WorldWideScience

Sample records for bumpers

  1. Bumper Harvest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A large summer grain crop is helping to ease food security concerhs in China,despite rising global prices Five consecutive years of bumper grain harvests, including an abundant yield this summer, have enabled

  2. Analysis of composite car bumper reinforcement

    OpenAIRE

    Kleisner V.; Zemčík R.

    2009-01-01

    The presented work summarizes the present state of car passive safety testing according to European methodologies. The main objective is to analysis a bumper reinforcement made of composite materials. The bumper is tested according to RCAR (Research Council for Automobile Repairs) methodology using numerical simulation. Individual proposed variants are compared with the existing steel construction which does not comply with manufacturers specifications. The PAM-Crash software is used for the ...

  3. Bumper 3 Update for IADC Protection Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Eric L.; Nagy, Kornel; Hyde, Jim

    2016-01-01

    The Bumper code has been the standard in use by NASA and contractors to perform meteoroid/debris risk assessments since 1990. It has undergone extensive revisions and updates [NASA JSC HITF website; Christiansen et al., 1992, 1997]. NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) has applied BUMPER to risk assessments for Space Station, Shuttle, Mir, Extravehicular Mobility Units (EMU) space suits, and other spacecraft (e.g., LDEF, Iridium, TDRS, and Hubble Space Telescope). Bumper continues to be updated with changes in the ballistic limit equations describing failure threshold of various spacecraft components, as well as changes in the meteoroid and debris environment models. Significant efforts are expended to validate Bumper and benchmark it to other meteoroid/debris risk assessment codes. Bumper 3 is a refactored version of Bumper II. The structure of the code was extensively modified to improve maintenance, performance and flexibility. The architecture was changed to separate the frequently updated ballistic limit equations from the relatively stable common core functions of the program. These updates allow NASA to produce specific editions of the Bumper 3 that are tailored for specific customer requirements. The core consists of common code necessary to process the Micrometeoroid and Orbital Debris (MMOD) environment models, assess shadowing and calculate MMOD risk. The library of target response subroutines includes a board range of different types of MMOD shield ballistic limit equations as well as equations describing damage to various spacecraft subsystems or hardware (thermal protection materials, windows, radiators, solar arrays, cables, etc.). The core and library of ballistic response subroutines are maintained under configuration control. A change in the core will affect all editions of the code, whereas a change in one or more of the response subroutines will affect all editions of the code that contain the particular response subroutines which are modified. Note

  4. Landsat-5 bumper-mode geometric correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, J.C.; Choate, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    The Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) scan mirror was switched from its primary operating mode to a backup mode in early 2002 in order to overcome internal synchronization problems arising from long-term wear of the scan mirror mechanism. The backup bumper mode of operation removes the constraints on scan start and stop angles enforced in the primary scan angle monitor operating mode, requiring additional geometric calibration effort to monitor the active scan angles. It also eliminates scan timing telemetry used to correct the TM scan geometry. These differences require changes to the geometric correction algorithms used to process TM data. A mathematical model of the scan mirror's behavior when operating in bumper mode was developed. This model includes a set of key timing parameters that characterize the time-varying behavior of the scan mirror bumpers. To simplify the implementation of the bumper-mode model, the bumper timing parameters were recast in terms of the calibration and telemetry data items used to process normal TM imagery. The resulting geometric performance, evaluated over 18 months of bumper-mode operations, though slightly reduced from that achievable in the primary operating mode, is still within the Landsat specifications when the data are processed with the most up-to-date calibration parameters.

  5. Dale Bumpers White River Wilderness: Report on wilderness character monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report provides a detailed summary of the baseline wilderness character assessment completed for the Dale Bumpers White River Wilderness on the Dale Bumpers...

  6. Analysis of composite car bumper reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleisner V.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The presented work summarizes the present state of car passive safety testing according to European methodologies. The main objective is to analysis a bumper reinforcement made of composite materials. The bumper is tested according to RCAR (Research Council for Automobile Repairs methodology using numerical simulation. Individual proposed variants are compared with the existing steel construction which does not comply with manufacturers specifications. The PAM-Crash software is used for the simulation. The numerical model is using shell elements and the Ladevèze model for the description of behaviour of composite materials. The methodology for the set-up of the numerical model in PAM-crash is firstly validated by comparison of experiment and analytical results.

  7. Buried bumper syndrome: a rare complication of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurek, Krzysztof; Baniukiewicz, Andrzej; Świdnicka-Siergiejko, Agnieszka

    2015-09-01

    Feeding via percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is the preferred form of alimentation when oral feeding is impossible. Although it is a relatively safe method, some complications may occur. One uncommon PEG complication is buried bumper syndrome. In this paper we report a case of buried bumper syndrome, successfully managed with PEG tube repositioning. PMID:26649105

  8. Fatigue life of automotive rubber jounce bumper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidhu, R S [Automotive Engineering Unit, Institute of Advanced Technology, University Putra Malaysia, 43400, UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Ali, Aidy, E-mail: aidy@eng.upm.edu.my [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM, Serdang Selangor (Malaysia)

    2010-05-15

    It is evident that most rubber components in the automotive industry are subjected to repetitive loading. Vigorous research is needed towards improving the safety and reliability of the components. The study was done on an automotive rubber jounce bumper with a rubber hardness of 60 IRHD. The test was conducted in displacement-controlled environment under compressive load. The existing models by Kim, Harbour, Woo and Li were adopted to predict the fatigue life. The experimental results show strong similarities with the predicted models.

  9. The Injection Bumper System for LEIR

    CERN Document Server

    Fowler, A

    2004-01-01

    To satisfy the ion beam luminosity requirements for CERN's future Large Hadron Collider (LHC), a small accumulator, the Low Energy Ion Ring (LEIR), is being built in the injector chain of accelerators. LEIR will use a combined longitudinal and transverse multi-turn injection scheme which requires a bumper system comprising four individually pulsed dipole magnets. The paper discusses the bumper system, in particular the power supplies which will produce a pulsed current linearly decreasing from 1.2kA to zero in a time variable between 120µs and 300µs. Each power supply employs a primary discharge circuit, comprising a storage capacitor, an IGBT switch and the magnet load inductance, to establish the peak current, and a free-wheel circuit in parallel with the magnet, comprising a diode and capacitor, to produce the linear current slope. A novel feature of the circuit is the use of a variable bias voltage on the free-wheel capacitor, allowing continuous variation of the slope duration.

  10. Rear Bumper Laminated In Jute Fiber With Polyester Resin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braga, R. A

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Today, a growing interest exists in the use of natural of fibers (sisal, coconut, banana, and jute, as reinforcement in composites. The aim of the present study is shows the use of jute fiber agglutinated with polyester resin in the automobile industry in the production of a rear bumper of hatch vehicle. A simplified mathematical model was used for evaluation of the flaw on trunk center cover submitted to dynamic loads. The traverse section of the referred bumper is simplified by a channel formation. This study shows that a rear bumper made using jute fiber agglutinated with polyester resin will be possible. The molded part obtained good visual characteristics, good geometric construction and surface without bubbles and imperfections in the fiber and resin composite. The mathematical model to failure criterion showed that the rear bumper in jute fiber will not resist to an impact equivalent at 4.0 km/h.

  11. Light weight replacement and the optimization design of bumper beam based on crash safety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jingwen; Ma Mingtu; Fan Tiqiang; Zhao Qingjiang; Li Yang

    2014-01-01

    Bumper beam is one of the key structural parts,which plays an important role in the frontal crashes of automobile. With the global trend of light-weighted automotive parts,the light weight of bumper beam at-tracts extensive attention of automobile manufacturers,and hot stamping technology with significant weight ad-vantage has become one of the main light weight measures for bumper beam. The quasi-static press,low speed crash and frontal crash simulation models of bumper beam were established according to its actual working con-ditions in the automobile crashes. The feasibility of replacing normal steel bumper beam with hot stamping bum-per beam was analyzed. Meanwhile,the stiffeners in the front face of hot stamping bumper beam were opti-mized with topography optimization in order to further improve its performances.

  12. The Challenging Buried Bumper Syndrome after Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Ibrahim; Zarour, Ahmad; Al-Hassani, Ammar; Peralta, Ruben; El-Menyar, Ayman; Al-Thani, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Buried bumper syndrome (BBS) is a rare complication developed after percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG). We report a case of a 38-year-old male patient who sustained severe traumatic brain injury that was complicated with early BBS after PEG tube insertion. On admission, bedside PEG was performed, and 7 days later the patient developed signs of sepsis with rapid progression to septic shock and acute kidney injury. Abdominal CT scan revealed no collection or leakage of the contrast, but showed malpositioning of the tube bumper at the edge of the stomach and not inside of it. Diagnostic endoscopy revealed that the bumper was hidden in the posterolateral part of the stomach wall forming a tract inside of it, which confirmed the diagnosis of BBS. The patient underwent laparotomy with a repair of the stomach wall perforation, and the early postoperative course was uneventful. Acute BBS is a rare complication of PEG tube insertion which could be manifested with severe complications such as pressure necrosis, peritonitis and septic shock. Early identification is the mainstay to prevent such complications. Treatment selection is primarily guided by the presenting complications, ranging from simple endoscopic replacement to surgical laparotomy.

  13. The Challenging Buried Bumper Syndrome after Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Afifi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Buried bumper syndrome (BBS is a rare complication developed after percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG. We report a case of a 38-year-old male patient who sustained severe traumatic brain injury that was complicated with early BBS after PEG tube insertion. On admission, bedside PEG was performed, and 7 days later the patient developed signs of sepsis with rapid progression to septic shock and acute kidney injury. Abdominal CT scan revealed no collection or leakage of the contrast, but showed malpositioning of the tube bumper at the edge of the stomach and not inside of it. Diagnostic endoscopy revealed that the bumper was hidden in the posterolateral part of the stomach wall forming a tract inside of it, which confirmed the diagnosis of BBS. The patient underwent laparotomy with a repair of the stomach wall perforation, and the early postoperative course was uneventful. Acute BBS is a rare complication of PEG tube insertion which could be manifested with severe complications such as pressure necrosis, peritonitis and septic shock. Early identification is the mainstay to prevent such complications. Treatment selection is primarily guided by the presenting complications, ranging from simple endoscopic replacement to surgical laparotomy.

  14. The Challenging Buried Bumper Syndrome after Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Ibrahim; Zarour, Ahmad; Al-Hassani, Ammar; Peralta, Ruben; El-Menyar, Ayman; Al-Thani, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Buried bumper syndrome (BBS) is a rare complication developed after percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG). We report a case of a 38-year-old male patient who sustained severe traumatic brain injury that was complicated with early BBS after PEG tube insertion. On admission, bedside PEG was performed, and 7 days later the patient developed signs of sepsis with rapid progression to septic shock and acute kidney injury. Abdominal CT scan revealed no collection or leakage of the contrast, but showed malpositioning of the tube bumper at the edge of the stomach and not inside of it. Diagnostic endoscopy revealed that the bumper was hidden in the posterolateral part of the stomach wall forming a tract inside of it, which confirmed the diagnosis of BBS. The patient underwent laparotomy with a repair of the stomach wall perforation, and the early postoperative course was uneventful. Acute BBS is a rare complication of PEG tube insertion which could be manifested with severe complications such as pressure necrosis, peritonitis and septic shock. Early identification is the mainstay to prevent such complications. Treatment selection is primarily guided by the presenting complications, ranging from simple endoscopic replacement to surgical laparotomy. PMID:27462190

  15. Design and analysis of automotive carbon fiber composite bumper beam based on finite element analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tie Wang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the most important part of the automotive front bumper system, namely, the bumper beam, is studied by changing the material and thickness to improve the crashworthiness performance in low-velocity impact. According to the low-speed standard of automotives stated in E.C.E. United Nations Agreement, Regulation no. 42, the low-velocity impact simulation based on finite element analysis is carried out. Lightweight is the main purpose of this article. First, the bumper beam analysis is accomplished for carbon fiber composite and steel material to analyze their deformation, weight, impact force, energy absorption, and the acceleration of the impactor. As a consequence, the bumper beam made by carbon fiber composite achieves better impact behavior. Second, on the purpose of lightweight, the bumper beams of different thickness including 5.4, 6, 6.6, and 7.2 mm are investigated. The results show that the 5.4 mm bumper beam is the best selection without sacrificing the impact performance. Third, according to the stress distribution, the thickness distribution of the bumper beam is changed to get better lightweight results. It is indicated that the weight of the improved bumper beam is further reduced and the impact performance is not weakened.

  16. Optimisation study of a vehicle bumper subsystem with fuzzy parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, L.; Moens, D.; Donders, S.; Vandepitte, D.

    2012-10-01

    This paper deals with the design and optimisation for crashworthiness of a vehicle bumper subsystem, which is a key scenario for vehicle component design. The automotive manufacturers and suppliers have to find optimal design solutions for such subsystems that comply with the conflicting requirements of the regulatory bodies regarding functional performance (safety and repairability) and regarding the environmental impact (mass). For the bumper design challenge, an integrated methodology for multi-attribute design engineering of mechanical structures is set up. The integrated process captures the various tasks that are usually performed manually, this way facilitating the automated design iterations for optimisation. Subsequently, an optimisation process is applied that takes the effect of parametric uncertainties into account, such that the system level of failure possibility is acceptable. This optimisation process is referred to as possibility-based design optimisation and integrates the fuzzy FE analysis applied for the uncertainty treatment in crash simulations. This process is the counterpart of the reliability-based design optimisation used in a probabilistic context with statistically defined parameters (variabilities).

  17. Dale Bumpers White River National Wildlife Refuge Water Resource Inventory and Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Water Resource Inventory and Assessment (WRIA) for Dale Bumpers White River National Wildlife Refuge summarizes available and relevant information for refuge...

  18. Hydrogeomorphic Evaluation of Ecosystem Restoration and Management Options for Dale Bumpers White River National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Dale Bumpers White River National Wildlife Refuge (DBWRNWR) contains one of the largest contiguous tracts of bottomland hardwood forested (BLH) wetlands in the...

  19. The bumper module of the Audi A4; Das Stossfaengersystem des Audi A4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haberer, K. [Audi AG, Ingolstadt (Germany)

    2000-11-01

    Special attention was given to the bumper module of the new A4 during the development process. It is notable for its flush integration into the body, with 'zero' clearances and short overhangs. The module includes the bumper supports, the outer covering, the air inlet grille, the fog lights and the horns. Optional extras are an integrated ultrasonic 'Acoustic Parking System' (either front and rear or at the rear only) and a headlamp washer system. Both the bumper support and the deformation elements are made of weight-saving aluminium. The holder for the towing lug has been integrated into the right-hand deformation element and the towing forces are borne centrally by the side member. (orig.) [German] Dem Stossfaengermodul des neuen A4 wurde bei der Entwicklung besondere Aufmerksamkeit gewidmet. Es zeichnet sich durch eine buendige Formintegration in die Karosserie mit sogenannten Nullfugen und durch kurze Karosserieueberstaende aus. (orig.)

  20. Properties of Ejecta Generated at High-Velocity Perforation of Thin Bumpers made from Different Constructional Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myagkov, N. N.; Shumikhin, T. A.; Bezrukov, L. N.

    2013-08-01

    The series of impact experiments were performed to study the properties of ejecta generated at high-velocity perforation of thin bumpers. The bumpers were aluminum plates, fiber-glass plastic plates, and meshes weaved of steel wire. The projectiles were 6.35 mm diameter aluminum spheres. The impact velocities ranged from 1.95 to 3.52 km/s. In the experiments the ejecta particles were captured with low-density foam collectors or registered with the use of aluminum foils. The processing of the experimental results allowed us to estimate the total masses, spatial and size distributions, and perforating abilities of the ejecta produced from these different bumpers. As applied to the problem of reducing the near-Earth space pollution caused by the ejecta, the results obtained argue against the use of aluminum plates as first (outer) bumper in spacecraft shield protection.

  1. Concept selection of car bumper beam with developed hybrid bio-composite material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → We simulate the low impact test by Abaqus Ver16R9 using the same material model. → Six different weighted criteria were discussed to nominate the best concept. → Double Hat Profile showed the best concept to fulfil the defined PDS. → Geometric parameters may overcome the weak inherent properties of bio composite. → Toughened bio-composite material may employ in structural automotive components. -- Abstract: Application of natural fibre composites is going to increase in different areas caused by environmental, technical and economic advantages. However, their low mechanical properties have limited their particular application in automotive structural components. Hybridizations with other reinforcements or matrices can improve mechanical properties of natural fibre composite. Moreover, geometric optimizations have a significant role in structural strength improvement. This study focused on selecting the best geometrical bumper beam concept to fulfill the safety parameters of the defined product design specification (PDS). The mechanical properties of developed hybrid composite material were considered in different bumper beam concepts with the same frontal curvature, thickness, and overall dimensions. The low-speed impact test was simulated under the same conditions in Abaqus V16R9 software. Six weighted criteria, which were deflection, strain energy, mass, cost, easy manufacturing, and the rib possibility were analyzed to form an evaluation matrix. Topsis method was employed to select the best concept. It is concluded that double hat profile (DHP) with defined material model can be used for bumper beam of a small car. In addition, selected concept can be strengthened by adding reinforced ribs or increasing the thickness of the bumper beam to comply with the defined PDS.

  2. Thermoplastic impact property improvement in hybrid natural fibre epoxy composite bumper beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoodi, M. M.; Sapuan, S. M.; Ali, Aidy; Ahmad, D.; Khalina, A.

    2010-05-01

    Utilization of thermoset resin as a bumper beam composite matrix is currently more dominated in car manufacturer suppliers, because of availability, easy processing, low material cost and production equipment investment. Moreover, low viscosity, shrinkage and excellent flow facilitate better fibre impregnation and proper surface resin wetting. Three-dimensional cross linking curing increase impact, creep and environmental stress cracking resistance properties. Low impact properties of natural fibre epoxy composite, are main issues in its employment for automotive structural components. Impact properties in epoxy composite bumper beam could be increased by modifying the resin, reinforcement and manufacturing process as well as geometry parameters such as cross section, thickness, added ribs and fixing method optimizations could strengthen impact resistance. There are two main methods, flexibilisation and toughening, as modifying the resin in order to improve the impact properties of epoxy composite, which form single phase or two-phase morphology to make modifier as epoxy or from separate phase to keep the thermo-mechanical properties. Liquid rubber, thermoplastic, core shell particle and rigid particle are different methods of toughening improvements. In this research, thermoplastic toughening has used to improve impact properties in hybrid natural fibre epoxy composite for automotive bumper beam and has achieved reasonable impact improvements.

  3. Thermoplastic impact property improvement in hybrid natural fibre epoxy composite bumper beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utilization of thermoset resin as a bumper beam composite matrix is currently more dominated in car manufacturer suppliers, because of availability, easy processing, low material cost and production equipment investment. Moreover, low viscosity, shrinkage and excellent flow facilitate better fibre impregnation and proper surface resin wetting. Three-dimensional cross linking curing increase impact, creep and environmental stress cracking resistance properties. Low impact properties of natural fibre epoxy composite, are main issues in its employment for automotive structural components. Impact properties in epoxy composite bumper beam could be increased by modifying the resin, reinforcement and manufacturing process as well as geometry parameters such as cross section, thickness, added ribs and fixing method optimizations could strengthen impact resistance. There are two main methods, flexibilisation and toughening, as modifying the resin in order to improve the impact properties of epoxy composite, which form single phase or two-phase morphology to make modifier as epoxy or from separate phase to keep the thermo-mechanical properties. Liquid rubber, thermoplastic, core shell particle and rigid particle are different methods of toughening improvements. In this research, thermoplastic toughening has used to improve impact properties in hybrid natural fibre epoxy composite for automotive bumper beam and has achieved reasonable impact improvements.

  4. Mechanical properties of hybrid kenaf/glass reinforced epoxy composite for passenger car bumper beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is estimated that the annual world car production rate will reach 76 million vehicles per year by 2020. New regulations such as the EU End of Life Vehicles (ELV) regulations are forcing car manufacturers to consider the environmental impact of their production and possibly shift from the use of synthetic materials to the use of agro-based materials. Poor mechanical properties and certain manufacturing limitations currently limit the use of agro-based materials to non-structural and semi-structural automotive components. The hybridization of natural fiber with glass fiber provides a method to improve the mechanical properties over natural fibers alone. This research is focused on a hybrid of kenaf/glass fiber to enhance the desired mechanical properties for car bumper beams as automotive structural components with modified sheet molding compound (SMC). A specimen without any modifier is tested and compared with a typical bumper beam material called glass mat thermoplastic (GMT). The results indicate that some mechanical properties such as tensile strength, Young's modulus, flexural strength and flexural modulus are similar to GMT, but impact strength is still low, and shows the potential for utilization of hybrid natural fiber in some car structural components such as bumper beams.

  5. Desain Struktur dan Pembuatan Parking Bumper Dari Bahan Polymeric Foam Diperkuat Serat Tandan Kosong Kelapa Sawit (TKKS) Terhadap Beban Impak dan Tekan

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Syurkarni

    2012-01-01

    The palm oil industry development is rapidly increasing. One of palm oil industry waste is oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB). OPEFB waste can be processed in to fibers. OPEFB fibers are potential to be made as engineering materials. The aims of the research were to obtain the parking bumper design which was able to obtain the static and dynamic load impact, to obtain the effective parking bumper product manufacturing, to find the best material composition for parking bumper, and to examine t...

  6. Impact experiments into multiple-mesh targets: Concept development of a lightweight collisional bumper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerz, Friedrich; Cintala, Mark J.; Bernhard, Ronald P.; Cardenas, Frank; Davidson, William; Haynes, Gerald; See, Thomas H.; Winkler, Jerry; Gray, Barry

    1993-01-01

    The utility of multiple-mesh targets as potential lightweight shields to protect spacecraft in low-Earth orbit against collisional damage is explored. Earlier studies revealed that single meshes comminute hypervelocity impactors with efficiencies comparable to contiguous targets. Multiple interaction of projectile fragments with any number of meshes should lead to increased comminution, deceleration, and dispersion of the projectile, such that all debris exiting the mesh stack possesses low specific energies (ergs/sq cm) that would readily be tolerated by many flight systems. The study is conceptually exploring the sensitivity of major variables such as impact velocity, the specific areal mass (g/sq cm) of the total mesh stack (SM), and the separation distance (S) between individual meshes. Most experiments employed five or ten meshes with total SM typically less than 0.5 the specific mass of the impactor, and silicate glass impactors rather than metal projectiles. While projectile comminution increases with increasing impact velocity due to progressively higher shock stresses, encounters with multiple-meshes at low velocity (1-2 km/s) already lead to significant disruption of the glass impactors, with the resulting fragments being additionally decelerated and dispersed by subsequent meshes, and, unlike most contiguous single-plate bumpers, leading to respectable performance at low velocity. Total specific bumper mass must be the subject of careful trade-off studies; relatively massive bumpers will generate too much debris being dislodged from the bumper itself, while exceptionally lightweight designs will not cause sufficient comminution, deceleration, or dispersion of the impactor. Separation distance was found to be a crucial design parameter, as it controls the dispersion of the fragment cloud. Substantial mass savings could result if maximum separation distances were employed. The total mass of debris dislodged by multiple-mesh stacks is modestly smaller than

  7. A study on light-aging resistance of instrument panel materials and bumper materials on the automobile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Wentao; Liu Qiang; Li Li; Li Huilian

    2014-01-01

    The light-aging test method commonly used in the automotive industry is utilized to carry out light- aging research on automotive instrument panel (IP) materials and bumper materials. On one hand, the impacts of common light-aging test methods on aging degree of automotive component materials are reviewed; on the other hand, the light-aging resistances of different component materials are compared. The results show that, for light-aging behavior of IP materials, the aging degree of the third test method is not severer than that of the second method, but it is severer than that of the first method. The light-aging resistance of IP material A is al- most the same as that of IP material B. With reference to light-aging behavior of bumper materials, the aging de- gree of three common test methods indicates that the aging degree of the sixth test method is not severer than that of the fourth method, but it is severer than that of the fifth method. The light-aging resistance of bumper material D is superior to that of bumper material C.

  8. A study on light-aging resistance of instrument panel materials and bumper materials on the automobile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Wentao; Liu Qiang; Li Li; Li Huilian

    2014-01-01

    The light-aging test method commonly used in the automotive industry is utilized to carry out light-aging research on automotive instrument panel (IP) materials and bumper materials. On one hand,the impacts of common light-aging test methods on aging degree of automotive component materials are reviewed;on the other hand,the light-aging resistances of different component materials are compared. The results show that, for light-aging behavior of IP materials,the aging degree of the third test method is not severer than that of the second method,but it is severer than that of the first method. The light-aging resistance of IP material A is al-most the same as that of IP material B. With reference to light-aging behavior of bumper materials,the aging de-gree of three common test methods indicates that the aging degree of the sixth test method is not severer than that of the fourth method,but it is severer than that of the fifth method. The light-aging resistance of bumper material D is superior to that of bumper material C.

  9. TFTR Bumper Limiter and Protective Plate (BL/PP) graphite tile computer aided design and manufacture (CAD/CAM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Bumper Limiter/Protective Plate (BL/PP) project was part of McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Company's (MDAC's) diversification effort into Fusion Energy. MDAC planned to layout and fabricate protective liners for the inside walls of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). The conceptual design was given: water-cooled Inconel backing plates covered with high purity graphite tiles. This paper describes how the computer was used to design, fabricate, and inspect the liners and, in particular, the tiles

  10. Nano-cellulose derived bioplastic biomaterial data for vehicle bio-bumper from banana peel waste biomass

    OpenAIRE

    A.B.M. Sharif Hossain; Ibrahim, Nasir A.; Aleissa, Mohammed Saad

    2016-01-01

    The innovative study was carried out to produce nano-cellulose based bioplastic biomaterials for vehicle use coming after bioprocess technology. The data show that nano-cellulose particle size was 20 nm and negligible water absorption was 0.03% in the bioplastic. Moreover, burning test, size and shape characterizations, spray coating dye, energy test and firmness of bioplastic have been explored and compared with the standardization of synthetic vehicle plastic bumper following the American S...

  11. The Gauge Design of GM GAMMA SUV Rear Bumper Assembly%通用GAMMA SUV汽车后保险杠总成检具设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢俊; 李杰; 杨启志

    2013-01-01

    保险杠是汽车的一个非常重要的组成部分,对于车辆的安全起着至关重要的作用,所以保险杠的质量必须得到保证.保险杠检具作为验证模具的加工精度以及控制保险杠与车身匹配情况的快速工具,已成为主机厂与汽车零部件供应商的首选工具.根据汽车后保险杠检具的检测原理,对通用GAMMA SUV汽车的后保险杠检具结构进行了方案设计,利用UG软件设计保险杠检具的具体模型,该检具结构简单,使用方便,提高了检测效率,实现了设计目的.%The bumper is a very important part of vehicle. It plays a vital role for the safety of a car, so the quality of the bumper must be guaranteed. The bumper gauge as a rapid tool for verificating the validation of mold precision and control the match situation of the bumper and body it has become the first choice for OEMs and automotive component suppliers, Based on the detection principle of the car rear bumper assembly, submitting a schema design on the rear bumper assembly of the General GAMMA SUV vehicles. Using UG software the rear bumper gauge is designed with simple structure, easy to use,and increasing the detection efficiency, so it achieves the design purpose.

  12. On projectile fragmentation at high-velocity perforation of a thin bumper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myagkov, N. N.; Stepanov, V. V.

    2014-09-01

    By means of 3D numerical simulations, we study the statistical properties of the fragments cloud formed during high-velocity impact of a spherical projectile on a mesh bumper. We present a quantitative description of the projectile fragmentation, and study the nature of the transition from the damage to the fragmentation of the projectile when the impact velocity varies. A distinctive feature of the present work is that the calculations are carried out by smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method applied to the equations of mechanics of deformable solids (MDS). We describe the materials behavior by the Mie-Grüneisen equation of state and the Johnson-Cook model for the yield strength. The maximum principal stress spall model is used as the fracture model. It is shown that the simulation results of fragmentation based on the MDS equations by the SPH method are qualitatively consistent with the results obtained earlier on the basis of the molecular dynamics and discrete element models. It is found that the power-law distribution exponent does not depend on energy imparted to the projectile during the high-velocity impact. At the same time, our calculations show that the critical impact velocity, the power-law exponent and other critical exponents depend on the fracture criterion.

  13. Exposure Assessment Suggests Exposure to Lung Cancer Carcinogens in a Painter Working in an Automobile Bumper Shop

    OpenAIRE

    KIM, Boowook; Yoon, Jin-Ha; Choi, Byung-Soon; Shin, Yong Chul

    2013-01-01

    A 46-year-old man who had worked as a bumper spray painter in an automobile body shop for 15 years developed lung cancer. The patient was a nonsmoker with no family history of lung cancer. To determine whether the cancer was related to his work environment, we assessed the level of exposure to carcinogens during spray painting, sanding, and heat treatment. The results showed that spray painting with yellow paint increased the concentration of hexavalent chromium in the air to as much as 118.3...

  14. Optimization of a Passenger Car's Bumper Beam for Crashworthiness%某轿车保险杠横梁结构抗撞性优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程秀生; 刘维海; 郝玉敏; 马志良; 唐洪斌

    2011-01-01

    针对某轿车在进行车速为56 km/h的正面40%偏置碰撞试验中,前保险杠横梁断裂、乘员舱侵入过大问题,主要从抗弯性能和材料等方面对前保险杠横梁提出改进方案,并利用有限元仿真方法对保险杠横梁改进方案进行仿真计算.试制改进方案样件进行了车速为56 km/h的正面40%偏置碰撞试验,试验结果表明,改进方案解决了原保险杠横梁断裂问题,提高了保险杠横梁的耐撞性能.%In the frontal 56 km/h 40% offset impact test, the front bumper beam ruptures and the extra impact energy passes to the passenger compartment which make the greater intrusion to the passenger compartment. To solve such problems, an improvement plan of the front bumper beam is given according to the performance of bending-resistance and material. Computation of the front bumper beam was performed with the FE simulation, and then the complete vehicle 56 km/h 40% offset deformable barrier impact test with the improved structures was carried out. As a result, the optimized bumper beam eliminated the cause of bumper beam rupture, and obviously improved its crashworthiness.

  15. Nano-cellulose derived bioplastic biomaterial data for vehicle bio-bumper from banana peel waste biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif Hossain, A B M; Ibrahim, Nasir A; AlEissa, Mohammed Saad

    2016-09-01

    The innovative study was carried out to produce nano-cellulose based bioplastic biomaterials for vehicle use coming after bioprocess technology. The data show that nano-cellulose particle size was 20 nm and negligible water absorption was 0.03% in the bioplastic. Moreover, burning test, size and shape characterizations, spray coating dye, energy test and firmness of bioplastic have been explored and compared with the standardization of synthetic vehicle plastic bumper following the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). Tensile test was observed 120 MPa/kg m(3). In addition to that pH and cellulose content were found positive in the bioplastic compared to the synthetic plastic. Chemical tests like K, CO3, Cl2, Na were determined and shown positive results compared to the synthetic plastic using the EN-14214 (European Norm) standardization.

  16. Exposure assessment suggests exposure to lung cancer carcinogens in a painter working in an automobile bumper shop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Boowook; Yoon, Jin-Ha; Choi, Byung-Soon; Shin, Yong Chul

    2013-12-01

    A 46-year-old man who had worked as a bumper spray painter in an automobile body shop for 15 years developed lung cancer. The patient was a nonsmoker with no family history of lung cancer. To determine whether the cancer was related to his work environment, we assessed the level of exposure to carcinogens during spray painting, sanding, and heat treatment. The results showed that spray painting with yellow paint increased the concentration of hexavalent chromium in the air to as much as 118.33 μg/m(3). Analysis of the paint bulk materials showed that hexavalent chromium was mostly found in the form of lead chromate. Interestingly, strontium chromate was also detected, and the concentration of strontium chromate increased in line with the brightness of the yellow color. Some paints contained about 1% crystalline silica in the form of quartz. PMID:24422178

  17. Nano-cellulose derived bioplastic biomaterial data for vehicle bio-bumper from banana peel waste biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif Hossain, A B M; Ibrahim, Nasir A; AlEissa, Mohammed Saad

    2016-09-01

    The innovative study was carried out to produce nano-cellulose based bioplastic biomaterials for vehicle use coming after bioprocess technology. The data show that nano-cellulose particle size was 20 nm and negligible water absorption was 0.03% in the bioplastic. Moreover, burning test, size and shape characterizations, spray coating dye, energy test and firmness of bioplastic have been explored and compared with the standardization of synthetic vehicle plastic bumper following the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). Tensile test was observed 120 MPa/kg m(3). In addition to that pH and cellulose content were found positive in the bioplastic compared to the synthetic plastic. Chemical tests like K, CO3, Cl2, Na were determined and shown positive results compared to the synthetic plastic using the EN-14214 (European Norm) standardization. PMID:27331103

  18. Nano-cellulose derived bioplastic biomaterial data for vehicle bio-bumper from banana peel waste biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B.M. Sharif Hossain

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The innovative study was carried out to produce nano-cellulose based bioplastic biomaterials for vehicle use coming after bioprocess technology. The data show that nano-cellulose particle size was 20 nm and negligible water absorption was 0.03% in the bioplastic. Moreover, burning test, size and shape characterizations, spray coating dye, energy test and firmness of bioplastic have been explored and compared with the standardization of synthetic vehicle plastic bumper following the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM. Tensile test was observed 120 MPa/kg m3. In addition to that pH and cellulose content were found positive in the bioplastic compared to the synthetic plastic. Chemical tests like K, CO3, Cl2, Na were determined and shown positive results compared to the synthetic plastic using the EN-14214 (European Norm standardization.

  19. Improvement and Study on Assembly Line of Car Bumper%轿车保险杠装配线改善研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史潇函; 赵清; 陈莹

    2016-01-01

    以轿车保险杠装配线为研究对象,应用遗传算法对装配线进行优化设计。并利用MATLAB编程,以获得该装配线的最小工位数以及各工位作业分配情况。同时对装配线的布局、物料配送方式和器具进行改善,以获得较好的装配线平衡率。%Taking a bumper assembly line as the research object, genetic algorithms are used to optimize and design assembly line. MATLAB is used in programming to obtain the minimum quantity of workstation and the assigned situation of operation element. Meanwhile, the layout of the assembly line, the distribution of material and bin are improved to get better balance rate of production line.

  20. 一款微型汽车塑料保险杠专用检具通用化设计%Universal design A miniature car plastic bumper special gage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄好; 谭克京

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on the basis of a miniature car plastic rear bumper special gage, combined with the inspection requirements of the new rear bumper design, universal design and alteration for the existing special gage to meet the gage design and manufacturing requirements, shorten new product development cycle, reduce the cost of new product develop- ment%本文重点分析了在现有的一款微型汽车塑料后保险杠专用检具的基础上,结合新设计的保险杠产品检测要求,对现有的专用检具进行通用化设计和改造,满足检具的设计和制造要求,缩短新产品开发周期,降低新产品开发成本。

  1. INJECTION TECHNOLOGY ANALYSIS AND PROCESS CONTROL OF MODIFIED PP CAR BUMPER%改性PP轿车保险杠注塑工艺分析与过程控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭幼丹

    2011-01-01

    Modified polypropylene(PP) was used to manufacture car bumper. Through grouping experiment, parameters such as PP oneseff condition, temperature, injection pressure and injection speed were analyzed. The optimal technology program and parameter were obtained, which were helpful for producing high quality bumper.%应用改性聚丙烯(PP)生产轿车保险杠,通过分组实验,分别对改性PP的材料自身条件、温度、注塑压力、注射速率等工艺参数进行分析,得出最佳的工艺方案和工艺参数,为生产高质量塑料保险杠提供帮助.

  2. 货车后下部防护装置碰撞仿真及优化设计%Study on Crash Simulation and Structure Optimization of the Rear Bumper of a Truck

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶新娜; 杨明; 张志勇

    2014-01-01

    To solve the problem on rear bumper of a truck which has no functions of blockage and damping and energy absorption , rear bumper is optimized and simulative analysis and validation are carried out with LS -DYNA in accordance with related regulation of GB 11567.2-2001 concerning rear bumper .The simulation analysis of deformation velocity and deceleration show that the optimized design of the rear bumper after the performance has been optimized , can weaken the instantaneous impact , and avoid the rear car to im-pact the truck .%针对目前货车后下部防护装置难以保证防止钻撞功能的问题,对后下部防护装置进行优化设计。依据GB 11567.2-2001对汽车后下部防护装置的要求,利用LS-DYNA仿真软件对优化后的后下部防护装置进行碰撞仿真对比分析。通过动态仿真优化前后的后下部防护装置在碰撞过程中的变形、碰撞速度、碰撞减速度以及吸能情况,证明优化后的后下部防护装置在各项性能上都得到了提高,在发生后车追尾碰撞的时候,既能缓冲瞬时冲击,又能有效阻挡后车钻入,避免恶性事故发生。

  3. Experimental investigation on aluminum bumper with ceramic surface coating impacted by an aluminum sphere%铝球弹丸高速撞击表面陶瓷化铝板防护结构实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管公顺; 毕强; 张羽

    2015-01-01

    基于陶瓷化铝板设计了单层防护屏结构和双层防护屏结构,利用二级轻气炮对其进行高速撞击实验。用于模拟空间碎片的2017铝球弹丸直径分别为3.97 mm 和6.35 mm,撞击速度为1.64~4.96 km/s。分析了铝板表面陶瓷层对防护结构高速撞击损伤及防护性能的影响。结果表明:防护屏表面的陶瓷层可使单层防护屏结构抵御更大速度范围的粒子撞击;以表面陶瓷化铝板为首层防护屏的铝网填充式防护结构有助于撞击粒子的首次破碎以及次生碎片的撞击动能吸收。%The ceramic coating shields with single bumper and dual-wall bumper were designed taking advantage of the improvement on Al-Whipple shield.A series of high-velocity impact tests were practiced with a two-stage light gas gun facility.The diameters of projectiles used to simulate the space debris were 3.97mm and 6.35mm respectively.The impact velocities of Al-sphere were varied between 1.64km /s and 4.96km /s.The effects of ceramic coating on the damage and protection performance of shield were analyzed.The results indicate that the ceramic coating on the surface of bumper broadens the impact velocity spectrum,so that the single-wall bumper shield can withstand higher velocity impact. The Al-mesh stuffed shield with the ceramic coating surface used as a first layer of bumper can help the primary fragment of projectile and the subsequent absorption of kinetic energy of debris cloud.

  4. 汽车保险杠使用PA/EGMA合金材料的研究%Research on Automobile Bumper using the PA6/EGMA Alloy Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林博

    2015-01-01

    The PA6/EGMA alloy was prepared using EGMA as compatibilizer and toughener in a reactive extrusion process. The optimum processing parameter and formulation for the PA6/EGMA alloy of Car Bumper new materials were determine, blends of the alloy could be improved. The alloy had a good process ability, higher impact resistance and spray-paint easily, being a new product excellent comprehensive performance impact. The PA6/EGMA alloy Show the non-viscoelastic polymer materials in high speed impact still has higher toughness properties.%采用聚乙烯—甲基丙烯酸缩水甘油酯(EGMA)作为增容剂和增韧剂,利用反应增容技术制备了PA6/EGMA的合金。通过试验确定了PA/EGMA合金汽车保险杠新材料的最佳配方,提高合金的综合性能。该合金具有良好的加工性能,较高的抗冲击性能并易于喷涂,是综合性能优良的抗冲击新产品。PA6/EGMA 合金表现出非粘弹性高分子材料在高速冲击时仍然具有较高的韧性的特性。

  5. A study on light-aging resistance of instrument panel materials and bumper materials on the automobile%汽车仪表板材料和保险杠材料光老化性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘强; 王文涛; 李莉; 李慧连; 王俊; 揭敢新; 张晓东

    2014-01-01

    The light-aging test method commonly used in the automobile industry is utilized to carry out light-aging research on automotive instrument panel (IP) materials and bumper materials. On one hand,the impacts of common light-aging test methods on aging degree of automotive component materials are compared;on the other hand,the light-aging resistances of different component materials are compared. The results show that,for light-aging behavior of IP materials,the aging degree of the third test method is not severer than that of the second method,but it is severer than that of the first method. The light-aging resistance of IP material A is almost the same as that of IP material B. With reference to light-aging behavior of bumper materials,the aging degree of three common test methods indicates that the aging degree of the sixth test method is not severer than that of the fourth method,but it is severer than that of the fifth method. The light-aging resistance of bumper material D is superior to that of bumper material C.%采用汽车行业内常用的光老化试验方法,主要针对汽车仪表板材料和汽车保险杠材料,展开了光老化研究,一方面比较了常用的光老化试验方法对汽车零部件材料老化严酷程度的影响,另一方面对比了不同零部件材料的耐光老化性能。研究结果显示,对于仪表板材料的光老化行为,3种常用试验方法的老化严酷程度基本表现为方法二>方法三>方法一,仪表板材料A和材料B的耐老化性能基本一致;对于保险杠材料的光老化行为,3种常用试验方法的老化严酷程度基本表现为方法四>方法六>方法五,保险杠材料D的耐光老化性能优于材料C。

  6. 不同环境温度下铝球弹丸高速撞击编织物防护屏试验研究%Experimental Investigation of Woven Bumper Shield Impacted by a High-velocity Aluminum Sphere at Different Ambient Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管公顺; 蒲东东; 哈跃; 庞宝君

    2015-01-01

    利用二级轻气炮发射2017铝球弹丸,在两种环境温度下高速撞击编织物单防护屏结构和填充式结构,研究环境温度对铝网、玄武岩纤维布、Kevlar纤维布防护结构高速撞击损伤与防护特性的影响。用于模拟空间碎片的铝球弹丸直径为3.97 mm,撞击速度为1.47~4.47 km/s,撞击角度为0°,环境温度分别为293 K和393 K。结果表明:当撞击条件相同时,在较高环境温度中,单防护屏结构的编织物防护屏及填充式结构的编织物填充层的撞击穿孔尺寸均增大,三种编织物单防护屏结构的高速撞击防护能力下降,铝网及玄武岩纤维布填充式结构的高速撞击防护性能降低,Kevlar纤维布填充式结构的高速撞击防护性能提高。%A two-stage light gas gun is used to launch 2017-T4 Al-sphere projectiles impacting on single-wall bumper shield and stuffed bumper shield of woven at two kinds of ambient temperature. The effect of ambient temperature on damage and protection characteristic of Al-mesh, Basalt fiber cloth and Kevlar fiber cloth bumpers are studied. The diameter of projectile used to simulate space debris is 3.97 mm. Impact velocities of Al-spheres are varied between 1.47 km/s and 4.47 km/s. The impact angle is 0°. Ambient temperatures are 293 K and 393 K respectively. The results indicated that perforation size of woven bumper of single-wall bumper shield and woven stuffed wall of stuffed bumper shield increased at higher ambient temperature for the same impact condition. At the same time, the protection performance of all single-wall bumper shields of three woven bumpers degraded along with the rising of the ambient temperature, the protection performance of Al-mesh, Basalt fiber cloth stuffed bumper shields degraded and the protection performance of Kevlar fiber cloth stuffed bumper shield enhanced at higher ambient temperature.

  7. CERN Relay Race: No records broken in a bumper year

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Tribute is paid to David Dallman, 20 times the organiser of the CERN Relay Race, who is now retiring.Solve the following mathematical problem for athletes: take the first and third-placed teams in the 2006 CERN Relay Race, randomly mix the runners to form two new teams, and what is the result? Answer: first place and fifth place. In short, the team which has reigned supreme in first place since 2001, the "Shabbys", decided to spice up the race this year by merging with their arch rivals, the "Latinos Volantes", themselves no strangers to the podium. And at the winning line, it was the hybrid formation, "Shabbys Volantes", which took the honours (no surprises there!). Sadly, they were unable to beat the Shabbys’ previous record nor get anywhere near the all-time race record of 10 minutes and 13 seconds for the 3.9-km course, held for a quarter of a century by the "UA1 Strollers". One of the members of that legendary team and race organiser 20 times, David Dallman, mar...

  8. Bumper harvest of super rice in south and north China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@Recently. a great progress was made in breeding and cultivation of super rice in China. The South Demonstration Acceptance Meeting of China Super Rice was held in Oct 17. 2000 in Xinchang County, Zhejiang Province. Yield monitoring group organized by the Department of Science,Technology and Education, Ministry of Agriculture, China, was consisting of famous rice research scientists, agricultural technology extension experts, and government officials. In the demonstration meeting, the group investigated the rice growth of the demonstration field of the improved integrated cultivation technology of super hybrid rice, Xieyou 9308. Four representative demonstration fields from 6.87 ha of the demonstration were harvested after the current investigation of the group.

  9. Dale Bumpers White River NWR Continuous Forest Inventory Data Analysis Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the continuous forest inventory (CFI) being conducted at the refuge and details the analysis of the first refuge-wide sample for the purpose...

  10. Investigation into debris cloud characterizations for oblique hypervelocity impact of projectiles on bumper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟; 管公顺; 庞宝君; 李强; 张永强

    2004-01-01

    All long-duration spacecraft in low-earth-orbit are subject to high velocity impacts by meteoroids and space debris. Such impacts are expected to occur at non-normal incidence angles and can cause severe damage to the spacecraft and its external flight-critical systems and possibly lead to catastrophic failure of the spacecraft.In order to ensure crew safety and proper function of internal and external spacecraft systems, the characteristics of a debris cloud generated by such impacts must be known. An analytical model is therefore developed for the characterization of the penetration and ricochet debris clouds created by the hypervelocity impact of an aluminum spherical projectile on an aluminum plate. This model employs normal and oblique shock wave theory to characterize the penetration and ricochet processes. The prediction results of center-of-mass trajectory and leading velocity of penetration and ricochet debris clouds are obtained and compared with numerical and experimental results in figures.

  11. Wearing a Rainbow Bumper Sticker: Experiential Learning on Homophobia, Heteronormativity, and Heterosexual Privilege

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunn, Lisa M.; Bolt, Sophia C.

    2015-01-01

    College campuses are known to be heteronormative environments that often foster heterosexism and homophobia. There is a broad call for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) awareness-building curricula as one avenue for positive change in campus climates. This study interrogates the effects of an experiential learning activity…

  12. 76 FR 2631 - Certification; Importation of Vehicles and Equipment Subject to Federal Safety, Bumper, and Theft...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-14

    ..., 1998, require each agency to write all rules in plain language. Application of the principles of plain... established this limit to encourage you to write your primary comments in a concise fashion. However, you may....). You may review DOT's complete Privacy Act Statement published in the Federal Register (65 FR...

  13. Study of front bumper process on the basis of hot stamping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xiaona; Xiong Fei; Jin Jianwei

    2014-01-01

    The fitting method is used for obtaining the constitutive relation of ultra-high strength steel in this pa-per. At the same time,the forming limit of material is researched under different deformation conditions. Through experiments,the paper obtains stress-strain curve under different deformation temperatures and strain rates. On the basis of experimental data,the constitutive relation model is established which can reflect the de-formation capacity of ultra-high strength steel during process of hot stamping. Combining with finite element simulation results of hot stamping by the commercial software AUTOFORM,transfer path of load and match-ing law of strength,the paper determines the design criteria and forming process requirements of parts manufac-tured by hot stamping. Through setting different process parameters,such as punch velocity and friction coeffi-cient,and blank shape,the paper finds that process parameters and blank shape have an essential effect on the quality of parts.

  14. Advocacy for Art Education: Beyond Tee-Shirts and Bumper Stickers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobick, Bryna; DiCindio, Carissa

    2012-01-01

    Advocacy is not new to art education. Over the years, Goldfarb (1979), Hodsoll (1985), and Erickson and Young (1996) have written about the importance of arts advocacy, but the concept of advocacy has evolved with the times. For example, in the 1970s, arts advocacy was described as a "movement" and brought together art educators, administrators,…

  15. A Bumper!? An Empirical Investigation of the Relationship between the Economy and the Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Brekke, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the relationship between the economy and the environment. The relationship is often portrayed as a conflict in public discourse, as if what is good for the economy is bad for the environment and vice versa. The thesis tries to discern if there are common elements in the economy and the environment and how these have eventually become shared. The underlying model assumes that the economy and the environment can be depicted as two separate networks and that element...

  16. 76 FR 53072 - Certification; Importation of Vehicles and Equipment Subject to Federal Safety, Bumper, and Theft...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-25

    ... marketing and other purposes. Although the model year traditionally begins on September 1, it can begin on... information, thereby delaying the processing of the petition. To rectify this situation, NHTSA is adopting a..., adopting a clearer definition of the term ``model year'' for import eligibility purposes, and...

  17. Lightweight Design of Automotive Bumper%汽车保险杠的轻量化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋造云

    2008-01-01

    在节能环保大趋势下,汽车各个部件都在进行轻量化设计.保险杠在轻量化的同时还要保证其碰撞安全性,因而带来了一定的挑战.本文首先介绍了保险杠的结构和常用材料,然后从结构轻量化和材料轻量化两方面着手,介绍了该领域近年来一些新的发展动态.

  18. Porthole Extrusion Process Design for Magnesium-Alloy Bumper Back Beam by Using FE Analysis and Extrusion Limit Diagram

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sung-Yun; Ko, Dae-Cheol; Lee, Sang-Kon; Lee, In-Kyu; Joeng, Myeong-Sik; Kim, Da Hye; Cho, Yong-Jae

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, several studies with focus on developing state-of-the-art manufacturing technologies have been conducted to produce light vehicles by employing parts made of light materials such as aluminum and magnesium. Of such materials, magnesium has been found to pose numerous issues, because it cannot be deformed (plastic deformation) easily at low temperatures. Furthermore, oxidation on the surface of manganese occurs at high temperatures. This study analyzes the extrusion process for...

  19. 聚丙烯保险杠专用料收缩率控制%Control of contraction ratio of PP for automobile bumper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆秋欢; 陶红

    2007-01-01

    通过调节原辅材料及成核剂等组分及加人量,可以控制聚丙烯(PP)保险杠专用料收缩率,使保险杠成型脱模容易,装车尺寸匹配.粗细填料配合使用可使PP收缩率控制在0.614%~0.940%,加入成核剂使PP收缩率由1.301%下降到1.138%,功能PP与成核剂协同使用,可使专用料收缩率由单独使用成核剂时的1.007%下降到0.931%.前后保险杠专用料和侧护板专用料的收缩率与进口专用料基本一致.

  20. Numerical Simulation of EQ140 Truck Bumper Crash with Ansys Software%基于ANSYS的汽车保险杠碰撞的数值模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴胜军

    2008-01-01

    以EQ140货车为例,应用有限元软件ANSYS对汽车保险杠的碰撞过程进行数值模拟,得到结构的瞬态动力响应以及变形、速度、碰撞力等参数的时程曲线,清晰地展示了保险杠的变形全过程,为保险杠的设计和改进提供了参考.

  1. 树莓丰产栽培技术及水土保持产业化开发%Cultivation Techniques in Getting Bumper Tree Blackberry and Development of Soil and Water Conservation Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张广英; 单广波

    2001-01-01

    树莓是一种生态经济型灌木果树,在医药、化妆、保健、天然香料、食品色素、食品加工等方面有着广泛用途。引进树莓良种进行试验示范和水土保持产业化开发,可填补我国小果水果和树莓产品空白,且可出口创汇,经济效益巨大。系统介绍了树莓的开发利用价值和栽培种植技术,并对树莓水土保持产业化开发及发展前景进行了探讨。%Tree Blackberry is a brush for fruit of ecological and economic type and widely used in medicine, cosmetics, healthy product, natural perfume, edible pigment, food processing and others. There will be significant economic benefit through import good variety of Tree Blackberry for experiment and being example to soil and water conservation industrialization development which will fill in the gaps in the field of small fruit and Tree Black berry production and earn benefit by export. The values of developing and utilizing Tree Blackberry as well as the cultivation techniques are systematically introduced in the paper, and the prospect of its industrialization development in soil and water conservation field is studied.

  2. Two-dimensional laser servoing for precision motion control of an ODV robotic license plate recognition system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhen; Moore, Kevin L.; Chen, YangQuan; Bahl, Vikas

    2003-09-01

    As an outgrowth of series of projects focused on mobility of unmanned ground vehicles (UGV), an omni-directional (ODV), multi-robot, autonomous mobile parking security system has been developed. The system has two types of robots: the low-profile Omni-Directional Inspection System (ODIS), which can be used for under-vehicle inspections, and the mid-sized T4 robot, which serves as a ``marsupial mothership'' for the ODIS vehicles and performs coarse resolution inspection. A key task for the T4 robot is license plate recognition (LPR). For a successful LPR task without compromising the recognition rate, the robot must be able to identify the bumper locations of vehicles in the parking area and then precisely position the LPR camera relative to the bumper. This paper describes a 2D-laser scanner based approach to bumper identification and laser servoing for the T4 robot. The system uses a gimbal-mounted scanning laser. As the T4 robot travels down a row of parking stalls, data is collected from the laser every 100ms. For each parking stall in the range of the laser during the scan, the data is matched to a ``bumper box'' corresponding to where a car bumper is expected, resulting in a point cloud of data corresponding to a vehicle bumper for each stall. Next, recursive line-fitting algorithms are used to determine a line for the data in each stall's ``bumper box.'' The fitting technique uses Hough based transforms, which are robust against segmentation problems and fast enough for real-time line fitting. Once a bumper line is fitted with an acceptable confidence, the bumper location is passed to the T4 motion controller, which moves to position the LPR camera properly relative to the bumper. The paper includes examples and results that show the effectiveness of the technique, including its ability to work in real-time.

  3. 49 CFR 567.7 - Requirements for persons who alter certified vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Federal motor vehicle safety, Bumper, and Theft Prevention standards, and (2) Assumes legal responsibility... classification from that shown on the original certification label, the type as modified shall be provided....

  4. Probing the mysteries of early life on Earth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Initiated in April 2000 with support of the National Basic Research Program, dubbed 973 Program," a multidisciplinary project under the title "Biotic Origination, Radiation, Extinction and Recovery in Major Geological Intervals" has won a bumper harvest in research results.

  5. China-Jiangsu LAD Group Co.,Ltd.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ In recent years.the LAD Group has invested in R&D and innovation program for diversified forms of business development hoping to make the company bigger,better and stronger,and it has achieved a bumper harvest.

  6. Safeguarding a Lunar Rover with Wald's Sequential Probability Ratio Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlong, Michael; Dille, Michael; Wong, Uland; Nefian, Ara

    2016-01-01

    The virtual bumper is a safeguarding mechanism for autonomous and remotely operated robots. In this paper we take a new approach to the virtual bumper system by using an old statistical test. By using a modified version of Wald's sequential probability ratio test we demonstrate that we can reduce the number of false positive reported by the virtual bumper, thereby saving valuable mission time. We use the concept of sequential probability ratio to control vehicle speed in the presence of possible obstacles in order to increase certainty about whether or not obstacles are present. Our new algorithm reduces the chances of collision by approximately 98 relative to traditional virtual bumper safeguarding without speed control.

  7. Canine toys and training devices as sources of exposure to phthalates and bisphenol A: quantitation of chemicals in leachate and in vitro screening for endocrine activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooten, Kimberly J; Smith, Philip N

    2013-11-01

    Chewing and mouthing behaviors exhibited by pet dogs are likely to lead to oral exposures to a variety of environmental chemicals. Products intended for chewing and mouthing uses include toys and training devices that are often made of plastics. The goal of the current study was to determine if a subset of phthalates and bisphenol A (BPA), endocrine disrupting chemicals commonly found in plastics, leach out of dog toys and training devices (bumpers) into synthetic canine saliva. In vitro assays were used to screen leachates for endocrine activity. Bumper leachates were dominated by di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and BPA, with concentrations reaching low μg mL(-1) following short immersions in synthetic saliva. Simulated chewing of bumpers during immersion in synthetic saliva increased concentrations of phthalates and BPA as compared to new bumpers, while outdoor storage had variable effects on concentrations (increased DEHP; decreased BPA). Toys leached substantially lower concentrations of phthalates and BPA, with the exception of one toy which leached considerable amounts of diethyl phthalate. In vitro assays indicated anti-androgenic activity of bumper leachates, and estrogenic activity of both bumper and toy leachates. These results confirm that toys and training devices are potential sources of exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals in pet dogs. PMID:24007620

  8. Injection Bump Synchronization Study for the CERN PS

    CERN Document Server

    Serluca, Maurizio; Gilardoni, Simone; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    In the framework of the LHC Injector Upgrade (LIU) project the CERN PS injection kinetic energy will be upgraded from 1.4 to 2 GeV. The present injection bump is made by four bumpers in Straight Section (SS) 40, 42, 43, 44 and it will be converted in a five bumpers system to allow additional flexibility in the bump shape with a reduction of the proton losses during the bump closure. The injection section SS42 has being redesigned to accommodate a new eddy current septum which will host a new bumper magnet in the same vacuum vessel due to reduced longitudinal space availability. The synchronization and amplitude variation of the power converter of the in-vacuum bumper 42 with respect to the remaining outside vacuum bumpers 40, 41, 43, 44 can lead to orbit distortion and consequent losses during injection. In this note we present the experimental results from Machine Development (MD) studies along with simulations for the present system at 1.4 GeV to quantify the acceptable orbit distortion and the performance ...

  9. Design of Production Test IP-262-A-11-FP -- Evaluation of projection fuel elements for use in ribbed process tubes -- Demonstration loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodgson, W.H.; Hall, R.E.

    1959-06-29

    For several years, a major category of fuel element failures has been the side corrosion type, characterized by localized accelerated fuel element jacket corrosion. Since it has been demonstrated {sup 1} that misalignment of fuel elements in a process tube will produce flow patterns and accelerated corrosion, termed ``hot spots``, failure to align the fuel elements in process tubes is considered a contributing factor in the production of side corrosion failures. Preliminary testing of both self-supporting and ``bumper`` fuel elements is underway. Data on the self-supporting fuel elements have demonstrated that the bridge-rail projections have sufficient support strength, do not of themselves create a corrosion problem and in actuality probably eliminate any hot-spot areas. Although one tube of bumper fuel elements in KW Reactor {sup 3} has been discharged, data are not as yet available. Potentially, the most sever corrosion conditions exist during the summer months when reactor inlet temperatures are high. It is desirable then, provided bumper fuel elements limit hot- spot corrosion, to evaluate the bumper concept for large scale use possibly by the summer of 1960. To accomplish this, a demonstration loading of the bumper type fuel elements must be underway by about July, 1959. The purpose of this report is to present the design of a test to evaluate the fabrication process and irradiation performance of fuel elements having projections, which may prevent misalignment in ribbed process tubes and meet the aforementioned goals.

  10. Design of Bump Magnet of CSR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Four bumpers are required for the injection and extraction of CSR. The parameters of the bumpers are shown in table 1. Because of the steep raising and falling time and therefore the inductance of the magnet should be as small as possible, so the material of the magnet cores must be ferrite. And in order to reduce the cost of the bump magnet, the cross-section of the four ferrite cores was designed as the same, as shown in Fig.1.It is very similar to the lamination of the H-type dipole. And Fig.2 is the...

  11. Smart brake light system would provide more information to drivers

    OpenAIRE

    Trulove, Susan

    2008-01-01

    You are driving in heavy traffic. The brake lights on the car in front of you come on. Is the car slowing or is it going to stop? It slows to 25 mph and the lights go off. You drop back. The car in front of you stops suddenly! You stop just in time. The car behind you collects your rear bumper.

  12. Risk Assessment Update: Russian Segment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Eric; Lear, Dana; Hyde, James; Bjorkman, Michael; Hoffman, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    BUMPER-II version 1.95j source code was provided to RSC-E- and Khrunichev at January 2012 MMOD TIM in Moscow. MEMCxP and ORDEM 3.0 environments implemented as external data files. NASA provided a sample ORDEM 3.0 g."key" & "daf" environment file set for demonstration and benchmarking BUMPER -II v1.95j installation at the Jan-12 TIM. ORDEM 3.0 has been completed and is currently in beta testing. NASA will provide a preliminary set of ORDEM 3.0 ".key" & ".daf" environment files for the years 2012 through 2028. Bumper output files produced using the new ORDEM 3.0 data files are intended for internal use only, not for requirements verification. Output files will contain these words ORDEM FILE DESCRIPTION = PRELIMINARY VERSION: not for production. The projectile density term in many BUMPER-II ballistic limit equations will need to be updated. Cube demo scripts and output files delivered at the Jan-12 TIM have been updated for the new ORDEM 3.0 data files. Risk assessment results based on ORDEM 3.0 and MEM will be presented for the Russian Segment (RS) of ISS.

  13. '95 Achievements in Oil and Gas Exploration and Prospects for 1996

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ding Guiming; Wang Yuxin

    1996-01-01

    @@ The year of 1995, the last year of the Eighth Five -Year Plan witnessed an overall bumper harvest of the Exploration Bureau. owing to its serious implementation of the working policies of" Speeding up the exploration in the west while consolidating the success in the east" and "Developing oil and gas concurrently" and to the active promotion of modernized exploration and management.

  14. Jacks--A Study of Simple Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Ralph

    This vocational physics individualized student instructional module on jacks (simple machines used to lift heavy objects) contains student prerequisites and objectives, an introduction, and sections on the ratchet bumper jack, the hydraulic jack, the screw jack, and load limitations. Designed with a laboratory orientation, each section consists of…

  15. Auditory-Visual Context and Memory Retrieval in 3-Month-Old Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daman-Wasserman, Michelle; Brennan, Barbara; Radcliffe, Fiona; Prigot, Joyce; Fagen, Jeffrey

    2006-01-01

    In 3 experiments, 3-month-old infants were trained to move an overhead mobile by kicking 1 of their feet in the presence of a distinctive visual (crib bumpers) and auditory (music) context. In Experiment 1A, 5-day but not 1-day retention was disrupted if either or both elements of the context present during the retention test were novel. In…

  16. Newly added joint ventures in China’s auto parts industry in 2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>A total of 17 joint ventures on auto parts production were added in 2007, a slight increase year on year. The Chinese side partners were from FAW, SAIC, Beiqi and Sinotruk and foreigner partners were from Lear, Johnson Controls, ArvinMeritor, DEUTZ, FAURECIA and RICARDO. The planed products include car seat, interior, diesel engine, body electronics parts, transmission and bumper.

  17. 碰撞试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Charpy impact test modelling and local approach to fracture, Comparison of paramctric and non-paramerric mcthocis for determining injury rish, CORRELATION ANALYSIS OF AUTOMOBILE CRASH RESPONSES BASED ON WAVELET DECOMPOSITIONS, Correlation study on different bumper impact test method and predicted results, Damage behaior in ceramic plasma-coated and uncoated glass with steel-ball impact。

  18. Suitability of Recycled Polyethylene/Palm Kernel Shell-Iron Filings Composite for Automobile Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Samotu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A recycling aimed research was carried out to produce a new composite material and proffer suggestion for the possible use of the newly developed composite material. The empty water sachet (commonly called pure water nylon in Nigeria, was used as a matrix, which was reinforced by carbonized palm kernel shell (CPKS particulate and iron fillings. The percentage composition of iron fillings was maintained at 5 wt%, while that of palm kernel shell ash was varied from 5 wt% - 20 wt% at an interval of 5 %. The composites were compounded and compressively moulded. Physical and mechanical properties of the composites were tested for alongside three conventional car bumper samples, and the results obtained shows that the composite material could be used to produce a car bumper among other parts of automobile like dashboard due to their impact strength and low density. Impact strength - density ratio for the materials gave prime information on the possible application of the developed material. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM was used to examine the distribution of the reinforcement within the matrix. After results analysis, materials with 5 wt% of CPKS and that with 10 wt% of CPKS were recommended for the car bumper production following their high impact strength - density ratio of 0.26 and 0.19 respectively, which are higher as compared to that of a conventional bumper material measured alongside the composite materials.

  19. Feeding China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    China is expected to reap a bumper harvest this autumn, but grain security remains a long-term concern Despite sweeping natural disasters China is on track to achieve a bounti ful harvest for this autumn’s grain yield,which usually accounts fo three fourths of the annual output,said Minister of Agriculture Han Changfu.

  20. Forensic applications of microscopical infrared internal reflection spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tungol, Mary W.; Bartick, Edward G.; Reffner, John A.

    1994-01-01

    Applications of microscopical infrared internal reflection spectroscopy in forensic science are discussed. Internal reflection spectra of single fibers, hairs, paint chips, vehicle rubber bumpers, photocopy toners, carbon copies, writing ink on paper, lipstick on tissue, black electrical tape, and other types of forensic evidence have been obtained. The technique is convenient, non-destructive, and may permit smeared materials to be analyzed in situ.

  1. First wall design of aluminium alloy R-tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A design study of a low-activation D-T tokamak Reacting Plasma Project In Nagoya has been finished. The study emphasizes the vacuum vessel and the bumper limiter. Our choice of materials (aluminium vacuum vessel, copper conductors, aluminium TF coil case and lead shield) results in a radiation level of about 1 x 10-3 times that of a TFTR type design, and 1 x 10-4 times that of JET type design, at 2 weeks after one D-T shot. Thick graphite tiles will be fixed directly on the aluminium vacuum vessel using aluminium spring washers and bolts. With this simplified structure of the bumper limiter, the inner surface temperature of the thick aluminium vacuum vessel will be less than 1200C which is required to reduce the overaging effect of the aluminium alloy. (orig.)

  2. Potential space debris shield structure using impact-initiated energetic materials composed of polytetrafluoroethylene and aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiang; Zhang, Qingming; Long, Renrong; Zhang, Kai; Guo, Jun

    2016-03-01

    A whipple shield using Al/PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene) energetic material to protect against space debris is presented. The hypervelocity impact characteristics were investigated experimentally using a two-stage light gas gun at velocities between 3 and 6 km/s. A good protection of the shield was obtained through comparative experiments which used the same bumper areal density. The results showed that the critical projectile diameter can be improved by 28% by contrast with the Christiansen ballistic limit equations. The Al/PTFE energetic material bumper can break up the projectile into smaller, less massive, and slower projectiles due to the combined effect of impact and explosion, thereby producing a sharp rise in the spacecraft protection ability.

  3. Marking Streets to Improve Parking Density

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Chao

    2015-01-01

    Street parking spots for automobiles are a scarce commodity in most urban environments. The heterogeneity of car sizes makes it inefficient to rigidly define fixed-sized spots. Instead, unmarked streets in cities like New York leave placement decisions to individual drivers, who have no direct incentive to maximize street utilization. In this paper, we explore the effectiveness of two different behavioral interventions designed to encourage better parking, namely (1) educational campaigns to encourage parkers to "kiss the bumper" and reduce the distance between themselves and their neighbors, or (2) painting appropriately-spaced markings on the street and urging drivers to "hit the line". Through analysis and simulation, we establish that the greatest densities are achieved when lines are painted to create spots roughly twice the length of average-sized cars. Kiss-the-bumper campaigns are in principle more effective than hit-the-line for equal degrees of compliance, although we believe that the visual cues of...

  4. Tour Year in Ngari——An Interview With CPC Ngari Prefectural Committee Secretary Dorje Cering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YEXEI; KANGZHUB

    2002-01-01

    Tourism has become a pillar industry of the autonomous region. Major tour items include the Yarlung Cultural Festival in Shannan, the Qomolongma Cultural, Festival in Xigaze, the Darmar Festival in Gyangze, the Kamba Art Festival in Qamdo, the Gongbo New Year in Nyingchi, the Horse Race in Nagqu, as well as others like the Sagya Dawa Festival, Ongkor (Bumper Harvest Festival), Shoton (Sour Milk Drinking) Festival and Bathing Festival.

  5. An RFID implementation in the automotive industry - improving inventory accuracy

    OpenAIRE

    Hellström, Daniel; Wiberg, Mathias

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores and describes the impact of radio frequency identification (RFID) technology on inventory accuracy within a production and assembly plant, and proposes a model for assessing the impact of the technology on inventory accuracy. The empirical investigation, based on case study research, focuses on a RFID implementation at a supplier of bumper and spoiler systems to the automotive industry. The results indicate that RFID ensures that inventory inaccurac...

  6. Beijing-Tianjin Intercity High-speed Line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Ever since 2003, under the guidance of the scientific development concept and in line with the decisions and deployments made by the Party Central Committee and the State Council, China Railways has eagerly taken the golden opportunity for development, to facilitate the implementation of the Mid-term and Long-term Railway Network Development Program, and so it has achieved bumper significant accomplishments in the modernization progress, with Beijing-Tianjin Intercity High-speed Line as one of the exemplary representatives.

  7. DP 600 steel research of dynamic testing

    OpenAIRE

    M. Mihaliková; Német, M.; Girman, V.

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic tensile testing of sheet steels is becoming more important due to the need for more optimized vehicle crashworthiness analysis in the automotive industry. For generating data in dynamic conditions, was using different assay techniques. DP (dual phase) steel is suitable for large complicated shape such as fenders, doors, bumpers and roofs. For experiments was used two testing method servo hydraulic and single bar method. Experiments were realized on steel grade DP 600. Steel were perfo...

  8. Application of Over-Winding and Over-Falling Buffer Unit in Coal Mines of Datong Coal Group Company

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hong-qing; WANG Jian-li

    2005-01-01

    Dynamic force of BS buffer unit in the enwinding hoisting system is calculated, and the buffer unit is installed and tested. The result shows that this buffer unit is accurate in its regulated braking force and convenient in adjustment and restoration. It can be repeatedly used as a bumper for both over-winding and over-falling without replacing any parts, providing an applicable device for safety operation in coal mining.

  9. HVI Ballistic Performance Characterization of Non-Parallel Walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohl, William; Miller, Joshua; Christiansen, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The Double-Wall, "Whipple" Shield [1] has been the subject of many hypervelocity impact studies and has proven to be an effective shield system for Micro-Meteoroid and Orbital Debris (MMOD) impacts for spacecraft. The US modules of the International Space Station (ISS), with their "bumper shields" offset from their pressure holding rear walls provide good examples of effective on-orbit use of the double wall shield. The concentric cylinder shield configuration with its large radius of curvature relative to separation distance is easily and effectively represented for testing and analysis as a system of two parallel plates. The parallel plate double wall configuration has been heavily tested and characterized for shield performance for normal and oblique impacts for the ISS and other programs. The double wall shield and principally similar Stuffed Whipple Shield are very common shield types for MMOD protection. However, in some locations with many spacecraft designs, the rear wall cannot be modeled as being parallel or concentric with the outer bumper wall. As represented in Figure 1, there is an included angle between the two walls. And, with a cylindrical outer wall, the effective included angle constantly changes. This complicates assessment of critical spacecraft components located within outer spacecraft walls when using software tools such as NASA's BumperII. In addition, the validity of the risk assessment comes into question when using the standard double wall shield equations, especially since verification testing of every set of double wall included angles is impossible.

  10. Correlation between Exposure to Bomechanical Stress and Whiplash Associated Disorders (WAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William HM Castro

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most discussed questions in WAD is: can an injury of the cervical spine occur in low velocity collisions? Before this question can be answered, the term 'low velocity' and the kind of collisions must first be defined. From the study of Meyer et al. (1994 it is known that the speed change due to collision, Dv, is a suitable parameter to express the biomechanical stress acting on a person in a car collision. This study also showed that from a biomechanical point of view, a bumper car collision is comparable to a normal car collision. In the case of a rear-end collision, Meyer et al. found that the biomechanical stress acting on persons exposed to bumper car collisions (Dv at a fun fair in Germany can be as high as 15 km/h. In literature, one case could be found of an 8-year-old girl with 'whiplash' after being exposed to a bumper car collision at a fun fair (Kamieth 1990. In the Netherlands, a 13-year survey of persons who were admitted to emergency units of hospitals by the 'Consument en Veiligheid' foundation, showed 14 persons with WAD complaints after being exposed to bumper car collisions at a fun fair. In comparison to the enormous amounts of bumper car collisions, these figures are negligible. With regard to these data, one could argue that low velocity collisions can be defined as those where Dv is below 15 km/h. However, it should be noted that the kind of collision is important. From the work of Becke et al. (1999 and Becke and Castro (2000, we know that in side collisions with a Dv of just 3 km/h, head contact with the side window of the car is possible; it can be expected that in such cases the cervical spine will also be exposed to some biomechanical stress (notice however, that not every head contact is automatically equal to an injury of the cervical spine!. In conclusion, before using expressions like 'low velocity collisions', its definition with regard to Dv as well as the kind of collision, has to be discussed. With

  11. ["Mobilize the masses to urgently go into action and overcome the drought"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-14

    At present, the drought is serious. Urgently taking action and doing everything possible to overcome the drought and strive for a bumper autumn harvest is an extremely urgent combat task facing the people of our province. Since mid-June, it has rained in our province several times but it has not rained very evenly. It has not rained in many places during the past 1/2 year and more. By the end of July, autumn crops on 37.35 million mu of land have been affected by the drought, accounting for more than 1/3 of the total area of the autumn crops. The drought has greatly harmed the growth of autumn crops. If we do not act now the drought will seriously affect the autumn harvest. Mobilizing the masses to urgently go into action to overcome the drought and strive for a bumper autumn harvest is a major task which has a bearing on the livelihood of both the urban and rural people of our province and on the further development of the excellent situation. Therefore, party committees at all levels must pay attention to this, concentrate the forces to grasp it firmly and well, and not lower their guard. The party members, cadres, and masses must carry forward the spirit of fighting continuously and struggling hard, make full use of all water conservancy projects and antidrought machinery and tools, try their best to find new water resources, and use water reasonably and sparingly. All walks of life and trades must do everything possible to vigorously support the struggle against the drought and do well in supplying the oil and electricity needed for agricultural machinery and help to repair machinery and tools. We all must contribute toward the effort to achieve a bumper autumn harvest. PMID:12338066

  12. CHINA-JIANGSU LAD GROUP CO.LTD.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In recent years,the LAD Group has invested in R & D and innovation program for diversi- fied forms of business development hoping to make the company bigger,better and stronger, and it has achieved a bumper harvest. The LAD Group has become a giant in casual wear manufacturing.It is equipped with international state-of-the-art machines,washing machines,computer-aided embroidery machines, smart streamline,garment-print line,dyeing & finishing line and CAD pattern-making system, making it possible to compose three important production bases of weaving,dyeing & heat

  13. CHINA-JIANGSU LAD GROUP CO.LTD.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In recent years,the LAD Group has invested in R & D and innovation program for diversi- fied forms of business development hoping to make the company bigger,better and stronger, and it has achieved a bumper harvest. The LAD Group has become a giant in casual wear manufacturing.It is equipped with international state-of-the-art machines,washing machines,computer-aided embroidery machines, smart streamline,garment-print line,dyeing & finishing line and CAD pattern-making system, making it possible to compose three important production bases of weaving,dyeing & heat

  14. Annual Report 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research activities of Institute of High Energy Physics (IHEP), Academia Sinica of China during the year of 1990 is summarized. The year of 1990 is a bumper harvest year for IHEP, within which the BEPC project and some other scientific facilities undertaken by IHEP achieved remarkable success in the fields of high energy physics research, technological development, application of synchrotron radiation and nuclear technology. academic exchange and international collaboration have been vigorously carried out, scientific research and development work has been deepened further and the work in management sector has been also improved gradually

  15. Cultural objects as objects: materiality, urban space, and the interpretation of AIDS campaigns in Accra, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, Terence E

    2010-05-01

    AIDS media lead unexpected lives once distributed through urban space: billboards fade, posters go missing, bumper stickers travel to other cities. The materiality of AIDS campaign objects and of the urban settings in which they are displayed structures how the public interprets their messages. Ethnographic observation of AIDS media in situ and interview data reveal how the materiality of objects and places shapes the availability of AIDS knowledge in Accra, Ghana. Significantly for AIDS organizations, these material conditions often systematically obstruct access to AIDS knowledge for particular groups. Attending to materiality rethinks how scholars assess the cultural power of media.

  16. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Chinese exporters regain steam in a warm embrace of emerging markets.After a bumper year in 2009,fund managers are skeptical of what lies ahead for the stock market this year.On a broader scale,the Chinese economy remains a source of confidence for U.S.firms,as illustrated by a survey of the American Chamber of Commerce in China.Overcapacity remains a top priority on the government’s agenda.China’s top automaker SAIC Motor witnessed its net profit surge nine-fold last year.

  17. Optimization techniques applied to passive measures for in-orbit spacecraft survivability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mog, Robert A.; Helba, Michael J.; Hill, Janeil B.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to provide Space Station Freedom protective structures design insight through the coupling of design/material requirements, hypervelocity impact phenomenology, meteoroid and space debris environment sensitivities, optimization techniques and operations research strategies, and mission scenarios. The goals of the research are: (1) to develop a Monte Carlo simulation tool which will provide top level insight for Space Station protective structures designers; (2) to develop advanced shielding concepts relevant to Space Station Freedom using unique multiple bumper approaches; and (3) to investigate projectile shape effects on protective structures design.

  18. Experimental Study of Hypervelocity Impact on Multi-Shock Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张庆明; 陈沿海; 黄风雷

    2004-01-01

    Hypervelocity impact tests on multi-shock shields are carried out in order to develop space structures against space debris impacts. Sheets of LY12 aluminum were used as bumpers. The total thickness of shield structure, which consists of several sheets with various thickness, is 3.0 mm or 2.0 mm. Results of the tests show that the type 0.5 mm+0.5 mm+0.5 mm+0.5 mm is a better choice of spacecraft shield structure.

  19. Delivery of Special Magnets for the MedAustron Project

    CERN Document Server

    Kramer, T; Barlow, R A; Barnes, MJ; Borburgh, J; Ducimetière, L; Fowler, T; Hourican, M; Mertens, V; Prost, A

    2014-01-01

    Ten different types of kickers, bumpers, and electrostatic and magnetic septa, along with certain power supplies and associated control system components, have been designed in a collaboration between CERN and MedAustron for an ion therapy centre in Wr. Neustadt (Austria). This paper focuses on the status of the special magnets work package and the improvements applied during the production. The design parameters are compared with data from measurements, hardware test and initial commissioning. The major factors contributing to the successful completion of the work package are highlighted.

  20. Orbital Debris Research in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansbery, Gene

    2009-01-01

    The presentation includes information about growth of the satellite population, the U.S. Space Surveillance Network, tracking and catalog maintenance, Haystack and HAX radar observation, Goldstone radar, the Michigan Orbital Debris Survey Telescope (MODEST), spacecraft surface examinations and sample of space shuttle impacts. GEO/LEO observations from Kwajalein Atoll, NASA s Orbital Debris Engineering Model (ORDEM2008), a LEO-to-GEO Environment Debris Model (LEGEND), Debris Assessment Software (DAS) 2.0, the NASA/JSC BUMPER-II meteoroid/debris threat assessment code, satellite reentry risk assessment, optical size and shape determination, work on more complicated fragments, and spectral studies.

  1. [Newborn sleep positioners and sudden infant death syndrome risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossato, Norma Elena

    2013-01-01

    The rate of sudden infant death decreased after the publication of the first guidelines regarding infant sleep position and safe environment in 1992. From 2005 onwards, infant deaths by suffocation, choking or entrapment have increased. Some of them were associated with wedges, positioning devices, and bumper pads. Media and manufacturers should follow safe sleep guidelines in their messaging and advertising, but there is a lack of control over this. We emphasize the important role of health professionals in disseminating the recommendation for a safe infant sleep environment. PMID:23381706

  2. M/OD Risk Assessment System and Its Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hai-fu; YU Qing-bo; LIU You-ying; WANG Hui

    2009-01-01

    A risk assessment system named meteoroid & orbital debris risk assessment system (MODRAS) developed for assessing risks of the spacecraft under the meteoroid and debris environment (M/OD EM) is presented.The computing resolution of MODRAS has been verified by both the three generic spacecraft geometries of inter agency debris committee (IADC) and similar foreign software such as BUMPER,ESABASE,and MDPANTO.The results show that the system is fit well with the computing results of the foreign software.Typical applications of the system are also presented,including a manned spacecraft and a space shuttle.

  3. Teachingless spray-painting of sculptured surface by an industrial robot

    OpenAIRE

    Asakawa, Naoki; Takeuchi, Yoshimi

    1997-01-01

    The study deals with the automatic spray-painting by a 6-DOF industrial robot equipped with an air spray gun. Since the robot control commands generation for the spray-painting is manually performed by skilled workers using a teaching-playback function of a robot controller, the time, experience and patience are required. The study aims at making robot control commands without any special knowledge on spray-painting, in the case of bumpers of a car as an example of sculptured surfaces. The sy...

  4. A Work of Art You Can Drive

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Blake Gopnik

    2011-01-01

    This time of year, fantasies turn to the open road, and convertibles: speeding to Big Sur in a '64 Mustang; taking hairpins in Vermont in a Jaguar E-Type'. I have my summer car dreams, too, but they're more esoteric: I imagine myself in a 1972 Citroen DS cabriolet2. I believe it is one of the greatest objects ever made. The seamless lines of a DS pull its roof and back and doors, bumpers and turn signals and headlights, into a single visual gestalt that seems to knife through the air even when the car is standing stil.

  5. Mud banks of Kerala: Mystery yet to be unveiled!

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DineshKumar, P.K.

    banks surface. During the short-lived mud bank season the shore is lined with fi shing canoes and country boats and fi shermen landing, sorting and selling a wide variety of fi shes. The entire region transforms into a festive mood. In the safe... processors and exporters buy up the bumper crop and cash in on the abundance. The formation and behaviour of Mud Banks is a phenomenon unique to the southwest coast of India. They are peculiar in their formation as well as functions. Mud Banks are defi...

  6. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU YUE

    2010-01-01

    @@ TO THE POINT: The Asian Development Bank sees bullish prospects for the Chinese economy, though inactivity is building in the export and investment fields. China reaps a bumper harvest with grain output totaling 546.41 million tons in 2010 despite numerous natural disasters throughout the year. The Chinese Academy of Social Sciences has issued a note of caution about frothy house prices across the nation. Two Chinese Intemet companies, Youku and Dangdang, have staged successful debuts on the New York Stock Exchange.China boasts the third largest number of dollar millionaires in the world.

  7. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The Asian Development Bank sees bullish prospects for the Chinese economy, though inactivity is building in the export and investment fields. China reaps a bumper harvest with grain output totaling 546.41 million tons in 2010 despite numerous natural disasters throughout the year. The Chinese Academy of Social Sciences has issued a note of caution about frothy house prices across the nation. Two Chinese Internet companies, Youku and Dangdang, have staged successful debuts on the New York Stock Exchange. China boasts the third largest number of dollar millionaires in the world.

  8. Tending to Internal Pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China has reaped bumper grain harvests for seven consecutive years.In 2010,the country's grain output reached 545.8 million tons.Despite the success,China still faces daunting challenges toensure grain security for the following three reasons.First,natural conditions for harvesting grain are fragile.Second,farmers have fewer incentives to plant more grain since the benefits are low,and,without government intervention,the balance of supply and demand will be shattered.Third,supplies of rice and wheat are being stretched thin.

  9. The APS ceramic chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milton, S.; Warner, D.

    1994-07-01

    Ceramics chambers are used in the Advanced Photon Source (APS) machines at the locations of the pulsed kicker and bumper magnets. The ceramic will be coated internally with a resistive paste. The resistance is chosen to allow the low frequency pulsed magnet field to penetrate but not the high frequency components of the circulating beam. Another design goal was to keep the power density experienced by the resistive coating to a minimum. These ceramics, their associated hardware, the coating process, and our recent experiences with them are described.

  10. Optimal design of spaced plates under hypervelocity impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Hoon; Yoo, Jeong Hoon [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Min Hyung [Sejong University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    This paper presents a bumper shield design for protection of a satellite structure system subjected to hypervelocity impact (above 6 km/s) from space debris. Especially, this study is focused on the optimization of the spaced plates (the so-called Whipple shield) design using the coupled SPH and Lagrangian FEM methods. This is because the SPH is a meshless method and it is efficient in hypervelocity impact analysis involving debris caused by fragmentation and penetration under hypervelocity impact. The Whipple shield is composed of multiple spaced plates where the first bumper plate is modeled as particles for SPH simulation while the rear wall is modeled as elements for FEM. The appropriate smoothing length and mesh size were determined taking into account computational cost and accuracy and the erosion scheme is adopted to avoid numerical error due to large deformation. After verification for the comparison with previous experimental works, the optimal plate structure is proposed considering multi design objectives based on parameter optimization.

  11. Metallic materials for mechanical damping capacity applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crăciun, R. C.; Stanciu, S.; Cimpoeșu, R.; (Dragoș Ursanu, A. I.; Manole, V.; Paraschiv, P.; Chicet, D. L.

    2016-08-01

    Some metallic materials exhibit good damping capacity of mechanical energy into thermal energy. This property along with the others metallic characteristics make this materials interesting for a big number of applications. These materials can be used as bumpers in different applications including automotive field. Beside grey cast iron and shape memory alloys few new metallic materials are presented for the supposition of high damping capacity. We analyze the causes that increase the internal friction of some metallic materials and possibilities to enhance this property through different mechanical, physical or chemical methods. Shape memory alloys, especially those based on copper, present a different damping capacity on martensite, austenite or transition state. In the transformation range M ↔A, which in case of copper base shape memory alloys is quite large, the metallic intelligent materials present a high internal friction, almost comparable with natural rubber behavior that can transform mechanical energy into thermal energy till a certain value of the external solicitation. These materials can be used as noise or small vibrations bumpers or even as shock absorbers in automotive industry.

  12. China’s Price System Jeopardizes its Grain Reserves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宾

    2008-01-01

    2008 is a year of bumper harvest in summer grain across China. The failure of numerous state-owned grain depots to purchase grain in times of bumper harvest, however, directly threatens grain reserve security and state control over grain prices in the upcoming year. An important factor underpinning the difficulty of state grain depots to purchase grain is the unwillingness of farmers to sell grain due to the excess of the current market price over the government "protected price" aimed at preventing cheap grain from harming farmers. When grassroots grain depots find themselves in trouble, foreign capital stealthily moves in by taking advantage of this situation. To fulfill grain storage tasks and receive various state subsidies, some state-owned grain depots have no alternative but to surreptitiously raise the purchase price. By contrast, some not so courageous state-owned grain depots can only borrow money to finance the purchase of commodity grain at market prices and subsequently figure out a way to pay back such loans. Behind such distorted grain purchase behavior lies a rough and rugged history of grain price reform in China.

  13. Nonlinear seismic analysis of a large sodium pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bearings and seismic bumpers used in a large sodium pump of a typical breeder reactor plant may need to be characterized by nonlinear springs and gaps. Then, nonlinear seismic analysis utilizing the time-history method is an effective way to predict the pump behaviors during seismic events, especially at those bearing and seismic bumper areas. In this study, synthesized time histories were developed based on specified seismic response spectra. A nonlinear seismic analysis was then conducted and results were compared with those obtained by linear seismic analysis using the response spectrum method. In contrast to some previous nonlinear analysis trends, the bearing impact forces predicted by nonlinear analysis were higher than those obtained by the response spectrum method. This might be due to the larger gaps and stiffer bearing supports used in this specific pump. However, at locations distant from the impact source, the nonlinear seismic analysis has predicted slightly less responses than those obtained by linear seismic analysis. The seismically induced bearing impact forces were used to study the friction induced thermal stresses on the hydrostatic bearing and to predict the coastdown time of the pump. Results and discussions are presented

  14. Direct Drive and Eddy Current Septa Magnet Designs for CERN’s PSB Extraction at 2 GeV

    CERN Multimedia

    Szoke, Zsolt; Balhan, Bruno; Baud, Cedric; Borburgh, Jan; Hourican, Michael; Masson, Thierry; Prost, Antoine

    2015-01-01

    In the framework of the LIU project, new septa magnets have been designed between CERN’s PS Booster (PSB) extraction and PS injection. The upgraded devices are to deal with the increased beam energy from 1.4 GeV to 2 GeV at extraction of the PSB. The direct drive recombination septa in the PSB transfer line to the PS, the eddy current PS injection septum together with a bumper at injection have been investigated using finite element software. For the recombination magnets an increase in magnet length is sufficient to obtain the required deflection; however, for the PS injection elements a more novel solution is necessary to also achieve increased robustness to extend the expected lifetime of the pulsed device. The injection septum will share the same vacuum vessel with an injection bumper and both magnets will be located adjacent to each other. The new PS injection magnet will be the first septum operated at CERN based on eddy current technology. The magnetic modelling of the devices, the comparison of the ...

  15. Safety assessment characteristics of pedestrian legform impactors in vehicle-front impact tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Yasuhiro

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated the characteristics of safety assessment results of front-area vehicle impact tests carried out using the Transport Research Laboratory (TRL) legform impactor and a flexible legform impactor (FLEX legform impactor). Different types of vehicles (sedan, sport utility vehicle, high-roof K-car, and light cargo van) were examined. The impact locations in the study were the center of the bumper and an extremely stiff structure of the bumper (i.e., in front of the side member) of each tested vehicle. The measured injury criteria were normalized by injury assessment reference values of each legform impactor. The test results for center and side-member impacts indicated that there were no significant differences in ligament injury assessments derived from the normalized knee ligament injury measures between the TRL legform impactor and the FLEX legform impactor. Evaluations made using the TRL legform impactor and the FLEX legform impactor are thus similar in the vehicle safety investigation for knee ligament injury. Vehicle-center impact test results revealed that the tibia fracture assessments derived from the normalized tibia fracture measures did not significantly differ between the TRL legform impactor and the FLEX legform impactor. However, for an impact against an extremely stiff structure, there was a difference in the tibia fracture assessment between the FLEX legform impactor and the TRL legform impactor owing to their different sensor types.

  16. Microstructure and mechanical properties of sheep horn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bing; Zhang, Ming; Zhao, Jian

    2016-07-01

    The sheep horn presents outstanding mechanical properties of impact resistance and energy absorption, which suits the need of the vehicle bumper design, but the mechanism behind this phenomenon is less investigated. The microstructure and mechanical properties of the sheep horn of Small Tailed Han Sheep (Ovis aries) living in northeast China were investigated in this article. The effect of sampling position and orientation of the sheep horn sheath on mechanical properties were researched by tensile and compression tests. Meanwhile, the surface morphology and microstructure of the sheep horn were observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The formation mechanism of the mechanical properties of the sheep horn was investigated by biological coupling analysis. The analytical results indicated that the outstanding mechanical properties of the sheep horn are determined by configuration, structure, surface morphology and material coupling elements. These biological coupling elements make the sheep horn possess super characteristics of crashworthiness and energy absorption through the internal coupling mechanism. We suppose that these findings would make a difference in vehicle bumper design. Microsc. Res. Tech. 79:664-674, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Autonomous mobile robot for radiologic surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudar, Aed M.; Wagner, David G.; Teese, Gregory D.

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus for conducting radiologic surveys. The apparatus comprises in the main a robot capable of following a preprogrammed path through an area, a radiation monitor adapted to receive input from a radiation detector assembly, ultrasonic transducers for navigation and collision avoidance, and an on-board computer system including an integrator for interfacing the radiation monitor and the robot. Front and rear bumpers are attached to the robot by bumper mounts. The robot may be equipped with memory boards for the collection and storage of radiation survey information. The on-board computer system is connected to a remote host computer via a UHF radio link. The apparatus is powered by a rechargeable 24-volt DC battery, and is stored at a docking station when not in use and/or for recharging. A remote host computer contains a stored database defining paths between points in the area where the robot is to operate, including but not limited to the locations of walls, doors, stationary furniture and equipment, and sonic markers if used. When a program consisting of a series of paths is downloaded to the on-board computer system, the robot conducts a floor survey autonomously at any preselected rate. When the radiation monitor detects contamination, the robot resurveys the area at reduced speed and resumes its preprogrammed path if the contamination is not confirmed. If the contamination is confirmed, the robot stops and sounds an alarm.

  18. Momentum distribution in debris cloud during hypervelocity impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaster, P.; Mount, A.; Zee, R. H.

    1992-01-01

    The long term operation of the Space Station Freedom requires a scheme to protect it from high velocity impacts by both man-made particles and micrometeor fragments. One such scheme is the use of metal plates to serve as shields against such orbital debris. These 'bumper' plates, as they are referred to, serve to break up any incident particle and redistribute its momentum over a larger area. It is therefore necessary to determine the momentum distribution within the debris cloud produced by such collisions in order to evaluate a materials effectiveness at accomplishing this task. This paper details the design and development of an innovative device which has made this possible. Momentum profiles were obtained for a series of test conditions. Total momentum values in the debris cloud were then calculated from these profiles. These results indicated that a momentum amplification exists with a multiplication factor of between 2 and 3. Thus the role of the bumper to serve as a means for momentum redistribution and not reduction was verified.

  19. Capacitors Would Help Protect Against Hypervelocity Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, David; Hubbs, Whitney; Hovater, Mary

    2007-01-01

    A proposal investigates alternatives to the present bumper method of protecting spacecraft against impacts of meteoroids and orbital debris. The proposed method is based on a British high-voltage-capacitance technique for protecting armored vehicles against shaped-charge warheads. A shield, according to the proposal, would include a bare metal outer layer separated by a gap from an inner metal layer covered with an electrically insulating material. The metal layers would constitute electrodes of a capacitor. A bias potential would be applied between the metal layers. A particle impinging at hypervelocity on the outer metal layer would break apart into a debris cloud that would penetrate the electrical insulation on the inner metal layer. The cloud would form a path along which electric current could flow between the metal layers, thereby causing the capacitor to discharge. With proper design, the discharge current would be large enough to vaporize the particles in the debris cloud to prevent penetration of the spacecraft. The shield design can be mass optimized to be competitive with existing bumper designs. Parametric studies were proposed to determine optimum correction between bias voltage, impacting particle velocity, gap space, and insulating material required to prevent spacecraft penetration.

  20. Plunger lift in horizontal gas wells : an old technique in a new application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sask, D.; Slade, J.; Peachey, E. [EnCana Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    A proven technique for lifting liquids from vertical gas wells flowing below their critical velocity involves plunger lift. This technique has a unique set of operating challenges, some of which are specific to the horizontal well geometry. This paper presented several challenges in applying plunger lift to horizontal welsl and provided insights into liquid hold up in horizontal gas wells. It was mentioned that traditional plunger lift calculations do not typically take into account the energy in the horizontal section of the well bore. They also do not account for significant dampening of that energy by liquids held up in the horizontal section. This paper also identified bumper spring check valve limitations at high deviation angles. In order to address this, redesigned bumper springs were deployed. Case histories were also presented in order to demonstrate the difference in performance when only water of condensation was being lifted and when both water of condensation and produced water was being lifted. In order to fully optimize horizontal gas wells, new operational strategies were utilized.

  1. 基于有限元法的某SUV后部碰撞分析研究%Research and Analysis of a SUV Rear Collision Based on FEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡雪芳

    2016-01-01

    The finite element model which takes a SUV as the object is established based on finite element a-nalysis,and this paper simulates the center and angle collision process of the rear bumper. It evaluates the per-formance of the rear bumper collision by analyzing the energy absorption characteristics. According to the laws and regulations, this paper simulates the 100% and 40% overlap of the rear part low-speed collision and ana-lyzes the collision deformation of every part, stress distribution and energy change, In the end,it verifies the rationality of the design. The results provide a basis for the further optimization of the structure and offer a new idea for the vehicle collision,and they are of great reference value for further study of the rear bumper, the ve-hicle collision simulation and real vehicle crash test.%基于有限元分析法,以某SUV为研究对象,建立了其有限元模型,对后保险杠中心和车角碰撞过程进行了模拟,通过分析其吸能特性,评价了后保险杠的碰撞性能,然后根据法规要求,对后部100%和40%重叠低速碰撞进行了仿真,分析了碰撞过程各部件的变形、应力分布及能量变化等,验证了设计的合理性,为结构的进一步优化提供了依据,该方法为研究整车后部碰撞提供了新的思路,对深入研究后保险杠、整车碰撞仿真及实车碰撞试验具有重要的参考价值.

  2. Research on Impact Stress and Fatigue Simulation of a New Down-to-the-Hole Impactor Based on ANSYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tao; Wang, Wei; Yao, Aiguo; Li, Yongbo; He, Wangyong; Fei, Dongdong

    2016-06-01

    In the present work, a down-to-the-hole electric hammer driven by linear motor is reported for drilling engineering. It differs from the common hydraulic or pneumatic hammers in that it can be applied to some special occasions without circulating medium due to its independence of the drilling fluid. The impact stress caused by the reciprocating motion between stator and rotor and the fatigue damage in key components of linear motor are analyzed by the ANSYS Workbench software and 3D model. Based on simulation results, the hammer's structure is optimized by using special sliding bearing, increasing the wall thickness of key and multilayer buffer gasket. Fatigue life and coefficient issues of the new structure are dramatically improved. However buffer gasket reduces the impactor's energy, different bumper structure effect on life improving and energy loss have also been elaborated.

  3. Spacecraft survivability in the meteoroid and debris environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Eric L.; Hyde, James L.; Snell, Greg

    1992-01-01

    A number of methods for providing adequate protection from meteoroid and orbital debris impact are available to space vehicle designers. Several techniques to reduce the risks from meteoroid and debris (M&D) impact are presented and assessed in the context of Space Station Freedom (SSF) applications. Evaluations of these options were made using BUMPER, a computer program to perform M&D analyses. M&D survivability can be improved by conducting an in-depth analysis of spacecraft penetration risks to reveal weak areas of the design and to determine optimal distribution of shielding and/or protection capability around the space vehicle. This paper compares enhanced hypervelocity impact shielding techniques that are more weight efficient than conventional shielding approaches. Other design and operational strategies to reduce meteoroid and debris risks are also discussed.

  4. CO2-Laser Cutting Fiber Reinforced Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, R.; Nuss, Rudolf; Geiger, Manfred

    1989-10-01

    Guided by experimental investigations laser cutting of glass fiber reinforced reactive injection moulded (RRIM)-polyurethanes which are used e.g. in car industry for bumpers, spoilers, and further components is described. A Comparison with other cutting techniques as there are water jet cutting, milling, punching, sawing, cutting with conventional knife and with ultrasonic excited knife is given. Parameters which mainly influence cutting results e.g. laser power, cutting speed, gas nature and pressure will be discussed. The problematic nature in characterising micro and macro geometry of laser cut edges of fiber reinforced plastic (FRP) is explained. The topography of cut edges is described and several characteristic values are introduced to specify the obtained working quality. The surface roughness of laser cut edges is measured by both, an optical and a mechanical sensor and their reliabilities are compared.

  5. DRIVING FARMING WITH TECHNOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Yuankai

    2012-01-01

    At the beginning of 2011,major grain producing provinces in central and east China experienced a prolonged drought that stretched for more than three months.Then in summer,a severe drought left millions short of drinking water in southwest China.Even the usually water-rich regions along the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River were not spared.In May,they suffered from the worst drought in 50 years,heavy rains eventually relieved the drought but these rains in turn caused serious flooding.Despite the disasters,last year saw a bumper harvest in China.On December 16,the Ministry of Agriculture said that the total grain output in 2011 reached a historical high of 571.2 billion kg,up 24.75 billion kg,or 4.5 percent,from 2010.

  6. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear power projects under construction in China in 2009 were the most numerous in the world in terms of installed capacity. Chinese telecom operators geared up for 3G competition as the market is expected to grow with an improved network and wider consumer acceptance. Chinese tourists to France overtook Russians to become the biggest spenders in duty-free stores. Mainland travelers to Hong Kong are expected to contribute 30 percent to the region’s Spring Festival consumption. This year’s Boao Forum for Asia, an Asian version of the World Economic Forum, will focus on environmental efforts and the green economy. Insurers reaped a bumper harvest in 2009 as reflected in their surging profits.

  7. Optimized body structure and packaging for car ODB impact performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Men Yongxin; Ma Fangwu; Wang Zhitao; Wang Zelong; Peng Hong

    2012-01-01

    Front bumper, crash box and side rail are key body structural parts in front crash. Deformation space is affected by compartment packaging. The improvement suggestions are proposed to solve the problems existed in the current vehicle struc- ture and compartment packaging based on the areas that influence performance of automobile offset deformable barrier impact, such as the side rail, mounting, storage battery packaging,etc. It is proved that dO % offset crash simulation result of one certain car is well-correlated with the physical test. Optimization cases meet the crash performance requirements. The objec- tive of the analysis is to guide structural design and improves a car' s crash safety performance.

  8. Heat transfer analysis of compound multi-layer insulation for cryogenic tank under different service conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, H. L.; Yao, C.; Li, Y.; Pan, H. L.

    2016-05-01

    Future space missions require efficient delivery of large payloads over great distances, necessitating the use of high-energy cryogenic propellant. Therefore, reliable compound multi-layer insulation on cryogenic tank is a crucial part of future space exploration. Compound multi-layer insulation is composed of double-aluminized radiation shielding and separated by a combination of netting and bumper strips, with a foam substrate. Considering conduction, convection, and radiation in heat transfer, the thermal field of multi-layer insulation is analysis by theoretical analysis with different thickness of foam substrate and MLI. Based on the formerly theoretical analysis, the heat flux and apparent thermal conductivity are discussed under the different thickness of foam substrate and MLI. Finally, the optimum design of multi-layer thermal insulation is present in consideration of the thickness and insulation performance of multi-layer insulation.

  9. Three-dimensional antenna models for fusion experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, M. D.; Wang, C. Y.; Hogan, J. T.; Harris, J. H.; Hoffman, D. J.; Rasmussen, D. A.; Ryan, P. M.; Stallings, D. S.; Batchelor, D. B.; Beaumont, B.; Hutter, T.; Saoutic, B.

    1996-02-01

    The development of the RANT3D code has permitted the systematic study of the effect of three-dimensional structures on the launched power spectrum for antennas in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies. The code allows the septa between current straps to be modeled with arbitrary heights and permits the antenna to interact with other structures in the tokamak. In this paper we present comparisons of calculated loading with the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor and Tore Supra experiments, demonstrate the effects on loading caused by positioning uncertainties for an antenna in Tore Supra, and show electric field patterns near the Tore Supra antenna. A poloidal component in the static magnetic field for the plasma response is included in the near-field calculations using the warm plasma code, GLOSI. Preliminary estimates for the heat flux on the bumper limiters during typical operation in Tore Supra are also presented.

  10. Three-dimensional antenna models for fusion experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, M.D.; Wang, C.Y.; Hogan, J.T.; Harris, J.H.; Hoffman, D.J.; Rasmussen, D.A.; Ryan, P.M.; Stallings, D.S.; Batchelor, D.B. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-8071, (United States); Beaumont, B.; Hutter, T.; Saoutic, B. [Association Euratom-CEA, Department de Recherche sur la Fusion Controlee, Centre d`Etudes de Cadarache, 13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance, Cedex (France)

    1996-02-01

    The development of the RANT3D code has permitted the systematic study of the effect of three-dimensional structures on the launched power spectrum for antennas in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies. The code allows the septa between current straps to be modeled with arbitrary heights and permits the antenna to interact with other structures in the tokamak. In this paper we present comparisons of calculated loading with the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor and Tore Supra experiments, demonstrate the effects on loading caused by positioning uncertainties for an antenna in Tore Supra, and show electric field patterns near the Tore Supra antenna. A poloidal component in the static magnetic field for the plasma response is included in the near-field calculations using the warm plasma code, GLOSI. Preliminary estimates for the heat flux on the bumper limiters during typical operation in Tore Supra are also presented. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  11. Points of view: where do we look when we watch TV?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasel, S Adam; Gips, James

    2008-01-01

    How is our gaze dispersed across the screen when watching television? An exploratory eyetracker study with a custom-designed show indicated a very strong center-of-screen bias with gaze points following a roughly normal distribution peaked near screen center. Examining the show across time revealed that people were rarely all looking at the same location, and the amount of gaze dispersion within frames was highly variable. Different forms of programming yielded different levels of dispersion: static network 'bumpers' created the tightest visual groupings, and gaze dispersion for frames with show content was less than the dispersion for commercials. Advertising frames with brand logos generated higher dispersion than the non-branded advertisement portions, and repeated advertisements generated higher dispersion than their first-run counterparts. PMID:19227380

  12. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The manufacturing sector of the country loses some steam as indicated by the slowing PMI in July.China Investment Corp.reaped a bum-per harvest from investments overseas last year, drawing strength from the global economic recovery. Chinese automaker Geely completed its purchase of Volvo, a landmark step toward making a global footprint. The aviation indus-try witnesses a substantial turnaround with air traffic surging in the first half of 2010. Meanwhile, 264 firms listed on the Chinese mainland reported a com-bined profit of 22.8 billion yuan ($3.4 billion) in the first half of this year,growing nearly 50 percent from a year earlier.IMAX is increasing its presence in the Chinese market where the movie industry is burning hot.

  13. Creep and tensile properties of press molding joined GMT-sheets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-Woo KIM; Dong-Gi LEE

    2011-01-01

    GMT-sheet is used in automobile bumper with high rigidity and strength, and its joining strength is influenced by lap length, one of the joined molding conditions. Fracture strength was calculated by dividing fracture load with cross-sectional area.Total five repeated measurements were made to obtain the average value. Tensile test was conducted at room temperature for l0 specimens. In addition, the effect of compression ratio on creep and tensile performance during lap joined molding was discussed.With increasing lap length, the lap joining efficiency of GMT-sheet was increased. However, higher compression ratio reduced the joining efficiency. Creep test on GMT-sheet showed abrupt fracture without tertiary creep. This can be explained by the weak thermal resistance of the resin. If GMT-sheet was exposed to high temperature for a long time, it was easily failed by external force.

  14. Measurement of rf voltages on the plasma-touching surfaces of ICRF antennas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of the rf voltages on Faraday shields and protection bumpers have been made for several loop antennas, including the mock-up antenna and Al for JET, the original antenna for Tore Supra, the present ASDEX-U antenna, and the folded waveguide. The loop antennas show voltages that scale to ∼12 kV for a maximum input voltage of 30 kV with 0/0 phasing. The voltages are dramatically reduced for 0/π phasing. These voltages are significant in that they can substantially increase the rf sheath potential beyond the levels associated with the simple electromagnetic field linkage from the current straps that results in plasma heating. In this paper, we investigate and measure the source of these voltages, their scaling with antenna impedance, and the differences between the loop arrays

  15. Three-dimensional antenna models for fusion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of the RANT3D code has permitted the systematic study Of the effect of three-dimensional structures on the launched power spectrum for antennas in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies. The code allows the septa between current straps to be modeled with arbitrary heights and permits the antenna to interact with other structures in the tokamak. In this paper we present comparisons of calculated loading with the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor and Tore Supra experiments, demonstrate the effects on loading caused by positioning uncertainties for an antenna in Tore Supra, and show electric field patterns near the Tore Supra antenna. A poloidal component in the static magnetic field for the plasma response is included in the near-field calculations using the warm plasma code, GLOSI. Preliminary estimates for the heat flux on the bumper limiters during typical operation in Tore Supra are also presented

  16. Cosmic radiation shielding properties of COLUMBUS and REMSIM multi-layer external shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durante, Marco; Manti, Lorenzo; Rusek, Adam; Belluco, Maurizio; Lobascio, Cesare

    The European module COLUMBUS has been recently installed on the International Space Station. Future plans for exploration involve the use of inflatable modules, such as the REMSIM concept proposed in a previous ESA funded study. We studied the radiation shielding properties of COLUMBUS and REMSIM external shell using 1 GeV/n Feor H-ions accelerated at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (Long Island, NY, USA). COLUMBUS has a 22 mm rigid multi-layer shell with Al, Nextel and Kevlar, as materials of the double bumper for meteoroids and debris protection, MLI for thermal reasons and again Al as pressure shell. Inside the module, astronauts are further protected by secondary structures, including racks, a number of electronic devices and payload equipment. This internal equipment has been simulated using Al and Kevlar, bringing the total thickness to about 15 g/cm2. REMSIM consists of a thermal multi-layer (MLI), four Nextel layers used to provide shock of the impacting micro-meteoroids, a ballistic restraint multi-layer of Kevlar used to absorb debris cloud's kinetic energy, a Kevlar structural restraint to support pressure loads incurred from inflating the module. To contain air inside the module, REMSIM adopts three layers of airtight material separated by two layers of Kevlar (air bladder). A final layer of Nomex provide protection against punctures and fire. In the flight configuration there are also spacer elements (foam) needed to guarantee correct spacing between consecutive bumper layers. These spacers were not included in the tests, making the total thickness about 1.1 cm. The internal equipment in REMSIM was not been defined, but due to its application for exploration missions it was decided to exploit water, valuable resource used for drinking, washing and technical usage, as a radiation shielding. In this test, we have included about 8 cm of water. Measured dose attenuation shows that the Columbus module reduces the

  17. Produtos poliolefínicos reciclados com desempenho superior aos materiais virgens correspondentes Recycled polyolefin products with higher performance than the corresponding virgin materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes F. Martins

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available O balanço das reações de reticulação e cisão em cadeias poliolefínicas, quando expostas a condições ambientais de radicais livres, pode resultar em boas propriedades e novas aplicações. Materiais descartados de alta qualidade despertam cada vez mais interesse para reciclagem. Os resíduos plásticos de embalagens alimentícias, assim como peças descartadas de grandes dimensões, provenientes da indústria automotiva, são exemplos daqueles materiais. No presente trabalho, são relatadas as propriedades mecânicas da madeira plástica IMAWOOD, obtida a partir de resíduos sólidos urbanos, principalmente embalagens de polietileno, e do material IMACAR, recuperado de pára-choques descartados de carros de passeio, constituído basicamente de misturas PP/EPDM. Verificou-se que o IMAWOOD mostrou comportamento mecânico melhorado por efeito da radiação-gama, enquanto que o IMACAR revelou alta resistência ao impacto, muito superior ao material virgem de composição correspondente.The balance of crosslinking and scission reactions in polyolefin chains when exposed to free-radical, environmental conditions may result in good properties and new applications. Discarded, post-consumer high quality materials are more and more attractive for recycling. The plastic residues from food packages and large dimension automobile residues, as car bumpers, are good examples of those materials. In the present work, we report mechanical properties of IMAWOOD®, plastic lumber from urban solid waste, mostly PE packaging residues, and IMACAR, from discarded car bumpers, mainly PP/EPDM blends. IMAWOOD® showed improved mechanical behavior after gamma-irradiation. IMACAR® was highly resistant to impact.

  18. A rapid method for identifying and characterizing structural impacts using distributed sensors: An application for automotive pedestrian protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Andrew C.

    This research is motivated by recent activity to improve automotive safety, especially for pedestrians. In many parts of the world today, injuries and fatalities from road accidents are a significant problem. Safety features such as seat restraints and air bags provide considerable levels of protection for car occupants; however, no such protective measures currently exist for pedestrians. Drawing upon the success and effectiveness of occupant air bag systems, current research aims to develop similar devices for pedestrians. These active pedestrian protection systems deploy a safety feature such as an external air bag when a pedestrian is hit by a vehicle. Contact with the front bumper induces a body rotation that may result in a violent head collision. The deployable safety device provides a cushioning surface for the vulnerable pedestrian during impact. The challenge of such a system is an effective sensory unit that can rapidly and correctly discriminate pedestrian impacts from non-pedestrian ones. The fast kinematics of the automobile-pedestrian impact leaves a minimal amount of time for signal processing and computation. This research study focuses on a discrimination scheme that satisfies both the time and accuracy requirements for a proposed sensory system for pedestrian protection. A unique methodology was developed to identify structural impacts using dominant frequency features extracted from sensory data. Contact sensors mounted on the front bumper of an automobile measure the strain response from an impact event. The dominant frequencies obtained from these sensor signals are greatly influenced by the impact object's properties and can be used to discriminate between different objects. Extensive tests were conducted to gather sensor data and validate the proposed methodology and impact discrimination algorithm. Results of the impact tests indicate that the approach is sound, and the sensory system effectively identifies "pedestrian" impacts within a

  19. Ballistic limit regression analysis for Space Station Freedom meteoroid and space debris protection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolly, William H.

    1992-01-01

    Relationships defining the ballistic limit of Space Station Freedom's (SSF) dual wall protection systems have been determined. These functions were regressed from empirical data found in Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) Hypervelocity Impact Testing Summary (HITS) for the velocity range between three and seven kilometers per second. A stepwise linear least squares regression was used to determine the coefficients of several expressions that define a ballistic limit surface. Using statistical significance indicators and graphical comparisons to other limit curves, a final set of expressions is recommended for potential use in Probability of No Critical Flaw (PNCF) calculations for Space Station. The three equations listed below represent the mean curves for normal, 45 degree, and 65 degree obliquity ballistic limits, respectively, for a dual wall protection system consisting of a thin 6061-T6 aluminum bumper spaced 4.0 inches from a .125 inches thick 2219-T87 rear wall with multiple layer thermal insulation installed between the two walls. Normal obliquity is d(sub c) = 1.0514 v(exp 0.2983 t(sub 1)(exp 0.5228). Forty-five degree obliquity is d(sub c) = 0.8591 v(exp 0.0428) t(sub 1)(exp 0.2063). Sixty-five degree obliquity is d(sub c) = 0.2824 v(exp 0.1986) t(sub 1)(exp -0.3874). Plots of these curves are provided. A sensitivity study on the effects of using these new equations in the probability of no critical flaw analysis indicated a negligible increase in the performance of the dual wall protection system for SSF over the current baseline. The magnitude of the increase was 0.17 percent over 25 years on the MB-7 configuration run with the Bumper II program code.

  20. Consideration of alternative designs for a Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy feeding tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerrabolu, Santosh Rohit

    The inability of some people to chew or swallow foods (but can digest foods) due to problems associated with various diseases and complications leads them to insufficient nutritional intake and loss of quality of life. These individuals are generally provided with nutritional support by means of injecting or infusing food directly into their stomachs or small intestines via feeding tubes. Gastrostomy feeding tubes (G-tubes) are used when such nutritional support is required for over 3-6 weeks. Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy (PEG) tubes are one of the most widely used G- Tubes and devices which are inserted via an incision through the abdominal wall either through a pull or push method. This investigation proposes conceptual alternative Percutaneous Endoscopy Gastrostomy (PEG) feeding tube designs with optimized materials selection to be used for their construction. The candidate materials were chosen from 18 commercial catheters, 2 reference grade polymers and a commercial polymer; using tissue-catheter-friction testing and surface chemistry characterization (Infrared spectroscopy and Critical Surface Tension approximation). The main objectives considered were to minimize slipping/dislodgement of gastrostomy tube/seal, to reduce peristomal leakage, and to attain size variability of PEG tubes while maintaining a low profile. Scanning Electron Microscope- Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy was employed to further determine the filler materials used in the samples. Nylon coated with fatty ester and filled with Barium sulphate was determined as the optimum material for the construction of the tube part of the feeding tubes to reduce slipping/dislodgment of gastrostomy tube/seal and to minimize peristomal leakage. Nylon coated with fatty ester and filled with Silica is the suggested as a candidate material for construction of the bumper/mushroom sections of the feeding tubes to avoid the Buried Bumper Syndrome. Fused Deposition Modeling, Selective Laser Sintering

  1. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 563: Septic Systems, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2009-03-31

    This Corrective Action Plan (CAP) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 563, Septic Systems, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. CAU 563 consists of four Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 3 and 12 of the Nevada Test Site. CAU 563 consists of the following CASs: CAS 03-04-02, Area 3 Subdock Septic Tank CAS 03-59-05, Area 3 Subdock Cesspool CAS 12-59-01, Drilling/Welding Shop Septic Tanks CAS 12-60-01, Drilling/Welding Shop Outfalls Site characterization activities were performed in 2007, and the results are presented in Appendix A of the CAU 563 Corrective Action Decision Document. The scope of work required to implement the recommended closure alternatives is summarized below. CAS 03-04-02, Area 3 Subdock Septic Tank, contains no contaminants of concern (COCs) above action levels. No further action is required for this site; however, as a best management practice (BMP), all aboveground features (e.g., riser pipes and bumper posts) will be removed, the septic tank will be removed, and all open pipe ends will be sealed with grout. CAS 03-59-05, Area 3 Subdock Cesspool, contains no COCs above action levels. No further action is required for this site; however, as a BMP, all aboveground features (e.g., riser pipes and bumper posts) will be removed, the cesspool will be abandoned by filling it with sand or native soil, and all open pipe ends will be sealed with grout. CAS 12-59-01, Drilling/Welding Shop Septic Tanks, will be clean closed by excavating approximately 4 cubic yards (yd3) of arsenic- and chromium-impacted soil. In addition, as a BMP, the liquid in the South Tank will be removed, the North Tank will be removed or filled with grout and left in place, the South Tank will be filled with grout and left in place, all open pipe ends will be sealed with grout or similar material, approximately 10 yd3 of chlordane-impacted soil will be excavated, and debris within the CAS boundary will be removed. CAS 12

  2. A mobile autonomous robot for radiological surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Robotics Development Group at the Savannah River Site is developing an autonomous robot (SIMON) to perform radiological surveys of potentially contaminated floors. The robot scans floors at a speed of one-inch/second and stops, sounds an alarm, and flashes lights when contamination in a certain area is detected. The contamination of interest here is primarily alpha and beta-gamma. The robot, a Cybermotion K2A base, is radio controlled, uses dead reckoning to determine vehicle position, and docks with a charging station to replenish its batteries and calibrate its position. It uses an ultrasonic ranging system for collision avoidance. In addition, two safety bumpers located in the front and the back of the robot will stop the robots motion when they are depressed. Paths for the robot are preprogrammed and the robots motion can be monitored on a remote screen which shows a graphical map of the environment. The radiation instrument being used is an Eberline RM22A monitor. This monitor is microcomputer based with a serial I/0 interface for remote operation. Up to 30 detectors may be configured with the RM22A

  3. Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Winters

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Alongside a website review of the Gabii project (Nebbia 2014 and two further data papers (Framework Archaeology 2014, Williams et al. 2014, Issue 36 has turned into something of a bumper issue. Given the increase in submissions to the journal, I think issues of this size are going to become more commonplace if not also, more frequent. A late addition, but one which nicely illustrates the journal's flexibility of form and speed of publication is the contribution by Wendy Morrison et al. (2014 on Laying Bare the Landscape: commercial archaeology and the potential of digital spatial data. In How are teeth better than bone? Hollund et al. (2014 characterises the types of diagenesis observed within the histology of archaeological teeth and compares these changes with those previously recorded in bone. Šmejda's GIS Visualisations of Mortuary Data from Holešov, Czech Republic (2014 presents an interesting case-study on dealing with legacy data and demonstrates just some of the potential that still lies in published (and indeed unpublished excavation data, even when half a century has passed. Switching focus completely, the article by Irmela Herzog (2014 on LCPs (Least-cost Paths deals with methodological issues connected with these calculations in archaeology, a method increasingly used in analyses. Jarlshof Lost and Found acts as a bridge between theory and practice, and contributes to the academic debate on heritage visualisation (Baxter 2014.

  4. Power deposition to the facing components in Tore-Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The modifications of the power scrape-off length, λq and power deposition are studied for various configurations in ohmic Tore-Supra plasmas. The plasma is either touching the horizontal limiter alone, the full set of six pump limiters or the inner bumper limiter. All configurations are with and without the ergodic divertor system energized. From a comparison of the infrared images of the limiter we derived that the λq for power deposition was slightly less than 9±1 mm in ohmic plasmas which is in agreement with the predicted design value of 10 mm. Using the six limiters, instead of one, does not modify λq significantly, but leads to small asymmetries. The power is shared by all the limiters and the maximum surface temperature on the horizontal limiter decreases. These λq values have been independently determined by calorimetric measurements on the integrated energy deposition on the horizontal limiter and other internal structures 5 cm into the scrape-off layer. These values agree with the infrared measurements in the two cases. In the presence of the ergodic divertor we observe a broadening of the scrape-off layer, the e-folding length for power deposition reaching 2.5 cm. Large asymmetries in the power deposition can be seen on the front face of the limiter, leading to the formation of hot spots at the leading edges. (orig.)

  5. Floating Production Unit FPU P53: logistic and modules installation; Logistica e instalacao dos modulos da Unidade Flutuante de Producao FPU P53

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arantes, Joao Durval [UTC Engenharia S.A., SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This work intends to show a 'case' of success, namely the model of management and the strategy, applied in the logistics and installation of the P53 modules. The criteria, which took QUIP to contract, in Brazil and abroad, technology companies, to supply integrated modules, including engineering, procurement, construction and warranty of performance, are shown. Establishment, at the initial phase of the Project, of the discipline 'constructibility', with the attribution to interact with the engineering design and construction of the modules under QUIP's responsibility, modules supplied by PETROBRAS and mainly, with the site of Naval Conversion in Singapore. Establishment of the discipline 'Marinharia', to act together with 'constructibility' to overcome the difficulties and restrictions of Porto de Rio Grande, such as the following: the width of the sailing channel, interferences of commercial port, availability of mooring pier, relationship with port pilotage and authorities of the Fifth Naval District of Brazilian Navy. The challenges were the maneuvers with 2 crane barges for modules installation, in front the P-53, a VLCC ship and maneuvers the barges, involved at the time of installation of the modules. And, finally, to show the proceeding applied in the physical interfaces of installation of the modules, such as: interferences, supports of the modules, stools in the ship, guides and bumpers. Dimensional control, simulations and extensive planning were the tools of success. (author)

  6. Mercedes-Benz C-class sports coupe: smc license plate surround with integrated polycarbonate panel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullmann, F.; Dannenberg, M.; Grevener, C. [DaimlerChrysler AG, Sindelfingen (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    The amount of plastics used in the automobile has risen markedly from around 20 kg in the 1960s to around 130 to 180 kg today (10 to 14% by weight). However, the proportion taken up by production in the western European automotive industry with respect to the total consumption of plastic is only 7%. The packaging sector, on the other hand, with around 45% has a disproportionately higher share. The advantages gained by the use of plastic lie in their lower specific weight, a higher resistance to damage and also their attractive processing costs. In addition, in contrast to designs in sheet steel or aluminium, it can offer a wide variety of design possibilities as far as shape is concerned. Integral construction means that several individual metal panels can be replaced by just one plastic component. Exterior applications are primarily bumper fascias, wings and flaps. Semistructural components such as tailgates and spare wheel trays, and also engine bulkhead insulation and underside panels, are primarily made of SMC (sheet moulding compound) and GMT (glass-mat-filled thermoplastic). (orig.)

  7. HIDDEN MARKOV MODELS WITH COVARIATES FOR ANALYSIS OF DEFECTIVE INDUSTRIAL MACHINE PARTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pornpit Sirima

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Monthly counts of industrial machine part errors are modeled using a two-state Hidden Markov Model (HMM in order to describe the effect of machine part error correction and the amount of time spent on the error correction on the likelihood of the machine part to be in a “defective” or “non-defective” state. The number of machine parts errors were collected from a thermo plastic injection molding machine in a car bumper auto parts manufacturer in Liberec city, Czech Republic from January 2012 to November 2012. A Bayesian method is used for parameter estimation. The results of this study indicate that the machine part error correction and the amount of time spent on the error correction do not improve the machine part status of the individual part, but there is a very strong month-to-month dependence of the machine part states. Using the Mean Absolute Error (MAE criterion, the performance of the proposed model (MAE = 1.62 and the HMM including machine part error correction only (MAE = 1.68, from our previous study, is not significantly different. However, the proposed model has more advantage in the fact that the machine part state can be explained by both the machine part error correction and the amount of time spent on the error correction.

  8. Preventing baby bottle tooth decay in American Indian and Alaska native communities: a model for planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruerd, B; Kinney, M B; Bothwell, E

    1989-01-01

    Baby bottle tooth decay (BBTD) is a preventable dental disease which surveys have shown affects more than 50 percent of Native American children. An experimental program to prevent BBTD was implemented in 12 Native American communities. The project represented a cooperative effort by three Department of Health and Human Service agencies: Administration for Children, Youth, and Families, Head Start Bureau; Indian Health Service, Dental Program; and Centers for Disease Control, Dental Disease Prevention Activity. Intervention strategies included the training of parent volunteers, health professionals, and the tribal employees who counseled caretakers of young children and made group presentations. There was also a media campaign in each community that ran for a 3-year period. Numerous educational materials were developed including training manuals, counseling booklets, tippee cups, posters, and bumper stickers. The BBTD project's planners encouraged tailoring the education materials and strategies to fit each community. Preliminary results documented statistically significant decreases in the prevalence of BBTD at the pilot sites. This multidisciplinary, comprehensive intervention offers a model for organizing members of minority communities to prevent health problems.

  9. Comparative analysis by simulating and testing pole impact for hot stamping front crossbeam of automobile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Fangwu; Yao Zaiqi; Liu Qiang; Wang Xiaona; Zhao Fuquan; Li Fangfang; Lin Jianping

    2012-01-01

    Hot stamping 22MnB5 steel plate with ultra-high strength has been widely used for body structural members in consideration of automobile safety and lightweight. This paper presents a verification program of simulating and testing pole impact in order to verify if the front crossbeam reinforcement assembly can meet the design requirements, reduce the overall vehicle simulation and test cost and shorten the operation period. In the same condition, the simulation proved conforming to the design requirements; however, the bumper cracked at the impacting point in the course of pole impact test. The analysis of the crack by optical microscope, Vickers and scanning electron microscope indicates that mixture of ferrite, bainite and martensite was produced in the weld heat-affected zone of the 340/590DP tow hook holder and the 22MnB5 front crossbeam; therefore, their hardness and mechanical property were reduced obviously, so that they fractured when impacted. No welding process with continuous weld but spot welding or other bonding method may be employed for the reason that the capacity of the 22MnB5 steel plate in the weld heat-affected zone was reduced obvi- ously.

  10. Shock reliability analysis and improvement of MEMS electret-based vibration energy harvesters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaud, M.; Fujita, T.; Goedbloed, M.; de Nooijer, C.; van Schaijk, R.

    2015-10-01

    Vibration energy harvesters can serve as a replacement solution to batteries for powering tire pressure monitoring systems (TPMS). Autonomous wireless TPMS powered by microelectromechanical system (MEMS) electret-based vibration energy harvester have been demonstrated. The mechanical reliability of the MEMS harvester still has to be assessed in order to bring the harvester to the requirements of the consumer market. It should survive the mechanical shocks occurring in the tire environment. A testing procedure to quantify the shock resilience of harvesters is described in this article. Our first generation of harvesters has a shock resilience of 400 g, which is far from being sufficient for the targeted application. In order to improve this aspect, the first important aspect is to understand the failure mechanism. Failure is found to occur in the form of fracture of the device’s springs. It results from impacts between the anchors of the springs when the harvester undergoes a shock. The shock resilience of the harvesters can be improved by redirecting these impacts to nonvital parts of the device. With this philosophy in mind, we design three types of shock absorbing structures and test their effect on the shock resilience of our MEMS harvesters. The solution leading to the best results consists of rigid silicon stoppers covered by a layer of Parylene. The shock resilience of the harvesters is brought above 2500 g. Results in the same range are also obtained with flexible silicon bumpers, which are simpler to manufacture.

  11. Test study on the performance of shielding configuration with stuffed layer under hypervelocity impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Fa-wei; Huang, Jie; Wen, Xue-zhong; Ma, Zhao-xia; Liu, Sen

    2016-10-01

    In order to study the cracking and intercepting mechanism of stuffed layer configuration on the debris cloud and to develop stuffed layer configuration with better performance, the hypervelocity impact tests on shielding configurations with stuffed layer were carried out. Firstly, the hypervelocity impact tests on the shielding configuration with stuffed layer of 3 layer ceramic fibre and 3 layer aramid fibre were finished, the study results showed that the debris cloud generated by the aluminum sphere impacting bumper at the velocity of about 6.2 km/s would be racked and intercepted by the stuffed layer configuration efficiently when the ceramic fibre layers and aramid fibre layers were jointed together, however, the shielding performance would be declined when the ceramic fibre layers and aramid fibre layers were divided by some distance. The mechanism of stuffed layer racking and intercepting the debris cloud was analyzed according to the above test results. Secondly, based on the mechanism of the stuffed layer cracking and intercepint debirs cloud the hypervelocity impact tests on the following three stuffed layer structures with the equivalent areal density to the 1 mm-thick aluminum plate were also carried out to compare their performance of cracking and intercepting debris cloud. The mechanisms of stuffed layer racking and intercepting the debris cloud were validated by the test result. Thirdly, the influence of the stuffed layer position on the shielding performance was studied by the test, too. The test results would provide reference for the design of better performance shielding configuration with stuffed layer.

  12. Project Explorer: Get Away Special #007. [alloy solidification, seed germination, crystal growth, and radio transmission of payload data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, A. J., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Tentatively scheduled to fly on STS-17 (41G), this get away special aims to demonstrate amateur radio transmissions to global ground stations in the English language. Experiments No. 1, 2, and 3 use the micro-gravity of space flight to study the solidification of lead-antimony and aluminum-copper alloys, the germination of radish seeds, and the growth of potassium-tetracyanoplatinate hydrate crystals in an aqueous solution. Flight results are to be compared with Earth-based data. Experiment No. 4 (the Marshall Amateur Radio Club Experiment - MARCE) features radio transmissions and also provides timing for the start of all other experiments. A microprocessor obtains real-time data from all experiments as well as temperature and pressure measurements within the GAS canister. These data are to be transmitted on previously announced amateur radio frequencies after they are converted into the English language by a digitalker for general reception. The support structure for the G #007 experiments consists of two primary plates and four bumper assemblies.

  13. Are electric self-balancing scooters safe in vehicle crash accidents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jun; Shang, Shi; Yu, Guizhen; Qi, Hongsheng; Wang, Yunpeng; Xu, Shucai

    2016-02-01

    With the pressing demand of environmentally friendly personal transportation vehicles, mobility scooters become more and more popular for the short-distance transportation. Similar to pedestrians and bicyclists, scooter riders are vulnerable road users and are expected to receive severe injuries during traffic accidents. In this research, a MADYMO model of vehicle-scooter crash scenarios is numerically set up. The model of the vehicle with the scenario is validated in pedestrian-vehicle accident investigation with previous literatures in terms of throwing distance and HIC15 value. HIC15 values gained at systematic parametric studies. Injury information from various vehicle crashing speeds (i.e. from 10m/s to 24m/s), angles (i.e. from 0 to 360°), scooter's speeds (i.e. from 0m/s to 4m/s), contact positions (i.e. left, middle and right bumper positions) are extracted, analyzed and then compared with those from widely studied pedestrian-vehicle and bicycle-vehicle accidents. Results show that the ESS provides better impact protection for the riders. Riding ESS would not increase the risk higher than walking at the same impact conditions in terms of head injury. The responsible reasons should be the smaller friction coefficient between the wheel-road than the heel-road interactions, different body gestures leading to different contact positions, forces and timing. Results may shed lights upon the future research of mobility scooter safety analysis and also the safety design guidance for the scooters.

  14. Impact of Agricultural Credit on Production of Wheat Crop: A Case Study of District Faisalabad-Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Asghar , Muhammad Waqas Chughtai

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture sector plays an important role in the economic development of Pakistan. Wheat is an important and most cultivated crop because it is an essential ingredient of food commodities. Credit plays a vital role in agricultural farming by indirectly participating in purchasing of agricultural inputs i.e. seed, fertilizer, irrigation, machinery and labor etc. Majority of the farmers are poor and they are not able to fulfill the cash requirement of farming, therefore credit has become their dire need. Due to credit farmers can timely purchase the agricultural inputs which resulting a bumper crop. The objective of this study is to depict the impact of credit on the production of wheat crop. Survey was conducted and random sampling technique was used to select the sample borrowers. The collected data was interpreted through “Cobb Douglas Production Function” by using statistical software (SPSS 16.0. The results showed that credit has positive and significant impact on wheat production. The values of R2 and F-statistics are found significant which represented that all selected variables are highly significant. The study not only shares the importance of credit to perform any agriculture activity but also helpful for economists and policy makers for designing agri financing policies.

  15. Does Semi-Rigid Instrumentation Using Both Flexion and Extension Dampening Spacers Truly Provide an Intermediate Level of Stabilization?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilip Sengupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional posterior dynamic stabilization devices demonstrated a tendency towards highly rigid stabilization approximating that of titanium rods in flexion. In extension, they excessively offload the index segment, making the device as the sole load-bearing structure, with concerns of device failure. The goal of this study was to compare the kinematics and intradiscal pressure of monosegmental stabilization utilizing a new device that incorporates both a flexion and extension dampening spacer to that of rigid internal fixation and a conventional posterior dynamic stabilization device. The hypothesis was the new device would minimize the overloading of adjacent levels compared to rigid and conventional devices which can only bend but not stretch. The biomechanics were compared following injury in a human cadaveric lumbosacral spine under simulated physiological loading conditions. The stabilization with the new posterior dynamic stabilization device significantly reduced motion uniformly in all loading directions, but less so than rigid fixation. The evaluation of adjacent level motion and pressure showed some benefit of the new device when compared to rigid fixation. Posterior dynamic stabilization designs which both bend and stretch showed improved kinematic and load-sharing properties when compared to rigid fixation and when indirectly compared to existing conventional devices without a bumper.

  16. Brief Analysis of Aluminium Alloy Automotive Beam Design%简析铝合金汽车防撞梁设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱涵超

    2014-01-01

    The paper is to design a beam for a car. Based on the concept of automotive lightweight, the material of bumper beam is aluminium alloy. The finite element model is established on Hypermesh. The crash simulation is carried out by the software LS- DYNA in accordance with GB17354- 1998. Thesimulationresultshowsthedeformationanddisplacementofbeaminlowspeedcrash,beamstructureisoptimizedaccordingtosimulation.Final ythe resultprovidesdataforbumpersystemdesigninfurther.%本文针对某车型设计了一款防撞梁,基于汽车轻量化理念,防撞梁材料采用铝合金。以GB17354-1998为标准,在Hypermesh中建立了防撞梁的有限元模型,调用LS- DYNA进行碰撞仿真,并对仿真结果进行了分析。通过仿真得出防撞梁低速碰撞的变形及位移情况,并对其结构进行了优化,为整个保险杠系统的设计提供依据。

  17. JSC Director's Discretionary Fund 1992 Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Lyle (Compiler)

    1993-01-01

    Annual report of the Johnson Space Center Director's Discretionary Fund documenting effective use of resources. The $1,694,000 funding for FY92 was distributed among 27 projects. The projects are an overall aid to the NASA mission, as well as providing development opportunities for the science and engineering staff with eventual spinoff to commercial uses. Projects described include space-based medical research such as the use of stable isotopes of deuterium and oxygen to measure crew energy use and techniques for noninvasive motion sickness medication. Recycling essentials for space crew support is conducted in the Regenerative Life Support and the Hybrid Regenerative Water Recovery test beds. Two-phase fluid flow simulated under low-gravity conditions, hypervelocity particle impact on open mesh bumpers, and microcalorimetry to measure the long-term hydrazine/material compatibility were investigated. A patent application was made on a shape-memory-alloy release nut. Computer estimate of crew accommodations for advanced concepts was demonstrated. Training techniques were evaluated using multimedia and virtual environment. Upgrades of an electronic still camera provide high resolution images from orbit are presented.

  18. On-Line Impact Load Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Sekuła

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The so-called Adaptive Impact Absorption (AIA is a research area of safety engineering devoted to problems of shock absorption in various unpredictable scenarios of collisions. It makes use of smart technologies (systems equipped with sensors, controllable dissipaters and specialised tools for signal processing. Examples of engineering applications for AIA systems are protective road barriers, automotive bumpers or adaptive landing gears. One of the most challenging problems for AIA systems is on-line identification of impact loads, which is crucial for introducing the optimum real-time strategy of adaptive impact absorption. This paper presents the concept of an impactometer and develops the methodology able to perform real-time impact load identification. Considered dynamic excitation is generated by a mass M1 impacting with initial velocity V0. An analytical formulation of the problem, supported with numerical simulations and experimental verifications is presented. Two identification algorithms based on measured response of the impacted structure are proposed and discussed. Finally, a concept of the AIA device utilizing the idea of impactometer is briefly presented.

  19. The design of a multimegawatt heat pipe radiator for an inertial fusion rocket powered manned Mars mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, K. A.

    1988-01-01

    A system of heat pipe radiators has been designed to provide waste heat rejection for an inertial fusion powered spacecraft capable of manned missions to other planets. The radiators are arrays of unfinned, arterial heat pipes operating at 1500 and 900 K. Liquid metal coolant carries up to 8000 MW of waste heat through feed pipes from on-board components (laser drivers and coil shield). The radiators do not rely on armor for protection from micrometeoroid penetration. An armored radiator design for this application with a 99 percent survivability would have a specific mass of 0.06 to 0.11 kg/kW at 1500 K. Instead, a segmentation of heat pipes is used, and bumpers are utilized to protect the feed pipes. This design reduces the specific mass to 0.015 to 0.04 kg/kW for the coil shield radiator (1500 K) and 0.06 to 0.12 kg/kW for the laser driver radiator (900 K).

  20. Several Key Points in Planning Marketing Books%策划市场图书的几个关键点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王群

    2012-01-01

    Market book is a kind of books that is relative to supplementary teaching material,channel-customized book.During market book planning editors must revolve around the market which is the central point of this process.And must give prominence to the selling point of the books during the topics planning,the author communication,the overall packaging and the promotion,and eventually achieve two benefits bumper.%市场图书是相对于教辅教材、渠道定制图书而言的一类图书。编辑在策划市场图书时要紧紧围绕市场这个中心点,在选题策划、与作者沟通、整体包装、宣传营销等各个方面策划到位,突出图书卖点,最终实现两个效益双丰收。

  1. NIR sensitivity analysis with the VANE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, Justin T.; Goodin, Christopher T.; Baylot, Alex E.

    2016-05-01

    Near infrared (NIR) cameras, with peak sensitivity around 905-nm wavelengths, are increasingly used in object detection applications such as pedestrian detection, occupant detection in vehicles, and vehicle detection. In this work, we present the results of simulated sensitivity analysis for object detection with NIR cameras. The analysis was conducted using high performance computing (HPC) to determine the environmental effects on object detection in different terrains and environmental conditions. The Virtual Autonomous Navigation Environment (VANE) was used to simulate highresolution models for environment, terrain, vehicles, and sensors. In the experiment, an active fiducial marker was attached to the rear bumper of a vehicle. The camera was mounted on a following vehicle that trailed at varying standoff distances. Three different terrain conditions (rural, urban, and forest), two environmental conditions (clear and hazy), three different times of day (morning, noon, and evening), and six different standoff distances were used to perform the sensor sensitivity analysis. The NIR camera that was used for the simulation is the DMK firewire monochrome on a pan-tilt motor. Standoff distance was varied along with environment and environmental conditions to determine the critical failure points for the sensor. Feature matching was used to detect the markers in each frame of the simulation, and the percentage of frames in which one of the markers was detected was recorded. The standoff distance produced the biggest impact on the performance of the camera system, while the camera system was not sensitive to environment conditions.

  2. Current Situations and Problems of Logistics for Guangxi Fresh Agricultural Products in the New Period and Recommendations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shixiong; ZHU

    2015-01-01

    In recent years,Guangxi realized consecutive bumper harvests in fresh agricultural products,leading increase of logistics demand;logistics infrastructure begins to take shape,and logistics of fresh agricultural products takes on diversified development form with wholesale market as main form. However,traditional fresh agricultural products are not selling well and it lacks construction of supply chain; the construction of logistics information system for fresh agricultural products lags behind; organizational level of production and operation of fresh agricultural products is low. Through analyzing current situations and existing problems of logistics of Guangxi fresh agricultural products in the new period( 21 st century),this paper came up with recommendations for developing logistics of fresh agricultural products of Guangxi. Government should increase policy and financial support,build and manage supply chain of fresh agricultural products,accelerate construction of logistics information system for agricultural products,and improve organizational level of logistics of fresh agricultural products,to ensure healthy development of logistics of fresh agricultural products in Guangxi.

  3. Ghana's army goes into combat readiness against HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Ghana's professional army of 12,000 men were joined by the national police in launching a campaign of education about AIDS which promotes condom use. The campaign received some funding from USAID and AIDS Tech/Family Health International. 94% of the soldiers had 7 years of education and 95% were married. 47% had never used the condom, 37% used it only occasionally, and only 19% used it regularly. An AIDS Awareness Day was followed up by 3000 posters, 1800 bumper stickers, 1500 T-shirts, 300 press packs, 1000 keychains and a video. Comic books in the local pidgin English idiom also proved popular for promotion. In a social marketing scheme, condoms were made available in barracks, army shops, and canteens for a modest price. The sales of condoms rose from about 500 a month in 1991 to 6000-7000 by January 1992. The army AIDS policy spelled out that HIV positivity will be revealed to the infected soldier. HIV-positive soldIers will not be sent abroad, curtailing the chances of disease transmission. They are kept in active service as long as they are capable of meeting their duties. Nevertheless, this policy hinges on the outcome of the AIDS education campaign whose failure could result in a policy of dismissing HIV-infected soldiers.

  4. Discharge cleaning on TFTR after boronization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the beginning of the 1990 TFTR experimental run, after replacement of POCO-AXF-5Q graphite tiles on the midplane of the bumper limiter by carbon fiber composite (CFC) tiles and prior to any Pulse Discharge Cleaning (PDC), boronization was performed. Boronization is the deposition of a layer of boron and carbon on the vacuum vessel inner surface by a glow discharge in a diborane, methane and helium mixture. The amount of discharge cleaning required after boronization was substantially reduced compared to that which was needed after previous openings when boronization was not done. Previously, after a major shutdown, about 105 low current (∼20 kA) Taylor Discharge Cleaning (TDC) pulses were required before high current (∼400 kA) aggressive Pulse Discharge Cleaning (PDC) pulses could be performed successfully. Aggressive PDC is used to heat the limiters from the vessel bakeout temperature of 150 degrees C to 250 degrees C for a period of several hours. Heating the limiters is important to increase the rate at which water is removed from the carbon limiter tiles. After boronization, the number of required TDC pulses was reduced to <5000. The number of aggressive PDC pulses required was approximately unchanged. 14 refs., 1 tab

  5. Unmanned transportation automating system; Mujin hanso jidoka system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashihara, I.; Takeichi, T.; Asai, M. [Meidensha Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-10-18

    This paper introduces a small unmanned transportation automating system intended to automate production facilities. Small automated guided vehicles (AGV) are available in a small object transporting vehicle and an ultra low floor vehicle. A cylinder head material AGV transports materials from a casting process to an outdoor sand removing process, and the system was demanded to have a single line section and an optimal run to pass each other. Giving and receiving the signals became also necessary with other devices such as existing casting machines and automatic doors. The automotive parts transporting and storing system is a system to assemble parts accommodating buckets in an automatic warehouse, supply the buckets to assembly lines, and return empty buckets to the warehouse. In order to utilize the installation space effectively, the buckets should be moved onto a two-step conveyer, and because the lower conveyer has a part moving height as low as 220 mm above the ground, an ultra low floor AGV was used. Safety measures include a photo sensor to detect obstacles, stoppage of drive at bumper contact, and an area sensor equipped on both sides of the parts moving machine. 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Biofidelity Evaluation of a Prototype Hybrid III 6 Year-Old ATD Lower Extremity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Laura C; Bing, Julie; Bolte, John H

    2016-09-01

    Incomplete instrumentation and a lack of biofidelity in the extremities of the 6 year-old anthropomorphic test device (ATD) pose challenges when studying regions of the body known to interact with the vehicle interior. This study sought to compare a prototype Hybrid III 6 year-old ATD leg (ATD-LE), with a more biofidelic ankle and tibia load cell, to previously collected child volunteer data and to the current Hybrid III 6 year-old ATD (HIII). Anthropometry, range of motion (ROM), and stiffness measurements were taken, along with a dynamic evaluation of the ATD-LE using knee-bolster airbag (KBA) test scenarios. Anthropometry values were similar in eight of twelve measurements. Total ankle ROM was improved in the ATD-LE with no bumper compared to the HIII. The highest tibia moments and tibia index values were recorded in KBA scenarios when the toes were positioned in contact with the dashboard prior to airbag deployment, forcing the ankle into axial loading and dorsiflexion. While improvements in the biofidelity of the ATD-LE are still necessary, the results of this study are encouraging. Continued advancement of the 6 year-old ATD ankle is necessary to provide a tool to directly study the behavior of the leg during a motor vehicle crash.

  7. High Energy Wide Area Blunt Impact on Composite Aircraft Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFrancisci, Gabriela K.

    The largest source of damage to commercial aircraft is caused by accidental contact with ground service equipment (GSE). The cylindrical bumper typically found on GSE distributes the impact load over a large contact area, possibly spanning multiple internal structural elements (frame bays) of a stiffened-skin fuselage. This type of impact can lead to damage that is widespread and difficult to detect visually. To address this problem, monolithic composite panels of various size and complexity have been modeled and tested quasi-statically and dynamically. The experimental observations have established that detectability is dependent on the impact location and immediately-adjacent internal structure of the panel, as well as the impactor geometry and total deformation of the panel. A methodology to model and predict damage caused by wide area blunt impact events was established, which was then applied to more general cases that were not tested in order to better understand the nature of this type of impact event and how it relates to the final damage state and visual detectability.

  8. CONSUMERS’ SATISFACTION OF HIGHER EDUCATION SERVICES A PROBLEM OF EDUCATION IN THE 21ST CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA-LAVINIA POPESCU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The international evolutions show that in unavoidable manner, in anycountry, Romania inclusively, the overcome of rare difficulties, will necessity and will makespossible simultaneous, the enrolling of tertiary sector on a trajectory by an extensivedevelopment. No country can not allows the neglect a thus sector, with a developing role in theturning to account of human resources, materials and financials existing, in the economymodernize on the whole, in the solvable needs satisfy and in the population exigencies covering.The quickening of realize an ones extensive investments programs, the using of suitablematerials and technical means, will be felt too in Romania. So as to assure the quality ineducation it is necessary to bring exchanges in structure, in content, in teaching-learningvaluationprocess etc. The education quality is affected by the specification of changes ofeducation domain, specification given on the one side by the long history of school whichgenerated a powerful and a bumper organizational culture, and on the other side, by thecomplexity schools organizations.

  9. Biofidelity Evaluation of a Prototype Hybrid III 6 Year-Old ATD Lower Extremity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Laura C; Bing, Julie; Bolte, John H

    2016-09-01

    Incomplete instrumentation and a lack of biofidelity in the extremities of the 6 year-old anthropomorphic test device (ATD) pose challenges when studying regions of the body known to interact with the vehicle interior. This study sought to compare a prototype Hybrid III 6 year-old ATD leg (ATD-LE), with a more biofidelic ankle and tibia load cell, to previously collected child volunteer data and to the current Hybrid III 6 year-old ATD (HIII). Anthropometry, range of motion (ROM), and stiffness measurements were taken, along with a dynamic evaluation of the ATD-LE using knee-bolster airbag (KBA) test scenarios. Anthropometry values were similar in eight of twelve measurements. Total ankle ROM was improved in the ATD-LE with no bumper compared to the HIII. The highest tibia moments and tibia index values were recorded in KBA scenarios when the toes were positioned in contact with the dashboard prior to airbag deployment, forcing the ankle into axial loading and dorsiflexion. While improvements in the biofidelity of the ATD-LE are still necessary, the results of this study are encouraging. Continued advancement of the 6 year-old ATD ankle is necessary to provide a tool to directly study the behavior of the leg during a motor vehicle crash. PMID:26864538

  10. Space Shuttle Meteoroid and Orbital Debris Threat Assessment Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, J.; Christiansen, E.

    Prior to each shuttle mission, Meteoroid and orbital Debris (M/OD) threat assessments are performed to determine the critical penetration risk for the orbiter vehicle, the radiator tube leak risk &the window replacement risk. Mission parameters, such as vehicle attitude, exposure time and altitude are used as inputs for the assessment. The assessments are performed using the BUMPER computer code at the NASA/JSC Hypervelocity Impact Technology Facility (HITF). An M/OD risk analysis is typically performed in support of orbiter Cargo Integration Reviews (CIR) and Flight Readiness Reviews (FRR). Three types of M/OD risk are assessed. The most important involves the calculation of "critical" penetration risk, defined as penetrations that may result in the catastrophic loss of vehicle and crew. Critical failure criteria have been established though detailed engineering evaluations by NASA and Boeing. The radiator assessment is concerned with premature end-of- mission due to loss of a coolant loop. The window assessment is a postflight maintenance and logistics issue. The result s are provided to the Space Shuttle Vehicle Engineering Office (MV) the Space and Life Science Directorate (SA) at JSC. This paper will document the inputs used in the critical penetration analysis for CIR, FRR, and post-flight assessments, it will also serve as a reference for the Space Shuttle Orbiter finite element model (FEM) surface property definitions that are used in M/OD threat assessments.

  11. Quantitative dynamics on stimulating regeneration and sowing seedlings of Larix gmelinii in Daxing'an Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    To understand the quantitative dynamics and death reason of stimulating regeneration seedlings is significant for stimulating the natural regeneration of Larix gmelinii and implement of conservation project of natural forest. This paper summarized location observations and directly-seeding simulation experiments of six permanent sample plots that were set up after the seed bumper harvest year of Larix gmelinii in 1989. The study showed that stimulating natural regeneration seedlings had a large mortality in the first three years, especially in the first year of seedling emergence. After three years seedlings died less and stepped into the stable regeneration stage. A large number of seedlings died of sunscald as the primary death reason. For those areas of good site conditions and rich soil, damping-off would cause seedlings to death in large quantities. The task of stimulating regeneration is mainly to get rid of the litter (forest floor) on burned areas. By means of promoting measures, emergence rate of sown seeds would be several times and dozens of times higher than that of seed shedding on the condition of retention of forest floor. Promoting the regeneration need to select the suitable site against great slope and low-lying lands; at the same time, be careful of the avoidance of frost heaving by depression water.

  12. Efficiency of nitrogen uptake from nitrogenous fertilizers by plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitrogen is one of the limiting factor in crop production, especially in the tropics where loss of the element in agricultural land is prevalent. High input of nitrogenous fertilizers may sometimes be necessary for bumper harvest of crop, at the expense of the environment. The efficiency of N uptake from N fertilizers by two test plants were measured using tracer 15N isotope dilution method. In this method the proportion of N from fertilizer and other sources may be determined. Groundnut, as in other leguminous crops, derives its N from three sources, viz. the soil, the fertilizer and from the atmosphere, where N2 is fixed through a symbiosis between the legume and Rhizobium, a soil bacterium, in the root nodules. Maize, on the other hand, derives its N from the soil and the fertilizer. In a greenhouse study, with plants grown in fibreglass troughs, the efficiency of N uptake or by groundnut and maize from ammonium sulphate given at the rate of 20 kg N ha-1 and 100 kg N ha-1 was determined. Effects of the different rates of fertilizer N on N2 fixation of groundnut, on dry matter yield and N yield of both groundnut and maize were also determined

  13. Parametric analysis of a cylindrical negative Poisson’s ratio structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuanlong; Wang, Liangmo; Ma, Zheng-dong; Wang, Tao

    2016-03-01

    Much research related to negative Poisson’s ratio (NPR), or auxetic, structures is emerging these days. Several types of 3D NPR structure have been proposed and studied, but almost all of them had cuboid shapes, which were not suitable for certain engineering applications. In this paper, a cylindrical NPR structure was developed and researched. It was expected to be utilized in springs, bumpers, dampers and other similar applications. For the purpose of parametric analysis, a method of parametric modeling of cylindrical NPR structures was developed using MATLAB scripts. The scripts can automatically establish finite element models, invoke ABAQUS, read results etc. Subsequently the influences of structural parameters, including number of cells, number of layers and layer heights, on the uniaxial compression behavior of cylinder NPR structures were researched. This led to the conclusion that the stiffness of the cylindrical NPR structure was enhanced on increasing the number of cells and reducing the effective layer height. Moreover, small numbers of layers resulted in a late transition area of the load-displacement curve from low stiffness to high stiffness. Moreover, the middle contraction regions were more apparent with larger numbers of cells, smaller numbers of layers and smaller effective layer heights. The results indicate that the structural parameters had significant effects on the load-displacement curves and deformed shapes of cylindrical NPR structures. This paper is conducive to the further engineering applications of cylindrical NPR structures.

  14. Gamma Monitoring of Land Surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapid monitoring of land surfaces is useful in delineating the area affected by an accident involving airborne contamination or detecting long-term contamination of the environment. A rugged monitor capable of making a continuous record when carried on a vehicle has been used for carrying out a pre-operational survey of the area surrounding the site of the NPD power reactor near Chalk River. It consists of an anthracene crystal γ-ray detector with a photomultiplier, pulse-amplifier, counting-rate circuit, DC amplifier, 1-mA recorder train. This equipment weighs 28 kg and is mounted with two bolts on the bumper of a jeep. It can be dismounted and set up on a tripod at the same height above the ground. The mercury batteries are kept inside the vehicle. The circuitry is transistorized. A jig is fitted to carry a standard radium calibration source. The instrument is insensitive to cosmic radiation, and when the vehicle was driven at 16 km/h readings were 80% of those obtained if the counter was stationary. A road survey of the NPD reactor area, with readings also taken at fixed check points 100 m from the roadway and 3.2 km apart, showed that the recorded background radiation on the roads was very uniform, averaging 6 μr/h. Check-point readings varied from 4.5 to 7.0 μr/h. (author)

  15. 基于AMESim的农用运输车悬架系统仿真研究%Simulation Study On Agricultural Vehicle Suspension System Based On AMESim

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红科

    2015-01-01

    A 2-degree-of-freedom model of the agricultural vehicle passive suspension and active suspension system was built, and the time-domain analysis was made by using the AMESim software. The vehicle body acceleration and tire compression were studied under the condition of vehicle passing stochastic road and single bumper, and the performance of the two suspension systems was evaluated. The results showed that the ride comfort and ride performance were apparently improved for the vehicle with active suspension.%对农用运输车的悬架系统建立了2自由度被动悬架和主动悬架系统模型,利用AMESim仿真软件对模型进行了时域分析,研究了在随机路面和三角形凸块路面工况下的车身加速度和轮胎压缩量,并据此评价了两种悬架的性能。结果表明:具有主动悬架的农用运输车,乘坐舒适性和行驶平稳性性都有明显改善。

  16. A Kind of Teaching Instrument for Experiment of Anti-vibration Performance of Automobile Suspension%一种用于汽车悬架隔振性能实验的教学仪器

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雨; 王玉国; 湛时时; 章展源

    2015-01-01

    基于拟脉冲激励原理实现汽车悬架隔振性能参数快速检测教学实验,提出了需检测的汽车悬架隔振性能参数,分析了两类悬架效率试验台的不足,研制了单轮平板式悬架参数检测教仪。实验时学生通过在汽车保险杠上人力按压实施汽车悬架拟脉冲激励。课程使用结果表明所研制的教学仪器有效。%A teaching experimental of fast detection on parameters of anti-vibration performance of automobile suspension is realized based on the principle of quasi-impulse exciting. The parameters of anti-vibration performance of automobile suspension are offered which are needed to detected. The insufifcient about two kinds of suspension efifciency test rig is analyzed. A single-wheel lfatbed suspension parameter detector is developed. A quasi-impulse exciting to automobile suspension is carried out by human press on the bumper while testing. The result of course using shows that the educational instrument developed is with feasibility.

  17. Induced mutation breeding by fast neutron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high-yield and long-grain new variety 'Zhongtie 31' was developed through five generations after irradiation of the rice variety 'Tieqiu 15' dried seeds by 14 MeV fast neutrons with a fluence of (1.33 ∼ 3.33) x 1011 neutrons cm-2. It matured earlier 3 to 5 days, the plant is higher 10 cm, bigger ear, more grain than its original variety 'tieqiu 15', and the yield increased by 19.2% to 30.7%. The source of new variety 'Zhongtie 31' was proved by the isoenzyme genetics. In field test, it increased by 7% to 10% as compared with high-yield variety 'Guichao No.2' and the hybrid rive 'Shanyou No.2', and is more palatable. The new variety was initiated by irradiation mutagensis routine rice, its well-grown and bumper-yield performances may be compared favourably with hybrid rice variety. In July 1986, the new variety 'Zhongtie 31' was obtained by inducing mutation with fast neutron. The same year, the planted area of 'Zhongtie 31' has achieved upto 250 thousand mu (1.67 x 108 cm2)

  18. SIMON: A mobile robot for floor contamination surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Robotics Development group at the Savannah River Site is developing an autonomous robot to perform radiological surveys of potentially contaminated floors. The robot scans floors at a speed of one-inch/second and stops, sounds an alarm, and flashes lights when contamination in a certain area is detected. The contamination of interest here is primarily alpha and beta-gamma. The contamination levels are low to moderate. The robot, a Cybermotion K2A, is radio controlled, uses dead reckoning to determine vehicle position, and docks with a charging station to replenish its batteries and calibrate its position. It has an ultrasonic collision avoidance system as well as two safety bumpers that will stop the robot's motion when they are depressed. Paths for the robot are preprogrammed and the robot's motion can be monitored on a remote screen which shows a graphical map of the environment. The radiation instrument being used is an Eberline RM22A monitor. This monitor is microcomputer based with a serial I/O interface for remote operation. Up to 30 detectors may be configured with the RM22A. For our purposes, two downward-facing gas proportional detectors are used to scan floors, and one upward-facing detector is used for radiation background compensation. SIMON is interfaced with the RM22A in such a way that it scans the floor surface at one-inch/second, and if contamination is detected, the vehicle stops, alarms, and activates a voice synthesizer. Future development includes using the contamination data collected to provide a graphical contour map of a contaminated area. 3 refs

  19. Are electric self-balancing scooters safe in vehicle crash accidents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jun; Shang, Shi; Yu, Guizhen; Qi, Hongsheng; Wang, Yunpeng; Xu, Shucai

    2016-02-01

    With the pressing demand of environmentally friendly personal transportation vehicles, mobility scooters become more and more popular for the short-distance transportation. Similar to pedestrians and bicyclists, scooter riders are vulnerable road users and are expected to receive severe injuries during traffic accidents. In this research, a MADYMO model of vehicle-scooter crash scenarios is numerically set up. The model of the vehicle with the scenario is validated in pedestrian-vehicle accident investigation with previous literatures in terms of throwing distance and HIC15 value. HIC15 values gained at systematic parametric studies. Injury information from various vehicle crashing speeds (i.e. from 10m/s to 24m/s), angles (i.e. from 0 to 360°), scooter's speeds (i.e. from 0m/s to 4m/s), contact positions (i.e. left, middle and right bumper positions) are extracted, analyzed and then compared with those from widely studied pedestrian-vehicle and bicycle-vehicle accidents. Results show that the ESS provides better impact protection for the riders. Riding ESS would not increase the risk higher than walking at the same impact conditions in terms of head injury. The responsible reasons should be the smaller friction coefficient between the wheel-road than the heel-road interactions, different body gestures leading to different contact positions, forces and timing. Results may shed lights upon the future research of mobility scooter safety analysis and also the safety design guidance for the scooters. PMID:26656151

  20. Hypervelocity impact of rod projectiles with L/D from 1 to 32

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beside a short remark on the ''hydrodynamic theory of rod projectiles'', the paper deals with the terminal ballistic behaviour of cylindrical projectiles against semi-infinite targets. Experimental data of EMI, completed by results of some other authors, are presented. Crater parameters like depth, diameter and volume and their dependence on projectile velocity (up to 5000 m/s), projectile and target material properties, as well as L/D-ratios (1 - 32), are discussed. Mainly the projectile materials steel and tungsten sinter-alloys are considered. Target materials are mild steel and high strength steel, an Al-alloy and a tungsten sinter-alloy. The results show that the influence of material density on the crater dimensions is considerably greater than the influence of strength. The L/D ratio determines the velocity dependence of crater depth, diameter and volume. At high velocities in the hydrodynamic regime, the crater depth of short cylinders (L/D -- 1) is approximately proportional to v/sub p//sup 2/3/ (v/sub p/ = projectile velocity). With increasing L/D-ratio, the slope of the penetration curves decreases and converges for rods (L/D >> 1) versus a saturation, i.e. becomes nearly independent on v/sub p/. A consequence of this saturation is the existence of a so-called ''tangent velocity'', above which an optimal increase of efficiency is only realized by increasing the projectile mass and not the velocity. Furthermore, ballistic limits of real targets like single plates and symmetric double plates meteorite bumper shield) are taken into account. The expected better performance of ''segmented rods'' is also discussed

  1. Are weeds hitchhiking a ride on your car? A systematic review of seed dispersal on cars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Ansong

    Full Text Available When traveling in cars, we can unintentionally carry and disperse weed seed; but which species, and where are they a problem? To answer these questions, we systematically searched the scientific literature to identify all original research studies that assess seed transported by cars and listed the species with seed on/in cars. From the 13 studies that fit these criteria, we found 626 species from 75 families that have seed that can be dispersed by cars. Of these, 599 are listed as weeds in some part of the world, with 439 listed as invasive or naturalized alien species in one or more European countries, 248 are invasive/noxious weeds in North America, 370 are naturalized alien species in Australia, 167 are alien species in India, 77 are invasive species in China and 23 are declared weeds/invaders in South Africa. One hundred and one are classified as internationally important environmental weeds. Although most (487 were only recorded once, some species such as Chenopodium album, Poa pratensis and Trifolium repens were common among studies. Perennial graminoids seem to be favoured over annual graminoids while annual forbs are favoured over perennial forbs. Species characteristics including seed size and morphology and where the plants grew affected the probability that their seed was transported by cars. Seeds can be found in many different places on cars including under the chassis, front and rear bumpers, wheel wells and rims, front and back mudguards, wheel arches, tyres and on interior floor mats. With increasing numbers of cars and expanding road networks in many regions, these results highlight the importance of cars as a dispersal mechanism, and how it may favour invasions by some species over others. Strategies to reduce the risk of seed dispersal by cars include reducing seed on cars by mowing road verges and cleaning cars.

  2. The Static Breaking Technique for Sustainable and Eco-Environmental Coal Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Bing-yuan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The initiating explosive devices are prohibited in rock breaking near the goaf of the highly gassy mine. It is effective and applicable to cracking the hard roof with static cracking agent. By testing the static cracking of cubic limestone (size: 200×200×200 mm with true triaxial rock mechanics testing machine under the effect of bidirectional stress and by monitoring the evolution process of the cracks generated during the acoustic emission experiment of static cracking, we conclude the following: the experiment results of the acoustic emission show that the cracks start from the lower part of the hole wall until they spread all over the sample. The crack growth rate follows a trend of “from rapidness to slowness.” The expansion time is different for the two bunches of cracks. The growth rates can be divided into the rapid increasing period and the rapid declining period, of which the growth rate in declining period is less than that in the increasing period. Also, the growth rate along the vertical direction is greater than that of the horizontal direction. Then the extended model for the static cracking is built according to the theories of elastic mechanics and fracture mechanics. Thus the relation formula between the applied forces of cracks and crack expansion radius is obtained. By comparison with the test results, the model proves to be applicable. In accordance with the actual geological situation of Yangquan No. 3 Mine, the basic parameters of manpower manipulated caving breaking with static crushing are settled, which reaps bumper industrial effects.

  3. The effects of hypervelocity impact on Whipple shield at cryogenic temperatures%低温下Whipple防护结构超高速撞击效应研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨继运; 徐坤博; 简亚彬; 曹燕; 李宇; 龚自正; 赵晶晶

    2011-01-01

    文章研究了低温下空间碎片对典型Whipple防护结构的超高速撞击效应.首先在二级轻气炮设备上研制出使用液氮可将撞击靶冷却至-150℃且满足低温超高速撞击试验要求的低温装置.利用该装置开展了低温条件下的超高速撞击试验,对低温和室温两种条件下的试验结果进行了比对,并分别对缓冲屏穿孔特性、碎片云特性和后墙损伤特性之间的差异进行了分析.文章最后给出低温下典型Whipple防护结构的弹道极限曲线.%This paper studies the effects of the hypervelocity impact on typical Whipple Shields at cryogenic temperatures. The cryogenic setup, installed in the target chamber of a two-stage light-gas gun, is developed to cool the targets down to -150 °C with liquid nitrogen to provide the essential condition for tests of shield structures at cryogenic temperatures. Several hypervelocity impact tests were carried out at cryogenic temperatures, and the impact results are compared with those obtained at room temperature, including the characteristics of bumper penetration, debris cloud, and rear wall damage. The ballistic limit curves of typical Whipple shields at cryogenic temperatures are obtained.

  4. AN ANALYSIS OF THE IMPACT OF SPORTS UTILITY VEHICLES IN THE UNITED STATES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, S.C.

    2000-08-16

    During the 1990s, sport utility vehicles (SUVs) became the fastest growing segment of the auto industry, especially those in the medium-size category. In 1999, SUV sales reached almost 19% of the total light vehicle market and the mix of SUVs on the road, as measured by registration data, was about 8.7%. This immense popularity has been called by some a passing fad--vehicle purchases based on the SUV ''image''. But the continued yearly increases in SUV sales seem to indicate a more permanent trend. Additional explanations for SUV popularity include the general economic well being in the United States, a perception of safety, and ''utility''. Generally larger and heavier than the typical automobile, SUVs require more fuel per mile to operate and produce greater amounts of pollutants. They are also driven further annually than are automobiles of the same vintage, a fact that exacerbates the fuel-use and emission problems. Although buyers believe that SUVs are safer than automobiles which they are in some cases, SUVs are more prone to roll-overs than are automobiles. In addition, SUVs, with their higher bumpers and greater weight, may be a threat to other vehicles on the highway, especially in side-impact crashes. With sales projected to grow to over 3 million units per year beginning in 2001, SUVs show no sign of decreasing in popularity. These vehicles are used primarily for general mobility, rather than off-road activities. An emphasis on better fuel economy and improved emissions control could address environmental and oil dependency concerns. In fact, recently, two vehicle manufacturers announced intentions of improving the fuel economy of their SUVs in the next few years. Also, tests simulating crashes involving automobiles and SUVs could provide valuable data for identifying potential safety design issues. It is clear that automobiles and SUVs will be sharing the highways for years to come.

  5. Using the lead vehicle as preview sensor in convoy vehicle active suspension control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mustafizur; Rideout, Geoff

    2012-12-01

    Both ride quality and roadholding of actively suspended vehicles can be improved by sensing the road ahead of the vehicle and using this information in a preview controller. Previous applications have used look-ahead sensors mounted on the front bumper to measure terrain beneath. Such sensors are vulnerable, potentially confused by water, snow, or other soft obstacles and offer a fixed preview time. For convoy vehicle applications, this paper proposes using the overall response of the preceding vehicle(s) to generate preview controller information for follower vehicles. A robust observer is used to estimate the states of a quarter-car vehicle model, from which road profile is estimated and passed on to the follower vehicle(s) to generate a preview function. The preview-active suspension, implemented in discrete time using a shift register approach to improve simulation time, reduces sprung mass acceleration and dynamic tyre deflection peaks by more than 50% and 40%, respectively. Terrain can change from one vehicle to the next if a loose obstacle is dislodged, or if the vehicle paths are sufficiently different so that one vehicle misses a discrete road event. The resulting spurious preview information can give suspension performance worse than that of a passive or conventional active system. In this paper, each vehicle can effectively estimate the road profile based on its own state trajectory. By comparing its own road estimate with the preview information, preview errors can be detected and suspension control quickly switched from preview to conventional active control to preserve performance improvements compared to passive suspensions.

  6. Hybrid approach combining chemometrics and likelihood ratio framework for reporting the evidential value of spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyna, Agnieszka; Zadora, Grzegorz; Neocleous, Tereza; Michalska, Aleksandra; Dean, Nema

    2016-08-10

    Many chemometric tools are invaluable and have proven effective in data mining and substantial dimensionality reduction of highly multivariate data. This becomes vital for interpreting various physicochemical data due to rapid development of advanced analytical techniques, delivering much information in a single measurement run. This concerns especially spectra, which are frequently used as the subject of comparative analysis in e.g. forensic sciences. In the presented study the microtraces collected from the scenarios of hit-and-run accidents were analysed. Plastic containers and automotive plastics (e.g. bumpers, headlamp lenses) were subjected to Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and car paints were analysed using Raman spectroscopy. In the forensic context analytical results must be interpreted and reported according to the standards of the interpretation schemes acknowledged in forensic sciences using the likelihood ratio approach. However, for proper construction of LR models for highly multivariate data, such as spectra, chemometric tools must be employed for substantial data compression. Conversion from classical feature representation to distance representation was proposed for revealing hidden data peculiarities and linear discriminant analysis was further applied for minimising the within-sample variability while maximising the between-sample variability. Both techniques enabled substantial reduction of data dimensionality. Univariate and multivariate likelihood ratio models were proposed for such data. It was shown that the combination of chemometric tools and the likelihood ratio approach is capable of solving the comparison problem of highly multivariate and correlated data after proper extraction of the most relevant features and variance information hidden in the data structure. PMID:27282749

  7. Theoretical Analysis and Experimental Study on the Coating Removal from Passenger-Vehicle Plastics for Recycling by Using Water Jet Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongshen; Chen, Ming

    2015-11-01

    The recovery and utilization of automotive plastics are a global concern because of the increasing number of end-of-life vehicles. In-depth studies on technologies for the removal of coatings from automotive plastics can contribute to the high value-added levels of the recycling and utilization of automotive plastic. The liquid waste generated by removing chemical paint by using traditional methods is difficult to handle and readily produces secondary pollution. Therefore, new, clean, and highly efficient techniques of paint removal must be developed. In this article, a method of coating removal from passenger-vehicle plastics was generated based on high-pressure water jet technology to facilitate the recycling of these plastics. The established technology was theoretically analyzed, numerically simulated, and experimentally studied. The high-pressure water jet equipment for the removal of automotive-plastic coatings was constructed through research and testing, and the detailed experiments on coating removal rate were performed by using this equipment. The results showed that high-pressure water jet technology can effectively remove coatings on the surfaces of passenger-vehicle plastics. The research also revealed that the coating removal rate increased as jet pressure ( P) increased and then decreased when jet moving speed ( Vn) increased. The rate decreased as the distance from nozzle to work piece ( S nw ) and the nozzle angle ( Φ) increased. The mathematical model for the rate of removal of coatings from bumper surfaces by water jet was derived based on the experiment data and can effectively predict coating removal rate under different operating conditions.

  8. Recent TFTR results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TFTR experiments have emphasized the optimization of high performance plasmas as well as studies of transport in high temperature plasmas. The recent installation of carbon composite tiles on the main bumper limiter has allowed operation with up to 32 MW of neutral beam injection without degradation of plasma performance by large bursts of carbon impurities (''carbon blooms''). Plasma parameters have been extended to Ti(0) ∼ 35 keV, Te(0) ∼ 12 keV, ne(0) ∼1.2 x 1020 m-3 producing D-D reaction rates of 8.8 x 1016 reactions per second. The fusion parameter ne(0)τETi(0) in supershot plasmas is an increasing function of heating power up to an MHD stability limit, reaching values of ∼4.4 x 1020 m-3 sec keV. Peaked-density-profile hot-ion plasmas with the edge characteristics of the H-mode have been produced in a circular cross-section limiter configuration with ne(0)τETi(0) values characteristic of supershots, namely up to four times those projected for standard H-modes with broad density profiles. Reduced transport is also observed in the core of high-density ICRF-heated plasmas when the density profile is peaked. At the highest performance, the central plasma pressure in TFTR reaches reactor level values of 6.5 atmospheres. In these regimes, MHD instabilities with m/n = 1/1, 2/1, 3/2 and 4/3 are often observed concurrent with a degradation in performance. High βp plasmas with var-epsilon βp ∼ 1.6 and β/(I/aB) ∼ 4.7 (%mT/MA) have demonstrated confinement enhancement over the low-mode confinement time with τE/τL ∼ 3.5 and a bootstrap current of about 65% of the total plasma current

  9. Hypervelocity Impact Experiments on Epoxy/Ultra-High Molecular Weight Polyethylene Composite Panels Reinforced with Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatiwada, Suman; Laughman, Jay W.; Armada, Carlos A.; Christiansen, Eric L.; Barrera, Enrique V.

    2012-01-01

    Advanced composites with multi-functional capabilities are of great interest to the designers of aerospace structures. Polymer matrix composites (PMCs) reinforced with high strength fibers provide a lightweight and high strength alternative to metals and metal alloys conventionally used in aerospace architectures. Novel reinforcements such as nanofillers offer potential to improve the mechanical properties and add multi-functionality such as radiation resistance and sensing capabilities to the PMCs. This paper reports the hypervelocity impact (HVI) test results on ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fiber composites reinforced with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) and boron nitride nanotubes (BNNT). Woven UHMWPE fabrics, in addition to providing excellent impact properties and high strength, also offer radiation resistance due to inherent high hydrogen content. SWCNT have exceptional mechanical and electrical properties. BNNT (figure 1) have high neutron cross section and good mechanical properties that add multi-functionality to this system. In this project, epoxy based UHMWPE composites containing SWCNT and BNNT are assessed for their use as bumper shields and as intermediate plates in a Whipple Shield for HVI resistance. Three composite systems are prepared to compare against one another: (I) Epoxy/UHMWPE, (II) Epoxy/UHMWPE/SWCNT and (III) Epoxy/UHMWPE/SWCNT/BNNT. Each composite is a 10.0 by 10.0 by 0.11 cm3 panel, consisting of 4 layers of fabrics arranged in cross-ply orientation. Both SWCNT and BNNT are 0.5 weight % of the fabric preform. Hypervelocity impact tests are performed using a two-stage light gas gun at Rice University

  10. Determination of the strain rate dependent thermal softening behavior of thermoplastic materials for crash simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopmann, Christian; Klein, Jan; Schöngart, Maximilian

    2016-03-01

    Thermoplastic materials are increasingly used as a light weight replacement for metal, especially in automotive applications. Typical examples are frontends and bumpers. The loads on these structures are very often impulsive, for example in a crash situation. A high rate of loading causes a high strain rate in the material which has a major impact on the mechanical behavior of thermoplastic materials. The stiffness as well as the rigidity of polymers increases to higher strain rates. The increase of the mechanical properties is superimposed at higher rates of loading by another effect which works reducing on stiffness and rigidity, the increase of temperature caused by plastic deformation. The mechanical behavior of thermoplastic materials is influenced by temperature opposing to strain rate. The stiffness and rigidity are decreased to higher values of temperature. The effect of thermal softening on thermoplastic materials is investigated at IKV. For this purpose high-speed tensile tests are performed on a blend, consisting of Polybutylenterephthalate (PBT) and Polycarbonate (PC). In preliminary investigations the effects of strain rate on the thermomechanical behavior of thermoplastic materials was studied by different authors. Tensile impact as well as split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) tests were conducted in combination with high-speed temperature measurement, though, the authors struggled especially with temperature measurement. This paper presents an approach which uses high-speed strain measurement to transpire the link between strain, strain rate and thermal softening as well as the interdependency between strain hardening and thermal softening. The results show a superimposition of strain hardening and thermal softening, which is consistent to preliminary investigations. The advantage of the presented research is that the results can be used to calibrate damage and material models to perform mechanical simulations using Finite Element Analysis.

  11. 黄瓜新品种中农116号的选育%A New Cucumber F1 Hybrid-‘Zhongnong No.116'

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾兴芳; 张圣平; 王烨; 徐彩清; 苗晗

    2013-01-01

    中农116号黄瓜的母本01316和父本081006是从国内优良一代杂种园丰元3号和津优5号中经过连续8代自交纯化定向选择而成的优良自交系.早中熟,主蔓结果为主,瓜码较密.瓜色深绿,瓜长约30 cm,商品瓜率高.刺瘤密,白刺,瘤小,无棱,无黄色条纹,口感脆甜.抗霜霉病、枯萎病、WMV、ZYMV,中抗CMV.丰产潜力大,每667 m2产量可达10 000 kg以上,适宜春秋大棚及露地栽培.%'Zhongnong No.116' is a newly bred cucumber hybrid using inbred line 01316 as maternal parent and 081006 as paternal parent. It has early-mid maturity. Its fruit is mainly resulted on vine. The fruit is about 30 cm in length with short neck and dark green skin. Its commercial fruit rate is high. Its fruit tastes sweet and crispy. The fruit has no yellow stripes. It has resistance for downy mildew, Fusarium wilt, WMV, ZYMV and moderate resistance to CMV. It can yield over 150 t "hm~2, and has big potential for bumper harvest. It is suitable to be cultivated under plastic shed in spring and autumn and also in open field.

  12. Camouflaged carborarods derived from B-permethyl-1,12-diethynyl-para- and B-octamethyl-1,7-diethylnyl-meta-carborane modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Axel; Jalisatgi, Satish S; Knobler, Carolyn B; Wedge, Timothy J; Hawthorne, M Frederick

    2005-12-01

    Rigid camouflaged carborarods constructed from the corresponding C,C'-diethynyl derivatives of B-decamethyl-1,12-dicarbadodecaborane(12) (6) and B-octamethyl-1,7-dicarbadodecaborane(12) (48) have been synthesized by largely conventional organic transformations. These carborarods are the longest discrete rod species available by this method in which B-methylated p-carborane and m-carborane cages are linked through their carbon vertices by using butadiynylene moieties. They exhibit enhanced solubility in common organic solvents relative to all other presently known carborane-based rigid-rod molecules. The oxidative coupling of bis(ethynyl) derivatives of 6 generates oligomers containing, on average, 16 carborane modules. The structural characterization of the corresponding dimeric species revealed that the carborarods possess a sinusoidal chain distortion in the solid state. The stereoelectronic properties of these and related model carborarods were evaluated by using molecular dimensions as a monitor for the comparison of computational and experimental methods. In addition, the effect of exhaustive B-methylation of 12- and 10-vertex para-carborane cages in a series of model C,C'-diethynyl derivatives was similarly investigated by computational and structural studies. As expected, a correlation of intercage C--C bond lengths with cage size was observed and was attributed to hybridization effects. B-Permethylation had no significant structural effect with either 10- or 12-vertex cage derivatives. Relative to unsubstituted compounds, thermal and chemical stabilities of B-permethylated derivatives were increased through the operation of a steric "bumper-car" process, and solubilities in organic solvents were enhanced. The formation of linear, sterically encumbered platina-carborarods using ethynyl derivatives of 6 as precursors is described.

  13. On The Folk Customs of Huazhao Festival Which Is a Kind Of Intangible Cultural Heritage and its Modern Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihui Ma

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Huazhao Festival is a traditional one that is celebrated in early spring and appeals to both highbrows and lowbrows. Once, it was as significant as Lantern Festival and Mid-autumn Festival. Ever since Tang Dynasty, it has undergone stages of emerging, thriving, declining and restoring. Originally, people only had a spring outing enjoying beautiful flowers at this festival; later, various other folk activities were also carried out on this day, including catching butterflies, picking wild vegetables, offering sacrifices to gods, predicting bumper and poor harvest, fastening strips of red cloth to stems of flowers and trees (shang hong, having competitions on grass, encouraging agriculture, holding and attending banquets, writing articles, paying court and so on. These activities demonstrated such characteristics of the national culture of China as elegance, harmony and life-friendliness. Obviously different from other traditional festivals like Spring Festival, Mid-autumn Festival, Dragon Boat Festival, etc, Huazhao Festival has unique style and value. Despite its fading away from people’s life due to changes in modern society, its cultural glamour and comprehensive value still exist. Along with economic and social development and the increase of people’s spiritual and cultural demands, Huazhao Festival has regained people’s attention. It has been restored and hosted in some regions and identified as an intangible cultural heritage. By means of literature review, the folk customs of Huazhao Festival was re-presented to some extent in this paper. Its modern values in areas including health, culture, ecology and industry were analyzed. This paper is of certain significance, in respect of conserving and inheriting this national festival, promoting its restoration in more regions in a way more approximate to historical tradition and giving play to its unique role to benefit modern society.

  14. Self-Supervised Learning of Terrain Traversability from Proprioceptive Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajracharya, Max; Howard, Andrew B.; Matthies, Larry H.

    2009-01-01

    Robust and reliable autonomous navigation in unstructured, off-road terrain is a critical element in making unmanned ground vehicles a reality. Existing approaches tend to rely on evaluating the traversability of terrain based on fixed parameters obtained via testing in specific environments. This results in a system that handles the terrain well that it trained in, but is unable to process terrain outside its test parameters. An adaptive system does not take the place of training, but supplements it. Whereas training imprints certain environments, an adaptive system would imprint terrain elements and the interactions amongst them, and allow the vehicle to build a map of local elements using proprioceptive sensors. Such sensors can include velocity, wheel slippage, bumper hits, and accelerometers. Data obtained by the sensors can be compared to observations from ranging sensors such as cameras and LADAR (laser detection and ranging) in order to adapt to any kind of terrain. In this way, it could sample its surroundings not only to create a map of clear space, but also of what kind of space it is and its composition. By having a set of building blocks consisting of terrain features, a vehicle can adapt to terrain that it has never seen before, and thus be robust to a changing environment. New observations could be added to its library, enabling it to infer terrain types that it wasn't trained on. This would be very useful in alien environments, where many of the physical features are known, but some are not. For example, a seemingly flat, hard plain could actually be soft sand, and the vehicle would sense the sand and avoid it automatically.

  15. The use of energy absorbers to protect structures against impact loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When a flying missile impacts a fixed structure, the interface loading is dependent on the deformation characteristics of both impacting and impacted bodies. If both are too rigid to accommodate the amount of gross deformation required to neutralize the incoming kinetic energy, or if such energy absorption has a chance to proceed in uncontrolled and unreliable ways, then there is a need to interpose a specifically designed 'energy absorber' between missile and structure, from which a well-defined load time history can be derived during the course of impact. The required characteristics of such an energy absorption material are: the capability to accommodate large permanent deformation without structural failure; and the reliable and controlled 'load-deformation' (or 'stress-stain') behaviour under dynamic conditions, with an aim at an optimal square shape curve. Consideration must also be given to environmental or other disturbing effects, like temperature, humidity, and 'out of plane' loading. A short survey is presented of the wide range of energy absorbers already described in technical papers or used in a number of practical safety applications within varied engineering fields (from vehicle crash barriers to high energy pipe whipping restraints). However, with such open a literature, information is usually lacking in the specific data required for design analysis. The following 'energy absorption' materials and processes have thus been further experimentally investigated, with an aim at pipe whipping restraint application for nuclear power plants: (1) plastic extension of austenitic stainless steel rods; (2) plastic compression of copper bumpers; and (3) punching of lightweight concrete structures. (Auth.)

  16. Basic forensic identification of artificial leather for hit-and-run cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Tetsuya; Suzuki, Shinichi

    2009-11-20

    Single fibers retrieved from a victim's garments and adhered to the suspect's automobile have frequently been used to prove the relationship between victim and suspect's automobile. Identification method for single fiber discrimination has already been conducted. But, a case was encountered requiring discrimination of artificial leather fragments retrieved from the victim's bag and fused fibers from the bumper of the suspect's automobile. In this report, basic studies were conducted on identification of artificial leathers and single fibers from leather materials. Fiber morphology was observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), color of these leather sheets was evaluated by microspectrophotometry (MSP), the leather components were measured by infrared micro spectrometry (micro-FT-IR) and the inorganic contents were ascertained by micro-X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (micro-XRF). These two methods contribute to other analytical methods too, in the case of utilized single fiber analytical methods. The combination of these techniques showed high potential of discrimination ability in forensic examinations of these artificial leather samples. In regard with smooth surface artificial leather sheet samples, a total of 182 sheets were obtained, including 177 colored sheets directly from 10 of 24 manufacturers in Japan, and five of them were purchased at retail circulation products. Nine samples of suede-like artificial leather were obtained, 6 of them were supplied from 2 manufacturers and 3 sheets were purchased as retailing product. Single fibers from the smooth surface artificial leather sheets showed characteristic for surface markings, and XRF could effectively discriminate between these sheets. The combination of results of micro-FT-IR, color evaluation by MSP and the contained inorganic elements by XRF enabled to discriminate about 92% of 15,576 pairs comparison. Five smooth surface samples form retailing products were discriminated by their chemical

  17. Recent TFTR results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meade, D.M.; Arunasalam, V.; Bell, M.G.; Bell, R.; Bitter, M.; Boivin, R.; Bretz, N.L.; Budny, R.; Cavallo, A.; Cheng, C.Z.; Chu, T.K.; Cohen, S.A.; Cowley, S.; Davis, S.L.; Dimock, D.L.; Efthimion, P.C.; Ehrhardt, A.B.; Fredrickson, E.; Furth, H.P.; Goldston, R.J.; Greene, G.; Grek, B.; Grisham, L.R.; Hammett, G.; Hawryluk, R.J.; Hill, K.W.; Hosea, J.C.; Hulse, R.A.; Hsuan, H.; Janos, A.; Jassby, D.L.; Jobes, F.C.; Johnson, D.W

    1991-07-01

    TFTR experiments have emphasized the optimization of high performance plasmas as well as studies of transport in high temperature plasmas. The recent installation of carbon composite tiles on the main bumper limiter has allowed operation with up to 32 MW of neutral beam injection without degradation of plasma performance by large bursts of carbon impurities ( carbon blooms''). Plasma parameters have been extended to T{sub i}(0) {approximately} 35 keV, T{sub e}(0) {approximately} 12 keV, n{sub e}(0) {approximately}1.2 {times} 10{sup 20} m{sup {minus}3} producing D-D reaction rates of 8.8 {times} 10{sup 16} reactions per second. The fusion parameter n{sub e}(0){tau}{sub E}T{sub i}(0) in supershot plasmas is an increasing function of heating power up to an MHD stability limit, reaching values of {approximately}4.4 {times} 10{sup 20} m{sup {minus}3} sec keV. Peaked-density-profile hot-ion plasmas with the edge characteristics of the H-mode have been produced in a circular cross-section limiter configuration with n{sub e}(0){tau}{sub E}T{sub i}(0) values characteristic of supershots, namely up to four times those projected for standard H-modes with broad density profiles. Reduced transport is also observed in the core of high-density ICRF-heated plasmas when the density profile is peaked. At the highest performance, the central plasma pressure in TFTR reaches reactor level values of 6.5 atmospheres. In these regimes, MHD instabilities with m/n = 1/1, 2/1, 3/2 and 4/3 are often observed concurrent with a degradation in performance. High {beta}{sub p} plasmas with {var epsilon}{beta}{sub p} {approx} 1.6 and {beta}/(I/aB) {approx} 4.7 (%mT/MA) have demonstrated confinement enhancement over the low-mode confinement time with {tau}{sub E}/{tau}{sub L} {approximately} 3.5 and a bootstrap current of about 65% of the total plasma current.

  18. The food crisis and environmental conservation in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiles, D; Brennan, R

    1986-11-01

    In spite of good rains in Africa in 1985, 30-35 million people suffered the effects of famine. Much of Africa is still dependent on food aid. The main causes of insufficient food production are land degradation--desertification--and high population growth. Distribution of the US $2.9 billion in food and non-food aid has been hampered by transport and logistical problems. The major challenge for 1986 is non-food support. Only US $460 million (15.3%) of non-food aid had been received as of March. Country profiles of Angola, Chad, Ethiopia, Mozambique, Somalia, Sudan, Lesotho, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Zambia show a pattern of high food assistance needs and displaced refugee populations. The 1st 6 of the group suffer from civil strife. There is some good news; e.g. Niger, which is embarking on agressive agricultural development, and Tanzania, which has enjoyed bumper crops, but the crisis is clearly far from over. Few African Governments have been willing to face the population problem; population in the area will probably continue to increase at 3% yearly. It is shown that desertification: reducing the biological potential of the land through over-exploitation, animal husbandry, and deforestation, is a wordwide problem particularly acute in Africa. Lost production totals $26 billion annually. Straightforward cost-benefit analysis of projects to halt or reverse the problem does not adequately take factors such as human attachment to the land into account. Unfortunately halting desertification does not receive the attention it should receive from donor agencies. Investment goes towards high-return projects, e.g. power dams; sugar factories, when a more careful study reveals that returns from afforestations are much more long-term. There has been increased consciousness of the long-term benefits of dryland rehabilitation, which will hopefully impact policy in the future. But since desertification is a self-accelerating process, there is a need for

  19. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy for nutritional palliation of upper esophageal cancer unsuitable for esophageal stenting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Grilo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Esophageal cancer is often diagnosed at an advanced stage and has a poor prognosis. Most patients with advanced esophageal cancer have significant dysphagia that contributes to weight loss and malnutrition. Esophageal stenting is a widespread palliation approach, but unsuitable for cancers near the upper esophageal sphincter, were stents are poorly tolerated. Generally, guidelines do not support endoscopic gastrostomy in this clinical setting, but it may be the best option for nutritional support. OBJECTIVE: Retrospective evaluation of patients with dysphagia caused advanced esophageal cancer, no expectation of resuming oral intake and with percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy for comfort palliative nutrition. METHOD: We selected adult patients with unresecable esophageal cancer histological confirmed, in whom stenting was impossible due to proximal location, and chemotherapy or radiotherapy were palliative, using gastrostomy for enteral nutrition. Clinical and nutritional data were evaluated, including success of gastrostomy, procedure complications and survival after percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy, and evolution of body mass index, albumin, transferrin and cholesterol. RESULTS: Seventeen males with stage III or IV squamous cell carcinoma fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Mean age was 60.9 years. Most of the patients had toxic habits. All underwent palliative chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Gastrostomy was successfully performed in all, but nine required prior dilatation. Most had the gastrostomy within 2 months after diagnosis. There was a buried bumper syndrome treated with tube replacement and four minor complications. There were no cases of implantation metastases or procedure related mortality. Two patients were lost and 12 died. Mean survival of deceased patients was 5.9 months. Three patients are alive 6, 14 and 17 months after the gastrostomy procedure, still increasing the mean survival. Mean body mass index and laboratory

  20. Radiometric calibration status of Landsat-7 and Landsat-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsi, J.A.; Markham, B.L.; Helder, D.L.; Chander, G.

    2007-01-01

    Launched in April 1999, Landsat-7 ETM+ continues to acquire data globally. The Scan Line Corrector in failure in 2003 has affected ground coverage and the recent switch to Bumper Mode operations in April 2007 has degraded the internal geometric accuracy of the data, but the radiometry has been unaffected. The best of the three on-board calibrators for the reflective bands, the Full Aperture Solar Calibrator, has indicated slow changes in the ETM+, but this is believed to be due to contamination on the panel rather then instrument degradation. The Internal Calibrator lamp 2, though it has not been used regularly throughout the whole mission, indicates smaller changes than the FASC since 2003. The changes indicated by lamp 2 are only statistically significant in band 1, circa 0.3% per year, and may be lamp as opposed to instrument degradations. Regular observations of desert targets in the Saharan and Arabian deserts indicate the no change in the ETM+ reflective band response, though the uncertainty is larger and does not preclude the small changes indicated by lamp 2. The thermal band continues to be stable and well-calibrated since an offset error was corrected in late-2000. Launched in 1984, Landsat-5 TM also continues to acquire global data; though without the benefit of an on-board recorder, data can only be acquired where a ground station is within range. Historically, the calibration of the TM reflective bands has used an onboard calibration system with multiple lamps. The calibration procedure for the TM reflective bands was updated in 2003 based on the best estimate at the time, using only one of the three lamps and a cross-calibration with Landsat-7 ETM+. Since then, the Saharan desert sites have been used to validate this calibration model. Problems were found with the lamp based model of up to 13% in band 1. Using the Saharan data, a new model was developed and implemented in the US processing system in April 2007. The TM thermal band was found to have a

  1. 跨国粮商冲击下的粮食流通安全问题探析%Analysis on Food Distribution Security under the Impact of Multinational Food Dealers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴志华; 徐艳丹; 胡非凡

    2011-01-01

    跨国粮商冲击我国粮食市场具有从大豆产业的深度掌控到中国粮食产业的全面冲击、从单环节到全球供应链整合的竞争、从“小试牛刀”到中国粮食产业话语权的日益蚕食及跨国粮商对粮食产业的控制具有针对性、超前性、战略性与整合运作性的特点四大特性,造成我国粮食流通安全问题充分暴露:连年丰收不减粮食安全危机或威胁,粮食收购市场无序且调控低效,粮食安全微观基础在跨国粮商冲击下显得非常薄弱。针对此情况,应以农户结算卡为基础,建立全球粮食供应链体系和粮食预警、调控体系,紧握农户、企业和市场三个抓手保障粮食安全。%Multinational food dealers imPacting food marketlization in China have four big characteristics: from the depth of control of the soybean industry to the full impact of Chinese food industry, from single part competition to the global supply chain integration, from "trying your skills" to increasingly nibbling to the right of speak to Chinese industry and multinational food dealer eontroling of food industry having such features : pertinence, advance, strtegic and operational integration. With that, Chinese grain circulation security issues are fully exposed: successive years of bumper harvests don't diminish food securi- ty crisis or threat, food purchasing market is disorderly and regulates inefficiently, the microcosmic basis of food security is ex- tremely weak with multinational food dealer impacting . For this situation, farmers debit card should be based on, the global food supply chain and food early warning, control system should be established, three handles such as farmers, businesses and markets should be holded to ensure food security.

  2. Plant mutation reports. Vol. 1, No. 2, December 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First of all, I would like to inform you that the Plant Mutation Reports (PMR) is now indexed in the CAB ABSTRACTS and GLOBAL HEALTH databases, run by the CABI, Wallingford, UK. This is not only an important recognition of the publication and, ultimately, the quality of your papers, but also provides a great opportunity for the broad dissemination of papers published in PMR. Secondly, it is a great honour to include a review paper from Dr. J. Neil Rutger, former director of Dale Bumpers National Rice Research Center USDA-ARS-SPA, USA. Dr. Rutger's paper summarizes the extraordinary success of his 30 years of work on induced mutations in rice genetics and breeding, together with his contribution to the Joint FAO/IAEA Programme. In particular, you will learn how a single induced mutation can contribute to the substantial yield increase in rice. We are aware that great success has also been achieved in rice as well as in other crops by various groups around the world; we invite you to submit papers of this kind to highlight your accomplishments or summarize your professional careers in mutation induction, application or basic studies on mutagenesis. Thirdly, I would like to share with you our plan for further improvement of the quality of the PMR: (1) We are planning to establish an editorial board next year (see below); (2) We are planning to transform the cover appearance and paper format into the style of a scientific journal; (3) For expanding the manuscript's source and quality, we decided that all final technical papers from the Agency's coordinated research projects (CRPs) and regional and interregional technical cooperation projects (TCPs) in the field of plant breeding and genetics be published in the PMR. (4) We will also strive for a broader distribution of the PMR; free electronic subscription will be granted to all interested institutions and individuals. However, subscription to the printed copy will still only be free for institutions, including

  3. The effect of pretensioning and age on torso rollout in restrained human volunteers in far-side lateral and oblique loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbogast, Kristy B; Mathews, Emily A; Seacrist, Thomas; Maltese, Matthew R; Hammond, Rachel; Balasubramanian, Sriram; Kent, Richard W; Tanji, Hiromasa; St Lawrence, Schuyler; Higuchi, Kazuo

    2012-10-01

    Far-side side impact loading of a seat belt restrained occupant has been shown to lead to torso slip out of the shoulder belt. A pretensioned seat belt may provide an effective countermeasure to torso rollout; however the effectiveness may vary with age due to increased flexibility of the pediatric spine compared to adults. To explore this effect, low-speed lateral (90°) and oblique (60°) sled tests were conducted using male human volunteers (20 subjects: 9-14 years old, 10 subjects: 18-30 years old), in which the crash pulse safety envelope was defined from an amusement park bumper-car impact. Each subject was restrained by a lap and shoulder belt system equipped with an electromechanical motorized seat belt retractor (EMSR) and photo- reflective targets were attached to a tight-fitting headpiece or adhered to the skin overlying key skeletal landmarks. Each subject was randomly assigned to either the 60° or 90° direction and was exposed to 4 test conditions - arms up (with hands on their knees) with EMSR on, arms down (with hands low on the hips) with EMSR on, arms up with EMSR off, arms down with EMSR off. The effect of age and pretensioning on the following outcomes was quantified: 1) lateral and forward displacement of the torso, 2) torso rollout angle projected onto three orthogonal planes, and 3) resultant belt-sternal distance. The effect of pretensioning on torso containment within the shoulder belt was strong in both impact directions across all metrics evaluated. EMSR activation significantly reduced lateral displacement of the suprasternal notch (~100 mm, p<0.0001), coronal projection of the torso rollout angle (~15°, p<0.0001), and belt sternal distance when the arms were down (~50 mm, p<0.05). The benefit of pretensioning was achieved by early engagement of the torso by the shoulder belt. An added benefit of pretensioning was the ability to make similar the torso kinematics across a range of anthropometries as assessed within and across age groups

  4. Comparison of kinematic responses of the head and spine for children and adults in low-speed frontal sled tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbogast, Kristy B; Balasubramanian, Sriram; Seacrist, Thomas; Maltese, Matthew R; García-España, J Felipe; Hopely, Terrence; Constans, Eric; Lopez-Valdes, Francisco J; Kent, Richard W; Tanji, Hiromasa; Higuchi, Kazuo

    2009-11-01

    Previous research has suggested that the pediatric ATD spine, developed from scaling the adult ATD spine, may not adequately represent a child's spine and thus may lead to important differences in the ATD head trajectory relative to a human. To gain further insight into this issue, the objectives of this study were, through non-injurious frontal sled tests on human volunteers, to 1) quantify the kinematic responses of the restrained child's head and spine and 2) compare pediatric kinematic responses to those of the adult. Low-speed frontal sled tests were conducted using male human volunteers (20 subjects: 6-14 years old, 10 subjects: 18-40 years old), in which the safety envelope was defined from an amusement park bumper-car impact. Each subject was restrained by a custom-fit lap and shoulder belt system and photo-reflective targets were attached to a tight-fitting cap worn on the head or adhered to the skin overlying skeletal landmarks on the head, spine, shoulders, sternum, and legs. A 3-D near-infrared target tracking system quantified the position of the following markers: head top, external auditory meatus, nasion, opisthocranion, C4, T1, T4, and T8. Trajectory data were normalized by subject seated height and head and spine rotations were calculated. The Generalized Estimating Equations method was used to determine the effect of age and key anthropometric measures on marker excursion. For all markers, the normalized forward excursion significantly decreased with age and all spinal markers moved upward due to a combination of rigid body rotation and spinal flexion with lesser upward movement with age. The majority of the spine flexion occurred at the base of the neck not in the upper cervical spine and the magnitude of flexion was greatest for the youngest subjects. Additional flexion occurred in the thoracic spine as well. Our findings indicate that the primary factor governing the differences in normalized head and spinal trajectories between the various

  5. Cratering Equations for Zinc Orthotitanate Coated Aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, James; Christiansen, Eric; Liou, Jer-Chyi; Ryan, Shannon

    2009-01-01

    The final STS-125 servicing mission (SM4) to the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) in May of 2009 saw the return of the 2nd Wide Field Planetary Camera (WFPC2) aboard the shuttle Discovery. This hardware had been in service on HST since it was installed during the SM1 mission in December of 1993 yielding one of the longest low Earth orbit exposure times (15.4 years) of any returned space hardware. The WFPC2 is equipped with a 0.8 x 2.2 m radiator for thermal control of the camera electronics (Figure 1). The space facing surface of the 4.1 mm thick aluminum radiator is coated with Z93 zinc orthotitanate thermal control paint with a nominal thickness of 0.1 0.2 mm. Post flight inspections of the radiator panel revealed hundreds of micrometeoroid/orbital debris (MMOD) impact craters ranging in size from less than 300 to nearly 1000 microns in diameter. The Z93 paint exhibited large spall areas around the larger impact sites (Figure 2) and the craters observed in the 6061-T651 aluminum had a different shape than those observed in uncoated aluminum. Typical hypervelocity impact craters in aluminum have raised lips around the impact site. The craters in the HST radiator panel had suppressed crater lips, and in some cases multiple craters were present instead of a single individual crater. Humes and Kinard observed similar behavior after the WFPC1 post flight inspection and assumed the Z93 coating was acting like a bumper in a Whipple shield. Similar paint behavior (spall) was also observed by Bland2 during post flight inspection of the International Space Station (ISS) S-Band Antenna Structural Assembly (SASA) in 2008. The SASA, with similar Z93 coated aluminum, was inspected after nearly 4 years of exposure on the ISS. The multi-crater phenomena could be a function of the density, composition, or impact obliquity angle of the impacting particle. For instance, a micrometeoroid particle consisting of loosely bound grains of material could be responsible for creating the

  6. Embranquecimento do polipropileno isotático injetado contendo TiO2 como pigmento Whitening mechanism in injection molded polypropylene with TiO2 as pigment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dênison R. J. Maia

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Descrevemos neste trabalho as causas e o mecanismo do embranquecimento de peças de polipropileno isotático injetado. Para isto foram injetados corpos de prova e placas com e sem estabilizantes. As amostras foram envelhecidas por exposição ambiental e em equipamento de envelhecimento acelerado (Weatherometer. Foi feito o acompanhamento visual das peças para que pudessem ser caracterizadas quando começassem a embranquecer. A caracterização foi feita através de espectroscopia FT-IR por reflectância, Microscopia eletrônica de varredura, Microfluorescência de raios-X, Reflectância de luz e Microanálise de energia dispersiva (EDS da superfície. Os espectros de infravermelho mostraram o aparecimento de diversos produtos de degradação como cetonas, aldeídos, ácidos carboxílicos, ésteres, perésteres e alfa-cetoésteres. Quando as amostras começaram a embranquecer foi verificada a formação de fissuras superficiais e o aumento da reflectância de luz para todos os comprimentos de onda do espectro. Concomitantemente foi verificado que a composição de superfície não é alterada pelo envelhecimento. A superfície não apresenta grande quantidade de partículas de TiO2 expostas. Conclui-se que o embranquecimento das peças é devido ao fissuramento superficial que aumenta a quantidade de luz refletida na superfície e não pela migração do pigmento.We studied in this work the whitening mechanism in injection molded polypropylene (PP, a problem usually manifested in car parts and particularly in car bumpers. For the development of this work we had samples (plaques and test samples with and without antioxidants and ultraviolet stabilizers. These samples had been already aged by natural and artificial (Weatherometer equipment exposure. In the natural aging samples were collected when the material started to whiten, after 3190, 4320 and 6190 h of exposure. In the artificial aging samples were collected after 415, 515 and 3000 h of

  7. 铝球弹丸高速斜撞击铝Whipple防护结构时后板的损伤特性%Damage Characteristics of Rear Walls of Aluminum Whipple Shields by Oblique Hypervelocity Impact of Aluminum Spheres

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管公顺; 哈跃; 庞宝君

    2012-01-01

    In order to simulate and study the oblique hypervelocity impacts of space debris on bumper of spacecrafts,a series of oblique hypervelocity impact experiments of aluminum Whipple shields are car- ried out by a two-stage light gas gun. The aluminum alloy projectile diameter is 3.97 mm, the impact velocities range from 1.14 to 5.35 km/s,and the impact angles range from 0° to 70°. The crater distributions on the rear wall of aluminum Whipple shield obliquely impacted by aluminum spheres are obtained and analyzed. In addition, the forecast equations for crater distribution on the rear wall of aluminum Whipple shield by oblique hyperveloeity impact are derived. The results indicate that there are two crater distribution areas on the rear wall under hypervelocity oblique impact. The critical fragmen- tation velocity of projectile will bring effect on the relationship between the impact damage law of rear wall and impact angle. For aluminum alloy Whipple shield,there exists a critical initial collision angle at which the impact damage on the rear wall is the most severe.%为了研究空间碎片对航天器防护结构的高速斜撞击损伤特性,采用二级轻气炮发射铝球弹丸,对铝Whipple防护结构进行高速斜撞击实验。弹丸直径为3.97mm,撞击速度为1.14~5.35km/s,撞击角度为0°~70°。实验得到了铝Whipple防护结构在不同撞击速度区间的后板损伤模式,分析了后板撞击损伤及弹坑分布特性,建立了预测铝球弹丸高速斜撞击铝Whipple防护结构时后板弹坑分布的经验公式。结果表明:在大角度斜撞击条件下,对于一定的撞击速度,铝Whipple防护结构的后板弹坑分布会出现两个区域;弹丸的撞击破碎临界速度将影响后板损伤随撞击角的变化关系;对于铝Whipple防护结构,存在使后板撞击损伤最严重的临界撞击角。

  8. Hybrid laser-arc welding of galvanized high-strength steels in a gap-free lap-joint configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shanglu

    In order to meet the industry demands for increased fuel efficiency and enhanced mechanical and structural performance of vehicles as well as provided excellent corrosion resistance, more and more galvanized advanced high-strength steels (AHSS) have been used to fabricate automobile parts such as panels, bumpers, and front rails. The automotive industry has shown tremendous interest in using laser welding to join galvanized dual phase steels because of lower heat input and higher welding speed. However, the laser welding process tends to become dramatically unstable in the presence of highly pressurized zinc vapor because of the low boiling point of zinc, around 906°C, compared to higher melting point of steel, over 1500°C. A large number of spatters are produced by expelling the liquid metal from the molten pool by the pressurized zinc vapor. Different weld defects such as blowholes and porosities appear in the welds. So far, limited information has been reported on welding of galvanized high strength dual-phase steels in a gap-free lap joint configuration. There is no open literature on the successful attainment of defect-free welds from the laser or hybrid welding of galvanized high-strength steels. To address the significant industry demand, in this study, different welding techniques and monitoring methods are used to study the features of the welding process of galvanized DP steels in a gap-free lap joint configuration. The current research covers: (i) a feasibility study on the welding of galvanized DP 980 steels in a lap joint configuration using gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW), laser welding, hybrid laser/arc welding with the common molten pool, laser welding with the assistance of GTAW preheating source and hybrid laser-variable polarity gas tungsten arc welding (Laser-VPGTAW) techniques (Chapter 2-4); (ii) a welding process monitoring of the welding techniques including the use of machine vision and acoustic emission technique (Chapter 5); (iii

  9. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Simulations of a Humvee Airdropped from Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Phillip M.

    Military airdrop is a means of transporting and delivering cargo to inaccessible locales faster and more efficiently. The Humvee, an all-terrain truck, is one such payload that the U.S. Army drops routinely. Here, interesting physics occurs both structurally and aerodynamically. From a fluid dynamics and trajectory standpoint, determining the aerodynamic forces and moments acting on the parachute and payload is crucial particularly for trajectory prediction. This study primarily used Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to simulate the aerodynamics of an airdrop Humvee model in two regimes of fall, namely, right after clearing the aircraft ramp, and during descent under parachute. This study was performed at a Reynolds number of 3.07x10. 6 and at an airspeedof 9.144m/s (30ft/s). The first humvee part of the study analyzed the aerodynamic coefficients drag, lift, and pitching moment over a 360 degree range of pitch angles for the Humvee configured for extraction. The second set of humvee simulations focused on the aerodynamic coefficients at pitch angles of -40 degrees to +40 degrees with the platform and vehicle configured for descent under parachute. The Humvee after ramp tip-off has a parachute pack on its hood, but lacks one during the descent phase. The numerical data was compared with the results of geometries from previous studies. These geometries include: the flat plate, Type-V LVADS and 10K-JPADS containers, and a cargo-carrying platform outfitted with a bumper. Our results clearly show the effects of the many angular features that characterize the shape of a Humvee in comparison to those of a simple cuboid, particularly with regards to the loss of lift in a sub-range of pitch angle (-45 degrees to -180 degrees). First, the aerodynamic coefficients were calculated over one full-revolution of the humvee (-180 degrees to +180 degrees static pitch angles with respect to the humvee's platform) best matched in lift, drag, and moment those of the type V LVADS

  10. BUMPERII - DESIGN ANALYSIS CODE FOR OPTIMIZING SPACECRAFT SHIELDING AND WALL CONFIGURATION FOR ORBITAL DEBRIS AND METEOROID IMPACTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, S. A.

    1994-01-01

    of penetration values per surface area for each element in the model. The SHIELD module writes this data file in either SUPERTAB Universal File Format or PATRAN Neutral File Format so threat contour plots can be generated as a post-processing feature of the FEM programs SUPERTAB and PATRAN. The CONTOUR module combines the functions of the RESPONSE module and most of the SHIELD module functions allowing determination of ranges of PNP's by looping over ranges of shield and/or wall thicknesses. A data file containing the PNP's for the corresponding shield and vessel wall thickness is produced. Users may perform sensitivity studies of two kinds. The effects of simple variations in orbital time, surface area, and flux may be analyzed by making changes to the terms in the equation representing the average number of penetrating particles per unit time in the PNP solution equation. The package analyzes other changes, including model environment, surface area, and configuration, by re-running the solution sequence with new GEOMETRY and RESPONSE data. BUMPERII can be run with no interactive output to the screen during execution. This can be particularly useful during batch runs. BUMPERII is written in FORTRAN 77 for DEC VAX series computers running under VMS, and was written for use with the finite-element model code SUPERTAB or PATRAN as both a pre-processor and a post-processor. Use of an alternate FEM code will require either development of a translator to change data format or modification of the GEOMETRY subroutine in BUMPERII. This program is available in DEC VAX BACKUP format on a 9-track 1600 BPI magnetic tape (standard distribution media) or on TK50 tape cartridge. The original BUMPER code was developed in 1988 with the BUMPERII revisions following in 1991 and 1992. SUPERTAB is a former name for I-DEAS. I-DEAS Finite Element Modeling is a trademark of Structural Dynamics Research Corporation. DEC, VAX, VMS and TK50 are trademarks of Digital Equipment Corporation.

  11. Agriculture exploitation in the east part of North Agro-pasture Transitional Zone during 1644-1795 by Actual Annals of Qing Dynasty%从《清实录》看清代1644-1795年中国北方农牧交错带东段的农业开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊星; 叶瑜; 罗玉洪

    2012-01-01

    The east part of North Agro-pasture Transitional Zone in north China located between the south edge of Inner Mongolia plateau and the Great Wall. It is considered as one of the most sensitive regions of China, for it is in the transitional region among different climatic zones and controlled by the southeast monsoon. The one hand, the area provides human with broad space and huge material production potential, moreover, it plays an important role in the change of regional and global climate and the maintenance of ecological functions; the other hand, the ecological issues of the area are very prominent and ecological environment here is manifold, complex and vulnerable , because of the superposition of topography, climate, vegetation and economic activities in the transitional zone of superposition. Arid climate, water deficit are the main features in the area. The relationship between local people and the environment is very special and important to the locally fragile ecological environment. Some current ecological problems being existed in this area are highly correlated with the historical agricultural development. A climax of reclamation began from Shunzhi (顺治) to Qianlong(乾隆) Period (1644 -1795) , meanwhile land use patterns in the area also changed. This study area includes 34 cities/counties in the eastern Inner Mongolia, 20 cities/counties in Hebei, 3 counties in northern Beijing, 3 cities/counties in Heilongjiang, 8 cities/counties in Jilin, and 11 cities/counties in the south of Liaoning. In the area, the precipitation is 300 - 450 mm, and dryness is 1 — 2; From the southeast to northwest, the terrain gradually transforms from the northeast plains to Inner Mongolia plateau. The land administration information, such as reclamation policy, bumper & poor harvest, reclamation area and so on, are collected from Actual Annals of the Qing Dynasty (《清实录》) in the periods and are analyzed by the methods of historical literature law and

  12. Diagnóstico de factores de riesgo relacionados con la accidentabilidad de mano en trabajadores de una empresa refresquera Diagnostic of risk factor related to the accidentes of hand in workers of solf-drinks industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Betzabé Pérez-Manriquez

    2012-03-01

    psicosociales, condiciones inseguras, factores ergonómicos y actos inseguros. Por lo que se considera que estos, se deben buscar intencionadamente en las empresas dedicadas a este rubro de actividades, y evidenciarlos cuando se pretendan disminuir este tipo de accidentes y generar medidas preventivas y correctivas para mejorar la calidad de vida del trabajador y el rendimiento del mismo en sus labores.With the purpose of deepen on the recognize of risk factors from this kind of business and from this specific activities, to prevent and minimize the health effects integrally at the industries, the present work pretend to determine the risk factors potentially related with hand accidents. Objective: Determine the risk factors related to the accidents of hand to identify and establish the risks allowing decrease the possibility of accidents in hand through the modification, elimination and or control of present factors. Material and methods: Observational, descriptive and longitudinal study develop in worker population of sales area, composed by 206 helpers and 81 agents, cooperative producers of soft drinks and carbonated beverages in México City, in a period between 2007-2009. Was employed the Freeman Modified Method for the Situational Diagnostic. Results: The risk factor related to hand accidents determined by the application of Freeman Modified Method in sales area according to the organization: were first derived from the psychosocial labor organization (accelerated pace of activity and the Insecure Condition (transfer of the personnel within the rear bumper of the truck; second were found ergonomics (repetitive movements and manual handling of loads, along with Insecure Act (omission of the use of personal protection equipment, and the Insecure Condition (kind of unity, door and material transported, and lack of training; finally, in third psychosocial of Labor Organization (indefinite at least 8 hours maximum of 14 and unsafe (sharp boxes. Conclusions: The risk factors

  13. Safer Vehicles for People and the Planet: Letter to the Editor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenzel, Thomas P; Wenzel, Thomas P; Ross, Marc

    2008-05-01

    his own papers, Dr. Evans appears to admit that it is not clear whether mass, or size (specifically crush space) is inherent to vehicle safety. Additional research indicates that it is not size per se that protects in two-vehicle crashes, but how well the stiff structures on the vehicles are aligned. The auto manufacturing industry has voluntarily made design changes to their pickup trucks to increase the likelihood that truck and car bumpers will interact in a frontal crash, reducing the aggressivity of pickup trucks in recent years. Regarding the differences in experiences between the U.S. and other countries, it is important to keep in mind that the U.S. vehicle fleet is fairly unique; about half of U.S. vehicles are light duty trucks (pickups, SUVs and minivans), which many studies have shown are dangerous to other road users.

  14. Investigation of MMOD Impact on STS-115 Shuttle Payload Bay Door Radiator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, J.; Christiansen, E.; Lear, D.; Kerr, J.; Lyons, F.; Yasensky, J.

    2007-01-01

    an extent of 0.85 in. x 1.1 in. (21.6 x 27.9 mm). Pieces of the radiator at and surrounding the impact site were recovered during the repair procedures at KSC. They included the thermal tape, front facesheet, honeycomb core, and rear facesheet. These articles were examined at JSC using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) with an energy dispersive x-ray spectrometer (EDS). Figure 6 shows SEM images of the entry hole in the facesheet. The asymmetric height of the lip may be attributed to projectile shape and impact angle. Numerous instances of a glass-fiber organic matrix composite were observed in the facesheet tape sample. The fibers were approximately 10 micrometers in diameter and variable lengths. EDS analysis indicated a composition of Mg, Ca, Al, Si, and O. Figures 7 and 8 present images of the fiber bundles, which were believed to be circuit board material based on similarity in fiber diameter, orientation, consistency, and composition. A test program was initiated in an attempt to simulate the observed damage to the radiator facesheet and honeycomb. Twelve test shots were performed using projectiles cut from a 1.6 mm thick fiberglass circuit board substrate panel. Results from test HITF07017, shown in figures 9 and 10, correlates with the observed impact features reasonably well. The test was performed at 4.14 km/sec with an impact angle of 45 degrees using a cylindrical projectile with a diameter and length of 1.25 mm. The fiberglass circuit board material had a density of 1.65 g/cu cm, giving a projectile mass of 2.53 mg. An analysis was performed using the Bumper code to estimate the probability of impact to the shuttle from a 1.25 mm diameter particle. Table 1 shows a 1.6% chance (impact odds = 1 in 62) of a 1.25 mm or larger MMOD impact on the radiators of the vehicle during a typical ISS mission. There is a 0.4% chance (impact odds = 1 in 260) that a 1.25 mm or larger MMOD particle would impact the RCC wing leading edge and nose cap during a typical