WorldWideScience

Sample records for bumpers

  1. Bumper Harvest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A large summer grain crop is helping to ease food security concerhs in China,despite rising global prices Five consecutive years of bumper grain harvests, including an abundant yield this summer, have enabled

  2. Mandibular lip bumper for molar torque control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celentano, Giuseppe; Longobardi, Annalisa; Cannavale, Rosangela; Perillo, Letizia

    2011-01-01

    Treatment effects of lip bumpers alone include flaring of the mandibular incisors, distalization and uprighting of the mandibular first molars, and buccal expansion of the canines, premolars, and molar. Lip forces are transmitted through this appliance onto the molars. Moreover the lip bumper is able to derotate, expand or constrict, upright and reinforce the anchorage whereas torque control is lacking. Aim of this paper is the presentation of a new type of lip bumper that allows the molar torque control. PMID:21515237

  3. Bumper 3 Update for IADC Protection Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Eric L.; Nagy, Kornel; Hyde, Jim

    2016-01-01

    The Bumper code has been the standard in use by NASA and contractors to perform meteoroid/debris risk assessments since 1990. It has undergone extensive revisions and updates [NASA JSC HITF website; Christiansen et al., 1992, 1997]. NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) has applied BUMPER to risk assessments for Space Station, Shuttle, Mir, Extravehicular Mobility Units (EMU) space suits, and other spacecraft (e.g., LDEF, Iridium, TDRS, and Hubble Space Telescope). Bumper continues to be updated with changes in the ballistic limit equations describing failure threshold of various spacecraft components, as well as changes in the meteoroid and debris environment models. Significant efforts are expended to validate Bumper and benchmark it to other meteoroid/debris risk assessment codes. Bumper 3 is a refactored version of Bumper II. The structure of the code was extensively modified to improve maintenance, performance and flexibility. The architecture was changed to separate the frequently updated ballistic limit equations from the relatively stable common core functions of the program. These updates allow NASA to produce specific editions of the Bumper 3 that are tailored for specific customer requirements. The core consists of common code necessary to process the Micrometeoroid and Orbital Debris (MMOD) environment models, assess shadowing and calculate MMOD risk. The library of target response subroutines includes a board range of different types of MMOD shield ballistic limit equations as well as equations describing damage to various spacecraft subsystems or hardware (thermal protection materials, windows, radiators, solar arrays, cables, etc.). The core and library of ballistic response subroutines are maintained under configuration control. A change in the core will affect all editions of the code, whereas a change in one or more of the response subroutines will affect all editions of the code that contain the particular response subroutines which are modified. Note

  4. Analysis of composite car bumper reinforcement

    OpenAIRE

    Kleisner V.; Zemčík R.

    2009-01-01

    The presented work summarizes the present state of car passive safety testing according to European methodologies. The main objective is to analysis a bumper reinforcement made of composite materials. The bumper is tested according to RCAR (Research Council for Automobile Repairs) methodology using numerical simulation. Individual proposed variants are compared with the existing steel construction which does not comply with manufacturers specifications. The PAM-Crash software is used for the ...

  5. Dale Bumpers White River Wilderness: Report on wilderness character monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report provides a detailed summary of the baseline wilderness character assessment completed for the Dale Bumpers White River Wilderness on the Dale Bumpers...

  6. Pengembangan Bumper Depan Mobil Pick Up Multiguna Pedesaan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfie Adiananda

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Tim Pengembangan Mobil Jurusan Teknik Mesin ITS bekerja sama dengan PT. INKA, PT. Railindo Global Karya, dan PT. Karya Tugas Anda melakukan pengembangan mobil GEA. Salah satu pengembangan yang akan dilakukan adalah pengembangan desain bumper depan. Dari hasil pengkajian pada bagian bumper, tidak ditemukan adanya fog lamp untuk membantu penerangan pada saat cuaca buruk. Rancangan bumper baru terbuat dari komposit jenis e-glass dan pengujiannya mengikuti standar, dimana gaya yang terjadi pada saat terjadi benturan dihitung berdasarkan standar pengujian ECE Regulation No.42. Oleh karena itu perlu dilakukan analisa kekuatan bumper depan dalam menahan benturan. Langkah-langkah dalam pengembangan bumper adalah mensimulasikan pengujian tumbukan untuk mengetahui nilai deformasi dan tegangan dari tiap ketebalan bumper yang berbeda, lalu setelah didapatkan ketebalan yang sesuai akan dilakukan proses pembuatan dan pemasangan bumper depan pada mobil pick up multiguna. Hasil yang didapatkan dari penelitan ini adalah bumper hasil pengembangan memiliki dimensi panjang 1430 mm, lebar 500 mm, tinggi 500 mm dan ketebalan bumper yang dipilih adalah 4 mm dimana tegangan yang terjadi adalah sebesar 785,98 MPa sedangkan deformasi bumper hasil simulasi adalah sebesar 18,160 mm, jauh lebih kecil daripada deformasi yang diizinkan yaitu 60 mm. Proses pembuatan bumper dengan metode wet-lay up.

  7. Analysis of composite car bumper reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleisner V.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The presented work summarizes the present state of car passive safety testing according to European methodologies. The main objective is to analysis a bumper reinforcement made of composite materials. The bumper is tested according to RCAR (Research Council for Automobile Repairs methodology using numerical simulation. Individual proposed variants are compared with the existing steel construction which does not comply with manufacturers specifications. The PAM-Crash software is used for the simulation. The numerical model is using shell elements and the Ladevèze model for the description of behaviour of composite materials. The methodology for the set-up of the numerical model in PAM-crash is firstly validated by comparison of experiment and analytical results.

  8. Buried bumper syndrome: a rare complication of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurek, Krzysztof; Baniukiewicz, Andrzej; Świdnicka-Siergiejko, Agnieszka

    2015-09-01

    Feeding via percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is the preferred form of alimentation when oral feeding is impossible. Although it is a relatively safe method, some complications may occur. One uncommon PEG complication is buried bumper syndrome. In this paper we report a case of buried bumper syndrome, successfully managed with PEG tube repositioning. PMID:26649105

  9. Fatigue life of automotive rubber jounce bumper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is evident that most rubber components in the automotive industry are subjected to repetitive loading. Vigorous research is needed towards improving the safety and reliability of the components. The study was done on an automotive rubber jounce bumper with a rubber hardness of 60 IRHD. The test was conducted in displacement-controlled environment under compressive load. The existing models by Kim, Harbour, Woo and Li were adopted to predict the fatigue life. The experimental results show strong similarities with the predicted models.

  10. Fatigue life of automotive rubber jounce bumper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidhu, R S [Automotive Engineering Unit, Institute of Advanced Technology, University Putra Malaysia, 43400, UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Ali, Aidy, E-mail: aidy@eng.upm.edu.my [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM, Serdang Selangor (Malaysia)

    2010-05-15

    It is evident that most rubber components in the automotive industry are subjected to repetitive loading. Vigorous research is needed towards improving the safety and reliability of the components. The study was done on an automotive rubber jounce bumper with a rubber hardness of 60 IRHD. The test was conducted in displacement-controlled environment under compressive load. The existing models by Kim, Harbour, Woo and Li were adopted to predict the fatigue life. The experimental results show strong similarities with the predicted models.

  11. The Injection Bumper System for LEIR

    CERN Document Server

    Fowler, A

    2004-01-01

    To satisfy the ion beam luminosity requirements for CERN's future Large Hadron Collider (LHC), a small accumulator, the Low Energy Ion Ring (LEIR), is being built in the injector chain of accelerators. LEIR will use a combined longitudinal and transverse multi-turn injection scheme which requires a bumper system comprising four individually pulsed dipole magnets. The paper discusses the bumper system, in particular the power supplies which will produce a pulsed current linearly decreasing from 1.2kA to zero in a time variable between 120µs and 300µs. Each power supply employs a primary discharge circuit, comprising a storage capacitor, an IGBT switch and the magnet load inductance, to establish the peak current, and a free-wheel circuit in parallel with the magnet, comprising a diode and capacitor, to produce the linear current slope. A novel feature of the circuit is the use of a variable bias voltage on the free-wheel capacitor, allowing continuous variation of the slope duration.

  12. Rear Bumper Laminated In Jute Fiber With Polyester Resin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braga, R. A

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Today, a growing interest exists in the use of natural of fibers (sisal, coconut, banana, and jute, as reinforcement in composites. The aim of the present study is shows the use of jute fiber agglutinated with polyester resin in the automobile industry in the production of a rear bumper of hatch vehicle. A simplified mathematical model was used for evaluation of the flaw on trunk center cover submitted to dynamic loads. The traverse section of the referred bumper is simplified by a channel formation. This study shows that a rear bumper made using jute fiber agglutinated with polyester resin will be possible. The molded part obtained good visual characteristics, good geometric construction and surface without bubbles and imperfections in the fiber and resin composite. The mathematical model to failure criterion showed that the rear bumper in jute fiber will not resist to an impact equivalent at 4.0 km/h.

  13. THE TREATMENT OF LIP SUCKING WITH LIP BUMPER (CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Narni Yuniarsih

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Lip sucking occurred usually on lower lip and probably caused by psychological or environment factor and mostly found on school ages children. Correcting this abnormal habit as early as possible will give positive correction to malocclusion. Practicing myofunctional therapy gradually will eliminate the abnormal habit. In this report lip sucking bad habit was treated with lip bumper and the severity of this bad habit was decreased in six months.

  14. The Challenging Buried Bumper Syndrome after Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Ibrahim; Zarour, Ahmad; Al-Hassani, Ammar; Peralta, Ruben; El-Menyar, Ayman; Al-Thani, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Buried bumper syndrome (BBS) is a rare complication developed after percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG). We report a case of a 38-year-old male patient who sustained severe traumatic brain injury that was complicated with early BBS after PEG tube insertion. On admission, bedside PEG was performed, and 7 days later the patient developed signs of sepsis with rapid progression to septic shock and acute kidney injury. Abdominal CT scan revealed no collection or leakage of the contrast, but showed malpositioning of the tube bumper at the edge of the stomach and not inside of it. Diagnostic endoscopy revealed that the bumper was hidden in the posterolateral part of the stomach wall forming a tract inside of it, which confirmed the diagnosis of BBS. The patient underwent laparotomy with a repair of the stomach wall perforation, and the early postoperative course was uneventful. Acute BBS is a rare complication of PEG tube insertion which could be manifested with severe complications such as pressure necrosis, peritonitis and septic shock. Early identification is the mainstay to prevent such complications. Treatment selection is primarily guided by the presenting complications, ranging from simple endoscopic replacement to surgical laparotomy. PMID:27462190

  15. Development process of new bumper beam for passenger car: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► The process of new bumper beam development for passenger car is discussed. ► A new bumper system has been added to the previous developed bumper systems. ► The flow chart of design and analysis of bumper beam is shown. ► Different analysis for developing new bumper beam before production is discussed. ► The process of material selection in bumper beam is discussed. -- Abstract: Bumper beam absorbs the accidental kinetic energy by deflection in low-speed impact and by deformation in high-speed impact. The safety regulations “low-, and high-speed, and pedestrian impacts” along with new environmental restrictions “end-of-life vehicles” increased the complexity level of bumper system design. The new bumper design must be flexible enough to reduce the passenger and occupant injury and stay intact in low-speed impact besides being stiff enough to dissipate the kinetic energy in high-speed impact. The reinforcement beam plays a vital role in safety and it must be validated through finite-element analysis (FEA) and experimental tests before mass production. The careful design and analysis of bumper beam effective parameters can optimize the strength, reduce the weight, and increase the possibility of utilizing biodegradable and recyclable materials to reduce the environmental pollution. Developing the correct design and analysis procedures prevents design re-modification. On the other hand, analysis of the most effective parameters conducive to high bumper beam strength increases the efficiency of product development. Cross section, longitudinal curvature, fixing method, rib thickness, and strength are some of the significant design parameters in bumper beam production. This study critically reviews the related literature on bumper design to come up with the optimal bumper beam design process. It particularly focuses on the effective parameters in the design of bumper beam and their most suitable values or ranges of values. The results can

  16. Usage of magneto-active elastomers in a bumper of a vehicle for front impact protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The control of the rigidity of the bumper can be provided by an application of magneto-active elastomers (MAE), capable to change their properties in a reversible and fast manner under the action of an applied magnetic field. The dependence of the energy taken away by the bumper at the impact on variable weight and rigidity has been found taking into account the presence of controllable MAE elements in the bumper construction. The calculated fields of pressure and deformations are necessary for optimization of a design, form and material of a forward panel of a bumper.

  17. Optimisation study of a vehicle bumper subsystem with fuzzy parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, L.; Moens, D.; Donders, S.; Vandepitte, D.

    2012-10-01

    This paper deals with the design and optimisation for crashworthiness of a vehicle bumper subsystem, which is a key scenario for vehicle component design. The automotive manufacturers and suppliers have to find optimal design solutions for such subsystems that comply with the conflicting requirements of the regulatory bodies regarding functional performance (safety and repairability) and regarding the environmental impact (mass). For the bumper design challenge, an integrated methodology for multi-attribute design engineering of mechanical structures is set up. The integrated process captures the various tasks that are usually performed manually, this way facilitating the automated design iterations for optimisation. Subsequently, an optimisation process is applied that takes the effect of parametric uncertainties into account, such that the system level of failure possibility is acceptable. This optimisation process is referred to as possibility-based design optimisation and integrates the fuzzy FE analysis applied for the uncertainty treatment in crash simulations. This process is the counterpart of the reliability-based design optimisation used in a probabilistic context with statistically defined parameters (variabilities).

  18. LOW VELOCITY IMPACT RESPONSE OF A LAMINATED COMPOSITE TUBE WITH A METALLIC BUMPER LAYER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibekwe, S.I.; Li, G.; Pang, S.S.; and Smith, B. H.

    2006-07-01

    A thin metallic sheet was bonded to the outer surface of a laminated composite curved beam as a bumper layer. It was believed that a metallic bumper layer such as an aluminum thin sheet would be able to intercept any lateral impacting force and absorb impact energy through plastic deformation. Since aluminum is comparatively light weight, a thin sheet will not result in a significant increase in structural weight. Results showed that impact damage occurred primarily in the bumper layer, thereby resulting in a much higher residual bending strength compared to the control specimen.

  19. Dale Bumpers White River National Wildlife Refuge Water Resource Inventory and Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Water Resource Inventory and Assessment (WRIA) for Dale Bumpers White River National Wildlife Refuge summarizes available and relevant information for refuge...

  20. Hydrogeomorphic Evaluation of Ecosystem Restoration and Management Options for Dale Bumpers White River National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Dale Bumpers White River National Wildlife Refuge (DBWRNWR) contains one of the largest contiguous tracts of bottomland hardwood forested (BLH) wetlands in the...

  1. Delay-line cables for the fast bumpers in the PS.

    CERN Multimedia

    1976-01-01

    For 'continuous transfer' to the SPS, the beam accelerated in the PS is shaved off over several turns, so as to form a continuous sequence of bunches several times the length of the PS circumference. Fast bumpers, powered in a 'staircase' way, displace the PS beam stepwise towards the ejection septum. Each step lasts 2.1 microsec and the cable drums in this picture contain some of the bumper delay-lines of altogether 10 km.

  2. The bumper module of the Audi A4; Das Stossfaengersystem des Audi A4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haberer, K. [Audi AG, Ingolstadt (Germany)

    2000-11-01

    Special attention was given to the bumper module of the new A4 during the development process. It is notable for its flush integration into the body, with 'zero' clearances and short overhangs. The module includes the bumper supports, the outer covering, the air inlet grille, the fog lights and the horns. Optional extras are an integrated ultrasonic 'Acoustic Parking System' (either front and rear or at the rear only) and a headlamp washer system. Both the bumper support and the deformation elements are made of weight-saving aluminium. The holder for the towing lug has been integrated into the right-hand deformation element and the towing forces are borne centrally by the side member. (orig.) [German] Dem Stossfaengermodul des neuen A4 wurde bei der Entwicklung besondere Aufmerksamkeit gewidmet. Es zeichnet sich durch eine buendige Formintegration in die Karosserie mit sogenannten Nullfugen und durch kurze Karosserieueberstaende aus. (orig.)

  3. Properties of Ejecta Generated at High-Velocity Perforation of Thin Bumpers made from Different Constructional Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myagkov, N. N.; Shumikhin, T. A.; Bezrukov, L. N.

    2013-08-01

    The series of impact experiments were performed to study the properties of ejecta generated at high-velocity perforation of thin bumpers. The bumpers were aluminum plates, fiber-glass plastic plates, and meshes weaved of steel wire. The projectiles were 6.35 mm diameter aluminum spheres. The impact velocities ranged from 1.95 to 3.52 km/s. In the experiments the ejecta particles were captured with low-density foam collectors or registered with the use of aluminum foils. The processing of the experimental results allowed us to estimate the total masses, spatial and size distributions, and perforating abilities of the ejecta produced from these different bumpers. As applied to the problem of reducing the near-Earth space pollution caused by the ejecta, the results obtained argue against the use of aluminum plates as first (outer) bumper in spacecraft shield protection.

  4. Concept selection of car bumper beam with developed hybrid bio-composite material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → We simulate the low impact test by Abaqus Ver16R9 using the same material model. → Six different weighted criteria were discussed to nominate the best concept. → Double Hat Profile showed the best concept to fulfil the defined PDS. → Geometric parameters may overcome the weak inherent properties of bio composite. → Toughened bio-composite material may employ in structural automotive components. -- Abstract: Application of natural fibre composites is going to increase in different areas caused by environmental, technical and economic advantages. However, their low mechanical properties have limited their particular application in automotive structural components. Hybridizations with other reinforcements or matrices can improve mechanical properties of natural fibre composite. Moreover, geometric optimizations have a significant role in structural strength improvement. This study focused on selecting the best geometrical bumper beam concept to fulfill the safety parameters of the defined product design specification (PDS). The mechanical properties of developed hybrid composite material were considered in different bumper beam concepts with the same frontal curvature, thickness, and overall dimensions. The low-speed impact test was simulated under the same conditions in Abaqus V16R9 software. Six weighted criteria, which were deflection, strain energy, mass, cost, easy manufacturing, and the rib possibility were analyzed to form an evaluation matrix. Topsis method was employed to select the best concept. It is concluded that double hat profile (DHP) with defined material model can be used for bumper beam of a small car. In addition, selected concept can be strengthened by adding reinforced ribs or increasing the thickness of the bumper beam to comply with the defined PDS.

  5. Thermoplastic impact property improvement in hybrid natural fibre epoxy composite bumper beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utilization of thermoset resin as a bumper beam composite matrix is currently more dominated in car manufacturer suppliers, because of availability, easy processing, low material cost and production equipment investment. Moreover, low viscosity, shrinkage and excellent flow facilitate better fibre impregnation and proper surface resin wetting. Three-dimensional cross linking curing increase impact, creep and environmental stress cracking resistance properties. Low impact properties of natural fibre epoxy composite, are main issues in its employment for automotive structural components. Impact properties in epoxy composite bumper beam could be increased by modifying the resin, reinforcement and manufacturing process as well as geometry parameters such as cross section, thickness, added ribs and fixing method optimizations could strengthen impact resistance. There are two main methods, flexibilisation and toughening, as modifying the resin in order to improve the impact properties of epoxy composite, which form single phase or two-phase morphology to make modifier as epoxy or from separate phase to keep the thermo-mechanical properties. Liquid rubber, thermoplastic, core shell particle and rigid particle are different methods of toughening improvements. In this research, thermoplastic toughening has used to improve impact properties in hybrid natural fibre epoxy composite for automotive bumper beam and has achieved reasonable impact improvements.

  6. Mechanical properties of hybrid kenaf/glass reinforced epoxy composite for passenger car bumper beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is estimated that the annual world car production rate will reach 76 million vehicles per year by 2020. New regulations such as the EU End of Life Vehicles (ELV) regulations are forcing car manufacturers to consider the environmental impact of their production and possibly shift from the use of synthetic materials to the use of agro-based materials. Poor mechanical properties and certain manufacturing limitations currently limit the use of agro-based materials to non-structural and semi-structural automotive components. The hybridization of natural fiber with glass fiber provides a method to improve the mechanical properties over natural fibers alone. This research is focused on a hybrid of kenaf/glass fiber to enhance the desired mechanical properties for car bumper beams as automotive structural components with modified sheet molding compound (SMC). A specimen without any modifier is tested and compared with a typical bumper beam material called glass mat thermoplastic (GMT). The results indicate that some mechanical properties such as tensile strength, Young's modulus, flexural strength and flexural modulus are similar to GMT, but impact strength is still low, and shows the potential for utilization of hybrid natural fiber in some car structural components such as bumper beams.

  7. Thermoplastic impact property improvement in hybrid natural fibre epoxy composite bumper beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoodi, M. M.; Sapuan, S. M.; Ali, Aidy; Ahmad, D.; Khalina, A.

    2010-05-01

    Utilization of thermoset resin as a bumper beam composite matrix is currently more dominated in car manufacturer suppliers, because of availability, easy processing, low material cost and production equipment investment. Moreover, low viscosity, shrinkage and excellent flow facilitate better fibre impregnation and proper surface resin wetting. Three-dimensional cross linking curing increase impact, creep and environmental stress cracking resistance properties. Low impact properties of natural fibre epoxy composite, are main issues in its employment for automotive structural components. Impact properties in epoxy composite bumper beam could be increased by modifying the resin, reinforcement and manufacturing process as well as geometry parameters such as cross section, thickness, added ribs and fixing method optimizations could strengthen impact resistance. There are two main methods, flexibilisation and toughening, as modifying the resin in order to improve the impact properties of epoxy composite, which form single phase or two-phase morphology to make modifier as epoxy or from separate phase to keep the thermo-mechanical properties. Liquid rubber, thermoplastic, core shell particle and rigid particle are different methods of toughening improvements. In this research, thermoplastic toughening has used to improve impact properties in hybrid natural fibre epoxy composite for automotive bumper beam and has achieved reasonable impact improvements.

  8. Desain Struktur dan Pembuatan Parking Bumper Dari Bahan Polymeric Foam Diperkuat Serat Tandan Kosong Kelapa Sawit (TKKS) Terhadap Beban Impak dan Tekan

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Syurkarni

    2012-01-01

    The palm oil industry development is rapidly increasing. One of palm oil industry waste is oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB). OPEFB waste can be processed in to fibers. OPEFB fibers are potential to be made as engineering materials. The aims of the research were to obtain the parking bumper design which was able to obtain the static and dynamic load impact, to obtain the effective parking bumper product manufacturing, to find the best material composition for parking bumper, and to examine t...

  9. Impact experiments into multiple-mesh targets: Concept development of a lightweight collisional bumper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerz, Friedrich; Cintala, Mark J.; Bernhard, Ronald P.; Cardenas, Frank; Davidson, William; Haynes, Gerald; See, Thomas H.; Winkler, Jerry; Gray, Barry

    1993-01-01

    The utility of multiple-mesh targets as potential lightweight shields to protect spacecraft in low-Earth orbit against collisional damage is explored. Earlier studies revealed that single meshes comminute hypervelocity impactors with efficiencies comparable to contiguous targets. Multiple interaction of projectile fragments with any number of meshes should lead to increased comminution, deceleration, and dispersion of the projectile, such that all debris exiting the mesh stack possesses low specific energies (ergs/sq cm) that would readily be tolerated by many flight systems. The study is conceptually exploring the sensitivity of major variables such as impact velocity, the specific areal mass (g/sq cm) of the total mesh stack (SM), and the separation distance (S) between individual meshes. Most experiments employed five or ten meshes with total SM typically less than 0.5 the specific mass of the impactor, and silicate glass impactors rather than metal projectiles. While projectile comminution increases with increasing impact velocity due to progressively higher shock stresses, encounters with multiple-meshes at low velocity (1-2 km/s) already lead to significant disruption of the glass impactors, with the resulting fragments being additionally decelerated and dispersed by subsequent meshes, and, unlike most contiguous single-plate bumpers, leading to respectable performance at low velocity. Total specific bumper mass must be the subject of careful trade-off studies; relatively massive bumpers will generate too much debris being dislodged from the bumper itself, while exceptionally lightweight designs will not cause sufficient comminution, deceleration, or dispersion of the impactor. Separation distance was found to be a crucial design parameter, as it controls the dispersion of the fragment cloud. Substantial mass savings could result if maximum separation distances were employed. The total mass of debris dislodged by multiple-mesh stacks is modestly smaller than

  10. A study on light-aging resistance of instrument panel materials and bumper materials on the automobile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Wentao; Liu Qiang; Li Li; Li Huilian

    2014-01-01

    The light-aging test method commonly used in the automotive industry is utilized to carry out light-aging research on automotive instrument panel (IP) materials and bumper materials. On one hand,the impacts of common light-aging test methods on aging degree of automotive component materials are reviewed;on the other hand,the light-aging resistances of different component materials are compared. The results show that, for light-aging behavior of IP materials,the aging degree of the third test method is not severer than that of the second method,but it is severer than that of the first method. The light-aging resistance of IP material A is al-most the same as that of IP material B. With reference to light-aging behavior of bumper materials,the aging de-gree of three common test methods indicates that the aging degree of the sixth test method is not severer than that of the fourth method,but it is severer than that of the fifth method. The light-aging resistance of bumper material D is superior to that of bumper material C.

  11. Buttons to Bumper Stickers: Political Campaign Memorabilia--Campaign Memorabilia Can Help Students Connect Past with Present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Lee Ann

    2004-01-01

    During the season of political campaigns scores of bumper stickers, posters, and other items with slogans supporting one candidate or another suddenly appear and quickly multiply around neighborhoods and towns, with stickers plastered on cars, and posters hanging in windows, or posted in front yards. From George Washington to George W. Bush,…

  12. A study on light-aging resistance of instrument panel materials and bumper materials on the automobile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Wentao; Liu Qiang; Li Li; Li Huilian

    2014-01-01

    The light-aging test method commonly used in the automotive industry is utilized to carry out light- aging research on automotive instrument panel (IP) materials and bumper materials. On one hand, the impacts of common light-aging test methods on aging degree of automotive component materials are reviewed; on the other hand, the light-aging resistances of different component materials are compared. The results show that, for light-aging behavior of IP materials, the aging degree of the third test method is not severer than that of the second method, but it is severer than that of the first method. The light-aging resistance of IP material A is al- most the same as that of IP material B. With reference to light-aging behavior of bumper materials, the aging de- gree of three common test methods indicates that the aging degree of the sixth test method is not severer than that of the fourth method, but it is severer than that of the fifth method. The light-aging resistance of bumper material D is superior to that of bumper material C.

  13. TFTR Bumper Limiter and Protective Plate (BL/PP) graphite tile computer aided design and manufacture (CAD/CAM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Bumper Limiter/Protective Plate (BL/PP) project was part of McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Company's (MDAC's) diversification effort into Fusion Energy. MDAC planned to layout and fabricate protective liners for the inside walls of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). The conceptual design was given: water-cooled Inconel backing plates covered with high purity graphite tiles. This paper describes how the computer was used to design, fabricate, and inspect the liners and, in particular, the tiles

  14. Nano-cellulose derived bioplastic biomaterial data for vehicle bio-bumper from banana peel waste biomass

    OpenAIRE

    A.B.M. Sharif Hossain; Ibrahim, Nasir A.; Aleissa, Mohammed Saad

    2016-01-01

    The innovative study was carried out to produce nano-cellulose based bioplastic biomaterials for vehicle use coming after bioprocess technology. The data show that nano-cellulose particle size was 20 nm and negligible water absorption was 0.03% in the bioplastic. Moreover, burning test, size and shape characterizations, spray coating dye, energy test and firmness of bioplastic have been explored and compared with the standardization of synthetic vehicle plastic bumper following the American S...

  15. On projectile fragmentation at high-velocity perforation of a thin bumper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myagkov, N. N.; Stepanov, V. V.

    2014-09-01

    By means of 3D numerical simulations, we study the statistical properties of the fragments cloud formed during high-velocity impact of a spherical projectile on a mesh bumper. We present a quantitative description of the projectile fragmentation, and study the nature of the transition from the damage to the fragmentation of the projectile when the impact velocity varies. A distinctive feature of the present work is that the calculations are carried out by smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method applied to the equations of mechanics of deformable solids (MDS). We describe the materials behavior by the Mie-Grüneisen equation of state and the Johnson-Cook model for the yield strength. The maximum principal stress spall model is used as the fracture model. It is shown that the simulation results of fragmentation based on the MDS equations by the SPH method are qualitatively consistent with the results obtained earlier on the basis of the molecular dynamics and discrete element models. It is found that the power-law distribution exponent does not depend on energy imparted to the projectile during the high-velocity impact. At the same time, our calculations show that the critical impact velocity, the power-law exponent and other critical exponents depend on the fracture criterion.

  16. Exposure Assessment Suggests Exposure to Lung Cancer Carcinogens in a Painter Working in an Automobile Bumper Shop

    OpenAIRE

    KIM, Boowook; Yoon, Jin-Ha; Choi, Byung-Soon; Shin, Yong Chul

    2013-01-01

    A 46-year-old man who had worked as a bumper spray painter in an automobile body shop for 15 years developed lung cancer. The patient was a nonsmoker with no family history of lung cancer. To determine whether the cancer was related to his work environment, we assessed the level of exposure to carcinogens during spray painting, sanding, and heat treatment. The results showed that spray painting with yellow paint increased the concentration of hexavalent chromium in the air to as much as 118.3...

  17. Micro-abrasion package capture cell experiment on the trailing edge of LDEF: Impactor chemistry and whipple bumper shield efficiencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Howard J.; Yano, Hajime

    1995-01-01

    Four of the eight available double layer microparticle capture cells, flown as the experiment A0023 on the trailing (West) face of LDEF, have been extensively studied. An investigation of the chemistry of impactors has been made using SEM/EDX techniques and the effectiveness of the capture cells as bumper shields has also been examined. Studies of these capture cells gave positive EDX results, with 53 percent of impact sites indicating the presence of some chemical residues, the predominant residue identified as being silicon in varying quantities.

  18. Exposure assessment suggests exposure to lung cancer carcinogens in a painter working in an automobile bumper shop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Boowook; Yoon, Jin-Ha; Choi, Byung-Soon; Shin, Yong Chul

    2013-12-01

    A 46-year-old man who had worked as a bumper spray painter in an automobile body shop for 15 years developed lung cancer. The patient was a nonsmoker with no family history of lung cancer. To determine whether the cancer was related to his work environment, we assessed the level of exposure to carcinogens during spray painting, sanding, and heat treatment. The results showed that spray painting with yellow paint increased the concentration of hexavalent chromium in the air to as much as 118.33 μg/m(3). Analysis of the paint bulk materials showed that hexavalent chromium was mostly found in the form of lead chromate. Interestingly, strontium chromate was also detected, and the concentration of strontium chromate increased in line with the brightness of the yellow color. Some paints contained about 1% crystalline silica in the form of quartz. PMID:24422178

  19. Nano-cellulose derived bioplastic biomaterial data for vehicle bio-bumper from banana peel waste biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif Hossain, A B M; Ibrahim, Nasir A; AlEissa, Mohammed Saad

    2016-09-01

    The innovative study was carried out to produce nano-cellulose based bioplastic biomaterials for vehicle use coming after bioprocess technology. The data show that nano-cellulose particle size was 20 nm and negligible water absorption was 0.03% in the bioplastic. Moreover, burning test, size and shape characterizations, spray coating dye, energy test and firmness of bioplastic have been explored and compared with the standardization of synthetic vehicle plastic bumper following the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). Tensile test was observed 120 MPa/kg m(3). In addition to that pH and cellulose content were found positive in the bioplastic compared to the synthetic plastic. Chemical tests like K, CO3, Cl2, Na were determined and shown positive results compared to the synthetic plastic using the EN-14214 (European Norm) standardization. PMID:27331103

  20. BALLIST: A computer program to empirically predict the bumper thickness required to prevent perforation of the Space Station by orbital debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rule, William Keith

    1991-01-01

    A computer program called BALLIST that is intended to be a design tool for engineers is described. BALLlST empirically predicts the bumper thickness required to prevent perforation of the Space Station pressure wall by a projectile (such as orbital debris) as a function of the projectile's velocity. 'Ballistic' limit curves (bumper thickness vs. projectile velocity) are calculated and are displayed on the screen as well as being stored in an ASCII file. A Whipple style of spacecraft wall configuration is assumed. The predictions are based on a database of impact test results. NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center currently has the capability to generate such test results. Numerical simulation results of impact conditions that can not be tested (high velocities or large particles) can also be used for predictions.

  1. Improvement and Study on Assembly Line of Car Bumper%轿车保险杠装配线改善研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史潇函; 赵清; 陈莹

    2016-01-01

    以轿车保险杠装配线为研究对象,应用遗传算法对装配线进行优化设计。并利用MATLAB编程,以获得该装配线的最小工位数以及各工位作业分配情况。同时对装配线的布局、物料配送方式和器具进行改善,以获得较好的装配线平衡率。%Taking a bumper assembly line as the research object, genetic algorithms are used to optimize and design assembly line. MATLAB is used in programming to obtain the minimum quantity of workstation and the assigned situation of operation element. Meanwhile, the layout of the assembly line, the distribution of material and bin are improved to get better balance rate of production line.

  2. 货车后下部防护装置碰撞仿真及优化设计%Study on Crash Simulation and Structure Optimization of the Rear Bumper of a Truck

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶新娜; 杨明; 张志勇

    2014-01-01

    To solve the problem on rear bumper of a truck which has no functions of blockage and damping and energy absorption , rear bumper is optimized and simulative analysis and validation are carried out with LS -DYNA in accordance with related regulation of GB 11567.2-2001 concerning rear bumper .The simulation analysis of deformation velocity and deceleration show that the optimized design of the rear bumper after the performance has been optimized , can weaken the instantaneous impact , and avoid the rear car to im-pact the truck .%针对目前货车后下部防护装置难以保证防止钻撞功能的问题,对后下部防护装置进行优化设计。依据GB 11567.2-2001对汽车后下部防护装置的要求,利用LS-DYNA仿真软件对优化后的后下部防护装置进行碰撞仿真对比分析。通过动态仿真优化前后的后下部防护装置在碰撞过程中的变形、碰撞速度、碰撞减速度以及吸能情况,证明优化后的后下部防护装置在各项性能上都得到了提高,在发生后车追尾碰撞的时候,既能缓冲瞬时冲击,又能有效阻挡后车钻入,避免恶性事故发生。

  3. Bumper harvest of super rice in south and north China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@Recently. a great progress was made in breeding and cultivation of super rice in China. The South Demonstration Acceptance Meeting of China Super Rice was held in Oct 17. 2000 in Xinchang County, Zhejiang Province. Yield monitoring group organized by the Department of Science,Technology and Education, Ministry of Agriculture, China, was consisting of famous rice research scientists, agricultural technology extension experts, and government officials. In the demonstration meeting, the group investigated the rice growth of the demonstration field of the improved integrated cultivation technology of super hybrid rice, Xieyou 9308. Four representative demonstration fields from 6.87 ha of the demonstration were harvested after the current investigation of the group.

  4. CERN Relay Race: No records broken in a bumper year

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Tribute is paid to David Dallman, 20 times the organiser of the CERN Relay Race, who is now retiring.Solve the following mathematical problem for athletes: take the first and third-placed teams in the 2006 CERN Relay Race, randomly mix the runners to form two new teams, and what is the result? Answer: first place and fifth place. In short, the team which has reigned supreme in first place since 2001, the "Shabbys", decided to spice up the race this year by merging with their arch rivals, the "Latinos Volantes", themselves no strangers to the podium. And at the winning line, it was the hybrid formation, "Shabbys Volantes", which took the honours (no surprises there!). Sadly, they were unable to beat the Shabbys’ previous record nor get anywhere near the all-time race record of 10 minutes and 13 seconds for the 3.9-km course, held for a quarter of a century by the "UA1 Strollers". One of the members of that legendary team and race organiser 20 times, David Dallman, mar...

  5. Dale Bumpers White River NWR Continuous Forest Inventory Data Analysis Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the continuous forest inventory (CFI) being conducted at the refuge and details the analysis of the first refuge-wide sample for the purpose...

  6. 76 FR 2631 - Certification; Importation of Vehicles and Equipment Subject to Federal Safety, Bumper, and Theft...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-14

    ..., 1998, require each agency to write all rules in plain language. Application of the principles of plain... established this limit to encourage you to write your primary comments in a concise fashion. However, you may....). You may review DOT's complete Privacy Act Statement published in the Federal Register (65 FR...

  7. Advocacy for Art Education: Beyond Tee-Shirts and Bumper Stickers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobick, Bryna; DiCindio, Carissa

    2012-01-01

    Advocacy is not new to art education. Over the years, Goldfarb (1979), Hodsoll (1985), and Erickson and Young (1996) have written about the importance of arts advocacy, but the concept of advocacy has evolved with the times. For example, in the 1970s, arts advocacy was described as a "movement" and brought together art educators, administrators,…

  8. A Bumper!? An Empirical Investigation of the Relationship between the Economy and the Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Brekke, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the relationship between the economy and the environment. The relationship is often portrayed as a conflict in public discourse, as if what is good for the economy is bad for the environment and vice versa. The thesis tries to discern if there are common elements in the economy and the environment and how these have eventually become shared. The underlying model assumes that the economy and the environment can be depicted as two separate networks and that element...

  9. Specification for the power supply for dump bumper magnets of the synchrotron accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Crescenti, M; Metzmacher, K; Sermeus, L; CERN. Geneva. AB Department

    2003-01-01

    A synchrotron machine, capable to accelerate either light ions or protons, will be the basic instrument of the CNA (Centro Nazionale di Adroterapia), the medical centre dedicated to the cancer therapy, that will be built in Italy in the near future. The machine complex consists of one proton-carbon-ion linac that will accelerate the particles up to an energy of 7 MeV/u. An injection line will transport them to the synchrotron ring where the injected particles will be accelerated and extracted with an energy ranging from 60 to 250 MeV for protons and from 120 to 400 MeV/u for carbon ions. Fig. 1 shows a preliminary schematic picture of the CNA medical centre.

  10. Specification for the power supply for injection bumper magnets of the synchrotron accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Crescenti, M; Metzmacher, K; Sermeus, L; CERN. Geneva. AB Department

    2003-01-01

    A synchrotron machine, capable to accelerate either light ions or protons, will be the basic instrument of the CNA (Centro Nazionale di Adroterapia), the medical centre dedicated to the cancer therapy, that will be built in Italy in the near future. The machine complex consists of one proton-carbon-ion linac that will accelerate the particles up to an energy of 7 MeV/u. An injection line will transport them to the synchrotron ring where the injected particles will be accelerated and extracted with an energy ranging from 60 to 250 MeV for protons and from 120 to 400 MeV/u for carbon ions. Fig. 1 shows a preliminary schematic picture of the CNA medical centre.

  11. Investigation into debris cloud characterizations for oblique hypervelocity impact of projectiles on bumper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟; 管公顺; 庞宝君; 李强; 张永强

    2004-01-01

    All long-duration spacecraft in low-earth-orbit are subject to high velocity impacts by meteoroids and space debris. Such impacts are expected to occur at non-normal incidence angles and can cause severe damage to the spacecraft and its external flight-critical systems and possibly lead to catastrophic failure of the spacecraft.In order to ensure crew safety and proper function of internal and external spacecraft systems, the characteristics of a debris cloud generated by such impacts must be known. An analytical model is therefore developed for the characterization of the penetration and ricochet debris clouds created by the hypervelocity impact of an aluminum spherical projectile on an aluminum plate. This model employs normal and oblique shock wave theory to characterize the penetration and ricochet processes. The prediction results of center-of-mass trajectory and leading velocity of penetration and ricochet debris clouds are obtained and compared with numerical and experimental results in figures.

  12. Lightweight Design of Automotive Bumper%汽车保险杠的轻量化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋造云

    2008-01-01

    在节能环保大趋势下,汽车各个部件都在进行轻量化设计.保险杠在轻量化的同时还要保证其碰撞安全性,因而带来了一定的挑战.本文首先介绍了保险杠的结构和常用材料,然后从结构轻量化和材料轻量化两方面着手,介绍了该领域近年来一些新的发展动态.

  13. Porthole Extrusion Process Design for Magnesium-Alloy Bumper Back Beam by Using FE Analysis and Extrusion Limit Diagram

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sung-Yun; Ko, Dae-Cheol; Lee, Sang-Kon; Lee, In-Kyu; Joeng, Myeong-Sik; Kim, Da Hye; Cho, Yong-Jae

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, several studies with focus on developing state-of-the-art manufacturing technologies have been conducted to produce light vehicles by employing parts made of light materials such as aluminum and magnesium. Of such materials, magnesium has been found to pose numerous issues, because it cannot be deformed (plastic deformation) easily at low temperatures. Furthermore, oxidation on the surface of manganese occurs at high temperatures. This study analyzes the extrusion process for...

  14. Hypervelocity impact testing of advanced materials and structures for micrometeoroid and orbital debris shielding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Shannon; Christiansen, Eric L.

    2013-02-01

    A series of 66 hypervelocity impact experiments have been performed to assess the potential of various materials (aluminium, titanium, copper, stainless steel, nickel, nickel/chromium, reticulated vitreous carbon, silver, ceramic, aramid, ceramic glass, and carbon fibre) and structures (monolithic plates, open-cell foam, flexible fabrics, rigid meshes) for micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) shielding. Arranged in various single-, double-, and triple-bumper configurations, screening tests were performed with 0.3175 cm diameter Al2017-T4 spherical projectiles at nominally 6.8 km/s and normal incidence. The top performing shields were identified through target damage assessments and their respective weight. The top performing candidate shield at the screening test condition was found to be a double-bumper configuration with a 0.25 mm thick Al3003 outer bumper, 6.35 mm thick 40 PPI aluminium foam inner bumper, and 1.016 mm thick Al2024-T3 rear wall (equal spacing between bumpers and rear wall). In general, double-bumper candidates with aluminium plate outer bumpers and foam inner bumpers were consistently found to be amongst the top performers. For this impact condition, potential weight savings of at least 47% over conventional all-aluminium Whipple shields are possible by utilizing the investigated materials and structures. The results of this study identify materials and structures of interest for further, more in-depth, impact investigations.

  15. Two-dimensional laser servoing for precision motion control of an ODV robotic license plate recognition system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhen; Moore, Kevin L.; Chen, YangQuan; Bahl, Vikas

    2003-09-01

    As an outgrowth of series of projects focused on mobility of unmanned ground vehicles (UGV), an omni-directional (ODV), multi-robot, autonomous mobile parking security system has been developed. The system has two types of robots: the low-profile Omni-Directional Inspection System (ODIS), which can be used for under-vehicle inspections, and the mid-sized T4 robot, which serves as a ``marsupial mothership'' for the ODIS vehicles and performs coarse resolution inspection. A key task for the T4 robot is license plate recognition (LPR). For a successful LPR task without compromising the recognition rate, the robot must be able to identify the bumper locations of vehicles in the parking area and then precisely position the LPR camera relative to the bumper. This paper describes a 2D-laser scanner based approach to bumper identification and laser servoing for the T4 robot. The system uses a gimbal-mounted scanning laser. As the T4 robot travels down a row of parking stalls, data is collected from the laser every 100ms. For each parking stall in the range of the laser during the scan, the data is matched to a ``bumper box'' corresponding to where a car bumper is expected, resulting in a point cloud of data corresponding to a vehicle bumper for each stall. Next, recursive line-fitting algorithms are used to determine a line for the data in each stall's ``bumper box.'' The fitting technique uses Hough based transforms, which are robust against segmentation problems and fast enough for real-time line fitting. Once a bumper line is fitted with an acceptable confidence, the bumper location is passed to the T4 motion controller, which moves to position the LPR camera properly relative to the bumper. The paper includes examples and results that show the effectiveness of the technique, including its ability to work in real-time.

  16. 49 CFR 567.7 - Requirements for persons who alter certified vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Federal motor vehicle safety, Bumper, and Theft Prevention standards, and (2) Assumes legal responsibility... classification from that shown on the original certification label, the type as modified shall be provided....

  17. Safeguarding a Lunar Rover with Wald's Sequential Probability Ratio Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlong, Michael; Dille, Michael; Wong, Uland; Nefian, Ara

    2016-01-01

    The virtual bumper is a safeguarding mechanism for autonomous and remotely operated robots. In this paper we take a new approach to the virtual bumper system by using an old statistical test. By using a modified version of Wald's sequential probability ratio test we demonstrate that we can reduce the number of false positive reported by the virtual bumper, thereby saving valuable mission time. We use the concept of sequential probability ratio to control vehicle speed in the presence of possible obstacles in order to increase certainty about whether or not obstacles are present. Our new algorithm reduces the chances of collision by approximately 98 relative to traditional virtual bumper safeguarding without speed control.

  18. Probing the mysteries of early life on Earth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Initiated in April 2000 with support of the National Basic Research Program, dubbed 973 Program," a multidisciplinary project under the title "Biotic Origination, Radiation, Extinction and Recovery in Major Geological Intervals" has won a bumper harvest in research results.

  19. Canine toys and training devices as sources of exposure to phthalates and bisphenol A: quantitation of chemicals in leachate and in vitro screening for endocrine activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooten, Kimberly J; Smith, Philip N

    2013-11-01

    Chewing and mouthing behaviors exhibited by pet dogs are likely to lead to oral exposures to a variety of environmental chemicals. Products intended for chewing and mouthing uses include toys and training devices that are often made of plastics. The goal of the current study was to determine if a subset of phthalates and bisphenol A (BPA), endocrine disrupting chemicals commonly found in plastics, leach out of dog toys and training devices (bumpers) into synthetic canine saliva. In vitro assays were used to screen leachates for endocrine activity. Bumper leachates were dominated by di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and BPA, with concentrations reaching low μg mL(-1) following short immersions in synthetic saliva. Simulated chewing of bumpers during immersion in synthetic saliva increased concentrations of phthalates and BPA as compared to new bumpers, while outdoor storage had variable effects on concentrations (increased DEHP; decreased BPA). Toys leached substantially lower concentrations of phthalates and BPA, with the exception of one toy which leached considerable amounts of diethyl phthalate. In vitro assays indicated anti-androgenic activity of bumper leachates, and estrogenic activity of both bumper and toy leachates. These results confirm that toys and training devices are potential sources of exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals in pet dogs. PMID:24007620

  20. Injection Bump Synchronization Study for the CERN PS

    CERN Document Server

    Serluca, Maurizio; Gilardoni, Simone; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    In the framework of the LHC Injector Upgrade (LIU) project the CERN PS injection kinetic energy will be upgraded from 1.4 to 2 GeV. The present injection bump is made by four bumpers in Straight Section (SS) 40, 42, 43, 44 and it will be converted in a five bumpers system to allow additional flexibility in the bump shape with a reduction of the proton losses during the bump closure. The injection section SS42 has being redesigned to accommodate a new eddy current septum which will host a new bumper magnet in the same vacuum vessel due to reduced longitudinal space availability. The synchronization and amplitude variation of the power converter of the in-vacuum bumper 42 with respect to the remaining outside vacuum bumpers 40, 41, 43, 44 can lead to orbit distortion and consequent losses during injection. In this note we present the experimental results from Machine Development (MD) studies along with simulations for the present system at 1.4 GeV to quantify the acceptable orbit distortion and the performance ...

  1. Hypervelocity Impact of Explosive Transfer Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorkman, Michael D.; Christiansen, Eric L.

    2012-01-01

    Hypervelocity impact tests of 2.5 grains per foot flexible confined detonating chord (FCDC) shielded by a 1 mm thick 2024-T3 aluminum alloy bumper standing off 51 mm from the FCDC were performed. Testing showed that a 6 mm diameter 2017-T4 aluminum alloy ball impacting the bumper at 6.97 km/s and 45 degrees impact angle initiated the FCDC. However, impact by the same diameter and speed ball at 0 degrees angle of impact did not initiate the FCDC. Furthermore, impact at 45 degrees and the same speed by a slightly smaller diameter ball (5.8 mm diameter) also did not initiate the FCDC.

  2. FATUS (Foreign Agricultural Trade of the United States), November/December 1985

    OpenAIRE

    Warden, Tom

    1985-01-01

    The value of fiscal year (FY) 1985 farm exports declined 18 percent, as larger world Increased demand, unfavorable weather, supplies reduced prices and U.S. export volumes. and higher prices in the United States boosted the value of U.S. agricultural imports to Bumper a record high of $19.7 billion in FY 1985. up $820 million from 1984's level. Bumper grain and soybean crops worldwide will continue depressing prices in FY 1986. high value of the dollar and large stocks, rising production leve...

  3. Design of Bump Magnet of CSR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Four bumpers are required for the injection and extraction of CSR. The parameters of the bumpers are shown in table 1. Because of the steep raising and falling time and therefore the inductance of the magnet should be as small as possible, so the material of the magnet cores must be ferrite. And in order to reduce the cost of the bump magnet, the cross-section of the four ferrite cores was designed as the same, as shown in Fig.1.It is very similar to the lamination of the H-type dipole. And Fig.2 is the...

  4. Development of genetic and molecular toolboxes to control both rice blast and sheath blight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice blast and sheath blight diseases are the two major constraints for stable rice production in the Southern USA. New genetic and molecular tool boxes have been developed at the USDA-ARS Dale Bumpers National Rice Research Center. Resistance (major and minor) genes from rice have been identified...

  5. 49 CFR 571.221 - Standard No. 221; School bus body joint strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... homogeneous material or from a single piece of composite material such as plywood. Body panel means a body... component, including but not limited to floor panels, and body panels made of composite materials such as... that encloses the bus occupant space, including the floor, but excluding the bumpers and chassis...

  6. Auditory-Visual Context and Memory Retrieval in 3-Month-Old Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daman-Wasserman, Michelle; Brennan, Barbara; Radcliffe, Fiona; Prigot, Joyce; Fagen, Jeffrey

    2006-01-01

    In 3 experiments, 3-month-old infants were trained to move an overhead mobile by kicking 1 of their feet in the presence of a distinctive visual (crib bumpers) and auditory (music) context. In Experiment 1A, 5-day but not 1-day retention was disrupted if either or both elements of the context present during the retention test were novel. In…

  7. Suitability of Recycled Polyethylene/Palm Kernel Shell-Iron Filings Composite for Automobile Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Samotu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A recycling aimed research was carried out to produce a new composite material and proffer suggestion for the possible use of the newly developed composite material. The empty water sachet (commonly called pure water nylon in Nigeria, was used as a matrix, which was reinforced by carbonized palm kernel shell (CPKS particulate and iron fillings. The percentage composition of iron fillings was maintained at 5 wt%, while that of palm kernel shell ash was varied from 5 wt% - 20 wt% at an interval of 5 %. The composites were compounded and compressively moulded. Physical and mechanical properties of the composites were tested for alongside three conventional car bumper samples, and the results obtained shows that the composite material could be used to produce a car bumper among other parts of automobile like dashboard due to their impact strength and low density. Impact strength - density ratio for the materials gave prime information on the possible application of the developed material. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM was used to examine the distribution of the reinforcement within the matrix. After results analysis, materials with 5 wt% of CPKS and that with 10 wt% of CPKS were recommended for the car bumper production following their high impact strength - density ratio of 0.26 and 0.19 respectively, which are higher as compared to that of a conventional bumper material measured alongside the composite materials.

  8. Risk Assessment Update: Russian Segment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Eric; Lear, Dana; Hyde, James; Bjorkman, Michael; Hoffman, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    BUMPER-II version 1.95j source code was provided to RSC-E- and Khrunichev at January 2012 MMOD TIM in Moscow. MEMCxP and ORDEM 3.0 environments implemented as external data files. NASA provided a sample ORDEM 3.0 g."key" & "daf" environment file set for demonstration and benchmarking BUMPER -II v1.95j installation at the Jan-12 TIM. ORDEM 3.0 has been completed and is currently in beta testing. NASA will provide a preliminary set of ORDEM 3.0 ".key" & ".daf" environment files for the years 2012 through 2028. Bumper output files produced using the new ORDEM 3.0 data files are intended for internal use only, not for requirements verification. Output files will contain these words ORDEM FILE DESCRIPTION = PRELIMINARY VERSION: not for production. The projectile density term in many BUMPER-II ballistic limit equations will need to be updated. Cube demo scripts and output files delivered at the Jan-12 TIM have been updated for the new ORDEM 3.0 data files. Risk assessment results based on ORDEM 3.0 and MEM will be presented for the Russian Segment (RS) of ISS.

  9. Designing Software-Based Interactive Installations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Troels; Juul, Niels Christian; Rosendahl, Mads

    2014-01-01

    installations and support the description of the approach with a single case- a bumper car competition. Why. To some extent, standard techniques for software development can be adapted for interactive installations. However, there is a need to emphasize the unique aspects of installations, bringing tangible...

  10. Self-Resetting Energy Absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Fuente, Horacio M.; Nagy, Kornel; Wesselski, Clarence J.

    1992-01-01

    Device uses friction to dissipate kinetic energy. When moving mass pushes in one direction, it offers substantial friction. Pushed in opposite direction, it offers negligible friction. Built-in spring resets for another shock-absorption cycle. Used in industrial machinery, automobile bumpers and suspensions, and parachute lanyards.

  11. Newly added joint ventures in China’s auto parts industry in 2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>A total of 17 joint ventures on auto parts production were added in 2007, a slight increase year on year. The Chinese side partners were from FAW, SAIC, Beiqi and Sinotruk and foreigner partners were from Lear, Johnson Controls, ArvinMeritor, DEUTZ, FAURECIA and RICARDO. The planed products include car seat, interior, diesel engine, body electronics parts, transmission and bumper.

  12. Forensic applications of microscopical infrared internal reflection spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tungol, Mary W.; Bartick, Edward G.; Reffner, John A.

    1994-01-01

    Applications of microscopical infrared internal reflection spectroscopy in forensic science are discussed. Internal reflection spectra of single fibers, hairs, paint chips, vehicle rubber bumpers, photocopy toners, carbon copies, writing ink on paper, lipstick on tissue, black electrical tape, and other types of forensic evidence have been obtained. The technique is convenient, non-destructive, and may permit smeared materials to be analyzed in situ.

  13. '95 Achievements in Oil and Gas Exploration and Prospects for 1996

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ding Guiming; Wang Yuxin

    1996-01-01

    @@ The year of 1995, the last year of the Eighth Five -Year Plan witnessed an overall bumper harvest of the Exploration Bureau. owing to its serious implementation of the working policies of" Speeding up the exploration in the west while consolidating the success in the east" and "Developing oil and gas concurrently" and to the active promotion of modernized exploration and management.

  14. First wall design of aluminium alloy R-tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A design study of a low-activation D-T tokamak Reacting Plasma Project In Nagoya has been finished. The study emphasizes the vacuum vessel and the bumper limiter. Our choice of materials (aluminium vacuum vessel, copper conductors, aluminium TF coil case and lead shield) results in a radiation level of about 1 x 10-3 times that of a TFTR type design, and 1 x 10-4 times that of JET type design, at 2 weeks after one D-T shot. Thick graphite tiles will be fixed directly on the aluminium vacuum vessel using aluminium spring washers and bolts. With this simplified structure of the bumper limiter, the inner surface temperature of the thick aluminium vacuum vessel will be less than 1200C which is required to reduce the overaging effect of the aluminium alloy. (orig.)

  15. International Space Station (ISS) Meteoroid/Orbital Debris Shielding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Eric L.

    1999-01-01

    Design practices to provide protection for International Space Station (ISS) crew and critical equipment from meteoroid and orbital debris (M/OD) Impacts have been developed. Damage modes and failure criteria are defined for each spacecraft system. Hypervolocity Impact -1 - and analyses are used to develop ballistic limit equations (BLEs) for each exposed spacecraft system. BLEs define Impact particle sizes that result in threshold failure of a particular spacecraft system as a function of Impact velocity, angles and particle density. The BUMPER computer code Is used to determine the probability of no penetration (PNP) that falls the spacecraft shielding based on NASA standard meteoroid/debris models, a spacecraft geometry model, and the BLEs. BUMPER results are used to verify spacecraft shielding requirements Low-weight, high-performance shielding alternatives have been developed at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) Hypervelocity Impact Technology Facility (HITF) to meet spacecraft protection requirements.

  16. Marking Streets to Improve Parking Density

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Chao

    2015-01-01

    Street parking spots for automobiles are a scarce commodity in most urban environments. The heterogeneity of car sizes makes it inefficient to rigidly define fixed-sized spots. Instead, unmarked streets in cities like New York leave placement decisions to individual drivers, who have no direct incentive to maximize street utilization. In this paper, we explore the effectiveness of two different behavioral interventions designed to encourage better parking, namely (1) educational campaigns to encourage parkers to "kiss the bumper" and reduce the distance between themselves and their neighbors, or (2) painting appropriately-spaced markings on the street and urging drivers to "hit the line". Through analysis and simulation, we establish that the greatest densities are achieved when lines are painted to create spots roughly twice the length of average-sized cars. Kiss-the-bumper campaigns are in principle more effective than hit-the-line for equal degrees of compliance, although we believe that the visual cues of...

  17. Potential space debris shield structure using impact-initiated energetic materials composed of polytetrafluoroethylene and aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiang; Zhang, Qingming; Long, Renrong; Zhang, Kai; Guo, Jun

    2016-03-01

    A whipple shield using Al/PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene) energetic material to protect against space debris is presented. The hypervelocity impact characteristics were investigated experimentally using a two-stage light gas gun at velocities between 3 and 6 km/s. A good protection of the shield was obtained through comparative experiments which used the same bumper areal density. The results showed that the critical projectile diameter can be improved by 28% by contrast with the Christiansen ballistic limit equations. The Al/PTFE energetic material bumper can break up the projectile into smaller, less massive, and slower projectiles due to the combined effect of impact and explosion, thereby producing a sharp rise in the spacecraft protection ability.

  18. External tank space debris considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfer, N.; Baillif, F.; Robinson, J.

    1992-01-01

    Orbital debris issues associated with maintaining a Space Shuttle External Tank (ET) on orbit are presented. The first issue is to ensure that the ET does not become a danger to other spacecraft by generating space debris, and the second is to protect the pressurized ET from penetration by space debris or meteoroids. Tests on shield designs for penetration resistance showed that when utilized with an adequate bumper, thermal protection system foam on the ET is effective in preventing penetration.

  19. Hypervelocity impact simulations of Whipple shields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segletes, Steven B.; Zukas, Jonas A.

    1992-01-01

    The problem associated with protecting space vehicles from space debris impact is described. Numerical simulation is espoused as a useful complement to experimentation: as a means to help understand and describe the hypervelocity impact phenomena. The capabilities of a PC-based hydrocode, ZeuS, are described, for application to the problem of hypervelocity impact. Finally, results of ZeuS simulations, as applied to the problem of bumper shield impact, are presented and compared with experimental results.

  20. A Study on the Implementation of Green Supply Chain- A Comparative Analysis between Small Scale Industries in India and Developed Nations

    OpenAIRE

    Selvaraj, Ranjith Karthick

    2011-01-01

    Environmental pollution is the major problem that mankind faces in present state, the major emission of toxic gases is from vehicles and manufacturing industries. The thesis study focuses on three different types of Small Scale Industries (SSI) in India that are bumper manufacturing industry, dyeing industry and food processing industry. The product life cycles of the process for each industry are identified and their final green waste disposal methods are investigated. The industries are ide...

  1. An RFID implementation in the automotive industry - improving inventory accuracy

    OpenAIRE

    Hellström, Daniel; Wiberg, Mathias

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores and describes the impact of radio frequency identification (RFID) technology on inventory accuracy within a production and assembly plant, and proposes a model for assessing the impact of the technology on inventory accuracy. The empirical investigation, based on case study research, focuses on a RFID implementation at a supplier of bumper and spoiler systems to the automotive industry. The results indicate that RFID ensures that inventory inaccurac...

  2. Acorn poisoning in cattle and sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    • Multiple cases of acorn poisoning in cattle and sheep following bumper crop • Salmonella Dublin infection causes abortions in cattle • Respiratory disease affecting different age groups of pigs on a nursery finisher unit • Porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome cases diagnosed • A further case of suspect Marek's disease in turkeys. These are among matters discussed in the Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency's (AHVLA's) disease surveillance report for November 2013 to January 2014. PMID:24578432

  3. Beijing-Tianjin Intercity High-speed Line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Ever since 2003, under the guidance of the scientific development concept and in line with the decisions and deployments made by the Party Central Committee and the State Council, China Railways has eagerly taken the golden opportunity for development, to facilitate the implementation of the Mid-term and Long-term Railway Network Development Program, and so it has achieved bumper significant accomplishments in the modernization progress, with Beijing-Tianjin Intercity High-speed Line as one of the exemplary representatives.

  4. Development of painting technology using plasma surface technology for automobile parts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, C.-K. [Department of Chemistry and Institute of Basic Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: ckjung7818@skku.edu; Bae, I.-S. [Department of Chemistry and Institute of Basic Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, S.-B. [Department of Chemistry and Institute of Basic Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, J.-H. [Woosin Cryovac Co., Ltd. Uiwang 437-820 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, E.-S. [Woosin Cryovac Co., Ltd. Uiwang 437-820 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, S.-C. [Plakor Co., Ltd, Seoul 152-050 (Korea, Republic of); Boo, J.-H. [Department of Chemistry and Institute of Basic Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: jhboo@chem.skku.ac.kr

    2006-05-26

    One of the major areas in organic coatings for corrosion protection of automobile parts is the surface treatment of polyolefin (Polypropylene (RX-2000)) bumper substrates. In order to develop the painting technology, in this work, we directly tried to paint on the plastic bumper substrates without both wet washing process with VOC solvents and phosphate primer spray process. Microwave (MW) plasma treatment represents an efficient, clean and economic alternative to activate polymeric surfaces. O{sub 2} plasma treatment at room temperature within 300 s in the power range of 300-1000 W were used to elevate hydrophilic property of the polyolefin surfaces, resulting in distinctive change of wettability and adhesion between painting layer and polymeric bumper substrates. The treated surfaces have been analyzed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Wettability and adhesion properties were elevated by the measurement of the contact angle, adhesion test, impact test, cold resistant impact test and water resistant impact test. We confirmed that the O{sub 2} plasma treatment was a very reliable method for the synthesis of polyolefin substrates with high wettability and adhesion performance.

  5. HVI Ballistic Performance Characterization of Non-Parallel Walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohl, William; Miller, Joshua; Christiansen, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The Double-Wall, "Whipple" Shield [1] has been the subject of many hypervelocity impact studies and has proven to be an effective shield system for Micro-Meteoroid and Orbital Debris (MMOD) impacts for spacecraft. The US modules of the International Space Station (ISS), with their "bumper shields" offset from their pressure holding rear walls provide good examples of effective on-orbit use of the double wall shield. The concentric cylinder shield configuration with its large radius of curvature relative to separation distance is easily and effectively represented for testing and analysis as a system of two parallel plates. The parallel plate double wall configuration has been heavily tested and characterized for shield performance for normal and oblique impacts for the ISS and other programs. The double wall shield and principally similar Stuffed Whipple Shield are very common shield types for MMOD protection. However, in some locations with many spacecraft designs, the rear wall cannot be modeled as being parallel or concentric with the outer bumper wall. As represented in Figure 1, there is an included angle between the two walls. And, with a cylindrical outer wall, the effective included angle constantly changes. This complicates assessment of critical spacecraft components located within outer spacecraft walls when using software tools such as NASA's BumperII. In addition, the validity of the risk assessment comes into question when using the standard double wall shield equations, especially since verification testing of every set of double wall included angles is impossible.

  6. ["Mobilize the masses to urgently go into action and overcome the drought"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-14

    At present, the drought is serious. Urgently taking action and doing everything possible to overcome the drought and strive for a bumper autumn harvest is an extremely urgent combat task facing the people of our province. Since mid-June, it has rained in our province several times but it has not rained very evenly. It has not rained in many places during the past 1/2 year and more. By the end of July, autumn crops on 37.35 million mu of land have been affected by the drought, accounting for more than 1/3 of the total area of the autumn crops. The drought has greatly harmed the growth of autumn crops. If we do not act now the drought will seriously affect the autumn harvest. Mobilizing the masses to urgently go into action to overcome the drought and strive for a bumper autumn harvest is a major task which has a bearing on the livelihood of both the urban and rural people of our province and on the further development of the excellent situation. Therefore, party committees at all levels must pay attention to this, concentrate the forces to grasp it firmly and well, and not lower their guard. The party members, cadres, and masses must carry forward the spirit of fighting continuously and struggling hard, make full use of all water conservancy projects and antidrought machinery and tools, try their best to find new water resources, and use water reasonably and sparingly. All walks of life and trades must do everything possible to vigorously support the struggle against the drought and do well in supplying the oil and electricity needed for agricultural machinery and help to repair machinery and tools. We all must contribute toward the effort to achieve a bumper autumn harvest. PMID:12338066

  7. Heat Pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Heat Pipes were originally developed by NASA and the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory during the 1960s to dissipate excessive heat build- up in critical areas of spacecraft and maintain even temperatures of satellites. Heat pipes are tubular devices where a working fluid alternately evaporates and condenses, transferring heat from one region of the tube to another. KONA Corporation refined and applied the same technology to solve complex heating requirements of hot runner systems in injection molds. KONA Hot Runner Systems are used throughout the plastics industry for products ranging in size from tiny medical devices to large single cavity automobile bumpers and instrument panels.

  8. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Chinese exporters regain steam in a warm embrace of emerging markets.After a bumper year in 2009,fund managers are skeptical of what lies ahead for the stock market this year.On a broader scale,the Chinese economy remains a source of confidence for U.S.firms,as illustrated by a survey of the American Chamber of Commerce in China.Overcapacity remains a top priority on the government’s agenda.China’s top automaker SAIC Motor witnessed its net profit surge nine-fold last year.

  9. Annual Report 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research activities of Institute of High Energy Physics (IHEP), Academia Sinica of China during the year of 1990 is summarized. The year of 1990 is a bumper harvest year for IHEP, within which the BEPC project and some other scientific facilities undertaken by IHEP achieved remarkable success in the fields of high energy physics research, technological development, application of synchrotron radiation and nuclear technology. academic exchange and international collaboration have been vigorously carried out, scientific research and development work has been deepened further and the work in management sector has been also improved gradually

  10. M/OD Risk Assessment System and Its Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hai-fu; YU Qing-bo; LIU You-ying; WANG Hui

    2009-01-01

    A risk assessment system named meteoroid & orbital debris risk assessment system (MODRAS) developed for assessing risks of the spacecraft under the meteoroid and debris environment (M/OD EM) is presented.The computing resolution of MODRAS has been verified by both the three generic spacecraft geometries of inter agency debris committee (IADC) and similar foreign software such as BUMPER,ESABASE,and MDPANTO.The results show that the system is fit well with the computing results of the foreign software.Typical applications of the system are also presented,including a manned spacecraft and a space shuttle.

  11. CHINA-JIANGSU LAD GROUP CO.LTD.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In recent years,the LAD Group has invested in R & D and innovation program for diversi- fied forms of business development hoping to make the company bigger,better and stronger, and it has achieved a bumper harvest. The LAD Group has become a giant in casual wear manufacturing.It is equipped with international state-of-the-art machines,washing machines,computer-aided embroidery machines, smart streamline,garment-print line,dyeing & finishing line and CAD pattern-making system, making it possible to compose three important production bases of weaving,dyeing & heat

  12. CHINA-JIANGSU LAD GROUP CO.LTD.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In recent years,the LAD Group has invested in R & D and innovation program for diversi- fied forms of business development hoping to make the company bigger,better and stronger, and it has achieved a bumper harvest. The LAD Group has become a giant in casual wear manufacturing.It is equipped with international state-of-the-art machines,washing machines,computer-aided embroidery machines, smart streamline,garment-print line,dyeing & finishing line and CAD pattern-making system, making it possible to compose three important production bases of weaving,dyeing & heat

  13. Orbital Debris Research in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansbery, Gene

    2009-01-01

    The presentation includes information about growth of the satellite population, the U.S. Space Surveillance Network, tracking and catalog maintenance, Haystack and HAX radar observation, Goldstone radar, the Michigan Orbital Debris Survey Telescope (MODEST), spacecraft surface examinations and sample of space shuttle impacts. GEO/LEO observations from Kwajalein Atoll, NASA s Orbital Debris Engineering Model (ORDEM2008), a LEO-to-GEO Environment Debris Model (LEGEND), Debris Assessment Software (DAS) 2.0, the NASA/JSC BUMPER-II meteoroid/debris threat assessment code, satellite reentry risk assessment, optical size and shape determination, work on more complicated fragments, and spectral studies.

  14. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU YUE

    2010-01-01

    @@ TO THE POINT: The Asian Development Bank sees bullish prospects for the Chinese economy, though inactivity is building in the export and investment fields. China reaps a bumper harvest with grain output totaling 546.41 million tons in 2010 despite numerous natural disasters throughout the year. The Chinese Academy of Social Sciences has issued a note of caution about frothy house prices across the nation. Two Chinese Intemet companies, Youku and Dangdang, have staged successful debuts on the New York Stock Exchange.China boasts the third largest number of dollar millionaires in the world.

  15. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The Asian Development Bank sees bullish prospects for the Chinese economy, though inactivity is building in the export and investment fields. China reaps a bumper harvest with grain output totaling 546.41 million tons in 2010 despite numerous natural disasters throughout the year. The Chinese Academy of Social Sciences has issued a note of caution about frothy house prices across the nation. Two Chinese Internet companies, Youku and Dangdang, have staged successful debuts on the New York Stock Exchange. China boasts the third largest number of dollar millionaires in the world.

  16. Tending to Internal Pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China has reaped bumper grain harvests for seven consecutive years.In 2010,the country's grain output reached 545.8 million tons.Despite the success,China still faces daunting challenges toensure grain security for the following three reasons.First,natural conditions for harvesting grain are fragile.Second,farmers have fewer incentives to plant more grain since the benefits are low,and,without government intervention,the balance of supply and demand will be shattered.Third,supplies of rice and wheat are being stretched thin.

  17. Teachingless spray-painting of sculptured surface by an industrial robot

    OpenAIRE

    Asakawa, Naoki; Takeuchi, Yoshimi

    1997-01-01

    The study deals with the automatic spray-painting by a 6-DOF industrial robot equipped with an air spray gun. Since the robot control commands generation for the spray-painting is manually performed by skilled workers using a teaching-playback function of a robot controller, the time, experience and patience are required. The study aims at making robot control commands without any special knowledge on spray-painting, in the case of bumpers of a car as an example of sculptured surfaces. The sy...

  18. Cultural objects as objects: materiality, urban space, and the interpretation of AIDS campaigns in Accra, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, Terence E

    2010-05-01

    AIDS media lead unexpected lives once distributed through urban space: billboards fade, posters go missing, bumper stickers travel to other cities. The materiality of AIDS campaign objects and of the urban settings in which they are displayed structures how the public interprets their messages. Ethnographic observation of AIDS media in situ and interview data reveal how the materiality of objects and places shapes the availability of AIDS knowledge in Accra, Ghana. Significantly for AIDS organizations, these material conditions often systematically obstruct access to AIDS knowledge for particular groups. Attending to materiality rethinks how scholars assess the cultural power of media. PMID:20853708

  19. Experimental Study of Hypervelocity Impact on Multi-Shock Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张庆明; 陈沿海; 黄风雷

    2004-01-01

    Hypervelocity impact tests on multi-shock shields are carried out in order to develop space structures against space debris impacts. Sheets of LY12 aluminum were used as bumpers. The total thickness of shield structure, which consists of several sheets with various thickness, is 3.0 mm or 2.0 mm. Results of the tests show that the type 0.5 mm+0.5 mm+0.5 mm+0.5 mm is a better choice of spacecraft shield structure.

  20. Assessing MMOD Impacts on Seal Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    deGroh, Henry C., III; Daniels, C.; Dunlap, P.; Steinetz, B.

    2007-01-01

    The elastomer seal needed to seal in cabin air when NASA s Crew Exploration Vehicle is docked is exposed to space prior to docking. While open to space, the seal might be hit by orbital debris or meteoroids. The likelihood of damage of this type depends on the size of the particle. Our campaign is designed to find the smallest particle that will cause seal failure resulting in loss of mission. We will then be able to estimate environmental risks to the seal. Preliminary tests indicate seals can withstand a surprising amount of damage and still function. Collaborations with internal and external partners are in place and include seal leak testing, modeling of the space environment using a computer code known as BUMPER, and hypervelocity impact (HVI) studies at Caltech. Preliminary work at White Sands Test Facility showed a 0.5 mm diameter HVI damaged areas about 7 times that diameter, boring deep (5 mm) into elastomer specimens. BUMPER simulations indicate there is a 1 in 1440 chance of getting hit by a particle of diameter 0.08 cm for current Lunar missions; and 0.27 cm for a 10 year ISS LIDS seal area exposure.

  1. Capacitors Would Help Protect Against Hypervelocity Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, David; Hubbs, Whitney; Hovater, Mary

    2007-01-01

    A proposal investigates alternatives to the present bumper method of protecting spacecraft against impacts of meteoroids and orbital debris. The proposed method is based on a British high-voltage-capacitance technique for protecting armored vehicles against shaped-charge warheads. A shield, according to the proposal, would include a bare metal outer layer separated by a gap from an inner metal layer covered with an electrically insulating material. The metal layers would constitute electrodes of a capacitor. A bias potential would be applied between the metal layers. A particle impinging at hypervelocity on the outer metal layer would break apart into a debris cloud that would penetrate the electrical insulation on the inner metal layer. The cloud would form a path along which electric current could flow between the metal layers, thereby causing the capacitor to discharge. With proper design, the discharge current would be large enough to vaporize the particles in the debris cloud to prevent penetration of the spacecraft. The shield design can be mass optimized to be competitive with existing bumper designs. Parametric studies were proposed to determine optimum correction between bias voltage, impacting particle velocity, gap space, and insulating material required to prevent spacecraft penetration.

  2. Optimal design of spaced plates under hypervelocity impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a bumper shield design for protection of a satellite structure system subjected to hypervelocity impact (above 6 km/s) from space debris. Especially, this study is focused on the optimization of the spaced plates (the so-called Whipple shield) design using the coupled SPH and Lagrangian FEM methods. This is because the SPH is a meshless method and it is efficient in hypervelocity impact analysis involving debris caused by fragmentation and penetration under hypervelocity impact. The Whipple shield is composed of multiple spaced plates where the first bumper plate is modeled as particles for SPH simulation while the rear wall is modeled as elements for FEM. The appropriate smoothing length and mesh size were determined taking into account computational cost and accuracy and the erosion scheme is adopted to avoid numerical error due to large deformation. After verification for the comparison with previous experimental works, the optimal plate structure is proposed considering multi design objectives based on parameter optimization

  3. Optimum structure of Whipple shield against hypervelocity impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hypervelocity impact of a spherical aluminum projectile onto two spaced aluminum plates (Whipple shield) was simulated to estimate an optimum structure. The Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) code which has a unique migration scheme from a rectangular coordinate to an axisymmetic coordinate was used. The ratio of the front plate thickness to sphere diameter varied from 0.06 to 0.48. The impact velocities considered here were 6.7 km/s. This is the procedure we explored. To guarantee the early stage simulation, the shapes of debris clouds were first compared with the previous experimental pictures, indicating a good agreement. Next, the debris cloud expansion angle was predicted and it shows a maximum value of 23 degree for thickness ratio of front bumper to sphere diameter of 0.23. A critical sphere diameter causing failure of rear wall was also examined while keeping the total thickness of two plates constant. There exists an optimum thickness ratio of front bumper to rear wall, which is identified as a function of the size combination of the impacting body, front and rear plates. The debris cloud expansion-correlated-optimum thickness ratio study provides a good insight on the hypervelocity impact onto spaced target system.

  4. Momentum distribution in debris cloud during hypervelocity impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaster, P.; Mount, A.; Zee, R. H.

    1992-01-01

    The long term operation of the Space Station Freedom requires a scheme to protect it from high velocity impacts by both man-made particles and micrometeor fragments. One such scheme is the use of metal plates to serve as shields against such orbital debris. These 'bumper' plates, as they are referred to, serve to break up any incident particle and redistribute its momentum over a larger area. It is therefore necessary to determine the momentum distribution within the debris cloud produced by such collisions in order to evaluate a materials effectiveness at accomplishing this task. This paper details the design and development of an innovative device which has made this possible. Momentum profiles were obtained for a series of test conditions. Total momentum values in the debris cloud were then calculated from these profiles. These results indicated that a momentum amplification exists with a multiplication factor of between 2 and 3. Thus the role of the bumper to serve as a means for momentum redistribution and not reduction was verified.

  5. Autonomous mobile robot for radiologic surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudar, Aed M.; Wagner, David G.; Teese, Gregory D.

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus for conducting radiologic surveys. The apparatus comprises in the main a robot capable of following a preprogrammed path through an area, a radiation monitor adapted to receive input from a radiation detector assembly, ultrasonic transducers for navigation and collision avoidance, and an on-board computer system including an integrator for interfacing the radiation monitor and the robot. Front and rear bumpers are attached to the robot by bumper mounts. The robot may be equipped with memory boards for the collection and storage of radiation survey information. The on-board computer system is connected to a remote host computer via a UHF radio link. The apparatus is powered by a rechargeable 24-volt DC battery, and is stored at a docking station when not in use and/or for recharging. A remote host computer contains a stored database defining paths between points in the area where the robot is to operate, including but not limited to the locations of walls, doors, stationary furniture and equipment, and sonic markers if used. When a program consisting of a series of paths is downloaded to the on-board computer system, the robot conducts a floor survey autonomously at any preselected rate. When the radiation monitor detects contamination, the robot resurveys the area at reduced speed and resumes its preprogrammed path if the contamination is not confirmed. If the contamination is confirmed, the robot stops and sounds an alarm.

  6. Autonomous mobile robot for radiologic surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An apparatus is described for conducting radiologic surveys. The apparatus comprises in the main a robot capable of following a preprogrammed path through an area, a radiation monitor adapted to receive input from a radiation detector assembly, ultrasonic transducers for navigation and collision avoidance, and an on-board computer system including an integrator for interfacing the radiation monitor and the robot. Front and rear bumpers are attached to the robot by bumper mounts. The robot may be equipped with memory boards for the collection and storage of radiation survey information. The on-board computer system is connected to a remote host computer via a UHF radio link. The apparatus is powered by a rechargeable 24-volt DC battery, and is stored at a docking station when not in use and/or for recharging. A remote host computer contains a stored database defining paths between points in the area where the robot is to operate, including but not limited to the locations of walls, doors, stationary furniture and equipment, and sonic markers if used. When a program consisting of a series of paths is downloaded to the on-board computer system, the robot conducts a floor survey autonomously at any preselected rate. When the radiation monitor detects contamination, the robot resurveys the area at reduced speed and resumes its preprogrammed path if the contamination is not confirmed. If the contamination is confirmed, the robot stops and sounds an alarm. 5 figures

  7. Direct Drive and Eddy Current Septa Magnet Designs for CERN’s PSB Extraction at 2 GeV

    CERN Multimedia

    Szoke, Zsolt; Balhan, Bruno; Baud, Cedric; Borburgh, Jan; Hourican, Michael; Masson, Thierry; Prost, Antoine

    2015-01-01

    In the framework of the LIU project, new septa magnets have been designed between CERN’s PS Booster (PSB) extraction and PS injection. The upgraded devices are to deal with the increased beam energy from 1.4 GeV to 2 GeV at extraction of the PSB. The direct drive recombination septa in the PSB transfer line to the PS, the eddy current PS injection septum together with a bumper at injection have been investigated using finite element software. For the recombination magnets an increase in magnet length is sufficient to obtain the required deflection; however, for the PS injection elements a more novel solution is necessary to also achieve increased robustness to extend the expected lifetime of the pulsed device. The injection septum will share the same vacuum vessel with an injection bumper and both magnets will be located adjacent to each other. The new PS injection magnet will be the first septum operated at CERN based on eddy current technology. The magnetic modelling of the devices, the comparison of the ...

  8. China’s Price System Jeopardizes its Grain Reserves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宾

    2008-01-01

    2008 is a year of bumper harvest in summer grain across China. The failure of numerous state-owned grain depots to purchase grain in times of bumper harvest, however, directly threatens grain reserve security and state control over grain prices in the upcoming year. An important factor underpinning the difficulty of state grain depots to purchase grain is the unwillingness of farmers to sell grain due to the excess of the current market price over the government "protected price" aimed at preventing cheap grain from harming farmers. When grassroots grain depots find themselves in trouble, foreign capital stealthily moves in by taking advantage of this situation. To fulfill grain storage tasks and receive various state subsidies, some state-owned grain depots have no alternative but to surreptitiously raise the purchase price. By contrast, some not so courageous state-owned grain depots can only borrow money to finance the purchase of commodity grain at market prices and subsequently figure out a way to pay back such loans. Behind such distorted grain purchase behavior lies a rough and rugged history of grain price reform in China.

  9. Cooking Dinner at Home--From the Office

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    It is well past quitting time, but you are still stuck in the office. Your spouse left work over an hour ago, but is caught in bumper-to-bumper traffic. As a result, neither of you were available to pick up your daughter on time from her soccer game. If your son hadn't gotten detention at school today, which also made him late for work, he could have picked her up. The next thing you know, it is already 8:30 at night, and your family members are finally all together under the same roof. No one has had a bite to eat since lunch, and dinner certainly isn't going to cook itself, or is it? For those who are all too familiar with this situation, it might be time to welcome the oven of the future into your homes: the ConnectIo Intelligent Oven, brought to you by TMIO, LLC, of Cleveland. Applying the same remote command and control concepts that NASA uses to run experiments on the International Space Station (ISS), ConnectIo allows its owners to cook dinner from the road, via a cell phone, personal digital assistant, or Internet connection.

  10. Nonlinear seismic analysis of a large sodium pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bearings and seismic bumpers used in a large sodium pump of a typical breeder reactor plant may need to be characterized by nonlinear springs and gaps. Then, nonlinear seismic analysis utilizing the time-history method is an effective way to predict the pump behaviors during seismic events, especially at those bearing and seismic bumper areas. In this study, synthesized time histories were developed based on specified seismic response spectra. A nonlinear seismic analysis was then conducted and results were compared with those obtained by linear seismic analysis using the response spectrum method. In contrast to some previous nonlinear analysis trends, the bearing impact forces predicted by nonlinear analysis were higher than those obtained by the response spectrum method. This might be due to the larger gaps and stiffer bearing supports used in this specific pump. However, at locations distant from the impact source, the nonlinear seismic analysis has predicted slightly less responses than those obtained by linear seismic analysis. The seismically induced bearing impact forces were used to study the friction induced thermal stresses on the hydrostatic bearing and to predict the coastdown time of the pump. Results and discussions are presented

  11. Plunger lift in horizontal gas wells : an old technique in a new application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sask, D.; Slade, J.; Peachey, E. [EnCana Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    A proven technique for lifting liquids from vertical gas wells flowing below their critical velocity involves plunger lift. This technique has a unique set of operating challenges, some of which are specific to the horizontal well geometry. This paper presented several challenges in applying plunger lift to horizontal welsl and provided insights into liquid hold up in horizontal gas wells. It was mentioned that traditional plunger lift calculations do not typically take into account the energy in the horizontal section of the well bore. They also do not account for significant dampening of that energy by liquids held up in the horizontal section. This paper also identified bumper spring check valve limitations at high deviation angles. In order to address this, redesigned bumper springs were deployed. Case histories were also presented in order to demonstrate the difference in performance when only water of condensation was being lifted and when both water of condensation and produced water was being lifted. In order to fully optimize horizontal gas wells, new operational strategies were utilized.

  12. Optimal design of spaced plates under hypervelocity impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Hoon; Yoo, Jeong Hoon [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Min Hyung [Sejong University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    This paper presents a bumper shield design for protection of a satellite structure system subjected to hypervelocity impact (above 6 km/s) from space debris. Especially, this study is focused on the optimization of the spaced plates (the so-called Whipple shield) design using the coupled SPH and Lagrangian FEM methods. This is because the SPH is a meshless method and it is efficient in hypervelocity impact analysis involving debris caused by fragmentation and penetration under hypervelocity impact. The Whipple shield is composed of multiple spaced plates where the first bumper plate is modeled as particles for SPH simulation while the rear wall is modeled as elements for FEM. The appropriate smoothing length and mesh size were determined taking into account computational cost and accuracy and the erosion scheme is adopted to avoid numerical error due to large deformation. After verification for the comparison with previous experimental works, the optimal plate structure is proposed considering multi design objectives based on parameter optimization.

  13. 基于有限元法的某SUV后部碰撞分析研究%Research and Analysis of a SUV Rear Collision Based on FEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡雪芳

    2016-01-01

    The finite element model which takes a SUV as the object is established based on finite element a-nalysis,and this paper simulates the center and angle collision process of the rear bumper. It evaluates the per-formance of the rear bumper collision by analyzing the energy absorption characteristics. According to the laws and regulations, this paper simulates the 100% and 40% overlap of the rear part low-speed collision and ana-lyzes the collision deformation of every part, stress distribution and energy change, In the end,it verifies the rationality of the design. The results provide a basis for the further optimization of the structure and offer a new idea for the vehicle collision,and they are of great reference value for further study of the rear bumper, the ve-hicle collision simulation and real vehicle crash test.%基于有限元分析法,以某SUV为研究对象,建立了其有限元模型,对后保险杠中心和车角碰撞过程进行了模拟,通过分析其吸能特性,评价了后保险杠的碰撞性能,然后根据法规要求,对后部100%和40%重叠低速碰撞进行了仿真,分析了碰撞过程各部件的变形、应力分布及能量变化等,验证了设计的合理性,为结构的进一步优化提供了依据,该方法为研究整车后部碰撞提供了新的思路,对深入研究后保险杠、整车碰撞仿真及实车碰撞试验具有重要的参考价值.

  14. Management of barriers to lean production implementation: a study in the automotive sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe de Almeida Copetti

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available During the process of lean production (LP implementation it is common to arise barriers depending on the context in which the application occurs. This study aims to perfect a method of management the barriers to the implementation of LP developed in a previous study. The improvements were developed by applying the method in the assembly area of bumpers in a car manufacturer. Data collection involved thirteen interviews, participant observation for six months and analysis of LP-related documents. Among the main improvements over the original version of the method, it can be highlighted the addition of thirteen barriers in the list of barriers already identified in the literature, and also the identification of contextual characteristics that can facilitate or hinder the application of the method.

  15. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The manufacturing sector of the country loses some steam as indicated by the slowing PMI in July.China Investment Corp.reaped a bum-per harvest from investments overseas last year, drawing strength from the global economic recovery. Chinese automaker Geely completed its purchase of Volvo, a landmark step toward making a global footprint. The aviation indus-try witnesses a substantial turnaround with air traffic surging in the first half of 2010. Meanwhile, 264 firms listed on the Chinese mainland reported a com-bined profit of 22.8 billion yuan ($3.4 billion) in the first half of this year,growing nearly 50 percent from a year earlier.IMAX is increasing its presence in the Chinese market where the movie industry is burning hot.

  16. Meteoroid/orbital debris impact damage predictions for the Russian space station MIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, E. L.; Hyde, J. L.; Lear, D.

    1997-01-01

    Components of the Mir space station have been exposed to the meteoroid/orbital debris (M/OD) environment for up to 11 years. During this period, no M/OD impact perforation of the pressure shell of the manned modules were reported. The NASA standard M/OD analysis code BUMPER was used to predict the probability of M/OD impact damage to various components of Mir. The analysis indicates a 1 in 2.2 chance that a M/OD impact would have caused a penetration resulting in a pressure leak of the Mir modules since its launch up to the February 1997. For the next five years, the estimated odds become 1 in 3. On an annual basis, penetration risks are 60 percent higher, on the average, in the next five years due to the larger size of Mir and the growth in the orbital debris population.

  17. Interpolation/extrapolation technique with application to hypervelocity impact of space debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rule, William K.

    1992-01-01

    A new technique for the interpolation/extrapolation of engineering data is described. The technique easily allows for the incorporation of additional independent variables, and the most suitable data in the data base is automatically used for each prediction. The technique provides diagnostics for assessing the reliability of the prediction. Two sets of predictions made for known 5-degree-of-freedom, 15-parameter functions using the new technique produced an average coefficient of determination of 0.949. Here, the technique is applied to the prediction of damage to the Space Station from hypervelocity impact of space debris. A new set of impact data is presented for this purpose. Reasonable predictions for bumper damage were obtained, but predictions of pressure wall and multilayer insulation damage were poor.

  18. DRIVING FARMING WITH TECHNOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Yuankai

    2012-01-01

    At the beginning of 2011,major grain producing provinces in central and east China experienced a prolonged drought that stretched for more than three months.Then in summer,a severe drought left millions short of drinking water in southwest China.Even the usually water-rich regions along the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River were not spared.In May,they suffered from the worst drought in 50 years,heavy rains eventually relieved the drought but these rains in turn caused serious flooding.Despite the disasters,last year saw a bumper harvest in China.On December 16,the Ministry of Agriculture said that the total grain output in 2011 reached a historical high of 571.2 billion kg,up 24.75 billion kg,or 4.5 percent,from 2010.

  19. Microprocessor based mobile radiation survey system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A microprocessor-based system has been designed and constructed to enhance the performance of routine radiation surveys on roads within the Hanford site. This device continually monitors system performance and output from four sodium iodide detectors mounted on the rear bumper of a 4-wheel drive truck. The gamma radiation count rate in counts-per-second is monitored, and a running average computed, with the results compared to predefined limits. If an abnormal instantaneous or average count rate is detected, an alarm is sounded with responsible data displayed on a liquid crystal panel in the cab of the vehicle. The system also has the capability to evaluate detector output using multiple time constants and to perform more complex tests and comparison of the data. Data can be archived for later analysis on conventional chart recorders or stored in digital form on magnetic tape or other digital storage media. 4 figures

  20. Points of view: where do we look when we watch TV?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasel, S Adam; Gips, James

    2008-01-01

    How is our gaze dispersed across the screen when watching television? An exploratory eyetracker study with a custom-designed show indicated a very strong center-of-screen bias with gaze points following a roughly normal distribution peaked near screen center. Examining the show across time revealed that people were rarely all looking at the same location, and the amount of gaze dispersion within frames was highly variable. Different forms of programming yielded different levels of dispersion: static network 'bumpers' created the tightest visual groupings, and gaze dispersion for frames with show content was less than the dispersion for commercials. Advertising frames with brand logos generated higher dispersion than the non-branded advertisement portions, and repeated advertisements generated higher dispersion than their first-run counterparts. PMID:19227380

  1. CO2-Laser Cutting Fiber Reinforced Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, R.; Nuss, Rudolf; Geiger, Manfred

    1989-10-01

    Guided by experimental investigations laser cutting of glass fiber reinforced reactive injection moulded (RRIM)-polyurethanes which are used e.g. in car industry for bumpers, spoilers, and further components is described. A Comparison with other cutting techniques as there are water jet cutting, milling, punching, sawing, cutting with conventional knife and with ultrasonic excited knife is given. Parameters which mainly influence cutting results e.g. laser power, cutting speed, gas nature and pressure will be discussed. The problematic nature in characterising micro and macro geometry of laser cut edges of fiber reinforced plastic (FRP) is explained. The topography of cut edges is described and several characteristic values are introduced to specify the obtained working quality. The surface roughness of laser cut edges is measured by both, an optical and a mechanical sensor and their reliabilities are compared.

  2. Heat transfer analysis of compound multi-layer insulation for cryogenic tank under different service conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, H. L.; Yao, C.; Li, Y.; Pan, H. L.

    2016-05-01

    Future space missions require efficient delivery of large payloads over great distances, necessitating the use of high-energy cryogenic propellant. Therefore, reliable compound multi-layer insulation on cryogenic tank is a crucial part of future space exploration. Compound multi-layer insulation is composed of double-aluminized radiation shielding and separated by a combination of netting and bumper strips, with a foam substrate. Considering conduction, convection, and radiation in heat transfer, the thermal field of multi-layer insulation is analysis by theoretical analysis with different thickness of foam substrate and MLI. Based on the formerly theoretical analysis, the heat flux and apparent thermal conductivity are discussed under the different thickness of foam substrate and MLI. Finally, the optimum design of multi-layer thermal insulation is present in consideration of the thickness and insulation performance of multi-layer insulation.

  3. Optimization of the ITER Ion Cyclotron Heating Antenna Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, P. M.; Swain, D. W.; Carter, M. D.; Taylor, D. J.; Bosia, G.; D'Ippolito, D. A.; Myra, J. R.

    1996-11-01

    The present design of the ITER ICH antenna array comprises two poloidal by four toroidal current elements in each of four ports. Each current element forms a resonant double loop (RDL) with power fed to a pretuned matchpoint on the strap; the matching is accomplished using slow-wave transmission lines as adjustable shorted-stub tuners on either end of the current strap. The power requirement is 12.5 MW per port over the frequency range of 40--70 MHz, with extended operation to 80 MHz desirable. The antenna design optimization process includes strap shaping to minimize strap voltages and rf E-fields along B-field lines, (2) frame/Faraday shield geometry design to improve plasma coupling, wave spectrum directivity, and phase control, and (3) Faraday shield/bumper geometry to minimize rf sheath-induced structure heating and impurity generation.

  4. Studies of tritiated co-deposited Layers in TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plasma facing components in TFTR contain an important record of plasma wall interactions in reactor grade DT plasmas. Tiles, flakes, wall coupons, a stainless steel shutter and dust samples have been retrieved from the TFTR vessel for analysis. Selected samples have been baked to release tritium and assay the tritium content. The in-vessel tritium inventory is estimated to be 0.56 g and is consistent with the in-vessel tritium inventory derived from the difference between tritium fueling and tritium exhaust. The distribution of tritium on the limiter and vessel wall showed complex patterns of co-deposition. Relatively high concentrations of tritium were found at the top and bottom of the bumper limiter, as predicted by earlier BBQ modeling

  5. Studies of tritiated co-deposited layers in TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plasma facing components in TFTR contain an important record of plasma wall interactions in reactor grade DT plasmas. Tiles, flakes, wall coupons and dust samples have been retrieved from the TFTR vessel for analysis. Selected samples have been baked to release tritium and assay the tritium content. The in-vessel tritium inventory is estimated to be 0.5 g and is consistent with the in-vessel tritium inventory derived from the difference between tritium fueling and tritium exhaust. Relatively high concentrations of tritium were found at the top and bottom of the bumper limiter, as predicted by earlier BBQ modeling. The distribution of tritium on the limiter and vessel wall showed complex patterns of co-deposition

  6. Studies of tritiated co-deposited layers in TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plasma facing components in TFTR contain an important record of plasma wall interactions in reactor grade DT plasmas. Tiles, flakes, wall coupons, a stainless steel shutter and dust samples have been retrieved from the TFTR vessel for analysis. Selected samples have been baked to release tritium and assay the tritium content. The in-vessel tritium inventory is estimated to be 0.56 g and is consistent with the in-vessel tritium inventory derived from the difference between tritium fueling and tritium exhaust. The distribution of tritium on the limiter and vessel wall showed complex patterns of co-deposition. Relatively high concentrations of tritium were found at the top and bottom of the bumper limiter, as predicted by earlier BBQ modeling

  7. A microprocessor based mobile radiation survey system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A microprocessor-based system has been designed and constructed to enhance the performance of routine radiation surveys on roads within the Hanford site. This device continually monitors system performance and output from four sodium iodide detectors mounted on the rear bumper of a 4-wheel drive truck. The gamma radiation count rate in counts-per-second is monitored, and a running average computed, with the results compared to predefined limits. If an abnormal instantaneous or average count rate is detected, an alarm is sounded with responsible data displayed on a liquid crystal panel in the cab of the vehicle. The system also has the capability to evaluate detector output using multiple time constants and to perform more complex tests and comparison of the data. Data can be archived for later analysis on conventional chart recorders or stored in digital form on magnetic tape or other digital storage media

  8. Wall conditioning with impurity pellet injection on TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solid lithium and boron pellets have been injected into TFTR plasmas to improve plasma performance by coating the graphite inner wall bumper limiter with a small amount of lower Z pellet material, which reduces the influx of carbon from the walls and reduces the edge electron density. This new wall conditioning technique has been applied successfully when continued He conditioning discharges, which are normally used for wall conditioning, no longer significantly reduce the carbon and deuterium influxes. The results show that both Li and B pellets significantly improve wall conditioning and lead to 15-20% improvements in supershot plasma performance when injected ≥1 s prior to neutral beam injection in supershot target plasmas. Neutral beam penetration calculations indicate that the lower edge densities resulting from Li or B pellet wall conditioning lead to improved beam penetration. Sputtering yield calculations confirm that the addition of small amounts of Li on a graphite target can significantly reduce the C sputtering yield. (orig.)

  9. ICRF heating and wave generation in the ATC tokamak. Part 1: wave generation, propagation and absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental results and their theoretical interpretations of rf heating experiments in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies are presented. The presentation is in two parts, with this part describing the experimental facilities and characteristics of fast compressional Alfven waves in the tokamak, and a subsequent paper which will deal with the pricipal heating results. It is shown that a simple coupling structure which consists essentially of a semi-circular metal strip and a pair of bumper limiters is sufficient to efficiently couple rf power to the plasma. The major part of the coupled power is radiated as the fast wave, and there is no evidence that parasitic loading, if any, accounts for a significant amount of the power. A coupling efficiency (net coupled power/incident power) in excess of 90% is routinely obtained

  10. Optimized body structure and packaging for car ODB impact performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Men Yongxin; Ma Fangwu; Wang Zhitao; Wang Zelong; Peng Hong

    2012-01-01

    Front bumper, crash box and side rail are key body structural parts in front crash. Deformation space is affected by compartment packaging. The improvement suggestions are proposed to solve the problems existed in the current vehicle struc- ture and compartment packaging based on the areas that influence performance of automobile offset deformable barrier impact, such as the side rail, mounting, storage battery packaging,etc. It is proved that dO % offset crash simulation result of one certain car is well-correlated with the physical test. Optimization cases meet the crash performance requirements. The objec- tive of the analysis is to guide structural design and improves a car' s crash safety performance.

  11. In-situ coating device for JT-60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JT-60 in-situ coating device which was completed in February 1987 functions as follows; - repair of eroded or damaged surface of first walls such as bumper limiters and liners in JT-60 vacuum vessel by titanium carbide (TiC) deposition; - visual inspection of internal vacuum vessel components; - titanium flashing task for the first wall as surface pumping. The device basically consists of an in-vessel manipulator with four axes, a ohmically heated titanium evaporator, a fiberscope as the observation system, a maintenance stage and an acetylen gas injection system. To meet its functional objectives, the in-vessel manipulator required to be operational in an ultra-high vacuum environment (∼ 10-6 Pa) at high temperatures (∼ 300 deg C). The present paper describes the outline of the device and the results of titanium flashing using the JT-60 in-situ coating device. (author)

  12. Buried bumber syndrome (internal button buried of the gastrostomy): Unearthing the solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Buried bumper syndrome is a major complication of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy and the literature of in of having described of rarely. The physiopathology is the gastric isquemy of the mucous one for an excessive pressure for the ends that fix the gastrostomy. Their clinical manifestations that depend on the depth of migration of the end go from the absence of symptoms, spill of the nutrition enteral being the most frequent, until peritonitis. The diverse described treatment modalities are based on the depth of migration of the end valued endoscopically. The successful use of the ecoendosonography is described for the estimate of the depth of the migration, when you cannot visualize the end internal endoscopically and we propose a handling .algorithm based on this technique

  13. Measurement of rf voltages on the plasma-touching surfaces of ICRF antennas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of the rf voltages on Faraday shields and protection bumpers have been made for several loop antennas, including the mock-up antenna and Al for JET, the original antenna for Tore Supra, the present ASDEX-U antenna, and the folded waveguide. The loop antennas show voltages that scale to ∼12 kV for a maximum input voltage of 30 kV with 0/0 phasing. The voltages are dramatically reduced for 0/π phasing. These voltages are significant in that they can substantially increase the rf sheath potential beyond the levels associated with the simple electromagnetic field linkage from the current straps that results in plasma heating. In this paper, we investigate and measure the source of these voltages, their scaling with antenna impedance, and the differences between the loop arrays

  14. Three-dimensional antenna models for fusion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of the RANT3D code has permitted the systematic study Of the effect of three-dimensional structures on the launched power spectrum for antennas in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies. The code allows the septa between current straps to be modeled with arbitrary heights and permits the antenna to interact with other structures in the tokamak. In this paper we present comparisons of calculated loading with the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor and Tore Supra experiments, demonstrate the effects on loading caused by positioning uncertainties for an antenna in Tore Supra, and show electric field patterns near the Tore Supra antenna. A poloidal component in the static magnetic field for the plasma response is included in the near-field calculations using the warm plasma code, GLOSI. Preliminary estimates for the heat flux on the bumper limiters during typical operation in Tore Supra are also presented

  15. Research on Impact Stress and Fatigue Simulation of a New Down-to-the-Hole Impactor Based on ANSYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tao; Wang, Wei; Yao, Aiguo; Li, Yongbo; He, Wangyong; Fei, Dongdong

    2016-06-01

    In the present work, a down-to-the-hole electric hammer driven by linear motor is reported for drilling engineering. It differs from the common hydraulic or pneumatic hammers in that it can be applied to some special occasions without circulating medium due to its independence of the drilling fluid. The impact stress caused by the reciprocating motion between stator and rotor and the fatigue damage in key components of linear motor are analyzed by the ANSYS Workbench software and 3D model. Based on simulation results, the hammer's structure is optimized by using special sliding bearing, increasing the wall thickness of key and multilayer buffer gasket. Fatigue life and coefficient issues of the new structure are dramatically improved. However buffer gasket reduces the impactor's energy, different bumper structure effect on life improving and energy loss have also been elaborated.

  16. Cosmic radiation shielding properties of COLUMBUS and REMSIM multi-layer external shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durante, Marco; Manti, Lorenzo; Rusek, Adam; Belluco, Maurizio; Lobascio, Cesare

    The European module COLUMBUS has been recently installed on the International Space Station. Future plans for exploration involve the use of inflatable modules, such as the REMSIM concept proposed in a previous ESA funded study. We studied the radiation shielding properties of COLUMBUS and REMSIM external shell using 1 GeV/n Feor H-ions accelerated at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (Long Island, NY, USA). COLUMBUS has a 22 mm rigid multi-layer shell with Al, Nextel and Kevlar, as materials of the double bumper for meteoroids and debris protection, MLI for thermal reasons and again Al as pressure shell. Inside the module, astronauts are further protected by secondary structures, including racks, a number of electronic devices and payload equipment. This internal equipment has been simulated using Al and Kevlar, bringing the total thickness to about 15 g/cm2. REMSIM consists of a thermal multi-layer (MLI), four Nextel layers used to provide shock of the impacting micro-meteoroids, a ballistic restraint multi-layer of Kevlar used to absorb debris cloud's kinetic energy, a Kevlar structural restraint to support pressure loads incurred from inflating the module. To contain air inside the module, REMSIM adopts three layers of airtight material separated by two layers of Kevlar (air bladder). A final layer of Nomex provide protection against punctures and fire. In the flight configuration there are also spacer elements (foam) needed to guarantee correct spacing between consecutive bumper layers. These spacers were not included in the tests, making the total thickness about 1.1 cm. The internal equipment in REMSIM was not been defined, but due to its application for exploration missions it was decided to exploit water, valuable resource used for drinking, washing and technical usage, as a radiation shielding. In this test, we have included about 8 cm of water. Measured dose attenuation shows that the Columbus module reduces the

  17. A rapid method for identifying and characterizing structural impacts using distributed sensors: An application for automotive pedestrian protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Andrew C.

    This research is motivated by recent activity to improve automotive safety, especially for pedestrians. In many parts of the world today, injuries and fatalities from road accidents are a significant problem. Safety features such as seat restraints and air bags provide considerable levels of protection for car occupants; however, no such protective measures currently exist for pedestrians. Drawing upon the success and effectiveness of occupant air bag systems, current research aims to develop similar devices for pedestrians. These active pedestrian protection systems deploy a safety feature such as an external air bag when a pedestrian is hit by a vehicle. Contact with the front bumper induces a body rotation that may result in a violent head collision. The deployable safety device provides a cushioning surface for the vulnerable pedestrian during impact. The challenge of such a system is an effective sensory unit that can rapidly and correctly discriminate pedestrian impacts from non-pedestrian ones. The fast kinematics of the automobile-pedestrian impact leaves a minimal amount of time for signal processing and computation. This research study focuses on a discrimination scheme that satisfies both the time and accuracy requirements for a proposed sensory system for pedestrian protection. A unique methodology was developed to identify structural impacts using dominant frequency features extracted from sensory data. Contact sensors mounted on the front bumper of an automobile measure the strain response from an impact event. The dominant frequencies obtained from these sensor signals are greatly influenced by the impact object's properties and can be used to discriminate between different objects. Extensive tests were conducted to gather sensor data and validate the proposed methodology and impact discrimination algorithm. Results of the impact tests indicate that the approach is sound, and the sensory system effectively identifies "pedestrian" impacts within a

  18. Produtos poliolefínicos reciclados com desempenho superior aos materiais virgens correspondentes Recycled polyolefin products with higher performance than the corresponding virgin materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes F. Martins

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available O balanço das reações de reticulação e cisão em cadeias poliolefínicas, quando expostas a condições ambientais de radicais livres, pode resultar em boas propriedades e novas aplicações. Materiais descartados de alta qualidade despertam cada vez mais interesse para reciclagem. Os resíduos plásticos de embalagens alimentícias, assim como peças descartadas de grandes dimensões, provenientes da indústria automotiva, são exemplos daqueles materiais. No presente trabalho, são relatadas as propriedades mecânicas da madeira plástica IMAWOOD, obtida a partir de resíduos sólidos urbanos, principalmente embalagens de polietileno, e do material IMACAR, recuperado de pára-choques descartados de carros de passeio, constituído basicamente de misturas PP/EPDM. Verificou-se que o IMAWOOD mostrou comportamento mecânico melhorado por efeito da radiação-gama, enquanto que o IMACAR revelou alta resistência ao impacto, muito superior ao material virgem de composição correspondente.The balance of crosslinking and scission reactions in polyolefin chains when exposed to free-radical, environmental conditions may result in good properties and new applications. Discarded, post-consumer high quality materials are more and more attractive for recycling. The plastic residues from food packages and large dimension automobile residues, as car bumpers, are good examples of those materials. In the present work, we report mechanical properties of IMAWOOD®, plastic lumber from urban solid waste, mostly PE packaging residues, and IMACAR, from discarded car bumpers, mainly PP/EPDM blends. IMAWOOD® showed improved mechanical behavior after gamma-irradiation. IMACAR® was highly resistant to impact.

  19. In situ spectroscopic measurements of erosion behavior of TFTR-redeposited carbon materials under high-flux plasma bombardment in PISCES-A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical erosion behavior of graphite materials pre-exposed in Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) as the bumper limiter has been investigated spectroscopically under deuterium plasma bombardment in the PISCES-A facility. The deuterium plasma bombardment conditions are: ion bombarding energy of 300 eV; ion flux of 1.7 /times/ 1018 ions s/sup /minus/1/ cm/sup /minus/2/; plasma density of 1.4 /times/ 1012 cm/sup /minus/3/; electron temperature of 11 eV; and neutral pressure of 3 /times/ 10/sup /minus/4/ torr. The chemical erosion yield is measured with CD-band spectroscopy during the temperature ramp from 100 to 900/degree/C at an average rate of about 5 degrees/s. The materials used include virgin POCO AFX-5Q graphite, graphite tile pieces from the redeposition-dominated and erosion-dominated areas of the bumper limiter in TFTR. It has been found in common for these graphite materials that the chemical erosion yield maximizes at a temperature around 550/degree/C. However, graphite from the redeposited area has shown a somewhat higher maximum erosion yield and significantly steeper temperature dependence. In addition, the removability of the redeposited materials by helium plasma bombardment has been studied. The removal rate is found to be similar to the physical sputtering yield of carbon by helium. The surface morphology and surface composition has been analyzed with SEM and EMPA in parallel with these erosion behavior measurements. 38 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  20. Ballistic limit regression analysis for Space Station Freedom meteoroid and space debris protection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolly, William H.

    1992-01-01

    Relationships defining the ballistic limit of Space Station Freedom's (SSF) dual wall protection systems have been determined. These functions were regressed from empirical data found in Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) Hypervelocity Impact Testing Summary (HITS) for the velocity range between three and seven kilometers per second. A stepwise linear least squares regression was used to determine the coefficients of several expressions that define a ballistic limit surface. Using statistical significance indicators and graphical comparisons to other limit curves, a final set of expressions is recommended for potential use in Probability of No Critical Flaw (PNCF) calculations for Space Station. The three equations listed below represent the mean curves for normal, 45 degree, and 65 degree obliquity ballistic limits, respectively, for a dual wall protection system consisting of a thin 6061-T6 aluminum bumper spaced 4.0 inches from a .125 inches thick 2219-T87 rear wall with multiple layer thermal insulation installed between the two walls. Normal obliquity is d(sub c) = 1.0514 v(exp 0.2983 t(sub 1)(exp 0.5228). Forty-five degree obliquity is d(sub c) = 0.8591 v(exp 0.0428) t(sub 1)(exp 0.2063). Sixty-five degree obliquity is d(sub c) = 0.2824 v(exp 0.1986) t(sub 1)(exp -0.3874). Plots of these curves are provided. A sensitivity study on the effects of using these new equations in the probability of no critical flaw analysis indicated a negligible increase in the performance of the dual wall protection system for SSF over the current baseline. The magnitude of the increase was 0.17 percent over 25 years on the MB-7 configuration run with the Bumper II program code.

  1. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 563: Septic Systems, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2009-03-31

    This Corrective Action Plan (CAP) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 563, Septic Systems, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. CAU 563 consists of four Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 3 and 12 of the Nevada Test Site. CAU 563 consists of the following CASs: CAS 03-04-02, Area 3 Subdock Septic Tank CAS 03-59-05, Area 3 Subdock Cesspool CAS 12-59-01, Drilling/Welding Shop Septic Tanks CAS 12-60-01, Drilling/Welding Shop Outfalls Site characterization activities were performed in 2007, and the results are presented in Appendix A of the CAU 563 Corrective Action Decision Document. The scope of work required to implement the recommended closure alternatives is summarized below. CAS 03-04-02, Area 3 Subdock Septic Tank, contains no contaminants of concern (COCs) above action levels. No further action is required for this site; however, as a best management practice (BMP), all aboveground features (e.g., riser pipes and bumper posts) will be removed, the septic tank will be removed, and all open pipe ends will be sealed with grout. CAS 03-59-05, Area 3 Subdock Cesspool, contains no COCs above action levels. No further action is required for this site; however, as a BMP, all aboveground features (e.g., riser pipes and bumper posts) will be removed, the cesspool will be abandoned by filling it with sand or native soil, and all open pipe ends will be sealed with grout. CAS 12-59-01, Drilling/Welding Shop Septic Tanks, will be clean closed by excavating approximately 4 cubic yards (yd3) of arsenic- and chromium-impacted soil. In addition, as a BMP, the liquid in the South Tank will be removed, the North Tank will be removed or filled with grout and left in place, the South Tank will be filled with grout and left in place, all open pipe ends will be sealed with grout or similar material, approximately 10 yd3 of chlordane-impacted soil will be excavated, and debris within the CAS boundary will be removed. CAS 12

  2. Consideration of alternative designs for a Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy feeding tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerrabolu, Santosh Rohit

    The inability of some people to chew or swallow foods (but can digest foods) due to problems associated with various diseases and complications leads them to insufficient nutritional intake and loss of quality of life. These individuals are generally provided with nutritional support by means of injecting or infusing food directly into their stomachs or small intestines via feeding tubes. Gastrostomy feeding tubes (G-tubes) are used when such nutritional support is required for over 3-6 weeks. Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy (PEG) tubes are one of the most widely used G- Tubes and devices which are inserted via an incision through the abdominal wall either through a pull or push method. This investigation proposes conceptual alternative Percutaneous Endoscopy Gastrostomy (PEG) feeding tube designs with optimized materials selection to be used for their construction. The candidate materials were chosen from 18 commercial catheters, 2 reference grade polymers and a commercial polymer; using tissue-catheter-friction testing and surface chemistry characterization (Infrared spectroscopy and Critical Surface Tension approximation). The main objectives considered were to minimize slipping/dislodgement of gastrostomy tube/seal, to reduce peristomal leakage, and to attain size variability of PEG tubes while maintaining a low profile. Scanning Electron Microscope- Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy was employed to further determine the filler materials used in the samples. Nylon coated with fatty ester and filled with Barium sulphate was determined as the optimum material for the construction of the tube part of the feeding tubes to reduce slipping/dislodgment of gastrostomy tube/seal and to minimize peristomal leakage. Nylon coated with fatty ester and filled with Silica is the suggested as a candidate material for construction of the bumper/mushroom sections of the feeding tubes to avoid the Buried Bumper Syndrome. Fused Deposition Modeling, Selective Laser Sintering

  3. A mobile autonomous robot for radiological surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Robotics Development Group at the Savannah River Site is developing an autonomous robot (SIMON) to perform radiological surveys of potentially contaminated floors. The robot scans floors at a speed of one-inch/second and stops, sounds an alarm, and flashes lights when contamination in a certain area is detected. The contamination of interest here is primarily alpha and beta-gamma. The robot, a Cybermotion K2A base, is radio controlled, uses dead reckoning to determine vehicle position, and docks with a charging station to replenish its batteries and calibrate its position. It uses an ultrasonic ranging system for collision avoidance. In addition, two safety bumpers located in the front and the back of the robot will stop the robots motion when they are depressed. Paths for the robot are preprogrammed and the robots motion can be monitored on a remote screen which shows a graphical map of the environment. The radiation instrument being used is an Eberline RM22A monitor. This monitor is microcomputer based with a serial I/0 interface for remote operation. Up to 30 detectors may be configured with the RM22A

  4. Mercedes-Benz C-class sports coupe: smc license plate surround with integrated polycarbonate panel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullmann, F.; Dannenberg, M.; Grevener, C. [DaimlerChrysler AG, Sindelfingen (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    The amount of plastics used in the automobile has risen markedly from around 20 kg in the 1960s to around 130 to 180 kg today (10 to 14% by weight). However, the proportion taken up by production in the western European automotive industry with respect to the total consumption of plastic is only 7%. The packaging sector, on the other hand, with around 45% has a disproportionately higher share. The advantages gained by the use of plastic lie in their lower specific weight, a higher resistance to damage and also their attractive processing costs. In addition, in contrast to designs in sheet steel or aluminium, it can offer a wide variety of design possibilities as far as shape is concerned. Integral construction means that several individual metal panels can be replaced by just one plastic component. Exterior applications are primarily bumper fascias, wings and flaps. Semistructural components such as tailgates and spare wheel trays, and also engine bulkhead insulation and underside panels, are primarily made of SMC (sheet moulding compound) and GMT (glass-mat-filled thermoplastic). (orig.)

  5. Parametric analysis of a cylindrical negative Poisson’s ratio structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuanlong; Wang, Liangmo; Ma, Zheng-dong; Wang, Tao

    2016-03-01

    Much research related to negative Poisson’s ratio (NPR), or auxetic, structures is emerging these days. Several types of 3D NPR structure have been proposed and studied, but almost all of them had cuboid shapes, which were not suitable for certain engineering applications. In this paper, a cylindrical NPR structure was developed and researched. It was expected to be utilized in springs, bumpers, dampers and other similar applications. For the purpose of parametric analysis, a method of parametric modeling of cylindrical NPR structures was developed using MATLAB scripts. The scripts can automatically establish finite element models, invoke ABAQUS, read results etc. Subsequently the influences of structural parameters, including number of cells, number of layers and layer heights, on the uniaxial compression behavior of cylinder NPR structures were researched. This led to the conclusion that the stiffness of the cylindrical NPR structure was enhanced on increasing the number of cells and reducing the effective layer height. Moreover, small numbers of layers resulted in a late transition area of the load-displacement curve from low stiffness to high stiffness. Moreover, the middle contraction regions were more apparent with larger numbers of cells, smaller numbers of layers and smaller effective layer heights. The results indicate that the structural parameters had significant effects on the load-displacement curves and deformed shapes of cylindrical NPR structures. This paper is conducive to the further engineering applications of cylindrical NPR structures.

  6. Material behavior and materials problems in TFTR [Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews the experience with first-wall materials over a 20-month period of operation spanning 1985--1987. Experience with the axisymmetric inner wall limiter, constructed of graphite tiles, will be described including the necessary conditioning procedures needed for impurity and particle control of high power (≤20 MW) neutral injection experiments. The thermal effects in disruptions have been quantified and no significant damage to the bumper limiter has occurred as a result of disruptions. Carbon and metal impurity redeposition effects have been quantified through surface analysis of wall samples. Estimates of the tritium retention in the graphite limiter tiles and redeposited carbon films have been made based on analysis of deuterium retention in removed graphite tiles and wall samples. New limiter structures have been designed using a 2D carbon/carbon (C/C) composite material for RF antenna protection. Laboratory tests of the important thermal, mechanical and vacuum properties of C/C materials will be described. Finally, the last series of experiments in TFTR with in-situ Zr/Al surface pumps will be described. Problems with Ar/Al embrittlement have led to the removal of the getter material from the in-torus environment. 53 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  7. Comparative analysis by simulating and testing pole impact for hot stamping front crossbeam of automobile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Fangwu; Yao Zaiqi; Liu Qiang; Wang Xiaona; Zhao Fuquan; Li Fangfang; Lin Jianping

    2012-01-01

    Hot stamping 22MnB5 steel plate with ultra-high strength has been widely used for body structural members in consideration of automobile safety and lightweight. This paper presents a verification program of simulating and testing pole impact in order to verify if the front crossbeam reinforcement assembly can meet the design requirements, reduce the overall vehicle simulation and test cost and shorten the operation period. In the same condition, the simulation proved conforming to the design requirements; however, the bumper cracked at the impacting point in the course of pole impact test. The analysis of the crack by optical microscope, Vickers and scanning electron microscope indicates that mixture of ferrite, bainite and martensite was produced in the weld heat-affected zone of the 340/590DP tow hook holder and the 22MnB5 front crossbeam; therefore, their hardness and mechanical property were reduced obviously, so that they fractured when impacted. No welding process with continuous weld but spot welding or other bonding method may be employed for the reason that the capacity of the 22MnB5 steel plate in the weld heat-affected zone was reduced obvi- ously.

  8. CONSUMERS’ SATISFACTION OF HIGHER EDUCATION SERVICES A PROBLEM OF EDUCATION IN THE 21ST CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA-LAVINIA POPESCU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The international evolutions show that in unavoidable manner, in anycountry, Romania inclusively, the overcome of rare difficulties, will necessity and will makespossible simultaneous, the enrolling of tertiary sector on a trajectory by an extensivedevelopment. No country can not allows the neglect a thus sector, with a developing role in theturning to account of human resources, materials and financials existing, in the economymodernize on the whole, in the solvable needs satisfy and in the population exigencies covering.The quickening of realize an ones extensive investments programs, the using of suitablematerials and technical means, will be felt too in Romania. So as to assure the quality ineducation it is necessary to bring exchanges in structure, in content, in teaching-learningvaluationprocess etc. The education quality is affected by the specification of changes ofeducation domain, specification given on the one side by the long history of school whichgenerated a powerful and a bumper organizational culture, and on the other side, by thecomplexity schools organizations.

  9. Does Semi-Rigid Instrumentation Using Both Flexion and Extension Dampening Spacers Truly Provide an Intermediate Level of Stabilization?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilip Sengupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional posterior dynamic stabilization devices demonstrated a tendency towards highly rigid stabilization approximating that of titanium rods in flexion. In extension, they excessively offload the index segment, making the device as the sole load-bearing structure, with concerns of device failure. The goal of this study was to compare the kinematics and intradiscal pressure of monosegmental stabilization utilizing a new device that incorporates both a flexion and extension dampening spacer to that of rigid internal fixation and a conventional posterior dynamic stabilization device. The hypothesis was the new device would minimize the overloading of adjacent levels compared to rigid and conventional devices which can only bend but not stretch. The biomechanics were compared following injury in a human cadaveric lumbosacral spine under simulated physiological loading conditions. The stabilization with the new posterior dynamic stabilization device significantly reduced motion uniformly in all loading directions, but less so than rigid fixation. The evaluation of adjacent level motion and pressure showed some benefit of the new device when compared to rigid fixation. Posterior dynamic stabilization designs which both bend and stretch showed improved kinematic and load-sharing properties when compared to rigid fixation and when indirectly compared to existing conventional devices without a bumper.

  10. A Plasma Drag Hypervelocity Particle Accelerator (HYPER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Steve R.; Rose, M. Frank

    1998-01-01

    Current debris models are able to predict the growth of the space debris problem and suggest that spacecraft must employ armor or bumper shields for some orbital altitudes now and that the problem will become worse as a function of time. The practical upper limit to the velocity distribution is on the order of 40 km/s and is associated with the natural environment. The velocity distribution of the man-made component peaks at 9-10 km/s with maximum velocity in the 14-16 km/s range. Experience in space has verified that the "high probability of impact" particles are in the microgram to milligram range. These particles can have very significant effects on coatings, insulators, and thin metallic layers. The surface of thick materials becomes pitted and the local debris component is enhanced by ejecta from the impact events. In this paper, the HYPER facility is described which produces a reasonable simulation of the man-made space debris spectrum in a controlled environment. The facility capability is discussed in terms of drive geometry, energetics, velocity distribution, diagnostics, and projectile/debris loading. The facility has been used to study impact phenomena on Space Station Freedom's solar array structure, the calibration of space debris collectors, other solar array materials, potential structural materials for use in space, electrical breakdown in the space environment, and as a means of clarifying or duplicating the impact phenomena on surfaces which have been exposed in space.

  11. Biofidelity Evaluation of a Prototype Hybrid III 6 Year-Old ATD Lower Extremity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Laura C; Bing, Julie; Bolte, John H

    2016-09-01

    Incomplete instrumentation and a lack of biofidelity in the extremities of the 6 year-old anthropomorphic test device (ATD) pose challenges when studying regions of the body known to interact with the vehicle interior. This study sought to compare a prototype Hybrid III 6 year-old ATD leg (ATD-LE), with a more biofidelic ankle and tibia load cell, to previously collected child volunteer data and to the current Hybrid III 6 year-old ATD (HIII). Anthropometry, range of motion (ROM), and stiffness measurements were taken, along with a dynamic evaluation of the ATD-LE using knee-bolster airbag (KBA) test scenarios. Anthropometry values were similar in eight of twelve measurements. Total ankle ROM was improved in the ATD-LE with no bumper compared to the HIII. The highest tibia moments and tibia index values were recorded in KBA scenarios when the toes were positioned in contact with the dashboard prior to airbag deployment, forcing the ankle into axial loading and dorsiflexion. While improvements in the biofidelity of the ATD-LE are still necessary, the results of this study are encouraging. Continued advancement of the 6 year-old ATD ankle is necessary to provide a tool to directly study the behavior of the leg during a motor vehicle crash. PMID:26864538

  12. Compatibilization of recycled polymers through radiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. The use of compatibilizers is crucial in composites of apolar, synthetic matrix such as PP and fibrous, polar, natural reinforcement. Radiation treatment using small EB- or gamma dose of about 8 kGy - may enhance the effect of reactive compatibilizer, involving both matrix and reinforcement into a chemically attached system. In the present work we applied byproducts of textile- and woodworking industry as reinforcing additives for polypropylene (PP), reprocessed from waste car-bumpers and recollected bottle-caps. Hemp fibers and waste-wood fibers can be mixed into the PP on a continuously operating twin-screw extruder. Various additives have been tries out in our laboratory including maleic acid anhydride, acrylic-acid grafted compatibilizers, unsaturated oligomers and vinylsilanes. The effect of different compatibilizing methods have been evaluated by comparing mechanical properties (tensile- and flexural strength, modulus of elasticity etc.), dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and rheological properties. The ensemble of properties is clearly enhanced by the efficient compatibilization. The reinforced - recycled products can be applied in advanced sandwich molding processing technologies of coextrusion and co-injection molding, where the dark coloured, recycled product forms the inner core of the product, covered on both side with virgin thermoplastic

  13. Space Shuttle Meteoroid and Orbital Debris Threat Assessment Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, J.; Christiansen, E.

    Prior to each shuttle mission, Meteoroid and orbital Debris (M/OD) threat assessments are performed to determine the critical penetration risk for the orbiter vehicle, the radiator tube leak risk &the window replacement risk. Mission parameters, such as vehicle attitude, exposure time and altitude are used as inputs for the assessment. The assessments are performed using the BUMPER computer code at the NASA/JSC Hypervelocity Impact Technology Facility (HITF). An M/OD risk analysis is typically performed in support of orbiter Cargo Integration Reviews (CIR) and Flight Readiness Reviews (FRR). Three types of M/OD risk are assessed. The most important involves the calculation of "critical" penetration risk, defined as penetrations that may result in the catastrophic loss of vehicle and crew. Critical failure criteria have been established though detailed engineering evaluations by NASA and Boeing. The radiator assessment is concerned with premature end-of- mission due to loss of a coolant loop. The window assessment is a postflight maintenance and logistics issue. The result s are provided to the Space Shuttle Vehicle Engineering Office (MV) the Space and Life Science Directorate (SA) at JSC. This paper will document the inputs used in the critical penetration analysis for CIR, FRR, and post-flight assessments, it will also serve as a reference for the Space Shuttle Orbiter finite element model (FEM) surface property definitions that are used in M/OD threat assessments.

  14. Shock reliability analysis and improvement of MEMS electret-based vibration energy harvesters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaud, M.; Fujita, T.; Goedbloed, M.; de Nooijer, C.; van Schaijk, R.

    2015-10-01

    Vibration energy harvesters can serve as a replacement solution to batteries for powering tire pressure monitoring systems (TPMS). Autonomous wireless TPMS powered by microelectromechanical system (MEMS) electret-based vibration energy harvester have been demonstrated. The mechanical reliability of the MEMS harvester still has to be assessed in order to bring the harvester to the requirements of the consumer market. It should survive the mechanical shocks occurring in the tire environment. A testing procedure to quantify the shock resilience of harvesters is described in this article. Our first generation of harvesters has a shock resilience of 400 g, which is far from being sufficient for the targeted application. In order to improve this aspect, the first important aspect is to understand the failure mechanism. Failure is found to occur in the form of fracture of the device’s springs. It results from impacts between the anchors of the springs when the harvester undergoes a shock. The shock resilience of the harvesters can be improved by redirecting these impacts to nonvital parts of the device. With this philosophy in mind, we design three types of shock absorbing structures and test their effect on the shock resilience of our MEMS harvesters. The solution leading to the best results consists of rigid silicon stoppers covered by a layer of Parylene. The shock resilience of the harvesters is brought above 2500 g. Results in the same range are also obtained with flexible silicon bumpers, which are simpler to manufacture.

  15. On protection of freedom's solar dynamic radiator from the orbital debris environment. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A great deal of experimentation and analysis has been performed to quantify penetration thresholds of components which will experience orbital debris impacts. Penetration has been found to depend upon mission-specific parameters such as orbital altitude, inclination, and orientation of the component; and upon component specific parameters such as material, density, and the geometry particular to its shielding. Experimental results are highly dependent upon shield configuration and cannot be extrapolated with confidence to alternate shield configurations. Also, current experimental capabilities are limited to velocities which only approach the lower limit of predicted orbital debris velocities. Therefore, prediction of the penetrating particle size for a particular component having a complex geometry remains highly uncertain. This paper describes the approach developed to assess on-orbit survivability, and include the type of particle and particle population expected to defeat the radiator bumpering (i.e., penetrate a fluid flow tube). Results of preliminary hypervelocity impact testing performed on radiator panel samples (in the 6 to 7 km/sec velocity range) are also presented. Plans for further analyses and testing are discussed. These efforts are expected to lead to a radiator design which will perform to Space Station Freedom requirements over the expected lifetime

  16. The Space Shuttle Program Pre-Flight Meteoroid and Orbital Debris Risk/Damage Predictions and Post-Flight Damage Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, George M.; Christiansen, Eric L.

    1997-01-01

    The pre-flight predictions and postflight assessments carried out in relation to a series of Space Shuttle missions are reviewed, and data are presented for the meteoroid and orbital debris damage observed on the Hubble Space Telescope during the 1994 Hubble repair mission. Pre-flight collision risk analyses are carried out prior to each mission, and in the case of an unacceptable risk, the mission profile is altered until the risk is considered to be acceptable. The NASA's BUMPER code is used to compute the probability of damage from debris and meteoroid particle impacts based on the Poisson statistical model for random events. The penetration probability calculation requires information concerning the geometry of the critical systems, the penetration resistance and mission profile parameters. Following each flight, the orbiter is inspected for meteoroid and space debris damage. The emphasis is on areas such as the radiator panels, the windows and the reinforced carbon-carbon structures on the leading wing edges and on the nose cap. The contents of damage craters are analyzed using a scanning electron microscope to determine the nature and origin of the impactor. Hypervelocity impact tests are often performed to simulate the observed damage and to estimate the nature of the damaging particles. The number and type of damage observed provides information concerning the orbital debris environment.

  17. On protection of freedom's solar dynamic radiator from the orbital debris environment. Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, recent progress to better understand the environmental threat of micrometeoroid and space debris to the solar dynamic radiator for the Space Station Freedom power system is reported. The objective was to define a design which would perform to survivability requirements over the expected lifetime of the radiator. A previous paper described the approach developed to assess on-orbit survivability of the solar dynamic radiator due to micrometeoroid and space debris impacts. Preliminary analyses were presented to quantify the solar dynamic radiator survivability. These included the type of particle and particle population expected to defeat the radiator bumpering. Results of preliminary hypervelocity impact (HVI) testing performed on radiator panel samples were also presented. This paper presents results of a more extensive test program undertaken to further define the response of the solar dynamic radiator to HVI. Tests were conducted on representative radiator panels (under ambient, nonoperating conditions) over a range of particle size, particle density, impact angle, and impact velocity. Target parameters were also varied. Data indicate that analytical penetration predictions are conservative (i.e., pessimistic) for the specific configuration of the solar dynamic radiator. Test results are used to define more rigorously the solar dynamic radiator reliability with respect to HVI. Test data, analyses, and survivability results are presented

  18. Current Situations and Problems of Logistics for Guangxi Fresh Agricultural Products in the New Period and Recommendations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shixiong; ZHU

    2015-01-01

    In recent years,Guangxi realized consecutive bumper harvests in fresh agricultural products,leading increase of logistics demand;logistics infrastructure begins to take shape,and logistics of fresh agricultural products takes on diversified development form with wholesale market as main form. However,traditional fresh agricultural products are not selling well and it lacks construction of supply chain; the construction of logistics information system for fresh agricultural products lags behind; organizational level of production and operation of fresh agricultural products is low. Through analyzing current situations and existing problems of logistics of Guangxi fresh agricultural products in the new period( 21 st century),this paper came up with recommendations for developing logistics of fresh agricultural products of Guangxi. Government should increase policy and financial support,build and manage supply chain of fresh agricultural products,accelerate construction of logistics information system for agricultural products,and improve organizational level of logistics of fresh agricultural products,to ensure healthy development of logistics of fresh agricultural products in Guangxi.

  19. Design of the Cross Section Shape of AN Aluminum Crash Box for Crashworthiness Enhancement of a CAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S. B.; Huh, H.; Lee, G. H.; Yoo, J. S.; Lee, M. Y.

    This paper deals with the crashworthiness of an aluminum crash box for an auto-body with the various shapes of cross section such as a rectangle, a hexagon and an octagon. First, crash boxes with various cross sections were tested with numerical simulation to obtain the energy absorption capacity and the mean load. In case of the simple axial crush, the octagon shape shows higher mean load and energy absorption than the other two shapes. Secondly, the crash boxes were assembled to a simplified auto-body model for the overall crashworthiness. The model consists of a bumper, crash boxes, front side members and a sub-frame representing the behavior of a full car at the low speed impact. The analysis result shows that the rectangular cross section shows the best performance as a crash box which deforms prior to the front side member. The hexagonal and octagonal cross sections undergo torsion and local buckling as the width of cross section decreases while the rectangular cross section does not. The simulation result of the rectangular crash box was verified with the experimental result. The simulation result shows close tendency in the deformed shape and the load-displacement curve to the experimental result.

  20. Brief Analysis of Aluminium Alloy Automotive Beam Design%简析铝合金汽车防撞梁设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱涵超

    2014-01-01

    The paper is to design a beam for a car. Based on the concept of automotive lightweight, the material of bumper beam is aluminium alloy. The finite element model is established on Hypermesh. The crash simulation is carried out by the software LS- DYNA in accordance with GB17354- 1998. Thesimulationresultshowsthedeformationanddisplacementofbeaminlowspeedcrash,beamstructureisoptimizedaccordingtosimulation.Final ythe resultprovidesdataforbumpersystemdesigninfurther.%本文针对某车型设计了一款防撞梁,基于汽车轻量化理念,防撞梁材料采用铝合金。以GB17354-1998为标准,在Hypermesh中建立了防撞梁的有限元模型,调用LS- DYNA进行碰撞仿真,并对仿真结果进行了分析。通过仿真得出防撞梁低速碰撞的变形及位移情况,并对其结构进行了优化,为整个保险杠系统的设计提供依据。

  1. Discharge cleaning on TFTR after boronization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the beginning of the 1990 TFTR experimental run, after replacement of POCO-AXF-5Q graphite tiles on the midplane of the bumper limiter by carbon fiber composite (CFC) tiles and prior to any Pulse Discharge Cleaning (PDC), boronization was performed. Boronization is the deposition of a layer of boron and carbon on the vacuum vessel inner surface by a glow discharge in a diborane, methane and helium mixture. The amount of discharge cleaning required after boronization was substantially reduced compared to that which was needed after previous openings when boronization was not done. Previously, after a major shutdown, about 105 low current (∼20 kA) Taylor Discharge Cleaning (TDC) pulses were required before high current (∼400 kA) aggressive Pulse Discharge Cleaning (PDC) pulses could be performed successfully. Aggressive PDC is used to heat the limiters from the vessel bakeout temperature of 150 degrees C to 250 degrees C for a period of several hours. Heating the limiters is important to increase the rate at which water is removed from the carbon limiter tiles. After boronization, the number of required TDC pulses was reduced to <5000. The number of aggressive PDC pulses required was approximately unchanged. 14 refs., 1 tab

  2. Impedance estimates for PSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proton Storage Ring (PSR), now in operation at Los Alamos, is a fast-cycling high-current accumulator designed to produce intense 800 MeV proton pulses for driving a spallation neutron source. This paper presents graphs of calculated longitudinal and transverse coupling impedances vs frequency for various components in the PSR beamline. The impedances are estimated using simplified formulas for the effects of steps, cavities, monitor plates, and other discontinuities in the beam pipe for the ring. An examination of stability limits indicates that the longitudinal impedance per harmonic should be less than something in the hundreds of ohms range and the transverse impedance should be less than something of the order of a megohm/meter at low frequencies. For the PSR, the impedances due to the harmonic buncher and due to possible high-Q resonances in the bump magnet chambers might be significant. Simplified growth rate estimates using the real part of the transverse impedance indicate that the bumper magnet coils for the fast kicker plates might be contributing to an observed instability with onset at about 1013 protons per bunch

  3. Unmanned transportation automating system; Mujin hanso jidoka system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashihara, I.; Takeichi, T.; Asai, M. [Meidensha Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-10-18

    This paper introduces a small unmanned transportation automating system intended to automate production facilities. Small automated guided vehicles (AGV) are available in a small object transporting vehicle and an ultra low floor vehicle. A cylinder head material AGV transports materials from a casting process to an outdoor sand removing process, and the system was demanded to have a single line section and an optimal run to pass each other. Giving and receiving the signals became also necessary with other devices such as existing casting machines and automatic doors. The automotive parts transporting and storing system is a system to assemble parts accommodating buckets in an automatic warehouse, supply the buckets to assembly lines, and return empty buckets to the warehouse. In order to utilize the installation space effectively, the buckets should be moved onto a two-step conveyer, and because the lower conveyer has a part moving height as low as 220 mm above the ground, an ultra low floor AGV was used. Safety measures include a photo sensor to detect obstacles, stoppage of drive at bumper contact, and an area sensor equipped on both sides of the parts moving machine. 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Power deposition to the facing components in Tore-Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The modifications of the power scrape-off length, λq and power deposition are studied for various configurations in ohmic Tore-Supra plasmas. The plasma is either touching the horizontal limiter alone, the full set of six pump limiters or the inner bumper limiter. All configurations are with and without the ergodic divertor system energized. From a comparison of the infrared images of the limiter we derived that the λq for power deposition was slightly less than 9±1 mm in ohmic plasmas which is in agreement with the predicted design value of 10 mm. Using the six limiters, instead of one, does not modify λq significantly, but leads to small asymmetries. The power is shared by all the limiters and the maximum surface temperature on the horizontal limiter decreases. These λq values have been independently determined by calorimetric measurements on the integrated energy deposition on the horizontal limiter and other internal structures 5 cm into the scrape-off layer. These values agree with the infrared measurements in the two cases. In the presence of the ergodic divertor we observe a broadening of the scrape-off layer, the e-folding length for power deposition reaching 2.5 cm. Large asymmetries in the power deposition can be seen on the front face of the limiter, leading to the formation of hot spots at the leading edges. (orig.)

  5. Modelling of hydrocarbon redeposition in the gaps of castellated structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castellated armor tiles are proposed for the first wall and the divertor area in ITER. However, there is a critical issue of fuel (tritium) retention and impurity transport in the gaps between the castellated tiles. The previous calculation reproduces the tritium profiles observed on the gap sides of the TFTR bumper limiter. In this study, we have performed a simulation calculation of transport and deposition of hydrocarbons on the castellated structure in order to understand the mechanisms of co-deposition and to mitigate carbon deposition in the gaps by changing castellated geometry. Reflection/sticking coefficients of the tile surface in realistic conditions were investigated by using molecular dynamics (MD) of collisions with all hydrocarbons that result from chemical sputtering. A new castellation geometry of unit cells with a tilted surface is proposed and the optimization of the shape of the cell is very likely to work to minimize the redeposition rate in the gaps. The tile geometry is important to reduce the in-vessel tritium inventory for the safety operation of fusion reactors. (author)

  6. Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Winters

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Alongside a website review of the Gabii project (Nebbia 2014 and two further data papers (Framework Archaeology 2014, Williams et al. 2014, Issue 36 has turned into something of a bumper issue. Given the increase in submissions to the journal, I think issues of this size are going to become more commonplace if not also, more frequent. A late addition, but one which nicely illustrates the journal's flexibility of form and speed of publication is the contribution by Wendy Morrison et al. (2014 on Laying Bare the Landscape: commercial archaeology and the potential of digital spatial data. In How are teeth better than bone? Hollund et al. (2014 characterises the types of diagenesis observed within the histology of archaeological teeth and compares these changes with those previously recorded in bone. Šmejda's GIS Visualisations of Mortuary Data from Holešov, Czech Republic (2014 presents an interesting case-study on dealing with legacy data and demonstrates just some of the potential that still lies in published (and indeed unpublished excavation data, even when half a century has passed. Switching focus completely, the article by Irmela Herzog (2014 on LCPs (Least-cost Paths deals with methodological issues connected with these calculations in archaeology, a method increasingly used in analyses. Jarlshof Lost and Found acts as a bridge between theory and practice, and contributes to the academic debate on heritage visualisation (Baxter 2014.

  7. The design of a multimegawatt heat pipe radiator for an inertial fusion rocket powered manned Mars mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, K. A.

    1988-01-01

    A system of heat pipe radiators has been designed to provide waste heat rejection for an inertial fusion powered spacecraft capable of manned missions to other planets. The radiators are arrays of unfinned, arterial heat pipes operating at 1500 and 900 K. Liquid metal coolant carries up to 8000 MW of waste heat through feed pipes from on-board components (laser drivers and coil shield). The radiators do not rely on armor for protection from micrometeoroid penetration. An armored radiator design for this application with a 99 percent survivability would have a specific mass of 0.06 to 0.11 kg/kW at 1500 K. Instead, a segmentation of heat pipes is used, and bumpers are utilized to protect the feed pipes. This design reduces the specific mass to 0.015 to 0.04 kg/kW for the coil shield radiator (1500 K) and 0.06 to 0.12 kg/kW for the laser driver radiator (900 K).

  8. Overview of comprehensive characterisation of erosion zones on plasma facing components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubel, M.J. [Alfven Laboratory, Royal Institute of Technology, Association EURATOM-VR, Teknikringen 31, S-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden)]. E-mail: marek.rubel@alfvenlab.kth.se; Fortuna, E. [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, PL-02-507 Warsaw (Poland); Kreter, A. [Institute for Plasma Physics, Forschungszentrum Juelich, Association EURATOM-FZJ, Trilateral Euregio Cluster (TEC), D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Wessel, E. [Institute for Materials and Processes in Energy Systems, Forschungszentrum Juelich, Association EURATOM-FZJ, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Philipps, V. [Institute for Plasma Physics, Forschungszentrum Juelich, Association EURATOM-FZJ, Trilateral Euregio Cluster (TEC), D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Kurzydlowski, K.J. [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, PL-02-507 Warsaw (Poland)

    2006-02-15

    Morphology of carbon plasma facing components retrieved from the TEXTOR tokamak after long operation periods and exposure to total particle doses exceeding 7 x 10{sup 26} m{sup -2} was determined. Emphasis was on the composition and structure of the erosion zones. Tiles from two limiters-the main toroidal belt pump ALT-II and auxiliary inner bumper-were examined using high-resolution microscopy, surface profilometry, ion beam analysis techniques and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The essence of results regarding the net-erosion zones is following: (i) microstructure of surfaces is significantly smoother than on a non-exposed graphite, whereas carbon fibre composites show similar appearance prior to the exposure and after; (ii) deuterium retention is 2-5 x 10{sup 21} m{sup -2}; (iii) the presence of plasma impurity atoms (e.g. metals) is detected predominantly in small cavities acting as local shadowed areas on the surface. The results are discussed in terms of processes of material erosion/re-deposition and tokamak operation conditions influencing the morphology of wall components.

  9. HIDDEN MARKOV MODELS WITH COVARIATES FOR ANALYSIS OF DEFECTIVE INDUSTRIAL MACHINE PARTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pornpit Sirima

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Monthly counts of industrial machine part errors are modeled using a two-state Hidden Markov Model (HMM in order to describe the effect of machine part error correction and the amount of time spent on the error correction on the likelihood of the machine part to be in a “defective” or “non-defective” state. The number of machine parts errors were collected from a thermo plastic injection molding machine in a car bumper auto parts manufacturer in Liberec city, Czech Republic from January 2012 to November 2012. A Bayesian method is used for parameter estimation. The results of this study indicate that the machine part error correction and the amount of time spent on the error correction do not improve the machine part status of the individual part, but there is a very strong month-to-month dependence of the machine part states. Using the Mean Absolute Error (MAE criterion, the performance of the proposed model (MAE = 1.62 and the HMM including machine part error correction only (MAE = 1.68, from our previous study, is not significantly different. However, the proposed model has more advantage in the fact that the machine part state can be explained by both the machine part error correction and the amount of time spent on the error correction.

  10. Crash compatibility between cars and light trucks: benefits of lowering front-end energy-absorbing structure in SUVs and pickups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Bryan C; Nolan, Joseph M; O'Neill, Brian; Genetos, Alexander P

    2008-01-01

    Passenger vehicles are designed to absorb crash energy in frontal crashes through deformation or crush of energy-absorbing structures forward of the occupant compartment. In collisions between cars and light trucks (i.e., pickups and SUVs), however, the capacity of energy-absorption structures may not be fully utilized because mismatches often exist between the heights of these structures in the colliding vehicles. In 2003 automakers voluntarily committed to new design standards aimed at reducing the height mismatches between cars and light trucks. By September 2009 all new light trucks will have either the primary front structure (typically the frame rails) or a secondary structure connected to the primary structure low enough to interact with the primary structures in cars, which for most cars is about the height of the front bumper. To estimate the overall benefit of the voluntary commitment, the real-world crash experience of light trucks already meeting the height-matching criteria was compared with that of light trucks not meeting the criteria for 2000-2003 model light trucks in collisions with passenger cars during calendar years 2001-2004. The estimated benefits of lower front energy-absorbing structure were a 19 percent reduction (pcar drivers in front-to-front crashes with light trucks and a 19 percent reduction (pcar drivers in front-to-driver-side crashes with light trucks. PMID:18215539

  11. Shear-induced reorganization of renal proximal tubule cell actin cytoskeleton and apical junctional complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yi; Gotoh, Nanami; Yan, Qingshang; Du, Zhaopeng; Weinstein, Alan M; Wang, Tong; Weinbaum, Sheldon

    2008-08-12

    In this study, we demonstrate that fluid shear stress (FSS)-induced actin cytoskeletal reorganization and junctional formation in renal epithelial cells are nearly completely opposite the corresponding changes in vascular endothelial cells (ECs) [Thi MM et al. (2004) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101:16483-16488]. Mouse proximal tubule cells (PTCs) were subjected to 5 h of FSS (1 dyn/cm(2)) to investigate the dynamic responses of the cytoskeletal distribution of filamentous actin (F-actin), ZO-1, E-cadherin, vinculin, and paxillin to FSS. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed that FSS caused basal stress fiber disruption, more densely distributed peripheral actin bands (DPABs), and the formation of both tight junctions (TJs) and adherens junctions (AJs). A dramatic reinforcement of vinculin staining was found at the cell borders as well as the cell interior. These responses were abrogated by the actin-disrupting drug, cytochalasin D. To interpret these results, we propose a "junctional buttressing" model for PTCs in which FSS enables the DPABs, TJs, and AJs to become more tightly connected. In contrast, in the "bumper-car" model for ECs, all junctional connections were severely disrupted by FSS. This "junctional buttressing" model explains why a FSS of only 1/10 of that used in the EC study can cause a similarly dramatic, cytoskeletal response in these tall, cuboidal epithelial cells; and why junctional buttressing between adjacent cells may benefit renal epithelium in maximizing flow-activated, brush border-dependent, transcellular salt and water reabsorption. PMID:18685100

  12. A locally designed mobile laboratory for radiation analysis and monitoring in qatar. Vol. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A description of a mobile laboratory for radiation analysis and monitoring, completely designed in qatar and equipped at qatar university, is given. It consists of a van equipped with three scintillation detectors mounted on the front bumper. The detectors can monitor gamma radiations along the path of the laboratory over an angle range 120 degree. One Eberline radiation monitoring station is mounted on the roof. The laboratory is also equipped with several, and neutron survey meters in addition to some sampling equipment. All equipment used are powered with solar panels. The characteristics and performance of solar power/stabilized A C conversion is given. Data acquisition from the three scintillation detectors is performed by adding the outputs of the three detectors and storing the total as a function of time in a computer based multi-channel analyzer (MCA) operated in the MSC mode. The acquisition can be switched easily to the PHA mode to analyze gamma spectra from any possible contamination source. The laboratory was used in several environmental and possible contamination missions. Some results obtained during some of these missions are given. 4 figs

  13. Quantitative dynamics on stimulating regeneration and sowing seedlings of Larix gmelinii in Daxing'an Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    To understand the quantitative dynamics and death reason of stimulating regeneration seedlings is significant for stimulating the natural regeneration of Larix gmelinii and implement of conservation project of natural forest. This paper summarized location observations and directly-seeding simulation experiments of six permanent sample plots that were set up after the seed bumper harvest year of Larix gmelinii in 1989. The study showed that stimulating natural regeneration seedlings had a large mortality in the first three years, especially in the first year of seedling emergence. After three years seedlings died less and stepped into the stable regeneration stage. A large number of seedlings died of sunscald as the primary death reason. For those areas of good site conditions and rich soil, damping-off would cause seedlings to death in large quantities. The task of stimulating regeneration is mainly to get rid of the litter (forest floor) on burned areas. By means of promoting measures, emergence rate of sown seeds would be several times and dozens of times higher than that of seed shedding on the condition of retention of forest floor. Promoting the regeneration need to select the suitable site against great slope and low-lying lands; at the same time, be careful of the avoidance of frost heaving by depression water.

  14. Modular Robotic Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borroni-Bird, Christopher E. (Inventor); Vitale, Robert L. (Inventor); Lee, Chunhao J. (Inventor); Ambrose, Robert O. (Inventor); Bluethmann, William J. (Inventor); Junkin, Lucien Q. (Inventor); Lutz, Jonathan J. (Inventor); Guo, Raymond (Inventor); Lapp, Anthony Joseph (Inventor); Ridley, Justin S. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A modular robotic vehicle includes a chassis, driver input devices, an energy storage system (ESS), a power electronics module (PEM), modular electronic assemblies (eModules) connected to the ESS via the PEM, one or more master controllers, and various embedded controllers. Each eModule includes a drive wheel containing a propulsion-braking module, and a housing containing propulsion and braking control assemblies with respective embedded propulsion and brake controllers, and a mounting bracket covering a steering control assembly with embedded steering controllers. The master controller, which is in communication with each eModule and with the driver input devices, communicates with and independently controls each eModule, by-wire, via the embedded controllers to establish a desired operating mode. Modes may include a two-wheel, four-wheel, diamond, and omni-directional steering modes as well as a park mode. A bumper may enable docking with another vehicle, with shared control over the eModules of the vehicles.

  15. Gamma Monitoring of Land Surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapid monitoring of land surfaces is useful in delineating the area affected by an accident involving airborne contamination or detecting long-term contamination of the environment. A rugged monitor capable of making a continuous record when carried on a vehicle has been used for carrying out a pre-operational survey of the area surrounding the site of the NPD power reactor near Chalk River. It consists of an anthracene crystal γ-ray detector with a photomultiplier, pulse-amplifier, counting-rate circuit, DC amplifier, 1-mA recorder train. This equipment weighs 28 kg and is mounted with two bolts on the bumper of a jeep. It can be dismounted and set up on a tripod at the same height above the ground. The mercury batteries are kept inside the vehicle. The circuitry is transistorized. A jig is fitted to carry a standard radium calibration source. The instrument is insensitive to cosmic radiation, and when the vehicle was driven at 16 km/h readings were 80% of those obtained if the counter was stationary. A road survey of the NPD reactor area, with readings also taken at fixed check points 100 m from the roadway and 3.2 km apart, showed that the recorded background radiation on the roads was very uniform, averaging 6 μr/h. Check-point readings varied from 4.5 to 7.0 μr/h. (author)

  16. Impact of Agricultural Credit on Production of Wheat Crop: A Case Study of District Faisalabad-Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Asghar , Muhammad Waqas Chughtai

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture sector plays an important role in the economic development of Pakistan. Wheat is an important and most cultivated crop because it is an essential ingredient of food commodities. Credit plays a vital role in agricultural farming by indirectly participating in purchasing of agricultural inputs i.e. seed, fertilizer, irrigation, machinery and labor etc. Majority of the farmers are poor and they are not able to fulfill the cash requirement of farming, therefore credit has become their dire need. Due to credit farmers can timely purchase the agricultural inputs which resulting a bumper crop. The objective of this study is to depict the impact of credit on the production of wheat crop. Survey was conducted and random sampling technique was used to select the sample borrowers. The collected data was interpreted through “Cobb Douglas Production Function” by using statistical software (SPSS 16.0. The results showed that credit has positive and significant impact on wheat production. The values of R2 and F-statistics are found significant which represented that all selected variables are highly significant. The study not only shares the importance of credit to perform any agriculture activity but also helpful for economists and policy makers for designing agri financing policies.

  17. On-Line Impact Load Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Sekuła

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The so-called Adaptive Impact Absorption (AIA is a research area of safety engineering devoted to problems of shock absorption in various unpredictable scenarios of collisions. It makes use of smart technologies (systems equipped with sensors, controllable dissipaters and specialised tools for signal processing. Examples of engineering applications for AIA systems are protective road barriers, automotive bumpers or adaptive landing gears. One of the most challenging problems for AIA systems is on-line identification of impact loads, which is crucial for introducing the optimum real-time strategy of adaptive impact absorption. This paper presents the concept of an impactometer and develops the methodology able to perform real-time impact load identification. Considered dynamic excitation is generated by a mass M1 impacting with initial velocity V0. An analytical formulation of the problem, supported with numerical simulations and experimental verifications is presented. Two identification algorithms based on measured response of the impacted structure are proposed and discussed. Finally, a concept of the AIA device utilizing the idea of impactometer is briefly presented.

  18. Investigation of high-Z metal transport and fuel retention in the TEXTOR tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuel retention and transport of high-Z metal (e.g. W or Mo) impurities eroded from wall components in tokamaks is crucial for understanding material migration mechanism which may be decisive for the performance of next generation fusion devices. To understand these processes an experiment was carried out at the TEXTOR tokamak on the last operation day of that machine. A controlled injection of Molybdenum Hexafluoride (MoF6), used as a tracer gas, was performed to determine the high-Z transport. This was accompanied by the injection of a nitrogen marker (15N isotope) to determine its accumulation in the machine. Following the experiment a large number of specimens were retrieved for ex-situ studies: (a) graphite and titanium short-term probes installed on test limiters only for that experiment and (b) components of the main toroidal and inner bumper limiters. Also dust samples from various locations were collected. The study is carried out by means of ion beam analysis methods, microscopy and thermal desorption to measure quantitatively the amount and distribution of deuterium, nitrogen and high-Z species in dust and on various plasma-facing components.

  19. Efficiency of nitrogen uptake from nitrogenous fertilizers by plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitrogen is one of the limiting factor in crop production, especially in the tropics where loss of the element in agricultural land is prevalent. High input of nitrogenous fertilizers may sometimes be necessary for bumper harvest of crop, at the expense of the environment. The efficiency of N uptake from N fertilizers by two test plants were measured using tracer 15N isotope dilution method. In this method the proportion of N from fertilizer and other sources may be determined. Groundnut, as in other leguminous crops, derives its N from three sources, viz. the soil, the fertilizer and from the atmosphere, where N2 is fixed through a symbiosis between the legume and Rhizobium, a soil bacterium, in the root nodules. Maize, on the other hand, derives its N from the soil and the fertilizer. In a greenhouse study, with plants grown in fibreglass troughs, the efficiency of N uptake or by groundnut and maize from ammonium sulphate given at the rate of 20 kg N ha-1 and 100 kg N ha-1 was determined. Effects of the different rates of fertilizer N on N2 fixation of groundnut, on dry matter yield and N yield of both groundnut and maize were also determined

  20. Floating Production Unit FPU P53: logistic and modules installation; Logistica e instalacao dos modulos da Unidade Flutuante de Producao FPU P53

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arantes, Joao Durval [UTC Engenharia S.A., SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This work intends to show a 'case' of success, namely the model of management and the strategy, applied in the logistics and installation of the P53 modules. The criteria, which took QUIP to contract, in Brazil and abroad, technology companies, to supply integrated modules, including engineering, procurement, construction and warranty of performance, are shown. Establishment, at the initial phase of the Project, of the discipline 'constructibility', with the attribution to interact with the engineering design and construction of the modules under QUIP's responsibility, modules supplied by PETROBRAS and mainly, with the site of Naval Conversion in Singapore. Establishment of the discipline 'Marinharia', to act together with 'constructibility' to overcome the difficulties and restrictions of Porto de Rio Grande, such as the following: the width of the sailing channel, interferences of commercial port, availability of mooring pier, relationship with port pilotage and authorities of the Fifth Naval District of Brazilian Navy. The challenges were the maneuvers with 2 crane barges for modules installation, in front the P-53, a VLCC ship and maneuvers the barges, involved at the time of installation of the modules. And, finally, to show the proceeding applied in the physical interfaces of installation of the modules, such as: interferences, supports of the modules, stools in the ship, guides and bumpers. Dimensional control, simulations and extensive planning were the tools of success. (author)

  1. Plasma-material interactions in TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a summary of plasma-material interactions which influence the operation of TFTR with high current (≤ 2.2 MA) ohmically heated, and high-power (≅ 10 MW) neutral-beam heated plasmas. The conditioning procedures which are applied routinely to the first-wall hardware are reviewed. Fueling characteristics during gas, pellet, and neutral-beam fueling are described. Recycling coefficients near unity are observed for most gas fueled discharges. Gas fueled discharges after helium discharge conditioning of the toroidal bumper limiter, and discharges fueled by neutral beams and pellets, show R e = 5-6x1019 m-3) values of Zeff are ≤ 1.5. Increases in Zeff of ≤ 1 have been observed with neutral beam heating of 10 MW. The primary low Z impurity is carbon with concentrations decreasing from ≅ 10% to e. Oxygen densities tend to increase with ne, and at the ohmic plasma density limit oxygen and carbon concentrations are comparable. Chromium getter experiments and He2+/D+ plasma comparisons indicate that the limiter is the primary source of carbon and that the vessel wall is a significant source of the oxygen impurity. Metallic impurities, consisting of the vacuum vessel metals (Ni, Fe, Cr) have significant (≅ 10-4 ne) concentrations only at low plasma densities (ne 19 m-3). The primary source of metallic impurities is most likely ion sputtering from metals deposited on the carbon limiter surface. (orig.)

  2. Plasma-material interactions in TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a summary of plasma-material interactions which influence the operation of TFTR with high current (≤ 2 MA), ohmically heated and high power (∼ 10 MW), neutral-beam-heated plasmas. The conditioning procedures which are applied routinely to the first-wall hardware are reviewed. Fueling characteristics during gas, pellet, and neutral beam fueling are described. Recycling coefficients near unity are observed for most gas-fueled discharges. Gas-fueled discharges after helium discharge conditioning of the toroidal bumper limiter and discharges fueled by neutral beams and pellets show R +19 m-3) values of ≤ 1.5. Increases in Z/eff of ≤ 1 have been observed with neutral beam heating of 10 MW. The primary low-Z impurity is carbon with concentrations decreasing from ∼10% to ++/D+ plasma comparisons indicate that the limiter is the primary source of carbon and that the vessel wall is a significant source of the oxygen impurity. Metallic impurities, consisting of the vacuum vessel metals (Ni, Fe, Cr), have significant (∼ 10-4 n/sub e/) concentrations only at low plasma densities (n/sub e/ +19 m-3). The primary source of metallic impurities is most likely ion sputtering from metals deposited on the carbon limiter surface

  3. Project Explorer: Get Away Special #007. [alloy solidification, seed germination, crystal growth, and radio transmission of payload data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, A. J., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Tentatively scheduled to fly on STS-17 (41G), this get away special aims to demonstrate amateur radio transmissions to global ground stations in the English language. Experiments No. 1, 2, and 3 use the micro-gravity of space flight to study the solidification of lead-antimony and aluminum-copper alloys, the germination of radish seeds, and the growth of potassium-tetracyanoplatinate hydrate crystals in an aqueous solution. Flight results are to be compared with Earth-based data. Experiment No. 4 (the Marshall Amateur Radio Club Experiment - MARCE) features radio transmissions and also provides timing for the start of all other experiments. A microprocessor obtains real-time data from all experiments as well as temperature and pressure measurements within the GAS canister. These data are to be transmitted on previously announced amateur radio frequencies after they are converted into the English language by a digitalker for general reception. The support structure for the G #007 experiments consists of two primary plates and four bumper assemblies.

  4. JSC Director's Discretionary Fund 1992 Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Lyle (Compiler)

    1993-01-01

    Annual report of the Johnson Space Center Director's Discretionary Fund documenting effective use of resources. The $1,694,000 funding for FY92 was distributed among 27 projects. The projects are an overall aid to the NASA mission, as well as providing development opportunities for the science and engineering staff with eventual spinoff to commercial uses. Projects described include space-based medical research such as the use of stable isotopes of deuterium and oxygen to measure crew energy use and techniques for noninvasive motion sickness medication. Recycling essentials for space crew support is conducted in the Regenerative Life Support and the Hybrid Regenerative Water Recovery test beds. Two-phase fluid flow simulated under low-gravity conditions, hypervelocity particle impact on open mesh bumpers, and microcalorimetry to measure the long-term hydrazine/material compatibility were investigated. A patent application was made on a shape-memory-alloy release nut. Computer estimate of crew accommodations for advanced concepts was demonstrated. Training techniques were evaluated using multimedia and virtual environment. Upgrades of an electronic still camera provide high resolution images from orbit are presented.

  5. Induced mutation breeding by fast neutron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high-yield and long-grain new variety 'Zhongtie 31' was developed through five generations after irradiation of the rice variety 'Tieqiu 15' dried seeds by 14 MeV fast neutrons with a fluence of (1.33 ∼ 3.33) x 1011 neutrons cm-2. It matured earlier 3 to 5 days, the plant is higher 10 cm, bigger ear, more grain than its original variety 'tieqiu 15', and the yield increased by 19.2% to 30.7%. The source of new variety 'Zhongtie 31' was proved by the isoenzyme genetics. In field test, it increased by 7% to 10% as compared with high-yield variety 'Guichao No.2' and the hybrid rive 'Shanyou No.2', and is more palatable. The new variety was initiated by irradiation mutagensis routine rice, its well-grown and bumper-yield performances may be compared favourably with hybrid rice variety. In July 1986, the new variety 'Zhongtie 31' was obtained by inducing mutation with fast neutron. The same year, the planted area of 'Zhongtie 31' has achieved upto 250 thousand mu (1.67 x 108 cm2)

  6. Design of production test IP-310-A-FP, determination of the dimensional stability of uranium fuel cores classified by the fuel core tester (UT-2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodgson, W.H.; Clinton, M.A.

    1961-02-15

    The objectives of this test are: 1. To establish grain size limits for acceptable uranium fuel element cores. 2. To establish, if possible, criteria for predicting core dimensional stability during irradiation by comparing the relative dimensional stabilities associated with grain size and with variations in grain size in individual cores. 3. To obtain process tube and fuel corrosion data associated with bumper fuel elements in new tubes with no mixer, one mixer in the 10th position and two mixers in the 7th and 15th position from the rear. Fuel cores representing the full range of UT-2 voltage values (grain size converts to d-c voltage) of interest are segregated into three categories: a. Large grains. b. Variations of grain size in an individual core. c. Small grains. Each category will be subdivided into three groups, each covering a small range of values. After canning, the finished fuel elements will be assembled into twenty-seven (27) charges in three latin square patterns for irradiation to a 900 MWD/T exposure goal in D Reactor.

  7. Optical fiber sensors embedded in flexible polymer foils

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hoe, Bram; van Steenberge, Geert; Bosman, Erwin; Missinne, Jeroen; Geernaert, Thomas; Berghmans, Francis; Webb, David; van Daele, Peter

    2010-04-01

    In traditional electrical sensing applications, multiplexing and interconnecting the different sensing elements is a major challenge. Recently, many optical alternatives have been investigated including optical fiber sensors of which the sensing elements consist of fiber Bragg gratings. Different sensing points can be integrated in one optical fiber solving the interconnection problem and avoiding any electromagnetical interference (EMI). Many new sensing applications also require flexible or stretchable sensing foils which can be attached to or wrapped around irregularly shaped objects such as robot fingers and car bumpers or which can even be applied in biomedical applications where a sensor is fixed on a human body. The use of these optical sensors however always implies the use of a light-source, detectors and electronic circuitry to be coupled and integrated with these sensors. The coupling of these fibers with these light sources and detectors is a critical packaging problem and as it is well-known the costs for packaging, especially with optoelectronic components and fiber alignment issues are huge. The end goal of this embedded sensor is to create a flexible optical sensor integrated with (opto)electronic modules and control circuitry. To obtain this flexibility, one can embed the optical sensors and the driving optoelectronics in a stretchable polymer host material. In this article different embedding techniques for optical fiber sensors are described and characterized. Initial tests based on standard manufacturing processes such as molding and laser structuring are reported as well as a more advanced embedding technique based on soft lithography processing.

  8. SIMON: A mobile robot for floor contamination surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Robotics Development group at the Savannah River Site is developing an autonomous robot to perform radiological surveys of potentially contaminated floors. The robot scans floors at a speed of one-inch/second and stops, sounds an alarm, and flashes lights when contamination in a certain area is detected. The contamination of interest here is primarily alpha and beta-gamma. The contamination levels are low to moderate. The robot, a Cybermotion K2A, is radio controlled, uses dead reckoning to determine vehicle position, and docks with a charging station to replenish its batteries and calibrate its position. It has an ultrasonic collision avoidance system as well as two safety bumpers that will stop the robot's motion when they are depressed. Paths for the robot are preprogrammed and the robot's motion can be monitored on a remote screen which shows a graphical map of the environment. The radiation instrument being used is an Eberline RM22A monitor. This monitor is microcomputer based with a serial I/O interface for remote operation. Up to 30 detectors may be configured with the RM22A. For our purposes, two downward-facing gas proportional detectors are used to scan floors, and one upward-facing detector is used for radiation background compensation. SIMON is interfaced with the RM22A in such a way that it scans the floor surface at one-inch/second, and if contamination is detected, the vehicle stops, alarms, and activates a voice synthesizer. Future development includes using the contamination data collected to provide a graphical contour map of a contaminated area. 3 refs

  9. Hypervelocity impact of rod projectiles with L/D from 1 to 32

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beside a short remark on the ''hydrodynamic theory of rod projectiles'', the paper deals with the terminal ballistic behaviour of cylindrical projectiles against semi-infinite targets. Experimental data of EMI, completed by results of some other authors, are presented. Crater parameters like depth, diameter and volume and their dependence on projectile velocity (up to 5000 m/s), projectile and target material properties, as well as L/D-ratios (1 - 32), are discussed. Mainly the projectile materials steel and tungsten sinter-alloys are considered. Target materials are mild steel and high strength steel, an Al-alloy and a tungsten sinter-alloy. The results show that the influence of material density on the crater dimensions is considerably greater than the influence of strength. The L/D ratio determines the velocity dependence of crater depth, diameter and volume. At high velocities in the hydrodynamic regime, the crater depth of short cylinders (L/D -- 1) is approximately proportional to v/sub p//sup 2/3/ (v/sub p/ = projectile velocity). With increasing L/D-ratio, the slope of the penetration curves decreases and converges for rods (L/D >> 1) versus a saturation, i.e. becomes nearly independent on v/sub p/. A consequence of this saturation is the existence of a so-called ''tangent velocity'', above which an optimal increase of efficiency is only realized by increasing the projectile mass and not the velocity. Furthermore, ballistic limits of real targets like single plates and symmetric double plates meteorite bumper shield) are taken into account. The expected better performance of ''segmented rods'' is also discussed

  10. Meteoroid and Orbital Debris Threats to NASA's Docking Seals: Initial Assessment and Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    deGroh, Henry C., III; Gallo, Christopher A.; Nahra, Henry K.

    2009-01-01

    The Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) will be exposed to the Micrometeoroid Orbital Debris (MMOD) environment in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) during missions to the International Space Station (ISS) and to the micrometeoroid environment during lunar missions. The CEV will be equipped with a docking system which enables it to connect to ISS and the lunar module known as Altair; this docking system includes a hatch that opens so crew and supplies can pass between the spacecrafts. This docking system is known as the Low Impact Docking System (LIDS) and uses a silicone rubber seal to seal in cabin air. The rubber seal on LIDS presses against a metal flange on ISS (or Altair). All of these mating surfaces are exposed to the space environment prior to docking. The effects of atomic oxygen, ultraviolet and ionizing radiation, and MMOD have been estimated using ground based facilities. This work presents an initial methodology to predict meteoroid and orbital debris threats to candidate docking seals being considered for LIDS. The methodology integrates the results of ground based hypervelocity impacts on silicone rubber seals and aluminum sheets, risk assessments of the MMOD environment for a variety of mission scenarios, and candidate failure criteria. The experimental effort that addressed the effects of projectile incidence angle, speed, mass, and density, relations between projectile size and resulting crater size, and relations between crater size and the leak rate of candidate seals has culminated in a definition of the seal/flange failure criteria. The risk assessment performed with the BUMPER code used the failure criteria to determine the probability of failure of the seal/flange system and compared the risk to the allotted risk dictated by NASA s program requirements.

  11. Hypervelocity impact facility for simulating materials exposure to impact by space debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, M. F.; Best, S.; Chaloupka, T.; Stephens, B.; Crawford, G.

    1993-01-01

    As a result of man's venturing into space, the local debris contributed by his presence exceeds, at some orbital altitudes, that of the natural component. Man's contribution ranges from fuel residue to large derelect satellites that weigh many kilograms. Current debris models are able to predict the growth of the problem and suggest that spacecraft must employ armor or bumper shields for some orbital altitudes now, and that, the problem will become worse as a function of time. The practical upper limit to the velocity distribution is on the order of 40 km/s and is associated with the natural environment. The maximum velocity of the man-made component is in the 14-16 km/s range. The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) has verified that the 'high probability of impact' particles are in the microgram to milligram range. These particles can have significant effects on coatings, insulators, and thin metallic layers. The surface of thick materials becomes pitted and the local debris component is enhanced by ejecta from the debris spectrum in a controlled environment. The facility capability is discussed in terms of drive geometry, energetics, velocity distribution, diagnostics, and projectile/debris loading. The facility is currently being used to study impact phenomena on Space Station Freedom's solar array structure, other solar array materials, potential structural materials for use in the station, electrical breakdown in the space environment, and as a means of clarifying or duplicating the impact phenomena on the LDEF surfaces. The results of these experiments are described in terms of the mass/velocity distribution incident on selected samples, crater dynamics, and sample geometry.

  12. Recent TFTR results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TFTR experiments have emphasized the optimization of high performance plasmas as well as studies of transport in high temperature plasmas. The recent installation of carbon composite tiles on the main bumper limiter has allowed operation with up to 32 MW of neutral beam injection without degradation of plasma performance by large bursts of carbon impurities (''carbon blooms''). Plasma parameters have been extended to Ti(0) ∼ 35 keV, Te(0) ∼ 12 keV, ne(0) ∼1.2 x 1020 m-3 producing D-D reaction rates of 8.8 x 1016 reactions per second. The fusion parameter ne(0)τETi(0) in supershot plasmas is an increasing function of heating power up to an MHD stability limit, reaching values of ∼4.4 x 1020 m-3 sec keV. Peaked-density-profile hot-ion plasmas with the edge characteristics of the H-mode have been produced in a circular cross-section limiter configuration with ne(0)τETi(0) values characteristic of supershots, namely up to four times those projected for standard H-modes with broad density profiles. Reduced transport is also observed in the core of high-density ICRF-heated plasmas when the density profile is peaked. At the highest performance, the central plasma pressure in TFTR reaches reactor level values of 6.5 atmospheres. In these regimes, MHD instabilities with m/n = 1/1, 2/1, 3/2 and 4/3 are often observed concurrent with a degradation in performance. High βp plasmas with var-epsilon βp ∼ 1.6 and β/(I/aB) ∼ 4.7 (%mT/MA) have demonstrated confinement enhancement over the low-mode confinement time with τE/τL ∼ 3.5 and a bootstrap current of about 65% of the total plasma current

  13. The induced SDI mutant and other useful mutant genes in modern rice varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Induced mutation was accelerated in the USA with the release in California in 1976 of Calrose 76, the nation's first semidwarf table rice variety. Success was due not only to induction of mutants but also to their evaluation and integration into cross-breeding programs. Thus the evaluation of Calrose 76 showed that its sdl gene was allelic to sdl in the indica Green Revolution varieties DGWG, TN(1) and IR8, and that semidwarfism conferred a yield advantage of 14% over the 6mt/ha yield level of the tall japonicas. Immediate integration of the Calrose 76 source of semidwarfism into cross-breeding has resulted in 25 semidwarf varieties that trace their ancestral source of semidwarfism to Calrose 76: 13 in California, 10 in Australia, and 2 in Egypt. Calrose 76 ancestry also appears in the pedigrees of numerous additional California cultivars derived from crossing the Calrose 76 source with the IR8 source of semidwarfism. In the late 1990s 12 semidwarf mutants were induced in tall tropical japonica varieties at the Dale Bumpers National Rice Research Center in Arkansas. The semidwarfing gene in each of these 12 germplasms was found to be nonallelic to sdl. Although selected for productivity, none of the 12 consistently showed yield increases typical of sd1 sources. The sdl source, whether from induced mutation or from the indica source, is truly associated with enhanced productivity. Other induced mutants were found for early flowering, low phytic acid, giant embryo, and marker genes such as gold leaf and extreme dwarfism. The early flowering mutants were recovered in temperate japonicas, in tropical japonicas, and most recently in indicas. The early flowering indica mutants are quite interesting since they provide high yielding or blast disease-resistant indica germplasm which will mature in the USA. (author)

  14. The Induced sd1 Mutant and Other Useful Mutant Genes in Modern Rice Varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Induced mutation was accelerated in the USA with the release in California in 1976 of Calrose 76, the nation's first semidwarf table rice variety. Success was due not only to induction of mutants but also to their evaluation and integration into cross-breeding programmes. Thus the evaluation of Calrose 76 showed that its sd1 gene was allelic to sd1 in the indica Green Revolution varieties DGWG, TN(1) and IR8, and that semidwarfism conferred a yield advantage of 14% over the 6mt/ha yield level of the tall japonicas. Immediate integration of the Calrose 76 source of semidwarfism into cross-breeding has resulted in 25 semidwarf varieties that trace their ancestral source of semidwarfism to Calrose 76: 13 in California, 10 in Australia, and 2 in Egypt. Calrose 76 ancestry also appears in the pedigrees of numerous additional California cultivars derived from crossing the Calrose 76 source with the IR8 source of semidwarfism. In the late 1990s 12 semidwarf mutants were induced in tall tropical japonica varieties at the Dale Bumpers National Rice Research Center in Arkansas. The semidwarfing gene in each of these 12 germplasms was found to be nonallelic to sd1. Although selected for productivity, none of the 12 consistently showed yield increases typical of sd1 sources. The sd1 source, whether from induced mutation or from the indica source, is truly associated with enhanced productivity. Other induced mutants were found for early flowering, low phytic acid, giant embryo, and marker genes such as gold leaf and extreme dwarfism. The early flowering mutants were recovered in temperate japonicas, in tropical japonicas, and most recently in indicas. The early flowering indica mutants are quite interesting since they provide high-yielding or blast disease-resistant indica germplasm which will mature in the USA. (author)

  15. Using the lead vehicle as preview sensor in convoy vehicle active suspension control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mustafizur; Rideout, Geoff

    2012-12-01

    Both ride quality and roadholding of actively suspended vehicles can be improved by sensing the road ahead of the vehicle and using this information in a preview controller. Previous applications have used look-ahead sensors mounted on the front bumper to measure terrain beneath. Such sensors are vulnerable, potentially confused by water, snow, or other soft obstacles and offer a fixed preview time. For convoy vehicle applications, this paper proposes using the overall response of the preceding vehicle(s) to generate preview controller information for follower vehicles. A robust observer is used to estimate the states of a quarter-car vehicle model, from which road profile is estimated and passed on to the follower vehicle(s) to generate a preview function. The preview-active suspension, implemented in discrete time using a shift register approach to improve simulation time, reduces sprung mass acceleration and dynamic tyre deflection peaks by more than 50% and 40%, respectively. Terrain can change from one vehicle to the next if a loose obstacle is dislodged, or if the vehicle paths are sufficiently different so that one vehicle misses a discrete road event. The resulting spurious preview information can give suspension performance worse than that of a passive or conventional active system. In this paper, each vehicle can effectively estimate the road profile based on its own state trajectory. By comparing its own road estimate with the preview information, preview errors can be detected and suspension control quickly switched from preview to conventional active control to preserve performance improvements compared to passive suspensions.

  16. Are weeds hitchhiking a ride on your car? A systematic review of seed dispersal on cars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Ansong

    Full Text Available When traveling in cars, we can unintentionally carry and disperse weed seed; but which species, and where are they a problem? To answer these questions, we systematically searched the scientific literature to identify all original research studies that assess seed transported by cars and listed the species with seed on/in cars. From the 13 studies that fit these criteria, we found 626 species from 75 families that have seed that can be dispersed by cars. Of these, 599 are listed as weeds in some part of the world, with 439 listed as invasive or naturalized alien species in one or more European countries, 248 are invasive/noxious weeds in North America, 370 are naturalized alien species in Australia, 167 are alien species in India, 77 are invasive species in China and 23 are declared weeds/invaders in South Africa. One hundred and one are classified as internationally important environmental weeds. Although most (487 were only recorded once, some species such as Chenopodium album, Poa pratensis and Trifolium repens were common among studies. Perennial graminoids seem to be favoured over annual graminoids while annual forbs are favoured over perennial forbs. Species characteristics including seed size and morphology and where the plants grew affected the probability that their seed was transported by cars. Seeds can be found in many different places on cars including under the chassis, front and rear bumpers, wheel wells and rims, front and back mudguards, wheel arches, tyres and on interior floor mats. With increasing numbers of cars and expanding road networks in many regions, these results highlight the importance of cars as a dispersal mechanism, and how it may favour invasions by some species over others. Strategies to reduce the risk of seed dispersal by cars include reducing seed on cars by mowing road verges and cleaning cars.

  17. Theoretical Analysis and Experimental Study on the Coating Removal from Passenger-Vehicle Plastics for Recycling by Using Water Jet Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongshen; Chen, Ming

    2015-11-01

    The recovery and utilization of automotive plastics are a global concern because of the increasing number of end-of-life vehicles. In-depth studies on technologies for the removal of coatings from automotive plastics can contribute to the high value-added levels of the recycling and utilization of automotive plastic. The liquid waste generated by removing chemical paint by using traditional methods is difficult to handle and readily produces secondary pollution. Therefore, new, clean, and highly efficient techniques of paint removal must be developed. In this article, a method of coating removal from passenger-vehicle plastics was generated based on high-pressure water jet technology to facilitate the recycling of these plastics. The established technology was theoretically analyzed, numerically simulated, and experimentally studied. The high-pressure water jet equipment for the removal of automotive-plastic coatings was constructed through research and testing, and the detailed experiments on coating removal rate were performed by using this equipment. The results showed that high-pressure water jet technology can effectively remove coatings on the surfaces of passenger-vehicle plastics. The research also revealed that the coating removal rate increased as jet pressure ( P) increased and then decreased when jet moving speed ( Vn) increased. The rate decreased as the distance from nozzle to work piece ( S nw ) and the nozzle angle ( Φ) increased. The mathematical model for the rate of removal of coatings from bumper surfaces by water jet was derived based on the experiment data and can effectively predict coating removal rate under different operating conditions.

  18. Hybrid approach combining chemometrics and likelihood ratio framework for reporting the evidential value of spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyna, Agnieszka; Zadora, Grzegorz; Neocleous, Tereza; Michalska, Aleksandra; Dean, Nema

    2016-08-10

    Many chemometric tools are invaluable and have proven effective in data mining and substantial dimensionality reduction of highly multivariate data. This becomes vital for interpreting various physicochemical data due to rapid development of advanced analytical techniques, delivering much information in a single measurement run. This concerns especially spectra, which are frequently used as the subject of comparative analysis in e.g. forensic sciences. In the presented study the microtraces collected from the scenarios of hit-and-run accidents were analysed. Plastic containers and automotive plastics (e.g. bumpers, headlamp lenses) were subjected to Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and car paints were analysed using Raman spectroscopy. In the forensic context analytical results must be interpreted and reported according to the standards of the interpretation schemes acknowledged in forensic sciences using the likelihood ratio approach. However, for proper construction of LR models for highly multivariate data, such as spectra, chemometric tools must be employed for substantial data compression. Conversion from classical feature representation to distance representation was proposed for revealing hidden data peculiarities and linear discriminant analysis was further applied for minimising the within-sample variability while maximising the between-sample variability. Both techniques enabled substantial reduction of data dimensionality. Univariate and multivariate likelihood ratio models were proposed for such data. It was shown that the combination of chemometric tools and the likelihood ratio approach is capable of solving the comparison problem of highly multivariate and correlated data after proper extraction of the most relevant features and variance information hidden in the data structure. PMID:27282749

  19. Determination of the strain rate dependent thermal softening behavior of thermoplastic materials for crash simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopmann, Christian; Klein, Jan; Schöngart, Maximilian

    2016-03-01

    Thermoplastic materials are increasingly used as a light weight replacement for metal, especially in automotive applications. Typical examples are frontends and bumpers. The loads on these structures are very often impulsive, for example in a crash situation. A high rate of loading causes a high strain rate in the material which has a major impact on the mechanical behavior of thermoplastic materials. The stiffness as well as the rigidity of polymers increases to higher strain rates. The increase of the mechanical properties is superimposed at higher rates of loading by another effect which works reducing on stiffness and rigidity, the increase of temperature caused by plastic deformation. The mechanical behavior of thermoplastic materials is influenced by temperature opposing to strain rate. The stiffness and rigidity are decreased to higher values of temperature. The effect of thermal softening on thermoplastic materials is investigated at IKV. For this purpose high-speed tensile tests are performed on a blend, consisting of Polybutylenterephthalate (PBT) and Polycarbonate (PC). In preliminary investigations the effects of strain rate on the thermomechanical behavior of thermoplastic materials was studied by different authors. Tensile impact as well as split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) tests were conducted in combination with high-speed temperature measurement, though, the authors struggled especially with temperature measurement. This paper presents an approach which uses high-speed strain measurement to transpire the link between strain, strain rate and thermal softening as well as the interdependency between strain hardening and thermal softening. The results show a superimposition of strain hardening and thermal softening, which is consistent to preliminary investigations. The advantage of the presented research is that the results can be used to calibrate damage and material models to perform mechanical simulations using Finite Element Analysis.

  20. KURSUS SINGKAT DAN PELATIHAN PENGOLAHAN SALAK MENJADI DODOL SALAK DI DESA SIBETAN KECAMATAN BEBANDEM KABUPATEN KARANGASEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PUTU SUARYA

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The farmers of salaks, the snake fruits of Sibetan Village have encountered the price tumble during the harvest time. The bumper crops during the harvest while at the same time there is a steady demand on it, as well as that there has not been an effort to process the abundant crops into a preserved foods are considered to be the main factors that cause its price drop.Training and short course have been conducted to introduce the way how to process the fruits into dodol salak, a sticky cake made of the salak fruit as the main material, by conducting the lecturing and practicing method. The participants were members of family welfare organization (PKK and the local housewives from Telutug of Sibetan village with the total number of 32 participants, and most of them are the farmers of salaks. The process of making the dodol salak comprises the following steps : the collection and selection of the fruits, peeling and coring the fruit, steaming, mashing the fruits into a pulp, the mixing with coconut milk, palm sugar and sticky rice floor in the bowl, mixing and boiling the mixture within 120 minutes, cooling down and then it is molded and wrapped.The result of the training shows that the participants were really enthusiastic, it could be seen by the abundant of questions raised either during the lecture, discussion as well as during the practice of making the dodol salak itself. It is expected that by introducing the way how to process the fruits into dodol will improve the skill and knowledge of the local people in general and especially for those of PKK members and the housewives. The food processing into dodol salak may bring about many advantages such as the diversification of the fruit processed-product, giving the added value to the fruit, to lengthen the storage time and to improve the appearance and quality of the product.

  1. Effect of Zn on the microstructure evolution of extruded Mg–3Nd (–Zn)–Zr (wt.%) alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Age-hardening effect of as-extruded Mg–3Nd (–Zn)–Zr alloys decreases with Zn. ► Increasing Zn, β″ in aged alloys decrease while basal plates increases. ► Aged NZ30K behave the highest UTS due to co-existence of basal and prism plates. ► The yield phenomena are connected to the random texture as well as dislocations. - Abstract: This paper presents the results of a transmission electron microscopy study of the microstructure of extruded Mg–Nd–Zn alloys that exhibit improvement in strength, making them potential candidates for bumper beam applications. Three sets of extruded rods with 0%, 0.2% and 0.5% Zn addition are prepared to examine the effect of Zn on the precipitates in the as-extruded and aged condition. At least five different precipitate phases with different structures, morphologies and distributions were identified and correlated with the mechanical properties. Zn is seen to have no effect on the precipitation sequence of Nd-rich phases but seems to control the growth of those phases. It is found that small amount of Zn can lead to drastic changes in the nature of the precipitate phase due to the strong affinity between Zn and Nd in the alloy to form Mg–Nd–Zn intermetallics, affecting the strength and ductility. Control of both the Nd and Zn content are necessary to take advantage of the “rare earth texture” induced by Nd to improve ductility and precipitation strengthening by the Mg–Nd–Zn intermetallics when Zn is present.

  2. An Agent-Based Interface to Terrestrial Ecological Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Keith; Nemani, Ramakrishna; Pang, Wanlin; Votava, Petr

    2005-01-01

    The latest generation of NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) satellites has brought a new dimension to continuous monitoring of the living part of the Earth System, the biosphere. EOS data can now provide weekly global measures of vegetation productivity and ocean chlorophyll, and many related biophysical factors such as land cover changes or snowmelt rates. However, the highest economic value would come from forecasting impending conditions of the biosphere, to allow decision makers to mitigate dangers or exploit positive trends. NASA's strategic plan for the Earth Science Enterprise i d e n a s ecological forecasting as a focus for research. Ecological forecasting predicts the effects of changes in the physical, chemical and biological environment on ecosystem activity. Possible applications of such a system include predicting shortfalls or bumper crops of agricultural production, populations of threatened or invasive species or wildfire danger in time to allow improves preparation and logistical efficiency. Petabytes of remote sensing data are now available to help measure, understand and forecast changes in the Earth system, but using these data effectively can be surprisingly hard. The volume and variety of data files and formats are daunting. Simple data management activities, such as locating and transferring files, changing file formats, gridding point data, and scaling and reprojecting gridded data, can consume far more personnel time and resources than the actual data analysis. Some scientists commit to a particular data source or resolution just because using anything different would be more effort that it's worth. Better tools can help, but most of the tools developed to date are little more than shell scripts; they lack the flexibility to meet the diverse needs of users and are difficult to extend to handle changes in available data sources.

  3. THE BOOK OF MUHSİN MACİT CALLED FİLMİN AĞLANACAK YERİ AS A SAMPLE OF “FRAGMENTED TEXT”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan TUNÇ

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available To incarcerate any literary product into a literary type may mean the limitation of that literary product’s meaning. On the other hand, when a literary product is singly considered by disregarding the literary types, its relation with other texts in terms of similarity and difference becomes ignored. Thus, it is essential to determine a traditional or modern literary type whom a literary product can be attached and connected in terms of content and form. An understanding is assumed that there is a two-sided interaction from product to literary type and literary type to product. In this article, the work of Muhsin Macit called Filmin AğlanacakYeri is studied and it is questioned that which literary type and conceptualization suits to define the work. In this study, it is stressed that the work of Macit included various literary types such as memoir-story, story and essay without following a regular order. Also it is asserted that the work created a plural language by using poems, folk songs, bumper sticker slogans and letters. The impact of this richness in narration is increased by the language of the book which sometimes has a ironic and sometimes has a dramatic language. By stressing these peculiarities, it is emphasized that there is plurality, segmentation and differentiation in Filmin AğlanacakYeri in terms of literary types and narrations instead of totality and singularity. The mentioned characteristic is associated with the concept of “fragmented text” (L’Ecriture Fragmentaire. In this article, it is said that the state of being a “fragmented text” does not indicate that the book has a postmodern character but it is a reflection of such feelings as loss, being forgotten and separation. It is aimed to reveal that mentioned feelings created a perception of “a world which is losing its integrity” for the narrator and this perception caused to particularity and discontinuity in literary types and narrations.

  4. Effect of Zn on the microstructure evolution of extruded Mg-3Nd (-Zn)-Zr (wt.%) alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Lan [National Engineering Research Center of Light Alloy Net Forming, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Mishra, Raja K.; Balogh, Michael P. [General Motors Research and Development Center, Warren, MI 48090 (United States); Peng Liming, E-mail: plm616@sjtu.edu.cn [National Engineering Research Center of Light Alloy Net Forming, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University,800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Luo, Alan A.; Sachdev, Anil K. [General Motors Research and Development Center, Warren, MI 48090 (United States); Ding Wenjiang [National Engineering Research Center of Light Alloy Net Forming, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University,800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2012-05-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Age-hardening effect of as-extruded Mg-3Nd (-Zn)-Zr alloys decreases with Zn. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increasing Zn, {beta} Double-Prime in aged alloys decrease while basal plates increases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aged NZ30K behave the highest UTS due to co-existence of basal and prism plates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The yield phenomena are connected to the random texture as well as dislocations. - Abstract: This paper presents the results of a transmission electron microscopy study of the microstructure of extruded Mg-Nd-Zn alloys that exhibit improvement in strength, making them potential candidates for bumper beam applications. Three sets of extruded rods with 0%, 0.2% and 0.5% Zn addition are prepared to examine the effect of Zn on the precipitates in the as-extruded and aged condition. At least five different precipitate phases with different structures, morphologies and distributions were identified and correlated with the mechanical properties. Zn is seen to have no effect on the precipitation sequence of Nd-rich phases but seems to control the growth of those phases. It is found that small amount of Zn can lead to drastic changes in the nature of the precipitate phase due to the strong affinity between Zn and Nd in the alloy to form Mg-Nd-Zn intermetallics, affecting the strength and ductility. Control of both the Nd and Zn content are necessary to take advantage of the 'rare earth texture' induced by Nd to improve ductility and precipitation strengthening by the Mg-Nd-Zn intermetallics when Zn is present.

  5. AN ANALYSIS OF THE IMPACT OF SPORTS UTILITY VEHICLES IN THE UNITED STATES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, S.C.

    2000-08-16

    During the 1990s, sport utility vehicles (SUVs) became the fastest growing segment of the auto industry, especially those in the medium-size category. In 1999, SUV sales reached almost 19% of the total light vehicle market and the mix of SUVs on the road, as measured by registration data, was about 8.7%. This immense popularity has been called by some a passing fad--vehicle purchases based on the SUV ''image''. But the continued yearly increases in SUV sales seem to indicate a more permanent trend. Additional explanations for SUV popularity include the general economic well being in the United States, a perception of safety, and ''utility''. Generally larger and heavier than the typical automobile, SUVs require more fuel per mile to operate and produce greater amounts of pollutants. They are also driven further annually than are automobiles of the same vintage, a fact that exacerbates the fuel-use and emission problems. Although buyers believe that SUVs are safer than automobiles which they are in some cases, SUVs are more prone to roll-overs than are automobiles. In addition, SUVs, with their higher bumpers and greater weight, may be a threat to other vehicles on the highway, especially in side-impact crashes. With sales projected to grow to over 3 million units per year beginning in 2001, SUVs show no sign of decreasing in popularity. These vehicles are used primarily for general mobility, rather than off-road activities. An emphasis on better fuel economy and improved emissions control could address environmental and oil dependency concerns. In fact, recently, two vehicle manufacturers announced intentions of improving the fuel economy of their SUVs in the next few years. Also, tests simulating crashes involving automobiles and SUVs could provide valuable data for identifying potential safety design issues. It is clear that automobiles and SUVs will be sharing the highways for years to come.

  6. Nuclear fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nuclear fuel assembly includes and upper yoke, a base, an elongated, outer flow channel disposed substantially along the entire length of the fuel assembly and an elongated, internal, central water cross, formed by four, elongated metal angles, that divides the nuclear fuel assembly into four, separate, elongated fuel sections and that provides a centrally disposed path for the flow of subcooled neutron moderator along the length of the fuel assembly. A separate fuel bundle is located in each of the four fuel sections and includes an upper tie plate, a lower tie plate and a plurality of elongated fuel rods disposed therebetween. Preferably, each upper tie plate is formed from a plurality of interconnected thin metal bars and includes an elongated, axially extending pin that is received by the upper yoke of the fuel assembly for restraining lateral motion of the fuel bundle while permitting axial movement of the fuel bundle with respect to the outer flow channel. The outer flow channel is fixedly secured at its opposite longitudinal ends to the upper yoke and to the base to permit the fuel assembly to be lifted and handled in a vertical position without placing lifting loads or stresses on the fuel rods. The yoke, removably attached at the upper end of the fuel assembly to four structural ribs secured to the inner walls of the outer flow channel, includes, as integrally formed components, a lifting bail or handle, laterally extending bumpers, a mounting post for a spring assembly, four elongated apertures for receiving with a slip fit the axially extending pins mounted on the upper tie plates and slots for receiving the structural ribs secured to the outer flow channel. Locking pins securely attach the yoke to the structural ribs enabling the fuel assembly to be lifted as an entity

  7. Self-Supervised Learning of Terrain Traversability from Proprioceptive Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajracharya, Max; Howard, Andrew B.; Matthies, Larry H.

    2009-01-01

    Robust and reliable autonomous navigation in unstructured, off-road terrain is a critical element in making unmanned ground vehicles a reality. Existing approaches tend to rely on evaluating the traversability of terrain based on fixed parameters obtained via testing in specific environments. This results in a system that handles the terrain well that it trained in, but is unable to process terrain outside its test parameters. An adaptive system does not take the place of training, but supplements it. Whereas training imprints certain environments, an adaptive system would imprint terrain elements and the interactions amongst them, and allow the vehicle to build a map of local elements using proprioceptive sensors. Such sensors can include velocity, wheel slippage, bumper hits, and accelerometers. Data obtained by the sensors can be compared to observations from ranging sensors such as cameras and LADAR (laser detection and ranging) in order to adapt to any kind of terrain. In this way, it could sample its surroundings not only to create a map of clear space, but also of what kind of space it is and its composition. By having a set of building blocks consisting of terrain features, a vehicle can adapt to terrain that it has never seen before, and thus be robust to a changing environment. New observations could be added to its library, enabling it to infer terrain types that it wasn't trained on. This would be very useful in alien environments, where many of the physical features are known, but some are not. For example, a seemingly flat, hard plain could actually be soft sand, and the vehicle would sense the sand and avoid it automatically.

  8. Are electric self-balancing scooters safe in vehicle crash accidents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jun; Shang, Shi; Yu, Guizhen; Qi, Hongsheng; Wang, Yunpeng; Xu, Shucai

    2016-02-01

    With the pressing demand of environmentally friendly personal transportation vehicles, mobility scooters become more and more popular for the short-distance transportation. Similar to pedestrians and bicyclists, scooter riders are vulnerable road users and are expected to receive severe injuries during traffic accidents. In this research, a MADYMO model of vehicle-scooter crash scenarios is numerically set up. The model of the vehicle with the scenario is validated in pedestrian-vehicle accident investigation with previous literatures in terms of throwing distance and HIC15 value. HIC15 values gained at systematic parametric studies. Injury information from various vehicle crashing speeds (i.e. from 10m/s to 24m/s), angles (i.e. from 0 to 360°), scooter's speeds (i.e. from 0m/s to 4m/s), contact positions (i.e. left, middle and right bumper positions) are extracted, analyzed and then compared with those from widely studied pedestrian-vehicle and bicycle-vehicle accidents. Results show that the ESS provides better impact protection for the riders. Riding ESS would not increase the risk higher than walking at the same impact conditions in terms of head injury. The responsible reasons should be the smaller friction coefficient between the wheel-road than the heel-road interactions, different body gestures leading to different contact positions, forces and timing. Results may shed lights upon the future research of mobility scooter safety analysis and also the safety design guidance for the scooters. PMID:26656151

  9. Hypervelocity Impact Experiments on Epoxy/Ultra-High Molecular Weight Polyethylene Composite Panels Reinforced with Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatiwada, Suman; Laughman, Jay W.; Armada, Carlos A.; Christiansen, Eric L.; Barrera, Enrique V.

    2012-01-01

    Advanced composites with multi-functional capabilities are of great interest to the designers of aerospace structures. Polymer matrix composites (PMCs) reinforced with high strength fibers provide a lightweight and high strength alternative to metals and metal alloys conventionally used in aerospace architectures. Novel reinforcements such as nanofillers offer potential to improve the mechanical properties and add multi-functionality such as radiation resistance and sensing capabilities to the PMCs. This paper reports the hypervelocity impact (HVI) test results on ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fiber composites reinforced with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) and boron nitride nanotubes (BNNT). Woven UHMWPE fabrics, in addition to providing excellent impact properties and high strength, also offer radiation resistance due to inherent high hydrogen content. SWCNT have exceptional mechanical and electrical properties. BNNT (figure 1) have high neutron cross section and good mechanical properties that add multi-functionality to this system. In this project, epoxy based UHMWPE composites containing SWCNT and BNNT are assessed for their use as bumper shields and as intermediate plates in a Whipple Shield for HVI resistance. Three composite systems are prepared to compare against one another: (I) Epoxy/UHMWPE, (II) Epoxy/UHMWPE/SWCNT and (III) Epoxy/UHMWPE/SWCNT/BNNT. Each composite is a 10.0 by 10.0 by 0.11 cm3 panel, consisting of 4 layers of fabrics arranged in cross-ply orientation. Both SWCNT and BNNT are 0.5 weight % of the fabric preform. Hypervelocity impact tests are performed using a two-stage light gas gun at Rice University

  10. The use of energy absorbers to protect structures against impact loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When a flying missile impacts a fixed structure, the interface loading is dependent on the deformation characteristics of both impacting and impacted bodies. If both are too rigid to accommodate the amount of gross deformation required to neutralize the incoming kinetic energy, or if such energy absorption has a chance to proceed in uncontrolled and unreliable ways, then there is a need to interpose a specifically designed 'energy absorber' between missile and structure, from which a well-defined load time history can be derived during the course of impact. The required characteristics of such an energy absorption material are: the capability to accommodate large permanent deformation without structural failure; and the reliable and controlled 'load-deformation' (or 'stress-stain') behaviour under dynamic conditions, with an aim at an optimal square shape curve. Consideration must also be given to environmental or other disturbing effects, like temperature, humidity, and 'out of plane' loading. A short survey is presented of the wide range of energy absorbers already described in technical papers or used in a number of practical safety applications within varied engineering fields (from vehicle crash barriers to high energy pipe whipping restraints). However, with such open a literature, information is usually lacking in the specific data required for design analysis. The following 'energy absorption' materials and processes have thus been further experimentally investigated, with an aim at pipe whipping restraint application for nuclear power plants: (1) plastic extension of austenitic stainless steel rods; (2) plastic compression of copper bumpers; and (3) punching of lightweight concrete structures. (Auth.)

  11. On The Folk Customs of Huazhao Festival Which Is a Kind Of Intangible Cultural Heritage and its Modern Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihui Ma

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Huazhao Festival is a traditional one that is celebrated in early spring and appeals to both highbrows and lowbrows. Once, it was as significant as Lantern Festival and Mid-autumn Festival. Ever since Tang Dynasty, it has undergone stages of emerging, thriving, declining and restoring. Originally, people only had a spring outing enjoying beautiful flowers at this festival; later, various other folk activities were also carried out on this day, including catching butterflies, picking wild vegetables, offering sacrifices to gods, predicting bumper and poor harvest, fastening strips of red cloth to stems of flowers and trees (shang hong, having competitions on grass, encouraging agriculture, holding and attending banquets, writing articles, paying court and so on. These activities demonstrated such characteristics of the national culture of China as elegance, harmony and life-friendliness. Obviously different from other traditional festivals like Spring Festival, Mid-autumn Festival, Dragon Boat Festival, etc, Huazhao Festival has unique style and value. Despite its fading away from people’s life due to changes in modern society, its cultural glamour and comprehensive value still exist. Along with economic and social development and the increase of people’s spiritual and cultural demands, Huazhao Festival has regained people’s attention. It has been restored and hosted in some regions and identified as an intangible cultural heritage. By means of literature review, the folk customs of Huazhao Festival was re-presented to some extent in this paper. Its modern values in areas including health, culture, ecology and industry were analyzed. This paper is of certain significance, in respect of conserving and inheriting this national festival, promoting its restoration in more regions in a way more approximate to historical tradition and giving play to its unique role to benefit modern society.

  12. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy for nutritional palliation of upper esophageal cancer unsuitable for esophageal stenting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Grilo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Esophageal cancer is often diagnosed at an advanced stage and has a poor prognosis. Most patients with advanced esophageal cancer have significant dysphagia that contributes to weight loss and malnutrition. Esophageal stenting is a widespread palliation approach, but unsuitable for cancers near the upper esophageal sphincter, were stents are poorly tolerated. Generally, guidelines do not support endoscopic gastrostomy in this clinical setting, but it may be the best option for nutritional support. OBJECTIVE: Retrospective evaluation of patients with dysphagia caused advanced esophageal cancer, no expectation of resuming oral intake and with percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy for comfort palliative nutrition. METHOD: We selected adult patients with unresecable esophageal cancer histological confirmed, in whom stenting was impossible due to proximal location, and chemotherapy or radiotherapy were palliative, using gastrostomy for enteral nutrition. Clinical and nutritional data were evaluated, including success of gastrostomy, procedure complications and survival after percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy, and evolution of body mass index, albumin, transferrin and cholesterol. RESULTS: Seventeen males with stage III or IV squamous cell carcinoma fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Mean age was 60.9 years. Most of the patients had toxic habits. All underwent palliative chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Gastrostomy was successfully performed in all, but nine required prior dilatation. Most had the gastrostomy within 2 months after diagnosis. There was a buried bumper syndrome treated with tube replacement and four minor complications. There were no cases of implantation metastases or procedure related mortality. Two patients were lost and 12 died. Mean survival of deceased patients was 5.9 months. Three patients are alive 6, 14 and 17 months after the gastrostomy procedure, still increasing the mean survival. Mean body mass index and laboratory

  13. The food crisis and environmental conservation in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiles, D; Brennan, R

    1986-11-01

    In spite of good rains in Africa in 1985, 30-35 million people suffered the effects of famine. Much of Africa is still dependent on food aid. The main causes of insufficient food production are land degradation--desertification--and high population growth. Distribution of the US $2.9 billion in food and non-food aid has been hampered by transport and logistical problems. The major challenge for 1986 is non-food support. Only US $460 million (15.3%) of non-food aid had been received as of March. Country profiles of Angola, Chad, Ethiopia, Mozambique, Somalia, Sudan, Lesotho, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Zambia show a pattern of high food assistance needs and displaced refugee populations. The 1st 6 of the group suffer from civil strife. There is some good news; e.g. Niger, which is embarking on agressive agricultural development, and Tanzania, which has enjoyed bumper crops, but the crisis is clearly far from over. Few African Governments have been willing to face the population problem; population in the area will probably continue to increase at 3% yearly. It is shown that desertification: reducing the biological potential of the land through over-exploitation, animal husbandry, and deforestation, is a wordwide problem particularly acute in Africa. Lost production totals $26 billion annually. Straightforward cost-benefit analysis of projects to halt or reverse the problem does not adequately take factors such as human attachment to the land into account. Unfortunately halting desertification does not receive the attention it should receive from donor agencies. Investment goes towards high-return projects, e.g. power dams; sugar factories, when a more careful study reveals that returns from afforestations are much more long-term. There has been increased consciousness of the long-term benefits of dryland rehabilitation, which will hopefully impact policy in the future. But since desertification is a self-accelerating process, there is a need for

  14. Performance of Whipple Shields at Impact Velocities above 9 km/s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Eric L.; Davis, Bruce A.; Piekutowski, Andrew J.; Poormon, Kevin L.

    2009-01-01

    Whipple shields were first proposed as a means of protecting spacecraft from the impact of micrometeoroids in 1947 [1] and are currently in use as micrometeoroid and orbital debris shields on modern spacecraft. In the intervening years, the function of the thin bumper used to shatter or melt threatening particles has been augmented and enhanced by the use of various types and configurations of intermediate layers of various materials. All shield designs serve to minimize the threat of a spall failure or perforation of the main wall of the spacecraft as a result of the impact of the fragments. With increasing use of Whipple shields, various ballistic limit equations (BLEs) for guiding the design and estimating the performance of shield systems have been developed. Perhaps the best known and most used are the "new" modified Cour-Palais (Christiansen) equations [2]. These equations address the three phases of impact: (1) ballistic (7 km/s), where the projectile melts or vaporizes at impact. The performance of Whipple shields and the adequacy of the BLEs have been examined for the first two phases using the results of impact tests obtained from two-stage, light-gas gun test firings. Shield performance and the adequacy of the BLEs has not been evaluated in the melt/vaporization phase until now because of the limitations of launchers used to accelerate projectiles with controlled properties to velocities above 7.5 km/s. A three-stage, light-gas gun, developed at the University of Dayton Research Institute (UDRI) [3], is capable of launching small, aluminum spheres to velocities above 9 km/s. This launcher was used to evaluate the ballistic performance of two Whipple shield systems, various thermal protection system materials, and other spacecraft-related materials to the impact of 1.6-mm- to 2.6-mm-diameter, 2017-T4 aluminum spheres at impact velocities ranging from 8.91 km/s to 9.28 km/s. Test results, details of the shield systems, and nominal ballistic limits for the

  15. Plant mutation reports. Vol. 1, No. 2, December 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First of all, I would like to inform you that the Plant Mutation Reports (PMR) is now indexed in the CAB ABSTRACTS and GLOBAL HEALTH databases, run by the CABI, Wallingford, UK. This is not only an important recognition of the publication and, ultimately, the quality of your papers, but also provides a great opportunity for the broad dissemination of papers published in PMR. Secondly, it is a great honour to include a review paper from Dr. J. Neil Rutger, former director of Dale Bumpers National Rice Research Center USDA-ARS-SPA, USA. Dr. Rutger's paper summarizes the extraordinary success of his 30 years of work on induced mutations in rice genetics and breeding, together with his contribution to the Joint FAO/IAEA Programme. In particular, you will learn how a single induced mutation can contribute to the substantial yield increase in rice. We are aware that great success has also been achieved in rice as well as in other crops by various groups around the world; we invite you to submit papers of this kind to highlight your accomplishments or summarize your professional careers in mutation induction, application or basic studies on mutagenesis. Thirdly, I would like to share with you our plan for further improvement of the quality of the PMR: (1) We are planning to establish an editorial board next year (see below); (2) We are planning to transform the cover appearance and paper format into the style of a scientific journal; (3) For expanding the manuscript's source and quality, we decided that all final technical papers from the Agency's coordinated research projects (CRPs) and regional and interregional technical cooperation projects (TCPs) in the field of plant breeding and genetics be published in the PMR. (4) We will also strive for a broader distribution of the PMR; free electronic subscription will be granted to all interested institutions and individuals. However, subscription to the printed copy will still only be free for institutions, including

  16. Drought mitigation interventions by improved water management - a case study from Punjab Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Paper describes the main features of the water scarcity management plan that was implemented during the last two Rabi seasons, to optimize wheat production in the Punjab province. Due to severe drought conditions in the country, the river flows remained well below the normal range, resulting in overall 18% and 43% shortfall in canal water supplies during the Rabi seasons of 1999-2000 and 2000- 2001, respectively. In order to address the adverse impacts of the serious water shortage, Punjab Irrigation Department formulated a comprehensive and action oriented plan, in consultation with the Agriculture Department and the farmers representatives. The main thrust of the plan focused on conserving water during the slack demand periods and its reallocation during sensitive growth stages priority canal water allocation to the saline groundwater areas and providing one to two watering to the non-perennial areas. The implementation of Rabi Plan was closely monitored throughout the crop season by the senior irrigation managers and the needed adjustment were made in timely response to the actual water availability. The information regarding the Plan and its subsequent operation was disseminated through the media and the Extension Wing of Agriculture Department. In order to improve internal water management regime, as well as to ensure farmers participation in planning and efficient operation of the canals, water Allocation Committees at the canal command level and canal division level were established throughout the province. As a consequence of the innovative and bold water management interventions, the province harvested bumper wheat-crops, despite serious water shortages. The paper highlights the need for close and continuous monitoring of the planned operations, as well as the significance of other non water inputs, like realistic support price, timely sowing of wheat, improved availability of fertilizers, better seeds, and efficient extension services. The experience

  17. Estudo do efeito da adição de PP reciclado nas propriedades mecânicas e de escoamento de misturas de PP/EPDM Study of the Effect of Recycled PP on the Mechanical and Flow Properties of PP/ERDM Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciene da S. Santos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Misturas de polipropileno, PP, e terpolímero de etileno-propileno-dieno, EPDM, são amplamente utilizadas na indústria automobilística, principalmente em parachoques, cuja destinação, após o seu uso, deverá atender a Política Nacional de Resíduos Sólidos. No presente trabalho, o efeito da incorporação de PP reciclado nas propriedades mecânicas e de escoamento das misturas PP virgem/EPDM foi avaliado através de um planejamento fatorial do tipo 2n, com n = 3 fatores: teor de PP reciclado, perfil de temperatura de processamento e velocidade de rotação da rosca. As variáveis de resposta analisadas foram: módulo de Young, resistência ao impacto e índice de fluidez (MFI. Os resultados mostraram que o aumento da temperatura de processamento tende a aumentar a rigidez, a resistência ao impacto e a fluidez do produto final. O aumento da velocidade de mistura mostrou uma influência mais significativa na resistência ao impacto do material; enquanto o aumento do teor de reciclado na mistura PP virgem/EPDM levou ao aumento das propriedades mecânicas, bem como do índice de fluidez do produto.Polypropylene, PP, and ethylene propylene diene copolymer (EPDM blends are widely used in automotive industry, mainly in bumpers. Their disposal should comply with the rules of the Solid Residue National Policy. In the present study, the effect of recycled PP addition on the mechanical and flow properties of these blends was evaluated using a 2n factorial design, with n = 3 factors: recycled PP content, extrusion temperature profile and screw speed. The parameters analyzed were: Young modulus, impact strength and melt flow index (MFI. The results showed that the increase in temperature tends to increase rigidity, impact strength and the flow of the final product. The increase in blend speed showed a significant influence on the impact strength of the material; whereas the increase in recycled PP content led to an increase of the mechanical

  18. Recent TFTR results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TFTR experiments have emphasized the optimization of high performance plasmas as well as studies of transport in high temperature plasmas. The recent installation of carbon composite tiles on the main bumper limiter has allowed operation with up to 32 MW of neutral beam injection without degradation of plasma performance by large bursts of carbon impurities (''carbon blooms''). Plasma parameters have been extended to Ti(0) ∼ 35 keV, Te(0) ∼ 12 keV, ne(0) ∼ 1.2 x 1020 m-3, producing D-D reaction rates of 8.8 x 1016 reactions per second. The fusion parameter ne(0)τETi(0) in supershot plasmas is an increasing function of heating power up to an MHD stability limit, reaching values of ∼4.4 x 1020 m-3 sec keV. Peaked-density-profile hot-ion plasmas with the edge characteristics of the H-mode have been produced in a circular cross-section limiter configuration with ne(0)τETi(0) values characteristic of supershots. Reduced transport is also observed in the core of high-density ICRF-heated plasmas when the density profile is peaked. At the highest performance, the central plasma pressure in TFTR reaches reactor level values of 6.5 atmospheres. In these regimes, MHD instabilities with m/n = 1/1, 2/1, 3/2 and 4/3 are often observed concurrent with a degradation in performance. High βp plasmas with εβp ≅ 1.6 and β/(I/aB) ≅ 4.7 (%mT/MA) have demonstrated confinement enhancement over the low-mode confinement time with τE/τL ∼ 3.5 and a bootstrap current of about 65% of the total plasma current. The best TFTR supershots in deuterium plasmas have QDD = 1.9 x 10-3, corresponding to an equivalent QDT ∼ 0.31 in a 50/50 D/T plasma. Performance enhancements extrapolate to D-T plasma performance near the breakeven regime, QDT ∼ 0.5 - 0.7, that would produce ∼ 15 - 25 MW of fusion power. Lower Q (∼ 0.3) plasmas at higher temperatures are expected to produce alpha particle betas suitable for testing collective alpha instability theories. 19 refs, 9 figs, 4

  19. Cratering Equations for Zinc Orthotitanate Coated Aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, James; Christiansen, Eric; Liou, Jer-Chyi; Ryan, Shannon

    2009-01-01

    The final STS-125 servicing mission (SM4) to the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) in May of 2009 saw the return of the 2nd Wide Field Planetary Camera (WFPC2) aboard the shuttle Discovery. This hardware had been in service on HST since it was installed during the SM1 mission in December of 1993 yielding one of the longest low Earth orbit exposure times (15.4 years) of any returned space hardware. The WFPC2 is equipped with a 0.8 x 2.2 m radiator for thermal control of the camera electronics (Figure 1). The space facing surface of the 4.1 mm thick aluminum radiator is coated with Z93 zinc orthotitanate thermal control paint with a nominal thickness of 0.1 0.2 mm. Post flight inspections of the radiator panel revealed hundreds of micrometeoroid/orbital debris (MMOD) impact craters ranging in size from less than 300 to nearly 1000 microns in diameter. The Z93 paint exhibited large spall areas around the larger impact sites (Figure 2) and the craters observed in the 6061-T651 aluminum had a different shape than those observed in uncoated aluminum. Typical hypervelocity impact craters in aluminum have raised lips around the impact site. The craters in the HST radiator panel had suppressed crater lips, and in some cases multiple craters were present instead of a single individual crater. Humes and Kinard observed similar behavior after the WFPC1 post flight inspection and assumed the Z93 coating was acting like a bumper in a Whipple shield. Similar paint behavior (spall) was also observed by Bland2 during post flight inspection of the International Space Station (ISS) S-Band Antenna Structural Assembly (SASA) in 2008. The SASA, with similar Z93 coated aluminum, was inspected after nearly 4 years of exposure on the ISS. The multi-crater phenomena could be a function of the density, composition, or impact obliquity angle of the impacting particle. For instance, a micrometeoroid particle consisting of loosely bound grains of material could be responsible for creating the

  20. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Simulations of a Humvee Airdropped from Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Phillip M.

    Military airdrop is a means of transporting and delivering cargo to inaccessible locales faster and more efficiently. The Humvee, an all-terrain truck, is one such payload that the U.S. Army drops routinely. Here, interesting physics occurs both structurally and aerodynamically. From a fluid dynamics and trajectory standpoint, determining the aerodynamic forces and moments acting on the parachute and payload is crucial particularly for trajectory prediction. This study primarily used Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to simulate the aerodynamics of an airdrop Humvee model in two regimes of fall, namely, right after clearing the aircraft ramp, and during descent under parachute. This study was performed at a Reynolds number of 3.07x10. 6 and at an airspeedof 9.144m/s (30ft/s). The first humvee part of the study analyzed the aerodynamic coefficients drag, lift, and pitching moment over a 360 degree range of pitch angles for the Humvee configured for extraction. The second set of humvee simulations focused on the aerodynamic coefficients at pitch angles of -40 degrees to +40 degrees with the platform and vehicle configured for descent under parachute. The Humvee after ramp tip-off has a parachute pack on its hood, but lacks one during the descent phase. The numerical data was compared with the results of geometries from previous studies. These geometries include: the flat plate, Type-V LVADS and 10K-JPADS containers, and a cargo-carrying platform outfitted with a bumper. Our results clearly show the effects of the many angular features that characterize the shape of a Humvee in comparison to those of a simple cuboid, particularly with regards to the loss of lift in a sub-range of pitch angle (-45 degrees to -180 degrees). First, the aerodynamic coefficients were calculated over one full-revolution of the humvee (-180 degrees to +180 degrees static pitch angles with respect to the humvee's platform) best matched in lift, drag, and moment those of the type V LVADS

  1. Embranquecimento do polipropileno isotático injetado contendo TiO2 como pigmento Whitening mechanism in injection molded polypropylene with TiO2 as pigment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dênison R. J. Maia

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Descrevemos neste trabalho as causas e o mecanismo do embranquecimento de peças de polipropileno isotático injetado. Para isto foram injetados corpos de prova e placas com e sem estabilizantes. As amostras foram envelhecidas por exposição ambiental e em equipamento de envelhecimento acelerado (Weatherometer. Foi feito o acompanhamento visual das peças para que pudessem ser caracterizadas quando começassem a embranquecer. A caracterização foi feita através de espectroscopia FT-IR por reflectância, Microscopia eletrônica de varredura, Microfluorescência de raios-X, Reflectância de luz e Microanálise de energia dispersiva (EDS da superfície. Os espectros de infravermelho mostraram o aparecimento de diversos produtos de degradação como cetonas, aldeídos, ácidos carboxílicos, ésteres, perésteres e alfa-cetoésteres. Quando as amostras começaram a embranquecer foi verificada a formação de fissuras superficiais e o aumento da reflectância de luz para todos os comprimentos de onda do espectro. Concomitantemente foi verificado que a composição de superfície não é alterada pelo envelhecimento. A superfície não apresenta grande quantidade de partículas de TiO2 expostas. Conclui-se que o embranquecimento das peças é devido ao fissuramento superficial que aumenta a quantidade de luz refletida na superfície e não pela migração do pigmento.We studied in this work the whitening mechanism in injection molded polypropylene (PP, a problem usually manifested in car parts and particularly in car bumpers. For the development of this work we had samples (plaques and test samples with and without antioxidants and ultraviolet stabilizers. These samples had been already aged by natural and artificial (Weatherometer equipment exposure. In the natural aging samples were collected when the material started to whiten, after 3190, 4320 and 6190 h of exposure. In the artificial aging samples were collected after 415, 515 and 3000 h of

  2. BUMPERII - DESIGN ANALYSIS CODE FOR OPTIMIZING SPACECRAFT SHIELDING AND WALL CONFIGURATION FOR ORBITAL DEBRIS AND METEOROID IMPACTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, S. A.

    1994-01-01

    of penetration values per surface area for each element in the model. The SHIELD module writes this data file in either SUPERTAB Universal File Format or PATRAN Neutral File Format so threat contour plots can be generated as a post-processing feature of the FEM programs SUPERTAB and PATRAN. The CONTOUR module combines the functions of the RESPONSE module and most of the SHIELD module functions allowing determination of ranges of PNP's by looping over ranges of shield and/or wall thicknesses. A data file containing the PNP's for the corresponding shield and vessel wall thickness is produced. Users may perform sensitivity studies of two kinds. The effects of simple variations in orbital time, surface area, and flux may be analyzed by making changes to the terms in the equation representing the average number of penetrating particles per unit time in the PNP solution equation. The package analyzes other changes, including model environment, surface area, and configuration, by re-running the solution sequence with new GEOMETRY and RESPONSE data. BUMPERII can be run with no interactive output to the screen during execution. This can be particularly useful during batch runs. BUMPERII is written in FORTRAN 77 for DEC VAX series computers running under VMS, and was written for use with the finite-element model code SUPERTAB or PATRAN as both a pre-processor and a post-processor. Use of an alternate FEM code will require either development of a translator to change data format or modification of the GEOMETRY subroutine in BUMPERII. This program is available in DEC VAX BACKUP format on a 9-track 1600 BPI magnetic tape (standard distribution media) or on TK50 tape cartridge. The original BUMPER code was developed in 1988 with the BUMPERII revisions following in 1991 and 1992. SUPERTAB is a former name for I-DEAS. I-DEAS Finite Element Modeling is a trademark of Structural Dynamics Research Corporation. DEC, VAX, VMS and TK50 are trademarks of Digital Equipment Corporation.

  3. Diagnóstico de factores de riesgo relacionados con la accidentabilidad de mano en trabajadores de una empresa refresquera Diagnostic of risk factor related to the accidentes of hand in workers of solf-drinks industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Betzabé Pérez-Manriquez

    2012-03-01

    psicosociales, condiciones inseguras, factores ergonómicos y actos inseguros. Por lo que se considera que estos, se deben buscar intencionadamente en las empresas dedicadas a este rubro de actividades, y evidenciarlos cuando se pretendan disminuir este tipo de accidentes y generar medidas preventivas y correctivas para mejorar la calidad de vida del trabajador y el rendimiento del mismo en sus labores.With the purpose of deepen on the recognize of risk factors from this kind of business and from this specific activities, to prevent and minimize the health effects integrally at the industries, the present work pretend to determine the risk factors potentially related with hand accidents. Objective: Determine the risk factors related to the accidents of hand to identify and establish the risks allowing decrease the possibility of accidents in hand through the modification, elimination and or control of present factors. Material and methods: Observational, descriptive and longitudinal study develop in worker population of sales area, composed by 206 helpers and 81 agents, cooperative producers of soft drinks and carbonated beverages in México City, in a period between 2007-2009. Was employed the Freeman Modified Method for the Situational Diagnostic. Results: The risk factor related to hand accidents determined by the application of Freeman Modified Method in sales area according to the organization: were first derived from the psychosocial labor organization (accelerated pace of activity and the Insecure Condition (transfer of the personnel within the rear bumper of the truck; second were found ergonomics (repetitive movements and manual handling of loads, along with Insecure Act (omission of the use of personal protection equipment, and the Insecure Condition (kind of unity, door and material transported, and lack of training; finally, in third psychosocial of Labor Organization (indefinite at least 8 hours maximum of 14 and unsafe (sharp boxes. Conclusions: The risk factors

  4. Investigation of MMOD Impact on STS-115 Shuttle Payload Bay Door Radiator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, J.; Christiansen, E.; Lear, D.; Kerr, J.; Lyons, F.; Yasensky, J.

    2007-01-01

    an extent of 0.85 in. x 1.1 in. (21.6 x 27.9 mm). Pieces of the radiator at and surrounding the impact site were recovered during the repair procedures at KSC. They included the thermal tape, front facesheet, honeycomb core, and rear facesheet. These articles were examined at JSC using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) with an energy dispersive x-ray spectrometer (EDS). Figure 6 shows SEM images of the entry hole in the facesheet. The asymmetric height of the lip may be attributed to projectile shape and impact angle. Numerous instances of a glass-fiber organic matrix composite were observed in the facesheet tape sample. The fibers were approximately 10 micrometers in diameter and variable lengths. EDS analysis indicated a composition of Mg, Ca, Al, Si, and O. Figures 7 and 8 present images of the fiber bundles, which were believed to be circuit board material based on similarity in fiber diameter, orientation, consistency, and composition. A test program was initiated in an attempt to simulate the observed damage to the radiator facesheet and honeycomb. Twelve test shots were performed using projectiles cut from a 1.6 mm thick fiberglass circuit board substrate panel. Results from test HITF07017, shown in figures 9 and 10, correlates with the observed impact features reasonably well. The test was performed at 4.14 km/sec with an impact angle of 45 degrees using a cylindrical projectile with a diameter and length of 1.25 mm. The fiberglass circuit board material had a density of 1.65 g/cu cm, giving a projectile mass of 2.53 mg. An analysis was performed using the Bumper code to estimate the probability of impact to the shuttle from a 1.25 mm diameter particle. Table 1 shows a 1.6% chance (impact odds = 1 in 62) of a 1.25 mm or larger MMOD impact on the radiators of the vehicle during a typical ISS mission. There is a 0.4% chance (impact odds = 1 in 260) that a 1.25 mm or larger MMOD particle would impact the RCC wing leading edge and nose cap during a typical

  5. Safer Vehicles for People and the Planet: Letter to the Editor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenzel, Thomas P; Wenzel, Thomas P; Ross, Marc

    2008-05-01

    his own papers, Dr. Evans appears to admit that it is not clear whether mass, or size (specifically crush space) is inherent to vehicle safety. Additional research indicates that it is not size per se that protects in two-vehicle crashes, but how well the stiff structures on the vehicles are aligned. The auto manufacturing industry has voluntarily made design changes to their pickup trucks to increase the likelihood that truck and car bumpers will interact in a frontal crash, reducing the aggressivity of pickup trucks in recent years. Regarding the differences in experiences between the U.S. and other countries, it is important to keep in mind that the U.S. vehicle fleet is fairly unique; about half of U.S. vehicles are light duty trucks (pickups, SUVs and minivans), which many studies have shown are dangerous to other road users.