Sample records for bumpers

  1. Bumper Harvest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A large summer grain crop is helping to ease food security concerhs in China,despite rising global prices Five consecutive years of bumper grain harvests, including an abundant yield this summer, have enabled

  2. Dale Bumpers White River Wilderness: Report on wilderness character monitoring (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report provides a detailed summary of the baseline wilderness character assessment completed for the Dale Bumpers White River Wilderness on the Dale Bumpers...

  3. Pengembangan Bumper Depan Mobil Pick Up Multiguna Pedesaan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfie Adiananda


    Full Text Available Tim Pengembangan Mobil Jurusan Teknik Mesin ITS bekerja sama dengan PT. INKA, PT. Railindo Global Karya, dan PT. Karya Tugas Anda melakukan pengembangan mobil GEA. Salah satu pengembangan yang akan dilakukan adalah pengembangan desain bumper depan. Dari hasil pengkajian pada bagian bumper, tidak ditemukan adanya fog lamp untuk membantu penerangan pada saat cuaca buruk. Rancangan bumper baru terbuat dari komposit jenis e-glass dan pengujiannya mengikuti standar, dimana gaya yang terjadi pada saat terjadi benturan dihitung berdasarkan standar pengujian ECE Regulation No.42. Oleh karena itu perlu dilakukan analisa kekuatan bumper depan dalam menahan benturan. Langkah-langkah dalam pengembangan bumper adalah mensimulasikan pengujian tumbukan untuk mengetahui nilai deformasi dan tegangan dari tiap ketebalan bumper yang berbeda, lalu setelah didapatkan ketebalan yang sesuai akan dilakukan proses pembuatan dan pemasangan bumper depan pada mobil pick up multiguna. Hasil yang didapatkan dari penelitan ini adalah bumper hasil pengembangan memiliki dimensi panjang 1430 mm, lebar 500 mm, tinggi 500 mm dan ketebalan bumper yang dipilih adalah 4 mm dimana tegangan yang terjadi adalah sebesar 785,98 MPa sedangkan deformasi bumper hasil simulasi adalah sebesar 18,160 mm, jauh lebih kecil daripada deformasi yang diizinkan yaitu 60 mm. Proses pembuatan bumper dengan metode wet-lay up.

  4. A Study of Personalized Bumper Stickers in China and America—from the Perspectives of Functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Ru-yun


    Personalized bumper stickers are part of private cars in China and America. Their functions are diversified.The author tries to explore Chinese personalized bumper stickers (CPBS) and American personalized bumper stickers (APBS) from the perspectives of functions.

  5. Rear Bumper Laminated In Jute Fiber With Polyester Resin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braga, R. A


    Full Text Available Today, a growing interest exists in the use of natural of fibers (sisal, coconut, banana, and jute, as reinforcement in composites. The aim of the present study is shows the use of jute fiber agglutinated with polyester resin in the automobile industry in the production of a rear bumper of hatch vehicle. A simplified mathematical model was used for evaluation of the flaw on trunk center cover submitted to dynamic loads. The traverse section of the referred bumper is simplified by a channel formation. This study shows that a rear bumper made using jute fiber agglutinated with polyester resin will be possible. The molded part obtained good visual characteristics, good geometric construction and surface without bubbles and imperfections in the fiber and resin composite. The mathematical model to failure criterion showed that the rear bumper in jute fiber will not resist to an impact equivalent at 4.0 km/h.

  6. Content-Based Analysis of Bumper Stickers in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah A. Jaradat


    Full Text Available This study has set out to investigate bumper stickers in Jordan focusing mainly on the themes of the stickers. The study hypothesized that bumper stickers in Jordan reflect a wide range of topics including social, economic, and political. Due to being the first study of this phenomenon, the study has adopted content-based analysis to determine the basic topics. The study has found that the purpose of most bumper sticker is fun and humor; most of them are not serious and do not carry any biting messages. They do not present any criticism to the most dominant problems at the level of society including racism, nepotism, anti-feminism, inflation, high taxes, and refugees. Another finding is that politics is still a taboo; no political bumper stickers were found in Jordan. Finally, the themes the stickers targeted are: lessons of life 28.85 %; challenging or warning other drivers 16%; funny notes about social issues 12%; religious sayings 8%; treating the car as a female 7%; the low economic status of the driver 6%; love and treachery 5.5%; the prestigious status of the car 5%; envy 4%; nicknames for the car or the driver 4%; irony 3 %; and English sayings 1.5 %. Keywords: bumper stickers, themes, politics


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Haiwei; Zhan Yongqi; Qiao Junwei; Shi Guanglin


    The dynamic working process of 52SFZ-140-207B type of hydraulic bumper is analyzed. The modeling method using architecture-based neural networks is introduced. Using this modeling method, the dynamic model of the hydraulic bumper is established; Based on this model the structural parameters of the hydraulic bumper are optimized with Genetic algorithm. The result shows that the performance of the dynamic model is close to that of the hydraulic bumper, and the dynamic performance of the hydraulic bumper is improved through parameter optimization.

  8. Light weight replacement and the optimization design of bumper beam based on crash safety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jingwen; Ma Mingtu; Fan Tiqiang; Zhao Qingjiang; Li Yang


    Bumper beam is one of the key structural parts,which plays an important role in the frontal crashes of automobile. With the global trend of light-weighted automotive parts,the light weight of bumper beam at-tracts extensive attention of automobile manufacturers,and hot stamping technology with significant weight ad-vantage has become one of the main light weight measures for bumper beam. The quasi-static press,low speed crash and frontal crash simulation models of bumper beam were established according to its actual working con-ditions in the automobile crashes. The feasibility of replacing normal steel bumper beam with hot stamping bum-per beam was analyzed. Meanwhile,the stiffeners in the front face of hot stamping bumper beam were opti-mized with topography optimization in order to further improve its performances.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Narni Yuniarsih


    Full Text Available Lip sucking occurred usually on lower lip and probably caused by psychological or environment factor and mostly found on school ages children. Correcting this abnormal habit as early as possible will give positive correction to malocclusion. Practicing myofunctional therapy gradually will eliminate the abnormal habit. In this report lip sucking bad habit was treated with lip bumper and the severity of this bad habit was decreased in six months.

  10. The Challenging Buried Bumper Syndrome after Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Afifi


    Full Text Available Buried bumper syndrome (BBS is a rare complication developed after percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG. We report a case of a 38-year-old male patient who sustained severe traumatic brain injury that was complicated with early BBS after PEG tube insertion. On admission, bedside PEG was performed, and 7 days later the patient developed signs of sepsis with rapid progression to septic shock and acute kidney injury. Abdominal CT scan revealed no collection or leakage of the contrast, but showed malpositioning of the tube bumper at the edge of the stomach and not inside of it. Diagnostic endoscopy revealed that the bumper was hidden in the posterolateral part of the stomach wall forming a tract inside of it, which confirmed the diagnosis of BBS. The patient underwent laparotomy with a repair of the stomach wall perforation, and the early postoperative course was uneventful. Acute BBS is a rare complication of PEG tube insertion which could be manifested with severe complications such as pressure necrosis, peritonitis and septic shock. Early identification is the mainstay to prevent such complications. Treatment selection is primarily guided by the presenting complications, ranging from simple endoscopic replacement to surgical laparotomy.

  11. The Challenging Buried Bumper Syndrome after Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy. (United States)

    Afifi, Ibrahim; Zarour, Ahmad; Al-Hassani, Ammar; Peralta, Ruben; El-Menyar, Ayman; Al-Thani, Hassan


    Buried bumper syndrome (BBS) is a rare complication developed after percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG). We report a case of a 38-year-old male patient who sustained severe traumatic brain injury that was complicated with early BBS after PEG tube insertion. On admission, bedside PEG was performed, and 7 days later the patient developed signs of sepsis with rapid progression to septic shock and acute kidney injury. Abdominal CT scan revealed no collection or leakage of the contrast, but showed malpositioning of the tube bumper at the edge of the stomach and not inside of it. Diagnostic endoscopy revealed that the bumper was hidden in the posterolateral part of the stomach wall forming a tract inside of it, which confirmed the diagnosis of BBS. The patient underwent laparotomy with a repair of the stomach wall perforation, and the early postoperative course was uneventful. Acute BBS is a rare complication of PEG tube insertion which could be manifested with severe complications such as pressure necrosis, peritonitis and septic shock. Early identification is the mainstay to prevent such complications. Treatment selection is primarily guided by the presenting complications, ranging from simple endoscopic replacement to surgical laparotomy.

  12. Design and analysis of automotive carbon fiber composite bumper beam based on finite element analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tie Wang


    Full Text Available In this article, the most important part of the automotive front bumper system, namely, the bumper beam, is studied by changing the material and thickness to improve the crashworthiness performance in low-velocity impact. According to the low-speed standard of automotives stated in E.C.E. United Nations Agreement, Regulation no. 42, the low-velocity impact simulation based on finite element analysis is carried out. Lightweight is the main purpose of this article. First, the bumper beam analysis is accomplished for carbon fiber composite and steel material to analyze their deformation, weight, impact force, energy absorption, and the acceleration of the impactor. As a consequence, the bumper beam made by carbon fiber composite achieves better impact behavior. Second, on the purpose of lightweight, the bumper beams of different thickness including 5.4, 6, 6.6, and 7.2 mm are investigated. The results show that the 5.4 mm bumper beam is the best selection without sacrificing the impact performance. Third, according to the stress distribution, the thickness distribution of the bumper beam is changed to get better lightweight results. It is indicated that the weight of the improved bumper beam is further reduced and the impact performance is not weakened.

  13. A Bumper Crop of Fair Trade Coffee Books

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M. Talbot


    Full Text Available The history of the world coffee market is a story of cycles of boom and bust. The most recent bust, one of the most severe in history, began in 1998 and started to ease in 2005. This period of severe crisis across the coffee producing countries in the developing world stimulated a growing interest in fair trade coffee as a means of helping the small farmers who were being devastated by historically low prices. As public interest and consumption grew, social scientists, as is their wont, set out to study the phenomenon. The result is the current bumper crop of books analyzing fair trade coffee.

  14. Optimisation study of a vehicle bumper subsystem with fuzzy parameters (United States)

    Farkas, L.; Moens, D.; Donders, S.; Vandepitte, D.


    This paper deals with the design and optimisation for crashworthiness of a vehicle bumper subsystem, which is a key scenario for vehicle component design. The automotive manufacturers and suppliers have to find optimal design solutions for such subsystems that comply with the conflicting requirements of the regulatory bodies regarding functional performance (safety and repairability) and regarding the environmental impact (mass). For the bumper design challenge, an integrated methodology for multi-attribute design engineering of mechanical structures is set up. The integrated process captures the various tasks that are usually performed manually, this way facilitating the automated design iterations for optimisation. Subsequently, an optimisation process is applied that takes the effect of parametric uncertainties into account, such that the system level of failure possibility is acceptable. This optimisation process is referred to as possibility-based design optimisation and integrates the fuzzy FE analysis applied for the uncertainty treatment in crash simulations. This process is the counterpart of the reliability-based design optimisation used in a probabilistic context with statistically defined parameters (variabilities).

  15. Joining and reinforcing a composite bumper beam and a composite crush can for a vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, Elisabeth; Decker, Leland; Armstrong, Dale; Truskin, James; Pasupuleti, Praveen; Dwarmpudi, Ramesh; Doroudian, Mark


    A front bumper beam and crush can (FBCC) system is provided for a vehicle. A bumper beam has an interior surface with a plurality of ribs extending therefrom. The ribs and the interior surface are made of a chopped fiber composite and cooperate to engage a crush can. The chopped fiber composite reinforces the engaging surfaces of the crush can and the interior surface of the bumper beam. The crush can has a tubular body made of a continuous fiber composite. The crush can has outwardly-extending flanges at an end spaced away from the bumper beam. The flanges are at least partially provided with a layer of chopped fiber composite to reinforce a joint between the outwardly-extending flange and the vehicle frame.

  16. Dale Bumpers White River National Wildlife Refuge Water Resource Inventory and Assessment (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Water Resource Inventory and Assessment (WRIA) for Dale Bumpers White River National Wildlife Refuge summarizes available and relevant information for refuge...

  17. Hydrogeomorphic Evaluation of Ecosystem Restoration and Management Options for Dale Bumpers White River National Wildlife Refuge (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Dale Bumpers White River National Wildlife Refuge (DBWRNWR) contains one of the largest contiguous tracts of bottomland hardwood forested (BLH) wetlands in the...

  18. Properties of Ejecta Generated at High-Velocity Perforation of Thin Bumpers made from Different Constructional Materials (United States)

    Myagkov, N. N.; Shumikhin, T. A.; Bezrukov, L. N.


    The series of impact experiments were performed to study the properties of ejecta generated at high-velocity perforation of thin bumpers. The bumpers were aluminum plates, fiber-glass plastic plates, and meshes weaved of steel wire. The projectiles were 6.35 mm diameter aluminum spheres. The impact velocities ranged from 1.95 to 3.52 km/s. In the experiments the ejecta particles were captured with low-density foam collectors or registered with the use of aluminum foils. The processing of the experimental results allowed us to estimate the total masses, spatial and size distributions, and perforating abilities of the ejecta produced from these different bumpers. As applied to the problem of reducing the near-Earth space pollution caused by the ejecta, the results obtained argue against the use of aluminum plates as first (outer) bumper in spacecraft shield protection.

  19. Why old tires are still being preferred as dock bumpers in harbours

    CERN Document Server

    Lagos, Miguel


    The usage of old tires as dock and tugboat bumpers has been a common practice from long ago, proving to be safe for docking even the largest freighters. The reaction force and stored energy of an axially compressed tire is studied in order to determine the specific features of these variables that make tires so adequate as docking protections. The reaction force is attributed to the elastic deformation of the tread, which is modeled as a not too thin cylindrical shell. Most energy absorption takes place after tread buckling, which bends tread and increases its circumference, inducing strong tensile forces that contribute to stabilize the buckled structure. Results shed light on the mechanical properties that a designed dock bumper should exhibit.

  20. BUMPER v1.0: a Bayesian user-friendly model for palaeo-environmental reconstruction (United States)

    Holden, Philip B.; Birks, H. John B.; Brooks, Stephen J.; Bush, Mark B.; Hwang, Grace M.; Matthews-Bird, Frazer; Valencia, Bryan G.; van Woesik, Robert


    We describe the Bayesian user-friendly model for palaeo-environmental reconstruction (BUMPER), a Bayesian transfer function for inferring past climate and other environmental variables from microfossil assemblages. BUMPER is fully self-calibrating, straightforward to apply, and computationally fast, requiring ˜ 2 s to build a 100-taxon model from a 100-site training set on a standard personal computer. We apply the model's probabilistic framework to generate thousands of artificial training sets under ideal assumptions. We then use these to demonstrate the sensitivity of reconstructions to the characteristics of the training set, considering assemblage richness, taxon tolerances, and the number of training sites. We find that a useful guideline for the size of a training set is to provide, on average, at least 10 samples of each taxon. We demonstrate general applicability to real data, considering three different organism types (chironomids, diatoms, pollen) and different reconstructed variables. An identically configured model is used in each application, the only change being the input files that provide the training-set environment and taxon-count data. The performance of BUMPER is shown to be comparable with weighted average partial least squares (WAPLS) in each case. Additional artificial datasets are constructed with similar characteristics to the real data, and these are used to explore the reasons for the differing performances of the different training sets.

  1. Thermoplastic impact property improvement in hybrid natural fibre epoxy composite bumper beam (United States)

    Davoodi, M. M.; Sapuan, S. M.; Ali, Aidy; Ahmad, D.; Khalina, A.


    Utilization of thermoset resin as a bumper beam composite matrix is currently more dominated in car manufacturer suppliers, because of availability, easy processing, low material cost and production equipment investment. Moreover, low viscosity, shrinkage and excellent flow facilitate better fibre impregnation and proper surface resin wetting. Three-dimensional cross linking curing increase impact, creep and environmental stress cracking resistance properties. Low impact properties of natural fibre epoxy composite, are main issues in its employment for automotive structural components. Impact properties in epoxy composite bumper beam could be increased by modifying the resin, reinforcement and manufacturing process as well as geometry parameters such as cross section, thickness, added ribs and fixing method optimizations could strengthen impact resistance. There are two main methods, flexibilisation and toughening, as modifying the resin in order to improve the impact properties of epoxy composite, which form single phase or two-phase morphology to make modifier as epoxy or from separate phase to keep the thermo-mechanical properties. Liquid rubber, thermoplastic, core shell particle and rigid particle are different methods of toughening improvements. In this research, thermoplastic toughening has used to improve impact properties in hybrid natural fibre epoxy composite for automotive bumper beam and has achieved reasonable impact improvements.

  2. Thermoplastic impact property improvement in hybrid natural fibre epoxy composite bumper beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davoodi, M M; Sapuan, S M; Ali, Aidy [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Ahmad, D; Khalina, A, E-mail: [Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)


    Utilization of thermoset resin as a bumper beam composite matrix is currently more dominated in car manufacturer suppliers, because of availability, easy processing, low material cost and production equipment investment. Moreover, low viscosity, shrinkage and excellent flow facilitate better fibre impregnation and proper surface resin wetting. Three-dimensional cross linking curing increase impact, creep and environmental stress cracking resistance properties. Low impact properties of natural fibre epoxy composite, are main issues in its employment for automotive structural components. Impact properties in epoxy composite bumper beam could be increased by modifying the resin, reinforcement and manufacturing process as well as geometry parameters such as cross section, thickness, added ribs and fixing method optimizations could strengthen impact resistance. There are two main methods, flexibilisation and toughening, as modifying the resin in order to improve the impact properties of epoxy composite, which form single phase or two-phase morphology to make modifier as epoxy or from separate phase to keep the thermo-mechanical properties. Liquid rubber, thermoplastic, core shell particle and rigid particle are different methods of toughening improvements. In this research, thermoplastic toughening has used to improve impact properties in hybrid natural fibre epoxy composite for automotive bumper beam and has achieved reasonable impact improvements.

  3. Design of an Active Bumper with a Series Elastic Actuator for Pedestrian Protection of Small Unmanned Vehicles (United States)

    Terumasa, Narukawa; Tomoki, Tsuge; Hiroshi, Yamamoto; Takahiro, Suzuki


    When autonomous unmanned vehicles are operated on sidewalks, the vehicles must have high safety standards such as avoiding injury when they come in contact with pedestrians. In this study, we established a design for preventing serious injury when such collisions occur. We designed an active bumper with a series elastic actuator, with the goal of avoiding serious injury to a pedestrian in a collision with a small unmanned vehicle. The series elastic actuator comprised an elastic element in series with a table driven by a ball screw and servo motor. The active bumper was used to control the contact force between a vehicle and a pedestrian. The optimal force for minimizing the deflection of the object of the collision was derived, and the actuator controlled to apply this optimal force. Numerical simulations showed that the active bumper was successful in improving the collision safety of small unmanned vehicles.

  4. Comparison of analytic Whipple bumper shield ballistic limits with CTH simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertel, E.S. Jr.


    A series of CTH simulations were conducted to assess the feasibility of using the hydrodynamic code for debris cloud formation and to predict any damage due to the subsequent loading on rear structures. Six axisymmetric and one 3-dimensional simulations were conducted for spherical projectiles impacting Whipple bumper shields. The projectile diameters were chosen to correlate with two well known analytic expressions for the ballistic limit of a Whipple bumper shield. It has been demonstrated that CTH can be used to simulate the debris cloud formation, the propagation of the debris across a void region, and the secondary impact of the debris against a structure. In addition, the results from the CTH simulations were compared to the analytic estimates of the ballistic limit. At impact velocities of 10 km/s or less, the CTH predicted ballistic limit lays between the two analytic estimates. However, for impact velocities greater than 10 km/s, CTH simulations predicted a ballistic limit larger than both analytical estimates. The differences at high velocities are not well understood. Structural failure at late times due to the time integrated loading of a very diffuse debris cloud has not been considered in the CTH model. In addition, the analytic predictions are extrapolated from relatively low velocity data and the extrapolation technique may not be valid. The discrepancy between the two techniques should be investigated further.

  5. A study on light-aging resistance of instrument panel materials and bumper materials on the automobile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Wentao; Liu Qiang; Li Li; Li Huilian


    The light-aging test method commonly used in the automotive industry is utilized to carry out light-aging research on automotive instrument panel (IP) materials and bumper materials. On one hand,the impacts of common light-aging test methods on aging degree of automotive component materials are reviewed;on the other hand,the light-aging resistances of different component materials are compared. The results show that, for light-aging behavior of IP materials,the aging degree of the third test method is not severer than that of the second method,but it is severer than that of the first method. The light-aging resistance of IP material A is al-most the same as that of IP material B. With reference to light-aging behavior of bumper materials,the aging de-gree of three common test methods indicates that the aging degree of the sixth test method is not severer than that of the fourth method,but it is severer than that of the fifth method. The light-aging resistance of bumper material D is superior to that of bumper material C.

  6. A study on light-aging resistance of instrument panel materials and bumper materials on the automobile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Wentao; Liu Qiang; Li Li; Li Huilian


    The light-aging test method commonly used in the automotive industry is utilized to carry out light- aging research on automotive instrument panel (IP) materials and bumper materials. On one hand, the impacts of common light-aging test methods on aging degree of automotive component materials are reviewed; on the other hand, the light-aging resistances of different component materials are compared. The results show that, for light-aging behavior of IP materials, the aging degree of the third test method is not severer than that of the second method, but it is severer than that of the first method. The light-aging resistance of IP material A is al- most the same as that of IP material B. With reference to light-aging behavior of bumper materials, the aging de- gree of three common test methods indicates that the aging degree of the sixth test method is not severer than that of the fourth method, but it is severer than that of the fifth method. The light-aging resistance of bumper material D is superior to that of bumper material C.

  7. Nano-cellulose derived bioplastic biomaterial data for vehicle bio-bumper from banana peel waste biomass


    Sharif Hossain, A.B.M.; Ibrahim, Nasir A.; Mohammed Saad AlEissa


    The innovative study was carried out to produce nano-cellulose based bioplastic biomaterials for vehicle use coming after bioprocess technology. The data show that nano-cellulose particle size was 20 nm and negligible water absorption was 0.03% in the bioplastic. Moreover, burning test, size and shape characterizations, spray coating dye, energy test and firmness of bioplastic have been explored and compared with the standardization of synthetic vehicle plastic bumper following the American S...

  8. The Gauge Design of GM GAMMA SUV Rear Bumper Assembly%通用GAMMA SUV汽车后保险杠总成检具设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢俊; 李杰; 杨启志


    保险杠是汽车的一个非常重要的组成部分,对于车辆的安全起着至关重要的作用,所以保险杠的质量必须得到保证.保险杠检具作为验证模具的加工精度以及控制保险杠与车身匹配情况的快速工具,已成为主机厂与汽车零部件供应商的首选工具.根据汽车后保险杠检具的检测原理,对通用GAMMA SUV汽车的后保险杠检具结构进行了方案设计,利用UG软件设计保险杠检具的具体模型,该检具结构简单,使用方便,提高了检测效率,实现了设计目的.%The bumper is a very important part of vehicle. It plays a vital role for the safety of a car, so the quality of the bumper must be guaranteed. The bumper gauge as a rapid tool for verificating the validation of mold precision and control the match situation of the bumper and body it has become the first choice for OEMs and automotive component suppliers, Based on the detection principle of the car rear bumper assembly, submitting a schema design on the rear bumper assembly of the General GAMMA SUV vehicles. Using UG software the rear bumper gauge is designed with simple structure, easy to use,and increasing the detection efficiency, so it achieves the design purpose.

  9. Gastrostomy Intraperitoneal Bumper Migration in a Three-Year-Old Child: A Rare Complication following Gastrostomy Tube Replacement. (United States)

    Guanà, Riccardo; Lonati, Luca; Barletti, Claudio; Cisarò, Fabio; Casorzo, Ilaria; Carbonaro, Giulia; Lezo, Antonella; Delmonaco, Angelo Giovanni; Mussa, Alessandro; Capitanio, Martina; Cussa, Davide; Lemini, Riccardo; Schleef, Jürgen


    Feeding gastrostomy is used worldwide for adults and children with feeding impairment to obtain long-term enteral nutrition. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy insertion is considered the gold standard, but after the first months requires gastrostomy tube replacement with a low-profile button. The replacement is known as an easy procedure, but several minor and major complications may occur during and after the manoeuvre. We describe intraperitoneal bumper migration in a 3-year-old boy, a rare complication following gastrostomy tube replacement, and we discuss the recent literature regarding similar cases.

  10. Gastrostomy Intraperitoneal Bumper Migration in a Three-Year-Old Child: A Rare Complication following Gastrostomy Tube Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Guanà


    Full Text Available Feeding gastrostomy is used worldwide for adults and children with feeding impairment to obtain long-term enteral nutrition. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy insertion is considered the gold standard, but after the first months requires gastrostomy tube replacement with a low-profile button. The replacement is known as an easy procedure, but several minor and major complications may occur during and after the manoeuvre. We describe intraperitoneal bumper migration in a 3-year-old boy, a rare complication following gastrostomy tube replacement, and we discuss the recent literature regarding similar cases.

  11. Optimization of a Passenger Car's Bumper Beam for Crashworthiness%某轿车保险杠横梁结构抗撞性优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程秀生; 刘维海; 郝玉敏; 马志良; 唐洪斌


    针对某轿车在进行车速为56 km/h的正面40%偏置碰撞试验中,前保险杠横梁断裂、乘员舱侵入过大问题,主要从抗弯性能和材料等方面对前保险杠横梁提出改进方案,并利用有限元仿真方法对保险杠横梁改进方案进行仿真计算.试制改进方案样件进行了车速为56 km/h的正面40%偏置碰撞试验,试验结果表明,改进方案解决了原保险杠横梁断裂问题,提高了保险杠横梁的耐撞性能.%In the frontal 56 km/h 40% offset impact test, the front bumper beam ruptures and the extra impact energy passes to the passenger compartment which make the greater intrusion to the passenger compartment. To solve such problems, an improvement plan of the front bumper beam is given according to the performance of bending-resistance and material. Computation of the front bumper beam was performed with the FE simulation, and then the complete vehicle 56 km/h 40% offset deformable barrier impact test with the improved structures was carried out. As a result, the optimized bumper beam eliminated the cause of bumper beam rupture, and obviously improved its crashworthiness.

  12. Nano-cellulose derived bioplastic biomaterial data for vehicle bio-bumper from banana peel waste biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B.M. Sharif Hossain


    Full Text Available The innovative study was carried out to produce nano-cellulose based bioplastic biomaterials for vehicle use coming after bioprocess technology. The data show that nano-cellulose particle size was 20 nm and negligible water absorption was 0.03% in the bioplastic. Moreover, burning test, size and shape characterizations, spray coating dye, energy test and firmness of bioplastic have been explored and compared with the standardization of synthetic vehicle plastic bumper following the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM. Tensile test was observed 120 MPa/kg m3. In addition to that pH and cellulose content were found positive in the bioplastic compared to the synthetic plastic. Chemical tests like K, CO3, Cl2, Na were determined and shown positive results compared to the synthetic plastic using the EN-14214 (European Norm standardization.

  13. Nano-cellulose derived bioplastic biomaterial data for vehicle bio-bumper from banana peel waste biomass. (United States)

    Sharif Hossain, A B M; Ibrahim, Nasir A; AlEissa, Mohammed Saad


    The innovative study was carried out to produce nano-cellulose based bioplastic biomaterials for vehicle use coming after bioprocess technology. The data show that nano-cellulose particle size was 20 nm and negligible water absorption was 0.03% in the bioplastic. Moreover, burning test, size and shape characterizations, spray coating dye, energy test and firmness of bioplastic have been explored and compared with the standardization of synthetic vehicle plastic bumper following the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). Tensile test was observed 120 MPa/kg m(3). In addition to that pH and cellulose content were found positive in the bioplastic compared to the synthetic plastic. Chemical tests like K, CO3, Cl2, Na were determined and shown positive results compared to the synthetic plastic using the EN-14214 (European Norm) standardization.

  14. Design and Calculation of the Installation Method of the Barge Bumper%靠船件安装方法的设计和计算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄海龙; 沈健; 高军伟; 胡双; 陈曦


    During the installation of new jacket offshore, crane cargo is always necessary, so the cost is high. Whether the installation work could be finished in plan or not will directly impact on the construction cost. The original installation methods can not place the barge bumper accurately, which may cause the delaying of the project and the waste of resources of offshore construction. To solve the above problems, combined with a practical project a new installation method of barge bfimper is introduced, and the structure of the barge bumper, the structure and the installation location of the oriented steel are described and the strength also be checked by the ANSYS simulation software. Several rationalization proposals in the actual project are also put forward in this paper.%新建导管架海上安装通常需要动用大型浮吊船舶,成本高昂,靠船件原有的安装方法就位困难,甚至可能延误工期,浪费施工资源.对此,结合工程实例,介绍了一种新的靠船件安装方法,阐述了其使用的导向型钢的结构形式和安装位置,并使用ANSYS软件进行了强度校核,最后对其在实际工程应用中提出了几项建议.

  15. 一款微型汽车塑料保险杠专用检具通用化设计%Universal design A miniature car plastic bumper special gage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄好; 谭克京


    This paper focuses on the basis of a miniature car plastic rear bumper special gage, combined with the inspection requirements of the new rear bumper design, universal design and alteration for the existing special gage to meet the gage design and manufacturing requirements, shorten new product development cycle, reduce the cost of new product develop- ment%本文重点分析了在现有的一款微型汽车塑料后保险杠专用检具的基础上,结合新设计的保险杠产品检测要求,对现有的专用检具进行通用化设计和改造,满足检具的设计和制造要求,缩短新产品开发周期,降低新产品开发成本。

  16. Simulation Analysis of Impact of Bumper and Pedestrian Lower Limbs Based on Finite Element Model%基于有限元模型的汽车前保险杠与行人下肢碰撞仿真分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋东辉; 梁云飞; 李海岩; 阮世捷


    基于两款汽车前保险杠原型,利用CATIA软件构建其三维几何模型,导入Hypermesh软件划分有限元网格构建有限元模型,利用50百分位成年男性行人下肢有限元模型,应用PAM-CRASH软件进行碰撞求解。结果表明,侧碰时车型V2的前保险杠对行人造成的损伤较严重。所建模型各具代表性,能够应用于行人下肢模型的验证试验,同时为汽车前保险杠的结构材料及安全性设计提供了科学的基础数据。%Based on prototypes of two kinds of front bumper,the geometric models were built by CATIA,the models were meshed by Hypermesh.Utilizing the simulated lower limbs model of 50th percentile male,the simulation collision tests were conducted with front bumper system and calculated by PAM-CRASH.The test results indicate that front bumper of V2 does more harm to pedestrian if side impact happens. The built models are not only typical for applying to verification tests of simulated lower limbs models,but also providing a scientific basic data for the structural material and safety design of front bumper.

  17. Experimental investigation on aluminum bumper with ceramic surface coating impacted by an aluminum sphere%铝球弹丸高速撞击表面陶瓷化铝板防护结构实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管公顺; 毕强; 张羽


    基于陶瓷化铝板设计了单层防护屏结构和双层防护屏结构,利用二级轻气炮对其进行高速撞击实验。用于模拟空间碎片的2017铝球弹丸直径分别为3.97 mm 和6.35 mm,撞击速度为1.64~4.96 km/s。分析了铝板表面陶瓷层对防护结构高速撞击损伤及防护性能的影响。结果表明:防护屏表面的陶瓷层可使单层防护屏结构抵御更大速度范围的粒子撞击;以表面陶瓷化铝板为首层防护屏的铝网填充式防护结构有助于撞击粒子的首次破碎以及次生碎片的撞击动能吸收。%The ceramic coating shields with single bumper and dual-wall bumper were designed taking advantage of the improvement on Al-Whipple shield.A series of high-velocity impact tests were practiced with a two-stage light gas gun facility.The diameters of projectiles used to simulate the space debris were 3.97mm and 6.35mm respectively.The impact velocities of Al-sphere were varied between 1.64km /s and 4.96km /s.The effects of ceramic coating on the damage and protection performance of shield were analyzed.The results indicate that the ceramic coating on the surface of bumper broadens the impact velocity spectrum,so that the single-wall bumper shield can withstand higher velocity impact. The Al-mesh stuffed shield with the ceramic coating surface used as a first layer of bumper can help the primary fragment of projectile and the subsequent absorption of kinetic energy of debris cloud.

  18. 汽车保险杠使用PA/EGMA合金材料的研究%Research on Automobile Bumper using the PA6/EGMA Alloy Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The PA6/EGMA alloy was prepared using EGMA as compatibilizer and toughener in a reactive extrusion process. The optimum processing parameter and formulation for the PA6/EGMA alloy of Car Bumper new materials were determine, blends of the alloy could be improved. The alloy had a good process ability, higher impact resistance and spray-paint easily, being a new product excellent comprehensive performance impact. The PA6/EGMA alloy Show the non-viscoelastic polymer materials in high speed impact still has higher toughness properties.%采用聚乙烯—甲基丙烯酸缩水甘油酯(EGMA)作为增容剂和增韧剂,利用反应增容技术制备了PA6/EGMA的合金。通过试验确定了PA/EGMA合金汽车保险杠新材料的最佳配方,提高合金的综合性能。该合金具有良好的加工性能,较高的抗冲击性能并易于喷涂,是综合性能优良的抗冲击新产品。PA6/EGMA 合金表现出非粘弹性高分子材料在高速冲击时仍然具有较高的韧性的特性。

  19. A study on light-aging resistance of instrument panel materials and bumper materials on the automobile%汽车仪表板材料和保险杠材料光老化性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘强; 王文涛; 李莉; 李慧连; 王俊; 揭敢新; 张晓东


    The light-aging test method commonly used in the automobile industry is utilized to carry out light-aging research on automotive instrument panel (IP) materials and bumper materials. On one hand,the impacts of common light-aging test methods on aging degree of automotive component materials are compared;on the other hand,the light-aging resistances of different component materials are compared. The results show that,for light-aging behavior of IP materials,the aging degree of the third test method is not severer than that of the second method,but it is severer than that of the first method. The light-aging resistance of IP material A is almost the same as that of IP material B. With reference to light-aging behavior of bumper materials,the aging degree of three common test methods indicates that the aging degree of the sixth test method is not severer than that of the fourth method,but it is severer than that of the fifth method. The light-aging resistance of bumper material D is superior to that of bumper material C.%采用汽车行业内常用的光老化试验方法,主要针对汽车仪表板材料和汽车保险杠材料,展开了光老化研究,一方面比较了常用的光老化试验方法对汽车零部件材料老化严酷程度的影响,另一方面对比了不同零部件材料的耐光老化性能。研究结果显示,对于仪表板材料的光老化行为,3种常用试验方法的老化严酷程度基本表现为方法二>方法三>方法一,仪表板材料A和材料B的耐老化性能基本一致;对于保险杠材料的光老化行为,3种常用试验方法的老化严酷程度基本表现为方法四>方法六>方法五,保险杠材料D的耐光老化性能优于材料C。

  20. 不同环境温度下铝球弹丸高速撞击编织物防护屏试验研究%Experimental Investigation of Woven Bumper Shield Impacted by a High-velocity Aluminum Sphere at Different Ambient Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管公顺; 蒲东东; 哈跃; 庞宝君


    利用二级轻气炮发射2017铝球弹丸,在两种环境温度下高速撞击编织物单防护屏结构和填充式结构,研究环境温度对铝网、玄武岩纤维布、Kevlar纤维布防护结构高速撞击损伤与防护特性的影响。用于模拟空间碎片的铝球弹丸直径为3.97 mm,撞击速度为1.47~4.47 km/s,撞击角度为0°,环境温度分别为293 K和393 K。结果表明:当撞击条件相同时,在较高环境温度中,单防护屏结构的编织物防护屏及填充式结构的编织物填充层的撞击穿孔尺寸均增大,三种编织物单防护屏结构的高速撞击防护能力下降,铝网及玄武岩纤维布填充式结构的高速撞击防护性能降低,Kevlar纤维布填充式结构的高速撞击防护性能提高。%A two-stage light gas gun is used to launch 2017-T4 Al-sphere projectiles impacting on single-wall bumper shield and stuffed bumper shield of woven at two kinds of ambient temperature. The effect of ambient temperature on damage and protection characteristic of Al-mesh, Basalt fiber cloth and Kevlar fiber cloth bumpers are studied. The diameter of projectile used to simulate space debris is 3.97 mm. Impact velocities of Al-spheres are varied between 1.47 km/s and 4.47 km/s. The impact angle is 0°. Ambient temperatures are 293 K and 393 K respectively. The results indicated that perforation size of woven bumper of single-wall bumper shield and woven stuffed wall of stuffed bumper shield increased at higher ambient temperature for the same impact condition. At the same time, the protection performance of all single-wall bumper shields of three woven bumpers degraded along with the rising of the ambient temperature, the protection performance of Al-mesh, Basalt fiber cloth stuffed bumper shields degraded and the protection performance of Kevlar fiber cloth stuffed bumper shield enhanced at higher ambient temperature.

  1. CAE analysis of filling and weld line of injection molded polypropylene auto bumper%PP注射成型汽车保险杠填充及熔接痕CAE分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永泉; 李峰; 孙晋


    借助Moldflow软件,通过最佳浇口位置分析并结合制件结构,确定了汽前保险杠的两种浇口位置方案.对采用的汽车保险杠专用树脂高抗冲聚丙烯1215C进行了流变性能、压力-体积-温度关系曲线及热传导系数等的测定.通过Moldflow软件比较了两种浇口位置对制品产生熔接痕的位置、数量的影响以及熔体遇合角度与温度对熔接痕质量的影响.确定了当制品采用方案2的浇口位置时、熔接痕对产品外观性能影响较小.%Two gate location schemes to produce auto bumper via injection molding were determined by means of Moldflow software based on the analysis of the optimal gate location and the structure of the parts. The rheological properties, pressure-volume-temperature curves and thermal conductivity of high impact polypropylene special resin for auto bumper, 1215C, were tested. The effect of the two gate locations on the position and amount of weld line of the parts and the effect of weld line converging angle and temperature on the quality of weld line were studied with Moldflow. The weld line had smaller influence on the appearance and properties of the parts in the case of scheme 2.

  2. 基于行人小腿保护的保险杠结构稳健性优化设计%Robustness Optimization Design of Bumper Structure Based on Protection of Pedestrian Lower Leg

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱立军; 宋佳; 谷先广


    为了增强保险杠结构的小腿保护功能,提出了将试验设计技术、径向基函数近似建模技术、全局优化算法和基于蒙特卡罗模拟技术的6σ质量设计相结合的稳健性优化设计方法,并应用该方法进行了保险杠结构的优化设计。优化结果表明,该方法大大提高了车辆的行人保护功能。由于在优化过程中考虑了设计变量的不确定影响,该方法比确定性的优化方法更具有可靠稳健性。因此,从一定程度上讲,该方法是一种求解复杂工程问题的稳健性优化设计方法,深入应用该方法能大幅提高产品的设计质量。%In order to improve lower leg protection of bumper structure,this paper presented a systematic method combining experimental design,radial basis function approximation modeling tech-nology,the global optimization algorithm and 6-Sigma quality design based on Monte Carlo simula-tion,which was applied to optimize the bumper structure.Due to taking the uncertainty of design variables into consideration,the optimization results are more reliable and robust than that of the de-terministic optimization method.Therefore,to some extent,this paper proposed a robustness optimi-zation design method for solving complex engineering problems,and further application of this meth-od can improve the design quality of products greatly.

  3. CERN Relay Race: No records broken in a bumper year

    CERN Multimedia


    Tribute is paid to David Dallman, 20 times the organiser of the CERN Relay Race, who is now retiring.Solve the following mathematical problem for athletes: take the first and third-placed teams in the 2006 CERN Relay Race, randomly mix the runners to form two new teams, and what is the result? Answer: first place and fifth place. In short, the team which has reigned supreme in first place since 2001, the "Shabbys", decided to spice up the race this year by merging with their arch rivals, the "Latinos Volantes", themselves no strangers to the podium. And at the winning line, it was the hybrid formation, "Shabbys Volantes", which took the honours (no surprises there!). Sadly, they were unable to beat the Shabbys’ previous record nor get anywhere near the all-time race record of 10 minutes and 13 seconds for the 3.9-km course, held for a quarter of a century by the "UA1 Strollers". One of the members of that legendary team and race organiser 20 times, David Dallman, mar...

  4. Wearing a Rainbow Bumper Sticker: Experiential Learning on Homophobia, Heteronormativity, and Heterosexual Privilege (United States)

    Nunn, Lisa M.; Bolt, Sophia C.


    College campuses are known to be heteronormative environments that often foster heterosexism and homophobia. There is a broad call for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) awareness-building curricula as one avenue for positive change in campus climates. This study interrogates the effects of an experiential learning activity…

  5. Advocacy for Art Education: Beyond Tee-Shirts and Bumper Stickers (United States)

    Bobick, Bryna; DiCindio, Carissa


    Advocacy is not new to art education. Over the years, Goldfarb (1979), Hodsoll (1985), and Erickson and Young (1996) have written about the importance of arts advocacy, but the concept of advocacy has evolved with the times. For example, in the 1970s, arts advocacy was described as a "movement" and brought together art educators,…

  6. Articulation Beyond the Bumper Sticker: Revamping an Incomplete and Confusing Master Tenet (United States)


    1959. —. United States Air Force Basic Doctrine. April 1954. —. United States Air Force Basic Doctrine. April 1953. Baltrusaitis, Daniel F Colonel...USAF. "Comments During Air Command and Control Workshop." October 13, 2009. Baltrusaitis, Daniel F . Lieutenant Colonel, USAF. Centralized Control

  7. 76 FR 53072 - Certification; Importation of Vehicles and Equipment Subject to Federal Safety, Bumper, and Theft... (United States)


    ... year for vehicles in the United States, these dates have limited relevance, if any, to vehicles that... Flexibility Act. At present, 65 such entities are registered with NHTSA. The adopted amendments will not... 150 percent of the entered value of the vehicle as determined by the Secretary of the Treasury,...

  8. 76 FR 2631 - Certification; Importation of Vehicles and Equipment Subject to Federal Safety, Bumper, and Theft... (United States)


    ... provided. Please see the Privacy Act heading below. Privacy Act: Anyone is able to search the electronic... a petition. The RI would also be required to submit to NHTSA documentary proof of the vehicle's... must submit documentary proof of the destruction to the agency within 30 days from the date...

  9. Investigation into debris cloud characterizations for oblique hypervelocity impact of projectiles on bumper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟; 管公顺; 庞宝君; 李强; 张永强


    All long-duration spacecraft in low-earth-orbit are subject to high velocity impacts by meteoroids and space debris. Such impacts are expected to occur at non-normal incidence angles and can cause severe damage to the spacecraft and its external flight-critical systems and possibly lead to catastrophic failure of the spacecraft.In order to ensure crew safety and proper function of internal and external spacecraft systems, the characteristics of a debris cloud generated by such impacts must be known. An analytical model is therefore developed for the characterization of the penetration and ricochet debris clouds created by the hypervelocity impact of an aluminum spherical projectile on an aluminum plate. This model employs normal and oblique shock wave theory to characterize the penetration and ricochet processes. The prediction results of center-of-mass trajectory and leading velocity of penetration and ricochet debris clouds are obtained and compared with numerical and experimental results in figures.

  10. A transcriptomic analysis of American lobster (Homarus americanus) immune response during infection with the bumper car parasite Anophryoides haemophila. (United States)

    Clark, K Fraser; Acorn, Adam R; Greenwood, Spencer J


    Anophryoides haemophila is an important protistan parasite of American lobster, Homarus americanus, as it has been found to infect lobsters in the wild as well as causing major losses of lobsters maintained in commercial holding facilities. Expression of over 14,500 H. americanus hepatopancreatic genes were monitored during an A. haemophila infection challenge in order to elucidate molecular mechanisms involved in the lobster immune response. One hundred and forty-five genes were found to be differentially expressed during infection. For many genes, this study is the first to link their expression to an immune response to a known lobster pathogen. Several of the genes have previously been linked to crustacean or invertebrate immune response including: several anti-lipopolysaccharide factor isoforms (ALFHa), acute phase serum amyloid protein A (SAA), a serine protease inhibitor, a toll-like receptor, several haemocyanin subunits, phagocyte signaling-impaired protein, vitelline membrane outer layer protein-1, trypsin, and a C-type lectin receptor. Microarray results were verified using RT-qPCR and agreement was good between the two methods. The expression of six ALFHa isoforms was monitored via microarray where ALFHa-1, ALFHa-2, ALFHa-4 and ALFHa-6 were differentially expressed while ALFHa-3 and ALFHa7 were not. RT-qPCR analysis confirmed that ALFHa-1, ALFHA-2 and ALFHa-4 expression increased during infection with a peak at 5-7weeks for ALFHa-1 and 10weeks for ALFHa-2 and ALFHa-4. This suggests that different ALFHa isoforms are temporally expressed during A. haemophila infection. Importantly, these results provide evidence that different ALFHa isoforms have more significant roles in responding to A. haemophila infection. Significant increases in SAA gene expression were also found, corroborating previous findings of increased SAA expression during Aerococcus viridans infections; highlighting the importance of SAA as a marker of H. americanus immune activation and potential indicator of H. americanus health.

  11. 聚丙烯保险杠专用料收缩率控制%Control of contraction ratio of PP for automobile bumper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆秋欢; 陶红



  12. Numerical Simulation of EQ140 Truck Bumper Crash with Ansys Software%基于ANSYS的汽车保险杠碰撞的数值模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)





    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐忠兴; 苏新



  14. 树莓丰产栽培技术及水土保持产业化开发%Cultivation Techniques in Getting Bumper Tree Blackberry and Development of Soil and Water Conservation Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张广英; 单广波


    树莓是一种生态经济型灌木果树,在医药、化妆、保健、天然香料、食品色素、食品加工等方面有着广泛用途。引进树莓良种进行试验示范和水土保持产业化开发,可填补我国小果水果和树莓产品空白,且可出口创汇,经济效益巨大。系统介绍了树莓的开发利用价值和栽培种植技术,并对树莓水土保持产业化开发及发展前景进行了探讨。%Tree Blackberry is a brush for fruit of ecological and economic type and widely used in medicine, cosmetics, healthy product, natural perfume, edible pigment, food processing and others. There will be significant economic benefit through import good variety of Tree Blackberry for experiment and being example to soil and water conservation industrialization development which will fill in the gaps in the field of small fruit and Tree Black berry production and earn benefit by export. The values of developing and utilizing Tree Blackberry as well as the cultivation techniques are systematically introduced in the paper, and the prospect of its industrialization development in soil and water conservation field is studied.

  15. Hypervelocity impact testing of advanced materials and structures for micrometeoroid and orbital debris shielding (United States)

    Ryan, Shannon; Christiansen, Eric L.


    A series of 66 hypervelocity impact experiments have been performed to assess the potential of various materials (aluminium, titanium, copper, stainless steel, nickel, nickel/chromium, reticulated vitreous carbon, silver, ceramic, aramid, ceramic glass, and carbon fibre) and structures (monolithic plates, open-cell foam, flexible fabrics, rigid meshes) for micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) shielding. Arranged in various single-, double-, and triple-bumper configurations, screening tests were performed with 0.3175 cm diameter Al2017-T4 spherical projectiles at nominally 6.8 km/s and normal incidence. The top performing shields were identified through target damage assessments and their respective weight. The top performing candidate shield at the screening test condition was found to be a double-bumper configuration with a 0.25 mm thick Al3003 outer bumper, 6.35 mm thick 40 PPI aluminium foam inner bumper, and 1.016 mm thick Al2024-T3 rear wall (equal spacing between bumpers and rear wall). In general, double-bumper candidates with aluminium plate outer bumpers and foam inner bumpers were consistently found to be amongst the top performers. For this impact condition, potential weight savings of at least 47% over conventional all-aluminium Whipple shields are possible by utilizing the investigated materials and structures. The results of this study identify materials and structures of interest for further, more in-depth, impact investigations.

  16. Two-dimensional laser servoing for precision motion control of an ODV robotic license plate recognition system (United States)

    Song, Zhen; Moore, Kevin L.; Chen, YangQuan; Bahl, Vikas


    As an outgrowth of series of projects focused on mobility of unmanned ground vehicles (UGV), an omni-directional (ODV), multi-robot, autonomous mobile parking security system has been developed. The system has two types of robots: the low-profile Omni-Directional Inspection System (ODIS), which can be used for under-vehicle inspections, and the mid-sized T4 robot, which serves as a ``marsupial mothership'' for the ODIS vehicles and performs coarse resolution inspection. A key task for the T4 robot is license plate recognition (LPR). For a successful LPR task without compromising the recognition rate, the robot must be able to identify the bumper locations of vehicles in the parking area and then precisely position the LPR camera relative to the bumper. This paper describes a 2D-laser scanner based approach to bumper identification and laser servoing for the T4 robot. The system uses a gimbal-mounted scanning laser. As the T4 robot travels down a row of parking stalls, data is collected from the laser every 100ms. For each parking stall in the range of the laser during the scan, the data is matched to a ``bumper box'' corresponding to where a car bumper is expected, resulting in a point cloud of data corresponding to a vehicle bumper for each stall. Next, recursive line-fitting algorithms are used to determine a line for the data in each stall's ``bumper box.'' The fitting technique uses Hough based transforms, which are robust against segmentation problems and fast enough for real-time line fitting. Once a bumper line is fitted with an acceptable confidence, the bumper location is passed to the T4 motion controller, which moves to position the LPR camera properly relative to the bumper. The paper includes examples and results that show the effectiveness of the technique, including its ability to work in real-time.

  17. China-Jiangsu LAD Group Co.,Ltd.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ In recent years.the LAD Group has invested in R&D and innovation program for diversified forms of business development hoping to make the company bigger,better and stronger,and it has achieved a bumper harvest.

  18. 11 CFR 100.29 - Electioneering communication (2 U.S.C. 434(f)(3)). (United States)


    ..., as appropriate, by the current national average household size, as determined by the Bureau of the..., including a newspaper or magazine, handbill, brochure, bumper sticker, yard sign, poster, billboard,...

  19. Probing the mysteries of early life on Earth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ Initiated in April 2000 with support of the National Basic Research Program, dubbed 973 Program," a multidisciplinary project under the title "Biotic Origination, Radiation, Extinction and Recovery in Major Geological Intervals" has won a bumper harvest in research results.

  20. Evaluating and Enhancing Driving Ability Among Teens with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) (United States)


    and on-road performance 4 by an examiner blind to the training conditions (on-road assessment was only performed post- training). Subsequently...refusing to take the on-road tests and percentage that passed the blinded on-road test. Figure 2. Outcome of VRDS training program, demonstrating—navigating the GW Parkway, bumper-to-bumper traffic over Roosevelt bridge, and stop-and-go traffic along the Mall to the Museum of Natural

  1. Canine toys and training devices as sources of exposure to phthalates and bisphenol A: quantitation of chemicals in leachate and in vitro screening for endocrine activity. (United States)

    Wooten, Kimberly J; Smith, Philip N


    Chewing and mouthing behaviors exhibited by pet dogs are likely to lead to oral exposures to a variety of environmental chemicals. Products intended for chewing and mouthing uses include toys and training devices that are often made of plastics. The goal of the current study was to determine if a subset of phthalates and bisphenol A (BPA), endocrine disrupting chemicals commonly found in plastics, leach out of dog toys and training devices (bumpers) into synthetic canine saliva. In vitro assays were used to screen leachates for endocrine activity. Bumper leachates were dominated by di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and BPA, with concentrations reaching low μg mL(-1) following short immersions in synthetic saliva. Simulated chewing of bumpers during immersion in synthetic saliva increased concentrations of phthalates and BPA as compared to new bumpers, while outdoor storage had variable effects on concentrations (increased DEHP; decreased BPA). Toys leached substantially lower concentrations of phthalates and BPA, with the exception of one toy which leached considerable amounts of diethyl phthalate. In vitro assays indicated anti-androgenic activity of bumper leachates, and estrogenic activity of both bumper and toy leachates. These results confirm that toys and training devices are potential sources of exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals in pet dogs.

  2. Design of Production Test IP-262-A-11-FP -- Evaluation of projection fuel elements for use in ribbed process tubes -- Demonstration loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodgson, W.H.; Hall, R.E.


    For several years, a major category of fuel element failures has been the side corrosion type, characterized by localized accelerated fuel element jacket corrosion. Since it has been demonstrated {sup 1} that misalignment of fuel elements in a process tube will produce flow patterns and accelerated corrosion, termed ``hot spots``, failure to align the fuel elements in process tubes is considered a contributing factor in the production of side corrosion failures. Preliminary testing of both self-supporting and ``bumper`` fuel elements is underway. Data on the self-supporting fuel elements have demonstrated that the bridge-rail projections have sufficient support strength, do not of themselves create a corrosion problem and in actuality probably eliminate any hot-spot areas. Although one tube of bumper fuel elements in KW Reactor {sup 3} has been discharged, data are not as yet available. Potentially, the most sever corrosion conditions exist during the summer months when reactor inlet temperatures are high. It is desirable then, provided bumper fuel elements limit hot- spot corrosion, to evaluate the bumper concept for large scale use possibly by the summer of 1960. To accomplish this, a demonstration loading of the bumper type fuel elements must be underway by about July, 1959. The purpose of this report is to present the design of a test to evaluate the fabrication process and irradiation performance of fuel elements having projections, which may prevent misalignment in ribbed process tubes and meet the aforementioned goals.

  3. Injection Bump Synchronization Study for the CERN PS

    CERN Document Server

    Serluca, Maurizio; Gilardoni, Simone; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department


    In the framework of the LHC Injector Upgrade (LIU) project the CERN PS injection kinetic energy will be upgraded from 1.4 to 2 GeV. The present injection bump is made by four bumpers in Straight Section (SS) 40, 42, 43, 44 and it will be converted in a five bumpers system to allow additional flexibility in the bump shape with a reduction of the proton losses during the bump closure. The injection section SS42 has being redesigned to accommodate a new eddy current septum which will host a new bumper magnet in the same vacuum vessel due to reduced longitudinal space availability. The synchronization and amplitude variation of the power converter of the in-vacuum bumper 42 with respect to the remaining outside vacuum bumpers 40, 41, 43, 44 can lead to orbit distortion and consequent losses during injection. In this note we present the experimental results from Machine Development (MD) studies along with simulations for the present system at 1.4 GeV to quantify the acceptable orbit distortion and the performance ...

  4. MLITemp: A computer program to predict the thermal effects associated with hypervelocity impact damage to space station MLI (United States)

    Rule, W. K.; Giridharan, V.


    A family of user-friendly, DOS PC based, Microsoft BASIC programs written to provide spacecraft designers with empirical predictions of space debris damage to orbiting spacecraft are described. Spacecraft wall temperatures and condensate formation is also predicted. The spacecraft wall configuration is assumed to consist of multilayered insulation (MLI) placed between a Whipple style bumper and the pressure wall. Impact damage predictions are based on data sets of experimental results obtained from simulating debris impacts on spacecraft using light gas guns on earth. A module of the program facilitates the creation of the database of experimental results that is used by the damage prediction modules to predict damage to the bumper, the MLI, and the pressure wall. A finite difference technique is used to predict temperature distributions in the pressure wall, the MLI, and the bumper. Condensate layer thickness is predicted for the case where the pressure wall temperature drops below the dew point temperature of the spacecraft atmosphere.

  5. Design of Bump Magnet of CSR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Four bumpers are required for the injection and extraction of CSR. The parameters of the bumpers are shown in table 1. Because of the steep raising and falling time and therefore the inductance of the magnet should be as small as possible, so the material of the magnet cores must be ferrite. And in order to reduce the cost of the bump magnet, the cross-section of the four ferrite cores was designed as the same, as shown in Fig.1.It is very similar to the lamination of the H-type dipole. And Fig.2 is the...

  6. The Shock and Vibration Digest. Volume 18, Number 6 (United States)


    Manolis, GD...................... 1239 Hsiang - Chuan , Tsai .............. 1240 Marukawa, T ...................... 1254 -sieh, B.J...Equipmen in seismic events, especially at those bearing and Base-Isolated Structures seismic bumper areas. In this study, synthesized J.M. Kelly, Hsiang ... Chuan Tsai time histories were developed based on specified Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA seismic response spectra. A nonlinear seismic Earthquake

  7. Special Report: Personal Transformations. Moving from Violence to Peace (United States)


    Chairman, PFC Energy, Washington, D.C. • María otero (Vice Chair), President, ACCION International, Boston, Mass. • Betty f. Bumpers, Founder and...opportunity to analyze his life in moral terms and listen to what God’s plan for him might be. For Shaftary, it felt like a gradual cleansing process: “I

  8. 碰撞试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Charpy impact test modelling and local approach to fracture, Comparison of paramctric and non-paramerric mcthocis for determining injury rish, CORRELATION ANALYSIS OF AUTOMOBILE CRASH RESPONSES BASED ON WAVELET DECOMPOSITIONS, Correlation study on different bumper impact test method and predicted results, Damage behaior in ceramic plasma-coated and uncoated glass with steel-ball impact。

  9. Safe Sleep for Your Baby: Reduce the Risk of SIDS and Other Sleep-Related Causes of Infant Death (United States)

    ... to prevent injury. In fact, crib bumpers can cause serious injuries and even death. Keeping them out of baby’s sleep area is the best way to avoid these dangers. • • To reduce the risk of SIDS, women should: Get regular health care during pregnancy, and Not smoke, drink alcohol, or use illegal ...

  10. 77 FR 11423 - Safety Zone; Magothy River, Sillery Bay, MD (United States)


    ... movement of vessels throughout the regulated area during The Bumper Bash, held annually on the fourth... anchored or moored alongside other boats (rafted). The crowds of persons on recreational vessels or other... movement within a waterway that is expected to be populated by persons and vessels seeking to attend...

  11. 30 CFR 57.9301 - Dump site restraints. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dump site restraints. 57.9301 Section 57.9301 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... § 57.9301 Dump site restraints. Berms, bumper blocks, safety hooks, or similar impeding devices...

  12. 30 CFR 56.9301 - Dump site restraints. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dump site restraints. 56.9301 Section 56.9301 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... § 56.9301 Dump site restraints. Berms, bumper blocks, safety hooks, or similar impeding devices...

  13. Feeding China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    China is expected to reap a bumper harvest this autumn, but grain security remains a long-term concern Despite sweeping natural disasters China is on track to achieve a bounti ful harvest for this autumn’s grain yield,which usually accounts fo three fourths of the annual output,said Minister of Agriculture Han Changfu.

  14. 78 FR 11728 - Pilot Project on NAFTA Trucking Provisions (United States)


    ... inspection report (DVIR) form that listed the bumper; engine; cabin floor; fuel tank; cab; tires; drive shaft; muffler; chassis; rear door; air tanks; trailer; 5th wheel; and seal/tiedowns, but did not list service... not provide adequate documentation of required alcohol testing. Grupo Behr addressed this issue in...

  15. 11 CFR 100.87 - Volunteer activity for party committees. (United States)


    ... following conditions are met: (a) Exemption not applicable to general public communication or political... committee of a political party of the costs of campaign materials (such as pins, bumper stickers, handbills..., bill board, direct mail, or similar type of general public communication or political advertising....

  16. Suitability of Recycled Polyethylene/Palm Kernel Shell-Iron Filings Composite for Automobile Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Samotu


    Full Text Available A recycling aimed research was carried out to produce a new composite material and proffer suggestion for the possible use of the newly developed composite material. The empty water sachet (commonly called pure water nylon in Nigeria, was used as a matrix, which was reinforced by carbonized palm kernel shell (CPKS particulate and iron fillings. The percentage composition of iron fillings was maintained at 5 wt%, while that of palm kernel shell ash was varied from 5 wt% - 20 wt% at an interval of 5 %. The composites were compounded and compressively moulded. Physical and mechanical properties of the composites were tested for alongside three conventional car bumper samples, and the results obtained shows that the composite material could be used to produce a car bumper among other parts of automobile like dashboard due to their impact strength and low density. Impact strength - density ratio for the materials gave prime information on the possible application of the developed material. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM was used to examine the distribution of the reinforcement within the matrix. After results analysis, materials with 5 wt% of CPKS and that with 10 wt% of CPKS were recommended for the car bumper production following their high impact strength - density ratio of 0.26 and 0.19 respectively, which are higher as compared to that of a conventional bumper material measured alongside the composite materials.

  17. Defense Reform: An Out of the Box Approach. (United States)


    O’Hanlon, Michael, Defense Planning for the Late 1990s, Beyond the Desert Storm Framework, Brookings, 1995, page 34 Ibid., page 31 Muradian, Vago ...Closure Rounds", GAO/NSIAD-97-151. May 1997 Muradian, Vago , "Bumpers Questions Navy of F/A-18E/F, Overall Shipbuilding Plan", Defense Daily. 12

  18. Defense in Depth: Foundation for Secure and Resilient IT Enterprises (United States)


    Driving Analogy Service Safe, reliable transportation Layered Controls � Multiple airbags � Seatbelts, bumpers � Crush zones � Extensive quality assurance...measures for survivability ! IT personnel recall procedures Ensure managers and users are aware of risks and plans ! IT newsletters ! Awareness training

  19. Newly added joint ventures in China’s auto parts industry in 2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    <正>A total of 17 joint ventures on auto parts production were added in 2007, a slight increase year on year. The Chinese side partners were from FAW, SAIC, Beiqi and Sinotruk and foreigner partners were from Lear, Johnson Controls, ArvinMeritor, DEUTZ, FAURECIA and RICARDO. The planed products include car seat, interior, diesel engine, body electronics parts, transmission and bumper.

  20. Young Chinese Artists and Acrobats on a Winning Streak

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    BETWEEN March 1992 andMarch 1993,Chinese artistsreaped a bumper harvest atinternational art and acrobatics com-petitions.Within one year juvenileartists from China,who took partin international contests in music,dance and acrobatics,got 12 first-place awards,seven seconds,threethirds and eight special awards.

  1. 49 CFR 567.4 - Requirements for manufacturers of motor vehicles. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for manufacturers of motor vehicles... manufacturers of motor vehicles. (a) Each manufacturer of motor vehicles (except vehicles manufactured in two or... applicable Federal motor vehicle safety, bumper, and theft prevention standards in effect on the date...

  2. A Look Back

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    China and Russia have reaped bumper harvests in their relations during the past eight years During his eight years as Russian president from May 2000 to May 2008,Vladimir Putin attached great importance to his country’s Strategic Partnership of Cooperation with China.Putin

  3. Safe Sleep For Your Baby | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine (United States)

    ... Baby Learn how to reduce the risk of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) and other sleep-related causes of infant death. Always place baby on his or her back to sleep for all sleep ... blankets, and crib bumpers. 1-800-505-CRIB https://www.nichd. ...

  4. Media Madness: With TV and the Internet Available 24/7, Can Libraries Compete? (United States)

    Jones, Jami


    Today's teens face an endless barrage of media--television, movies, radio, the Internet, magazines, and electronic games, not to mention those advertising slogans that shout out at them from billboards, bumper stickers, and even T-shirts. The sheer amount of time that teens spend with media is mind-boggling. Over the course of a year, young adults…

  5. 49 CFR 587.15 - Verification of aluminum honeycomb crush strength. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Verification of aluminum honeycomb crush strength... Deformable Barrier § 587.15 Verification of aluminum honeycomb crush strength. The following procedure is used to ascertain the crush strength of the main honeycomb block and the bumper element honeycomb,...

  6. 29 CFR 1917.45 - Cranes and derricks (See also § 1917.50). (United States)


    ... bumpers. If a stop engages the tread of the wheel, it shall be of a height not less than the radius of the wheel. (ii) When more than one crane operates on the same runway or more than one trolley on the same... paragraph (j)(8) of this section; or (ii) In a boatswain's chair or other device rigged to prevent it...

  7. '95 Achievements in Oil and Gas Exploration and Prospects for 1996

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ding Guiming; Wang Yuxin


    @@ The year of 1995, the last year of the Eighth Five -Year Plan witnessed an overall bumper harvest of the Exploration Bureau. owing to its serious implementation of the working policies of" Speeding up the exploration in the west while consolidating the success in the east" and "Developing oil and gas concurrently" and to the active promotion of modernized exploration and management.

  8. Aplicações clínicas e vantagens da placa labioativa: uma revisão da literatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darlene Ribeiro dos Santos Gerzson


    Full Text Available The lip bumper is removable appliance which is one of many used by orthodontics for treatment of minor crowding in lower jaw. It is easy to manufacture and well accepted and used by the patient. It can be considered a hearth space being used in the mixed dentition and/or deciduous. Its space saving is due to projection of lower incisors and distal tipping of the molars. The opportune time for the installation of this device is of great importance in future planning of the event, being decisive for extraction of permanent teeth or not. This article aims to emphasize the importance of early orthodontics treatments, which aims to minimize or resolve some orthodontic problems and minimize the treatment time with orthodontic corrective if it is necessary. After a brief review of literature on the manufacture and use of lip bumper, we will present one of the many applications of this device.

  9. Potential space debris shield structure using impact-initiated energetic materials composed of polytetrafluoroethylene and aluminum (United States)

    Wu, Qiang; Zhang, Qingming; Long, Renrong; Zhang, Kai; Guo, Jun


    A whipple shield using Al/PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene) energetic material to protect against space debris is presented. The hypervelocity impact characteristics were investigated experimentally using a two-stage light gas gun at velocities between 3 and 6 km/s. A good protection of the shield was obtained through comparative experiments which used the same bumper areal density. The results showed that the critical projectile diameter can be improved by 28% by contrast with the Christiansen ballistic limit equations. The Al/PTFE energetic material bumper can break up the projectile into smaller, less massive, and slower projectiles due to the combined effect of impact and explosion, thereby producing a sharp rise in the spacecraft protection ability.

  10. Marking Streets to Improve Parking Density

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Chao


    Street parking spots for automobiles are a scarce commodity in most urban environments. The heterogeneity of car sizes makes it inefficient to rigidly define fixed-sized spots. Instead, unmarked streets in cities like New York leave placement decisions to individual drivers, who have no direct incentive to maximize street utilization. In this paper, we explore the effectiveness of two different behavioral interventions designed to encourage better parking, namely (1) educational campaigns to encourage parkers to "kiss the bumper" and reduce the distance between themselves and their neighbors, or (2) painting appropriately-spaced markings on the street and urging drivers to "hit the line". Through analysis and simulation, we establish that the greatest densities are achieved when lines are painted to create spots roughly twice the length of average-sized cars. Kiss-the-bumper campaigns are in principle more effective than hit-the-line for equal degrees of compliance, although we believe that the visual cues of...

  11. Special Report: Haiti. Hope for the Future (United States)


    Chair), President, ACCION International, Boston, Mass. • Betty f. Bumpers, Founder and former President, Peace Links, Washington, D.C. • Holly J... plan for developing a police force of 14,000 by 2010. Such a huge increase in so short a time will require generous support from the donor...teamed with Canada and The United Nations and the Préval government have prepared a com- prehensive plan for developing a police force of 14,000 by

  12. Special Report: Political Violence and Democratic Uncertainty in Ethiopia (United States)


    Washington, D.C. • María otero (Vice Chair), President, ACCION International, Boston, Mass. • Betty f. Bumpers, Founder and former President, Peace Links...well- planned intervention by Ethiopian forces in December 2006. Aside from its regional implications, the conflict suggests a smolder- ing tension among...from a national census of vital bureaucratic and administrative importance in a decentralized state such as Ethiopia, it is an invalu- able planning

  13. Special Report: Ayatollah Sistani and the Democratization of Post-Ba’athist Iraq (United States)


    D.C. • María otero (Vice Chair), President, ACCION International, Boston, Mass. • Betty f. Bumpers, Founder and former President, Peace Links...are well paid and are even offered a health insurance plan that covers their families during the period of their studies.14 Likely due in part to the...instrumentality envisaged in it [the CPA plan ] for electing the members of the transitional Legislature does not guarantee the formation of a parliament that

  14. JPRS Report,China QIUSHI SeekingTruth No 11, 1 June 1989. (United States)


    system, entropy represent- ing the degree of disorder in a system would spontane- ously tend to reach its maximum , thus causing the whole system to...instance, in spite of the severe drought , they reaped a bumper harvest, increased their grain output by 17.5 million jin, raised the per capita with the outside world and continuously introduces a coun- tercurrent to offset an increase in its internal entropy . Therefore, a system must

  15. Permanent superconducting magnets for space applications (United States)

    Weinstein, Roy


    Work has been done to develop superconducting trapped field magnets (TFM's) and to apply them to a bumper-tether device for magnetic docking of spacecraft. The quality parameters for TFM's are J(c), the critical current of the superconductor, and d, the diameter of the superconducting tile. During this year we have doubled d, for production models, from 1 cm to 2 cm. This was done by means of seeding, an improved temperature profile in processing, and the addition of 1 percent Pt to the superconductor chemistry. Using these tiles we have set increasing records for the fields' permanent magnets. Magnets fabricated from old 1 cm tiles trapped 1.52 Tesla at 77K, 4.0T at 65K and 7.0T at 55K. The second of these fields broke a 17 year old record set at Stanford. The third field broke our own record. More recently using 2 cm tiles, we have trapped 2.3T at 77K, and 5.3T at 65K. We expect to trap lOT at 55K in this magnet in the near future. We have also achieved increases in J(c) using a method we developed for seeding U-235, and subsequently bombarding with neutrons. This method doubles J(c). We have not yet fabricated magnets from these tiles. During this year we have increased production yields from 15 percent to 95 percent. We have explored the properties of a magnetic bumper-tether for spacecraft. We have measured the bumper forces, and their dependence on time, distance, and the field of the ordinary ferromagnet (used together with a TFM). We have accounted for 85 percent of the collision energy, and its transformation to magnetic energy and heat energy. We have learned to control the relative bumper and tether forces by controlling TFM and ferromagnetic field strengths.

  16. Beijing-Tianjin Intercity High-speed Line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ Ever since 2003, under the guidance of the scientific development concept and in line with the decisions and deployments made by the Party Central Committee and the State Council, China Railways has eagerly taken the golden opportunity for development, to facilitate the implementation of the Mid-term and Long-term Railway Network Development Program, and so it has achieved bumper significant accomplishments in the modernization progress, with Beijing-Tianjin Intercity High-speed Line as one of the exemplary representatives.

  17. Calibration of BPCE.41801 and SPS extraction bump in LSS4

    CERN Document Server

    Catalan-Lasheras, N; Jones, O R; Papis, J P; Wenninger, J; CERN. Geneva. AB Department


    The Large aperture stripline coupler beam position monitor BPCE.41801 was calibrated using the LHC beam in the SPS for different proton intensities corresponding to different MOPOS gains. A polynomial correction of the data provided a correction on the absolute position to the 0.5 mm level in the large range of interest. The powering of the newly installed extraction bumper system was then checked against this monitor.

  18. Vibrations d'une poutre avec un ressort unilatéral. Solutions périodiques.Modes non-linéaires


    Hazim, H.


    The thesis consists of two parts presented in four chapters. The first one deals with the modelling, the simulations and the experimental validations of a beam model with a unilateral linear spring under a periodic excitation. It is a simplified mechanical model of a satellite solar array and an elastic bumper during the launch stage. The system is under a harmonic excitation given as an imposed acceleration or a punctual force. The model is validated with experimental sequences on an aluminu...

  19. Application of Over-Winding and Over-Falling Buffer Unit in Coal Mines of Datong Coal Group Company

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hong-qing; WANG Jian-li


    Dynamic force of BS buffer unit in the enwinding hoisting system is calculated, and the buffer unit is installed and tested. The result shows that this buffer unit is accurate in its regulated braking force and convenient in adjustment and restoration. It can be repeatedly used as a bumper for both over-winding and over-falling without replacing any parts, providing an applicable device for safety operation in coal mining.

  20. JPRS Report, China, Selected Provincial Reports. (United States)


    seeds, tea-oil seeds, gallnut, palm, mushroom , eased further, agriculture has reaped bumper harvests, ches, a-oil sh, increalm, mushrof industry has...Glauber’s salt, to reforestation in timber zones, speed up the exploita- paper, leather , plastic, packing and designing, industrial tion of new forest zones...materials to increase the variety and output cially large and medium key enterprises (or groups of of medium-range and high quality paper. In the leather

  1. Research on stored product protection in Australia: a review of past, present and future directions



    Since its beginning, research into the protection of stored grain in Australia has been driven by market access, in particular, the need to provide insect free grain to overseas customers. Research began in 1917 when a bumper harvest coincided with disruption of shipping due the First World War and resulted in the unprecedented accumulation of wheat stocks, which were subject to catastrophic attack by ‘weevil plagues’. Initial experiments were of insect life cycles and reproductive rate. This...

  2. Tour Year in Ngari——An Interview With CPC Ngari Prefectural Committee Secretary Dorje Cering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Tourism has become a pillar industry of the autonomous region. Major tour items include the Yarlung Cultural Festival in Shannan, the Qomolongma Cultural, Festival in Xigaze, the Darmar Festival in Gyangze, the Kamba Art Festival in Qamdo, the Gongbo New Year in Nyingchi, the Horse Race in Nagqu, as well as others like the Sagya Dawa Festival, Ongkor (Bumper Harvest Festival), Shoton (Sour Milk Drinking) Festival and Bathing Festival.

  3. Upper atomosphere and Thermal control of the Super Low Altitude Test Satellite



    The Super Low Altitude Test Satellite (SLATS) is an engineering test satellite currently under development in JAXA in an attempt to open a new frontier of space utilization on extremely low earth orbits. The altitude of SLATS orbit is around200km altitude. In this altitude, rarefied aerodynamics and high-density atomic oxygen effect on the thermal design of SLATS. The thermal control of SLATS was introduced in this paper. And, the equilibrium temperature on the bumper of SLATS was estimated w...

  4. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Europe & Latin America (United States)


    The German project participants are developing an integrated floor group, a side door, front car body, and front bumper. Computer aided design plays a...characterization of thermo-mechanical and thermo- physical properties, in particular the elasticity module, thermic expansion, thermal conductivity, thermal shock...percent volume of SiC whiskers) and 7.2 MNm°/2 (at 50 percent volume of SiC whiskers). An investigation of the thermic and chemical stability of

  5. First report of colonoscopic closure of a gastrocolocutaneous PEG migration with over-the-scope-clip-system. (United States)

    Bertolini, Reto; Meyenberger, Christa; Sulz, Michael Christian


    Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is a common practice for long-term nutrition of patients who are unable to take oral food. We report of an 85-year old man with a history of recurrent larynx carcinoma and hemicolectomy many years ago due to unknown reason. Laryngectomy was indicated. Preoperatively a PEG was inserted endoscopically after an abdominal ultrasonography without abnormal findings. Few months after PEG insertion, the patient was evaluated for diarrhea and insufficient feeding without signs of infection or peritonism. An upper endoscopy and computed tomography scan confirmed a buried bumper syndrome with migration of the PEG tube into the colon as a rare complication. He underwent successful colonoscopic removal of the internal bumper and closure of the colonic orifice of the fistula with the over-the-scope-clip system (OTSC). OTSC is an endoscopic device for treatment of bleeding, perforation, leak and fistula in the gastrointestinal tract. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the use of OTSC for colonoscopic closure of a gastrocolocutaneous fistula due to a buried bumper syndrome with transcolonic PEG tube migration.

  6. Micrometeoroid and Orbital Debris Threat Assessment: Mars Sample Return Earth Entry Vehicle (United States)

    Christiansen, Eric L.; Hyde, James L.; Bjorkman, Michael D.; Hoffman, Kevin D.; Lear, Dana M.; Prior, Thomas G.


    This report provides results of a Micrometeoroid and Orbital Debris (MMOD) risk assessment of the Mars Sample Return Earth Entry Vehicle (MSR EEV). The assessment was performed using standard risk assessment methodology illustrated in Figure 1-1. Central to the process is the Bumper risk assessment code (Figure 1-2), which calculates the critical penetration risk based on geometry, shielding configurations and flight parameters. The assessment process begins by building a finite element model (FEM) of the spacecraft, which defines the size and shape of the spacecraft as well as the locations of the various shielding configurations. This model is built using the NX I-deas software package from Siemens PLM Software. The FEM is constructed using triangular and quadrilateral elements that define the outer shell of the spacecraft. Bumper-II uses the model file to determine the geometry of the spacecraft for the analysis. The next step of the process is to identify the ballistic limit characteristics for the various shield types. These ballistic limits define the critical size particle that will penetrate a shield at a given impact angle and impact velocity. When the finite element model is built, each individual element is assigned a property identifier (PID) to act as an index for its shielding properties. Using the ballistic limit equations (BLEs) built into the Bumper-II code, the shield characteristics are defined for each and every PID in the model. The final stage of the analysis is to determine the probability of no penetration (PNP) on the spacecraft. This is done using the micrometeoroid and orbital debris environment definitions that are built into the Bumper-II code. These engineering models take into account orbit inclination, altitude, attitude and analysis date in order to predict an impacting particle flux on the spacecraft. Using the geometry and shielding characteristics previously defined for the spacecraft and combining that information with the

  7. Correlation between Exposure to Bomechanical Stress and Whiplash Associated Disorders (WAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William HM Castro


    Full Text Available One of the most discussed questions in WAD is: can an injury of the cervical spine occur in low velocity collisions? Before this question can be answered, the term 'low velocity' and the kind of collisions must first be defined. From the study of Meyer et al. (1994 it is known that the speed change due to collision, Dv, is a suitable parameter to express the biomechanical stress acting on a person in a car collision. This study also showed that from a biomechanical point of view, a bumper car collision is comparable to a normal car collision. In the case of a rear-end collision, Meyer et al. found that the biomechanical stress acting on persons exposed to bumper car collisions (Dv at a fun fair in Germany can be as high as 15 km/h. In literature, one case could be found of an 8-year-old girl with 'whiplash' after being exposed to a bumper car collision at a fun fair (Kamieth 1990. In the Netherlands, a 13-year survey of persons who were admitted to emergency units of hospitals by the 'Consument en Veiligheid' foundation, showed 14 persons with WAD complaints after being exposed to bumper car collisions at a fun fair. In comparison to the enormous amounts of bumper car collisions, these figures are negligible. With regard to these data, one could argue that low velocity collisions can be defined as those where Dv is below 15 km/h. However, it should be noted that the kind of collision is important. From the work of Becke et al. (1999 and Becke and Castro (2000, we know that in side collisions with a Dv of just 3 km/h, head contact with the side window of the car is possible; it can be expected that in such cases the cervical spine will also be exposed to some biomechanical stress (notice however, that not every head contact is automatically equal to an injury of the cervical spine!. In conclusion, before using expressions like 'low velocity collisions', its definition with regard to Dv as well as the kind of collision, has to be discussed. With

  8. Simulation and Performance Optimization of a Car under Low-speed Rear End Impacts%某车型后端低速碰撞的安全性能分析及优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔淑娟; 陈可明; 史爱民; 符志; 李气辉


    A FE model of a car under low-speed rear end impacts was established according to the regulation of GB17354—1998, and it was found that the protective performance of the rear bumper did not meet the requirements. An improved rear bumper design based on experience was proposed which satisfies the requirements of the regulation; however, it may not be the best solution. To further optimize the improved structure, an adaptive response surface method was adopted in which the material thicknesses of key components were designated as design variables, the weight of the components as an objective function and the second order response surface approximation model was established. The result indicates that the optimized solution meets the requirements of the regulation and the weight of the bumper system is reduced by 22.7%.%根据 GB 17354—1998法规要求对某车型进行了低速后碰撞的仿真分析,结果不满足法规要求。针对分析结果提出了一种改进方案,经过分析,采用新方案的车型满足法规性能要求。但基于经验的设计方案并不能代表最优解,以影响后端碰撞性能的关键组件材料厚度为设计变量,质量为目标函数,建立了二阶响应面近似模型,并选用自适应响应面法(Adaptive Response Surface Method,ARSM)进行优化,优化后质量减轻了22.7%,并且满足法规要求。

  9. Special Report: Iraq and the Gulf States. The Balance of Fear (United States)


    was a member of the U.S. State Department’s Policy Planning Staff and program officer at the U.S. Institute of Peace. He also served as an expert on... ACCION International, Boston, Mass. • Betty f. Bumpers, Founder and former President, Peace Links, Washington, D.C. • Holly J. Burkhalter, Vice...on the iraq-Kuwait Border “Project Kuwait” is an $8.5 billion plan announced in 1997 by the Kuwaiti government to try to boost the country’s oil

  10. Experimental Study of Hypervelocity Impact on Multi-Shock Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张庆明; 陈沿海; 黄风雷


    Hypervelocity impact tests on multi-shock shields are carried out in order to develop space structures against space debris impacts. Sheets of LY12 aluminum were used as bumpers. The total thickness of shield structure, which consists of several sheets with various thickness, is 3.0 mm or 2.0 mm. Results of the tests show that the type 0.5 mm+0.5 mm+0.5 mm+0.5 mm is a better choice of spacecraft shield structure.

  11. Fractal Risk Assessment of ISS Propulsion Module in Meteoroid and Orbital Debris Environments (United States)

    Mog, Robert A.


    A unique and innovative risk assessment of the International Space Station (ISS) Propulsion Module is conducted using fractal modeling of the Module's response to the meteoroid and orbital debris environments. Both the environment models and structural failure modes due to the resultant hypervelocity impact phenomenology, as well as Module geometry, are investigated for fractal applicability. The fractal risk assessment methodology could produce a greatly simplified alternative to current methodologies, such as BUMPER analyses, while maintaining or increasing the number of complex scenarios that can be assessed. As a minimum, this innovative fractal approach will provide an independent assessment of existing methodologies in a unique way.

  12. Multi-Shock Shield Performance at 15 MJ for Catalogued Debris (United States)

    Miller, J. E.; Davis, B. A.; Christiansen, E. L.; Lear, D. M.


    While orbital debris of ten centimeters or more are tracked and catalogued, the difficulty of finding and accurately accounting for forces acting on the objects near the ten centimeter threshold results in both uncertainty of their presence and location. These challenges result in difficult decisions for operators balancing potential costly operational approaches with system loss risk. In this paper, the assessment of the feasibility of protecting a spacecraft from this catalogued debris is described using numerical simulations and a test of a multi-shock shield system against a cylindrical projectile impacting normal to the surface with approximately 15 MJ of kinetic energy. The hypervelocity impact test has been conducted at the Arnold Engineering Development Complex (AEDC) with a 598 g projectile at 6.905 km/s on a NASA supplied multi-shock shield. The projectile used is a hollow aluminum and nylon cylinder with an outside diameter of 8.6 cm and length of 10.3 cm. Figure 1 illustrates the multi-shock shield test article, which consisted of five separate bumpers, four of which are fiberglass fabric and one of steel mesh, and two rear walls, each consisting of Kevlar fabric. The overall length of the test article was 2.65 m. The test article was a 5X scaled-up version of a smaller multi-shock shield previously tested using a 1.4 cm diameter aluminum projectile for an inflatable module project. The distances represented by S1 and S1/2 in the figure are 61 cm and 30.5 cm, respectively. Prior to the impact test, hydrodynamic simulations indicated that some enhancement to the standard multi-shock system is needed to address the effects of the cylindrical shape of the projectile. Based on the simulations, a steel mesh bumper has been added to the shield configuration to enhance the fragmentation of the projectile. The AEDC test occurred as planned, and the modified NASA multi-shock shield successfully stopped 598 g projectile using 85.6 kg/m(exp 2). The fifth bumper

  13. M/OD Risk Assessment System and Its Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hai-fu; YU Qing-bo; LIU You-ying; WANG Hui


    A risk assessment system named meteoroid & orbital debris risk assessment system (MODRAS) developed for assessing risks of the spacecraft under the meteoroid and debris environment (M/OD EM) is presented.The computing resolution of MODRAS has been verified by both the three generic spacecraft geometries of inter agency debris committee (IADC) and similar foreign software such as BUMPER,ESABASE,and MDPANTO.The results show that the system is fit well with the computing results of the foreign software.Typical applications of the system are also presented,including a manned spacecraft and a space shuttle.




    Monthly counts of industrial machine part errors are modeled using a two-state Hidden Markov Model (HMM) in order to describe the effect of machine part error correction and the amount of time spent on the error correction on the likelihood of the machine part to be in a “defective” or “non-defective” state. The number of machine parts errors were collected from a thermo plastic injection molding machine in a car bumper auto parts manufacturer in Liberec city, Czech Re...

  15. Delivery of Special Magnets for the MedAustron Project

    CERN Document Server

    Kramer, T; Barlow, R A; Barnes, MJ; Borburgh, J; Ducimetière, L; Fowler, T; Hourican, M; Mertens, V; Prost, A


    Ten different types of kickers, bumpers, and electrostatic and magnetic septa, along with certain power supplies and associated control system components, have been designed in a collaboration between CERN and MedAustron for an ion therapy centre in Wr. Neustadt (Austria). This paper focuses on the status of the special magnets work package and the improvements applied during the production. The design parameters are compared with data from measurements, hardware test and initial commissioning. The major factors contributing to the successful completion of the work package are highlighted.

  16. A Work of Art You Can Drive

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Blake Gopnik


    This time of year, fantasies turn to the open road, and convertibles: speeding to Big Sur in a '64 Mustang; taking hairpins in Vermont in a Jaguar E-Type'. I have my summer car dreams, too, but they're more esoteric: I imagine myself in a 1972 Citroen DS cabriolet2. I believe it is one of the greatest objects ever made. The seamless lines of a DS pull its roof and back and doors, bumpers and turn signals and headlights, into a single visual gestalt that seems to knife through the air even when the car is standing stil.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The Asian Development Bank sees bullish prospects for the Chinese economy, though inactivity is building in the export and investment fields. China reaps a bumper harvest with grain output totaling 546.41 million tons in 2010 despite numerous natural disasters throughout the year. The Chinese Academy of Social Sciences has issued a note of caution about frothy house prices across the nation. Two Chinese Internet companies, Youku and Dangdang, have staged successful debuts on the New York Stock Exchange. China boasts the third largest number of dollar millionaires in the world.

  18. Commodity Markets Outlook, April 2015



    The decline in commodity prices that began with metals and agriculture four years ago—joined by crude oil in mid-2014—continued in 2015Q1 (Figure 1). Energy, metals, and agricultural prices were down 28, 11, and 5 percent, respectively, from the previous quarter. Increasing supplies, bumper harvests, weak demand and a stronger U.S. dollar contributed to the declines. The weakness is expected to continue for the rest of the year. All key price indices are projected to decline in 2015 before re...

  19. Cultural objects as objects: materiality, urban space, and the interpretation of AIDS campaigns in Accra, Ghana. (United States)

    McDonnell, Terence E


    AIDS media lead unexpected lives once distributed through urban space: billboards fade, posters go missing, bumper stickers travel to other cities. The materiality of AIDS campaign objects and of the urban settings in which they are displayed structures how the public interprets their messages. Ethnographic observation of AIDS media in situ and interview data reveal how the materiality of objects and places shapes the availability of AIDS knowledge in Accra, Ghana. Significantly for AIDS organizations, these material conditions often systematically obstruct access to AIDS knowledge for particular groups. Attending to materiality rethinks how scholars assess the cultural power of media.

  20. DebriSat Pre Preshot Laboratory Analyses (United States)


    nm. • Two families of material are present. • Fe-Cr-Ni rich (white – light gray) • With major Si and Al • With major Si , little Al • Silicate...stainless steel bumper though it also contains significant amounts Al and Si . The Al and Si contents are about equal in early arriving Fe-Cr-Ni while...the later arriving Fe-Cr is Si rich and Al is low to absent. In the later droplets there is less flow structure and individual droplets tend to


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Chinese exporters regain steam in a warm embrace of emerging markets.After a bumper year in 2009,fund managers are skeptical of what lies ahead for the stock market this year.On a broader scale,the Chinese economy remains a source of confidence for U.S.firms,as illustrated by a survey of the American Chamber of Commerce in China.Overcapacity remains a top priority on the government’s agenda.China’s top automaker SAIC Motor witnessed its net profit surge nine-fold last year.

  2. The APS ceramic chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milton, S.; Warner, D.


    Ceramics chambers are used in the Advanced Photon Source (APS) machines at the locations of the pulsed kicker and bumper magnets. The ceramic will be coated internally with a resistive paste. The resistance is chosen to allow the low frequency pulsed magnet field to penetrate but not the high frequency components of the circulating beam. Another design goal was to keep the power density experienced by the resistive coating to a minimum. These ceramics, their associated hardware, the coating process, and our recent experiences with them are described.

  3. Studies about the Behavior of the Crash Boxes of a Car Body (United States)

    Constantin, B. A.; Iozsa, D.; Fratila, G.


    A continuous evolution of requirements and standards sheds over the development of new vehicles (for example EuroNCAP ratings) in order to create competition between same market models customer related. The low speed impact protection has to be permanently improved as the damage of the front end structure of the vehicle to be reduced to minimal. As a consequence, a lower damage implies less repair costs and therefore a lower insurance category. The front end structure, including the bumper, responds for the absorption of the kinetic energy created during the impact with maximum efficiency in order to avoid the large deformation of structural components. This is only one of the constraints that the front end structure has to cope with, additionally we can mention the dimensioning of the front end of the vehicle which can affect the packaging, which is mainly influenced by the design, styling and the pedestrian requirements intended to be accomplished by the vehicle. The present paper focuses on the low speed urban impact, offering an overview over the actual state, the load configuration, the applicable regulation, the challenging requirements of a modern front structure, which the modern bumper has to comply with and the finite element simulation of this kind of test.

  4. Dynamic performance of frictionless fast shutters for ITER: Numerical and analytical sensitivity study for the development of a test program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panin, Anatoly, E-mail: [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Institut für Energie- und Klimaforschung – Plasmaphysik, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Khovayko, Mikhail [St. Petersburg Polytechnic University, Mechanics and Control Processes Department, Computational Mechanics Laboratory, 195251 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Krasikov, Yury [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Institut für Energie- und Klimaforschung – Plasmaphysik, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Nemov, Alexander [St. Petersburg Polytechnic University, Mechanics and Control Processes Department, Computational Mechanics Laboratory, 195251 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Biel, Wolfgang; Mertens, Philippe; Neubauer, Olaf; Schrader, Michael [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Institut für Energie- und Klimaforschung – Plasmaphysik, 52425 Jülich (Germany)


    To prolong a lifetime of the ITER first diagnostic mirrors some protective shutters can be engaged. A concept of an elastic shutter that operates frictionless in vacuum has been studied at the Forschungszentrum Jülich, Germany. Under actuation two shutter arms (∼2 m long) bend laterally between two pairs of limiting bumpers thus shielding the optical aperture or opening it for measurements. To increase the shutter efficiency the transition time between its open and closed states can be minimized. This demands a fast shutter that operates in fractions of a second and exhibit essentially dynamic behavior, like impacts with the bumpers that cause the shutter arms’ bouncing and oscillations. The paper presents numerical studies of the shutter dynamic behavior using the explicit and implicit 3D FE transient structural modeling. Simple 1D analytical model was developed to predict the shutter impact kinetic energy that mostly determines its further dynamic response. The structure sensitivity to different parameters was studied and ways for its optimization were laid down. A parametric shutter mockup with easily changeable mechanical characteristics was manufactured. A test program aimed for further shutter optimization, basing on the analysis performed and engaging powerful capabilities of the parametric shutter mockup is discussed in the paper.

  5. Safety assessment characteristics of pedestrian legform impactors in vehicle-front impact tests. (United States)

    Matsui, Yasuhiro


    This study investigated the characteristics of safety assessment results of front-area vehicle impact tests carried out using the Transport Research Laboratory (TRL) legform impactor and a flexible legform impactor (FLEX legform impactor). Different types of vehicles (sedan, sport utility vehicle, high-roof K-car, and light cargo van) were examined. The impact locations in the study were the center of the bumper and an extremely stiff structure of the bumper (i.e., in front of the side member) of each tested vehicle. The measured injury criteria were normalized by injury assessment reference values of each legform impactor. The test results for center and side-member impacts indicated that there were no significant differences in ligament injury assessments derived from the normalized knee ligament injury measures between the TRL legform impactor and the FLEX legform impactor. Evaluations made using the TRL legform impactor and the FLEX legform impactor are thus similar in the vehicle safety investigation for knee ligament injury. Vehicle-center impact test results revealed that the tibia fracture assessments derived from the normalized tibia fracture measures did not significantly differ between the TRL legform impactor and the FLEX legform impactor. However, for an impact against an extremely stiff structure, there was a difference in the tibia fracture assessment between the FLEX legform impactor and the TRL legform impactor owing to their different sensor types.

  6. China’s Price System Jeopardizes its Grain Reserves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    2008 is a year of bumper harvest in summer grain across China. The failure of numerous state-owned grain depots to purchase grain in times of bumper harvest, however, directly threatens grain reserve security and state control over grain prices in the upcoming year. An important factor underpinning the difficulty of state grain depots to purchase grain is the unwillingness of farmers to sell grain due to the excess of the current market price over the government "protected price" aimed at preventing cheap grain from harming farmers. When grassroots grain depots find themselves in trouble, foreign capital stealthily moves in by taking advantage of this situation. To fulfill grain storage tasks and receive various state subsidies, some state-owned grain depots have no alternative but to surreptitiously raise the purchase price. By contrast, some not so courageous state-owned grain depots can only borrow money to finance the purchase of commodity grain at market prices and subsequently figure out a way to pay back such loans. Behind such distorted grain purchase behavior lies a rough and rugged history of grain price reform in China.

  7. Extraction treatment of a class II division 2 malocclusion with mandibular posterior discrepancy and changes in stomatognathic function. (United States)

    Nagayama, Kunihiro; Tomonari, Hiroshi; Kitashima, Fumiaki; Miyawaki, Shouichi


    This case report describes the successful extraction treatment of a Class II division 2 malocclusion with mandibular posterior discrepancy and a congenitally missing maxillary lateral incisor on the left side. The posterior space in the mandibular arch was small, and the mandibular second molars were impacted, with distal tipping. The discrepancies in the maxillary and mandibular arches were resolved by extraction of the maxillary lateral incisor on the right side and the mandibular second premolars on both sides. The mesial movement of the mandibular first molars occurred appropriately, with the second molars moving into an upright position. A lip bumper was used with a preadjusted edgewise appliance in the maxillary dentition to reinforce molar anchorage and labial movement of the retroclined incisors. Despite the extraction treatment, a deep bite could be corrected without aggravation as a result of the lip bumper and utility arch in the mandibular dentition. Thus, an Angle Class I molar relationship and an ideal overbite were achieved. The occlusal contact area and masticatory muscle activities during maximum clenching increased after treatment. The maximum closing velocity and the maximum gape during chewing increased, and the chewing pattern changed from the chopping to grinding type. The findings in the present case suggest that the correction of a deep bite might be effective for improving stomatognathic function.

  8. Parameters Controlling Dimensional Accuracy of Aluminum Extrusions Formed in Stretch Bending (United States)

    Baringbing, Henry Ako; Welo, Torgeir


    For stretch formed components used in the automotive industry, such as bumper beams, it is of primary importance to control parameters affecting dimensional accuracy. The variations in geometry and mechanical properties induced in extrusion and stretch forming lead to subsequent dimensional inaccuracy of the final product. In this work, tensile and compression samples were taken at three different positions along AA7108W extruded profiles in order to determine material parameters for a constitutive model particularly suited for strong texture materials. In addition, geometry were measured and analyzed statistically in order to study its impact on local cross sectional distortions (sagging) and springback in stretch bending of a bumper beam. These full scale experiments were combined with analytical and numerical simulations to quantify the impact of each basic parameter on product quality. It is concluded that this methodology provides a means to systematically control the product quality by focusing on reducing the acceptance limits of the main parameters controlling basic mechanisms in stretch forming. Despite the assumptions and simplifications made in order to make the analytical expressions solvable, the approach has proven its capability in establishing accurate closed-form expressions including the main influential parameters.

  9. Characterization of the Protein Crystal Growth Apparatus for Microgravity Aboard the Space Station (United States)

    Kundrot, Craig E.; Roeber, D.; Achari, A.; Stinson, Thomas N. (Technical Monitor)


    We have conducted experiments to determine the equilibration rates of some major precipitants used in protein crystallography aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The solutions were placed in the Protein Crystallization Apparatus for Microgravity (PCAM) which mimic Cryschem sitting drop trays. The trays were placed in cylinders. These cylinders were placed inside a Single locker Thermal Enclosure System (STES), and were activated for different durations during the flight. Bumpers pressed against elastomers seal drops in a deactivated state during pre-flight and prior to transfer to the ISS. Activation occurs while in flight on the ISS by releasing the bumpers allowing the drops to be exposed to the reservoir. PCAM was flown to the ISS on STS 100, Flight 6A, on April 19, 2001. Six series of equilibration experiments were tested for each precipitant with a small amount of Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP). Cylinder 10 was never activated, 7 was activated for 40 days, 8 was activated for 20 days, 9 was activated for 10 days, 11 was activated for 4 days and 12 was activated for 2 days. Upon the return to Earth by STS 104 on July 24,2001 the samples were transferred to Marshall Space Flight Center. The samples were then brought to the lab and the volumes of each sample were measured.

  10. Metallic materials for mechanical damping capacity applications (United States)

    Crăciun, R. C.; Stanciu, S.; Cimpoeșu, R.; (Dragoș Ursanu, A. I.; Manole, V.; Paraschiv, P.; Chicet, D. L.


    Some metallic materials exhibit good damping capacity of mechanical energy into thermal energy. This property along with the others metallic characteristics make this materials interesting for a big number of applications. These materials can be used as bumpers in different applications including automotive field. Beside grey cast iron and shape memory alloys few new metallic materials are presented for the supposition of high damping capacity. We analyze the causes that increase the internal friction of some metallic materials and possibilities to enhance this property through different mechanical, physical or chemical methods. Shape memory alloys, especially those based on copper, present a different damping capacity on martensite, austenite or transition state. In the transformation range M ↔A, which in case of copper base shape memory alloys is quite large, the metallic intelligent materials present a high internal friction, almost comparable with natural rubber behavior that can transform mechanical energy into thermal energy till a certain value of the external solicitation. These materials can be used as noise or small vibrations bumpers or even as shock absorbers in automotive industry.

  11. Direct Drive and Eddy Current Septa Magnet Designs for CERN’s PSB Extraction at 2 GeV

    CERN Multimedia

    Szoke, Zsolt; Balhan, Bruno; Baud, Cedric; Borburgh, Jan; Hourican, Michael; Masson, Thierry; Prost, Antoine


    In the framework of the LIU project, new septa magnets have been designed between CERN’s PS Booster (PSB) extraction and PS injection. The upgraded devices are to deal with the increased beam energy from 1.4 GeV to 2 GeV at extraction of the PSB. The direct drive recombination septa in the PSB transfer line to the PS, the eddy current PS injection septum together with a bumper at injection have been investigated using finite element software. For the recombination magnets an increase in magnet length is sufficient to obtain the required deflection; however, for the PS injection elements a more novel solution is necessary to also achieve increased robustness to extend the expected lifetime of the pulsed device. The injection septum will share the same vacuum vessel with an injection bumper and both magnets will be located adjacent to each other. The new PS injection magnet will be the first septum operated at CERN based on eddy current technology. The magnetic modelling of the devices, the comparison of the ...

  12. Vehicle Crashworthiness Simulation Based on Virtual Design of Autobody

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓云; 金先龙; 孙奕; 林忠钦; 周长英; 艾维全; 王仕达


    Vehicle crashworthiness simulation is the main component of the virtual auto-body design. One developing commercial vehicle was simulated on crashworthiness by the non-linear finite element method. The bumper crashworthiness at the speed of 8 km/h was analyzed and valuated. On the other hand, the deformation of the auto-body, the movement of the steering wheel and the dynamic responses of the occupant at the initial velocity of 50 km/h were studied. The results appear that the design of the vehicle could be improved on structure and material. Finally, the frontal longitudinal beam, the main energy-absorbing part of the auto-body, was optimized on structure. Simulation results also show that applying new material, such as high strength steel, and new manufacture techniques, such as tailor-welded blanks could improve the crashworthiness of the vehicle greatly.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Yuankai


    At the beginning of 2011,major grain producing provinces in central and east China experienced a prolonged drought that stretched for more than three months.Then in summer,a severe drought left millions short of drinking water in southwest China.Even the usually water-rich regions along the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River were not spared.In May,they suffered from the worst drought in 50 years,heavy rains eventually relieved the drought but these rains in turn caused serious flooding.Despite the disasters,last year saw a bumper harvest in China.On December 16,the Ministry of Agriculture said that the total grain output in 2011 reached a historical high of 571.2 billion kg,up 24.75 billion kg,or 4.5 percent,from 2010.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The manufacturing sector of the country loses some steam as indicated by the slowing PMI in July.China Investment Corp.reaped a bum-per harvest from investments overseas last year, drawing strength from the global economic recovery. Chinese automaker Geely completed its purchase of Volvo, a landmark step toward making a global footprint. The aviation indus-try witnesses a substantial turnaround with air traffic surging in the first half of 2010. Meanwhile, 264 firms listed on the Chinese mainland reported a com-bined profit of 22.8 billion yuan ($3.4 billion) in the first half of this year,growing nearly 50 percent from a year earlier.IMAX is increasing its presence in the Chinese market where the movie industry is burning hot.

  15. Three-dimensional antenna models for fusion experiments (United States)

    Carter, M. D.; Wang, C. Y.; Hogan, J. T.; Harris, J. H.; Hoffman, D. J.; Rasmussen, D. A.; Ryan, P. M.; Stallings, D. S.; Batchelor, D. B.; Beaumont, B.; Hutter, T.; Saoutic, B.


    The development of the RANT3D code has permitted the systematic study of the effect of three-dimensional structures on the launched power spectrum for antennas in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies. The code allows the septa between current straps to be modeled with arbitrary heights and permits the antenna to interact with other structures in the tokamak. In this paper we present comparisons of calculated loading with the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor and Tore Supra experiments, demonstrate the effects on loading caused by positioning uncertainties for an antenna in Tore Supra, and show electric field patterns near the Tore Supra antenna. A poloidal component in the static magnetic field for the plasma response is included in the near-field calculations using the warm plasma code, GLOSI. Preliminary estimates for the heat flux on the bumper limiters during typical operation in Tore Supra are also presented.

  16. Three-dimensional antenna models for fusion experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, M.D.; Wang, C.Y.; Hogan, J.T.; Harris, J.H.; Hoffman, D.J.; Rasmussen, D.A.; Ryan, P.M.; Stallings, D.S.; Batchelor, D.B. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-8071, (United States); Beaumont, B.; Hutter, T.; Saoutic, B. [Association Euratom-CEA, Department de Recherche sur la Fusion Controlee, Centre d`Etudes de Cadarache, 13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance, Cedex (France)


    The development of the RANT3D code has permitted the systematic study of the effect of three-dimensional structures on the launched power spectrum for antennas in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies. The code allows the septa between current straps to be modeled with arbitrary heights and permits the antenna to interact with other structures in the tokamak. In this paper we present comparisons of calculated loading with the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor and Tore Supra experiments, demonstrate the effects on loading caused by positioning uncertainties for an antenna in Tore Supra, and show electric field patterns near the Tore Supra antenna. A poloidal component in the static magnetic field for the plasma response is included in the near-field calculations using the warm plasma code, GLOSI. Preliminary estimates for the heat flux on the bumper limiters during typical operation in Tore Supra are also presented. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  17. Structurally-Tailorable, Nonlinear, Snap-Through Spring (United States)

    Starnes, James H., Jr.; Farley, Gary L.; Mantay, Wayne R.


    Abrupt change in load/deflection response controllable and predictable. Structurally-tailorable, nonlinear, snap-through spring (STNSTS) exhibits controllable and predictable abrupt change in load/deflection response and based upon known phenomenon of snap-through structural response. Composed of pin-connected two-bar linkage which depicts combined tension/compression springs. As load applied to STNSTS, stiffness is function of internal spring and bending stiffness of pin-connected bars. As load increases, bars deform laterally until they collapse and snap through. Has application in passively-tailored rotor-blade flap, pitch, and lag response, to improve aerodynamic performance and stability characteristics of rotors; in aerodynamically- and aeroelastically-tailored wing spars and ribs, to produce tailored deformation state for improved effectiveness in maneuvering, aerodynamic performance, and stability characteristics; and in energy absorbers for automobile bumpers and aircraft land

  18. Research on Impact Stress and Fatigue Simulation of a New Down-to-the-Hole Impactor Based on ANSYS (United States)

    Wu, Tao; Wang, Wei; Yao, Aiguo; Li, Yongbo; He, Wangyong; Fei, Dongdong


    In the present work, a down-to-the-hole electric hammer driven by linear motor is reported for drilling engineering. It differs from the common hydraulic or pneumatic hammers in that it can be applied to some special occasions without circulating medium due to its independence of the drilling fluid. The impact stress caused by the reciprocating motion between stator and rotor and the fatigue damage in key components of linear motor are analyzed by the ANSYS Workbench software and 3D model. Based on simulation results, the hammer's structure is optimized by using special sliding bearing, increasing the wall thickness of key and multilayer buffer gasket. Fatigue life and coefficient issues of the new structure are dramatically improved. However buffer gasket reduces the impactor's energy, different bumper structure effect on life improving and energy loss have also been elaborated.

  19. Technical highlights of the C-Class Sports Coupe; Technische Highlights des C-Klasse Sportcoupes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claar, K.P.; Colmsee, H.; Dannenberg, M.; Grevener, C. [DaimlerChrysler AG, Stuttgart (Germany)


    In mid-March 2001, a newcomer joined the 203-series model family: the new C-Class Sports Coupe. This new model is sportier and more compact in design than the 203 series Saloon. The new exterior styling required a full-scale redesign of all visible body parts including the doors, bonnet, bumper trim, headlamps, rear lights and windows. The substructure of the passenger cell and front end on the other hand was adopted unchanged from the Saloon. (orig.) [German] Mitte Maerz 2001 fuehrte Daimler-Chrysler das neue Sportcoupe der C-Klasse ein, das die Modellfamilie der Baureihe 203 erweitert. Im Vergleich zur Limousine der Baureihe 203 ist es sportlicher und kompakter konzipiert. Die neue aeussere Form erforderte eine vollstaendige Neukonstruktion aller Beplankungsteile einschliesslich der Tueren, Motorhaube, Stossfaengerverkleidungen, Scheinwerfer, Rueckleuchten und Scheiben. Die Bodenanlage der Limousine blieb jedoch im Bereich der Fahrgastzelle und des Vorbaus unveraendert. (orig.)

  20. Management of barriers to lean production implementation: a study in the automotive sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe de Almeida Copetti


    Full Text Available During the process of lean production (LP implementation it is common to arise barriers depending on the context in which the application occurs. This study aims to perfect a method of management the barriers to the implementation of LP developed in a previous study. The improvements were developed by applying the method in the assembly area of bumpers in a car manufacturer. Data collection involved thirteen interviews, participant observation for six months and analysis of LP-related documents. Among the main improvements over the original version of the method, it can be highlighted the addition of thirteen barriers in the list of barriers already identified in the literature, and also the identification of contextual characteristics that can facilitate or hinder the application of the method.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Nuclear power projects under construction in China in 2009 were the most numerous in the world in terms of installed capacity. Chinese telecom operators geared up for 3G competition as the market is expected to grow with an improved network and wider consumer acceptance. Chinese tourists to France overtook Russians to become the biggest spenders in duty-free stores. Mainland travelers to Hong Kong are expected to contribute 30 percent to the region’s Spring Festival consumption. This year’s Boao Forum for Asia, an Asian version of the World Economic Forum, will focus on environmental efforts and the green economy. Insurers reaped a bumper harvest in 2009 as reflected in their surging profits.

  2. Combined Aero and Underhood Thermal Analysis for Heavy Duty Trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vegendla, Prasad [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sofu, Tanju [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Saha, Rohit [Cummins Inc., Columbus, IN (United States); Madurai Kumar, Mahesh [Cummins Inc., Columbus, IN (United States); Hwang, L. K [Cummins Inc., Columbus, IN (United States)


    Aerodynamic analysis of the medium-duty delivery truck was performed to achieve vehicle design optimization. Three dimensional CFD simulations were carried out for several improved designs, with a detailed external component analysis of wheel covers, side skirts, roof fairings, and rounded trailer corners. The overall averaged aerodynamics drag reduction through the design modifications were shown up to 22.3% through aerodynamic considerations alone, which is equivalent to 11.16% fuel savings. The main identified fuel efficiencies were based on second generation devices, including wheel covers, side skirts, roof fairings, and rounded trailer corners. The important findings of this work were; (i) the optimum curvature radius of the rounded trailer edges found to be 125 mm, with an arc length of 196.3 mm, (ii) aerodynamic drag reduction increases with dropping clearance of side skirts between wheels and ground, and (iii) aerodynamic drag reduction increases with an extension of front bumper towards the ground.

  3. Designing Software-Based Interactive Installations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Troels; Juul, Niels Christian; Rosendahl, Mads


    What. This chapter focuses on software engineering principles with specific emphasis on interactive installations providing embodied, tangible, and immersive experiences for the user. Such installations may deliver light, image, sound, and movement through actuators and may provide interaction...... installations and support the description of the approach with a single case- a bumper car competition. Why. To some extent, standard techniques for software development can be adapted for interactive installations. However, there is a need to emphasize the unique aspects of installations, bringing tangible...... architecture as well as esthetic experience, artistic expression, and leisure aspects into focus. The approach presented here has this intended purpose. Where. Building on experience from conventional software development and with inspiration from interaction design and creative programming, this chapter...

  4. Implementation of an Economical Parking Helper Device Using Ultrasound Sensors (United States)

    Jamil, Tariq


    Every motorist dreams of a car that will take the stress out of parking by finding a suitable space and then maneuvers itself into the space with minimal assistance from the driver. This paper describes a parking helper device using ultrasound sensors, mounted on the car, to monitor both sides of the street for a suitable parking space, and when a large enough parking space is detected, the helper instructs the driver to stop the car and guides him/her via a display screen and voice about steering maneuvers which will ultimately result in the car being properly parked in the given parking space. Ultrasound sensors mounted on the front and rear bumpers of the car will ensure that a safe distance is maintained to other vehicles and objects and the driver will need to operate only the accelerator and the brake pedals. A warning signal sounds if the vehicle gets too close to other objects in the parking space.

  5. PCPA, 6-BA and Photosynthetic Accelerator Influence on Photosynthesis and Yield of Tomato%PCPA、6-BA和光合促进剂对番茄光合作用及产量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝建军; 周睿智; 于洋; 杨宏丽


    采用番茄丰收素(PCPA和6-BA)和光合促进剂(KHCO3和NaHSO3)分别喷施番茄花朵和叶片,研究其对番茄光合作用和产量的影响.结果表明,在番茄丰收素和光合促进剂复合作用下,可显著提高番茄的光合速率,比对照提高67.82%;光合色素含量、光合电子传递速率和ATP酶活性与对照相比提高显著;Rubisco的含量比对照提高79.84%,Rubisco羧化活性可达20.44nmolNADH·mL-1·min-1,番茄小区总产量增加显著.%In this experiment, Bumper harvest element of tomato and Photosynthetic Accelerator were sprayed to flowers and leaves of tomato to study on influence of photosynthesis and yield.The results showed that Bumper harvest element of tomato and Photosynthetic Accelerator complexed obviously enhanced the tomato the tomato photosynthetic rate, raising 67.82% compared to the comparison.Photosynthetic pigment content, photosynthetic electron transport rate and ATP activity enhanced obviously than the comparison; Rubisco content enhances the 79.84% compared to comparison., Rubisco carboxylation activity achieve 20.44nmolNADH·ml-1· min-1;while the yield of tomato increasing obviously.

  6. 口周肌力在下颌支抗控制中的临床应用研究%Clinical application of perioral muscular forces in mandibular anchorage control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林汤毅; 许衍; 王震东; 李强


    目的 探讨口周肌力在下颌支抗控制中的应用.方法 临床上应用多曲不锈钢丝唇挡配合方丝弓固定矫治器对13例恒牙早期轻度牙列拥挤患者进行矫治,分析治疗前后支抗磨牙位置变化,观察支抗丧失情况.结果 利用口周肌力可以对支抗磨牙进行控制,防止支抗丧失.结论 可以在矫治过程中采用多曲唇挡来增强支抗.而且多曲唇挡制作简单,患者戴用舒适、隐蔽,容易获得患者的配合.%Objective To study the application of perioral muscular forces in the mandibular anchorage control in order to search a new approach of increasing the intro-oral anchorage. Methods Thirteen patients with mild crowding in permanent dentition were treated with edgewise appliance and multiloop lip bumper. The movement of anchorage molar in before and after treatment was recorded so as to observe the loss of anchorage. Results The loss of anchorage could be avoided through the application of perioral muscular forces. Conclusions The multiloop lip bumper can be applied to increase anchorage, which is easily fabricated, comfortable and hidden for patients.

  7. A rapid method for identifying and characterizing structural impacts using distributed sensors: An application for automotive pedestrian protection (United States)

    Kim, Andrew C.

    This research is motivated by recent activity to improve automotive safety, especially for pedestrians. In many parts of the world today, injuries and fatalities from road accidents are a significant problem. Safety features such as seat restraints and air bags provide considerable levels of protection for car occupants; however, no such protective measures currently exist for pedestrians. Drawing upon the success and effectiveness of occupant air bag systems, current research aims to develop similar devices for pedestrians. These active pedestrian protection systems deploy a safety feature such as an external air bag when a pedestrian is hit by a vehicle. Contact with the front bumper induces a body rotation that may result in a violent head collision. The deployable safety device provides a cushioning surface for the vulnerable pedestrian during impact. The challenge of such a system is an effective sensory unit that can rapidly and correctly discriminate pedestrian impacts from non-pedestrian ones. The fast kinematics of the automobile-pedestrian impact leaves a minimal amount of time for signal processing and computation. This research study focuses on a discrimination scheme that satisfies both the time and accuracy requirements for a proposed sensory system for pedestrian protection. A unique methodology was developed to identify structural impacts using dominant frequency features extracted from sensory data. Contact sensors mounted on the front bumper of an automobile measure the strain response from an impact event. The dominant frequencies obtained from these sensor signals are greatly influenced by the impact object's properties and can be used to discriminate between different objects. Extensive tests were conducted to gather sensor data and validate the proposed methodology and impact discrimination algorithm. Results of the impact tests indicate that the approach is sound, and the sensory system effectively identifies "pedestrian" impacts within a

  8. Road traffic administration and management in the third world mega-city: Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Asiyanbola


    Full Text Available Observation from the literature shows that a city can only be as big as its transportation facilities can enable its people goes about their businesses, move and distribute their goods and services. In spite of these positive aspects of urban transportation system on one side of the coin, the other side of the coin reflects its negative impact that relate to traffic management and administration and road safety. The daily movement of people and freights within and outside the mega-city of LAGOS is becoming more difficult and complex. This is reflected in the increasing bumper-to-bumper traffic being experienced in the mega-city of Lagos during 6.30 am – 11.30am morning peak hours and (3.00pm – 7.30 pm evening peak hours. It now seems that traffic congestions are becoming forcefully acceptable excuses for workers being late to work in Lagos metropolis. One approach at solving this problem adopted by the Lagos State Government is traffic management through the establishment of the Lagos State Traffic Management Authority (LASTMA. Traffic management could be regarded as a systematic and sustained effort on directing and controlling all traffics on our roads to make them free from negative effects of the transport system. The aim of this research work was to assess the impact of the Lagos State Traffic Management Authority (LASTMA with particular reference on the efforts to reduce road traffic problems. Both secondary and primary data sources that were collected in 2008 were used in the study. Policy implications of the findings are discussed in the paper.

  9. Consideration of alternative designs for a Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy feeding tube (United States)

    Yerrabolu, Santosh Rohit

    The inability of some people to chew or swallow foods (but can digest foods) due to problems associated with various diseases and complications leads them to insufficient nutritional intake and loss of quality of life. These individuals are generally provided with nutritional support by means of injecting or infusing food directly into their stomachs or small intestines via feeding tubes. Gastrostomy feeding tubes (G-tubes) are used when such nutritional support is required for over 3-6 weeks. Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy (PEG) tubes are one of the most widely used G- Tubes and devices which are inserted via an incision through the abdominal wall either through a pull or push method. This investigation proposes conceptual alternative Percutaneous Endoscopy Gastrostomy (PEG) feeding tube designs with optimized materials selection to be used for their construction. The candidate materials were chosen from 18 commercial catheters, 2 reference grade polymers and a commercial polymer; using tissue-catheter-friction testing and surface chemistry characterization (Infrared spectroscopy and Critical Surface Tension approximation). The main objectives considered were to minimize slipping/dislodgement of gastrostomy tube/seal, to reduce peristomal leakage, and to attain size variability of PEG tubes while maintaining a low profile. Scanning Electron Microscope- Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy was employed to further determine the filler materials used in the samples. Nylon coated with fatty ester and filled with Barium sulphate was determined as the optimum material for the construction of the tube part of the feeding tubes to reduce slipping/dislodgment of gastrostomy tube/seal and to minimize peristomal leakage. Nylon coated with fatty ester and filled with Silica is the suggested as a candidate material for construction of the bumper/mushroom sections of the feeding tubes to avoid the Buried Bumper Syndrome. Fused Deposition Modeling, Selective Laser Sintering

  10. Determining gaseous emission factors and driver's particle exposures during traffic congestion by vehicle-following measurement techniques. (United States)

    Tang, U Wa; Wang, Zhishi


    Vehicle gaseous emissions (NO, CO, CO2, and hydrocarbon [HC]) and driver's particle exposures (particulate matter traffic congestion in Macao, Special Administrative Region, People's Republic of China, an urban area having one of the highest population densities in the world. The measurements were taken with high time resolution so that fluctuations in the emissions can be seen readily during vehicle acceleration, cruising, deceleration, and idling. The tests were conducted in close proximity to the vehicles, with the inlet of a five-gas analyzer mounted on the front bumper of the mobile laboratory, and the distance between the vehicles was usually within several meters. To measure the driver's particle exposures, the inlets of the particle analyzers were mounted at the height of the driver's breathing position in the mobile laboratory, with the driver's window open. A total of 178 and 113 vehicles were followed individually to determine the gaseous emission factor and the driver's particle exposures, respectively, for motorcycle, passenger car, taxi, truck, and bus. The gaseous emission factors were used to model the roadside air quality, and good correlations between the modeled and monitored CO, NO2, and nitrogen oxide (NO(x)) verified the reliability of the experiments. Compared with petrol passenger cars and petrol trucks, diesel taxies and diesel trucks emitted less CO but more NO(x). The impact of urban canyons is shown to cause a significant increase in the PM1 peak. The background concentrations contributed a significant amount of the driver's particle exposures.

  11. Cultural discourse embedded in truck scripts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer Gökhan Ulum


    Full Text Available The bond between a driver and his truck has been the subject of many famous films. If not actual adoration of the vehicle, it certainly is the destiny shared between a living human and a running machine, both heading for a common destination. Who and what else can replace this bond? Here, we see the truck bearing decorations, bumper sticks, script, and pictures of animate and inanimate objects all reflecting the taste and psyche of the driver. This study aims to introduce a thematic analysis into this picturesque look of over a thousand trucks with specific focus on scripts borne by trailers based on the assumption that content of scripts would be representing inner worlds of truck drivers. Photographed as well as internet-based data related to vehicles provided the source for this study. Scripts were thematised, and categorized observing nationality of origin of license plates. With its findings, the study yields valuable results regarding values and beliefs truck drivers of different nationalities hold to themselves. A variety of psychological profiles, harboring feelings such as sadness, joy, dejection, rejection, love, disappointments, anger, vengeance, etc., all expressed through scripts was also surfaced in this study.

  12. Biofidelity Evaluation of a Prototype Hybrid III 6 Year-Old ATD Lower Extremity. (United States)

    Boucher, Laura C; Bing, Julie; Bolte, John H


    Incomplete instrumentation and a lack of biofidelity in the extremities of the 6 year-old anthropomorphic test device (ATD) pose challenges when studying regions of the body known to interact with the vehicle interior. This study sought to compare a prototype Hybrid III 6 year-old ATD leg (ATD-LE), with a more biofidelic ankle and tibia load cell, to previously collected child volunteer data and to the current Hybrid III 6 year-old ATD (HIII). Anthropometry, range of motion (ROM), and stiffness measurements were taken, along with a dynamic evaluation of the ATD-LE using knee-bolster airbag (KBA) test scenarios. Anthropometry values were similar in eight of twelve measurements. Total ankle ROM was improved in the ATD-LE with no bumper compared to the HIII. The highest tibia moments and tibia index values were recorded in KBA scenarios when the toes were positioned in contact with the dashboard prior to airbag deployment, forcing the ankle into axial loading and dorsiflexion. While improvements in the biofidelity of the ATD-LE are still necessary, the results of this study are encouraging. Continued advancement of the 6 year-old ATD ankle is necessary to provide a tool to directly study the behavior of the leg during a motor vehicle crash.

  13. CFD技术在汽车车身设计中的应用%Application of CFD Analysis Method in Vehicle Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俊; 龚旭; 李义林; 叶坚


    从汽车空气动力学分析中常见的局部问题着手,探讨了CFD计算对车身设计的辅助作用,描述了发动机舱进气散热性能评估、空调进风效率评估、A柱局部修改、后视镜风噪预估、后扰流板及前保险杠优化分析等.通过这些局部细节来考察车身设计,可以为车身空气动力学分析提供工程参考.%Beginning from some typical local problems in automotive aerodynamics analysis, the researchers investigate the function of CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) analysis in vehicle design and describe following details in this article, including evaluation of under-hood air inflow heat dissipation, efficiency evaluation for HVAC airflow exchange, A-pillar modification, wind noise estimation for rearview mirror, rear spoiler and front bumper optimization, etc., which are adopted to examine body design, and provide reference to vehicle aerodynamic analysis.

  14. Quantitative dynamics on stimulating regeneration and sowing seedlings of Larix gmelinii in Daxing'an Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    To understand the quantitative dynamics and death reason of stimulating regeneration seedlings is significant for stimulating the natural regeneration of Larix gmelinii and implement of conservation project of natural forest. This paper summarized location observations and directly-seeding simulation experiments of six permanent sample plots that were set up after the seed bumper harvest year of Larix gmelinii in 1989. The study showed that stimulating natural regeneration seedlings had a large mortality in the first three years, especially in the first year of seedling emergence. After three years seedlings died less and stepped into the stable regeneration stage. A large number of seedlings died of sunscald as the primary death reason. For those areas of good site conditions and rich soil, damping-off would cause seedlings to death in large quantities. The task of stimulating regeneration is mainly to get rid of the litter (forest floor) on burned areas. By means of promoting measures, emergence rate of sown seeds would be several times and dozens of times higher than that of seed shedding on the condition of retention of forest floor. Promoting the regeneration need to select the suitable site against great slope and low-lying lands; at the same time, be careful of the avoidance of frost heaving by depression water.

  15. Ghana's army goes into combat readiness against HIV. (United States)


    Ghana's professional army of 12,000 men were joined by the national police in launching a campaign of education about AIDS which promotes condom use. The campaign received some funding from USAID and AIDS Tech/Family Health International. 94% of the soldiers had 7 years of education and 95% were married. 47% had never used the condom, 37% used it only occasionally, and only 19% used it regularly. An AIDS Awareness Day was followed up by 3000 posters, 1800 bumper stickers, 1500 T-shirts, 300 press packs, 1000 keychains and a video. Comic books in the local pidgin English idiom also proved popular for promotion. In a social marketing scheme, condoms were made available in barracks, army shops, and canteens for a modest price. The sales of condoms rose from about 500 a month in 1991 to 6000-7000 by January 1992. The army AIDS policy spelled out that HIV positivity will be revealed to the infected soldier. HIV-positive soldIers will not be sent abroad, curtailing the chances of disease transmission. They are kept in active service as long as they are capable of meeting their duties. Nevertheless, this policy hinges on the outcome of the AIDS education campaign whose failure could result in a policy of dismissing HIV-infected soldiers.

  16. Risk factors for interdigital dermatitis and heel erosion in dairy cows kept in cubicle houses in The Netherlands. (United States)

    Somers, J G C J; Frankena, K; Noordhuizen-Stassen, E N; Metz, J H M


    Risk factors concerning both the pasture and housing seasons for interdigital dermatitis and heel-horn erosion (IDHE) were studied in dairy cows in a cross-sectional study in The Netherlands. The study population included 2,326 cows (41 herds) and 2,751 cows (46 herds) for the pasture and housing seasons, respectively. Of these animals, 545 (23%) showed serious lesions of IDHE (stages 2 and 3) at the end of the pasture season and 1,269 (46%) during housing. Logistic regression of the pasture study indicated that increased parity, solid concrete floor, restricted grazing time, and herd trimming at long intervals were associated with an increased odds of IDHE, while dry cows and lactating cows within 30 days after calving as well as cows on a slatted floor with manure scraper, and grassland with mixed type of soil were associated with lower odds. In the housing study, odds of IDHE increased with parity, administering low- or medium-energy roughage, and introduction of dry cows into the lactating herd at >2 weeks before calving. The presence of long cubicles, knee-bumpers installed in cubicles as well as rearing calves and heifers within the dairy cows' accommodation decreased the odds of IDHE.

  17. Shock reliability analysis and improvement of MEMS electret-based vibration energy harvesters (United States)

    Renaud, M.; Fujita, T.; Goedbloed, M.; de Nooijer, C.; van Schaijk, R.


    Vibration energy harvesters can serve as a replacement solution to batteries for powering tire pressure monitoring systems (TPMS). Autonomous wireless TPMS powered by microelectromechanical system (MEMS) electret-based vibration energy harvester have been demonstrated. The mechanical reliability of the MEMS harvester still has to be assessed in order to bring the harvester to the requirements of the consumer market. It should survive the mechanical shocks occurring in the tire environment. A testing procedure to quantify the shock resilience of harvesters is described in this article. Our first generation of harvesters has a shock resilience of 400 g, which is far from being sufficient for the targeted application. In order to improve this aspect, the first important aspect is to understand the failure mechanism. Failure is found to occur in the form of fracture of the device’s springs. It results from impacts between the anchors of the springs when the harvester undergoes a shock. The shock resilience of the harvesters can be improved by redirecting these impacts to nonvital parts of the device. With this philosophy in mind, we design three types of shock absorbing structures and test their effect on the shock resilience of our MEMS harvesters. The solution leading to the best results consists of rigid silicon stoppers covered by a layer of Parylene. The shock resilience of the harvesters is brought above 2500 g. Results in the same range are also obtained with flexible silicon bumpers, which are simpler to manufacture.

  18. High Energy Wide Area Blunt Impact on Composite Aircraft Structures (United States)

    DeFrancisci, Gabriela K.

    The largest source of damage to commercial aircraft is caused by accidental contact with ground service equipment (GSE). The cylindrical bumper typically found on GSE distributes the impact load over a large contact area, possibly spanning multiple internal structural elements (frame bays) of a stiffened-skin fuselage. This type of impact can lead to damage that is widespread and difficult to detect visually. To address this problem, monolithic composite panels of various size and complexity have been modeled and tested quasi-statically and dynamically. The experimental observations have established that detectability is dependent on the impact location and immediately-adjacent internal structure of the panel, as well as the impactor geometry and total deformation of the panel. A methodology to model and predict damage caused by wide area blunt impact events was established, which was then applied to more general cases that were not tested in order to better understand the nature of this type of impact event and how it relates to the final damage state and visual detectability.

  19. Transport parameters for pulsed ultrasonic waves propagating in an aluminum foam (United States)

    Tourin, Arnaud; Derode, Arnaud; Mamou, Victor; Fink, Mathias; Page, John; Cowan, Michael L.


    Aluminum foams have now been studied for many years in large part because of their applications as light-weight elastic materials (e.g., car bumpers, aerospace engineering applications). The pore size and the spatial distribution of the pores govern the mechanical behavior of the foam and can vary enormously depending on the method of manufacturing. Thus, new methods for the nondestructive characterization of these materials are needed. We present here a set of experimental ultrasonic methods in a range of frequencies where the ultrasonic waves are multiply scattered in the medium. In this regime, the propagation is described by ultrasonic transport parameters which are related to the microstructure of the foam. The diffusion coefficient and the absorption mean free path have been determined in pulse transmission experiments by fitting the solution of the diffusion equation to the average intensity, the so-called time of flight distribution. To more fully characterize the medium, the transport mean path and the diffusion coefficient have been measured in backscattering experiments using the static and dynamic coherent backscattering effects. For both methods, the properties of the sample interfaces have been taken into account.

  20. Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Winters


    Full Text Available Alongside a website review of the Gabii project (Nebbia 2014 and two further data papers (Framework Archaeology 2014, Williams et al. 2014, Issue 36 has turned into something of a bumper issue. Given the increase in submissions to the journal, I think issues of this size are going to become more commonplace if not also, more frequent. A late addition, but one which nicely illustrates the journal's flexibility of form and speed of publication is the contribution by Wendy Morrison et al. (2014 on Laying Bare the Landscape: commercial archaeology and the potential of digital spatial data. In How are teeth better than bone? Hollund et al. (2014 characterises the types of diagenesis observed within the histology of archaeological teeth and compares these changes with those previously recorded in bone. Šmejda's GIS Visualisations of Mortuary Data from Holešov, Czech Republic (2014 presents an interesting case-study on dealing with legacy data and demonstrates just some of the potential that still lies in published (and indeed unpublished excavation data, even when half a century has passed. Switching focus completely, the article by Irmela Herzog (2014 on LCPs (Least-cost Paths deals with methodological issues connected with these calculations in archaeology, a method increasingly used in analyses. Jarlshof Lost and Found acts as a bridge between theory and practice, and contributes to the academic debate on heritage visualisation (Baxter 2014.

  1. Does Semi-Rigid Instrumentation Using Both Flexion and Extension Dampening Spacers Truly Provide an Intermediate Level of Stabilization?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilip Sengupta


    Full Text Available Conventional posterior dynamic stabilization devices demonstrated a tendency towards highly rigid stabilization approximating that of titanium rods in flexion. In extension, they excessively offload the index segment, making the device as the sole load-bearing structure, with concerns of device failure. The goal of this study was to compare the kinematics and intradiscal pressure of monosegmental stabilization utilizing a new device that incorporates both a flexion and extension dampening spacer to that of rigid internal fixation and a conventional posterior dynamic stabilization device. The hypothesis was the new device would minimize the overloading of adjacent levels compared to rigid and conventional devices which can only bend but not stretch. The biomechanics were compared following injury in a human cadaveric lumbosacral spine under simulated physiological loading conditions. The stabilization with the new posterior dynamic stabilization device significantly reduced motion uniformly in all loading directions, but less so than rigid fixation. The evaluation of adjacent level motion and pressure showed some benefit of the new device when compared to rigid fixation. Posterior dynamic stabilization designs which both bend and stretch showed improved kinematic and load-sharing properties when compared to rigid fixation and when indirectly compared to existing conventional devices without a bumper.

  2. 基于NX的汽车车身A级曲面设计与质量分析%Design and Quality Analysis of Car Body Class-A Surface Based on NX

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The car body class A surface design workflow is introduced in the paper. A car front bumper surface design is taken for ex-ample , the key techniques and methods of car body class A surface design and analysis are presented after discussion on these crit-ical procedures of class A surface design and according to the surface geometry characteristics division, main and auxiliary surface creation and surface quality analysis.%介绍了车身A级曲面设计的一般流程。以某汽车前保险杠盖板A级曲面实现为例,通过车身曲面几何特征划分,主、辅曲面构建及曲面品质检测等设计过程,探讨了实现汽车A级曲面建模和曲面质量检测的关键技术和方法。

  3. Mechanism of Water Infiltration and Defiltration through ZSM-5 Zeolite: Heating and Sodium Chloride Concentration Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueting Sun


    Full Text Available Hydrophobic nanoporous material and wetting liquid together comprise a system with promising energy related applications. The mechanism of the interaction between liquid and solid phase is not fully explored. In this paper, based on the quasistatic compression experiments on investigating the mechanical behavior of ZSM-5 zeolite/NaCl solution system, the effects of two key parameters, that is, the pretreatment temperature of ZSM-5 zeolite and NaCl concentration, are parametrically and quantitatively investigated based on Laplace-Washburn equation. Results show that both pretreatment temperature and NaCl concentration raise the infiltration pressure and NaCl can also promote defiltration. The advancing contact and receding contact angle of zeolite-NaCl-air system increase with both pretreatment temperature and NaCl concentration, and the contact angle hysteresis decreases with NaCl concentration. Results may provide fundamental explanation to the nanoconfined liquid behavior and liquid-solid interaction, thus, to smartly control the mechanical properties of the liquid spring and bumpers for energy dissipation function.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The international evolutions show that in unavoidable manner, in anycountry, Romania inclusively, the overcome of rare difficulties, will necessity and will makespossible simultaneous, the enrolling of tertiary sector on a trajectory by an extensivedevelopment. No country can not allows the neglect a thus sector, with a developing role in theturning to account of human resources, materials and financials existing, in the economymodernize on the whole, in the solvable needs satisfy and in the population exigencies covering.The quickening of realize an ones extensive investments programs, the using of suitablematerials and technical means, will be felt too in Romania. So as to assure the quality ineducation it is necessary to bring exchanges in structure, in content, in teaching-learningvaluationprocess etc. The education quality is affected by the specification of changes ofeducation domain, specification given on the one side by the long history of school whichgenerated a powerful and a bumper organizational culture, and on the other side, by thecomplexity schools organizations.

  5. On"Daddy where to go to"viral interpretation%《爸爸去哪儿》的病毒式传播解读

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    《爸爸去哪儿》是湖南卫视新近推出的一档亲子真人秀,节目播出之后获得了收视和口碑的双丰收。亲子真人秀不是第一次走进电视荧屏,获得如此大的关注还是第一次。本文从传播学的视角分析《爸爸去哪儿》的病毒式传播及其产生的传播效果。%"Daddy where to go to" is the newly launched a parent-child reality show by Hunan TV, after the broadcast obtained double bumper audience and reputation. Reality is not the first time parents into the TV screen, get so much attention is the first time. Analysis of"Daddy where to go to"and the effect of communication from the perspective of communication.

  6. Plasma-surface interactions with ICRF antennas and lower hybrid grills in Tore Supra (United States)

    Harris, J. H.; Hutter, T.; Hogan, J. T.; Basiuk, V.; Beaumont, B.; Becoulet, A.; Bremond, S.; Carter, M. D.; Goniche, M.; Goulding, R. H.; Guilhem, D.; Haste, G. R.; Hoffman, D. J.; Litaudon, X.; Nguyen, F.


    The edge plasma interactions of the actively cooled radio-frequency heating launchers in Tore Supra ion-cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) antennas and lower-hybrid (LH) grills are studied using infrared video imaging. On the two-strap ICRF antennas, operated in fast-wave electron heating or current drive mode, hot spots with temperatures of 500-900°C are observed by the end of 2 s power pulses of 2 MW per antenna. The steady-state temperature distribution is determined principally by the relative phase of the two antenna straps: dipole (heating) phasing results in significantly less antenna heating than does 90° (current drive) phasing. Transient heat fluxes of 1-20 MW/m 2 are measured on the lateral protection bumpers at ICRF turn-on; these fluxes are primarily a function of plasma and radio frequency (rf) control. The remarkable feature of the lower hybrid edge interaction is the production of beams of heat flux in front of the grills; these beams propagate along the helical magnetic field lines and can deliver fluxes of 5-10 MW/m 2 over areas of several cm 2 to plasma-facing components. Both the ICRF and LH phenomena appear to result from the acceleration of particles by the near fields of the launchers. Modeling of the heat flux deposition on components and its relation to sputtering processes is presented.

  7. Preventing baby bottle tooth decay in American Indian and Alaska native communities: a model for planning. (United States)

    Bruerd, B; Kinney, M B; Bothwell, E


    Baby bottle tooth decay (BBTD) is a preventable dental disease which surveys have shown affects more than 50 percent of Native American children. An experimental program to prevent BBTD was implemented in 12 Native American communities. The project represented a cooperative effort by three Department of Health and Human Service agencies: Administration for Children, Youth, and Families, Head Start Bureau; Indian Health Service, Dental Program; and Centers for Disease Control, Dental Disease Prevention Activity. Intervention strategies included the training of parent volunteers, health professionals, and the tribal employees who counseled caretakers of young children and made group presentations. There was also a media campaign in each community that ran for a 3-year period. Numerous educational materials were developed including training manuals, counseling booklets, tippee cups, posters, and bumper stickers. The BBTD project's planners encouraged tailoring the education materials and strategies to fit each community. Preliminary results documented statistically significant decreases in the prevalence of BBTD at the pilot sites. This multidisciplinary, comprehensive intervention offers a model for organizing members of minority communities to prevent health problems.

  8. Comparison of percutaneous radiologic gastrostomy by using cone beam CT and endoscopic gastrostomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Hyun Nyeong; Han, Young Min; Jin, Gong Yong; Choi, Eun Jeong; Song, Ji Soo [Chonbuk National University Hospital and Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)


    To compare the effectiveness of percutaneous radiologic gastrostomy (PRG) by using cone beam CT and percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG). This study retrospectively reviewed 129 patients who underwent PRG (n = 53) and PEG (n = 76) over a 2-years period. The C-arm cone beam CT images were obtained from all PRG patients before the procedure in order to decide the safest accessing routes. The parameters including technical success rates, complication rates and tube migration rates were all analyzed according to statistical methods. The success rate of tube placement was higher in PRG than in PEG (100% to 93%, p = 0.08). Minor complications occurred in 5 patients of the PRG group (10%; 5/53, 3 wound infection, 2 blood oozing), and occurred in 6 patients of PEG group (7.9%; 6/76, 5 wound infection, 1 esophageal ulcer). Major complications occurred only in 5 patients of PEG group (6.6%; 5/76, 1 panperitonitis, 4 buried bumper syndrome). There were no statistical differences of minor and major complication rates in the two groups (respectively, p = 0.759, p = 0.078). Tube migration rate was lower in PRG than PEG group (7.5% vs. 38.2%, p < 0.005). PRG using cone beam CT is the effective and safe method, the cone beam CT provides the safest accessing route during gastrostomy. Less tube migration occurs in the PRG than in PEG.

  9. Plane Couette-Poiseuille flow past a homogeneous poroelastic layer (United States)

    Alexiou, Terpsichori S.; Kapellos, George E.


    An analytical solution is presented for the problem of fully developed plane Couette-Poiseuille flow past a homogeneous, permeable poroelastic layer. Main novel feature of this work is that the compressibility, which is related to the action of the free-fluid pressure on the poroelastic layer, is taken into account. Therefore, the solid stress problem is two-dimensional, although the fluid flow problem remains one-dimensional in the limit of infinitesimal strain. The pressure-related compressibility affects strongly the distribution of the von Mises stress in the poroelastic layer by shifting the local maximum towards the high-pressure region of the channel. Furthermore, the established analytical solution is used to investigate some aspects of the mechanotransducing role of the endothelial surface layer. A compressible surface layer might serve as a "bumper'' by reducing the magnitude of the overall shearing force (viscous and elastic) acting on endothelial cells, as compared to the magnitude of the fluid shear force that would be exerted in its absence.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pornpit Sirima


    Full Text Available Monthly counts of industrial machine part errors are modeled using a two-state Hidden Markov Model (HMM in order to describe the effect of machine part error correction and the amount of time spent on the error correction on the likelihood of the machine part to be in a “defective” or “non-defective” state. The number of machine parts errors were collected from a thermo plastic injection molding machine in a car bumper auto parts manufacturer in Liberec city, Czech Republic from January 2012 to November 2012. A Bayesian method is used for parameter estimation. The results of this study indicate that the machine part error correction and the amount of time spent on the error correction do not improve the machine part status of the individual part, but there is a very strong month-to-month dependence of the machine part states. Using the Mean Absolute Error (MAE criterion, the performance of the proposed model (MAE = 1.62 and the HMM including machine part error correction only (MAE = 1.68, from our previous study, is not significantly different. However, the proposed model has more advantage in the fact that the machine part state can be explained by both the machine part error correction and the amount of time spent on the error correction.

  11. Modular Robotic Vehicle (United States)

    Borroni-Bird, Christopher E. (Inventor); Vitale, Robert L. (Inventor); Lee, Chunhao J. (Inventor); Ambrose, Robert O. (Inventor); Bluethmann, William J. (Inventor); Junkin, Lucien Q. (Inventor); Lutz, Jonathan J. (Inventor); Guo, Raymond (Inventor); Lapp, Anthony Joseph (Inventor); Ridley, Justin S. (Inventor)


    A modular robotic vehicle includes a chassis, driver input devices, an energy storage system (ESS), a power electronics module (PEM), modular electronic assemblies (eModules) connected to the ESS via the PEM, one or more master controllers, and various embedded controllers. Each eModule includes a drive wheel containing a propulsion-braking module, and a housing containing propulsion and braking control assemblies with respective embedded propulsion and brake controllers, and a mounting bracket covering a steering control assembly with embedded steering controllers. The master controller, which is in communication with each eModule and with the driver input devices, communicates with and independently controls each eModule, by-wire, via the embedded controllers to establish a desired operating mode. Modes may include a two-wheel, four-wheel, diamond, and omni-directional steering modes as well as a park mode. A bumper may enable docking with another vehicle, with shared control over the eModules of the vehicles.

  12. Mercedes-Benz C-class sports coupe: smc license plate surround with integrated polycarbonate panel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullmann, F.; Dannenberg, M.; Grevener, C. [DaimlerChrysler AG, Sindelfingen (Germany)


    The amount of plastics used in the automobile has risen markedly from around 20 kg in the 1960s to around 130 to 180 kg today (10 to 14% by weight). However, the proportion taken up by production in the western European automotive industry with respect to the total consumption of plastic is only 7%. The packaging sector, on the other hand, with around 45% has a disproportionately higher share. The advantages gained by the use of plastic lie in their lower specific weight, a higher resistance to damage and also their attractive processing costs. In addition, in contrast to designs in sheet steel or aluminium, it can offer a wide variety of design possibilities as far as shape is concerned. Integral construction means that several individual metal panels can be replaced by just one plastic component. Exterior applications are primarily bumper fascias, wings and flaps. Semistructural components such as tailgates and spare wheel trays, and also engine bulkhead insulation and underside panels, are primarily made of SMC (sheet moulding compound) and GMT (glass-mat-filled thermoplastic). (orig.)

  13. Test study on the performance of shielding configuration with stuffed layer under hypervelocity impact (United States)

    Ke, Fa-wei; Huang, Jie; Wen, Xue-zhong; Ma, Zhao-xia; Liu, Sen


    In order to study the cracking and intercepting mechanism of stuffed layer configuration on the debris cloud and to develop stuffed layer configuration with better performance, the hypervelocity impact tests on shielding configurations with stuffed layer were carried out. Firstly, the hypervelocity impact tests on the shielding configuration with stuffed layer of 3 layer ceramic fibre and 3 layer aramid fibre were finished, the study results showed that the debris cloud generated by the aluminum sphere impacting bumper at the velocity of about 6.2 km/s would be racked and intercepted by the stuffed layer configuration efficiently when the ceramic fibre layers and aramid fibre layers were jointed together, however, the shielding performance would be declined when the ceramic fibre layers and aramid fibre layers were divided by some distance. The mechanism of stuffed layer racking and intercepting the debris cloud was analyzed according to the above test results. Secondly, based on the mechanism of the stuffed layer cracking and intercepint debirs cloud the hypervelocity impact tests on the following three stuffed layer structures with the equivalent areal density to the 1 mm-thick aluminum plate were also carried out to compare their performance of cracking and intercepting debris cloud. The mechanisms of stuffed layer racking and intercepting the debris cloud were validated by the test result. Thirdly, the influence of the stuffed layer position on the shielding performance was studied by the test, too. The test results would provide reference for the design of better performance shielding configuration with stuffed layer.

  14. Project Explorer: Get Away Special #007. [alloy solidification, seed germination, crystal growth, and radio transmission of payload data (United States)

    Henderson, A. J., Jr.


    Tentatively scheduled to fly on STS-17 (41G), this get away special aims to demonstrate amateur radio transmissions to global ground stations in the English language. Experiments No. 1, 2, and 3 use the micro-gravity of space flight to study the solidification of lead-antimony and aluminum-copper alloys, the germination of radish seeds, and the growth of potassium-tetracyanoplatinate hydrate crystals in an aqueous solution. Flight results are to be compared with Earth-based data. Experiment No. 4 (the Marshall Amateur Radio Club Experiment - MARCE) features radio transmissions and also provides timing for the start of all other experiments. A microprocessor obtains real-time data from all experiments as well as temperature and pressure measurements within the GAS canister. These data are to be transmitted on previously announced amateur radio frequencies after they are converted into the English language by a digitalker for general reception. The support structure for the G #007 experiments consists of two primary plates and four bumper assemblies.

  15. Floating Production Unit FPU P53: logistic and modules installation; Logistica e instalacao dos modulos da Unidade Flutuante de Producao FPU P53

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arantes, Joao Durval [UTC Engenharia S.A., SP (Brazil)


    This work intends to show a 'case' of success, namely the model of management and the strategy, applied in the logistics and installation of the P53 modules. The criteria, which took QUIP to contract, in Brazil and abroad, technology companies, to supply integrated modules, including engineering, procurement, construction and warranty of performance, are shown. Establishment, at the initial phase of the Project, of the discipline 'constructibility', with the attribution to interact with the engineering design and construction of the modules under QUIP's responsibility, modules supplied by PETROBRAS and mainly, with the site of Naval Conversion in Singapore. Establishment of the discipline 'Marinharia', to act together with 'constructibility' to overcome the difficulties and restrictions of Porto de Rio Grande, such as the following: the width of the sailing channel, interferences of commercial port, availability of mooring pier, relationship with port pilotage and authorities of the Fifth Naval District of Brazilian Navy. The challenges were the maneuvers with 2 crane barges for modules installation, in front the P-53, a VLCC ship and maneuvers the barges, involved at the time of installation of the modules. And, finally, to show the proceeding applied in the physical interfaces of installation of the modules, such as: interferences, supports of the modules, stools in the ship, guides and bumpers. Dimensional control, simulations and extensive planning were the tools of success. (author)

  16. NIR sensitivity analysis with the VANE (United States)

    Carrillo, Justin T.; Goodin, Christopher T.; Baylot, Alex E.


    Near infrared (NIR) cameras, with peak sensitivity around 905-nm wavelengths, are increasingly used in object detection applications such as pedestrian detection, occupant detection in vehicles, and vehicle detection. In this work, we present the results of simulated sensitivity analysis for object detection with NIR cameras. The analysis was conducted using high performance computing (HPC) to determine the environmental effects on object detection in different terrains and environmental conditions. The Virtual Autonomous Navigation Environment (VANE) was used to simulate highresolution models for environment, terrain, vehicles, and sensors. In the experiment, an active fiducial marker was attached to the rear bumper of a vehicle. The camera was mounted on a following vehicle that trailed at varying standoff distances. Three different terrain conditions (rural, urban, and forest), two environmental conditions (clear and hazy), three different times of day (morning, noon, and evening), and six different standoff distances were used to perform the sensor sensitivity analysis. The NIR camera that was used for the simulation is the DMK firewire monochrome on a pan-tilt motor. Standoff distance was varied along with environment and environmental conditions to determine the critical failure points for the sensor. Feature matching was used to detect the markers in each frame of the simulation, and the percentage of frames in which one of the markers was detected was recorded. The standoff distance produced the biggest impact on the performance of the camera system, while the camera system was not sensitive to environment conditions.

  17. Several Key Points in Planning Marketing Books%策划市场图书的几个关键点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Market book is a kind of books that is relative to supplementary teaching material,channel-customized book.During market book planning editors must revolve around the market which is the central point of this process.And must give prominence to the selling point of the books during the topics planning,the author communication,the overall packaging and the promotion,and eventually achieve two benefits bumper.%市场图书是相对于教辅教材、渠道定制图书而言的一类图书。编辑在策划市场图书时要紧紧围绕市场这个中心点,在选题策划、与作者沟通、整体包装、宣传营销等各个方面策划到位,突出图书卖点,最终实现两个效益双丰收。

  18. Current Situations and Problems of Logistics for Guangxi Fresh Agricultural Products in the New Period and Recommendations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shixiong; ZHU


    In recent years,Guangxi realized consecutive bumper harvests in fresh agricultural products,leading increase of logistics demand;logistics infrastructure begins to take shape,and logistics of fresh agricultural products takes on diversified development form with wholesale market as main form. However,traditional fresh agricultural products are not selling well and it lacks construction of supply chain; the construction of logistics information system for fresh agricultural products lags behind; organizational level of production and operation of fresh agricultural products is low. Through analyzing current situations and existing problems of logistics of Guangxi fresh agricultural products in the new period( 21 st century),this paper came up with recommendations for developing logistics of fresh agricultural products of Guangxi. Government should increase policy and financial support,build and manage supply chain of fresh agricultural products,accelerate construction of logistics information system for agricultural products,and improve organizational level of logistics of fresh agricultural products,to ensure healthy development of logistics of fresh agricultural products in Guangxi.

  19. Impact of Agricultural Credit on Production of Wheat Crop: A Case Study of District Faisalabad-Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Asghar , Muhammad Waqas Chughtai


    Full Text Available Agriculture sector plays an important role in the economic development of Pakistan. Wheat is an important and most cultivated crop because it is an essential ingredient of food commodities. Credit plays a vital role in agricultural farming by indirectly participating in purchasing of agricultural inputs i.e. seed, fertilizer, irrigation, machinery and labor etc. Majority of the farmers are poor and they are not able to fulfill the cash requirement of farming, therefore credit has become their dire need. Due to credit farmers can timely purchase the agricultural inputs which resulting a bumper crop. The objective of this study is to depict the impact of credit on the production of wheat crop. Survey was conducted and random sampling technique was used to select the sample borrowers. The collected data was interpreted through “Cobb Douglas Production Function” by using statistical software (SPSS 16.0. The results showed that credit has positive and significant impact on wheat production. The values of R2 and F-statistics are found significant which represented that all selected variables are highly significant. The study not only shares the importance of credit to perform any agriculture activity but also helpful for economists and policy makers for designing agri financing policies.

  20. The design of a multimegawatt heat pipe radiator for an inertial fusion rocket powered manned Mars mission (United States)

    Murray, K. A.


    A system of heat pipe radiators has been designed to provide waste heat rejection for an inertial fusion powered spacecraft capable of manned missions to other planets. The radiators are arrays of unfinned, arterial heat pipes operating at 1500 and 900 K. Liquid metal coolant carries up to 8000 MW of waste heat through feed pipes from on-board components (laser drivers and coil shield). The radiators do not rely on armor for protection from micrometeoroid penetration. An armored radiator design for this application with a 99 percent survivability would have a specific mass of 0.06 to 0.11 kg/kW at 1500 K. Instead, a segmentation of heat pipes is used, and bumpers are utilized to protect the feed pipes. This design reduces the specific mass to 0.015 to 0.04 kg/kW for the coil shield radiator (1500 K) and 0.06 to 0.12 kg/kW for the laser driver radiator (900 K).

  1. On-Line Impact Load Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Sekuła


    Full Text Available The so-called Adaptive Impact Absorption (AIA is a research area of safety engineering devoted to problems of shock absorption in various unpredictable scenarios of collisions. It makes use of smart technologies (systems equipped with sensors, controllable dissipaters and specialised tools for signal processing. Examples of engineering applications for AIA systems are protective road barriers, automotive bumpers or adaptive landing gears. One of the most challenging problems for AIA systems is on-line identification of impact loads, which is crucial for introducing the optimum real-time strategy of adaptive impact absorption. This paper presents the concept of an impactometer and develops the methodology able to perform real-time impact load identification. Considered dynamic excitation is generated by a mass M1 impacting with initial velocity V0. An analytical formulation of the problem, supported with numerical simulations and experimental verifications is presented. Two identification algorithms based on measured response of the impacted structure are proposed and discussed. Finally, a concept of the AIA device utilizing the idea of impactometer is briefly presented.

  2. Are electric self-balancing scooters safe in vehicle crash accidents? (United States)

    Xu, Jun; Shang, Shi; Yu, Guizhen; Qi, Hongsheng; Wang, Yunpeng; Xu, Shucai


    With the pressing demand of environmentally friendly personal transportation vehicles, mobility scooters become more and more popular for the short-distance transportation. Similar to pedestrians and bicyclists, scooter riders are vulnerable road users and are expected to receive severe injuries during traffic accidents. In this research, a MADYMO model of vehicle-scooter crash scenarios is numerically set up. The model of the vehicle with the scenario is validated in pedestrian-vehicle accident investigation with previous literatures in terms of throwing distance and HIC15 value. HIC15 values gained at systematic parametric studies. Injury information from various vehicle crashing speeds (i.e. from 10m/s to 24m/s), angles (i.e. from 0 to 360°), scooter's speeds (i.e. from 0m/s to 4m/s), contact positions (i.e. left, middle and right bumper positions) are extracted, analyzed and then compared with those from widely studied pedestrian-vehicle and bicycle-vehicle accidents. Results show that the ESS provides better impact protection for the riders. Riding ESS would not increase the risk higher than walking at the same impact conditions in terms of head injury. The responsible reasons should be the smaller friction coefficient between the wheel-road than the heel-road interactions, different body gestures leading to different contact positions, forces and timing. Results may shed lights upon the future research of mobility scooter safety analysis and also the safety design guidance for the scooters.

  3. 基于AMESim的农用运输车悬架系统仿真研究%Simulation Study On Agricultural Vehicle Suspension System Based On AMESim

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    A 2-degree-of-freedom model of the agricultural vehicle passive suspension and active suspension system was built, and the time-domain analysis was made by using the AMESim software. The vehicle body acceleration and tire compression were studied under the condition of vehicle passing stochastic road and single bumper, and the performance of the two suspension systems was evaluated. The results showed that the ride comfort and ride performance were apparently improved for the vehicle with active suspension.%对农用运输车的悬架系统建立了2自由度被动悬架和主动悬架系统模型,利用AMESim仿真软件对模型进行了时域分析,研究了在随机路面和三角形凸块路面工况下的车身加速度和轮胎压缩量,并据此评价了两种悬架的性能。结果表明:具有主动悬架的农用运输车,乘坐舒适性和行驶平稳性性都有明显改善。

  4. A Kind of Teaching Instrument for Experiment of Anti-vibration Performance of Automobile Suspension%一种用于汽车悬架隔振性能实验的教学仪器

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雨; 王玉国; 湛时时; 章展源


    基于拟脉冲激励原理实现汽车悬架隔振性能参数快速检测教学实验,提出了需检测的汽车悬架隔振性能参数,分析了两类悬架效率试验台的不足,研制了单轮平板式悬架参数检测教仪。实验时学生通过在汽车保险杠上人力按压实施汽车悬架拟脉冲激励。课程使用结果表明所研制的教学仪器有效。%A teaching experimental of fast detection on parameters of anti-vibration performance of automobile suspension is realized based on the principle of quasi-impulse exciting. The parameters of anti-vibration performance of automobile suspension are offered which are needed to detected. The insufifcient about two kinds of suspension efifciency test rig is analyzed. A single-wheel lfatbed suspension parameter detector is developed. A quasi-impulse exciting to automobile suspension is carried out by human press on the bumper while testing. The result of course using shows that the educational instrument developed is with feasibility.

  5. Current situation and properties of ultra-high strength steel for automotive use in Japan; Situation actuelle et proprietes de l'acier a ultra haute resistance pour utilisation automobile au Japon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, K. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    Ultra-high strength steels with a tensile strength of 1,000 MPa to 1,200 MPa have been used for bumper and door beam since 15 years in Japan. Recently, it has been tried to apply these steels to reinforcements such as B-pillars inner and so on. The application of these types of steel tends to spread. Their formability, weldability and fatigue properties are described. Formability of ultra-high strength steel is different from that of mild steel, and it is governed by local elongation or stretch flange-ability that can be evaluated by bend-ability. Local elongation or stretch flange-ability has a negative correlation with total elongation. When strength exceeds 1,000 MPa, delayed fracture tends to occur. However, when measures to avoid delayed fracture are taken, there are no application examples of ultra-high strength steel sheet with 1,500 MPa tensile strength restricted by the danger of delayed fracture. (author)

  6. Surface protection in bio-shields via a functional soft skin layer: Lessons from the turtle shell. (United States)

    Shelef, Yaniv; Bar-On, Benny


    The turtle shell is a functional bio-shielding element, which has evolved naturally to provide protection against predator attacks that involve biting and clawing. The near-surface architecture of the turtle shell includes a soft bi-layer skin coating - rather than a hard exterior - which functions as a first line of defense against surface damage. This architecture represents a novel type of bio-shielding configuration, namely, an inverse structural-mechanical design, rather than the hard-coated bio-shielding elements identified so far. In the current study, we used experimentally based structural modeling and FE simulations to analyze the mechanical significance of this unconventional protection architecture in terms of resistance to surface damage upon extensive indentations. We found that the functional bi-layer skin of the turtle shell, which provides graded (soft-softer-hard) mechanical characteristics to the bio-shield exterior, serves as a bumper-buffer mechanism. This material-level adaptation protects the inner core from the highly localized indentation loads via stress delocalization and extensive near-surface plasticity. The newly revealed functional bi-layer coating architecture can potentially be adapted, using synthetic materials, to considerably enhance the surface load-bearing capabilities of various engineering configurations.

  7. High-power pulsed diode laser for automotive scanning radar sensor (United States)

    Kimura, Yuji; Matsushita, Noriyuki; Kato, Hisaya; Abe, Katsunori; Atsumi, Kinya


    High performance pulsed AlGaAs/GaAs wide stripe diode laser has been developed for the automotive distance-measuring scanning radar sensor. The laser diode is required high output power of 15 W and a long time reliability in spite of being used in a harsh environment such as wide temperature range, mechanical vibrations at the front bumper and so on. The device is designed by employing a multiple quantum well structure as an active layer for high output power with low drive current and high temperature operations. Moreover we reduce catastrophic optical damage power level and control the beam divergence angle by introducing optimized optical waveguide layers. In the chips bonding part, we developed a new thin film Au-Sn-Ni solder system. The bonding temperature can be lowered by using this system, whereby the thermal damage to the laser diode can be reduced. Furthermore, highly stable bonding is carried out by improving wetting ability in this system. We have achieved more than 22 W light output power at 20A pulse current under room temperature and more than 16 W light output power under 90 degrees Celsius. High reliability over 10,000 hours is performed for automotive use under pulsed operation at 90 degrees Celsius, 50 ns pulse width, 8 kHz frequency and 15 W light output power.

  8. Agricultural development in Eastern Inner Mongolia and its climatic background during 1644-1911%清代东蒙农业开发的消长及其气候变化背景

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    萧凌波; 方修琦; 叶瑜


    利用档案史料、建置沿革史研究成果等提取信息,建立历史代用指标序列,对清代(1644~1911)内蒙古东部地区农业开发的时空进程进行描述,结合当地农业气候资源条件(温度、降水)及清代气候变化(温度)探讨其中的气候因素。结果显示:(1)清代东蒙农业开发集中在现代年均≥10℃积温2500℃、降水量400mm以上区域之内;(2)农业开发的时间顺序为从水热条件较好的地区向较差的地区扩张,农业聚落的空间密度随水热条件的降低而降低;(3)大部分获得丰收的地点及主要余粮区集中在水热条件最好的承德周边;(4)温暖的18世纪农业发展状况显著好于寒冷的17世纪、19世纪——移民进程更加活跃,农业聚落更加深入牧区,而且集中了几乎所有的丰收及调粮记录。%In this paper,based on historical document and research of administrative history,a group of proxy indexes are selected to describe the spatio-temporal pattern of agricultural development in the Eastern Inner Mongolia(EIM) during the Qing Dynasty(1644-1911).In comparison of these reconstructed proxy series with local agro-climatic resources(temperature and precipitation) and historical climate change(temperature) in the corresponding period,some results are obtained as follows.(1) Agricultural development in the EIM during 1644-1911 was mostly concentrated in the area with annual accumulated temperature(≥10℃) ≥2500℃ and annual precipitation ≥400 mm;(2) Regions with better climate conditions were reclaimed earlier with a higher density of agricultural settlements compared with poorer ones.(3) Most of the sites that had bumper harvest and the main output regions in grain production were distributed in Chengde and its surrounding areas with the best climate condition in the EIM.(4) Agriculture developed more prosperously in warmer 18th century than in colder 17th

  9. Using the lead vehicle as preview sensor in convoy vehicle active suspension control (United States)

    Rahman, Mustafizur; Rideout, Geoff


    Both ride quality and roadholding of actively suspended vehicles can be improved by sensing the road ahead of the vehicle and using this information in a preview controller. Previous applications have used look-ahead sensors mounted on the front bumper to measure terrain beneath. Such sensors are vulnerable, potentially confused by water, snow, or other soft obstacles and offer a fixed preview time. For convoy vehicle applications, this paper proposes using the overall response of the preceding vehicle(s) to generate preview controller information for follower vehicles. A robust observer is used to estimate the states of a quarter-car vehicle model, from which road profile is estimated and passed on to the follower vehicle(s) to generate a preview function. The preview-active suspension, implemented in discrete time using a shift register approach to improve simulation time, reduces sprung mass acceleration and dynamic tyre deflection peaks by more than 50% and 40%, respectively. Terrain can change from one vehicle to the next if a loose obstacle is dislodged, or if the vehicle paths are sufficiently different so that one vehicle misses a discrete road event. The resulting spurious preview information can give suspension performance worse than that of a passive or conventional active system. In this paper, each vehicle can effectively estimate the road profile based on its own state trajectory. By comparing its own road estimate with the preview information, preview errors can be detected and suspension control quickly switched from preview to conventional active control to preserve performance improvements compared to passive suspensions.

  10. Mega-science; Enormous lamp will cast light on industrial problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaremko, G.


    A monster scientific instrument called a synchrotron is under construction at the University of Saskatchewan in Saskatoon. The instrument makes beams of electrons go one billion kilometres in a huge ring and cast light 10,000 times brighter than the sun. Scientists will be able to carry out up to 50 experiments simultaneously, working at up to 15 work stations. The intense light will make it possible to ascertain not only what chemicals are present in a material but also the forms they take in a material. As for its uses in the petroleum industry, a similar instrument at Madison, Wisconsin, was used to formulate additives to motor oil that made it possible to double the life expectancy of automobile engines. Materials with multi-billion dollar markets ranging from semiconductors to injection-moulded synthetics for jogging shoes, car bodies, bumpers and furniture foam have also benefited from this instrument. In the upstream oil industry the most obvious immediate use would be removing contaminants and unwanted byproducts from petroleum. By knowing the form in which the pollutant is present would simplify the selection of the right type of catalyst to remove or to control it. Plans are underway to make industry access to the synchrotron part of the 'Alberta advantage'. An Alberta Synchrotron Institute is being established at the University of Calgary to build partnership between academics and the business community. The plan calls for a $10 million investment in capability to use the synchrotron. The new instrument is expected to enable the industry to grow 'new economy' dimensions such as using biotechnology, and super-miniaturized computer components.

  11. First-wall conditioning for enhanced confinement discharges and the DT experiments in TFTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dylla, H.F.; Ulrickson, M.; Bell, M.G.; Owens, D.K.; Buchenauer, D.; Budny, R.V.; Hill, K.W.; Kilpatrick, S.J.; Manos, D.M.; LaMarche, P.H.


    The conditioning techniques applied to the TFTR first-wall configuration that will be in place for the DT experiments in 1990--1991 are reviewed. Of primary interest is the helium conditioning procedure that was developed to control hydrogenic recycling from the graphite, inner-wall bumper limiter. Operation of TFTR over the plasma density range for gas-fueled ohmic plasmas, /bar n//sub e/ = (2 /minus/ 5) /times/ 10/sup 19/ m/sup /minus/3/, typically results in hydrogenic recycling coefficients near unity. The use of the helium conditioning procedure produced recycling coefficients as low as 0.5, and decreased the minimum ohmic plasma density to /bar n//sub e/ = 0.5 /times/ 10/sup 19/ m/sup /minus/3/ at I/sub p/ = 0.8 MA. Low density ohmic target plasmas with low recycling conditions are prerequisite conditions for the enhanced confinement (e.g., ''supershot''), neutral-beam-heated discharges observed in TFTR during 1986-1987, which is the primary mode being considered for study in the DT experiments. The recycling changes induced by the helium conditioning procedure are believed to be the result of a plasma pumping effect in the graphite induced by He and C ion desorption of hydrogenic species from the near-surface (< 20 nm) layer of the limiter. The capacity of the conditioned limiter to pump gas-fueled, and neutral-beam-fueled discharges is compared. The helium conditioning technique is also beneficial for isotopic exchange and for minimizing the in-vessel tritium inventory. 31 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. The regulatory contract and restructuring: A modest proposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartman, R.S. [Cambridge Economics Inc., MA (United States); Tabors, R. [Tabors Caramanis and Associates, Cambridge, MA (United States)


    History does not support the notion that the regulatory contract has treated utilities unfairly. But to the extent it is decided, for other reasons, that utilities should receive transition payments as the industry is pushed to a more competitive framework, there are four important principles to keep firmly in mind. To paraphrase the contemporary bumper sticker, `in the economic, social and/or romantic affairs of man and/or woman, unexpected events happen.` A more thoughtful interpretation of this notion would be that in economic and social interrelationships, individuals formulate behavioral plans based upon expectations about the state of the world and/or the behavior of other individuals. Should those expectations turn out to be incorrect, the individuals relying upon those expectations and their plans will be frustrated. The frustrated individuals may rail against their fate; they may accept their disappointment stoically. They may `take arms against a sea of troubles, and by opposing end them.` Alternatively and more likely in late twentieth century America, they may litigate (or threaten litigation) for breach of contract, claiming that some implicit or explicit, oral or written contract has been breached and that reliance upon that contract has consequently damaged them. The discussion of assets potentially stranded by the ongoing restructuring of the U.S. electric power industry has been characterized by the latter response. As some utilities have faced the possible economic obsolescence of particular generation assets in light of technological changes and altered regulatory rules, they have invoked the notion of a `regulatory contract` having governed their expectations, behavior and past capital investment. By implication, these utilities argue that they should be fully compensated for all cost incurred under good faith adherence to past regulatory processes and procedures.

  13. Determination of the strain rate dependent thermal softening behavior of thermoplastic materials for crash simulations (United States)

    Hopmann, Christian; Klein, Jan; Schöngart, Maximilian


    Thermoplastic materials are increasingly used as a light weight replacement for metal, especially in automotive applications. Typical examples are frontends and bumpers. The loads on these structures are very often impulsive, for example in a crash situation. A high rate of loading causes a high strain rate in the material which has a major impact on the mechanical behavior of thermoplastic materials. The stiffness as well as the rigidity of polymers increases to higher strain rates. The increase of the mechanical properties is superimposed at higher rates of loading by another effect which works reducing on stiffness and rigidity, the increase of temperature caused by plastic deformation. The mechanical behavior of thermoplastic materials is influenced by temperature opposing to strain rate. The stiffness and rigidity are decreased to higher values of temperature. The effect of thermal softening on thermoplastic materials is investigated at IKV. For this purpose high-speed tensile tests are performed on a blend, consisting of Polybutylenterephthalate (PBT) and Polycarbonate (PC). In preliminary investigations the effects of strain rate on the thermomechanical behavior of thermoplastic materials was studied by different authors. Tensile impact as well as split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) tests were conducted in combination with high-speed temperature measurement, though, the authors struggled especially with temperature measurement. This paper presents an approach which uses high-speed strain measurement to transpire the link between strain, strain rate and thermal softening as well as the interdependency between strain hardening and thermal softening. The results show a superimposition of strain hardening and thermal softening, which is consistent to preliminary investigations. The advantage of the presented research is that the results can be used to calibrate damage and material models to perform mechanical simulations using Finite Element Analysis.

  14. 黄瓜新品种中农116号的选育%A New Cucumber F1 Hybrid-‘Zhongnong No.116'

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾兴芳; 张圣平; 王烨; 徐彩清; 苗晗


    中农116号黄瓜的母本01316和父本081006是从国内优良一代杂种园丰元3号和津优5号中经过连续8代自交纯化定向选择而成的优良自交系.早中熟,主蔓结果为主,瓜码较密.瓜色深绿,瓜长约30 cm,商品瓜率高.刺瘤密,白刺,瘤小,无棱,无黄色条纹,口感脆甜.抗霜霉病、枯萎病、WMV、ZYMV,中抗CMV.丰产潜力大,每667 m2产量可达10 000 kg以上,适宜春秋大棚及露地栽培.%'Zhongnong No.116' is a newly bred cucumber hybrid using inbred line 01316 as maternal parent and 081006 as paternal parent. It has early-mid maturity. Its fruit is mainly resulted on vine. The fruit is about 30 cm in length with short neck and dark green skin. Its commercial fruit rate is high. Its fruit tastes sweet and crispy. The fruit has no yellow stripes. It has resistance for downy mildew, Fusarium wilt, WMV, ZYMV and moderate resistance to CMV. It can yield over 150 t "hm~2, and has big potential for bumper harvest. It is suitable to be cultivated under plastic shed in spring and autumn and also in open field.

  15. On The Folk Customs of Huazhao Festival Which Is a Kind Of Intangible Cultural Heritage and its Modern Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihui Ma


    Full Text Available Huazhao Festival is a traditional one that is celebrated in early spring and appeals to both highbrows and lowbrows. Once, it was as significant as Lantern Festival and Mid-autumn Festival. Ever since Tang Dynasty, it has undergone stages of emerging, thriving, declining and restoring. Originally, people only had a spring outing enjoying beautiful flowers at this festival; later, various other folk activities were also carried out on this day, including catching butterflies, picking wild vegetables, offering sacrifices to gods, predicting bumper and poor harvest, fastening strips of red cloth to stems of flowers and trees (shang hong, having competitions on grass, encouraging agriculture, holding and attending banquets, writing articles, paying court and so on. These activities demonstrated such characteristics of the national culture of China as elegance, harmony and life-friendliness. Obviously different from other traditional festivals like Spring Festival, Mid-autumn Festival, Dragon Boat Festival, etc, Huazhao Festival has unique style and value. Despite its fading away from people’s life due to changes in modern society, its cultural glamour and comprehensive value still exist. Along with economic and social development and the increase of people’s spiritual and cultural demands, Huazhao Festival has regained people’s attention. It has been restored and hosted in some regions and identified as an intangible cultural heritage. By means of literature review, the folk customs of Huazhao Festival was re-presented to some extent in this paper. Its modern values in areas including health, culture, ecology and industry were analyzed. This paper is of certain significance, in respect of conserving and inheriting this national festival, promoting its restoration in more regions in a way more approximate to historical tradition and giving play to its unique role to benefit modern society.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, S.C.


    During the 1990s, sport utility vehicles (SUVs) became the fastest growing segment of the auto industry, especially those in the medium-size category. In 1999, SUV sales reached almost 19% of the total light vehicle market and the mix of SUVs on the road, as measured by registration data, was about 8.7%. This immense popularity has been called by some a passing fad--vehicle purchases based on the SUV ''image''. But the continued yearly increases in SUV sales seem to indicate a more permanent trend. Additional explanations for SUV popularity include the general economic well being in the United States, a perception of safety, and ''utility''. Generally larger and heavier than the typical automobile, SUVs require more fuel per mile to operate and produce greater amounts of pollutants. They are also driven further annually than are automobiles of the same vintage, a fact that exacerbates the fuel-use and emission problems. Although buyers believe that SUVs are safer than automobiles which they are in some cases, SUVs are more prone to roll-overs than are automobiles. In addition, SUVs, with their higher bumpers and greater weight, may be a threat to other vehicles on the highway, especially in side-impact crashes. With sales projected to grow to over 3 million units per year beginning in 2001, SUVs show no sign of decreasing in popularity. These vehicles are used primarily for general mobility, rather than off-road activities. An emphasis on better fuel economy and improved emissions control could address environmental and oil dependency concerns. In fact, recently, two vehicle manufacturers announced intentions of improving the fuel economy of their SUVs in the next few years. Also, tests simulating crashes involving automobiles and SUVs could provide valuable data for identifying potential safety design issues. It is clear that automobiles and SUVs will be sharing the highways for years to come.

  17. Review of Ballistic Limit Equations for Composite Structure Walls of Satellites (United States)

    Schaefer, Frank K.*; Schneider, E.; Lambert, M.


    In this paper a review of existing ballistic limit equations for CFRP (Carbon Fibre Reinforced Plastics) structure walls of satellites is given, and two new ballistic limit equations are presented. The predictive capabilities of the equations are compared to a set of experimental hypervelocity impact test data of CFRP plates and CFRP honeycomb sandwich panels (satellite structure wall) from ENVISAT, AXAF, and a generic technology program. In the literature, three ballistic limit equations for sandwich panels (SP) made from CFRP face-sheets and Al- honeycomb (H/C) core were found and analyzed (Frost's approach, Approach using Christiansen's Whipple shield Ballistic Limit Equation (BLE), and Taylor's approach). Furthermore, in this paper, a new ballistic limit equation was proposed for CFRP H/C SP (Modified ESA Triple Wall Equation) and for composite panels (plates) with and without MLI attached to the surface. The amount of impact data on CFRP structure walls of satellites found in the literature was rather scarce. The new BLE for CFRP plates makes good predictions to the available set of test data. For the BLE for CFRP H/C SP, it was found that Frost's approach and application of Christiansen's BLE to CFRP H/C SP lead to an overprediction of the ballistic limit diameters for ENVISAT structure walls and the samples of the generic technology program. Taylor's approach and the newly designed MET ballistic limit equation have both yielded good predictions for all samples except for the AXAF samples that had rather thin-walled face-sheets and a thin Al H/C core: for these samples the predictions were conservative. Thus, for use in risk analysis tools for satellites (e. g. ESA's ESABASE/DEBRIS tool or NASA's BUMPER code), it is recommended to use either the MET or Taylor equation.

  18. Self-Supervised Learning of Terrain Traversability from Proprioceptive Sensors (United States)

    Bajracharya, Max; Howard, Andrew B.; Matthies, Larry H.


    Robust and reliable autonomous navigation in unstructured, off-road terrain is a critical element in making unmanned ground vehicles a reality. Existing approaches tend to rely on evaluating the traversability of terrain based on fixed parameters obtained via testing in specific environments. This results in a system that handles the terrain well that it trained in, but is unable to process terrain outside its test parameters. An adaptive system does not take the place of training, but supplements it. Whereas training imprints certain environments, an adaptive system would imprint terrain elements and the interactions amongst them, and allow the vehicle to build a map of local elements using proprioceptive sensors. Such sensors can include velocity, wheel slippage, bumper hits, and accelerometers. Data obtained by the sensors can be compared to observations from ranging sensors such as cameras and LADAR (laser detection and ranging) in order to adapt to any kind of terrain. In this way, it could sample its surroundings not only to create a map of clear space, but also of what kind of space it is and its composition. By having a set of building blocks consisting of terrain features, a vehicle can adapt to terrain that it has never seen before, and thus be robust to a changing environment. New observations could be added to its library, enabling it to infer terrain types that it wasn't trained on. This would be very useful in alien environments, where many of the physical features are known, but some are not. For example, a seemingly flat, hard plain could actually be soft sand, and the vehicle would sense the sand and avoid it automatically.

  19. Theoretical Analysis and Experimental Study on the Coating Removal from Passenger-Vehicle Plastics for Recycling by Using Water Jet Technology (United States)

    Zhang, Hongshen; Chen, Ming


    The recovery and utilization of automotive plastics are a global concern because of the increasing number of end-of-life vehicles. In-depth studies on technologies for the removal of coatings from automotive plastics can contribute to the high value-added levels of the recycling and utilization of automotive plastic. The liquid waste generated by removing chemical paint by using traditional methods is difficult to handle and readily produces secondary pollution. Therefore, new, clean, and highly efficient techniques of paint removal must be developed. In this article, a method of coating removal from passenger-vehicle plastics was generated based on high-pressure water jet technology to facilitate the recycling of these plastics. The established technology was theoretically analyzed, numerically simulated, and experimentally studied. The high-pressure water jet equipment for the removal of automotive-plastic coatings was constructed through research and testing, and the detailed experiments on coating removal rate were performed by using this equipment. The results showed that high-pressure water jet technology can effectively remove coatings on the surfaces of passenger-vehicle plastics. The research also revealed that the coating removal rate increased as jet pressure ( P) increased and then decreased when jet moving speed ( Vn) increased. The rate decreased as the distance from nozzle to work piece ( S nw ) and the nozzle angle ( Φ) increased. The mathematical model for the rate of removal of coatings from bumper surfaces by water jet was derived based on the experiment data and can effectively predict coating removal rate under different operating conditions.

  20. Hypervelocity Impact Experiments on Epoxy/Ultra-High Molecular Weight Polyethylene Composite Panels Reinforced with Nanotubes (United States)

    Khatiwada, Suman; Laughman, Jay W.; Armada, Carlos A.; Christiansen, Eric L.; Barrera, Enrique V.


    Advanced composites with multi-functional capabilities are of great interest to the designers of aerospace structures. Polymer matrix composites (PMCs) reinforced with high strength fibers provide a lightweight and high strength alternative to metals and metal alloys conventionally used in aerospace architectures. Novel reinforcements such as nanofillers offer potential to improve the mechanical properties and add multi-functionality such as radiation resistance and sensing capabilities to the PMCs. This paper reports the hypervelocity impact (HVI) test results on ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fiber composites reinforced with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) and boron nitride nanotubes (BNNT). Woven UHMWPE fabrics, in addition to providing excellent impact properties and high strength, also offer radiation resistance due to inherent high hydrogen content. SWCNT have exceptional mechanical and electrical properties. BNNT (figure 1) have high neutron cross section and good mechanical properties that add multi-functionality to this system. In this project, epoxy based UHMWPE composites containing SWCNT and BNNT are assessed for their use as bumper shields and as intermediate plates in a Whipple Shield for HVI resistance. Three composite systems are prepared to compare against one another: (I) Epoxy/UHMWPE, (II) Epoxy/UHMWPE/SWCNT and (III) Epoxy/UHMWPE/SWCNT/BNNT. Each composite is a 10.0 by 10.0 by 0.11 cm3 panel, consisting of 4 layers of fabrics arranged in cross-ply orientation. Both SWCNT and BNNT are 0.5 weight % of the fabric preform. Hypervelocity impact tests are performed using a two-stage light gas gun at Rice University

  1. Development of in-situ Space Debris Detector (United States)

    Bauer, Waldemar; Romberg, O.; Wiedemann, C.; Drolshagen, G.; Vörsmann, P.


    Due to high relative velocities, collisions of spacecraft in orbit with Space Debris (SD) or Micrometeoroids (MM) can lead to payload degradation, anomalies as well as failures in spacecraft operation, or even loss of mission. Flux models and impact risk assessment tools, such as MASTER (Meteoroid and Space Debris Terrestrial Environment Reference) or ORDEM (Orbital Debris Engineering Model), and ESABASE2 or BUMPER II are used to analyse mission risk associated with these hazards. Validation of flux models is based on measured data. Currently, as most of the SD and MM objects are too small (millimeter down to micron sized) for ground-based observations (e.g. radar, optical), the only available data for model validation is based upon retrieved hardware investigations e.g. Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF), Hubble Space Telescope (HST), European Retrievable Carrier (EURECA). Since existing data sets are insufficient, further in-situ experimental investigation of the SD and MM populations are required. This paper provides an overview and assessment of existing and planned SD and MM impact detectors. The detection area of the described detectors is too small to adequately provide the missing data sets. Therefore an innovative detection concept is proposed that utilises existing spacecraft components for detection purposes. In general, solar panels of a spacecraft provide a large area that can be utilised for in-situ impact detection. By using this method on several spacecraft in different orbits the detection area can be increased significantly and allow the detection of SD and MM objects with diameters as low as 100 μm. The design of the detector is based on damage equations from HST and EURECA solar panels. An extensive investigation of those panels was performed by ESA and is summarized within this paper. Furthermore, an estimate of the expected sensitivity of the patented detector concept as well as examples for its implementation into large and small

  2. Camouflaged carborarods derived from B-permethyl-1,12-diethynyl-para- and B-octamethyl-1,7-diethylnyl-meta-carborane modules. (United States)

    Herzog, Axel; Jalisatgi, Satish S; Knobler, Carolyn B; Wedge, Timothy J; Hawthorne, M Frederick


    Rigid camouflaged carborarods constructed from the corresponding C,C'-diethynyl derivatives of B-decamethyl-1,12-dicarbadodecaborane(12) (6) and B-octamethyl-1,7-dicarbadodecaborane(12) (48) have been synthesized by largely conventional organic transformations. These carborarods are the longest discrete rod species available by this method in which B-methylated p-carborane and m-carborane cages are linked through their carbon vertices by using butadiynylene moieties. They exhibit enhanced solubility in common organic solvents relative to all other presently known carborane-based rigid-rod molecules. The oxidative coupling of bis(ethynyl) derivatives of 6 generates oligomers containing, on average, 16 carborane modules. The structural characterization of the corresponding dimeric species revealed that the carborarods possess a sinusoidal chain distortion in the solid state. The stereoelectronic properties of these and related model carborarods were evaluated by using molecular dimensions as a monitor for the comparison of computational and experimental methods. In addition, the effect of exhaustive B-methylation of 12- and 10-vertex para-carborane cages in a series of model C,C'-diethynyl derivatives was similarly investigated by computational and structural studies. As expected, a correlation of intercage C--C bond lengths with cage size was observed and was attributed to hybridization effects. B-Permethylation had no significant structural effect with either 10- or 12-vertex cage derivatives. Relative to unsubstituted compounds, thermal and chemical stabilities of B-permethylated derivatives were increased through the operation of a steric "bumper-car" process, and solubilities in organic solvents were enhanced. The formation of linear, sterically encumbered platina-carborarods using ethynyl derivatives of 6 as precursors is described.

  3. Are weeds hitchhiking a ride on your car? A systematic review of seed dispersal on cars. (United States)

    Ansong, Michael; Pickering, Catherine


    When traveling in cars, we can unintentionally carry and disperse weed seed; but which species, and where are they a problem? To answer these questions, we systematically searched the scientific literature to identify all original research studies that assess seed transported by cars and listed the species with seed on/in cars. From the 13 studies that fit these criteria, we found 626 species from 75 families that have seed that can be dispersed by cars. Of these, 599 are listed as weeds in some part of the world, with 439 listed as invasive or naturalized alien species in one or more European countries, 248 are invasive/noxious weeds in North America, 370 are naturalized alien species in Australia, 167 are alien species in India, 77 are invasive species in China and 23 are declared weeds/invaders in South Africa. One hundred and one are classified as internationally important environmental weeds. Although most (487) were only recorded once, some species such as Chenopodium album, Poa pratensis and Trifolium repens were common among studies. Perennial graminoids seem to be favoured over annual graminoids while annual forbs are favoured over perennial forbs. Species characteristics including seed size and morphology and where the plants grew affected the probability that their seed was transported by cars. Seeds can be found in many different places on cars including under the chassis, front and rear bumpers, wheel wells and rims, front and back mudguards, wheel arches, tyres and on interior floor mats. With increasing numbers of cars and expanding road networks in many regions, these results highlight the importance of cars as a dispersal mechanism, and how it may favour invasions by some species over others. Strategies to reduce the risk of seed dispersal by cars include reducing seed on cars by mowing road verges and cleaning cars.

  4. Are weeds hitchhiking a ride on your car? A systematic review of seed dispersal on cars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Ansong

    Full Text Available When traveling in cars, we can unintentionally carry and disperse weed seed; but which species, and where are they a problem? To answer these questions, we systematically searched the scientific literature to identify all original research studies that assess seed transported by cars and listed the species with seed on/in cars. From the 13 studies that fit these criteria, we found 626 species from 75 families that have seed that can be dispersed by cars. Of these, 599 are listed as weeds in some part of the world, with 439 listed as invasive or naturalized alien species in one or more European countries, 248 are invasive/noxious weeds in North America, 370 are naturalized alien species in Australia, 167 are alien species in India, 77 are invasive species in China and 23 are declared weeds/invaders in South Africa. One hundred and one are classified as internationally important environmental weeds. Although most (487 were only recorded once, some species such as Chenopodium album, Poa pratensis and Trifolium repens were common among studies. Perennial graminoids seem to be favoured over annual graminoids while annual forbs are favoured over perennial forbs. Species characteristics including seed size and morphology and where the plants grew affected the probability that their seed was transported by cars. Seeds can be found in many different places on cars including under the chassis, front and rear bumpers, wheel wells and rims, front and back mudguards, wheel arches, tyres and on interior floor mats. With increasing numbers of cars and expanding road networks in many regions, these results highlight the importance of cars as a dispersal mechanism, and how it may favour invasions by some species over others. Strategies to reduce the risk of seed dispersal by cars include reducing seed on cars by mowing road verges and cleaning cars.

  5. The effects of hypervelocity impact on Whipple shield at cryogenic temperatures%低温下Whipple防护结构超高速撞击效应研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨继运; 徐坤博; 简亚彬; 曹燕; 李宇; 龚自正; 赵晶晶


    文章研究了低温下空间碎片对典型Whipple防护结构的超高速撞击效应.首先在二级轻气炮设备上研制出使用液氮可将撞击靶冷却至-150℃且满足低温超高速撞击试验要求的低温装置.利用该装置开展了低温条件下的超高速撞击试验,对低温和室温两种条件下的试验结果进行了比对,并分别对缓冲屏穿孔特性、碎片云特性和后墙损伤特性之间的差异进行了分析.文章最后给出低温下典型Whipple防护结构的弹道极限曲线.%This paper studies the effects of the hypervelocity impact on typical Whipple Shields at cryogenic temperatures. The cryogenic setup, installed in the target chamber of a two-stage light-gas gun, is developed to cool the targets down to -150 °C with liquid nitrogen to provide the essential condition for tests of shield structures at cryogenic temperatures. Several hypervelocity impact tests were carried out at cryogenic temperatures, and the impact results are compared with those obtained at room temperature, including the characteristics of bumper penetration, debris cloud, and rear wall damage. The ballistic limit curves of typical Whipple shields at cryogenic temperatures are obtained.

  6. Caracterização mecânica de polipropileno reciclado para a indústria automotiva Mechanical characterization of recycled polypropylene for automotive industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz L. Fernandes


    Full Text Available A indústria automotiva responde, atualmente, por uma grande parte do mercado de consumo de plásticos, por isso existe um crescente interesse no investimento em processos de reciclagem, inclusive devido à vinculação às atividades relacionadas à proteção ambiental. Dentre as peças automotivas, os pára-choques são relativamente fáceis de serem reciclados devido às suas dimensões e por constituírem, geralmente, de um único material, o polipropileno (PP. Neste trabalho, analisaram-se as propriedades mecânicas de misturas de PP virgem e reciclado, em três porcentagens diferentes, a fim de detectar as alterações das mesmas, relacionando-as à qualidade do produto. Concluiu-se que porcentagens de reciclado acima de 30% causam deterioração das propriedades mecânicas do produto. Este estudo visa a fornecer uma contribuição para o aumento na utilização de plásticos reciclados na indústria automotiva.The automotive industry is now responsible for a large share of plastic consumption, which prompted increasing investments in recycling processes, also due to the need of ambient protection. Among the automotives parts, bumpers are relatively easy to be recycled due to their dimensions and because they are made of a single material, polypropylene (PP. In this work, the mechanical properties of mixtures of virgin and recycled PP, in three different percentages, were analyzed in order to detect alterations and associate them with the product quality. It was concluded that percentages of recycled material above 30% deteriorate the mechanical properties of the product. This study aims to provide a contribution to the increase in the recycled plastic use in the automotive industry.

  7. Drivers of U.S. mineral demand (United States)

    Sznopek, John L.


    Introduction: The word 'demand' has different meanings for different people. To some, it means their 'wants and needs,' to others it is what they consume. Yet, when considering economics, demand refers to the specific amounts of goods or services that individuals will purchase at various prices. Demand is measured over a given time period. It is determined by a number of factors including income, tastes, and the price of complementary and substitute goods. In this paper, the term consumption is used fairly synonymously with the term demand. Most mineral commodities, like iron ore, copper, zinc, and gravel, are intermediate goods, which means that they are used in the production of other goods, called final goods. Demand for intermediate goods is called derived demand because such demand is derived from the demand for final goods. When demand increases for a commodity, generally the price rises. With everything else held constant, this increases the profits for those who provide this commodity. Normally, this would increase profits of existing producers and attract new producers to the market. When demand for a commodity decreases, generally the price falls. Normally, this would cause profits to fall and, as a consequence, the least efficient firms may be forced from the industry. Demand changes for specific materials as final goods or production techniques are reengineered while maintaining or improving product performance, for example, the use of aluminum in the place of copper in long distance electrical transmission lines or plastic replacing steel in automobile bumpers. Substitution contributes to efficient material usage by utilizing cheaper or technically superior materials. In this way, it may also alleviate materials scarcity. If a material becomes relatively scarce (and thus more expensive), a more abundant (and less expensive) material generally replaces it (Wagner and others, 2003, p. 91).

  8. Micromachined permanent magnets and their MEMS applications (United States)

    Cho, Hyoung Jin


    In this research, new micromachined permanent magnets have been proposed, developed and characterized for MEMS applications. In realizing micromachined permanent magnets, a new electroplating technique using external magnetic field and a bumper filling technique using a photolithographically defined mold with resin bonded magnetic particles have been developed. The newly developed micromachining techniques allow thick film-type permanent magnet components to be integrated to magnetic MEMS devices with dimensional control and alignment. Permanent magnet arrays with the dimensions ranging from 30 mum to 200 mum have been developed with an energy density up to 2.7 kJ/m3 in precisely defined forms in the micro scale. For the applications of the permanent magnets developed in this work, three novel magnetic MEMS devices such as a bi-directional magnetic actuator, a magnetically driven optical scanner, and a magnetic cell separator have been successfully realized. After design and modeling, each device has been fabricated and fully characterized. The bi-directional actuator with the electroplated permanent magnet array has achieved bi-directional motion clearly and shown good agreement with the analytical and simulated models. The optical scanner has shown linear bi-directional response under static actuation and stable bi-directional scanning performance under dynamic actuation. As a potential BioMEMS application of the developed permanent magnet, the prototype magnetic cell separator using the electroplated permanent magnet strip array has been proposed and demonstrated for magnetic bead patterning. In conclusion, new thick film-type, electroplated CoNiMnP and epoxy resin bonded Sr-ferrite permanent magnets have been developed and characterized, and then, three new magnetic MEMS devices using the permanent magnets such as a bi-directional magnetic actuator, an optical scanner and a magnetic cell separator have been realized in this research. The new micromachined

  9. Radiometric calibration status of Landsat-7 and Landsat-5 (United States)

    Barsi, J.A.; Markham, B.L.; Helder, D.L.; Chander, G.


    Launched in April 1999, Landsat-7 ETM+ continues to acquire data globally. The Scan Line Corrector in failure in 2003 has affected ground coverage and the recent switch to Bumper Mode operations in April 2007 has degraded the internal geometric accuracy of the data, but the radiometry has been unaffected. The best of the three on-board calibrators for the reflective bands, the Full Aperture Solar Calibrator, has indicated slow changes in the ETM+, but this is believed to be due to contamination on the panel rather then instrument degradation. The Internal Calibrator lamp 2, though it has not been used regularly throughout the whole mission, indicates smaller changes than the FASC since 2003. The changes indicated by lamp 2 are only statistically significant in band 1, circa 0.3% per year, and may be lamp as opposed to instrument degradations. Regular observations of desert targets in the Saharan and Arabian deserts indicate the no change in the ETM+ reflective band response, though the uncertainty is larger and does not preclude the small changes indicated by lamp 2. The thermal band continues to be stable and well-calibrated since an offset error was corrected in late-2000. Launched in 1984, Landsat-5 TM also continues to acquire global data; though without the benefit of an on-board recorder, data can only be acquired where a ground station is within range. Historically, the calibration of the TM reflective bands has used an onboard calibration system with multiple lamps. The calibration procedure for the TM reflective bands was updated in 2003 based on the best estimate at the time, using only one of the three lamps and a cross-calibration with Landsat-7 ETM+. Since then, the Saharan desert sites have been used to validate this calibration model. Problems were found with the lamp based model of up to 13% in band 1. Using the Saharan data, a new model was developed and implemented in the US processing system in April 2007. The TM thermal band was found to have a

  10. Effect of vehicle front end profiles leading to pedestrian secondary head impact to ground. (United States)

    Gupta, Vishal; Yang, King H


    Most studies of pedestrian injuries focus on reducing traumatic injuries due to the primary impact between the vehicle and the pedestrian. However, based on the Pedestrian Crash Data Study (PCDS), some researchers concluded that one of the leading causes of head injury for pedestrian crashes can be attributed to the secondary impact, defined as the impact of the pedestrian with the ground after the primary impact of the pedestrian with the vehicle. The purpose of this study is to understand if different vehicle front-end profiles can affect the risk of pedestrian secondary head impact with the ground and thus help in reducing the risk of head injury during secondary head impact with ground. Pedestrian responses were studied using several front-end profiles based off a mid-size vehicle and a SUV that have been validated previously along with several MADYMO pedestrian models. Mesh morphing is used to explore changes to the bumper height, bonnet leading-edge height, and bonnet rear reference-line height. Simulations leading up to pedestrian secondary impact with ground are conducted at impact speeds of 40 and 30 km/h. In addition, three pedestrian sizes (50th, 5th and 6yr old child) are used to enable us to search for a front-end profile that performs well for multiple sizes of pedestrians, not just one particular size. In most of the simulations, secondary ground impact with pedestrian head/neck/shoulder region occurred. However, there were some front-end profiles that promoted secondary ground impact with pedestrian lower extremities, thus avoiding pedestrian secondary head impact with ground. Previous pedestrian safety research work has suggested the use of active safety methods, such as 'pop up hood', to reduce pedestrian head injury during primary impact. Accordingly, we also conducted simulations using a model with the hood raised to capture the effect of a pop-up hood. These simulations indicated that even though pop-up hood helped reducing the head injury

  11. The Application of Mesh Variables Mapping to Finite Element Analysis%网格变量映射方法在有限元分析中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李洲; 杨旭静


    The stamping forming and crash simulations of vehicle body panels have different requirements on the mesh of finite element analysis model. For achieving the transfer of variables between different types of mesh model, a new mesh variables mapping technique based on inverse isoparametric mapping algorithm is proposed, in which the real state variables ( such as thickness, stress and strain) of panel after the change in material properties during sheet metal forming process are accurately mapped into the model for crash simulation by accurately locating the nodes of crash simulation model in stamping model and the interpolation of node variables between mesh models. This method is applied to the crash simulation for a car front bumper and the results show that the method can well realize the mesh preprocessing in finite element analysis and accurately transfer mesh variables, while introducing stamping effects into crash simulation and hence improve the efficiency and accuracy of vehicle crash simulation.%汽车车身零件的冲压成形和碰撞两种仿真对有限元模型网格的要求不同.为了实现不同类型网格模型之间变量的传递,提出了一种基于等参元逆变换的网格变量映射新方法.该方法通过碰撞模型节点在冲压模型中的精确定位和网格模型之间节点变量的插值,将板料冲压过程中材料性能变化后的实际状态变量(如厚度、应力和应变)精确映射到碰撞仿真模型中.将该方法应用于某轿车前保险杠碰撞仿真的结果表明,该映射方法能很好地实现有限元分析的网格前处理,在精确传递网格变量的同时将冲压效应引入碰撞仿真中,从而提高汽车碰撞仿真的效率和精度.

  12. Basic forensic identification of artificial leather for hit-and-run cases. (United States)

    Sano, Tetsuya; Suzuki, Shinichi


    Single fibers retrieved from a victim's garments and adhered to the suspect's automobile have frequently been used to prove the relationship between victim and suspect's automobile. Identification method for single fiber discrimination has already been conducted. But, a case was encountered requiring discrimination of artificial leather fragments retrieved from the victim's bag and fused fibers from the bumper of the suspect's automobile. In this report, basic studies were conducted on identification of artificial leathers and single fibers from leather materials. Fiber morphology was observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), color of these leather sheets was evaluated by microspectrophotometry (MSP), the leather components were measured by infrared micro spectrometry (micro-FT-IR) and the inorganic contents were ascertained by micro-X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (micro-XRF). These two methods contribute to other analytical methods too, in the case of utilized single fiber analytical methods. The combination of these techniques showed high potential of discrimination ability in forensic examinations of these artificial leather samples. In regard with smooth surface artificial leather sheet samples, a total of 182 sheets were obtained, including 177 colored sheets directly from 10 of 24 manufacturers in Japan, and five of them were purchased at retail circulation products. Nine samples of suede-like artificial leather were obtained, 6 of them were supplied from 2 manufacturers and 3 sheets were purchased as retailing product. Single fibers from the smooth surface artificial leather sheets showed characteristic for surface markings, and XRF could effectively discriminate between these sheets. The combination of results of micro-FT-IR, color evaluation by MSP and the contained inorganic elements by XRF enabled to discriminate about 92% of 15,576 pairs comparison. Five smooth surface samples form retailing products were discriminated by their chemical

  13. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy for nutritional palliation of upper esophageal cancer unsuitable for esophageal stenting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Grilo


    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Esophageal cancer is often diagnosed at an advanced stage and has a poor prognosis. Most patients with advanced esophageal cancer have significant dysphagia that contributes to weight loss and malnutrition. Esophageal stenting is a widespread palliation approach, but unsuitable for cancers near the upper esophageal sphincter, were stents are poorly tolerated. Generally, guidelines do not support endoscopic gastrostomy in this clinical setting, but it may be the best option for nutritional support. OBJECTIVE: Retrospective evaluation of patients with dysphagia caused advanced esophageal cancer, no expectation of resuming oral intake and with percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy for comfort palliative nutrition. METHOD: We selected adult patients with unresecable esophageal cancer histological confirmed, in whom stenting was impossible due to proximal location, and chemotherapy or radiotherapy were palliative, using gastrostomy for enteral nutrition. Clinical and nutritional data were evaluated, including success of gastrostomy, procedure complications and survival after percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy, and evolution of body mass index, albumin, transferrin and cholesterol. RESULTS: Seventeen males with stage III or IV squamous cell carcinoma fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Mean age was 60.9 years. Most of the patients had toxic habits. All underwent palliative chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Gastrostomy was successfully performed in all, but nine required prior dilatation. Most had the gastrostomy within 2 months after diagnosis. There was a buried bumper syndrome treated with tube replacement and four minor complications. There were no cases of implantation metastases or procedure related mortality. Two patients were lost and 12 died. Mean survival of deceased patients was 5.9 months. Three patients are alive 6, 14 and 17 months after the gastrostomy procedure, still increasing the mean survival. Mean body mass index and laboratory

  14. 变更路径预测支持的自适应模块建模%Adaptive Module Modeling by Predicting Change Path

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔虎; 莫蓉; 向颖


    针对现有模块变更方法变更路径单一、可扩展性较差等问题,提出构建自适应模块指导模块变更的方法。该方法引入图论,将模块中的参数表示为有向图的顶点,参数间的关系对应为有向图的边,建立邻接矩阵(设计结构矩阵)描述模块中各参数的关联性;通过设计结构矩阵聚类分析参数的关联关系,预测模块的可能变更路径;将变更路径与路径相关信息进行结构化存储,整合结构化信息与全约束模块实例,建立自适应模块;针对不同变更来源,提出自适应模块的变更方法。最后以运输车辆尾防护装置为例,验证了文中方法的可行性和合理性。%In order to solve the problems of single change path and extension difficulty in existing module change methods, an adaptive module modeling method is proposed. The graph theory is applied to develop an adjacency matrix (design structure matrix) to describe the relevance between different parameters. By analyzing clustered design structure matrix, module’s potential changing paths will be forecasted. The paper organized changing paths and related information into structured storage files to improve the extendibility of the changing paths and their related information. Then the structured information and fully constrained module are integrated to develop the self-adaption module. For the different changing sources, different self-regulation algorithms are proposed for the self-adaption module. Finally, the study verifies the feasibil-ity and rationality of the proposed method with an application case of truck bumper.

  15. 汽车轻量化用改性聚丙烯的研究进展%Research progress of modified PP for automobile lightweight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The application and research progress of modified polypropylene(PP)in automobile lightweight are described with respect to collision bumper, interior trim, and parts. Modified PP is used for automobile lightweight thanks to its high strength and hardness, cheap price and abundant materials as well as low density that is much less than that of steel. Modified PP reduces the in-process shrinkage of PP. The auto parts made from modified PP is improved in strength, toughness, melt flow rate, service life, age, impact and scratching resistance. The strong smelling of interior trim and parts are relieved as well. It suggests that the research on modified PP for auto lightweight should be strengthened to meet the requirements of auto parts and to receive more benefits.%从汽车保险杠、内饰和零配件低气味及其他应用等介绍了改性聚丙烯在汽车轻量化方面的应用及研究进展。改性聚丙烯密度远小于钢铁且具有很好的强度、硬度,价格相对低廉,来源充足,因此常被用作汽车轻量化主选材料之一。改性聚丙烯降低了聚丙烯的成型收缩率,用改性聚丙烯制备的汽车零配件在强度、韧性、硬度、熔体流动速率、耐老化性能、耐刮擦能力、使用寿命、耐冲击性等方面得到了提高,并减少了汽车内饰配件的异味。因此,应加大汽车轻量化用聚丙烯的改性研究,以满足各种汽车零部件的要求,获得更大的经济效益。

  16. Performance of Whipple Shields at Impact Velocities above 9 km/s (United States)

    Christiansen, Eric L.; Davis, Bruce A.; Piekutowski, Andrew J.; Poormon, Kevin L.


    Whipple shields were first proposed as a means of protecting spacecraft from the impact of micrometeoroids in 1947 [1] and are currently in use as micrometeoroid and orbital debris shields on modern spacecraft. In the intervening years, the function of the thin bumper used to shatter or melt threatening particles has been augmented and enhanced by the use of various types and configurations of intermediate layers of various materials. All shield designs serve to minimize the threat of a spall failure or perforation of the main wall of the spacecraft as a result of the impact of the fragments. With increasing use of Whipple shields, various ballistic limit equations (BLEs) for guiding the design and estimating the performance of shield systems have been developed. Perhaps the best known and most used are the "new" modified Cour-Palais (Christiansen) equations [2]. These equations address the three phases of impact: (1) ballistic (km/s), where the projectile is moving too slowly to fragment and essentially penetrates as an intact projectile; (2) shatter (3 to 7 km/s), where the projectile fragments at impact and forms an expanding cloud of debris fragments; and (3) melt/vaporization (>7 km/s), where the projectile melts or vaporizes at impact. The performance of Whipple shields and the adequacy of the BLEs have been examined for the first two phases using the results of impact tests obtained from two-stage, light-gas gun test firings. Shield performance and the adequacy of the BLEs has not been evaluated in the melt/vaporization phase until now because of the limitations of launchers used to accelerate projectiles with controlled properties to velocities above 7.5 km/s. A three-stage, light-gas gun, developed at the University of Dayton Research Institute (UDRI) [3], is capable of launching small, aluminum spheres to velocities above 9 km/s. This launcher was used to evaluate the ballistic performance of two Whipple shield systems, various thermal protection system

  17. Estudo do efeito da adição de PP reciclado nas propriedades mecânicas e de escoamento de misturas de PP/EPDM Study of the Effect of Recycled PP on the Mechanical and Flow Properties of PP/ERDM Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciene da S. Santos


    Full Text Available Misturas de polipropileno, PP, e terpolímero de etileno-propileno-dieno, EPDM, são amplamente utilizadas na indústria automobilística, principalmente em parachoques, cuja destinação, após o seu uso, deverá atender a Política Nacional de Resíduos Sólidos. No presente trabalho, o efeito da incorporação de PP reciclado nas propriedades mecânicas e de escoamento das misturas PP virgem/EPDM foi avaliado através de um planejamento fatorial do tipo 2n, com n = 3 fatores: teor de PP reciclado, perfil de temperatura de processamento e velocidade de rotação da rosca. As variáveis de resposta analisadas foram: módulo de Young, resistência ao impacto e índice de fluidez (MFI. Os resultados mostraram que o aumento da temperatura de processamento tende a aumentar a rigidez, a resistência ao impacto e a fluidez do produto final. O aumento da velocidade de mistura mostrou uma influência mais significativa na resistência ao impacto do material; enquanto o aumento do teor de reciclado na mistura PP virgem/EPDM levou ao aumento das propriedades mecânicas, bem como do índice de fluidez do produto.Polypropylene, PP, and ethylene propylene diene copolymer (EPDM blends are widely used in automotive industry, mainly in bumpers. Their disposal should comply with the rules of the Solid Residue National Policy. In the present study, the effect of recycled PP addition on the mechanical and flow properties of these blends was evaluated using a 2n factorial design, with n = 3 factors: recycled PP content, extrusion temperature profile and screw speed. The parameters analyzed were: Young modulus, impact strength and melt flow index (MFI. The results showed that the increase in temperature tends to increase rigidity, impact strength and the flow of the final product. The increase in blend speed showed a significant influence on the impact strength of the material; whereas the increase in recycled PP content led to an increase of the mechanical

  18. 跨国粮商冲击下的粮食流通安全问题探析%Analysis on Food Distribution Security under the Impact of Multinational Food Dealers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴志华; 徐艳丹; 胡非凡


    跨国粮商冲击我国粮食市场具有从大豆产业的深度掌控到中国粮食产业的全面冲击、从单环节到全球供应链整合的竞争、从“小试牛刀”到中国粮食产业话语权的日益蚕食及跨国粮商对粮食产业的控制具有针对性、超前性、战略性与整合运作性的特点四大特性,造成我国粮食流通安全问题充分暴露:连年丰收不减粮食安全危机或威胁,粮食收购市场无序且调控低效,粮食安全微观基础在跨国粮商冲击下显得非常薄弱。针对此情况,应以农户结算卡为基础,建立全球粮食供应链体系和粮食预警、调控体系,紧握农户、企业和市场三个抓手保障粮食安全。%Multinational food dealers imPacting food marketlization in China have four big characteristics: from the depth of control of the soybean industry to the full impact of Chinese food industry, from single part competition to the global supply chain integration, from "trying your skills" to increasingly nibbling to the right of speak to Chinese industry and multinational food dealer eontroling of food industry having such features : pertinence, advance, strtegic and operational integration. With that, Chinese grain circulation security issues are fully exposed: successive years of bumper harvests don't diminish food securi- ty crisis or threat, food purchasing market is disorderly and regulates inefficiently, the microcosmic basis of food security is ex- tremely weak with multinational food dealer impacting . For this situation, farmers debit card should be based on, the global food supply chain and food early warning, control system should be established, three handles such as farmers, businesses and markets should be holded to ensure food security.

  19. The effect of pretensioning and age on torso rollout in restrained human volunteers in far-side lateral and oblique loading. (United States)

    Arbogast, Kristy B; Mathews, Emily A; Seacrist, Thomas; Maltese, Matthew R; Hammond, Rachel; Balasubramanian, Sriram; Kent, Richard W; Tanji, Hiromasa; St Lawrence, Schuyler; Higuchi, Kazuo


    Far-side side impact loading of a seat belt restrained occupant has been shown to lead to torso slip out of the shoulder belt. A pretensioned seat belt may provide an effective countermeasure to torso rollout; however the effectiveness may vary with age due to increased flexibility of the pediatric spine compared to adults. To explore this effect, low-speed lateral (90°) and oblique (60°) sled tests were conducted using male human volunteers (20 subjects: 9-14 years old, 10 subjects: 18-30 years old), in which the crash pulse safety envelope was defined from an amusement park bumper-car impact. Each subject was restrained by a lap and shoulder belt system equipped with an electromechanical motorized seat belt retractor (EMSR) and photo- reflective targets were attached to a tight-fitting headpiece or adhered to the skin overlying key skeletal landmarks. Each subject was randomly assigned to either the 60° or 90° direction and was exposed to 4 test conditions - arms up (with hands on their knees) with EMSR on, arms down (with hands low on the hips) with EMSR on, arms up with EMSR off, arms down with EMSR off. The effect of age and pretensioning on the following outcomes was quantified: 1) lateral and forward displacement of the torso, 2) torso rollout angle projected onto three orthogonal planes, and 3) resultant belt-sternal distance. The effect of pretensioning on torso containment within the shoulder belt was strong in both impact directions across all metrics evaluated. EMSR activation significantly reduced lateral displacement of the suprasternal notch (~100 mm, p<0.0001), coronal projection of the torso rollout angle (~15°, p<0.0001), and belt sternal distance when the arms were down (~50 mm, p<0.05). The benefit of pretensioning was achieved by early engagement of the torso by the shoulder belt. An added benefit of pretensioning was the ability to make similar the torso kinematics across a range of anthropometries as assessed within and across age groups

  20. Comparison of kinematic responses of the head and spine for children and adults in low-speed frontal sled tests. (United States)

    Arbogast, Kristy B; Balasubramanian, Sriram; Seacrist, Thomas; Maltese, Matthew R; García-España, J Felipe; Hopely, Terrence; Constans, Eric; Lopez-Valdes, Francisco J; Kent, Richard W; Tanji, Hiromasa; Higuchi, Kazuo


    Previous research has suggested that the pediatric ATD spine, developed from scaling the adult ATD spine, may not adequately represent a child's spine and thus may lead to important differences in the ATD head trajectory relative to a human. To gain further insight into this issue, the objectives of this study were, through non-injurious frontal sled tests on human volunteers, to 1) quantify the kinematic responses of the restrained child's head and spine and 2) compare pediatric kinematic responses to those of the adult. Low-speed frontal sled tests were conducted using male human volunteers (20 subjects: 6-14 years old, 10 subjects: 18-40 years old), in which the safety envelope was defined from an amusement park bumper-car impact. Each subject was restrained by a custom-fit lap and shoulder belt system and photo-reflective targets were attached to a tight-fitting cap worn on the head or adhered to the skin overlying skeletal landmarks on the head, spine, shoulders, sternum, and legs. A 3-D near-infrared target tracking system quantified the position of the following markers: head top, external auditory meatus, nasion, opisthocranion, C4, T1, T4, and T8. Trajectory data were normalized by subject seated height and head and spine rotations were calculated. The Generalized Estimating Equations method was used to determine the effect of age and key anthropometric measures on marker excursion. For all markers, the normalized forward excursion significantly decreased with age and all spinal markers moved upward due to a combination of rigid body rotation and spinal flexion with lesser upward movement with age. The majority of the spine flexion occurred at the base of the neck not in the upper cervical spine and the magnitude of flexion was greatest for the youngest subjects. Additional flexion occurred in the thoracic spine as well. Our findings indicate that the primary factor governing the differences in normalized head and spinal trajectories between the various

  1. Hybrid laser-arc welding of galvanized high-strength steels in a gap-free lap-joint configuration (United States)

    Yang, Shanglu

    In order to meet the industry demands for increased fuel efficiency and enhanced mechanical and structural performance of vehicles as well as provided excellent corrosion resistance, more and more galvanized advanced high-strength steels (AHSS) have been used to fabricate automobile parts such as panels, bumpers, and front rails. The automotive industry has shown tremendous interest in using laser welding to join galvanized dual phase steels because of lower heat input and higher welding speed. However, the laser welding process tends to become dramatically unstable in the presence of highly pressurized zinc vapor because of the low boiling point of zinc, around 906°C, compared to higher melting point of steel, over 1500°C. A large number of spatters are produced by expelling the liquid metal from the molten pool by the pressurized zinc vapor. Different weld defects such as blowholes and porosities appear in the welds. So far, limited information has been reported on welding of galvanized high strength dual-phase steels in a gap-free lap joint configuration. There is no open literature on the successful attainment of defect-free welds from the laser or hybrid welding of galvanized high-strength steels. To address the significant industry demand, in this study, different welding techniques and monitoring methods are used to study the features of the welding process of galvanized DP steels in a gap-free lap joint configuration. The current research covers: (i) a feasibility study on the welding of galvanized DP 980 steels in a lap joint configuration using gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW), laser welding, hybrid laser/arc welding with the common molten pool, laser welding with the assistance of GTAW preheating source and hybrid laser-variable polarity gas tungsten arc welding (Laser-VPGTAW) techniques (Chapter 2-4); (ii) a welding process monitoring of the welding techniques including the use of machine vision and acoustic emission technique (Chapter 5); (iii

  2. The Kiwifruit Climate Division Analysis of Chongqing Wansheng District That Based On Geographic Information System%基于GIS的重庆市万盛区猕猴桃气候区划分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾永美; 高阳华; 杨世琦


    This paper investigates the meteorological condition of kiwifruit growth, ensures the appropriate planting areas of kiwifruit in Wansheng district and gives some cultivation suggestion of it. Based on the geographic information system platform, we used some methods of spatial analysis like kriging, inverse distance weighted to the temperature, rainfall and sunshine of Chongqing thirty-four stations. It has been discovered there are enough sunshine and moisture in Wansheng distract and we determined the mean of annual temperature was regioiialization index. According to the regionalization index, the article works out the map with 1 : 50 000 topographic data by the technology of geographic information system and names it Wansheng district climate ecological zonation of kiwifruit. The re sults of the study show that most of the regions in Wansheng district are appropriate for planting kiwifruit. Among them the medium ele vations of mountains that nine hundred meters to one thousand five hundred meters was named the most suitable areas because of it heat appropriate, the town of Qingnian, Cuanba and Conglin were named A warm climate region, the eastern that altitude beyond one point five kilometers like Wangxiangtai, Zhaiziyan and other Alpine areas were called cool weather appropriate region. The research agree ment that we should take the following measures to increase the production, combined with favorable terrain to establish test base, suit able cultivation method and using the " bag" protection of high yield bumper harvest.%考察猕猴桃生长需要的生态条件,确定重庆市万盛区猕猴桃适宜种植区并对猕猴桃栽培提出建议.借助GIS平台,对重庆市34台站气温、降水、日照等数据采用克里金插值、反向运算等方法进行空间分析.研究发现万盛区光照和水分条件较充分;确定以年平均气温为区划指标,根据指标利用地理信息系统技术在1∶50000地形上制作万盛区猕猴桃气

  3. 铝球弹丸高速斜撞击铝Whipple防护结构时后板的损伤特性%Damage Characteristics of Rear Walls of Aluminum Whipple Shields by Oblique Hypervelocity Impact of Aluminum Spheres

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管公顺; 哈跃; 庞宝君


    In order to simulate and study the oblique hypervelocity impacts of space debris on bumper of spacecrafts,a series of oblique hypervelocity impact experiments of aluminum Whipple shields are car- ried out by a two-stage light gas gun. The aluminum alloy projectile diameter is 3.97 mm, the impact velocities range from 1.14 to 5.35 km/s,and the impact angles range from 0° to 70°. The crater distributions on the rear wall of aluminum Whipple shield obliquely impacted by aluminum spheres are obtained and analyzed. In addition, the forecast equations for crater distribution on the rear wall of aluminum Whipple shield by oblique hyperveloeity impact are derived. The results indicate that there are two crater distribution areas on the rear wall under hypervelocity oblique impact. The critical fragmen- tation velocity of projectile will bring effect on the relationship between the impact damage law of rear wall and impact angle. For aluminum alloy Whipple shield,there exists a critical initial collision angle at which the impact damage on the rear wall is the most severe.%为了研究空间碎片对航天器防护结构的高速斜撞击损伤特性,采用二级轻气炮发射铝球弹丸,对铝Whipple防护结构进行高速斜撞击实验。弹丸直径为3.97mm,撞击速度为1.14~5.35km/s,撞击角度为0°~70°。实验得到了铝Whipple防护结构在不同撞击速度区间的后板损伤模式,分析了后板撞击损伤及弹坑分布特性,建立了预测铝球弹丸高速斜撞击铝Whipple防护结构时后板弹坑分布的经验公式。结果表明:在大角度斜撞击条件下,对于一定的撞击速度,铝Whipple防护结构的后板弹坑分布会出现两个区域;弹丸的撞击破碎临界速度将影响后板损伤随撞击角的变化关系;对于铝Whipple防护结构,存在使后板撞击损伤最严重的临界撞击角。

  4. Diagnóstico de factores de riesgo relacionados con la accidentabilidad de mano en trabajadores de una empresa refresquera Diagnostic of risk factor related to the accidentes of hand in workers of solf-drinks industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Betzabé Pérez-Manriquez


    psicosociales, condiciones inseguras, factores ergonómicos y actos inseguros. Por lo que se considera que estos, se deben buscar intencionadamente en las empresas dedicadas a este rubro de actividades, y evidenciarlos cuando se pretendan disminuir este tipo de accidentes y generar medidas preventivas y correctivas para mejorar la calidad de vida del trabajador y el rendimiento del mismo en sus labores.With the purpose of deepen on the recognize of risk factors from this kind of business and from this specific activities, to prevent and minimize the health effects integrally at the industries, the present work pretend to determine the risk factors potentially related with hand accidents. Objective: Determine the risk factors related to the accidents of hand to identify and establish the risks allowing decrease the possibility of accidents in hand through the modification, elimination and or control of present factors. Material and methods: Observational, descriptive and longitudinal study develop in worker population of sales area, composed by 206 helpers and 81 agents, cooperative producers of soft drinks and carbonated beverages in México City, in a period between 2007-2009. Was employed the Freeman Modified Method for the Situational Diagnostic. Results: The risk factor related to hand accidents determined by the application of Freeman Modified Method in sales area according to the organization: were first derived from the psychosocial labor organization (accelerated pace of activity and the Insecure Condition (transfer of the personnel within the rear bumper of the truck; second were found ergonomics (repetitive movements and manual handling of loads, along with Insecure Act (omission of the use of personal protection equipment, and the Insecure Condition (kind of unity, door and material transported, and lack of training; finally, in third psychosocial of Labor Organization (indefinite at least 8 hours maximum of 14 and unsafe (sharp boxes. Conclusions: The risk factors

  5. Agriculture exploitation in the east part of North Agro-pasture Transitional Zone during 1644-1795 by Actual Annals of Qing Dynasty%从《清实录》看清代1644-1795年中国北方农牧交错带东段的农业开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊星; 叶瑜; 罗玉洪


    The east part of North Agro-pasture Transitional Zone in north China located between the south edge of Inner Mongolia plateau and the Great Wall. It is considered as one of the most sensitive regions of China, for it is in the transitional region among different climatic zones and controlled by the southeast monsoon. The one hand, the area provides human with broad space and huge material production potential, moreover, it plays an important role in the change of regional and global climate and the maintenance of ecological functions; the other hand, the ecological issues of the area are very prominent and ecological environment here is manifold, complex and vulnerable , because of the superposition of topography, climate, vegetation and economic activities in the transitional zone of superposition. Arid climate, water deficit are the main features in the area. The relationship between local people and the environment is very special and important to the locally fragile ecological environment. Some current ecological problems being existed in this area are highly correlated with the historical agricultural development. A climax of reclamation began from Shunzhi (顺治) to Qianlong(乾隆) Period (1644 -1795) , meanwhile land use patterns in the area also changed. This study area includes 34 cities/counties in the eastern Inner Mongolia, 20 cities/counties in Hebei, 3 counties in northern Beijing, 3 cities/counties in Heilongjiang, 8 cities/counties in Jilin, and 11 cities/counties in the south of Liaoning. In the area, the precipitation is 300 - 450 mm, and dryness is 1 — 2; From the southeast to northwest, the terrain gradually transforms from the northeast plains to Inner Mongolia plateau. The land administration information, such as reclamation policy, bumper & poor harvest, reclamation area and so on, are collected from Actual Annals of the Qing Dynasty (《清实录》) in the periods and are analyzed by the methods of historical literature law and

  6. Variation Characteristics of Regional Index of Flood and Drought in Altay, Xinjiang%新疆阿勒泰地区区域旱涝变化特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张林梅; 胡磊; 庄晓翠


    ,it was shown that the Eastern Europe to Western Siberia had a high positive anomaly in drought years,whereas,Xinjiang was controlled by warm ridge, of which were on the contrary in flood years. If the polar vortex area was small and the strength was weak in the past year,and the Western Pacific subtropical high-pressure was stronger and the area was big, together with zonal circulation,the W index was trend to be bigger than normal in the next year,which means that it was possibly a flood year. The scientific study of the flood/drought rules in the region, the timely adjustment of agricultural structure, and reasonable arrangements for agricultural production, were effective measure to defend flood/drought and reap a bumper harvest.

  7. Safer Vehicles for People and the Planet: Letter to the Editor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenzel, Thomas P; Wenzel, Thomas P; Ross, Marc


    his own papers, Dr. Evans appears to admit that it is not clear whether mass, or size (specifically crush space) is inherent to vehicle safety. Additional research indicates that it is not size per se that protects in two-vehicle crashes, but how well the stiff structures on the vehicles are aligned. The auto manufacturing industry has voluntarily made design changes to their pickup trucks to increase the likelihood that truck and car bumpers will interact in a frontal crash, reducing the aggressivity of pickup trucks in recent years. Regarding the differences in experiences between the U.S. and other countries, it is important to keep in mind that the U.S. vehicle fleet is fairly unique; about half of U.S. vehicles are light duty trucks (pickups, SUVs and minivans), which many studies have shown are dangerous to other road users.

  8. EDITORIAL: A physicist's journey to the centre of the Earth (United States)

    Hipkin, Roger


    extending to distant parts of the globe must be combined with international collaboration. ` `Little g' revisited' illustrates how a global picture of the Earth's gravity field is being created by supplementing such ground-based measurements with remote-sensing from satellites. Satellites now form the main source of information about `The Earth's main magnetic field', the consequence of a vast dynamo within the molten iron core. For such global problems of the deep interior, the impossibility of making direct observations is absolute but cost can often be an equally strict limitation for much geophysical work. While we could in principle look for oil reservoirs or shallow regions where poison has contaminated the ground by digging it all up or drilling, this would be economically prohibitive. `Investigating brownfield sites with electrical resistivity' illustrates that, for the geophysicist, investigating the Earth's core and mapping subsurface chemical pollutants are aspects of the same problem - using basic physics to find out about the Earth's inaccessible interior. Editor's note. In this bumper issue of Physics Education we also have a trio of articles about absolutely nothing, showing that there is more to nothing than might be apparent to the casual eye!