WorldWideScience

Sample records for bumpers

  1. Bumper Wac Liftoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    1950-01-01

    Bumper Wac liftoff at the Long Range Proving Ground located at Cape Canaveral, Florida. At White Sands, New Mexico, the German rocket team experimented with a two-stage rocket called Bumper Wac, which intended to provide data for upper atmospheric research. On February 24, 1950, the Bumper, which employed a V-2 as the first stage with a Wac Corporal upper stage, obtained a peak altitude of more than 240 miles.

  2. Bumpers: Traffic Safety Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    This fact sheet, NHTSA Facts: Summer 1996, discusses automobile bumpers. It notes that a car bumper is not a safety device to prevent or reduce injuries to people in the car. Instead, it is designed to protect the hood, trunk, grille, parking lights,...

  3. Bumper Wac on Launch Pad

    Science.gov (United States)

    1950-01-01

    A Bumper Wac, a combination the V-2 rocket with a WAC Corporal upper stage, awaits launch on July 24, 1950. It was the eighth in the Bumper Project and the vehicle reached the altitude of 393 kilometers. The Bumper was built by the German Rocket experts at the White Sands Proving Ground in New Mexico. In 1950, the last two Bumper launches took place in Florida, at the Long Range Proving Ground, located at Cape Canaveral.

  4. Do lip bumpers work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Julian

    2009-01-01

    Searches were made using PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and the Cochrane database of systematic reviews, along with searches by hand of the following journals: Angle Orthodontist, American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Journal of Orthodontics and European Journal of Orthodontics. The first step was to identify eligible reports based on their titles and abstracts: 52 articles were found. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were then applied. Studies were included if subjects were human; they were randomised controlled trials and prospective or retrospective studies; they discussed the effect of the lip bumper on the arch and teeth; and they were reported in the English language. Articles excluded were mainly animal studies, case reports, case series, review articles, abstracts, in-vitro studies, discussions and interviews; were published in a language other than English; or did not follow the objective of this review. The selection was made by two researchers. Their results were compared to identify discrepancies and reach mutual agreement. If two or more studies had evaluated the same technique, a meta-analysis was planned. A total of 16 RCT were identified of which 13 underwent detailed evaluation; of these, only one study was considered to have usable outcome information. The others were excluded because of control group, sex, age, study casts and cephalometric analysis, and measurement error. This single small study showed that lip bumper can increase arch dimensions and contribute to crowding relief in mixed dentition. The results showed increases in arch dimensions, including a greater arch length. This was attributed to incisor proclination, distalisation, and distal tipping of the molars. There were also increases in arch width and intercanine and deciduous intermolar or premolar distances. The long-term stability of the effects of the lip bumper need to be elucidated.

  5. Simulation methods for bumper system development

    OpenAIRE

    Isaksson, Erik

    2006-01-01

    n development of bumper systems for the automotive industry, iterative Finite Element (FE) simulations are normally used to find a bumper design that meets the requirements of crash performance. The crash performance of a bumper system is normally verified by results from standardized low speed crash tests based on common crash situations. Consequently, these crash load cases are also used in the FE simulations during the development process. However, lack of data for the car under developmen...

  6. PERFORMANCE OF AN AUTOMOTIVE BUMPER FROM LALLOH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The work presented here is the production of an automotive Bumper from Lalloh plant (Corchorus tridenL.) fibre reinforced epoxy composite and its performance evaluation using the drop weight test method. An impact test was carried out on the bumper using a test rig modeled after the Dynatup Model 8150 drop weight test ...

  7. Mandibular lip bumper for molar torque control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celentano, Giuseppe; Longobardi, Annalisa; Cannavale, Rosangela; Perillo, Letizia

    2011-01-01

    Treatment effects of lip bumpers alone include flaring of the mandibular incisors, distalization and uprighting of the mandibular first molars, and buccal expansion of the canines, premolars, and molar. Lip forces are transmitted through this appliance onto the molars. Moreover the lip bumper is able to derotate, expand or constrict, upright and reinforce the anchorage whereas torque control is lacking. Aim of this paper is the presentation of a new type of lip bumper that allows the molar torque control. Copyright © 2011 Società Italiana di Ortodonzia SIDO. Published by Elsevier Srl. All rights reserved.

  8. Lip bumper therapy for gaining arch length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevant, C T; Buschang, P H; Alexander, R G; Steffen, J M

    1991-10-01

    With the use of pretreatment and posttreatment lateral cephalograms and study models, lip bumper therapy for two groups of 20 patients was evaluated. One group was treated with lip bumpers fabricated from stainless steel round wire covered with shrink tubing and activated every 2 to 3 months. The second group was treated with larger prefabricated lip bumpers covered with acrylic shields from canine to canine and activated every 4 to 5 weeks. Yearly rates of treatment change indicate that the type of lip bumper used and the method of clinical manipulation have no effect on mandibular incisor position. Both groups showed similar rates of controlled incisal tipping with the center of rotation at the apex. Dental movements of the posterior segment were significantly different between groups. The second group displayed significantly more molar tipping than the first group. The second group also showed significantly greater transverse expansion of the canines, first premolars, and first molars.

  9. Analysis of composite car bumper reinforcement

    OpenAIRE

    Kleisner V.; Zemčík R.

    2009-01-01

    The presented work summarizes the present state of car passive safety testing according to European methodologies. The main objective is to analysis a bumper reinforcement made of composite materials. The bumper is tested according to RCAR (Research Council for Automobile Repairs) methodology using numerical simulation. Individual proposed variants are compared with the existing steel construction which does not comply with manufacturers specifications. The PAM-Crash software is used for the ...

  10. Bumper 3 Update for IADC Protection Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Eric L.; Nagy, Kornel; Hyde, Jim

    2016-01-01

    The Bumper code has been the standard in use by NASA and contractors to perform meteoroid/debris risk assessments since 1990. It has undergone extensive revisions and updates [NASA JSC HITF website; Christiansen et al., 1992, 1997]. NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) has applied BUMPER to risk assessments for Space Station, Shuttle, Mir, Extravehicular Mobility Units (EMU) space suits, and other spacecraft (e.g., LDEF, Iridium, TDRS, and Hubble Space Telescope). Bumper continues to be updated with changes in the ballistic limit equations describing failure threshold of various spacecraft components, as well as changes in the meteoroid and debris environment models. Significant efforts are expended to validate Bumper and benchmark it to other meteoroid/debris risk assessment codes. Bumper 3 is a refactored version of Bumper II. The structure of the code was extensively modified to improve maintenance, performance and flexibility. The architecture was changed to separate the frequently updated ballistic limit equations from the relatively stable common core functions of the program. These updates allow NASA to produce specific editions of the Bumper 3 that are tailored for specific customer requirements. The core consists of common code necessary to process the Micrometeoroid and Orbital Debris (MMOD) environment models, assess shadowing and calculate MMOD risk. The library of target response subroutines includes a board range of different types of MMOD shield ballistic limit equations as well as equations describing damage to various spacecraft subsystems or hardware (thermal protection materials, windows, radiators, solar arrays, cables, etc.). The core and library of ballistic response subroutines are maintained under configuration control. A change in the core will affect all editions of the code, whereas a change in one or more of the response subroutines will affect all editions of the code that contain the particular response subroutines which are modified. Note

  11. [The design, functions and clinic applications of lip bumper].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Z; Lu, D; Zhou, L; Zhao, M

    2000-10-01

    This paper introduced the principle of design, methods of fabrication, indications and functions of lip bumper, and advocated the application of lip bumper in orthodontic clinic. Two typical cases treated with lip bumper were introduced. Some notices and experiences of applying lip bumpers were summed up. There were following functions of lip bumper: as a space maintainer, Fränkel effect, headgear effect, post-maxillary expansion retention, derotation of molars, and combined using with headgear. The advantages of lip bumper are inclusions of a wide range of indication, wearing for 24 hours per day, easily fabricating and prefabricating, comfortable and hidden for patients.

  12. 77 FR 37836 - Petition Requesting Commission Action Regarding Crib Bumpers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-25

    ... COMMISSION 16 CFR Chapter II Petition Requesting Commission Action Regarding Crib Bumpers AGENCY: U.S... Commission initiate rulemaking to distinguish and regulate ``hazardous pillow-like'' crib bumpers from ``non-hazardous traditional'' crib bumpers under sections 7 and 9 of the Consumer Product Safety Act (``CPSA...

  13. Muscle activity with the mandibular lip bumper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klocke, A; Nanda, R S; Ghosh, J

    2000-04-01

    This prospective study was designed to measure muscle activity with lip bumper treatment. Surface electromyography was used to measure upper and lower lip activity with and without the appliance in place. Measurements were taken on a sample of 25 adolescent patients (age range, 10 to 17 years) before and after 12 months of lip bumper treatment. Recordings included a closed lip rest position, swallowing of water, and speech of the words "church," "phone," and "pop." Insertion of the lip bumper at the pretreatment recording resulted in significantly increased activity of the upper and lower lips at rest (P lip were compared to determine whether 12 months of treatment with the appliance resulted in muscle adaptation. The initial increase of muscle activity with insertion of the appliance for the closed lip rest position and for swallowing was not followed by a decrease during the treatment period. There were significant differences in muscle activity when comparing the "new" equilibrium introduced by the lip bumper to the "old" pretreatment equilibrium without the appliance. Although it was shown that the insertion of the appliance had a significant influence on muscle activity of the lips, the results of this study did not indicate adaptation of the lower lip to the appliance over the treatment period.

  14. Bumper-protected laminated spacecraft mainwalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinslow, R.

    1973-01-01

    A study was made of the meteoroid impact resistance of bumper-protected mainwalls of both solid aluminum and polycarbonate-aluminum laminates. Semi-empirical models of the debris cloud and stress waves were formulated. Results indicated that a laminated mainwall affords greater impact resistance than a solid aluminum mainwall of the same weight.

  15. Analysis of composite car bumper reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleisner V.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The presented work summarizes the present state of car passive safety testing according to European methodologies. The main objective is to analysis a bumper reinforcement made of composite materials. The bumper is tested according to RCAR (Research Council for Automobile Repairs methodology using numerical simulation. Individual proposed variants are compared with the existing steel construction which does not comply with manufacturers specifications. The PAM-Crash software is used for the simulation. The numerical model is using shell elements and the Ladevèze model for the description of behaviour of composite materials. The methodology for the set-up of the numerical model in PAM-crash is firstly validated by comparison of experiment and analytical results.

  16. Bumper 8 team gathers for 50th anniversary celebration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    A 50th Anniversary Ceremony was held today in honor of the first rocket launch, called Bumper 8, from Pad 3 at Cape Canaveral on July 24, 1950. Members of the original Bumper 8 team reconvene at the ceremony with a Bumper 8 model rocket. The model was later launched as part of the festivities. Other activities included presentation of a Bumper Award to the Honorable George Kirkpatrick, State Senator, District 5; remarks by Center Director Roy Bridges and Commander, 45th Space Wing, Brig. Gen. Donald Pettit; and a reception at Hangar C. Bumper consisted of a German V-2 missile acting as the booster and a U.S. Army WAC Corporal rocket as the second stage. Since 1950 there have been a total of 3,245 launches from Cape Canaveral.

  17. [Bite jumping appliance with lower lip bumper].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiwat, J; Deckunakorn, S

    1991-01-01

    The removable bite jumping appliance with lower lip bumper is a new orthodontic appliance designed to correct the abnormal habit of lower lip biting children with mentalis muscle hyperactivity. Upper anterior teeth protrusion, mandible retrusion, lower anterior teeth lingual collapse and anterior deep bite usually are found in association with this lower lip biting habit, especially in the mixed dentition period (7-12 yrs). The function of this appliance is similar to the partial functional appliance. It is made into two parts: upper removable plate with anterior inclined bite plane and lower lip bumper attached to the upper plate. Three cases are discussed and compared before and after treatment. Changes in both skeletal and dental pattern were recorded in the following aspects: increase in the posterior rotation of mandible (increased SN-MP), stimulation of forward growth of the mandible (the increase is SNB value overcomes the increase in SNA, through reduction ANB), retroclination of upper maxillary teeth (reduced 1-NA), proclination of lower anterior teeth (increased 1-NB), the reduction of overjet. Additionally, the normal position of the lower lip provided by this appliance effectively corrects the lip biting with mentalis muscle hyperactivity.

  18. Bumper Stickers in Jordan: A Structural Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husam Al-Momani

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study has set out to determine the structural patterns of bumper stickers in Jordan. This study is significant since it is the first one to approach bumper stickers structurally. The study has investigated 227 stickers, which can be considered the corpus of stickers in Jordan. The study has found that around 90% of the stickers are sentences, most of which are simple sentences expressed in the present tense. This combination of the three elements i.e. sentence, declarative and simple is what facilitated the job of drivers to write their opinions, attitudes, beliefs, etc. and is what made it possible for the others i.e. drivers and pedestrians to understand the stickers. The study has also found that imperative and negative imperatives are quite common since the stickers are not addressed to the writer/driver rather to the others so as to inform them about his state, his miserable condition, his opinions, his loyalties, and his vehicle. The stickers are addressed to others to demand certain behaviors from them such as driving wisely, not challenging the sticker writer, respecting him if he is driving a truck or a lorry, etc.

  19. The Injection Bumper System for LEIR

    CERN Document Server

    Fowler, A

    2004-01-01

    To satisfy the ion beam luminosity requirements for CERN's future Large Hadron Collider (LHC), a small accumulator, the Low Energy Ion Ring (LEIR), is being built in the injector chain of accelerators. LEIR will use a combined longitudinal and transverse multi-turn injection scheme which requires a bumper system comprising four individually pulsed dipole magnets. The paper discusses the bumper system, in particular the power supplies which will produce a pulsed current linearly decreasing from 1.2kA to zero in a time variable between 120µs and 300µs. Each power supply employs a primary discharge circuit, comprising a storage capacitor, an IGBT switch and the magnet load inductance, to establish the peak current, and a free-wheel circuit in parallel with the magnet, comprising a diode and capacitor, to produce the linear current slope. A novel feature of the circuit is the use of a variable bias voltage on the free-wheel capacitor, allowing continuous variation of the slope duration.

  20. Content-Based Analysis of Bumper Stickers in Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Jaradat, Abdullah A.

    2016-01-01

    This study has set out to investigate bumper stickers in Jordan focusing mainly on the themes of the stickers. The study hypothesized that bumper stickers in Jordan reflect a wide range of topics including social, economic, and political. Due to being the first study of this phenomenon, the study has adopted content-based analysis to determine the basic topics. The study has found that the purpose of most bumper sticker is fun and humor; most of them are not serious and do not carry any bitin...

  1. Bumper 8 model rocket launched at 50th anniversary celebration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    A 50th Anniversary Ceremony was held today in honor of the first rocket launch, called Bumper 8, from Pad 3 at Cape Canaveral on July 24, 1950. Among the activities was the launch of a Bumper 8 model rocket (seen here), presentation of a Bumper Award to the Honorable George Kirkpatrick, State Senator, District 5; remarks by Center Director Roy Bridges and Commander, 45th Space Wing, Brig. Gen. Donald Pettit; and a reception at Hangar C. Bumper consisted of a German V-2 missile acting as the booster and a U.S. Army WAC Corporal rocket as the second stage. Since 1950 there have been a total of 3,245 launches from Cape Canaveral.

  2. An enhanced Whipple Bumper system - Impact resistance of composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwiener, J.; Mount, A.; Herren, K.; Nettles, A.; Semmel, C.; Sims, J.

    1992-01-01

    For long-duration space flights where human occupation is expected, micrometeroid and debris shields are necessary to prevent puncture of the pressure vessels. Current 'Whipple Bumper' designs range from single thin sheets of aluminum to complicated structures of many energy absorbing layers. This paper details the results of an experimental program tao determine the increased protection afforded by intermediate bumpers made of composite material structures. Various configurations of honeycomb support structures sandwiched between layers of materials such as Kevlar, Spectra, aluminum, and others are inserted between the bumper and pressure shell. The areal densities of each new material structure are maintained constant so that the results compare directly with single-sheet aluminum intermediate bumpers.

  3. Micrometeoroid and Orbital Debris Risk Assessment With Bumper 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, J.; Bjorkman, M.; Christiansen, E.; Lear, D.

    2017-01-01

    The Bumper 3 computer code is the primary tool used by NASA for micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) risk analysis. Bumper 3 (and its predecessors) have been used to analyze a variety of manned and unmanned spacecraft. The code uses NASA's latest micrometeoroid (MEM-R2) and orbital debris (ORDEM 3.0) environment definition models and is updated frequently with ballistic limit equations that describe the hypervelocity impact performance of spacecraft materials. The Bumper 3 program uses these inputs along with a finite element representation of spacecraft geometry to provide a deterministic calculation of the expected number of failures. The Bumper 3 software is configuration controlled by the NASA/JSC Hypervelocity Impact Technology (HVIT) Group. This paper will demonstrate MMOD risk assessment techniques with Bumper 3 used by NASA's HVIT Group. The Permanent Multipurpose Module (PMM) was added to the International Space Station in 2011. A Bumper 3 MMOD risk assessment of this module will show techniques used to create the input model and assign the property IDs. The methodology used to optimize the MMOD shielding for minimum mass while still meeting structural penetration requirements will also be demonstrated.

  4. The Buried Bumper Syndrome: External Bumper Extraction after Radial Mini Incisions and Replacement through an Adjacent Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Benatta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although considered as a safe method to provide long-term nutritional support, percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG may be complicated by a buried bumper syndrome (BBS, a life-threatening condition. Removal of the PEG tube with its buried bumper and reinsertion of a new PEG tube is often necessary. Since its description in 1988, less than 50 cases of BBS managed by external extraction of the buried bumper have been reported. We report a case of buried bumper that was removed by external traction without the need for endoscopic or laparoscopic treatment but with the need of two radial millimeter skin incisions after abdominal CT study and finally immediate PEG replacement but through an adjacent site.

  5. Forces produced by lip bumpers on mandibular molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, J J; Nanda, R S; Ghosh, J; Smith, D

    1997-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the forces produced by a lip bumper on the mandibular permanent first molars. The forces in a sample of 38 patients were measured bilaterally with specially designed gauges at rest but with their lips lightly touching, speaking the words church, phone, and pop, and swallowing water. Forces were compared between two types of lip bumpers, i.e., wire or shield, and between various anteroposterior and vertical positions of the lip bumper. The resting forces produced by the wire lip bumper 2 mm anterior to the incisors and vertically positioned at the middle of the incisor crown were 5.93 +/- 4.84 gm for the left side and 4.66 +/- 4.8 gm for the right. The forces were found to be significantly higher when the wire lip bumper was placed 4 mm anterior to the incisors and at a more gingival position, measuring 16.68 +/- 8.7 gm for the left side and 13.88 +/- 8.28 gm for the right. The shield lip bumper had higher forces both at the center of the incisor as well as when it was positioned gingivally. A large individual variation was observed. There were no statistically significant differences in force levels between male and female subjects. Speaking the words church, pop, and phone, produced forces between 11 and 23 gm, using a wire lip bumper. Swallowing produced the highest forces, between 32 and 36 gm. Lip thickness and height did not appear to affect the force levels.

  6. Design and analysis of automotive carbon fiber composite bumper beam based on finite element analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Tie; Li, Yonggang

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the most important part of the automotive front bumper system, namely, the bumper beam, is studied by changing the material and thickness to improve the crashworthiness performance...

  7. Content-Based Analysis of Bumper Stickers in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah A. Jaradat

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study has set out to investigate bumper stickers in Jordan focusing mainly on the themes of the stickers. The study hypothesized that bumper stickers in Jordan reflect a wide range of topics including social, economic, and political. Due to being the first study of this phenomenon, the study has adopted content-based analysis to determine the basic topics. The study has found that the purpose of most bumper sticker is fun and humor; most of them are not serious and do not carry any biting messages. They do not present any criticism to the most dominant problems at the level of society including racism, nepotism, anti-feminism, inflation, high taxes, and refugees. Another finding is that politics is still a taboo; no political bumper stickers were found in Jordan. Finally, the themes the stickers targeted are: lessons of life 28.85 %; challenging or warning other drivers 16%; funny notes about social issues 12%; religious sayings 8%; treating the car as a female 7%; the low economic status of the driver 6%; love and treachery 5.5%; the prestigious status of the car 5%; envy 4%; nicknames for the car or the driver 4%; irony 3 %; and English sayings 1.5 %. Keywords: bumper stickers, themes, politics

  8. Effect of lip bumpers on mandibular arch dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashish, Dena Ibrahim; Mostafa, Yehya Ahmed

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to examine the effects of lip bumper therapy on mandibular arch dimensions. A literature survey of PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Central, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (www.cochrane.org) was conducted from December 1968 to January 2007. Human studies, randomized clinical trials, prospective and retrospective studies, and studies discussing the effect of lip bumpers on the arch and teeth were included. Two reviewers independently selected and extracted the data. Of the 52 studies found in the search, only 1 met the inclusion criteria. The results showed increases in arch dimensions that included an increase in arch length. This was attributed to incisor proclination, distalization, and distal tipping of the molars. There was also an increase in the arch width seen in the intercanine and deciduous intermolar and premolar distances. The long-term stability of the effects of the lip bumper need to be elucidated.

  9. The effect of a maxillary lip bumper on tooth positions

    OpenAIRE

    Häsler, R.; Ingervall, B.

    2017-01-01

    The effect of the use of a lip bumper with anterior vestibular shields on the maxilla was studied in twenty-two 9-14 year-old children with a space deficiency in the maxillary dental arch. The lip bumper was used for 1 year. The effect of the treatment was evaluated from dental casts and profile cephalograms made before and after treatment. Both the width of the maxillary dental arch at the premolars and the length of the arch increased significantly by about 2 mm. The effect of the treatment...

  10. Lower lip sucking habit treated with a lip bumper appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germeç, Derya; Taner, Tülin Uğur

    2005-11-01

    The patient was an 11-year-old girl with a lower lip sucking habit with increased overjet, maxillary generalized spacing, and mandibular incisor irregularity. Hyperactivity of the mentalis muscle and deepening of the labiomental sulcus because of the abnormal sucking habit was observed. Orthodontic treatment was started with a lip bumper appliance to break the lower lip sucking habit and continued with fixed orthodontic mechanotherapy. The lip bumper appliance therapy resulted in the elimination of the lower lip sucking habit, musculus mentalis hyperactivity, and labiomental strain in addition to a gain in arch length, improvement of the lower incisor inclinations, and overjet reduction.

  11. SOME FEATURES OF DYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF BUMPERS WITH PERMANENT MAGNETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.I. Baida

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the features of the dynamics of the bumper with permanent magnets. Pictures of the magnetic field in 3D are presented, transients are calculated. It is shown that operation of this system depends on the parameters of the magnets, body weight, amplitude, shape and frequency of oscillations. It is shown that operation of the system mainly depends on the damping force, which must be considerable. It is shown that the bumpers, built on the basis of permanent magnets with radial magnetization, require forced stabilization in the radial direction regardless of their number and spatial distribution.

  12. The Challenging Acute Buried Bumper Syndrome: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Pinho

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG is the preferred route of feeding and nutritional support in patients requiring long-term enteral nutrition. Major complications related to the procedure are rare. Buried bumper syndrome is a late major complication, occurring in 0.3-2.4% of patients. Although considered a late complication, it can rarely occur in an acute setting early after the procedure. We present the case of an early buried bumper syndrome, presenting 1 week after PEG tube placement, with local stoma infection associated with an infected cavity within the abdominal wall with feeding content, successfully managed with antibiotic therapy and PEG tube repositioning through the original track.

  13. Design of Bumper as a Collision Energy Absorbing System

    OpenAIRE

    Mohit Tomar

    2013-01-01

    In a vehicle Bumper is the front most or rears most Part and designed to allow car to sustain an impact without damage to the vehicle’s safety systems. It is increasingly being designed to minimise the flow of collision energy struck by cars. In this paper I worked to minimises the flow of energy by making some modification with the front bumper of the car. Results are carried out on the basis of collision test. These tests are performing on the software (Auto desk).These tests are performing...

  14. The effect of a maxillary lip bumper on tooth positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häsler, R; Ingervall, B

    2000-02-01

    The effect of the use of a lip bumper with anterior vestibular shields on the maxilla was studied in twenty-two 9-14-year-old children with a space deficiency in the maxillary dental arch. The lip bumper was used for 1 year. The effect of the treatment was evaluated from dental casts and profile cephalograms made before and after treatment. Both the width of the maxillary dental arch at the premolars and the length of the arch increased significantly by about 2 mm. The effect of the treatment on the antero-posterior position of the first molars was small. In one subject the molar was distalized 2.8 mm. The average effect was, however, a reduction in the anterior movement of the molar within the face by about 0.5 mm, i.e. the maxilla moved anteriorly 1 mm, but the molar only 0.4 mm. No skeletal effects were found when the group of subjects treated with a lip bumper was compared with a reference sample of untreated individuals. The main effects of a maxillary lip bumper thus seem to be a widening of the dental arch across the premolars, a moderate increase in arch length due to eruption and slight proclination of the incisors, and moderate distal tipping of the first molars.

  15. Lip Bumper Prosthesis for an Acromegaly Patient: A Clinical Report

    OpenAIRE

    Ashok, V.; Nallaswamy, Deepak; Benazir Begum, S.; Nesappan, Thiyaneswaran

    2013-01-01

    Prosthetic rehabilitation is done to regain function, speech and esthetics. This article describes the treatment for an acromegaly patient with bony defect. Two piece magnet retained hollow lip bumper prosthesis was fabricated to reduce the weight of the denture and to attain esthetics.

  16. Lip Bumper Prosthesis for an Acromegaly Patient: A Clinical Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashok, V; Nallaswamy, Deepak; Benazir Begum, S; Nesappan, Thiyaneswaran

    2014-12-01

    Prosthetic rehabilitation is done to regain function, speech and esthetics. This article describes the treatment for an acromegaly patient with bony defect. Two piece magnet retained hollow lip bumper prosthesis was fabricated to reduce the weight of the denture and to attain esthetics.

  17. Are PEGJs a Risk Factor for the Buried Bumper Syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goring, Jonathan; Lawson, Anne; Godse, Alok

    2016-02-01

    Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomies (PEGs) with or without a jejunal extension (PEGJs) are a well-accepted method of enteral feeding. They are associated with a number of complications, including the buried bumper syndrome (BBS). We aimed to identify risk factors for BBS, our current management strategies, and optimal timing for surgical treatment. Hospital coding and a database compiled by our specialist nutrition nurse were used to identify all cases of buried bumpers from January 2012 to December 2014 as well as all PEG/PEGJ devices inserted during this time. A retrospective case note review was performed for each patient with BBS to identify risk factors, management strategies, and outcomes. Two hundred twelve PEGs and 22 PEGJs were inserted. Nine patients were identified with BBS. Patients with PEGJ tubes were significantly more likely to develop BBS (7/22, 32%) than those with PEG tubes (2/212, 0.9%) Pbumper 33days after BBS was diagnosed and before removal was attempted. All other patients underwent laparotomy to remove the bumper. Mean hospital stay was 22days postoperatively. Buried bumper syndrome is a serious condition which warrants urgent intervention. We have demonstrated a higher than expected rate of BBS associated with PEGJ tubes. We hypothesize that this may be related to the jejunal extensions leading to difficulty in the usual maintenance regimen that all carers are taught after PEG/PEGJ insertion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. THE TREATMENT OF LIP SUCKING WITH LIP BUMPER (CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Narni Yuniarsih

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Lip sucking occurred usually on lower lip and probably caused by psychological or environment factor and mostly found on school ages children. Correcting this abnormal habit as early as possible will give positive correction to malocclusion. Practicing myofunctional therapy gradually will eliminate the abnormal habit. In this report lip sucking bad habit was treated with lip bumper and the severity of this bad habit was decreased in six months.

  19. THE TREATMENT OF LIP SUCKING WITH LIP BUMPER (CASE REPORT)

    OpenAIRE

    Endang Narni Yuniarsih; Hendrarlin Soenawan

    2015-01-01

    Lip sucking occurred usually on lower lip and probably caused by psychological or environment factor and mostly found on school ages children. Correcting this abnormal habit as early as possible will give positive correction to malocclusion. Practicing myofunctional therapy gradually will eliminate the abnormal habit. In this report lip sucking bad habit was treated with lip bumper and the severity of this bad habit was decreased in six months.

  20. On the feasibility of life-saving locomotive bumpers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paden, Brad E; Kelly, Paraic M; Hines, Jacob A; Bothman, David; Simms, Ciaran

    2016-04-01

    Motivated by the thousands of pedestrians killed each year in train impacts, this paper investigates the life-saving capability of four high-level locomotive bumper concepts. The head motions produced by the four concepts are modeled as one or two square acceleration pulses and are analyzed using the Head Injury Criterion (HIC). Surprisingly, the analyses show that all four concepts can achieve HIC values of less than 200 for an impact with a locomotive traveling at 100 km/h. Two of the concepts eject the pedestrian trackside with at a velocity of roughly 40 km/h and the risk of ground-impact injury is discussed in the context of related automobile accident data. The computed bumper lengths are a fraction of the overall length of a locomotive and are thus feasible for practical implementation. One concept involves an oblique impact and the potential for rotational head injury is analyzed. This basic feasibility research motivates future investigations into the detailed design of bumper shapes, multi-body pedestrian simulations, and finite-element injury models. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. The Challenging Buried Bumper Syndrome after Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Afifi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Buried bumper syndrome (BBS is a rare complication developed after percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG. We report a case of a 38-year-old male patient who sustained severe traumatic brain injury that was complicated with early BBS after PEG tube insertion. On admission, bedside PEG was performed, and 7 days later the patient developed signs of sepsis with rapid progression to septic shock and acute kidney injury. Abdominal CT scan revealed no collection or leakage of the contrast, but showed malpositioning of the tube bumper at the edge of the stomach and not inside of it. Diagnostic endoscopy revealed that the bumper was hidden in the posterolateral part of the stomach wall forming a tract inside of it, which confirmed the diagnosis of BBS. The patient underwent laparotomy with a repair of the stomach wall perforation, and the early postoperative course was uneventful. Acute BBS is a rare complication of PEG tube insertion which could be manifested with severe complications such as pressure necrosis, peritonitis and septic shock. Early identification is the mainstay to prevent such complications. Treatment selection is primarily guided by the presenting complications, ranging from simple endoscopic replacement to surgical laparotomy.

  2. Crib Bumpers Continue to Cause Infant Deaths: A Need for a New Preventive Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheers, N J; Woodard, Dean W; Thach, Bradley T

    2016-02-01

    To assess whether clutter (comforters, blankets, pillows, toys) caused bumper deaths and provide an analysis of bumper-related incidents/injuries and their causal mechanisms. Bumper-related deaths (January 1, 1985, to October 31, 2012) and incidents/injuries (January 1, 1990, to October 31, 2012) were identified from the US Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) databases and classified by mechanism. Statistical analyses include mean age, 95% CIs, χ(2) test for trend, and ANOVA with a paired-comparisons information-criterion post hoc test for age differences among injury mechanisms. There were 3 times more bumper deaths reported in the last 7 years than the 3 previous time periods (χ(2)(3) = 13.5, P ≤ .01). This could be attributable to increased reporting by the states, diagnostic shift, or both, or possibly a true increase in deaths. Bumpers caused 48 suffocations, 67% by a bumper alone, not clutter, and 33% by wedgings between a bumper and another object. The number of CPSC-reported deaths was compared with those from the National Center for the Review and Prevention of Child Deaths, 2008-2011; the latter reported substantially more deaths than CPSC, increasing the total to 77 deaths. Injury mechanisms showed significant differences by age (F4,120 = 3.2, P bumper use were not supported by the data. Study limitations include an undercount of CPSC-reported deaths, lack of denominator information, and voluntary incident reports. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Crashworthiness Design for Bionic Bumper Structures Inspired by Cattail and Bamboo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Xu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Many materials in nature exhibit excellent mechanical properties. In this study, we evaluated the bionic bumper structure models by using nonlinear finite element (FE simulations for their crashworthiness under full-size impact loading. The structure contained the structural characteristics of cattail and bamboo. The results indicated that the bionic design enhances the specific energy absorption (SEA of the bumper. The numerical results showed that the bionic cross-beam and bionic box of the bionic bumper have a significant effect on the crashworthiness of the structure. The crush deformation of bionic cross-beam and box bumper model was reduced by 33.33%, and the total weight was reduced by 44.44%. As the energy absorption capacity under lateral impact, the bionic design can be used in the future bumper body.

  4. A Bumper Crop of Fair Trade Coffee Books

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M. Talbot

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The history of the world coffee market is a story of cycles of boom and bust. The most recent bust, one of the most severe in history, began in 1998 and started to ease in 2005. This period of severe crisis across the coffee producing countries in the developing world stimulated a growing interest in fair trade coffee as a means of helping the small farmers who were being devastated by historically low prices. As public interest and consumption grew, social scientists, as is their wont, set out to study the phenomenon. The result is the current bumper crop of books analyzing fair trade coffee.

  5. The effects of lip bumper therapy in the mixed dentition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidovitch, M; McInnis, D; Lindauer, S J

    1997-01-01

    A prospective clinical trial was undertaken to study the effects of 6 months of continuous lip bumper therapy on patients in the mixed dentition with mild-to-moderate mandibular arch perimeter deficiency. Thirty-four patients, ages 7.9 to 13.1 years (mean = 10.2), seeking treatment in the postgraduate orthodontic clinic of the Medical College of Virginia, presented possessing 3 to 8 mm of mandibular crowding, with both mandibular primary second molars, were randomly placed in either the treatment or nontreatment group. Treated subjects underwent continuous lip bumper therapy, whereas the control subjects were monitored without undergoing any active treatment, each for 6 months. Arch dimension changes were assessed with study models. Alterations of mandibular incisor position were measured from lateral cephalometric radiographs. Mandibular left permanent first molar position changes were determined from both lateral cephalometric and tomographic radiographs, with the resolution of each imaging technique in measuring molar tooth movement also compared. It was found that significant differences in mandibular incisor inclination, molar position, arch length, and arch perimeter existed between treated and untreated subjects. In addition, multiple observer analysis showed that cephalometric examination lacks sensitivity when used to measure molar movement.

  6. Fragmentation of Millimeter-Size Hypervelocity Projectiles on Combined Mesh-Plate Bumpers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Cherniaev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This numerical study evaluates the concept of a combined mesh-plate bumper as a shielding system protecting unmanned spacecraft from small (1 mm orbital debris impacts. Two-component bumpers consisting of an external layer of woven mesh (aluminum or steel directly applied to a surface of the aluminum plate are considered. Results of numerical modeling with a projectile velocity of 7 km/s indicate that, in comparison to the steel mesh-combined bumper, the combination of aluminum mesh and aluminum plate provides better fragmentation of small hypervelocity projectiles. At the same time, none of the combined mesh/plate bumpers provide a significant increase of ballistic properties as compared to an aluminum plate bumper. This indicates that the positive results reported in the literature for bumpers with metallic meshes and large projectiles are not scalable down to millimeter-sized particles. Based on this investigation’s results, a possible modification of the combined mesh/plate bumper is proposed for the future study.

  7. Comparison of continuous and discontinuous collisional bumpers: Dimensionally scaled impact experiments into single wire meshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerz, Friedrich; Cintala, Mark; See, Thomas; Bernhard, Ronald; Cardenas, Frank; Davidson, William; Haynes, Jerry

    1992-01-01

    An experimental inquiry into the utility of discontinuous bumpers was conducted to investigate the collisional outcomes of impacts into single grid-like targets and to compare the results with more traditional bumper designs that employ continuous sheet stock. We performed some 35 experiments using 6.3 and 3.2 mm diameter spherical soda-lime glass projectiles at low velocities (less than 2.5 km/s) and 13 at velocities between 5 and 6 km/s, using 3.2 mm spheres only. The thrust of the experiments related to the characterization of collisional fragments as a function of target thickness or areal shield mass of both bumper designs. The primary product of these experiments was witness plates that record the resulting population of collisional fragments. Substantial interpretive and predictive insights into bumper performance were obtained. All qualitative observations (on the witness plates) and detailed measurements of displaced masses seem simply and consistently related only to bumper mass available for interaction with the impactor. This renders the grid bumper into the superior shield design. These findings present evidence that discontinuous bumpers are a viable concept for collisional shields, possibly superior to continuous geometries.

  8. The effect of a lip bumper on lower dental arch dimensions and tooth positions

    OpenAIRE

    Grossen, Johannes; Ingervall, Bengt

    2017-01-01

    The effect of a lip bumper on the dimensions of the lower dental arch and on the inclination of the incisors and first molars was studied in 40 children, aged 9-12 years. The children wore their lip bumper full time for 7-10 months. The effects of the lip bumper therapy were recorded on dental casts and profile cephalograms made before and after the treatment. The positions and stages of development of the lower second molars were determined on pretreatment intra-oral radiographs. The lip bum...

  9. [Role of the lip-bumper in nonextraction orthodontic therapy: clinical-statistical study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nidoli, G; Lazzati, M; Macchi, A; Carloni, L; Raso, M

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the morphologic and dimensional changes of lower arch that might occur in patients undergoing treatment with the lip-bumper. After a brief examination of the clinical applications of lip-bumper, we report the results of a research concerning 20 children in the mixed dentition period. The effect of this simple orthodontic appliance has been an expansion of the mandibular dental arch, with a real increase of arch length and transverse dimension. Therefore the lip-bumper can be used in non-extraction treatment of malocclusion, in order to obtain a space recovery in lower arch.

  10. Fragmentation of Millimeter-Size Hypervelocity Projectiles on Combined Mesh-Plate Bumpers

    OpenAIRE

    Cherniaev, Aleksandr; Telichev, Igor

    2017-01-01

    This numerical study evaluates the concept of a combined mesh-plate bumper as a shielding system protecting unmanned spacecraft from small (1 mm) orbital debris impacts. Two-component bumpers consisting of an external layer of woven mesh (aluminum or steel) directly applied to a surface of the aluminum plate are considered. Results of numerical modeling with a projectile velocity of 7 km/s indicate that, in comparison to the steel mesh-combined bumper, the combination of aluminum mesh and alu...

  11. A Preliminary Investigation of the Effect of Bumpers as a Means of Reducing Projectile Penetration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funkhouser, John O.

    1961-01-01

    The results of an investigation to determine the effect of bumpers on projectile penetration indicate that for impact velocities up to 12,500 feet per second, the penetration of 0.062-inch-diameter copper projectiles in to aluminum targets can be definitely reduced by using a properly selected bumper spaced a short distance in front of the main target surface. Bumpers and main targets were made of 2024-T4 aluminum alloy, and spherical projectiles made of 0.062-inch-diameter copper were used in all tests.

  12. The bumper technique for advancing a large profile microcatheter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellner, Christopher P; Chartrain, Alexander G; Schwegel, Claire; Oxley, Thomas J; Shoirah, Hazem; Mocco, J

    2017-12-01

    Operators commonly encounter difficulty maneuvering a microcatheter beyond the distal lip of wide neck aneurysms and aneurysms in challenging locations. Few techniques have been described to guide operators in these particular situations. In this case report of a 56-year-old woman with a 16 mm ophthalmic artery aneurysm, the microcatheter continually snagged the distal aneurysm lip, preventing delivery of a flow diverter into the distal parent vessel. In troubleshooting this obstacle, a second microguidewire was introduced alongside the microcatheter and was used to cover the distal lip of the aneurysm to prevent further snagging. The second guidewire successfully deflected the microcatheter into the distal vessel, a technique that we have aptly dubbed the 'bumper technique'. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  13. Joining and reinforcing a composite bumper beam and a composite crush can for a vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Elisabeth; Decker, Leland; Armstrong, Dale; Truskin, James; Pasupuleti, Praveen; Dwarmpudi, Ramesh; Doroudian, Mark

    2017-03-21

    A front bumper beam and crush can (FBCC) system is provided for a vehicle. A bumper beam has an interior surface with a plurality of ribs extending therefrom. The ribs and the interior surface are made of a chopped fiber composite and cooperate to engage a crush can. The chopped fiber composite reinforces the engaging surfaces of the crush can and the interior surface of the bumper beam. The crush can has a tubular body made of a continuous fiber composite. The crush can has outwardly-extending flanges at an end spaced away from the bumper beam. The flanges are at least partially provided with a layer of chopped fiber composite to reinforce a joint between the outwardly-extending flange and the vehicle frame.

  14. Dale Bumpers White River National Wildlife Refuge Water Resource Inventory and Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Water Resource Inventory and Assessment (WRIA) for Dale Bumpers White River National Wildlife Refuge summarizes available and relevant information for refuge...

  15. Hydrogeomorphic Evaluation of Ecosystem Restoration and Management Options for Dale Bumpers White River National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Dale Bumpers White River National Wildlife Refuge (DBWRNWR) contains one of the largest contiguous tracts of bottomland hardwood forested (BLH) wetlands in the...

  16. Design and analysis of automotive carbon fiber composite bumper beam based on finite element analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Tie; Li, Yonggang

    2015-01-01

    .... Lightweight is the main purpose of this article. First, the bumper beam analysis is accomplished for carbon fiber composite and steel material to analyze their deformation, weight, impact force, energy absorption, and the acceleration of the impactor...

  17. Design and analysis of automotive carbon fiber composite bumper beam based on finite element analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Tie; Li, Yonggang

    2015-01-01

    ... out. Lightweight is the main purpose of this article. First, the bumper beam analysis is accomplished for carbon fiber composite and steel material to analyze their deformation, weight, impact force, energy absorption, and the acceleration of the impactor...

  18. Delay-line cables for the fast bumpers in the PS.

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1976-01-01

    For 'continuous transfer' to the SPS, the beam accelerated in the PS is shaved off over several turns, so as to form a continuous sequence of bunches several times the length of the PS circumference. Fast bumpers, powered in a 'staircase' way, displace the PS beam stepwise towards the ejection septum. Each step lasts 2.1 microsec and the cable drums in this picture contain some of the bumper delay-lines of altogether 10 km.

  19. The use of lip bumper to overcome lower lip sucking habit

    OpenAIRE

    Marcella Budhiawan; K. Krisnawati

    2010-01-01

    The patient was a 16-year-old girl with a lower lip sucking habit with increased overjet, maxillary and mandibular generalized spacing. Hyperactivity of the mentalis muscle and deepening of the labiomental sulcus because of the abnormal sucking habit was observed. Orthodontic treatment was started with a lip bumper appliance to break the lower sucking habit and continued with fixed orthodontic mechanotherapy. The lip bumper appliance therapy resulted in the elimination of the lower lip suckin...

  20. Perawatan Ortodonti Pada Kasus Gigi Berjejal Dengan Menggunakan Lip Bumper Pada Rahang Bawah

    OpenAIRE

    Iman Prasetyo

    2008-01-01

    Lip bumper adalah suatu alat gabungan cekat dan lepas yang berguna untuk merawat pasien dengan kasus otot-otot bibir dan pipi hiperaktif yang dapat menyebabkan gigi berjejal. Gigi berjejal juga dapat disebabkan letak benih yang tidak baik, kekurangan tempat bagi erupsi gigi permanent ataupun disharmoni lengkung rahang dan gigi. Lip bumper dapat berfungsi untuk menqhindarkan tekanan otot bibir, mempertahankan molar agar jangan bergeser ke mesial, menghalangi kebiasaan menghisap bibir, meng...

  1. AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON CAR SAFETY THROUGH ROLL CAGE SPRING, BUMPER

    OpenAIRE

    Neeraj Mehar*1 & Neha Mathur2

    2017-01-01

    It is important to know their mechanical properties and their failure mechanism during the impact in order to increased the safety of any vehicle. This thesis focuses on the design of bumper, spring and roll cage for lesser weight and better performance. Also it describes about the stress analysis on a car frontal protection system (bumper) simulations. Research concentrates on composite material. It is considering their function, geometry, and other parameters that influence the compatibilit...

  2. Research on carbon fiber–reinforced plastic bumper beam subjected to low-velocity frontal impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yefa Hu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Lightweight and safety performance of automobiles are two important factors for automobile designs. In this article, a research on lightweight and crashworthiness of automotive bumper has been conducted. The carbon fiber–reinforced plastic bumper beam is considered to replace the traditional high-strength steel one. The low-velocity impact finite element simulations for the above two bumper beams are performed via LS-DYNA. Furthermore, the energy absorption capabilities and dynamic response characteristics of the carbon fiber–reinforced plastic bumper beam are investigated and compared with the steel one. The results show that the carbon fiber–reinforced plastic bumper beam is of the better energy absorption capabilities and dynamic response characteristics than those of the steel one; the weight has decreased remarkably close to 50%. Meanwhile, the effect of lay-up and wall thickness on the crashworthiness of the carbon fiber–reinforced plastic bumper beam under low-velocity impact is also studied in this article to select appropriate design schemes.

  3. [Compartment syndrome after impact trauma from a car bumper].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geske, B; Jerosch, J; Reifenrath, M

    1991-03-08

    A 67-year-old woman, having been hit in the lower leg by a car bumper in a road accident, developed a compartment syndrome in the lower leg without any bone injury. In the following weeks typical contractures of the affected muscles occurred with talipes equinus and clawfoot deformities. In addition there developed insertion tendinitis of the affected muscle groups of the anterior tibia. A year later magnetic resonance imaging (with normal radiological findings) revealed fatty degeneration and muscle fibrosis. The patient complained of pain at rest and on movement in the proximal tibia, and there was definite pain on pressure over the proximal end of the tibia. Conservative treatment having failed, the Achilles tendon and the long flexor muscle of the toes were lengthened by operation. Both signs and symptoms then improved. A compartment syndrome may develop after blunt trauma even in the absence of bony injury. If there are the appropriate clinical signs, intracompartmental pressure measurement is the procedure of choice to confirm the diagnosis quickly and thus avoid sequelae.

  4. Second molar impaction associated with lip bumper therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Helder Baldi; LeMert, Shawn; Alexander, Richard G; Buschang, Peter H

    2014-01-01

    Although lip bumpers (LBs) provide significant clinical gain of mandibular arch perimeter in mixed-dentition patients, orthodontists are reluctant to use them due to the possibility of permanent second molar eruptive disturbances. The present study was conducted to assess second molar impaction associated with the use of LBs, and to investigate how they can be solved. Lateral and panoramic radiographs of 67 patients (34 females and 33 males) were assessed prior (T₁) and post-LB treatment (T₂). LB therapy lasted for approximately 1.8 ± 0.9 years. Concomitant rapid palatal expansion (RPE) was performed in the maxilla at LB treatment onset. Impaction of mandibular second molars was assessed by means of panoramic radiographs in relation to the position of first mandibular molars. Horizontal and vertical movements of first and second molars were assessed cephalometrically on lateral cephalometric radiographs based on mandibular superimpositions. Eight (11.9%) patients had impacted second molars at the end of LB therapy. Two patients required surgical correction, whereas five required spacers and one patient was self-corrected. Mandibular first molar tip and apex migrated forward 1.3 mm and 2.3 mm, respectively. Second molar tip showed no statistically significant horizontal movement. Although LB therapy increased the risk of second molar impaction, impactions were, in most instances, easily solved.

  5. Second molar impaction associated with lip bumper therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helder Baldi Jacob

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Although lip bumpers (LBs provide significant clinical gain of mandibular arch perimeter in mixed-dentition patients, orthodontists are reluctant to use them due to the possibility of permanent second molar eruptive disturbances.OBJECTIVE: The present study was conducted to assess second molar impaction associated with the use of LBs, and to investigate how they can be solved.MATERIAL AND METHODS: Lateral and panoramic radiographs of 67 patients (34 females and 33 males were assessed prior (T1 and post-LB treatment (T2. LB therapy lasted for approximately 1.8 ± 0.9 years. Concomitant rapid palatal expansion (RPE was performed in the maxilla at LB treatment onset. Impaction of mandibular second molars was assessed by means of panoramic radiographs in relation to the position of first mandibular molars. Horizontal and vertical movements of first and second molars were assessed cephalometrically on lateral cephalometric radiographs based on mandibular superimpositions.RESULTS: Eight (11.9% patients had impacted second molars at the end of LB therapy. Two patients required surgical correction, whereas five required spacers and one patient was self-corrected. Mandibular first molar tip and apex migrated forward 1.3 mm and 2.3 mm, respectively. Second molar tip showed no statistically significant horizontal movement.CONCLUSION: Although LB therapy increased the risk of second molar impaction, impactions were, in most instances, easily solved.

  6. Mandibular arch perimeter changes with lip bumper treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, W S; Nanda, R S; Currier, G F

    1991-06-01

    The effects of lip bumper treatment on the mandibular arch were observed in 32 patients with late transitional and early permanent dentitions. Dental cast measurements were made for arch perimeter, arch length, and arch width. Cephalometric radiographs were used to determine labial tipping of the incisors and distal movement of the molars. Arch circumference increased in all patients, ranging from 0.7 mm to 8.8 mm, with an average of 4.1 mm. The mean increase in arch length was 1.2 mm and was largely attributed to anterior tipping of the mandibular incisors. Change in arch length was the most predictive variable for the increase in arch circumference. Passive changes in arch width were recorded, with a mean increase of 2.0 mm in the intercanine distance and 2.5 mm in the first premolar distance. Arch width increments contributed to the increase in arch circumference, but the increases in arch width were not found to be predictive of the change in arch circumference. Changes in either arch circumference or arch length were not related to the duration of treatment, age and sex of the patient, or the eruption status of the permanent second molars.

  7. Mandibular lip bumper treatment and second molar eruption disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, Fabrizia; Funiciello, Gloria; Perillo, Letizia; Chiodini, Paolo

    2011-05-01

    Mandibular lip-bumper (LB) nonextraction treatment, usually started before complete second molar (M2) eruption, inevitably interacts with the development of the dentition. Yet, its effects on M2 eruption are still unknown. The first aim of this study was to retrospectively investigate whether LB therapy (260 patients) enhances the risk for M2 ectopic eruptions and impactions in comparison with 135 untreated subjects. The second aim was to assess, among treated patients (n = 197), the main potential determinants of M2 impaction and ectopic eruption. M2 eruption and impaction were determined on panoramic radiographs. To assess the predictive role of M2 inclination in relation to the first molar, a panoramic radiograph suitable for this measurement before treatment was required. The data were analyzed by using software (version 8.2, SAS, Cary, NC). LB treatment significantly enhanced M2 impaction and ectopic eruption. Negative prognostic factors were found. An initial inclination of the M2 greater than 30° was significantly associated with a higher impaction risk compared with an angulation less than 10°. LB treatment duration longer than 2 years increased the risk of ectopic eruptions. While gaining space in the anterior arch, unwanted effects might be produced in the posterior arch. To be informed about these unplanned events is necessary to better optimize treatment. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Will the light truck bumper height-matching standard reduce deaths in cars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossiander, Eric M; Koepsell, Thomas D; McKnight, Barbara

    2013-03-01

    In a collision between a car and a sport utility vehicle (SUV) or pickup truck, car occupants are more likely to be killed than if they crashed with another car. Some of the excess risk may be due to the propensity of SUVs and pickups with high bumpers to override the lower bumpers in cars. To reduce this incompatibility, particularly in head-on collisions, in 2003 automobile manufacturers voluntarily established a bumper height-matching standard for pickups and SUVs. To assess whether height-matching bumpers in pickups and SUVs were associated with the risk of death in either car occupants or pickup and SUV occupants. Case-control study of collisions between one car and one SUV or pickup in the US during 2000-2008, in which the SUV or pickup was model year 2000-2006. Cases were all decedents in fatal crashes; one control was selected from each crash in a national probability sample of crashes. Occupants of cars that crashed with SUVs or pickups with height-matching bumpers may be at slightly reduced risk of death compared to those that crashed with other SUVs or pickups (adjusted odds ratio: 0.83 (95% confidence interval 0.61-1.13)). There was no evidence of a reduction in risk in head-on crashes (1.09 (0.66-1.79)). In crashes in which the SUV or pickup struck the car on the side, height-matched bumpers were associated with a reduced risk of death (0.68 (0.48-0.97)). Occupants of SUVs and pickups with height-matching bumpers may also be at slightly reduced risk of death (0.91 (0.64-1.28)). Height-matching bumpers were associated with a reduced risk of death among car occupants in crashes in which SUVs or pickups struck cars in the side, but there was little evidence of an effect in head-on crashes. The new bumper height-matching standard may not achieve its primary goal of reducing deaths in head-on crashes, but may modestly reduce overall deaths in crashes between cars and SUVs or pickups because of unanticipated benefits to car occupants in side crashes, and a

  9. Long-term stability of lip bumper therapy followed by fixed appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Michael Joseph; English, Jeryl D; Magness, W Bonham; McKee, Chris John

    2006-01-01

    Lip bumper treatment has been shown to successfully increase arch width, procline the incisors, and distalize molars. However, few studies have been performed showing the long-term stability of lip bumper treatment. In this study, mandibular casts taken by a single practitioner from 51 patients treated with lip bumpers without rapid palatal expansion were analyzed at pretreatment, post-lip bumper treatment, posttreatment, and long-term out of treatment. Measurements of arch width, arch depth, arch length, and anterior crowding were made. During treatment, there was a mean decrease in irregularity of 3.73 mm, with a posttreatment increase of 0.76 mm, for a net decrease of 2.97 mm. Despite posttreatment decreases, significant gains in arch width were maintained for extended periods of time. The intercanine width had a net increase of 1.78 mm (19% relapse), first premolars 3.39 mm (26% relapse), second premolars 2.58 mm (34% relapse), and first molars 2.17 mm (20% relapse). Lip bumper treatment along with fixed appliances is an effective means to obtain long-term increases in arch width and decreases in the irregularity index.

  10. The effect of a lip bumper on lower dental arch dimensions and tooth positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossen, J; Ingervall, B

    1995-04-01

    The effect of a lip bumper on the dimensions of the lower dental arch and on the inclination of the incisors and first molars was studied in 40 children, aged 9-12 years. The children wore their lip bumper full time for 7-10 months. The effects of the lip bumper therapy were recorded on dental casts and profile cephalograms made before and after the treatment. The positions and stages of development of the lower second molars were determined on pretreatment intra-oral radiographs. The lip bumper treatment resulted in an increase of the dental arch widths between the molars, premolars, and canines. The arch length increased through proclination of the incisors and uprighting of the first molars. The stages of development and the positions of the second molars had no influence on the effect of the treatment. Simultaneous treatment in the maxilla with a headgear, a transpalatal arch or a removable plate had no influence on the outcome of the lip bumper therapy.

  11. [Management of the buried bumper syndrome: a new minimally invasive technique--the push method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Gerbes, D; Aymaz, S; Dormann, A J

    2009-11-01

    The so-called buried bumper syndrome is characterised by a pathological alteration of the percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) in the form of a tissue overgrowth of the internal bumper of the tube. A lack of mobilisation of the tube and/or continuous traction on the PEG causes the bumper to be impacted by stomach mucosa. The consequence is a local chronic inflammatory process that may result in the occlusion of the feeding tube. As of now, different therapeutic methods exist: the surgical technique based on common laparotomy, the local invasive removal by cutting along the tube and inner flange from the outside and pulling it out (pull method) and the endoscopic recovery from inside the stomach. The authors have developed and evaluated a new endoscopic, minimally invasive technique (push method). In eight of nine patients the inner bumper could be freed by cutting with a papillotome which is brought into the stomach through the shortened PEG from the outside while maintaining endoscopic control. Afterwards the bumper is pushed to the inside with a dilatator and the patients are provided with a balloon system using the persisting stoma. The subsequent healing process proved to yield no further complications.

  12. The use of lip bumper to overcome lower lip sucking habit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella Budhiawan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The patient was a 16-year-old girl with a lower lip sucking habit with increased overjet, maxillary and mandibular generalized spacing. Hyperactivity of the mentalis muscle and deepening of the labiomental sulcus because of the abnormal sucking habit was observed. Orthodontic treatment was started with a lip bumper appliance to break the lower sucking habit and continued with fixed orthodontic mechanotherapy. The lip bumper appliance therapy resulted in the elimination of the lower lip sucking habit, musculus mentalis hyperactivity, and labiomental strain, and also an overjet reduction. The use functional appliance in the treatment of malocclusions must be carefully selected according to the requirement of the case. It must be understood that the action of the mentalis muscle was the primary activator of the bumper.

  13. [A maxillary lip bumper used to manage labial self-mutilation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Bouihi, M; El Fares, N; Slimani, F; Bennis, K; Benjelloun, A; Chekkoury Idrissi, A

    2009-09-01

    The repair of facial self-mutilation often fails if the reconstruction is not protected. The authors report a case of a lip self-mutilation treated by an orthodontic device: the "lip bumper". A four-year-old patient presented with self-mutilation of the lower lip in a context of multiple malformations. The defect concerned two third of the lower lip. The treatment combined antibiotics, local care, psychiatric management and a lip bumper. The evolution was favorable without need for secondary reconstruction. The lip bumper is a simple orthodontic device. It pushes the lower lip away from the dental arch. It is used to stop the pattern "agitation-mutilation-infection".

  14. Novel endoscopic management of buried bumper syndrome in percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy: The Olympus HookKnife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolpert, Laura E; Summers, Dominic M; Tsang, Andrew

    2017-09-21

    Buried bumper syndrome (BBS) is an uncommon but serious complication of percutaneous endoscopic ga-strostomy. It involves the internal fixation device, or "bumper", migrating into the gastric wall and subsequent mucosal overgrowth. We described a case series of four patients with BBS treated with a novel endoscopic technique using a HookKnife between June 2016 and February 2017. The HookKnife is a rotating L-shaped cutting wire designed for hooking tissue and pulling it away from the gastric wall towards the lumen. The technique was successful in all four cases with no complications. Each patient was discharged on the day of treatment. The HookKnife is a manoeuvrable, safe and effective device for endoscopic removal of buried bumpers and could avoid surgery in a high risk group of patients. To our knowledge this technique has not been described previously. We suggest that this technique should be added to the treatment algorithms for managing BBS.

  15. Severity of vehicle bumper location in vehicle-to-pedestrian impact accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Yasuhiro; Hitosugi, Masahito; Mizuno, Koji

    2011-10-10

    Pedestrian protection is one of the key topics for safety measures in traffic accidents all over the world. To analyze the relation between the collision site of the vehicle bumper and the severity of the lower extremity injuries, we performed biomechanical experiments. We compared the applied external force and the risks of subsequent injuries between the impact of the center and side positions of the front bumper. These comparisons were performed by practical impact tests with eight typical different types of cars which were typical of the current vehicle fleets. The tests were made using the TRL legform impactor which was a mechanical substitute of a pedestrian lower extremity. The TRL impactor is used all over the world for assessing the safety of car bumpers. It was found that the risks of lower extremity injuries in the impacts at the side positions, in front of the vehicle's side member, were significantly higher than those at the center. In the tests, we found that foam materials around the rigid front cross member had a significant effect on reducing the lower extremity injury risks and especially tibia fracture risk against vehicle bumper center collisions, but had little effect at the sides of the bumper over the vehicle's side members where the foam was thinner. We also found that the front shape of the vehicle affected the risk of ligaments injuries. According to these results, the information of impact locations of cars in vehicle-to-pedestrian traffic accidents is valuable for clinicians to diagnose patients with lower extremity injuries in traffic accidents and for forensic pathologists to analyze the accident reconstruction. Furthermore, the results suggest that testing of the bumper area in front of the main longitudinal beams should be included in the car safety legislation to require pedestrian safety. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Application of Sequence Control Injection in Modified Design of Car Front Bumper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Wang; Guodong, Chen; Jiling, Bu; Bin, Zhou

    2014-08-01

    In view of lightweight and cost reduction, a bumper has been redesigned, which results in weld lines during the manufacture. For that, a new method of sequence control technology is introduced. The simulation results with the new method and the traditional method were compared. The results showed that the weld lines were removed, and at the same time, the injection balance was better and the injection pressure was decreased by using the sequence control technology. The sequence control technology is of great practical significance to bumper manufacturing.

  17. A comparative study between lip bumper and headgear as maxillary molar retainers following distalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Rafael Games Corrêa; Kaieda, Armando Koichiro; Paranhos, Luiz Renato; Angelieri, Fernanda; Torres, Fernando César; Scanavini, Marco Antônio

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: There are many appliances that can be used to correct molar relationship, achieving upper molar distalization, in Class II malocclusion. This research aimed to study the dental effects promoted by lip bumper to retain maxillary molars that had previously been distalized using a Cetlin appliance in conjunction with headgear.

  18. 75 FR 8701 - Settlement Agreement for Recovery of Past Response Costs Colorado Bumper Exchange Site, Pueblo...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-25

    ... AGENCY Settlement Agreement for Recovery of Past Response Costs Colorado Bumper Exchange Site, Pueblo... United States has at this Site for Past Response Costs, as those terms are defined in the Settlement...,000.00 to EPA in settlement of its liability for Past Response Costs incurred at the Site. In exchange...

  19. Comparison of removal techniques in the management of buried bumper syndrome: a retrospective cohort study of 82 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller-Gerbes, Daniela; Hartmann, Bettina; Lima, Julio Pereira; de Lemos Bonotto, Michele; Merbach, Christoph; Dormann, Arno; Jakobs, Ralf

    2017-07-01

    Buried bumper syndrome is an infrequent complication of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) that can result in tube dysfunction, gastric perforation, bleeding, peritonitis or death. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of different PEG tube removal methods in the management of buried bumper syndrome in a large retrospective cohort. From 2002 to 2013, 82 cases of buried bumper syndrome were identified from the databases of two endoscopy referral centers. We evaluated the interval between gastrostomy tube placement and diagnosis of buried bumper syndrome, type of treatment, success rate and complications. Four methods were analyzed: bougie, grasp, needle-knife and minimally invasive push method using a papillotome, which were selected based on the depth of the buried bumper.  The buried bumper was cut free with a wire-guided papillotome in 35 patients (42.7 %) and with a needle-knife in 22 patients (26.8 %). It could be pushed into the stomach with a dilator without cutting in 10 patients (12.2 %), and was pulled into the stomach with a grasper in 12 patients (14.6 %). No adverse events (AEs) were registered in 70 cases (85.4 %). Bleeding occurred in 7 patients (31.8 %) after cutting with a needle-knife papillotome and in 1 patient (8.3 %) after grasping. No bleeding was recorded after using a standard papillotome or a bougie ( P  bumpers be removed with a bougie. In cases of complete buried bumper syndrome, the bumper should be cut with a wire-guided papillotome and pushed into the stomach.

  20. [The effect of maxillary and mandibular lip bumper on teeth and dental arch in late mixed dentition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Min; Sun, Fang

    2005-08-01

    To study the effect of maxillary and mandibular lip bumper on tooth and dental arch in late mixed dentition. Twelve subjects with mild or moderate crowding were selected. They were treated with maxillary and mandibular lip bumper for eight months. Analysis of cephalometrics and model measurements were done before and after treatment and paired t test were performed respectively for their changes. After treatment, SNA and SNB increased by 1.02 degrees and 0.97 degrees (Plip bumper could cause transverse and vertical changes in dental arch ,which help to decrease or remove crowding.

  1. Removing PEG tubes with 'buried bumpers': Lessons learnt from four patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Philip; Langlands, Sarah; Campbell, Claire; Direkze, Natalie; Ala, Aftab; Karat, Isabella; Keeling, Peter; Taylor, Jeremy

    2015-04-01

    We noted an increase in the number of presentations with dysfunctional PEG tubes due to the 'buried bumper syndrome' (BBS). There is no standard approach to this problem, although case reports exist of endoscopic needle knife excision and forceful pulling. We present a description of our experience in the management of this problem and the lessons learnt by complications or adverse outcomes. Two patients died within 2 weeks of endoscopic therapy. Successful and safe endoscopic removal appears dependent on the depth of the bumper, and this may be gauged by whether or not a wire can be inserted into the gastric lumen via the external portion of the tube. Further experience with radiological estimation of depth is required. The underlying frailty of this group of patients requires careful pre-intervention risk assessment and may favour a conservative approach. Copyright © 2014 European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Analisa Respon Mekanik Model Bumper Beam Mobil Bahan Polymeric Foam Diperkuat Serbuk Tkks Dengan Variasi Konsentrasi Al2o3 Akibat Beban Impak Jatuh Bebas

    OpenAIRE

    Zakiy, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    100401031 Bumper beam adalah struktur perisai yang dibuat dari baja, aluminium, karet, karbon fiber ataupun komposit plastik. Saat terjadi tabrakan kecepatan rendah, sistem bumper menyerap kejutan untuk mencegah atau mengurangi kerusakan fisik pada mobil. Bumper didesain untuk melindungi komponen penting yang terdapat pada bagian depan dan belakang sebuah mobil saat terjadi tabrakan kecepatan rendah. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui besar tegangan dan energi impak y...

  3. Characterisation of Used PP-Based Car Bumpers and their Recycling Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Luda, M.P.; Brunella, V.; Guaratto, D.

    2013-01-01

    Three used PP-based car bumpers are characterized by many techniques (fractionation, IR, TGA, DSC, DMTA, and SEM). They show different impact and static and dynamic mechanical properties depending on their composition and morphology. It appears that block copolymer compatibilizers constituted by polyethylene-polypropylene sequences allow a better compatibility between the rubber domains and the PP matrix leading to relatively high impact resistance. Indeed if the ethylene sequences of the cop...

  4. Thermoplastic impact property improvement in hybrid natural fibre epoxy composite bumper beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoodi, M. M.; Sapuan, S. M.; Ali, Aidy; Ahmad, D.; Khalina, A.

    2010-05-01

    Utilization of thermoset resin as a bumper beam composite matrix is currently more dominated in car manufacturer suppliers, because of availability, easy processing, low material cost and production equipment investment. Moreover, low viscosity, shrinkage and excellent flow facilitate better fibre impregnation and proper surface resin wetting. Three-dimensional cross linking curing increase impact, creep and environmental stress cracking resistance properties. Low impact properties of natural fibre epoxy composite, are main issues in its employment for automotive structural components. Impact properties in epoxy composite bumper beam could be increased by modifying the resin, reinforcement and manufacturing process as well as geometry parameters such as cross section, thickness, added ribs and fixing method optimizations could strengthen impact resistance. There are two main methods, flexibilisation and toughening, as modifying the resin in order to improve the impact properties of epoxy composite, which form single phase or two-phase morphology to make modifier as epoxy or from separate phase to keep the thermo-mechanical properties. Liquid rubber, thermoplastic, core shell particle and rigid particle are different methods of toughening improvements. In this research, thermoplastic toughening has used to improve impact properties in hybrid natural fibre epoxy composite for automotive bumper beam and has achieved reasonable impact improvements.

  5. Thermoplastic impact property improvement in hybrid natural fibre epoxy composite bumper beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davoodi, M M; Sapuan, S M; Ali, Aidy [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Ahmad, D; Khalina, A, E-mail: makinejadm2@asme.org [Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2010-05-15

    Utilization of thermoset resin as a bumper beam composite matrix is currently more dominated in car manufacturer suppliers, because of availability, easy processing, low material cost and production equipment investment. Moreover, low viscosity, shrinkage and excellent flow facilitate better fibre impregnation and proper surface resin wetting. Three-dimensional cross linking curing increase impact, creep and environmental stress cracking resistance properties. Low impact properties of natural fibre epoxy composite, are main issues in its employment for automotive structural components. Impact properties in epoxy composite bumper beam could be increased by modifying the resin, reinforcement and manufacturing process as well as geometry parameters such as cross section, thickness, added ribs and fixing method optimizations could strengthen impact resistance. There are two main methods, flexibilisation and toughening, as modifying the resin in order to improve the impact properties of epoxy composite, which form single phase or two-phase morphology to make modifier as epoxy or from separate phase to keep the thermo-mechanical properties. Liquid rubber, thermoplastic, core shell particle and rigid particle are different methods of toughening improvements. In this research, thermoplastic toughening has used to improve impact properties in hybrid natural fibre epoxy composite for automotive bumper beam and has achieved reasonable impact improvements.

  6. Skeletodental changes in the adolescent accruing from use of the lip bumper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, S P; Shivapuja, P K; Harris, E F

    1994-01-01

    Cast and cephalometric analyses were performed to measure the effects of treatment with a lip bumper. The lip bumper was fabricated from an 0.045 inch wire with shrink tubing and no acrylic shields. Nine of the 32 patients were evaluated two years after the comprehensive phase of treatment. Patients were in the mixed dentition stage of development (mean age of 9.9 yrs). A single orthodontist designed all the appliances and treated all the cases. There was significant expansion between the canines, first premolars, second premolars and molars, with the greatest expansion occurring between the first premolars. Cephalometric analysis revealed that the molars underwent angular uprighting but did not move bodily. Incisor irregularity decreased 60% during this phase of treatment. The retention cases revealed that the arch depth decreased, perhaps due to loss of leeway space, but arch widths all were broader, especially in the anterior segment, than at the end of the lip bumper phase. Incisor irregularity also remained trivial (x = 0.3 mm), suggesting appreciable stability.

  7. Perioral forces and dental changes resulting from mandibular lip bumper treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, S; Nanda, R S; Ghosh, J

    1998-03-01

    This prospective study compares pretreatment and posttreatment forces produced by a lip bumper on the mandibular first molars and determines the dental effects of this appliance after 1 year of treatment. Twenty-five patients, ages 10 to 17 years, received fixed 0.045-inch passive stainless steel lip bumpers positioned at the level of the gingival margin, 2 mm from the labial surface of the teeth as the only form of treatment in the mandibular arch. At the end of 1 year, cephalometric radiographs and dental casts were taken, and lower lip forces remeasured during rest, speech, and swallowing. Lip force measurements were performed using specially designed strain gauges mounted bilaterally in the lip bumper tubes. Measurements of lip forces made before and after treatment were compared to explore the changes, if any, due to muscle adaptation to the appliance. Dental changes were measured from casts and cephalometric radiographs. Correlation analyses were performed to determine whether a relationship existed between initial force levels and resulting tooth movement. Pretreatment and posttreatment forces did not demonstrate a statistically significant difference. On the other hand, measurement of the dental casts revealed a significant increase in arch length caused by incisor proclination and protrusion, combined with molar distalization. The arch width significantly increased at the canines, first and second premolars, and first molars. The amount of force exerted by the lower lip on the molars was not correlated to the degree of tooth movement recorded in this sample.

  8. BUMPER v1.0: a Bayesian user-friendly model for palaeo-environmental reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Philip B.; Birks, H. John B.; Brooks, Stephen J.; Bush, Mark B.; Hwang, Grace M.; Matthews-Bird, Frazer; Valencia, Bryan G.; van Woesik, Robert

    2017-02-01

    We describe the Bayesian user-friendly model for palaeo-environmental reconstruction (BUMPER), a Bayesian transfer function for inferring past climate and other environmental variables from microfossil assemblages. BUMPER is fully self-calibrating, straightforward to apply, and computationally fast, requiring ˜ 2 s to build a 100-taxon model from a 100-site training set on a standard personal computer. We apply the model's probabilistic framework to generate thousands of artificial training sets under ideal assumptions. We then use these to demonstrate the sensitivity of reconstructions to the characteristics of the training set, considering assemblage richness, taxon tolerances, and the number of training sites. We find that a useful guideline for the size of a training set is to provide, on average, at least 10 samples of each taxon. We demonstrate general applicability to real data, considering three different organism types (chironomids, diatoms, pollen) and different reconstructed variables. An identically configured model is used in each application, the only change being the input files that provide the training-set environment and taxon-count data. The performance of BUMPER is shown to be comparable with weighted average partial least squares (WAPLS) in each case. Additional artificial datasets are constructed with similar characteristics to the real data, and these are used to explore the reasons for the differing performances of the different training sets.

  9. EXPERIMENTAL POLYMERIC NANOCOMPOSITE MATERIAL SELECTION FOR AUTOMOTIVE BUMPER BEAM USING MULTI-CRITERIA DECISION MAKING METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Hasanzadeh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Material selection is a main purpose in design process and plays an important role in desired performance of the products for diverse engineering applications. In order to solve material selection problem, multi criteria decision making (MCDM methods can be used as an applicable tool. Bumper beam is one of the most important components of bumper system in absorbing energy. Therefore, selecting the best material that has the highest degree of satisfaction is necessary. In the present study, six polymeric nanocomposite materials were injection molded and considered as material alternatives. Criteria weighting was carried out through analytical hierarchy process (AHP and Entropy methods. Selecting the most appropriate material was applied using technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS and the multi-objective optimization on the basis of ratio analysis (MOORA methods respect to the considered criteria. Criteria weighting results illustrated that impact and tensile strengths are the most important criteria using AHP and Entropy methods, respectively. Results of ranking alternatives indicated that polycarbonate containing 0.5 wt% nano Al2O3 is the most appropriate material for automotive bumper beam due to its high impact and tensile strengths in addition to its low cost of raw material. Also, the sensitivity analysis was performed to verify the selection criteria and the results as well.

  10. Bumper and grille airbags concept for enhanced vehicle compatibility in side impact: phase II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbat, Saeed; Li, Xiaowei; Prasad, Priya

    2013-01-01

    Fundamental physics and numerous field studies have shown a higher injury and fatality risk for occupants in smaller and lighter vehicles when struck by heavier, taller and higher vehicles. The consensus is that the significant parameters influencing compatibility in front-to-side crashes are geometric interaction, vehicle stiffness, and vehicle mass. The objective of this research is to develop a concept of deployable bumper and grille airbags for improved vehicle compatibility in side impact. The external airbags, deployed upon signals from sensors, may help mitigate the effect of weight, geometry and stiffness differences and reduce side intrusions. However, a highly reliable pre-crash sensing system is required to enable the reliable deployment, which is currently not technologically feasible. Analytical and numerical methods and hardware testing were used to help develop the deployable external airbags concept. Various Finite Element (FE) models at different stages were developed and an extensive number of iterations were conducted to help optimize airbag and inflator parameters to achieve desired targets. The concept development was executed and validated in two phases. This paper covers Phase II ONLY, which includes: (1) Re-design of the airbag geometry, pressure, and deployment strategies; (2) Further validation using a Via sled test of a 48 kph perpendicular side impact of an SUV-type impactor against a stationary car with US-SID-H3 crash dummy in the struck side; (3) Design of the reaction surface necessary for the bumper airbag functionality. The concept was demonstrated through live deployment of external airbags with a reaction surface in a full-scale perpendicular side impact of an SUV against a stationary passenger car at 48 kph. This research investigated only the concept of the inflatable devices since pre-crash sensing development was beyond the scope of this research. The concept design parameters of the bumper and grille airbags are presented in

  11. No effect of lip bumper therapy on the pressure from the lower lip on the lower incisors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingervall, B; Thüer, U

    1998-10-01

    The pressures from the lower lip on the lower incisors were measured at the midline between the central incisors and between the left lateral incisor and canine. The measurements were made with the lip at rest and during swallowing of water in 24 boys and 40 girls aged 9-15 years. The children were divided into four groups, two treated with a lip bumper with and without an oral shield, and two with a lingual arch with and without springs for proclination of the lower incisors. Recordings of the pressures were made before the start of the treatment, and 3 and 8 months after the use of the appliance, as well as 4 months after the removal of the lip bumper or lingual arch. The treatment with a lip bumper did not change the pressure from the lip on the lower incisors at rest. The pressure at the midline during swallowing was also unaffected by the lip bumper therapy, but the pressure between the lateral incisor and canine increased. Thus, lip bumper therapy did not lead to decreased pressure from the lip on the incisors. Proclination of the lower incisors with a lingual arch resulted in an increase of the pressure from the lip at rest. Thus, no adaptation of the lower lip to the proclination occurred. After relapse of the proclination the pressure from the lip decreased to a value no different from that before the start of the treatment.

  12. Strength Enhancement of Car Front Bumper for Slow Speed Impact by FEA Method as per IIHS Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonawane, Chandrakant Rameshchandra; Shelar, Ajit Lavaji

    2017-05-01

    Low speed collisions happen significantly due to on road slow moving heavy traffic as well as during parking of vehicles. The bumpers are provided in front and back side of a vehicle has two main purposes: first is to absorb the energy generated during these kinds of slow speed impacts and secondly to protect the expensive parts like main engine parts, radiators and connected engine cooling mechanism, headlights, taillights, etc, by slowing down the vehicles. The problem often in various cars bumper is that they doesn't line-up vertically during low speed impact and leads to damage of various parts which are costly to repair. Many a times bumper design does not have sufficient capacity to absorb the energy generated during these impact. Guideline by International Institute Highway Safety (IIHS) regulation provides useful insight for such low speed impact study. In this paper, slow speed impact test were conducted as per IIHS regulation in three positions namely central impact, left hand corner impact and right hand corner impact. Parameters including bumper material, shape, thickness and impact condition are analyzed using fine element analysis (FEA) to enhance crashworthiness design in low speed impact. Then the vehicle front structure has been modified suitably. It has been observed that lining up the front metal bumper with suitable stiffness provides the best result which ultimately reduces the damage to the vehicle parts.

  13. Penggunaan Modifikasi Lip Bumper Untuk Ekspansi Lateral Lengkung Gigi Atas Pada Kasus Cleft Lip dan Palate Bilateral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Purbiati

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a common finding that bilateral cleft lip and palate (CLP cases are complicated by maxillary jaw contraction in both sagital and transversal dimensions. Anterior jaw contraction is often appeared as a post-cleft lip surgical repairing defect which is done on the earlier age and as the consequence side effect is upper lip hypertonus. To improve the dental arch form and to overcome the effect of the previous condition, lip bumper on the upper jaw could be a device of choice beside the other complicated and expensive devices. Success of the lip bumper is showed on this 13 years 2 months male bilateral CLP case with contraction of posterior region (3.5 - 10.5 milimeter and congenital missing of anterior teeth. After 10 months orthodontic treatment using the labial archwire and modified lip bumper, the maxillary arch had been improved.

  14. [Vertical dentobasal changes induced by the lip-bumper: clinical study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perillo, L; Ratto, A; Ferro, A

    1991-01-01

    37 patients aged between 8 and 11 years old, were treated with the application of a lip bumper in order to explore the effects on the lateral sites after 1 year of treatment. Patients were been divided into two groups, depending on age (8-9 and 10-11) subdividend depending on typology and compared with similar control group. After one year the dental basal height was measured and resulted to be 0.90 mm higher in treated patients than in the control groups.

  15. Overview of "bumper car" disease--impact on the North American lobster fishery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawthorn, R J

    1997-02-01

    Recent (1993) landings of American lobsters (Homarus americanus) were valued at $294 million (Can.) in Canada and $213 million (Can.) in the United States. However, post-harvest losses are estimated at $50-75 million (10-15%) annually. The lobster fishery is one of the few remaining viable traditional fisheries in eastern North America. "Bumper car" disease of lobsters, caused by the scuticociliate Anophryoides haemophila, can cause significant losses in coldwater impoundments. Apparently epidemics now occur more frequently and with greater severity; surprisingly the epidemiology and economic impacts of "bumper car" disease are not well documented. The ciliate A. haemophila is easily maintained in a cell-free, chemically defined, seawater-based medium at 5 degrees C. Cultured ciliates require longer and more parasites to kill lobsters than those transmitted by intrahaemocoelic injection from lobster-to-lobster. Regardless of source of ciliates, the larger the inoculum, the more rapid the death of lobsters. The pathogenesis of "bumper car" disease is unknown. Horizontal transmission could occur across the thin cuticle of gills or via wounds in the exoskeleton present during moulting of lobsters. Because ciliates are initially sequestered in lobster tissues for an extended period, they are detectable sooner by histological examination of tissues than by direct examination or culture of haemolymph. Additional to indirect fluorescent antibody testing and immunoperoxidase staining of tissues, utilizing monoclonal antibodies prepared to sonicated ciliates, the parasites are readily detected with oligonucleotide probes based on ssu-rDNA of A. haemophila. The prevalence of A. haemophila should be re-evaluated. Ciliates sequester in gill, heart and muscle tissues. Several disinfectants and chemotherapeutants, licensed in North America for veterinary use in food-producing animals, are efficacious against A. haemophila in vitro. A definition of healthy vs ciliate

  16. Pemakain Lip Bumper pada Anak Cerebral Palsi dengan Kasus Drooling, Inkompetensi Bibir dan Kebiasaan Menggigit-gigit Bibir Bawah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ani Subekti

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Latar Belakang. Anak yang menderita cerebral palsi pada umumnya mempunyai keluhan ketidakmampuan dalam pengontrolan saliva dalam rongga mulutnya. Pada kondisi tersebut penderita mengalami ketidaknormalan dalam koordinasi neuromuscular pada lidah, bibir dan pipinya, sehingga hal tersebut dapat menyebabkan drooling. Kebiasaan buruk menggigit-gigit bibir bawah yang terjadi pada anak ini menimbulkan problem inkompetensi bibir. Pendekatan perawatan myofungsional dapat meningkatkan torus otot bibir dan lidah, dan sebisa mungkin menahan posisi lidah tetap di dalam mulut dengan suatu hal yang dinamakan lip bumper. Tujuan laporan kasus ini adalah untuk melaporkan bahwa pemakaian alat lip bumper dapat mengurangi drooling, inkompetensi bibir dan kebiasaan menggigit-gigit bibir bawah pada anak cerebral palsi. Kasus. Seorang anak laki-laki siswa SLB 1 Bantul dengan kelainan cerebral palsi dilakukan pemeriksaan rutin kesehatan gigi. Tampak gigi protusif dengan bibir inkompetensi. Setelah wawancara dengan pengasuh, anak tersebut mempunyai drooling yang berlebihan dan sering menggigit-gigit bibir bawah. Perawatan yang dipilih adalah menggunakan alat removabel lip bumper. Lip bumper dipakai pada siang hari selama 2 jam dan malam hari pada waktu tidur. Kesimpulan. Setelah 3 bulan terjadi pengurangan drooling, kebiasaan menggigit-gigit bibirnya hilang dan inkompetensi bibir berkurang.   Background. Children with cerebral palsy generally have a complaint inability to control saliva in the oral cavity. In these conditions the patient has an abnormality in neuromuscular coordination of the tongue, lips and cheeks, where it can cause drooling. Myofungsional treatment approaches can improve muscle tone lips and tongue, and as much as possible to hold the position of the tongue remains in the mouth with a tool called a lip bumper. Purpose. The purpose of this case report is to report that the use of lip bumper can reduce drooling, incompetency lips and biting his lower

  17. Early treatment with a maxillary lip bumper-bite plateau combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korn, Marcel; Melsen, Birte

    2008-09-01

    To evaluate the intra-arch displacements of the molars and the change in molar relationship following the use of a maxillary lip bumper combined with a bite plate. The material comprised study casts taken before and after the treatment of 40 consecutive patients with mixed dentition. The sagittal and transversal displacements were evaluated by a three-dimensional digitizer using the palatal rugae as an indirect fixed reference. The displacements were expressed as translation mesiodistally and buccolingually and rotation around the long axis and tipping mesiodistally. The change in molar relationship was measured to the nearest millimeter at the level of the occlusal plane. The tooth movements were predominantly of distal rotation (mean, 9.7 degrees ; range, 6.5 degrees to 26 degrees ) and distal tipping (mean, 5 degrees ; range, 5.8 degrees to 18 degrees ). The distal displacement was a modest mean (mean, 0.3 mm; SD, 1.6 mm) and more pronounced to the buccal (mean 1.6 mm; SD, 1.5 mm). The molar relationship improved in all but four sites, and a full Class I was obtained in 65 of 80 sites. The early treatment with the lip bumper and bite plate can be recommended from a cost-benefit point of view.

  18. Mandibular basal structure response to lip bumper treatment in the transverse dimension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanarsdall, Robert L; Secchi, Antonino G; Chung, Chun-Hsi; Katz, Solomon H

    2004-08-01

    The effect of orthopedic or orthodontic treatment on the transverse dimension has been the subject of endless debate among orthodontists. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the response on the transverse dimension of the basal structure of the mandible and maxilla following two different modalities of treatment: group A--standard edgewise orthodontic treatment and group B--maxillary orthopedics with a bonded (tissue borne) rapid palatal expander (RPE) combined with a mandibular lip bumper. Each group had a matched paired untreated control according to age, sex, race, and treatment duration. For all subjects the width of the maxilla (Mx-Mx) and mandible (Ag-Ag) were measured on pre- and posttreatment posteroanterior cephalograms. The rate of width change in the maxilla and mandible was calculated (in mm/y). Results showed that group A had no treatment effect on the transverse dimension of the maxilla and mandible when compared with controls. However, group B had a significant increase in the transverse dimension of Mx-Mx (P lip bumper increased the transverse dimension of the basal structure of the mandible.

  19. A technique for measurement of intraoral lip pressures with lip bumper therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soo, N D; Moore, R N

    1991-05-01

    One of the reported effects of functional appliance therapy is muscular adaptation achieved through the use of vestibular shields. To develop a method for measuring these effects, 10 children with Class I molar occlusion in the late mixed-dentition stage underwent lip bumper therapy for 8 months. Semiconductor pressure transducers mounted on Tru-Tain stents in the mandibular midline and left canine areas were used to measure lip pressures with the patient at rest and during five functional exercises. Resting and speaking lip pressures for the midline transducer showed significant increases 1 month after lip bumper placement and then decreased to near or below pretreatment levels, possibly an adaptive response. Left-side resting pressures also showed a gradual decrease. In contrast, left-side speaking pressures showed no significant changes over time. The swallowing pressures were not replicable because of excessive background fluctuations. The results of this study indicate that this method has potential for improving clinical diagnosis. The preliminary data also suggest an adaptive response of lip muscles that varies according to anatomic location.

  20. Modelling human behaviour in a bumper car ride using molecular dynamics tools: a student project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buendía, Jorge J.; Lopez, Hector; Sanchis, Guillem; Pardo, Luis Carlos

    2017-05-01

    Amusement parks are excellent laboratories of physics, not only to check physical laws, but also to investigate if those physical laws might also be applied to human behaviour. A group of Physics Engineering students from Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya has investigated if human behaviour, when driving bumper cars, can be modelled using tools borrowed from the analysis of molecular dynamics simulations, such as the radial and angular distribution functions. After acquiring several clips and obtaining the coordinates of the cars, those magnitudes are computed and analysed. Additionally, an analogous hard disks system is simulated to compare its distribution functions to those obtained from the cars’ coordinates. Despite the clear difference between bumper cars and a hard disk-like particle system, the obtained distribution functions are very similar. This suggests that there is no important effect of the individuals in the collective behaviour of the system in terms of structure. The research, performed by the students, has been undertaken in the frame of a motivational project designed to approach the scientific method for university students named FISIDABO. This project offers both the logistical and technical support to undertake the experiments designed by students at the amusement park of Barcelona TIBIDABO and accompanies them all along the scientific process.

  1. BUMPER: the Bayesian User-friendly Model for Palaeo-Environmental Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Phil; Birks, John; Brooks, Steve; Bush, Mark; Hwang, Grace; Matthews-Bird, Frazer; Valencia, Bryan; van Woesik, Robert

    2017-04-01

    We describe the Bayesian User-friendly Model for Palaeo-Environmental Reconstruction (BUMPER), a Bayesian transfer function for inferring past climate and other environmental variables from microfossil assemblages. The principal motivation for a Bayesian approach is that the palaeoenvironment is treated probabilistically, and can be updated as additional data become available. Bayesian approaches therefore provide a reconstruction-specific quantification of the uncertainty in the data and in the model parameters. BUMPER is fully self-calibrating, straightforward to apply, and computationally fast, requiring 2 seconds to build a 100-taxon model from a 100-site training-set on a standard personal computer. We apply the model's probabilistic framework to generate thousands of artificial training-sets under ideal assumptions. We then use these to demonstrate both the general applicability of the model and the sensitivity of reconstructions to the characteristics of the training-set, considering assemblage richness, taxon tolerances, and the number of training sites. We demonstrate general applicability to real data, considering three different organism types (chironomids, diatoms, pollen) and different reconstructed variables. In all of these applications an identically configured model is used, the only change being the input files that provide the training-set environment and taxon-count data.

  2. Buttons to Bumper Stickers: Political Campaign Memorabilia--Campaign Memorabilia Can Help Students Connect Past with Present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Lee Ann

    2004-01-01

    During the season of political campaigns scores of bumper stickers, posters, and other items with slogans supporting one candidate or another suddenly appear and quickly multiply around neighborhoods and towns, with stickers plastered on cars, and posters hanging in windows, or posted in front yards. From George Washington to George W. Bush,…

  3. A longitudinal study of incremental expansion using a mandibular lip bumper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, C Chris; Magness, W Bonham; English, Jeryl D; Frazier-Bowers, Sylvia A; Salas, Anna Maria

    2003-08-01

    A retrospective study using models was performed to evaluate the incremental expansion that occurred during mandibular lip bumper therapy in 44 adolescent patients. The purpose was to determine whether expansion occurs evenly between appointments or whether it attenuates with treatment time. Dental cast measurements were made for arch width and arch length. Treatment duration was broken into near-equal time segments and compared. Results showed that about 50% of the total expansion achieved occurred within about the first 100 days. Forty percent of the total amount of expansion occurred during the next 200 days, with only about 10% of the total expansion occurring after the first 300 days. It is unnecessary to have the appliance in place for longer than 300 days. The percentage of expansion that occurred at each time segment was not related to whether the patient had concomitant maxillary expansion.

  4. Correction of bilateral impacted mandibular canines with a lip bumper for anchorage reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Sachin; Yadav, Sumit; Shah, Neelesh V; Valiathan, Ashima; Uribe, Flavio; Nanda, Ravindra

    2013-03-01

    Multiple treatment options are available to patients with impacted manibular canines in addition to a retained deciduous canine. This article describes the treatment of a prepubertal girl, aged 10 years 6 months, with a skeletal Class I, dental Class II Division 1 malocclusion, retrognathic mandible, deep overbite, proclined maxillary incisors, midline diastema, and bilateral mandibular canine impaction. The orthodontic treatment plan included extraction of the deciduous canine and forced eruption of the impacted canines. A modified lip bumper appliance was used both for forced eruption and to reinforce anchorage. Through the collaborative efforts of an orthodontist and an oral surgeon, an excellent esthetic and functional outcome was achieved. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Nano-cellulose derived bioplastic biomaterial data for vehicle bio-bumper from banana peel waste biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Sharif Hossain, A.B.M.; Ibrahim, Nasir A.; AlEissa, Mohammed Saad

    2016-01-01

    The innovative study was carried out to produce nano-cellulose based bioplastic biomaterials for vehicle use coming after bioprocess technology. The data show that nano-cellulose particle size was 20 nm and negligible water absorption was 0.03% in the bioplastic. Moreover, burning test, size and shape characterizations, spray coating dye, energy test and firmness of bioplastic have been explored and compared with the standardization of synthetic vehicle plastic bumper following the American S...

  6. Distalization controlled with the use of lip-bumper and mini-screw as anchorage: a new approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes Júnior, Tadeu Evandro; Lima, Anderson Barbosa; Mendes, Tadeu Evandro; Mendes, Camila Vas Tostes; Rosário, Henrique Damian; Paranhos, Luiz Renato

    2015-01-01

    An increasingly number of patients with Angle Class II has been seeking orthodontic clinics to have their malocclusion treated. Herein, it is presented a new method of promote distal movements in maxillary molars with a combination of limp-bumper (LB) and mini screw. This technique was proven to be fast, practical and with low-cost, thus favoring both the professional and the patient.

  7. Cephalometric evaluation of molar distalization by hyrax screw used in conjunction with a lip bumper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucukkeles, Nazan; Cakirer, Banu; Mowafi, Mohammed

    2006-01-01

    To determine the treatment effects of the Hyrax screw, when used with a lip bumper appliance, on the distalization of maxillary molars and the reciprocal effects on the anchor premolars and maxillary incisors. Records, including study casts, lateral cephalometric radiographs, extra- and intraoral photographs of 9 patients were taken at the start of treatment and after distalization was achieved. Wilcoxon signed rank test was performed to analyze the skeletal and dental changes. During the active period of maxillary molar distalization, the maxillary incisors significantly proclined by 5.89 degrees (P <.05), 5.39 degrees (P <.05), and 1.72 mm (P <.05) relative to the SN, RH, and RV planes, respectively. The maxillary first molars showed significant distal crown tipping, as evidenced by 4.61-degree (P = .00), 4.17-mm (P = .00), and 1.11-mm (P = .02) decreases in U6-RH angle, U6 perpendicular RV, and U6 perpendicular RH distances respectively. Anchorage loss, with 4.17 mm mesial movement of the maxillary second premolars, was significant (P = .01). When selecting the appropriate method for maxillary molar distalization, anchorage loss potential, the need for patient compliance, and the duration of treatment should be considered.

  8. Penggunaan Modifikasi Lip Bumper Untuk Ekspansi Lateral Lengkung Gigi Atas Pada Kasus Cleft Lip dan Palate Bilateral

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Purbiati

    2015-01-01

    There is a common finding that bilateral cleft lip and palate (CLP) cases are complicated by maxillary jaw contraction in both sagital and transversal dimensions. Anterior jaw contraction is often appeared as a post-cleft lip surgical repairing defect which is done on the earlier age and as the consequence side effect is upper lip hypertonus. To improve the dental arch form and to overcome the effect of the previous condition, lip bumper on the upper jaw could be a device of choice beside the...

  9. No effect of lip bumper therapy on the pressure from the lower lip on the lower incisors

    OpenAIRE

    Ingervall, B.; Thüer, U.

    2017-01-01

    The pressures from the lower lip on the lower incisors were measured at the midline between the central incisors and between the left lateral incisor and canine. The measurements were made with the lip at rest and during swallowing of water in 24 boys and 40 girls aged 9-15 years. The children were divided into four groups, two treated with a lip bumper with and without an oral shield, and two with a lingual arch with and without springs for proclination of the lower incisors. Recordings of t...

  10. Long-term stability of combined rapid palatal expansion-lip bumper therapy followed by full fixed appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Tyler; Alexander, R G; Boley, Jimmy; Buschang, Peter H

    2005-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term postretention stability of rapid palatal expansion-lip bumper therapy followed by full fixed appliances. The sample included 20 treated patients (11 women and 9 men) who were recalled to obtain postretention records. The subjects were out of retention for a minimum of 4 years and an average of 7.9 years. They had begun treatment in the late mixed dentition at a mean age of 11.1 with considerable incisor crowding but, on average, no tooth size-arch length discrepancies. Pretreatment, posttreatment (mean age, 13.6 years), and postretention (mean age, 24.3 years) models were digitized, and the computed measurements were compared with untreated reference data. The majority of treatment increases in maxillary and mandibular arch dimensions were statistically significant (P lip bumper expansion therapy in the late mixed dentition followed by full fixed appliances is an effective form of treatment for patients with up to moderate tooth size-arch length discrepancies.

  11. Case report: whiplash-associated disorder from a low-velocity bumper car collision: history, evaluation, and surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Michael F; Stuberg, Wayne; DeJong, Stacey; Gold, Kurt V; Nystrom, N Ake

    2004-09-01

    Case report of a patient with a whiplash-associated disorder following a bumper car collision. Imaging studies failed to provide an anatomic explanation for the debilitating symptoms. To report a chronic, debilitating pain syndrome after a low-velocity bumper car collision while using complex range-of-motion data for the diagnosis, prognosis, and surgical indication in whiplash-associated disorder. The controversy of whiplash-associated disorder mainly concerns pathophysiology and collision dynamics. Although many investigations attempt to define a universal lesion or determine a threshold of force that may cause permanent injury, no consensus has been reached. Eight years after a low-velocity collision, the patient underwent surgical excision of multiple painful trigger points in the posterior neck. Computerized motion analysis was used for pre- and postoperative evaluations. Surgical treatment resulted in an increase in total active range of motion by 20%, reduced intake of pain medication, doubled the number of work hours, and generally led to a dramatic improvement in quality of life. This case of whiplash-associated disorder after a low-velocity collision highlights the difficulty in defining threshold of injury in regard to velocity. It also illustrates the value of computerized motion analysis in confirming the diagnosis of whiplash-associated disorder and in the evaluation of prognosis and treatment.

  12. Comparison of self-healing ionomer to aluminium-alloy bumpers for protecting spacecraft equipment from space debris impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francesconi, A.; Giacomuzzo, C.; Grande, A. M.; Mudric, T.; Zaccariotto, M.; Etemadi, E.; Di Landro, L.; Galvanetto, U.

    2013-03-01

    This paper discusses the impact behavior of a self-healing ionomeric polymer and compares its protection capability against space debris impacts to that of simple aluminium-alloy bumpers. To this end, 14 impact experiments on both ionomer and Al-7075-T6 thin plates with similar surface density were made with 1.5 mm aluminium spheres at velocity between 1 and 4 km/s.First, the perforation extent in both materials was evaluated vis-à-vis the prediction of well known hole-size equations; then, attention was given to the damage potential of the cloud of fragments ejected from the rear side of the target by analysing the craters pattern and the momentum transferred to witness plates mounted on a ballistic pendulum behind the bumpers.Self-healing was completely successful in all but one ionomer samples and the primary damage on ionomeric polymers was found to be significantly lower than that on aluminium. On the other hand, aluminium plates exhibited slightly better debris fragmentation abilities, even though the protecting performance of ionomers seemed to improve at increasing impact speed.

  13. Nano-cellulose derived bioplastic biomaterial data for vehicle bio-bumper from banana peel waste biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B.M. Sharif Hossain

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The innovative study was carried out to produce nano-cellulose based bioplastic biomaterials for vehicle use coming after bioprocess technology. The data show that nano-cellulose particle size was 20 nm and negligible water absorption was 0.03% in the bioplastic. Moreover, burning test, size and shape characterizations, spray coating dye, energy test and firmness of bioplastic have been explored and compared with the standardization of synthetic vehicle plastic bumper following the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM. Tensile test was observed 120 MPa/kg m3. In addition to that pH and cellulose content were found positive in the bioplastic compared to the synthetic plastic. Chemical tests like K, CO3, Cl2, Na were determined and shown positive results compared to the synthetic plastic using the EN-14214 (European Norm standardization.

  14. Nano-cellulose derived bioplastic biomaterial data for vehicle bio-bumper from banana peel waste biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif Hossain, A B M; Ibrahim, Nasir A; AlEissa, Mohammed Saad

    2016-09-01

    The innovative study was carried out to produce nano-cellulose based bioplastic biomaterials for vehicle use coming after bioprocess technology. The data show that nano-cellulose particle size was 20 nm and negligible water absorption was 0.03% in the bioplastic. Moreover, burning test, size and shape characterizations, spray coating dye, energy test and firmness of bioplastic have been explored and compared with the standardization of synthetic vehicle plastic bumper following the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). Tensile test was observed 120 MPa/kg m(3). In addition to that pH and cellulose content were found positive in the bioplastic compared to the synthetic plastic. Chemical tests like K, CO3, Cl2, Na were determined and shown positive results compared to the synthetic plastic using the EN-14214 (European Norm) standardization.

  15. Exposure Assessment Suggests Exposure to Lung Cancer Carcinogens in a Painter Working in an Automobile Bumper Shop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Boowook; Yoon, Jin-Ha; Choi, Byung-Soon; Shin, Yong Chul

    2013-01-01

    A 46-year-old man who had worked as a bumper spray painter in an automobile body shop for 15 years developed lung cancer. The patient was a nonsmoker with no family history of lung cancer. To determine whether the cancer was related to his work environment, we assessed the level of exposure to carcinogens during spray painting, sanding, and heat treatment. The results showed that spray painting with yellow paint increased the concentration of hexavalent chromium in the air to as much as 118.33 μg/m3. Analysis of the paint bulk materials showed that hexavalent chromium was mostly found in the form of lead chromate. Interestingly, strontium chromate was also detected, and the concentration of strontium chromate increased in line with the brightness of the yellow color. Some paints contained about 1% crystalline silica in the form of quartz. PMID:24422178

  16. Exposure Assessment Suggests Exposure to Lung Cancer Carcinogens in a Painter Working in an Automobile Bumper Shop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boowook Kim

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A 46-year-old man who had worked as a bumper spray painter in an automobile body shop for 15 years developed lung cancer. The patient was a nonsmoker with no family history of lung cancer. To determine whether the cancer was related to his work environment, we assessed the level of exposure to carcinogens during spray painting, sanding, and heat treatment. The results showed that spray painting with yellow paint increased the concentration of hexavalent chromium in the air to as much as 118.33 μg/m3. Analysis of the paint bulk materials showed that hexavalent chromium was mostly found in the form of lead chromate. Interestingly, strontium chromate was also detected, and the concentration of strontium chromate increased in line with the brightness of the yellow color. Some paints contained about 1% crystalline silica in the form of quartz.

  17. Predictors of postretention stability of mandibular dental arch dimensions in patients treated with a lip bumper during mixed dentition followed by fixed appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raucci, Gaetana; Pachêco-Pereira, Camila; Elyasi, Maryam; d'Apuzzo, Fabrizia; Flores-Mir, Carlos; Perillo, Letizia

    2017-03-01

    To identify which dental and/or cephalometric variables were predictors of postretention mandibular dental arch stability in patients who underwent treatment with transpalatal arch and lip bumper during mixed dentition followed by full fixed appliances in the permanent dentition. Thirty-one patients were divided into stable and relapse groups based on the postretention presence or absence of relapse. Intercuspid, interpremolar, and intermolar widths; arch length and perimeter; crowding; and lower incisor proclination were evaluated before treatment (T0), after lip bumper treatment (T1), after fixed appliance treatment (T2), and a minimum of 3 years after removal of the full fixed appliance (T3). Logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate the effect of changes between T0 and T1, as predictive variables, on the occurrence of relapse at T3. The model explained 53.5 % of the variance in treatment stability and correctly classified 80.6 % of the sample. Of the seven prediction variables, intermolar and interpremolar changes between T0 and T1 (P = .024 and P = .034, respectively) were statistically significant. For every millimeter of increase in intermolar and interpremolar widths there was a 1.52 and 2.70 times increase, respectively, in the odds of having stability. There was also weak evidence for the effect of sex (P = .047). The best predictors of an average 4-year postretention mandibular dental arch stability after treatment with a lip bumper followed by full fixed appliances were intermolar and interpremolar width increases during lip bumper therapy. The amount of relapse in this crowding could be considered clinically irrelevant.

  18. The role of the glycocalyx in reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton under fluid shear stress: a "bumper-car" model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thi, Mia M; Tarbell, John M; Weinbaum, Sheldon; Spray, David C

    2004-11-23

    We propose a conceptual model for the cytoskeletal organization of endothelial cells (ECs) based on a major dichotomy in structure and function at basal and apical aspects of the cells. Intracellular distributions of filamentous actin (F-actin), vinculin, paxillin, ZO-1, and Cx43 were analyzed from confocal micrographs of rat fat-pad ECs after 5 h of shear stress. With intact glycocalyx, there was severe disruption of the dense peripheral actin bands (DPABs) and migration of vinculin to cell borders under a uniform shear stress (10.5 dyne/cm2; 1 dyne = 10 microN). This behavior was augmented in corner flow regions of the flow chamber where high shear stress gradients were present. In striking contrast, no such reorganization was observed if the glycocalyx was compromised. These results are explained in terms of a "bumper-car" model, in which the actin cortical web and DPAB are only loosely connected to basal attachment sites, allowing for two distinct cellular signaling pathways in response to fluid shear stress, one transmitted by glycocalyx core proteins as a torque that acts on the actin cortical web (ACW) and DPAB, and the other emanating from focal adhesions and stress fibers at the basal and apical membranes of the cell.

  19. Characteristics on fractures of tibia and fibula in car impacts to pedestrians and bicyclists - influences of car bumper height and shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otte, D; Haasper, C

    2007-01-01

    This study deals with the analysis of lower leg fractures in pedestrians and bicyclists after collisions with passenger cars and examines to what extent the shape and location of the fractures in the lower leg changed, following alterations in the shape of bumpers. It can be assumed that that the bumpers changed in shape and effective impact height, not least due to the realization of the developments of vehicle safety tests as in the context of the European Union Directive 2003/102/EC on pedestrian protection. In addition, consumer protection tests, EuroNCAP, accomplished a change of the injury situation. All of these are mainly focused on pedestrian protection measurements but adopt the bicyclists also in their goal. For the study, traffic accidents from GIDAS (German in-Depth-Accident Study) were selected, which had been documented in the years 1995 to 2004 by scientific teams in Hannover and Dresden (Germany) and for which there is detailed information regarding injury patterns and collision speeds. The accident documentations can be regarded as representative and constitute a random sample with statistic weighing of the data. Altogether 143 cases of lower leg fractures (Tibia/ Fibula) with x-rays of pedestrians and 79 cases of bicyclists were differentiated according to new and old vehicles (year of manufacture before/after 1995). The bumper shapes were divided into classical types (protruding pronouncedly/ protruding integrated /integrated rounded). Besides the injuries to the lower leg, those to thighs and feet were also regarded, and the injury conditions involving the head and trunk were included in the kinematic analytics.

  20. Short- and long-term evaluation of mandibular dental arch dimensional changes in patients treated with a lip bumper during mixed dentition followed by fixed appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raucci, Gaetana; Pachêco-Pereira, Camila; Elyasi, Maryam; d'Apuzzo, Fabrizia; Flores-Mir, Carlos; Perillo, Letizia

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate short- and long-term mandibular dental arch changes in patients treated with a lip bumper during the mixed dentition followed by fixed appliances, compared with a matched control sample. Dental casts and lateral cephalograms obtained from 31 consecutively treated patients before (T0) and after (T1) lip bumper, after fixed appliances (T2), and a minimum of 3 years after fixed appliances (T3) were analyzed. The control group was matched as closely as possible. Arch width, arch perimeter, arch length, and incisor proclination were evaluated. Repeated measures ANOVA was used to analyze changes in measurements over all four time points between treatment and control groups. Arch widths and crowding were always significantly different except at T2-T1. At T1-T0, only crowding decreased 3.2 mm while intercanine, interpremolar, and intermolar widths increased by 3.8, 3.3, and 3.9 mm, respectively. Changes at T3-T2 showed a significant decrease of 2.1 mm for crowding and an increase of 3.5, 2.9, 2.7, and 0.8 mm for intercanine, interpremolar, and intermolar widths and arch perimeter, respectively. Finally, at T3-T0, the reduction in crowding of 5.03 mm was significant and clinically important in the treated group. The differences between intercanine, interpremolar, and intermolar widths were also significant (2.1, 3.8, and 3.6 mm, respectively). All those differences favored the treated group. Mandibular dental arch dimensions were significantly changed after lip bumper treatment. At follow-up, all arch widths were slightly decreased, generating an increase of 0.4 mm in crowding, considered clinically irrelevant. Overall changes remained stable after an average 6.3-year follow-up.

  1. Characteristics on Fractures of Tibia and Fibula in Car Impacts to Pedestrians and Bicyclists – Influences of Car Bumper Height and Shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otte, D.; Haasper, C.

    2007-01-01

    This study deals with the analysis of lower leg fractures in pedestrians and bicyclists after collisions with passenger cars and examines to what extent the shape and location of the factures in the lower leg changed, following alterations in the shape of bumpers. It can be assumed that that the bumpers changed in shape and effective impact height, not least due to the realization of the developments of vehicle safety tests as in the context of the European Union Directive 2003/102/EC on pedestrian protection. In addition, consumer protection tests, EuroNCAP, accomplished a change of the injury situation. All of these are mainly focused on pedestrian protection measurements but adopt the bicyclists also in their goal. For the study, traffic accidents from GIDAS (German in-Depth-Accident Study) were selected, which had been documented in the years 1995 to 2004 by scientific teams in Hannover and Dresden (Germany) and for which there is detailed information regarding injury patterns and collision speeds. The accident documentations can be regarded as representative and constitute a random sample with statistic weighing of the data. Altogether 143 cases of lower leg fractures (Tibia/Fibula) with x-rays of pedestrians and 79 cases of bicyclists were differentiated according to new and old vehicles (year of manufacture before/after 1995). The bumper shapes were divided into classical types (protruding pronouncedly/protruding integrated /integrated rounded). Besides the injuries to the lower leg, those to thighs and feet were also regarded, and the injury conditions involving the head and trunk were included in the kinematic analytics. PMID:18184485

  2. The role of the glycocalyx in reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton under fluid shear stress: A “bumper-car” model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thi, Mia M.; Tarbell, John M.; Weinbaum, Sheldon; Spray, David C.

    2004-01-01

    We propose a conceptual model for the cytoskeletal organization of endothelial cells (ECs) based on a major dichotomy in structure and function at basal and apical aspects of the cells. Intracellular distributions of filamentous actin (F-actin), vinculin, paxillin, ZO-1, and Cx43 were analyzed from confocal micrographs of rat fat-pad ECs after 5 h of shear stress. With intact glycocalyx, there was severe disruption of the dense peripheral actin bands (DPABs) and migration of vinculin to cell borders under a uniform shear stress (10.5 dyne/cm2; 1 dyne = 10 μN). This behavior was augmented in corner flow regions of the flow chamber where high shear stress gradients were present. In striking contrast, no such reorganization was observed if the glycocalyx was compromised. These results are explained in terms of a “bumper-car” model, in which the actin cortical web and DPAB are only loosely connected to basal attachment sites, allowing for two distinct cellular signaling pathways in response to fluid shear stress, one transmitted by glycocalyx core proteins as a torque that acts on the actin cortical web (ACW) and DPAB, and the other emanating from focal adhesions and stress fibers at the basal and apical membranes of the cell. PMID:15545600

  3. Analysis of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and gene expression changes under different growth conditions for the ciliate Anophryoides haemophila, the causative agent of bumper car disease in the American lobster (Homarus americanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acorn, Adam R; Clark, K Fraser; Jones, Sarah; Després, Béatrice M; Munro, Sarah; Cawthorn, Richard J; Greenwood, Spencer J

    2011-06-01

    The scuticociliate Anophryoides haemophila, causes bumper car disease in American lobster (Homarus americanus) in commercial holding facilities in Atlantic Canada. While the parasite has been recognized since the 1970s and much has been learned about its biology, minimal molecular characterization exists. With genome consortiums turning to model organisms like the ciliates Tetrahymena and Paramecium, the amount of relevant sequence data available has made sequence surveys more attractive for gene discovery in related ciliates. We sequenced 9984 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from a non-normalized A. haemophila cDNA library to characterize gene expression patterns, functional gene distribution and to discover novel genes related to the parasitic life history. The A. haemophila ESTs were grouped into 843 clusters and singletons with 658 EST clusters having identifiable homologs, while 159 ESTs were unique and had no similarity to any sequences in the public databases. Not unexpectedly, about 67% of the A. haemophila ESTs have similarity to annotated and hypothetical genes from the related oligohymenophorean ciliate, Tetrahymena. Numerous cysteine proteases, hypothetical proteins and novel sequences possess putative secretory signal peptides suggesting that they may contribute to the pathogenesis of bumper car disease in lobster. Real time RT-qPCR analysis of cathepsin L and two homologs of cathepsin B did not show any changes in gene expression under varying in vitro growth conditions or during a modified-in vivo infection which may be suggestive of the opportunistic life history strategy of this ciliate. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Quantum criticality in your car bumper

    CERN Document Server

    Coleman, P

    2003-01-01

    Over the past few years, condensed-matter physicists have become fascinated by the phenomenon of quantum phase transitions. We know that new forms of order develop within a material by way of phase transitions and that they can drastically change its properties. (U.K.)

  5. Specification for Dump Bumper, Injection Bumper, Chopper Dipole and Tune Kicker Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Crescenti, M; Metzmacher, K; Sermeus, L; CERN. Geneva. AB Department

    2003-01-01

    A synchrotron machine, capable to accelerate either light ions or protons, will be the basic instrument of the CNA (Centro Nazionale di Adroterapia), the medical center dedicated to the cancer therapy, that will be built in Italy in the near future. The machine complex consists of one proton-carbon-ion linac that will accelerate the particles till the energy of 7 MeV/u. An injection line will transport them to the synchrotron ring where the injected particles will be accelerated and extracted with an energy ranging from 60 to 250 MeV for protons and from 120 to 400 MeV/u for carbon ions. Fig. 1 shows a preliminary schematic picture of the CNA medical center.

  6. The bumper bundle book of modelling NLP modelling made simple

    CERN Document Server

    Burgess, Fran

    2014-01-01

    A Neurolinguistic Programming textbook which focusses on the core activity of NLP - modelling. It covers the thinking behind NLP modelling, presents an extensive range of modelling methodologies and skills, offers applications of modelling, and provides specific details for model and technique construction.

  7. A Bumper Crop of Fair Trade Coffee Books

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Talbot, John M

    2015-01-01

    .... This period of severe crisis across the coffee producing countries in the developing world stimulated a growing interest in fair trade coffee as a means of helping the small farmers who were being...

  8. A Bumper Crop of Fair Trade Coffee Books

    OpenAIRE

    John M. Talbot

    2015-01-01

    The history of the world coffee market is a story of cycles of boom and bust. The most recent bust, one of the most severe in history, began in 1998 and started to ease in 2005. This period of severe crisis across the coffee producing countries in the developing world stimulated a growing interest in fair trade coffee as a means of helping the small farmers who were being devastated by historically low prices. As public interest and consumption grew, social scientists, as is their wont, set o...

  9. Creating scarcity from abundance: Bumper harvests, high prices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    By purchasing majority of the maize on the market, the FRA limited the need for commercial mills to access maize directly from the market. This reduced competition in the wholesaling sector and concentrated maize supply chain around the FRA; (2) Rationing of the FRA maize sold at subsidized prices to commercial mills.

  10. CERN Relay Race: No records broken in a bumper year

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Tribute is paid to David Dallman, 20 times the organiser of the CERN Relay Race, who is now retiring.Solve the following mathematical problem for athletes: take the first and third-placed teams in the 2006 CERN Relay Race, randomly mix the runners to form two new teams, and what is the result? Answer: first place and fifth place. In short, the team which has reigned supreme in first place since 2001, the "Shabbys", decided to spice up the race this year by merging with their arch rivals, the "Latinos Volantes", themselves no strangers to the podium. And at the winning line, it was the hybrid formation, "Shabbys Volantes", which took the honours (no surprises there!). Sadly, they were unable to beat the Shabbys’ previous record nor get anywhere near the all-time race record of 10 minutes and 13 seconds for the 3.9-km course, held for a quarter of a century by the "UA1 Strollers". One of the members of that legendary team and race organiser 20 times, David Dallman, mar...

  11. Wearing a Rainbow Bumper Sticker: Experiential Learning on Homophobia, Heteronormativity, and Heterosexual Privilege

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunn, Lisa M.; Bolt, Sophia C.

    2015-01-01

    College campuses are known to be heteronormative environments that often foster heterosexism and homophobia. There is a broad call for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) awareness-building curricula as one avenue for positive change in campus climates. This study interrogates the effects of an experiential learning activity…

  12. Thin Plate Bumper Influence on Crater Formation in Thick Aluminum Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Masahiro; Nakagawa, Junichi; Kuzuya, Kayoko; Aikawa, Fumiaki; Hayashi, Koichi; Tanaka, Koichi

    For studying the generation of space debris, we experimentally investigated the penetration of steel projectiles into thick targets made of aluminum alloy 5056 and the subsequent crater formation in the velocity range from 0.7 to 1.9 km/s using a two-stage light gas gun. We added 1- and 2-mm-thick pure nickel plates and 2-mm-thick aluminum alloy plates to the thick targets, and examined the effects of plate addition, plate material, and plate thickness on the crater shape (depth, diameter, depth/diameter ratio) and lip formation. The plate addition suppressed the formation of crater lips and changed the crater shape. In particular, addition of nickel plates decreased the crater diameter, depth, and depth/diameter ratio. Furthermore, component analyses by scanning electron microscopy indicated the presence of Ni-Al alloy near the crater wall and Ni-Fe alloy in the post-impact projectile when nickel plates were used.

  13. Advocacy for Art Education: Beyond Tee-Shirts and Bumper Stickers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobick, Bryna; DiCindio, Carissa

    2012-01-01

    Advocacy is not new to art education. Over the years, Goldfarb (1979), Hodsoll (1985), and Erickson and Young (1996) have written about the importance of arts advocacy, but the concept of advocacy has evolved with the times. For example, in the 1970s, arts advocacy was described as a "movement" and brought together art educators,…

  14. 76 FR 53072 - Certification; Importation of Vehicles and Equipment Subject to Federal Safety, Bumper, and Theft...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-25

    ... to, title fraud, odometer fraud, or the sale of stolen vehicles. For the purposes of this final rule... classifications include passenger car, multipurpose passenger vehicle (``MPV''), truck, bus, motorcycle, trailer... more than $100 million annually (adjusted for inflation with the base year of 1995). Before...

  15. 76 FR 2631 - Certification; Importation of Vehicles and Equipment Subject to Federal Safety, Bumper, and Theft...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-14

    ... fraud, or the sale of stolen vehicles. For the purposes of this rulemaking, the phrase ``convicted of a... regulations at 49 CFR 571.3. Those type classifications include passenger car, multipurpose passenger vehicle... more than $100 million annually (adjusted for inflation with the base year of 1995). Before...

  16. Dale Bumpers White River National Wildlife Refuge: A Report on Wilderness Character Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is the completed effort of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Wilderness Fellows program to develop a monitoring strategy and evaluate the status of...

  17. Proposal: Dale Bumpers White River NWR Continuous Forest Inventory Data Analysis

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Proposal: : 1) Provide the refuge with a comprehensive status report of forest structure and composition. 2) Evaluate the power of the Continuous Forest Inventory...

  18. Tablular Data: Dale Bumpers White River NWR Continuous Forest Inventory Data Analysis

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Tabular data consists of actual field measurements of CFI Plot Tree metrics collected between 2000-2007. Each plot was measured one type during the survey period.

  19. Using the Language Laboratory (or Rolls Royce Bumpers Make Very Good Bottle Openers).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderplank, Robert N. process within the

    1982-01-01

    The methods and materials used in a language lab (LL) are analyzed. The theoretical advantages of the LL are enumerated, including its ability to provide a variety of programs and activities and its provision of an opportunity for students to listen critically to their voices. In order to determine if these advantages are being used, a set of…

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A BUMPER REFINISHING PLANT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at se...

  1. Dale Bumpers White River NWR Continuous Forest Inventory Data Analysis Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the continuous forest inventory (CFI) being conducted at the refuge and details the analysis of the first refuge-wide sample for the purpose...

  2. Specification for the power supply for injection bumper magnets of the synchrotron accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Crescenti, M; Metzmacher, K; Sermeus, L; CERN. Geneva. AB Department

    2003-01-01

    A synchrotron machine, capable to accelerate either light ions or protons, will be the basic instrument of the CNA (Centro Nazionale di Adroterapia), the medical centre dedicated to the cancer therapy, that will be built in Italy in the near future. The machine complex consists of one proton-carbon-ion linac that will accelerate the particles up to an energy of 7 MeV/u. An injection line will transport them to the synchrotron ring where the injected particles will be accelerated and extracted with an energy ranging from 60 to 250 MeV for protons and from 120 to 400 MeV/u for carbon ions. Fig. 1 shows a preliminary schematic picture of the CNA medical centre.

  3. Specification for the power supply for dump bumper magnets of the synchrotron accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Crescenti, M; Metzmacher, K; Sermeus, L; CERN. Geneva. AB Department

    2003-01-01

    A synchrotron machine, capable to accelerate either light ions or protons, will be the basic instrument of the CNA (Centro Nazionale di Adroterapia), the medical centre dedicated to the cancer therapy, that will be built in Italy in the near future. The machine complex consists of one proton-carbon-ion linac that will accelerate the particles up to an energy of 7 MeV/u. An injection line will transport them to the synchrotron ring where the injected particles will be accelerated and extracted with an energy ranging from 60 to 250 MeV for protons and from 120 to 400 MeV/u for carbon ions. Fig. 1 shows a preliminary schematic picture of the CNA medical centre.

  4. Pemakain Lip Bumper pada Anak Cerebral Palsi dengan Kasus Drooling, Inkompetensi Bibir dan Kebiasaan Menggigit-gigit Bibir Bawah

    OpenAIRE

    Subekti, Ani; Titien, Indah

    2016-01-01

    Latar Belakang. Anak yang menderita cerebral palsi pada umumnya mempunyai keluhan ketidakmampuan dalam pengontrolan saliva dalam rongga mulutnya. Pada kondisi tersebut penderita mengalami ketidaknormalan dalam koordinasi neuromuscular pada lidah, bibir dan pipinya, sehingga hal tersebut dapat menyebabkan drooling. Kebiasaan buruk menggigit-gigit bibir bawah yang terjadi pada anak ini menimbulkan problem inkompetensi bibir. Pendekatan perawatan myofungsional dapat meningkatkan torus otot bibir...

  5. A transcriptomic analysis of American lobster (Homarus americanus) immune response during infection with the bumper car parasite Anophryoides haemophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, K Fraser; Acorn, Adam R; Greenwood, Spencer J

    2013-06-01

    Anophryoides haemophila is an important protistan parasite of American lobster, Homarus americanus, as it has been found to infect lobsters in the wild as well as causing major losses of lobsters maintained in commercial holding facilities. Expression of over 14,500 H. americanus hepatopancreatic genes were monitored during an A. haemophila infection challenge in order to elucidate molecular mechanisms involved in the lobster immune response. One hundred and forty-five genes were found to be differentially expressed during infection. For many genes, this study is the first to link their expression to an immune response to a known lobster pathogen. Several of the genes have previously been linked to crustacean or invertebrate immune response including: several anti-lipopolysaccharide factor isoforms (ALFHa), acute phase serum amyloid protein A (SAA), a serine protease inhibitor, a toll-like receptor, several haemocyanin subunits, phagocyte signaling-impaired protein, vitelline membrane outer layer protein-1, trypsin, and a C-type lectin receptor. Microarray results were verified using RT-qPCR and agreement was good between the two methods. The expression of six ALFHa isoforms was monitored via microarray where ALFHa-1, ALFHa-2, ALFHa-4 and ALFHa-6 were differentially expressed while ALFHa-3 and ALFHa7 were not. RT-qPCR analysis confirmed that ALFHa-1, ALFHA-2 and ALFHa-4 expression increased during infection with a peak at 5-7weeks for ALFHa-1 and 10weeks for ALFHa-2 and ALFHa-4. This suggests that different ALFHa isoforms are temporally expressed during A. haemophila infection. Importantly, these results provide evidence that different ALFHa isoforms have more significant roles in responding to A. haemophila infection. Significant increases in SAA gene expression were also found, corroborating previous findings of increased SAA expression during Aerococcus viridans infections; highlighting the importance of SAA as a marker of H. americanus immune activation and potential indicator of H. americanus health. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. On the Car-Following Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Janez Usenik; Milan Batista

    2012-01-01

    The article deals with bumper-to-bumper driving. A .systemicapproach to car-following (bumper-to-bumper driving)i.s described and the mathematical model has been developedand solved. With this approach an algorithm for analytical andnumerical solutions has been developed.

  7. On the Car-Following Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janez Usenik

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with bumper-to-bumper driving. A .systemicapproach to car-following (bumper-to-bumper drivingi.s described and the mathematical model has been developedand solved. With this approach an algorithm for analytical andnumerical solutions has been developed.

  8. Cymothoa meager isopods and Nerocila acuminata ( Isopoda : cymothoidae ) , ectoparasites of Parapsettus panamensis ( Ephippidae ) , Pacific Bumper ( Carangidae ) and Stellifer ericymba ( Sciaenidae ) Honduras Pacific

    OpenAIRE

    Salgado, Anarda Isabel; Mérida, Julio F. Enrique; Cruz, Gustavo Adolfo

    2015-01-01

    We report the ectoparasitic isopod crustaceans Cymothoa exigua y Nerocila acuminata in fish from the Pacific of Honduras. C. exigua was in the gills and tongue of Parapsettus panamensis and Chloroscombrus orqueta which is a new host record, like Stellifer ericymba which had N. acuminata in the pelvic fins. All specimens are from Golfo de Fonseca: 54 C. exigua and one ovigerous male of N. acuminata.  Se registran los crustáceos isópodos ectoparasitos Cymothoa exigua y Nerocila acuminata, en...

  9. 49 CFR Appendix D to Part 238 - Requirements for External Fuel Tanks on Tier I Locomotives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... plate of the fuel tank shall support a sudden loading of one-half the weight of the car body at a... (half the bumper area) at a height of thirty inches above the rail (standard DOT bumper height). (4...

  10. 32 CFR 1288.5 - Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... validation sticker. (1) One decal will be affixed to the left front bumper (operator's side) of a four-wheel vehicle. An additional decal may be placed on the rear bumper of the vehicle. For vehicles not equipped with bumpers and two-wheeled vehicles, the placement of decals will be determined locally. (2) A 3-year...

  11. F112 フラッシュ X 線を用いた二次デブリ雲の計測

    OpenAIRE

    赤星, 保浩; Yasuhiro, AKAHOSHI; 九工大工; Dept. of Mechanical Eng., Kyushu Institute of Technology

    2002-01-01

    Space debris in orbit is a very serious problem for space development. Because of its high speed, the impact of space debris to manned space vehicles and international space station is very dangerous. The development of the bumper shield is one of the measures for space debris. The performance of the bumper shield depends on the second debris clouds generated after the first bumper shield impact. The state of the second debris clouds is expressed by the mass distribution, the spray angle dist...

  12. DebriSat Hypervelocity Impact Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    data would include fragment size, area-to-mass ratio, density, shape, material composition, optical properties, and radar cross-section...of a multi-shock shield (Fig. 2) which consisted of five separate bumpers. Four bumpers were fiberglass construction and one was steel mesh. Two...only the four fiberglass bumpers for an inflatable module project several years prior to the Debrisat Program. The previous test used a 1.4-cm-diam

  13. Corchorus Corchorus triden L.) PLANT FIBRE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Keywords: Bumper, Plant Fibre, Composite, Epoxy, Impact Test, Drop Weight Test. 1. INTRODUCTION. INTRODUCTION ... absorber made of different materials and configurations [20, 21]. The function of a bumper is to absorb ..... Yang Le, “Life cycle assessment of nanocellulose- reinforced advanced fibre composites”, ...

  14. 75 FR 49879 - Civil Penalties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-16

    ..., bumper standards, and consumer information. 69 FR 57864. On September 8, 2005, the agency adjusted its... agency adjusted penalty amounts for violations of the school bus safety provisions, bumper standards... potentially impacts a number of small businesses including repair businesses, used car dealers, businesses...

  15. 77 FR 71714 - Final Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-04

    ..., passenger cars are subject to safety, bumper, and theft prevention standards; therefore, a passenger car... vehicle type classification (e.g., passenger car, multipurpose passenger vehicle, truck, bus, motorcycle... safety, bumper, and theft prevention standards in effect on the date of manufacture shown above.'' The...

  16. 30 CFR 75.1403-10 - Criteria-Haulage; general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... facilities are provided. No person should ride on any loaded car or on the bumper of any car. However, the brakeman may ride on the rear bumper of the last car of a slow moving trip pulled by a locomotive. (e... need not be used on cars being shifted to and from loading machines, on cars being handled at loading...

  17. History of the Army Ground Forces. Study Number 18. History of the Fourth Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    1946-01-01

    bumper markings as - 24 - .. ----------------------------- . - .- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - fast as ihey were...the radiator of the vehicles. This was used in addition to the standard bumper markings, and proved very satisfactory throughout the remainder of the...separate -4o0- LIP ~ Special Troo s Headquarters to conduct Combat Intelligence Tests for units under their supervision.P By conferences

  18. ST-LO (7 July -19 July 1944)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1946-08-21

    attacks was not let­ ting lip , and German efforts to cOllnterattack had exhausted their small potelltial reserves. The 2d SS Panzer units, as a result of... bumper to bumper , is going through in build-up of th e breakthrough, already pushed as far as Brittany. 127 replacements; Selle 11th Army ellen

  19. Leveraging Multimodal Redundancy for Dynamic Learning, with SHACER - a Speech and HAndwriting reCognizER

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    nition. Systems that augment speech recognition by visually extracted face and lip move- ment features [121] employ an early-fusion approach that...RNs’]) ’Buy_Computer’,[’Buy computer’,’Buycomputer’,’Buycimputer’,’Buyamputer’, ’Buyeimputer’,’Buyamputcr’,’ Bumper ’,’Bumpier’,’ Bumpers ’,’Bumpiest

  20. Hypervelocity impact testing of advanced materials and structures for micrometeoroid and orbital debris shielding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Shannon; Christiansen, Eric L.

    2013-02-01

    A series of 66 hypervelocity impact experiments have been performed to assess the potential of various materials (aluminium, titanium, copper, stainless steel, nickel, nickel/chromium, reticulated vitreous carbon, silver, ceramic, aramid, ceramic glass, and carbon fibre) and structures (monolithic plates, open-cell foam, flexible fabrics, rigid meshes) for micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) shielding. Arranged in various single-, double-, and triple-bumper configurations, screening tests were performed with 0.3175 cm diameter Al2017-T4 spherical projectiles at nominally 6.8 km/s and normal incidence. The top performing shields were identified through target damage assessments and their respective weight. The top performing candidate shield at the screening test condition was found to be a double-bumper configuration with a 0.25 mm thick Al3003 outer bumper, 6.35 mm thick 40 PPI aluminium foam inner bumper, and 1.016 mm thick Al2024-T3 rear wall (equal spacing between bumpers and rear wall). In general, double-bumper candidates with aluminium plate outer bumpers and foam inner bumpers were consistently found to be amongst the top performers. For this impact condition, potential weight savings of at least 47% over conventional all-aluminium Whipple shields are possible by utilizing the investigated materials and structures. The results of this study identify materials and structures of interest for further, more in-depth, impact investigations.

  1. A Reevaluation of the 60% Gradeability Requirement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    HET requirement calls for a gradeability of only 15%. Only the M36A1 then, will exhibit nose-in failure, with the rear bumpers , on a 60% test slope...On a natural slope, however, this bumper v/ould probably clear the ground. The bumpers on any future military vehicle would probably be designed...not subject to hang-up failure, as the track will always contact the lip of the slope, and the vehicle cannot get hung u*>. Figure 5 16

  2. Field Demonstration of a Centrifugal Ultra High Pressure (UHP) P-19

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Forty-five fires were completed using the UHP bumper turret. UHP turret operations averaged 0.019 gallons per square foot ( gsf ) needed to...extinguish the fire as compared to 0.014 gsf observed during the FEET study. Eleven fires were completed using the CAF bumper turret. UHP P-19c CAF turret...operations averaged 0.038 gsf as compared to 0.028 gsf observed during the FEET study. Eleven fires were completed using the Hydro-Chem™ bumper

  3. Influence of Structural Flexibility on the Dynamic Precision of a Vehicle-Mounted Equipment System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-12

    SAE INTERNATIONAL • Adams/ Car Model Rigid Vehicle Model 4 Cargo bed Frame Body mounts Bumper mounts Equipment enclosure...constrained - Bushings that do not have high stiffness UNCLASSIFIED SAE INTERNATIONAL Flexible Vehicle Model 14 Adams/ car

  4. 16 CFR 1632.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... juvenile product pads such as car bed pads, carriage pads, basket pads, infant carrier and lounge pads, dressing table pads, stroller pads, crib bumpers, and playpen pads. See § 1632.8 Glossary of terms, for...

  5. [Space analysis and treatment planning in the mixed dentition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giancotti, F; Pachì, F; Cozza, P; Sciarretta, M G

    1990-01-01

    The maintaining of the space during mixed dentition, allows the patient to obtain a good occlusion, the right growth and facial development. The orthodontist can preserve the space, using simple appliances like the lip bumper and the lingual arch.

  6. Safeguarding a Lunar Rover with Wald's Sequential Probability Ratio Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlong, Michael; Dille, Michael; Wong, Uland; Nefian, Ara

    2016-01-01

    The virtual bumper is a safeguarding mechanism for autonomous and remotely operated robots. In this paper we take a new approach to the virtual bumper system by using an old statistical test. By using a modified version of Wald's sequential probability ratio test we demonstrate that we can reduce the number of false positive reported by the virtual bumper, thereby saving valuable mission time. We use the concept of sequential probability ratio to control vehicle speed in the presence of possible obstacles in order to increase certainty about whether or not obstacles are present. Our new algorithm reduces the chances of collision by approximately 98 relative to traditional virtual bumper safeguarding without speed control.

  7. 29 CFR 1910.176 - Handling materials-general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... limits shall be provided. (f) Rolling railroad cars. Derail and/or bumper blocks shall be provided on spur railroad tracks where a rolling car could contact other cars being worked, enter a building, work...

  8. Evaluating and Enhancing Driving Ability Among Teens with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    today—navigating the GW Parkway, bumper -to- bumper traffic over Roosevelt bridge, and stop-and-go traffic along the Mall to the Museum of Natural...on keeping the car in the correct lane, maintain an appropriate distance from the lead car , and attend to the stoplight ahead, among the many other...operation of a car that taps their abilities while accommodating to their challenges. Virtual Reality Driving Simulation (VRDS) is capable of breaking

  9. Use of Mahalanobis Distance for Detecting Outliers and Outlier Clusters in Markedly Non-Normal Data: A Vehicular Traffic Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    INTRODUCTION People walking, driving cars , and flying airplanes are interacting entities whose behavior is typically purposeful and generally...usually walking on the right of on-coming people, and cars discouraged from passing on the right of a car traveling in the same direction. “Usually...sparse whereas lane-switching is somewhat constrained during bumper -to- bumper rush-hour traffic? If so, this further supports the contention that same

  10. Apollo’s Warriors: United States Air Force Special Operations during the Cold War

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    thousands of troops, trucks, bumper to bumper ! It was a moonlight night, snow on the ground. . . . We flew right down, turned our landing lights on, and...as the New Jersey winter nights. Keeping a stiff upper lip , the 580th historian wrote that the morale of the troops took a sharp drop at the word...need for tight- lipped secrecy failed to impress the passion- ate Cuban exiles. Even Castro had drawn public attention to the exiles then training in

  11. Limited Artificial and Natural Icing Tests Production UH-60A Helicopter (Re-Evaluation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    rubber bumper removed; GCT droop stop (P/N 70105-08051-101) with 300 watt heater; and, GCT droop stop with no heater. A production droop stop...production droop stop without rubber bumper and a GCT droop stop are shown in photographs 5, 6, 7, respectively. Artificial icing test results are summarized...cored passage in the main frame to the front frame splitter lip , then exits to the main frame scroll and is discharged with IPS air. Within the swirl

  12. Army Logistician. Volume 40, Issue 2, March-April 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    warfare equip- ment. The maintenance platoon maintained vehicle dispatch; repaired and recovered human intelligence At left, a Soldier reseals the lip ...which gun truck squad is assigned to the mission, the vehicle bumper numbers, weapon serial numbers, battle roster numbers, and other pertinent...precombat inspections. The S–1 checks the manifest, identification cards and dog tags, weapon serial num- bers, vehicle bumper numbers, and any other sensi

  13. UHF RFID METAL TAG APPLYING TO LICENSE PLATE USING METAL SHIELDING AND WATERTIGHT METHODS

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Gi-Hyun; Cha, Kyoung-Hwan; Bhardwaj, Sachin; Lee, Dae-Seok

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes a design for RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) tag using license plate attached the vehicle bumper in 900 MHz band. The implemented metal tag for a license plate is applied metal shielding method, watertight method of RFID tag, and metal corrosion protection method using silk screen technique. Moreover, its range of the fabricated tag antenna that the license plate and the vehicle bumper were fixed by volt and nut was observed 8.2m. This measured readable range showed...

  14. Environmental Effects on Materials for Space Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-03-01

    The thin-walled booms are protected against accidental damage by a "bumper system". The bumper system comprises pre-crushed HIR-10 Nomex honeycomb ...characteristics of manned space vehicles with respect to satellite projects are: - internal pressurization and environmental control to sustain life of...have been established. INTRODUCTION For future application satellites lifetimes of more than 5 years will be required. One essential premise to meet this

  15. Canine toys and training devices as sources of exposure to phthalates and bisphenol A: quantitation of chemicals in leachate and in vitro screening for endocrine activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooten, Kimberly J; Smith, Philip N

    2013-11-01

    Chewing and mouthing behaviors exhibited by pet dogs are likely to lead to oral exposures to a variety of environmental chemicals. Products intended for chewing and mouthing uses include toys and training devices that are often made of plastics. The goal of the current study was to determine if a subset of phthalates and bisphenol A (BPA), endocrine disrupting chemicals commonly found in plastics, leach out of dog toys and training devices (bumpers) into synthetic canine saliva. In vitro assays were used to screen leachates for endocrine activity. Bumper leachates were dominated by di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and BPA, with concentrations reaching low μg mL(-1) following short immersions in synthetic saliva. Simulated chewing of bumpers during immersion in synthetic saliva increased concentrations of phthalates and BPA as compared to new bumpers, while outdoor storage had variable effects on concentrations (increased DEHP; decreased BPA). Toys leached substantially lower concentrations of phthalates and BPA, with the exception of one toy which leached considerable amounts of diethyl phthalate. In vitro assays indicated anti-androgenic activity of bumper leachates, and estrogenic activity of both bumper and toy leachates. These results confirm that toys and training devices are potential sources of exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals in pet dogs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A comparison of the effects of 2 mandibular anchorage systems used with a 3-dimensional bimetric maxillary distalizing arch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okay, Candan; Gülsen, Ayşe; Keykubat, Alaaddin; Ucem, Tuba Tortop; Yüksel, Sema

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of 2 mandibular anchorage systems used with a 3-dimensional bimetric maxillary distalizing arch. The Wilson rapid molar distalization appliance for Class II molar correction was used with 26 patients; two groups of 13 patients each were formed. In the first group (9 girls, 4 boys with a mean age 11 years 5 months), mandibular anchorage was gained by a modified lip bumper with a standard lingual arch of 0.9-mm stainless steel. The second group (7 girls, 6 boys, with a mean age of 13 years) had a 0.016 x 0.016-inch utility arch, with a 3-dimensional lingual arch for anchorage. Cephalometric radiographs were taken before and after maxillary first molar distalization. The treatment results showed that the extrusion of the mandibular first molar was statistically significant in both the modified lip bumper and utility arch groups (P lip bumper and utility arch groups (P lip bumper group (P lip bumper group (P < .05). Both anchor units similarly enhanced the mandibular first molar anchorage. However, particularly in the utility group, mandibular incisor anchorage control seemed to be inadequate.

  17. Injection Bump Synchronization Study for the CERN PS

    CERN Document Server

    Serluca, Maurizio; Gilardoni, Simone; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    In the framework of the LHC Injector Upgrade (LIU) project the CERN PS injection kinetic energy will be upgraded from 1.4 to 2 GeV. The present injection bump is made by four bumpers in Straight Section (SS) 40, 42, 43, 44 and it will be converted in a five bumpers system to allow additional flexibility in the bump shape with a reduction of the proton losses during the bump closure. The injection section SS42 has being redesigned to accommodate a new eddy current septum which will host a new bumper magnet in the same vacuum vessel due to reduced longitudinal space availability. The synchronization and amplitude variation of the power converter of the in-vacuum bumper 42 with respect to the remaining outside vacuum bumpers 40, 41, 43, 44 can lead to orbit distortion and consequent losses during injection. In this note we present the experimental results from Machine Development (MD) studies along with simulations for the present system at 1.4 GeV to quantify the acceptable orbit distortion and the performance ...

  18. Návrh konstrukce zadního nárazníku osobního vozidla

    OpenAIRE

    Tomeš, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Bakalářská práce se zabývá rešerší problematiky nárazníků osobních automobilů. Soustředí se především na nárazové testy RCAR a v současnosti používané konstrukce nárazníků osobních vozidel. Na základě poznatků z rešerše je navrhován koncept zadního nárazníku k designové studii vozu firmy Swell. The Bachelor thesis deals with search about passenger car bumpers. It focuses especially on RCAR crash tests and currently used constructions of bumpers. There is suggested concept of rear bumper ba...

  19. Hyperpigmentation in the long bones of the lower limbs as a basis for vehicle identification and traffic accident reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisowski, Z; Marek, Z

    1982-01-01

    Following the earlier studies on the identification of injuries in unbroken cranial bones, the described method was adapted for the examination of the long bones in fatal casualties of traffic accidents. Two types of bumper injuries might occur: the bumper was found to cause fracturing of limbs [1], and femoral muscle contusions and microtraumas within compact and spongiose parts in the femoral with subsequent maculate hyperpigmentation [2]. The authors show that the correlation of above mentioned traces of the trauma, facilitates the reconstruction of the accident and also the identification of the vehicle.

  20. CLIVAR Mode Water Dynamics Experiment (CLIMODE), Fall 2006 R/V Oceanus Voyage 434, November 16, 2006-December 3, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    through a Gifford block hung from the A-frame and shackled to the bottom of the swivel. The SBE 37 and MMP bumper stop were clamped onto the wire at 3...jacketing. The bottom cowling covering the connectors was dangling by the deployment line when the MMP came to the surface against the bottom bumper . The...S _ 3 28 29 30 k _____ * 31 33 - 35 37 21 (0 38 Date/Time Comments N ~ ’-U___________________________ lip :~ ~ .1 A I . J’ * 95 PAGE G MOORED STATION

  1. Marine Seismic System Deployment (MSS). Phase 2. Investigation of Techniques and Deployment Scenarios for Installation of Triaxial Seismometer in a Borehole in the Deep Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-09

    WEIGHT DRILL PIPE (3) DRILL COLLARS BUMPER SUBS (2) , 8 (3) DRILL COLLARS Lo w /- EM CABLE - -, - BIP -4 ,REENTRY SUB WITH STINGER & BIP U0 FIGURE 4-5...8217 i \\. I 1 • t ’ --~· I ; l ... ·’ !GEST AVAILABLE . . . COPY ’ U F;4I . k. h jot lip -, 0 - F. j~ .... IrI T~ / ’aw" Vaa Sip . SiT "• ;j...Sheaves -- At-Sea-Test BIP Release Tool - New 1,500 Drill Collar Sub 3,000 Drill String, Bumper Subs, etc. -- DSDP Supplied Lowering Line 15,000 Lowering

  2. Into the Second Century: Memphis Engineer District, 1976-1981

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    MEMPHIS DISTRICT January 1983 Ll Co E B \\\\ ILBY 1928 1931 Co _ B \\\\ HP.RLOE 1945-1 !H7 ((, liP , ,’IVIA’, 1965 1967 \\\\aJ BB SOM ERV ELL 1931 ·1, 33...Representative William Alexander toured the area and again voiced his support for the controversial Cache River Project. Senator Dale Bumpers , who had...Senator Bumpers op- posed the Corps plan and Representative 28 Alexander supported it. Attempting to recon- cile their differences was United States

  3. Qualitative Maintenance Experience Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-10-20

    rubber bumper asserbly which ps a art of the hook shank to "A" frame assembly- This bumber proviees shank centering And absorbs the shock from side...spring. 10. Remove uplock assy (4 nuts and bolts). 11. Remove bumper (4 bolts). INSTALLATION: Reverse of removal, service and rig. FINCTJONAL ’HCH...ccRese raevl osrer.) 1* Di con eck utra(1l. Eneigi.nee WI I TEST MCUIPMENT: External Hydraulic Power CLOSE Lip : 2 Small Doors 1 1 Access Panel

  4. Lip biting in a patient with Chiari type II malformation: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurko, C; Errington, B D; Ben Taylor, W; Henry, R

    1999-01-01

    Self mutilation of lips and tongue is considered a common type of Self-Injurious Behavior (SIB). Treatment of SIB in the form of Lip-Biting in developmentally disabled individuals has been the focus of several related reports using different oral appliances preventing or inhibiting the SIB. In this paper we report a case of SIB in the form of Lip-Biting on an infant with Chiari Type II Malformation which was treated with a Lip-bumper. The Lip-bumper demonstrated to be a viable option in treating transient and acute episodes of SIB involving the lower lip and buccal mucosa.

  5. Relating Images, Concepts, and Words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    teeth pipe stem head of lettuce/cabbage leaf scale engine pod gear teeth lip of a bowl light bulb crotch of a tree neck of an oar/racq.et/bottle... bumper , etc.) house (front/side/back doors/windows) animals (front legs, back legs, sides, head, tail) people (frontal nudity, back, sides, tops of head...1i ... Page 12 back of the rear bumper , or that (if the car were being viewed from the side) that the ball is on the side of the car opposite the

  6. The Design of the Special Magnets for PIMMS/TERA

    CERN Document Server

    Borburgh, J; Fowler, A; Hourican, M; Metzmacher, K D; Sermeus, L

    2004-01-01

    In the framework of a collaboration agreement with the TERA Foundation, CERN provided the design, drawings and engineering specifications for two kickers, one chopper and three bumper magnets as well as three magnetic and two electrostatic septa, power supplies for the electrostatic septa, kickers and bumpers including control electronics for the PIMMS/TERA proton and carbon ion medical synchrotron. The first application will be in the Italian National Centre for Hadrontherapy, to be constructed in Pavia. The main features of the devices are described along with the strategic design choices, directed by the demand for very high reliability and minimum maintenance.

  7. AQUILA Remotely Piloted Vehicle System Technology Demonstrator (RPV-STD) Program. Volume I. System Description and Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-04-01

    the duct lip just Inside the leading edge. The struts are 0.5 in. thick. Molded slots on the fuselage end of the struts permit positioning on and...STARTER MOTORE R BE6- A RN O - (3N 0I ) (057563) BUMPER (695ŕ) Ow )AJMNTAse ly HAPOTT (FOUR PLACES) Flgwe 130. Starter Motor Aebly 274 t . . • ,, i II The...and is stopped by a rubber bumper assembly. To prevent rebound of the tray and starter shaft back into the RPV, a latch is engaged. Finally, a head

  8. Retaining Device for the Interior Structure of a Spacecraft Payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming. Orville N., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    A device denoted as a bumper assembly for a spacecraft payload container comprises an interior structure surrounded by skin or some other protective enclosure (see figure). When arranged with three or more like assemblies, this bumper assembly is designed to secure the interior structure within a payload s protective enclosure during the stresses endured in flight and, if required, recovery of the payload. Furthermore, proper use of this innovation facilitates the ability of designers and engineers to maximize the total placement area for components, thus increasing utilization of very valuable and limited space.

  9. 49 CFR 180.405 - Qualification of cargo tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... specification in accordance with the reporting and record retention provisions of § 180.417. The certification... automatic heat activated means. (B) For a cargo tank used in corrosive service, the remote means of closure... structure of the bumper must be designed in accordance with § 178.345-8(d)(3) of this subchapter. (m...

  10. 76 FR 19179 - Spyker Automobielen B.V.; Receipt of Application for Extension of Temporary Exemption From...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-06

    ... 2000 and has been producing a small number of luxury sports cars since February 2002. On July 6, 2005... part 581, Bumper Standard (70 FR 39007 (July 6, 2005)). This exemption was set to expire on June 15... volume manufacturer of luxury sports cars. Since 2005, Spyker Automobielen B.V. has manufactured less...

  11. Corchorus Corchorus triden L.) PLANT FIBRE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    bumper damage were assessed using a set of criteria as outlined by the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety. (IIHS). Results obtained showed that ... hazards posed during processing and handling [10,. 11]. These shortcomings have made .... ensure homogeneity while being careful that air entrapment is minimized to the ...

  12. GMJ 2009 page 1.pub into PDF.pub

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McBee

    Faults associated with generator, electric control and wheel motors. C. Tyre. Faults associated with all tyres and ... Faults associated with bumper, main support members, drive axle mounting, drive axle alignment, engine ... ing the diagnosis of root cause of breakdowns and providing useful information on optimum stock.

  13. A China Policy for the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    which it is rising are vastly more complex. No bumper sticker suffices to describe a relationship that is simultaneously cooperative and competitive...dismember, weaken, and humiliate China. The admirably stiff upper lip and unwillingness to politicize the Olympics that President Bush has shown in the

  14. Design and Operation of Automated Ice-Tethered Profilers for Real-Time Seawater Observations in the Polar Oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    the bottom end of the tether acts as the other grounding plate. Shock-absorbing spring bumpers are clamped onto the wire at the top and bottom of the...returns to the start of the main loop. [Po-OWESES_ BIaRIZE STARTUMAN LOOP WAKE LIP TONE - Sel 10 -ijm- Ddenwine fla~ arl ISJL (GET GE’S) DETECT STARTS

  15. Advancing under Fire: Wartime Change and the U.S. Military

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    sophistication and functionality. Larger, toothed bumper -like devices fashioned out of scrap iron salvaged from German roadblocks became commonplace...close support” to ground forces that had evolved during World War I. The mission of supporting ground forces was still paid lip service by the Army

  16. Autonomous Military Robotics: Risk, Ethics, and Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-20

    wheeled machines had many of the features of contemporary robots: sensors (photocells for seeking light and bumpers for obstacle detection), a motor...certainly a possibility that organizations may only pay ‘ lip -service’ to the project of robot ethics to appease critics and watchdogs, it does not

  17. Blending Worship for the 21st Century Military Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-13

    kingdom, now and forever. Leader: Lord, open our lips , People: and our mouths shall proclaim your praise. Processional Hymn: “All Creatures of Our God...Drama Sketch: God of Bumper Stickers Choral Reading of Revelation 4:8-11 and 5:11-14 Choir Anthem: “Worthy of Worship” (Congregation joins in on third

  18. The Snackbot: Documenting the Design of a Robot for Long-term Human-Robot Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    Bumpers , sonars, and a SICK laser are used to detect and avoid collisions and to detect position within an environment. A Hokuyo URG laser is...for interaction. The mouth is programmed with a series of animations that show verbal and emotional feedback in the form of lip shapes, colors and

  19. Moral Competence for the Joint Warfighter: The Missing Element in Defense Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    warriors saw no substance behind the finely crafted statements to indicate that they were anything beyond bumper stickers of a new regime. The most...Danner, in his analysis of Abu Ghraib, points to this deficiency by stating that “’ lip -service’ protocols issued by leadership could not combat the

  20. Transforming to a Cost-Management Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-02

    efficient use of our financial resources in a transformed Army culture. Lip service alone will not foster change; without clear, well-defined...like a bumper sticker), and directed toward the needed change. It must 16 be “imaginable, desirable, feasible, focused, flexible, and communicable.”45

  1. Landmines on the Table: A Negotiations Analysis of the Global Campaign to Ban Landmines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    Bryan, Bumpers , Feinstein, Murray, Harkin, Metzenbaum, Bradley, Daschle, 62 Mr. Leahy - Mr. President, many of us have seen photographs like...called on nations to move beyond paying lip service to that objective and to establish a timetable for banning those insidious weapons. He called on

  2. Implementations Strategies for In-Space Macron Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    high strength material (e.g. Kevlar or Nextel).23 Figure 8. Effectiveness of various shielding methods (aluminum bumper and inner wall1.27 and... lip of the nozzle causing the exhaust flow to be bent up to a theoretical limit of 129deg off the axis of the nozzle.53 Figure 32 shows a density

  3. Mandibular arch changes following nonextraction treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring, David T; Pender, Neil; Counihan, Dan

    2005-11-01

    To evaluate mandibular tooth position changes following treatment with a lip bumper and fixed appliance. Specifically, we aimed to determine how space was obtained to align crowded lower incisors. Thirty-four consecutively treated children with a mean age of 10.6 years (SD: 1.14 years) were selected from a specialist orthodontic practice in Eire. All subjects were treated with a lip bumper followed by a fixed appliance. The positions and angulations of the lower first molars and most proclined lower incisor were measured on the pretreatment and post-treatment lateral cephalometric radiographs and study models with a reflex metrograph. The changes were also compared with published growth data. After lip bumper and fixed appliance treatment the mandibular arch depth decreased (Mean difference: 1.2 mm; p lip bumper followed by fixed appliance treatment were to maintain the leeway space, expand the mandibular arch and 'upright' the lower molars. The treatment had no effect on the position of the lower incisors.

  4. Auditory-Visual Context and Memory Retrieval in 3-Month-Old Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daman-Wasserman, Michelle; Brennan, Barbara; Radcliffe, Fiona; Prigot, Joyce; Fagen, Jeffrey

    2006-01-01

    In 3 experiments, 3-month-old infants were trained to move an overhead mobile by kicking 1 of their feet in the presence of a distinctive visual (crib bumpers) and auditory (music) context. In Experiment 1A, 5-day but not 1-day retention was disrupted if either or both elements of the context present during the retention test were novel. In…

  5. Closure and trim design for pedestrian impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, F.; Gaalman, H.; Souren, W.H.M.

    2001-01-01

    To provide protection to pedestrians in collision with passenger vehicles, the design and construction of a vehicle’s bumper, hood and fender panels must be addressed. TNO has undertaken a research project in conjunction with DSM to investigate how this may be done. Vehicle styling, packaging and an

  6. Mud banks of Kerala: Mystery yet to be unveiled!

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DineshKumar, P.K.

    processors and exporters buy up the bumper crop and cash in on the abundance. The formation and behaviour of Mud Banks is a phenomenon unique to the southwest coast of India. They are peculiar in their formation as well as functions. Mud Banks are defi...

  7. Muddy waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DineshKumar, P.K.

    and other fish species. Seafood processors and exporters queue up to buy the bumper crop and cash in on the abundance, and the whole crop is purchased in auction onshore itself. Thus, the mud banks of Kerala have provided bountiful living resources...

  8. The Statistical Irrelevance of American SIGACT Data: Iraq Surge Analysis Reveals Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    bumper sticker, to trademark as a catch phrase, or sell to a population and their representatives. In 2006 the United States (U.S.) public’s...deployed to Iraq, Thailand, Malaysia , and Papua New Guinea serving in both the Infantry and Special Forces. He continues his association with the

  9. Suitability of Recycled Polyethylene/Palm Kernel Shell-Iron Filings Composite for Automobile Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Samotu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A recycling aimed research was carried out to produce a new composite material and proffer suggestion for the possible use of the newly developed composite material. The empty water sachet (commonly called pure water nylon in Nigeria, was used as a matrix, which was reinforced by carbonized palm kernel shell (CPKS particulate and iron fillings. The percentage composition of iron fillings was maintained at 5 wt%, while that of palm kernel shell ash was varied from 5 wt% - 20 wt% at an interval of 5 %. The composites were compounded and compressively moulded. Physical and mechanical properties of the composites were tested for alongside three conventional car bumper samples, and the results obtained shows that the composite material could be used to produce a car bumper among other parts of automobile like dashboard due to their impact strength and low density. Impact strength - density ratio for the materials gave prime information on the possible application of the developed material. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM was used to examine the distribution of the reinforcement within the matrix. After results analysis, materials with 5 wt% of CPKS and that with 10 wt% of CPKS were recommended for the car bumper production following their high impact strength - density ratio of 0.26 and 0.19 respectively, which are higher as compared to that of a conventional bumper material measured alongside the composite materials.

  10. 16 CFR 1633.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... mattress, and juvenile product pads such as car bed pads, carriage pads, basket pads, infant carrier and lounge pads, dressing table pads, stroller pads, crib bumpers, and playpen pads. See § 1633.9 Glossary of... confirmation test on the mattress set it manufactures. (r) Confirmation test means a pre-market test conducted...

  11. 5 CFR 734.306 - Participation in political activities while on duty, in uniform, in any room or building occupied...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... uses her private vehicle to deliver mail may place a political bumper sticker on the vehicle, as long... using a Federal vehicle. 734.306 Section 734.306 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT... occupied in the discharge of official duties, or using a Federal vehicle. (a) An employee may not...

  12. Airborne Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance: Mission Command and Centralized Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-10

    Ewell was the new commander of the Confederate Second Corps, having replaced the fallen Stonewall Jackson . Before the...mass of traffic moving south on the roads in the vicinity of Brehal, Gavray, and Percy . In places transport was moving bumper to bumper…the damage

  13. Effects of reproduction cutting method and hardwood retention on shortleaf pine seed production in natural stands of the Ouachita Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert F. Wittwer; Micahel G. Shelton; James M. Guldin

    2003-01-01

    Shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) seed production was monitored for 4 yr in stands harvested by a range of even- and uneven-aged reproduction cutting methods. The fifty-two 35–40 ac stands were distributed throughout the Ouachita Mountains from central Arkansas to eastern Oklahoma. Seed crops were characterized as good, poor, poor, and bumper,...

  14. Shortleaf pine seed production in natural stands in the Ouachita and Ozark mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael G. Shelton; Robert F. Wittwer

    1996-01-01

    Seed production of shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) was monitored from 1965 to 1974 to determine the periodicity qf seed crops in both woods-run stands and seed-production areas. One bumper and two good seed crops occurred during the 9-yr period. The two largest crops occurred in successive years, then seed production was low for 4 yr before...

  15. Student and Faculty Perceptions of Plus/Minus Grading and Its Effect on Course Grade Point Averages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, Leslie D.; Johnson, Donald M.; Graham, Donna L.; Dixon, Bruce L.

    2014-01-01

    In fall 2005, the Dale Bumpers College of Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences at the University of Arkansas authorized the optional use of a plus/minus grading system. Since 2005, approximately one-half of courses have been graded using plus/minus and one-half using the straight letter grade system. This study examined student (n = 338) and…

  16. Research perspectives overview at DBNRRC to maintain sustainable food security

    Science.gov (United States)

    The research issues that the Dale Bumpers National Rice Research Center (DBNRRC) is addressing for the rice industry and research community are 1) changing rice production practices, 2) diminishing irrigation resources, 3) loss of export markets due to poor quality, 4) emerging high value specialty...

  17. Progress in the paddy field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice feeds around 3.5 billion people and provides a significant proportion of calories for many of the world’s poor. The USA is a major producer and exporter of rice. The USDA/ARS Dale Bumpers National Rice Research Center (DBNRRC) is located in the heart of the southern USA rice growing region in A...

  18. The Cost and Availability of Liability Insurance for Small Business. Hearings before the Committee on Small Business. United States Senate, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session on the Cost and Availability of Liability Insurance for Small Business. Part 2 (February 20 and 21, 1986).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Small Business.

    The text of a Senate Committee on Small Business hearing on the cost and availability of liability insurance for small business is presented in this document. The crisis faced by small business with skyrocketing insurance rates is described in statements by Senators Lowell Weicker, Jr., Robert Kasten, Jr., Dale Bumpers, Paul Trible, Jr., James…

  19. Development of genetic and molecular toolboxes to control both rice blast and sheath blight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice blast and sheath blight diseases are the two major constraints for stable rice production in the Southern USA. New genetic and molecular tool boxes have been developed at the USDA-ARS Dale Bumpers National Rice Research Center. Resistance (major and minor) genes from rice have been identified...

  20. 11 CFR 100.87 - Volunteer activity for party committees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... following conditions are met: (a) Exemption not applicable to general public communication or political..., bill board, direct mail, or similar type of general public communication or political advertising. For... committee of a political party of the costs of campaign materials (such as pins, bumper stickers, handbills...

  1. 78 FR 28190 - Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) 134-Chattanooga, Tennessee; Notification of Proposed Production Activity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ...; electrical connectors; switch sensors; lamps; wiring harnesses; electrical cables; bumpers and parts...). Public comment is invited from interested parties. Submissions shall be addressed to the Board's... the notification will be available for public inspection at the Office of the Executive Secretary...

  2. Smart brake light system would provide more information to drivers

    OpenAIRE

    Trulove, Susan

    2008-01-01

    You are driving in heavy traffic. The brake lights on the car in front of you come on. Is the car slowing or is it going to stop? It slows to 25 mph and the lights go off. You drop back. The car in front of you stops suddenly! You stop just in time. The car behind you collects your rear bumper.

  3. The Rise of Uni-Comm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumpert, Gary

    1975-01-01

    Defines uni-comm as mediated interpersonal behavior which transmits an individual's values to others through the use of nonelectronic media. Specific types of uni-comm such as clothing, hair styles, bumper stickers, graffiti, buttons and decals are discussed. (MH)

  4. 40 CFR 59.503 - What definitions apply to this subpart?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... automotive bumpers and plastic trim parts. Aviation Propeller Coating means a coating designed and labeled exclusively to provide abrasion resistance and corrosion protection for aircraft propellers. Aviation or Marine Primer means a coating designed and labeled exclusively to meet federal specification TT-P-1757...

  5. 26 CFR 1.527-3 - Exempt function income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of political campaign materials, which are not received in the ordinary course of any trade or.... Proceeds from the sale of political memorabilia, bumper stickers, campaign buttons, hats, shirts, political... of money or other property, (ii) Membership dues, fees, or assessments from a member of a political...

  6. 30 CFR 57.9301 - Dump site restraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dump site restraints. 57.9301 Section 57.9301 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... § 57.9301 Dump site restraints. Berms, bumper blocks, safety hooks, or similar impeding devices shall...

  7. 30 CFR 56.9301 - Dump site restraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dump site restraints. 56.9301 Section 56.9301 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... § 56.9301 Dump site restraints. Berms, bumper blocks, safety hooks, or similar impeding devices shall...

  8. Final Design, Special Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Borburgh, J; Fowler, A; Hourican, M; Metzmacher, K; Sermeus, L; CERN. Geneva. AB Department

    2003-01-01

    The final design review for the 5 different Septa and 5 different Bumper, Chopper and Kicker systems is given. The specifications for all items have been finalized and the parameters have been fixed and these are shown in two tables. The present status of each special magnet is reported on.

  9. Jacks--A Study of Simple Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Ralph

    This vocational physics individualized student instructional module on jacks (simple machines used to lift heavy objects) contains student prerequisites and objectives, an introduction, and sections on the ratchet bumper jack, the hydraulic jack, the screw jack, and load limitations. Designed with a laboratory orientation, each section consists of…

  10. Risk Assessment Update: Russian Segment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Eric; Lear, Dana; Hyde, James; Bjorkman, Michael; Hoffman, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    BUMPER-II version 1.95j source code was provided to RSC-E- and Khrunichev at January 2012 MMOD TIM in Moscow. MEMCxP and ORDEM 3.0 environments implemented as external data files. NASA provided a sample ORDEM 3.0 g."key" & "daf" environment file set for demonstration and benchmarking BUMPER -II v1.95j installation at the Jan-12 TIM. ORDEM 3.0 has been completed and is currently in beta testing. NASA will provide a preliminary set of ORDEM 3.0 ".key" & ".daf" environment files for the years 2012 through 2028. Bumper output files produced using the new ORDEM 3.0 data files are intended for internal use only, not for requirements verification. Output files will contain these words ORDEM FILE DESCRIPTION = PRELIMINARY VERSION: not for production. The projectile density term in many BUMPER-II ballistic limit equations will need to be updated. Cube demo scripts and output files delivered at the Jan-12 TIM have been updated for the new ORDEM 3.0 data files. Risk assessment results based on ORDEM 3.0 and MEM will be presented for the Russian Segment (RS) of ISS.

  11. Passenger vehicles sustain huge damage in 5 Mph tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-04-15

    Seventeen new cars, all 1999 and 2000 models, turned in mostly disappointing results in 5 mph crash tests conducted to assess how well the bumpers resist costly damage in the kinds of impacts that frequently occur in commuter traffic and parking lots...

  12. 76 FR 11424 - Notice of Petitions by Firms for Determination of Eligibility To Apply for Trade Adjustment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ... architectural panels, curbs, hand holes, 02351. pull boxes, light bases, and bumper logs. Richards Sheet Metal.../pillow blocks, metal stampings and custom products. ] Martin David, Inc 68-B Winter Street, 11-Feb-11 The...), forming and centrifugal pump machinery Ridgefield, WA 98642. and parts. Precast Specialties 999 Adams...

  13. JPRS Report, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-30

    should also try its output reached a record high, and was the 13th bumper best to purchase famous foreign brand trademarks and harvest year. Based on...documents by mail to their operational units; rades Ji Xu [4764 2485] and Zhou Piao [0719 1753] of these are referred to as unregistered "black

  14. 49 CFR 587.15 - Verification of aluminum honeycomb crush strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Verification of aluminum honeycomb crush strength... Deformable Barrier § 587.15 Verification of aluminum honeycomb crush strength. The following procedure is used to ascertain the crush strength of the main honeycomb block and the bumper element honeycomb, as...

  15. The influence of passenger car front shape on pedestrian injury risk observed from German in-depth accident data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guibing; Lyons, Mathew; Wang, Bingyu; Yang, Jikuang; Otte, Dietmar; Simms, Ciaran

    2017-04-01

    Quantified relationships between passenger car front shape and pedestrian injury risk derived from accident data are sparse, especially considering the significant recent changes in car front design. The purpose of this paper is therefore to investigate the detailed effects of passenger car front shape on injury risk to a pedestrian's head, thorax, pelvis and leg in the event of a vehicle pedestrian impact. Firstly, an accident sample of 594 pedestrian cases captured during 2000-2015 from the German In-Depth Accident Study (GIDAS) database was employed. Multicollinearity diagnostic statistics were then used to detect multicollinearity between the predictors. Following this, logistic regression was applied to quantify the effects of passenger car front shape on injury risks while controlling for impact speed and pedestrian age. Results indicate that the bumper lower depth (BLD), bumper lower height (BLH), bumper upper height (BUH) and normalised bumper lower/upper height (NBLH/NBUH) are statistically significant for AIS2+ leg injury risk. The normalised bonnet leading edge height (NBLEH) has a statistically significant influence on AIS2+ femur/pelvis injury occurrence. The passenger car front shape did not show statistical significance for AIS3+ thorax and head injuries. The impact speed and pedestrian age are generally significant factors influencing AIS2+ leg and pelvis injuries, and AIS3+ thorax and head injuries. However, when head impacts are fixed on the central windscreen region both pedestrian age and impact speed are not statistically significant for AIS3+ head injury. For quantified effects, when controlling for speed, age and BUH, an average 7% and 6% increase in AIS2+ leg injury odds was observed for every 1cm increase in BLD and BLH respectively; 1cm increase in BUH results in a 7% decrease in AIS2+ leg injury odds when the BLD or BLH are fixed respectively (again controlling for impact speed and pedestrian age); the average AIS2+ femur/pelvis injury

  16. Pedestrian Injuries By Source: Serious and Disabling Injuries in US and European Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallory, Ann; Fredriksson, Rikard; Rosén, Erik; Donnelly, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    US and European pedestrian crash cases were analyzed to determine frequency of injury by body region and by the vehicle component identified as the injury source. US pedestrian data was drawn from the Pedestrian Crash Data Study (PCDS). European pedestrian data was drawn from the German In-Depth Accident Study (GIDAS). Results were analyzed in terms of both serious injury (AIS 3+) and disabling injury estimated with the Functional Capacity Index (FCI). The results are presented in parallel for a more complete international perspective on injuries and injury sources. Lower extremity injury from bumper impact and head&face injury from windshield impact were the most frequent combinations for both serious and disabling injuries. Serious lower extremity injuries from bumper contact occurred in 43% of seriously injured pedestrian cases in US PCDS data and 35% of European GIDAS cases. Lower-extremity bumper injuries also account for more than 20% of disability in both datasets. Serious head &face injuries from windshield contact occur in 27% of PCDS and 15% of GIDAS serious injury cases. While bumper impacts primarily result in lower extremity injury and windshield impacts are most often associated with head & face injuries, the hood and hood leading edge are responsible for serious and disabling injuries to a number of different body regions. Therefore, while it is appropriate to focus on lower extremity injury when studying bumper performance and on head injury risk when studying windshield impact, pedestrian performance of other components may require better understanding of injury risk for multiple body regions. PMID:23169112

  17. Impact Characteristic According to the Structure of Crash Box at the Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min B.S.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The crash box between a bumper and a car body in automobiles can reduce impacts for car bodies with a bumper at a low-speed collision by preventing the shocks. Also, this crash box is the part playing a very important role for the safety of vehicle and the reduction of repair cost, and many studies have been investigated for the performance. In this study, aluminum foam was inserted in an aluminum crash box to analyze the relationships of deformation, stress and internal energy. The compression characteristics are compared with six cases. In addition, the load due to displacement at experiment for a case is verified by modeling with finite elements and performing the structural analysis. As these study results for investigating characteristics of the crash box, it is thought that the effective designs of crash box to enhance the durability for collision are made possible.

  18. Detecting and extracting identifiable information from vehicles in videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roheda, Siddharth; Kalva, Hari; Naik, Mehul

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents a system to detect and extract identifiable information such as license plates, make, model, color, and bumper stickers present on vehicles. The goal of this work is to develop a system that automatically describes a vehicle just as a person would. This information can be used to improve traffic surveillance systems. The presented solution relies on efficient segmentation and structure of license plates to identify and extract information from vehicles. The system was evaluated on videos captures on Florida highways and is expected to work in other regions with little or no modifications. Results show that license plate was successfully segmented 92% of the cases, the make and the model of the car were segmented out and in 93% of the cases and bumper stickers were segmented in 92.5% of the cases. Over all recognition accuracy was 87%.

  19. International Space Station (ISS) Meteoroid/Orbital Debris Shielding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Eric L.

    1999-01-01

    Design practices to provide protection for International Space Station (ISS) crew and critical equipment from meteoroid and orbital debris (M/OD) Impacts have been developed. Damage modes and failure criteria are defined for each spacecraft system. Hypervolocity Impact -1 - and analyses are used to develop ballistic limit equations (BLEs) for each exposed spacecraft system. BLEs define Impact particle sizes that result in threshold failure of a particular spacecraft system as a function of Impact velocity, angles and particle density. The BUMPER computer code Is used to determine the probability of no penetration (PNP) that falls the spacecraft shielding based on NASA standard meteoroid/debris models, a spacecraft geometry model, and the BLEs. BUMPER results are used to verify spacecraft shielding requirements Low-weight, high-performance shielding alternatives have been developed at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) Hypervelocity Impact Technology Facility (HITF) to meet spacecraft protection requirements.

  20. Non extraction short-term arch changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, F; Perillo, L; Ferro, A

    2004-01-01

    to examine the Cetlin protocol for short-term dentoalveolar changes in the sagittal and transversal planes in non-extraction treatment. eighty patients with Class II, div.1 malocclusion treated with the Cetlin protocol, comprising upper distalizing plate, extraoral traction, and lower lip bumper. Dental study models were examined before treatment and after molar Class II correction during which upper molars were mechanically distalized, distobuccally rotated and expanded. the upper arch perimeter increased significantly. The lip bumper produced functional expansion of the lower arch, especially in the transverse plane, with an important increase in the arch perimeter. in the short-term, the Cetlin protocol made the following improvements: 1) molar correction, 2) resolution or improvement of crowding, 3) space recovery in both arches for leveling the curve of Spee and final adjustments. Further improvements in intercuspation can be made, if necessary, by fixed appliance therapy.

  1. Coaxial tube array space transmission line characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switzer, Colleen A.; Bents, David J.

    1987-01-01

    The coaxial tube array tether/transmission line used to connect an SP-100 nuclear power system to the space station was characterized over the range of reactor-to-platform separation distances of 1 to 10 km. Characterization was done with respect to array performance, physical dimensions and masses. Using a fixed design procedure, a family of designs was generated for the same power level (300 kWe), power loss (1.5 percent), and meteoroid survival probability (99.5 percent over 10 yr). To differentiate between vacuum insulated and gas insulated lines, two different maximum values of the E field were considered: 20 kV/cm (appropriate to vacuum insulation) and 50 kV/cm (compressed SF6). Core conductor, tube, bumper, standoff, spacer and bumper support dimensions, and masses were also calculated. The results of the characterization show mainly how transmission line size and mass scale with reactor-to-platform separation distance.

  2. AGV guidance by fiber optic tactility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djordjevich, Alexandar; Tso, Shiu K.; Zhu, H. Y.; Pjevalica, V.

    1999-11-01

    In order to increase the tactile sensing range and allow larger AGV speeds that result in larger vehicle stopping distances, the recently reported fiber-optic 'curvature gauges' sensitized to their geometric curvature are arranged in loops around the AGV. When the AGV is driven into other objects, these loops deform, resulting in the change of their curvature - which is registered. While many different types of bumpers and whiskers have been sued in the past for a similar purpose, the key difference here is that no intermediate mechanical elements are employed to either transfer the impact loads onto the sensitive element or provide compliance to it. Optical fibers themselves provide both functions simultaneously. As a result, tactility is achieved within a comparatively large range extending over 10 cm. Throughout this range, virtually no reaction forces are generated with the impacting body. The range mentioned is on top of the one provided by the more traditional elastic bumper the optical fibers are mounted on.

  3. Identitetsonani

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Jagten på identitet fordrer endeløse selvmanifestationer. Men de hjælper os ikke til at kaste anker i omverdenen; vi bumper bare ind i den i forsøget på at finde os selv. I længden bliver det tomt, og så tager længslen efter fællesskab til......Jagten på identitet fordrer endeløse selvmanifestationer. Men de hjælper os ikke til at kaste anker i omverdenen; vi bumper bare ind i den i forsøget på at finde os selv. I længden bliver det tomt, og så tager længslen efter fællesskab til...

  4. Design and Development of Kickers and Septa for Medaustron

    CERN Document Server

    Borburgh, J; Barnes, M J; Fowler, T; Hinterschuster, F; Hourican, M; Kramer, T; Palm, M; Prost, A; Sermeus, L; Stadlbauer, T

    2010-01-01

    The MedAustron facility, to be built in Wiener Neustadt (Austria), will provide protons and ions for both cancer therapy and research. Different types of bumpers, septa and kickers will be used in the low energy beam transfer line, the synchrotron and the high energy extraction lines.They are presently being designed in collaboration with CERN. Both 2D and 3D finite element simulations have been carried out to verify and optimize the field strength and homogeneity for each type of magnet and, where applicable, the transient field response. The detailed designs for the injection and dump bumpers, the magnetic septa and the fast chopper dipoles are presented. A novel design for the electrostatic septa is outlined.

  5. JPRS Report, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-11-08

    have passed since then. Formerly that is truly able to exert macroeconomic regulation and people said that "when radishes are selling fast, one need...preparing the entire initial stage of socialism, but as far as each year to fully draw in the technologies radiating from Shanghai of the plan period...soil, red soil and The increase was partly attributed to last year’s bumper mountain soil, as well as the amount of nitrogen and grain harvest, which

  6. Slipped Upper Femoral Epiphysis – A Case of a ‘Dodgem Hip’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thavarajah, Dushan; Maroju, Raja Sekhar; Narayanaswamy, Lokesh

    2009-01-01

    A 15 year old male patient of slim habitus presented three times over 3 days to the emergency department. Four weeks prior to the first attendance, he apparently injured his left knee in a sudden jolt whilst going on a ‘bumper car’ (dodgems) at a funfair. Since this incident, he had walked with a limp due to the pain in his left knee. He had sustained a slipped upper femoral epiphysis (SUFE) through this unusual mechanism of injury. PMID:19833009

  7. Slipped upper femoral epiphysis--a case of a 'dodgem hip'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thavarajah, Dushan; Maroju, Raja Sekhar; Narayanaswamy, Lokesh

    2009-10-01

    A 15-year-old male patient of slim habitus presented three times over 3 days to the emergency department. Four weeks prior to the first attendance, he apparently injured his left knee in a sudden jolt whilst going on a 'bumper car' (dodgems) at a funfair. Since this incident, he had walked with a limp due to the pain in his left knee. He had sustained a slipped upper femoral epiphysis (SUFE) through this unusual mechanism of injury.

  8. SATURN (Situational Awareness Tool for Urban Responder Networks)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    section around a rear tire or the front bumper . The underlying feature is based on Histograms of Oriented Gradients (HoG) [5], but formulated at...characterized by 15 perceptual colors commonly used for describing cars in classified ads. A set of MATLAB-based tools was developed to establish...appear on the map view and are denoted by either car or person icons. If conducted with an incident, search results may be further shared among

  9. External tank space debris considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfer, N.; Baillif, F.; Robinson, J.

    1992-01-01

    Orbital debris issues associated with maintaining a Space Shuttle External Tank (ET) on orbit are presented. The first issue is to ensure that the ET does not become a danger to other spacecraft by generating space debris, and the second is to protect the pressurized ET from penetration by space debris or meteoroids. Tests on shield designs for penetration resistance showed that when utilized with an adequate bumper, thermal protection system foam on the ET is effective in preventing penetration.

  10. Critical Evaluation of Low-Energy Collision Damage Theories and Design Methodologies. Volume II. Literature Search and Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-07-01

    certain components in au tomobi les . These simp le methods appear pr omis ing f or the prel iminary design of bumpers , d oors and internal energy absorb...s i r e Couuuunii t , - , I ’ s i h . ,- \\ 117 ~ 3055 . SEC— lIP . 30. Hivw ot -n ui , J. IL , “ ,\\ T h n e t - s r u - t i~ ’ n 1 S r i c ’ c n n

  11. John Day Lock and Dam Juvenile Fish Bypass System, Columbia River, Oregon-Washington. Supplement No. 3 to General Letter Report, Transportation Conduit and Outfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-01

    removed. A bumper will be installed on the downstream side of the existing tracks by the Contractor. 10.07 BPA Substation. The Bonneville Power...8217i. f 3’l."l.. • • ’to ) !D.l. ! ~ ~ ~ II: f’I.G. ’ lfi.t. ’l’/.(, ’Mil ,,,, 9t; HY-(, • • 46 1240 • .. · h 1:_ !:. I : ". ’ lip

  12. Energy and Process Optimization and Benchmarking of Army Industrial Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    may electroplate door handles and small fittings, generating a large volume of parts annually. A second plant may coat bumpers and body moldings...of which are Layed Away In Place ( LIP ). This equipment is shut down and locked out in its current location with proper documentation. This practice...should it ever be needed to be placed back in operation. Before the LIP program, RIA designed and modified some of its existing furnaces in the

  13. The Coast Artillery Journal. Volume 71, Number 4, October 1929

    Science.gov (United States)

    1929-10-01

    scycral months of hal’ll work and wc W(,I’C all YCIT happy to dcall lip thc gUlls and" call it allay." FIGs. 6 AXD 7 FIG. 8 SU)DL\\RY OF SALIEXT Poe,TS...Pleased to see him, we kept bumperizing till after roll-calling, Sir Thomas assuring us, aftcr every frE’sh bottle, how infinitely sol)(’r hc was grown

  14. Leeway space and the resolution of crowding in the mixed dentition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianelly, A A

    1995-09-01

    The leeway space provides adequate space to resolve crowding that is present in the mixed dentition in the majority of individuals. This space can be maintained by preserving arch length with a lingual arch as the primary teeth begin to exfoliate, unless conditions such as the premature loss of a primary canine require earlier intervention. A lip bumper can also be inserted after the eruption of the first premolars to preserve arch length.

  15. Development of Intelligent Unmanned Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    vehicle, and other people, buildings, and cars could be damaged. The OD algorithm receives raw range data from the LADAR at the bumper level. The OD...messages. The actual core software to support the JAUS messaging system was developed and tested extensively. At the highest level, the architecture...decision-making. The Center for Intelligent Machines and Robotics’ (CIMAR) NAVIGATOR AGV emerged as the primary field- testing platform for the current

  16. An Intelligent Robot Programing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Seong Yong

    2012-01-15

    This book introduces an intelligent robot programing with background of the begging, introduction of VPL, and SPL, building of environment for robot platform, starting of robot programing, design of simulation environment, robot autonomy drive control programing, simulation graphic. Such as SPL graphic programing graphical image and graphical shapes, and graphical method application, application of procedure for robot control, robot multiprogramming, robot bumper sensor programing, robot LRF sencor programing and robot color sensor programing.

  17. Calibration of BPCE.41801 and SPS extraction bump in LSS4

    CERN Document Server

    Catalan-Lasheras, N; Jones, O R; Papis, J P; Wenninger, J; CERN. Geneva. AB Department

    2003-01-01

    The Large aperture stripline coupler beam position monitor BPCE.41801 was calibrated using the LHC beam in the SPS for different proton intensities corresponding to different MOPOS gains. A polynomial correction of the data provided a correction on the absolute position to the 0.5 mm level in the large range of interest. The powering of the newly installed extraction bumper system was then checked against this monitor.

  18. DebriSat Laboratory Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-05

    sheets • COPV tank pressurized to 2 torr with air • Optics : SiO2, sapphire • Solenoids : Cu • Stainless Steel (316, 304) : Fe, Cr, Ni • Printed...Looking up range. Solar panels - undeployed Point of impact Soft catch panels SBU Marking Nadir / Under Side 13 Spectrometer Baffle (Bay 3) Optical ...was primarily designed to catch the projectile. • Multi-shock shield supplied by NASA. • Multiple bumper panels of fiberglass , stainless steel mesh and

  19. Vertical and Horizontal Forces: A Framework for Understanding Airpower Command and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-22

    41. 13Momyer, Airpower in Three Wars, 95. 6 overall centralization of airpower.14 In 1943, the Army and its Air Corps included the following line ...while airpower slowed enemy arms flow to the front lines . North Korea was forced to use its resources faster than it could replenish them. 5AF, the...outdated bumper sticker tenet that no longer captures everything that is important when it comes to airpower C2.117 The philosophy should emphasize

  20. POBAL-S, The Analysis and Design of a High Altitude Airship

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-02-15

    Alu m. Tu bin g 9Honeycomb Bass Honeycomb Bumper LINParachute Box A Radiator ( Below Base) Figure 5.5 Gondola. 74 I f~nll.oon A1in- Load Paitc~h Lcpad... lip ) at a speed of 1050 rad/s (10,000 rpm). The current drain is 60 A steady state at 30 VDC and 72A while starting.* The start-up time of the motor

  1. Changing the Western Alliance in the South Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-05-01

    Aniy fr ieiid- lip it l1iue i ntLe r e sts. New Zealand demands the: r iyltt t-, be heard dr ’Uidd the worlid, she diriaiild:i the x iylit Lu ’eteriie...34 Bumper Crop of Resentment amotiq the Wese.-rri Allies", Washington Times "Insight" magazine, 8 September 1986, Vol 2, No 36, pp. 1.3-15. Knibb, David

  2. Friday Harbor Marina Expansion Study--San Juan Island, Washington: Final Detailed Project Report and Environmental Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-01

    INAS CTR i A ROK IWN ANT-7 I lIp , 0 OFNA TSPICA L TA PLA TYPICALL THROGHOU SECTION C-C SCALE l I ICUANFER ALL. EAPESED 11/2I.O SQUAAE COMPRESSIBLE EM YIA...Supervision and Administration 6,000 TOTAL FIRST COST $88,000 2. Tieup Facilities - Local Cost Bumpers BFM. 8,800 $1.75 15,400 Anchors Bolts 3/4" EA. 1,680

  3. Analysis of a Compressible Fluid Soft Recoil (CFSR) Concept Applied to a 155 MM Howitzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-03-01

    which is being expanded IS 7r(b -a^) LiPs where pg is the density of the material. One equation of motion becomes V- h2-;i2 + Vj / (22) Where...of the piston at this point is very low about 17 8 mm/sec (0.7 in./sec) . A bumper pad of this type should probably be added in any case. 36

  4. Design Review, Special Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Borburgh, J; Fowler, A; Hourican, M; Metzmacher, K; Sermeus, L; CERN. Geneva. AB Department

    2003-01-01

    The status of the design review for the 5 different Septa and 5 different Bumper, Chopper and Kicker systems is given. The specifications for all items have been reviewed and the parameters have been fixed and these are shown in five tables. In some cases the operational requirements are not completely fixed and optional pulsed power supplies are proposed to cope with most situations. The present status of each special magnet is reported on.

  5. Multiple-foil microabrasion package (A0023)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcdonnell, J. A. M.; Ashworth, D. G.; Carey, W. C.; Flavill, R. P.; Jennison, R. C.

    1984-01-01

    The specific scientific objectives of this experiment are to measure the spatial distribution, size, velocity, radiance, and composition of microparticles in near-Earth space. The technological objectives are to measure erosion rates resulting from microparticle impacts and to evaluate thin-foil meteor 'bumpers'. The combinations of sensitivity and reliability in this experiment will provide up to 1000 impacts per month for laboratory analysis and will extend current sensitivity limits by 5 orders of magnitude in mass.

  6. HVI Ballistic Performance Characterization of Non-Parallel Walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohl, William; Miller, Joshua; Christiansen, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The Double-Wall, "Whipple" Shield [1] has been the subject of many hypervelocity impact studies and has proven to be an effective shield system for Micro-Meteoroid and Orbital Debris (MMOD) impacts for spacecraft. The US modules of the International Space Station (ISS), with their "bumper shields" offset from their pressure holding rear walls provide good examples of effective on-orbit use of the double wall shield. The concentric cylinder shield configuration with its large radius of curvature relative to separation distance is easily and effectively represented for testing and analysis as a system of two parallel plates. The parallel plate double wall configuration has been heavily tested and characterized for shield performance for normal and oblique impacts for the ISS and other programs. The double wall shield and principally similar Stuffed Whipple Shield are very common shield types for MMOD protection. However, in some locations with many spacecraft designs, the rear wall cannot be modeled as being parallel or concentric with the outer bumper wall. As represented in Figure 1, there is an included angle between the two walls. And, with a cylindrical outer wall, the effective included angle constantly changes. This complicates assessment of critical spacecraft components located within outer spacecraft walls when using software tools such as NASA's BumperII. In addition, the validity of the risk assessment comes into question when using the standard double wall shield equations, especially since verification testing of every set of double wall included angles is impossible.

  7. Materials analysis of TEXTOR limiter tiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerner, R.; Mills, B. E.; Wallura, E.; Walsh, D. S.; Chevalier, G.; Conn, R. W.; Dippel, K. H.; Doyle, B. L.; Esser, H. G.; Finken, K. H.; Gray, D.; Hirooka, Y.; Koizlik, K.; Miyahara, A.; Moyer, R. A.; Watkins, J. G.; Winter, J.

    1990-12-01

    Graphite tiles from both the ALT-II and inner-bumper limiters were removed from TEXTOR and subjected to materials analysis. Scanning-electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis were performed at the Institut für Reaktorwerkstoffe, Forschungszentrum Julich. Deuterium profiles and metallic contamination were examined using external ion beam analysis at Sandia National Laboratory-Albuquerque. The erosion and hydrogen recycling of the tiles, while subjected to plasma bombardment, were studied at University of California, Los Angeles. In-situ analysis of the inner-bumper limiter tiles was performed by Sandia National Laboratory-Livermore using beta backscattering. Results indicate low metallic impurity concentration on the surfaces of both types of tiles. Increased metallic concentration coincides with regions of increased plasma flux to the surface. The ALT-II tiles exhibit a uniformly eroded surface. The inner-bumper limiter tiles show both eroded and redeposited regions, in agreement with power deposition measurements to the tiles in TEXTOR. The redeposited regions show enhanced erosion and recycling when exposed to controlled plasma bombardment.

  8. Gastrostomy use in children: a 3-year single centre experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Biervliet, S; Van Renterghem, K; Vande Putte, D; Vande Velde, S; De Bruyne, R; Van Winckel, M

    2014-03-01

    Monocentric retrospective paediatric study describing indications for gastrostomy and major complications, compared to literature data as part of a quality check. Records of all gastrostomy patients consulting at the UZ Ghent paediatric gastro-enterology department between January 2007-December 2009 were reviewed in December 2010 regarding indication, age and weight at tube insertion, insertion method, major complications and current gastrostomy tube type. 178 patients were included of which 165 (93%) were placed using the endoscopic pull technique, the others were placed surgically (n = 13). Neurodevelopmental disability with oral motor dysfunction was the major indication (113, 63%). Other indications were failure to thrive due to concomitant disease (65, 37%). Median age at tube insertion was 3yr (interquartile range (IQR) 0.6-9) with median tube time of 3.9 yr (IQR 1.9-7.2). Immediate complications were 1 peritonitis and 1 post-insertion fever episode. Late complications (10, 5.6%) were 1 gastrocolic fistula, 1 dislocation and 8 buried bumpers after 4 yr (range 35-10.4) of tube insertion. The incidence of buried bumper increased significantly with increasing PEG tube time (P bumper is associated to prolonged PEG tube use. In case of important GORD laparoscopic Nissen procedure and PEG placement can be performed simultaneously without increasing complication rate.

  9. Rapid detection and identification of pedestrian impacts using a distributed sensor network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Andrew C.; Chang, Fu-Kuo

    2005-05-01

    Pedestrian fatalities from automobile accidents often occur as a result of head injuries suffered from impacts with an automobile front end. Active pedestrian protection systems with proper pedestrian recognition algorithms can protect pedestrians from such head trauma. An investigation was conducted to assess the feasibility of using a network of piezoelectric sensors mounted on the front bumper beam of an automobile to discriminate between impacts with "pedestrian" and "non-pedestrian" objects. This information would be used to activate a safety device (e.g., external airbag or pop-up hood) to provide protection for the vulnerable pedestrian. An analytical foundation for the object-bumper impact problem will be presented, as well as the classical beam impact theory. The mechanical waves that propagate in the structure from an external impact contain a wealth of information about the specifics of a particular impact -- object mass, size, impact speed, etc. -- but most notably the object stiffness, which identifies the impacted object. Using the frequency content of the sensor signals, it can be shown that impacts with a "pedestrian" object of varying size, weight, and speed can be easily differentiated from impacts with other "non-pedestrian" objects. Simulation results will illustrate this phenomenon, and experimental tests will verify the results. A comprehensive series of impact tests were performed for validation, using both a stationary front bumper with a drop-pendulum impactor and a moving car with stationary impact objects. Results from both tests will be presented.

  10. Correlation between Exposure to Bomechanical Stress and Whiplash Associated Disorders (WAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William HM Castro

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most discussed questions in WAD is: can an injury of the cervical spine occur in low velocity collisions? Before this question can be answered, the term 'low velocity' and the kind of collisions must first be defined. From the study of Meyer et al. (1994 it is known that the speed change due to collision, Dv, is a suitable parameter to express the biomechanical stress acting on a person in a car collision. This study also showed that from a biomechanical point of view, a bumper car collision is comparable to a normal car collision. In the case of a rear-end collision, Meyer et al. found that the biomechanical stress acting on persons exposed to bumper car collisions (Dv at a fun fair in Germany can be as high as 15 km/h. In literature, one case could be found of an 8-year-old girl with 'whiplash' after being exposed to a bumper car collision at a fun fair (Kamieth 1990. In the Netherlands, a 13-year survey of persons who were admitted to emergency units of hospitals by the 'Consument en Veiligheid' foundation, showed 14 persons with WAD complaints after being exposed to bumper car collisions at a fun fair. In comparison to the enormous amounts of bumper car collisions, these figures are negligible. With regard to these data, one could argue that low velocity collisions can be defined as those where Dv is below 15 km/h. However, it should be noted that the kind of collision is important. From the work of Becke et al. (1999 and Becke and Castro (2000, we know that in side collisions with a Dv of just 3 km/h, head contact with the side window of the car is possible; it can be expected that in such cases the cervical spine will also be exposed to some biomechanical stress (notice however, that not every head contact is automatically equal to an injury of the cervical spine!. In conclusion, before using expressions like 'low velocity collisions', its definition with regard to Dv as well as the kind of collision, has to be discussed. With

  11. DP 600 steel research of dynamic testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mihaliková

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic tensile testing of sheet steels is becoming more important due to the need for more optimized vehicle crashworthiness analysis in the automotive industry. For generating data in dynamic conditions, was using different assay techniques. DP (dual phase steel is suitable for large complicated shape such as fenders, doors, bumpers and roofs. For experiments was used two testing method servo hydraulic and single bar method. Experiments were realized on steel grade DP 600. Steel were performed and evaluated static and dynamic tests. Microstructure and substructure in static and dynamic loading conditions was investigated.

  12. Diseases of American lobsters (Homarus americanus): a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawthorn, Richard J

    2011-01-01

    The American lobster fishery is a significant economic driver in coastal communities of North America. Increasingly, the impacts of infectious disease are recognized as important components and factors in the population ecology and subsequent management of the lobster fishery. Both environmental and anthropogenic factors impact marine diseases. The review herein highlights aspects of several important bacterial, fungal and protistan diseases, including gaffkemia, shell disease, vibriosis, disease caused by species of Lagenidium, Haliphthoros and Fusarium, paramoebiasis and Bumper Car disease. As the global environment continues to change, these diseases could more severely affect both wild caught and impounded lobsters. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Engine Systems Ownership Cost Reduction - Aircraft Propulsion Subsystems Integration (APSI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-08-01

    4343 A Figure 4.2.10--1. Comparison of Cas Flowpath for Co-Rotating Versus Counter- Rotating Engine lip and LP Shafts. 100 - - iI Teledyne CAE Report...requirement for an oil reservoir. In the case of the expendable oil system, the oil mist from the lip turbine bearing would be dumped into the LI’ turbine...span bumper bearing to alter the shaft critical speed. Using the cost and weight studies performed on the baseline engine and scaled versions of half

  14. Treatment of a severe arch-length deficiency with anteroposterior and transverse expansion: long-term stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabri, Roy

    2010-03-01

    This article describes the nonextraction treatment of a girl in the late mixed dentition with a severe arch-length deficiency. Rapid maxillary expansion and molar distalization were combined with a lip bumper in the mandible, followed by fixed appliances. Although the literature has reported a high rate of relapse with this method of treatment, excellent stability was achieved at 5 years 3 months posttreatment. The merits of extraction vs nonextraction treatment and stability are discussed. 2010 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Transverse dimension and long-term stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanarsdall, R L

    1999-09-01

    This article emphasizes the critical importance of the skeletal differential between the width of the maxilla and the width of the mandible. Undiagnosed transverse discrepancy leads to adverse periodontal response, unstable dental camouflage, and less than optimal dentofacial esthetics. Hundreds of adult retreatment patients corrected for significant maxillary transverse deficiency using surgically assisted maxillary expansion (similar to osseous distraction) has produced excellent stability. Eliciting tooth movement for children (orthopedics, lip bumper, Cetlin plate) in all three planes of space by muscles, eruption, and growth, develops the broader arch form (without the mechanical forces of fixed or removable appliances) and has also demonstrated impressive long term stability.

  16. Multi-Shock Shield Performance at 15 MJ for Catalogued Debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J. E.; Davis, B. A.; Christiansen, E. L.; Lear, D. M.

    2015-01-01

    While orbital debris of ten centimeters or more are tracked and catalogued, the difficulty of finding and accurately accounting for forces acting on the objects near the ten centimeter threshold results in both uncertainty of their presence and location. These challenges result in difficult decisions for operators balancing potential costly operational approaches with system loss risk. In this paper, the assessment of the feasibility of protecting a spacecraft from this catalogued debris is described using numerical simulations and a test of a multi-shock shield system against a cylindrical projectile impacting normal to the surface with approximately 15 MJ of kinetic energy. The hypervelocity impact test has been conducted at the Arnold Engineering Development Complex (AEDC) with a 598 g projectile at 6.905 km/s on a NASA supplied multi-shock shield. The projectile used is a hollow aluminum and nylon cylinder with an outside diameter of 8.6 cm and length of 10.3 cm. Figure 1 illustrates the multi-shock shield test article, which consisted of five separate bumpers, four of which are fiberglass fabric and one of steel mesh, and two rear walls, each consisting of Kevlar fabric. The overall length of the test article was 2.65 m. The test article was a 5X scaled-up version of a smaller multi-shock shield previously tested using a 1.4 cm diameter aluminum projectile for an inflatable module project. The distances represented by S1 and S1/2 in the figure are 61 cm and 30.5 cm, respectively. Prior to the impact test, hydrodynamic simulations indicated that some enhancement to the standard multi-shock system is needed to address the effects of the cylindrical shape of the projectile. Based on the simulations, a steel mesh bumper has been added to the shield configuration to enhance the fragmentation of the projectile. The AEDC test occurred as planned, and the modified NASA multi-shock shield successfully stopped 598 g projectile using 85.6 kg/m(exp 2). The fifth bumper

  17. Delivery of Special Magnets for the MedAustron Project

    CERN Document Server

    Kramer, T; Barlow, R A; Barnes, MJ; Borburgh, J; Ducimetière, L; Fowler, T; Hourican, M; Mertens, V; Prost, A

    2014-01-01

    Ten different types of kickers, bumpers, and electrostatic and magnetic septa, along with certain power supplies and associated control system components, have been designed in a collaboration between CERN and MedAustron for an ion therapy centre in Wr. Neustadt (Austria). This paper focuses on the status of the special magnets work package and the improvements applied during the production. The design parameters are compared with data from measurements, hardware test and initial commissioning. The major factors contributing to the successful completion of the work package are highlighted.

  18. Adverse events associated with percutaneous enteral access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajaypal; Gelrud, Andres

    2015-01-01

    Placement of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy or jejunostomy is a safe procedure with low periprocedural mortality, but overall mortality rates are high because of underlying disease conditions. These procedures are also associated with postprocedure complications. The clinically significant adverse events related to the procedures include infection (at tube site and peritonitis), bleeding, and aspiration. More rare associated events include buried bumpers, injury to adjacent viscera with subsequent fistula formation, and tumor seeding. There is a lack of guidelines about these procedures other than those concerning the use of antibiotics and the management of antithrombotics and anticoagulation before the procedure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Considerations on a new fast extraction kicker concept for SPS

    CERN Document Server

    Barnes, M

    2010-01-01

    An alternative extraction kicker concept is investigated for the SPS, based on open C-type kickers and a fast-bumper system. The beam is moved into the kicker gap some tens of ms before extraction. The concept is illustrated in detail with the LSS4 extraction from the SPS – very similar parameters and considerations apply to LSS6. A similar concept could also be conceived for injection but is more difficult due to the larger beam size. The technical issues are presented and the potential impact on the machine impedance outlined.

  20. The Dreadnought Paradox: An Argument for an Expanded Submarine-Based Conventional Deterrent to Counter A2/AD in the Pacific Theater

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-17

    its own survival is on the line or the loss of its credibility is manageable. In truth, the risk of nuclear retaliation is sub-minimal if the...China’s Nine Dash Line in the South China Sea. The Second Island Chain extends to Guam. 9 Robert Farley, “Should America Fear China’s "Carrier...comparatively cheaply. As a bumper sticker it could read “nothing will stop the United States from going where it wants, when it wants, to do what

  1. Hypervelocity Impact Analysis of International Space Station Whipple and Enhanced Stuffed Whipple Shields

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    4.826 mm) Al2219-T87 Rear Wall 0.04” (1.016 mm) Al2024 -T3 Witness Plate 4.5” Front to Back 3” Gap from Back of Rear Wall to Front of...Witness Plate 0.08” (2.032 mm) Al6061-T6 Bumper 0.19” (4.826 mm) RW Al2219-T87 Rear Wall 0.04” Al2024 -T3 Witness Plate 6 Layers of Nextel AF62, 6

  2. Acute disc prolapse secondary to seizure

    OpenAIRE

    Satia, Imran; Goodwin, Lynsey; Madi, Salem; Hamdalla, Hisham

    2011-01-01

    A 37-year-old female presented following a witnessed generalised tonic clonic seizure while washing her car. Witnesses reported the patient hit her head on the car bumper upon falling. She was investigated for a cause of a second seizure with blood tests, CT and MR brain which were normal. On day 3 of her admission she was still unable to walk since the seizure and a neurological examination was performed which revealed signs consistent with a cervical myelopathy. A cervical MRI scan revealed...

  3. European Spine Society —The AcroMed prize for spinal research 1997: Do “whiplash injuries” occur in low-speed rear impacts?

    OpenAIRE

    Castro, W. H. M.; Schilgen, M.; Meyer, S; Weber, M.; Peuker, C.; Wörtler, K.

    1997-01-01

    A study was conducted to find out whether in a rear-impact motor vehicle accident, velocity changes in the impact vehicle of between 10 and 15 km/h can cause so-called “whiplash injuries”. An assessment of the actual injury mechanism of such whiplash injuries and comparison of vehicle rear-end collisions with amusement park bumper car collisions was also carried out. The study was based on experimental biochemical, kinematic, and clinical analysis with volunteers. In Europe between DM 10 and ...

  4. A comparative study between subsystem and global approches for the pedestrian impact

    OpenAIRE

    Chalandon, S.; Serre, T.; Masson, C; MINNE, F; Arnoux, Pj; Perrin, C.; Borde, P.; Cotte, C.; Brunet, C; CESARI, D

    2007-01-01

    In order to improve the pedestrian safety during an impact with a vehicle, subsystem tests have been defined to evaluate the aggressiveness of the frontend of cars. These subsystems tests have to be reproducible and are representative of the three decomposed impacts of the pedestrian with the car: lower leg on the bumper, upper leg on the hood, head on the hood or the windscreen. The velocity, angle and mass of the adult headform impactor and its impact area are invariable parameters. Upper l...

  5. Explaining traffic patterns at on-ramp vicinity by a driver perception model in the framework of three-phase traffic theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shuyan; Guan, Wei; Song, Liying

    2010-02-01

    In traffic system, driving behaviors change with the surrounding traffic perceived by drivers, resulting in the complex spatio-temporal traffic patterns. Accordingly, in the majority of traffic models, vehicle accelerations are described by dynamic equations based on driving behavior, system dynamics and some underlying steady-state velocity-gap (bumper-to-bumper spacing) relation in order to guarantee the realistic human behavior. This paper proposes a deterministic car-following model based on a multi-branch fundamental diagram with each branch representing a particular category of driving style. Furthermore, an additional dynamic perception equation is introduced to reflect the driving style adaptation in response to the change in surrounding traffic situations. With simulation based on the proposed “driver perception model” (DP model), empirical findings of traffic breakdown and observed spatio-temporal patterns at on-ramp vicinity are reproduced. Furthermore, comparison results show the consistency between numerical simulation and the real traffic data of Beijing urban freeway.

  6. Various anchorage approaches in unilateral mandibular molar distalization using a fixed lingual arch appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzinger, Gero; Fritz, Ulrike; Diedrich, Peter

    2004-03-01

    Mean unilateral mandibular molar distalization of 3.33 +/- 1.28 mm was achieved in 20 patients (average age: 13 years, 1 month) by fitting an asymmetrically activated lingual arch appliance for an average treatment period of 4 months. Three different anchorage techniques were used: Anchorage was provided in seven patients by the lingual arm of the appliance alone, while another seven patients received additional sectional archwires, and another six patients sectional archwires and lip bumpers. Anchorage by means of the lingual arm alone proved to be insufficient to prevent labial tipping of the incisors. The mean protrusion and labial tipping recorded at the lower incisors was 7.67 degrees +/- 1.53 degrees and 2.64 +/- 0.48 mm respectively. The anchorage quality was enhanced and satisfactory stabilization achieved by additionally inserting a sectional archwire. In these cases the mean incisor protrusion and labial tipping was 1.75 degrees +/- 0.96 degree and 0.71 +/- 0.76 mm respectively and thus significantly lower (p lip bumper provided no further increase in anchorage quality (incisor protrusion 1.75 degrees +/- 2.87 degrees and 0.67 +/- 1.21 mm respectively). Fitting additional anchorage aids appears to have no direct impact on the extent and quality of molar distalization.

  7. Treatment effects and short-term relapse of maxillomandibular expansion during the early to mid mixed dentition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargo, Julie; Buschang, Peter H; Boley, Jimmy C; English, Jeryl D; Behrents, Rolf G; Owen, Albert H

    2007-04-01

    The treatment effects and the short-term (0.9 +/- 0.45 years) relapse potential of phase I slow maxillary expansion, with a bonded palatal expander or a quad-helix appliance combined with a mandibular banded Crozat/lip bumper and followed by 12 to 15 months of retention, were examined. Pretreatment (8.8 +/- 1.7 years) and posttreatment (11.1 +/- 1.7 years) models of 54 patients were used to evaluate treatment effects. Posttreatment (11.0 +/- 1.3 years) and follow-up (11.9 +/- 1.4 years) models of 23 patients who returned for phase II treatment were used to evaluate relapse over the 11 months, during which no retention was used. The models were digitized, and 15 measures were computed. Significant treatment increases were observed for all measurements in both arches. Treatment gains in arch perimeter (6%-8%) were due more to increases in intermolar width (11%-15%) than to increases in arch depth (5%). Posttreatment relapse was significant (P lip bumper during the early mixed dentition produced clinically useful increases in arch dimensions that subsequently underwent mild-to-moderate amounts of relapse after removal of all retention appliances.

  8. Extraction treatment of a class II division 2 malocclusion with mandibular posterior discrepancy and changes in stomatognathic function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayama, Kunihiro; Tomonari, Hiroshi; Kitashima, Fumiaki; Miyawaki, Shouichi

    2015-03-01

    This case report describes the successful extraction treatment of a Class II division 2 malocclusion with mandibular posterior discrepancy and a congenitally missing maxillary lateral incisor on the left side. The posterior space in the mandibular arch was small, and the mandibular second molars were impacted, with distal tipping. The discrepancies in the maxillary and mandibular arches were resolved by extraction of the maxillary lateral incisor on the right side and the mandibular second premolars on both sides. The mesial movement of the mandibular first molars occurred appropriately, with the second molars moving into an upright position. A lip bumper was used with a preadjusted edgewise appliance in the maxillary dentition to reinforce molar anchorage and labial movement of the retroclined incisors. Despite the extraction treatment, a deep bite could be corrected without aggravation as a result of the lip bumper and utility arch in the mandibular dentition. Thus, an Angle Class I molar relationship and an ideal overbite were achieved. The occlusal contact area and masticatory muscle activities during maximum clenching increased after treatment. The maximum closing velocity and the maximum gape during chewing increased, and the chewing pattern changed from the chopping to grinding type. The findings in the present case suggest that the correction of a deep bite might be effective for improving stomatognathic function.

  9. Evaluation of incisor position and dental transverse dimensional changes using the Damon system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajaria, Rohini; BeGole, Ellen; Kusnoto, Budi; Galang, Maria Therese; Obrez, Ales

    2011-07-01

    To test the hypotheses that the Damon system will maintain intercanine, interpremolar, and intermolar widths. To test subsequent hypotheses that the Damon system will not produce a significant difference in maxillary and mandibular incisor position/angulation when compared with control groups treated with conventional fixed orthodontic appliances for similar malocclusion. Subjects treated with the Damon system (N  =  27) were compared with subjects treated with a conventionally ligated edgewise bracket system (N  =  16). Subjects' pretreatment and posttreatment lateral cephalometric radiographs and dental models were scanned, measured, and compared to see whether significant differences exist between time points and between the two groups. Results did not support the claimed lip bumper effect of the Damon system and showed similar patterns of crowding alleviation, including transverse expansion and incisor advancement, in both groups, regardless of the bracket system used. Maxillary and mandibular intercanine, interpremolar, and intermolar widths increased significantly after treatment with the Damon system. The mandibular incisors were significantly advanced and proclined after treatment with the Damon system, contradicting the lip bumper theory of Damon. Posttreatment incisor inclinations did not differ significantly between the Damon group and the control group. Patients treated with the Damon system completed treatment on average 2 months faster than patients treated with a conventionally ligated standard edgewise bracket system.

  10. Measurement of intraoral muscle forces during functional exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeman, D E; Moore, R N

    1990-04-01

    Measurements of intraoral muscle force with foil strain gauges, load cells, and pressure transducers bonded to a Tru-Tain stent and to a lip bumper appliance were tested by means of seven functional exercises in five adult subjects over a 5-day interval. The measuring devices and the functional exercises were tested for replicability and validity. Results showed that the pressure transducer was the superior measuring device with respect to size, sensitivity, thermal compensation, factory uniformity, replicability, and validity. The device most susceptible to error, on the basis of these factors, was the foil strain gauge. Of the seven functional exercises used, the pronunciation of the words "phone," "mom," and "church" and the exercise of swallowing were replicable over time. The other three exercises--chewing gum, sucking, and blowing on a straw--were determined to be unreliable in terms of replicability over time. Overall pressure values recorded were significantly higher than in previous reports. Pressure values were higher for the Tru-Tain stent than for the lip bumper.

  11. Effects of buccal shields on mandibular dental arch parameters: a clinical and cephalometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moin, Kambiz; Bishara, Samir E

    2007-01-01

    The lip bumper is a vestibular functional appliance designed to extend bilaterally between the mandibular buccal tubes and contact the inner surface of the lower lip and cheeks. It functions to eliminate the pressure on the incisors, canines, and premolars, and to transmit distally directed forces to the molars. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the short-term effects of the buccal shield modification of the lip bumper design on various mandibular dental arch parameters, as well as on the inclination of the mandibular incisors. Included in the present study were 44 consecutively treated patients, consisting of 29 females and 15 males from a private orthodontic practice. Student and paired t tests were used to evaluate the changes over time for the various measurements. The results indicated a significant (P < .0001) increase in all arch parameters measured. The greatest mean expansion was observed at the first (5.0 +/- 2.2 mm) and second (3.4 +/- 2.2 mm) premolar width measurements. Less expansion occurred in the intercanine (2.4 +/- 2.0 mm) and intermolar (2.4 +/- 2.6 mm) arch widths. Arch length increased on average 1.6 +/- 2.1 mm. These were significantly (P <.0001) greater than the normal age-related changes in the corresponding parameters.

  12. Autonomous mobile robot for radiologic surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudar, Aed M.; Wagner, David G.; Teese, Gregory D.

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus for conducting radiologic surveys. The apparatus comprises in the main a robot capable of following a preprogrammed path through an area, a radiation monitor adapted to receive input from a radiation detector assembly, ultrasonic transducers for navigation and collision avoidance, and an on-board computer system including an integrator for interfacing the radiation monitor and the robot. Front and rear bumpers are attached to the robot by bumper mounts. The robot may be equipped with memory boards for the collection and storage of radiation survey information. The on-board computer system is connected to a remote host computer via a UHF radio link. The apparatus is powered by a rechargeable 24-volt DC battery, and is stored at a docking station when not in use and/or for recharging. A remote host computer contains a stored database defining paths between points in the area where the robot is to operate, including but not limited to the locations of walls, doors, stationary furniture and equipment, and sonic markers if used. When a program consisting of a series of paths is downloaded to the on-board computer system, the robot conducts a floor survey autonomously at any preselected rate. When the radiation monitor detects contamination, the robot resurveys the area at reduced speed and resumes its preprogrammed path if the contamination is not confirmed. If the contamination is confirmed, the robot stops and sounds an alarm.

  13. Direct Drive and Eddy Current Septa Magnet Designs for CERN’s PSB Extraction at 2 GeV

    CERN Multimedia

    Szoke, Zsolt; Balhan, Bruno; Baud, Cedric; Borburgh, Jan; Hourican, Michael; Masson, Thierry; Prost, Antoine

    2015-01-01

    In the framework of the LIU project, new septa magnets have been designed between CERN’s PS Booster (PSB) extraction and PS injection. The upgraded devices are to deal with the increased beam energy from 1.4 GeV to 2 GeV at extraction of the PSB. The direct drive recombination septa in the PSB transfer line to the PS, the eddy current PS injection septum together with a bumper at injection have been investigated using finite element software. For the recombination magnets an increase in magnet length is sufficient to obtain the required deflection; however, for the PS injection elements a more novel solution is necessary to also achieve increased robustness to extend the expected lifetime of the pulsed device. The injection septum will share the same vacuum vessel with an injection bumper and both magnets will be located adjacent to each other. The new PS injection magnet will be the first septum operated at CERN based on eddy current technology. The magnetic modelling of the devices, the comparison of the ...

  14. Estimated prevalence of Aerococcus viridans and Anophryoides haemophila in American lobsters Homarus americanus freshly captured in the waters of Prince Edward Island, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavallée, J; Hammell, K L; Spangler, E S; Cawthorn, R J

    2001-10-08

    The Canadian lobster industry holds lobsters Homarus americanus in captivity for various periods to supply markets with live product year-round. Mortality during holding results in considerable losses, estimated at 10 to 15 % yr(-1) by the industry. This study examined the prevalence of Anophryoides haemophila and Aerococcus viridans, causative agents of 'bumper car' disease and gaffkemia, respectively, in lobsters freshly captured in the waters of Prince Edward Island during the spring and fall fishing seasons of 1997. A total of 116 lobsters were sampled in the spring, and 138 in the fall. A. haemophila was not detected in the spring, while the prevalence was 0.72 % in the fall with a 95% confidence interval (CI) of 0.02 to 3.97% and an overall prevalence of 0.39% (95% CI: 0.01 to 2.17%). The prevalence of A. viridans was estimated at 6.9% (95% CI: 3.0 to 13.14%) in the spring, 5.8% in the fall (95% CI: 2.54 to 11.10%), and 6.30% overall (95% CI: 3.64 to 10.03%). Because of the reduced interest in food of diseased lobsters, and compromised metabolism in the case of gaffkemia, these prevalence estimates are likely underestimates of the true prevalence of gaffkemia and 'bumper car' disease in the wild populations of lobster around Prince Edward Island.

  15. Dynamic performance of frictionless fast shutters for ITER: Numerical and analytical sensitivity study for the development of a test program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panin, Anatoly, E-mail: a.panin@fz-juelich.de [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Institut für Energie- und Klimaforschung – Plasmaphysik, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Khovayko, Mikhail [St. Petersburg Polytechnic University, Mechanics and Control Processes Department, Computational Mechanics Laboratory, 195251 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Krasikov, Yury [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Institut für Energie- und Klimaforschung – Plasmaphysik, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Nemov, Alexander [St. Petersburg Polytechnic University, Mechanics and Control Processes Department, Computational Mechanics Laboratory, 195251 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Biel, Wolfgang; Mertens, Philippe; Neubauer, Olaf; Schrader, Michael [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Institut für Energie- und Klimaforschung – Plasmaphysik, 52425 Jülich (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    To prolong a lifetime of the ITER first diagnostic mirrors some protective shutters can be engaged. A concept of an elastic shutter that operates frictionless in vacuum has been studied at the Forschungszentrum Jülich, Germany. Under actuation two shutter arms (∼2 m long) bend laterally between two pairs of limiting bumpers thus shielding the optical aperture or opening it for measurements. To increase the shutter efficiency the transition time between its open and closed states can be minimized. This demands a fast shutter that operates in fractions of a second and exhibit essentially dynamic behavior, like impacts with the bumpers that cause the shutter arms’ bouncing and oscillations. The paper presents numerical studies of the shutter dynamic behavior using the explicit and implicit 3D FE transient structural modeling. Simple 1D analytical model was developed to predict the shutter impact kinetic energy that mostly determines its further dynamic response. The structure sensitivity to different parameters was studied and ways for its optimization were laid down. A parametric shutter mockup with easily changeable mechanical characteristics was manufactured. A test program aimed for further shutter optimization, basing on the analysis performed and engaging powerful capabilities of the parametric shutter mockup is discussed in the paper.

  16. A large prospective audit of morbidity and mortality associated with feeding gastrostomies in the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Emily; Pitts, Narrie; Latchford, Andrew; Lewis, Stephen

    2017-04-01

    Morbidity after 30 days and morbidity after 1 year from gastrostomy placement is poorly characterised as patients are discharged into the community. We prospectively recorded morbidity and mortality associated with gastrostomy placement over a five year period. Community dietitians regularly reviewed all patients with a gastrostomy after hospital discharge, prospectively recording morbidity and mortality between 2008 and 2012. In addition hospital databases and case notes were examined. Recorded morbidity included insertion site infection, leakage, over granulation, haemorrhage and buried bumper. The commonest indication for PEG placement was following an acute cerebral injury. There were no deaths and few complications directly related to gastrostomy insertion in 350 patients. We collected a total of 571 years of gastrostomy data. Mortality within 30 days was predominantly from a respiratory infection. 30 day, 3 and 12 month cumulative mortality (and morbidity) were 8% (2%), 16% (10%) and 35% (15%) respectively. 38% of patients required treatment for an insertion site infection with 70% of these having further infections. Overall there was a site infection every 2.1 years a gastrostomy was in situ. Complications such as buried bumpers (5(1.4%)), persistent fistulas (0) and over granulation (7(2%)) were rare. Few gastrostomies required replacement (11%). We have demonstrated reassuringly low rates of gastrostomy-associated morbidity and mortality. There was no direct mortality. The greatest morbidity resulted from gastrostomy-site infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  17. submitter Direct Drive and Eddy Current Septa Magnet Designs for CERN's PSB Extraction at 2 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Szoke, Z; Balhan, B; Baud, C; Borburgh, J; Hourican, M; Masson, T; Prost, A

    2016-01-01

    In the framework of the LIU project, new septa magnets have been designed between CERN's PS booster (PSB) extraction and PS injection. The upgraded devices are to deal with the increased beam energy from 1.4 to 2 GeV at extraction of the PSB. The direct drive recombination septa in the PSB transfer line to the PS and the eddy current PS injection septum together with a bumper at injection have been investigated using finite-element software. For the recombination magnets, an increase in magnet length is sufficient to obtain the required deflection; however, for the PS injection elements, a more novel solution is necessary to also achieve increased robustness to extend the expected lifetime of the pulsed device. The injection septum will share the same vacuum vessel with an injection bumper, and both magnets will be located adjacent to each other. The new PS injection magnet will be the first septum operated at CERN based on eddy current technology. The magnetic modeling of the devices, the comparison of the p...

  18. Drastic change of the intrusion-extrusion behavior of electrolyte solutions in pure silica *BEA-type zeolite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryzhikov, A; Khay, I; Nouali, H; Daou, T J; Patarin, J

    2014-09-07

    High pressure water and electrolyte solutions intrusion-extrusion experiments in pure-silica *BEA-type zeolite (zeosil β) were performed in order to study the performances of these systems in energy absorption and storage. The "zeosil β-water" system displays a bumper behavior with an intrusion pressure of 53 MPa and an absorbed energy of 8.3 J g(-1). For the "zeosil β-LiCl aqueous solutions" systems the intrusion pressure increases with the LiCl concentration to 95, 111 and 115 MPa for 10, 15 and 20 M solution, respectively. However, for concentrations above 10 M, a transformation of the system behavior from bumper to shock-absorber is observed. The zeolite samples were characterized by several structural and physicochemical methods (XRD, TGA, solid-state NMR, N2 physisorption, ICP-OES) before and after intrusion-extrusion experiments in order to understand the influence of the LiCl concentration on the intrusion-extrusion behavior. It is shown that the intrusion of water and LiCl solutions with low concentration leads to the formation of Si-(OSi)3OH groups, whereas no defects are observed under intrusion of concentrated LiCl solutions. A possible mechanism of LiCl solution intrusion based on separate intrusion of H2O molecules and Li(H2O)x(+) ions is proposed.

  19. Cooking Dinner at Home--From the Office

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    It is well past quitting time, but you are still stuck in the office. Your spouse left work over an hour ago, but is caught in bumper-to-bumper traffic. As a result, neither of you were available to pick up your daughter on time from her soccer game. If your son hadn't gotten detention at school today, which also made him late for work, he could have picked her up. The next thing you know, it is already 8:30 at night, and your family members are finally all together under the same roof. No one has had a bite to eat since lunch, and dinner certainly isn't going to cook itself, or is it? For those who are all too familiar with this situation, it might be time to welcome the oven of the future into your homes: the ConnectIo Intelligent Oven, brought to you by TMIO, LLC, of Cleveland. Applying the same remote command and control concepts that NASA uses to run experiments on the International Space Station (ISS), ConnectIo allows its owners to cook dinner from the road, via a cell phone, personal digital assistant, or Internet connection.

  20. Studies about the Behavior of the Crash Boxes of a Car Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantin, B. A.; Iozsa, D.; Fratila, G.

    2016-11-01

    A continuous evolution of requirements and standards sheds over the development of new vehicles (for example EuroNCAP ratings) in order to create competition between same market models customer related. The low speed impact protection has to be permanently improved as the damage of the front end structure of the vehicle to be reduced to minimal. As a consequence, a lower damage implies less repair costs and therefore a lower insurance category. The front end structure, including the bumper, responds for the absorption of the kinetic energy created during the impact with maximum efficiency in order to avoid the large deformation of structural components. This is only one of the constraints that the front end structure has to cope with, additionally we can mention the dimensioning of the front end of the vehicle which can affect the packaging, which is mainly influenced by the design, styling and the pedestrian requirements intended to be accomplished by the vehicle. The present paper focuses on the low speed urban impact, offering an overview over the actual state, the load configuration, the applicable regulation, the challenging requirements of a modern front structure, which the modern bumper has to comply with and the finite element simulation of this kind of test.

  1. Do "whiplash injuries" occur in low-speed rear impacts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, W H; Schilgen, M; Meyer, S; Weber, M; Peuker, C; Wörtler, K

    1997-01-01

    A study was conducted to find out whether in a rear-impact motor vehicle accident, velocity changes in the impact vehicle of between 10 and 15 km/h can cause so-called "whiplash injuries". An assessment of the actual injury mechanism of such whiplash injuries and comparison of vehicle rear-end collisions with amusement park bumper car collisions was also carried out. The study was based on experimental biochemical, kinematic, and clinical analysis with volunteers. In Europe between DM 10 and 20 billion each year is paid out by insurance companies alone for whiplash injuries, although various studies show that the biodynamic stresses arising in the case of slight to moderate vehicle damage may not be high enough to cause such injuries. Most of these experimental studies with cadavers, dummies, and some with volunteers were performed with velocity changes below 10 km/h. About 65% of the insurance claims, however, take place in cases with velocity changes of up to 15 km/h. Fourteen made volunteers (aged 28-47 years; average 33.2 years) and five female volunteers (aged 26-37 years; average 32.8 years) participated in 17 vehicle rear-end collisions and 3 bumper car collisions. All cars were fitted with normal European bumper systems. Before, 1 day after and 4-5 weeks after each vehicle crash test and in two of the three bumper car crash tests a clinical examination, a computerized motion analysis, and an MRI examination with Gd-DTPA of the cervical spine of the test persons were performed. During each crash test, in which the test persons were completely screened-off visually and acoustically, the muscle tension of various neck muscles was recorded by surface electromyography (EMG). The kinematic responses of the test persons and the forces occurring were measured by accelerometers. The kinematic analyses were performed with movement markers and a screening frequency of 700 Hz. To record the acceleration effects of the target vehicle and the bullet vehicle, vehicle

  2. Safety assessment characteristics of pedestrian legform impactors in vehicle-front impact tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Yasuhiro

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated the characteristics of safety assessment results of front-area vehicle impact tests carried out using the Transport Research Laboratory (TRL) legform impactor and a flexible legform impactor (FLEX legform impactor). Different types of vehicles (sedan, sport utility vehicle, high-roof K-car, and light cargo van) were examined. The impact locations in the study were the center of the bumper and an extremely stiff structure of the bumper (i.e., in front of the side member) of each tested vehicle. The measured injury criteria were normalized by injury assessment reference values of each legform impactor. The test results for center and side-member impacts indicated that there were no significant differences in ligament injury assessments derived from the normalized knee ligament injury measures between the TRL legform impactor and the FLEX legform impactor. Evaluations made using the TRL legform impactor and the FLEX legform impactor are thus similar in the vehicle safety investigation for knee ligament injury. Vehicle-center impact test results revealed that the tibia fracture assessments derived from the normalized tibia fracture measures did not significantly differ between the TRL legform impactor and the FLEX legform impactor. However, for an impact against an extremely stiff structure, there was a difference in the tibia fracture assessment between the FLEX legform impactor and the TRL legform impactor owing to their different sensor types. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Impact verification of space suit design for space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, Richard H.

    1987-01-01

    The ballistic limits of single sheet and double sheet structures made of 6061 T6 Aluminum of 1.8 mm and larger nominal thickness were investigated for projectiles of 1.5 mm diameter fired in the Vertical Gun Range Test Facility and NASA Ames Research Center. The hole diameters and sheet deformation behavior were studied for various ratios of sheet spacing to projectile diameter. The results indicate that for projectiles of less than 1.5 mm diameter the ballistic limit exceeds the nominal 10 km/sec orbital debris encounter velocity, if a single-sheet suit of 1.8 mm thickness is behind a single bumper sheet of 1 mm thickness spaced 12.5 mm apart.

  4. Implementation of an Economical Parking Helper Device Using Ultrasound Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil, Tariq

    2010-06-01

    Every motorist dreams of a car that will take the stress out of parking by finding a suitable space and then maneuvers itself into the space with minimal assistance from the driver. This paper describes a parking helper device using ultrasound sensors, mounted on the car, to monitor both sides of the street for a suitable parking space, and when a large enough parking space is detected, the helper instructs the driver to stop the car and guides him/her via a display screen and voice about steering maneuvers which will ultimately result in the car being properly parked in the given parking space. Ultrasound sensors mounted on the front and rear bumpers of the car will ensure that a safe distance is maintained to other vehicles and objects and the driver will need to operate only the accelerator and the brake pedals. A warning signal sounds if the vehicle gets too close to other objects in the parking space.

  5. [An unusual case of fatal airbag injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usumoto, Yosuke; Hikiji, Wakako; Kudo, Keiko; Tsuji, Akiko; Ikeda, Noriaki

    2008-11-01

    We report an unusual case of fatal airbag injury. A woman in her forties was driving a light car when it was involved in an accident. When the car was found, the left front wheel had dropped into the gutter, the front bumper was dented and the airbag had deployed. Forensic autopsy revealed that the right subclavian artery and the left vertebral artery were ruptured and 1,570 ml and 360 ml of blood with clots were observed in the left and the right thoracic cavity, respectively. It was considered that the unusual collision produced by deployment of the airbag had caused these ruptures and massive hemorrhaging. Although an airbag is an effective tool for ensuring the safety of a driver and the passengers, it may injure and occasionally kill the occupants if they do not remain in the appropriate and restrained seating position.

  6. Acute disc prolapse secondary to seizure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satia, Imran; Goodwin, Lynsey; Madi, Salem; Hamdalla, Hisham

    2011-06-09

    A 37-year-old female presented following a witnessed generalised tonic clonic seizure while washing her car. Witnesses reported the patient hit her head on the car bumper upon falling. She was investigated for a cause of a second seizure with blood tests, CT and MR brain which were normal. On day 3 of her admission she was still unable to walk since the seizure and a neurological examination was performed which revealed signs consistent with a cervical myelopathy. A cervical MRI scan revealed a disc prolapse with cord compression at C5/6. This was successfully operated and the patient made a good recovery. Given that many of our medical assessment units and emergency department frequently assess patient with seizures, there was an important lesson for us to be more aware of the consequences as well as the cause of seizures.

  7. Meteoroid/orbital debris impact damage predictions for the Russian space station MIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, E. L.; Hyde, J. L.; Lear, D.

    1997-01-01

    Components of the Mir space station have been exposed to the meteoroid/orbital debris (M/OD) environment for up to 11 years. During this period, no M/OD impact perforation of the pressure shell of the manned modules were reported. The NASA standard M/OD analysis code BUMPER was used to predict the probability of M/OD impact damage to various components of Mir. The analysis indicates a 1 in 2.2 chance that a M/OD impact would have caused a penetration resulting in a pressure leak of the Mir modules since its launch up to the February 1997. For the next five years, the estimated odds become 1 in 3. On an annual basis, penetration risks are 60 percent higher, on the average, in the next five years due to the larger size of Mir and the growth in the orbital debris population.

  8. Interpolation/extrapolation technique with application to hypervelocity impact of space debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rule, William K.

    1992-01-01

    A new technique for the interpolation/extrapolation of engineering data is described. The technique easily allows for the incorporation of additional independent variables, and the most suitable data in the data base is automatically used for each prediction. The technique provides diagnostics for assessing the reliability of the prediction. Two sets of predictions made for known 5-degree-of-freedom, 15-parameter functions using the new technique produced an average coefficient of determination of 0.949. Here, the technique is applied to the prediction of damage to the Space Station from hypervelocity impact of space debris. A new set of impact data is presented for this purpose. Reasonable predictions for bumper damage were obtained, but predictions of pressure wall and multilayer insulation damage were poor.

  9. Final Environmental Assessment: For a One-Megawatt Solar Array at Cheyenne Mountain Air Force Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    Cleaning 6 should concentrate on the undercarriage, axles, frames, cross members, on and under steps, running 7 boards, and front bumper /brush guard... liP IS 39% 6S% I 6 0.76 403.19 11 Sl J,S041S l .l6 0,29 14.76 O.OIIOS 0.0004 Guoliee Small Chain Saw, < 2S HP 3 S<)% 61% 2 6 0.19 938.70 8.70 12.7S...lS- 7S liP 70 )8% 8S% 0 0 1.80 26.S7 18S.96 I:JUO 19.90 IS,SJ 39.9S 0.0011 00008 SntaU Rolfc:r/Co!!lp&e-tor, 2S. 7S l-IP 3S sm 8S% 0 0 1.20 12-Sl

  10. Long-term stability of anterior open bite correction in mixed dentition with a new treatment protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celli, D; Manente, A; DeCarlo, A; Deli, R

    2014-06-01

    The treatment of choice for skeletal open bite is orthognathic surgery combined with pre and post- surgicalorthodontics; however relapse can be observed and alternative solutions are sought to avoid surgery whenever possible. A case is reported showing an original treatment protocol in order to obtain aesthetic, functional and stable results. A 10.2 year old boy with anterior open bite was treated with a Hyrax type rapid maxillary expander on the maxilla (one month) and a lingual arch in the lower jaw; then, grinding of deciduous molars was performed, a lingual grid was positioned and a myofunctional treatment (exercises) was started. The subsequent treatment phase was achieved with a lip bumper and fixed straight wire appliances on both arches. After 24 months of active treatment, retainers were used to maintain the good results achieved, which were unchanged at the long term controls, 3 and 7 years after treatment.

  11. Plasmas fluxes to surfaces for an oblique magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitcher, C.S. [Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project, Toronto, ON (Canada); Stangeby, P.C.; Elder, J.D. [Toronto Univ., ON (Canada); Bell, M.G.; Kilpatrick, S.J.; Manos, D.M.; Medley, S.S.; Owens, D.K.; Ramsey, A.T.; Ulrickson, M. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.

    1992-07-01

    The poloidal and toroidal spatial distributions of D{sub {alpha}}, He I and C II emission have been obtained in the vicinity of the TFTR bumper limiter and are compared with models of ion flow to the surface. The distributions are found not to agree with a model (the ``Cosine`` model) which determines the incident flux density using only the parallel fluxes in the scrape-off layer and the projected area of the surface perpendicular to the field lines. In particular, the Cosine model is not able to explain the significant fluxes observed at locations on the surface which are oblique to the magnetic field. It is further shown that these fluxes cannot be explained by the finite Larmor radius of impinging ions. Finally, it is demonstrated, with the use of Monte Carlo codes, that the distributions can be explained by including both parallel and cross-field transport onto the limiter surface.

  12. [Electromyography of perioral muscles in the cleft lip and palate patients with crossbite].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W R; Lin, J X; Fu, M K

    1994-11-01

    In this study, twenty-nine cleft lip and palate patients with anterior crossbite were chosen as study group and twenty-eight normal children, twenty-seven patients with anterior crossbite as the control groups. All subjects were examined with EMG, and found some characters of the perioral muscles activity of the cleft patients. (1) The electromyographic amplitude of the upper lip and chin muscles was higher in cleft patients than that of other two groups during swallowing of saliva (2) Activity of chin muscle in cleft patients and crossbite patients in rest position were higher than that of normal occlusion (3) The Asymmetry index of the activity of upper lip muscle in every functional positions of the cleft patients are higher than ther groups. The abnormal activity of perioral muscles of the cleft patients demonstrate that functional repairment of cleft lip and needed lip bumper are necessary.

  13. A prospective study of lip adaptation during six months of simulated mandibular dental arch expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shellhart, W C; Moawad, M I; Matheny, J; Paterson, R L; Hicks, E P

    1997-01-01

    The stability of dental arch expansion with conventional orthodontic treatments is disappointing. An increase in labial soft tissue pressure resulting from the expansion may contribute to this instability. An 8-month study of lip pressure changes resulting from lip bumper wear has been conducted, but no long-term studies have been conducted on pressure changes resulting from conventional expansion using fixed appliances. The purpose of the current study was to investigate changes in labial soft tissue pressures when conventional expansion was simulated. Twenty-two subjects wore a stent simulating mandibular dental arch expansion. They were instructed to wear the stent full-time. Lip pressure was recorded initially at 1 week, and monthly for 6 months. A repeated measures ANOVA was used for statistical analysis. A statistically significant (P < or = 0.05) increase in pressure was documented after initial insertion of the expansion-simulating stent. The increase was not maintained, suggesting an adaptation of the labial soft tissues.

  14. A strategy for nonextraction Class II treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianelly, A A

    1998-03-01

    Class II nonextraction treatment, which commonly includes distal movement of the maxillary molars to correct the molar relationship, most often can be successful when treatment is started in the late-mixed dentition stage of development. At least two factors contribute to this success. One is that the molars can be distalized routinely at this age. The second is that the "E" space is available and can be used either to help correct the molar relationship or to resolve any crowding that may exist. This article describes and illustrates the treatment of a late mixed-dentition patient with this type of Class II nonextraction treatment that includes distal movement of the maxillary molars with a 100 g NiTi coil system and the maintenance of the "E" space with a lip bumper.

  15. Plasmas fluxes to surfaces for an oblique magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitcher, C.S. (Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project, Toronto, ON (Canada)); Stangeby, P.C.; Elder, J.D. (Toronto Univ., ON (Canada)); Bell, M.G.; Kilpatrick, S.J.; Manos, D.M.; Medley, S.S.; Owens, D.K.; Ramsey, A.T.; Ulrickson, M. (Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.)

    1992-07-01

    The poloidal and toroidal spatial distributions of D{sub {alpha}}, He I and C II emission have been obtained in the vicinity of the TFTR bumper limiter and are compared with models of ion flow to the surface. The distributions are found not to agree with a model (the Cosine'' model) which determines the incident flux density using only the parallel fluxes in the scrape-off layer and the projected area of the surface perpendicular to the field lines. In particular, the Cosine model is not able to explain the significant fluxes observed at locations on the surface which are oblique to the magnetic field. It is further shown that these fluxes cannot be explained by the finite Larmor radius of impinging ions. Finally, it is demonstrated, with the use of Monte Carlo codes, that the distributions can be explained by including both parallel and cross-field transport onto the limiter surface.

  16. On the categorical nature of the semantic interference effect in the picture-word interference paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Albert; Alario, F Xavier; Caramazza, Alfonso

    2005-02-01

    Two picture-word interference experiments are reported in which the boundaries of the semantic interference effect are explored. In both experiments, participants named pictures (e.g., a picture of a car) that appeared with superimposed word distractors. Distractor words from the same semantic category as the word for the picture (e.g., CAR) produced semantic interference, whereas semantically related distractors from a different category (e.g., BUMPER) led to semantic facilitation. In Experiment 2, the semantic facilitation from semantically related distractors was replicated. These results indicate that a semantic relationship between picture and distractor does not necessarily lead to interference and in fact can lead to facilitation. In all but one case tested until now, a semantic relationship between picture and distractor has led to semantic facilitation. The implications of these results for the assumption that the semantic interference effect arises as a consequence of lexical competition are discussed.

  17. Combined Aero and Underhood Thermal Analysis for Heavy Duty Trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vegendla, Prasad [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sofu, Tanju [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Saha, Rohit [Cummins Inc., Columbus, IN (United States); Madurai Kumar, Mahesh [Cummins Inc., Columbus, IN (United States); Hwang, L. K [Cummins Inc., Columbus, IN (United States)

    2017-01-31

    Aerodynamic analysis of the medium-duty delivery truck was performed to achieve vehicle design optimization. Three dimensional CFD simulations were carried out for several improved designs, with a detailed external component analysis of wheel covers, side skirts, roof fairings, and rounded trailer corners. The overall averaged aerodynamics drag reduction through the design modifications were shown up to 22.3% through aerodynamic considerations alone, which is equivalent to 11.16% fuel savings. The main identified fuel efficiencies were based on second generation devices, including wheel covers, side skirts, roof fairings, and rounded trailer corners. The important findings of this work were; (i) the optimum curvature radius of the rounded trailer edges found to be 125 mm, with an arc length of 196.3 mm, (ii) aerodynamic drag reduction increases with dropping clearance of side skirts between wheels and ground, and (iii) aerodynamic drag reduction increases with an extension of front bumper towards the ground.

  18. Woven glass fabric reinforced laminates based on polyolefin wastes: Thermal, mechanical and dynamic-mechanical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Pietro; Acierno, Domenico; Simeoli, Giorgio; Lopresto, Valentina

    2014-05-01

    Potentialities of polyolefin wastes in place of virgin polypropylene to produce composite laminates have been investigated. Plaques reinforced with a woven glass fabric were prepared by film-stacking technique and systematically analyzed in terms of thermal, mechanical and dynamic-mechanical properties. In case of PP matrices, the use of a typical compatibilizer to improve the adhesion at the interface has been considered. Thermal properties emphasized the chemical nature of plastic wastes. About mechanical properties, static tests showed an increase of flexural parameters for compatibilized systems due to the coupling effect between grafted maleic anhydride and silane groups on the surface of the glass fabric. These effects, maximized for composites based on car bumper wastes, is perfectly reflected in terms of storage modulus and damping ability of products as determined by single-cantilever bending dynamic tests.

  19. Micro-fabricated Rotational Actuators for Electrical Voltage Measurements Employing the Principle of Electrostatic Force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    an DITTMER

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present an advanced RMS voltage sensor based on rotating parallel-plate capacitors based on the principle of electrostatic force. The actuator is built using a micromechanical thin bulk silicon batch process yielding structures with a high sensitivity mainly due to a low mechanical spring constant, realized with thin and long beams. Metal layers provide separated excitation and sensing electrodes. The actuator is anodically bonded on a matching glass substrate with a shallow rectangular cavity in which the opposite electrodes are located and which defines the working distance to be as low as 2.5 μm. To avoid stiction, bumpers with a small contact area physically prevent short circuiting under pull-in conditions and thus improve the reliability. Finally design choices and the micromechanical fabrication process are explained. Moreover, DC and RF characterization results of the devices are presented showing successful operation from below 10 Hz up to more than 1 MHz.

  20. Management of barriers to lean production implementation: a study in the automotive sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe de Almeida Copetti

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available During the process of lean production (LP implementation it is common to arise barriers depending on the context in which the application occurs. This study aims to perfect a method of management the barriers to the implementation of LP developed in a previous study. The improvements were developed by applying the method in the assembly area of bumpers in a car manufacturer. Data collection involved thirteen interviews, participant observation for six months and analysis of LP-related documents. Among the main improvements over the original version of the method, it can be highlighted the addition of thirteen barriers in the list of barriers already identified in the literature, and also the identification of contextual characteristics that can facilitate or hinder the application of the method.

  1. The New SPS Extraction Channel for LHC and CNGS

    CERN Document Server

    Goddard, B; Schröder, G; Weterings, W; Uythoven, J

    2000-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and CERN Neutrino to Gran Sasso (CNGS) projects require the construction of a new fast-extraction system in the long straight section LSS4 of the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) at CERN. A conventional DC septum magnet will be used, in conjunction with the installation of horizontal and vertical extraction bumpers, main quadrupoles with enlarged apertures, extraction kicker magnets and additional hardware protection, instrumentation, controls and electronics. The extraction channel must be able to accept the bright LHC proton beam at 450 GeV/c, and also the high intensity, large emittance fixed target CNGS proton beam at the nominal 400 GeV/c extraction momentum. This paper describes the extraction channel to be installed in 2003, and shows how the requirements for both the LHC and CNGS project can be met.

  2. The SICOPEX program Version V.0

    CERN Document Server

    Goddard, B

    1998-01-01

    SICOPEX is a System for Interactive Computation of Optimum Extractions. The program computes the septa positions, the kicker, bumper and septa strengths for a set of several extractions through the same extraction channel in the SPS long straight sections LSS2 or LSS6. These quantities are computed such as to maximise the relative gain of required clearances at the entrance of the electrostatic and magnetic septa. These extractions can be of different type (resonant or fast, including fast shaving) and at different energies. The first part of this paper describes the formulation of the extraction problem and the algorithm that is used to solve it. The second part explains the structure of the SICOPEX package, and gives details of how to run SICOPEX on a Windows PC.

  3. The Design of the New Fast Extraction Channel for the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Borburgh, J; Gaxiola, E; Goddard, B; Kadi, Y; Uythoven, J

    2004-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) project requires the modification of the existing extraction channel in the long straight section 6 of the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS). The new extraction will be used to transfer protons at 450 GeV/c as well as ions via the 2.8 km long transfer line TI 2 to the clockwise ring of the LHC. As the resonant extraction to the present SPS West Area will be stopped after 2004, the electrostatic septa will be replaced by new fast extraction kicker magnets. The girder for the existing DC septa will be modified to accommodate a new septum protection element. Other modifications concern the replacement of a machine quadrupole, a new scheme for the extraction bumpers, new instrumentation and interlocks. The requirements and the design of the new extraction channel will be described as well as the modifications which will mainly be carried out in the long SPS shutdown 2005.

  4. Orthotropic node-separation finite element method for composite laminate in hypervelocity impact simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaotian; Liu, Tao; Qiu, Xinming

    2017-11-01

    This paper reports a finite element modeling approach to simulate the hypervelocity impact (HVI) response of composite laminate. Node-separation finite element (NSFE) method based on scalar-element-fracture technique for isotropic material in HVI simulation has been presented in the previous study. To extend NSFE to composite materials, an orthotropic node-separation finite element (ONSFE) method is developed. This approach employs an orthotropic continuum material model and a corresponding orthotropic-element-fracture technique to represent the HVI behavior/damage of composite laminate. A series of HVI simulations are conducted and the developed ONSFE method is validated by comparing with the experimental data. The simulation results show that ONSFE can successfully capture the HVI phenomena of composite laminate, such as the orthotropic property, nonlinear shock response, perforation, fiber breakage and delamination. Finally, a HVI event of Whipple shield is simulated and the computational capability of ONSFE for predicting the damage state of the composite bumper is further evaluated.

  5. Points of view: where do we look when we watch TV?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasel, S Adam; Gips, James

    2008-01-01

    How is our gaze dispersed across the screen when watching television? An exploratory eyetracker study with a custom-designed show indicated a very strong center-of-screen bias with gaze points following a roughly normal distribution peaked near screen center. Examining the show across time revealed that people were rarely all looking at the same location, and the amount of gaze dispersion within frames was highly variable. Different forms of programming yielded different levels of dispersion: static network 'bumpers' created the tightest visual groupings, and gaze dispersion for frames with show content was less than the dispersion for commercials. Advertising frames with brand logos generated higher dispersion than the non-branded advertisement portions, and repeated advertisements generated higher dispersion than their first-run counterparts.

  6. Child pedestrian anthropometry: evaluation of potential impact points during a crash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serre, Thierry; Lalys, Loïc; Bartoli, Christophe; Christia-Lotter, Amandine; Leonetti, Georges; Brunet, Christian

    2010-11-01

    This paper highlights the potential impact points of a child pedestrian during a crash with the front end of a vehicle. Child anthropometry was defined for ages between 3 and 15 years. It was based on the measurement of seven different segment body heights (knee, femur, pelvis, shoulder, neck, chin, vertex) performed on about 2,000 French children. For each dimension, the 5(th), 50(th) and 95(th) percentile values were reported, and the corresponding linear regression lines were given. Then these heights were confronted with three different vehicle shapes, corresponding to a passenger car, a sport utility vehicle and a light truck, to identify impact points. In particular, we show that the thigh is directly hit by the bumper for children above 12 years of age, whereas the head principally impacts the hood. The influence of child anthropometry on the pedestrian trajectory and the comparison with test procedures in regulation are discussed. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The repeatability and reproducibility of the BioRID IIg in a repeatable laboratory seat based on a production car seat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynd, David; Depinet, Paul; Lorenz, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    observed. It was also observed that the primary neck response in these tests was flexion, not extension. This correlates well with recent findings from Japan and the United States showing a correlation between neck flexion and injury in accident replication simulations and postmortem human subjects (PMHS) studies, respectively. The present certification tests may not adequately control front cervical spine bumper characteristics, which are important for neck flexion response. The certification sled test also does not include the pelvis and so cannot be used to control pelvis response and does not substantially load the lumbar bumpers and so does not control these parts of the dummy. The stiffness of all spine bumpers and of the pelvis flesh should be much more tightly controlled. It is recommended that a method for certifying the front cervical bumpers should be developed. Recommendations are also made for tighter tolerance on the input parameters for the existing certification tests.

  8. Computer simulation analysis on EEVC pedestrian subsystem impact test. Evaluation of impact energy in upper legform test; EEVC hokosha hogo shikenhoan ni kansuru computer simulation kaiseki. Daitaibu shikenhoan de teiansareta shototsu energy no datosei ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konosu, A.; Ishikawa, H. [Japan Automobile Research Institute Inc., Tsukuba (Japan)

    1999-11-01

    EEVC upper legform test conditions are determined exclusively from car-front shapes, bonnet leading edge (LEH) and bumper lead (BL), without considering car-front stiffness. However, the car-front stiffness may affect the test conditions significantly. Furthermore, it seems that the EEVC test condition was obtained from computer simulation using a dummy-like pedestrian model, instead of a human-like pedestrian model. Our computer simulation results indicated that car-front-stiffness varied impact energy 300 J at maximum, and impact energy obtained using the dummy-like pedestrian model was 93 to 384 J higher as compared to those obtained from the human-like pedestrian model. In order to evaluate vehicle safety performance in car-pedestrian accidents appropriately, the current EEVC impact energy curve of upper legform test should be reconsidered. (author)

  9. Septa and Distributor Developments for H- Injection into the Booster from LINAC4

    CERN Document Server

    Borburgh, J; Fowler, T; Hourican, M; Weterings, W

    2008-01-01

    The construction of Linac4 requires the modification of the existing injection system of the CERN PS Booster. A new transfer line will transport 160 MeV H- ions to this machine. A system of 5 pulsed magnets (BIDIS) and 3 vertical septa (BISMV) will distribute and inject the Linac pulses into the four-vertically separated Booster rings. Subsequently the beam will be injected horizontally, using a local bump created with bumpers (BS magnets) to bring the injected H- beam together with the orbiting proton beam onto the stripper foil. To accommodate the injected H- beam, the first of the BS magnets will have to be a septum-like device, deflecting only the orbiting beam. This paper highlights the requirements and technical issues and describes the solutions to be adopted for both the BIDIS and BISMV. The results of initial prototype testing of the BIDIS magnet will also be presented.

  10. Safer passenger car front shapes for pedestrians: A computational approach to reduce overall pedestrian injury risk in realistic impact scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guibing; Yang, Jikuang; Simms, Ciaran

    2017-03-01

    Vehicle front shape has a significant influence on pedestrian injuries and the optimal design for overall pedestrian protection remains an elusive goal, especially considering the variability of vehicle-to-pedestrian accident scenarios. Therefore this study aims to develop and evaluate an efficient framework for vehicle front shape optimization for pedestrian protection accounting for the broad range of real world impact scenarios and their distributions in recent accident data. Firstly, a framework for vehicle front shape optimization for pedestrian protection was developed based on coupling of multi-body simulations and a genetic algorithm. This framework was then applied for optimizing passenger car front shape for pedestrian protection, and its predictions were evaluated using accident data and kinematic analyses. The results indicate that the optimization shows a good convergence and predictions of the optimization framework are corroborated when compared to the available accident data, and the optimization framework can distinguish 'good' and 'poor' vehicle front shapes for pedestrian safety. Thus, it is feasible and reliable to use the optimization framework for vehicle front shape optimization for reducing overall pedestrian injury risk. The results also show the importance of considering the broad range of impact scenarios in vehicle front shape optimization. A safe passenger car for overall pedestrian protection should have a wide and flat bumper (covering pedestrians' legs from the lower leg up to the shaft of the upper leg with generally even contacts), a bonnet leading edge height around 750mm, a short bonnet (17° or car front shape for head and leg protection are generally consistent, but partially conflict with pelvis protection. In particular, both head and leg injury risk increase with increasing bumper lower height and depth, and decrease with increasing bonnet leading edge height, while pelvis injury risk increases with increasing bonnet leading

  11. Cosmic radiation shielding properties of COLUMBUS and REMSIM multi-layer external shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durante, Marco; Manti, Lorenzo; Rusek, Adam; Belluco, Maurizio; Lobascio, Cesare

    The European module COLUMBUS has been recently installed on the International Space Station. Future plans for exploration involve the use of inflatable modules, such as the REMSIM concept proposed in a previous ESA funded study. We studied the radiation shielding properties of COLUMBUS and REMSIM external shell using 1 GeV/n Feor H-ions accelerated at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (Long Island, NY, USA). COLUMBUS has a 22 mm rigid multi-layer shell with Al, Nextel and Kevlar, as materials of the double bumper for meteoroids and debris protection, MLI for thermal reasons and again Al as pressure shell. Inside the module, astronauts are further protected by secondary structures, including racks, a number of electronic devices and payload equipment. This internal equipment has been simulated using Al and Kevlar, bringing the total thickness to about 15 g/cm2. REMSIM consists of a thermal multi-layer (MLI), four Nextel layers used to provide shock of the impacting micro-meteoroids, a ballistic restraint multi-layer of Kevlar used to absorb debris cloud's kinetic energy, a Kevlar structural restraint to support pressure loads incurred from inflating the module. To contain air inside the module, REMSIM adopts three layers of airtight material separated by two layers of Kevlar (air bladder). A final layer of Nomex provide protection against punctures and fire. In the flight configuration there are also spacer elements (foam) needed to guarantee correct spacing between consecutive bumper layers. These spacers were not included in the tests, making the total thickness about 1.1 cm. The internal equipment in REMSIM was not been defined, but due to its application for exploration missions it was decided to exploit water, valuable resource used for drinking, washing and technical usage, as a radiation shielding. In this test, we have included about 8 cm of water. Measured dose attenuation shows that the Columbus module reduces the

  12. The PEG-Pedi-PEG technique: a novel method for percutaneous endoscopic gastrojejunostomy tube placement (with video).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samarasena, Jason B; Kwak, Nathaniel H; Chang, Kenneth J; Lee, John G

    2016-12-01

    When PEG tube feeding is complicated by anatomic obstruction, dysmotility, or aspiration, a need arises for feeding beyond the pylorus. The currently available percutaneous gastrojejunostomy (PEG-J) kits have issues with the jejunal extension portion migrating back into the stomach. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and safety of a novel technique that creates PEG-J tubes by combining an adult percutaneous gastrostomy (PEG) tube with a pediatric PEG tube, the PEG-Pedi-PEG procedure. This was a retrospective study at a single tertiary care center. The main outcome measures were success of placement, rate of retrograde tube migration, early (24 h after procedure was performed) adverse events. Seventeen patients underwent PEG-Pedi-PEG procedures during the study period. Technical success was achieved in all patients (100%). The retrograde migration rate of the jejunal extension tube was 0%. Early adverse events included peristomal pain in 1 patient. Late adverse events included inadvertent tube removal (3 patients), diarrhea (1 patient), prolonged ileus/gastroparesis (1 patient), and tube occlusion (1 patient). Mean follow-up was 290 days. The PEG-Pedi-PEG procedure is a novel endoscopic technique to facilitate post-pyloric feeding because the pediatric PEG bumper may act like a sail in the small bowel, with peristalsis pushing the bumper distally and thus decreasing the possibility of migration back into the stomach. This study demonstrated excellent technical success, no retrograde migration, and a low rate of adverse events. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. On-road performance analysis of R134a/R600a/R290 refrigerant mixture in an automobile air-conditioning system with mineral oil as lubricant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravikumar, T.S.; Mohan Lal, D. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, Anna University, Chennai 600 025 (India)

    2009-08-15

    R134a has been accepted as the single major refrigerant in the automobile industry and it has been used worldwide. But, the problem associated with it is the use of the PAG oil as the lubricant. Unlike the conventional mineral oil, the synthetic PAG oil used with R134a is highly hygroscopic in nature. The PAG lubricants come with different additives unique for different compressors. This leads to serious service issues. Therefore, a refrigerant, which will be readily available to replace R12, and also compatible with mineral oil, is needed. In the present study the readily available R134a is used in place of R12. However, to avoid PAG oil and to use the conventional mineral oil as lubricant, R134a is mixed with the commercially available hydrocarbon blend, (45.2% R290 and 56.8% R600a) in the proportion of 91% and 9%, respectively by mass. The quantity of hydrocarbons used is well below the lower flammable limit. This new mixture R134a/R600a/R290 is tested in the air-conditioning system of a passenger car 'on road' in the true running conditions and compared with the results that has been obtained with R12. The cool down performance under varying speed and varying ambient conditions, system performance under severe accelerating conditions and bumper-to-bumper traffic conditions is studied. The test results show that the new blend can be a promising substitute for the existing R12 systems and it can eliminate the use of hygroscopic PAG oil. (author)

  14. Ballistic limit regression analysis for Space Station Freedom meteoroid and space debris protection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolly, William H.

    1992-01-01

    Relationships defining the ballistic limit of Space Station Freedom's (SSF) dual wall protection systems have been determined. These functions were regressed from empirical data found in Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) Hypervelocity Impact Testing Summary (HITS) for the velocity range between three and seven kilometers per second. A stepwise linear least squares regression was used to determine the coefficients of several expressions that define a ballistic limit surface. Using statistical significance indicators and graphical comparisons to other limit curves, a final set of expressions is recommended for potential use in Probability of No Critical Flaw (PNCF) calculations for Space Station. The three equations listed below represent the mean curves for normal, 45 degree, and 65 degree obliquity ballistic limits, respectively, for a dual wall protection system consisting of a thin 6061-T6 aluminum bumper spaced 4.0 inches from a .125 inches thick 2219-T87 rear wall with multiple layer thermal insulation installed between the two walls. Normal obliquity is d(sub c) = 1.0514 v(exp 0.2983 t(sub 1)(exp 0.5228). Forty-five degree obliquity is d(sub c) = 0.8591 v(exp 0.0428) t(sub 1)(exp 0.2063). Sixty-five degree obliquity is d(sub c) = 0.2824 v(exp 0.1986) t(sub 1)(exp -0.3874). Plots of these curves are provided. A sensitivity study on the effects of using these new equations in the probability of no critical flaw analysis indicated a negligible increase in the performance of the dual wall protection system for SSF over the current baseline. The magnitude of the increase was 0.17 percent over 25 years on the MB-7 configuration run with the Bumper II program code.

  15. Produtos poliolefínicos reciclados com desempenho superior aos materiais virgens correspondentes Recycled polyolefin products with higher performance than the corresponding virgin materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes F. Martins

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available O balanço das reações de reticulação e cisão em cadeias poliolefínicas, quando expostas a condições ambientais de radicais livres, pode resultar em boas propriedades e novas aplicações. Materiais descartados de alta qualidade despertam cada vez mais interesse para reciclagem. Os resíduos plásticos de embalagens alimentícias, assim como peças descartadas de grandes dimensões, provenientes da indústria automotiva, são exemplos daqueles materiais. No presente trabalho, são relatadas as propriedades mecânicas da madeira plástica IMAWOOD, obtida a partir de resíduos sólidos urbanos, principalmente embalagens de polietileno, e do material IMACAR, recuperado de pára-choques descartados de carros de passeio, constituído basicamente de misturas PP/EPDM. Verificou-se que o IMAWOOD mostrou comportamento mecânico melhorado por efeito da radiação-gama, enquanto que o IMACAR revelou alta resistência ao impacto, muito superior ao material virgem de composição correspondente.The balance of crosslinking and scission reactions in polyolefin chains when exposed to free-radical, environmental conditions may result in good properties and new applications. Discarded, post-consumer high quality materials are more and more attractive for recycling. The plastic residues from food packages and large dimension automobile residues, as car bumpers, are good examples of those materials. In the present work, we report mechanical properties of IMAWOOD®, plastic lumber from urban solid waste, mostly PE packaging residues, and IMACAR, from discarded car bumpers, mainly PP/EPDM blends. IMAWOOD® showed improved mechanical behavior after gamma-irradiation. IMACAR® was highly resistant to impact.

  16. A rapid method for identifying and characterizing structural impacts using distributed sensors: An application for automotive pedestrian protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Andrew C.

    This research is motivated by recent activity to improve automotive safety, especially for pedestrians. In many parts of the world today, injuries and fatalities from road accidents are a significant problem. Safety features such as seat restraints and air bags provide considerable levels of protection for car occupants; however, no such protective measures currently exist for pedestrians. Drawing upon the success and effectiveness of occupant air bag systems, current research aims to develop similar devices for pedestrians. These active pedestrian protection systems deploy a safety feature such as an external air bag when a pedestrian is hit by a vehicle. Contact with the front bumper induces a body rotation that may result in a violent head collision. The deployable safety device provides a cushioning surface for the vulnerable pedestrian during impact. The challenge of such a system is an effective sensory unit that can rapidly and correctly discriminate pedestrian impacts from non-pedestrian ones. The fast kinematics of the automobile-pedestrian impact leaves a minimal amount of time for signal processing and computation. This research study focuses on a discrimination scheme that satisfies both the time and accuracy requirements for a proposed sensory system for pedestrian protection. A unique methodology was developed to identify structural impacts using dominant frequency features extracted from sensory data. Contact sensors mounted on the front bumper of an automobile measure the strain response from an impact event. The dominant frequencies obtained from these sensor signals are greatly influenced by the impact object's properties and can be used to discriminate between different objects. Extensive tests were conducted to gather sensor data and validate the proposed methodology and impact discrimination algorithm. Results of the impact tests indicate that the approach is sound, and the sensory system effectively identifies "pedestrian" impacts within a

  17. Wrośnięty PEG – powikłanie żywienia dojelitowego

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cezary Adamiec

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Good nutritional status of the patient is very often key to successful medical intervention. For patients capable of safe and efficient swallowing, the modification of diet or introduction of oral nutritional supplements is sufficient. In patients with swallowing disorders, regardless of their aetiology, artificial nutrition access is required. In the case of long-term nutritional therapy, percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG insertion is considered the gold standard. The procedure of inserting a PEG feeding tube is not difficult to perform and is widely used. As any invasive medical procedure, PEG tube insertion involves the risk of complications. Typical complications that may follow this common procedure include dislodgement, dysfunction, skin infection in the area of PEG catheter placement and aspiration of gastric contents. A rare or rather rarely diagnosed complication that may result from PEG tube placement is the migration of the internal bumper under the gastric mucosa, or even deeper. This can result in the covering of the internal bumper with granulation tissue and gradual loss of its functionality. Correct prevention and treatment allows to keep the catheter functionality and protect against other serious, often life-threatening, complications such as extensive phlegmon infection of the anterior abdominal wall. The best prophylaxis is the education of caregivers providing long-term care of the PEG outside of hospital. Early recognition of the complication allows for preservative treatment and maintenance of a fully functional nutrition access. In the case of extensive and deep migration and the site being fully covered with mucosa, PEG removal and insertion of a new one is often necessary. In some cases, it is possible to use the existing, mature PEG canal with well-defined edges; however, in the case of severe infection a new PEG tube is inserted at another site.

  18. [The significance of the results of crash-tests with the use of the models of the pedestrians' lower extremities for the prevention of the traffic road accidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirenin, S A; Fetisov, V A; Grigoryan, V G; Gusarov, A A; Kucheryavets, Yu O

    The disabling injuries inflicted during road traffic accidents (RTA) create a serious challenge for the public health services and are at the same time a major socio-economic problem in the majority of the countries throughout the world. The injuries to the lower extremities of the pedestrians make up the largest fraction of the total number of the non-lethal RTA injuries. Most of them are responsible for the considerable deterioration of the quality of life for the participants in the accidents during the subsequent period. The objective of the present study was to summarize the currently available results of experimental testing of the biomechanical models of the pedestrians' lower extremities in the framework of the program for the prevention of the road traffic accidents as proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO, 2004). The European Enhanced Safety Vehicle Committee (EEVC) has developed a series of crash-tests with the use of the models of the pedestrians' lower extremities simulating the vehicle bumper-pedestrian impact. The models are intended for the assessment of the risk of the tibia fractures and the injuries to the knee joint ligaments. The experts of EEVC proposed the biomechanical criteria for the acceleration of the knee and talocrural parts of the lower limbs as well as for the shear displacement of the knee and knee-bending angle. The engineering solution of this problem is based on numerous innovation proposals being implemented in the machine-building industry with the purpose of reducing the stiffness of structural elements of the bumper and other front components of a modern vehicle designed to protect the pedestrians from severe injuries that can be inflicted in the road traffic accidents. The activities of the public health authorities (in the first place, bureaus of forensic medical expertise and analogous facilities) have a direct bearing on the solution of the problem of control of road traffic injuries because they are possessed of

  19. Hypervelocity Impact Performance of Open Cell Foam Core Sandwich Panel Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Shannon; Christiansen, Eric; Lear, Dana

    2009-01-01

    Metallic foams are a relatively new class of materials with low density and novel physical, mechanical, thermal, electrical and acoustic properties. Although incompletely characterized, they offer comparable mechanical performance to traditional spacecraft structural materials (i.e. honeycomb sandwich panels) without detrimental through-thickness channeling cells. There are two competing types of metallic foams: open cell and closed cell. Open cell foams are considered the more promising technology due to their lower weight and higher degree of homogeneity. Leading micrometeoroid and orbital debris shields (MMOD) incorporate thin plates separated by a void space (i.e. Whipple shield). Inclusion of intermediate fabric layers, or multiple bumper plates have led to significant performance enhancements, yet these shields require additional non-ballistic mass for installation (fasteners, supports, etc.) that can consume up to 35% of the total shield weight [1]. Structural panels, such as open cell foam core sandwich panels, that are also capable of providing sufficient MMOD protection, represent a significant potential for increased efficiency in hypervelocity impact shielding from a systems perspective through a reduction in required non-ballistic mass. In this paper, the results of an extensive impact test program on aluminum foam core sandwich panels are reported. The effect of pore density, and core thickness on shielding performance have been evaluated over impact velocities ranging from 2.2 - 9.3 km/s at various angles. A number of additional tests on alternate sandwich panel configurations of comparable-weight have also been performed, including aluminum honeycomb sandwich panels (see Figure 1), Nomex honeycomb core sandwich panels, and 3D aluminum honeycomb sandwich panels. A total of 70 hypervelocity impact tests are reported, from which an empirical ballistic limit equation (BLE) has been derived. The BLE is in the standard form suitable for implementation in

  20. Degradation Free Vacuum Epoxy Impregnated short REBCO Undulator Magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesgin, I.; Hasse, Q.; Ivanyushenkov, Y.; Welp, U.

    2017-12-01

    The source of high–brilliance, hard x-ray radiation in light sources and free electron lasers are undulator insertion devices. Recently, REBCO-based superconductors have been demonstrated to be a potential candidate to enhance the performance of the undulator insertion devices. Epoxy impregnation remained as one of the steps which is crucial to fully realize this technology. Epoxy impregnation of magnets is required because it prevents the motion of the wire and provides conduction cooling to the winding layers. Up until now, most of the impregnated REBCO coils/magnets showed some degree of degradation after cold cycles. We developed a vacuum impregnation technique that does not degrade the performance of the short REBCO prototype undulator magnets after cold cycles. The results showed that in order to prevent degradation, a bumper layer between the magnet winding stacks and the epoxy/powder mixture is required. Microstructure images of vacuum impregnated coil packs showed homogenously-spaced REBCO winding layers and very thin epoxy fillings between the layers, which is important for the overall performance of the device.

  1. Space Shuttle Meteoroid and Orbital Debris Threat Assessment Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, J.; Christiansen, E.

    Prior to each shuttle mission, Meteoroid and orbital Debris (M/OD) threat assessments are performed to determine the critical penetration risk for the orbiter vehicle, the radiator tube leak risk &the window replacement risk. Mission parameters, such as vehicle attitude, exposure time and altitude are used as inputs for the assessment. The assessments are performed using the BUMPER computer code at the NASA/JSC Hypervelocity Impact Technology Facility (HITF). An M/OD risk analysis is typically performed in support of orbiter Cargo Integration Reviews (CIR) and Flight Readiness Reviews (FRR). Three types of M/OD risk are assessed. The most important involves the calculation of "critical" penetration risk, defined as penetrations that may result in the catastrophic loss of vehicle and crew. Critical failure criteria have been established though detailed engineering evaluations by NASA and Boeing. The radiator assessment is concerned with premature end-of- mission due to loss of a coolant loop. The window assessment is a postflight maintenance and logistics issue. The result s are provided to the Space Shuttle Vehicle Engineering Office (MV) the Space and Life Science Directorate (SA) at JSC. This paper will document the inputs used in the critical penetration analysis for CIR, FRR, and post-flight assessments, it will also serve as a reference for the Space Shuttle Orbiter finite element model (FEM) surface property definitions that are used in M/OD threat assessments.

  2. Interventions to reduce risks associated with vehicle incompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernick, Jon S; Tung, Gregory J; Kromm, Jonathan N

    2012-01-01

    Occupants of smaller, lighter passenger cars are more likely to be killed or injured in collisions with larger, heavier sport utility vehicles and light trucks than in collisions with other cars. Interventions are needed to reduce this vehicle "incompatibility" and its consequences. The authors conducted a systematic literature review to identify evaluations of interventions to reduce incompatibility. They reviewed engineering, biomedical, and other technical literature. To be included, a study must have 1) evaluated an intervention to reduce vehicle incompatibility, or its consequences, in a crash; 2) reported new research; and 3) been published in English from 1990 to 2010. Seventeen studies met the inclusion criteria. Interventions were designed to reduce the aggressivity of larger vehicles or improve the crashworthiness of smaller vehicles. Effective interventions included 1) modified bumper heights, 2) improved side strength of smaller vehicles, 3) side-impact air bags, 4) changes to vehicle stiffness, and 5) modifications of other front-end structures. Some of the interventions shown to be effective are now in wide use. However, others have yet to be required by regulators or voluntarily agreed to by manufacturers. If larger, heavier vehicles remain on the nation's roads, countermeasures will be needed to reduce risks for occupants of other vehicles.

  3. High cycle fatigue of AA6082 and AA6063 aluminum extrusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanninga, Nicholas E.

    The high cycle fatigue behavior of hollow extruded AA6082 and AA6063 aluminum extrusions has been studied. Hollow extruded aluminum profiles can be processed into intricate shapes, and may be suitable replacements for fatigue critical automotive applications requiring reduced weight. There are several features inherent in hollow aluminum extrusions, such as seam welds, charge welds, microstructural variations and die lines. The effects of such extrusion variables on high cycle fatigue properties were studied by taking specimens from an actual car bumper extrusion. It appears that extrusion die lines create large anisotropy differences in fatigue properties, while welds themselves have little effect on fatigue lives. Removal of die lines greatly increased fatigue properties of AA6082 specimens taken transverse to the extrusion direction. Without die lines, anisotropy in fatigue properties between AA6082 specimens taken longitudinal and transverse to the extrusion direction, was significantly reduced, and properties associated with the orientation of the microstructure appears to be isotropic. A fibrous microstructure for AA6082 specimens showed great improvements in fatigue behavior. The effects of elevated temperatures and exposure of specimens to NaCl solutions was also studied. Exposure to the salt solution greatly reduced the fatigue lives of specimens, while elevated temperatures showed more moderate reductions in fatigue lives.

  4. Shear-induced reorganization of renal proximal tubule cell actin cytoskeleton and apical junctional complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yi; Gotoh, Nanami; Yan, Qingshang; Du, Zhaopeng; Weinstein, Alan M; Wang, Tong; Weinbaum, Sheldon

    2008-08-12

    In this study, we demonstrate that fluid shear stress (FSS)-induced actin cytoskeletal reorganization and junctional formation in renal epithelial cells are nearly completely opposite the corresponding changes in vascular endothelial cells (ECs) [Thi MM et al. (2004) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101:16483-16488]. Mouse proximal tubule cells (PTCs) were subjected to 5 h of FSS (1 dyn/cm(2)) to investigate the dynamic responses of the cytoskeletal distribution of filamentous actin (F-actin), ZO-1, E-cadherin, vinculin, and paxillin to FSS. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed that FSS caused basal stress fiber disruption, more densely distributed peripheral actin bands (DPABs), and the formation of both tight junctions (TJs) and adherens junctions (AJs). A dramatic reinforcement of vinculin staining was found at the cell borders as well as the cell interior. These responses were abrogated by the actin-disrupting drug, cytochalasin D. To interpret these results, we propose a "junctional buttressing" model for PTCs in which FSS enables the DPABs, TJs, and AJs to become more tightly connected. In contrast, in the "bumper-car" model for ECs, all junctional connections were severely disrupted by FSS. This "junctional buttressing" model explains why a FSS of only 1/10 of that used in the EC study can cause a similarly dramatic, cytoskeletal response in these tall, cuboidal epithelial cells; and why junctional buttressing between adjacent cells may benefit renal epithelium in maximizing flow-activated, brush border-dependent, transcellular salt and water reabsorption.

  5. Injury risk to specific body regions of pedestrians in frontal vehicle crashes modeled by empirical, in-depth accident data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmer, Thomas; Ebner, Adrian; Samaha, Randa Radwan; Scullion, Paul; Kates, Ronald

    2010-11-01

    Evaluation of safety benefits is an essential taskduring design and development of pedestrian protection systems. Comparative evaluation of different safety concepts is facilitated by a common metric taking into account the expected human benefits. Translation of physical characteristics of a collision, such as impact speed,into human benefits requires reliable and preferably evidence-based injury models. To this end, the dependence of injury severity of body regions on explanatory factors is quantified here using the US Pedestrian Crash Data Study (PCDS) for pedestrians in frontal vehicle collisions. The explanatory and causal factors include vehicle component characteristics, physiological and biomechanical variables, and crash parameters. Severe to serious injuries most often involve the head, thorax and lower extremities. In terms of causing components; severe head and thorax injuries occur mainly on the windshield and hood region; serious lower extremity injuries usually occur on the front bumper. In order to formulate a common metric for evaluating the effect sizes of distinct causal factors, multivariate models of injury severity are obtained by binary logistic regression. Impact speed is clearly the most important injury severity predictor for every body region, although biomechanical and physiological variables as well as geometrical characteristics of the vehicle are also significant in multivariate analysis, even controlling for speed. The injury-metric approach is illustrated in a comparison of hypothetical active and passive safety measures. The relative risk reduction to various body regions by this reduction is formulated as a benchmark for comparison of benefits from proposed structural changes to individual vehicle components.

  6. The Space Shuttle Program Pre-Flight Meteoroid and Orbital Debris Risk/Damage Predictions and Post-Flight Damage Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, George M.; Christiansen, Eric L.

    1997-01-01

    The pre-flight predictions and postflight assessments carried out in relation to a series of Space Shuttle missions are reviewed, and data are presented for the meteoroid and orbital debris damage observed on the Hubble Space Telescope during the 1994 Hubble repair mission. Pre-flight collision risk analyses are carried out prior to each mission, and in the case of an unacceptable risk, the mission profile is altered until the risk is considered to be acceptable. The NASA's BUMPER code is used to compute the probability of damage from debris and meteoroid particle impacts based on the Poisson statistical model for random events. The penetration probability calculation requires information concerning the geometry of the critical systems, the penetration resistance and mission profile parameters. Following each flight, the orbiter is inspected for meteoroid and space debris damage. The emphasis is on areas such as the radiator panels, the windows and the reinforced carbon-carbon structures on the leading wing edges and on the nose cap. The contents of damage craters are analyzed using a scanning electron microscope to determine the nature and origin of the impactor. Hypervelocity impact tests are often performed to simulate the observed damage and to estimate the nature of the damaging particles. The number and type of damage observed provides information concerning the orbital debris environment.

  7. Sagittal and vertical changes after treatment of Class II Division 1 malocclusion according to the Cetlin method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, F; Monsurró, A; Perillo, L

    2000-08-01

    This cephalometric study was designed to evaluate the dentoskeletal anteroposterior and vertical changes produced by Cetlin therapy (lower lip bumper, ACCO, cervical headgear) to correct Class II Division 1 malocclusion in the late mixed dentition. All measurements were made on 2 lateral headfilms, at pretreatment and at 1 year after beginning treatment. The selected sample (n = 110; 67 boys and 43 girls; mean age, 10 to 11 years) and the control group (n = 100; 48 boys, 52 girls; mean age, 10 to 11 years) matched for number, age, and malocclusion. The average observation interval was 13 months. The final measurements between intervals were averaged and tested for significance by analysis of variance. A one-factor (group) repeated measure model and a two-factor (group and facial type) repeated measure model were fitted to each variable separately and significance values were set at P

  8. Treatment of Class II malocclusion with mandibular skeletal anchorage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakir, Ezgi; Malkoç, Siddik; Kirtay, Mustafa

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this case report was to present the dentofacial changes obtained with bone anchorage in a Class II patient with moderate to severe crowding. A boy, aged 14.5 years, with a dolichofacial type, convex profile, and skeletal and dental Class II relationships was examined. After evaluation, functional treatment with bone anchorage and 4 first premolar extractions was decided as the treatment approach. Miniplates were placed on the buccal shelves of the mandibular third molars. The hook of the anchor was revealed from the first molar level. After surgery, the 4 first premolars were extracted to retract the protrusive mandibular incisors. The maxillary and mandibular first molars were banded, and a lip bumper was inserted to apply elastics and to help distalize the maxillary first molars. Orthodontic forces of 300 to 500 g were applied immediately after placement, originating from the miniscrews to the hooks of the appliance to advance the mandible. After 20 months of treatment, the patient had a dental and skeletal Class I relationship, the mandible was advanced, the maxilla was restrained, and overjet was decreased. The combination of a bone anchor, Class II elastics, and an inner bow is a promising alternative to functional treatment, along with extractions, in Class II patients. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Oral self-injurious behavior in the developmentally disabled: review and a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saemundsson, S R; Roberts, M W

    1997-01-01

    Self-injurious behavior occurs in conjunction with a variety of psychiatric disorders as well as various developmental disabilities and some syndromes. The behavioral and biochemical aspects of self-injurious behavior are poorly understood and several etiologies have been suggested. Treatments for self-injurious behavior in developmentally disabled individuals fall into three main categories: pharmacological, behavior modification and physical restraints. The dental management of self-injurious behavior is often difficult. Numerous appliances of various design have been reported in the literature. Osteotomies or extraction of the offending teeth may have to be considered if less invasive methods are unsuccessful. A case is reported where a child engaged in tonic lip biting secondary to a neurological and seizure disorder is treated using a removable lip-protruding device. No impression or lab construction is required. The appliance presents minimal interference with oral hygiene procedures and it can be removed and reinserted as needed. We conclude that a removable lip-bumper may be a viable option in treating transient and acute episodes of self-injurious behavior involving the lower lip and buccal mucosa.

  10. Effects of a three-dimensional bimetric maxillary distalizing arch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uçem, T T; Yüksel, S; Okay, C; Gülşen, A

    2000-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the dental effects of a three-dimensional (3D) bimetric maxillary distalizing arch. The Wilson rapid molar distalization appliance for Class II molar correction was used in 14 patients (10 girls and four boys with a mean age of 12.18 years). The open coil springs were activated with bent Omega stops and Class II intermaxillary elastics. The mandibular anchorage was gained by a 0.016 x 0.016 utility arch with a 3D lingual arch or a lip bumper with a standard lingual arch. The lateral cephalograms taken before and after treatment formed the material of the research. A Wilcoxon test was used to statistically evaluate the treatment effects. The results showed that the distal tipping of the maxillary first and second molars, and first and second premolars and canines were statistically significant. Significant distal movement occurred in all posterior and canine teeth. The maxillary first molar distalization was found to be 3.5 mm. The maxillary incisor showed significant proclination and protrusion. The decrease in overbite was found to be statistically significant. The mandibular plane angle significantly increased by a mean of 0.5 mm. In addition, significant soft tissue changes were observed.

  11. Comparison between rapid and mixed maxillary expansion through an assessment of arch changes on dental casts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassia, Vincenzo; d'Apuzzo, Fabrizia; Jamilian, Abdolreza; Femiano, Felice; Favero, Lorenzo; Perillo, Letizia

    2015-01-01

    Aim of this retrospective observational study was to compare upper and lower dental changes in patients treated with Rapid Maxillary Expansion (RME) and Mixed Maxillary Expansion (MME), assessed by dental cast analysis. Treatment groups consisted of 42 patients: the RME group (n = 21) consisted of 13 female and 8 male subjects with the mean age of 8.8 years ± 1.37 at T0 and 9.6 years ± 1.45 at T1; the MME group (n = 21) consisted of 12 female and 9 male patients with a mean age of 8.9 years ± 2.34 at T0 and 10.5 years ± 2.08 at T1. The upper and lower arch analysis was performed on four dental bilateral landmarks, on upper and lower casts; also upper and lower arch depths were measured. The groups were compared using independent sample t-test to estimate dental changes in upper and lower arches. Before expansion treatment (T0), the groups were similar for all examined variables (p>0.05). In both RME and MME group, significant increments in all the variables for maxillary and mandibular arch widths were observed after treatment. No significant differences in maxillary and mandibular arch depths were observed at the end of treatment in both groups. An evaluation of the changes after RME and MME (T1) showed statistically significant differences in mandibular arch depth (plip bumper effects" observed in the MME protocol.

  12. Correction of posterior crossbites: diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Robert E

    2004-01-01

    The correction of posterior crossbites is more complex than it appears. To develop an appropriate treatment plan, it is first necessary to determine if: (1) there is a functional jaw shift on closing; (2) the crossbite is unilateral or bilateral; (3) it is dental, skeletal, or a combination of both; and (4) it is related only to the maxilla or both jaws. Once the problem's apparent cause has been defined, it is then necessary to select the appropriate modality of treatment, which, in the maxilla, is: (1) usually a removable acrylic-based appliance with 1 or more transverse screws; or (2) a fixed Hyrax-type or Hass-type appliance. In the mandible, if dental expansion is required, the appliances most frequently used are the lip bumper or a removable acrylic-based appliance with a single screw lingual to the incisors. Once the appliance has been placed, it must be determined when adequate expansion has been achieved and how best to retain it.

  13. Clinical implications of early loss of a lower deciduous canine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins-Júnior, Paulo Antônio; Marques, Leandro Silva

    2012-01-01

    In crowded dental arches, the permanent lateral incisors often erupt and resorb the mesial portion of the root of deciduous canines, causing their premature loss. Therefore, knowledge on clinical aspects related to etiologic factors is necessary to pediatric orthodontists and clinical dentists for diagnosis and treatment with regard to incisor crowding and adjustment. The aim of the present study was to describe a clinical case characterized by the unilateral loss of a lower deciduous canine, offering clinical considerations on this issue and discussing the various procedures implemented to prevent potential problems. A patient, 8 years of age, had the lower right deciduous canine prematurely lost, resulting in a deviation from the midline to the same side of the loss caused by the migration of the permanent incisors. The antimeric canine was removed and a fixed apparatus was attached to the lower arch associated to a spring to correct the midline. Next, a lip bumper device was employed to promote the vestibular conduction of the lower incisors to accommodate the permanent canines in the arch. Although early loss of deciduous canines occurs frequently, treatment possibilities are controversial and further studies on the subject are necessary Orthodontic evaluation should be always considered to minimize the need to extract permanent teeth and/or future orthodontic treatment.

  14. Comparisons of two protocols for early treatment of anterior open bite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucedero, Manuela; Vitale, Maddalena; Franchi, Lorenzo; Cozza, Paola; Perillo, Letizia

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the outcomes of the treatment with the quad-helix/crib (Q-H/C) appliance with those of a combination of transpalatal arch, high-pull headgear, and lip bumper (TPA/HG/LB) in growing patients with anterior open bite malocclusion. The TPA/HG/LB sample consisted of 22 subjects, 16 girls and 6 boys (mean age 7.5±1.4 years at the start of treatment, T1, and 8.7±1.5 years at the end of active treatment, T2). The Q-H/C sample consisted of 28 subjects, 17 girls and 11 boys (mean age 8.2±1.3 years at T1, and 8.7±1.6 years at T2). Both treated groups were compared with a control group of 20 untreated subjects matched for dentoskeletal disharmony and observation interval. The changes from T2 to T1 between the three groups were compared with the analysis of variance. Both TPA/HG/LB and Q-H/C groups exhibited greater reduction of the palatal plane to mandibular plane angle (-1.7° and -1.9°, respectively) and a significantly greater increase in overbite (2.2 and 2.3mm, respectively) with respect to controls. Q-H/C and TPA/HG/LB protocols were equally effective in correcting the anterior open bite.

  15. European College of Orthodontics: Commission of Affiliation and Titularisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gönner, Uta

    2016-06-01

    Date of birth: 8 May 2000; sex: female. A. 9 years 9months; 4/2010. Angle Class I. II with ectopic 13, 23; mesial tipping of the roots of 12-22 and space opening at 12-22. Lack of space in 13 and 23 areas. Early loss of 53-63 due to undermining resorption and mesial migration of deciduous molars and first molars. Lower anterior crowding. Deep bite. Distalization of the upper molars and premolars. Space opening for alignment of 13-23; Appliances and devices: cervical headgear; lip bumper; multibracket appliance. B. 11/2013; 13 years 5months. 42 months (brackets: 24 months). A Cl. I relationship with canine guidance has been achieved. The overjet measures 2mm, and the overbite 1mm. The second molars are not fully erupted. The upper incisors are slightly protruded. The profile is well-balanced. 2/2013. Bonded 3-3 retainer in the upper and lower jaws, splint retainers for nighttime use. C. (1 year minimum): 6/2015; 15 years 1month. The result is stable. The overbite has increased to 2mm. Inclination of upper incisors has decreased by 2°. All wisdom teeth are planned for extraction. As long as the patient is willing to keep her retainers. The splint aligners are already worn irregularly. Copyright © 2016 CEO. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. A sports wheelchair for low-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Authier, Erica L; Pearlman, Jon; Allegretti, Ana L; Rice, Ian; Cooper, Rory A

    Appropriate wheelchairs for basic mobility needs are still not commonly available in low-income countries, although several organizations are working toward this goal. After basic mobility is secured it is important to provide more diverse assistive technology to allow people with disabilities to more completely participate in society and live healthy lives. Our goal was to design an affordable sports wheelchair that would allow individuals in low-income countries to participate in basketball. Design requirements established for the sports wheelchair included: removable anti-tippers, adjustable tension backrest, 24'' wheels, adjustable seat dump, variable camber, 4'' casters, fore-aft axle position, removable bumpers, height adjustable footrest, four wheels, single anti-tipper (pivot), cost less than $125 without wheels, 16'' seat width and backrest height, and nylon upholstery. The wheelchair was designed using 3D modeling, standard materials, and standard tools. An affordable wheelchair, versatile enough to be used for a variety of sports and even everyday use, was designed and prototyped successfully. Documentation for the design including step-by-step directions, engineering drawings, and photographs are available at the Human Engineering Research Laboratories website (http://www.herlpitt.org/intw.htm). Future work on the prototype should include design refinement including adaptations for other sports, and standards testing.

  17. Whole-machine material migration studies in the TEXTOR tokamak with molybdenum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Weckmann

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available MoF6 injection from a localised source into plasma edge in the TEXTOR tokamak was the last experiment before the final shut-down of the TEXTOR machine. During decommissioning all plasma-facing components (PFCs became available for surface studies. Detailed mapping of Mo deposition was performed in order to determine its migration on global scale. The concentration of Mo on PFC decays exponentially with distance from the source. The decay length is of the order of 0.1m on the main PFC and 1m on the receded components. Also the decay lengths modelled with the ERO code are between 0.15–1.3m, depending on the anomalous cross-field diffusion coefficient. The inner bumper limiter is found to be the major repository for Mo. Material balance measurements show that only up to 22% of the injected Mo was detected on all the PFCs thus indicating that a large fraction of injected Mo may have been pumped out before being deposited.

  18. A rapid assessment survey of invasive species of macrobenthic invertebrates in Korean waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chul; Kim, Sung-Tae; Hong, Jae-Sang; Choi, Keun-Hyung

    2017-09-01

    Introduced species are a growing and imminent threat to living marine resources in parts of the world's oceans. The present study is a rapid assessment survey of invasive macrobenthic invertebrate species in Korean ports. We surveyed over 40 ports around Korea during the period of May 2010 March 2013. Among the sampling sites were concrete walls, docks and associated floats, bumpers, tires, and ropes which might harbor non-native species. We found 15 invasive species as follows: one Sponge, two Bryozoans, three Mollusks, one Polychaete, four Cirripedes, and four Ascidians. Three morphologically similar species, namely X. atrata, M. galloprovincialis, and X. securis were further examined for distinctions in their morphology. Although they could be reasonably distinguished based on shell shapes, significant overlap was noted so that additional analysis may be required to correctly distinguish them. Although many of the introduced species have already spread to all three coastal areas, newly arrived invasive species showed a relatively restricted range, with a serpulid polychaete Ficopomatus enigmaticus and a mytilid bivalve Xenostrobus securis found only at a few sites on the East Coast. An exception is for Balanus perforatus, which has rapidly colonized the East coast of Korea following its introduction into the region. Successful management of invasive macrobenthic invertebrates should be established in order to contain the spread of these newly arrived species.

  19. A comparative study on zinc fertilizer brands available in the markets of Jessore region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GMM Islam

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted in Monirampur upazila under Jessore district from July to December, 2016 to collect information on names, numbers and comparative availability of different brands of Zinc fertilizers in order to aid the assessment of nutrient status for quality of the brands. For this purpose, information was collected from 54 randomly selected fertilizer shops (20 BCIC fertilizer dealers and 34 retailers through questionnaire interview. In the study total 77 brands [41 Zinc sulfate (mono, 11 Zinc sulfate (hepta and 25 Chelated zinc] of zinc fertilizer marketed by 49 companies were found in the upazila. Zingsul, Mim zinc, Grogin, Bumper mono zinc, Eon zinc and Geel mono of Zinc sulfate (mono brands, Topaz of Zinc sulfate (hepta brands and Mim zinc gold of Chelated zinc brands were mostly available. “Grogin” of Zinc sulfate (mono and “Topaz” of Zinc sulfate (hepta were the top most available. Ten percent of Zinc sulfate (hepta mentioned no registration number. There was a significant difference between highest and lowest MRP of all types (imported, supplied and manufactured of Zinc sulfate (mono and Zinc sulfate (hepta fertilizer as well as imported Chelated zinc brands.

  20. A simple method for percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube removal: "tie and retrograde pull".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakus, Suleyman Cuneyt; Celtik, Coskun; Koku, Naim; Ertaskın, Idris

    2013-08-01

    Various techniques have been presented to remove the percutaneous endoscopically placed gastrostomy tube in children, but tubes with semi-rigid internal retaining discs are difficult or impossible to remove by external traction. We describe a simple and effective endoscopic removal technique that should be applicable to any type of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube removal was performed with the "tie and retrograde pull" technique. After a polypropylene suture was placed and tied 1cm over the skin level, the percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube was cut 0.5 cm over the knot. The suture was cut from the connection point between the needle and the suture. The distal end of the suture was pushed through the stoma into the stomach. Then a forceps was inserted through the gastroscope. The suture was caught, and the residual percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy portion was retrieved via retrograde traction on the suture. The causes of exchange were determined to be planned tube replacement in 9, buried bumper syndrome in 1, and tube occlusion in 3 patients. The mean tube dwell time was 10.8 ± 3.9 months. Esophageal mucosal tear developed in 1 patient with epidermolysis bullosa during removal. No other complications occurred during PEG tube exchanges. This is a rapid and useful technique that does not require any complex endoscopic devices. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Recycling perturbations of supershot plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, S.D.; McCune, D.C.; Bell, M.G.; Bell, R.; Budny, R.V.; Fredrickson, E.; Grek, B.; Hill, K.W.; Jassby, D.; Jobes, F.; Johnson, D.W.; Johnson, L.C.; Mansfield, H.K.; Park, H.K.; Ramsey, A.T.; Stratton, B.E.; Synakowski, E.J.; Taylor, G.; Towner, H.H.; Zarnstorff, M.C. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.; Snipes, J.A. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1993-03-01

    Thermal heat transport in the core (r/a {le} 0.5) of beam-heated TFTR plasmas vanes by more than a factor of five between L-mode and supershot plasmas for the same I{sub p}, B{sub T}, and P{sub b}. Operationally, this variation is strongly correlated with the particle recycling coefficient of the carbon-carbon composite inner bumper limiter. The mechanisms underlying this correlation are not understood. This paper describes studies of the edge ion temperature, which is an important parameter if {tau}{sub E} is controlled by ion temperature gradient driven turbulence. We find that a edge electron temperature scales simply with power per electron, irrespective of the recycling state of the limiter. By contrast, the scaling of edge ion temperature is strongly affected by the recycling state of the limiter. Much higher edge ion temperatures are attained in low-recycling plasmas for the same power per particle. In addition, perturbative studies of recycling effects on transport have been carried out by puffing in large amounts of helium into a supershot plasma. The local core transport coefficients increase on a transport time scale ({approximately}100 ms), much faster than the current relaxation time scale. This suggests that the current profile is not responsible for the favorable energy confinement of supershot plasmas relative to L-mode plasmas.

  2. Recycling perturbations of supershot plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, S.D.; McCune, D.C.; Bell, M.G.; Bell, R.; Budny, R.V.; Fredrickson, E.; Grek, B.; Hill, K.W.; Jassby, D.; Jobes, F.; Johnson, D.W.; Johnson, L.C.; Mansfield, H.K.; Park, H.K.; Ramsey, A.T.; Stratton, B.E.; Synakowski, E.J.; Taylor, G.; Towner, H.H.; Zarnstorff, M.C. (Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.); Snipes, J.A. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States))

    1993-03-01

    Thermal heat transport in the core (r/a [le] 0.5) of beam-heated TFTR plasmas vanes by more than a factor of five between L-mode and supershot plasmas for the same I[sub p], B[sub T], and P[sub b]. Operationally, this variation is strongly correlated with the particle recycling coefficient of the carbon-carbon composite inner bumper limiter. The mechanisms underlying this correlation are not understood. This paper describes studies of the edge ion temperature, which is an important parameter if [tau][sub E] is controlled by ion temperature gradient driven turbulence. We find that a edge electron temperature scales simply with power per electron, irrespective of the recycling state of the limiter. By contrast, the scaling of edge ion temperature is strongly affected by the recycling state of the limiter. Much higher edge ion temperatures are attained in low-recycling plasmas for the same power per particle. In addition, perturbative studies of recycling effects on transport have been carried out by puffing in large amounts of helium into a supershot plasma. The local core transport coefficients increase on a transport time scale ([approximately]100 ms), much faster than the current relaxation time scale. This suggests that the current profile is not responsible for the favorable energy confinement of supershot plasmas relative to L-mode plasmas.

  3. Optical fiber sensors embedded in flexible polymer foils

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hoe, Bram; van Steenberge, Geert; Bosman, Erwin; Missinne, Jeroen; Geernaert, Thomas; Berghmans, Francis; Webb, David; van Daele, Peter

    2010-04-01

    In traditional electrical sensing applications, multiplexing and interconnecting the different sensing elements is a major challenge. Recently, many optical alternatives have been investigated including optical fiber sensors of which the sensing elements consist of fiber Bragg gratings. Different sensing points can be integrated in one optical fiber solving the interconnection problem and avoiding any electromagnetical interference (EMI). Many new sensing applications also require flexible or stretchable sensing foils which can be attached to or wrapped around irregularly shaped objects such as robot fingers and car bumpers or which can even be applied in biomedical applications where a sensor is fixed on a human body. The use of these optical sensors however always implies the use of a light-source, detectors and electronic circuitry to be coupled and integrated with these sensors. The coupling of these fibers with these light sources and detectors is a critical packaging problem and as it is well-known the costs for packaging, especially with optoelectronic components and fiber alignment issues are huge. The end goal of this embedded sensor is to create a flexible optical sensor integrated with (opto)electronic modules and control circuitry. To obtain this flexibility, one can embed the optical sensors and the driving optoelectronics in a stretchable polymer host material. In this article different embedding techniques for optical fiber sensors are described and characterized. Initial tests based on standard manufacturing processes such as molding and laser structuring are reported as well as a more advanced embedding technique based on soft lithography processing.

  4. Design and installation of the MSE septum system in the new LSS4 extraction channel of the SPS

    CERN Document Server

    Balhan, B; Guinand, R; Luiz, F; Rizzo, A; Weterings, W; CERN. Geneva. AB Department

    2003-01-01

    For the extraction of the beam from the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) to ring 2 of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and the CERN Neutrino to Gran Sasso (CNGS) facility, a new fast-extraction system has been installed in the long straight section LSS4 of the SPS. Besides extraction bumpers, enlarged aperture quadrupoles and extraction kicker magnets (MKE), six conventional DC septum magnets (MSE) are used. These magnets are mounted on a single mobile retractable support girder, which is motorised in order to optimise the local SPS aperture during setting up. The MSE septa are connected by a so-called plug-in system to a rigid water-cooled bus bar, which itself is powered by water-cooled cables. In order to avoid destruction of the septum magnet coils by direct impact of the extracted beam, a dilution element (TPSG) has been placed immediately upstream of the first septum coil. The whole system is kept at the required vacuum pressure by ion pumps attached to separate modules (MP). In this note we present the de...

  5. Preventing baby bottle tooth decay in American Indian and Alaska native communities: a model for planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruerd, B; Kinney, M B; Bothwell, E

    1989-01-01

    Baby bottle tooth decay (BBTD) is a preventable dental disease which surveys have shown affects more than 50 percent of Native American children. An experimental program to prevent BBTD was implemented in 12 Native American communities. The project represented a cooperative effort by three Department of Health and Human Service agencies: Administration for Children, Youth, and Families, Head Start Bureau; Indian Health Service, Dental Program; and Centers for Disease Control, Dental Disease Prevention Activity. Intervention strategies included the training of parent volunteers, health professionals, and the tribal employees who counseled caretakers of young children and made group presentations. There was also a media campaign in each community that ran for a 3-year period. Numerous educational materials were developed including training manuals, counseling booklets, tippee cups, posters, and bumper stickers. The BBTD project's planners encouraged tailoring the education materials and strategies to fit each community. Preliminary results documented statistically significant decreases in the prevalence of BBTD at the pilot sites. This multidisciplinary, comprehensive intervention offers a model for organizing members of minority communities to prevent health problems.

  6. Material behavior and materials problems in TFTR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dylla, H. F.; Ulrickson, M. A.; Owens, D. K.; Heifetz, D. B.; Mills, B. E.; Pontau, A. E.; Wampler, W. R.; Doyle, B. L.; Lee, S. R.; Watson, R. D.; Croessmann, C. D.

    1988-07-01

    This paper reviews the experience with first-wall materials in TFTR over a 20 month period of operatiori during 1985-1987. Experience with the axisymmetric inner wall limiter, constructed of graphite tiles, is described, including the necessary conditioning procedures needed for impurity and particle control of high power (≤ 20 MW) neutral injection experiments. The thermal effects in disruptions have been quantified and no significant damage to the bumper limiter has occurred as a result of disruptions. Carbon and metal impurity redeposition effects have been quantified through surface analysis of wall samples. Estimates of the tritium retention in the graphite limiter tiles and redeposited carbon films have been made, based on analysis of deuterium retention in removed graphite tiles and wall samples. New limiter structures have been designed using a 2D carbon/carbon ( {C}/{C}) composite material for RF antenna protection. Laboratory tests of the important thermal, mechanical, and vacuum properties of {C}/{C} materials are described. Finally, the last series of experiments in TFTR with in-situ {Zr}/{Al} surface pumps are discussed. Problems with {Zr}/{Al} embrittlement have led to the removal of the getter material from the in-torus environment.

  7. Comparison of percutaneous radiologic gastrostomy by using cone beam CT and endoscopic gastrostomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Hyun Nyeong; Han, Young Min; Jin, Gong Yong; Choi, Eun Jeong; Song, Ji Soo [Chonbuk National University Hospital and Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-15

    To compare the effectiveness of percutaneous radiologic gastrostomy (PRG) by using cone beam CT and percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG). This study retrospectively reviewed 129 patients who underwent PRG (n = 53) and PEG (n = 76) over a 2-years period. The C-arm cone beam CT images were obtained from all PRG patients before the procedure in order to decide the safest accessing routes. The parameters including technical success rates, complication rates and tube migration rates were all analyzed according to statistical methods. The success rate of tube placement was higher in PRG than in PEG (100% to 93%, p = 0.08). Minor complications occurred in 5 patients of the PRG group (10%; 5/53, 3 wound infection, 2 blood oozing), and occurred in 6 patients of PEG group (7.9%; 6/76, 5 wound infection, 1 esophageal ulcer). Major complications occurred only in 5 patients of PEG group (6.6%; 5/76, 1 panperitonitis, 4 buried bumper syndrome). There were no statistical differences of minor and major complication rates in the two groups (respectively, p = 0.759, p = 0.078). Tube migration rate was lower in PRG than PEG group (7.5% vs. 38.2%, p < 0.005). PRG using cone beam CT is the effective and safe method, the cone beam CT provides the safest accessing route during gastrostomy. Less tube migration occurs in the PRG than in PEG.

  8. Surface protection in bio-shields via a functional soft skin layer: Lessons from the turtle shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelef, Yaniv; Bar-On, Benny

    2017-09-01

    The turtle shell is a functional bio-shielding element, which has evolved naturally to provide protection against predator attacks that involve biting and clawing. The near-surface architecture of the turtle shell includes a soft bi-layer skin coating - rather than a hard exterior - which functions as a first line of defense against surface damage. This architecture represents a novel type of bio-shielding configuration, namely, an inverse structural-mechanical design, rather than the hard-coated bio-shielding elements identified so far. In the current study, we used experimentally based structural modeling and FE simulations to analyze the mechanical significance of this unconventional protection architecture in terms of resistance to surface damage upon extensive indentations. We found that the functional bi-layer skin of the turtle shell, which provides graded (soft-softer-hard) mechanical characteristics to the bio-shield exterior, serves as a bumper-buffer mechanism. This material-level adaptation protects the inner core from the highly localized indentation loads via stress delocalization and extensive near-surface plasticity. The newly revealed functional bi-layer coating architecture can potentially be adapted, using synthetic materials, to considerably enhance the surface load-bearing capabilities of various engineering configurations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Metal flow of a tailor-welded blank in deep drawing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Qi; Guo, Ruiquan

    2005-01-01

    Tailor welded blanks were used in the automotive industry to consolidate parts, reduce weight, and increase safety. In recent years, this technology was developing rapidly in China. In Chinese car models, tailor welded blanks had been applied in a lot of automobile parts such as rail, door inner, bumper, floor panel, etc. Concerns on the properties of tailor welded blanks had become more and more important for automobile industry. A lot of research had shown that the strength of the welded seam was higher than that of the base metal, such that the weld failure in the aspect of strength was not a critical issue. However, formability of tailor welded blanks in the stamping process was complex. Among them, the metal flow of tailor welded blanks in the stamping process must be investigated thoroughly in order to reduce the scrap rate during the stamping process in automobile factories. In this paper, the behavior of metal flow for tailor welded blanks made by the laser welding process with two types of different thickness combinations were studied in the deep drawing process. Simulations and experiment verification of the movement of weld line for tailor welded blanks were discussed in detail. Results showed that the control on the movement of welded seam during stamping process by taking some measures in the aspect of blank holder was effective.

  10. Alignment and girder position of MSE septa in the new LSS4 extraction channel of the SPS

    CERN Document Server

    Balhan, B; Rizzo, A; Weterings, W; CERN. Geneva. SPS and LHC Division

    2002-01-01

    For the extraction of the beam from the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) to ring 2 of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and the CERN Neutrino to Gran Sasso (CNGS)facility, a new fast-extraction system is being constructed in the long straight section LSS4 of the SPS. Besides extraction bumpers, enlarged aperture quadrupoles and extraction kicker magnets (MKE), six conventional DC septum magnets (MSE) are used. These magnets are mounted on a single rigid support girder, pre-aligned so as to follow the trajectory of the extracted beam and optimise the available aperture. The girder has been motorised in order to optimise the local SPS aperture during setting up, so as to avoid the risk of circulating beam impact on the septum coils. In this note, we briefly present the trajectory and apertures of the beam, we describe the calculations and methods that have been used to determine the magnet position on the girder, and finally we report on the details of the girder movement and alignment.

  11. The Septum Magnet System of the New Fast Extraction Channel of the SPS at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Balhan, B; Rizzo, A; Weterings, W

    2004-01-01

    In the Long Straight Section LSS4 of the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) at CERN, a new fast extraction system has been installed in order to extract the beam to ring 2 of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and the CERN Neutrino to Gran Sasso facility (CNGS). The system consists of horizontal closed orbit bumper magnets, extraction kicker magnets, enlarged aperture quadrupoles and six conventional DC electromagnetic septum magnets (MSE). A protection element (TPSG) has been placed immediately upstream of the first septum coil. The septum magnets and TPSG are mounted on a single mobile retractable support girder. The MSE septa are connected by a so-called plug-in system to a rigid water-cooled bus-bar, powered by water-cooled cables. The whole system is kept at the required vacuum pressure by ion pumps attached to separate pumping modules. In this note we present the design features and parameters of the MSE septum magnets, describe the function of the related main equipment elements, briefly report on the control...

  12. Examining the Anatomy of a Screencast: Uncovering Common Elements and Instructional Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Sugar

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The researchers engaged in cooperative inquiry in order to explore screencasts as online instructional tools. In total, each researcher analyzed 37 screencasts, which provided over two hours of instruction. The content area of these screencasts concentrated on teaching specific computing procedures (e.g., how to install web server software or how to add a table in a word processor. The researchers analyzed their own self-produced screencasts as well as those that were professionally produced. Analyses of the screencasts led the researchers to discover common structural components (i.e., bumpers, screen movement, and narration and common instructional strategies (i.e., provide overview, describe procedure, present concept, focus attention, and elaborate content. By synthesizing the common structure and common instructional strategies, the researchers offer a framework for considering the role of screencasts as online instructional tools. To introduce a practical application of the framework, the researchers created a screencasting checklist, which may be used by online instructors and instructional designers to develop and assess their own screencasts. This initial work invites additional research and development in order to refine the screencasting framework and checklist.

  13. Mathematical model for studying cyclist kinematics in vehicle-bicycle frontal collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condrea, OA; Chiru, A.; Chiriac, RL; Vlase, S.

    2017-10-01

    For the development of effective vehicle related safety solutions to improve cyclist protection, kinematic predictions are essential. The objective of the paper was the elaboration of a simple mathematical model for predicting cyclist kinematics, with the advantage of yielding simple results for relatively complicated impact situations. Thus, the use of elaborated math software is not required and the calculation time is shortened. The paper presents a modelling framework to determine cyclist kinematic behaviour for the situations in which a M1 category vehicle frontally hits the rear part of a bicycle. After the primary impact between the vehicle front bumper and the bicycle, the cyclist hits the vehicle’s bonnet, the windscreen or both the vehicle’s bonnet and the windscreen in short succession. The head-windshield impact is often the most severe impact, causing serious and potentially lethal injuries. The cyclist is represented by a rigid segment and the equations of motion for the cyclist after the primary impact are obtained by applying Newton’s second law of motion. The impact time for the contact between the vehicle and the cyclist is yielded afterwards by formulating and intersecting the trajectories for two points positioned on the cyclist’s head/body and the vehicle’s windscreen/bonnet while assuming that the cyclist’s equations of motion after the primary impact remain the same. Postimpact kinematics for the secondary impact are yielded by applying linear and angular momentum conservation laws.

  14. On-Line Impact Load Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Sekuła

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The so-called Adaptive Impact Absorption (AIA is a research area of safety engineering devoted to problems of shock absorption in various unpredictable scenarios of collisions. It makes use of smart technologies (systems equipped with sensors, controllable dissipaters and specialised tools for signal processing. Examples of engineering applications for AIA systems are protective road barriers, automotive bumpers or adaptive landing gears. One of the most challenging problems for AIA systems is on-line identification of impact loads, which is crucial for introducing the optimum real-time strategy of adaptive impact absorption. This paper presents the concept of an impactometer and develops the methodology able to perform real-time impact load identification. Considered dynamic excitation is generated by a mass M1 impacting with initial velocity V0. An analytical formulation of the problem, supported with numerical simulations and experimental verifications is presented. Two identification algorithms based on measured response of the impacted structure are proposed and discussed. Finally, a concept of the AIA device utilizing the idea of impactometer is briefly presented.

  15. Crash compatibility between cars and light trucks: benefits of lowering front-end energy-absorbing structure in SUVs and pickups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Bryan C; Nolan, Joseph M; O'Neill, Brian; Genetos, Alexander P

    2008-01-01

    Passenger vehicles are designed to absorb crash energy in frontal crashes through deformation or crush of energy-absorbing structures forward of the occupant compartment. In collisions between cars and light trucks (i.e., pickups and SUVs), however, the capacity of energy-absorption structures may not be fully utilized because mismatches often exist between the heights of these structures in the colliding vehicles. In 2003 automakers voluntarily committed to new design standards aimed at reducing the height mismatches between cars and light trucks. By September 2009 all new light trucks will have either the primary front structure (typically the frame rails) or a secondary structure connected to the primary structure low enough to interact with the primary structures in cars, which for most cars is about the height of the front bumper. To estimate the overall benefit of the voluntary commitment, the real-world crash experience of light trucks already meeting the height-matching criteria was compared with that of light trucks not meeting the criteria for 2000-2003 model light trucks in collisions with passenger cars during calendar years 2001-2004. The estimated benefits of lower front energy-absorbing structure were a 19 percent reduction (pcar drivers in front-to-front crashes with light trucks and a 19 percent reduction (pcar drivers in front-to-driver-side crashes with light trucks.

  16. Les systèmes hétérogènes « eau zéolithe hydrophobe »: de nouveaux ressorts moléculairesThe heterogeneous systems 'water hydrophobic zeolites': new molecular springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eroshenko, Valentin; Regis, Robert-Charles; Soulard, Michel; Patarin, Joël

    Pressure-volume isotherms have been determined for three heterogeneous 'water-zeolite' systems. The first two concern hydrophobic purely siliceous zeolites: silicalite-1 (F -) and zeolite β (F -); the third comprises a more hydrophilic commercial zeolite of the type ZSM-5. The P- V diagram for the water-silicalite-1 (F -) system is characterized by a plateau corresponding to the intrusion of water inside the pores of the solid. During the release the phenomenon is reversible. This system, which is able to accumulate and restore superficial energy, constitutes a molecular spring. For zeolite β, the P- V curve displays a plateau during the compression, but during the release, the phenomenon is not reversible. In that case, the system absorbs mechanical energy and acts as a bumper. The third system, based on the more hydrophilic ZSM-5 zeolite shows a linear isotherm without any plateau. These results open new applications perspectives in the field of the energetics for hydrophobic zeolites in contact with water. To cite this article: V. Eroshenko et al., C. R. Physique 3 (2002) 111-119

  17. Mechanism of Water Infiltration and Defiltration through ZSM-5 Zeolite: Heating and Sodium Chloride Concentration Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueting Sun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrophobic nanoporous material and wetting liquid together comprise a system with promising energy related applications. The mechanism of the interaction between liquid and solid phase is not fully explored. In this paper, based on the quasistatic compression experiments on investigating the mechanical behavior of ZSM-5 zeolite/NaCl solution system, the effects of two key parameters, that is, the pretreatment temperature of ZSM-5 zeolite and NaCl concentration, are parametrically and quantitatively investigated based on Laplace-Washburn equation. Results show that both pretreatment temperature and NaCl concentration raise the infiltration pressure and NaCl can also promote defiltration. The advancing contact and receding contact angle of zeolite-NaCl-air system increase with both pretreatment temperature and NaCl concentration, and the contact angle hysteresis decreases with NaCl concentration. Results may provide fundamental explanation to the nanoconfined liquid behavior and liquid-solid interaction, thus, to smartly control the mechanical properties of the liquid spring and bumpers for energy dissipation function.

  18. Finite element analysis of knee injury risks in car-to-pedestrian impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasaka, Kei; Mizuno, Koji; Tanaka, Eiichi; Yamamoto, Sota; Iwamoto, Masami; Miki, Kazuo; Kajzer, Janusz

    2003-12-01

    In vehicle-pedestrian collisions, lower extremities of pedestrians are frequently injured by vehicle front structures. In this study, a finite element (FE) model of THUMS (total human model for safety) was modified in order to assess injuries to a pedestrian lower extremity. Dynamic impact responses of the knee joint of the FE model were validated on the basis of data from the literature. Since in real-world accidents, the vehicle bumper can impact the lower extremities in various situations, the relations between lower extremity injury risk and impact conditions, such as between impact location, angle, and impactor stiffness, were analyzed. The FE simulation demonstrated that the motion of the lower extremity may be classified into a contact effect of the impactor and an inertia effect from a thigh or leg. In the contact phase, the stress of the bone is high in the area contacted by the impactor, which can cause fracture. Thus, in this phase the impactor stiffness affects the fracture risk of bone. In the inertia phase, the behavior of the lower extremity depends on the impact locations and angles, and the knee ligament forces become high according to the lower extremity behavior. The force of the collateral ligament is high compared with other knee ligaments, due to knee valgus motions in vehicle-pedestrian collisions.

  19. Modular Robotic Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borroni-Bird, Christopher E. (Inventor); Vitale, Robert L. (Inventor); Lee, Chunhao J. (Inventor); Ambrose, Robert O. (Inventor); Bluethmann, William J. (Inventor); Junkin, Lucien Q. (Inventor); Lutz, Jonathan J. (Inventor); Guo, Raymond (Inventor); Lapp, Anthony Joseph (Inventor); Ridley, Justin S. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A modular robotic vehicle includes a chassis, driver input devices, an energy storage system (ESS), a power electronics module (PEM), modular electronic assemblies (eModules) connected to the ESS via the PEM, one or more master controllers, and various embedded controllers. Each eModule includes a drive wheel containing a propulsion-braking module, and a housing containing propulsion and braking control assemblies with respective embedded propulsion and brake controllers, and a mounting bracket covering a steering control assembly with embedded steering controllers. The master controller, which is in communication with each eModule and with the driver input devices, communicates with and independently controls each eModule, by-wire, via the embedded controllers to establish a desired operating mode. Modes may include a two-wheel, four-wheel, diamond, and omni-directional steering modes as well as a park mode. A bumper may enable docking with another vehicle, with shared control over the eModules of the vehicles.

  20. Structural health monitoring algorithm comparisons using standard data sets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueiredo, Eloi; Park, Gyuhae; Figueiras, Joaquim; Farrar, Charles; Worden, Keith

    2009-03-01

    The real-world structures are subjected to operational and environmental condition changes that impose difficulties in detecting and identifying structural damage. The aim of this report is to detect damage with the presence of such operational and environmental condition changes through the application of the Los Alamos National Laboratory’s statistical pattern recognition paradigm for structural health monitoring (SHM). The test structure is a laboratory three-story building, and the damage is simulated through nonlinear effects introduced by a bumper mechanism that simulates a repetitive impact-type nonlinearity. The report reviews and illustrates various statistical principles that have had wide application in many engineering fields. The intent is to provide the reader with an introduction to feature extraction and statistical modelling for feature classification in the context of SHM. In this process, the strengths and limitations of some actual statistical techniques used to detect damage in the structures are discussed. In the hierarchical structure of damage detection, this report is only concerned with the first step of the damage detection strategy, which is the evaluation of the existence of damage in the structure. The data from this study and a detailed description of the test structure are available for download at: http://institute.lanl.gov/ei/software-and-data/.

  1. Floating Production Unit FPU P53: logistic and modules installation; Logistica e instalacao dos modulos da Unidade Flutuante de Producao FPU P53

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arantes, Joao Durval [UTC Engenharia S.A., SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This work intends to show a 'case' of success, namely the model of management and the strategy, applied in the logistics and installation of the P53 modules. The criteria, which took QUIP to contract, in Brazil and abroad, technology companies, to supply integrated modules, including engineering, procurement, construction and warranty of performance, are shown. Establishment, at the initial phase of the Project, of the discipline 'constructibility', with the attribution to interact with the engineering design and construction of the modules under QUIP's responsibility, modules supplied by PETROBRAS and mainly, with the site of Naval Conversion in Singapore. Establishment of the discipline 'Marinharia', to act together with 'constructibility' to overcome the difficulties and restrictions of Porto de Rio Grande, such as the following: the width of the sailing channel, interferences of commercial port, availability of mooring pier, relationship with port pilotage and authorities of the Fifth Naval District of Brazilian Navy. The challenges were the maneuvers with 2 crane barges for modules installation, in front the P-53, a VLCC ship and maneuvers the barges, involved at the time of installation of the modules. And, finally, to show the proceeding applied in the physical interfaces of installation of the modules, such as: interferences, supports of the modules, stools in the ship, guides and bumpers. Dimensional control, simulations and extensive planning were the tools of success. (author)

  2. Project Explorer: Get Away Special #007. [alloy solidification, seed germination, crystal growth, and radio transmission of payload data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, A. J., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Tentatively scheduled to fly on STS-17 (41G), this get away special aims to demonstrate amateur radio transmissions to global ground stations in the English language. Experiments No. 1, 2, and 3 use the micro-gravity of space flight to study the solidification of lead-antimony and aluminum-copper alloys, the germination of radish seeds, and the growth of potassium-tetracyanoplatinate hydrate crystals in an aqueous solution. Flight results are to be compared with Earth-based data. Experiment No. 4 (the Marshall Amateur Radio Club Experiment - MARCE) features radio transmissions and also provides timing for the start of all other experiments. A microprocessor obtains real-time data from all experiments as well as temperature and pressure measurements within the GAS canister. These data are to be transmitted on previously announced amateur radio frequencies after they are converted into the English language by a digitalker for general reception. The support structure for the G #007 experiments consists of two primary plates and four bumper assemblies.

  3. Surveys of ISS Returned Hardware for MMOD Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, James; Christiansen, E.; Lear, D.; Nagy, K.

    2017-01-01

    Since February 2001, the Hypervelocity Impact Technology (HVIT) group at the Johnson Space Center in Houston has performed 26 post-flight inspections on space exposed hardware that have been returned from the International Space Station. Data on 1,024 observations of MMOD damage have been collected from these inspections. Survey documentation typically includes impact feature location and size measurements as well as microscopic photography (25-200x). Sampling of impacts sites for projectile residue was performed for the largest features. Results of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis to discern impactor source is included in the database. This paper will summarize the post-flight MMOD inspections, and focus on two inspections in particular: (1) Pressurized Mating Adapter-2 (PMA-2) cover returned in 2015 after 1.6 years exposure with 26 observed damages, and (2) Airlock shield panels returned in 2010 after 8.7 years exposure with 58 MMOD damages. Feature sizes from the observed data are compared to predictions using the Bumper risk assessment code.

  4. Surveys of Returned ISS Hardware for MMMOD Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, J. L.; Christiansen, E. L.; Lear, D. M.; Nagy, K.; Berger, E. L.

    2017-01-01

    Since February 2001, the Hypervelocity Impact Technology (HVIT) group at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston has performed 35 post-flight inspections on space exposed hardware returned from the International Space Station (ISS). Data on 1,188 observations of micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) damage have been collected from these inspections. Survey documentation typically includes impact feature location and size measurements as well as microscopic photography (25-200x). Sampling of impacts sites for projectile residue was performed for the largest features. Results of energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopic analysis to discern impactor source are included in the database when available. This paper will focus on two inspections, the Pressurized Mating Adapter 2 (PMA-2) cover returned in 2015 after 1.6 years exposure with 26 observed impact features, and two Airlock shield panels returned in 2010 after 8.75 years exposure with 58 MMOD impacts. Feature sizes from the observed data are compared to predictions using the Bumper 3 risk assessment code.

  5. Does Semi-Rigid Instrumentation Using Both Flexion and Extension Dampening Spacers Truly Provide an Intermediate Level of Stabilization?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilip Sengupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional posterior dynamic stabilization devices demonstrated a tendency towards highly rigid stabilization approximating that of titanium rods in flexion. In extension, they excessively offload the index segment, making the device as the sole load-bearing structure, with concerns of device failure. The goal of this study was to compare the kinematics and intradiscal pressure of monosegmental stabilization utilizing a new device that incorporates both a flexion and extension dampening spacer to that of rigid internal fixation and a conventional posterior dynamic stabilization device. The hypothesis was the new device would minimize the overloading of adjacent levels compared to rigid and conventional devices which can only bend but not stretch. The biomechanics were compared following injury in a human cadaveric lumbosacral spine under simulated physiological loading conditions. The stabilization with the new posterior dynamic stabilization device significantly reduced motion uniformly in all loading directions, but less so than rigid fixation. The evaluation of adjacent level motion and pressure showed some benefit of the new device when compared to rigid fixation. Posterior dynamic stabilization designs which both bend and stretch showed improved kinematic and load-sharing properties when compared to rigid fixation and when indirectly compared to existing conventional devices without a bumper.

  6. CONSUMERS’ SATISFACTION OF HIGHER EDUCATION SERVICES A PROBLEM OF EDUCATION IN THE 21ST CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA-LAVINIA POPESCU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The international evolutions show that in unavoidable manner, in anycountry, Romania inclusively, the overcome of rare difficulties, will necessity and will makespossible simultaneous, the enrolling of tertiary sector on a trajectory by an extensivedevelopment. No country can not allows the neglect a thus sector, with a developing role in theturning to account of human resources, materials and financials existing, in the economymodernize on the whole, in the solvable needs satisfy and in the population exigencies covering.The quickening of realize an ones extensive investments programs, the using of suitablematerials and technical means, will be felt too in Romania. So as to assure the quality ineducation it is necessary to bring exchanges in structure, in content, in teaching-learningvaluationprocess etc. The education quality is affected by the specification of changes ofeducation domain, specification given on the one side by the long history of school whichgenerated a powerful and a bumper organizational culture, and on the other side, by thecomplexity schools organizations.

  7. Simulation of car impact to pedestrian lower extremity: influence of different car-front shapes and dummy parameters on test results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, H; Kajzer, J; Ono, K; Sakurai, M

    1994-04-01

    Sled impact tests on mechanical substitutes for a pedestrian were conducted as a preliminary study for the purpose of developing a subsystem test procedure for the assessment of car-front aggressiveness to pedestrian legs. Four mechanical substitutes for a pedestrian were used in the test: the leg of a rotationally symmetrical pedestrian dummy (RSPD) as the representation of a subsystem, a HYBRID-II pedestrian dummy, a modified HYBRID-II pedestrian dummy equipped with a steel bar serving as knee joint, and a RSPD - HYBRID-IIP combined dummy in which the lower part of the RSPD and the upper part of the HYBRID-IIP were connected by a joint in such a way that the movements of the upper part were similar to those in cadaver tests. In the tests the following were evaluated: (i) the influence of vehicle shape on knee response and on vehicle impact force; (ii) the influence of the upper body mass on knee response and on vehicle impact forces; (iii) the influence of the bumper system on knee response, the kinematics of pedestrian mechanical substitute, and on vehicle impact forces; (iv) the influence of pedestrian mechanical substitute characteristics on its kinematics and knee response, and on vehicle impact forces. This paper describes a primary concept when subsystem test methods for the assessment of car-front aggressiveness to pedestrian legs in a car-pedestrian collision are considered.

  8. Design of the Cross Section Shape of AN Aluminum Crash Box for Crashworthiness Enhancement of a CAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S. B.; Huh, H.; Lee, G. H.; Yoo, J. S.; Lee, M. Y.

    This paper deals with the crashworthiness of an aluminum crash box for an auto-body with the various shapes of cross section such as a rectangle, a hexagon and an octagon. First, crash boxes with various cross sections were tested with numerical simulation to obtain the energy absorption capacity and the mean load. In case of the simple axial crush, the octagon shape shows higher mean load and energy absorption than the other two shapes. Secondly, the crash boxes were assembled to a simplified auto-body model for the overall crashworthiness. The model consists of a bumper, crash boxes, front side members and a sub-frame representing the behavior of a full car at the low speed impact. The analysis result shows that the rectangular cross section shows the best performance as a crash box which deforms prior to the front side member. The hexagonal and octagonal cross sections undergo torsion and local buckling as the width of cross section decreases while the rectangular cross section does not. The simulation result of the rectangular crash box was verified with the experimental result. The simulation result shows close tendency in the deformed shape and the load-displacement curve to the experimental result.

  9. Predicting the Consequences of MMOD Penetrations on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, James; Christiansen, E.; Lear, D.; Evans

    2018-01-01

    The threat from micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) impacts on space vehicles is often quantified in terms of the probability of no penetration (PNP). However, for large spacecraft, especially those with multiple compartments, a penetration may have a number of possible outcomes. The extent of the damage (diameter of hole, crack length or penetration depth), the location of the damage relative to critical equipment or crew, crew response, and even the time of day of the penetration are among the many factors that can affect the outcome. For the International Space Station (ISS), a Monte-Carlo style software code called Manned Spacecraft Crew Survivability (MSCSurv) is used to predict the probability of several outcomes of an MMOD penetration-broadly classified as loss of crew (LOC), crew evacuation (Evac), loss of escape vehicle (LEV), and nominal end of mission (NEOM). By generating large numbers of MMOD impacts (typically in the billions) and tracking the consequences, MSCSurv allows for the inclusion of a large number of parameters and models as well as enabling the consideration of uncertainties in the models and parameters. MSCSurv builds upon the results from NASA's Bumper software (which provides the probability of penetration and critical input data to MSCSurv) to allow analysts to estimate the probability of LOC, Evac, LEV, and NEOM. This paper briefly describes the overall methodology used by NASA to quantify LOC, Evac, LEV, and NEOM with particular emphasis on describing in broad terms how MSCSurv works and its capabilities and most significant models.

  10. Impact of Agricultural Credit on Production of Wheat Crop: A Case Study of District Faisalabad-Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Asghar , Muhammad Waqas Chughtai

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture sector plays an important role in the economic development of Pakistan. Wheat is an important and most cultivated crop because it is an essential ingredient of food commodities. Credit plays a vital role in agricultural farming by indirectly participating in purchasing of agricultural inputs i.e. seed, fertilizer, irrigation, machinery and labor etc. Majority of the farmers are poor and they are not able to fulfill the cash requirement of farming, therefore credit has become their dire need. Due to credit farmers can timely purchase the agricultural inputs which resulting a bumper crop. The objective of this study is to depict the impact of credit on the production of wheat crop. Survey was conducted and random sampling technique was used to select the sample borrowers. The collected data was interpreted through “Cobb Douglas Production Function” by using statistical software (SPSS 16.0. The results showed that credit has positive and significant impact on wheat production. The values of R2 and F-statistics are found significant which represented that all selected variables are highly significant. The study not only shares the importance of credit to perform any agriculture activity but also helpful for economists and policy makers for designing agri financing policies.

  11. Camouflaged carborarods derived from B-permethyl-1,12-diethynyl-para- and B-octamethyl-1,7-diethylnyl-meta-carborane modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Axel; Jalisatgi, Satish S; Knobler, Carolyn B; Wedge, Timothy J; Hawthorne, M Frederick

    2005-12-09

    Rigid camouflaged carborarods constructed from the corresponding C,C'-diethynyl derivatives of B-decamethyl-1,12-dicarbadodecaborane(12) (6) and B-octamethyl-1,7-dicarbadodecaborane(12) (48) have been synthesized by largely conventional organic transformations. These carborarods are the longest discrete rod species available by this method in which B-methylated p-carborane and m-carborane cages are linked through their carbon vertices by using butadiynylene moieties. They exhibit enhanced solubility in common organic solvents relative to all other presently known carborane-based rigid-rod molecules. The oxidative coupling of bis(ethynyl) derivatives of 6 generates oligomers containing, on average, 16 carborane modules. The structural characterization of the corresponding dimeric species revealed that the carborarods possess a sinusoidal chain distortion in the solid state. The stereoelectronic properties of these and related model carborarods were evaluated by using molecular dimensions as a monitor for the comparison of computational and experimental methods. In addition, the effect of exhaustive B-methylation of 12- and 10-vertex para-carborane cages in a series of model C,C'-diethynyl derivatives was similarly investigated by computational and structural studies. As expected, a correlation of intercage C--C bond lengths with cage size was observed and was attributed to hybridization effects. B-Permethylation had no significant structural effect with either 10- or 12-vertex cage derivatives. Relative to unsubstituted compounds, thermal and chemical stabilities of B-permethylated derivatives were increased through the operation of a steric "bumper-car" process, and solubilities in organic solvents were enhanced. The formation of linear, sterically encumbered platina-carborarods using ethynyl derivatives of 6 as precursors is described.

  12. Hypervelocity Impact Experiments on Epoxy/Ultra-High Molecular Weight Polyethylene Composite Panels Reinforced with Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatiwada, Suman; Laughman, Jay W.; Armada, Carlos A.; Christiansen, Eric L.; Barrera, Enrique V.

    2012-01-01

    Advanced composites with multi-functional capabilities are of great interest to the designers of aerospace structures. Polymer matrix composites (PMCs) reinforced with high strength fibers provide a lightweight and high strength alternative to metals and metal alloys conventionally used in aerospace architectures. Novel reinforcements such as nanofillers offer potential to improve the mechanical properties and add multi-functionality such as radiation resistance and sensing capabilities to the PMCs. This paper reports the hypervelocity impact (HVI) test results on ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fiber composites reinforced with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) and boron nitride nanotubes (BNNT). Woven UHMWPE fabrics, in addition to providing excellent impact properties and high strength, also offer radiation resistance due to inherent high hydrogen content. SWCNT have exceptional mechanical and electrical properties. BNNT (figure 1) have high neutron cross section and good mechanical properties that add multi-functionality to this system. In this project, epoxy based UHMWPE composites containing SWCNT and BNNT are assessed for their use as bumper shields and as intermediate plates in a Whipple Shield for HVI resistance. Three composite systems are prepared to compare against one another: (I) Epoxy/UHMWPE, (II) Epoxy/UHMWPE/SWCNT and (III) Epoxy/UHMWPE/SWCNT/BNNT. Each composite is a 10.0 by 10.0 by 0.11 cm3 panel, consisting of 4 layers of fabrics arranged in cross-ply orientation. Both SWCNT and BNNT are 0.5 weight % of the fabric preform. Hypervelocity impact tests are performed using a two-stage light gas gun at Rice University

  13. Using the lead vehicle as preview sensor in convoy vehicle active suspension control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mustafizur; Rideout, Geoff

    2012-12-01

    Both ride quality and roadholding of actively suspended vehicles can be improved by sensing the road ahead of the vehicle and using this information in a preview controller. Previous applications have used look-ahead sensors mounted on the front bumper to measure terrain beneath. Such sensors are vulnerable, potentially confused by water, snow, or other soft obstacles and offer a fixed preview time. For convoy vehicle applications, this paper proposes using the overall response of the preceding vehicle(s) to generate preview controller information for follower vehicles. A robust observer is used to estimate the states of a quarter-car vehicle model, from which road profile is estimated and passed on to the follower vehicle(s) to generate a preview function. The preview-active suspension, implemented in discrete time using a shift register approach to improve simulation time, reduces sprung mass acceleration and dynamic tyre deflection peaks by more than 50% and 40%, respectively. Terrain can change from one vehicle to the next if a loose obstacle is dislodged, or if the vehicle paths are sufficiently different so that one vehicle misses a discrete road event. The resulting spurious preview information can give suspension performance worse than that of a passive or conventional active system. In this paper, each vehicle can effectively estimate the road profile based on its own state trajectory. By comparing its own road estimate with the preview information, preview errors can be detected and suspension control quickly switched from preview to conventional active control to preserve performance improvements compared to passive suspensions.

  14. Research of the relationship of pedestrian injury to collision speed, car-type, impact location and pedestrian sizes using human FE model (THUMS Version 4).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Ryosuke; Katsuhara, Tadasuke; Miyazaki, Hiroshi; Kitagawa, Yuichi; Yasuki, Tsuyoshi

    2012-10-01

    Injuries in car to pedestrian collisions are affected by various factors such as the vehicle body type, pedestrian body size and impact location as well as the collision speed. This study aimed to investigate the influence of such factors taking a Finite Element (FE) approach. A total of 72 collision cases were simulated using three different vehicle FE models (Sedan, SUV, Mini-Van), three different pedestrian FE models (AM50, AF05, AM95), assuming two different impact locations (center and the corner of the bumper) and at four different collision speeds (20, 30, 40 and 50 km/h). The impact kinematics and the responses of the pedestrian model were validated against those in the literature prior to the simulations. The relationship between the collision speed and the predicted occurrence of head and chest injuries was examined for each case, analyzing the impact kinematics of the pedestrian against the vehicle body and resultant loading to the head and the chest. Strain based indicators were used in the simulation model to estimate skeletal injury (bony fracture) and soft tissue (brain and internal organs) injury. The study results primarily showed that the injury risk became higher with the collision speed, but was also affected by the combination of the factors such as the pedestrian size and the impact location. The study also discussed the injury patterns and trends with respect to the factors examined. In all of the simulated conditions, the model did not predict any severe injury at a collision speed of 20 km/h.

  15. Are electric self-balancing scooters safe in vehicle crash accidents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jun; Shang, Shi; Yu, Guizhen; Qi, Hongsheng; Wang, Yunpeng; Xu, Shucai

    2016-02-01

    With the pressing demand of environmentally friendly personal transportation vehicles, mobility scooters become more and more popular for the short-distance transportation. Similar to pedestrians and bicyclists, scooter riders are vulnerable road users and are expected to receive severe injuries during traffic accidents. In this research, a MADYMO model of vehicle-scooter crash scenarios is numerically set up. The model of the vehicle with the scenario is validated in pedestrian-vehicle accident investigation with previous literatures in terms of throwing distance and HIC15 value. HIC15 values gained at systematic parametric studies. Injury information from various vehicle crashing speeds (i.e. from 10m/s to 24m/s), angles (i.e. from 0 to 360°), scooter's speeds (i.e. from 0m/s to 4m/s), contact positions (i.e. left, middle and right bumper positions) are extracted, analyzed and then compared with those from widely studied pedestrian-vehicle and bicycle-vehicle accidents. Results show that the ESS provides better impact protection for the riders. Riding ESS would not increase the risk higher than walking at the same impact conditions in terms of head injury. The responsible reasons should be the smaller friction coefficient between the wheel-road than the heel-road interactions, different body gestures leading to different contact positions, forces and timing. Results may shed lights upon the future research of mobility scooter safety analysis and also the safety design guidance for the scooters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Self-Supervised Learning of Terrain Traversability from Proprioceptive Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajracharya, Max; Howard, Andrew B.; Matthies, Larry H.

    2009-01-01

    Robust and reliable autonomous navigation in unstructured, off-road terrain is a critical element in making unmanned ground vehicles a reality. Existing approaches tend to rely on evaluating the traversability of terrain based on fixed parameters obtained via testing in specific environments. This results in a system that handles the terrain well that it trained in, but is unable to process terrain outside its test parameters. An adaptive system does not take the place of training, but supplements it. Whereas training imprints certain environments, an adaptive system would imprint terrain elements and the interactions amongst them, and allow the vehicle to build a map of local elements using proprioceptive sensors. Such sensors can include velocity, wheel slippage, bumper hits, and accelerometers. Data obtained by the sensors can be compared to observations from ranging sensors such as cameras and LADAR (laser detection and ranging) in order to adapt to any kind of terrain. In this way, it could sample its surroundings not only to create a map of clear space, but also of what kind of space it is and its composition. By having a set of building blocks consisting of terrain features, a vehicle can adapt to terrain that it has never seen before, and thus be robust to a changing environment. New observations could be added to its library, enabling it to infer terrain types that it wasn't trained on. This would be very useful in alien environments, where many of the physical features are known, but some are not. For example, a seemingly flat, hard plain could actually be soft sand, and the vehicle would sense the sand and avoid it automatically.

  17. Hypervelocity impact facility for simulating materials exposure to impact by space debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, M. F.; Best, S.; Chaloupka, T.; Stephens, B.; Crawford, G.

    1993-01-01

    As a result of man's venturing into space, the local debris contributed by his presence exceeds, at some orbital altitudes, that of the natural component. Man's contribution ranges from fuel residue to large derelect satellites that weigh many kilograms. Current debris models are able to predict the growth of the problem and suggest that spacecraft must employ armor or bumper shields for some orbital altitudes now, and that, the problem will become worse as a function of time. The practical upper limit to the velocity distribution is on the order of 40 km/s and is associated with the natural environment. The maximum velocity of the man-made component is in the 14-16 km/s range. The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) has verified that the 'high probability of impact' particles are in the microgram to milligram range. These particles can have significant effects on coatings, insulators, and thin metallic layers. The surface of thick materials becomes pitted and the local debris component is enhanced by ejecta from the debris spectrum in a controlled environment. The facility capability is discussed in terms of drive geometry, energetics, velocity distribution, diagnostics, and projectile/debris loading. The facility is currently being used to study impact phenomena on Space Station Freedom's solar array structure, other solar array materials, potential structural materials for use in the station, electrical breakdown in the space environment, and as a means of clarifying or duplicating the impact phenomena on the LDEF surfaces. The results of these experiments are described in terms of the mass/velocity distribution incident on selected samples, crater dynamics, and sample geometry.

  18. An evaluation of buccal shield treatment. A clinical and cephalometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moin, Kambiz; Bishara, Samir E

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the short-term effects of the buccal shield modification of the lip-bumper design and on various mandibular dental arch parameters and to determine whether the changes in arch widths are due to the tipping or bodily movements of the teeth involved. This study included 45 consecutively treated patients (29 girls and 16 boys) from a private orthodontic practice. Student's and paired t-tests were used to test the null hypothesis of no change over time for the various measurements. Linear regression analyses were used to determine whether treatment time was a significant predictor of arch width expansion. Significance for all statistical tests was predetermined at P < or = .05. Student's t-test results indicated the presence of a significant (P < .0001) increase in all the arch parameters measured. The greatest mean expansion was observed at the first (5.0 +/- 2.2 mm) and second (3.4 +/- 2.2 mm) premolar width measurements. The changes in arch width parameters were significantly (P < .0001) greater than the normal age-related changes in the corresponding parameters. There was no significant difference between arch width expansion of the occlusal vs gingival levels, indicating a bodily and not tipping movement. Only 30% of the lower incisors demonstrated an increase in their proclination beyond normal values. When using the buccal shield appliance, the mandibular arch width parameters can be expanded in the mixed dentition with bodily movement of teeth. The expanded arch width dimensions are greater than what would be expected as a result of normal growth.

  19. Early treatment of vertical skeletal dysplasia: the hyperdivergent phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankey, W L; Buschang, P H; English, J; Owen, A H

    2000-09-01

    This cephalometric study evaluated an early nonextraction treatment approach for patients with severe vertical skeletal dysplasia and maxillary transverse constriction. Thirty-eight patients, 8.2 years (+/- 1.2 years) of age, were treated for 1.3 years (+/- 0.3 years) with lip seal exercises, a bonded palatal expander appliance, and a banded lower Crozat/lip bumper. The bonded palatal expander functioned as a posterior bite-block and was fixed in place throughout treatment. Patients with poor masticatory muscle force (79%) wore a high-pull chincup 12 to 14 hours per day. A control group was matched for age, sex, and mandibular plane angle. Treatment changes for chincup and other patients were not significantly different. Overall, treatment significantly enhanced condylar growth, altered it to a more anterosuperior direction, and produced "true" forward mandibular rotation 2.7 times greater than control values. Posterior facial height increased significantly more in patients than in controls, and the maxillary molars showed relative intrusion. In treated patients, articular angle increased, gonial angle decreased, and the chin moved anteriorly twice as much as in controls. Treatment also led to increased overbite and decreased overjet. Maxillary and mandibular expansion did not cause the mandibular plane angle to increase. The 16 patients with openbite malocclusions exhibited a 2.7 mm increase in overbite and inhibition of growth in anterior lower facial height. The aggregate of individual changes demonstrates a net improvement, indicating this treatment approach may be suited for hyperdivergent patients with skeletal discrepancies in all 3 planes of space.

  20. Biomolecular and structural analyses of cauliflower-like DNAs by ultraviolet, circular dichroism, and fluorescence spectroscopies in comparison with natural DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Pooria; Ranjbar, Bijan; Saber, Reza; Khajeh, Khosro; Mohammadian, Mehdi

    2011-07-01

    Cauliflower-like DNAs are stem-loop DNAs that are fabricated periodically in inverted repetitions from deoxyribonucleic acid phosphates (dNTPs) by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP). Cauliflower-like DNAs have ladder-shape behaviors on gel electrophoresis, and increasing the time of LAMP leads to multiplying the repetitions, stem-loops, and electrophoretic bands. Cauliflower-like DNAs were fabricated via LAMP using two loop primers, two bumper primers, dNTPs, a λ-phage DNA template, and a Bst DNA polymerase in 75- and 90-min periods. These times led to manufacturing two types of cauliflower-like DNAs with different contents of inverted repetitions and stem-loops, which were clearly indicated by two comparable electrophoresis patterns in agarose gel. LAMP-fabricated DNAs and natural dsB-DNA (salmon genomic DNA) were dialyzed in Gomori phosphate buffer (10 mM, pH 7.4) to be isolated from salts, nucleotides, and primers. Dialyzed DNAs were studied using UV spectroscopy, circular dichroism spectropolarimetry, and fluorescence spectrophotometry. Structural analyses indicated reduction of the molecular ellipticity and extinction coefficients in comparison with B-DNA. Also, cauliflower-like DNAs demonstrated less intrinsic and more extrinsic fluorescence in comparison with natural DNA. The overwinding and lengthening of the cauliflower-like configurations of LAMP DNAs led to changes in physical parameters of this type of DNA in comparison with natural DNA. The results obtained introduced new biomolecular characteristics of DNA macromolecules fabricated within a LAMP process and show the effects of more inverted repeats and stem-loops, which are manufactured by lengthening the process.

  1. AN ANALYSIS OF THE IMPACT OF SPORTS UTILITY VEHICLES IN THE UNITED STATES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, S.C.

    2000-08-16

    During the 1990s, sport utility vehicles (SUVs) became the fastest growing segment of the auto industry, especially those in the medium-size category. In 1999, SUV sales reached almost 19% of the total light vehicle market and the mix of SUVs on the road, as measured by registration data, was about 8.7%. This immense popularity has been called by some a passing fad--vehicle purchases based on the SUV ''image''. But the continued yearly increases in SUV sales seem to indicate a more permanent trend. Additional explanations for SUV popularity include the general economic well being in the United States, a perception of safety, and ''utility''. Generally larger and heavier than the typical automobile, SUVs require more fuel per mile to operate and produce greater amounts of pollutants. They are also driven further annually than are automobiles of the same vintage, a fact that exacerbates the fuel-use and emission problems. Although buyers believe that SUVs are safer than automobiles which they are in some cases, SUVs are more prone to roll-overs than are automobiles. In addition, SUVs, with their higher bumpers and greater weight, may be a threat to other vehicles on the highway, especially in side-impact crashes. With sales projected to grow to over 3 million units per year beginning in 2001, SUVs show no sign of decreasing in popularity. These vehicles are used primarily for general mobility, rather than off-road activities. An emphasis on better fuel economy and improved emissions control could address environmental and oil dependency concerns. In fact, recently, two vehicle manufacturers announced intentions of improving the fuel economy of their SUVs in the next few years. Also, tests simulating crashes involving automobiles and SUVs could provide valuable data for identifying potential safety design issues. It is clear that automobiles and SUVs will be sharing the highways for years to come.

  2. GEOGLAM Crop Assessment Tool: Adapting from global agricultural monitoring to food security monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humber, M. L.; Becker-Reshef, I.; Nordling, J.; Barker, B.; McGaughey, K.

    2014-12-01

    The GEOGLAM Crop Monitor's Crop Assessment Tool was released in August 2013 in support of the GEOGLAM Crop Monitor's objective to develop transparent, timely crop condition assessments in primary agricultural production areas, highlighting potential hotspots of stress/bumper crops. The Crop Assessment Tool allows users to view satellite derived products, best available crop masks, and crop calendars (created in collaboration with GEOGLAM Crop Monitor partners), then in turn submit crop assessment entries detailing the crop's condition, drivers, impacts, trends, and other information. Although the Crop Assessment Tool was originally intended to collect data on major crop production at the global scale, the types of data collected are also relevant to the food security and rangelands monitoring communities. In line with the GEOGLAM Countries at Risk philosophy of "foster[ing] the coordination of product delivery and capacity building efforts for national and regional organizations, and the development of harmonized methods and tools", a modified version of the Crop Assessment Tool is being developed for the USAID Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET). As a member of the Countries at Risk component of GEOGLAM, FEWS NET provides agricultural monitoring, timely food security assessments, and early warnings of potential significant food shortages focusing specifically on countries at risk of food security emergencies. While the FEWS NET adaptation of the Crop Assessment Tool focuses on crop production in the context of food security rather than large scale production, the data collected is nearly identical to the data collected by the Crop Monitor. If combined, the countries monitored by FEWS NET and GEOGLAM Crop Monitor would encompass over 90 countries representing the most important regions for crop production and food security.

  3. The Static Breaking Technique for Sustainable and Eco-Environmental Coal Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Bing-yuan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The initiating explosive devices are prohibited in rock breaking near the goaf of the highly gassy mine. It is effective and applicable to cracking the hard roof with static cracking agent. By testing the static cracking of cubic limestone (size: 200×200×200 mm with true triaxial rock mechanics testing machine under the effect of bidirectional stress and by monitoring the evolution process of the cracks generated during the acoustic emission experiment of static cracking, we conclude the following: the experiment results of the acoustic emission show that the cracks start from the lower part of the hole wall until they spread all over the sample. The crack growth rate follows a trend of “from rapidness to slowness.” The expansion time is different for the two bunches of cracks. The growth rates can be divided into the rapid increasing period and the rapid declining period, of which the growth rate in declining period is less than that in the increasing period. Also, the growth rate along the vertical direction is greater than that of the horizontal direction. Then the extended model for the static cracking is built according to the theories of elastic mechanics and fracture mechanics. Thus the relation formula between the applied forces of cracks and crack expansion radius is obtained. By comparison with the test results, the model proves to be applicable. In accordance with the actual geological situation of Yangquan No. 3 Mine, the basic parameters of manpower manipulated caving breaking with static crushing are settled, which reaps bumper industrial effects.

  4. The effect of recent trends in vehicle design on U.S. societal fatality risk per vehicle mile traveled, and their projected future relationship with vehicle mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, Tom

    2013-07-01

    The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) recently updated its 2003 and 2010 logistic regression analyses of the effect of a reduction in light-duty vehicle mass on US fatality risk per vehicle mile traveled (VMT). The current NHTSA analysis is the most thorough investigation of this issue to date. LBNL's assessment of the analysis indicates that the estimated effect of mass reduction on risk is smaller than in the previous studies, and statistically non-significant for all but the lightest cars. The effects three recent trends in vehicle designs and technologies have on societal fatality risk per VMT are estimated, and whether these changes might affect the relationship between vehicle mass and fatality risk in the future. Side airbags are found to reduce fatality risk in cars, but not necessarily light trucks or CUVs/minivans, struck in the side by another light-duty vehicle; reducing the number of fatalities in cars struck in the side is predicted to reduce the estimated detrimental effect of footprint reduction, but increase the detrimental effect of mass reduction, in cars on societal fatality risk. Better alignment of light truck bumpers with those of other vehicles appears to result in a statistically significant reduction in risk imposed on car occupants; however, reducing this type of fatality will likely have little impact on the estimated effect of mass or footprint reduction on risk. Finally, shifting light truck drivers into safer, car-based vehicles, such as sedans, CUVs, and minivans, would result in larger reductions in societal fatalities than expected from even substantial reductions in the masses of light trucks. A strategy of shifting drivers from truck-based to car-based vehicles would reduce fuel use and greenhouse gas emissions, while improving societal safety. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Late accidental dislodgement of a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube: an underestimated burden on patients and the health care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberger, Laura H; Newhook, Timothy; Schirmer, Bruce; Sawyer, Robert G

    2011-10-01

    Since its introduction in 1980, the percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube has become an efficient means of providing long-term enteral access. Conveniently, the soft inner bumper allows PEG removal with relatively minimal external traction. Consequently, a major complication is accidental dislodgement, from which significant morbidity may occur. Clinicians have perhaps underestimated and underappreciated this complication, not only in the acute setting but over the lifetime of the PEG tube. A retrospective analysis of PEG placements conducted at the authors' institution identified all PEG tubes placed between July 1, 2007 and July 1, 2010 by one faculty surgeon. Patient charts were reviewed for 30-day mortality, complications, and subsequent management. Patients were reviewed until intentional removal of the PEG, cessation of records, or patient mortality. A total of 563 PEGs were identified. The 30-day mortality rate was 7.8% (44/563), and the 7-day early accidental dislodgement rate was 4.1% (23/563). The total lifetime accidental PEG dislodgement rate was 12.8% (72/563). Of the 72 dislodged PEGs, 49 occurred after discharge from rehabilitation or nursing facilities. The vast majority required an emergency department visit, a level 3 surgical consultation, a replacement gastrostomy tube, and a radiographic confirmation of tube positioning, resulting in charges totaling an average of $1,200. Many large PEG reviews report an early accidental dislodgement rate of 0.6% to 4.0%. The most clinically significant accidental removals occur in the first 7 days after placement, and open gastrostomy may cause obvious morbidity. The early dislodgement rate in this study (4.1%) is consistent with those currently reported. However, if cases are followed longitudinally, a significantly higher rate of late dislodgement (12.8%) is seen. Frequently placed into neurologically impaired or elderly patients, the PEGs that dislodge months and years later require expensive

  6. Are weeds hitchhiking a ride on your car? A systematic review of seed dispersal on cars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Ansong

    Full Text Available When traveling in cars, we can unintentionally carry and disperse weed seed; but which species, and where are they a problem? To answer these questions, we systematically searched the scientific literature to identify all original research studies that assess seed transported by cars and listed the species with seed on/in cars. From the 13 studies that fit these criteria, we found 626 species from 75 families that have seed that can be dispersed by cars. Of these, 599 are listed as weeds in some part of the world, with 439 listed as invasive or naturalized alien species in one or more European countries, 248 are invasive/noxious weeds in North America, 370 are naturalized alien species in Australia, 167 are alien species in India, 77 are invasive species in China and 23 are declared weeds/invaders in South Africa. One hundred and one are classified as internationally important environmental weeds. Although most (487 were only recorded once, some species such as Chenopodium album, Poa pratensis and Trifolium repens were common among studies. Perennial graminoids seem to be favoured over annual graminoids while annual forbs are favoured over perennial forbs. Species characteristics including seed size and morphology and where the plants grew affected the probability that their seed was transported by cars. Seeds can be found in many different places on cars including under the chassis, front and rear bumpers, wheel wells and rims, front and back mudguards, wheel arches, tyres and on interior floor mats. With increasing numbers of cars and expanding road networks in many regions, these results highlight the importance of cars as a dispersal mechanism, and how it may favour invasions by some species over others. Strategies to reduce the risk of seed dispersal by cars include reducing seed on cars by mowing road verges and cleaning cars.

  7. KURSUS SINGKAT DAN PELATIHAN PENGOLAHAN SALAK MENJADI DODOL SALAK DI DESA SIBETAN KECAMATAN BEBANDEM KABUPATEN KARANGASEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putu Suarya

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The farmers of salaks, the snake fruits of Sibetan Village have encountered the price tumble during the harvest time. The bumper crops during the harvest while at the same time there is a steady demand on it, as well as that there has not been an effort to process the abundant crops into a preserved foods are considered to be the main factors that cause its price drop. Training and short course have been conducted to introduce the way how to process the fruits into dodol salak, a sticky cake made of the salak fruit as the main material, by conducting the lecturing and practicing method. The participants were members of family welfare organization (PKK and the local housewives from Telutug of Sibetan village with the total number of 32 participants, and most of them are the farmers of salaks. The process of making the dodol salak comprises the following steps : the collection and selection of the fruits, peeling and coring the fruit, steaming, mashing the fruits into a pulp, the mixing with coconut milk, palm sugar and sticky rice floor in the bowl, mixing and boiling the mixture within 120 minutes, cooling down and then it is molded and wrapped. The result of the training shows that the participants were really enthusiastic, it could be seen by the abundant of questions raised either during the lecture, discussion as well as during the practice of making the dodol salak itself. It is expected that by introducing the way how to process the fruits into dodol will improve the skill and knowledge of the local people in general and especially for those of PKK members and the housewives. The food processing into dodol salak may bring about many advantages such as the diversification of the fruit processed-product, giving the added value to the fruit, to lengthen the storage time and to improve the appearance and quality of the product.

  8. KURSUS SINGKAT DAN PELATIHAN PENGOLAHAN SALAK MENJADI DODOL SALAK DI DESA SIBETAN KECAMATAN BEBANDEM KABUPATEN KARANGASEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PUTU SUARYA

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The farmers of salaks, the snake fruits of Sibetan Village have encountered the price tumble during the harvest time. The bumper crops during the harvest while at the same time there is a steady demand on it, as well as that there has not been an effort to process the abundant crops into a preserved foods are considered to be the main factors that cause its price drop.Training and short course have been conducted to introduce the way how to process the fruits into dodol salak, a sticky cake made of the salak fruit as the main material, by conducting the lecturing and practicing method. The participants were members of family welfare organization (PKK and the local housewives from Telutug of Sibetan village with the total number of 32 participants, and most of them are the farmers of salaks. The process of making the dodol salak comprises the following steps : the collection and selection of the fruits, peeling and coring the fruit, steaming, mashing the fruits into a pulp, the mixing with coconut milk, palm sugar and sticky rice floor in the bowl, mixing and boiling the mixture within 120 minutes, cooling down and then it is molded and wrapped.The result of the training shows that the participants were really enthusiastic, it could be seen by the abundant of questions raised either during the lecture, discussion as well as during the practice of making the dodol salak itself. It is expected that by introducing the way how to process the fruits into dodol will improve the skill and knowledge of the local people in general and especially for those of PKK members and the housewives. The food processing into dodol salak may bring about many advantages such as the diversification of the fruit processed-product, giving the added value to the fruit, to lengthen the storage time and to improve the appearance and quality of the product.

  9. Unsedated transnasal percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy placement in selected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, M A; Villotti, G; D'Alba, L; De Cesare, M A; Frontespezi, S; Iacopini, G

    2005-01-01

    The placement of a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is the procedure of choice for the long-term management of dysphagic patients with neurological disease or with trauma or tumors of the head and neck. It is not always possible to perform conventional upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in such patients due to stenosis and/or occlusion of the mouth or pharynx and/or partial or complete trismus. The aim of this study was to show whether transnasal esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) offers a feasible and effective alternative method for PEG placement in these selected patients. PEG placement was required for 155 patients at our institution during a 27-month period. In 12 patients oral access of an endoscope into the esophagus was not possible. Unsedated transnasal EGD (T-EGD) was then performed using an ultrathin video gastroscope, which had a distal-end diameter of 5.9 mm. A 16-Fr polyurethane PEG tube with a conical, flexible, soft distal end and a collapsible bumper was used in all cases. The Gauderer-Ponsky pull technique was used for PEG placement. T-EGD and perendoscopic transnasal placement of a PEG tube was successfully performed in all 12 patients. No patient required sedation during the procedure. No immediate or late-onset procedure-related complications occurred in any of the 12 patients. In some dysphagic patients in whom the oral route is not accessible with a standard endoscope, a transnasal endoscopic approach allows the placement of a PEG tube. In these selected patients this technique has been shown to be safe and effective and does not require the use of sedation.

  10. Forward Collision Warning: Clues to Optimal Timing of Advisory Warnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksan, Nazan; Sager, Lauren; Hacker, Sarah; Marini, Robert; Dawson, Jeffrey; Anderson, Steven; Rizzo, Matthew

    2016-04-01

    We examined the effectiveness of a heads-up Forward Collision Warning (FCW) system in 39 younger to middle aged drivers (25-50, mean = 35 years) and 37 older drivers (66-87, mean = 77 years). The warnings were implemented in a fixed based, immersive, 180 degree forward field of view simulator. The FCW included a visual advisory component consisting of a red horizontal bar which flashed in the center screen of the simulator that was triggered at time-to-collision (TTC) 4 seconds. The bar roughly overlapped the rear bumper of the lead vehicle, just below the driver's line-of-sight. A sustained auditory tone (~80 dB) was activated at TTC=2 to alert the driver to an imminent collision. Hence, the warning system differed from the industry standard in significant ways. 95% Confidence intervals for the safety gains ranged from -.03 to .19 seconds in terms of average correction time across several activations. Older and younger adults did not differ in terms of safety gains. Closer inspection of data revealed that younger to middle aged drivers were already braking (42%) on a larger proportion of FCW activations than older drivers (26%), p < .001. Conversely, older drivers were still accelerating (38%) on a larger proportion of FCW activations than younger to middle aged drivers (23%) at the time FCW was activated, p < .009. There were no differences in the proportion of activations when drivers were coasting at the time FCW was activated, p = .240. Furthermore, large individual differences in basic visual, motor, and cognitive function predicted the tendency to brake prior to FCW activation. Those who tended to be better functioning in each of these domains were more likely to be already braking prior to FCW activation at the fixed threshold of TTC=4. These findings suggest optimal timing for advisory alerts for forward events may need to be larger than TTC=4.

  11. An Agent-Based Interface to Terrestrial Ecological Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Keith; Nemani, Ramakrishna; Pang, Wanlin; Votava, Petr

    2005-01-01

    The latest generation of NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) satellites has brought a new dimension to continuous monitoring of the living part of the Earth System, the biosphere. EOS data can now provide weekly global measures of vegetation productivity and ocean chlorophyll, and many related biophysical factors such as land cover changes or snowmelt rates. However, the highest economic value would come from forecasting impending conditions of the biosphere, to allow decision makers to mitigate dangers or exploit positive trends. NASA's strategic plan for the Earth Science Enterprise i d e n a s ecological forecasting as a focus for research. Ecological forecasting predicts the effects of changes in the physical, chemical and biological environment on ecosystem activity. Possible applications of such a system include predicting shortfalls or bumper crops of agricultural production, populations of threatened or invasive species or wildfire danger in time to allow improves preparation and logistical efficiency. Petabytes of remote sensing data are now available to help measure, understand and forecast changes in the Earth system, but using these data effectively can be surprisingly hard. The volume and variety of data files and formats are daunting. Simple data management activities, such as locating and transferring files, changing file formats, gridding point data, and scaling and reprojecting gridded data, can consume far more personnel time and resources than the actual data analysis. Some scientists commit to a particular data source or resolution just because using anything different would be more effort that it's worth. Better tools can help, but most of the tools developed to date are little more than shell scripts; they lack the flexibility to meet the diverse needs of users and are difficult to extend to handle changes in available data sources.

  12. Future direction of direct writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nam-Soo; Han, Kenneth N.

    2010-11-01

    Direct write technology using special inks consisting of finely dispersed metal nanoparticles in liquid is receiving an undivided attention in recent years for its wide range of applicability in modern electronic industry. The application of this technology covers radio frequency identification-tag (RFID-tag), flexible-electronics, organic light emitting diodes (OLED) display, e-paper, antenna, bumpers used in flip-chip, underfilling, frit, miniresistance applications and biological uses, artificial dental applications and many more. In this paper, the authors have reviewed various direct write technologies on the market and discussed their advantages and shortfalls. Emphasis has given on microdispensing deposition write (MDDW), maskless mesoscale materials deposition (M3D), and ink-jet technologies. All of these technologies allow printing various patterns without employing a mask or a resist with an enhanced speed with the aid of computer. MDDW and M3D are capable of drawing patterns in three-dimension and MDDW, in particular, is capable of writing nanoinks with high viscosity. However, it is still far away for direct write to be fully implemented in the commercial arena. One of the hurdles to overcome is in manufacturing conductive inks which are chemically and physically stable, capable of drawing patterns with acceptable conductivity, and also capable of drawing patterns with acceptable adhesiveness with the substrates. The authors have briefly discussed problems involved in manufacturing nanometal inks to be used in various writing devices. There are numerous factors to be considered in manufacturing such inks. They are reducing agents, concentrations, oxidation, compact ability allowing good conductivity, and stability in suspension.

  13. Caracterização mecânica de polipropileno reciclado para a indústria automotiva Mechanical characterization of recycled polypropylene for automotive industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz L. Fernandes

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A indústria automotiva responde, atualmente, por uma grande parte do mercado de consumo de plásticos, por isso existe um crescente interesse no investimento em processos de reciclagem, inclusive devido à vinculação às atividades relacionadas à proteção ambiental. Dentre as peças automotivas, os pára-choques são relativamente fáceis de serem reciclados devido às suas dimensões e por constituírem, geralmente, de um único material, o polipropileno (PP. Neste trabalho, analisaram-se as propriedades mecânicas de misturas de PP virgem e reciclado, em três porcentagens diferentes, a fim de detectar as alterações das mesmas, relacionando-as à qualidade do produto. Concluiu-se que porcentagens de reciclado acima de 30% causam deterioração das propriedades mecânicas do produto. Este estudo visa a fornecer uma contribuição para o aumento na utilização de plásticos reciclados na indústria automotiva.The automotive industry is now responsible for a large share of plastic consumption, which prompted increasing investments in recycling processes, also due to the need of ambient protection. Among the automotives parts, bumpers are relatively easy to be recycled due to their dimensions and because they are made of a single material, polypropylene (PP. In this work, the mechanical properties of mixtures of virgin and recycled PP, in three different percentages, were analyzed in order to detect alterations and associate them with the product quality. It was concluded that percentages of recycled material above 30% deteriorate the mechanical properties of the product. This study aims to provide a contribution to the increase in the recycled plastic use in the automotive industry.

  14. On The Folk Customs of Huazhao Festival Which Is a Kind Of Intangible Cultural Heritage and its Modern Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihui Ma

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Huazhao Festival is a traditional one that is celebrated in early spring and appeals to both highbrows and lowbrows. Once, it was as significant as Lantern Festival and Mid-autumn Festival. Ever since Tang Dynasty, it has undergone stages of emerging, thriving, declining and restoring. Originally, people only had a spring outing enjoying beautiful flowers at this festival; later, various other folk activities were also carried out on this day, including catching butterflies, picking wild vegetables, offering sacrifices to gods, predicting bumper and poor harvest, fastening strips of red cloth to stems of flowers and trees (shang hong, having competitions on grass, encouraging agriculture, holding and attending banquets, writing articles, paying court and so on. These activities demonstrated such characteristics of the national culture of China as elegance, harmony and life-friendliness. Obviously different from other traditional festivals like Spring Festival, Mid-autumn Festival, Dragon Boat Festival, etc, Huazhao Festival has unique style and value. Despite its fading away from people’s life due to changes in modern society, its cultural glamour and comprehensive value still exist. Along with economic and social development and the increase of people’s spiritual and cultural demands, Huazhao Festival has regained people’s attention. It has been restored and hosted in some regions and identified as an intangible cultural heritage. By means of literature review, the folk customs of Huazhao Festival was re-presented to some extent in this paper. Its modern values in areas including health, culture, ecology and industry were analyzed. This paper is of certain significance, in respect of conserving and inheriting this national festival, promoting its restoration in more regions in a way more approximate to historical tradition and giving play to its unique role to benefit modern society.

  15. Experimental research on pedestrian lower leg impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantin, B. A.; Iozsa, D. M.; Stan, C.

    2017-10-01

    The present paper is centred on the research of deceleration measured at the level of the lower leg during a pedestrian impact in multiple load cases. Basically, the used methodology for physical test setup is similar to EuroNCAP and European Union regulatory requirements. Due cost reduction reasons, it was not used a pneumatic system in order to launch the lower leg impactor in the direction of the vehicle front-end. During the test it was used an opposite solution, namely the vehicle being in motion, aiming the standstill lower leg impactor. The impactor has similar specifications to those at EU level, i.e. dimensions, materials, and principle of measurement of the deceleration magnitude. Therefore, all the results obtained during the study comply with the requirements of both EU regulation and EuroNCAP. As a limitation, due to unavailability of proper sensors in the equipment of the lower leg impactor, that could provide precise results, the bending angle, the shearing and the detailed data at the level of knee ligaments were not evaluated. The knee joint should be improved for future studies as some bending angles observed during the post processing of several impact video files were too high comparing to other studies. The paper highlights the first pedestrian impact physical test conducted by the author, following an extensive research in the field. Deceleration at the level of pedestrian knee can be substantially improved by providing enough volume between the bumper fascia and the front-end structure and by using pedestrian friendly materials for shock absorbers, such as foams.

  16. Optimized Trajectories to the Nearest Stars Using Lightweight High-velocity Photon Sails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, René; Hippke, Michael; Kervella, Pierre

    2017-09-01

    New means of interstellar travel are now being considered by various research teams, assuming lightweight spaceships to be accelerated via either laser or solar radiation to a significant fraction of the speed of light (c). We recently showed that gravitational assists can be combined with the stellar photon pressure to decelerate an incoming lightsail from Earth and fling it around a star or bring it to rest. Here, we demonstrate that photogravitational assists are more effective when the star is used as a bumper (I.e., the sail passes “in front of” the star) rather than as a catapult (I.e., the sail passes “behind” or “around” the star). This increases the maximum deceleration at α Cen A and B and reduces the travel time of a nominal graphene-class sail (mass-to-surface ratio 8.6× {10}-4 {{g}} {{{m}}}-2) from 95 to 75 years. The maximum possible velocity reduction upon arrival depends on the required deflection angle from α Cen A to B and therefore on the binary’s orbital phase. Here, we calculate the variation of the minimum travel times from Earth into a bound orbit around Proxima for the next 300 years and then extend our calculations to roughly 22,000 stars within about 300 lt-yr. Although α Cen is the most nearby star system, we find that Sirius A offers the shortest possible travel times into a bound orbit: 69 years assuming 12.5% c can be obtained at departure from the solar system. Sirius A thus offers the opportunity of flyby exploration plus deceleration into a bound orbit of the companion white dwarf after relatively short times of interstellar travel.

  17. BIODIESELS AS A FUNCTION OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovro Babić

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available As of July 1st 2013. the Republic of Croatia will be a member of the European Union, which will primarily bring necessary harmonisation of ecological standards and requirements. Biodiesel, as a renewable source of energy, can be produced from algae, vegetable oil, and animal fats, and thus it is biodegradable. Biodiesel in Croatia is mainly produced from oilseed rape which, as an agricultural plant, has an increasing share in the past three years and records positive trends. This paper analyses the trend of production in the Republic of Croatia, and compares it with the production and consumption of fossil fuels. On the grounds of Croatia’s favourable agriculture-related climatic characteristics, in particular in the region of Slavonija and Baranja, more intense exploitation of farm land under the cultures intended for biodiesel production can be organised aiming at bumper yield and production. Croatia has already harmonised its standards of production of biodiesel, and by 2020 the consumption of biodiesel is bound to reach 20%. The data used in this paper are obtained from the sources available by Croatian Institute of Statistics, Market Information System in Agriculture, as well as Eurostat, and the rest used here are translated from the sources in the English language. The reviewed are the surfaces planted with oilseed rape in the period between 2007. and 2011., an average yield, and overall production. On the grounds of available information, the calculations of the quantity of bio fuel to be consumed in Croatia by 2020. and the percentage of the land surfaces planted with oilseed rape have been made.

  18. Theoretical Analysis and Experimental Study on the Coating Removal from Passenger-Vehicle Plastics for Recycling by Using Water Jet Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongshen; Chen, Ming

    2015-11-01

    The recovery and utilization of automotive plastics are a global concern because of the increasing number of end-of-life vehicles. In-depth studies on technologies for the removal of coatings from automotive plastics can contribute to the high value-added levels of the recycling and utilization of automotive plastic. The liquid waste generated by removing chemical paint by using traditional methods is difficult to handle and readily produces secondary pollution. Therefore, new, clean, and highly efficient techniques of paint removal must be developed. In this article, a method of coating removal from passenger-vehicle plastics was generated based on high-pressure water jet technology to facilitate the recycling of these plastics. The established technology was theoretically analyzed, numerically simulated, and experimentally studied. The high-pressure water jet equipment for the removal of automotive-plastic coatings was constructed through research and testing, and the detailed experiments on coating removal rate were performed by using this equipment. The results showed that high-pressure water jet technology can effectively remove coatings on the surfaces of passenger-vehicle plastics. The research also revealed that the coating removal rate increased as jet pressure ( P) increased and then decreased when jet moving speed ( Vn) increased. The rate decreased as the distance from nozzle to work piece ( S nw ) and the nozzle angle ( Φ) increased. The mathematical model for the rate of removal of coatings from bumper surfaces by water jet was derived based on the experiment data and can effectively predict coating removal rate under different operating conditions.

  19. Health education: historic windows of opportunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, J P

    1992-01-01

    In 1991, the Executive Director of UNICEF addressed the World Conference on Health Education in Helsinki, Finland which centered on international cooperation in improving health. Health educators should convince world leaders to apply the money available after reductions in military spending due to the end of the Cold War toward revitalizing health and education systems and alleviating poverty. Another opportunity that they should not let slip away is that more countries are choosing democracy. The international consensus is now leaning toward human centered development. At least 71 national leaders and representatives from 88 other countries have supported the World Summit Plan of Action which emphasizes health education efforts leading toward child survival. This global, political endorsement also presents a plan for social mobilization. Health educators have already contributed greatly to the success of achieving universal child immunization (80%) by the end of 1990. They communicated health education messages via the mass media and traditional channels to motivate individuals and society to immunize their children. UNICEF has 27 goals for the 1990s such as eradication of polio and guinea worm disease. In 1989, UNICEF, WHO, UNESCO, and about 100 other agencies began the Facts for Life initiative by 1st publishing a book. Lay and professional health educators have incorporated its messages into various media: street theater, radio, comics, soap operas, billboards, T-shirts, and bumper stickers. Medical research has shown that individual responsibility for one's own health adds years to life expectancy, e.g., individuals should not smoke. Health educators face the challenge of reaching adolescents, especially since most behavior patterns are established during adolescence. Other challenges include developing effective messages to curb the AIDS pandemic, to motivate hospitals to promote breast feeding, and to encourage world leaders to place children's needs at the

  20. Review of Ballistic Limit Equations for Composite Structure Walls of Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Frank K.*; Schneider, E.; Lambert, M.

    2004-08-01

    In this paper a review of existing ballistic limit equations for CFRP (Carbon Fibre Reinforced Plastics) structure walls of satellites is given, and two new ballistic limit equations are presented. The predictive capabilities of the equations are compared to a set of experimental hypervelocity impact test data of CFRP plates and CFRP honeycomb sandwich panels (satellite structure wall) from ENVISAT, AXAF, and a generic technology program. In the literature, three ballistic limit equations for sandwich panels (SP) made from CFRP face-sheets and Al- honeycomb (H/C) core were found and analyzed (Frost's approach, Approach using Christiansen's Whipple shield Ballistic Limit Equation (BLE), and Taylor's approach). Furthermore, in this paper, a new ballistic limit equation was proposed for CFRP H/C SP (Modified ESA Triple Wall Equation) and for composite panels (plates) with and without MLI attached to the surface. The amount of impact data on CFRP structure walls of satellites found in the literature was rather scarce. The new BLE for CFRP plates makes good predictions to the available set of test data. For the BLE for CFRP H/C SP, it was found that Frost's approach and application of Christiansen's BLE to CFRP H/C SP lead to an overprediction of the ballistic limit diameters for ENVISAT structure walls and the samples of the generic technology program. Taylor's approach and the newly designed MET ballistic limit equation have both yielded good predictions for all samples except for the AXAF samples that had rather thin-walled face-sheets and a thin Al H/C core: for these samples the predictions were conservative. Thus, for use in risk analysis tools for satellites (e. g. ESA's ESABASE/DEBRIS tool or NASA's BUMPER code), it is recommended to use either the MET or Taylor equation.

  1. Effects of formalin, chloramine-T, and low salinity dip on the behavior and hemolymph biochemistry of the American lobster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speare, D J; Cawthorn, R J; Horney, B S; MacMillan, R; MacKenzie, A L

    1996-12-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the salinity and formalin sensitivity of a ciliate parasite (Anophryoides haemophila) of the American lobster (Homarus americanus), and to examine the target-animal (lobster) safety of chemical-bath treatments involving low salinity, formalin, or chloramine-T that could be used to control this parasite in lobster pounds. "Bumper car" disease, caused by An. haemophila, is an important concern to lobster pound operators in eastern North America, because of the implicated lobster mortality rate and the general lack of preventive and therapeutic intervention regimes. We determined, using an in vitro method, that formalin at 50 mg/L, or low salinity at 8.0 parts per thousand (ppt) for 1 hour killed 100% of the parasites. When healthy lobsters were exposed to formalin at 200 mg/L, there were no negative behavioral responses and no significant differences in a panel of hemolymph biochemical indices. Similar results occurred when lobsters were exposed to chloramine-T, a common finfish therapeutic agent for topical bacteria and protozoa, at 10 mg/L for 1 hour. The low salinity treatment (8.0 ppt) resulted in significant adverse changes in lobster behavior and biochemical indices; however, these changes did not persist for more than 1 week after treatment ended. Although these treatments are unlikely to kill parasites that have already invaded the lobster carapace, they should be effective in reducing parasite loads on the gill and carapace surface of the lobster and in the environment of the impoundment housing.

  2. The regulatory contract and restructuring: A modest proposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartman, R.S. [Cambridge Economics Inc., MA (United States); Tabors, R. [Tabors Caramanis and Associates, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1996-12-01

    History does not support the notion that the regulatory contract has treated utilities unfairly. But to the extent it is decided, for other reasons, that utilities should receive transition payments as the industry is pushed to a more competitive framework, there are four important principles to keep firmly in mind. To paraphrase the contemporary bumper sticker, `in the economic, social and/or romantic affairs of man and/or woman, unexpected events happen.` A more thoughtful interpretation of this notion would be that in economic and social interrelationships, individuals formulate behavioral plans based upon expectations about the state of the world and/or the behavior of other individuals. Should those expectations turn out to be incorrect, the individuals relying upon those expectations and their plans will be frustrated. The frustrated individuals may rail against their fate; they may accept their disappointment stoically. They may `take arms against a sea of troubles, and by opposing end them.` Alternatively and more likely in late twentieth century America, they may litigate (or threaten litigation) for breach of contract, claiming that some implicit or explicit, oral or written contract has been breached and that reliance upon that contract has consequently damaged them. The discussion of assets potentially stranded by the ongoing restructuring of the U.S. electric power industry has been characterized by the latter response. As some utilities have faced the possible economic obsolescence of particular generation assets in light of technological changes and altered regulatory rules, they have invoked the notion of a `regulatory contract` having governed their expectations, behavior and past capital investment. By implication, these utilities argue that they should be fully compensated for all cost incurred under good faith adherence to past regulatory processes and procedures.

  3. Characterization, testing and constitutive modelling of an impact-modified polypropylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan

    2002-01-01

    Impact modified polypropylenes (or TPOs) are polymer blends of isotactic polypropylene (iPP), ethylene-propylene-diene monomer elastomer (EPDM), and high density polyethylene (HDPE). Currently, TPOs are extensively used in impact applications, such as car bumpers. However, the design process of TPO parts for impact applications is still an expensive, trial-and-error procedure. In this project, we aim to develop a material model with specific physical bases to represent a TPO material, so that TPO part design can be effective and efficient. In order to achieve our objective, morphology characterization and mechanical testing have been conducted to examine the intrinsic mechanisms of TPO. Tests were conducted over a broad range of strain rates using both a servohydraulic apparatus and an Aluminum split Hopkinson pressure bar. The TPO system we examined is multi-phasic in which an EPDM and HDPE blend forms the minor domain, distributed in the iPP matrix. The large deformation TPO response includes strain rate dependent initial stiffness; temperature, deformation state and strain rate dependent yield; temperature and deformation state dependent strain hardening. Its response is not unlike that of glassy polymers in many ways, owing to the flexibility of the iPP matrix, however the TPO shows a moderate strain hardening rate and little strain recovery upon unloading. A three-dimensional, four-element constitutive model has been developed for this TPO. The model includes rate dependent stiffness, rate and temperature dependent yield, temperature dependent strain hardening, and crystallographic slip. The model has been examined to be robust over a wide range of strain rates from quasi-static to impact, and predictive of different deformation states, such as uniaxial compression and plane strain compression. The model has been shown to capture the post-yield thermal softening and apparent lack of post-yield strain hardening at impact test conditions.

  4. The Effect of Upper Body Mass and Initial Knee Flexion on the Injury Outcome of Post Mortem Human Subject Pedestrian Isolated Legs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Philippe; Trosseille, Xavier; Dufaure, Nicolas; Dubois, Denis; Potier, Pascal; Vallancien, Guy

    2014-11-01

    In the ECE 127 Regulation on pedestrian leg protection, as well as in the Euro NCAP test protocol, a legform impactor hits the vehicle at the speed of 40 kph. In these tests, the knee is fully extended and the leg is not coupled to the upper body. However, the typical configuration of a pedestrian impact differs since the knee is flexed during most of the gait cycle and the hip joint applies an unknown force to the femur. This study aimed at investigating the influence of the inertia of the upper body (modelled using an upper body mass fixed at the proximal end of the femur) and the initial knee flexion angle on the lower limb injury outcome. In total, 18 tests were conducted on 18 legs from 9 Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS). The principle of these tests was to impact the leg at 40 kph using a sled equipped with 3 crushing steel tubes, the stiffness of which were representative of the front face of a European sedan (bonnet leading edge, bumper and spoiler). The mass of the equipped sled was 74.5 kg. The test matrix was designed to perform 4 tests in 4 configurations combining two upper body masses (either 0 or 3 kg) and two knee angles (0 or 20 degrees) at 40 kph (11 m/s) plus 2 tests at 9 m/s. Autopsies were performed on the lower limbs and an injury assessment was established. The findings of this study were first that the increase of the upper body mass resulted in more severe injuries, second that an initial flexion of the knee, corresponding to its natural position during the gait cycle, decreased the severity of the injuries, and third that based on the injury outcome, a test conducted with no upper body mass and the knee fully extended was as severe as a test conducted with a 3 kg upper body mass and an initial knee flexion of 20°.

  5. Long Term Outcomes of Arthroscopic Shoulder Instability Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karataglis, D.; Agathangelidis, F.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Anterior shoulder instability has been successfully managed arthroscopically over the past two decades with refined “anatomic” reconstruction procedures involving the use of anchors for the repositioning and re-tensioning of the antero-inferior capsuloligamentous complex, in an effort to recreate its “bumper effect”. Methods: Research and online content related to arthroscopic treatment of shoulder instability was reviewed and their results compared. Results: The short- and mid-term results of this technique have been very satisfactory. The greatest number of recent reports suggests that long-term results (>5 years follow-up) remain rather satisfactory, especially in the absence of significant glenoid bone loss (>20-25%). In these studies recurrent instability, in the form of either dislocation or subluxation, ranges from 5.1 to over 20%, clinical scores, more than 5 years after the index procedure, remain good or excellent in >80% of patient population as do patient satisfaction and return to previous level of activities. As regards arthroscopic non-anatomic bony procedures (Latarjet or Bristow procedures) performed in revision cases or in the presence of >20-25% bone loss of the anteroinferior aspect of the glenoid, recent reports suggest that their long-term results are very satisfactory both in terms of re-dislocation rates and patient satisfaction. Conclusion: It appears that even “lege artis” performance of arthroscopic reconstruction decelerates but does not obliterate the degenerative procedure of dislocation arthropathy. The presence and grade of arthritic changes correlate with the number of dislocations sustained prior to the arthroscopic intervention, the number of anchors used and the age at initial dislocation and surgery. However, the clinical significance of radiologically evident dislocation arthropathy is debatable. PMID:28400881

  6. Forward Collision Warning: Clues to Optimal Timing of Advisory Warnings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksan, Nazan; Sager, Lauren; Hacker, Sarah; Marini, Robert; Dawson, Jeffrey; Anderson, Steven; Rizzo, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    We examined the effectiveness of a heads-up Forward Collision Warning (FCW) system in 39 younger to middle aged drivers (25-50, mean = 35 years) and 37 older drivers (66-87, mean = 77 years). The warnings were implemented in a fixed based, immersive, 180 degree forward field of view simulator. The FCW included a visual advisory component consisting of a red horizontal bar which flashed in the center screen of the simulator that was triggered at time-to-collision (TTC) 4 seconds. The bar roughly overlapped the rear bumper of the lead vehicle, just below the driver's line-of-sight. A sustained auditory tone (~80 dB) was activated at TTC=2 to alert the driver to an imminent collision. Hence, the warning system differed from the industry standard in significant ways. 95% Confidence intervals for the safety gains ranged from −.03 to .19 seconds in terms of average correction time across several activations. Older and younger adults did not differ in terms of safety gains. Closer inspection of data revealed that younger to middle aged drivers were already braking (42%) on a larger proportion of FCW activations than older drivers (26%), p < .001. Conversely, older drivers were still accelerating (38%) on a larger proportion of FCW activations than younger to middle aged drivers (23%) at the time FCW was activated, p < .009. There were no differences in the proportion of activations when drivers were coasting at the time FCW was activated, p = .240. Furthermore, large individual differences in basic visual, motor, and cognitive function predicted the tendency to brake prior to FCW activation. Those who tended to be better functioning in each of these domains were more likely to be already braking prior to FCW activation at the fixed threshold of TTC=4. These findings suggest optimal timing for advisory alerts for forward events may need to be larger than TTC=4. PMID:27648455

  7. Quantifying the impacts of a national, tradable renewables portfolio standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernow, S.; Dougherty, W.; Duckworth, M.

    1997-05-01

    A national renewables portfolio standard with tradable credits, like the one that was proposed in legislation in the 104th Congress, could cost residential consumers just pennies a week and guarantee markets for near-commercial renewable technologies, leading to the development of the renewables industry and multiple environmental benefits in restructured electricity markets. With its inclusion in Rep. Schaefer`s Electricity Consumer`s Power to Choose Act of 1996, the renewables portfolio standard (RPS) became firmly established as a leading federal mechanism for preserving and promoting the benefits of renewable energy in restructured electricity markets. The RPS policy approach has since consolidated this position through its inclusion in Senator Bumpers`s proposed restructuring legislation, thereby acquiring both bi-partisan and bicameral support. The authors felt it was timely and important to attempt to quantify the probable impacts of the policy. Their analysis suggests that it will achieve its goal at very little cost. Similar analyses of other RPS proposals would demonstrate their costs, benefits and impacts. Renewable generating technologies bring a wide range of benefits to society. By displacing fossil-fired generation, they can reduce carbon emissions, as well as regional emissions of acid rain precursors, particulate matter and heavy metals, thereby reducing the negative health impacts of electricity generation and facilitating compliance with emissions regulations. In spite of dramatic cost reductions in recent years, renewable technologies are at present rarely competitive with conventional energy alternatives on the basis of price alone. In addition, renewables face many non-price barriers to market entry. In order to overcome these barriers and guarantee their survival in competitive markets, the authors believe that a package of policies, including an RPS, is required to support renewables, and thus help realize their many benefits.

  8. Comparison of kinematic responses of the head and spine for children and adults in low-speed frontal sled tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbogast, Kristy B; Balasubramanian, Sriram; Seacrist, Thomas; Maltese, Matthew R; García-España, J Felipe; Hopely, Terrence; Constans, Eric; Lopez-Valdes, Francisco J; Kent, Richard W; Tanji, Hiromasa; Higuchi, Kazuo

    2009-11-01

    Previous research has suggested that the pediatric ATD spine, developed from scaling the adult ATD spine, may not adequately represent a child's spine and thus may lead to important differences in the ATD head trajectory relative to a human. To gain further insight into this issue, the objectives of this study were, through non-injurious frontal sled tests on human volunteers, to 1) quantify the kinematic responses of the restrained child's head and spine and 2) compare pediatric kinematic responses to those of the adult. Low-speed frontal sled tests were conducted using male human volunteers (20 subjects: 6-14 years old, 10 subjects: 18-40 years old), in which the safety envelope was defined from an amusement park bumper-car impact. Each subject was restrained by a custom-fit lap and shoulder belt system and photo-reflective targets were attached to a tight-fitting cap worn on the head or adhered to the skin overlying skeletal landmarks on the head, spine, shoulders, sternum, and legs. A 3-D near-infrared target tracking system quantified the position of the following markers: head top, external auditory meatus, nasion, opisthocranion, C4, T1, T4, and T8. Trajectory data were normalized by subject seated height and head and spine rotations were calculated. The Generalized Estimating Equations method was used to determine the effect of age and key anthropometric measures on marker excursion. For all markers, the normalized forward excursion significantly decreased with age and all spinal markers moved upward due to a combination of rigid body rotation and spinal flexion with lesser upward movement with age. The majority of the spine flexion occurred at the base of the neck not in the upper cervical spine and the magnitude of flexion was greatest for the youngest subjects. Additional flexion occurred in the thoracic spine as well. Our findings indicate that the primary factor governing the differences in normalized head and spinal trajectories between the various

  9. Effect of vehicle front end profiles leading to pedestrian secondary head impact to ground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vishal; Yang, King H

    2013-11-01

    Most studies of pedestrian injuries focus on reducing traumatic injuries due to the primary impact between the vehicle and the pedestrian. However, based on the Pedestrian Crash Data Study (PCDS), some researchers concluded that one of the leading causes of head injury for pedestrian crashes can be attributed to the secondary impact, defined as the impact of the pedestrian with the ground after the primary impact of the pedestrian with the vehicle. The purpose of this study is to understand if different vehicle front-end profiles can affect the risk of pedestrian secondary head impact with the ground and thus help in reducing the risk of head injury during secondary head impact with ground. Pedestrian responses were studied using several front-end profiles based off a mid-size vehicle and a SUV that have been validated previously along with several MADYMO pedestrian models. Mesh morphing is used to explore changes to the bumper height, bonnet leading-edge height, and bonnet rear reference-line height. Simulations leading up to pedestrian secondary impact with ground are conducted at impact speeds of 40 and 30 km/h. In addition, three pedestrian sizes (50th, 5th and 6yr old child) are used to enable us to search for a front-end profile that performs well for multiple sizes of pedestrians, not just one particular size. In most of the simulations, secondary ground impact with pedestrian head/neck/shoulder region occurred. However, there were some front-end profiles that promoted secondary ground impact with pedestrian lower extremities, thus avoiding pedestrian secondary head impact with ground. Previous pedestrian safety research work has suggested the use of active safety methods, such as 'pop up hood', to reduce pedestrian head injury during primary impact. Accordingly, we also conducted simulations using a model with the hood raised to capture the effect of a pop-up hood. These simulations indicated that even though pop-up hood helped reducing the head injury

  10. Free tissue failure is not an all-or-none phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinzweig, N; Gonzalez, M

    1995-09-01

    A common misconception among microsurgeons is that free tissue failure is an "all-or-none" phenomenon. In other words, there is an instantaneous cessation of blood flow to a flap primarily due to thrombosis at the arterial or venous anastomotic site (primary thrombosis) with complete flap loss as a result. Contrary to this belief, we have found that free tissue transfers occasionally "die" a slow, progressive, and partial death. This most likely is due to gradual "shutting down" of the microcirculation by the showering of microemboli downstream from the arterial anastomosis (secondary thrombosis). We discuss our clinical experience during the past 6 years with 10 patients in whom free flap failure was not an all-or-none phenomenon and describe the expectant management of these failing free flaps. Microvascular reconstruction of the lower extremities was performed for recalcitrant sickle cell ulceration, chronic venous stasis ulceration in a patient with anti-thrombin III deficiency, dry gangrene of the plantar surface of the foot and toes secondary to posterior tibial artery injection in an intravenous drug abuser, Gustillo type IIIc injury requiring reconstitution of the femoropopliteal artery after an automobile bumper injury, Gustillo type IIIb injury resulting from gunshot wounds, an open ankle joint in a patient with severe peripheral vascular disease, and osteomyelitis. Other cases included cheek soft tissue reconstruction after wide resection of a recurrent dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans of the parotid gland, chest wall coverage after claviculectomy for osteoradionecrosis, and thumb replantation complicated by refractory vasospasm. Latissimus dorsi (four patients), rectus abdominis (three patients), scapular (one patient), and radial forearm fasciocutaneous (one patient) flaps were used. Flap compromise was detected between 4 hours and 6 weeks after surgery. Salvage attempts included Fogarty thrombectomy (four patients), anastomotic revision (two patients

  11. Basic forensic identification of artificial leather for hit-and-run cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Tetsuya; Suzuki, Shinichi

    2009-11-20

    Single fibers retrieved from a victim's garments and adhered to the suspect's automobile have frequently been used to prove the relationship between victim and suspect's automobile. Identification method for single fiber discrimination has already been conducted. But, a case was encountered requiring discrimination of artificial leather fragments retrieved from the victim's bag and fused fibers from the bumper of the suspect's automobile. In this report, basic studies were conducted on identification of artificial leathers and single fibers from leather materials. Fiber morphology was observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), color of these leather sheets was evaluated by microspectrophotometry (MSP), the leather components were measured by infrared micro spectrometry (micro-FT-IR) and the inorganic contents were ascertained by micro-X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (micro-XRF). These two methods contribute to other analytical methods too, in the case of utilized single fiber analytical methods. The combination of these techniques showed high potential of discrimination ability in forensic examinations of these artificial leather samples. In regard with smooth surface artificial leather sheet samples, a total of 182 sheets were obtained, including 177 colored sheets directly from 10 of 24 manufacturers in Japan, and five of them were purchased at retail circulation products. Nine samples of suede-like artificial leather were obtained, 6 of them were supplied from 2 manufacturers and 3 sheets were purchased as retailing product. Single fibers from the smooth surface artificial leather sheets showed characteristic for surface markings, and XRF could effectively discriminate between these sheets. The combination of results of micro-FT-IR, color evaluation by MSP and the contained inorganic elements by XRF enabled to discriminate about 92% of 15,576 pairs comparison. Five smooth surface samples form retailing products were discriminated by their chemical

  12. An investigation on the fatigue behavior of DCB specimen bonded with aluminum foam at Mode III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. H.; Cho, J. U. [Kongju University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Zhao, G [School of Aerospace, Xian Jiaotong University, Xian (China); Cho, C. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Aluminum foam with its excellent physical and mechanical characteristics is a lightweight metallic material used with good quality in vehicle bumpers, internal shock absorbers on planes, as materials for vessel joints etc. On the contrary, when aluminum foam is used without sufficient investigation, there is the likelihood of damage or destruction of the machine or mechanical structure, and in extreme case it may cause to human casualties. This study aims to analyze the characteristics of adhesive structures with aluminum foam for the closed-type aluminum foam used primarily as shock absorbers. The fatigue analyses of the DCB test specimens at mode III with aluminum foam are verified through a fatigue experiment. As the analysis results, test specimen models with the thicknesses (t) of 35 mm, 45 mm and 55 mm showed the peak load occurrence approximately after the progress from 0 to 50 cycles. And afterwards the load gradually decreased as the cycles increased. The peak loads for each DCB test specimens were ±0.80 kN for the specimen thickness(t) of 35 mm, ±0.98 kN for the specimen thickness(t) of 45 mm and ±1.18 kN for the specimen thickness(t) of 55 mm. It is also shown that the peak load occurring on the specimen increased as specimen thickness increased. These study results are compared with the specimen thickness of 35 mm model as the basis. When the specimen thickness is increased as much as 10 mm, the peak load is increased approximately 1.25 times. When the specimen thickness is also increased as much as 20 mm, the peak load is increased 1.5 times. The analysis data and the real experiment data showed similar results each other. Therefore, it can be thought that the analysis data is applicable in real field. And it is estimated that the mechanical characteristics of the DCB test specimen at mode III during the fatigue load conditions can be systematically and efficiently analyzed.

  13. Estudo do efeito da adição de PP reciclado nas propriedades mecânicas e de escoamento de misturas de PP/EPDM Study of the Effect of Recycled PP on the Mechanical and Flow Properties of PP/ERDM Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciene da S. Santos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Misturas de polipropileno, PP, e terpolímero de etileno-propileno-dieno, EPDM, são amplamente utilizadas na indústria automobilística, principalmente em parachoques, cuja destinação, após o seu uso, deverá atender a Política Nacional de Resíduos Sólidos. No presente trabalho, o efeito da incorporação de PP reciclado nas propriedades mecânicas e de escoamento das misturas PP virgem/EPDM foi avaliado através de um planejamento fatorial do tipo 2n, com n = 3 fatores: teor de PP reciclado, perfil de temperatura de processamento e velocidade de rotação da rosca. As variáveis de resposta analisadas foram: módulo de Young, resistência ao impacto e índice de fluidez (MFI. Os resultados mostraram que o aumento da temperatura de processamento tende a aumentar a rigidez, a resistência ao impacto e a fluidez do produto final. O aumento da velocidade de mistura mostrou uma influência mais significativa na resistência ao impacto do material; enquanto o aumento do teor de reciclado na mistura PP virgem/EPDM levou ao aumento das propriedades mecânicas, bem como do índice de fluidez do produto.Polypropylene, PP, and ethylene propylene diene copolymer (EPDM blends are widely used in automotive industry, mainly in bumpers. Their disposal should comply with the rules of the Solid Residue National Policy. In the present study, the effect of recycled PP addition on the mechanical and flow properties of these blends was evaluated using a 2n factorial design, with n = 3 factors: recycled PP content, extrusion temperature profile and screw speed. The parameters analyzed were: Young modulus, impact strength and melt flow index (MFI. The results showed that the increase in temperature tends to increase rigidity, impact strength and the flow of the final product. The increase in blend speed showed a significant influence on the impact strength of the material; whereas the increase in recycled PP content led to an increase of the mechanical

  14. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy for nutritional palliation of upper esophageal cancer unsuitable for esophageal stenting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Grilo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Esophageal cancer is often diagnosed at an advanced stage and has a poor prognosis. Most patients with advanced esophageal cancer have significant dysphagia that contributes to weight loss and malnutrition. Esophageal stenting is a widespread palliation approach, but unsuitable for cancers near the upper esophageal sphincter, were stents are poorly tolerated. Generally, guidelines do not support endoscopic gastrostomy in this clinical setting, but it may be the best option for nutritional support. OBJECTIVE: Retrospective evaluation of patients with dysphagia caused advanced esophageal cancer, no expectation of resuming oral intake and with percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy for comfort palliative nutrition. METHOD: We selected adult patients with unresecable esophageal cancer histological confirmed, in whom stenting was impossible due to proximal location, and chemotherapy or radiotherapy were palliative, using gastrostomy for enteral nutrition. Clinical and nutritional data were evaluated, including success of gastrostomy, procedure complications and survival after percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy, and evolution of body mass index, albumin, transferrin and cholesterol. RESULTS: Seventeen males with stage III or IV squamous cell carcinoma fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Mean age was 60.9 years. Most of the patients had toxic habits. All underwent palliative chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Gastrostomy was successfully performed in all, but nine required prior dilatation. Most had the gastrostomy within 2 months after diagnosis. There was a buried bumper syndrome treated with tube replacement and four minor complications. There were no cases of implantation metastases or procedure related mortality. Two patients were lost and 12 died. Mean survival of deceased patients was 5.9 months. Three patients are alive 6, 14 and 17 months after the gastrostomy procedure, still increasing the mean survival. Mean body mass index and laboratory

  15. Aspiration Therapy As a Tool to Treat Obesity: 1- to 4-Year Results in a 201-Patient Multi-Center Post-Market European Registry Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyström, Max; Machytka, Evzen; Norén, Erik; Testoni, Pier Alberto; Janssen, Ignace; Turró Homedes, Jesus; Espinos Perez, Jorge Carlos; Turro Arau, Roman

    2018-02-01

    The objective of this post-market study was to evaluate long-term safety and efficacy of aspiration therapy (AT) in a clinical setting in five European clinics. The AspireAssist® System (Aspire Bariatrics, Inc. King of Prussia, PA) is an endoscopic weight loss therapy utilizing a customized percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube and an external device to aspirate approximately 30% of ingested calories after a meal, in conjunction with lifestyle counseling. A total of 201 participants, with body mass index (BMI) of 35.0-70.0 kg/m2, were enrolled in this study from June 2012 to December 2016. Mean baseline BMI was 43.6 ± 7.2 kg/m2. Mean percent total weight loss at 1, 2, 3, and 4 years, respectively, was 18.2% ± 9.4% (n/N = 155/173), 19.8% ± 11.3% (n/N = 82/114), 21.3% ± 9.6% (n/N = 24/43), and 19.2% ± 13.1% (n/N = 12/30), where n is the number of measured participants and N is the number of participants in the absence of withdrawals or lost to follow-up. Clinically significant reductions in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C), triglycerides, and blood pressure were observed. For participants with diabetes, HbA1C decreased by 1% (P < 0.0001) from 7.8% at baseline to 6.8% at 1 year. The only serious complications were buried bumpers, experienced by seven participants and resolved by removal/replacement of the A-Tube, and a single case of peritonitis, resolved with a 2-day course of intravenous antibiotics. This study establishes that aspiration therapy is a safe, effective, and durable weight loss therapy in people with classes II and III obesity in a clinical setting. ISRCTN 49958132.

  16. Secondary Impacts on Structures on the Lunar Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Eric; Walker, James D.; Grosch, Donald J.

    2010-01-01

    The Altair Lunar Lander is being designed for the planned return to the Moon by 2020. Since it is hoped that lander components will be re-used by later missions, studies are underway to examine the exposure threat to the lander sitting on the Lunar surface for extended periods. These threats involve both direct strikes of meteoroids on the vehicle as well as strikes from Lunar regolith and rock thrown by nearby meteorite strikes. Currently, the lander design is comprised of up to 10 different types of pressure vessels. These vessels included the manned habitation module, fuel, cryogenic fuel and gas storage containers, and instrument bays. These pressure vessels have various wall designs, including various aluminum alloys, honeycomb, and carbon-fiber composite materials. For some of the vessels, shielding is being considered. This program involved the test and analysis of six pressure vessel designs, one of which included a Whipple bumper shield. In addition to the pressure vessel walls, all the pressure vessels are wrapped in multi-layer insulation (MLI). Two variants were tested without the MLI to better understand the role of the MLI in the impact performance. The tests of performed were to examine the secondary impacts on these structures as they rested on the Lunar surface. If a hypervelocity meteor were to strike the surface nearby, it would throw regolith and rock debris into the structure at a much lower velocity. Also, when the manned module departs for the return to Earth, its rocket engines throw up debris that can impact the remaining lander components and cause damage. Glass spheres were used as a stimulant for the regolith material. Impact tests were performed with a gas gun to find the V50 of various sized spheres striking the pressure vessels. The impacts were then modeled and a fast-running approximate model for the V50 data was developed. This model was for performing risk analysis to assist in the vessel design and in the identification of ideal

  17. Solarbus Solar Array Innovative Light Weight Mechanical Architecture with Thin Lateral Panels Deployed with Shape Memory Alloy Regulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Abrigeon, Laurent; Carpine, Anne; Laduree, Gregory

    2005-05-01

    The standard ALCATEL SOLAR ARRAY PLANAR CONCEPT on the TELECOM market today on flight is named SOLARBUS.This concept is:• 3 to 10 identical panels covered with Si Hi-η celltechnology.• A central mast constitute by 3 to 4 panels and 1yoke linked together by hinges and synchronizedby cables.• From 2 to 6 lateral panelsThis concept is able to fit with the customer requirements in order to have a competitive "global offer at system level" (mass to power ratio 48-50 W/Kg)But, for the near future, in line with the market trend, and based on the previous experience, an improvement of the SOLARBUS Solar Array concept in term of W/kg/€ is essential in order to maintain the competitiveness of the global ALCATEL offer at system level.In order to increase the W/Kg performance Alcatel has developed a new architecture named Lightweight Panel Structure (LPS). The objectives of this new structure are :• To decrease the kg/m2 ratio • To be compatible of all promising cells technology including Si Hi-n, GaAs, GaAs+ small reflectors. This new architecture is based on the fact that during the 3 major life phases of a Solar Array (Launch/Deployment/Deployed orbital life), the structural needs are more important for the central panels than for the lateral panels.So two different panels have been designed :• Central panels (named LPS1)• Lateral panels (named LPS2)The stowing configuration as been adapted : 2 thin lateral panels LPS2 between 2 structural central panels LPS1, and local bumpers to transfer the loads from LPS2 to LPS1.Also one of the more stringent loads applied to the panels are corresponding to deployment loads. In order to limit the mass of reinforcement of the panels, a deployment speed regulator shall be used. In the frame of the new generation of solar arrays, Alcatel has developed a new actuator based on shape memory alloy torsional rod. This light weight component is directly connected to heaters lines and is able to provide great actuation torque

  18. Performance of Whipple Shields at Impact Velocities above 9 km/s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Eric L.; Davis, Bruce A.; Piekutowski, Andrew J.; Poormon, Kevin L.

    2009-01-01

    Whipple shields were first proposed as a means of protecting spacecraft from the impact of micrometeoroids in 1947 [1] and are currently in use as micrometeoroid and orbital debris shields on modern spacecraft. In the intervening years, the function of the thin bumper used to shatter or melt threatening particles has been augmented and enhanced by the use of various types and configurations of intermediate layers of various materials. All shield designs serve to minimize the threat of a spall failure or perforation of the main wall of the spacecraft as a result of the impact of the fragments. With increasing use of Whipple shields, various ballistic limit equations (BLEs) for guiding the design and estimating the performance of shield systems have been developed. Perhaps the best known and most used are the "new" modified Cour-Palais (Christiansen) equations [2]. These equations address the three phases of impact: (1) ballistic (km/s), where the projectile is moving too slowly to fragment and essentially penetrates as an intact projectile; (2) shatter (3 to 7 km/s), where the projectile fragments at impact and forms an expanding cloud of debris fragments; and (3) melt/vaporization (>7 km/s), where the projectile melts or vaporizes at impact. The performance of Whipple shields and the adequacy of the BLEs have been examined for the first two phases using the results of impact tests obtained from two-stage, light-gas gun test firings. Shield performance and the adequacy of the BLEs has not been evaluated in the melt/vaporization phase until now because of the limitations of launchers used to accelerate projectiles with controlled properties to velocities above 7.5 km/s. A three-stage, light-gas gun, developed at the University of Dayton Research Institute (UDRI) [3], is capable of launching small, aluminum spheres to velocities above 9 km/s. This launcher was used to evaluate the ballistic performance of two Whipple shield systems, various thermal protection system

  19. The role of door orientation on occupant injury in a nearside impact: a CIREN, MADYMO modeling and experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tencer, Allan F; Kaufman, Robert; Huber, Philippe; Mock, Charles

    2005-12-01

    mismatch during side impacts, where the bumper of the striking vehicle overrides the door beam, causing the upper part of the door to lead the intrusion into the passenger compartment. Even with the same delta V and intrusion, with the upper border of the door leading, more severe chest and organ injuries resulted. This data suggests that door orientation should be considered when testing subsystems for side impact protection.

  20. The effect of pretensioning and age on torso rollout in restrained human volunteers in far-side lateral and oblique loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbogast, Kristy B; Mathews, Emily A; Seacrist, Thomas; Maltese, Matthew R; Hammond, Rachel; Balasubramanian, Sriram; Kent, Richard W; Tanji, Hiromasa; St Lawrence, Schuyler; Higuchi, Kazuo

    2012-10-01

    Far-side side impact loading of a seat belt restrained occupant has been shown to lead to torso slip out of the shoulder belt. A pretensioned seat belt may provide an effective countermeasure to torso rollout; however the effectiveness may vary with age due to increased flexibility of the pediatric spine compared to adults. To explore this effect, low-speed lateral (90°) and oblique (60°) sled tests were conducted using male human volunteers (20 subjects: 9-14 years old, 10 subjects: 18-30 years old), in which the crash pulse safety envelope was defined from an amusement park bumper-car impact. Each subject was restrained by a lap and shoulder belt system equipped with an electromechanical motorized seat belt retractor (EMSR) and photo- reflective targets were attached to a tight-fitting headpiece or adhered to the skin overlying key skeletal landmarks. Each subject was randomly assigned to either the 60° or 90° direction and was exposed to 4 test conditions - arms up (with hands on their knees) with EMSR on, arms down (with hands low on the hips) with EMSR on, arms up with EMSR off, arms down with EMSR off. The effect of age and pretensioning on the following outcomes was quantified: 1) lateral and forward displacement of the torso, 2) torso rollout angle projected onto three orthogonal planes, and 3) resultant belt-sternal distance. The effect of pretensioning on torso containment within the shoulder belt was strong in both impact directions across all metrics evaluated. EMSR activation significantly reduced lateral displacement of the suprasternal notch (~100 mm, p<0.0001), coronal projection of the torso rollout angle (~15°, p<0.0001), and belt sternal distance when the arms were down (~50 mm, p<0.05). The benefit of pretensioning was achieved by early engagement of the torso by the shoulder belt. An added benefit of pretensioning was the ability to make similar the torso kinematics across a range of anthropometries as assessed within and across age groups

  1. Validation of Material Models For Automotive Carbon Fiber Composite Structures Via Physical And Crash Testing (VMM Composites Project)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coppola, Anthony [General Motors Company, Flint, MI (United States); Faruque, Omar [Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI (United States); Truskin, James F [FCA US LLC, Auburn Hills, MI (United States); Board, Derek [Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI (United States); Jones, Martin [Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI (United States); Tao, Jian [FCA US LLC, Auburn Hills, MI (United States); Chen, Yijung [Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI (United States); Mehta, Manish [M-Tech International LLC, Dubai (United Arab Emirates)

    2017-09-27

    As automotive fuel economy requirements increase, the push for reducing overall vehicle weight will likely include the consideration of materials that have not previously been part of mainstream vehicle design and manufacturing, including carbon fiber composites. Vehicle manufacturers currently rely on computer-aided engineering (CAE) methods as part of the design and development process, so going forward, the ability to accurately and predictably model carbon fiber composites will be necessary. If composites are to be used for structural components, this need applies to both, crash and quasi-static modeling. This final report covers the results of a five-year, $6.89M, 50% cost-shared research project between Department of Energy (DOE) and the US Advanced Materials Partnership (USAMP) under Cooperative Agreement DE-EE-0005661 known as “Validation of Material Models for Automotive Carbon Fiber Composite Structures Via Physical and Crash Testing (VMM).” The objective of the VMM Composites Project was to validate and assess the ability of physics-based material models to predict crash performance of automotive primary load-carrying carbon fiber composite structures. Simulation material models that were evaluated included micro-mechanics based meso-scale models developed by the University of Michigan (UM) and micro-plane models by Northwestern University (NWU) under previous collaborations with the DOE and Automotive Composites Consortium/USAMP, as well as five commercial crash codes: LS-DYNA, RADIOSS, VPS/PAM-CRASH, Abaqus, and GENOA-MCQ. CAE predictions obtained from seven organizations were compared with experimental results from quasi-static testing and dynamic crash testing of a thermoset carbon fiber composite front-bumper and crush-can (FBCC) system gathered under multiple loading conditions. This FBCC design was developed to demonstrate progressive crush, virtual simulation, tooling, fabrication, assembly, non-destructive evaluation and crash testing

  2. Cratering Equations for Zinc Orthotitanate Coated Aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, James; Christiansen, Eric; Liou, Jer-Chyi; Ryan, Shannon

    2009-01-01

    The final STS-125 servicing mission (SM4) to the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) in May of 2009 saw the return of the 2nd Wide Field Planetary Camera (WFPC2) aboard the shuttle Discovery. This hardware had been in service on HST since it was installed during the SM1 mission in December of 1993 yielding one of the longest low Earth orbit exposure times (15.4 years) of any returned space hardware. The WFPC2 is equipped with a 0.8 x 2.2 m radiator for thermal control of the camera electronics (Figure 1). The space facing surface of the 4.1 mm thick aluminum radiator is coated with Z93 zinc orthotitanate thermal control paint with a nominal thickness of 0.1 0.2 mm. Post flight inspections of the radiator panel revealed hundreds of micrometeoroid/orbital debris (MMOD) impact craters ranging in size from less than 300 to nearly 1000 microns in diameter. The Z93 paint exhibited large spall areas around the larger impact sites (Figure 2) and the craters observed in the 6061-T651 aluminum had a different shape than those observed in uncoated aluminum. Typical hypervelocity impact craters in aluminum have raised lips around the impact site. The craters in the HST radiator panel had suppressed crater lips, and in some cases multiple craters were present instead of a single individual crater. Humes and Kinard observed similar behavior after the WFPC1 post flight inspection and assumed the Z93 coating was acting like a bumper in a Whipple shield. Similar paint behavior (spall) was also observed by Bland2 during post flight inspection of the International Space Station (ISS) S-Band Antenna Structural Assembly (SASA) in 2008. The SASA, with similar Z93 coated aluminum, was inspected after nearly 4 years of exposure on the ISS. The multi-crater phenomena could be a function of the density, composition, or impact obliquity angle of the impacting particle. For instance, a micrometeoroid particle consisting of loosely bound grains of material could be responsible for creating the

  3. BUMPERII - DESIGN ANALYSIS CODE FOR OPTIMIZING SPACECRAFT SHIELDING AND WALL CONFIGURATION FOR ORBITAL DEBRIS AND METEOROID IMPACTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, S. A.

    1994-01-01

    of penetration values per surface area for each element in the model. The SHIELD module writes this data file in either SUPERTAB Universal File Format or PATRAN Neutral File Format so threat contour plots can be generated as a post-processing feature of the FEM programs SUPERTAB and PATRAN. The CONTOUR module combines the functions of the RESPONSE module and most of the SHIELD module functions allowing determination of ranges of PNP's by looping over ranges of shield and/or wall thicknesses. A data file containing the PNP's for the corresponding shield and vessel wall thickness is produced. Users may perform sensitivity studies of two kinds. The effects of simple variations in orbital time, surface area, and flux may be analyzed by making changes to the terms in the equation representing the average number of penetrating particles per unit time in the PNP solution equation. The package analyzes other changes, including model environment, surface area, and configuration, by re-running the solution sequence with new GEOMETRY and RESPONSE data. BUMPERII can be run with no interactive output to the screen during execution. This can be particularly useful during batch runs. BUMPERII is written in FORTRAN 77 for DEC VAX series computers running under VMS, and was written for use with the finite-element model code SUPERTAB or PATRAN as both a pre-processor and a post-processor. Use of an alternate FEM code will require either development of a translator to change data format or modification of the GEOMETRY subroutine in BUMPERII. This program is available in DEC VAX BACKUP format on a 9-track 1600 BPI magnetic tape (standard distribution media) or on TK50 tape cartridge. The original BUMPER code was developed in 1988 with the BUMPERII revisions following in 1991 and 1992. SUPERTAB is a former name for I-DEAS. I-DEAS Finite Element Modeling is a trademark of Structural Dynamics Research Corporation. DEC, VAX, VMS and TK50 are trademarks of Digital Equipment Corporation.

  4. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Simulations of a Humvee Airdropped from Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Phillip M.

    Military airdrop is a means of transporting and delivering cargo to inaccessible locales faster and more efficiently. The Humvee, an all-terrain truck, is one such payload that the U.S. Army drops routinely. Here, interesting physics occurs both structurally and aerodynamically. From a fluid dynamics and trajectory standpoint, determining the aerodynamic forces and moments acting on the parachute and payload is crucial particularly for trajectory prediction. This study primarily used Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to simulate the aerodynamics of an airdrop Humvee model in two regimes of fall, namely, right after clearing the aircraft ramp, and during descent under parachute. This study was performed at a Reynolds number of 3.07x10. 6 and at an airspeedof 9.144m/s (30ft/s). The first humvee part of the study analyzed the aerodynamic coefficients drag, lift, and pitching moment over a 360 degree range of pitch angles for the Humvee configured for extraction. The second set of humvee simulations focused on the aerodynamic coefficients at pitch angles of -40 degrees to +40 degrees with the platform and vehicle configured for descent under parachute. The Humvee after ramp tip-off has a parachute pack on its hood, but lacks one during the descent phase. The numerical data was compared with the results of geometries from previous studies. These geometries include: the flat plate, Type-V LVADS and 10K-JPADS containers, and a cargo-carrying platform outfitted with a bumper. Our results clearly show the effects of the many angular features that characterize the shape of a Humvee in comparison to those of a simple cuboid, particularly with regards to the loss of lift in a sub-range of pitch angle (-45 degrees to -180 degrees). First, the aerodynamic coefficients were calculated over one full-revolution of the humvee (-180 degrees to +180 degrees static pitch angles with respect to the humvee's platform) best matched in lift, drag, and moment those of the type V LVADS

  5. [Observations on injuries by blunt objects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terazawa, Koichi

    2010-12-01

    formation (décollement) on the parietal region of the head, characteristically shaped abrasions on the back, acetabula fractures caused by raising of the femoral head, fractured ribs caused by antero-posterior or posteroanterior compression, and an annular fracture at the base of the skull. The abrasions on the back were determined to have been generated by compression of structures on the underside of the car. The contused lacerations on the knees were considered to have been generated upon impact with the bumper, and the posture of the victim was concluded to have been supine with his knees drawn up. Collaboration with police traffic investigators is considered essential. 8. The medico-legal diagnostic capability of young pathologists could be improved if they observed unexplainable findings during autopsy with their own eyes, researched and discussed the findings with their mentor and colleagues, and published case reports.

  6. Investigation of MMOD Impact on STS-115 Shuttle Payload Bay Door Radiator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, J.; Christiansen, E.; Lear, D.; Kerr, J.; Lyons, F.; Yasensky, J.

    2007-01-01

    an extent of 0.85 in. x 1.1 in. (21.6 x 27.9 mm). Pieces of the radiator at and surrounding the impact site were recovered during the repair procedures at KSC. They included the thermal tape, front facesheet, honeycomb core, and rear facesheet. These articles were examined at JSC using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) with an energy dispersive x-ray spectrometer (EDS). Figure 6 shows SEM images of the entry hole in the facesheet. The asymmetric height of the lip may be attributed to projectile shape and impact angle. Numerous instances of a glass-fiber organic matrix composite were observed in the facesheet tape sample. The fibers were approximately 10 micrometers in diameter and variable lengths. EDS analysis indicated a composition of Mg, Ca, Al, Si, and O. Figures 7 and 8 present images of the fiber bundles, which were believed to be circuit board material based on similarity in fiber diameter, orientation, consistency, and composition. A test program was initiated in an attempt to simulate the observed damage to the radiator facesheet and honeycomb. Twelve test shots were performed using projectiles cut from a 1.6 mm thick fiberglass circuit board substrate panel. Results from test HITF07017, shown in figures 9 and 10, correlates with the observed impact features reasonably well. The test was performed at 4.14 km/sec with an impact angle of 45 degrees using a cylindrical projectile with a diameter and length of 1.25 mm. The fiberglass circuit board material had a density of 1.65 g/cu cm, giving a projectile mass of 2.53 mg. An analysis was performed using the Bumper code to estimate the probability of impact to the shuttle from a 1.25 mm diameter particle. Table 1 shows a 1.6% chance (impact odds = 1 in 62) of a 1.25 mm or larger MMOD impact on the radiators of the vehicle during a typical ISS mission. There is a 0.4% chance (impact odds = 1 in 260) that a 1.25 mm or larger MMOD particle would impact the RCC wing leading edge and nose cap during a typical

  7. Diagnóstico de factores de riesgo relacionados con la accidentabilidad de mano en trabajadores de una empresa refresquera Diagnostic of risk factor related to the accidentes of hand in workers of solf-drinks industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Betzabé Pérez-Manriquez

    2012-03-01

    psicosociales, condiciones inseguras, factores ergonómicos y actos inseguros. Por lo que se considera que estos, se deben buscar intencionadamente en las empresas dedicadas a este rubro de actividades, y evidenciarlos cuando se pretendan disminuir este tipo de accidentes y generar medidas preventivas y correctivas para mejorar la calidad de vida del trabajador y el rendimiento del mismo en sus labores.With the purpose of deepen on the recognize of risk factors from this kind of business and from this specific activities, to prevent and minimize the health effects integrally at the industries, the present work pretend to determine the risk factors potentially related with hand accidents. Objective: Determine the risk factors related to the accidents of hand to identify and establish the risks allowing decrease the possibility of accidents in hand through the modification, elimination and or control of present factors. Material and methods: Observational, descriptive and longitudinal study develop in worker population of sales area, composed by 206 helpers and 81 agents, cooperative producers of soft drinks and carbonated beverages in México City, in a period between 2007-2009. Was employed the Freeman Modified Method for the Situational Diagnostic. Results: The risk factor related to hand accidents determined by the application of Freeman Modified Method in sales area according to the organization: were first derived from the psychosocial labor organization (accelerated pace of activity and the Insecure Condition (transfer of the personnel within the rear bumper of the truck; second were found ergonomics (repetitive movements and manual handling of loads, along with Insecure Act (omission of the use of personal protection equipment, and the Insecure Condition (kind of unity, door and material transported, and lack of training; finally, in third psychosocial of Labor Organization (indefinite at least 8 hours maximum of 14 and unsafe (sharp boxes. Conclusions: The risk factors

  8. EDITORIAL: A physicist's journey to the centre of the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipkin, Roger

    1999-07-01

    extending to distant parts of the globe must be combined with international collaboration. ` `Little g' revisited' illustrates how a global picture of the Earth's gravity field is being created by supplementing such ground-based measurements with remote-sensing from satellites. Satellites now form the main source of information about `The Earth's main magnetic field', the consequence of a vast dynamo within the molten iron core. For such global problems of the deep interior, the impossibility of making direct observations is absolute but cost can often be an equally strict limitation for much geophysical work. While we could in principle look for oil reservoirs or shallow regions where poison has contaminated the ground by digging it all up or drilling, this would be economically prohibitive. `Investigating brownfield sites with electrical resistivity' illustrates that, for the geophysicist, investigating the Earth's core and mapping subsurface chemical pollutants are aspects of the same problem - using basic physics to find out about the Earth's inaccessible interior. Editor's note. In this bumper issue of Physics Education we also have a trio of articles about absolutely nothing, showing that there is more to nothing than might be apparent to the casual eye!