 15-45 in lower income groups, but they rarely consulted village health workers. Radio and TV programs were not reaching people because radio ownership was not universal (47% in Zambia and 30% in Zimbabwe), and batteries were often not available. In addition, most people turned to the radio for entertainment. In 1989, vaccination coverage was 19% in Luanda, Angola, but only 5% of 232 respondents to an evaluation could name the immunizable diseases. An identical percentage was familiar with these diseases in a Zambian study in 1986. Media experts proposed dramas to raise interest, but innovative mass media programs of dissemination of the message advocated in the 1960s did not prove effective to bring about KAP changes. Training of health and paramedical personnel by mass organizations as initiated in Ethiopia may prove to be worthwhile.

  19. Mass media and the development of pre-reading of preschool children

    OpenAIRE

    GALATÍKOVÁ, Zuzana

    2016-01-01

    This thesis maps mass media, especially television broadcasting and electronic devices with connection to the Internet, in the lives of pre-school children, and investigates the relationship between mass media and development of initial reading skills. The theoretical part analyses existing literature relevant to pre-school child development elementary reading and mass media, while the empirical research makes an independent investigation into this phenomenon in society using questionnaires f...

  20. The Information Aspect of Extremism and Terrorism and the Destructive Trends in the Mass Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E V Nekrasova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of destructive trends in modern Russian mass media as well as to the information component in the activities of extremist and terrorist organizations. The destructive trends in the mass media manifest themselves in the escalation of animosity, aggression, creation of the cult of violence and xenophobia moods. Terrorist organizations use the mass media for their own purposes: they create the atmosphere of fear and tension in society, recruit new followers, mainly among the youth, which is a serious problem. It is important to use the positive potential of the mass media to counteract extremism and terrorism.

  1. Hollow bunches production

    CERN Document Server

    Hancock, S

    2017-01-01

    Hollow bunches address the issue of high-brightnessbeams suffering from transverse emittance growth in a strongspace charge regime. During the Proton Synchrotron (PS)injection plateau, the negative space charge tune shift canpush the beam onto theQy=6integer resonance. Modify-ing the longitudinal bunch profile in order to reduce the peakline charge density alleviates the detrimental impact of spacecharge. To this end we first produce longitudinally hollowphase space distributions in the PS Booster by exciting aparametric resonance with the phase loop feedback system.These inherently flat bunches are then transferred to the PS,where the beam becomes less prone to the emittance growthcaused by the integer resonance.During the late 2016 machine development sessions inthe PS Booster we profited from solved issues from 2015and managed to reliably extract hollow bunches of1.3eVsmatched longitudinal area. Furthermore, first results to cre-ate hollow bunches with larger longitudinal emittances to-wards the LHC Inject...

  2. Bunch-by-bunch feedback for PEP II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxoby, G.; Claus, R.; Eisen, N.; Fox, J.; Hindi, H.; Hoeflich, J.; Olsen, J.; Sapozhnikov, L.; Linscott, I.

    1993-01-01

    The proposed PEP II B factory at SLAC requires a feedback to damp out longitudinal synchrotron oscillations. A time domain, downsampled, bunch-by-bunch feedback system in which each bunch is treated as an oscillator being driven by disturbances from other bunches is presented as we review the evolution of the system design. Results from a synchrotron oscillation damping experiment conducted at the SLAC/SSRL/SPEAR ring are also presented in this paper

  3. Connections of OAO 'Mashinostroitelny zavod' with mass-media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelman, S.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: PJSC 'Mashinostroitelny zavod' (MSZ) is located 55 km to the east of Moscow, in an industrial town called Electrostal with the population 150.000 people. Recently this dynamically developed enterprise joined the world leaders-manufacturers of nuclear fuel (NF), its capacity being 1000 t U02 per year. The quality of the fuel rods and thermal assemblies fabricated by the factory was marked several times with prestigious European and Russian awards and certificates. Currently the products of the factory are supplied to more than 50 NPP units of Russia, CIS and Europe as well as to the power units of the atomic fleet of Russia. Together with the intensive work related to the optimization of nuclear fuel fabrication the management of MSZ pays serious attention to the public communication and connections with mass-media bearing in mind that a part of the town population is concerned a lot about the state of things and development of the atomic power and related enterprises. So the Centre of public information of MSZ is constantly under the supervision of the management. Widely equipped with illustrative material, the Centre meets up to 2000 visitors annually, during tours, lectures and discussions. But the main part of the Centre work is performed outside the Centre. At the beginning of the year the MSZ management signed a number of agreements with to-vn mass-media: newspaper 'Novosty dnya', radio centre, cable TV studio 'Eitelecom'. These mass-media, during the year, gave to the Centre employees and factory technical specialists a good possibility to make presentations that objectively enlighten the safety aspects of NPPs and nuclear technologies, including those performed in the workshops of MSZ. So there were broadcasts on radio and TV that were consecrated to the famous dates in the history of the atomic power: 45th anniversary of starting the first in the world NPP; 35th anniversary of starting Novo- Voronezhskaya NPP; 40th anniversary of commissioning

  4. Using Videos To Teach Mass Media and Society from a Critical Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Donna Lee

    2000-01-01

    Explores using videos to teach mass media and society from a critical sociological perspective. Discusses the content of the course from focusing on analysis of corporate capitalism and media producers to analyzing popular media texts on gender, race, the working class, and sexuality. Addresses the evaluation of the course. (CMK)

  5. Fra massemedier til mediesystem - om kodediskussionen i systemteoretisk medieforskning [From mass media to media system - code discussions in systems theoretical media research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikkel Fugl Eskjær

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Systems theoretical media research raises the question whether the mass media constitute a unified institution, or whether the media, due to their internal differences, should be considered individually and independent of each other. By inscribing the media in a general social theory, systems theory conceptualises the media as an autonomous functional system. This intention is most clearly illustrated by the efforts to identify a shared code for the entire media system. Based on the media theory of Niklas Luhmann, this paper offers a critical presentation of the code discussion within systems theoretical media research. The first part of the paper briefly introduces the systems theoretical notion of a code as well as Luhmann’s definition of the media system as organised and regulated by the code of information. The second part presents a number of alternative suggestions and definitions of the media system’s code, which both indicate the scope of systems theoretical media research, but also point to some of the limitations in the systems theoretical approach. In the last part, the paper takes a critical look at the systems theoretical code discussion by arguing that a too narrow focus on code definitions is blocking a more productive investigation of the conditions, evolution, and autonomy of the media system.

  6. The Influence of the Mass Media on Young People as a Problem of Russian Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapesotskii, A. S.

    2011-01-01

    An analysis of the influence of the mass media on the moral state of Russian society discerns negative consequences of that influence, and sees the mass media (particularly television) as involved in the cultural degradation of the population. It argues in favor of state, social, and pedagogical controls to facilitate a more positive role of the…

  7. Deference, Denial, and Beyond: A Repertoire Approach to Mass Media and Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rymes, Betsy

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author outlines two general research approaches, within the education world, to these mass-mediated formations: "Deference" and "Denial." Researchers who recognize the social practices that give local meaning to mass media formations and ways of speaking do not attempt to recontextualize youth media in their own social…

  8. Mass Media Campaign Improves Cervical Screening across All Socio-Economic Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jenny O.; Mullins, Robyn M.; Siahpush, Mohammad; Spittal, Matthew J.; Wakefield, Melanie

    2009-01-01

    Low socio-economic status (SES) has been associated with lower cervical screening rates. Mass media is one known strategy that can increase cervical screening participation. This study sought to determine whether a mass media campaign conducted in Victoria, Australia, in 2005 was effective in encouraging women across all SES groups to screen. Data…

  9. On Question of Interaction of Public Authorities and Mass Media in Modern Political Process

    OpenAIRE

    Kriukov O.; Pakhnin M.

    2018-01-01

    The paper considers the main aspects of public authorities’ interaction with media in the modern political process. The specific features of interaction between public authorities and mass media in the modern political process are determined. A distinction is made between the concepts of “communication media” and “mass media”, the results of which is that the above concepts are not identical.

  10. GOVERNMENTAL MECHANISMS FOR ADMINISTRATION OF MASS MEDIA IN RUSSIA’S NATIONAL REPUBLICS

    OpenAIRE

    Erdem Dagbayev; Nadezda Aydaeva

    2016-01-01

    Th e systems of public administration in the national republics have one signifi cant diff erence when compared with other types of regional subjects (“oblast” or “kray”) in the Russian Federation. Th ese systems have governmental media (state media) founded by public authorities and these media outlets’ assets are in the ownership of these authorities. It gives a certain originality to both the national republics’ and Russia’s administrative practices and mass media functioning. It is common...

  11. Mass media: spaces for leisure or socialization agents in adolescence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Pallarés Piquer

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The information and communication technologies are transforming ourways of living and our ways of being related with each other. They condition both the lives of individuals and the occurrence of social phenomena. In the last decade, have become a source of symbolic strategies for the younger sectors of society. The aim of this paper is to analyze the impact that these strategies have on 11 to 14-year-old students; socialization agents are those responsible for transmitting norms, values and behaviourmodels. From a sample of 846 students, who belong to schools situated in different geographical contexts, two variables have been researched into, with a Cronbach’s consistency index of 0,918: the first one analyzes the students’ implication factors, that is to say, the psychoeducational variables produced in their process of personal commitment and in their psychosocial development. The second one determines the organization into a hierarchy of those agents which play a socializing role on these students. Is an  utline of some frames of interaction among individuals and groups that enable new technologies. The results highlight the fact that mass media have took over from families and schools themselves as focal socialization points

  12. Determinism and mass-media portrayals of genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condit, C M; Ofulue, N; Sheedy, K M

    1998-01-01

    Scholars have expressed concern that the introduction of substantial coverage of "medical genetics" in the mass media during the past 2 decades represents an increase in biological determinism in public discourse. To test this contention, we analyzed the contents of a randomly selected, structured sample of American public newspapers (n=250) and magazines (n=722) published during 1919-95. Three coders, using three measures, all with intercoder reliability >85%, were employed. Results indicate that the introduction of the discourse of medical genetics is correlated with both a statistically significant decrease in the degree to which articles attribute human characteristics to genetic causes (P<.001) and a statistically significant increase in the differentiation of attributions to genetic and other causes among various conditions or outcomes (P<. 016). There has been no statistically significant change in the relative proportions of physical phenomena attributed to genetic causes, but there has been a statistically significant decrease in the number of articles assigning genetic causes to mental (P<.002) and behavioral (P<.000) characteristics. These results suggest that the current discourse of medical genetics is not accurately described as more biologically deterministic than its antecedents. PMID:9529342

  13. Heart disease and gender in mass print media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Juanne

    2010-03-01

    Heart disease is a major cause of death, disease and disability in the developed world for both men and women. Women appear to be under-diagnosed and treated both because they fail to visit the doctor or hospital with relevant symptoms and because doctors tend to dismiss the seriousness of women's symptoms of heart disease. This review examined the way that popular mass print media present the possible association between gender and heart disease. It found that there was: [1] an under-representation of heart disease as a possible concern to women, [2] a dismissing or sensationalization of women's heart disease, [3] a tendency to blame women's complex menopausal bodies for the causes of heart disease, [4] an association of women with the heart disease of their husbands, [5] a linking of heart disease with masculinity and [6] a promotion of the idea of the need for women to fear of heart disease and the necessity of taking cholesterol-lowering drugs. The review concluded with suggestions for further research and for practice. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Multi-bunch energy compensation in the NLC bunch compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmermann, F.; Raubenheimer, T.O.; Thomson, K.A.

    1996-06-01

    The task of the NLC bunch compressor is to reduce the length of each bunch in a train of 90 bunches from 4 mm, at extraction from the damping ring, to about 100 μm, suitable for injection into the X-band main linac. This task is complicated by longitudinal long-range wake fields and the multi-bunch beam loading in the various accelerating sections of the compressor. One possible approach to compensate the multi-bunch beam loading is to add two RF systems with slightly different frequencies (' Δf' scheme) to each accelerating section, as first proposed by Kikuchi. This paper summarizes the choice of parameters for three such compensating sections, and presents simulation results of combined single- and multi-bunch dynamics for four different NLC versions. The multi-bunch energy compensation is shown to be straightforward and its performance to be satisfactory

  15. A short analysis of quality and performance in the radio segment of Romanian mass-media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Burtic

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available More than one hundred years ago, once the radio appeared, mass media started to be more pronounced. Mass-media market diversified its offer, and the quality and creativity of economical agents determined a reassert on the competition and performance scale. For our research in mass media field, we distinguish two vital aspects of economic quality and performance: audience and financial results. In this section we will try to follow the evolution of the main players from the Romanian audio-visual market on the radio segment, taking into account these two variables: audience and financial results. Quality and performance in mass-media are two elements desired on one side by massmedia producers: the owners and employees from this field, and on the other side, by mass-media customers: audience and publicity buyers. We analyse the aspects of quality and performance in Romanian media industry in o period of rapid change. The changes are on multiple levels, and the most accentuated regards the consumer’s behaviour, market environment, technological changes and legal regulations. The changes in the consumer behaviour are determined by their perceptiveness towards the digital world. Quality and performance in mass-media are two desired elements, on one side by the mass-media producers: owners and employees in the field, and on the other side by massmedia customers: audience and publicity buyers.

  16. The mass media are an important context for adolescents' sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'Engle, Kelly Ladin; Brown, Jane D; Kenneavy, Kristin

    2006-03-01

    This study compared influences from the mass media (television, music, movies, magazines) on adolescents' sexual intentions and behaviors to other socialization contexts, including family, religion, school, and peers. A sample of 1011 Black and White adolescents from 14 middle schools in the Southeastern United States completed linked mail surveys about their media use and in-home Audio-CASI interviews about their sexual intentions and behaviors. Analysis of the sexual content in 264 media vehicles used by respondents was also conducted. Exposure to sexual content across media, and perceived support from the media for teen sexual behavior, were the main media influence measures. Media explained 13% of the variance in intentions to initiate sexual intercourse in the near future, and 8-10% of the variance in light and heavy sexual behaviors, which was comparable to other contexts. Media influences also demonstrated significant associations with intentions and behaviors after all other factors were considered. All contextual factors, including media, explained 54% of the variance in sexual intentions and 21-33% of the variance in sexual behaviors. Adolescents who are exposed to more sexual content in the media, and who perceive greater support from the media for teen sexual behavior, report greater intentions to engage in sexual intercourse and more sexual activity. Mass media are an important context for adolescents' sexual socialization, and media influences should be considered in research and interventions with early adolescents to reduce sexual activity.

  17. Single bunch fast longitudinal instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.M.; Pellegrini, C.

    1979-01-01

    Single bunch longitudinal instability producing an increase of the bunch area have been observed in proton synchrotron and storage rings. Signals at microwave frequencies are observed during the bunch blow-up and because of this the effect has been called the microwave instability. A similar increase in bunch area is observed also in electron storage rings, where it is usually referred to as the bunch lengthening effect. This paper is an attempt to obtain a more general theory of this effect. Here we describe the model used and the method of calculation, together with some general results. More detailed results will be given in another paper. The main result is the derivation of a condition for the existence of a fast longitudinal bunch blow-up. This condition is a generalized threshold formula, showing explicitly the dependence on the bunch energy spread and length. This condition is qualitatively in agreement with Boussard's suggestion

  18. Single bunch fast longitudinal instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.M.; Pellegrini, C.

    1979-01-01

    Single bunch longitudinal instability producing an increase of the bunch areas has been observed in proton synchrotron and storage rings. Singals at microwave frequencies are observed during the bunch blow-up and because of this the effect has been called the microwave instability. A similar increase in bunch area is observed also in electron storage rings, where it is usually referred to as the bunch lengthening effect. This paper is an attempt to obtain a more general theory of this effect. Here we describe the model used and the method of calculation, together with some general results. The main result of this paper is the derivation of a condition for the existence of a fast longitudinal bunch blow-up. This condition is a generalized threshold formula, showing explicitly the dependence on the bunch energy spread and length

  19. Understanding Crisis-based Communication on Environmental Protection in China : Mass Media and Individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Bo; Yabe, Mitsuyasu; Xia, Wei; Zeng, Yinchu; 矢部, 光保

    2010-01-01

    Beijing has been frequently stroked by sandstorms. During the occurrence of sandstorms, related information increased dramatically due to mass media. How did the mass media in China react to the sandstorm crisis? Did the crisis arouse public awareness of environmental protection? Were the majority willing to pay an environmental tax for air quality improvement? In response to these questions, the purpose of this study is to analyze the impacts of a short-term information explosion from mass m...

  20. Crisis communication - selected aspects of mass media communication

    OpenAIRE

    WRÓBLEWSKI DARIUSZ

    2007-01-01

    Целью данной публикации является представление кризисной коммуникации. Из-за обширности и многоаспектности тематики были выбраны только важнейшие (по мнению автора) аспекты кризисной коммуникации, а на самом деле коммуникации со СМИ.The main purpose of this publication is to present crisis communication. The author has chosen major aspects of crisis communication (communication with mass media in fact) because the problem is very spacious and multidimensional....

  1. Mass transfer of nonvolatile organic compounds from porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khachikian, Crist Simon

    This thesis presents data pertaining to the mass transfer of nonvolatile organic compounds from porous media. Physical properties of porous solids, including surface and pore areas, are studied. Information from these studies, along with dissolution data, are used to develop correlations relating the Sherwood Number to the Peclet Number. The contaminant used in this study is naphthalene; the solids used are Moffett Sand (MS), Borden Sand (BS), Lampblack (LB), and Silica Gel (SG). Surface area results indicate that contamination at 0.1% reduces the area of MS and SG by 48 and 37%, respectively, while contamination at 1.0% reduces the area of MS, BS, and SG by 59, 56, and 40%, respectively. Most of the reduction in area originates in the reduction of pore areas and volumes, where the contaminant precipitates. After long-term storage, surface areas did not recover to their original values due to an "irreversible" fraction of naphthalene. Treatment with heat or solvent or both was necessary to completely remove the contamination. For lampblack, treatment at 100°C decreased areas while treatment at 250°C increased them. Treatment at 250°°C probably opened pores while that at 100°C may have blocked more pores by redistributing the tar-like contaminant characteristic of lampblack. Contaminated MS and SG solids are packed in columns through which water is pumped. The effluent began at a relatively high concentration (˜70% of solubility) for both samples. However, SG column concentrations dropped quickly, never achieving steady state while the MS samples declined more gradually towards steady state. The high pore areas of the SG samples are believed to cause this behavior. The steady state portion of the MS dissolution history is used to develop mass transfer correlations. The correlation in this study differs from previous work in two major ways: (1) the exponent on the Pe is three times larger and (2) the limiting Sh is 106 times smaller. These results suggest that

  2. Mass Media and the Debate about Nuclear Power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Thomas M.

    Many factors contribute to the difficulties the media have in dealing with science, engineering, and technology. These difficulties were pointed up in the media coverage of the March 1979 accident at the Three Mile Island nuclear plant, which reflected confusion and lack of understanding and which combined with other factors (including the movie…

  3. Social Effects of Mass Media Advertising on the Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ruth B.; And Others

    A study examined the effects of media advertising on the elderly to determine whether they use the media to help combat social disengagement, whether they perceived the elderly as positively portrayed in advertising, whether they perceive their role as consumer as declining, whether television advertising reinforced sex roles, and whether the…

  4. Mass Media Portrayals of Suicide: Informing the Australian Policy Debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood, R. Warwick; Putnis, Peter; Pirkis, Jane

    Research on the news media's reporting on suicide and mental illness is understudied in Australia despite the controversial nature of much coverage and its possible consequences for a variety of audiences. This paper critiques the underlying assumptions of most international research in this area, which follows a media imitation or contagion…

  5. Mass Media and the School: Descartes or McLuhan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffer, Pierre

    1980-01-01

    Compares the world of learning with the world of the media, with emphasis on the areas of common interest. Discusses areas of potential cooperation, including local audiovisual centers, adaptation of new media to educational content, computer technology, telematics, and accumulation of audiovisual stock on topics pertinent to education. (DB)

  6. Educating women for HIV prevention: does exposure to mass media make them more knowledgeable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesmin, Syeda S; Chaudhuri, Sanjukta; Abdullah, Shahnaz

    2013-01-01

    Mass media is an important vehicle for health promotion in developing countries. In Bangladesh multiple media campaigns are being carried out to educate people about HIV/AIDS. We examined the extent of HIV/AIDS knowledge and the association of exposure to mass media among women in Bangladesh. The Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS) provides data for this article. We found that media exposure (combined index of television, radio, and newspaper) was a highly significant predictor of women's knowledge about HIV and AIDS. Other significant predictors of HIV knowledge include women's education, age, employment, and urban residence.

  7. Multi-criteria media mix decision model for advertising multiple product with segment specific and mass media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugandha Aggarwal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Judicious media planning decisions are crucial for successful advertising of products. Media planners extensively use mathematical models supplemented with market research and expert opinion to devise the media plans. Media planning models discussed in the literature largely focus on single products with limited studies related to the multi-product media planning. In this paper we propose a media planning model to allocate limited advertising budget among multiple products advertised in a segmented market and determine the number of advertisements to be given in different media. The proposed model is formulated considering both segment specific and mass media vehicles to maximize the total advertising reach for each product. The model also incorporates the cross product effect of advertising of one product on the other. The proposed formulation is a multi-objective linear integer programming model and interactive linear integer goal programming is discussed to solve the model. A real life case study is presented to illustrate the application of the proposed model.

  8. An assessment of transportation issues under exceptional conditions : the case of the mass media and the Northridge Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-01

    This study explores how the mass media covered transportation issues following the 1994 Northridge earthquake. The mass media were a vital channel for travel information, and they provided considerable information to the public about the safety of tr...

  9. Social Communication between Traditional and the New Mass-Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea-Maria Tîrziu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The means of communication, from the most simple and natural ones – such as gestures and voice, to the most complex and developed ones – such as the new electronic media, have constantly brought changes to the society, their own transformation being due to the social environment that generated them. Nowadays, the new media – being in a rapid development unprecedented in the past – is giving new insights of communication and learning to the younger generations which, unlike those formed by elder people, manage to quickly assimilate the changes that occur. The purpose of this article is to provide a framework for public institutions for a better interaction with citizens. It shows the literature that focuses on social media statistics. At the end of our study, it is necessary to refer again to the needs of the organizations in which social communication has its origins, to exit the logic of politics and the media and to completely redefine the relationship between them and the social communication itself. We have treated the terms of the relationship between media and social communication, but it is the case to reiterate the importance of this point. In this context, we have identified the social nature still in embryo of a new relationship between media and educational sector; the more fragile the more difficult it is to overcome the stereotype of the “recreational” media.

  10. NEW COMMUNICATION MEANS AND THE ECONOMIC CHALLENGES BROUGHT IN MASS-MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel BURTIC

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Analogic technology, the old ways of production, distribution, consume and economic fundaments of the mass-media industry are left behind by the new demands and requirements of the creative economy in the digitalization context of the mass-media system. In fact, not only mass-media goes through this transformation, but the whole society. The implications of the digital era are far long to be over and they will affect all mass-media segments: written press, audiovisual, on-line press and social media. The economic aspects, as well as the technical ones, editorial, distribution and final consumers aspects, all will be different from what we experienced in media industry until digitalization. The question is, are we ready to enter into a new economy: the digital economy? Are we ready to enter into a new culture: the digital culture? We entered in the smart world, but do we understand what is happening? The editorial teams that experience a fundamental change of thinking, will be able to overcome this times challenges? These are some of the questions that bothered us along this research. We tried to block in the logic of the system with the new varieties and variables determined by the digital era in order to understand it. We tried to discover the elements whereby mass-media industry and economy can profit more of the digitalization advantages. We tried to find economic solutions for the negative consequences produced in the process of media industry digitalization to be attenuated.

  11. Physical activity promotion through the mass media: inception, production, transmission and consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlay, Sara-Jane; Faulkner, Guy

    2005-02-01

    Evaluations of physical activity and health media campaigns have been limited and ignore the complex process of communication and the socially constructed nature of news messages. A systematic search strategy was conducted of the literature which was then assessed from two perspectives. First, studies since 1998 were reviewed for their success in impacting message recall and behavior change. Second, employing a critical media studies perspective the papers were assessed for the presence of a more sophisticated understanding of the media processes of inception, transmission and reception. Overall, recent studies support mass media interventions in influencing short-term physical activity message recall and to a lesser extent associated changes in physical activity knowledge. However, the majority of the papers were found to follow a social marketing or media advocacy theory of media promotion with little in-depth consideration of the comprehensive media processes involved in creating media messages and meaning. Simplistic understandings of media transmission dominate in assessing physical activity and health media campaigns. Fuller understandings of the success of media campaigns, the recall of media messages or associated behaviour change can only truly be understood through the application of a more sophisticated form of media analysis.

  12. The mass media and nuclear energy in the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, C.

    1994-01-01

    The role of the US media in informing the public about benefits of nuclear industry is discussed. Usually the media in USA is biased against nuclear energy and works on the side of anti-nuclear groups. The tendency of reporters to mistrust government and industry experts, and to trust 'environmental groups' poses a particular problem for the US nuclear industry. One of the challenges of nuclear industry is to convince the media that anti-nuclear groups are not acting in the public interest, but in self-interest too. The scientists who communicate with the media must help reporters to understand technology, but to do that, they must understand reporter's needs. Those include a quick response to requests for information, spokespersons who speak clearly and understandably, in human terms, and candor and honesty in all of the information they provide. (I.P.)

  13. 14 The Mass Media and the Problem of Understanding Legal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    legal terminologies even though some are archaic or old fashioned in some ways as to .... BBC, VOA, and VON); documentary films, electronic information media, and other ..... and regulations for easy comprehension by the reading public.

  14. Social Communication between Traditional and the New Mass-Media

    OpenAIRE

    Andreea-Maria Tîrziu; Cătălin I. Vrabie

    2014-01-01

    The means of communication, from the most simple and natural ones – such as gestures and voice, to the most complex and developed ones – such as the new electronic media, have constantly brought changes to the society, their own transformation being due to the social environment that generated them. Nowadays, the new media – being in a rapid development unprecedented in the past – is giving new insights of communication and learning to the younger generations which, unlike those f...

  15. Physical Activity Mass Media Campaigns and Their Evaluation: A Systematic Review of the Literature 2003-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavy, Justine E.; Bull, Fiona C.; Rosenberg, Michael; Bauman, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    Internationally, mass media campaigns to promote regular moderate-intensity physical activity have increased recently. Evidence of mass media campaign effectiveness exists in other health areas, however the evidence for physical activity is limited. The purpose was to systematically review the literature on physical activity mass media campaigns,…

  16. Mass Media and Religious Culture of the Audiences; Suggesting a Useful Approach to Media Productions for Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser Bahonar

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The religious program of mass media exclusively produced for children have had a significant growth in recent years. The artistic expression of stories related to the life of the great prophets and to the history of Islam as well as taking advantage of theatrical literature in religious occasions can herald successes in this neglected field. But, what is questionable in national religious policies in that why who are involved in the religious education of children whether in traditional media (family, mosques, religious communities, etc or in modern media (textbooks, press, radio and television do not follow an integrated and coherent policy based on a proved theoretical view of religious communications. In fact, this question results from the same old opposition between audience-oriented and media-oriented approaches in communications as well as the opposition between cognitivism and other approaches in psychology. The findings of the field of study conducted by the author along with psychological achievements of cognitivism in human communications and cultural audience-oriented approaches, especially reception theory in mass communications can solve some existing difficulties in the formulation of religious messages. Drawing upon the above mentioned theoretical schools, this article tries to introduce a useful approach to producing religious programs for children and describes the main tasks of mass media in this field accordingly.

  17. Science Teachers' Use of Mass Media to Address Socio-Scientific and Sustainability Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klosterman, Michelle L.; Sadler, Troy D.; Brown, Julie

    2012-01-01

    The currency, relevancy and changing nature of science makes it a natural topic of focus for mass media outlets. Science teachers and students can capitalize on this wealth of scientific information to explore socio-scientific and sustainability issues; however, without a lens on how those media are created and how representations of science are…

  18. The Role of the Mass Media in the Nigerian Electoral Process ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper focuses generally on the role of the mass media in Nigerian electoral process as it pertains to overall development of Nigeria. The background is the recognition of the central role of the media in political and social affairs as a natural outcome of its unlimited communicative strength and outreach. The statement of ...

  19. Utilising the Mass Media for the Promotion of Religious Activities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Utilising the Mass Media for the Promotion of Religious Activities in Nigeria. ... The media have the ability to communicate religious messages that will enable ... to promote moral attitudes in our people, which will in turn, lead to development in ...

  20. Mass Media, Interpersonal, and Social Background Influences in Two Canadian American Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, David E.; Caron, Andre H.

    A study investigated the effects of mass media, interpersonal communication, and sociolinguistic background on adults' political, cultural, and economic attitudes and agendas. Data for the study came from two earlier research efforts: one conducted in Minnesota, involved 414 adults who were interviewed concerning their media use, interpersonal…

  1. Educational Leadership in the Era of Mass Media: State, Consequences and Repercussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavish, Tali; Oplatka, Izhar

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the consequences of the relationships between school head teachers and mass media on various aspects of their role: emotional-personal, behavioural-managerial and perception. It also examines the sociocultural experience in which these head teacher-media interactions take place, that is, the adjustment of the school system,…

  2. Evaluation of the national tobacco control mass media campaign in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuezheng Jin

    2018-03-01

    The mass media campaign reinforced people's knowledge and attitudes about harmful health effects of smoking and SHS exposure, increased people's desire to quit, and improved people's support for smoking bans in public places.

  3. The role of mass media in disease outbreak reporting in the United ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tanzania Journal of Health Research ... Emerging infectious diseases and the growth of information communication technology have produced ... An analysis of disease outbreak information and reporting by the Tanzanian mass media was ...

  4. The mass media and nuclear energy in the U.S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, C.

    1994-01-01

    The author discusses some problems of mass media of the United States connected with covering issues of nuclear power development, and makes some recommendations to improve the situation in this field

  5. FEFLOW finite element modeling of flow, mass and heat transport in porous and fractured media

    CERN Document Server

    Diersch, Hans-Jörg G

    2013-01-01

    Placing advanced theoretical and numerical methods in the hands of modeling practitioners and scientists, this book explores the FEFLOW system for solving flow, mass and heat transport processes in porous and fractured media. Offers applications and exercises.

  6. Measurement of femtosecond electron bunches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, D. X.; Krafft, G. A.; Sinclair, C. K.

    1997-01-01

    Bunch lengths as short as 84 fs (rms) have been measured at Jefferson Lab using a zero-phasing RF technique. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first accurate bunch length measurement in this regime. In this letter, an analytical approach for computing the longitudinal distribution function and bunch length is described for arbitrary longitudinal and transverse distributions. The measurement results are presented, which are in excellent agreement with numerical simulations

  7. Russian and Brazil media systems at the modern stage of mass communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippova Viktoria Alexandrovna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the main characteristics of modern mass communication and media systems in Russia and Brazil. The so-called first-level media - are of elite character, aimed at the ruling classes. They are strengthening their position in the global space and almost are blurring geographical and cultural boundaries. Media audience of the second level is national, they usually focus on the middle and lower segment of the audience, if to divide it by income, education and culture. Informatization and digitalization of media lead to the formation of hybrid media systems, where there is a growing role of new media, in particular, social networks and Twitter. It is important to emphasize that the nature of the social, spiritual and cultural changes caused by informatization, depends not only on information technology, but also on the social conditions of the socioeconomic system where the implemented processes of mass communication are realized. The paper discusses the factors that determine the possibility of functioning of media systems at the present stage: the willingness of the reader to consume information and pay for it by the example of Russia and Brazil, describes the processes of globalization, information technology and digitalization of society and the media. It is presented media preferences and trust in the media in Russia and Brazil in the XXI century, as well as the main indicators of the advertising market in these countries.

  8. The Era of Global Disputes and Mass Media Distortions. Dialogue on Recognition, Justice and Democracy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bittar, E.; Hrubec, Marek

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 2 (2017), s. 146-154 ISSN 1338-130X Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) StrategieAV21/15 Program:StrategieAV Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : global conflicts * international law * justice * mass media * recognition * democracy Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion OBOR OECD: Political science https://www.communicationtoday.sk/era-global-disputes-mass-media-distortions-dialogue-recognition-justice-democracy-interview-marek-hrubec/

  9. Mass media as an effective tool for prevention of sociopsychological factors in the development of terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    Zinchenko, Yuri

    2009-01-01

    Recently mass media play crucial role in social counterterrorism activity. The article is devoted to analysis of possibilities of mass media in prevention of the development of terrorism. Socio-psychological factors of development of terrorism, including concept of “contributing events” as well as hypothesis “frustration-aggression” are studied. The psychological component of terrorism in three major attitudes is considered in the article: psychology of terrorism, psychology of counteraction ...

  10. Communication & Mass Media Complete. Guía básica

    OpenAIRE

    Biblioteca de la Universidad de Málaga

    2016-01-01

    Communication & Mass Media Complete (CMMC) es una de las bases de datos mas completa en lo que a ciencias sociales y humanidades se refiere, dando cobertura a más de 850 títulos, la gran mayoría a texto completo. Surge de la fusión de la base de datos CommSearch y Mass Media Articles Index.

  11. Use of mass-media and active involvement in a national dental health campaign in Scotland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, L

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the evaluation of a Dental Health Mass-Media Campaign directed at 5-7-yr-old children and their mothers. It aimed at increasing knowledge and awareness of dental health by making use of three different components: inserts in women's magazines; television commercial; material...... that future national health education campaigns combine the mass-media approach to increase health awareness with active involvement activities to stimulate behavioural changes....

  12. The macro-environment for liquid biofuels in the US mass media, science and government

    OpenAIRE

    Wubben, E.F.M.; Talamini, E.; Dewes, H.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate under which dimensions the macro-environment for liquid biofuels has been structured during time, respectively by science, mass media, and government in Germany, and how these three social expressions related to each other. Research was carried out on German official government documents, mass media news, and scientific papers on the topic ‘liquid biofuels’. Text Mining was used to extract knowledge from their content. The results indicate that in c...

  13. The macro-environment for liquid biofuels in the German science, mass, media and government

    OpenAIRE

    Talamini, E.; Wubben, E.F.M.; Dewes, H.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate under which dimensions the macro-environment for liquid biofuels has been structured during time, respectively by science, mass media, and government in Germany, and how these three social expressions related to each other. Research was carried out on German official government documents, mass media news, and scientific papers on the topic 'liquid biofuels'. Text Mining was used to extract knowledge from their content. The results indicate that in c...

  14. Nuclear power debate - scientists, mass media and the public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothman, S.; Lichter, S.R.

    1983-01-01

    A poll among the members of the American Men and Women of Science has shown that the majority of scientists are for nuclear energy. The controversial results of polls in the general public are believed to be due to the distortion effects of the press and media. The biased information role of the communication media might be the result of the prejudiced publicity behavior of antinuclear scientists. A more significant role, however, has been played by the science journalists whose scepticism toward nuclear power is reflected in the public opinion. There seems to be a lack in the communication chain connecting the layman public with the science community. (R.P.)

  15. Does Health Information in Mass Media Help or Hurt Patients? Investigation of Potential Negative Influence of Mass Media Health Information on Patients' Beliefs and Medication Regimen Adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Heewon; Huh, Jisu

    2017-03-01

    As an important public health issue, patient medication non-adherence has drawn much attention, but research on the impact of mass media as an information source on patient medication adherence has been scant. Given that mass media often provide confusing and contradicting information regarding health/medical issues, this study examined the potential negative influence of exposure to health information in mass media on patients' beliefs about their illnesses and medications, and medication adherence, in comparison with the effects of exposure to another primary medication information source, physicians. Survey data obtained from patients on blood thinner regimens revealed that the frequency of exposure to health information in mass media was negatively related to accuracy of patients' beliefs about their medication benefits and patient medication adherence. On the other hand, frequency of visits with physicians was positively associated with patients' beliefs about their medication benefits but had no significant relation to medication regimen adherence. The implications of the study findings are discussed, and methodological limitations and suggestion for future research are presented.

  16. Perception of the role of mass media in environmental conservation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is recommended that media houses should improve upon their information unit to complement their role. Government should implement policies on environmental conservation and offenders must be punished. NGO's should be more involved and encouraged to assist in environmental. [JEXT Vol.2(1) 2001: 95-101] ...

  17. Physical Activity in the Mass Media: An Audience Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ben J.; Bonfiglioli, Catriona M. F.

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity's role in promoting health is highlighted in public health campaigns, news and current affairs, reality television and other programs. An investigation of audience exposure, beliefs and reactions to media portrayals of physical activity offers insights into the salience and influence of this communication. An audience reception…

  18. INTRODUCTION: Theoretical Models as Mass Media Practice: Perspectives from the West

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Line

    2007-01-01

    What is journalism? How does it exist and why? How does journalism define itself and in what ways can we make use of looking theoretically at the practice of it? These were the central themes of our workshop; Theoretical Models as Mass Media Practice held at the ‘Minding the Gap’ conference...... an exceptional framework for understanding the workings of mass media while helping the press reflect over these workings too. In a time of change for the journalistic profession, when media convergence is growing; the media is marked by deregulation and fewer journalists are being asked to do more...... at Reuters Institute in May 2007, from which this collection of papers has been selected. As with the other workshops during the conference, the majority of our panellists were themselves once media practitioners. It is my opinion that this background and inside knowledge of the field in itself can provide...

  19. Media Construction of Gender: Framing Analysis of Rape Cases in the Mass Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Imron

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Construction of the printed media which tends to dramatize and blow up the reporting of rape cases has in fact discredited the rape victim, resulting in gender bias. This is due to the fact that media present the news content concerning on the victim and the perpetrator in imbalanced reporting, in that the victims are scrutinized from diverse facets. This paper analyze the coverage of printed media in rape cases by means of framing analysis. The result shows that printed media coverage generally goes beyond the rape case itself as the victim’s identity and images of the incident are also revealed. The using of visual image (victim’s image is probably aimed to present an overview on the fact or the truth from the media viewpoint. This presentation, however, obscures the differences between factual and fictional reality and this might lead to different interpretation on the readers’ side. Furthermore, inappropriate reporting might become the society’s reference concerning on the modus operandi, in that the society learn or imitate the aspects they once did not know of. Visual image will create a second rape by the media toward the victim, in addition to the stereotyping developed in public, which often brings out psychological impact to the victim and the family. This is called the third rape.

  20. Mass Media vs. Interpersonal Channels: The Synthetic Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffee, Steven H.

    Some of the major assumptions, empirical inferences, and theoretical linkages that underlie the generalization that interpersonal influence is more efficacious than mass communication in bringing about social change are examined in this paper. The central premise of the paper is that the presumed competition between mass and interpersonal channels…

  1. The Performativity of “Media Logic” in the Mass Mediation of Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plesner, Ursula

    2012-01-01

    Studies of the use of research-based expertise in the mass media often demonstrate how experts are used to confirm journalists’ angles on particular stories or how research-based knowledge claims are twisted. Both among practitioners and science communication scholars, such practices are often...... explained with reference to a pervasive “media logic.” “Media logic” is constructed as governing choices and interactions of researchers and journalists. This article critically examines the extensive use of the term “media logic” to explain choices, changes or content in media production, and presents...... Actor-Network-Theory as an approach that invites us to ask what takes place in practice without resorting to such generalizing explanatory devices. The article argues that a quick jump to “media logic” as an explanation may imply that we forget its contingency and ignore what actually takes place...

  2. Stochastic modeling of mass transport in porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Seung Cheol; Lee, Kun Jai

    1990-01-01

    The stochastic moments analysis technique is developed to investigate radionuclide migration in geologic porous media. The mechanisms for radionuclide transport are assumed to be advection in the micropore, radioactive decay of the species, and sorption on the pore wall. Two covariance functions of groundwater velocity, retardation factor, and concentration are derived to incorporate the geologic parameter uncertainty in porous media of small medium dispersivity. The parametric studies show that the correlation length of groundwater velocity has significant influence on the migration behavior of radionuclide. Macro dispersivity is dominantly affected by the fluctuation of groundwater velocity, while the fluctuation of retardation factor has a considerable effect on the retarded stochastic velocity. The upper estimated concentration evaluated from this stochastic moments analysis can be used as a practical conservative value for the performance assessment of nuclear waste repository

  3. CEBAF Upgrade Bunch Length Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Mahmoud [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Many accelerators use short electron bunches and measuring the bunch length is important for efficient operations. CEBAF needs a suitable bunch length because bunches that are too long will result in beam interruption to the halls due to excessive energy spread and beam loss. In this work, bunch length is measured by invasive and non-invasive techniques at different beam energies. Two new measurement techniques have been commissioned; a harmonic cavity showed good results compared to expectations from simulation, and a real time interferometer is commissioned and first checkouts were performed. Three other techniques were used for measurements and comparison purposes without modifying the old procedures. Two of them can be used when the beam is not compressed longitudinally while the other one, the synchrotron light monitor, can be used with compressed or uncompressed beam.

  4. Analysis of bunch by bunch oscillations with bunch trains at injection into LHC at 25 ns bunch spacing

    CERN Document Server

    Bartosik, H

    2012-01-01

    An MD on August 26, 2011 was dedicated to injection studies of bunch trains with 25 ns spacing and nominal intensity of approximately 1×10(11) protons per bunch. Due to an electrical glitch, the MD was stopped after two attempts of injecting a train of 48 bunches for beam 2. Both injections were aborted after less than 0.1 s. In particular, the first attempt with transverse damper on was dumped after 1000 turns while the second attempt with transverse damper off was dumped after 500 turns only. In this note, an analysis of the bunch by bunch oscillation data recorded with the post-mortem system from the transverse damper is presented. The presented data clearly shows the presence of instabilities that affect mainly the second half of the batch. This is compatible with what would be expected qualitatively in the presence of the electron cloud effect.

  5. Women and mass media: a critical and analytical study of the portrayal of Sudanese women in printed media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badri, A E; Osama, S

    1995-06-01

    This study examines how Sudanese women are portrayed in the mass media. Data are obtained from a content analysis of historical records of Sudanese daily newspapers and women's magazines and from surveys among female editors in print media. The following types of newspapers are reviewed: independent newspapers; papers for the Al-Umma Party, a communist party, a Bathist party, a Muslim Nationalist Islamic Front Party, and a National Union Democratic Party; and a current military government paper. Women's magazines are published by women. Articles focus on women as the main newsmakers, women's life issues, female authors, a female focus but a male author, and famous Sudanese women. 16 content themes are identified. Women were not extensively featured or photographed in either newspapers or magazines. The Al-Umma Party paper and Al-Sudan Al-Hadith paper (an independent paper) were the only two newspapers with at least 10 photos of women. Women were pictured as professionals, educated persons, and leaders. There were 17 female editors. These editors preferred an image of women as leaders, followed by productive workers. Only 11.76% believed that women's dual roles as producers and reproducers should be portrayed. Female editors did not want a special women's page. 52.94% (the largest percentage) preferred targeting women with substantial leadership abilities. 17.65% desired the portrayal of women as workers and housewives. 58.82% did not think that the mass media image changed behavior or attitudes, because most Sudanese women are illiterate. Women's issues in both newspapers and women's magazines were devoted to women's work, achievements, and needs. The authors recommend removal of obstacles to women's equal participation in the mass media and press and research on the effect of media images on women's self-perception and behavior.

  6. Leveraging New and Social Media to Educate the Masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Pamela; CosmoQuest Team

    2018-01-01

    In today's connected world, scientists as individuals and as projects and institutions are turning to blogs, videos, and social media outlets like Twitter to share achievements, request aid, and discuss the issues of our science. Beyond sharing the thing-of-the-moment, these platforms also provide an environment where education is possible, and where creativity allows educators to engage broad audiences in active learning. In this presentation, we discuss how polling, ask-me-anything sessions, emoji, and animated gifs can be leveraged to test knowledge and facilitate engagement.Beyond looking at these techniques, we also examine audience engagement. Previously, it has been unclear if our day-to-day social media efforts have been merely preaching to one homogeneous choir from which we have all drawn our audiences, or if our individual efforts have been able to reach into different communities to multiply our impact. In this preliminary study, we examine the social media audiences of several space science Twitter feeds that relate to: podcasting; professional societies; individual programs; and individuals. This study directly measures the overlap in audiences and the diversity of interests held by these audiences. Through statistical analysis, we can discern if these audiences are all drawn from one single population, or if we are sampling different base populations with different feeds. The data generated in this project allow us to look beyond how our audiences interact with space science, with the added benefit of revealing their other interests. These interests are reflected by the non-space science accounts they follow on Twitter. This information will allow us to effectively recruit new people from space science adjacent interests.

  7. Mass Shootings: The Role of the Media in Promoting Generalized Imitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meindl, James N; Ivy, Jonathan W

    2017-03-01

    Mass shootings are a particular problem in the United States, with one mass shooting occurring approximately every 12.5 days. Recently a "contagion" effect has been suggested wherein the occurrence of one mass shooting increases the likelihood of another mass shooting occurring in the near future. Although contagion is a convenient metaphor used to describe the temporal spread of a behavior, it does not explain how the behavior spreads. Generalized imitation is proposed as a better model to explain how one person's behavior can influence another person to engage in similar behavior. Here we provide an overview of generalized imitation and discuss how the way in which the media report a mass shooting can increase the likelihood of another shooting event. Also, we propose media reporting guidelines to minimize imitation and further decrease the likelihood of a mass shooting.

  8. Computers, Mass Media, and Schooling: Functional Equivalence in Uses of New Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Debra A.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Presents a study of 156 California eighth grade students which contrasted their recreational and intellectual computer use in terms of academic performance and use of other media. Among the conclusions were that recreational users watched television heavily and performed poorly in school, whereas intellectual users watched less television,…

  9. The role of digital and social media within mass media anti-smoking campaigns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Lloyd

    2018-03-01

    Digital media plays an important role in driving direct responses to campaign websites that offer support, and in generating discussion. However, it is still TV that drives the conversation and response rates online; digital display performs best if it features campaign visuals, while TV advertising is often discussed in Facebook responses. We continue to make the case to fund TV advertising.

  10. Associations between Chinese/Asian versus Western mass media influences and body image disturbances of young Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Todd; Jiang, Chengcheng; Chen, Hong

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we evaluated associations of experiences with mass media imported from Western nations such as the United States versus mass media from China and other Asian countries with eating and body image disturbances of young Chinese women. Participating women (N=456) completed self-report measures of disordered eating, specific sources of appearance dissatisfaction (fatness, facial features, stature), and Western versus Chinese/Asian mass media influences. The sample was significantly more likely to report perceived pressure from, comparisons with, and preferences for physical appearance depictions in Chinese/Asian mass media than Western media. Chinese/Asian media influences also combined for more unique variance in prediction models for all disturbances except stature concerns. While experiences with Western media were related to disturbances as well, the overall impact of Chinese/Asian media influences was more prominent. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Characterization of individual particles in gaseous media by mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, M. P.

    1990-01-01

    An introduction is given to a system for particle analysis by mass spectrometry (PAMS) which employs particle-beam techniques to measure mass spectra on a continuous real-time basis. The system is applied to particles of both organic and inorganic compounds, and the measurements give the chemical characteristics of particles in mixtures and indicate source apportionment. The PAMS system can be used for process control and studying heterogeneous/catalytic reactions in particles, and can be fitted to study the real-time attributes of PAMS.

  12. Media Agenda Setting Regarding Gun Violence before and after a Mass Shooting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jashinsky, Jared Michael; Magnusson, Brianna; Hanson, Carl; Barnes, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Gun violence is related to substantial morbidity and mortality with surrounding discussions framed and shaped by the media. This study’s objective was to explore national news media’s reporting of gun violence around a mass shooting. National news pieces were coded according to categories of gun violence, media frames, entities held responsible, responses, and reporting of the public heath approach. Individuals were held responsible for gun violence in 63% of pieces before and 32% after the shooting. Lawmakers were held responsible in 30% of pieces before and 66% after. Background checks were a proposed gun violence prevention method in 18% of pieces before and 55% after Sandy Hook, and lethality reduction of firearms was in 9% before and 57% after. Following a mass shooting, the media tended to hold government, not individuals, primarily responsible. The media often misrepresented the real picture of gun violence and key public health roles. PMID:28119907

  13. The Parameters of Attraction to Mass Media Figures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howitt, Dennis; Cumberbatch, Guy

    1973-01-01

    Article explores the idea that exposure to fictional characters on the motion picture screen or on television causes the viewer, expecially young people, to identify with one or more of the characters involved. Suggestions for improvements in research into mass communications are offered. (Author/RK)

  14. [Dehiberations over the semantics of mass communication media].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martines, R

    1975-09-12

    The radio, cinema and T.V. have developed their own idiolects and aesthetic standards. These in turn have influenced social relationships and education. Their effect is the reduction of society to a common mass, in which no attentuon is paid to individual motive forces.

  15. Ethics and the Press: Readings in Mass Media Morality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, John C., Ed.; Barney, Ralph D., Ed.

    This collection of 35 articles addresses the topic of the ethical considerations and implications involved in reporting the news. Included in this book are such articles as: "Ethics and Journalism" by John Merrill, "Quality in Mass Communications" by Wilbur Schramm, "The American Press: Some Truths About Truths" by…

  16. Boundary Layer Flows in Porous Media with Lateral Mass Flux

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nemati, H; H, Bararnia; Noori, F

    2015-01-01

    Solutions for free convection boundary layers on a heated vertical plate with lateral mass flux embedded in a saturated porous medium are presented using the Homotopy Analysis Method and Shooting Numerical Method. Homotopy Analysis Method yields an analytic solution in the form of a rapidly...

  17. Trends in mass media exposure upon women: A review of Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmin Jahan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background With the rapid advancement of technology, mass media acquired widespread exposure upon major portion of the world population. The overall media platform has smooth access into peoples’ everyday lifestyle through routine tele transmission of all the existing media (such as broadcast, print, digital, outdoor media etc.. Mass media platform is one of the few most powerful influential factors causing dynamic behavioral changes. Objective To assess mass media exposure and it’s changing trends in Bangladesh using data from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS from 1993- 94 to 2014. Methods The study used data from the published reports of Bangladesh Demographic and Health Surveys (BDHS 1993-1994 to BDHS 2014. Results In the years of 1999-2000, 2004, 2007, 2014 women aged 20-24 years (41%, 54%, 56%, 57% respectively have passed more time watching television in weekly basis than the other age groups. Higher percentage was observed among the educated women than uneducated from 1999-2000 to 2014 who has made access to all three media (television, radio and newspaper at least once a week. Proportion of women who had accessed all three media at least once a week was much higher in the highest quintile families than the lowest quintile families and more exposure in urban women than the rural women. The region-wise coverage was higher in 1999-2000 in case of Chittagong (5.2%, Dhaka (4.7%, Khulna (5.1%, Rajshahi (3.1%, and Sylhet (3.9% division with access to all three media at least once a week except Barisal division. Conclusion Findings show higher percentage of television watching tendency among comparatively more educated and economically flourished urban women. Therefore, the major policy challenge addressees the need for designing of communications strategies targeting the less privileged, rural and illiterate people who constitute the majority of population in Bangladesh.

  18. Longitudinal single-bunch instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migliorati, M.; Palumbo, L.; Rome Univ. La Sapienza, Rome

    2001-02-01

    After introducing the concepts of longitudinal wakefield and coupling impedance, it is reviewed the theory of longitudinal single-bunch collective effects in storage rings. From the Fokker-Planck equation it is first derived the stationary solution describing the natural single-bunch regime, and then treat the problem of microwave instability, showing the different approaches used for estimating the threshold current. The lecture is ended with the semi-empirical laws that allow everyone to obtain the single-bunch behaviour above threshold, and with a description of the simulation codes that are now reliable tools for investigating all these effects

  19. Overview of bunch length measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lumpkin, A. H.

    1999-01-01

    An overview of particle and photon beam bunch length measurements is presented in the context of free-electron laser (FEL) challenges. Particle-beam peak current is a critical factor in obtaining adequate FEL gain for both oscillators and self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) devices. Since measurement of charge is a standard measurement, the bunch length becomes the key issue for ultrashort bunches. Both time-domain and frequency-domain techniques are presented in the context of using electromagnetic radiation over eight orders of magnitude in wavelength. In addition, the measurement of microbunching in a micropulse is addressed

  20. Usefulness of enteral contrast media in MR evaluation of pelvic mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hun; Kim, Jung Sik; Kim, Hong; Shon, Chul Ho; Lee, Hee Jung; Lee, Sung Moon; Woo, Sung Ku; Suh, Soo Jhi

    1999-01-01

    To assess the value of enteral contrast media for the evaluation of pelvic masses by MR imaging. Between April and July 1998, 16 women with pelvic masses were examined by MRI. The origin of the lesion was the ovary in twelve cases, the uterus in three, and the sigmoid in one. Using a 1.5T scanner(Magnetom Vision, Siemens), T1-weighted axial spin echo(SE), T2-weighted turbo spin echo(TSE), two dimensional fast low-angle shot(FLASH 2D), and half-Fourier TSE(HASTE) images were obtained in all patients after the administration of Magnevist Enteral (Shering, Berlin, Germany). In each MR imagine sequence, distinction between the lesion and adjacent bowel (1, not distinguished; 2, partly distinguished; 3, clearly distinguished), artifact (0, absent; 1, mild; 2, severe), image quality (1, poor; 2, fair; 3, good), were compared before and after the use of enteral contrast media. Changes in MRI impression after the use of enteral contrast media were also evaluated. Two radiologists reached a consensus after reviewing the images. Statistical significance was determined by Wilcoxon's signed ranked test. For distinguishing lesions, SE T1WI and FLASH 2D with enteral contrast media were significantly superior to SE T1WI without enteral contrast media (p < 0.05). With regard to image quality, FLASH 2D and HASTE, both with enteral contrast media, were significantly superior to SE T1WI and TSE T2WI, respectively, both without enteral contrast media (p < 0.05). Artefacts were more frequently found after the application of enteral contrast media in conventional sequences but were not present in breathhold sequences. In two patients, MRI impression changed after the application of enteral contrast media. In a limited number of cases, enteral contrast media improved lesion detection, image quality and diagnostic accuracy when breathhold fast MR imaging was applied

  1. Screen Savers. Case Histories of Social Reaction to Mass Media, Children and Violence

    OpenAIRE

    Critcher, Chas

    2013-01-01

    Historically the mass media have often been blamed for causing violent behaviour by children and young people. Two case studies of new media, film and video games, are compared in terms of their emergence, reactions to them and outcomes of the debate, mainly in the USA and Britain. Both cases are used to test the sociological model of moral panic which is found to be of limited appli­cation. It needs to be supplemented by two other concepts, those of media panic and moral regulation. Only the...

  2. Development of a smoking prevention mass media program using diagnostic and formative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worden, J K; Flynn, B S; Geller, B M; Chen, M; Shelton, L G; Secker-Walker, R H; Solomon, D S; Solomon, L J; Couchey, S; Costanza, M C

    1988-09-01

    The process of developing a mass media campaign to prevent smoking among adolescents is described in detail. This campaign supplements a school smoking prevention program and shares educational objectives with the school program but is otherwise independent. It comprises various television and radio 30- and 60-sec "spot" messages. The campaign development process includes identifying educational objectives and strategies for appealing to young people; conducting diagnostic surveys and focus groups to determine target audience interests and perceptions about smoking and media content; suggesting approaches to producers to create preliminary television and radio messages for testing; conducting formative pretests with target groups to select optimal messages and suggest improvements to those messages; producing final messages for media presentation; and developing a media exposure plan to place messages in local media at optimal times for reception by target audiences. The media campaign is being evaluated in a 5-year project with 5,500 adolescents in four communities to determine the additional effect of mass media over a school program alone in preventing smoking.

  3. Setting the agenda: Different strategies of a Mass Media in a model of cultural dissemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Sebastián; Balenzuela, Pablo; Dorso, Claudio O.

    2016-09-01

    Day by day, people exchange opinions about news with relatives, friends, and coworkers. In most cases, they get informed about a given issue by reading newspapers, listening to the radio, or watching TV, i.e., through a Mass Media (MM). However, the importance of a given new can be stimulated by the Media by assigning newspaper's pages or time in TV programs. In this sense, we say that the Media has the power to "set the agenda", i.e., it decides which new is important and which is not. On the other hand, the Media can know people's concerns through, for instance, websites or blogs where they express their opinions, and then it can use this information in order to be more appealing to an increasing number of people. In this work, we study different scenarios in an agent-based model of cultural dissemination, in which a given Mass Media has a specific purpose: To set a particular topic of discussion and impose its point of view to as many social agents as it can. We model this by making the Media has a fixed feature, representing its point of view in the topic of discussion, while it tries to attract new consumers, by taking advantage of feedback mechanisms, represented by adaptive features. We explore different strategies that the Media can adopt in order to increase the affinity with potential consumers and then the probability to be successful in imposing this particular topic.

  4. Mass transfer in porous media with heterogeneous chemical reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza S.M.A.G.Ulson de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the modeling of the mass transfer process in packed-bed reactors is presented and takes into account dispersion in the main fluid phase, internal diffusion of the reactant in the pores of the catalyst, and surface reaction inside the catalyst. The method of volume averaging is applied to obtain the governing equation for use on a small scale. The local mass equilibrium is assumed for obtaining the one-equation model for use on a large scale. The closure problems are developed subject to the length-scale constraints and the model of a spatially periodic porous medium. The expressions for effective diffusivity, hydrodynamic dispersion, total dispersion and the Darcy's law permeability tensors are presented. Solution of the set of final equations permits the variations of velocity and concentration of the chemical species along the packed-bed reactors to be obtained.

  5. Social media as an instrument for organizing mass riots in the United Kingdom in August 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A N Katkina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Social networks such as Facebook and Twitter have recently become very popular and turned to be an effective instrument for achieving political goals. However, the social networks’ impact is rather ambivalent: on the one hand, social media form specific political actors and support self-organization and civil movements; on the other hand, social media reinforce destructive and aggressive manifestations with the pronounced criminal purposes, e.g. social media ability to disseminate information among large groups is used to organize mass riots. The article analyzes one of the recent and significant events largely provoked by the social networks - mass riots in the United Kingdom in August 2011 that were originally a reaction to the murder of M. Diggan by a police officer who tried to arrest him as a suspect in drug trafficking and possession of weapons. The way events developed into mass riots was the result of discussions in social media and use of social networks to coordinate joint actions of mass riots participants. The article provides a detailed description of the events and authorities’ actions to overcome the crisis and prevent such riots in the future, thus making some conclusions about the nature of social media impact on the politics.

  6. The mass remote sensing image data management based on Oracle InterMedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xi'an; Shi, Shaowei

    2013-07-01

    With the development of remote sensing technology, getting the image data more and more, how to apply and manage the mass image data safely and efficiently has become an urgent problem to be solved. According to the methods and characteristics of the mass remote sensing image data management and application, this paper puts forward to a new method that takes Oracle Call Interface and Oracle InterMedia to store the image data, and then takes this component to realize the system function modules. Finally, it successfully takes the VC and Oracle InterMedia component to realize the image data storage and management.

  7. Postmodern Spanish Literature between the end of the dictatorship and the rise of mass media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Candón Ríos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we discuss the assimilation of postmodern practices into Spanish culture, specifically in the field of literature. Spain remained internationally isolated during the first phase of the Franco dictatorship, which prevented new cultural movements arising in Europe and America from becoming established in Spain. It was not until the economic boom of the 60s that the mass media was imposed as a cultural regulator, commercializing all artistic production and spawning new trends in cultural consumption. The new mass media served as a cultural bridge between Spain and the rest of the world, enabling the Spanish population to become part of a new globalized world.

  8. Mass media differences in ''nuclear news'' reporting: implications for public opinions and acceptable safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, A.; Williams, J.

    1975-01-01

    The technical and political issues of diversion safeguards are at best confusing to the general public, who derive most of their information about nuclear science from the mass media. This investigation compared ''nuclear news'' of all kinds in three national mass media for thirty-three months of 1972-1974 to examine the quantity and quality of atom-related news they provide. Findings from The New York Times, U. S. News and World Report, and the ABC, CBS, and NBC evening news indicate grounds for low public familiarity with essential concepts of safeguards, and consequently, for consumer value conflicts and weak popular supports for safeguards-related policy

  9. Education and mass media: an example of workshop teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Fabbri

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The educational strategy of the workshop provides a learning experience in the form of research, active experimentation with knowledge building strategies by individuals or groups working in autonomy using their own existing knowledge and creativity in problem solving activities, thus “learning by doing”. It consists of actively deconstructing and constructing, destroying and recreating in a new form, setting objectives and discussing in groups, undergoing experimental testing and evaluating the results. In essence, the function of the teacher is that of a councillor who provides “soft” support through scaffolding and takes care to provide the necessary space for children in the process of shared knowledge-building. Starting out with a number of reflections regarding the workshop described in this article, we move on to analyse the educational value of television and its positive and negative potential. The starting point is the provocative representation of the deconstruction of a media message by way of an analysis of its different narrative and graphic phases paying particular attention to meaning and the means used to convey it in filmic language.

  10. Multi-bunch feedback systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lonza, M

    2008-01-01

    Coupled-bunch instabilities excited by the interaction of the particle beam with its surroundings can seriously limit the performance of circular particle accelerators. These instabilities can be cured by the use of active feedback systems based on sensors capable of detecting the unwanted beam motion and actuators that apply the feedback correction to the beam. The advances in electronic technology now allow the implementation of feedback loops using programmable digital systems. Besides important advantages in terms of flexibility and reproducibility, digital systems open the way to the use of novel diagnostic tools and additional features. The lecture will first introduce coupled-bunch instabilities analysing the equation of motion of charged particles and the different modes of oscillation of a multi-bunch beam, showing how they can be observed and measured. Different types of feedbacks systems will then be presented as examples of real implementations that belong to the history of multi-bunch feedback sy...

  11. Multi-bunch Feedback Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lonza, M.

    2014-12-19

    Coupled-bunch instabilities excited by the interaction of the particle beam with its surroundings can seriously limit the performance of circular particle accelerators. These instabilities can be cured by the use of active feedback systems based on sensors capable of detecting the unwanted beam motion and actuators that apply the feedback correction to the beam. Advances in electronic technology now allow the implementation of feedback loops using programmable digital systems. Besides important advantages in terms of flexibility and reproducibility, digital systems open the way to the use of novel diagnostic tools and additional features. We first introduce coupled-bunch instabilities, analysing the equation of motion of charged particles and the different modes of oscillation of a multi-bunch beam, showing how they can be observed and measured. Different types of feedback systems will then be presented as examples of real implementations that belong to the history of multi-bunch feedback systems. The main co...

  12. Primary care nurses' experiences of how the mass media influence frontline healthcare in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bekkum, Jennifer E; Hilton, Shona

    2013-11-24

    Mass media plays an important role in communicating about health research and services to patients, and in shaping public perceptions and decisions about health. Healthcare professionals also play an important role in providing patients with credible, evidence-based and up-to-date information on a wide range of health issues. This study aims to explore primary care nurses' experiences of how mass media influences frontline healthcare. In-depth telephone interviews were carried out with 18 primary care nurses (nine health visitors and nine practice nurses) working in the United Kingdom (UK). Interviews were recorded and transcribed. The data was analysed using thematic analysis, with a focus on constant comparative analysis. Three themes emerged from the data. First, participants reported that their patients were frequently influenced by controversial health stories reported in the media, which affected their perceptions of, and decisions about, care. This, in turn, impinged upon participants' workloads as they had to spend additional time discussing information and reassuring patients. Second, participants also recalled times in their own careers when media reports had contributed to a decline in their confidence in current healthcare practices and treatments. Third, the participants in this study suggested a real need for additional resources to support and expand their own media literacy skills, which could be shared with patients. In an ever expanding media landscape with greater reporting on health, nurses working in the primary care setting face increasing pressure to effectively manage media stories that dispute current health policies and practices. These primary care nurses were keen to expand their media literacy skills to develop critical autonomy in relation to all media, and to facilitate more meaningful conversations with their patients about their health concerns and choices.

  13. Coasting beam theory applied to bunches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hereward, H.

    1975-01-01

    It is plausible to apply coasting beam criteria to bunches if one has short wavelength disturbances of the bunch and short memory wake fields, where short means short compared with a bunch length, for then one can argue that a piece of the bunch near the middle does not even know that the bunch has ends. Some other conditions probably required to validate this approach are discussed. The local Keil-Schnell criterion is derived from the local dispersion integral

  14. "Get smart Colorado": impact of a mass media campaign to improve community antibiotic use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Ralph; Corbett, Kitty K; Wong, Shale; Glazner, Judith E; Deas, Ann; Leeman-Castillo, Bonnie; Maselli, Judith H; Sebert-Kuhlmann, Ann; Wigton, Robert S; Flores, Estevan; Kafadar, Karen

    2008-06-01

    Large-scale strategies are needed to reduce overuse of antibiotics in US communities. To evaluate the impact of a mass media campaign-"Get Smart Colorado"-on public exposure to campaign, antibiotic use, and office visit rates. Nonrandomized controlled trial. Two metropolitan communities in Colorado, United States. The general public, managed care enrollees, and physicians residing in the mass media (2.2 million persons) and comparison (0.53 million persons) communities. : The campaign consisting of paid outdoor advertising, earned media and physician advocacy ran between November 2002 and February 2003. Antibiotics dispensed per 1000 persons or managed care enrollees, and the proportion of office visits receiving antibiotics measured during 10 to 12 months before and after the campaign. After the mass media campaign, there was a 3.8% net decrease in retail pharmacy antibiotic dispenses per 1000 persons (P = 0.30) and an 8.8% net decrease in managed care-associated antibiotic dispenses per 1000 members (P = 0.03) in the mass media community. Most of the decline occurred among pediatric members, and corresponded with a decline in pediatric office visit rates. There was no change in the office visit prescription rates among pediatric or adult managed care members, nor in visit rates for complications of acute respiratory tract infections. A low-cost mass media campaign was associated with a reduction in antibiotic use in the community, and seems to be mediated through decreases in office visits rates among children. The campaign seems to be cost-saving.

  15. [Effect of mass communication media in food purchasing at the family level].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya de Sifontes, M Z; Dehollain, P L

    1986-03-01

    The main purpose of this study was to determine the effect of mass media advertisement of food products (TV, radio and the press), particularly in pre-school and school-age children, as well as the concomitant impact these age groups have on the family food buying patterns. To test the hypothesis that the impact of mass media advertising on foods varied in the different socioeconomic levels of a community, a stratified sample of all children below 13 years of age, who attended the Francisco Fajardo school in the central coast of Venezuela, was drawn. Mass media contact, food and nutrition knowledge and other socioeconomic characteristics were related to the family's food-buying patterns. More specifically, the age, working status and educational level of the mother in regard to beliefs concerning the nutritional value of advertized food products, were related. A semi-structured questionnaire was designed, tested and applied to the housewife or whoever performed this role within the family. Findings revealed that families of low socioeconomic status are prone to be most influenced by mass media food product advertising. This is reflected not only in food purchasing practices but also in food consumption patterns at the family level. Chocolate drinks, cereals, jello, sausages, and ice cream are the most popular products among pre-school and school-aged children, without social class distinction. Furthermore, results revealed that the degree of exposure to mass communication media--television, radio and newspapers--is a determining factor in children's food preferences at all socioeconomic levels, and that television is the media exerting the greatest influence.

  16. Do mass media campaigns improve physical activity? a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abioye, Ajibola I; Hajifathalian, Kaveh; Danaei, Goodarz

    2013-08-02

    Mass media campaigns are frequently used to influence the health behaviors of various populations. There are currently no quantitative meta-analyses of the effect of mass media campaigns on physical activity in adults. We searched six electronic databases from their inception to August 2012 and selected prospective studies that evaluated the effect of mass media campaigns on physical activity in adults. We excluded studies that did not have a proper control group or did not report the uncertainties of the effect estimates. Two reviewers independently screened the title/abstracts and full articles. We used random-effects models to pool effect estimates across studies for 3 selected outcomes. Nine prospective cohorts and before-after studies that followed-up 27,601 people over 8 weeks to 3 years met the inclusion criteria. Based on the pooled results from these studies, mass media campaigns had a significant effect on promoting moderate intensity walking (pooled relative risk (RR) from 3 studies=1.53, 95% Confidence Interval: 1.25 to 1.87), but did not help participants achieve sufficient levels of physical activity [4 studies pooled RR=1.02, 95% CI: 0.91 to 1.14)]. The apparent effect of media campaigns on reducing sedentary behavior (pooled RR=1.15, 95% CI: 1.03 to 1.30) was lost when a relatively low-quality study with large effects was excluded in a sensitivity analysis. In subgroup analyses, campaigns that promoted physical activity as a 'social norm' seemed to be more effective in reducing sedentary behavior. Mass media campaigns may promote walking but may not reduce sedentary behavior or lead to achieving recommended levels of overall physical activity. Further research is warranted on different campaign types and in low- and middle- income countries.

  17. Mass media in system of predictors for suicidal behavior in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Vihristyuk

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The article provides an overview of international sources that attempt to identify the effect of mass media information messages concerning suicide on the public. We concern the possibility of imitative suicides after media coverage of suicide incidents (“Werter syndrome”, providing data on suicides increase following media reports on this topic. We discuss the data obtained by surveys conducted among Internet users of pro-suicidal web sites. On the example of recent international research, we note that despite the contradicting research results, the mass media impact on suicidal adolescents and young adults is possible, especially among young people most affected by external influences. The analysis of causes, motives and methods of suicide among adolescents and young people, as described by media, showed that among the causes dominate family and peers conflicts, among the motives – “protest"”, “revenge” (48% and “call” (16.6%. Pre-suicidal period in 75% of patients was characterized as affective and stressful. The article emphasizes that simplification of media reports and their focusing on one of the suicide risk factors (family, school, or Internet cannot see the whole picture of suicidal behavior as a set of internal and external factors and their interaction.

  18. Examining the association between exposure to mass media and health insurance enrolment in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansanga, Moses Mosonsieyiri; Asumah Braimah, Joseph; Antabe, Roger; Sano, Yuji; Kyeremeh, Emmanuel; Luginaah, Isaac

    2018-02-12

    Although previous studies have explored the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) in Ghana, very little attention is paid to the influence of mass media exposure on NHIS enrolment. Yet, understanding this linkage is important, particularly due to the critical role of mass media in disseminating health information and shaping people's health perceptions and choices. Using data from the 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey, we employed logistic regression analysis to understand the relationship between NHIS enrolment and exposure to print media, radio, and television. Our findings indicate that women with more exposure to radio (OR = 1.23, P NHIS than those with no exposure. For men, more exposure to print media was associated with higher odds of enrolling in the NHIS (OR = 1.41, P NHIS enrolment in Ghana. However, given that the relationship between media exposure and enrolment in the NHIS was gendered, we recommend that policymakers should pay attention to these dynamics to ensure effective targeting in NHIS media campaigns for increased enrolment into the scheme. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. [Illustration of military medicine on the pages of mass printed media during the First World War].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poddubnyĭ, M V

    2014-12-01

    The article analyses some of illustrations dedicated to the military medical topics on the pages of some Russian magazines and newspapers (magazine "Ogonek" newspaper "Petrograd's paper" and its annexes), its place among the images of the war, formed in the mass consciousness by periodical subjects. It is concluded that with the beginning of the First World War medical illustrations were finally approved as a recognizable symbol of the war. Mass printed media played a significant role in its entrenchment.

  20. Impact of increasing social media use on sitting time and body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alley, Stephanie; Wellens, Pauline; Schoeppe, Stephanie; de Vries, Hein; Rebar, Amanda L; Short, Camille E; Duncan, Mitch J; Vandelanotte, Corneel

    2017-08-01

    Issue addressed Sedentary behaviours, in particular sitting, increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, obesity and poorer mental health status. In Australia, 70% of adults sit for more than 8h per day. The use of social media applications (e.g. Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram) is on the rise; however, no studies have explored the association of social media use with sitting time and body mass index (BMI). Methods Cross-sectional self-report data on demographics, BMI and sitting time were collected from 1140 participants in the 2013 Queensland Social Survey. Generalised linear models were used to estimate associations of a social media score calculated from social media use, perceived importance of social media, and number of social media contacts with sitting time and BMI. Results Participants with a high social media score had significantly greater sitting times while using a computer in leisure time and significantly greater total sitting time on non-workdays. However, no associations were found between social media score and sitting to view TV, use motorised transport, work or participate in other leisure activities; or total workday, total sitting time or BMI. Conclusions These results indicate that social media use is associated with increased sitting time while using a computer, and total sitting time on non-workdays. So what? The rise in social media use may have a negative impact on health by contributing to computer sitting and total sitting time on non-workdays. Future longitudinal research with a representative sample and objective sitting measures is needed to confirm findings.

  1. Translating psychological science: Highlighting the media's contribution to contagion in mass shootings: Comment on Kaslow (2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Paul B

    2016-01-01

    In her presidential address, N. J. Kaslow (see record 2015-33530-002) argued that psychologists have a responsibility to translate psychological science to the public and identifies various platforms for doing so. In this comment on her article, I advocate that psychology as a field immediately heed her call in the area of psychological science highlighting the media's contribution to contagion in mass shootings. I point out the psychological science documenting media contagion for suicide and mass shootings, the World Health Organization's (2008) guidelines for media in reporting suicide deaths to prevent that contagion, and discuss ways-based on Dr. Kaslow's suggestions-that psychologists can disseminate psychological science to prevent similar tragedies in the future. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Mass media and marketing communication promoting primary and secondary cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Peggy; Lloyd, Gareth P; Viswanath, K; Smith, Tenbroeck; Basen-Engquist, Karen; Vernon, Sally W; Turner, Gina; Hesse, Bradford W; Crammer, Corinne; von Wagner, Christian; Backinger, Cathy L

    2009-01-01

    People often seek and receive cancer information from mass media (including television, radio, print media, and the Internet), and marketing strategies often inform cancer information needs assessment, message development, and channel selection. In this article, we present the discussion of a 2-hour working group convened for a cancer communications workshop held at the 2008 Society of Behavioral Medicine meeting in San Diego, CA. During the session, an interdisciplinary group of investigators discussed the current state of the science for mass media and marketing communication promoting primary and secondary cancer prevention. We discussed current research, new research areas, methodologies and theories needed to move the field forward, and critical areas and disciplines for future research.

  3. Diffusive counter dispersion of mass in bubbly media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldobin, Denis S; Brilliantov, Nikolai V

    2011-11-01

    We consider a liquid bearing gas bubbles in a porous medium. When gas bubbles are immovably trapped in a porous matrix by surface-tension forces, the dominant mechanism of transfer of gas mass becomes the diffusion of gas molecules through the liquid. Essentially, the gas solution is in local thermodynamic equilibrium with vapor phase all over the system, i.e., the solute concentration equals the solubility. When temperature and/or pressure gradients are applied, diffusion fluxes appear and these fluxes are faithfully determined by the temperature and pressure fields, not by the local solute concentration, which is enslaved by the former. We derive the equations governing such systems, accounting for thermodiffusion and gravitational segregation effects, which are shown not to be neglected for geological systems-marine sediments, terrestrial aquifers, etc. The results are applied for the treatment of non-high-pressure systems and real geological systems bearing methane or carbon dioxide, where we find a potential possibility of the formation of gaseous horizons deep below a porous medium surface. The reported effects are of particular importance for natural methane hydrate deposits and the problem of burial of industrial production of carbon dioxide in deep aquifers.

  4. Chemistry in the Popular Culture: Mass Media, Music and Outreach Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jergović, B.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Science is often identified with the discipline of chemistry particularly in the popular sphere and in visual culture. The image of science or its profile is created mainly in the mass media, but also in other spheres and in many different ways. Mass media are in the focus of many research groups, as the most frequent and efficient source of scientific information to the public. Science communication research is rather intense also in the attempt to understand the non-linear interaction with popular music and film. In addition, public activities of scientific institutions are being investigated, as well as the public image of science in projects where scientists are directly communicating with the general, lay audience. Notwithstanding, a link between research and the practice of science communication is non-existent. Public communication of science is more emerging than planned, there are many isolated actors and programs, and ‘hard’ sciences are not keen on using the social sciences’ knowledge and skills. In order to improve this situation, it is essential to understand how the public image of science is created, and how science interacts with its audiences. Here, the public image of science is discussed with regard to the news values and the new circumstances for mass communication, particularly the convergence of different media, which offers new possibilities for science in the public. An analysis of the media coverage of chemistry in the International Chemistry Year 2011 shows huge differences in the frequency and nature of the media coverage, particularly with regard to media convergence and the use of different media simultaneously. Outreach events are discussed in the light of the influence on their visitors. Since science communication is present in other spheres of popular culture, and in nonlinear top-down manner, we shortly discuss communication about chemistry in pop music in the attempt to suggest the need to communicate

  5. The mass media and national development: the case of 'baby factory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mass media play vital role in the national development of any nation, they ... entertainment, integration and social interaction in a country by giving insight into ... and concluded that they should be allowed to promote the national identity of ...

  6. The Press and America: An Interpretative History of the Mass Media. 3rd Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Edwin

    This book presents a history of journalism in the United States. The opening chapters discuss the European roots of American journalism and cover the time-span ending with the Civil War; the primary concern is an exposition of the principles of the American press. The remaining chapters examine the mass media--newspapers, television, radio,…

  7. Caricatural Imagery in the Mass Media. Research Report, Vol. 9, No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streicher, Lawrence H.

    Caricature and its distortion of reality as developed in the mass press are discussed in relation to the appearance of caricatural elements in other media, such as radio and television. High frequency of appearances of these distorted roles and situations might lead to viewers' perceptual rigidity in typing of characters in general, but might have…

  8. Mass Media Strategies Targeting High Sensation Seekers: What Works and Why

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Michael T.

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To examine strategies for using the mass media effectively in drug prevention campaigns targeting high sensation seekers. Methods: Both experimental lab and field studies were used to develop a comprehensive audience segmentation strategy targeting high sensation seekers. Results: A 4-pronged targeting strategy employed in an…

  9. Climate Change Discourse in Mass Media: Application of Computer-Assisted Content Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirilenko, Andrei P.; Stepchenkova, Svetlana O.

    2012-01-01

    Content analysis of mass media publications has become a major scientific method used to analyze public discourse on climate change. We propose a computer-assisted content analysis method to extract prevalent themes and analyze discourse changes over an extended period in an objective and quantifiable manner. The method includes the following: (1)…

  10. The information psychological periodization of the Chernoby'l NPP accident information in the mass media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugrim, V.V.

    1992-01-01

    The activity of mass media reflecting the Chernobyl' accident in 1986-1991 has been surveilled. The information (radio, television, press conferences) given at this period was devided into seven classification periods. The analysis of the information and its assessment in each period was demonstrated. 6 refs

  11. Effects of Mass Media and Cultural Drift in a Model for Social Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzitello, Karina I.; Candia, Julián; Dossetti, Víctor

    In the context of an extension of Axelrod's model for social influence, we study the interplay and competition between the cultural drift, represented as random perturbations, and mass media, introduced by means of an external homogeneous field. Unlike previous studies [J. C. González-Avella et al., Phys. Rev. E 72, 065102(R) (2005)], the mass media coupling proposed here is capable of affecting the cultural traits of any individual in the society, including those who do not share any features with the external message. A noise-driven transition is found: for large noise rates, both the ordered (culturally polarized) phase and the disordered (culturally fragmented) phase are observed, while, for lower noise rates, the ordered phase prevails. In the former case, the external field is found to induce cultural ordering, a behavior opposite to that reported in previous studies using a different prescription for the mass media interaction. We compare the predictions of this model to statistical data measuring the impact of a mass media vasectomy promotion campaign in Brazil.

  12. Potential Impact of the Mass Media on Family Planning in an Urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: The role of radio and television message is an important factor in creating and changing the values, ideas and attitudes of people in Public Health. Fertility regulation in Nigeria is still yet to meet the optimum level. Objectives: The research therefore is designed to assess the role of mass media, radio and television ...

  13. The macro-environment for liquid biofuels in the German science, mass, media and government

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talamini, E.; Wubben, E.F.M.; Dewes, H.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate under which dimensions the macro-environment for liquid biofuels has been structured during time, respectively by science, mass media, and government in Germany, and how these three social expressions related to each other. Research was carried out on

  14. Language Policy-Making in Multilingual Education: Mass Media and the Framing of Medium of Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollefson, James W.

    2015-01-01

    In some settings, medium of instruction (MOI) policies in multilingual education break out into public debates in mass media involving politicians, business leaders, government officials, parents, and school children. These public discussions of MOI often index struggles over the distribution of political power and economic resources, and issues…

  15. Herman and Chomsky's Propaganda Model: Production of Consent: Political Economy of Mass Media

    OpenAIRE

    Gadimov, Javanshir

    2016-01-01

    Rızanın İmalatı: Kitle Medyasının Ekonomi PolitiğiEdward S. Herman ve Noam ChomskyOrijinal Adı: Manufacturing Consent: The Political Economy of the Mass MediaÇeviri: Dr. Ender Abadoğluİstanbul: bgst Yayınları, 2012, 478 sayfa

  16. DYNAMICS OF METAPHORIC MODELLING OF THE CONCEPT OF TERRORISM IN AMERICAN MASS MEDIA DISCOURSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rykova, O.V.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The topicality of the research in modern linguistics is defined by the importance of studying the problem of the dynamic nature of the concept content, the need to define the connection type between the concept and discourse as well as to reveal the dependence of the concept content and verbalization means from the type of discourse. The subject of the research is dynamic properties of the verbalization of a socially marked concept in American mass media discourse. The aim is to define the dynamics of structuring and explicating the knowledge about terrorism in mass media discourse. To reach the aim the following tasks are set: to determine the corpus of linguistic units which serve as verbalizers of the concept of terrorism in American mass media discourse; to define the dynamics of the verbal representation of the concept of terrorism in American mass media discourse as exemplified by metaphoric modelling. The practical applicability of the research consists in the possibility of using its main points and results in such academic courses as general linguistics, stylistics, cultural linguistics, special courses in cognitive linguistics, theory of conceptual metaphor, discourse study and in lexicographic practice.

  17. Journalism and Mass Communication Textbook Representations of Verbal Media Skills: Implications for Students with Speech Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Elia M.; Haller, Beth

    2017-01-01

    This study examines representation of disabilities by conducting a qualitative content analysis of how 41 journalism/mass communication textbooks frame the ideal standards of verbal communication for media professionals. Textbooks are integral to students' understanding of professional norms and may influence career decisions. Results show that…

  18. Exploring the Influence of the Mass Media on Primary Students' Conceptual Understanding of Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Jenny; Venville, Grady

    2012-01-01

    The new Australian Curriculum ignites debate about science content appropriate for primary school children. Abstract genetics concepts such as genes and DNA are still being avoided in primary school, yet research has shown that, by age 10, many students have heard of DNA and/or genes. Scientific concepts appear in the mass media, but primary…

  19. Print and Broadcast Mass Media Factors as Predictors of Nigerian Teachers' Political Awareness and Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbatogun, A. Olaoluwakotansibe

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which the use of print and broadcast mass media could predict the level of awareness and participation of secondary school teachers in political activities and its implications on the quality of Nigerian education system. Eight hundred and two secondary school teachers from South West states of Nigeria served as…

  20. Improving Safe Blood Donation in Nigeria: The Roles of the Mass Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oriji, Christian Chigozi

    2015-01-01

    The study discusses improving safe blood donation in Nigeria and the roles of the mass media in achieving same in Nigerian hospitals. In this regard, it answers the questions: What is blood? What is blood donation? And is safe blood donation adequate in Nigeria? Beyond the relevant answers given on the above questions, it also explains the roles…

  1. Sex, Pornography, and the Mass Media: How Should Social Studies Teachers Respond?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinson, David L.

    2007-01-01

    Many people fear that the current explosion in mass media technology is negatively affecting individuals and society via-a-vis considerations related to the accessibility of pornographic materials. The way this accessibility affects young people is of particular concern. In this article, the author addresses these concerns from the legal and…

  2. Population-Based Evaluation of the "Livelighter" Healthy Weight and Lifestyle Mass Media Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, B.; Niven, P.; Dixon, H.; Swanson, M.; Szybiak, M.; Shilton, T.; Pratt, I. S.; Slevin, T.; Hill, D.; Wakefield, M.

    2016-01-01

    The Western Australian (WA) "LiveLighter" (LL) mass media campaign ran during June-August and September-October 2012. The principal campaign ad graphically depicts visceral fat of an overweight individual ("why" change message), whereas supporting ads demonstrate simple changes to increase activity and eat healthier…

  3. An evaluation of the role of the mass media in conflict management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An evaluation of the role of the mass media in conflict management: The Niger ... ups and downs to the public within the ambit of social responsibility theory of the ... Thus, blowing mere misunderstanding and misconception of issues from the ...

  4. The macro-environment for liquid biofuels in the US mass media, science and government

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wubben, E.F.M.; Talamini, E.; Dewes, H.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate under which dimensions the macro-environment for liquid biofuels has been structured during time, respectively by science, mass media, and government in Germany, and how these three social expressions related to each other. Research was carried out on

  5. Americans' Views of Fathers' Competency as Parents through a Mass Media Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Christopher A.

    2015-01-01

    Portrayals of fathers in the mass media influence parents' views of the importance of fathers to the well-being of children and of fathers' competence as parents. Awareness of how these portrayals influence parents is crucial to the effectiveness of professionals as they seek to improve child well-being through their work with parents,…

  6. Mass Media as a Remedy for Poverty of the Stimulus in the Foreign Language Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaneh Tarighat

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study is intended to determine how extensive exposure to target language mass media can affect foreign language learning and the poverty of the stimulus problem in the foreign language context. For this purpose, an EFL learner was studied for the period of one month and was asked to have extensive exposure to English language mass media only. The case was also asked to record her experience in a journal on a daily basis. The results indicated tangible improvement in her English speaking, listening, pronunciation and vocabulary but hardly any improvement on her English writing. A more profound impact was reported on the subject’s four-year-old son who was not initially the focus of this study. The results suggest that considering the authentic, lengthy language input it provides, foreign language mass media can compensate for the problem of poverty of the stimulus in foreign language learning. It is concluded that formal language instruction and exposure to foreign language mass media outside the class can complement one another and promote foreign language learning on the whole. It is also evident that the impact of extensive language input varies with the age of the language learner, with young learners bearing more influence than adult learners as the effects of the critical period hypothesis.

  7. The Role of Mass Media in the Delivery of Adult Education for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We live in a global world where everyone is interconnected. Investment in the education of adults which will eventually lead to skills development, information and communication technologies, and capital formation at the grassroots level through the mass media cannot be understated. The main thing that separates ...

  8. Mass media campaigns and organ donation: managing conflicting messages and interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rady, Mohamed Y; McGregor, Joan L; Verheijde, Joseph L

    2012-05-01

    Mass media campaigns are widely and successfully used to change health decisions and behaviors for better or for worse in society. In the United States, media campaigns have been launched at local offices of the states' department of motor vehicles to promote citizens' willingness to organ donation and donor registration. We analyze interventional studies of multimedia communication campaigns to encourage organ-donor registration at local offices of states' department of motor vehicles. The media campaigns include the use of multifaceted communication tools and provide training to desk clerks in the use of scripted messages for the purpose of optimizing enrollment in organ-donor registries. Scripted messages are communicated to customers through mass audiovisual entertainment media, print materials and interpersonal interaction at the offices of departments of motor vehicles. These campaigns give rise to three serious concerns: (1) bias in communicating information with scripted messages without verification of the scientific accuracy of information, (2) the provision of misinformation to future donors that may result in them suffering unintended consequences from consenting to medical procedures before death (e.g, organ preservation and suitability for transplantation), and (3) the unmanaged conflict of interests for organizations charged with implementing these campaigns, (i.e, dual advocacy for transplant recipients and donors). We conclude the following: (1) media campaigns about healthcare should communicate accurate information to the general public and disclose factual materials with the least amount of bias; (2) conflicting interests in media campaigns should be managed with full public transparency; (3) media campaigns should disclose the practical implications of procurement as well as acknowledge the medical, legal, and religious controversies of determining death in organ donation; (4) organ-donor registration must satisfy the criteria of informed

  9. [Mass media influence and risk of developing eating disorders in female students from Lima, Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazo Montoya, Yessenia; Quenaya, Alejandra; Mayta-Tristán, Percy

    2015-12-01

    Eating disorders (EDs) are a public health problem, and their relationship to mass media is still controversial. To assess whether there is an association between models of body image shown in mass media and the risk of developing EDs among female adolescent students from Lima, Peru. Cross-sectional study conducted in three schools located in the district of La Victoria, Lima, Peru. The risk of developing EDs was measured using the Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26), while mass media influence was measured using the Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-3 (SATAQ-3), which was categorized into tertiles both in the overall score and its subscales (information, pressure, general internalization, and athletic internalization). Adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) for EDs were estimated. Four hundred and eighty-three students were included, their median age was 14 ? 3 years old. A risk of developing an ED was observed in 13.9% of them. Students who are more influenced by mass media (upper tertile of the SATAQ-3) have a higher probability of having a risk of developing an ED (aPR: 4.24; 95% confidence interval |-CI-|: 2.10-8.56), as well as those who have a greater access to information (PR: 1.89; 95% CI: 1.09-3.25), suffer more pressure (PR: 4.97; 95% CI: 2.31-10.69), show a greater general internalization (PR: 5.00; 95% CI: 2.39-10.43), and show a greater level of athletic internalization (PR: 4.35; 95% CI: 2.19-8-66). The greater the influence of mass media, the greater the probability of having a risk of developing an ED among female students from Lima, Peru.

  10. 47 CFR 1.1153 - Schedule of annual regulatory fees and filing locations for mass media services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Schedule of annual regulatory fees and filing locations for mass media services. 1.1153 Section 1.1153 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION... of annual regulatory fees and filing locations for mass media services. Radio [AM and FM] (47 CFR...

  11. The Effects of Musical Elements in Mass Media and Internet on the Social Development of Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celasin, Cenk

    2013-01-01

    In this qualitative study, musical elements in mass media and internet mostly intended to children and adolescents, were examined in the context of the dimensions of the social development of them in a general approach, through scientific literature and written, audio, visual and audio-visual documents regarding mass media and internet. Purpose of…

  12. Resistive theory of bunch lengthening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Month, M.; Messerschmid, E.

    1977-01-01

    A new theory of bunch lengthening in electron storage rings is proposed. The equilibrium bunch length is that length which stabilizes the bunch against the onset of ''fast'' resistive instability, caused by the combination of many high frequency resonators such as vacuum flanges. The heat dissipated in these impedance sources follows immediately from the bunch length. It is found that the anomalous bunch length is determined by a scaling parameter g = (hVcos phi/sub s/)/I. Data taken in SPEAR I and II, data in which g extends in value by more than three orders of magnitude, can be fit with an appropriate choice of high frequency, large width coupling impedance. The impedance functions for SPEAR I and II are taken to be the same, a reflection of the fact that the high frequency sources are chamber discontinuities rather than structures connected with the rf systems. A parameter search leads to an impedance characterized by a central frequency approximately 5 GHz, a width (FWHM) approximately 1.8 GHz and a peak impedance approximately 0.2 M OMEGA. The expected and observed higher mode resistance (i.e., heat dissipated) for SPEAR are compared and found to be in agreement. Predictions are given for PEP and PETRA

  13. Self-bunching electron guns

    CERN Document Server

    Mako, F; Weilhammer, Peter

    1999-01-01

    We report on three electron gun projects that are aimed at power tube and injector applications. The purpose of the work is to develop robust electron guns which produce self-bunched, high-current-density beams. We have demonstrated cold emission, long life, and tolerance to contamination. The cold emission process is based on secondary electron emission. FMT has studied this resonant bunching process which gives rise to high current densities (0.01-5 kA/cm/sup 2/), high charge bunches (up to 100 nC/bunch), and short pulses (1-100 ps) for frequencies from 1 to 12 GHz. The beam pulse width is nominally ~5% of the RF period. The first project is the L-Band Micro-Pulse Gun (MPG). Measurements show ~40 ps long microbunches at ~20 A/cm/sup 2/ without contamination due to air exposure. Lifetime testing has been carried out for about 18 months operating at 1.25 GHz for almost 24 hours per day at a repetition rate of 300 Hz and 5 mu s-long macro- pulses. About 5.8*10/sup 13/ micro-bunches or 62,000 coulombs have pass...

  14. Using a Marginal Structural Model to Design a Theory-Based Mass Media Campaign.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiromu Nishiuchi

    Full Text Available The essential first step in the development of mass media health campaigns is to identify specific beliefs of the target audience. The challenge is to prioritize suitable beliefs derived from behavioral theory. The purpose of this study was to identify suitable beliefs to target in a mass media campaign to change behavior using a new method to estimate the possible effect size of a small set of beliefs.Data were drawn from the 2010 Japanese Young Female Smoker Survey (n = 500, conducted by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare. Survey measures included intention to quit smoking, psychological beliefs (attitude, norms, and perceived control based on the theory of planned behavior and socioeconomic status (age, education, household income, and marital status. To identify suitable candidate beliefs for a mass media health campaign, we estimated the possible effect size required to change the intention to quit smoking among the population of young Japanese women using the population attributable fraction from a marginal structural model.Thirteen percent of study participants intended to quit smoking. The marginal structural model estimated a population attributable fraction of 47 psychological beliefs (21 attitudes, 6 norms, and 19 perceived controls after controlling for socioeconomic status. The belief, "I could quit smoking if my husband or significant other recommended it" suggested a promising target for a mass media campaign (population attributable fraction = 0.12, 95% CI = 0.02-0.23. Messages targeting this belief could possibly improve intention rates by up to 12% among this population. The analysis also suggested the potential for regulatory action.This study proposed a method by which campaign planners can develop theory-based mass communication strategies to change health behaviors at the population level. This method might contribute to improving the quality of future mass health communication strategies and further

  15. Using a Marginal Structural Model to Design a Theory-Based Mass Media Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiuchi, Hiromu; Taguri, Masataka; Ishikawa, Yoshiki

    2016-01-01

    The essential first step in the development of mass media health campaigns is to identify specific beliefs of the target audience. The challenge is to prioritize suitable beliefs derived from behavioral theory. The purpose of this study was to identify suitable beliefs to target in a mass media campaign to change behavior using a new method to estimate the possible effect size of a small set of beliefs. Data were drawn from the 2010 Japanese Young Female Smoker Survey (n = 500), conducted by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare. Survey measures included intention to quit smoking, psychological beliefs (attitude, norms, and perceived control) based on the theory of planned behavior and socioeconomic status (age, education, household income, and marital status). To identify suitable candidate beliefs for a mass media health campaign, we estimated the possible effect size required to change the intention to quit smoking among the population of young Japanese women using the population attributable fraction from a marginal structural model. Thirteen percent of study participants intended to quit smoking. The marginal structural model estimated a population attributable fraction of 47 psychological beliefs (21 attitudes, 6 norms, and 19 perceived controls) after controlling for socioeconomic status. The belief, "I could quit smoking if my husband or significant other recommended it" suggested a promising target for a mass media campaign (population attributable fraction = 0.12, 95% CI = 0.02-0.23). Messages targeting this belief could possibly improve intention rates by up to 12% among this population. The analysis also suggested the potential for regulatory action. This study proposed a method by which campaign planners can develop theory-based mass communication strategies to change health behaviors at the population level. This method might contribute to improving the quality of future mass health communication strategies and further research is needed.

  16. Mass media as an Effective Tool for Prevention of Socio-psychological Factors in the Development of Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri P. Zinchenko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently mass media play crucial role in social counterterrorism activity. The article is devoted to analysis of possibilities of mass media in prevention of the development of terrorism. Socio-psychological factors of development of terrorism, including concept of “contributing events” as well as hypothesis “frustration-aggression” are studied. The psychological component of terrorism in three major attitudes is considered in the article: psychology of terrorism, psychology of counteraction to terrorism, and using mass media for prevention the development of terrorism. Specific features and the external factors promoting involving into terrorism are analysed. Role of mass media in covering the information about terrorism events is analysed from point of view related to prevention of development of terrorism. Some key recommendations on counterterrorism activity using mass media means are formulated.

  17. Mass media barriers to social marketing interventions: the example of sun protection in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Gillian Ann; Eagle, Lynne; Verne, Julia

    2011-03-01

    The role of the mass media in communicating health-related information to the wider population is the focus of this paper. Using the example of sun protection within the UK, we highlight some of the major challenges to raising awareness of steadily increasing melanoma rates and of effective sun protection strategies. The implications of potential barriers to official sun protection messages via conflicting messages in the media are discussed in terms of editorial on sun protection and in the way in which television programme content portrays the issues. Implications for public policy and future research conclude the paper.

  18. Effectiveness of Mass Media Campaigns to Reduce Alcohol Consumption and Harm: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Sarah; Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal; Bauld, Linda; Stead, Martine; Angus, Kathryn; Campbell, Mhairi; Hilton, Shona; Thomas, James; Hinds, Kate; Ashie, Adela; Langley, Tessa

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Aims To assess the effectiveness of mass media messages to reduce alcohol consumption and related harms using a systematic literature review. Methods Eight databases were searched along with reference lists of eligible studies. Studies of any design in any country were included, provided that they evaluated a mass media intervention targeting alcohol consumption or related behavioural, social cognitive or clinical outcomes. Drink driving interventions and college campus campaigns were ineligible. Studies quality were assessed, data were extracted and a narrative synthesis conducted. Results Searches produced 10,212 results and 24 studies were included in the review. Most campaigns used TV or radio in combination with other media channels were conducted in developed countries and were of weak quality. There was little evidence of reductions in alcohol consumption associated with exposure to campaigns based on 13 studies which measured consumption, although most did not state this as a specific aim of the campaign. There were some increases in treatment seeking and information seeking and mixed evidence of changes in intentions, motivation, beliefs and attitudes about alcohol. Campaigns were associated with increases in knowledge about alcohol consumption, especially where levels had initially been low. Recall of campaigns was high. Conclusion Mass media health campaigns about alcohol are often recalled by individuals, have achieved changes in knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about alcohol but there is little evidence of reductions in alcohol consumption. Short summary There is little evidence that mass media campaigns have reduced alcohol consumption although most did not state that they aimed to do so. Studies show recall of campaigns is high and that they can have an impact on knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about alcohol consumption. PMID:29329359

  19. Effectiveness of Mass Media Campaigns to Reduce Alcohol Consumption and Harm: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Ben; Lewis, Sarah; Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal; Bauld, Linda; Stead, Martine; Angus, Kathryn; Campbell, Mhairi; Hilton, Shona; Thomas, James; Hinds, Kate; Ashie, Adela; Langley, Tessa

    2018-05-01

    To assess the effectiveness of mass media messages to reduce alcohol consumption and related harms using a systematic literature review. Eight databases were searched along with reference lists of eligible studies. Studies of any design in any country were included, provided that they evaluated a mass media intervention targeting alcohol consumption or related behavioural, social cognitive or clinical outcomes. Drink driving interventions and college campus campaigns were ineligible. Studies quality were assessed, data were extracted and a narrative synthesis conducted. Searches produced 10,212 results and 24 studies were included in the review. Most campaigns used TV or radio in combination with other media channels were conducted in developed countries and were of weak quality. There was little evidence of reductions in alcohol consumption associated with exposure to campaigns based on 13 studies which measured consumption, although most did not state this as a specific aim of the campaign. There were some increases in treatment seeking and information seeking and mixed evidence of changes in intentions, motivation, beliefs and attitudes about alcohol. Campaigns were associated with increases in knowledge about alcohol consumption, especially where levels had initially been low. Recall of campaigns was high. Mass media health campaigns about alcohol are often recalled by individuals, have achieved changes in knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about alcohol but there is little evidence of reductions in alcohol consumption. There is little evidence that mass media campaigns have reduced alcohol consumption although most did not state that they aimed to do so. Studies show recall of campaigns is high and that they can have an impact on knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about alcohol consumption.

  20. A mass conservative numerical solution of vertical water flow and mass transport equations in unsaturated porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, S.C.; Lee, K.J.

    1993-01-01

    The Galerkin finite element method is used to solve the problem of one-dimensional, vertical flow of water and mass transport of conservative-nonconservative solutes in unsaturated porous media. Numerical approximations based on different forms of the governing equation, although they are equivalent in continuous forms, can result in remarkably different solutions in an unsaturated flow problem. Solutions given by a simple Galerkin method based on the h-based Richards equation yield a large mass balance error and an underestimation of the infiltration depth. With the employment of the ROMV (restoration of main variable) concept in the discretization step, the mass conservative numerical solution algorithm for water flow has been derived. The resulting computational schemes for water flow and mass transport are applied to sandy soil. The ROMV method shows good mass conservation in water flow analysis, whereas it seems to have a minor effect on mass transport. However, it may relax the time-step size restriction and so ensure an improved calculation output. (author)

  1. Single-bunch kicker pulser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frey, W.W.

    1983-01-01

    The single-bunch kicker magnet is powered by a capacitor discharge pulser. The ferrite-core magnet is used to kick out one of twelve proton bunches circulating in the AGS (Alternating Gradient Synchrotron) into the experimental area. The magnet current pulse has a half-sinusoid shape, with a peak current of 2800 A. The pulse current rises and falls to zero, with minimum undershoot, in 410 nsec to minimize effects on adjacent bunches. The magnet inductance is 1.0 μHy. The pulser is mounted on the kicker magnet in the AGS ring, and is exposed to ionizing radiation. The HVDC power supply, controls, monitoring, and auxiliary circuits are housed approximately 300 feet away external to the ring. A two-gap thyratron is used to discharge the energy storage capacitor. Two hydrogen diodes are series connected to function as an inverse diode

  2. Single-bunch kicker pulser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frey, W.W.

    1983-01-01

    The single-bunch kicker magnet is powered by a capacitor discharge pulser. The ferrite-core magnet is used to kick out one of twelve proton bunches circulating in the AGS (Alternating Gradient Synchrotron) into the experimental area. The magnet current pulse has a half-sinusoid shape, with a peak current of 2800 A. The pulse current rises and falls to zero, with minimum undershoot, in 410 nsec to minimize effects on adjacent bunches. The magnet inductance is 1.0 ..mu..Hy. The pulser is mounted on the kicker magnet in the AGS ring, and is exposed to ionizing radiation. The HVDC power supply, controls, monitoring, and auxiliary circuits are housed approximately 300 feet away external to the ring. A two-gap thyratron is used to discharge the energy storage capacitor. Two hydrogen diodes are series connected to function as an inverse diode.

  3. Transport Visualization for Studying Mass Transfer and Solute Transport in Permeable Media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy Haggerty

    2004-01-01

    Understanding and predicting mass transfer coupled with solute transport in permeable media is central to several energy-related programs at the US Department of Energy (e.g., CO 2 sequestration, nuclear waste disposal, hydrocarbon extraction, and groundwater remediation). Mass transfer is the set of processes that control movement of a chemical between mobile (advection-dominated) domains and immobile (diffusion- or sorption-dominated) domains within a permeable medium. Consequences of mass transfer on solute transport are numerous and may include (1) increased sequestration time within geologic formations; (2) reduction in average solute transport velocity by as much as several orders of magnitude; (3) long ''tails'' in concentration histories during removal of a solute from a permeable medium; (4) poor predictions of solute behavior over long time scales; and (5) changes in reaction rates due to mass transfer influences on pore-scale mixing of solutes. Our work produced four principle contributions: (1) the first comprehensive visualization of solute transport and mass transfer in heterogeneous porous media; (2) the beginnings of a theoretical framework that encompasses both macrodispersion and mass transfer within a single set of equations; (3) experimental and analytical tools necessary for understanding mixing and aqueous reaction in heterogeneous, granular porous media; (4) a clear experimental demonstration that reactive transport is often not accurately described by a simple coupling of the convection-dispersion equation with chemical reaction equations. The work shows that solute transport in heterogeneous media can be divided into 3 regimes--macrodispersion, advective mass transfer, and diffusive mass transfer--and that these regimes can be predicted quantitatively in binary media. We successfully predicted mass transfer in each of these regimes and verified the prediction by completing quantitative visualization experiments in each of the regimes, the

  4. The decline of natural sciences in the culture of mass media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elías, Carlos

    2011-06-01

    This study sets out to determine if the interest in and study of natural sciences is declining in western countries as scientists currently contend. Part one demonstrates how survey results reveal a decline of interest in scientific news in the EU. Part two explores the decline of interest further through examining data such as the number of students interested in scientific subjects and scientific careers. I explore the hypothesis that the lack of interest in scientific subjects is influenced by the culture of the mass media, and the manner in which the media covers scientific items. I examine a range of media outlets, from reality TV shows and TV series, to movies and the press. Many aspects of this paper have been discussed in depth in my book published in 2008: La razón estrangulada (Reason Strangled: the Crisis of Science in Contemporary Society).

  5. Transverse and longitudinal coupled bunch instabilities in trains of closely spaced bunches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, K.A.; Ruth, R.D.

    1989-03-01

    Damping rings for the next generation of linear collider may need to contain several bunch trains within which the bunches are quire closely spaced (1 or 2 RF wavelengths). Methods are presented for studying the transverse and longitudinal coupled bunch instabilities, applicable to this problem and to other cases in which the placement of the bunches is not necessarily symmetric. 5 refs., 1 fig

  6. The mass media exposure and disordered eating behaviours in Spanish secondary students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calado, María; Lameiras, María; Sepulveda, Ana R; Rodríguez, Yolanda; Carrera, María V

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between disordered eating behaviours/attitudes and mass media exposure in a cross-sectional national survey of 1165 Spanish secondary students (age between 14 and 16 years). A battery of questionnaires were used to investigate mass media influence, body dissatisfaction, physical appearance, sociocultural attitudes and self-esteem. Likewise, the EAT-26 questionnaire was used to assess disordered eating behaviours/attitudes, identifying that 6.6% (n = 32) of the male and 13.6% (n = 68) of the female students reached a cut-off point of 20 or above. The main finding was that female and male adolescents with disordered eating showed an increased exposure to TV and magazine sections related to body image, specifically regarding music video channels, in comparison with those without eating disordered, gender-matched counterparts. However, findings indicate that media exposure was different to some degree between males and females with disordered eating behaviour. Males with disordered eating behaviours and attitudes were associated with higher TV and magazine exposure to health sections and also greater body dissatisfaction, internalisation of the thin-ideal and social and appearance comparison. In females, disordered eating was associated with higher TV and magazine exposure to dieting, fashion and sport sections, greater body dissatisfaction, internalisation and awareness of the thin-ideal and lower self-esteem. Understanding the mechanism involved in the media exposure's influence on adolescents is critical in preventing disordered eating.

  7. Mass Media and Re-Branding Nigeria Project: A Historical Evaluation of a Failed Government Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelechi Johnmary Ani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Mass media exercise extra-ordinary influence on the state and citizenry of every country and the ability of media to facilitate man’s behavioural change through its agenda- setting role makes them central in the re-branding process. The implication became that those politicians who champion the re-branding process tried to win the citizenry’s legitimacy through the media. This paper shows that the major challenges of the re-branding project include the inability of the Nigerian political leadership to re-brand themselves, corruption in every sphere of our national life, national insecurity, advance fee fraud, collapse of the education sector, poverty. It revealed that peace is a multi-dimensional term, which creates new environment for progressive nation building process. The rebranding project finally failed when the protagonist minister went to contest for senatorial election and his successor refused to step into her re-branding project shoes. This work called for the rise of a new government and media that would engage in ethical politics through sound leaders, priming, peace building, ethical education, etc as the roadmap to sustainable peace, security and national re-branding. The paper concluded by showing that it is only a national re-branding that is championed by the masses which can lead the citizenry to the desired goals of being a real Giant of Africa.

  8. Numerical investigation of vapor–liquid heat and mass transfer in porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xin, Chengyun; Rao, Zhonghao; You, Xinyu; Song, Zhengchang; Han, Dongtai

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The heat and mass transfer behaviors in porous media was investigated. • A modified separate flow model (MSFM) was developed. • The influence of heat flux direction on heat and fluid flow behaviors is great. • The saturation profile is weakly discontinuous on the phase interface. • A countercurrent flow exists in two-phase region. - Abstract: A modified separate flow model (MSFM) is developed to numerically investigate the heat and mass transfer behaviors in porous media in this paper. In the MSFM, the effects of capillarity, liquid phase change, nonisothermal two-phase region and the local thermal non-equilibrium (LTNE) are considered. The vapor and liquid velocities are both converted into intermediate variables in the simulations and conveniently convergent solutions are obtained because a special upwind scheme for the convection or boiling heat transfer source and variable convergence factors are simultaneously employed. Two typical numerical examples with a one-dimension model of porous media are studied that the high heat fluxes are vertical and parallel to the fluid flow direction, respectively. And the results indicated that the influence of heat flux direction on heat and fluid flow behaviors in porous media is great. The nonisothermal phenomenon in the two-phase region is obvious for the former while the LTNE phenomenon is remarkable in the two-phase region for the latter. The results also showed several similar behaviors that the saturation profile is weakly discontinuous on the phase interface and a countercurrent flow exists in two-phase region

  9. REFLECTION OF SELF-IDENTIFICATION IN THE REGIONAL PRINTED MASS MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Stepanovna Shmul’skaya

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The ways of reflecting and linguistic expression of territorial identity in the printed regional mass media were the subject of the study. The printed publications of the Yenisei region: Zarya of the Yenisei (socio-political newspaper of the city of Lesosibirsk, Angarsky Rabochiy (socio-political newspaper of Motyginsky district, Yeniseiskaya Pravda (Yeniseisk and Yeniseisky district socio-political newspaper , Zarya (social and political newspaper of Pirovsky district, Severo-Yeniseisky Vestnik (municipal newspaper of North Yenisei district, Novaya zhizn (Kazachinskaya socio-political newspaper of Krasnoyarsk Territory were chosen as the material for the research. Goal. To consider the concept of “regional identity” and to identify markers of territorial identity in the regional printed media. Research methods: the descriptive method and the method of the contextual analysis. Results. The regional identity is defined as a form of collective identity at which its carrier is capable to spatiotemporal identification, valuable, emotional, regulatory correlation with the outside world. When analyzing the texts of the regional newspapers certain features of reflecting and shaping the territorial “self” are revealed, that is characteristic of provincial newspapers in general and distinguishes them from the federal media. It is established that the mass media can be considered as means of formation, expression and transfer of regional values and are effective means of reflection and modeling of territorial identity.

  10. Long-term evaluation of a Canadian back pain mass media campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suman, Arnela; Bostick, Geoffrey P; Schopflocher, Donald; Russell, Anthony S; Ferrari, Robert; Battié, Michele C; Hu, Richard; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Gross, Douglas P

    2017-09-01

    This paper evaluates the long-term impact of a Canadian mass media campaign on general public beliefs about staying active when experiencing low back pain (LBP). Changes in beliefs about staying active during an episode of LBP were studied using telephone and web-based surveys. Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate changes in beliefs over time and the effect of exposure to campaign messaging. The percentage of survey respondents agreeing that they should stay active through LBP increased annually from 58.9 to ~72.0%. Respondents reporting exposure to campaign messaging were statistically significantly more likely to agree with staying active than respondents who did not report exposure to campaign messaging (adjusted OR, 95% CI = 1.96, 1.73-2.21). The mass media campaign had continued impact on public LBP beliefs over the course of 7 years. Improvements over time were associated with exposure to campaign messaging.

  11. Towards a Discourse for Criticism in Language Teaching: Analysis of Sociocultural Representations in Mass Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Rosa Vargas Torres

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This article states that in order to exercise citizenship with responsibility, language teachers need to popularize a discourse for criticism in which students and teachers transcend tacit knowledge and common sense due to meta-cognition and argumentation and reach systematic knowledge and procedures posed by experts in the different disciplines. As illustrated inside, the source and objective of analysis by means of which this discourse can be contextualized in language teaching is the language of mass media and all the sociocultural and signifying practices that it invokes. We conclude that through the analysis of mass media it is possible to educate students with the basic knowledge and skills necessary to interact critically in the world.

  12. Single Thai women's interpersonal communication and mass media reception on AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, Y; Schunck, M

    1997-04-01

    This research examines young unmarried women's ways of talking about AIDS, AIDS prevention, and its relationship to mass media AIDS messages in Thailand. Data were derived from a survey conducted in four districts of Kanchanaburi province. Three hundred ninety-seven unmarried women were extracted from the approximately 1,800 original subjects for this analysis. Respondents were asked about the subjects and extent of their conversations about AIDS, the choice of discussion partners, considerations of social appropriateness in talking about the disease, as well as their risk perception. Important findings were that (a) women tend to talk about AIDS primarily with friends and siblings, (b) their reception level of mass media messages is related to the number of topics discussed and frequency of talks by the subjects, and (c) socioeconomic status and age are related to the variety and frequency of talking about AIDS. Implications for AIDS education are discussed.

  13. Utilization of Mass Media and Effects for Developing Women’s Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sema Ozbas

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Women's health, family and society resulting from psycho-social factors, women's individual health status, fertility behavior, such as the quality of health services are affected by many factors. Factors that affect health because they are many and various, to develop health strategies and actions are also many and varied. Therefore, the development of health issue, not only the health sector, many sectors of the business. One of the most important of these sectors is the media. Women how to mass media can reach, when they choose what is, and these preferences in women's health in developing discuss how the effective use of women in this study visual media to reach out difficulties they were experiencing. Especially in rural areas, it is observed more pronounced. Women in the use of the media gather useful information, they apply this knowledge in the development of their health and it was concluded that the media would be effective. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(5.000: 541-546

  14. Mass media, online social network, and organ donation: old mistakes and new perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aykas, A; Uslu, A; Şimşek, C

    2015-05-01

    Contrary to TV programs projecting awareness about organ donation in society, concrete evidence exists about adverse influence of negative broadcasts on organ donation rates. We sought to determine the effect of mass media on public opinion toward organ donation and the efficacy of public campaigns and novel social media attempts on donation rates. We conducted a systematic review of relevant literature and national campaign results. Hoaxes about brain death and organ transplantation adversely affect organ donation rates in both Western and Eastern societies. Scientifically controversial and exaggerated press conferences and institutional advertisements create mistrust in doctors, thus reducing organ donation. The overall effect of public education campaigns in promoting organ donation is a temporary 5% gain. Increments in organ donation rates is expected with novel applications of social media (Facebook effect). Communication, based on mutual trust, must be established between medicine and the media. Continuing education programs with regard to public awareness on organ donation should be conducted over social media. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Bunch coalescing and bunch rotation in the Fermilab Main Ring: Operational experience and comparison with simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, P.S.; Wildman, D.W.

    1988-01-01

    The Fermilab Tevatron I proton-antiproton collider project requires that the Fermilab Main Ring produce intense bunches of protons and antiprotons for injection into the Tevatron. The process of coalescing a small number of harmonic number h=1113 bunches into a single bunch by bunch-rotating in a lower harmonic rf system is described.The Main Ring is also required to extract onto the antiproton production target bunches with as narrow a time spread as possible. This operation is also discussed. The operation of the bunch coalescing and bunch rotation are compared with simulations using the computer program ESME. 2 refs., 8 figs

  16. Borders amidst power, State and mass media, from a critical theory standpoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Ortiz Marín

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available A conception of the power, from the glance of the Critical Theory that it allows to understand the woven complex that links the relations of power to most of the human activities. This paper also approaches to the State as a regulating element of the different forces from institutional character, that they operate in its interior like structures of power and the function as that the massive mass media in the complexity of the modern societies act.

  17. Cost-effectiveness of a smokeless tobacco control mass media campaign in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murukutla, Nandita; Yan, Hongjin; Wang, Shuo; Negi, Nalin Singh; Kotov, Alexey; Mullin, Sandra; Goodchild, Mark

    2017-08-10

    Tobacco control mass media campaigns are cost-effective in reducing tobacco consumption in high-income countries, but similar evidence from low-income countries is limited. An evaluation of a 2009 smokeless tobacco control mass media campaign in India provided an opportunity to test its cost-effectiveness. Campaign evaluation data from a nationally representative household survey of 2898 smokeless tobacco users were compared with campaign costs in a standard cost-effectiveness methodology. Costs and effects of the Surgeon campaign were compared with the status quo to calculate the cost per campaign-attributable benefit, including quit attempts, permanent quits and tobacco-related deaths averted. Sensitivity analyses at varied CIs and tobacco-related mortality risk were conducted. The Surgeon campaign was found to be highly cost-effective. It successfully generated 17 259 148 additional quit attempts, 431 479 permanent quits and 120 814 deaths averted. The cost per benefit was US$0.06 per quit attempt, US$2.6 per permanent quit and US$9.2 per death averted. The campaign continued to be cost-effective in sensitivity analyses. This study suggests that tobacco control mass media campaigns can be cost-effective and economically justified in low-income and middle-income countries. It holds significant policy implications, calling for sustained investment in evidence-based mass media campaigns as part of a comprehensive tobacco control strategy. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  18. Food expert and mass media: food crises (BBE 2001- tranquillity food (2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Navas López

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This article uses the anthropological approach to analyse such important concepts in public health as the perception of food security. We analyse to expert-mass media. First, quantify and reflect on the news appeared in national and regional newspapers in Spain in two different periods:the BSE crisis(2000-2002 and “food tranquillity”(2007. Secondly, we analysed the perception of food expert through a qualitative methodology.

  19. Opinion dynamics: kinetic modelling with mass media, application to the Scottish independence referendum

    OpenAIRE

    Boudin , Laurent; Salvarani , Francesco

    2016-01-01

    International audience; We consider a kinetic model describing some mechanisms of opinion formation in the framework of referendums, by allowing that the individuals, who can interact between themselves and modify their opinion by means of spontaneous self-thinking, are moreover under the influence of mass media. After proving the main properties of the model, such as existence of solutions and conservation properties, we study, at the numerical level, both the transient and the asymptotic re...

  20. The Impact of Mass-Media on Consumer Behaviour Among Children and Young People

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Anca Cristea; Mihaela Simona Apostol; Tatiana Corina Dosescu

    2014-01-01

    We note that nowadays the mass-media discourse influences the consumer behaviour of children and young people, more specifically, it is obvious that it has brought about changes in many fields (i.e., culture, economy, society, etc.). Advertising messages which target consumers resulted in attitude and behaviour changes, due to new, specially designed marketing techniques and strategies aimed at reaching children and young people. The consumer behaviour of this type of audience has its own cha...

  1. Multi-bunch Feedback Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lonza, M; Schmickler, H

    2014-01-01

    Coupled-bunch instabilities excited by the interaction of the particle beam with its surroundings can seriously limit the performance of circular particle accelerators. These instabilities can be cured by the use of active feedback systems based on sensors capable of detecting the unwanted beam motion and actuators that apply the feedback correction to the beam. Advances in electronic technology now allow the implementation of feedback loops using programmable digital systems. Besides important advantages in terms of flexibility and reproducibility, digital systems open the way to the use of novel diagnostic tools and additional features. We first introduce coupled-bunch instabilities, analysing the equation of motion of charged particles and the different modes of oscillation of a multi-bunch beam, showing how they can be observed and measured. Different types of feedback systems will then be presented as examples of real implementations that belong to the history of multi-bunch feedback systems. The main components of a feedback system and the related issues will also be analysed. Finally, we shall focus on digital feedback systems, their characteristics, and features, as well as on how they can be concretely exploited for both the optimization of feedback performance and for beam dynamics studies

  2. Fan Letters to the Cultural Industries: Border Literature about Mass Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Fox

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The concentration of the Mexican and U.S. cultural industries in cities outside of the border region and the intermittent outsourcing of Hollywood movies to production facilities in Baja, California, have had a marked impact on the literary practice of "fronterizo" 'border' intellectuals. This essay discusses the theme of the cinema in three narratives by authors from the U.S.-Mexico border region: "Hotel Frontera" ("Border Hotel", by Gabriel Trujillo Muñoz, "Canícula," by Norma Elia Cantú, and "The Magic of Blood," by Dagoberto Gilb. These narratives provide ethnographic information about the reception of nationally distributed mass media in the border region; at the same time they produce a contestatory discourse that challenges the manner in which the border and its populations have been portrayed and employed in the U.S. and Mexican film industries. The study of film culture must take into consideration patterns of consumption as well as production, and literature about mass media is one arena through which it is possible to focus on both of these processes simultaneously. Fronteriza/o writing about cinema reveals a desire to inhabit popular cinematic genres such as film noir and the western while at the same time retaining a critical stance towards them. This ambivalence is understood as a localist response to the marginalization of fronteriza/o cultural production in a bi-national context, rather than as general suspicion toward visual mass media on the part of "traditional" literary intellectuals.

  3. Is mass media beneficial or not for the information of the general public?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavinschi, M.; Mosoia, C.

    2005-11-01

    The International Year of Physics reminds us, among other things, of the way in which Einstein became famous. In spite of all his remarkable scientific results, without the contribution of the press he would not have become so well known in the entire world as he was and continues to be after a century. And he is not the unique example of celebrity due to mass media (see Carl Sagan or Stephen Hawking). In 1969 the first man stepped on the Moon. It was maybe the first cosmic event, which became famous due to a live TV broadcast. Others followed, if we are to mention only the total solar eclipse of 1999 or Venus's transit of last year. Consequently, mass media can make a scientist famous, can also make an event understood and admired and can attract hundreds or maybe millions of people to science. The same mass media can also destroy a personality or an event. We shall give only two examples: the distrust of many people concerning the same Moon landing or the manipulation of millions of people by means of astrology. All this urges us to make a very thorough analysis of the way in which scientific information is communicated to the general public: well done, it can be beneficial; otherwise it may drive the new generations away from research, the understanding of the phenomena, the neglect of the environment and finally from the neglect and the destruction of our own planet.

  4. Mass media in health promotion: an analysis using an extended information-processing model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flay, B R; DiTecco, D; Schlegel, R P

    1980-01-01

    The information-processing model of the attitude and behavior change process was critically examined and extended from six to 12 levels for a better analysis of change due to mass media campaigns. Findings from social psychology and communications research, and from evaluations of mass media health promotion programs, were reviewed to determine how source, message, channel, receiver, and destination variables affect each of the levels of change of major interest (knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, intentions and behavior). Factors found to most likely induce permanent attitude and behavior change (most important in health promotion) were: presentation and repetition over long time periods, via multiple sources, at different times (including "prime" or high-exposure times), by multiple sources, in novel and involving ways, with appeals to multiple motives, development of social support, and provisions of appropriate behavioral skills, alternatives, and reinforcement (preferably in ways that get the active participation of the audience). Suggestions for evaluation of mass media programs that take account of this complexity were advanced.

  5. Effects of a statewide antismoking campaign on mass media messages and smoking beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, D M; Prokhorov, A V; Harty, K C

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND. In 1985, The Minnesota Legislature initiated a long-term and broad-based program to deter adolescent tobacco use. The initiative was funded by higher taxes on tobacco products and combined school-based programming, mass-media campaigns, and local community grants. The Minnesota-Wisconsin Adolescent Tobacco-Use Research Project was designed to evaluate this effort by monitoring adolescent tobacco use and related factors in Minnesota and Wisconsin from 1986 to 1990. The results presented in this paper indicate that the Minnesota initiative dramatically increased Minnesota schoolchildren's reported exposure to the anti-smoking messages in the mass media but had little effect on smoking-related beliefs or smoking behaviors. CONCLUSIONS. These results, together with the findings from other recent studies, suggest that even dramatic increases in exposure to anti-tobacco messages in the mass-media, in the absence of a substantial and sustained school-based tobacco prevention measures, may be insufficient to generate reductions in adolescent tobacco use.

  6. Lithuania’s Images in Russian Mass Media after the Annexation of Crimea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pugačiauskas Virgilijus

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the distinctive features of Russia’s confrontation with the West over the 2014-2016 period is the intensification of Russian propaganda both in foreign countries and within the state. Lithuania, whose relations with a major neighbour were not normalized, and which openly supported Ukraine’s position, attracted the additional attention of Russian mass media in which an incitement to anti- Lithuanian moods was bolstered. In this case, it is endeavoured to generally describe how the mass media (television and newspapers played a role in contriving a social construct and ascertain the Lithuanian quantitative characteristics which are presented in Russian mass media. Referring to the analysis, one can distinguish three prevailing negative images of Lithuania - that is, Russophobic and anti-Russian; a falsifier of history; and a failing and non-influential state. These images, being consistently and purposefully exploited in Russian information space, almost with no alternative sources, turned into undeniable truth for the majority of Russian citizens. This provides the Kremlin with vast possibilities of manipulation in constructing the tactics and strategy of geopolitical instability. On the other hand, one should not forget that such a negative picture of Lithuania serves as a way in which Russian society justifies Putin’s political system and demonstrates its superiority over the values of the Western world.

  7. Factors influencing the uptake of a mass media intervention to improve child feeding in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunny S; Roopnaraine, Terry; Nguyen, Phuong H; Saha, Kuntal K; Bhuiyan, Mahbubul I; Menon, Purnima

    2018-04-11

    Mass media are increasingly used to deliver health messages to promote social and behaviour change, but there has been little evidence of mass media use for improving a set of child feeding practices, other than campaigns to promote breastfeeding. This study aimed to examine the factors influencing the uptake of infant and young child feeding messages promoted in TV spots that were launched and aired nationwide in Bangladesh. We conducted a mixed-methods study, using household surveys (n = 2,000) and semistructured interviews (n = 251) with mothers of children 0-23.9 months and other household members. Factors associated with TV spot viewing and comprehension were analysed using multivariable logistic regression models, and interview transcripts were analysed by systematic coding and iterative summaries. Exposure ranged from 36% to 62% across 6 TV spots, with comprehension ranging from 33% to 96% among those who viewed the spots. Factors associated with comprehension of TV spot messages included younger maternal age and receipt of home visits by frontline health workers. Three direct narrative spots showed correct message recall and strong believability, identification, and feasibility of practicing the recommended behaviours. Two spots that used a metaphorical and indirect narrative style were not well understood by respondents. Understanding the differences in the uptake factors may help to explain variability of impacts and ways to improve the design and implementation of mass media strategies. © 2018 The Authors. Maternal and Child Nutrition Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Mass Media and HIV/AIDS Prevention Among Female Sex Workers in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhiwen; Li, Xiaoming; Lin, Danhua; Tam, Cheuk Chi

    2015-01-01

    The current study aimed to identify the sources of HIV prevention information for female sex workers in Beijing and assess the associations between levels of mass media exposure of HIV/AIDS prevention information and HIV/AIDS knowledge as well as condom use-related attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors. Cross-sectional data were collected from 359 female sex workers in Beijing, China. Chi-square tests and one-way ANOVA tests were employed. Female sex workers sampled in Beijing were more likely to obtain HIV/AIDS prevention information from television and street posters than radio and the Internet. However, a higher level of exposure to and a lasting impression on online information were significantly associated with a higher level of condom use self-efficacy and more consistent condom use among the participants. Exposure to HIV/AIDS prevention information delivered by radio, street posters, and the Internet was found to be associated with sexual communication about HIV or condom use with sexual partners. Overall, this study provides preliminary evidence of the utility of various mass media outlets in delivering HIV/AIDS prevention information among female sex workers in China. Future studies are needed to systematically examine the effectiveness of mass media-based prevention education on HIV/AIDS related attitudes and behaviors among female sex workers and other populations in China.

  9. Self-bunching electron guns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mako, Frederick M.; Len, L. K.

    1999-05-01

    We report on three electron gun projects that are aimed at power tube and injector applications. The purpose of the work is to develop robust electron guns which produce self-bunched, high-current-density beams. We have demonstrated, in a microwave cavity, self-bunching, cold electron emission, long life, and tolerance to contamination. The cold process is based on secondary electron emission. FMT has studied using simulation codes the resonant bunching process which gives rise to high current densities (0.01-5 kA/cm2), high charge bunches (up to 500 nC/bunch), and short pulses (1-100 ps) for frequencies from 1 to 12 GHz. The beam pulse width is nominally ˜5% of the rf period. The first project is the L-Band Micro-Pulse Gun (MPG). Measurements show ˜40 ps long micro-bunches at ˜20 A/cm2 without contamination due to air exposure. Lifetime testing has been carried out for about 18 months operating at 1.25 GHz for almost 24 hours per day at a repetition rate of 300 Hz and 5 μs-long macro-pulses. Approximately 5.8×1013 micro-bunches or 62,000 coulombs have passed through this gun and it is still working fine. The second project, the S-Band MPG, is now operational. It is functioning at a frequency of 2.85 GHz, a repetition rate of 30 Hz, with a 2 μs-long macro-pulse. It produces about 45 A in the macro-pulse. The third project is a 34.2 GHz frequency-multiplied source driven by an X-Band MPG. A point design was performed at an rf output power of 150 MW at 34.2 GHz. The resulting system efficiency is 53% and the gain is 60 dB. The system efficiency includes the input cavity efficiency, input driver efficiency (a 50 MW klystron at 11.4 GHz), output cavity efficiency, and the post-acceleration efficiency.

  10. Turn-by-Turn and Bunch-by-Bunch Transverse Profiles of a Single Bunch in a Full Ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraus, R.; Fisher, A.S.

    2005-01-01

    The apparatus described in this paper can image the evolution of the transverse profile of a single bunch, isolated from a full PEP-II ring of 1500 bunches. Using this apparatus there are two methods of single bunch imaging; bunch-by-bunch beam profiling can image every bunch in the ring a single bunch at a time with the images of sequential bunches being in order, allowing one to see variations in beam size along a train. Turn-by-turn beam profiling images a single bunch on each successive turn it makes around the ring. This method will be useful in determining the effect that an injected bunch has on a stable bunch as the oscillations of the injected bunch damp out. Turn-by-turn imaging of the synchrotron light uses a system of lenses and mirrors to image many turns of both the major and minor axis of a single bunch across the photocathode of a gateable camera. The bunch-by-bunch method is simpler: because of a focusing mirror used in porting the light from the ring, the synchrotron light from the orbiting electrons becomes an image at a certain distance from the mirror; and since the camera does not use a lens, the photocathode is set exactly at this image distance. Bunch-by-bunch profiling has shown that in the Low Energy Ring (LER) horizontal bunch size decreases along a train. Turn-by-turn profiling has been able to image 100 turns of a single bunch on one exposure of the camera. The turn-by-turn setup has also been able to image 50 turns of the minor axis showing part of the damping process of an oscillating injected charge during a LER fill. The goal is to image the damping of oscillations of injected charge for 100 turns of both the major and minor axis throughout the damping process during trickle injection. With some changes to the apparatus this goal is within reach and will make turn-by-turn imaging a very useful tool in beam diagnostics

  11. Femtosecond electron bunches, source and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thongbai, C.; Kusoljariyakul, K.; Rimjaem, S.; Rhodes, M.W.; Saisut, J.; Thamboon, P.; Wichaisirimongkol, P.; Vilaithong, T.

    2008-01-01

    A femtosecond electron source has been developed at the Fast Neutron Research Facility (FNRF), Chiang Mai University, Thailand. So far, it has produced electron bunches as short as σ z ∼180 fs with (1-6)x10 8 electrons per microbunch. The system consists of an RF-gun with a thermionic cathode, an alpha-magnet as a magnetic bunch compressor, and a linear accelerator as a post acceleration section. Coherent transition radiation emitted at wavelengths equal to and longer than the bunch length is used in a Michelson interferometer to determine the bunch length by autocorrelation technique. The experimental setup and results of the bunch length measurement are described

  12. MEASURING TEMPORAL PHOTON BUNCHING IN BLACKBODY RADIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, P. K.; Poh, H. S.; Kurtsiefer, C. [Center for Quantum Technologies, 3 Science Drive 2, 117543 (Singapore); Yeo, G. H.; Chan, A. H., E-mail: pengkian@physics.org, E-mail: phyck@nus.edu.sg [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, 117551 (Singapore)

    2014-07-01

    Light from thermal blackbody radiators such as stars exhibits photon bunching behavior at sufficiently short timescales. However, with available detector bandwidths, this bunching signal is difficult to observe directly. We present an experimental technique to increase the photon bunching signal in blackbody radiation via spectral filtering of the light source. Our measurements reveal strong temporal photon bunching from blackbody radiation, including the Sun. This technique allows for an absolute measurement of the photon bunching signature g {sup (2)}(0), and thereby a direct statement on the statistical nature of a light source. Such filtering techniques may help revive the interest in intensity interferometry as a tool in astronomy.

  13. High-Q micromechanical resonators for mass sensing in dissipative media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tappura, Kirsi; Pekko, Panu; Seppä, Heikki

    2011-01-01

    Single crystal silicon-based micromechanical resonators are developed for mass sensing in dissipative media. The design aspects and preliminary characterization of the resonators are presented. For the suggested designs, quality factors of about 20 000 are typically measured in air at atmospheric pressure and 1000–2000 in contact with liquid. The performance is based on a wine-glass-type lateral bulk acoustic mode excited in a rectangular resonator plate. The mode essentially eliminates the radiation of acoustic energy into the sample media leaving viscous drag as the dominant fluid-based dissipation mechanism in the system. For a mass loading distributed over the central areas of the resonator a sensitivity of 27 ppm ng −1 is measured exhibiting good agreement with the results of the finite element method-based simulations. It is also shown that the mass sensitivity can be somewhat enhanced, not only by the proper distribution of the loaded mass, but also by introducing shallow barrier structures on the resonator

  14. A systematic review: effectiveness of mass media campaigns for reducing alcohol-impaired driving and alcohol-related crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Rajendra-Prasad; Kobayashi, Miwako

    2015-09-04

    Mass media campaigns have long been used as a tool for promoting public health. In the past decade, the growth of social media has allowed more diverse options for mass media campaigns. This systematic review was conducted to assess newer evidence from quantitative studies on the effectiveness of mass media campaigns for reducing alcohol-impaired driving (AID) and alcohol-related crashes, particularly after the paper that Elder et al. published in 2004. This review focused on English language studies that evaluated the effect of mass media campaigns for reducing AID and alcohol-related crashes, with or without enforcement efforts. A systematic search was conducted for studies published between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2013. Studies from the review by Elder et al. were added as well. A total of 19 studies met the inclusion criteria for the systematic review, including three studies from the review by Elder et al. Nine of them had concomitant enforcement measures and did not evaluate the impact of media campaigns independently. Studies that evaluated the impact of mass media independently showed reduction more consistently (median -15.1%, range -28.8 to 0%), whereas results of studies that had concomitant enforcement activities were more variable (median -8.6%, range -36.4 to +14.6%). Summary effects calculated from seven studies showed no evidence of media campaigns reducing the risk of alcohol-related injuries or fatalities (RR 1.00, 95% CI = 0.94 to 1.06). Despite additional decade of evidence, reviewed studies were heterogeneous in their approaches; therefore, we could not conclude that media campaigns reduced the risk of alcohol-related injuries or crashes. More studies are needed, including studies evaluating newly emerging media and cost-effectiveness of media campaigns.

  15. Prepovedane droge v slovenskih množičnih medijih: Illicit drugs in Slovene mass media:

    OpenAIRE

    Drev, Andreja; Kamin, Tanja; Sever, Maja

    2006-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of the article was to establish the frequency of Slovene media reports on illicit drugs, as well as to identify the main initiators of media coverage of illicit drugs and to determine the influence of health institutions on the information provided. Method: During the period studied, we collected 360 articles on illicit drugs published in twelve selected Slovene mass media. Basic techniques of descriptive statistical analysis and statistical significance tests were used. The ...

  16. The effectiveness of mass media in changing HIV/AIDS-related behaviour among young people in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Jane T; Anhang, Rebecca

    2006-01-01

    To review the strength of the evidence for the effects of three types of mass media interventions (radio only, radio with supporting media, or radio and television with supporting media) on HIV/AIDS-related behaviour among young people in developing countries and to assess whether these interventions reach the threshold of evidence needed to recommend widespread implementation. We conducted a systematic review of studies that evaluated mass media interventions and were published or released between 1990 and 2004. Studies were included if they evaluated a mass media campaign that had the main objective of providing information about HIV/AIDS or sexual health. To be eligible for inclusion studies had to use a pre-intervention versus post-intervention design or an intervention versus control design or analyse cross-sectional data comparing those who had been exposed to the campaign with those who had not been exposed. Studies also had to comprehensively report quantitative data for most outcomes. Of the 15 programmes identified, 11 were from Africa, 2 from Latin America, 1 from Asia, and 1 from multiple countries. One programme used radio only, six used radio with supporting media, and eight others used television and radio with supporting media. The data support the effectiveness of mass media interventions to increase the knowledge of HIV transmission, to improve self-efficacy in condom use, to influence some social norms, to increase the amount of interpersonal communication, to increase condom use and to boost awareness of health providers. Fewer significant effects were found for improving self-efficacy in terms of abstinence, delaying the age of first sexual experience or decreasing the number of sexual partners. We found that mass media programmes can influence HIV-related outcomes among young people, although not on every variable or in every campaign. Campaigns that include television require the highest threshold of evidence, yet they also yield the

  17. When media matter for politics: partisan moderators of mass media’s agenda-setting influence on parliament in Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, R.; Walgrave, S.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we investigate which factors moderate the agenda-setting influence of the mass media on the Belgian parliament during the period 1993—2000. Based on elaborate codings of the media, parliamentary questions and interpellations, party manifestos, government agreements and ministerial

  18. Subjective Norms as a Driver of Mass Communication Students' Intentions to Adopt New Media Production Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopp, Toby M.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the impact of subjective norms on mass communication students' intentions to adopt new media production technologies was explored. The results indicated that subjective norms play an instrumental role in explaining behavioral intentions to adopt new media technologies. Moreover, the data indicated that public relations students…

  19. The Social Construction of Breast Cancer in Mass Media and Its Influence on Public Understanding and Citizen Decision-Making

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sharf, Barbara

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the ways in which mass media play a significant role in constructing the public's understanding of breast cancer as a social problem, a disease, and personal illness experience...

  20. The Social Construction of Breast Cancer in Mass Media and its Influence on Public Understanding and Citizen Decision-Making

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sharf, Barbara

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the ways in which mass media play a significant role in constructing the public's understanding of breast cancer as a social problem, a disease, and personal illness experience...

  1. Improvement of bunch-by-bunch beam current detection system in Hefei light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Kai; Wang Junhua; Liu Zuping; Li Weimin; Zhou Zeran; Yang Yongliang; Huang Longjun; Chen Yuanbo

    2006-01-01

    Bunch-by-bunch beam current detection system is an important facility in the multibunch storage ring. In this paper, the established bunch-by-bunch beam current detection systems for the accelerator such as Cornell, SLAC and KEKB were compared and studied. The design of the bunch-by-bunch beam current detection system for HLS, which was based on the bunch-by-bunch tracing measurement system in HLS was given. Both demodulation by sine wave and square were applied in this paper, the deviation of the detect system was determined by the longitudinal oscillation. Compared the data acquired from ADC with the data from DCCT, the ADC data was scaled by the bunch current. The standard deviations of linear fit were about 1%, and the standard deviations of polynomial fit were less than 0.5% in both sine wave and square wave demodulation. Some analysis of the measurement results also had been shown in this paper. (authors)

  2. Bunched beam longitudinal stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baartman, R.

    1991-05-01

    Instabilities driven by narrow-band impedances can be stabilized by Landau damping arising from the synchrotron frequency spread due to the nonlinearity of the rf wave-form. We calculate stability diagrams for various phase space distributions. We find that distributions without tails are unstable in the 'negative mass' regime (inductive impedance below transition or capacitive impedance above transition). We also find that longitudinal instability thresholds of the (usually neglected) higher order radial modes are lower than expected. For example, the next to lowest dipole mode has a lower threshold than the lowest sextupole mode even though the latter has the larger growth rate in the absence of Landau damping. (Author) 5 refs., 5 figs

  3. Cytokine responses in relation to age, gender, body mass index, Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, and otitis media among inuit in greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nina Odgaard; Soborg, Bolette; Børresen, Malene

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the cytokine response pattern in Inuit in Greenland in relation to age, gender, body mass index (BMI), Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (MTI), and otitis media (OM) to assess whether Inuit may have signs of impaired immune responsiveness to infection.......To evaluate the cytokine response pattern in Inuit in Greenland in relation to age, gender, body mass index (BMI), Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (MTI), and otitis media (OM) to assess whether Inuit may have signs of impaired immune responsiveness to infection....

  4. Impact of mass media on the utilization of antenatal care services among women of rural community in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Dilaram; Khanal, Vishnu; Singh, Jitendra Kumar; Adhikari, Mandira; Gautam, Salila

    2015-08-12

    Antenatal care has several benefits for expecting mothers and birth outcomes; yet many mothers do not utilise this service in Nepal. Mass media may play an important role in increasing the use of antenatal care and other maternal health services. However, the effect of mass media on increasing health service utilisation has remained an under studied area in Nepal. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of mass media on the utilisation of antenatal care services in rural Nepal. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Sinurjoda Village Development Committee of Dhanusha District, Nepal. A total of 205 mothers of children aged under 1 year were selected using systematic random sampling. Logistic regression was employed to examine the association between selected antenatal care services and mass media exposure after adjusting for other independent variables. A majority of mothers were exposed to mass media. Radio was accessible to most (60.0%) of the participants followed by television (43.41%). Mothers exposed to mass media were more likely to attending antenatal visits [Odds ratio (OR) 6.28; 95% CI (1.01-38.99)], taking rest and sleep during pregnancy [OR 2.65; 95% CI (1.13-6.26)], and receiving TT immunization [OR 5.12; 95% CI (1.23-21.24)] than their non-exposed counterparts. The study reported a positive influence of mass media on the utilisation of antenatal care services in Nepal. Therefore, further emphasis should be given to increase awareness of women of rural Nepal through mass media to improve utilisation of antenatal care services in Nepal.

  5. Mass-media și adolescența. Modele feminine incipiente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica JUNJAN

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Current paper investigates perceptions of adolescents about influences of mass media regarding feminine models such as Mother, Politician Woman and the Star. Their relationship with the feminine model of the Mother is then explored. In terms of the Politician-Woman there are longterm consequences regarding the image of the self and future political participation of the youth. An important result is that the adolescents have a strongly positive image of the self, recognizing in themselves characteristics positively appreciated to their models: Mother, Star, and Politician. Most of the Politician-Women discussed by the youth have a strong media presence, in a wide range of shows, thus reaching a wide youth target.

  6. Quantum beamstrahlung from gaussian bunches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, P.

    1987-08-01

    The method of Baier and Katkov is applied to calculate the correction terms to the Sokolov-Ternov radiation formula due to the variation of the magnetic field strength along the trajectory of a radiating particle. We carry the calculation up to the second order in the power expansion of B tau/B, where tau is the formation time of radiation. The expression is then used to estimate the quantum beamstrahlung average energy loss from e + e - bunches with gaussian distribution in bunch currents. We show that the effect of the field variation is to reduce the average energy loss from previous calculations based on the Sokolov-Ternov formula or its equivalent. Due to the limitation of our method, only an upper bound of the reduction is obtained. 18 refs

  7. Mass Media as Actor in Political Process: Evolution of the Western Approaches since the 1950s. (Part 1)

    OpenAIRE

    Гуторов, Владимир Александрович

    2013-01-01

    The author analyses evolution of western political science’s approaches to mass media and mass media’s role in political process in liberal democracies. The author focuses on theories of “Minimal Effect,” “Mediocracy,” “Effects Research,” “Tеxt Analysis,” “Use and Gratification Approach.” The author discusses A. Giddens’s structuration theory as the most elaborate approach to interpreting the role of mass media in the western political and social science.Key words: mass and political communic...

  8. Multi-bunch Feedback Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Lonza, M.; Schmickler, H.

    2016-01-01

    Coupled-bunch instabilities excited by the interaction of the particle beam with its surroundings can seriously limit the performance of circular particle accelerators. These instabilities can be cured by the use of active feedback systems based on sensors capable of detecting the unwanted beam motion and actuators that apply the feedback correction to the beam. Advances in electronic technology now allow the implementation of feedback loops using programmable digital systems. Besides importa...

  9. Dynamics of Russian business culture values in the reflection of mass media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Sverdlikova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses practices of “Traditions and values of Russian business culture” course teaching at Lomonosov Moscow State University’s Faculty of Sociology. The experience allows drawing methodological and theoretical conclusions on the values of business culture which underlie models of the modern business behavior. The first part of the publication concerns analysis of tradition of studying Russian culture values, in the paradigm of which the Russian business culture exists. According to the findings, traditions are enrooted in the Orthodoxy and are determined by patrimonial memories and contradictions of the Russian people’s character, ideals and spiritual framework. A system of Russian business values is developed based on the traditions as well as literary heritage, biographies of famous Russian and Soviet economists and set of rules of ethics code of the pre-revolutionary Russian business class. The main elements of the system include the following values: faith, family, commitment to business, patriotism, natural ingenuity, ability to set and solve atask of extra complexity, original forms of labor organization, and prevalence of moral motivation forms over material ones. The second part of the article deals with succession of the above-mentioned values in the modern Russian business environment. The content analysis is applied to examine the continuity. The object of the research is the text corpus of the Russian business press. The findings of the research show dynamics of the Russian mass media attention to the business culture values for the period from 2010 to 2014. The mass media interest to the issue coverage has been on the constant rise: from 37,2% of the aggregate amount of information on the Russian business in 2012 to 39,8% in 2014. There have also been examined dynamics of mass media attention to certain business culture values. The mass media assignedtop priority in 2012, 2013 and 2014 to the following values

  10. Analysis of the mass media coverage of the Gates Foundation grand challenges in global health initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, G

    2009-03-01

    The Grand Challenges were launched in 2003 by the Gates Foundation and other collaborators to address the health needs of developing countries. This paper outlines the current problem with health research and development in the context of inequality as conveyed by the 90/10 divide. The paper then looks at the focus and nature of press reporting of global health issues by analysing how press articles have portrayed the Grand Challenges in Global Health initiative. Analysis of the mass media illustrates that the focus of reporting on the Grand Challenges tends to be on utilitarian themes, leaving issues related to justice and equity comparatively under-reported.

  11. Design of BEPCII bunch current monitor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lei; Ma Huizhou; Yue Junhui; Lei Ge; Cao Jianshe; Ma Li

    2008-01-01

    BEPC II is an electron-positron collider designed to run under multi-bunches and high beam current condition. The accelerator consists of an electron ring, a positron ring and a linear injector. In order to achieve the target luminosity and implement the equal bunch charge injection, the Bunch Current Monitor (BCM) system is built on BEPC II. The BCM system consists of three parts: the front-end circuit, the bunch current acquisition system and the bucket selection system. The control software of BCM is based on VxWorks and EPICS. With the help of BCM system, the bunch current in each bucket can be monitored in the Central Control Room. The BEPC II timing system can also use the bunch current database to decide which bucket needs to refill to implement 'top-off' injection. (authors)

  12. Dysfunctional eating behaviors, anxiety, and depression in Italian boys and girls: the role of mass media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Barcaccia

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Extensive research has implicated identification with characters in mass media in the emergence of disordered eating behavior in adolescents. We explored the possible influence of the models offered by television (TV on adolescents’ body image, body uneasiness, eating-disordered behavior, depression, and anxiety. Methods: Three hundred and one adolescents (aged 14-19 from southern Italy participated. They completed a questionnaire on media exposure and body dissatisfaction, the Eating Disorder Inventory-2, the Body Uneasiness Test, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory – Form Y. Results: The main factors contributing to females’ eating-disordered behaviors were their own desires to be similar to TV characters, the amount of reality and entertainment TV they watched, and the discrepancy between their perceptions of their bodies and those of TV characters. Friends’ desire to be similar to TV characters contributed most to depression, anxiety, body uneasiness, and eating disorders for both males and females. Conclusion: Our data confirm that extensive watching of reality and entertainment TV correlates with eating-disordered behavior among females. Moreover, the well-known negative effects of the media on adolescents’ eating-disordered behaviors may also be indirectly transmitted by friends who share identification with TV characters.

  13. Dysfunctional eating behaviors, anxiety, and depression in Italian boys and girls: the role of mass media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcaccia, Barbara; Balestrini, Viviana; Saliani, Angelo M; Baiocco, Roberto; Mancini, Francesco; Schneider, Barry H

    2018-01-01

    Extensive research has implicated identification with characters in mass media in the emergence of disordered eating behavior in adolescents. We explored the possible influence of the models offered by television (TV) on adolescents' body image, body uneasiness, eating-disordered behavior, depression, and anxiety. Three hundred and one adolescents (aged 14-19) from southern Italy participated. They completed a questionnaire on media exposure and body dissatisfaction, the Eating Disorder Inventory-2, the Body Uneasiness Test, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory - Form Y. The main factors contributing to females' eating-disordered behaviors were their own desires to be similar to TV characters, the amount of reality and entertainment TV they watched, and the discrepancy between their perceptions of their bodies and those of TV characters. Friends' desire to be similar to TV characters contributed most to depression, anxiety, body uneasiness, and eating disorders for both males and females. Our data confirm that extensive watching of reality and entertainment TV correlates with eating-disordered behavior among females. Moreover, the well-known negative effects of the media on adolescents' eating-disordered behaviors may also be indirectly transmitted by friends who share identification with TV characters.

  14. Prostate cancer's hegemonic masculinity in select print mass media depictions (1974-1995).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, J N

    1999-01-01

    The meanings associated with prostate cancer were studied in contemporary mass print media. The study includes both manifest and latent content analysis of a period of approximately 2 decades, from 1974 to 1995. The manifest analysis revealed a primary emphasis on the importance of early detection. The latent analysis found that prostate cancer's presentation is gendered. Its description is embedded in themes related to masculinity, sexuality, competition, brotherhood, and machismo. This small, qualitative, and inductive study raises questions about the socially significant portrayal of the meanings of disease in the media, about the men who have been diagnosed with prostate cancer, have symptoms of prostate cancer, or about all men, because any man might at some time be diagnosed with prostate cancer. Stereotypical imaging could alienate men who either do not or do not want to fit into the stereotypical ideal as it is protrayed in the media. Such a portrayal also may have inplications for the potential willingness of men to engage in early detection, avail themselves of treatment, act preventatively, or become involved in lobbying for monies for research into the early prevention, detection, and treatment of prostate cancer.

  15. Population-based evaluation of the 'LiveLighter' healthy weight and lifestyle mass media campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, B; Niven, P; Dixon, H; Swanson, M; Szybiak, M; Shilton, T; Pratt, I S; Slevin, T; Hill, D; Wakefield, M

    2016-04-01

    The Western Australian (WA) 'LiveLighter' (LL) mass media campaign ran during June-August and September-October 2012. The principal campaign ad graphically depicts visceral fat of an overweight individual ('why' change message), whereas supporting ads demonstrate simple changes to increase activity and eat healthier ('how' to change message). Cross-sectional surveys among population samples aged 25-49 were undertaken pre-campaign (N= 2012) and following the two media waves (N= 2005 and N= 2009) in the intervention (WA) and comparison state (Victoria) to estimate the population impact of LL. Campaign awareness was 54% after the first media wave and overweight adults were more likely to recall LL and perceive it as personally relevant. Recall was also higher among parents, but equal between socio-economic groups. The 'why' message about health-harms of overweight rated higher than 'how' messages about lifestyle change, on perceived message effectiveness which is predictive of health-related intention and behaviour change. State-by-time interactions showed population-level increases in self-referent thoughts about the health-harms of overweight (P stereotypes of overweight individuals did not increase after LL aired. LL was associated with some population-level improvements in proximal and intermediate markers of campaign impact. However, sustained campaign activity will be needed to impact behaviour. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  16. Beam diagnostics based on time-domain bunch-by-bunch data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teytelman, D.; Fox, J.; Hindi, H.; Limborg, C.; Linscott, I.; Prabhakar, S.; Sebek, J.; Young, A.; Drago, A.; Serio, M.; Barry, W.; Stover, G.

    1998-01-01

    A bunch-by-bunch longitudinal feedback system has been used to control coupled-bunch longitudinal motion and study the behavior of the beam at ALS, SPEAR, PEP-II, and DAΦNE. Each of these machines presents unique challenges to feedback control of unstable motion and data analysis. Here we present techniques developed to adapt this feedback system to operating conditions at these accelerators. A diverse array of techniques has been developed to extract information on different aspects of beam behavior from the time-domain data captured by the feedback system. These include measurements of growth and damping rates of coupled-bunch modes, bunch-by-bunch current monitoring, measurements of bunch-by-bunch synchronous phases and longitudinal tunes, and beam noise spectra. A technique is presented which uses the longitudinal feedback system to measure transverse growth and damping rates. Techniques are illustrated with data acquired at all of the four above-mentioned machines

  17. Effect of mass media and Internet on sexual behavior of undergraduates in Osogbo metropolis, Southwestern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asekun-Olarinmoye, Olusesan S; Asekun-Olarinmoye, Esther O; Adebimpe, Wasiu O; Omisore, Akin G

    2014-01-01

    The influence of media portrayals of sexual attitudes and normative expectations of young people at a critical developmental stage is of public health concern. To examine the role of mass media and Internet utilization in shaping the sexual health attitudes and behaviors of young undergraduates in Osogbo metropolis, Osun State, Nigeria. In a descriptive cross-sectional study, 400 undergraduates were selected using a multistage random sampling technique. Four hundred and fifty pretested, semistructured questionnaires were distributed; of these, 400 were returned properly filled. Data were analyzed using SPSS statistical software version 16. Mean age of respondents ± standard deviation was 23.6±2.99 years. Most were aware of the various forms of mass media (>95%). Most (64.0%) respondents spent 1-5 hours watching television, daily, and most used the Internet often. About 38.3% and 24.2% of respondents used the Internet and radio/television, respectively, as sources of information on sexual issues. Most respondents used the Internet for school assignments (83.0%, n=332), electronic mail (89.0%, n=356), and for accessing sexually explicit materials (74.5%, n=298). Most of the respondents (73.5%) opined that the Internet has a bad influence on youths' sexual behavior, although accessing the Internet for sexual material or movies was acceptable to 25.3% of them. Of the 226 respondents who had ever had sex, 226 (100%), 37 (16.4%), 31 (13.7%), and 10 (4.4%) practiced coitus, oral sex, masturbation, and anal sex, respectively; 122 (54.0%) always used condoms, whereas 90 (40.0%) never used condoms during sexual activity; 33 (14.6%) had had sex with commercial sex workers. Further analysis showed that those who were yet to marry (single) were less likely to be sexually experienced than those who were married (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =0.075, 95% confidence interval [CI] =0.008-0.679), and those who said accessing the Internet for sexual material is not acceptable to them

  18. Communication about scientific uncertainty in environmental nanoparticle research - a comparison of scientific literature and mass media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidmann, Ilona; Milde, Jutta

    2014-05-01

    The research about the fate and behavior of engineered nanoparticles in the environment is despite its wide applications still in the early stages. 'There is a high level of scientific uncertainty in nanoparticle research' is often stated in the scientific community. Knowledge about these uncertainties might be of interest to other scientists, experts and laymen. But how could these uncertainties be characterized and are they communicated within the scientific literature and the mass media? To answer these questions, the current state of scientific knowledge about scientific uncertainty through the example of environmental nanoparticle research was characterized and the communication of these uncertainties within the scientific literature is compared with its media coverage in the field of nanotechnologies. The scientific uncertainty within the field of environmental fate of nanoparticles is by method uncertainties and a general lack of data concerning the fate and effects of nanoparticles and their mechanisms in the environment, and by the uncertain transferability of results to the environmental system. In the scientific literature, scientific uncertainties, their sources, and consequences are mentioned with different foci and to a different extent. As expected, the authors in research papers focus on the certainty of specific results within their specific research question, whereas in review papers, the uncertainties due to a general lack of data are emphasized and the sources and consequences are discussed in a broader environmental context. In the mass media, nanotechnology is often framed as rather certain and positive aspects and benefits are emphasized. Although reporting about a new technology, only in one-third of the reports scientific uncertainties are mentioned. Scientific uncertainties are most often mentioned together with risk and they arise primarily from unknown harmful effects to human health. Environmental issues itself are seldom mentioned

  19. People as sensors: mass media and local temperature influence climate change discussion on Twitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirilenko, A.; Molodtsova, T.; Stepchenkova, S.

    2014-12-01

    We examined whether people living under significant temperature anomalies connect their sensory experiences to climate change and the role that media plays in this process. We used Twitter messages containing words "climate change" and "global warming" as the indicator of attention that public pays to the issue. Specifically, the goals were: (1) to investigate whether people immediately notice significant local weather anomalies and connect them to climate change and (2) to examine the role of mass media in this process. Over 2 million tweets were collected for a two-year period (2012 - 2013) and were assigned to 157 urban areas in the continental USA (Figure 1). Geographical locations of the tweets were identified with a geolocation resolving algorithm based the profile of the users. Daily number of tweets (tweeting rate) was computed for 157 conterminous USA urban areas and adjusted for data acquisition errors. The USHCN daily minimum and maximum temperatures were obtained for the station locations closest to the centers of the urban areas and the 1981-2010 30-year temperature mean and standard deviation were used as the climate normals. For the analysis, we computed the following indices for each day of 2012 - 2013 period: standardized temperature anomaly, absolute standardized temperature anomaly, and extreme cold and hot temperature anomalies for each urban zone. The extreme cold and hot temperature anomalies were then transformed into country-level values that represent the number of people living in extreme temperature conditions. The rate of tweeting on climate change was regressed on the time variables, number of climate change publications in the mass media, and temperature. In the majority of regression models, the mass media and temperature variables were significant at the pmedia acts as a mediator in the relationship between local weather and climate change discourse intensity. Our analysis of Twitter data confirmed that the public is able to

  20. The use of the dusty-gas model for the description of mass transport with chemical reaction in porous media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldsink, J.W.; Veldsink, J.W.; van Damme, Rudolf M.J.; Versteeg, Geert; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    1995-01-01

    In the present study, mass transport accompanied by chemical reactions in porous media is studied according to the Fick model and the dusty-gas model. For mass transport accompanied by a chemical reaction in catalyst structures showing a plane, line, or point of symmetry, the approximate analytical

  1. Effects of mass media action on the Axelrod model with social influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Arezky H.; Moreno, Y.

    2010-07-01

    The use of dyadic interaction between agents, in combination with homophily (the principle that “likes attract”) in the Axelrod model for the study of cultural dissemination, has two important problems: the prediction of monoculture in large societies and an extremely narrow window of noise levels in which diversity with local convergence is obtained. Recently, the inclusion of social influence has proven to overcome them [A. Flache and M. W. Macy, e-print arXiv:0808.2710]. Here, we extend the Axelrod model with social influence interaction for the study of mass media effects through the inclusion of a superagent which acts over the whole system and has non-null overlap with each agent of the society. The dependence with different parameters as the initial social diversity, size effects, mass media strength, and noise is outlined. Our results might be relevant in several socioeconomic contexts and for the study of the emergence of collective behavior in complex social systems.

  2. A model for cross-cultural reciprocal interactions through mass media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Avella, Juan Carlos; Cosenza, Mario G; San Miguel, Maxi

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the problem of cross-cultural interactions through mass media in a model where two populations of social agents, each with its own internal dynamics, get information about each other through reciprocal global interactions. As the agent dynamics, we employ Axelrod's model for social influence. The global interaction fields correspond to the statistical mode of the states of the agents and represent mass media messages on the cultural trend originating in each population. Several phases are found in the collective behavior of either population depending on parameter values: two homogeneous phases, one having the state of the global field acting on that population, and the other consisting of a state different from that reached by the applied global field; and a disordered phase. In addition, the system displays nontrivial effects: (i) the emergence of a largest minority group of appreciable size sharing a state different from that of the applied global field; (ii) the appearance of localized ordered states for some values of parameters when the entire system is observed, consisting of one population in a homogeneous state and the other in a disordered state. This last situation can be considered as a social analogue to a chimera state arising in globally coupled populations of oscillators.

  3. Migrant Image as an "Other Some" in the Russian Mass Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman P. Bakanov

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article reveals the main approaches and methods of forming a perception stereotype of the migrant image as "other some" in the Russian mass media. The authors of this article analyzed three federal print publications - "Rossiyskaya Gazeta", "Trud" and "Komsomolskaya Pravda", characterized as mass editions, which enabled to make the most complete coverage of several segments of the readership and to highlight the most widespread meaning of the "migrant" concept in the public consciousness. The study of the dynamics of using the "migrant" concept for the period of 2000-2013 in the Russian print media made it possible to conclude that there were shifts towards a positive assessment of "other some". If the "language of enmity" was used in the public consciousness to form the migrant image at the beginning of the period under investigation, which led to the consolidation of migrant phobia, then the situation changed by 2013 - the migrant image was more often associated with a victim of interethnic tension and corruption. The new migrant image is the image of a migrant who has not found a better life, but has adopted Russia as a second home and therefore trying to adopt new standards and living conditions and helping to solve many of the social and economic problems of Russian society.

  4. Does neighbourhood walkability moderate the effects of mass media communication strategies to promote regular physical activity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, R; Giles-Corti, B; Bauman, A; Rosenberg, M; Bull, F C; Leavy, J E

    2013-02-01

    Mass media campaigns are widely used in Australia and elsewhere to promote physical activity among adults. Neighbourhood walkability is consistently shown to be associated with walking and total activity. Campaigns may have different effects on individuals living in high and low walkable neighbourhoods. The purpose of this study is to compare pre- and post-campaign cognitive and behavioural impacts of the Heart Foundation's Find Thirty every day® campaign, in respondents living in high and lower walkable neighbourhoods. Pre- and post-campaign cross-sectional survey data were linked with objectively measured neighbourhood walkability. Cognitive and behavioural impacts were assessed using logistic regression stratified by walkability. Cognitive impacts were significantly higher post-campaign and consistently higher in respondents in high compared with lower walkable neighbourhoods. Post campaign sufficient activity was significantly higher and transport walking significantly lower, but only in residents of lower walkable areas. Cognitive impacts of mass media physical activity campaigns may be enhanced by living in a more walkable neighbourhood.

  5. Evolution of the Digital Society Reveals Balance between Viral and Mass Media Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleineberg, Kaj-Kolja; Boguñá, Marián

    2014-07-01

    Online social networks (OSNs) enable researchers to study the social universe at a previously unattainable scale. The worldwide impact and the necessity to sustain the rapid growth of OSNs emphasize the importance of unraveling the laws governing their evolution. Empirical results show that, unlike many real-world growing networked systems, OSNs follow an intricate path that includes a dynamical percolation transition. In light of these results, we present a quantitative two-parameter model that reproduces the entire topological evolution of a quasi-isolated OSN with unprecedented precision from the birth of the network. This allows us to precisely gauge the fundamental macroscopic and microscopic mechanisms involved. Our findings suggest that the coupling between the real preexisting underlying social structure, a viral spreading mechanism, and mass media influence govern the evolution of OSNs. The empirical validation of our model, on a macroscopic scale, reveals that virality is 4-5 times stronger than mass media influence and, on a microscopic scale, individuals have a higher subscription probability if invited by weaker social contacts, in agreement with the "strength of weak ties" paradigm.

  6. GLOBALIZATION AND MASS-MEDIA IN THE CONTEXT OF ECONOMIC CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burtic Daniel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Globalization is a reality that we cannot deny or run away from. The economic, political or social issues, even if they have a starting point, spread very quickly, covering large areas in a very short time. Modern communication systems enable crisis transfer. They also bring us information about the actions that have been taken in order to overcome those critical circumstances. Does recession have positive aspects, too? If it has, what are these positive aspects and how can they be used to produce highest benefits? We will try to describe the concepts we maintain by means of some notorious works written by authors with a vast experience, some of them being Noble Prize winners. The idea that we propose is to bring hope out of this situation generated by crisis and globalization. The economic crisis has created a huge opportunity to the mass-media system: it brings the required information to citizens from different nations. Taking this into account, mass-media has played and still plays an important part in making the people involved find solutions and communicate whenever the decision makers are trying to hide facts. With the help of innovation and transformation, let’s look for solutions to develop our abilities, relationships, products, markets and results. We should never forget that the greatest and most impressive changes are often born in times of crisis.

  7. Transparency and accountability in mass media campaigns about organ donation: a response to Morgan and Feeley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rady, Mohamed Y; McGregor, Joan L; Verheijde, Joseph L

    2013-11-01

    We respond to Morgan and Feeley's critique on our article "Mass Media in Organ Donation: Managing Conflicting Messages and Interests." We noted that Morgan and Feeley agree with the position that the primary aims of media campaigns are: "to educate the general public about organ donation process" and "help individuals make informed decisions" about organ donation. For those reasons, the educational messages in media campaigns should not be restricted to "information from pilot work or focus groups" but should include evidence-based facts resulting from a comprehensive literature research. We consider the controversial aspects about organ donation to be relevant, if not necessary, educational materials that must be disclosed in media campaigns to comply with the legal and moral requirements of informed consent. With that perspective in mind, we address the validity of Morgan and Feeley's claim that media campaigns have no need for informing the public about the controversial nature of death determination in organ donation. Scientific evidence has proven that the criteria for death determination are inconsistent with the Uniform Determination of Death Act and therefore potentially harmful to donors. The decision by campaign designers to use the statutory definition of death without disclosing the current controversies surrounding that definition does not contribute to improved informed decision making. We argue that if Morgan and Feeley accept the important role of media campaigns to enhance informed decision making, then critical controversies should be disclosed. In support of that premise, we will outline: (1) the wide-spread scientific challenges to brain death as a concept of death; (2) the influence of the donor registry and team-huddling on the medical care of potential donors; (3) the use of authorization rather than informed consent for donor registration; (4) the contemporary religious controversy; and (5) the effects of training desk clerks as organ

  8. The social image of drinking - mass media campaigns may inadvertently increase binge drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Friederike; Kohlmann, Karoline; Monter, Anne; Ameis, Nina

    2017-10-01

    Mass media campaigns that promote responsible drinking are rarely tested for their usefulness in reducing heavy alcohol consumption. Existing campaigns that appeal to responsible drinking while simultaneously displaying young people in social drinking situations may even have paradoxical effects. To examine such possible effects, we drew on a real-world media campaign, which we systematically modified on the basis of recent prototype research. We pilot tested questionnaires (using n = 41 participants), developed two different sets of posters in the style of an existing campaign (n = 39) and investigated their effectiveness (n = 102). In the main study, young men were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: sociable or unsociable binge drinker prototype condition or a control group. Outcome variables were intention, behavioural willingness, attitude, subjective norm, self-efficacy, prototype evaluation and prototype similarity with respect to binge drinking. Binge drinking as a habit was included to control for the fact that habitual drinking in social situations is hard to overcome and poses a particular challenge to interventions. The manipulation check showed that the experimental variation (sociable vs. unsociable drinker prototype condition) was successful. Results of the main study showed that the sociable drinker prototype condition resulted in a higher willingness and - for those with less of a habit - a higher intention to binge drink the next weekend. The unsociable drinker prototype condition had no effects. The results imply that the social components of mass media campaigns might inadvertently exacerbate binge drinking in young men. We therefore advocate against campaigns including aspects of alcohol consumption that might be positively associated with drinker prototype perception. Finally, we provide suggestions for future research.

  9. Evaluation of a mass media campaign promoting using help to quit smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Laura A; Parvanta, Sarah A; Jeong, Michelle; Hornik, Robert C

    2014-05-01

    Although there is evidence that promoting individual cessation aids increases their utilization, mass media campaigns highlighting the benefit of using help to quit have not been evaluated. The effects of a Philadelphia adult smoking-cessation media campaign targeting using help in ad taglines were analyzed from March to November 2012. This study distinctively analyzed the campaign's impact at both the population level (effects on the average person) and the individual level (effects among those who reported exposure). The 16-month mass media campaign aired in Philadelphia PA from December 2010 to March 2012. A representative sample of adult Philadelphia smokers was interviewed by telephone at baseline (n=491) and new samples were interviewed monthly throughout the campaign (n=2,786). In addition, a subsample of these respondents was reinterviewed 3 months later (n=877). On average, participants reported seeing campaign ads four times per week. Among individual respondents, each additional campaign exposure per week increased the likelihood of later reporting using help (OR=1.08, p<0.01), adjusting for baseline use of help and other potential confounders. This corresponded to a 5% increase in the use of help for those with average exposure relative to those with no exposure. Cross-sectional associations between individual campaign exposure and intentions to use help were consistent with these lagged findings. However, there was no evidence of population-level campaign effects on use of help. Although the campaign was effective at the individual level, its effects were too small to have a population-detectable impact. Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Lessons learned from H1N1 epidemic: The role of mass media in informing physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaleh Gholami

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Preparedness and response at the time of pandemic range from writing programs to conducting procedures as well as informing the target population. The present study was conducted to evaluate the awareness of general practitioners in Tehran, at the time of H1N1 pan-demic. It also aimed to identify the main sources used for gathering information at each alert level. Methods: Two telephone surveys were conducted with a 4 month interval, at the beginning of H1N1 pandemic alert level 5 and 6, on 90 and 100 general practitioners, respectively. The knowledge of these physicians on the symptoms of H1N1 flu, the transmission methods, the preventative measures, and existing treatments along with the sources used for gathering information were assessed. Results: While mass media was the main source of gathering informa-tion in the H1N1 pandemic alert level 5, more professional sources were used at the H1N1 pandemic alert level 6. Despite the acceptable improvement noted in the knowledge of the physicians during the two phases of the study, their understanding of the disease was believed to be less than the expected level based on H1N1 pandemic alert level. Conclusions: The routine use of mass media as one of the main sources of information gathering at the two stages of the study points out its importance in providing physicians with the required informa-tion at the time of H1N1 pandemic. Using adequate, up-to-date, but non-specialized media can fill the gap in information gathering, re-quired for fighting pandemic.

  11. Bunch compression at the Stanford Linear Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holtzapple, R.L.; Decker, F.J.; Simopoulos, C.

    1995-08-01

    The production and measurement of short electron and positron bunches in the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) will be presented in this paper. The bunches are compressed in a transport line between the damping rings and the linac. The electron and positron bunch distributions in the SLC linac have been measured using a Hamamatsu, model N3373-02, 500-femtosecond streak camera. The distributions were measured at the end of the SLC linac versus the bunch compressor RF voltage. The measurements are compared with simulations

  12. Bunch Length Measurements in SPEAR3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbett, W.J.; Fisher, A.; Huang, X.; Safranek, J.; Sebek, J.; /SLAC; Lumpkin, A.; /Argonne; Sannibale, F.; /LBL, Berkeley; Mok, W.; /Unlisted

    2007-11-28

    A series of bunch length measurements were made in SPEAR3 for two different machine optics. In the achromatic optics the bunch length increases from the low-current value of 16.6ps rms to about 30ps at 25ma/bunch yielding an inductive impedance of -0.17{Omega}. Reducing the momentum compaction factor by a factor of {approx}60 [1] yields a low-current bunch length of {approx}4ps rms. In this paper we review the experimental setup and results.

  13. Certain features of FELs with short bunches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedev, A.N.

    2006-01-01

    The report is devoted to physics of free electron lasers operating in the short-wave domain where the bunch length could be less than the undulator length in the proper frame. Then the current component of the signal is locked within the bunch as in a cavity, while the electromagnetic component propagates freely. In contrast with gyrotrons where this regime can be of interest only for wavelengths comparable with the bunch length, we consider short waves in a bunch of arbitrary profile. Both amplification of an external harmonic signal and SASE regime, i.e. selective amplification of proper noises, are investigated

  14. Effect of mass media and Internet on sexual behavior of undergraduates in Osogbo metropolis, Southwestern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asekun-Olarinmoye OS

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Olusesan S Asekun-Olarinmoye,1 Esther O Asekun-Olarinmoye,2 Wasiu O Adebimpe,2 Akin G Omisore21Department of Mass Communication, Babcock Business School, Babcock University, Ilisan-Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria; 2Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Osun State University, Osogbo, Osun State, NigeriaIntroduction: The influence of media portrayals of sexual attitudes and normative expectations of young people at a critical developmental stage is of public health concern.Objectives: To examine the role of mass media and Internet utilization in shaping the sexual health attitudes and behaviors of young undergraduates in Osogbo metropolis, Osun State, Nigeria.Materials and methods: In a descriptive cross-sectional study, 400 undergraduates were selected using a multistage random sampling technique. Four hundred and fifty pretested, semistructured questionnaires were distributed; of these, 400 were returned properly filled. Data were analyzed using SPSS statistical software version 16.Results: Mean age of respondents ± standard deviation was 23.6±2.99 years. Most were aware of the various forms of mass media (>95%. Most (64.0% respondents spent 1–5 hours watching television, daily, and most used the Internet often. About 38.3% and 24.2% of respondents used the Internet and radio/television, respectively, as sources of information on sexual issues. Most respondents used the Internet for school assignments (83.0%, n=332, electronic mail (89.0%, n=356, and for accessing sexually explicit materials (74.5%, n=298. Most of the respondents (73.5% opined that the Internet has a bad influence on youths' sexual behavior, although accessing the Internet for sexual material or movies was acceptable to 25.3% of them. Of the 226 respondents who had ever had sex, 226 (100%, 37 (16.4%, 31 (13.7%, and 10 (4.4% practiced coitus, oral sex, masturbation, and anal sex, respectively; 122 (54.0% always used condoms

  15. Women’s Perception, Familial and Mass Media Influence upon Ratus Vaginal Douche Usage in Bali, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widyastuti .

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground and purpose: The ratus vaginal douching technique is a treatment by evaporation in the genital area,that compound is called “ratus”. There are a number of controversies surrounding the ratus technique, especiallyregarding the benefits and detrimental aspects. This study applies a behaviour model Green (2007 with a focus onthree factors: the determinant, supporting and stimulant. This study was aimed to understand the relationshipperception, socio economic, familial, and mass media upon ratus vaginal douching usage.Methods: This study used a quantitative approach with an analytic observational cross-sectional design. Study usedrandom sampling of 63 samples that taken from 3 different Spas.Results: The respondents were 44 (69.8% who performed the ratus vaginal douching and 19 (30.2% who had notperformed. Results indicated that the variables of perception, knowledge, familial, and the mass media showed asignificant correlation with the value of (p<0.05. The result of multivariate analysis came from mass media that had thegreatest influence with OR=8.47 (95%CI: 1.21-59.42.Conclusion: Mass media had the greatest influence on the use of the ratus vaginal douching in Bali Province.Keywords: ratus vaginal douching usage, women`s perception, familial, mass media

  16. Non solo quotidiani in classe: considerazioni sull’italiano dei mass media.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Morgana

    2009-12-01

    -size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman";} The article suggests that school, the place of linguistic education, should teach pupils to reflect on the ‘norma implicita’ of the media, to which young people are exposed every day outside school.  The development of critical faculties to apply to the vehicled language of the media can take as its starting point the experience of reading newspapers in class at upper secondary school, something that now involves over 44 000 teachers and almost one million eight hundred thousand students. Observation of innovative features different to the standard Italian described in the grammar books, reflections on the variety and spread of oral registers in writing, the identification of “transversal” elements involving different textual areas, may provide valid tools for practical application in teaching.   But the entire system of mass media nowadays aims at becoming complementary, at cross reference between one medium and another with constant shifts: TV and the worldwide web to newspapers, strip cartoons to the cinema,   the cinema to strip cartoons, strip cartoons to advertising.  It would thus seem to be important for our teaching to introduce the ability to reflect on the language of the other media that enter the daily experience of young people, such as strip cartoons.   

  17. How the mass media report social statistics: a case study concerning research on end-of-life decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seale, Clive

    2010-09-01

    The issue of whether it is right to be concerned about the accuracy with which mass media report social scientific research is explored through a detailed case study of media reporting of two surveys of UK doctors' end-of-life decision-making. Data include press releases, emails and field notes taken during periods of media interest supplemented by a collection of print and broadcast media reports. The case study contributes to existing knowledge about the ways in which mass media establish, exaggerate and otherwise distort the meaning of statistical findings. Journalists ignored findings that did not fit into existing media interest in the 'assisted dying' story and were subject to pressure from interest groups concerned to promote their own interpretations and viewpoints. Rogue statistics mutated as they were set loose from their original research report context and were 'laundered' as they passed from one media report to another. Yet media accounts of the research, fuelling an already heated public debate about ethical issues in end-of-life care, arguably acted as a conduit for introducing new considerations into this debate, such as the role played by sedation at the end of life, the extent to which euthanasia is practiced outside the law, and the extent of medical opposition to the legalisation of assisted dying. The expectation that accuracy and comprehensiveness should be the sole criteria for judging journalists' reports is, finally, considered to be unrealistic and it is argued that social scientists need to understand and adapted to the conditions under which mass media reporting operates if they are to succeed in introducing the findings of social research into public debates. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Blood and Bones: The Influence of the Mass Media on Australian Primary School Children's Understandings of Genes and DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Jenny; Venville, Grady

    2014-02-01

    Previous research showed that primary school children held several misconceptions about genetics of concern for their future lives. Included were beliefs that genes and DNA are separate substances, with genes causing family resemblance and DNA identifying suspects at crime scenes. Responses to this work `blamed' the mass media for these misunderstandings. This study aimed to determine whether that blame had any foundation by examining the media habits and conceptions about genes and DNA of Australian children. With little prior research considering the influence of entertainment mass media on children's academically relevant knowledge, this was an exploratory study with a mixed modes design. Data were collected by detailed media questionnaires and face-to-face interviews with 62 children aged 10-12 years, and subjected to content and thematic analysis. Specific mass media examples children reported using were examined for genetics content. Results indicate 5 h/day of media use, mostly television including crime shows, and that children perceived television to be their main source of information about genetics. Most children (89 %) knew DNA, 60 % knew genes, and more was known about uses of DNA outside the body such as crime solving or resolving family relationships than about its biological nature and function. Half believed DNA is only in blood and body parts used for forensics. These concepts paralleled the themes emerging from the media examples. The results indicate that the mass media is a pervasive teacher of children, and that fundamental concepts could be introduced earlier in schools to establish scientific concepts before misconceptions arise.

  19. Mass transport in fracture media: impact of the random function model assumed for fractures conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capilla, J. E.; Rodrigo, J.; Gomez Hernandez, J. J.

    2003-01-01

    Characterizing the uncertainty of flow and mass transport models requires the definition of stochastic models to describe hydrodynamic parameters. Porosity and hydraulic conductivity (K) are two of these parameters that exhibit a high degree of spatial variability. K is usually the parameter whose variability influence to a more extended degree solutes movement. In fracture media, it is critical to properly characterize K in the most altered zones where flow and solutes migration tends to be concentrated. However, K measurements use to be scarce and sparse. This fact calls to consider stochastic models that allow quantifying the uncertainty of flow and mass transport predictions. This paper presents a convective transport problem solved in a 3D block of fractured crystalline rock. the case study is defined based on data from a real geological formation. As the scarcity of K data in fractures does not allow supporting classical multi Gaussian assumptions for K in fractures, the non multi Gaussian hypothesis has been explored, comparing mass transport results for alternative Gaussian and non-Gaussian assumptions. The latter hypothesis allows reproducing high spatial connectivity for extreme values of K. This feature is present in nature, might lead to reproduce faster solute pathways, and therefore should be modeled in order to obtain reasonably safe prediction of contaminants migration in a geological formation. The results obtained for the two alternative hypotheses show a remarkable impact of the K random function model in solutes movement. (Author) 9 refs

  20. TRANSVERSE MODES FOR FLAT INTER-BUNCH WAKES*

    CERN Document Server

    Burov, A

    2013-01-01

    If inter-bunch wake fields are flat, i.e. their variations over a bunch length can be neglected, all coherent modes have the same coupled-bunch structure, provided the bunches can be treated as identical by their inner qualities (train theorem). If a flat feedback is strong enough, the transverse modes are single-bunch, provided the inter-bunch wakes are also flat (damper theorem).

  1. Correlation between morphological characters and estimated bunch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The methodology of multiple linear regression (MLR) was used to estimate bunch weight. The most significant variables that were measured included number of leaves at harvest, number of fruits per bunch, FW, FL, rachis weight (RW) and stalk length (SL), generating the following prediction equation: BW= -5.249 + ...

  2. Using mass media campaigns to reduce youth tobacco use: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jane Appleyard; Duke, Jennifer C; Davis, Kevin C; Kim, Annice E; Nonnemaker, James M; Farrelly, Matthew C

    2015-01-01

    This review synthesizes the published literature on using mass media campaigns to reduce youth tobacco use, with particular focus on effects within population subgroups and the relative effectiveness of campaign characteristics. A search of PubMed and PsycINFO conducted in March of 2014 yielded 397 studies with 34 suitable for inclusion. Included were quantitative studies that evaluate an antitobacco media campaign intended to influence youth cognitions or behavior or explore the relative effectiveness of campaign characteristics among youth. An automated search and assessment of suitability for inclusion was done. Study outcomes were compared and synthesized. Antitobacco media campaigns can be effective across racial/ethnic populations, although the size of the campaign effect may differ by race/ethnicity. Evidence is insufficient to determine whether campaign outcomes differ by socioeconomic status (SES) and population density. Youth are more likely to recall and think about advertising that includes personal testimonials; a surprising narrative; and intense images, sound, and editing. Evidence in support of using a health consequences message theme is mixed; an industry manipulation theme may be effective in combination with a health consequences message. Research is insufficient to determine whether advertising with a secondhand smoke or social norms theme influences youth tobacco use. Our recommendation is to develop antitobacco campaigns designed to reach all at-risk youth, which can be effective across racial/ethnic populations. Research priorities include assessing campaign influence among lower SES and rural youth, disentangling the effects of message characteristics, and assessing the degree to which this body of evidence may have changed as a result of changes in youth culture and communication technology.

  3. Impact of a negative emotional antitobacco mass media campaign on French smokers: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guignard, Romain; Gallopel-Morvan, Karine; Mons, Ute; Hummel, Karin; Nguyen-Thanh, Viêt

    2018-01-13

    Mass media campaigns to encourage smoking cessation have been shown to be effective in a context of comprehensive tobacco control programme. The effectiveness of antismoking ads that evoke negative emotions remains unclear, in particular in countries with high smoking prevalence and among smokers with low perceived susceptibility, low self-efficacy or who are not users of smoking cessation services. To evaluate short-term and long-term effects of a 1-month French national highly emotional media campaign, with a focus on these specific targets. A 6-month longitudinal survey by Internet. A sample of 3000 smokers were interviewed before the media campaign (T0). They were contacted again just after (T1) and 6 months after the campaign (T2). Perceived susceptibility to the risks of smoking, self-efficacy to quit smoking, use of smoking cessation services (quitline and website) and 7-day quitting. The analysis was carried out on 2241 individuals who answered at T1 and T2. Multiple logistic regressions were computed to test the association between the change in each outcome at T1 and T2 and the level of exposure based on self-reported recall. Self-reported recall was associated with an increase in perceived susceptibility and with use of cessation services. Campaign recall was also associated with higher 7-day quitting immediately after the campaign (OR=1.8 (1.0 to 3.2), Pmedia campaigns can be effective in encouraging cessation among smokers in a country with high smoking prevalence (France), but should be accompanied by convincing self-efficacy messages. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  4. Femtosecond single electron bunch generation by rotating longitudinal bunch phase space in magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, J.; Kondoh, T.; Kan, K.; Kozawa, T.; Yoshida, Y.; Tagawa, S.

    2006-01-01

    A femtosecond (fs) electron bunching was observed in a photoinjector with a magnetic compressor by rotating the bunch in longitudinal phase space. The bunch length was obtained by measuring Cherenkov radiation of the electron beam with a femtosecond streak camera technique. A single electron bunch with rms bunch length of 98 fs was observed for a 32 MeV electron beam at a charge of 0.17 nC. The relative energy spread and the normalized transverse emittance of the electron beam were 0.2% and 3.8 mm-mrad, respectively. The effect of space charge on the bunch compression was investigated experimentally for charges from 0.17 to 1.25 nC. The dependences of the relative energy spread and the normalized beam transverse emittance on the bunch charge were measured

  5. Mass print media depictions of cancer and heart disease: community versus individualistic perspectives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Juanne; van Amerom, Gudrun

    2008-01-01

    This paper is based on a critical discourse content analysis of 40 stories from the 20 highest circulating English-language mass magazines available in Canada and published in Canada or the USA in 2001. It examines the presence or absence of the social determinants perspective in the portrayal of the two most significant causes of morbidity and mortality in these countries: cancer and heart disease. The media analysis documents an absence of reflection of the social determinants viewpoint on these, the most important causes of disease and death. Thus, magazine stories ignore the role of such considerations as income, education level, ethnicity, visible minority or, Aboriginal status, early life experiences, employment and working conditions, food accessibility and quality, housing, social services, social exclusion, or unemployment and employment security in explaining health. Instead, the magazine articles underscore an individualistic approach to disease that assumes that health care is accessible and available to all, and that these diseases are preventable and treatable through individual lifestyle choices in combination with the measures prescribed through conventional medicine. Although cancer and heart disease are framed by a medical discourse, articles tended to emphasise the independence, freedom and power of the individual within the medical care system. The research documents a continuation of the dominance of conventional medicine buttressed by individualism in media stories. Theoretical and methodological issues are discussed. Some of the practical consequences for policy-makers and professionals are noted.

  6. Curvature radiation by bunches of particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saggion, A.

    1975-01-01

    A bunch of relativistic particles moving on a curved trajectory is considered. The coherent emission of curvature radiation is described with particular regard to the role played by the 'shape' of the bunch as a function of its dimensions. It is found that the length of the bunch strongly affects the spectrum of the radiation emitted, with no effect on its polarization. For wavelengths shorter than the length of the bunch, the emitted intensity as a function of frequency shows recurrent maxima and minima, the height of the maxima being proportional to νsup(-5/3). The bunch dimensions perpendicular to the plane of the orbit affect both the spectral intensity and the polarization of the radiation. (orig./BJ) [de

  7. Feedback control of coupled-bunch instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, J.D.; Eisen, N.; Hindi, H.; Linscott, I.; Oxoby, G.; Sapozhnikov, L.; Serio, M.

    1993-05-01

    The next generation of synchrotron light sources and particle accelerators will require active feedback systems to control multi-bunch instabilities. Stabilizing hundreds or thousands of potentially unstable modes in these accelerator designs presents many technical challenges. Feedback systems to stabilize coupled-bunch instabilities may be understood in the frequency domain (mode-based feedback) or in the time domain (bunch-by-bunch feedback). In both approaches an external amplifier system is used to create damping fields that prevent coupled-bunch oscillations from growing without bound. The system requirements for transverse (betatron) and longitudinal (synchrotron) feedback are presented, and possible implementation options developed. Feedback system designs based on digital signal-processing techniques are described. Experimental results are shown from a synchrotron oscillation damper in the SSRL/SLAC storage ring SPEAR that uses digital signal-processing techniques

  8. ["Prisms of Perception": multiple readings of mass media health messages in Northeast Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diógenes, Kátia Castelo Branco Machado; Nations, Marilyn

    2011-12-01

    This anthropological study from February 2009 to November 2010 revealed the comprehension and cultural critique of three mass media health campaigns in Northeast Brazil. Twenty-four ethnographic interviews were conducted, exploring the iconographic and semantic content of the campaigns in the Dendê community in Fortaleza, Ceará State, Brazil. The authors used Content Analysis; Systems of Signs, Significance, and Actions; and Contextualized Semantic Interpretation. There is a gap between the elaboration and reception of messages. Multiple interpretations occur (proximal reading, kaleidoscope of comprehension, and distant reading), depending on the reader's cognitive proximity to (or detachment from) the message. This "perceptual plasticity" arises from the creativity of popular imagination. Health professionals who hear rather than dismiss the "recipient's" subjective voice, which re-signifies authoritative messages, can penetrate the perception of the recipient's "visual world". In the context of poverty, this re-framing is essential for people to comprehend and proactively defend their own health.

  9. Porous media fluid flow, heat, and mass transport model with rock stress coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Runchal, A.K.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes the physical and mathematical basis of a general purpose porous media flow model, GWTHERM. The mathematical basis of the model is obtained from the coupled set of the classical governing equations for the mass, momentum and energy balance. These equations are embodied in a computational model which is then coupled externally to a linearly elastic rock-stress model. This coupling is rather exploratory and based upon empirical correlations. The coupled model is able to take account of time-dependent, inhomogeneous and anisotropic features of the hydrogeologic, thermal and transport phenomena. A number of applications of the model have been made. Illustrations from the application of the model to nuclear waste repositories are included

  10. Biblical antecedents of modern Agenda-Setting: religious platforms in lieu of mass media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuriel RASHI

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Can a primitive society set a public agenda? Are there some advantages for a religious society in setting an agenda? From a critical study of the communicative perspective of the Bible and hermeneutic reading of its texts, it can be said that certain elements in primitive societies succeeded in influencing the political and social agendas. They did so by exploiting specific public assemblies or appearing in crowded places in attempts to impact local and national agendas. This notion is significant because it suggests that in countries that do not have developed communication infrastructures or established religious institutions (e.g., churches, mosques, and synagogues that serve as public arenas, indeed even in seemingly closed religious communities, there may well be attempts to use venues other than mass media to influence the public agenda.

  11. Youth audience segmentation strategies for smoking-prevention mass media campaigns based on message appeal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Brian S; Worden, John K; Bunn, Janice Yanushka; Dorwaldt, Anne L; Connolly, Scott W; Ashikaga, Takamaru

    2007-08-01

    Mass media interventions are among the strategies recommended for youth cigarette smoking prevention, but little is known about optimal methods for reaching diverse youth audiences. Grades 4 through 12 samples of youth from four states (n = 1,230) rated smoking-prevention messages in classroom settings. Similar proportions of African American, Hispanic, and White youth participated. Impact of audience characteristics on message appeal ratings was assessed to provide guidance for audience segmentation strategies. Age had a strong effect on individual message appeal. The effect of gender also was significant. Message ratings were similar among the younger racial/ethnic groups, but differences were found for older African American youth. Lower academic achievement was associated with lower appeal scores for some messages. Age should be a primary consideration in developing and delivering smoking-prevention messages to youth audiences. The unique needs of boys and girls and older African American adolescents should also be considered.

  12. Influence of vapor-mass flux on simultaneous heat and moisture transfer in unsaturated porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, J.G.; Boo, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    This paper evaluates the validity of neglecting vapor transport by moisture content gradients (VMG) and liquid transport by temperature gradients (LTG) in coupled heat and moisture transfer in moist porous media. A review of previous work reveals discrepancies between model predictions and experimental data. The results presented here show that these discrepancies result from neglecting VMG. The governing equations which describe the coupled heat and moisture transfer are solved numerically for an infinite slab of an unsaturated porous medium, and existing experimental and empirical data for a moist sandy silt soil are used. Predicted moisture content distributions during dry-out and drying rates are found to be significantly affected by VMG. Accurate results can be obtained when VMG is neglected in the energy equation provided that it is retained in the mass conservation equation

  13. The mass media destabilizes the cultural homogenous regime in Axelrod's model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peres, Lucas R; Fontanari, Jose F [Instituto de Fisica de Sao Carlos, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 369, 13560-970 Sao Carlos SP (Brazil)

    2010-02-05

    An important feature of Axelrod's model for culture dissemination or social influence is the emergence of many multicultural absorbing states, despite the fact that the local rules that specify the agents interactions are explicitly designed to decrease the cultural differences between agents. Here we re-examine the problem of introducing an external, global interaction-the mass media-in the rules of Axelrod's model: in addition to their nearest neighbors, each agent has a certain probability p to interact with a virtual neighbor whose cultural features are fixed from the outset. Most surprisingly, this apparently homogenizing effect actually increases the cultural diversity of the population. We show that, contrary to previous claims in the literature, even a vanishingly small value of p is sufficient to destabilize the homogeneous regime for very large lattice sizes.

  14. The Implementation Effort Islamic Law Norms in Activities for Overcoming Pornography and Pornoaction on Mass Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramlani Lina Sinaulan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the effort Islamic Law norms in activities for overcoming pornography and porno-action on mass media. By using normative legal research, the result found that the concept of Islamic law, behave based on sharia, shows the importance of shaping the personality traits of Islam (syakhsiyya Islāmiyya and based on the devotion and faith. Because of the relation to the formulation of the rule of law against pornography behavior, it can not be designed, prepared and formulated based on social values. Based on the facts of society, as a result of the moral decadence that led to a permissive attitude towards their cultural infiltration, the social values in assessing the behavior may become more permissive toward behavior. However, the use of religious norms which have universal properties will not change, and even capable of elastic with the times.

  15. The mass media destabilizes the cultural homogenous regime in Axelrod's model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peres, Lucas R; Fontanari, Jose F

    2010-01-01

    An important feature of Axelrod's model for culture dissemination or social influence is the emergence of many multicultural absorbing states, despite the fact that the local rules that specify the agents interactions are explicitly designed to decrease the cultural differences between agents. Here we re-examine the problem of introducing an external, global interaction-the mass media-in the rules of Axelrod's model: in addition to their nearest neighbors, each agent has a certain probability p to interact with a virtual neighbor whose cultural features are fixed from the outset. Most surprisingly, this apparently homogenizing effect actually increases the cultural diversity of the population. We show that, contrary to previous claims in the literature, even a vanishingly small value of p is sufficient to destabilize the homogeneous regime for very large lattice sizes.

  16. Effectiveness of a Mass Media Campaign on Oral Carcinogens and Their Effects on the Oral Cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Ashish; Rimal, Jyotsna

    2018-03-27

    Objective: To develop a mass media campaign on oral carcinogens and their effects on the oral cavity in order to increase awareness among the general population. Methods: Documentary and public service announcements highlighting the effects of tobacco and its products were designed and developed based on principles of behavior change. A questionnaire, designed to determine the knowledge, attitude and practice of people regarding oral carcinogens, was used to conduct a baseline survey at various sites in eastern Nepal. Local television channels and radio stations broadcasted the documentary and public service announcements. An evaluation survey was then performed to assess the effectiveness of the campaign. Results: Baseline and evaluation surveys covered 1,972 and 2,140 individuals, respectively. A third of the baseline population consumed quid, 22% chewing tobacco, 16% gutka (commercial preparation of arecanut, tobacco, lime and chemicals) and 25% cigarettes. Tobacco consumption differed significantly between 3 ecologic regions with greater use in the Terai region. The knowledge prevalence regarding the oral carcinogens quid (70%), chewing tobacco (82%), gutka (58%) and cigarettes (93%) significantly increased in the evaluation population. Females were more aware about the various tobacco products and their effects on health. More people knew about the harmful effects of tobacco on their health and oral cavity, and had their mouth examined and the frequency of consumption of these products reduced significantly after the campaign. Attitudes towards production, sale and advertisements of tobacco also improved significantly. Conclusions: The mass media campaign was an effective tool for increasing awareness among the population. Creative Commons Attribution License

  17. People's trust in health news disseminated by mass media in Tehran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedjat, Sima; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Majdzadeh, Reza; Farshadi, Mojgan

    2014-01-01

    People are increasingly interested in health news. As a mass media, the 'Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting' (IRIB) has the highest number of target audiences. In Iran, some people follow health news via health programs on satellites and other means of communication. However, all of these programs do not live up to the standards of scientific evidence. In this study, we examined Tehran people's trust in health news disseminated by the IRIB and other mass media outlets. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Tehran. Through multistage sampling, 510 households proportional to size were randomly selected from five regions of Tehran including northern, eastern, western, southern and central regions. One person from each household completed the questionnaire through interviews. The questionnaire included questions on people's level of trust in health news delivered by the IRIB, satellite programs, the internet and magazines. It also included demographic questions. The validity and reliability of the questionnaire was evaluated. Among the interviewees, 50.6% was female. The highest level of trust by the participants was observed in the IRIB (65.2%), and the lowest trust was observed in satellite news (43.4%); pnews broadcasters had more mastery over the subject than the ones in satellite channels (pnews (pnews had improved in the past 10 years. Fifty nine point eight percent of participants believed the quality and accuracy of the IRIB health news was monitored. People's higher level of trust in domestic news as compared to foreign sources and the better status of domestic sources in other areas such as precision in reporting, coverage of more important news, its delivery in lay language, the news broadcasters' proficiency, and other cases - from the participants' point of view - can highlight the significance of designing interventions for changing health behavior among domestic health news producers. Therefore, the results of this study can prove useful to health

  18. VERBALIZATION OF INFORMATIONAL MODEL «CHINA’S DOMINATION» IN THE U.S. MASS-MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Nikolayevna Sorokina

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the research of informational model verbalization titled «China’s Domination», which is formed by the USA mass media. The applicability of this theme is proved by importance of national cognitive activity research (informational model construction through the reference to semiotically ordered set of texts. This study is timely as the mechanisms of informational models representation in mass media are poorly known. Thus, the author offers the term «informational model», considering it as an organized in a special way mass media language which foregrounds mental representations set by authors. The primary goal of this study is a research of informational model foregrounding, viz. informational model verbalization titled «China’s Domination» represented by the U.S. mass-media.  In order to solve this problem the author uses a number of research methods which supplement each other: content-analysis, definitional analysis, method of the contextual analysis, discursive and cognitive analysis of the U.S. mass media, interpretative analysis. The empiric base of this research is the content analysis of five national printing editions of the USA: «The New York Times», «The Washington Post», «The Wall Street Journal», «Time», «Newsweek».Detection of leading psycholinguistic means which form the information model «China’s Domination» in mass-media of the USA becomes the result of the conducted research. Amongst the leading linguistic means the author point out such as:  communicative strategy (polarization, defamation, reliability, allegory, and also the marked lexical units (synonyms, epithets, emotive lexicon, metaphors.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-7-58

  19. Mass media and risk factors for cancer: the under-representation of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Sara; Cunningham, Yvonne; Patterson, Chris; Robb, Katie; Macleod, Una; Anker, Thomas; Hilton, Shona

    2018-04-26

    Increasing age is a risk factor for developing cancer. Yet, older people commonly underestimate this risk, are less likely to be aware of the early symptoms, and are more likely to be diagnosed with advanced stage cancer. Mass media are a key influence on the public's understanding health issues, including cancer risk. This study investigates how news media have represented age and other risk factors in the most common cancers over time. Eight hundred articles about the four most common cancers (breast, prostate, lung and colorectal) published within eight UK national newspapers in 2003, 2004, 2013 and 2014 were identified using the Nexis database. Relevant manifest content of articles was coded quantitatively and subjected to descriptive statistical analysis in SPSS to identify patterns across the data. Risk was presented in half of the articles but this was rarely discussed in any depth and around a quarter of all articles introduced more than one risk factor, irrespective of cancer site. Age was mentioned as a risk factor in approximately 12% of all articles and this varied by cancer site. Age was most frequently reported in relation to prostate cancer and least often in articles about lung cancer. Articles featuring personal narratives more frequently focused on younger people and this was more pronounced in non-celebrity stories; only 15% of non-celebrity narratives were about people over 60. Other common risks discussed were family history and genetics, smoking, diet, alcohol, and environmental factors. Family history and genetics together featured as the most common risk factors. Risk factor reporting varied by site and family history was most commonly associated with breast cancer, diet with bowel cancer and smoking with lung cancer. Age and older adults were largely obscured in media representation of cancer and cancer experience. Indeed common risk factors in general were rarely discussed in any depth. Our findings will usefully inform the development of

  20. IN SEARCH OF ITS OWN IDENTITY: MASS-MEDIA IN POST-COMMUNISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian CHIŞU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The present research focuses on the mass-media system as it evolved in the first post-communist decade. Right after December 1989, hundreds of newspapers, magazines and other kinds of publications appeared in Romania. Likewise, the number of publishing houses grew exponentially, from a few scores to thousands of titles. During the following years, the first private radio stations started broadcasting and, shortly after them, commercial televisions surpassed the national television in terms of rating. The journalistic career was embraced by thousands of people activating in all sectors of the media, who did not always have specialist studies in the field. As a natural consequence, the first faculties of journalism appeared and grew in number around the country. During this time, the professional elites emerged, yet the criteria of selection were disarmingly diverse, mostly targeting vocation and rather than, marginally, education. Our research aims to address this paradoxical situation and, on the other hand, to offer, in a broader picture, the characteristics of the landscape, the environment and characters that occupied the foreground of the journalistic stage. Regarding the elites, the emphasis lies on the sheer struggle for primacy, alongside with stunning discrepancies between some people`s biography (educational background and their aims, which offers notable elements worth discussing. However, in view of public opinion, the journalistic elites have succeeded in raising the professional (journalistic status to a social position regarded as superior to most public occupations, thus switching the roles they used to have during the communist dictatorship. The relationship between the writer and the journalist is also substantially adjusted by favouring the latter, after decades when, during the communist period, writers seemed to be more sensitive to the contemporary problems than journalists. The research also seeks to establish the

  1. The role of the Romanian Society for Radiological Protection and mass media in public information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrei, Veronica; Glodeanu, Florian

    2011-01-01

    accepted by all participants, developed and passed on to future generations. Due to the variety of applications of radioactivity and ionizing radiation, the actors involved in radiation protection culture include professionals and non-professional members of society: politicians, entrepreneurs, NGOs, associations and societies, groups and parties, professional organizations, patients, media, schools and universities and the general public, as well. The main actors in disseminating the culture of radiation protection are professionals in this field and mass media. In effecting their profession they must act as communicators of scientific information, improving the public perception about the risks and benefits of radiation and radioactivity. The Romanian Society of Radiation Protection, the professional organization of practitioners in this area has among its main objectives to promote a culture of radiation protection and improvement of public perception through communication and involvement. Despite substantial efforts to disseminate information on radiation protection, sociological research shows that the average Romanian citizen has no adequate knowledge to make its own decisions. In this direction, radiation protection professionals should address effective communication methods such as 'exchange of information and opinions' and the involvement of interested groups in decision making. Mass media plays an important role in communicating with the public. The recent accident in Japan had a massive coverage in all media. On the other hand, the media must obtain the economic efficiency of published or broadcast news based on audience, according to the principle 'a bad news story is a profitable'. In addition journalists are poorly informed about the topics of radiation protection and have limited editorial space available to educate the public. (authors)

  2. CORNELL: Bunch trains provide higher luminosity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    The new colliding beam technique - ''bunch trains'' - at Cornell's electron-positron Storage Ring (CESR) has led to a new world record for colliding beam luminosity - 3.3 x 10 32 cm -2 s -1 . In the bid to increase reaction rate for any particular process, this luminosity is pushed as high as possible. Once all other luminosityincreasing cards have been played, the only practical way of making a large gain in luminosity is to increase the frequency of bunch-bunch collisions by increasing the number of bunches stored in the ring. However this is not without its own problems: • If the two beams travel the same orbit, the n bunches in one beam collide with the n bunches of the other at 2n points around the ring, and the resulting cumulative nonlinear beam-beam effect (tune shift) severely limits the luminosity attainable at any interaction point. • The destabilizing wakefield effects of bunches on each other increase as the number of bunches increases and the spacing between them decreases. • The synchrotron radiation emitted by the beams becomes a severe problem as the total beam current is raised: to overcome these effects means supplying radiofrequency power to maintain the beam energy, carrying away heat from the vacuum chamber walls, pumping out desorbed gases, and controlling Xray backgrounds in the experiment. In 1979, CESR was designed to run with a single bunch of electrons and a single bunch of positrons circulating on the same orbit and colliding head-on at two diametrically opposite points in the ring, where the CLEO and CUSB experiments were then located. Ideally one could store multiple bunches and solve the multiple collision point problem by using separate rings for the two beams, as in the CERN ISR proton-proton collider and in the original DORIS two-ring configuration at DESY, Hamburg, making the two beams intersect only at the experiments. A less expensive version of this two-ring scheme was accomplished at CESR in

  3. CORNELL: Bunch trains provide higher luminosity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1995-09-15

    The new colliding beam technique - ''bunch trains'' - at Cornell's electron-positron Storage Ring (CESR) has led to a new world record for colliding beam luminosity - 3.3 x 10{sup 32} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}. In the bid to increase reaction rate for any particular process, this luminosity is pushed as high as possible. Once all other luminosityincreasing cards have been played, the only practical way of making a large gain in luminosity is to increase the frequency of bunch-bunch collisions by increasing the number of bunches stored in the ring. However this is not without its own problems: • If the two beams travel the same orbit, the n bunches in one beam collide with the n bunches of the other at 2n points around the ring, and the resulting cumulative nonlinear beam-beam effect (tune shift) severely limits the luminosity attainable at any interaction point. • The destabilizing wakefield effects of bunches on each other increase as the number of bunches increases and the spacing between them decreases. • The synchrotron radiation emitted by the beams becomes a severe problem as the total beam current is raised: to overcome these effects means supplying radiofrequency power to maintain the beam energy, carrying away heat from the vacuum chamber walls, pumping out desorbed gases, and controlling Xray backgrounds in the experiment. In 1979, CESR was designed to run with a single bunch of electrons and a single bunch of positrons circulating on the same orbit and colliding head-on at two diametrically opposite points in the ring, where the CLEO and CUSB experiments were then located. Ideally one could store multiple bunches and solve the multiple collision point problem by using separate rings for the two beams, as in the CERN ISR proton-proton collider and in the original DORIS two-ring configuration at DESY, Hamburg, making the two beams intersect only at the experiments. A less expensive version of this two-ring scheme was accomplished at CESR in 1983, using

  4. Media Coverage of a ?Connective? Action: The Interaction Between the 15-M Movement and the Mass Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferran Davesa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article uses Twitter messages sent in May 2011 to study the ability of the so-called 15-M movement, a "connective"? movement, to place their demands on the media agenda and maintain control over their own discourse. The results show that the activists' discourse included many issues, although greatest attention was given to three: electoral and party systems, democracy and governance, and civil liberties. Moreover, the study reveals that the media covered all the movement's issues and that activists maintained their plural discourse throughout the protest. This article contributes to the literature on "connective" social movements, showing that in certain circumstances these movements have the capacity to determine media coverage.

  5. Study of CSR longitudinal bunch compression cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Dayu; Li Peng; Liu Yong; Xie Qingchun

    2009-01-01

    The scheme of longitudinal bunch compression cavity for the Cooling Storage Ring (CSR)is an important issue. Plasma physics experiments require high density heavy ion beam and short pulsed bunch,which can be produced by non-adiabatic compression of bunch implemented by a fast compression with 90 degree rotation in the longitudinal phase space. The phase space rotation in fast compression is initiated by a fast jump of the RF-voltage amplitude. For this purpose, the CSR longitudinal bunch compression cavity, loaded with FINEMET-FT-1M is studied and simulated with MAFIA code. In this paper, the CSR longitudinal bunch compression cavity is simulated and the initial bunch length of 238 U 72+ with 250 MeV/u will be compressed from 200 ns to 50 ns.The construction and RF properties of the CSR longitudinal bunch compression cavity are simulated and calculated also with MAFIA code. The operation frequency of the cavity is 1.15 MHz with peak voltage of 80 kV, and the cavity can be used to compress heavy ions in the CSR. (authors)

  6. The 'Fresh-Bunch' technique in FELs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Zvi, I.; Yang, K.M.; Yu, L.H.

    1991-01-01

    The 'Fresh Bunch' technique is being proposed as a method of increasing the gain and power of FEL amplifiers in which the length of the optical radiation pulse is shorter than the length of the electron bunch. In multi-stage FEL, electron beam energy spread is increased by the FEL interaction in the early stages. In the 'Fresh Bunch' technique, the low energy spread of the electron beam is recovered by shifting the radiation pulse to an undisturbed part of the electron bunch, thus improving the gain and trapping fraction in later stages. A test case for the application of the Fresh Bunch method is demonstrated by numerical simulation. In this particular example we examine a subharmonically seeded VUV Free-Electron Laser. We begin with the generation of harmonic radiation, which takes place over one part of the electron bunch. Then the radiation is shifted by means of a strong dispersive section to a fresh part of the bunch for exponential amplification and tapered wiggler amplification. By starting over with a new ensemble of electrons, the energy spread introduced by the bunching in the fundamental is removed, leading to an increased gain. Furthermore, it is possible to use a much stronger seed in the fundamental without incurring the penalty of a large energy spread later on. We note that more than a single application of the 'Fresh Bunch' method may be done in a single FEL multiplier-amplifier. Thus x-ray wavelengths may be reached by successive multiplication in a chain of FEL amplifiers starting from a tunable seed laser. 5 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  7. Impact of Heat and Mass Transfer during the Transport of Nitrogen in Coal Porous Media on Coal Mine Fires

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Bobo; Zhou, Fubao

    2014-01-01

    The application of liquid nitrogen injection is an important technique in the field of coal mine fire prevention. However, the mechanism of heat and mass transfer of cryogenic nitrogen in the goaf porous medium has not been well accessed. Hence, the implementation of fire prevention engineering of liquid nitrogen roughly relied on an empirical view. According to the research gap in this respect, an experimental study on the heat and mass transfer of liquid nitrogen in coal porous media was pr...

  8. The Highway Safety Mass Media Youth Project: A Media Campaign Aimed at Drunk Driving and Seat Belt Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blosser, Betsy J.; And Others

    To address the issues of drunk driving and failure to use car restraints among teens and young adults, a 21-month-long media campaign has been developed especially for the 15- to 24-year-old audience to compare the effectiveness of paid advertisements and public service announcements. A formative research approach to message design will be used to…

  9. Framing and sources: a study of mass media coverage of climate change in Peru during the V ALCUE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Bruno

    2011-07-01

    Studies about mass media framing have found divergent levels of influence on public opinion; moreover, the evidence suggests that issue attributes can contribute to this difference. In the case of climate change, studies have focused exclusively on developed countries, suggesting that media influence perceptions about the issue. This study presents one of the first studies of media coverage in a developing country. It examines newspapers' reporting in Peru during the Fifth Latin America, Caribbean and European Union Summit in May 2008. The study focuses on the frames and the sources to provide an initial exploratory assessment of the coverage. The results show that the media relied mostly on government sources, giving limited access to dissenting voices such as environmentalists. Additionally, a prominence of "solutions" and "effects" frames was found, while "policy" and "science" frames were limited. The results could serve as a reference point for more comprehensive studies.

  10. Sensitive beam-bunch phase detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, S; Shepard, K W

    1984-11-15

    A sensitive heavy-ion beam-bunch phase detector has been developed by first examining the relationship between the sensitivity of an rf resonant cavity as a particle bunch detector and the shunt impedance of the same cavity as an accelerating structure. Then the various high shunt impedance rf cavities previously developed for accelerating heavy ions were evaluated for use as bunch detectors. A spiral-loaded geometry was chosen, built, and tested with beam. The sensitivity obtained, 14 V per electrical nA of beam, is a factor 3 higher than previously reported. (orig.).

  11. Sensitive beam-bunch phase detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, S; Shepard, K W [Argonne National Lab., IL (USA). Physics Div.

    1984-11-15

    A sensitive heavy-ion beam-bunch phase detector has been developed by first examining the relationship between the sensitivity of an RF resonant cavity as a particle bunch detector and the shunt impedance of the same cavity as an accelerating structure. Then the various high shunt impedance RF cavities previously developed for accelerating heavy ions were evaluated for use as bunch detectors. A spiral-loaded geometry was chosen, built, and tested with beam. The sensitivity obtained, 14 ..mu.. V per electrical nA of beam, is a factor 3 higher than previously reported.

  12. Bunch Compression Stability Dependence on RF Parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Limberg, T

    2005-01-01

    In present designs for FEL's with high electron peak currents and short bunch lengths, higher harmonic RF systems are often used to optimize the final longitudinal charge distributions. This opens degrees of freedom for the choice of RF phases and amplitudes to achieve the necessary peak current with a reasonable longitudinal bunch shape. It had been found empirically that different working points result in different tolerances for phases and amplitudes. We give an analytical expression for the sensitivity of the compression factor on phase and amplitude jitter for a bunch compression scheme involving two RF systems and two magnetic chicanes as well numerical results for the case of the European XFEL.

  13. A numerical study of transient mass transport through a circular hole connecting two semi-infinite media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DePaoli, D.W.; Scott, T.C.

    1993-01-01

    A numerical model of transient diffusive mass transfer through a circular hole that connects two semi-infinite media was used as a means of determining potential effects of waste container penetrations on the release of immobilized contaminants into the environment. The finite difference model as developed necessarily includes treatment of mass transport in both the waste and surrounding medium and allows calculation of release rates for cases with and without preferential adsorption and differing diffusivities of the two media. The dimensionless contaminant release rate was found to vary over several orders of magnitude depending on the product of the ratio of the distribution coefficient and the media diffusivities only. As would be intuitively expected, partitioning favoring the surrounding medium and higher relative waste medium diffusivity cause higher transport rates. There was definitely no unexpected enhancement in the release rate in the case of perforations over that of an uncontained waste form

  14. Global Warming: Threat to Sundarbans and the Silence of Indo-Bangladesh Mass Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moumita Basu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The Sundarbans or the ‘beautiful forest’ is a cluster of low-lying islands in the Bay of Bengal, considered as one of the natural wonders of the world, which is facing the problem of global warming since the past few decades. Global warming, climate change, increasing water level and salinity of the river as well as inlet areas are some recognized threats to the Sundarbans. This is threatening species survival, the health of natural systems and causing extinction of biodiversity. This study is a modest attempt to examine the factors because of which the burning issues of Sundarbans are almost excluded from the attention of the media in India as well as Bangladesh. This is despite the fact that various initiatives have been taken by the governments and at the private level in these two countries to conserve the Sundarbans ecosystem. The research paper summarizes findings of newspaper reports on Sundarbans, from Earth Day to World Environment Day 2017 (22 April to 5 June of two reputed broadsheets dailies i.e. The Daily Prothom Alo (Dhaka, Bangladesh and The Ei Samay Sangbadpatra (Kolkata, India. The youngest member of the mass communication family, the film has also been included in this paper. This is because the joint production of the two Bengali film industries has already made a lot of cinema. There is going to be more in the near future, where many issues of India and Bangladesh are getting priority, but the destruction of Sundarbans has never been the subject of any such media intervention.

  15. A 10-year retrospective of research in health mass media campaigns: where do we go from here?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noar, Seth M

    2006-01-01

    Mass media campaigns have long been a tool for promoting public health. How effective are such campaigns in changing health-related attitudes and behaviors, however, and how has the literature in this area progressed over the past decade? The purpose of the current article is threefold. First, I discuss the importance of health mass media campaigns and raise the question of whether they are capable of effectively impacting public health. Second, I review the literature and discuss what we have learned about the effectiveness of campaigns over the past 10 years. Finally, I conclude with a discussion of possible avenues for the health campaign literature over the next 10 years. The overriding conclusion is the following: The literature is beginning to amass evidence that targeted, well-executed health mass media campaigns can have small-to-moderate effects not only on health knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes, but on behaviors as well, which can translate into major public health impact given the wide reach of mass media. Such impact can only be achieved, however, if principles of effective campaign design are carefully followed.

  16. Mass Media and Consensus Politics: A Critical Evaluation of the Coverage of the 1980 Presidential Election Campaigns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Self, Charles; Stovall, Jim

    Presidential candidates in the United States tend to seek consensus rather than to try to discover new answers to problems and to convince voters that they should be elected to implement those answers. Reporters in the mass media emphasize objectivity and fairness in their reporting. This emphasis produces an intense interest in the…

  17. The Evangelical Origins of Mass Media in America, 1815-1835. Journalism Monographs Number Eighty-Eight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nord, David Paul

    1984-01-01

    It was the evangelical Christian publicists in the tract and Bible societies who first dreamed of genuinely mass media--that is, they proposed to deliver the same printed message to everyone in America. To this end, organizations such as the American Bible Society and the American Tract Society helped to develop, in the very earliest stages, the…

  18. Local Appropriation of Global Communication Forms: A Micro Case Study of Teacher and Learners' Uses of Mass Media Genres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Fiona M.

    2011-01-01

    Conceptual Blending Theory (CBT) (Fauconnier & Turner, 2002), a cognitive theory of human processes of innovation, can be productively used alongside critical literacy approaches, for the analysis of how teachers and learners draw selectively, transformatively and purposively from aspects of the mass media. While numerous studies have pointed…

  19. EXPOSURE TO MASS MEDIA AS A DOMINANT FACTOR INFLUENCING PUBLIC STIGMA TOWARD MENTAL ILLNESS BASED ON SUNRISE MODEL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Made Sintha Pratiwi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The person suffering mental disorders is not only burdened by his condition but also by the stigma. The impact of stigma extremely influences society that it is considered to be the obstacle in mental disorders therapy. Stigma as the society adverse view toward severe mental disorders is related with the cultural aspect. The interaction appeared from each component of nursing model namely sunrise model, which a model developed by Madeleine Leininger is connected with the wide society views about severe mental disorders condition in society. Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the factors related to public stigma and to find out the dominant factors related to public stigma about severe mental illness through sunrise model approach in Sukonolo Village, Malang Regency. Methods: This study using observational analytical design with cross sectional approach. There were 150 respondents contributed in this study. The respondents were obtained using purposive sampling technique. Results: The results showed a significant relationship between mass media exposure, spiritual well-being, interpersonal contact, attitude, and knowledge with public stigma about mental illness. The result from multiple logistic regression shows the low exposure of mass media has the highest OR value at 26.744. Conclusion: There were significant correlation between mass media exposure, spiritual well-being, interpersonal contact, attitude, and knowledge with public stigma toward mental illness. Mass media exposure as a dominant factor influencing public stigma toward mental illness.

  20. Association of School Social Networks' Influence and Mass Media Factors with Cigarette Smoking among Asthmatic Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamori, Mariano; Beck, Kenneth H.; Carter-Pokras, Olivia

    2015-01-01

    Background: Around 10% of adolescent students under 18 years have current asthma. Asthmatic adolescents smoke as much or more than non-asthmatic adolescents. We explored the association between exposure to mass media and social networks' influence with asthmatic student smoking, and variations of these exposures by sex. Methods: This study…

  1. The Perceptions of Primary School Teachers and Teacher Candidates towards the Use of Mass Media in Teaching Turkish Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadag, Ruhan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to explore the perceptions of primary school teachers and teacher candidates of the use of mass media in teaching Turkish in primary education. The data for this descriptive study is collected via semi-structured interviews--one of the qualitative data analysis methods and the collected data is analyzed by employing…

  2. Using Mass Media and the Internet As Tools to Diagnose Hepatitis C Infections in the General Population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuure, Freke R.; Davidovich, Udi; Coutinho, Roel A.; Kok, Gerjo; Hoebe, Christian J. P. A.; van den Hoek, Anneke; Jansen, Peter L. M.; van Leeuwen-Gilbert, Paula; Verheuvel, Nicole C.; Weegink, Christine J.; Prins, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Background: Many individuals with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection are undiagnosed. Purpose: This study describes the development and the use and outcomes of a mass media campaign, combined with an Internet risk assessment and an Internet-mediated blood-testing procedure for HCV to identify

  3. Female body dissatisfaction after exposure to overweight and thin media images : The role of body mass index and neuroticism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalley, Simon E.; Buunk, Abraham P.; Umit, Turul

    Exposure to thin media images is thought to play a significant role in the development of body image dissatisfaction (BID) amongst females. In this study we examined whether individual differences in body mass index (BMI) and neuroticism can make females more vulnerable to BID upon exposure to

  4. Litigation, Mass Media, and the Campaign to Criminalize the Firearms Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William T. Haltom

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article extends the co-authors’ researches on mass media coverage of crusades against manufacturers and marketers of tobacco products in the United States to media coverage of similar crusades against manufacturers and marketers of firearms in the United States. The major contention of the article is that firearms-reformers have used civil suits and allied publicity outside courts to depict firearms producers and retailers as criminals. A major tactic that has unified reformers’ efforts inside and outside courts is deployment of crimtorts, civil litigation for torts that includes elements of criminal prosecution. Crimtorts and publicity through entertainment media enabled opponents of firearms companies to lose case after case yet to damage the reputations or brands of firearms makers and marketers. The firearms interests fended off crusaders in civil action after civil action yet became portrayed as outright criminals owing mostly to crimtorts. Este artículo amplia las investigaciones de los autores sobre la cobertura mediática de las cruzadas contra productores y vendedores de tabaco en los Estados Unidos hacia la cobertura mediática de cruzadas similares contra productores y vendedores de armas de fuego en Estados Unidos. El argumento principal del artículo sostiene que los que buscan la reforma de la legislación sobre armas de fuego han utilizado las demandas civiles y la publicidad externa a los tribunales para representar a los productores y vendedores de armas de fuego como criminales. Una táctica principal que ha unido los esfuerzos de los reformistas dentro y fuera de los tribunales es el uso de crimtorts, juicios civiles para acciones por responsabilidad civil extracontractual que incluyen elementos de procesos criminales. A pesar de perder caso tras caso, los crimtorts y la publicidad en los medios de entretenimiento permitió a los oponentes a las compañías armamentísticas perjudicar la reputación o las marcas de

  5. Impact of mass media on public behavior and physicians: an ecological study of the H1N1 influenza pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codish, Shlomi; Novack, Lena; Dreiher, Jacob; Barski, Leonid; Jotkowitz, Alan; Zeller, Lior; Novack, Victor

    2014-06-01

    The mass media plays an important role in public health behavior. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of mass media coverage of the H1N1 pandemic on the number of emergency department (ED) visits and hospital admission rates. An ecological study of ED visits to 8 general Israeli hospitals due to influenza-like illness during the period June-October 2009 was performed. Data on the number of visits per day for children and adults and daily hospitalization rates were analyzed. Associations with the estimated value of H1N1-related publications and weekly reports from nationwide sentinel clinics were assessed. The analysis was performed in 2012-2013. There were 55,070 ED visits due to influenza-like illness during the study period. The overall number of media reports was 1,812 (14.3% radio broadcasts, 9.8% television broadcasts, 27.5% newspaper articles, and 48.5% major website reports). The overall estimated value of advertising of publications was $16,399,000, excluding the Internet. While H1N1 incidence recorded by Israeli sentinel clinics showed no association with mass media publications, peaks of media reports were followed by an increase in the number of ED visits, usually with a delay of 3 days (P = .005). This association was noted in children (P .1), with a corresponding decrease in hospital admission rates. Publications' framing had no association with ED visits. During the 2009 H1N1 influenza outbreak in Israel, an increase in mass media coverage was associated with an increase in pediatric ED visits.

  6. Down sampled signal processing for a B Factory bunch-by-bunch feedback system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hindi, H.; Hosseini, W.; Briggs, D.; Fox, J.; Hutton, A.

    1992-03-01

    A bunch-by-bunch feedback scheme is studied for damping coupled bunch synchrotron oscillations in the proposed PEP II B Factory. The quasi-linear feedback systems design incorporates a phase detector to provide a quantized measure of bunch phase, digital signal processing to compute an error correction signal and a kicker system to correct the energy of the bunches. A farm of digital processors, operating in parallel, is proposed to compute correction signals for the 1658 bunches of the B Factory. This paper studies the use of down sampled processing to reduce the computational complexity of the feedback system. We present simulation results showing the effect of down sampling on beam dynamics. Results show that down sampled processing can reduce the scale of the processing task by a factor of 10

  7. Longitudinal bunch deformation of a multi-bunched beam in the TRISTAN Accumulation Ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obina, T.; Satoh, K.; Kasuga, T.; Funakoshi, Y.; Tobiyama, M.

    1997-01-01

    A remarkable bunch deformation has been observed in the TRISTAN Accumulation Ring (AR) during multi-bunch operations. When two bunches that have different populations are stored in the ring, the bunch length of the weaker bunch is longer than that of the stronger one. The phenomenon can be explained as an effect of wake fields due to higher-order modes (HOMs) of accelerating cavities. We tried to find out the frequency of the mode and the strength of the wake field, and introduced a new technique called a test bunch measurement. The estimated field strength from the experiment shows a reasonable agreement with the calculation of HOM impedance. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  8. Operational performance of a bunch by bunch digital damper in the Fermilab Main Injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamson, P.; Ashmanskas, W.J.; Foster, G.W.; Hansen, S.; Marchionni, A.; Nicklaus, D.; Semenov, A.; Wildman, D.; Kang, H.

    2005-01-01

    We have implemented a transverse and longitudinal bunch by bunch digital damper system in the Fermilab Main Injector, using a single digital board for all 3 coordinates. The system has been commissioned over the last year, and is now operational in all MI cycles, damping beam bunched at both 53MHz and 2.5MHz. We describe the performance of this system both for collider operations and high-intensity running for the NuMI project

  9. Fantasy-Reality Use of Mass Media by Children: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David M.

    1981-01-01

    A study of media use by children was conducted to produce an index of fantasy-reality orientation derived from the respondents' stated preferences for media content combined with their responses to a series of open-ended questions designed to tap the gratifications they claimed to receive from the media. Data were collected in three waves, when…

  10. The Contemporary Mass Media Education in Russia: In Search for New Theoretical Conceptions and Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Media education in Russia in general has still not moved from the theoretical conceptions and local experiments to the wide practical implementation. It is necessary to consolidate pedagogical institutions of higher education, universities, faculties of journalism, experimenters in media education and also the media community, coordination of the…

  11. Targeted mass media interventions promoting healthy behaviours to reduce risk of non-communicable diseases in adult, ethnic minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosdøl, Annhild; Lidal, Ingeborg B; Straumann, Gyri H; Vist, Gunn E

    2017-02-17

    Physical activity, a balanced diet, avoidance of tobacco exposure, and limited alcohol consumption may reduce morbidity and mortality from non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Mass media interventions are commonly used to encourage healthier behaviours in population groups. It is unclear whether targeted mass media interventions for ethnic minority groups are more or less effective in changing behaviours than those developed for the general population. To determine the effects of mass media interventions targeting adult ethnic minorities with messages about physical activity, dietary patterns, tobacco use or alcohol consumption to reduce the risk of NCDs. We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, ERIC, SweMed+, and ISI Web of Science until August 2016. We also searched for grey literature in OpenGrey, Grey Literature Report, Eldis, and two relevant websites until October 2016. The searches were not restricted by language. We searched for individual and cluster-randomised controlled trials, controlled before-and-after studies (CBA) and interrupted time series studies (ITS). Relevant interventions promoted healthier behaviours related to physical activity, dietary patterns, tobacco use or alcohol consumption; were disseminated via mass media channels; and targeted ethnic minority groups. The population of interest comprised adults (≥ 18 years) from ethnic minority groups in the focal countries. Primary outcomes included indicators of behavioural change, self-reported behavioural change and knowledge and attitudes towards change. Secondary outcomes were the use of health promotion services and costs related to the project. Two authors independently reviewed the references to identify studies for inclusion. We extracted data and assessed the risk of bias in all included studies. We did not pool the results due to heterogeneity in comparisons made, outcomes, and study designs. We describe the results narratively and present them in 'Summary of findings

  12. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (76th, Kansas City, Missouri, August 11-14, 1993). Part II: Mass Media Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The Mass Media Studies section of this collection of conference presentations contains the following 20 papers: "Media Awareness of Media Manipulation: The Use of the Term 'Spin Doctor'" (James W. Tankard, Jr. and Randy Sumpter); "Prime Time Network TV Sex as a Counterprogramming Strategy during the 1992 Winter Olympics: An Analysis…

  13. Observations of bunch-by-bunch losses in the 2010 LHC proton physics operation

    CERN Document Server

    Papotti, G

    2011-01-01

    This document summarizes the bunch-by-bunch loss observations carried out during the 2010 proton physics run at the LHC. These observations proved beneficial to the improvement of operations, in particular in the early days of nominal intensity per bunch operation: then the plots initiated the removal of the tune split and motivated the modification of a filling scheme to remove parasitic encounters that heightened the losses on selected bunches. Along with plots from sample physics fills, summary plots for the year are shown. The colour coding is always chosen so to highlight the dependence of the losses on the filling scheme.

  14. Bunch-by-bunch longitudinal feedback system for PEP-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxoby, G.; Claus, R.; Fox, J.

    1994-06-01

    This paper describes the implementation of the bunch-by-bunch longitudinal feedback system for the PEP-II B Factory. Bunch spacing down to 2 ns is achieved using 500 Megasamples per second A/D and D/A converters, and AT ampersand T 1610 Digital Signal Processors are integrated to run a downsampled feedback algorithm for each bunch in parallel. This general purpose programmable system, packaged in VXI and VME, is modular and scalable to offer portability to other accelerator rings. The control and monitoring hardware and software architecture have been developed to provide ease of operation as well as diagnostic tools for machine physics

  15. Generation and measurement of velocity bunched ultrashort bunch of pC charge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. H. Lu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we discuss the velocity compression in a short rf linac of an electron bunch from a rf photoinjector operated in the blowout regime. Particle tracking simulations shows that with a beam charge of 2 pC an ultrashort bunch duration of 16 fs can be obtained at a tight longitudinal focus downstream of the linac. A simplified coherent transition radiation (CTR spectrum method is developed to enable the measurement of ultrashort (sub-50 fs bunches at low bunch energy (5 MeV and low bunch charges (<10  pC. In this method, the ratio of the radiation energy selected by two narrow bandwidth filters is used to estimate the bunch length. The contribution to the coherent form factor of the large transverse size of the bunch suppresses the radiation signal significantly and is included in the analysis. The experiment was performed at the UCLA Pegasus photoinjector laboratory. The measurement results show bunches of sub-40 fs with 2 pC of charge well consistent with the simulation using actual experimental conditions. These results open the way to the generation of ultrashort bunches with time-duration below 10 fs once some of the limitations of the setup (rf phase jitter, amplitude instability and low field in the gun limited by breakdown are corrected.

  16. Considerations of bunch-spacing options for multi-bunch operation of the Tevatron Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dugan, G.

    1989-01-01

    This discussion will consider a number of points relevant to limitations, advantages and disadvantages of various arrangements of bunches in the Tevatron proton-antiproton collider. The considerations discussed here will be limited to: (a) bunch spacing symmetry and relation to the relative luminosity at B0 and D0 and the beam-beam interaction with separated beams; (b) bunch spacing constraints imposed by Main Ring RF coalescing and the optics of beam separation at B0 and D0; and (c) bunch spacing constraints imposed by injection and abort kicker timing requirements, and by the Antiproton Source RF unstacking process. 20 figs., 17 tabs

  17. Curvature-Induced Bunch Self-Interaction for an Energy-Chirped Bunch in Magnetic Bends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rui Li

    2008-01-01

    Within the realm of classical electrodynamics, the curvature-induced bunch collective interaction in magnetic bends can be studied using effective forces in the canonical formulation of the coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) effect. As an application of this canonical formulation, in this paper, for an electron distribution moving ultrarelativistically in a bending system, the dynamics of the particles in the distribution is derived from the Hamiltonian of the particles in terms of the bunch internal coordinates. The consequent Vlasov equation manifests explicitly how the phase-space distribution is perturbed by the effective CSR forces. In particular, we study the impact of an initial linear energy chirp of the bunch on the behavior of the effective longitudinal CSR force, which arises due to the modification of the retardation relation as a result of the energy-chirping-induced longitudinal-horizontal correlation of the bunch distribution (bunch tilt) in dispersive regions. Our study demonstrates clearly the time delay (or retardation) of the behavior of the effective longitudinal CSR force on a bunch in responding to the change of the bunch length in a magnetic bend. Our result also shows that the effective longitudinal CSR force for a bunch under full compression can have sensitive dependence on the transverse position of the test particle in the bunch for certain parameter regimes

  18. Space Charge Mitigation by Hollow Bunches

    CERN Multimedia

    Oeftiger, AO

    2014-01-01

    To satisfy the requirements of the HL-LHC (High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider), the LHC injector chain will need to supply a higher brightness, i.e. deliver the same transverse beam emittances \\epsilon_{x,y} while providing a higher intensity N. However, a larger number of particles per bunch enhances space charge effects. One approach to mitigate the impact of space charge is to change the longitudinal phase space distribution: hollow bunches feature a depleted bunch centre and a densely populated periphery. Thus, the spatial line density maximum is depressed which ultimately decreases the tune spread imposed by space charge. Therefore, a higher intensity can be accepted while keeping the same overall space charge tune shift. 3 different methods to create hollow bunches in the PSBooster are simulated.

  19. Single bunched beam generation without subharmonic prebuncher

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, T.; Tagawa, S.

    1995-01-01

    The intensity of the accelerated single bunched electron beam depends on the performance of the electron gun and the fast cathode pulser. The electron beam is emitted by a Y-796 cathode assembly with a cathode of 2 cm 2 (8 A/cm 2 ), and an extracted voltage of 90 kV. The maximum charge of the single bunched beam was attained at 1.5 nC/pulse using SHB. Recently, a single bunched beam has been generated by an ultrafast cathode pulser (rise and fall time <100 ps pulse height -2 kV at 50 Ω) without SHB. The charge of the accelerated electron beam is about 40 pC/pulse (pulse width <10 ps) without the production of a satellite beam. This result show that a single bunched beam can be produced by the linear accelerator without SHB. ((orig.))

  20. Luminosity with more bunches in PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbett, W.J.

    1990-12-01

    The near term accelerator physics program for PEP includes experiments in a collider mode with up to 9 bunches in each beam. In this memo, luminosity data from the 3 x 3 configuration is first used to calculate vertical beam size, emittance and tune shift as a function of current. The data is then used to extrapolate to the case with either 6 x 6 or 9 x 9 bunches colliding in PEP. Vertical emittance growth from the separated bunch optics and dispersion at the IP are included in the calculations. The conclusion is that given a 90 mA current drive limitation in PEP, operating with 6 x 6 bunches yields the maximum luminosity. 9 refs., 6 figs

  1. CERN: The best of the bunch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagliardi, F.

    1992-10-15

    As other factors governing the electron-positron collision rate in CERN's LEP 27-kilometre storage ring reach their limit, one way of coaxing the collision rate higher is to increase the number of bunches stored in the ring.

  2. A scoping review of research on complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and the mass media: looking back, moving forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Laura C; Strudsholm, Tina

    2008-07-19

    The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has become more common in Western developed countries in recent years, as has media reporting on CAM and related issues. Correspondingly, media reports are a primary information source regarding decisions to use CAM. Research on CAM related media reports is becoming increasingly relevant and important; however, identifying key concepts to guide future research is problematic due to the dispersed nature of completed research in this field. A scoping review was conducted to: 1) determine the amount, focus and nature of research on CAM and the mass media; and 2) summarize and disseminate related research results. The main phases were: 1) searching for relevant studies; 2) selecting studies based on pre-defined inclusion criteria; 3) extracting data; and 4) collating, summarizing and reporting the results. Of 4,454 studies identified through various search strategies, 16 were relevant to our objectives and included in a final sample. CAM and media research has focused primarily on print media coverage of a range of CAM therapies, although only a few studies articulated differences within the range of therapies surveyed. Research has been developed through a variety of disciplinary perspectives, with a focus on representation research. The research reviewed suggests that journalists draw on a range of sources to prepare media reports, although most commonly they cite conventional (versus CAM) sources and personal anecdotes. The tone of media reports appears generally positive, which may be related to a lack of reporting on issues related to risk and safety. Finally, a variety of discourses within media representations of CAM are apparent that each appeal to a specific audience through resonance with their specific concerns. Research on CAM and the mass media spans multiple disciplines and strategies of inquiry; however, despite the diversity in approach, it is clear that issues related to production and reception

  3. Vectors into the Future of Mass and Interpersonal Communication Research: Big Data, Social Media, and Computational Social Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappella, Joseph N

    2017-10-01

    Simultaneous developments in big data, social media, and computational social science have set the stage for how we think about and understand interpersonal and mass communication. This article explores some of the ways that these developments generate 4 hypothetical "vectors" - directions - into the next generation of communication research. These vectors include developments in network analysis, modeling interpersonal and social influence, recommendation systems, and the blurring of distinctions between interpersonal and mass audiences through narrowcasting and broadcasting. The methods and research in these arenas are occurring in areas outside the typical boundaries of the communication discipline but engage classic, substantive questions in mass and interpersonal communication.

  4. Acceleration of Gas Flow Simulations in Dual-Continuum Porous Media Based on the Mass-Conservation POD Method

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yi

    2017-09-12

    Reduced-order modeling approaches for gas flow in dual-porosity dual-permeability porous media are studied based on the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) method combined with Galerkin projection. The typical modeling approach for non-porous-medium liquid flow problems is not appropriate for this compressible gas flow in a dual-continuum porous media. The reason is that non-zero mass transfer for the dual-continuum system can be generated artificially via the typical POD projection, violating the mass-conservation nature and causing the failure of the POD modeling. A new POD modeling approach is proposed considering the mass conservation of the whole matrix fracture system. Computation can be accelerated as much as 720 times with high precision (reconstruction errors as slow as 7.69 × 10−4%~3.87% for the matrix and 8.27 × 10−4%~2.84% for the fracture).

  5. Acceleration of Gas Flow Simulations in Dual-Continuum Porous Media Based on the Mass-Conservation POD Method

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yi; Sun, Shuyu; Yu, Bo

    2017-01-01

    Reduced-order modeling approaches for gas flow in dual-porosity dual-permeability porous media are studied based on the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) method combined with Galerkin projection. The typical modeling approach for non-porous-medium liquid flow problems is not appropriate for this compressible gas flow in a dual-continuum porous media. The reason is that non-zero mass transfer for the dual-continuum system can be generated artificially via the typical POD projection, violating the mass-conservation nature and causing the failure of the POD modeling. A new POD modeling approach is proposed considering the mass conservation of the whole matrix fracture system. Computation can be accelerated as much as 720 times with high precision (reconstruction errors as slow as 7.69 × 10−4%~3.87% for the matrix and 8.27 × 10−4%~2.84% for the fracture).

  6. Understanding the Impact of Using Mass Media as a Pedagogical Tool for Nutrition Education of Healthcare Workers in the Community College Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumaker Jeffrey, Penny Michelle

    2011-01-01

    Nutrition-related messages inundate mass media advertisements in the United States but it is unclear as to how those messages affect a person's food selection behavior and awareness of nutrient and non-nutrient message content. This dissertation is a culmination of research examining the use of mass media (television and print) as a pedagogical…

  7. Space Charge Mitigation With Longitudinally Hollow Bunches

    CERN Multimedia

    Oeftiger, Adrian; Rumolo, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Hollow longitudinal phase space distributions have a flat profile and hence reduce the impact of transverse space charge. Dipolar parametric excitation with the phase loop feedback systems provides such hollow distributions under reproducible conditions. We present a procedure to create hollow bunches during the acceleration ramp of CERN’s PS Booster machine with minimal changes to the operational cycle. The improvements during the injection plateau of the downstream Proton Synchrotron are assessed in comparison to standard parabolic bunches.

  8. Application accelerator system having bunch control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, D.; Krafft, G.A.

    1999-01-01

    An application accelerator system for monitoring the gain of a free electron laser is disclosed. Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR) detection techniques are used with a bunch length monitor for ultra short, picosec to several tens of femtosec, electron bunches. The monitor employs an application accelerator, a coherent radiation production device, an optical or beam chopping device, an infrared radiation collection device, a narrow-banding filter, an infrared detection device, and a control. 1 fig

  9. Application accelerator system having bunch control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dunxiong; Krafft, Geoffrey Arthur

    1999-01-01

    An application accelerator system for monitoring the gain of a free electron laser. Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR) detection techniques are used with a bunch length monitor for ultra short, picosec to several tens of femtosec, electron bunches. The monitor employs an application accelerator, a coherent radiation production device, an optical or beam chopping device, an infrared radiation collection device, a narrow-banding filter, an infrared detection device, and a control.

  10. Community violence, children's development, and mass media: in pursuit of new insights, new goals, and new strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlander, B Z

    1993-02-01

    Community violence that victimizes children is an unmitigated evil that is exacerbated by vast economic and social forces that leave people in central cities and the rural countryside adrift on seas of rolelessness, hopelessness, group disintegration, and alienation. The contemporary drug scene and the easy availability of guns greatly intensify violence on a local scale, while crimes of violence, especially with guns, appear to be level or declining in the nation as a whole. Claims that the persistently high levels of violence in mass media, mostly television, are largely responsible for violence in society represent narrow views of very large issues. These narrow views overlook essential elements of both phenomena--violence and media. Direct models of interpersonal violence in families and in the community probably give rise to more violent behavior than indirect models in media. Disinhibitory and provocative aspects of media probably do as much or more to trigger violent behavior than violent narratives and violent actions. Comprehensive meta-analysis indicates that prosocial messages on television can have greater effects on behavior than antisocial messages. These data support the contention that mass media can play a strong and positive role in alleviating some of the distress of victims of community violence, and in redirecting the behavior of some of its perpetrators so as to protect the children.

  11. CCC, Heat Flow and Mass Flow in Liquid Saturated Porous Media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangold, D.C.; Lippmann, M.J.; Bodvarsson, G.S.

    1982-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: The numerical model CCC (conduction-convection-consolidation) solves the heat and mass flow equations for a fully, liquid-saturated, anisotropic porous medium and computes one-dimensional (vertical) consolidation of the simulated systems. The model has been applied to problems in the fields of geothermal reservoir engineering, aquifer thermal energy storage, well testing, radioactive waste isolation, and in situ coal combustion. The code has been validated against analytic solutions for fluid and heat flow, and against a field experiment for underground storage of hot water. 2 - Method of solution: The model employs the Integrated Finite Difference Method (IFDM) in discretizing the saturated porous medium and formulating the governing equations. The sets of equations are sol- ved by an iterative solution technique. The vertical deformation of the medium is calculated using the one-dimensional consolidation theory of Terzaghi. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Maximum of 12 materials. It is assumed that: (a) Darcy's law adequately describes fluid movement through fractured and porous media. (b) The rock and fluid are in thermal equilibrium at any given time. (c) Energy changes due to the fluid compressibility, acceleration and viscous dissipation are neglected. (d) One-dimensional consolidation theory adequately describes the vertical deformation of the medium

  12. Association of School Social Networks’ Influence and Mass Media Factors With Cigarette Smoking Among Asthmatic Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamori, Mariano; Beck, Kenneth H.; Carter-Pokras, Olivia

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Around 10% of adolescent students under 18 years have current asthma. Asthmatic adolescents smoke as much or more than non-asthmatic adolescents. We explored the association between exposure to mass media and social networks’ influence with asthmatic student smoking, and variations of these exposures by sex. METHODS This study included 9755 asthmatic and 38,487 non-asthmatic middle and high school students. Secondary data analysis incorporated the complex sample design; and univariate, bivariate, and logistic regression statistics. RESULTS Asthmatic students had greater odds of smoking than non-asthmatic students. Asthmatic female students were more likely than asthmatic male students to have been exposed to secondhand smoke in rooms or cars and to smoking actors, but less likely to associate smoking with intent to wear tobacco-marketing products, or with looking cool/fitting in. Asthmatic male and female students, who have smoking friends, were exposed to secondhand smoke in rooms (only girls) or cars, intended to smoke if best friends offered cigarettes, or received/bought tobacco marketing products had greater odds of smoking than other asthmatic students. CONCLUSIONS The observed associations suggest the need for general interventions to reduce middle and high school students’ cigarette smoking as well as targeted interventions for asthmatic adolescent students. PMID:25611937

  13. Association of school social networks' influence and mass media factors with cigarette smoking among asthmatic students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamori, Mariano; Beck, Kenneth H; Carter-Pokras, Olivia

    2015-03-01

    Around 10% of adolescent students under 18 years have current asthma. Asthmatic adolescents smoke as much or more than non-asthmatic adolescents. We explored the association between exposure to mass media and social networks' influence with asthmatic student smoking, and variations of these exposures by sex. This study included 9755 asthmatic and 38,487 non-asthmatic middle and high school students. Secondary data analysis incorporated the complex sample design; and univariate, bivariate, and logistic regression statistics. Asthmatic students had greater odds of smoking than non-asthmatic students. Asthmatic female students were more likely than asthmatic male students to have been exposed to secondhand smoke in rooms or cars and to smoking actors, but less likely to associate smoking with intent to wear tobacco-marketing products, or with looking cool/fitting in. Asthmatic male and female students, who have smoking friends, were exposed to secondhand smoke in rooms (only girls) or cars, intended to smoke if best friends offered cigarettes, or received/bought tobacco marketing products had greater odds of smoking than other asthmatic students. The observed associations suggest the need for general interventions to reduce middle and high school students' cigarette smoking as well as targeted interventions for asthmatic adolescent students. © 2015, American School Health Association.

  14. Mass media, 'monsters' and mental health clients: the need for increased lobbying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutcliffe, J R; Hannigan, B

    2001-08-01

    A review of the limited empirical and theoretical literature indicates that current mass media representations of mental health service users appear to emphasize violence, dangerousness and criminality. This is despite the empirical evidence that indicates a decline over the last 40 years in the number of homicides carried out by people identified as suffering from mental health problems. Such inappropriate representations do much to increase stigma, ostracism, harassment and victimization of these individuals by the public. Furthermore, it can be argued that there is another repercussion of these representations and that is the subsequent government position/policy and the resulting legislation concerning care of people with mental health problems. Consequently, this paper argues that there is a clear need for psychiatric/mental health (P/MH) nurses to become more mindful of the wider, socio-political environment in which their practice occurs, particularly if psycho-social approaches to practice are adopted in their fullest sense, and as a result increase their political lobby. Such increased lobbying should occur on behalf of, and in collaboration with, service users, and accordingly the authors describe a range of activities under the broad headings of pro-active and reactive lobbying. Furthermore, it is incumbent upon P/MH nurse educationalists to prepare aspirant P/MH nurses for this lobbying role and equip them with the skills necessary to do so.

  15. Alcohol Control in Cuba: Preventing Countervailing Cultural and Mass Media Influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Menéndez, Ricardo Á

    2016-07-01

    Harmful use of alcohol-the prime gateway drug to other addictions-is also a problem in Cuba, even though the National Program for Prevention of Harmful Use of Alcohol includes the most effective measures used in analogous programs around the world. As a participant in the program's committee and empirical observer of its accomplishments and unaccomplished goals, I draw attention to the community's attitude of tolerance toward intoxication manifested by the lack of proportional consequences, and I insist on the need to broaden the community's understanding of the risks of non-social drinking, which in Latin America is practically limited to alcoholism and its complications. This undervalues the damage wreaked by unpredictable and dangerous behavior under the influence, as well as the suffering of codependents and other "passive drinkers," and the adverse effects of even social drinking. KEYWORDS Alcohol abuse/prevention and control, alcohol consumption, alcohol drinking/culture, alcoholism, drinking behavior, behavior and behavior mechanisms, social determinants of health, social reinforcement, mass media, communication, Cuba.

  16. Pleasing the masses: messages for daily life management in African American women's popular media sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Angela Rose; Peacock, Nadine

    2011-01-01

    Using African American women's insights on their own health experiences, we explored how their daily life management was linked to the "strong Black woman" (SBW) script, and the health implications of that script. Using the search term "strong Black woman," we identified 20 articles from African American women's magazines and 10 blog sites linked to the SBW script and analyzed their content. We created thematic categories (role management, coping, and self-care) and extracted issues relevant to African American women's health. Adherence to the SBW script was linked to women's daily life management and health experiences. Themes such as self-sacrificial role management ("please the masses"), emotional suppression ("game face"), and postponement of self-care ("last on the list") incited internal distress and evinced negative health consequences. Scientists, activists, and health care professionals would be aided in forming initiatives aimed at reducing health disparities among African American women by heeding the insights on their health experiences that they express in popular media sources.

  17. Heat and mass transfer of liquid nitrogen in coal porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Lu; Chengyun, Xin; Xinyu, Liu

    2018-04-01

    Liquid nitrogen has been working as an important medium in fire extinguishing and prevention, due to its efficiency in oxygen exclusion and heat removal. Such a technique is especially crucial for coal industry in China. We built a tunnel model with a temperature monitor system (with 36 thermocouples installed) to experimentally study heat and mass transfer of liquid nitrogen in non-homogeneous coal porous media (CPM), and expected to optimize parameters of liquid nitrogen injection in engineering applications. Results indicate that injection location and amount of liquid nitrogen, together with air leakage, significantly affect temperature distribution in CPM, and non-equilibrium heat inside and outside of coal particles. The injection position of liquid nitrogen determines locations of the lowest CPM temperature and liquid nitrogen residual. In the deeper coal bed, coal particles take longer time to reach thermal equilibrium between their surface and inside. Air leakage accelerates temperature increase at the bottom of the coal bed, which is a major reason leading to fire prevention inefficiency. Measurement fluctuation of CPM temperature may be caused by incomplete contact of coal particles with liquid nitrogen flowing in the coal bed. Moreover, the secondary temperature drop (STD) happens and grows with the more injection of liquid nitrogen, and the STD phenomenon is explained through temperature distributions at different locations.

  18. Accounting for Sitting and Moving: An Analysis of Sedentary Behavior in Mass Media Campaigns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Emily; Biddle, Stuart; Esliger, Dale W; Piggin, Joe; Sherar, Lauren

    2015-09-01

    Mass media campaigns are an important tool for promoting health-related physical activity. The relevance of sedentary behavior to public health has propelled it to feature prominently in health campaigns across the world. This study explored the use of messages regarding sedentary behavior in health campaigns within the context of current debates surrounding the association between sedentary behavior and health, and messaging strategies to promote moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). A web-based search of major campaigns in the United Kingdom, United States, Canada, and Australia was performed to identify the main campaign from each country. A directed content analysis was then conducted to analyze the inclusion of messages regarding sedentary behavior in health campaigns and to elucidate key themes. Important areas for future research were illustrated. Four key themes from the campaigns emerged: clinging to sedentary behavior guidelines, advocating reducing sedentary behavior as a first step on the activity continuum and the importance of light activity, confusing the promotion of MVPA, and the demonization of sedentary behavior. Strategies for managing sedentary behavior as an additional complicating factor in health promotion are urgently required. Lessons learned from previous health communication campaigns should stimulate research to inform future messaging strategies.

  19. Fast methods of fungal and bacterial identification. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, chromogenic media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siller-Ruiz, María; Hernández-Egido, Sara; Sánchez-Juanes, Fernando; González-Buitrago, José Manuel; Muñoz-Bellido, Juan Luis

    2017-05-01

    MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry is now a routine resource in Clinical Microbiology, because of its speed and reliability in the identification of microorganisms. Its performance in the identification of bacteria and yeasts is perfectly contrasted. The identification of mycobacteria and moulds is more complex, due to the heterogeneity of spectra within each species. The methodology is somewhat more complex, and expanding the size of species libraries, and the number of spectra of each species, will be crucial to achieve greater efficiency. Direct identification from blood cultures has been implemented, since its contribution to the management of severe patients is evident, but its application to other samples is more complex. Chromogenic media have also contributed to the rapid diagnosis in both bacteria and yeast, since they accelerate the diagnosis, facilitate the detection of mixed cultures and allow rapid diagnosis of resistant species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  20. Measuring the level of public understanding of total solar eclipse from the mass media: Palembang as sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwati, F. G.; Ekawanti, N.; Luthfiandari; Premadi, P. W.

    2016-11-01

    The Total Solar Eclipse (TSE) on the 9th March 2016 received a huge attention from the mass media. Some of them intensively write articles about it even months before the TSE day. As we know media plays strategic role not only in raising public awareness but also interest. The aim of this project is to study the relation between the number of accesses to the media information and how well public learned the information delivered by the media. We prepared questionnaire consisting of seven semi-multiple choices on how public got information about TSE. We gave them choices of what they had heard to measure their basic understanding of TSE. Furthermore we add two “wrong” choices in the last questions to identify less serious respondents. We analyze 60 respondents of Palembang who visited Ampera bridge area. Our result shows no correlation between the number of information access and the level of understanding about TSE. We also found that local media did not provide the scientific content of TSE as well as the national media.

  1. The schizophrenia stigma and mass media: a search for news published by wide circulation media in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevilacqua Guarniero, Francisco; Bellinghini, Ruth Helena; Gattaz, Wagner Farid

    2017-06-01

    Schizophrenia is the most common illness used today as a metaphor in the media and routinely appears associated with crime and violence with no medical or scientific rigor, reinforcing the stigma against this disorder. Evaluation of the presence of structural stigma in the Brazilian media by means of a survey of printed news and the Internet using the term schizophrenia and its correlates under three aspects: (a) medical and scientific uses, (b) assigning a diagnosis of schizophrenia to crime suspects with little or no medical or scientific rigor, and (c) the metaphorical use. The study was conducted in three stages: search for publications, classification of items found and analysis of the context in which they were published. The survey was conducted in two periods: 2008 and 2011, the first being restricted to the newspaper Folha de S. Paulo and the second extended to the homepage of the main Brazilian print media. We found 229 texts, distributed as follows: 89 (39%) records as science and health, with a tendency to impersonality; 62 (27%) records as crime and violence, in which the 'diagnosis' of schizophrenia is given by lay people and 'supported' by an archeology of the life of the suspect which enlists all sorts of non-standard behavior; and 78 (34%) records of metaphorical use, always with a negative meaning. Most of the texts found (a) does not give voice to people with schizophrenia and their suffering, (b) trivializes the use of this psychiatric illness out of context to describe contradictory or of dubious character political and economic decisions, and (c) reinforces the stigma that lays over the bearer of schizophrenia individualizing them only in rare violent cases with a supposed diagnosis.

  2. Parental monitoring of children's media consumption: the long-term influences on body mass index in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiberio, Stacey S; Kerr, David C R; Capaldi, Deborah M; Pears, Katherine C; Kim, Hyoun K; Nowicka, Paulina

    2014-05-01

    Although children's media consumption has been one of the most robust risk factors for childhood obesity, effects of specific parenting influences, such as parental media monitoring, have not been effectively investigated. To examine the potential influences of maternal and paternal monitoring of child media exposure and children's general activities on body mass index (BMI) in middle childhood. A longitudinal study, taken from a subsample of the Three Generational Study, a predominantly white, Pacific Northwest community sample (overall participation rate, 89.6%), included assessments performed from June 1998 to September 2012. Analyses included 112 mothers, 103 fathers, and their 213 children (55.4% girls) at age 5, 7, and/or 9 years. Participation rates ranged from 66.7% to 72.0% of all eligible Three Generational Study children across the 3 assessments. Parents reported on their general monitoring of their children (whereabouts and activities), specific monitoring of child media exposure, children's participation in sports and recreational activities, children's media time (hours per week), annual income, and educational level. Parental BMI was recorded. Predictions to level and change in child BMI z scores were tested. Linear mixed-effects modeling indicated that more maternal, but not paternal, monitoring of child media exposure predicted lower child BMI z scores at age 7 years (95% CI, -0.39 to -0.07) and less steeply increasing child BMI z scores from 5 to 9 years (95% CI, -0.11 to -0.01). These effects held when more general parental monitoring, and parent BMI, annual income, and educational level were controlled for. The significant negative effect of maternal media monitoring on children's BMI z scores at age 7 years was marginally accounted for by the effect of child media time. The maternal media monitoring effect on children's BMI z score slopes remained significant after adjustment for children's media time and sports and recreational activity. These

  3. Fra massemedier til mediesystem - om kodediskussionen i systemteoretisk medieforskning Fra massemedier til mediesystem - om kodediskussionen i systemteoretisk medieforskning [From mass media to media system - code discussions in systems theoretical media research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikkel Fugl Eskjær

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Systemteoretisk medieforskning rejser spørgsmålet om, hvorvidt massemedierne udgør en samlet institution, eller om medierne, i kraft af deres indbyrdes forskelle, skal betragtes uafhængigt af hinanden. Ved at indskrive medierne i en generel samfundsteori fremstiller systemteorien medierne som et autonomt funktionssystem. Denne bestræbelse kommer tydeligst til udtryk i identifikationen af en fælles kode for massemediernes system. Med udgangspunkt i Niklas Luhmanns medieteori foretager nærværende artikel en kritisk gennemgang af den systemteoretiske medieforsknings kodediskussion. Første del præsenterer kort systemteoriens kodebegreb og Luhmanns bestemmelse af mediesystemet som organiseret omkring koden information. Den midterste del gennemgår en række alternative forslag til denne kodedefinition, hvilket illustrerer omfanget, men også nogle af begrænsningerne, ved systemteoretisk medieforskning. Sidste del foretager en kritisk diskussion af systemteoriens kodeproblematik og viser, hvordan en ensidig kodefokusering står i vejen for en fortsat udforskning af vilkårene for mediesystemets udvikling og autonomi.Systems theoretical media research raises the question whether the mass media constitute a unified institution, or whether the media, due to their internal differences, should be considered individually and independent of each other. By inscribing the media in a general social theory, systems theory conceptualises the media as an autonomous functional system. This intention is most clearly illustrated by the efforts to identify a shared code for the entire media system. Based on the media theory of Niklas Luhmann, this paper offers a critical presentation of the code discussion within systems theoretical media research. The first part of the paper briefly introduces the systems theoretical notion of a code as well as Luhmann’s definition of the media system as organised and regulated by the code of information. The second part

  4. The Relationship between Media Use and Body Mass Index among Secondary Students in Kuching South City, Sarawak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, Whye Lian; Chang, Ching Thon; Rosalia, Saimon; Charles, Lai Dekun; Yii, Sze Lin; Tiong, Pik Hoong; Yeap, Kim Pey

    2011-07-01

    Overweight and obesity rates among adolescents have increased substantially over the years. This study aimed to determine the body mass index (BMI) of students and parents and the relationship among media use, BMI, socio-demographic profiles, and snacking behaviour during television watching of secondary school students in Kuching South City. In accordance with the two-stage sampling method, a total of 316 adolescents aged 13-17 years from 7 secondary schools participated. Data were collected using questionnaire and anthropometric measurement. Independent t test, one-way ANOVA, Mann-Whitney U test, and chi-square test were performed. The mean BMI was 20.56 kg/m(2) (SD 4.33) for boys and 20.15 kg/m(2) (SD 3.91) for girls. No significant difference in terms of z score for BMI-for-age or socio-demographic factors was found. The mean duration of time devoted to media use was 4.69 hours (SD 2.93) on weekdays and 5.69 hours (SD 2.87) on weekends. Boys were found to spend more hours on media use than did the girls (t = 4.293, P < 0.01). Respondents were reported to consume more cereal compared with soft drinks and junk foods. Respondents whose fathers worked in the private sector devoted the fewest hours to media use, whereas those with self-employed fathers devoted the most time to media use. Respondents with mothers who were employed spent more time on media use than did respondents whose mothers were housewives (F = 4.067, P < 0.01). No significant difference was found between BMI and media time or snacking habits. This finding indicated that media time has no effect on body weight, because respondents were found to have normal weight and to consume less unhealthy food.

  5. Longitudinal Diagnostics for Short Electron Beam Bunches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loos, H.; /SLAC

    2010-06-11

    Single-pass free electron lasers require high peak currents from ultra-short electron bunches to reach saturation and an accurate measurement of bunch length and longitudinal bunch profile is necessary to control the bunch compression process from low to high beam energy. The various state-of-the-art diagnostics methods from ps to fs time scales using coherent radiation detection, RF deflection, and other techniques are presented. The use of linear accelerators as drivers for free electron lasers (FEL) and the advent of single-pass (SASE) FELs has driven the development of a wide range of diagnostic techniques for measuring the length and longitudinal distribution of short and ultra-short electron bunches. For SASE FELs the radiation power and the length of the undulator needed to achieve saturation depend strongly on the charge density of the electron beam. In the case of X-ray FELs, this requires the accelerator to produce ultra-high brightness beams with micron size transverse normalized emittances and peak currents of several kA through several stages of magnetic bunch compression. Different longitudinal diagnostics are employed to measure the peak current and bunch profile along these stages. The measurement techniques can be distinguished into different classes. Coherent methods detect the light emitted from the beam by some coherent radiation process (spectroscopic measurement), or directly measure the Coulomb field traveling with the beam (electro-optic). Phase space manipulation techniques map the time coordinate onto a transverse dimension and then use conventional transverse beam diagnostics (transverse deflector, rf zero-phasing). Further methods measure the profile or duration of an incoherent light pulse emitted by the bunch at wavelengths much shorted than the bunch length (streak camera, fluctuation technique) or modulate the electron beam at an optical wavelength and then generate a narrow bandwidth radiation pulse with the longitudinal profile of

  6. Mass Spectrometric Determination of Chemical Warfare Agents in Indoor Sample Media Typically Collected During Forensic Investigations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    D'Agostino, P. A; Hancock, J. R; Chenier, C. L

    2005-01-01

    .... DRDC Suffield, in collaboration with the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, identified a need for analytical methods for chemical warfare agent identification in media, including flooring, wall surfaces...

  7. COMMISSIONING OF THE DIGITAL TRANSVERSE BUNCH-BY-BUNCH FEEDBACK SYSTEM FOR THE TLS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HU, K.H.; KUO, C.H.; CHOU, P.J.; LEE, D.; HSU, S.Y.; CHEN, J.; WANG, C.J.; HSU, K.T.; KOBAYASHI, K.; NAKAMURA, T.; CHAO, A.W.; WENG, W.T.

    2006-01-01

    Multi-bunch instabilities degrade beam quality through increased beam emittance, energy spread and even beam loss. Feedback systems are used to suppress multi-bunch instabilities associated with the resistive wall of the beam ducts, cavity-like structures, and trapped ions. A new digital transverse bunch-by-bunch feedback system has recently been commissioned at the Taiwan Light Source, and has replaced the previous analog system. The new system has the advantages that it enlarges the tune acceptance and improves damping for transverse instability at high currents, such that top-up operation is achieved. After a coupled-bunch transverse instability was suppressed, more than 350 mA was successfully stored during preliminary commissioning. In this new system, a single feedback loop simultaneously suppresses both horizontal and vertical multi-bunch instabilities. Investigating the characteristics of the feedback loop and further improving the system performances are the next short-term goals. The feedback system employs the latest generation of field-programmable gate array (FPGA) processor to process bunch signals. Memory has been installed to capture up to 250 msec of bunch oscillation signal, considering system diagnostics suitable to support various beam physics studies

  8. Extremely short relativistic-electron-bunch generation in the laser wakefield via novel bunch injection scheme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khachatryan, A.G.; van Goor, F.A.; Boller, Klaus J.; Reitsma, A.J.W.; Jaroszynski, D.A.

    2004-01-01

    Recently a new electron-bunch injection scheme for the laser wakefield accelerator has been proposed [JETP Lett. 74, 371 (2001); Phys. Rev. E 65, 046504 (2002)]. In this scheme, a low energy electron bunch, sent in a plasma channel just before a high-intensity laser pulse, is trapped in the laser

  9. Beam diagnostics based on time-domain bunch-by-bunch data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teytelman, D.; Fox, J.; Hindi, H.; Limborg, C.; Linscott, I.; Prabhakar, S.; Sebek, J.; Young, A.; Drago, A.; Serio, M.; Barry, W.; Stover, G.

    1998-01-01

    A bunch-by-bunch longitudinal feedback system has been used to control coupled-bunch longitudinal motion and study the behavior of the beam at ALS, SPEAR, PEP-II, and DAΦNE. Each of these machines presents unique challenges to feedback control of unstable motion and data analysis. Here we present techniques developed to adapt this feedback system to operating conditions at these accelerators. A diverse array of techniques has been developed to extract information on different aspects of beam behavior from the time-domain data captured by the feedback system. These include measurements of growth and damping rates of coupled-bunch modes, bunch-by-bunch current monitoring, measurements of bunch-by-bunch synchronous phases and longitudinal tunes, and beam noise spectra. A technique is presented which uses the longitudinal feedback system to measure transverse growth and damping rates. Techniques are illustrated with data acquired at all of the four above-mentioned machines. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  10. Concept on groundwater flow and mass transport through heterogeneous porous media and application to in-situ test analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatanaka, Koichiro; Umeki, Hiroyuki.

    1995-01-01

    Generally, geological media is modelled as porous or fractured media depending on their characteristics. Since the channels of groundwater flow and the transport paths are determined by the heterogeneity of the geological media, quantitative understanding of the heterogeneity is an important issue for modelling flow and transport processes through them. Therefore, it becomes popular way to develop statistical identification approaches of the heterogeneous field by using data from in-situ test and conduct validation studies of flow and transport models through the field by comparing with observed data. In this report, the theories of the identification approach and the concept on groundwater flow and mass transport are explained briefly and the application to tracer tests conducted at Grimsel test site, Switzerland, are described. (author)

  11. Evolution of dense spatially modulated electron bunches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balal, N.; Bratman, V. L.; Friedman, A.

    2018-03-01

    An analytical theory describing the dynamics of relativistic moving 1D electron pulses (layers) with the density modulation affected by a space charge has been revised and generalized for its application to the formation of dense picosecond bunches from linear accelerators with laser-driven photo injectors, and its good agreement with General Particle Tracer simulations has been demonstrated. Evolution of quasi-one-dimensional bunches (disks), for which the derived formulas predict longitudinal expansion, is compared with that for thin and long electron cylinders (threads), for which the excitation of non-linear waves with density spikes was found earlier by Musumeci et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(18), 184801 (2011)] and Musumeci et al. [Phys. Rev. Spec. Top. -Accel. Beams 16(10), 100701 (2013)]. Both types of bunches can be used for efficiency enhancement of THz sources based on the Doppler frequency up-shifted coherent spontaneous radiation of electrons. Despite the strong Coulomb repulsion, the periodicity of a preliminary modulation in dense 1D layers persists during their expansion in the most interesting case of a relatively small change in particle energy. However, the period of modulation increases and its amplitude decreases in time. In the case of a large change in electron energy, the uniformity of periodicity is broken due to different relativistic changes in longitudinal scales along the bunch: the "period" of modulation decreases and its amplitude increases from the rear to the front boundary. Nevertheless, the use of relatively long electron bunches with a proper preliminary spatial modulation of density can provide a significantly higher power and a narrower spectrum of coherent spontaneous radiation of dense bunches than in the case of initially short single bunches with the same charge.

  12. An evaluation of a mass media campaign to encourage parents of adolescents to talk to their children about sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuRant, Robert H; Wolfson, Mark; LaFrance, Betty; Balkrishnan, Rajesh; Altman, David

    2006-03-01

    We evaluated a mass media campaign in North Carolina that used television (TV) public service announcements (PSAs), radio PSAs, and billboards to encourage parents of adolescents to talk to their children about sex. The primary message of the campaign was "Talk to your kids about sex. Everyone else is." Thirty-two of the 100 counties in North Carolina were chosen to evaluate the mass media campaign. Paid TV PSAs were aired in 22 of these counties, radio PSAs were aired in 21 counties, and billboards were displayed in 6 counties over a period of 9 months. The counties in our sample varied from no exposure to exposure to all 3 types of media. To assess the impact of the campaign, a sample of 1,132 parents of adolescents living in the 32 counties was administered a postexposure survey via a telephone interview. Questions about exposure to the media campaign were embedded among questions concerning media exposure to other health-related messages. The parent survey assessed the frequency the parents reported exposure to each type of media message, correct knowledge of the message, and multiple item scales that assessed how often they had talked to their child about various issues related to sex during the previous 6 months, intentions to talk to their child about these issues during the next month, and attitudes about discussing sexual issues with their child. In bivariate analyses the levels of parental exposure to the 3 types of media messages were associated with both having talked to their children and intentions to talk to their children about sex (p TV PSA about sex, and frequency of hearing a radio PSA about sex and teenage pregnancy accounted for 12.8% (p TV PSA about sex, and frequency of hearing radio PSAs about sex accounted for 12.3% of the variation in parental intentions to talk to their child about sex during the next month. Exposure to each component of this mass media campaign was associated with parents recently having talked to their adolescent

  13. The Functional Role of Mass Media in Promotion of Human Rights and Establishment of Perpetual Peace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Navakhti Moghaddam

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Today the modern mass media have an important role in the modern social order structure. There is intrinsic and mutual relationship between freedom of speech and freedom of information stemming from human rights standards. The free and open societies and public sphere regardless of ascendency or intersubjective and convincing relation are able to bring about and preserve free mass media that are the basic pillar of human rights and the related treaties. Freedom of speech is prerequisite for other individuals’ rights to be realized. Therefore, there is close relationship between human rights and media. Human Rights is one of the most essential achievements of the modern societies in order to reach peace and international security through the recognition of equal rights and freedom for human beings. Peace can not be established without free information, knowledge and freedom of speech as mentioned in the Charter of the United Nations and Human Rights Instruments. In the modern societies, freedom of speech is embodied in the freedom of communication and freedom of media. مروزه رسانه‌های گروهی مدرن نقش مهمی در ساختار نظام اجتماعی ایفاء می‌کنند. بین آزادی بیان و آزادی اطلاعات متأثر از معیارهای حقوق بشر، ارتباطی درونی و متقابل وجود دارد. جامعه آزاد و عرصه عمومی، فارغ از سلطه و رابطه بین الاَذهانی و اقناعی توانایی ایجاد و ابقای رسانه‌های گروهی آزاد را دارد که در واقع رکن اصلی حقوق بشر و معاهدات مربوط به آن می‌باشد. آزادی بیان لازمه تحقق حق‌های دیگر افراد است. بنابراین ارتباط عمیقی میان حقوق بشر و رسانه‌ها وجود دارد. حقوق بشر یکی از دستاوردهای اساسی جوامع

  14. Computer modelling of bunch-by-bunch feedback for the SLAC B-factory design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briggs, D.; Fox, J.D.; Hosseini, W.; Klaisner, L.; Morton, P.; Pellegrin, J.L.; Thompson, K.A.; Lambertson, G.

    1991-05-01

    The SLAC B-factory design, with over 1600 high current bunches circulating in each ring, will require a feedback system to avoid coupled-bunch instabilities. A computer model of the storage ring, including the RF system, wave fields, synchrotron radiation loss, and the bunch-by-bunch feedback system is presented. The feedback system model represents the performance of a fast phase detector front end (including system noise and imperfections), a digital filter used to generate a correction voltage, and a power amplifier and beam kicker system. The combined ring-feedback system model is used to study the feedback system performance required to suppress instabilities and to quantify the dynamics of the system. Results are presented which show the time development of coupled bunch instabilities and the damping action of the feedback system. 3 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  15. Advertising campaigns on the necessity of nuclear energy through mass-media in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niwano, Sadaji

    1998-01-01

    provide the public with materials and elements to think and decide with as information. In the background of those circumstances, the attitudes of PA activities toward the public-has changed recently to draw public attention to the wide range of issues from current severe energy conditions in Japan to global environmental problems connecting to the role and the position of nuclear power among overall national energy policies in Japan and let have urgent feelings among the public. Followings are the examples that we are taking up in promotion of advertising campaigns through mass media, including inter- net and other information tools. (1) To show concrete measures to be taken to meet national long- term energy supply/demand outlook for the year to 2030 that encourage energy- saving efforts, increased use of new energy sources and further development of nuclear power generation. (2) In this December, the 3rd Conference of the Parties to United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change will be held at Kyoto, Japan. At this very moment that national attentions are increasingly concentrating toward the energy and environment issues, we will intend to hold advertising campaigns widely through mass media to heighten public awareness on the necessity of nuclear power promotion, as well as conservation and energy efficiency measures, introduction of alternative energy sources, such as solar, wind etc. in connection with the necessity of tackling the environmental problems, especially global warming phenomenon due to the greenhouse gas emissions. At this occasion, taking up some topics of specifically rapid energy demand which will obviously continue well into the next century and will very likely cause impending energy situations in Asian countries, expectations of serious environmental problems particularly in those of Asian countries, and among that appealing the role of nuclear energy as a clean energy source

  16. Increasing help-seeking and referrals for individuals at risk for suicide by decreasing stigma: the role of mass media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederkrotenthaler, Thomas; Reidenberg, Daniel J; Till, Benedikt; Gould, Madelyn S

    2014-09-01

    Increasing help-seeking and referrals for at-risk individuals by decreasing stigma has been defined as Aspirational Goal 10 in the National Action Alliance for Suicide Prevention's Research Prioritization Task Force's 2014 prioritized research agenda. This article reviews the research evidence on the impact of mass media awareness campaigns on reducing stigma and increasing help-seeking. The review will focus on both beneficial and iatrogenic effects of suicide preventive interventions using media campaigns to target the broad public. A further focus is on collaboration between public health professionals and news media in order to reduce the risk of copycat behavior and enhance help-seeking behavior. Examples of multilevel approaches that include both mass media interventions and individual-level approaches to reduce stigma and increase referrals are provided as well. Multilevel suicide prevention programs that combine various approaches seem to provide the most promising results, but much more needs to be learned about the best possible composition of these programs. Major research and practice challenges include the identification of optimal ways to reach vulnerable populations who likely do not benefit from current awareness strategies. Caution is needed in all efforts that aim to reduce the stigma of suicidal ideation, mental illness, and mental health treatment in order to avoid iatrogenic effects. The article concludes with specific suggestions for research questions to help move this line of suicide research and practice forward. Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Units related to radiation exposure and radioactivity in mass media: the Fukushima case study in Europe and Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perko, T; Tomkiv, Y; Oughton, D H; Cantone, M C; Gallego, E; Prezelj, I; Byrkina, E

    2015-04-01

    Using an analysis of the way European newspapers covered the Fukushima nuclear accident, this article explores how the mass media transmit information about radiation risks from experts to the general public. The study applied a media content analysis method on a total of 1340 articles from 12 leading newspapers in 6 countries: Belgium (N = 260), Italy (N = 270), Norway (N = 133), Russia (N = 172), Slovenia (N = 190) and Spain (N = 315). All articles analysed were selected as being directly or indirectly related to the Fukushima accident by containing the word 'nuclear' and/or 'Fukushima' and were published between the 11th March and the 11th May 2011. The data presented here focus specifically on a cross-cultural comparison of the way the media use quantitative units. Results suggest that although experts are accustomed to communicating about radiological risks in technical language, often using quantitative units to describe the risks, mass media do not tend to use these units in their reporting. Although the study found a large variation in the measurement units used in different countries, it appeared that journalists in all the analysed countries preferred to describe radioactivity by comparing different radiation exposures, rather than reporting the actual measured units. The paper concludes with some practical guidelines for sound public communication about radiation risks. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. The current state and issues regarding communication from the nuclear energy industry to the mass media in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchida, Tatsuro; Kimura, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    The mass media has the potential to effect the utilization of nuclear power in Japan. In most cases journalists contact PR staff of the nuclear energy industry (hereinafter called 'the industry') to collect information about various events of nuclear energy. The industry is always ready to distribute related information and hold a press conference timely when necessary. In terms of the organizational structure for the PR activities each electric power company organizes the PR section in-house. The PR staff provides journalists with information on a daily basis. For the purpose of grasping the mass media's awareness, the author conducted interviews with 22 journalists who had experience in reporting news on nuclear energy subjects. The result showed that the journalists recognized the necessity of nuclear energy. The interviewees suggested that a proper press launch should be needed at just the right time especially in emergency situations and a press release should be more easily understandable. This interview showed that journalists considered the media reports as reflection of citizens' opinion. Most of the journalists realize that the influence of the media coverage should not be negligible and they acknowledge commutation between the two sides is gradually improved compared to before. (author)

  19. Units related to radiation exposure and radioactivity in mass media: the Fukushima case study in Europe and Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perko, T.; Tomkiv, Y.; Oughton, D.H.; Cantone, M.C.; Gallego, E.; Prezelj, I.; Byrkina, E.

    2015-01-01

    Using an analysis of the way European newspapers covered the Fukushima nuclear accident, this article explores how the mass media transmit information about radiation risks from experts to the general public. The study applied a media content analysis method on a total of 1340 articles from 12 leading newspapers in 6 countries: Belgium (N = 260), Italy (N = 270), Norway (N = 133), Russia (N = 172), Slovenia (N = 190) and Spain (N = 315). All articles analysed were selected as being directly or indirectly related to the Fukushima accident by containing the word 'nuclear' and/or 'Fukushima' and were published between the 11 March and the 11 May 2011. The data presented here focus specifically on a cross-cultural comparison of the way the media use quantitative units. Results suggest that although experts are accustomed to communicating about radiological risks in technical language, often using quantitative units to describe the risks, mass media do not tend to use these units in their reporting. Although the study found a large variation in the measurement units used in different countries, it appeared that journalists in all the analysed countries preferred to describe radioactivity by comparing different radiation exposures, rather than reporting the actual measured units. The paper concludes with some practical guidelines for sound public communication about radiation risks. (authors)

  20. Missed by the Mass Media: The Houma, Pointe-au-Chien, and Hurricanes Katrina and Rita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Robert Keith

    2008-01-01

    This case study investigates the media discourse from Houma and Pointe-au-Chien tribal leaders in Louisiana on their experiences with Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. One section briefly engages the discourse as discernable from the reports found in Native American and non-Native American news media. Included is a brief yet close examination of these…

  1. An Assessment of the Mass Media as Tools for Promoting Girl-Child ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper appraises the role of the media in the promotion of girl-child education in ... Local Government Areas and that the media, which are the agents of social ... to pay serious attention to campaigns that will promote girl-child education.

  2. Place and Role of Mass Media Institution in the Context of the Political Communication System in the XXth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia S. Yufereva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of the analysis of classical approaches of foreign scientists (U. Lippman, G. Laswell, etc. and Russian scientists (N.Biryukov, V.Borev, etc.. The purpose is to determine the role of the of mass media institution in context of the political communication system. In order to achieve this aim the information was gathered from books, monographs, scientific articles, etc. In this research the corresponding method was used to get reliable results. The method of historical analyses was implied to study the crucial stages of understanding the phenomenon of mass media in the context of the political communication system. In particular the author studies both foreign and national approaches to conduct an extensive analysis of this topic. The article describes as well the basic principles and areas of analysis, which allow to identify several areas in the understanding of the problem.

  3. Untapped aspects of mass media campaigns for changing health behaviour towards non-communicable diseases in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabassum, Reshman; Froeschl, Guenter; Cruz, Jonas P; Colet, Paolo C; Dey, Sukhen; Islam, Sheikh Mohammed Shariful

    2018-01-18

    In recent years, non-communicable diseases (NCDs) have become epidemic in Bangladesh. Behaviour changing interventions are key to prevention and management of NCDs. A great majority of people in Bangladesh have low health literacy, are less receptive to health information, and are unlikely to embrace positive health behaviours. Mass media campaigns can play a pivotal role in changing health behaviours of the population. This review pinpoints the role of mass media campaigns for NCDs and the challenges along it, whilst stressing on NCD preventive programmes (with the examples from different countries) to change health behaviours in Bangladesh. Future research should underpin the use of innovative technologies and mobile phones, which might be a prospective option for NCD prevention and management in Bangladesh.

  4. Mass media communication of emergency issues and countermeasures in a nuclear accident: Fukushima reporting in European newspapers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallego, Eduardo; Cantone, Marie Claire; Oughton, Deborah H.; Tomkiv, Yevgeniya; Perko, Tanja; Prezelj, Iztok

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a large study of 1340 articles published by two major newspapers in six European countries (Belgium, Italy, Norway, Slovenia, Spain and Russia) in the first 2 months after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster. The focus of the analysis is on the application and overall impact of protective actions, both during the emergency phase and later, how the newspapers describe those actions, which differences were apparent between countries and what recommendations can be extracted in order to improve general communication about these issues. A clear lesson is that, even under uncertainty and recognising limitations, responsible authorities need to provide transparent, clear and understandable information to the public and the mass media right from the beginning of the early phase of any nuclear emergency. Clear, concise messages should be given. Mass media could play a key role in reassuring the public if the countermeasures are clearly explained. (authors)

  5. Research of connection between mass audience and new media. Approaches to new model of mass communication measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Sibiriakova Olena Oleksandrivna

    2015-01-01

    In this research the author examines changes to approaches of observation of mass communication. As a result of systemization of key theoretical models of communication, the author comes to conclusion of evolution of ideas about the process of mass communication measurement from linear to multisided and multiple.

  6. Communication & Mass Media Complete. Guía básica (Versión 2017)

    OpenAIRE

    Biblioteca de la Universidad de Málaga

    2017-01-01

    Dentro de las Ciencias de la Comunicación, una de las bases de datos más importante y completa es Communication & Mass Media Complete, que de alguna manera viene a sustituir en nuestro catálogo Jábega a Comunication Abstracts, ya que da acceso a casi los mismos títulos que esta última, pero además ofrece el texto completo en PDF de la mayoría de ellos.

  7. Mass media health communication campaigns combined with health-related product distribution: a community guide systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Maren N; Tansil, Kristin A; Elder, Randy W; Soler, Robin E; Labre, Magdala P; Mercer, Shawna L; Eroglu, Dogan; Baur, Cynthia; Lyon-Daniel, Katherine; Fridinger, Fred; Sokler, Lynn A; Green, Lawrence W; Miller, Therese; Dearing, James W; Evans, William D; Snyder, Leslie B; Kasisomayajula Viswanath, K; Beistle, Diane M; Chervin, Doryn D; Bernhardt, Jay M; Rimer, Barbara K

    2014-09-01

    Health communication campaigns including mass media and health-related product distribution have been used to reduce mortality and morbidity through behavior change. The intervention is defined as having two core components reflecting two social marketing principles: (1) promoting behavior change through multiple communication channels, one being mass media, and (2) distributing a free or reduced-price product that facilitates adoption and maintenance of healthy behavior change, sustains cessation of harmful behaviors, or protects against behavior-related disease or injury. Using methods previously developed for the Community Guide, a systematic review (search period, January 1980-December 2009) was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of health communication campaigns that use multiple channels, including mass media, and distribute health-related products. The primary outcome of interest was use of distributed health-related products. Twenty-two studies that met Community Guide quality criteria were analyzed in 2010. Most studies showed favorable behavior change effects on health-related product use (a median increase of 8.4 percentage points). By product category, median increases in desired behaviors ranged from 4.0 percentage points for condom promotion and distribution campaigns to 10.0 percentage points for smoking-cessation campaigns. Health communication campaigns that combine mass media and other communication channels with distribution of free or reduced-price health-related products are effective in improving healthy behaviors. This intervention is expected to be applicable across U.S. demographic groups, with appropriate population targeting. The ability to draw more specific conclusions about other important social marketing practices is constrained by limited reporting of intervention components and characteristics. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. The synergy between mass-media and public management: a positive perspective for the Departments of Communication and Public Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Prodan (Mocanu) Ana-Maria

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this article is to emphasize the major role the departments of communication and public relations detains in the synergy process between mass-media and public institutions, starting from a series of short-circuits which have occurred in Romanian public sector and led to the misunderstanding of messages, due to an unprofessional communication. Synergy, on its basic meaning, represents a simultaneous action oriented in the same direction, which involves several agents who have the sa...

  9. ''High intensity per bunch'' working group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Third Generation Light Sources are supposed to store high intensity beams not only in many tightly spaced bunches (multibunch operation), but also in few bunch or even single lunch modes of operation, required for example for time structure experiments. Single bunch instabilities, driven by short-range wake fields, however spoil the beam quality, both longitudinally and transversely. Straightforward ways of handling them, by pushing up the chromaticity (ζ = ΔQ/(Δp/p)) for example, enabled to raise the charge per bunch, but to the detriment of beam lifetime. In addition, since the impedance of the vacuum chamber deteriorates with the installation of new insertion devices, the current thresholds tend to dope down continuously. The goal of this Working Group was then to review these limitations in the existing storage rings, where a large number of beam measurements have been performed to characterise them, and to discuss different strategies which are used against them. About 15 different laboratories reported on the present performance of storage rings, experiences gained in high charge per bunch, and on simulation results and theoretical studies. More than 25 presentations addressed the critical issues and stimulated the discussion. Four main topics came out: - Observation and experimental data; - Impedance studies and tracking codes; - Theoretical investigations; - Cures and feedback. (author)

  10. Bunch compression for an FEL at NLCTA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmermann, F.

    1997-04-01

    As part of the design effort for a free electron laser driven by the Next Linear Collider Test Accelerator (NLCTA), the author reports studies of bunch-length compression utilizing the existing infrastructure and hardware. In one possible version of the NLCTA FEL, bunches with 900-microm FWHM length, generated by an S-band photo-injector, would be compressed to an rms length of 60--120 microm before entering the FEL undulator. It is shown that, using the present magnetic chicane, the bunch compression is essentially straightforward, and that almost all emittance-diluting effects, e.g. wakefields, chromaticity, or space charge in the bending magnets, are small. The only exception to this finding is the predicted increase of the horizontal emittance due to coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR). Estimates based on existing theories of coherent synchrotron radiation suggest a tripling or quadrupling of the initial emittance, which seems to preclude bunch compression during regular FEL operation. Serendipitously, the magnitude of the predicted emittance growth would, on the other hand, make the NLCTA chicane an excellent tool for measuring the effects of coherent synchrotron radiation. This will be of considerable interest to many future projects, in particular to the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). As an aside, it is shown that coherent synchrotron radiation in a bending magnet gives rise to a minimum possible bunch length, which is very reminiscent of the Oide limit on the vertical spot size at the interaction point of a linear collider

  11. Focusing of relativistic electron bunch, moving in cylindrical plasma waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amatuni, A.Ts.; Ehlbakyan, S.S.; Sekhpossyan, E.V.

    1994-01-01

    The problem on the focusing of electron bunches moving with the relativistic velocity along the axis of cylindrical overdense plasma waveguide with the conducting internal surface is considered. The existence of periodic and nonperiodic components of the fields, generated in the plasma is shown. The conditions of electron bunch self-focusing by transverse electrical field and azimuthal magnetic field are derived. The possibility of the acceleration and focusing of electron or positron bunches by driving electron bunch wake field is discussed. The conditions, when the bunch in plasma waveguide moves without wake fields generating are obtained, which could be of the interest for the transport of relativistic electron (positron) bunches. 5 refs

  12. Radiation safety in the Moscow region: Experience of cooperation SUE SIA Radon with mass media and public

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grishin, O.; Rakov, S. [SUE SIA RADON, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2012-07-01

    Radiation safety in the present period acquires complex character and closely corresponds with other elements of social and political process, with various spheres of public life. After earthquake in Japan in March 11, 2011 and emergency on the nuclear power plant Fukushima-1 the theme of radiating safety of megapolises has today become urgent, as never. Provision of radiation safety of the Moscow region, taking into account a number of factors, is an important problem in a context of modernization state. Today in sphere of radio ecological safety there are certain achievements: new monitoring systems are developed, technological processes are improved, new information-communicative channels of interaction with mass media and public are formed. Information policy of enterprises the functioning of which is connected with provision of safe ecological conditions and its monitoring is focused on constant and duly informing of public through mass-media. Experience and technologies of interaction with mass-media and public of Moscow State Unitary-Enterprise- united ecological, scientific and research centre of decontamination of radioactive waste and environmental protection (State Unitarian Enterprise, Scientific and Industrial Association Radon, SUE SIA RADON) is submitted in the article. (author)

  13. Impact of mass media and interpersonal health communication on smoking cessation attempts: a study in North Karelia, 1989-1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, T; Uutela, A; Korhonen, H J; Puska, P

    1998-01-01

    This article summarizes an impact evaluation of the North Karelia Project (Finnish CINDI program) on smoking cessation attempts. During the period 1989-1996, data were collected by annual surveys, with response rates varying from 66% to 76%. This study included 1,694 adult current smokers or persons who had quit smoking during the past year, out of a total of 6,011 respondents. Smoking cessation attempts during the past 12 months were examined as a dependent variable. Reported exposures to mass media and interpersonal health communication were examined as possible determinants of smoking cessation. Weekly exposure to mass media health messages was significantly associated with cessation attempts among men only. In contrast, interpersonal health communication, or social influence, was a significant determinant of cessation attempts among both sexes. Exposure to both mass media and interpersonal health communication had an even stronger impact on cessation attempts. Thus, interpersonal communication appears to be an important catalyst of community programs, and its inclusion should be emphasized to obtain a higher impact with community programs.

  14. Disadvantaged Parents' Engagement with a National Secondhand Smoke in the Home Mass Media Campaign: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowa-Dewar, Neneh; Amos, Amanda

    2016-09-09

    Mass media campaigns can be effective in tobacco control but may widen health inequalities if they fail to engage disadvantaged smokers. This qualitative study explored how parents with young children living in disadvantaged circumstances engaged with a national campaign which aimed to raise awareness of the importance of smokefree homes. Individual semi-structured interviews were carried out with 17 parents before and after the Scottish 2014 "Right Outside" mass media campaign. A conceptual framework exploring meaningful exposure (recall and understanding), motivational responses (protecting children from secondhand smoke (SHS)) and opportunities to act (barriers) was used to thematically analyse the findings. Campaign recall and engagement, and motivation to protect children were high. Parents identified with the dramatized scenario and visual impact of SHS harm to children in the TV advertisement. Some reported changed smoking practices. However, supervising young children in limited accommodation when caring alone constrained opportunities to smoke outside. Instead, parents described actions other than smoking outside that they had taken or were planning to take to create smokefree homes. Mass media campaigns using emotive, real-life circumstances can be effective in engaging parents about SHS. However, the behavioural impact may be limited because of difficult home environments and circumstances.

  15. Disadvantaged Parents’ Engagement with a National Secondhand Smoke in the Home Mass Media Campaign: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neneh Rowa-Dewar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Mass media campaigns can be effective in tobacco control but may widen health inequalities if they fail to engage disadvantaged smokers. This qualitative study explored how parents with young children living in disadvantaged circumstances engaged with a national campaign which aimed to raise awareness of the importance of smokefree homes. Individual semi-structured interviews were carried out with 17 parents before and after the Scottish 2014 “Right Outside” mass media campaign. A conceptual framework exploring meaningful exposure (recall and understanding, motivational responses (protecting children from secondhand smoke (SHS and opportunities to act (barriers was used to thematically analyse the findings. Campaign recall and engagement, and motivation to protect children were high. Parents identified with the dramatized scenario and visual impact of SHS harm to children in the TV advertisement. Some reported changed smoking practices. However, supervising young children in limited accommodation when caring alone constrained opportunities to smoke outside. Instead, parents described actions other than smoking outside that they had taken or were planning to take to create smokefree homes. Mass media campaigns using emotive, real-life circumstances can be effective in engaging parents about SHS. However, the behavioural impact may be limited because of difficult home environments and circumstances.

  16. Impact of heat and mass transfer during the transport of nitrogen in coal porous media on coal mine fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Bobo; Zhou, Fubao

    2014-01-01

    The application of liquid nitrogen injection is an important technique in the field of coal mine fire prevention. However, the mechanism of heat and mass transfer of cryogenic nitrogen in the goaf porous medium has not been well accessed. Hence, the implementation of fire prevention engineering of liquid nitrogen roughly relied on an empirical view. According to the research gap in this respect, an experimental study on the heat and mass transfer of liquid nitrogen in coal porous media was proposed. Overall, the main mechanism of liquid nitrogen fire prevention technology in the coal mine is the creation of an inert and cryogenic atmosphere. Cryogenic nitrogen gas vapor cloud, heavier than the air, would cause the phenomenon of "gravity settling" in porous media firstly. The cryogen could be applicable to diverse types of fires, both in the openings and in the enclosures. Implementation of liquid nitrogen open-injection technique in Yangchangwan colliery achieved the goals of fire prevention and air-cooling. Meanwhile, this study can also provide an essential reference for the research on heat and mass transfer in porous media in the field of thermal physics and engineering.

  17. Increasing evidence for the efficacy of tobacco control mass media communication programming in low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullin, Sandra; Prasad, Vinayak; Kaur, Jagdish; Turk, Tahir

    2011-08-01

    Antitobacco mass media campaigns have had good success at changing knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors with respect to smoking in high-income countries provided they are sustained. Mass media campaigns should be a critical component of tobacco control programs in low- and lower-middle-income countries. Mounting evidence shows that graphic campaigns and those that evoke negative emotions run over long periods of time have achieved the most influence. These types of campaigns are now being implemented in low- and middle-income countries. The authors provide 3 case studies of first-ever graphic warning mass media campaigns in China, India, and Russia, 3 priority high-burden countries in the global Bloomberg Initiative to Reduce Tobacco Use. In each of these countries, message testing of core messages provided confidence in messages, and evaluations demonstrated message uptake. The authors argue that given the initial success of these campaigns, governments in low- and middle-income countries should consider resourcing and sustaining these interventions as key components of their tobacco control strategies and programs.

  18. Results of a national mass media campaign in India to warn against the dangers of smokeless tobacco consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murukutla, Nandita; Turk, Tahir; Prasad, C V S; Saradhi, Ranjana; Kaur, Jagdish; Gupta, Shefali; Mullin, Sandra; Ram, Faujdar; Gupta, Prakash C; Wakefield, Melanie

    2012-01-01

    Smokeless tobacco consumption in India is a significant source of morbidity and mortality. In order to educate smokeless tobacco users about the health harms of smokeless tobacco and to denormalise tobacco usage and encourage quitting, a national television and radio mass media campaign targeted at smokeless tobacco users was aired for 6 weeks during November and December 2009. The campaign was evaluated with a nationally representative household survey of smokeless tobacco users (n = 2898). The effect of campaign awareness was assessed with logistic regression analysis. The campaign affected smokeless tobacco users as intended: 63% of smokeless-only users and 72% of dual users (ie, those who consumed both smoking and smokeless forms) recalled the campaign advertisement, primarily through television delivery. The vast majority (over 70%) of those aware of the campaign said that it made them stop and think, was relevant to their lives and provided new information. 75% of smokeless-only users and 77% of dual users said that it made them feel concerned about their habit. Campaign awareness was associated with better knowledge, more negative attitudes towards smokeless tobacco and greater cessation-oriented intentions and behaviours among smokeless tobacco users. Social marketing campaigns that utilise mass media are feasible and efficacious interventions for tobacco control in India. Implications for future mass media tobacco control programming in India are discussed.

  19. Radiation safety in the Moscow region: Experience of cooperation SUE SIA Radon with mass media and public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grishin, O.; Rakov, S.

    2012-01-01

    Radiation safety in the present period acquires complex character and closely corresponds with other elements of social and political process, with various spheres of public life. After earthquake in Japan in March 11, 2011 and emergency on the nuclear power plant Fukushima-1 the theme of radiating safety of megapolises has today become urgent, as never. Provision of radiation safety of the Moscow region, taking into account a number of factors, is an important problem in a context of modernization state. Today in sphere of radio ecological safety there are certain achievements: new monitoring systems are developed, technological processes are improved, new information-communicative channels of interaction with mass media and public are formed. Information policy of enterprises the functioning of which is connected with provision of safe ecological conditions and its monitoring is focused on constant and duly informing of public through mass-media. Experience and technologies of interaction with mass-media and public of Moscow State Unitary-Enterprise- united ecological, scientific and research centre of decontamination of radioactive waste and environmental protection (State Unitarian Enterprise, Scientific and Industrial Association Radon, SUE SIA RADON) is submitted in the article. (author)

  20. Impact of Heat and Mass Transfer during the Transport of Nitrogen in Coal Porous Media on Coal Mine Fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobo Shi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of liquid nitrogen injection is an important technique in the field of coal mine fire prevention. However, the mechanism of heat and mass transfer of cryogenic nitrogen in the goaf porous medium has not been well accessed. Hence, the implementation of fire prevention engineering of liquid nitrogen roughly relied on an empirical view. According to the research gap in this respect, an experimental study on the heat and mass transfer of liquid nitrogen in coal porous media was proposed. Overall, the main mechanism of liquid nitrogen fire prevention technology in the coal mine is the creation of an inert and cryogenic atmosphere. Cryogenic nitrogen gas vapor cloud, heavier than the air, would cause the phenomenon of “gravity settling” in porous media firstly. The cryogen could be applicable to diverse types of fires, both in the openings and in the enclosures. Implementation of liquid nitrogen open-injection technique in Yangchangwan colliery achieved the goals of fire prevention and air-cooling. Meanwhile, this study can also provide an essential reference for the research on heat and mass transfer in porous media in the field of thermal physics and engineering.

  1. Fermented empty fruit bunch (FEFB) as feed for ruminant animal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mat Rasol Awang; Hassan Hamdani Mutaat; Mohd Shukri Mahmud; Wan Badrin Wan Hussin; Tajuddin Osman; Norihan Zainal; Abu Hassan Osman; Tamikazu Kume; Shinpei Matsuhashi

    1998-01-01

    Fermented oil palm empty fruit bunch, now known as 'Sterifeed' has been characterized by physico-chemical properties. It has also been proven to have an improved digestibility (by in vitro and in-vivo test) over the original material. The remaining important aspect of feed to be examined is the long term effect of feeding this material to animals. The size of fermentation media bags used was 0.5 - 1 kg/bag. In the large scale production of these materials, the numbers of bags were increased. The production at pilot scale level reinvestigated the basic processing parameters for the 1 kg/bag media and also performed a trial run for different sizes of bags. These include: 1) investigation on the growth of fungi on fermentation media subjected to different treatment times and the non treated media, 2) evaluation of the processing rate, 3) trial run processing of 25-50 MT oil palm EFB into feed, and 4) processing of different sizes of bags

  2. BBAT: Bunch and bucket analysis tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, D.P.

    1995-01-01

    BBAT is written to meet the need of an interactive graphical tool to explore the longitudinal phase space. It is driven for testing new ideas or new tricks quickly. It is especially suitable for machine physicists or operation staff as well both in the control room during machine studies or off-line to analyze the data. The heart of the package contains a set of c-routines to do the number crunching. The graphics part is wired with scripting language tcl/tk and BLT. The c-routines are general enough that one can write new applications such as animation of the bucket as a machine parameter varies via a sliding scale. BBAT deals with single rf system. For double rf system, one can use Dr. BBAT, which stands for Double rf Bunch and Bucket Analysis Tool. One usage of Dr. BBAT is to visualize the process of bunch coalescing and flat bunch creation

  3. Note on polarized RHIC bunch arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underwood, D.

    1996-01-01

    We discuss what combinations of bunch polarization in the two RHIC rings are necessary to do the physics measurements at various interaction regions. We also consider the bunches for both the pion inclusive and p-p elastic polarization measurements. Important factors to consider are the direction of the polarization with respect to the momentum in each bunch, the beam gas backgrounds, and the simulation of zero - polarization in one beam by averaging + and - helicity, and luminosity monitoring for normalization. These considerations can be addressed by setting the relative number of each of the 9 combinations possible at each of the 6 interaction regions. The combinations are (+ empty -) yellow X (+ empty -)blue, where yellow and blue are the counter-rotating rings

  4. 154 The Role of the Mass Media in the Nigerian Electoral Process ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NGOZI

    the media in Nigeria political process within the framework of our national political ..... ethnic interests at the expense of national unity and stability of the polity. According to ... untold mayhem, chaos and political instability. In 1965 for instance ...

  5. Bunch coalescing in the Fermilab Main Ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wildman, D.; Martin, P.; Meisner, K.; Miller, H.W.

    1987-01-01

    A new RF system has been installed in the Fermilab Main Ring to coalesce up to 13 individual bunches of protons or antiprotons into a single high-intensity bunch. The coalescing process consists of adiabatically reducing the h=1113 Main Ring RF voltage from 1 MV to less than 1 kV, capturing the debunched beam in a linearized h=53 and h=106 bucket, rotating for a quarter of a synchrotron oscillation period, and then recapturing the beam in a single h=1113 bucket. The new system is described and the results of recent coalescing experiments are compared with computer-generated particle tracking simulations

  6. Bunch heating by coherent synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heifets, S.A.; Zolotorev, M.

    1995-10-01

    The authors discuss here effects which define the steady-state rms energy spread of a microbunch in a storage ring. It is implied that the longitudinal microwave instability is controlled by low α lattice. In this case the coherent synchrotron radiation, if exists, may be the main factor defining the bunch temperature. Another effect comes from the fact that a nonlinear momentum compaction of such lattices makes Haissinskii equation not applicable, and the coherent synchrotron radiation may effect not only bunch lengthening but the energy spread as well

  7. Sub-fs electron bunch generation with sub-10-fs bunch arrival-time jitter via bunch slicing in a magnetic chicane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Zhu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The generation of ultrashort electron bunches with ultrasmall bunch arrival-time jitter is of vital importance for laser-plasma wakefield acceleration with external injection. We study the production of 100-MeV electron bunches with bunch durations of subfemtosecond (fs and bunch arrival-time jitters of less than 10 fs, in an S-band photoinjector by using a weak magnetic chicane with a slit collimator. The beam dynamics inside the chicane is simulated by using two codes with different self-force models. The first code separates the self-force into a three-dimensional (3D quasistatic space-charge model and a one-dimensional coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR model, while the other one starts from the first principle with a so-called 3D sub-bunch method. The simulations indicate that the CSR effect dominates the horizontal emittance growth and the 1D CSR model underestimates the final bunch duration and emittance because of the very large transverse-to-longitudinal aspect ratio of the sub-fs bunch. Particularly, the CSR effect is also strongly affected by the vertical bunch size. Due to the coupling between the horizontal and longitudinal phase spaces, the bunch duration at the entrance of the last dipole magnet of the chicane is still significantly longer than that at the exit of the chicane, which considerably mitigates the impact of space charge and CSR effects on the beam quality. Exploiting this effect, a bunch charge of up to 4.8 pC in a sub-fs bunch could be simulated. In addition, we analytically and numerically investigate the impact of different jitter sources on the bunch arrival-time jitter downstream of the chicane, and define the tolerance budgets assuming realistic values of the stability of the linac for different bunch charges and compression schemes.

  8. Development of bunch by bunch transverse feedback system at Hefei light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Junhua; Zheng Kai; Li Weimin; Yang Yongliang; Huang Longjun; Chen Yuanbo; Zhou Zeran; Wang Lin; Liu Zeping; Sun Baogen; Ma Li; Cao Jianshe; Yue Junhui; Liu Dekang; Ye Kairong

    2008-01-01

    This paper has introduced the development of the transverse bunch-by-bunch measurement and feedback system, including the experiment of damping the coupled bunch instability. Some key technologies on the system have been introduced: the vector calculation module as a signal processing module used to adjust the phase of the feedback signals, the feedback kicker cavity and the notch filter used to filter the DC component and revolution frequencies component in a signal and save the feedback power. The result of the feedback experiment is mentioned: the instability oscillation was damped when the feedback system was on. (authors)

  9. Transport of dc and bunched beams through a 25 MV folded tandem accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milner, W.T.; Alton, G.D.; Hensley, D.C.; Jones, C.M.; King, R.F.; Larson, J.D.; Moak, C.D.; Sayer, R.O.

    1975-01-01

    Studies of beam transport through the planned ORNL 25 MV folded tandem accelerator demonstrate efficient utilization of phase-space acceptance and the feasibility of injecting bunched beams from the tandem accelerator into the Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron (ORIC). Use of a 180 0 bending magnet in the terminal provides outstanding charge state selection and permits better control of the high-energy beam transport than has previously been possible in conventional tandem accelerators. Time spreads introduced in bunched beams by the 180 0 magnet are kept within a 6 0 RF acceptance window at ORIC provided the beam has a crossover in the center of the 180 0 magnet. Ion masses from 12 to 240 amu, preinjection energies from 150 to 500 keV and terminal voltages from 7.5 to 25 MV were studied for dc beams and beams bunched by various modulation techniques. (U.S.)

  10. Results of Preliminary Tests of PAR Bunch Cleaning

    CERN Document Server

    Yao, Chihyuan; Grelick, Arthur; Lumpkin, Alex H; Sereno, Nicholas S

    2005-01-01

    A particle accumulator ring (PAR) is used at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) to collect multiple linac bunches and compress them into a 0.3-ns (rms) single bunch for booster injection. A 9.77-MHz fundamental rf system and a 117.3-MHz harmonic rf system are employed for initial beam capture and bunch length compression. Satellite bunches with very low charge form due to rf phase drifts or beam loading change. These satellites, when injected into the booster and then into the storage ring (SR), cause bunch impurity at three buckets from the target bucket. Storage ring and booster bunch cleaning was tried but proved to be difficult due to the top-up mode of operation in the storage ring and tune drift in the booster synchrotron. Recently we implemented a PAR bunch-cleaning system with tune-modulated harmonic rf knockout. Preliminary tests gave a measured SR bunch purity of better than 10

  11. Quality Assessment of Soaps Produced from Palm Bunch Ash ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quality Assessment of Soaps Produced from Palm Bunch Ash-Derived Alkali and ... Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management ... The remedial process involved subjecting the dried palm bunch matter to total combustion, ...

  12. Short bunch wake potentials for a chain of TESLA cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novokhatski, Alexander; Mosnier, Alban

    2014-01-01

    The modification of wake fields from a single cavity to a quasi-periodic structure of cavities is of great concern, especially for applications using very short bunches. We extend our former study (Novokhatski, 1997 [1]). A strong modification of wake fields along a train of cavities was clearly found for bunch lengths lower than 1 mm. In particular, the wakes induced by the bunch, as it proceeds down the successive cavities, decrease in amplitude and become more linear around the bunch center, with a profile very close to the integral of the charge density. The loss factor, decreasing also with the number of cells, becomes independent of bunch length for very short bunches and tends asymptotically to a finite value. This nice behavior of wake fields for short bunches presents good opportunity for application of very short bunches in Linear Colliders and X-ray Free Electron Lasers

  13. Theory of coherent transition radiation generated by ellipsoidal electron bunches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Root, op 't W.P.E.M.; Smorenburg, P.W.; Oudheusden, van T.; Wiel, van der M.J.; Luiten, O.J.

    2007-01-01

    We present the theory of coherent transition radiation (CTR) generated by ellipsoidal electron bunches. We calculate analytical expressions for the electric field spectrum, the power spectrum, and the temporal electric field of CTR, generated by cylindrically symmetric ellipsoidal electron bunches

  14. Media education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasburger, Victor C

    2010-11-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics recognizes that exposure to mass media (eg, television, movies, video and computer games, the Internet, music lyrics and videos, newspapers, magazines, books, advertising) presents health risks for children and adolescents but can provide benefits as well. Media education has the potential to reduce the harmful effects of media and accentuate the positive effects. By understanding and supporting media education, pediatricians can play an important role in reducing harmful effects of media on children and adolescents.

  15. Ability of a mass media campaign to influence knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors about sugary drinks and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boles, Myde; Adams, Adelle; Gredler, Amy; Manhas, Sonia

    2014-10-01

    We examined the impact of a mass media campaign that was designed to educate residents about the amount of added sugars in soda and other sugary drinks, as well as the health impacts of consuming such drinks. The campaign was implemented in Multnomah County (Portland), Oregon in 2011 and included paid and unpaid media on the web, television, billboards, and transit. A telephone survey (n=402) measured campaign awareness, attitudes toward obesity, knowledge about health problems of excessive sugar, and behavioral intentions and behaviors around soda and sugary drink consumption. Nearly 80% of people who were aware of the media campaign intended to reduce the amount of soda or sugary drinks they offered to a child as a result of the campaign ads. Those who were aware of the campaign were more likely to agree that too much sugar causes health problems (97.3% vs. 85.9%). There was no significant change in self-reported soda consumption. Media campaigns about sugary drinks and obesity may be effective for raising awareness about added sugars in beverages, increasing knowledge about health problems associated with excessive sugar consumption, and prompting behavioral intentions to reduce soda and sugary drink consumption. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Exploring the linkage between exposure to mass media and HIV testing among married women and men in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Yujiro; Sedziafa, Alice P; Amoyaw, Jonathan A; Boateng, Godfred O; Kuuire, Vincent Z; Boamah, Sheila; Kwon, Eugena

    2016-01-01

    Although HIV testing is critical to the treatment and prevention of HIV/AIDS, utilization rate of HIV testing services among married women and men remains low in Ghana. Mass media, as a tool to increase overall HIV testing turnouts, has been considered one of the important strategies in promoting and enhancing behavioural changes related to HIV/AIDS prevention. Using the 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey, the current study examines the relationship between levels of exposure to print media, radio, and television and the uptake of HIV testing among married women and men in Ghana. Results show that HIV testing is more prevalent among married women than their male counterparts. We also find that higher levels of exposure to radio is associated with HIV testing among women, while higher levels of exposure to print media and television are associated with HIV testing among men. Implications of these findings are discussed for Ghana's HIV/AIDS strategic framework, which aims to expanding efforts at dealing with the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Specifically, it is important for health educators and programme planners to deliver HIV-related messages through television, radio, and print media to increase the uptake of HIV testing particularly among married women and men in Ghana.

  17. The synergy between mass-media and public management: a positive perspective for the Departments of Communication and Public Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prodan (Mocanu Ana-Maria

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to emphasize the major role the departments of communication and public relations detains in the synergy process between mass-media and public institutions, starting from a series of short-circuits which have occurred in Romanian public sector and led to the misunderstanding of messages, due to an unprofessional communication. Synergy, on its basic meaning, represents a simultaneous action oriented in the same direction, which involves several agents who have the same purposes (DEI, 1999. In the present context, I define synergy as intensifying two activities with a determinant role in the proper functioning of public management which contributes, to a large extent, on informing and educating the general public. The premises I start with are that crisis situations occur because of a faulty communication department and these could be avoided if there would be a permanent and efficient relationship between mass-media and public institutions. In other words, an efficiently organized department of communication could enhance company’s activity starting from the partnership between media and public institutions. Through collaboration, both units could present advantages to be felt at the organizational, social, economic and cultural levels.

  18. Luminosity geometric reduction factor from colliding bunches with different lengths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verdu-Andres, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-09-29

    In the interaction point of the future electron-Ion collider eRHIC, the electron beam bunches are at least one order of magnitude shorter than the proton beam bunches. With the introduction of a crossing angle, the actual number of collisions resulting from the bunch collision gets reduced. Here we derive the expression for the luminosity geometric reduction factor when the bunches of the two incoming beams are not equal.

  19. The role of mass media campaigns in reducing high-risk drinking among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJong, William

    2002-03-01

    This article categorizes and describes current media campaigns to reduce college student drinking, reviews key principles of campaign design and outlines recommendations for future campaigns. The article describes three types of media campaigns on student drinking: information, social norms marketing, and advocacy. Key principles of campaign design are derived from work in commercial marketing, advertising, and public relations and from evaluations of past public health campaigns. Information campaigns on the dangers of high-risk drinking are common, but none has been rigorously evaluated. Quasi-experimental studies suggest that social norms marketing campaigns, which correct misperceptions of campus drinking norms, may be effective, but more rigorous research is needed. As of this writing, only one major media campaign has focused on policy advocacy to reduce college student drinking, but it is still being evaluated. Lessons for campaign design are organized as a series of steps for campaign development, implementation and assessment: launch a strategic planning process, select a strategic objective, select the target audience, develop a staged approach, define the key promise, avoid fear appeals, select the right message source, select a mix of media channels, maximize media exposure, conduct formative research, and conduct process and outcome evaluations. Future campaigns should integrate information, social norms marketing, and advocacy approaches to create a climate of support for institutional, community and policy changes that will alter the environment in which students make decisions about their alcohol consumption.

  20. The Case: Bunche-Da Vinci Learning Partnership Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Nicole; Winters, Lynn; Alkin, Marvin C.

    2005-01-01

    The Bunche-Da Vinci case described in this article presents a situation at Bunche Elementary School that four theorists were asked to address in their evaluation designs (see EJ791771, EJ719772, EJ791773, and EJ792694). The Bunche-Da Vinci Learning Partnership Academy, an elementary school located between an urban port city and a historically…