Molcho, Michal; Craig, Wendy; Due, Pernille; Pickett, William; Harel-Fisch, Yossi; Overpeck, Mary
To identify trends over 12 years in the prevalence of bullying and associated victimization among adolescents in North American and European countries. Cross-sectional self-report surveys were obtained from nationally representative samples of 11-15 year old school children in 21 countries in 1993/94 and in 27 countries in each of 1997/98, 2001/02 and 2005/06. Measures included involvement in bullying as either a perpetrator and/or victim. Consistent decreases in the prevalence of bullying were reported between 1993/94 to 2005/06 in most countries. Geographic patterns show consistent decreases in bullying in Western European countries and in most Eastern European countries. An increase or no change in prevalence was evident in almost all English speaking countries participating in the study (England, Scotland, Wales, Ireland and Canada, but not in the USA). Study findings demonstrated a significant decrease in involvement in bullying behaviour in most participating countries. This is encouraging news for policy-makers and practitioners working in the field of bullying prevention.
Molcho, Michal; Craig, Wendy; Due, Pernille
patterns show consistent decreases in bullying in Western European countries and in most Eastern European countries. An increase or no change in prevalence was evident in almost all English speaking countries participating in the study (England, Scotland, Wales, Ireland and Canada, but not in the USA...
Olsson, Gabriella; Låftman, Sara Brolin; Modin, Bitte
As with other forms of violent behaviour, bullying is the result of multiple influences acting on different societal levels. Yet the majority of studies on bullying focus primarily on the characteristics of individual bullies and bullied. Fewer studies have explored how the characteristics of central contexts in young people’s lives are related to bullying behaviour over and above the influence of individual-level characteristics. This study explores how teacher-rated school collective efficacy is related to student-reported bullying behaviour (traditional and cyberbullying victimization and perpetration). A central focus is to explore if school collective efficacy is related similarly to both traditional bullying and cyberbullying. Analyses are based on combined information from two independent data collections conducted in 2016 among 11th grade students (n = 6067) and teachers (n = 1251) in 58 upper secondary schools in Stockholm. The statistical method used is multilevel modelling, estimating two-level binary logistic regression models. The results demonstrate statistically significant between-school differences in all outcomes, except traditional bullying perpetration. Strong school collective efficacy is related to less traditional bullying perpetration and less cyberbullying victimization and perpetration, indicating that collective norm regulation and school social cohesion may contribute to reducing the occurrence of bullying. PMID:29261114
Full Text Available As with other forms of violent behaviour, bullying is the result of multiple influences acting on different societal levels. Yet the majority of studies on bullying focus primarily on the characteristics of individual bullies and bullied. Fewer studies have explored how the characteristics of central contexts in young people’s lives are related to bullying behaviour over and above the influence of individual-level characteristics. This study explores how teacher-rated school collective efficacy is related to student-reported bullying behaviour (traditional and cyberbullying victimization and perpetration. A central focus is to explore if school collective efficacy is related similarly to both traditional bullying and cyberbullying. Analyses are based on combined information from two independent data collections conducted in 2016 among 11th grade students (n = 6067 and teachers (n = 1251 in 58 upper secondary schools in Stockholm. The statistical method used is multilevel modelling, estimating two-level binary logistic regression models. The results demonstrate statistically significant between-school differences in all outcomes, except traditional bullying perpetration. Strong school collective efficacy is related to less traditional bullying perpetration and less cyberbullying victimization and perpetration, indicating that collective norm regulation and school social cohesion may contribute to reducing the occurrence of bullying.
Olsson, Gabriella; Låftman, Sara Brolin; Modin, Bitte
As with other forms of violent behaviour, bullying is the result of multiple influences acting on different societal levels. Yet the majority of studies on bullying focus primarily on the characteristics of individual bullies and bullied. Fewer studies have explored how the characteristics of central contexts in young people's lives are related to bullying behaviour over and above the influence of individual-level characteristics. This study explores how teacher-rated school collective efficacy is related to student-reported bullying behaviour (traditional and cyberbullying victimization and perpetration). A central focus is to explore if school collective efficacy is related similarly to both traditional bullying and cyberbullying. Analyses are based on combined information from two independent data collections conducted in 2016 among 11th grade students ( n = 6067) and teachers ( n = 1251) in 58 upper secondary schools in Stockholm. The statistical method used is multilevel modelling, estimating two-level binary logistic regression models. The results demonstrate statistically significant between-school differences in all outcomes, except traditional bullying perpetration. Strong school collective efficacy is related to less traditional bullying perpetration and less cyberbullying victimization and perpetration, indicating that collective norm regulation and school social cohesion may contribute to reducing the occurrence of bullying.
Pugh, Roger; Chitiyo, Morgan
Bullying in schools is recognised as a global problem. In the USA, school shootings and increasing school aggression focused research on the causes of bullying and interventions that could reduce or eliminate bullying behaviours. A variety of bullying programs have generated mixed results with some actually increasing bullying behaviours. There…
Bullying is the most common form of violence in schools. The current study examined the relationship between school climate and bullying behaviour among secondary school students in Yagba West, Kogi State, Nigeria. The research design employed for this study was a descriptive research method of the correlational ...
Full Text Available In this paper employing a phenomenological method to explicate seven informants’ experience of interpersonal bullying behaviors in a South African work context, I demarcated four general themes namely: lack of recognition, discrimination, obstructionism, and isolation. Moreover, I found that perpetrators (male and female managers predominantly used verbal and indirect negative acts to bully subordinates. Finally, racial tensions contributed to bullying behavior. While a phenomenological approach shows promise to explore local bullying behavior more research is needed to broaden our understanding of the phenomenon, including explicating bullying through the eyes of bystanders and alleged bullies.
Kadek Ayu Erika
Full Text Available Introduction: Bullying is a social problem which is part of aggressive violent behaviour done continuously and have negative impact to victims and its subject and happened at school. This study aimed to know the description of knowledge and adolescents behavior about bullying based on their age, gang, and family. Methods: This study used analytic descriptive design with number of sample was 246 adolescents from grade 1, 2, 3 of senior high school which used stratified random sampling. Instruments of this study were knowledge questioner, and modified of The Bullying Prevalence Questionnaire in guttman and likert scale. Data analysis used cross tabulation. Result: Data show that adolescents have a good knowledge (93.9% and less (6.1%. Bullying subjects were 93.9% and victims 94.7%. Forms of verbal bullying indicated the subjects (93.1% and victims (92.3%. Bullying subjects majority occurred in males (94.1% and women become victims (96.3%. Numbers of bullying subjects do not have a gang (94.5%, while those with gang as victims (95.2%. There were five adolescents who live in stepfamilies become subjects and victims of bullying. Conclusion: The majority of adolescents have good knowledge about bullying, bullying form the vast majority were verbal bullying with subjects and victims of bullying who occurs in all classes. The majority of bullying subjects do not have a gang, and as the majority of victims have a gang. Almost all adolescents with different family types become subjects and victims of bullying. Therefore, an intensive educational effort and spiritual needs to be done to change the behavior of adolescents to be adolescents with well character.
Bullying remains a persistent phenomenon in schools, but the extent to which day-to-day policies and practices relate to bullying prevalence has not been widely studied. In this study, we use an educational effectiveness framework to interrogate this relationship. The aim was to study the relationship between school factors and prevalence of bullying in primary schools. We hypothesize that school conditions (e.g., size), school policies (e.g., behaviour policies), and school processes (e.g., teaching quality) are related to bullying prevalence. Surveys were administered to pupils in 35 primary schools in four local authorities in England. Pupils (N = 1,411) and teachers (N = 68) in the final year of primary school (year 6) were surveyed. This study drew on the following data sources: A pupil survey on bullying behaviours A survey of teachers on school policies and processes Analysis of data on school processes from school inspection reports Analysis of secondary data on school conditions and pupil characteristics. Three-level multilevel models were used to analyse the data. Results show a substantial school- and classroom-level effect on prevalence of bullying. Effective school policies were found to be related to levels of bullying. The study provides support for the importance of schools' embedded policies and practices in relation to bullying prevalence and provides evidence for policy on the importance of focusing on a broad range of outcomes. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.
Betts, LR; Spenser, KA
The reported prevalence rates of cyber victimisation experiences and cyber bullying behaviours vary. Part of this variation is likely due to the diverse definitions and operationalisations of the constructs adopted in previous research and the lack of psychometrically robust measures. Through two studies, the current research developed (Study 1) and evaluated (Study 2) the cyber victimisation experiences and cyber bullying behaviours scales. In Study 1 393 (122 male, 171 female), and in Study...
Lester, Leanne; Cross, Donna; Shaw, Therese
Problem Behaviour Theory suggests that young people's problem behaviours tend to cluster. This study examined the relationship between traditional bullying, cyberbullying and engagement in problem behaviours using longitudinal data from approximately 1500 students. Levels of traditional victimisation and perpetration at the beginning of secondary…
Wilson, Janet Lynn
This article explores bullying behaviours in nursing in the UK and other countries, why bullying happens, and suggests actions to prevent or combat it. Bullying involves intentional and repeated psychological violence, humiliating and isolating staff from colleagues. Current literature reports that 20-25% of nursing staff experience bullying behaviour. The main perpetrators are nurses in a senior position to those being bullied and colleagues who are established staff members. Those likely to be bullied are students and new staff members. Bullying can cause distress and depression, with up to 25% of those bullied leaving their jobs or the profession, and have an impact on patient care. Factors contributing to bullying are hierarchical management and employees not feeling empowered. Silence and inaction by managers and colleagues allows this behaviour to continue. A zero-tolerance policy and the addressing of this behaviour clearly and promptly by managers should be instigated. Staff being bullied should be supported by colleagues.
Hoel, Helge; Faragher, Brian; Cooper, Cary L.
The aim of this paper is to investigate the impact of 'negative behaviours' and 'bullying' in the workplace on the health and well-being of employees, to what extent the effects remain beyond the period of the experience as well as the extent to which they affect third-parties or witnesses. The paper also raises the question whether some…
Bowes, Lucy; Maughan, Barbara; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Arseneault, Louise
Background: Bullied children are at risk for later emotional and behavioural problems. "Resilient" children function better than would be expected given their experience of bullying victimisation. This study examined the role of families in promoting resilience following bullying victimisation in primary school. Method: Data were from the…
Fink, Elian; Olthof, Tjeert; Goossens, Frits; van der Meijden, Sandra; Begeer, Sander
This study examined the association between peer-reported bullying-related behaviours (bully, victim, outsider and defender), age, gender, autism severity and teacher-rated emotional and behavioural problems in adolescents with autism spectrum disorder, using a multi-informant approach. The sample
Rettew, David C; Pawlowski, Sara
Bullying refers to aggressive behavior that is repetitive and intentional in which a power differential exists between the victim and bully. The negative effects of bullying on an individual's mental and physical health are substantial and in line with other major forms of child maltreatment. Efforts to increase detection of bullying are indicated, especially among youth presenting with school phobia, depression, anxiety, and declining school performance. Several antibullying efforts have been developed and promoted at the school and community level. Research indicates that many of these programs are effective and share some common elements that can help reduce the prevalence and impact of bullying. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Alabi, Yahaya Lasiele; Lami, Mustapha Mulikat
Bullying behaviour refers to repeated negative behaviour displayed by one or more person (s) with the intention of hurting the feeling, personality and power of the victim. The objective of this study therefore was to find out the efficacy of Client-Centred and Rational-Emotive Behaviour Therapies in reducing bullying behaviour among in-school…
Hansen, Hanne Hoff; Hasselgård, Cecilie Edh; Undheim, Anne Mari; Indredavik, Marit Sæbø
Few studies have focused the association between bullying and psychiatric disorders in clinical samples. The aim of this study was to examine if bullying behaviour was associated with psychiatric disorders and school well-being. The cross-sectional study was part of a health survey at St. Olav's University Hospital. The sample consisted of 685 adolescent patients aged 13-18 years who completed an electronic questionnaire. Clinical diagnoses were collected from clinical records. In this clinical psychiatric sample, 19% reported being bullied often or very often, and 51% reported being bullied from time to time. Logistic regression analyses showed associations between being a victim and having a mood disorder, and between being involved in bullying behaviour and reporting lower scores on school well-being. No difference was found in bullying behaviour on gender, age and SES. The risk of being a victim was high among adolescents in this clinical sample, especially among patients with mood disorders. Any involvement in bullying behaviour was associated with reduced school well-being.
Leach, Liana S; Poyser, Carmel; Butterworth, Peter
The established links between workplace bullying and poor mental health provide a prima facie reason to expect that workplace bullying increases the risk of suicidal ideation (thoughts) and behaviours. Until now, there has been no systematic summary of the available evidence. This systematic review summarises published studies reporting data on workplace bullying and suicidal ideation, or behaviour. The review sought to ascertain the nature of this association and highlight future research directions. 5 electronic databases were searched. 2 reviewers independently selected the articles for inclusion, and extracted information about study characteristics (sample, recruitment method, assessment and measures) and data reporting the association of workplace bullying with suicidal ideation and behaviour. 12 studies were included in the final review-8 reported estimates of a positive association between workplace bullying and suicidal ideation, and a further 4 provided descriptive information about the prevalence of suicidal ideation in targets of bullying. Only 1 non-representative cross-sectional study examined the association between workplace bullying and suicidal behaviour. The results show an absence of high-quality epidemiological studies (eg, prospective cohort studies, which controlled for workplace characteristics and baseline psychiatric morbidity). While the available literature (predominantly cross-sectional) suggests that there is a positive association between workplace bullying and suicidal ideation, the low quality of studies prevents ruling out alternative explanations. Further longitudinal, population-based research, adjusting for potential covariates (within and outside the workplace), is needed to determine the level of risk that workplace bullying independently contributes to suicidal ideation and behaviour. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Background: Bullying remains a persistent phenomenon in schools, but the extent to which day-to-day policies and practices relate to bullying prevalence has not been widely studied. In this study, we use an educational effectiveness framework to interrogate this relationship. Aims: The aim was to study the relationship between school factors and…
Søndergaard, Dorte Marie
Bullying is a widespread problem among children. This entry will look at its prevalence and offer an overview of some of the definitions developed and discussed by researchers working within childhood studies, and by practitioners trying to implement researchers’ understandings of bullying...
Zirkel, Perry A.
In the wake of Columbine and other high-profile school shootings, educators and the public at large have become increasingly aware of the danger and damage that bullying can cause. For example, a study by the U.S. Secret Service suggests that bullying was a contributing factor in two-thirds of 37 school shooting episodes. Other recent research…
Yahaya Lasiele Alabi
Full Text Available Bullying behaviour refers to repeated negative behaviour displayed by one or more person (s with the intention of hurting the feeling, personality and power of the victim. The objective of this study therefore was to find out the efficacy of Client-Centred and Rational-Emotive Behaviour Therapies in reducing bullying behaviour among in-school adolescents in Ilorin, Nigeria. The study adopted the quasi-experimental research method using a 3×2 factorial design made up of three (3 row groups (two experimental and one control. Stratified random sampling technique was used to select three secondary schools on the basis of location to prevent experimental contamination. Self-report questionnaire was used to purposively select the participants. The primary dependent variable was bullying behaviour and respondents with high score on bullying items and low scores on victimisation items were selected to participate in the treatment. The findings revealed a significant reduction in the bullying behaviour of the in-school adolescents exposed to experimental treatments; Client-Centred Therapy (CCT produced significant reduction in the bullying behaviour among the in-school adolescents, and Rational-Emotive Behaviour Therapy (REBT produced significant reduction in the bullying behaviour of the in-school adolescents. It was recommended that CCT and REBT procedures should be employed in modifying bullying behaviours.
Lawrence, Sally; Welfare, Heather
The current research explores the prevalence of bullying behaviour at HMYOI Warren Hill and the Carlford Unit. The introduction of the no-smoking policy at the establishment was also explored in relation to its effect on bullying behaviour given that tobacco has historically been the main item that young people have been bullied for. The Direct and Indirect Prisoner behaviour Checklist--Revised (DIPC-R) and a questionnaire designed to identify the effect of the introduction of the no-smoking policy on bullying behaviour were used within this study to answer the following questions: what is the prevalence of bullying behaviour at Warren Hill and the Carlford Unit, and do young people at Warren Hill and the Carlford Unit think that the rate and nature of bullying has been affected by the introduction of the no-smoking policy? One hundred and fifteen young people took part in the study. At Warren Hill, Bully/Victims were the most prevalent type identified and this was significantly greater than the number of young people identified as Pure Victims or Not Involved. On the Carlford Unit, Not Involved was the most prevalent type identified, and this finding provides limited support for the theories of bullying behaviour identified within the present study. The study found that the rate of bullying decreased following the introduction of the no-smoking policy at Warren Hill. The findings from this study are being used in the development of a new Violence Reduction Policy at HMYOI Warren Hill.
... Research Information Find a Study More Information Preterm Labor and Birth ... answers to other common questions about bullying, such as what laws may apply and whether certain groups are more ...
Báez-León, Carmen; Moreno-Jiménez, Bernardo; Aguirre-Camacho, Aldo; Olmos, Ricardo
The role played by witnesses of bullying in nursing settings remains little studied, despite their potential relevance in explaining the onset and development of bullying. The objective of this study was to develop a model to account for witnesses' intention to help and helping behaviour in response to bullying in a nursing setting. Three hundred and thirty-seven witnesses completed self-report measures of variables predicting intention to help and helping behaviour. A full structural model was constructed using structural equation modelling. The intention to help victims was elicited by tension, group identity, support to peers' initiative to intervene and absence of fear of retaliation. However, engagement in helping behaviour was only predicted by the absence of fear of retaliation. This study shows that witnesses of bullying in nursing settings do not remain impassive, but their experienced discomfort and intention to help victims is not sufficient to predict helping behaviour. Fear of possible retaliation if intervening in favour of victims constitutes a crucial factor explaining witnesses' hesitation to help victims. Several implications for the implementation of policies directed at eradicating bullying in nursing settings are discussed. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Hein, Vello; Koka, Andre; Hagger, Martin S
We tested a model of the associations between students' perceptions of their physical education teacher's controlling behaviour, perceptions of basic psychological need thwarting, anger and bullying behaviour. School students (N = 602; M age = 12.88, SD = 1.37) from 10 schools completed measures of perceived teachers' controlling behaviour and perceived thwarting of the psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness in physical education context and self-reported bullying and anger. A well-fitting structural equation model demonstrated that students' perceptions of the negative conditional regard and intimidation exhibited by the teacher had significant indirect effect on students' feelings of anger and bullying behaviour through the perceived psychological need thwarting in physical education. Findings suggest that physical education teachers who avoid the use of negative conditional regard and intimidation in their classes have students who perceive less need thwarting and report less bullying behaviour. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Adegboyega, Lateef Omotosho; Okesina, Falilat Anike; Jacob, Olumayowa Ayorinde
This paper examined family relationship and bullying behaviour among secondary school students with disabilities in Ogbomoso South, Oyo State, Nigeria. The research design employed for this study was descriptive method of the correlational survey type. The population for this study comprises all secondary school students with disabilities in…
Quirk, Roslynn; Campbell, Marilyn
Given their ubiquitous presence as witnesses to school-yard bullying, the role of the "bystander" has been studied extensively. The prevalence and behaviour of bystanders to "cyberbullying," however, is less understood. In an anonymous, school-based questionnaire, 716 secondary school students from South-East Queensland…
Menesini, Ersilia; Camodeca, Marina
Abstract: This study aimed at investigating intentional and non-intentional situations eliciting shame and guilt in relation to children's involvement in bullying, victimization and prosocial behaviour. We used the contextual model designed by Olthof, Schouten, Kuiper, Stegge, and Jennekens-Schinkel (2000) according to which certain situations…
Erdogdu, M. Yüksel
The main goal of this research is to present the relationship between "parental attitude and teacher behaviors in predicting school bullying". The population of this research is consisted of all primary school 4th grade students within Istanbul Küçükçekmece Municipality borders. Data were gathered from lower, mid and upper socio-economic…
Illing, Jan; Carter, Madeline; Thompson, Neill; Crampton, Paul; Morrow, Gill; Howse, Jenny; Cooke, A.; Burford, Bryan
Background\\ud Workplace bullying is a persistent problem in the NHS with negative implications for individuals, teams, and organisations. Bullying is a complex phenomenon and there is a lack of evidence on the best approaches to manage the problem.\\ud \\ud Aims\\ud Research questions\\ud \\ud What is known about the occurrence, causes, consequences and management of bullying and inappropriate behaviour in the workplace?\\ud \\ud Objectives\\ud Summarise the reported prevalence of workplace bullying ...
Magklara, Konstantina; Skapinakis, Petros; Gkatsa, Tatiana; Bellos, Stefanos; Araya, Ricardo; Stylianidis, Stylianos; Mavreas, Venetsanos
Bullying is quite prevalent in the school setting and has been associated with the socioeconomic position and psychiatric morbidity of the pupils. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between bullying and socioeconomic status in a sample of Greek adolescents and to examine whether this is confounded by the presence of psychiatric morbidity, including sub-threshold forms of illness. 5,614 adolescents aged 16-18 years old and attending 25 senior high schools were screened and a stratified random sample of 2,427 were selected for a detailed interview. Psychiatric morbidity was assessed with a fully structured psychiatric interview, the revised Clinical Interview Schedule (CIS-R), while bullying was assessed with the revised Olweus bully/victim questionnaire. The following socio-economic variables were assessed: parental educational level and employment status, financial difficulties of the family and adolescents' school performance. The associations were investigated using multinomial logit models. 26.4% of the pupils were involved in bullying-related behaviours at least once monthly either as victims, perpetrators or both, while more frequent involvement (at least once weekly) was reported by 4.1%. Psychiatric morbidity was associated with all types of bullying-related behaviours. No socioeconomic associations were reported for victimization. A lower school performance and unemployment of the father were significantly more likely among perpetrators, while economic inactivity of the mother was more likely in pupils who were both victims and perpetrators. These results were largely confirmed when we focused on high frequency behaviours only. In addition, being overweight increased the risk of frequent victimization. The prevalence of bullying among Greek pupils is substantial. Perpetration was associated with some dimensions of adolescents' socioeconomic status, while victimization showed no socioeconomic associations. Our findings may add to the
Full Text Available Abstract Background Bullying is quite prevalent in the school setting and has been associated with the socioeconomic position and psychiatric morbidity of the pupils. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between bullying and socioeconomic status in a sample of Greek adolescents and to examine whether this is confounded by the presence of psychiatric morbidity, including sub-threshold forms of illness. Methods 5,614 adolescents aged 16-18 years old and attending 25 senior high schools were screened and a stratified random sample of 2,427 were selected for a detailed interview. Psychiatric morbidity was assessed with a fully structured psychiatric interview, the revised Clinical Interview Schedule (CIS-R, while bullying was assessed with the revised Olweus bully/victim questionnaire. The following socio-economic variables were assessed: parental educational level and employment status, financial difficulties of the family and adolescents' school performance. The associations were investigated using multinomial logit models. Results 26.4% of the pupils were involved in bullying-related behaviours at least once monthly either as victims, perpetrators or both, while more frequent involvement (at least once weekly was reported by 4.1%. Psychiatric morbidity was associated with all types of bullying-related behaviours. No socioeconomic associations were reported for victimization. A lower school performance and unemployment of the father were significantly more likely among perpetrators, while economic inactivity of the mother was more likely in pupils who were both victims and perpetrators. These results were largely confirmed when we focused on high frequency behaviours only. In addition, being overweight increased the risk of frequent victimization. Conclusions The prevalence of bullying among Greek pupils is substantial. Perpetration was associated with some dimensions of adolescents' socioeconomic status, while victimization
Chowell, G; Torre, C A; Munayco-Escate, C; Suárez-Ognio, L; López-Cruz, R; Hyman, J M; Castillo-Chavez, C
SUMMARYThe weekly number of dengue cases in Peru, South America, stratified by province for the period 1994-2006 were analysed in conjunction with associated demographic, geographic and climatological data. Estimates of the reproduction number, moderately correlated with population size (Spearman rho=0.28, P=0.03), had a median of 1.76 (IQR 0.83-4.46). The distributions of dengue attack rates and epidemic durations follow power-law (Pareto) distributions (coefficient of determination >85%, Pjungle areas. Our findings suggest a hierarchy of transmission events during the large 2000-2001 epidemic from large to small population areas when serotypes DEN-3 and DEN-4 were first identified (Spearman rho=-0.43, P=0.03). The need for spatial and temporal dengue epidemic data with a high degree of resolution not only increases our understanding of the dynamics of dengue but will also generate new hypotheses and provide a platform for testing innovative control policies.
Winsper, Catherine; Hall, James; Strauss, Vicky Y; Wolke, Dieter
Developmental theories for the aetiology of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) suggest that both individual features (e.g., childhood dysregulated behaviour) and negative environmental experiences (e.g., maladaptive parenting, peer victimisation) may lead to the development of BPD symptoms during adolescence. Few prospective studies have examined potential aetiological pathways involving these two factors. We addressed this gap in the literature using data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). We assessed mother-reported childhood dysregulated behaviour at 4, 7 and 8 years using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ); maladaptive parenting (maternal hitting, punishment, and hostility) at 8 to 9 years; and bully victimisation (child and mother report) at 8, 9 and 10 years. BPD symptoms were assessed at 11 years using the UK Childhood Interview for DSM-IV BPD. Control variables included adolescent depression (assessed with the Short Moods and Feelings Questionnaire-SMFQ) and psychotic symptoms (assessed with the Psychosis-Like Symptoms Interview-PLIKS) at 11 to 14 years, and mother's exposure to family adversity during pregnancy (assessed with the Family Adversity Scale-FAI). In unadjusted logistic regression analyses, childhood dysregulated behaviour and all environmental risk factors (i.e., family adversity, maladaptive parenting, and bully victimisation) were significantly associated with BPD symptoms at 11 years. Within structural equation modelling controlling for all associations simultaneously, family adversity and male sex significantly predicted dysregulated behaviour across childhood, while bully victimisation significantly predicted BPD, depression, and psychotic symptoms. Children displaying dysregulated behaviour across childhood were significantly more likely to experience maladaptive parenting (β = 0.075, p bullying (β = 0.097, p < 0.001). While significant indirect associations
McLeod, Geraldine Geri F H; Reeder, Anthony I; Gray, Andrew R; McGee, Rob
To describe summer weekend sun exposure and sunburn experience, 1994-2006, among urban New Zealanders (15-69 years) by sex, age group, skin type and outdoor activity type. A series of five telephone surveys undertaken in the summers of 1994, 1997, 1999-2000, 2002-3 and 2005-6 provided a sample of 6,195 respondents with usable data from five major cities (Auckland, Hamilton, Wellington, Christchurch and Dunedin). Respondents were administered a Computer Assisted Telephone Interview (CATI) questionnaire which sought sociodemographic information, sun exposure, and sunburn experience during the most recent weekend. Overall, 69% of the sample had spent at least 15 minutes outdoors between 11am and 4pm. Weekend sunburn was reported by 21%, and was more common among males, young adults and those with highly sun-sensitive skin than females, older adults and those with less sensitive skin. The head/face/neck was the body area most frequently and severely sunburned. Sunburn was associated with greater time spent outdoors and occurred most frequently during water-based (29%) and passive recreational activities (25%) and paid work (23%). Sun protection strategies could usefully be targeted not only towards at-risk population groups, but also towards those activities and contexts most strongly associated with potentially harmful sun exposure.
Jacquart, J; Van Paemel, S; Pitchot, W
School bullying consists of harassment behaviours in a school setting and is characterized by violence acts, mockery or even humiliations between students. More recently, with the development of new technologies, our society has seen the cyber-bullying born. This new type of harassment "on-line" comes and intersects the harassment at school. After the description of a clinical situation, we describe the impact of this phenomenon on the different actors concerned, the lines for prevention and for appropriate support.
Alavi, Nazanin; Reshetukha, Taras; Prost, Eric; Antoniak, Kristen; Patel, Charmy; Sajid, Saad; Groll, Dianne
Increasing numbers of adolescents are visiting emergency departments with suicidal ideation. This study examines the relationship between bullying and suicidal ideation in emergency department settings. A chart review was conducted for all patients under 18 years of age presenting with a mental health complaint to the emergency departments at Kingston General or Hotel Dieu Hospitals in Kingston, Canada, between January 2011 and January 2015. Factors such as age, gender, history of abuse, history of bullying, type and time of bullying, and diagnoses were documented. 77% of the adolescents had experienced bullying, while 68.9% had suicide ideation at presentation. While controlling for age, gender, grade, psychiatric diagnosis, and abuse, a history of bullying was the most significant predictor of suicidal ideation. Individuals in this study who reported cyber bullying were 11.5 times more likely to have suicidal ideation documented on presentation, while individuals reporting verbal bullying were 8.4 times more likely. The prevalence of bullying in adolescent patients presenting to emergency departments is high. The relationship found between suicidal ideation and bullying demonstrates that clinicians should ask questions about bullying as a risk factor for suicide ideation during the assessment of children and adolescents.
Wolke, Dieter; Tippett, Neil; Dantchev, Slava
Sibling relationships have a substantial and lasting effect on children's development. Many siblings experience some occasional conflict, however, up to 40% are exposed to sibling bullying every week, a repeated and harmful form of intrafamilial aggression. We review evidence on the precursors, factors relating to peer bullying, and mental health consequences of sibling bullying. Parenting quality and behaviour are the intrafamilial factors most strongly associated with bullying between siblings. Sibling bullying increases the risk of being involved in peer bullying, and is independently associated with concurrent and early adult emotional problems, including distress, depression, and self-harm. The effects appear to be cumulative, with those children bullied by both siblings and peers having highly increased emotional problems compared with those bullied by siblings or peers only, probably because they have no safe place to escape from bullying. The link between sibling and peer bullying suggests interventions need to start at home. Health professionals should ask about sibling bullying and interventions are needed for families to prevent and reduce the health burden associated with sibling bullying. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dwi Indah Iswanti
Full Text Available The violence that occurs in education is known as bullying. Violence can occur in mild degrees such as cheating on exams, to fights or beatings that result in death. Bullying in children often leads to school phobias (ask for school change, reduced learning concentration, decreased learning achievement, and likes to carry certain items. Interventions that can be done include Problem Solving Therapy (PST, Behavior Modification (behavior modification, and Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT. The purpose of this study was to produce CBT modules in school-aged children that were useful for reducing bullying behavior, using a pre-post test with control group design. The subject of this research is 52 elementary school age children in Tembalang District Semarang selected by purposive sampling technique. Data were collected using bullying behavior checklist, CBT module and workbook, then analyzed using T-Test. The results showed a decrease in bullying behavior in the intervention group after CBT Individual therapy was given.
Ford, Rebecca; King, Tania; Priest, Naomi; Kavanagh, Anne
To provide the first Australian population-based estimates of the association between bullying and adverse mental health outcomes and suicidality among Australian adolescents. Analysis of data from 3537 adolescents, aged 14-15 years from Wave 6 of the K-cohort of Longitudinal Study of Australian Children was conducted. We used Poisson and linear regression to estimate associations between bullying type (none, relational-verbal, physical, both types) and role (no role, victim, bully, victim and bully), and mental health (measured by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, symptoms of anxiety and depression) and suicidality. Adolescents involved in bullying had significantly increased Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, depression and anxiety scores in all bullying roles and types. In terms of self-harm and suicidality, bully-victims had the highest risk of self-harm (prevalence rate ratio 4.7, 95% confidence interval [3.26, 6.83]), suicidal ideation (prevalence rate ratio 4.3, 95% confidence interval [2.83, 6.49]), suicidal plan (prevalence rate ratio 4.1, 95% confidence interval [2.54, 6.58]) and attempts (prevalence rate ratio 2.7, 95% confidence interval [1.39, 5.13]), followed by victims then bullies. The experience of both relational-verbal and physical bullying was associated with the highest risk of self-harm (prevalence rate ratio 4.6, 95% confidence interval [3.15, 6.60]), suicidal ideation or plans (prevalence rate ratio 4.6, 95% confidence interval [3.05, 6.95]; and 4.8, 95% confidence interval [3.01, 7.64], respectively) or suicide attempts (prevalence rate ratio 3.5, 95% confidence interval [1.90, 6.30]). This study presents the first national, population-based estimates of the associations between bullying by peers and mental health outcomes in Australian adolescents. The markedly increased risk of poor mental health outcomes, self-harm and suicidal ideation and behaviours among adolescents who experienced bullying highlights the
Viviane S Straatmann
Full Text Available We investigated the stability and the directionality of being body bullied and a set of four variables- 1 Body Mass Index (BMI, 2 moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA, 3 television time (TV and 4 video game/computer time (VG-, termed in the present study as 'health-related state and behaviours (HRSB'-across adolescence. The Adolescent Nutritional Assessment Longitudinal Study (ELANA is a cohort study conducted among middle school students from two public and four private schools in Rio de Janeiro-Brazil. We analysed data from 2010 (T1 and 2012 (T2 among 810 adolescents (aged 9-15 at T1. Gender-specific structural equation models (SEM were estimated, including autoregressive paths for the HRSB and being body bullied over time, correlations at T1 and T2, respectively, and cross-lagged effects. The results presented significant stability coefficients for almost all variables over time in both genders (except for MVPA in boys and girls and TV time among girls. There were positive correlations between BMI and being body bullied, as well as between TV and VG for boys (0.32, p<0.001 and 0.24, p<0.001, respectively and girls (0.30, p<0.001 and 0.30, p<0.001, respectively at T1. It remained significant at T2 (boys: 0.18, p<0.05 and 0.16, p<0.01; girls: 0.21, p<0.01 and 0.22, p<0.01, respectively. Examining the cross-lagged paths between being body bullied and HRSB, we observed that the reciprocal model provided the best fit for boys, indicating that BMI at T1 had a significant effect in being body bullied at T2 (0.12, p<0.05 and being body bullied at T1 had an effect on VG at T2 (0.14, p<0.01. Among girls the forward causation model showed the best fit, demonstrating a significant effect of being body bullied at T1 on VG at T2 (0.16, p<0.01. Apart from MVPA, both being body bullying and HRSB were largely stable across adolescence. For boys and girls alike, exposure to being body bullied seemed to increase their time spent on VG, while for boys
Ireland, Jane L
This study compares bullying behaviour among juvenile and young offenders and incorporates two different methods to measure bullying. Ninety-five male juvenile and 196 male young offenders completed two questionnaires, one that measured bullying directly and one that measured behaviours indicative of "being bullied" or of "bullying others". Juveniles perceived a higher extent of bullying than young offenders. Juveniles reported significantly more physical, psychological or verbal and overall direct forms of bullying behaviour than young offenders. A number of differences were found between juveniles and young offenders with regard to the types of prisoners likely to become victims, who they would advise a victim to speak to and how bullying could be prevented. The results are discussed in relation to developmental theories of aggression and how bullying behaviour can be defined and measured among prisoners. Copyright 2002 The Association for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
This chapter is focussed on the bullying of, and by, Dutch students below age 13. The first questions to be answered are what is 'bullying', and how can it be distinguished from other types of disruptive behaviours? The answers to these questions are given by means of conceptual definitions, based
Moore, Brian; Woodcock, Stuart
Anti-bullying strategies are significant approaches addressing bullying in schools, however their capacity to produce a reduction in bullying behaviour is open to question. This article examined a resilience-based approach to bullying. One hundred and five primary and high school students were surveyed using several standardised instruments. The…
Murphy, Helena; Tubritt, John; Norman, James O'Higgins
Much research on bullying behaviour in schools among students has been carried out since the 1970's, when Olweus started a large-scale project in Norway which is now generally regarded as the first scientific study on bullying. Yet, there has been little research on how teachers respond to reports of bullying and tackle bullying behaviour in…
Full Text Available Objective. This study investigates the relationship between involvement in bullying in childhood and adolescence and psychological difficulties in young adulthood. Materials and method. A total of 249college students completed the Retrospective Bullying Questionnaireand Trauma Symptom Checklist. Results. The results showed significantdifferences in psychological adjustment among respondents whowere exposed to bullying compared to respondents who were not exposedto bullying. Those exposed to bullying had significantly higherlevels of anxiety, depression, sleeping problems, and dissociative andtraumatic symptoms compared to those who were not exposed to bullying.Respondents who were exposed to bullying in all three examinedperiods (the period from the first to fourth grade, the period from the fifth to eighth grade and the high school period had higher scores on the subscale of dissociative symptoms and sexual trauma symptoms compared to respondents who were exposed through one or twoperiods. Victims abused in all three periods have more symptoms ofanxiety and sleeping problems compared to the subjects exposed tobullying during one examination period. There were no differences inthe level of depressive symptoms and sexual problems regarding theduration of bullying. Also, there were no differences in psychologicaladjustment between respondents who were bullied during one specificperiod. Conclusion. Bullying experiences in childhood and adolescenceare connected with difficulties in psychological adjustment inyoung adulthood.
... Types of Aggressive Behavior Print Share What Is Bullying Bullying is unwanted, aggressive behavior among school aged ... When Bullying Happens Frequency of Bullying Types of Bullying There are three types of bullying: Verbal bullying ...
Lee, Kirsty; Guy, Alexa; Dale, Jeremy; Wolke, Dieter
Background Adolescent bullying is associated with a range of adversities for those who are bullied i.e., victims and bully-victims (e.g., those who bully others and get victimised), including reduced psychological functioning and eating disorder symptoms. Bullies are generally well-adjusted psychologically, but previous research suggests that bullies may also engage in problematic diet behaviours. This study investigates a) whether adolescents involved in bullying (bullies, victims, bully-vic...
Allison, Matthew D; Ireland, Jane L
The current study explored the relationship between social and physical environmental factors supportive of bullying, levels of bullying and fear of bullying. Participants were 261 adult male prisoners. All completed the Direct and Indirect Prisoner Checklist-Scaled Version Revised (DIPC-SCALED-r Ireland, 2007), the Prison Environment Scale (PES Allison, 2007), and a Brief Measure of Fear of Bullying Scale (BMFBS). The PES was explored initially using 100 male prisoners randomly selected from the main sample and 100 prison officers. It was predicted that increased bullying would be associated with increased evidence of environmental factors supportive of bullying; that increased levels of fear of bullying would be associated with increased evidence of environmental factors supportive of bullying; and that actual experience of bullying would represent better predictors of fear levels than the presence of environmental factors supportive of bullying. Those perceiving greater levels of environmental factors reported more fear of bullying and more behaviours indicative of bullying (perpetration and victimisation), with this holding for indirect and direct behaviours indicative of bullying. Bullying behaviours (direct perpetration and indirect victimisation) predicted fear of bullying more than the presence of environmental factors. The environmental factor of rules, regulations and security were found to predict bullying perpetration. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nursel TÜRKMEN, Delia; Halis DOKGÖZ, Mihai; Semra AKGÖZ, Suzana; Bülent EREN, Bogdan Nicolae; Pınar VURAL, Horatiu; Oğuz POLAT, Horatiu
ABSTRACT Objective: The main aim of this research is to investigate the prevalence of bullying behaviour, its victims and the types of bullying and places of bullying among 14-17 year-old adolescents in a sample of school children in Bursa, Turkey. Methodology: A cross-sectional survey questionnaire was conducted among class 1 and class 2 high school students for identification bullying. Results: Majority (96.7%) of the students were involved in bullying behaviours as aggressors or victims. For a male student, the likelihood of being involved in violent behaviours was detected to be nearly 8.4 times higher when compared with a female student. Conclusion: a multidisciplinary approach involving affected children, their parents, school personnel, media, non-govermental organizations, and security units is required to achieve an effective approach for the prevention of violence targeting children in schools as victims and/or perpetrators. PMID:24371478
Digital culture is part of children’s and adolescents’ everyday lives. Digital culture has both positive and negative consequences. One such negative consequence is cyber violence that has been termed cyber bullying. Cyber bullying can cause serious emotional, behavioural and academic problems for both the victim and the bully. Although there is ongoing research on the effects of cyber bullying on children and youth in South Africa, no research has been carried out on how children’s and youth...
Johnson, Susan L
The aim of this study was to analyse the discourses of workplace bullying prevention of hospital nursing unit managers and in the official documents of the organizations where they worked. Workplace bullying can be a self-perpetuating problem in nursing units. As such, efforts to prevent this behaviour may be more effective than efforts to stop ongoing bullying. There is limited research on how healthcare organizations characterize their efforts to prevent workplace bullying. This was a qualitative study. Critical discourse analysis and Foucault's writings on governmentality and discipline were used to analyse data from interviews with hospital nursing unit managers (n = 15) and organizational documents (n = 22). Data were collected in 2012. The discourse of workplace bullying prevention centred around three themes: prevention of workplace bullying through managerial presence, normalizing behaviours and controlling behaviours. All three are individual level discourses of workplace bullying prevention. Current research indicates that workplace bullying is a complex issue with antecedents at the individual, departmental and organizational level. However, the discourse of the participants in this study only focused on prevention of bullying by moulding the behaviours of individuals. The effective prevention of workplace bullying will require departmental and organizational initiatives. Leaders in all types of organizations can use the results of this study to examine their organizations' discourses of workplace bullying prevention to determine where change is needed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Smith, Peter K.
Bullying is defined as a systematic abuse of power; the development of the research program on school bullying is outlined over four phases. The distinctive nature of cyberbullying, and also of identity-based bullying, is outlined. Measurement methods are discussed, and the kinds of prevalence rates obtained. A range of risk factors for involvement as a bully, or victim, are summarized. A range of school-based interventions are described, together with discussion of a meta-analysis of their o...
Meland, Eivind; Rydning, Jan Henrik; Lobben, Stian; Breidablik, Hans-Johan; Ekeland, Tor-Johan
To clarify distributions of emotional and somatic symptoms among different groups involved in bullying behaviour during early adolescence; to explore differences in social integration and self-perceptions; to explore how different cut-off limits for bullying behaviour may affect the impact of these measures; and to interpret our findings in the light of theories of identity that may suggest directions for interventions against bullying in schools. A cross-sectional study, based on self-completion questionnaire, of 1237 pupils aged 11-15 years in autumn 2000 in Alesund, Norway. Bullies and their victims reported similar and greater emotional impairments and psychosomatic complaints, lack of self-confidence, and pessimism than students not involved in bullying. With increasing involvement, bullies differed from non-involved students only in regard to depressive complaints and pessimism. The bullied group reported more depressive, somatic and anxiety complaints, and self-reproach with increasing victimisation. Both bullies and the bullied reported problems relating to school, parents, and teachers. Bullies enjoyed friendships to the same degree or better than their peers not involved in bullying, whereas the bullied group reported impaired peer relations and increasing problems with more serious involvement. Bullies, the bullied, and bully-victims reported diminishing peer support in their class with increasing involvement. Both the bullied and bullies share relational, emotional, and self-conceptual problems, but they also differ in whether they succeed in social arenas and to what extent they are affected by different emotional and self-conceptual problems. They are, however, fellow sufferers in many aspects.
Full Text Available Previous research on workplace bullying has narrowed its subjective boundaries by drawing heavily from psychological and social-psychological perspectives. However, workplace bullying can also be understood as an endemic feature of capitalist employment relationship. Labor process theory with its core characteristics of power, control, and exploitation of labor can effectively open and allow further exploration of workplace bullying issues. This article aims to make a contribution by examining workplace bullying from the historical and political contexts of society to conceptualize it as a control tool to sustain the capitalist exploitative regime with empirical support from an ethnographic case study within the health care sector.
Mernild, Sebastian H.; Hansen, Birger; Jakobsen, Bjarne Holm
the catchment, meteorological conditions are monitored at the coast (Station Coast, 25 m a.s.l.) for the period 1998-2006 and in the glacier area (Station Nunatak, 515 m a.s.l.) for 1994-2006. During this 13-year period, solar radiation shows increasing values, averaging 0.5 W m-2 y-1, at the nunatak...... and decreasing values, averaging 1.4 W m-2 y-1, at the coast. The mean annual solar radiation at Station Coast is 102 W m-2 y-1, which is about 10% lower than at Station Nunatak, and is probably caused by increasing and higher percentages of dense clouds and sea fog in the coastal area. The mean annual air...... temperature is increasing by 0.10ºC y-1 at the nunatak and by 0.05ºC y-1 at the coast, extending the thawing periods by about 50 days and 5 days, respectively. A snow-free period of 64 days is observed at the nunatak. The coastal area is highly dominated by air temperature inversion and sea breezes during...
Attachment theory provides a frame for understanding the role of attachment styles in the development of bullying behaviour in adolescence. The present study examined attachment styles (secure, avoidant and anxious/ambivalent) that differentiated bullies, victims, bully/victims and uninvolved adolescents. A total of 1,921 students (1,006 girls and…
Menesini, Ersilia; Nocentini, Annalaura; Camodeca, Marina
The aim of the present study was to investigate moral aspects and human values in traditional bullying and cyberbullying, in order to detect differences between the two types of bullying and to test the role of immoral and disengaged behaviours in mediating the relationships between personal values and involvement in bullying. Sample comprised 390…
The focus of the milestone project is to focus on bridging the gap of bullying and classroom instruction methods. There has to be a defined expectations and level of accountability that has to be defined when supporting and implementing a plan linked to bullying prevention. All individuals involved in the student's learning have to be aware of…
Power-Elliott, Michleen; Harris, Gregory E.
The purpose of this exploratory-descriptive study was to examine how guidance counsellors in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador would handle a specific verbal-relational bullying incident. Also of interest was guidance counsellor involvement and training in bullying programmes and Positive Behaviour Supports. Data for this study was…
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Wolke, Dieter; Lereya, Suzet Tanya
Bullying is the systematic abuse of power and is defined as aggressive behaviour or intentional harm-doing by peers that is carried out repeatedly and involves an imbalance of power. Being bullied is still often wrongly considered as a ‘normal rite of passage’. This review considers the importance of bullying as a major risk factor for poor physical and mental health and reduced adaptation to adult roles including forming lasting relationships, integrating into work and being economically independent. Bullying by peers has been mostly ignored by health professionals but should be considered as a significant risk factor and safeguarding issue. PMID:25670406
Lewis, Malcolm A
To examine bullying within nursing from a micro-sociological perspective and elucidate interactive mechanisms contributing to its causes and continuation within the nursing profession. The paper is part of a doctoral research study into bullying within nursing. It considers issues pertinent to management, and in the role of negotiated interactions within the National Health Service when dealing with bullying problems. The complex dynamics involved can be problematic for management when dealing with bullying, while often managers have been targets of bullying themselves and not infrequently accused of it. Features of bullying activity are explored, along with issues of target and bully awareness, a central feature in bullying negotiations. Issues of awareness and emergence of bullying behaviour have been identified through vignettes and unstructured interviews, and the research has identified complex interactive events in the creation and maintenance of nurse bullying activity. It is hoped that with a clearer understanding of such mechanisms and manifestations that bullying in the workplace can be reduced or eliminated. The paper is of practical use to nurse managers in illuminating such mechanisms and bringing bullying awareness to the fore. Such activity is ultimately damaging to the organization in both cost and time; and significant for professional practice by its impact upon the nurse and their work in supportive and safe environments. It will also to allow managers to consider their own practice and reactions to bullying activity within the profession. The overall findings from the research point strongly to bullying activity being essentially 'learned behaviour' within the workplace rather than any predominantly psychological deficit within individual perpetrators and targets.
Full Text Available Digital culture is part of children’s and adolescents’ everyday lives. Digital culture has both positive and negative consequences. One such negative consequence is cyber violence that has been termed cyber bullying. Cyber bullying can cause serious emotional, behavioural and academic problems for both the victim and the bully. Although there is ongoing research on the effects of cyber bullying on children and youth in South Africa, no research has been carried out on how children’s and youth’s spirituality may be affected when they are cyber bullied. This article discusses the accumulative results from different South African institutes that have researched the cyber bullying effects on children and adolescents. These results point to the spiritual effects that children and youth may experience as a result of cyber bullying. This article proposes that spirituality may prevent cyber bullying and even help children and youth heal from the trauma caused by cyber bullying. This article contributes in starting a conversation that may result in more specific research being done on how the spiritual lives of children and adolescents may be affected through the trauma caused by cyber bullying.
of open-ended, social, discursive, material and subjective forces. Instead of approaching bullying as a phenomenon that can be explained and defined in terms of one factor (e.g., aggression), the authors in this anthology focus on a range of different forces that are central in bullying: teachers (Hansen...... to the processes of material–discursive enactments establishes important premises for the recurring basic assumptions that the eXbus-team have developed about bullying being enacted by multiple intra-acting forces and about their entangled agencies (see Søndergaard on page XX for an explication of this idea...
The victims of bullying are subjected to being terrorized, annoyed, excluded, belittled, deprived of resources, isolated and prevented from claiming rights. The victims of bullying have decreased job satisfaction, work performance, motivation and productivity. Bullying also negatively affects victims' social relationships inside and outside the institution. This study was conducted as a cross-sectional and descriptive study for the purpose of assessing the workplace, bullying of nurses in Turkey and the effects it has on nursing practices. The sample was composed of 286 nurses, and all of the respondents were female. The research instrument was a questionnaire in five parts. The first section included the participants' demographic information; the other variables were measured in four categories: psychologically violent behaviours, workload, organizational effects and depression. Thirty-seven per cent of the nurses participating in the research had never or almost never encountered workplace bullying behaviour in the last 12 months, 21% of the nurses had been exposed to these behaviours. There were no differences between position and educational level in workplace bullying. Workplace bullying leads to depression, lowered work motivation, decreased ability to concentrate, poor productivity, lack of commitment to work, and poor relationships with patients, managers and colleagues. Workplace bullying is a measurable problem that negatively affects the psychology and performance of the nurses in this study.
and relational practices – as well as the abjections by which subjects and social groups are formed – have inspired several of the articles, and the authors seek to reveal complex patterns of relating amongst children in school classes that are saturated by marginalisation and bullying practices. Foucault......School Bullying: New Theories in Context brings together the work of scholars who utilise ontological, epistemological and methodological approaches that challenge paradigm one, contributing to the shift in research on school bullying that we call paradigm two. Several of the authors have...... in these countries highlights both the similarities and differences amongst national school systems. Most importantly, the authors share an analytical ambition to understand bullying as a complex phenomenon that is enacted or constituted through the interactive/intra-active entanglements that exist between a variety...
... likelihood of victimization include: • Poor peer relationships • Low self-esteem • Perceived by peers as different or quiet National ... ME, Lumpkin CD. Bullying surveillance among youths: Uniform definitions for public health and recommended data elements, Version ...
the importance of qualitative research in the field of school bullying. However, the authors also acknowledge the importance of insights obtained through quantitative studies, such as survey material, and through mixed methods (see Hansen, Henningsen and Kofoed on page XX, and Cross and Barnes on page XX)....... seen amongst various the actors involved in bullying practices. Theoretical approaches based in deconstruction, discourse analysis and narrative analysis as well as mixed methods have been utilised to analyse the qualitative data. This anthology makes a particular contribution in highlighting......School Bullying: New Theories in Context brings together the work of scholars who utilise ontological, epistemological and methodological approaches that challenge paradigm one, contributing to the shift in research on school bullying that we call paradigm two. Several of the authors have...
Chadwick, Sharlene; Travaglia, Joanne
Purpose During the past decade, there has been increased attention into bullying behaviours in workplaces. Research to date has varied in design, the definition of what constitutes bullying behaviour, as well as the methods used to collect data and measure bullying incidence and prevalence. Nonetheless, studies demonstrate that bullying is a significant issue, which warrants an increased research focus to develop greater understanding of the concept, its effects and implications in, and for, the workplace. The purpose of this paper is to focus on capturing a range of international and Australian literature regarding workplace bullying behaviours in a health context from a management perspective. As a result, this paper identified the gaps in the literature when expanded specifically to an Australian health context. Design/methodology/approach The purpose of this review is to summarise the existing literature, both internationally and in Australia which examines workplace bullying behaviours in a health context from a management perspective. This describes the review of the literature on workplace bullying in a health context undertaken from January to April 2014. The "Preferred Reporting Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses" method was used to structure the review, which covered a wide range of literature from databases including MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL and InformIT, as well as reports, and grey literature. Findings The review included 62 studies that met the inclusion criteria and reported either: factors contributing to workplace bullying, at least one significant example of workplace bullying behaviour or the impact of workplace bullying behaviours in a health context. Originality/value There is limited data on workplace bullying behaviours in an Australian health context. The literature supports there is value in future research to develop consistent definitions, policies, procedures and frameworks, which could help to prevent or address workplace bullying
Perren, Sonja; Dooley, Julian; Shaw, Thérèse; Cross, Donna
Cyber-bullying (i.e., bullying via electronic means) has emerged as a new form of bullying that presents unique challenges to those victimised. Recent studies have demonstrated that there is a significant conceptual and practical overlap between both types of bullying such that most young people who are cyber-bullied also tend to be bullied by more traditional methods. Despite the overlap between traditional and cyber forms of bullying, it remains unclear if being a victim of cyber-bullying has the same negative consequences as being a victim of traditional bullying. The current study investigated associations between cyber versus traditional bullying and depressive symptoms in 374 and 1320 students from Switzerland and Australia respectively (52% female; Age: M = 13.8, SD = 1.0). All participants completed a bullying questionnaire (assessing perpetration and victimisation of traditional and cyber forms of bullying behaviour) in addition to scales on depressive symptoms. Across both samples, traditional victims and bully-victims reported more depressive symptoms than bullies and non-involved children. Importantly, victims of cyber-bullying reported significantly higher levels of depressive symptoms, even when controlling for the involvement in traditional bullying/victimisation. Overall, cyber-victimisation emerged as an additional risk factor for depressive symptoms in adolescents involved in bullying.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Cyber-bullying (i.e., bullying via electronic means has emerged as a new form of bullying that presents unique challenges to those victimised. Recent studies have demonstrated that there is a significant conceptual and practical overlap between both types of bullying such that most young people who are cyber-bullied also tend to be bullied by more traditional methods. Despite the overlap between traditional and cyber forms of bullying, it remains unclear if being a victim of cyber-bullying has the same negative consequences as being a victim of traditional bullying. Method The current study investigated associations between cyber versus traditional bullying and depressive symptoms in 374 and 1320 students from Switzerland and Australia respectively (52% female; Age: M = 13.8, SD = 1.0. All participants completed a bullying questionnaire (assessing perpetration and victimisation of traditional and cyber forms of bullying behaviour in addition to scales on depressive symptoms. Results Across both samples, traditional victims and bully-victims reported more depressive symptoms than bullies and non-involved children. Importantly, victims of cyber-bullying reported significantly higher levels of depressive symptoms, even when controlling for the involvement in traditional bullying/victimisation. Conclusions Overall, cyber-victimisation emerged as an additional risk factor for depressive symptoms in adolescents involved in bullying.
Humphrey, Gary; Crisp, Beth R.
Preschool age children are often thought of as too young to be able to engage in bullying behaviours. However, when it does occur, there are ramifications not only for the child but also for parents and siblings. This paper explores this issue by reporting on an exploratory study involving interviews with four parents whose child had experienced…
... of Aggressive Behavior Print Share Warning Signs for Bullying There are many warning signs that may indicate ... Get help right away . Signs a Child is Bullying Others Kids may be bullying others if they: ...
Bullying is seldom the only factor in a teenager's suicide. Often, mental illness and family stresses are involved. But bullying does plainly play a role in many cases. These students feel that they have no way out of the pain heaped on them by their tormentors so they turn the violence inward with a tragic and final exit. Bullying involves three…
Wolke, Dieter; Skew, Alexandra J
Parents are often concerned about repeated conflicts between their daughters and sons. However, there is little empirical research of sibling bullying. To conduct a review of existing studies of sibling bullying. Are there any associations between sibling bullying and peer bullying at school? What are the consequences of sibling bullying? Is there good justification why sibling bullying has been so neglected in research? Studies of sibling relationships were reviewed. Four quantitative studies were identified that report on both sibling and peer bullying. Sibling bullying is frequent with up to 50% involved in sibling bullying every month and between 16% and 20% involved in bullying several times a week. Experience of sibling bullying increases the risk of involvement in bullying in school. Both, bullying between siblings and school bullying make unique contributions to explaining behavioral and emotional problems. There is a clear dose-effect relationship of involvement of bullying at home and at school and behavioral or emotional problems. Those involved in both have up to 14 times increased odds of behavioral or emotional problems compared to those involved in only one context or not at all. The empirical evidence is limited and studies are mostly cross-sectional studies. Nevertheless, the review suggests that for those victimized at home and at school behavioral and emotional problems are highly increased. Sibling relationships appear to be a training ground with implications for individual well-being. Strengthening families and parenting skills and increasing sibling support is likely to reduce bullying and increase well-being.
Hutchinson, Marie; Vickers, Margaret; Jackson, Debra; Wilkes, Lesley
Workplace bullying is a significant issue confronting the nursing profession. Bullying in nursing is frequently described in terms of 'oppressed group' behaviour or 'horizontal violence'. It is proposed that the use of 'oppressed group' behaviour theory has fostered only a partial understanding of the phenomenon in nursing. It is suggested that the continued use of 'oppressed group' behaviour as the major means for understanding bullying in nursing places a flawed emphasis on bullying as a phenomenon that exists only among nurses, rather than considering it within the broader organisational context. The work of Foucault and the 'circuits of power' model proposed by Clegg are used to provide an alternative understanding of the operation of power within organisations and therefore another way to conceive bullying in the nursing workforce.
Pfeiffer, Jens P.; Pinquart, Martin
Adolescents who attend boarding schools share more time with peers than do students from day schools which, in turn, could provide more opportunities for bullying. Furthermore, some students attend boarding schools because of former social problems. In order to analyse the role of these factors, we examined the bullying behaviour of 706 German…
Duncan, Neil; Owens, Larry
Literature on girls' popularity posits a strong association between popularity, social power and bullying behaviours, some of which conflate the concepts "bully" and "popular". This study explores that association through links to concepts of popularity among girls in two demographically different high schools. Data are presented that were derived…
Askew, Deborah A; Schluter, Philip J; Dick, Marie-Louise
Workplace bullying is repeated systematic, interpersonal abusive behaviours that negatively affect the targeted individual and the organisation in which they work. It is generally the result of actual or perceived power imbalances between perpetrator and victim, and includes behaviours that intimidate, offend, degrade or humiliate a worker. It is illegal, and bullied employees can take legal action against their employers for a breach of implied duty of trust and confidence. Despite this, workplace bullying occurs in many Australian workplaces, including Australian general practices. This article explores the issue of workplace bullying with particular reference to bullying within general practice and provides a framework for managing these situations. All general practices need organisation-wide anti-bullying policies that are endorsed by senior management, clearly define workplace bullying, and provide a safe procedure for reporting bullying behaviours. General practitioners should investigate whether workplace issues are a potential contributor to patients who present with depression and/or anxiety and assess the mental health of patients who do disclose that they are victims of workplace bullying, Importantly, the GP should reassure their patient that bullying is unacceptable and illegal, and that everyone has the right to a safe workplace free from violence, harassment and bullying. The time has come for all workplaces to acknowledge that workplace bullying is unacceptable and intolerable.
Blake, Patricia; Louw, Johann
Learners' perceptions of aspects of school life that are sufficiently serious to interfere with their schoolwork were investigated. Bullying was a form of behaviour that was singled out for inclusion and further exploration in the study. Learners from three coeducational Western Cape Education Department schools were surveyed: 414 Grade 8 and 474 Grade 9 learners completed an anonymous, voluntary self-report questionnaire. Factors identified as most frequently interfering with their schoolwork included classmates not listening in class, feeling overwhelmed by schoolwork, teacher absenteeism, and verbal fighting. When asked specifically about bullying, 40% of learners indicated that they frequently experienced bullying at school-although they ranked it as much lower when compared to other potentially problematic school experiences. Furthermore, although the majority of learners indicated they thought teachers considered bullying a problem, few felt there was anything that school staff could do to counteract bullying effectively. These findings suggest that learners perceive bullying as an unavoidable part of school experience and have normalised this aggressive behaviour.
Wolke, Dieter; Lereya, Suzet Tanya
Bullying is the systematic abuse of power and is defined as aggressive behaviour or intentional harm-doing by peers that is carried out repeatedly and involves an imbalance of power. Being bullied is still often wrongly considered as a 'normal rite of passage'. This review considers the importance of bullying as a major risk factor for poor physical and mental health and reduced adaptation to adult roles including forming lasting relationships, integrating into work and being economically independent. Bullying by peers has been mostly ignored by health professionals but should be considered as a significant risk factor and safeguarding issue. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Johnson, Helen R.; Thompson, Margaret J. J.; Wilkinson, Suzanne; Walsh, Louise; Balding, Jonathon; Wright, Victoria
Reports an investigation of whether certain behaviors in children resulted in bullying. Explains that teachers (n=25) completed an assessment for 523 children (ages 7-11) while children completed a questionnaire about school. Offers new evidence that teachers recognize social behavior and interactions that can significantly affect whether primary…
Gardner, Dianne; O?Driscoll, Michael; Cooper-Thomas, Helena D.; Roche, Maree; Bentley, Tim; Catley, Bevan; Teo, Stephen T. T.; Trenberth, Linda
Background: The negative effects of in-person workplace bullying (WB) are well established. Less is known about cyber-bullying (CB), in which negative behaviours are mediated by technology. Drawing on the conservation of resources theory, the current research examined how individual and organisational factors were related to WB and CB at two time points three months apart. Methods: Data were collected by means of an online self-report survey. Eight hundred and twenty-six respondents (58% fema...
Menesini, Ersilia; Nocentini, Annalaura; Camodeca, Marina
The aim of the present study was to investigate moral aspects and human values in traditional bullying and cyberbullying, in order to detect differences between the two types of bullying and to test the role of immoral and disengaged behaviours in mediating the relationships between personal values and involvement in bullying. Sample comprised 390 adolescents aged 14-18, balanced for gender, attending different high schools. Traditional and cyberbullying were detected by means of two self-report measures, while the Portrait Values Questionnaire was used to assess 10 values in four dimensions according to the value system model by Schwartz (1992): self-trascendence, self-enhancement, openness to change, and conservation. Finally, immoral and disengaged behaviours were assessed by means of five items about behavioural and personal aspects salient for morality. Results showed that, irrespective of gender, self-enhancement and self-trascendence moderately predicted cyber and traditional bullying, respectively, while immoral and disengaged behaviours predicted both. Indirect effects showed that self-enhancement and openness to change predicted both forms of bullying through immoral behaviour. Results are discussed in terms of similarities and differences between cyber and traditional bullying and with attention to the central role of morality in explaining bullying nature. © 2011 The British Psychological Society.
Ilola, Anna-Marja; Lempinen, Lotta; Huttunen, Jukka; Ristkari, Terja; Sourander, Andre
There are few population-based studies on bullying behaviour among preschool children. The aims of the study were to investigate the prevalence of bullying behaviour among four-year-old children, as reported by their parents, the prevalence of types of bullying behaviour and the associations between bullying behaviour and psychosocial factors. This study was based on a population-based study sample of 931 children who attended their check-up at a child health clinic at four years of age. Parents completed the questionnaire about their child's bullying behaviour and risk factors during the check-up. Bullying behaviour, especially being both a bully and a victim, was a common phenomenon among four-year-old children. Being a bully or both a bully and victim were most strongly associated with conduct problems, while being a victim was associated with somatic symptoms and peer problems. Bullying behaviour was frequently found in preschool children and associated with a wide range of other problems, which indicate that routine checking of bullying behaviour should be included in child health clinic check-ups. Bullying prevention programmes are usually targeted at school-aged children, but this study highlights the importance of focusing already on preschool children. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Søndergaard, Dorte Marie
Bullying is an extreme form of social exclusion that affects a significant number of children in schools and other childhood institutions. The definition of bullying is a matter of debate among researchers. Some researchers emphasize aggressive contra vulnerable individual personality traits...... as a basic premise for the emergence of bullying behavior. Others conceptualize bullying as an effect of dysfunctional social mechanisms in groups. In line with such diverse understandings of how to define and understand bullying, researchers also discuss the part played by parents in children’s bullying...... practices. Researchers who understand bullying as an effect of deficits in individual children tend to explain such deficits as a consequence of inadequate upbringing. Researchers who explain bullying behavior as an effect of dysfunctional social patterns in groups of children (and adults), meanwhile, tend...
... origin, sex, disability, or religion*, bullying overlaps with harassment and schools are legally obligated to address it. Read more about when bullying overlaps with harassment and how to report it to the U.S. ...
Full Text Available Cyber space bullying is a relatively new phenomenon that has received increased attention by scientists, researchers and practitioners in recent years. It is usually defined as an intentionally and repeatedly expression of aggression towards other people through information and communication technologies. Cyber space bullying is characterized by all the primary characteristics of traditional bullying and some specifics ones that clearly differ it from other forms of bullying. In addition to the analysis of characteristics and specifics of cyber space bullying, the paper describes the basic forms of cyber space bullying (flaming, harassment, denigration, impersonation, outing, trickery, exclusion, stalking and happy slapping, as well as, the types of cyber space bullies (vengeful angel, power-hungry, revenge of the nerd, mean girls and inadvertent. The main goal of this paper is to provide initial theoretical guidelines for designing future empirical research on the complex phenomenon of cyber space bullying.
Cyber space bullying is a relatively new phenomenon that has received increased attention by scientists, researchers and practitioners in recent years. It is usually defined as an intentionally and repeatedly expression of aggression towards other people through information and communication technologies. Cyber space bullying is characterized by all the primary characteristics of traditional bullying and some specifics ones that clearly differ it from other forms of bullying. In addition to t...
Academics can be found all over the Internet commiserating about academic bullying, including on "The Chronicle's" own forums and blogs. There are debates over how to resolve bullying, warnings to other scholars, and even primal cries for help. This article describes three blogs on bullying: (1) Historiann (http://www.historiann.com); (2) On…
... and generally feel helpless. Facts About Bullying Both girls and boys can be bullies. Bullies target children who cry, ... teasing, threatening, or hurting someone. All children can learn to treat others ... with others. Together with the school principal, teachers, counselors, and parents ...
Two decades in which educators have seriously tried to eradicate bullying in schools have met with only modest success. Moreover, bullying is no longer being viewed exclusively as a problem for schools and school children. This book examines bullying behavior in a wide range of settings, including kindergartens and schools, workplaces, the home,…
Holubcikova, Jana; Kolarcik, Peter; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Van Dijk, Jitse P.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.
Adolescents' body image dissatisfaction has an adverse effect on peer relationships. It may lead to changes in behaviour (aggressive or passive) and consequently to bullying behaviour. Our aim was to assess the association between body image dissatisfaction and involvement in bullying and whether
Butterworth, Peter; Leach, Liana S; Kiely, Kim M
There is limited Australian information on the prevalence and mental health consequences of bullying and ill-treatment at work. The aims of this study were to use data from an ongoing Australian longitudinal cohort study to (1) compare different measures of workplace bullying, (2) estimate the prevalence of bullying and ill-treatment at work, (3) evaluate whether workplace bullying is distinct from other adverse work characteristics and (4) examine the unique contribution of workplace bullying to common mental disorders in mid-life. The sample comprised 1466 participants (52% women) aged 52-58 from wave four of the Personality and Total Health (PATH) through Life study. Workplace bullying was assessed by a single item of self-labelling measure of bullying and a 15-item scale of bullying-related behaviours experienced in the past 6 months. Factor analysis the identified underlying factor structure of the behavioural bullying scale. Current bullying was reported by 7.0% of respondents, while 46.4% of respondents reported that they had been bullied at some point in their working life. Person-related and work-related bullying behaviours were more common than violence and intimidation. The multi-dimensional scale of bullying behaviours had greater concordance with a single item of self-labelled bullying (Area Under the Curve = 0.88) than other adverse work characteristics (all Area Under the Curves bullying and scales reflecting person-related and work-related bullying were independent predictors of depression and/or anxiety. This study provides unique information on the prevalence and mental health impacts of workplace bullying and ill-treatment in Australia. Workplace bullying is a relatively common experience, and is associated with increased risk of depression and anxiety. Greater attention to identifying and preventing bullying and ill-treatment in the workplace is warranted. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.
Sercombe, Howard; Donnelly, Brian
Respect"me" is a human rights organisation working to reduce the impact of bullying in Scotland. In this work, some useful conceptual and practice frameworks have emerged, distinguishing between aggression, as legitimate, if sometimes unpleasant, dominance behaviour and violence, which is unethical action involving the intent to harm.…
Søndergaard, Dorte Marie
Approaching the relevance of teachers and their role in children’s bullying practices depends on the definition of bullying implied. If bullying is understood as an effect of individual traits and behavior, teachers are most often considered to be in a position to determine whether...... or not the reported or observed events can be defined as real cases of bullying. In cases deemed as bullying, they are considered responsible for taking further action in relation to the individual children involved. If bullying is understood as an effect of a dysfunctional culture in the school and in the classroom......, and enacted by the social structures in schools and other childhood institutions, it is instead seen as the teacher’s responsibility to analyze and seek to transform the climate and norms among the children. In those contexts the teachers are to transform the complex social processes in which bullying...
Full Text Available Purpose of the research to know the influence of Muslim Personality on Bullying Behaviours in Islamic Hospital of Palembang City Region. Some research that has been done in the West states that 56% of nurses become victims of bullying in their of workplacecausing harm to both individuals and organizations. The hypothesis of this research is that there is influence of Muslim personality on bullying behaviours in the workplace. The higher the comprehensionand practice of Muslim personality, the lower the occurrence of bullying behaviours in the workplace. This research using correlation research methods, research sample 214 nurses from 2 Islamic Hospital in Palembang, data collected using scalemethod, namely: Bullying Behaviour scale and Muslim Personality Scale and data analysis methods using simple regression analysis with SPSS programming. 22.5 for windows. Based on the results obtained r = 0.412in other word,there is influence of Muslim personality on bullying behaviours in the workplace. The higher the understanding and practice of Muslim personality, the lower the occurrence of bullying behaviours in the workplace and r2 of 0.170 means that 17% of Muslim personality contributed to bullying behaviours in the workplace.
Chatziioannidis, Ilias; Bascialla, Francesca Giuseppina; Chatzivalsama, Panagiota; Vouzas, Fotios; Mitsiakos, Georgios
Objectives The aim of this study is to examine the prevalence, to report barriers and mental health impact of bullying behaviours and to analyse whether psychological support at work could affect victims of bullying in the healthcare workplace. Design Self-administered questionnaire survey. Setting 20 in total neonatal intensive care units in 17 hospitals in Greece. Participants 398 healthcare professionals (doctors, nurses). Main outcome measures The questionnaire included information on demographic data, Negative Act Questionnaire-Revised (NAQ-R) behaviour scale, data on sources of bullying, perpetrators profile, causal factors, actions taken and reasons for not reporting bullying, psychological support and 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) scores to investigate psychological distress. Results Prevalence of bullying measured by the NAQ-R was 53.1% for doctors and 53.6% for nurses. Victims of bullying differed from non-bullied in terms of gender and job experience, among demographic data. Crude NAQ-R score was found higher for female, young and inexperienced employees. Of those respondents who experienced bullying 44.9% self-labelled themselves as victims. Witnessing bullying of others was found 83.2%. Perpetrators were mainly females 45–64 years old, most likely being a supervisor/senior colleague. Common reasons for not reporting bullying was self-dealing and fear of consequences. Bullying was attributed to personality trait and management. Those who were bullied, self-labelled as a victim and witnessed bullying of others had higher GHQ-12 score. Moreover, psychological support at work had a favour effect on victims of bullying. Conclusions Prevalence of bullying and witnessing were found extremely high, while half of victims did not consider themselves as sufferers. The mental health impact on victims and witnesses was severe and support at work was necessary to ensure good mental health status among employees. PMID:29478015
Chatziioannidis, Ilias; Bascialla, Francesca Giuseppina; Chatzivalsama, Panagiota; Vouzas, Fotios; Mitsiakos, Georgios
The aim of this study is to examine the prevalence, to report barriers and mental health impact of bullying behaviours and to analyse whether psychological support at work could affect victims of bullying in the healthcare workplace. Self-administered questionnaire survey. 20 in total neonatal intensive care units in 17 hospitals in Greece. 398 healthcare professionals (doctors, nurses). The questionnaire included information on demographic data, Negative Act Questionnaire-Revised (NAQ-R) behaviour scale, data on sources of bullying, perpetrators profile, causal factors, actions taken and reasons for not reporting bullying, psychological support and 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) scores to investigate psychological distress. Prevalence of bullying measured by the NAQ-R was 53.1% for doctors and 53.6% for nurses. Victims of bullying differed from non-bullied in terms of gender and job experience, among demographic data. Crude NAQ-R score was found higher for female, young and inexperienced employees. Of those respondents who experienced bullying 44.9% self-labelled themselves as victims. Witnessing bullying of others was found 83.2%. Perpetrators were mainly females 45-64 years old, most likely being a supervisor/senior colleague. Common reasons for not reporting bullying was self-dealing and fear of consequences. Bullying was attributed to personality trait and management. Those who were bullied, self-labelled as a victim and witnessed bullying of others had higher GHQ-12 score. Moreover, psychological support at work had a favour effect on victims of bullying. Prevalence of bullying and witnessing were found extremely high, while half of victims did not consider themselves as sufferers. The mental health impact on victims and witnesses was severe and support at work was necessary to ensure good mental health status among employees. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights
Ling, Mary; Young, Christopher J; Shepherd, Heather L; Mak, Cindy; Saw, Robyn P M
The aim of this study was to determine the extent and nature of workplace bullying among General Surgery trainees and consultants in Australia. An online questionnaire survey of General Surgery trainees and consultant surgeons in Australia was conducted between March and May 2012. Prevalence of bullying was measured using both a definition of workplace bullying and the revised Negative Acts Questionnaire (NAQ-R). Sources of bullying were also examined, as well as the barriers and outcomes of formal reporting of bullying. The response rate was 34 % (370/1084) with 41 % (n = 152) of respondents being trainees. Overall, 47 % (n = 173) of respondents reported having been bullied to some degree and 68 % (n = 250) reported having witnessed bullying of surgical colleagues in the last 12 months. The prevalence of bullying was significantly higher in trainees and females, with 64 % of trainees and 57 % of females experiencing some degree of bullying. The majority of respondents (83 %) had experienced at least one negative behavior in the last 12 months, but 38 % experienced at least one negative behavior on a weekly or daily basis. The persistent negative behaviors that represent work-related bullying most commonly experienced were 'having opinions ignored' and 'being exposed to an unmanageable workload.' Consultant surgeons were the most common source of bullying for both trainees and consultants, with administration the next common source. Of those who reported being bullied, only 18 % (n = 32) made a formal complaint. Despite increased awareness and interventions, workplace bullying remains a significant problem within General Surgery in Australia. The findings in this study serve as a baseline for future questionnaires to monitor the effectiveness of implemented anti-bullying interventions.
Losa Iglesias, Marta Elena; Becerro de Bengoa Vallejo, Ricardo
Bullying has been recognized as an important and increasing problem for nurses, who are faced with different kinds of bullying. Recent research has suggested a possible association between bullying and low self-esteem. To determine the prevalence of bullying at work in a sample of Spanish nurses; to examine the association between bullying and self-esteem; and to investigate the prognostic factors that determine bullying at work. A descriptive survey study was developed to represent the population of Spanish nurses. The sample consisted of 538 nurses who met the inclusion criteria of having worked for a minimum of one year in adult or paediatric services in the public or private heath care system of Principado de Asturias-Spain. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE) and the Negative Acts Questionnaire (NAQ) standardized for Spain were used to measure self-esteem and bullying behaviours respectively. Our results show that about one in five nurses (17%) experienced subjective bullying, and 8% of these cases reported weekly or daily bullying. The negative acts reported most frequently in bullied and non-bullied nurses were work-related bullying behaviours, such as 'Being given tasks with unreasonable or impossible targets or deadlines' (2.71 SD = 1.33). However, bullied nurses reported significantly higher rates in all questions of the NAQ, and self-reported bullying was significantly related to low self-esteem (χ(2) = 109; p self-reported bullying is high among Spanish nurses and is clearly associated with higher exposure to bullying behaviours at work and lower levels of self-esteem.
Jansen Pauline W
Full Text Available Abstract Background Bullying and victimization are widespread phenomena in childhood and can have a serious impact on well-being. Children from families with a low socioeconomic background have an increased risk of this behaviour, but it is unknown whether socioeconomic status (SES of school neighbourhoods is also related to bullying behaviour. Furthermore, as previous bullying research mainly focused on older children and adolescents, it remains unclear to what extent bullying and victimization affects the lives of younger children. The aim of this study is to examine the prevalence and socioeconomic disparities in bullying behaviour among young elementary school children. Methods The study was part of a population-based survey in the Netherlands. Teacher reports of bullying behaviour and indicators of SES of families and schools were available for 6379 children aged 5–6 years. Results One-third of the children were involved in bullying, most of them as bullies (17% or bully-victims (13%, and less as pure victims (4%. All indicators of low family SES and poor school neighbourhood SES were associated with an increased risk of being a bully or bully-victim. Parental educational level was the only indicator of SES related with victimization. The influence of school neighbourhood SES on bullying attenuated to statistical non-significance once adjusted for family SES. Conclusions Bullying and victimization are already common problems in early elementary school. Children from socioeconomically disadvantaged families, rather than children visiting schools in disadvantaged neighbourhoods, have a particularly high risk of involvement in bullying. These findings suggest the need of timely bullying preventions and interventions that should have a special focus on children of families with a low socioeconomic background. Future studies are necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of such programs.
Full Text Available Worldwide there is a problem with violent incidents occurring amongst learners in schools. Bullying is one mode of violence that often occurs at school level. Bullying means repeatedly attacking a person psychologically, physically and/or emotionally in order to inflict harm. Bullying behaviour cannot be ignored, because the victims often report physical and mental health problems caused by the abuse they suffered. The future of the bully is also at stake, because such a person can turn into an abuser in his or her adult years. This research focused on the challenges for teachers in the school system to handle bullying behaviour. The specific aims of the study were to research the role of school policies and ethos, as well as the teacher’s role, in dealing with bullying. The researchers investigated the problem by using social identity theory as theoretical framework and Christianity as worldview. The researchers mainly used a qualitative research design. Data for this study were collected by means of a literature study and questionnaires with closed questions as well as open-ended questions about teachers’ experiences regarding bullying. The main emphasis was on the feedback on the open-ended questions. It became clear from the research that schools should adopt an anti-bullying policy. Teachers should give more attention to classroom rules and they should become skilled in dealing with bullying. Recommendations were made concerning the role of teachers as well as the place of school ethos and policies when the above-mentioned behavioural problem needs to be managed.
Full Text Available Background: The negative effects of in-person workplace bullying (WB are well established. Less is known about cyber-bullying (CB, in which negative behaviours are mediated by technology. Drawing on the conservation of resources theory, the current research examined how individual and organisational factors were related to WB and CB at two time points three months apart. Methods: Data were collected by means of an online self-report survey. Eight hundred and twenty-six respondents (58% female, 42% male provided data at both time points. Results: One hundred and twenty-three (15% of participants had been bullied and 23 (2.8% of participants had been cyber-bullied within the last six months. Women reported more WB, but not more CB, than men. Worse physical health, higher strain, more destructive leadership, more team conflict and less effective organisational strategies were associated with more WB. Managerial employees experienced more CB than non-managerial employees. Poor physical health, less organisational support and less effective organisational strategies were associated with more CB. Conclusion: Rates of CB were lower than those of WB, and very few participants reported experiencing CB without also experiencing WB. Both forms of bullying were associated with poorer work environments, indicating that, where bullying is occurring, the focus should be on organisational systems and processes.
Gardner, Dianne; O'Driscoll, Michael; Cooper-Thomas, Helena D; Roche, Maree; Bentley, Tim; Catley, Bevan; Teo, Stephen T T; Trenberth, Linda
The negative effects of in-person workplace bullying (WB) are well established. Less is known about cyber-bullying (CB), in which negative behaviours are mediated by technology. Drawing on the conservation of resources theory, the current research examined how individual and organisational factors were related to WB and CB at two time points three months apart. Data were collected by means of an online self-report survey. Eight hundred and twenty-six respondents (58% female, 42% male) provided data at both time points. One hundred and twenty-three (15%) of participants had been bullied and 23 (2.8%) of participants had been cyber-bullied within the last six months. Women reported more WB, but not more CB, than men. Worse physical health, higher strain, more destructive leadership, more team conflict and less effective organisational strategies were associated with more WB. Managerial employees experienced more CB than non-managerial employees. Poor physical health, less organisational support and less effective organisational strategies were associated with more CB. Rates of CB were lower than those of WB, and very few participants reported experiencing CB without also experiencing WB. Both forms of bullying were associated with poorer work environments, indicating that, where bullying is occurring, the focus should be on organisational systems and processes.
Gardner, Dianne; O’Driscoll, Michael; Cooper-Thomas, Helena D.; Roche, Maree; Bentley, Tim; Catley, Bevan; Teo, Stephen T. T.; Trenberth, Linda
Background: The negative effects of in-person workplace bullying (WB) are well established. Less is known about cyber-bullying (CB), in which negative behaviours are mediated by technology. Drawing on the conservation of resources theory, the current research examined how individual and organisational factors were related to WB and CB at two time points three months apart. Methods: Data were collected by means of an online self-report survey. Eight hundred and twenty-six respondents (58% female, 42% male) provided data at both time points. Results: One hundred and twenty-three (15%) of participants had been bullied and 23 (2.8%) of participants had been cyber-bullied within the last six months. Women reported more WB, but not more CB, than men. Worse physical health, higher strain, more destructive leadership, more team conflict and less effective organisational strategies were associated with more WB. Managerial employees experienced more CB than non-managerial employees. Poor physical health, less organisational support and less effective organisational strategies were associated with more CB. Conclusion: Rates of CB were lower than those of WB, and very few participants reported experiencing CB without also experiencing WB. Both forms of bullying were associated with poorer work environments, indicating that, where bullying is occurring, the focus should be on organisational systems and processes. PMID:27128929
Helena R Murphy
Full Text Available Much research on bullying behaviour in schools among students has been carried out since the 1970’s, when Olweus started a large-scale project in Norway which is now generally regarded as the first scientific study on bullying. Yet, there has been little research on how teachers respond to reports of bullying and tackle bullying behaviour in post-primary schools. This paper reports on a preliminary study investigating teacher empathy levels and their preparedness for tackling bullying in a post-primary school in Ireland. There were two research questions central to this research. The first looked at how empathic are teachers in this school? The second examined to what extent it prepares them for tackling bullying? In answering these questions we relied on the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI to gather data on empathy levels among teachers (n=10, with findings related to existing research in the field. The results showed that teacher empathy is an important factor in creating and maintaining a positive school climate, which in turn leads to a prevention of bullying situations.
Full Text Available The approach of logotheory is one of many approaches to understanding of man. Logotheory sees a human being in his complexity, as a three-dimensional unity of somatic, psychic, and noetic dimensions. Through logotheory, man discovers the possible sources for not loving himself and others. The logotheoretical approach points out that individuals involved in bullying presentun developed noetic dimension. This becomes a source of existential frustration or existential vacuum leading to the occurrence of various forms of pathological behaviour including bullying. It emphasises that aggressors present insufficient development of two fundamental capacities of the noetic dimension allowing the contact with other people: self-detachment and self-transcendence. The uniqueness of this approach lies in the search for answers to one’s existence that bring more than just a temporary satisfaction. Uncovering existential sources of bullying behaviour could be instrumental in finding solutions to prevention and intervention of bullying.
Nagy, Ildikó; Pataky, Nóra; Szklenárik, Péter; Körmendi, Attila
The phenomenon of bullying in the schools is more frequent in our country and abroad too. The bullying behaviour is a persistent, intentional harm of others where the balance of power between the participants is uneven.Researches about school bullying has provided many useful information regarding prevention and treatment of bullying but only the few of them takes an interest in the personality traits in bullies which can increase the appearance of the aggressive, bullying behaviour.The callous/unemotional traits get a growing role in the explanation and understanding of aggressive behaviour. In case of the presence of callous/unemotional traits a special emotional (lack of guilt, shallow emotions) and interpersonal style (use of proactive aggression and absence of responsibility) can be observed in children. The purpose of our study was to measure the callous/unemotional traits between the different groups determined by the role they play in the bullying. We assume that the presence of callous/unemotional traits are significantly more typical within the group of Bullies than the other groups. Our sample consisted of 117 elementary school students (6th-8th grade). To examine the roles of bullying we used the Bullying Questionniare. The questionnaire consist 23 items, it was developed to determine the role of students and involvement in the process of bullying. To measure callous/ unemotional traits we used the Inventory of Callous Unemotional Traits (ICU) developed by Frick which measure the factors of callous unemotional traits along 24 items. According to our results the group of Bullies scored significantly higher in all three factors of the Inventory of Callous Unemotional Traits compared to other groups. Treatment of callous/unemotional features may reduce the occurrence of bullying.
Putri, Hertika Nanda; Nauli, Fathra Annis; Novayelinda, Riri '
Bullying phenomenon in schools is a worldwide problem that can have negative lifelong consequences for students. This research aims to identify the correlation between the internal and external factors related to bullying behaviour on adolescents. The research used correlation method with cross sectional approach. Chi Square test used to analyze the data on 83 students class of 10th and 11t in SMA Negeri 7 Pekanbaru. Sample was taken by using simple random sampling. Results showed that there ...
Soylu, Soydan; Sheehy-Skeffington, Jennifer
What does inequality mean for dysfunctional organizational behaviours, such as workplace bullying? This article argues that workplace bullying can be understood as a manifestation of intergroup dynamics originating beyond the organization. We introduce the construct of asymmetric intergroup bullying: the disproportionate mistreatment of members of low status groups, with the intended effect of enhancing the subordination of that group in society at large. Analysis of data from 38 interviews w...
Bansel, Peter; Davies, Bronwyn; Laws, Cath; Linnell, Sheridan
In this paper the four authors explore the experience of school bullying, drawing on stories of bullying generated in a collective biography workshop and on fictional accounts of bullying. They counter the current trend of reading bullying as individual or family pathology with a post-structuralist analysis of subjectification and power.
Lee, Kirsty; Guy, Alexa; Dale, Jeremy; Wolke, Dieter
Adolescent bullying is associated with a range of adversities for those who are bullied i.e., victims and bully-victims (e.g., those who bully others and get victimised), including reduced psychological functioning and eating disorder symptoms. Bullies are generally well-adjusted psychologically, but previous research suggests that bullies may also engage in problematic diet behaviours. This study investigates a) whether adolescents involved in bullying (bullies, victims, bully-victims) are at increased risk of weight loss preoccupation, b) whether psychological functioning mediates this relationship and c) whether sex is a key moderator. A two-stage design was used. In stage 1, adolescents (n = 2782) from five UK secondary schools were screened for bullying involvement using self and peer reports. In stage 2, a sample of bullies, victims, bully-victims and uninvolved adolescents (n = 767) completed a battery of assessments. The measures included the eating behaviours component of the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment, which was reduced to one factor (weight loss preoccupation) and used as the outcome variable. Measures of self-esteem, body-esteem and emotional problems were reduced to a latent (mediator) variable of psychological functioning. Multi-group analysis examined the effects of sex and all models were adjusted for covariates (BMI, pubertal stage, age, parental education and ethnicity). Bullies, victims and bully-victims were at increased risk of weight loss preoccupation compared to adolescents uninvolved in bullying. The mechanism by which bullying involvement related to increased weight loss preoccupation varied by bullying role: in bullies the effect was direct, in victims the effect was indirect (via reduced psychological functioning) and in bully-victims the effect was both direct and indirect. Sex significantly moderated the relationship in bullies: weight loss preoccupation was only statistically significant in bullies who were
Kauffman, James M.
Problems in defining emotional and behavioural difficulties of all types, including bullying, are discussed. Interactions among seeing, naming and communicating about these phenomena are considered. School and community characteristics of students with emotional and behavioural difficulties are touched upon. Major problems in definition and…
Bullying may be more common than most people think. According to a study commissioned by the Workplace Bullying Institute, one in three employees experience bullying in the workplace either as a victim or as a witness suffering collateral damage. Bullying is a serious problem. Directors, managers, and staff members need to ensure that it does not…
This article provides an overview of current research on bullying (peer victimization, peer harassment) in school, with a focus on victims of such bullying. The 1st section provides a working definition of bullying and its many forms. The 2nd section describes some of the known consequences of being bullied for mental health, physical health, and…
Idsoe, Thormod; Dyregrov, Atle; Idsoe, Ella Cosmovici
PTSD symptoms related to school bullying have rarely been investigated, and never in national samples. We used data from a national survey to investigate this among students from grades 8 and 9 (n = 963). The prevalence estimates of exposure to bullying were within the range of earlier research findings. Multinomial logistic regression showed that…
Weissbourd, Richard; Jones, Stephanie
Over the last 20 years, high-profile episodes of bullying have stirred up broad public alarm. This attention may appear to be merely trendy, but it's important. Bullying--commonly defined as systematic exclusion, aggression, or harassment that one child or a group of children inflicts on less powerful children--is pervasive in schools. Many…
Søndergaard, Dorte Marie
as teachers, parents and school leaders. These data are generated within eXbus: Exploring Bullying in School, an interdisciplinary research project on bullying among children (www.exbus.dk). The conceptual framework is aimed to enhance understanding of bullying practices and thereby form a knowledge basis......Bullying can be understood as an extreme extension of an everyday social dynamic among children in school. In order to contemplate which conditions might hinder the movement from the normal flow of inclusions and exclusions to bullying, it is vital to understand the mechanisms that can cause...... come under pressure in any number of ways, enacted by intra-activity among a range of material-discursive forces – and when it happens uneasiness circulates around the group. One apparently effective alleviation strategy in relation to social exclusion anxiety is the production of contempt...
Bullying is an aggressive behaviour which could affect students' psychological wellbeing and their academic performance. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to examine the impacts of bullying on students of senior high schools in Ghana. Descriptive research design was adopted for the study.
Gullone, Eleonora; Robertson, Nerida
Children's abuse of animals may be predictive of aggression towards humans. This study assessed concurrent engagement in animal abuse and bullying behaviour in 241 adolescents aged 12 to 16 years. A total of 20.6% of youths reported abusing animals at least "sometimes" and 17.8% reported bullying others on at least one occasion in the past year.…
Bullying among children is a significant public health problem world-wide. Bullying is most commonly defined as repeated, intentional aggression, perpetrated by a more powerful individual or group against a less powerful victim. Trends in victimization and moderate to frequent bullying may be decreasing slightly in the United States, but over 20% of children continue to be involved in bullying. Direct bullying consists of physical and verbal aggression, whereas indirect bullying involves relational aggression. Cyber bullying is an emerging problem which may be more difficult to identify and intervene with than traditional bullying. Bullies, victims, and bully-victims are at risk for negative short and long-term consequences such as depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, and delinquency. Various individual, parental, and peer factors increase the risk for involvement in bullying. Anti-bullying interventions are predominantly school-based and demonstrate variable results. Healthcare providers can intervene in bullying by identifying potential bullies or victims, screening them for co-morbidities, providing counseling and resources, and advocating for bullying prevention. PMID:24007839
Menesini, Ersilia; Salmivalli, Christina
During the school years, bullying is one of the most common expressions of violence in the peer context. Research on bullying started more than forty years ago, when the phenomenon was defined as 'aggressive, intentional acts carried out by a group or an individual repeatedly and over time against a victim who cannot easily defend him- or herself'. Three criteria are relevant in order to define aggressive behaviour as bullying: (1) repetition, (2) intentionality and (3) an imbalance of power. Given these characteristics, bullying is often defined as systematic abuse of power by peers. It is recognised globally as a complex and serious problem. In the present paper, we discuss the prevalence, age and gender differences, and various types of bullying, as well as why it happens and how long it lasts, starting from the large surveys carried out in western countries and to a lower extent in low- and middle-income countries. The prevalence rates vary widely across studies; therefore, specific attention will be devoted to the definition, time reference period and frequency criterion. We will also focus on risk factors as well as short- and long-term outcomes of bullying and victimisation. Finally, a section will be dedicated to review what is known about effective prevention of bullying.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Bullying and sexual harassment of medical students by their teachers appears to be widespread phenomenon. However, nothing is published about its prevalence in conservative countries such as Saudi Arabia. This survey aims to ascertain the extent of these mistreatments among students in a Saudi medical school. Findings A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted on a group of 542 clinical years’ medical students in a Saudi medical school to explore students' perceptions of their educational environment including exposure to different kinds of bullying. Bullying was defined as “a “persistent behaviour against a medical student that is intimidating, degrading, offensive or malicious and undermines the confidence and self- esteem of the recipient”. Results revealed that more than one quarter (28.0% of the surveyed students reported exposure to some sort of bullying during their clinical. Ninety percent of the reported insults were verbal, 6% sexual and 4% physical. Males were more exposed but difference was not statistically significant. Conclusions Bullying among Saudi medical students is an existing problem. A policy against bullying and harassment should be adopted in all of medical colleges to monitor this phenomenon and support students who have been bullied.
Wang, Jing; Nansel, Tonja R.; Iannotti, Ronald J.
Purpose The study compared levels of depression among bullies, victims and bully-victims of traditional (physical, verbal and relational) and cyber bullying, and examined the association between depression and frequency of involvement in each form of bullying. Methods A U.S. nationally-representative sample of students in grades 6 to 10 (N = 7313) completed the bullying and depression items in the Health Behavior in School-Aged Children (HBSC) 2005 Survey. Results Depression was associated with each of four forms of bullying. Cyber victims reported higher depression than bullies or bully-victims, a finding not observed in other forms of bullying. For physical, verbal and relational bullies, victims and bully victims, the frequently-involved group reported significantly higher level of depression than the corresponding occasionally-involved group. For cyber bullying, differences were found only between occasional and frequent victims. Conclusion Findings indicate the importance of further study of cyber bullying as its association with depression is distinct from traditional forms of bullying. PMID:21402273
Moore, Sophie E; Norman, Rosana E; Suetani, Shuichi; Thomas, Hannah J; Sly, Peter D; Scott, James G
AIM To identify health and psychosocial problems associated with bullying victimization and conduct a meta-analysis summarizing the causal evidence. METHODS A systematic review was conducted using PubMed, EMBASE, ERIC and PsycINFO electronic databases up to 28 February 2015. The study included published longitudinal and cross-sectional articles that examined health and psychosocial consequences of bullying victimization. All meta-analyses were based on quality-effects models. Evidence for causality was assessed using Bradford Hill criteria and the grading system developed by the World Cancer Research Fund. RESULTS Out of 317 articles assessed for eligibility, 165 satisfied the predetermined inclusion criteria for meta-analysis. Statistically significant associations were observed between bullying victimization and a wide range of adverse health and psychosocial problems. The evidence was strongest for causal associations between bullying victimization and mental health problems such as depression, anxiety, poor general health and suicidal ideation and behaviours. Probable causal associations existed between bullying victimization and tobacco and illicit drug use. CONCLUSION Strong evidence exists for a causal relationship between bullying victimization, mental health problems and substance use. Evidence also exists for associations between bullying victimization and other adverse health and psychosocial problems, however, there is insufficient evidence to conclude causality. The strong evidence that bullying victimization is causative of mental illness highlights the need for schools to implement effective interventions to address bullying behaviours. PMID:28401049
Whiteside, Diana; Stubbs, Brendon; Soundy, Andy
To consider the experiences of final-year physiotherapy students who have experienced workplace bullying on a clinical internship. Qualitative methodology using individual semi-structured interviews. A university in the Midlands region of the UK. Eight undergraduate physiotherapy students who had experienced one incident of bullying on a clinical internship. Thematic analysis of semi-structured interviews. Four main themes were identified: (1) external and situational influences of bullying; (2) students' reactions to the experience of bullying; (3) inability to reveal the experience; and (4) overcoming problems. Bullying had a range of adverse effects on the students, with many expressing self-doubt in their competence and viewing their supervisor as unapproachable and unsupportive. Five students were not initially able to recognise the experience as bullying. In addition, students did not feel able to report the experience and use the support mechanisms in place. This may have been a result of having concerns that the problem would escalate if they reported the experience and, as a consequence, have a negative effect on their grade. Students were keen to offer a range of strategies for clinical practice in order to prevent bullying for future generations of students. Students' health, security and confidence in their ability as a physiotherapist can be at great risk from bullying. Steps are needed to ensure that students are better protected from bullying, and feel more able to address bullying behaviour during clinical internships. Copyright © 2013 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate whether the level of reported post-traumatic stress (PTSD symptoms among targets of workplace bullying differ depending on their educational level. Exposure to workplace bullying was assessed by the behavioural experience method and the self-labelling method among 563 Danish employees. PTSD symptoms were assessed by the Impact of Event Scale – Revised. Educational level was measured as years of education. The results showed that workplace bullying was significantly associated with the reporting of PTSD symptoms. However, PTSD symptoms were not reported differently among those with experience of work-place bullying. Implementing bullying policies is an important step in promoting a healthy psychosocial working environment. All targets of workplace bullying would benefit from interventions aiming to reduce progression of PTSD symptoms.
Eriksen, Tine L. Mundbjerg; Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Simonsen, Marianne
Bullying is a widespread social phenomenon that is thought to have detrimental effects on life outcomes. This paper investigates the link between bullying and later school performance. We rely on rich survey and register-based data for children born in a region of Denmark during 1990–92, which...... allows us to carefully consider possible confounders including psychological factors. We implement an IV strategy inspired by Carrell and Hoekstra (2010) where we instrument victim status with the proportion of peers from troubled homes in one’s classroom. We show that bullied children suffer in terms...
Søndergaard, Dorte Marie
Definitions of school bullying vary, when it comes to more detailed descriptions of what this entails and, not least, of why bullying occurs. Some definitions emphasize the individual’s personality and upbringing to explain the cause of bullying behavior. Other, more recent, definitions point...... by a peer or a teacher. A complication in relation to these strategies is that neither of them take into account that the sheltered space of facilitated dialogue differs radically from the shared community of the classroom, with its norms and positionings unchallenged by the mediated conversation. Many...
Wan Ismail, Wan Salwina; Nik Jaafar, Nik Ruzyanei; Sidi, Hatta; Midin, Marhani; Shah, Shamsul Azhar
To determine sociodemographic and psychological factors associated with bullying behavior among young adolescents in Malaysia. This is a cross-sectional study of four hundred ten 12-year-old adolescents from seven randomly sampled schools in the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Sociodemographic features of the adolescents and their parents, bullying behavior (Malaysian Bullying Questionnaire), ADHD symptoms (Conners Rating Scales), and internalizing and externalizing behavior (Child Behaviour Checklist) were obtained from adolescents, parents and teachers, respectively. Only male gender (OR=7.071, p=0.01*, CI=1.642-30.446) was a significant sociodemographic factor among bullies. Predominantly hyperactive (OR=2.285, p=0.00*, CI=1.507-3.467) and inattentive ADHD symptoms reported by teachers (OR=1.829, p=0.03*, CI=1.060-3.154) and parents (OR=1.709, p=0.03*, CI=1.046-2.793) were significant risk factors for bullying behavior while combined symptoms reported by young adolescents (OR=0.729, p=0.01*, CI=0.580-0.915) and teachers (OR=0.643, p=0.02*, CI=0.440-0.938) were protective against bullying behavior despite the influence of conduct behavior (OR=3.160, p=0.00*, CI=1.600-6.241). Internalizing behavior, that is, withdrawn (OR=0.653, p=0.04*, CI=0.436-0.977) and somatic complaints (OR=0.619, p=0.01*, CI=0.430-0.889) significantly protect against bullying behavior. Recognizing factors associated with bullying behavior, in particular factors distinctive to the local population, facilitates in strategizing effective interventions for school bullying among young adolescents in Malaysian schools. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Andersen, Lars Peter; Labriola, Merete; Andersen, Johan Hviid
of the participants was derived from a national register at Statistics Denmark. Results Several risk factors were identified. Being obese, low self-assessed position in school class, overprotective parents, low self-esteem, low sense of coherence and low socioeconomic status were risk factors for being bullied...
This paper offers a comprehensive examination of the "lived experience" of workplace bullying in primary schools in Ireland. Underpinned by the qualitative analysis of in-depth interviews with a class teacher, a chairperson of a Board of Management and a school principal--all of whom who believe themselves to have been targets of…
Stephens, Mary M; Cook-Fasano, Hazel T; Sibbaluca, Katherine
Childhood bullying is common and can lead to serious adverse physical and mental health effects for both the victim and the bully. In teenagers, risk factors for becoming a victim of bullying include being lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender; having a disability or medical condition such as asthma, diabetes mellitus, a skin condition, or food allergy; or being an outlier in weight and stature. An estimated 20% of youth have been bullied on school property, and 16% have been bullied electronically in the past year. Bullying can result in emotional distress, depression, anxiety, social isolation, low self-esteem, school avoidance/refusal, and substance abuse for the victim and the bully. Preventive measures include encouraging patients to find enjoyable activities that promote confidence and self-esteem, modeling how to treat others with kindness and respect, and encouraging patients to seek positive friendships. For those who feel concern or guilt about sharing their experiences, it may be useful to explain that revealing the bullying may not only help end the cycle for them but for others as well. Once bullying has been identified, family physicians have an important role in screening for its harmful effects, such as depression and anxiety. A comprehensive, multitiered approach involving families, schools, and community resources can help combat bullying. Family physicians are integral in recognizing children and adolescents who are affected by bullying-as victims, bullies, or bully- victims-so they can benefit from the intervention process.
Andersen, Lars Peter; Labriola, Merete; Andersen, Johan Hviid; Lund, Thomas; Hansen, Claus D.
Background The consequences of childhood bullying victimisation are serious. Much previous research on risk factors for being bullied has used a cross-sectional design, impeding the possibility to draw conclusions on causality, and has not considered simultaneous effects of multiple risk factors. Paying closer attention to multiple risk factors for being bullying can provide a basis for designing intervention programmes to prevent or reduce bullying among children and adolescents. Methods Ris...
Calvin, Angela J.; Bellmore, Amy; Xu, Jun-Ming; Zhu, Xiaojin
To understand how bullying is represented within social media, the characteristics of hashtags associated with public mentions of bullying on Twitter between January 1, 2012 and December 31, 2012 are explored in this study. The most frequently used 500 hashtags among the 552,831 distinct hashtags used with the keywords "bully,"…
Goethem, A.A.J. van; Scholte, R.H.J.; Wiers, R.W.H.J.
The main aim of this study was to examine whether an assessment of implicit bullying attitudes could add to the prediction of bullying behavior after controlling for explicit bullying attitudes. Primary school children (112 boys and 125 girls, M age = 11 years, 5 months) completed two newly
van Goethem, A.A.J.; Scholte, R.H.J.; Wiers, R.W.
The main aim of this study was to examine whether an assessment of implicit bullying attitudes could add to the prediction of bullying behavior after controlling for explicit bullying attitudes. Primary school children (112 boys and 125 girls, M age = 11 years, 5 months) completed two newly
Bonde, Jens Peter; Gullander, Maria; Hansen, Åse Marie
-labelled bullying at baseline using logistic regression. RESULTS: Reports of bullying were persistent across four years in 22.2% (57/257) of employees who initially reported bullying. Baseline associations between self-labelled bullying and sick-listing, poor self-rated health, poor sleep, and depressive symptoms...... were significant with adjusted odds ratios (OR) ranging from 1.8 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.5-2.4] for poor sleep quality among those bullied "now and then" to 6.9 (95% CI 3.9-12.3) for depression among those reporting being bullied on a daily to monthly basis. In longitudinal analyses...... adjusting for bullying during follow-up, all health correlates except poor sleep quality persisted up to four years. CONCLUSION: Self-reported health correlates of workplace bullying including sick-listing, poor self-rated health, depressive symptoms, and a diagnosis of depression tend to persist...
Bonde, Jens Peter; Gullander, Maria; Hansen, Åse Marie
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the course of workplace bullying and health correlates among Danish employees across a four-year period. METHODS: In total, 7502 public service and private sector employees participated in a 3-wave study from 2006 through 2011. Workplace bullying over the past......-labelled bullying at baseline using logistic regression. RESULTS: Reports of bullying were persistent across four years in 22.2% (57/257) of employees who initially reported bullying. Baseline associations between self-labelled bullying and sick-listing, poor self-rated health, poor sleep, and depressive symptoms...... were significant with adjusted odds ratios (OR) ranging from 1.8 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.5-2.4] for poor sleep quality among those bullied "now and then" to 6.9 (95% CI 3.9-12.3) for depression among those reporting being bullied on a daily to monthly basis. In longitudinal analyses...
Full Text Available Background: The results of our research broaden the knowledge concerning the correlates of mobbing. The study is aimed at finding out whether an employee's gender, his/her occupational position and level of occupational stress are related to bullying experience. Material and Methods: 1313 employees of a transport company participated in the study. The relationships between gender, occupational position, the level of stress and bullying were analysed. Bullying was measured by the use of the MDM Questionnaire, while work environment was assessed using the Subjective Assessment of Work Questionnaire. Results: It was found that women were generally more exposed to bullying than men (Z = –1.999; p < 0.05. Women experienced more bullying by their colleagues than men did (Z = –2.712; p < 0.01, in particular: bullying by colleagues that destroys the worker's image (Z = –2.922; p < 0.01 and bullying by colleagues that destroys social relations (Z = –3.004; p < 0.01. Individuals with managerial jobs experienced overall bullying (Z = –2.762; p < 0.01, bullying by colleagues (Z = –0.014; p < 0.05 and bullying by colleagues that destroys social relations (Z = –2.260; p < 0.05 more often than the individuals with non-management positions. The results of the study also indicated that employees with higher level of stress in comparison with less stressed co-workers reported more incidents of bullying behaviour (overall bullying – Z = –8.171; p < 0.001, bullying by colleagues – Z = –7.114; p < 0.001, bullying by supervisors – Z = –6.716; p < 0.001, all types of behaviour – p < 0.001. Conclusions: Comparing the results of our study to the previous research, it seems that the pattern of relationships between individual characteristics and bullying is rooted in the wider cultural context, the specificity of the company, its organisational culture as well as its situation. Therefore it's difficult to talk about irrefutable individual
Lerman, Bradford C.
Bullying can be a serious and damaging experience for students today. The children who bully are more likely to be truant; drop out of school; or engage in alcohol, tobacco, or other drug abuse, and children who are bullied are more likely to experience depression, low self-esteem, health problems, poor grades, and suicidal thoughts. In addition,…
Bullying in schools is a topic of serious concern. According to a survey conducted in the United States, approximately 30% of youth in grades 6-10 have reported some involvement in moderate or frequent bullying, and this problem affects about 5.7 million youth. To deal with bullying, 2 years ago, Byrnedale Junior High School in Toledo, Ohio…
Migliaccio, Todd; Raskauskas, Juliana; Schmidtlein, Mathew
Past bullying research has consistently identified common locations (e.g. bathrooms, hallways, playgrounds) on school campuses where bullying occurs, but not specific locations. This limitation does not allow researchers to take into account the unique geography of individual schools and how it contributes to bullying. A random sample of 741 grade…
de Wet, Corene
This article looks at educators' understanding of workplace bullying through the lens of a two- dimensional model of bullying. Educators, who were furthering their studies at the University of the Free State, were invited to take part in a study on different types of bullying. Deductive, directed content analysis was used to analyse 59…
Craig, Wendy; Pepler, Debra; Blais, Julie
Children who are bullied are often told to "solve the problems themselves"; however, when bullying is repeated over time, it becomes increasingly difficult for victimized children to stop the torment because of their relative lack of power. We examine the ways in which children respond to bullying and their evaluations of the…
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McMillan, Katherine A; Thorisdottir, Audur S; Asmundson, Gordon J G
Previous research on bully perpetration and psychiatric outcomes has been limited to examination of lifetime associations and has not included evaluation of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), despite previously reported correlations between PTSD and anger and aggression. The purpose of the present study was to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the association between bullying behaviour and mental disorders within a past-year framework. Data was obtained from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC; n=34,653), a nationally-representative survey of American adults. Cross-tabulations and logistic regression analyses were conducted to evaluate the relationship between bullying behaviour and psychiatric diagnosis. A total of 239 individuals (138 males, 101 females) reported engaging in bullying behaviour within the past-year. Mood, anxiety, substance use, and personality disorders were all more common among bully perpetrators compared to others. Of note, strong associations were found between PTSD and bully perpetration. Findings from the current study demonstrate strong associations between bullying perpetration and mental health concerns. The proximity of bullying behaviors and mental health concerns may be important, suggesting avenues for efforts at intervention and bullying prevention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Griffiths, L J; Wolke, D; Page, A S; Horwood, J P
To investigate whether weight category (underweight, average weight, overweight, and obese) at age 7.5 predicts bullying involvement at 8.5 years. Models were tested separately for boys and girls to investigate gender differences in association patterns. Prospective cohort study in southwest England. Height and weight were measured in children at age 7.5 (n = 8210). BMI (kg/m2) was used to define underweight, average weight, overweight, and obese children, according to British age and gender specific growth reference data. Overt (n = 7083) and relational (n = 6932) bullying behaviour was assessed in children at age 8.5. After adjustment for parental social class, compared to average weight boys, obese boys were 1.66 (95% CI 1.04 to 2.66) times more likely to be overt bullies and 1.54 (1.12 to 2.13) times more likely to be overt victims. Obese girls were 1.53 (1.09 to 2.15) times more likely to be overt victims compared to average weight girls. Obesity is predictive of bullying involvement for both boys and girls. Preadolescent obese boys and girls are more likely to be victims of bullying because they deviate from appearance ideals. Other obese boys are likely to be bullies, presumably because of their physical dominance in the peer group.
Hogh, Annie; Hoel, Helge; Carneiro, Isabella G
To investigate the risk of turnover among targets of bullying at work. Exposure to bullying seems to leave targets with intentions to leave their workplaces. However, it is uncertain to what extent they actually leave. Data were collected by questionnaires in a three-wave study among Danish healthcare workers at the time of graduation (T₁ ), 1 (T₂ ) and 2 years (T₃ ) later. We followed 2154 respondents who participated in all three waves. The first year after graduation, 9.2% reported being bullied at work, 1.8% frequently. Follow-up analyses showed a strong relationship between exposure to bullying at T₂ and turnover at T₃ [odds ratio (OR) for frequently bullied = 3.1]. The inclusion of push factors such as low social support and low sense of community, intention to leave and ill health did not change the relation between bullying and turnover significantly. Three reasons for quitting stood out among reasons given by the bullied respondents: poor leadership, being exposed to negative behaviour and health problems. Bullying may be costly to an organization in terms of staff turnover and subsequent recruitment and training of replacements. IMPACT FOR NURSING MANAGEMENT: Managers should regularly monitor the psychosocial work environment. To prevent bullying local policies and procedures should be developed, implemented and evaluated. 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Sampasa-Kanyinga, Hugues; Willmore, Jacqueline
The purpose of this study was to further explore the association between bullying victimization and breakfast skipping in children and adolescents. Compared to the previous study, we have used a larger and representative sample of middle and high school students, examined the effect of gender, different forms (physical, verbal, theft/vandalism and cyber) and severity of bullying on breakfast eating behaviour. Data from students (2286 boys and 2859 girls) aged 11 to 19 years (mean ± SD age: 14.6 ± 1.9 years) from the 2013 Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey (OSDUHS) were analysed using self-reports of being bullied, diet, psychological distress, demographics, socio-economic status, weight status, and substance use. Results revealed greater odds of breakfast skipping in girl victims of physical, verbal, and cyber bullying, and in boy victims of verbal and cyber bullying. There was a dose-response relationship between experience of both school and cyber bullying victimization and breakfast skipping behaviour for both genders. Mediation analysis indicated that psychological distress fully mediated the relationship between both verbal and physical bullying victimization and breakfast skipping in girls, and partially mediated the relationship between verbal bullying victimization and breakfast skipping in boys. Psychological distress also partially mediated the link between cyber bullying victimization and breakfast skipping in both boys and girls. These results corroborate previous findings on the association between bullying victimization and breakfast skipping in children and adolescents. The strong and consistent associations with different forms of bullying victimization, the dose-response relationship, and the mediating role of psychological distress suggest a causal relationship. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Being overweight or obese is one of the most common reasons that children and adolescents are teased at school. We carried out a study in order to investigate: i the relation between weight status and school bullying and ii the relation between weight status categories and types of victimization and bullying in an outpatient sample of Italian children and adolescents with different degrees of overweight from minimal overweight up to severe obesity.Nine-hundred-forty-seven outpatient children and adolescents (age range 6.0-14.0 years were recruited in 14 hospitals distributed over the country of Italy. The participants were classified as normal-weight (N = 129, overweight (N = 126, moderately obese (N = 568, and severely obese (N = 124. The nature and extent of verbal, physical and relational bullying and victimization were assessed with an adapted version of the revised Olweus bully-victim questionnaire. Each participant was coded as bully, victim, bully-victim, or not involved.Normal-weight and overweight participants were less involved in bullying than obese participants; severely obese males were more involved in the double role of bully and victim. Severely obese children and adolescents suffered not only from verbal victimization but also from physical victimization and exclusion from group activities. Weight status categories were not directly related to bullying behaviour; however severely obese males perpetrated more bullying behaviour compared to severely obese females.Obesity and bullying among children and adolescents are of ongoing concern worldwide and may be closely related. Common strategies of intervention are needed to cope with these two social health challenges.
Hutchinson, Marie; Hurley, John
This study aimed to explore the potential for emotionally intelligent leadership as a way to mitigate bullying behaviour within nursing workplace environments. As the body of evidence about bullying continues to grow there is an increasing need for researchers to direct their attention to developing theoretical frameworks that explain how bullying and victimization occur, and the types of strategies that may address the problem. The narrative synthesis of the literature presented in this paper is forwarded as supporting the need for strengthening leadership capability, especially those capabilities associated with emotional intelligence, as a means of diminishing experienced bullying within nursing. Stemming from our expanding understandings about bullying is an appreciation of the range of factors within organizations that influence the occurrence of bullying, and an awareness of the need to understand the expression, experience and management of emotions in the workplace. While both leadership and emotional intelligence capabilities offer real potential to mitigate bullying behaviour, disparity exits between clinical and managerial nurses toward preferred leadership styles and emotional intelligence is open to challenges towards its content validity. Nursing management is challenged to build upon procedural responses to bullying to include a ground up approach to leadership enhancement capability, better responses to emotions in the workplace and supporting the interpersonal and intrapersonal capabilities of the nursing workforce. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Full Text Available Students’ bullying characteristics phenomena has become a concern because educational institution where educative individuals are being train has in fact become a place of bullying. Bullying is an act of hurting someone done by an individual or group. Bullying is not limited to a community or educational institutional, such as a university, as a whole, but it happened in a narrower area that is related to a campus – dormitory. Dormitory, a place conducive for learning is a social laboratory, with an educative, social, moral and regeneration function. Based on the statistical data of bullying cases of university A, released by the office of the student affairs in 2008, it was found out that there are 1 or 2 cases every semester. Bullies usually consist of 1 to 8 students.To know the types of bullying, factors and affects that causes the act on the victims and dormitory community, and efforts of prevention. A qualitative research was done to dig deep into the real picture of bullying. An interview and discussions were done toward 14 reseach subject. Sources and methodology triangular were done to validate the data. Data analysis was done using the open coding steps. Bullying causes factors in university A is the same in general that is seniority factor, imitating the past experiences. Seniors expect themselves to be honored and problem occurred when juniors dishonored them. Bullies bullied because they were once victims, therefore bullying is somehow done as an act of revenge. Bullying acts occurred in dormitory of university A in Bandung. Anti-bullying systems designed by the university are: Religious understanding development, religious teaching implementation, uplifting moral values. Others things done are improving students’ controlling system by the dormitory deans and monitors (dormitory workers. Keywords: bullying, dormitory, students
Freeman, Bradley W; Thompson, Christopher; Jaques, Cory
This article describes school's obligations related to bullying behavior, the assessment of bullying students and their victims, the evaluation of claimed damages due to bullying, and potential interventions for both individuals and school systems to reduce the frequency of bullying behavior. This article assists evaluators when assessing youth who are involved in bullying behavior, either as victims or perpetrators. Key areas highlighted include an overview of bullying behaviors, legal issues related to a school's responsibility in preventing or curtailing bullying behaviors, important components of a bullying assessment, and proposed interventions to minimize bullying. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan tingkat pengetahuan guru sekolah dasar tentang bullying di kecamatan Sokaraja, Kabupaten Banyumas. Metode pengumpulan data menggunakan tes pengetahuan, subjek penelitiannya adalah guru sekolah dasar di Sokaraja, Kabupaten Banyumas. Teknik pengambilan sampel data yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah clustered sampling. Jumlah populasi penelitian adalah 403 guru dari sekolah dasar di kecamatan Sokaraja, Kabupaten Banyumas. 40% di antaranya diambil sebagai sampel, sehingga sampel yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah 130 guru sekolah dasar dari kecamatan Sokaraja, Banyumas kabupaten Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa pengetahuan guru tentang bullying rata-rata, hal ini ditunjukkan dalam analisis yang menunjukkan bahwa 130 guru sekolah dasar, 92 di antaranya 70,77% kategori rata-rata dalam mengetahui bullying verbal (70,77%. Sedangkan untuk pengetahuan bullying fisik, dari 130 guru, 91 guru atau 70,00% dikategorikan ke tingkat rata-rata. Kemudian, dari 130 guru sekolah dasar, 70,00% dikategorikan ke dalam pengetahuan rata-rata yang berhubungan dengan pengetahuan mental. Kata kunci: Pengetahuan tentang Bullying, Guru Sekolah Dasar
Mariana Aparecida Grillo
Full Text Available This article intends to conduct an analysis and reflection of one of the important issues which it is education: bullying, because it is a violence that occurs in the school of repetitive and deliberate manner in which its consequences can cause damage significant to emotional training, psychological and socio-educational of the victim, if the student. Note that bullying is increasing in epidemic form in schools and its effects are traumatizing students to witness and those who suffer the action, because it is violence with deliberate and repetitive character. In terms of overall objective, conduct yourself will this article in order to obtain information about bullying in the school environment, more specifically will address: The Bullying conceptions; Investigate the causes and consequences can be seen in the behavior of students; To study the key players of Bullying in school. Thus, it is a qualitative methodological approach that will make the use of literature by various authors for the issue of deepening. It resulted contribute in the actions of professionals in the face of violence. Therefore, it is concluded that the school is a place of learning, where change is necessary, both in order to act as the thinking of people and students.
Carr, Caleb T.
Bullying, often considered an interpersonal or intergroup behaviour, has not been explored as an unintended artefact of organisational structure. Institutional review boards (IRBs), the 'human research ethics committees' at US universities, help oversee the protection of human research subjects, particularly in the social sciences within…
Riggall, Michaela; Skues, Jason; Wise, Lisa
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the definition, prevalence, antecedents, consequences and coping behaviours associated with apprenticeship bullying in the building and construction industry. Design/methodology/approach: The sample comprises 13 participants aged between 22 and 27 (M = 23.8, SD = 1.26) who were all men who had…
Effect of Rational Emotive Theraphy in the Reduction of Bullying Behaviour of Youth. ... Subscription or Fee Access ... Using a multi-stage approach, a total of sixty (60) secondary school students (30 males and 30 females; 30 JSS and 30 SSS) ...
Rodkin, Philip C.
This White House report investigates the essential role that peers play in promoting or preventing bullying. Bullies use bullying to attain success and recognition; their success in doing so depends on the characteristics of the bully, the relationship that exists between bullies and those whom they target for harassment, and the reactions of…
Heath, Melissa Allen; Moulton, Emily; Dyches, Tina Taylor; Prater, Mary Anne; Brown, Alec
The consequences of bullying are both widespread and severe. It disrupts learning, threatens school safety, and poses long-term emotional repercussions for bullies, victims, and bystanders. Although multiple strategies have targeted bullying, bullying must be understood within a social contextual framework beyond the bully-victim dyad. Davis and…
The criteria that researchers use to classify aggressive behaviour as bullying are "repetition", "power imbalance", and "intent to hurt". However, studies that have analyzed adolescents' perceptions of bullying find that most adolescents do not simultaneously consider these three criteria. This paper examines adolescents' perceptions of bullying…
Šmigelskas, Kastytis; Vaičiūnas, Tomas; Lukoševičiūtė, Justė; Malinowska-Cieślik, Marta; Melkumova, Marina; Movsesyan, Eva; Zaborskis, Apolinaras
Background: This study aims to explore how sufficient social support can act as a possible preventive factor against fighting and bullying in school-aged children in 9 European countries. Methods : Data for this study were collected during the 2013/2014 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) survey. The sample consisted of 9 European countries, involving 43,667 school children in total, aged 11, 13 and 15 years. The analysed data focus on social context (relations with family, peers, and school) as well as risk behaviours such as smoking, drunkenness, fighting and bullying in adolescents. The relationships between social support and violent behaviour variables were estimated using multiple regression models and multivariate analyses. Results : Bullying, across 9 countries, was more prevalent than fighting, except for Armenia, Israel, and Poland. The prevalence among countries differed considerably, with fighting being most expressed in Armenia and bullying—in Latvia and Lithuania. The strongest risk factors for bullying and fighting were male gender (less expressed for bullying), smoking and alcohol consumption. In addition, for bullying the social support was similarly strong factor like above-mentioned factors, while for fighting—less significant, but still independent. All forms of social support were significantly relate with lower violent behaviour of school children, and family support was associated most strongly. Regardless the socioeconomic, historical, and cultural differences among selected countries, the enhancement and reinforcement of the social support from possible many different resources should be taken into consideration in prevention programs against school violence behaviours.
Islamoska, Sabrina; Grynderup, Matias Brødsgaard; Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten
The aim of this study was to investigate whether the level of reported post-traumatic stress (PTSD) symptoms among targets of workplace bullying differ depending on their educational level. Exposure to workplace bullying was assessed by the behavioural experience method and the self-labelling met......The aim of this study was to investigate whether the level of reported post-traumatic stress (PTSD) symptoms among targets of workplace bullying differ depending on their educational level. Exposure to workplace bullying was assessed by the behavioural experience method and the self......-labelling method among 563 Danish employees. PTSD symptoms were assessed by the Impact of Event Scale – Revised. Educational level was measured as years of education. The results showed that workplace bullying was significantly associated with the reporting of PTSD symptoms. However, PTSD symptoms were...... of this study was to investigate whether the level of reported post-traumatic stress (PTSD) symptoms among targets of workplace bullying differ depending on their educational level. Exposure to workplace bullying was assessed by the behavioural experience method and the self-labelling method among 563 Danish...
Hansen, Åse Marie; Hogh, Annie; Garde, Anne Helene
PURPOSE: The aims of the present study were to investigate whether being subjected to bullying and witnessing bullying at the workplace was associated with concurrent sleep difficulties, whether frequently bullied/witnesses have more sleep difficulties than occasionally bullied....../witnesses, and whether there were associations between being subjected to bullying or witnessing bullying at the workplace and subsequent sleep difficulties. METHODS: A total of 3,382 respondents (67 % women and 33 % men) completed a baseline questionnaire about their psychosocial work environment and health....... The overall response rate was 46 %. At follow-up 2 years later, 1671 of those responded to a second questionnaire (49 % of the 3,382 respondents at baseline). Sleep difficulties were measured in terms of disturbed sleep, awakening problems, and poor quality of sleep. RESULTS: Bullied persons and witnesses...
Andersen, Lars Peter; Labriola, Merete; Andersen, Johan Hviid; Lund, Thomas; Hansen, Claus D
The consequences of childhood bullying victimisation are serious. Much previous research on risk factors for being bullied has used a cross-sectional design, impeding the possibility to draw conclusions on causality, and has not considered simultaneous effects of multiple risk factors. Paying closer attention to multiple risk factors for being bullying can provide a basis for designing intervention programmes to prevent or reduce bullying among children and adolescents. Risk factors for bullying were examined by using questionnaire data collected in 2004 and 2007. In 2004, the participants were aged 14-15 years and 17-18 years in 2007. The baseline questionnaire was answered by 3054 individuals in 2004, and 2181 individuals participated in both rounds. We analysed risk factors for being bullied at the individual and societal level. Information on the social background of the participants was derived from a national register at Statistics Denmark. Several risk factors were identified. Being obese, low self-assessed position in school class, overprotective parents, low self-esteem, low sense of coherence and low socioeconomic status were risk factors for being bullied at school. Being overweight, smoking, low self-assessed position in class, low sense of coherence and low socioeconomic status were risk factors for being bullied at work. However, most associations between risk factors in 2004 and being bullied in 2007 disappeared after adjustment for being bullied in 2004. The strongest risk factor for being bullied was being previously bullied. Our results stress the importance of early prevention of bullying at schools. In addition, attention should be drawn to the role of overprotective parents.
Frampton, Christopher M A; McKee, Martin; Barclay, Murray
Objectives To estimate prevalence of and factors contributing to bullying among senior doctors and dentists in New Zealand’s public health system, to ascertain rates of reporting bullying behaviour, perceived barriers to reporting and the effects of bullying professionally and personally. Design Cross-sectional, mixed methods study. Setting New Zealand. Participants Members of the Association of Salaried Medical Specialists (40.8% response rate). Main outcome measures Prevalence of bullying was measured using the Negative Acts Questionnaire (revised) (NAQ-r). Workplace demands and level of peer and managerial support were measured with the Health and Safety Executive Management Standards Analysis tool. Categories of perpetrators for self-reported and witnessed bullying and barriers to reporting bullying were obtained and qualitative data detailing the consequence of bullying were analysed thematically. Results The overall prevalence of bullying, measured by the NAQ-r, was 38% (at least one negative act on a weekly or daily basis), 37.2% self-reported and 67.5% witnessed. There were significant differences in rates of bullying by specialty (P=0.001) with emergency medicine reporting the highest bullying prevalence (47.9%). The most commonly cited perpetrators were other senior medical or dental specialists. 69.6% declined to report their bullying. Bullying across all measures was significantly associated with increasing work demands and lower peer and managerial support (P=0.001). Consequences of bullying were wide ranging, affecting workplace environments, personal well-being and subjective quality of patient care. Conclusions Bullying is prevalent in New Zealand’s senior medical workforce and is associated with high workloads and low peer and managerial support. These findings help identify conditions and pressures that may encourage bullying and highlight the significant risk of bullying for individuals and their patients. PMID:29555792
Chambers, Charlotte N L; Frampton, Christopher M A; McKee, Martin; Barclay, Murray
To estimate prevalence of and factors contributing to bullying among senior doctors and dentists in New Zealand's public health system, to ascertain rates of reporting bullying behaviour, perceived barriers to reporting and the effects of bullying professionally and personally. Cross-sectional, mixed methods study. New Zealand. Members of the Association of Salaried Medical Specialists (40.8% response rate). Prevalence of bullying was measured using the Negative Acts Questionnaire (revised) (NAQ-r). Workplace demands and level of peer and managerial support were measured with the Health and Safety Executive Management Standards Analysis tool. Categories of perpetrators for self-reported and witnessed bullying and barriers to reporting bullying were obtained and qualitative data detailing the consequence of bullying were analysed thematically. The overall prevalence of bullying, measured by the NAQ-r, was 38% (at least one negative act on a weekly or daily basis), 37.2% self-reported and 67.5% witnessed. There were significant differences in rates of bullying by specialty (P=0.001) with emergency medicine reporting the highest bullying prevalence (47.9%). The most commonly cited perpetrators were other senior medical or dental specialists. 69.6% declined to report their bullying. Bullying across all measures was significantly associated with increasing work demands and lower peer and managerial support (P=0.001). Consequences of bullying were wide ranging, affecting workplace environments, personal well-being and subjective quality of patient care. Bullying is prevalent in New Zealand's senior medical workforce and is associated with high workloads and low peer and managerial support. These findings help identify conditions and pressures that may encourage bullying and highlight the significant risk of bullying for individuals and their patients. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved
Kubiszewski, V; Fontaine, R; Huré, K; Rusch, E
The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of adolescents engaged in cyber-bullying and then to identify whether students involved in cyber- and school bullying present the same characteristics of internalizing problems (insomnia, perceived social disintegration, psychological distress) and externalizing problems (general aggressiveness, antisocial behavior). Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 738 adolescents from a high-school and a middle-school (mean age=14.8 ± 2.7). The Electronic Bullying Questionnaire and the Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire were used to identify profiles of cyber-bullying (cyber-victim, cyber-bully, cyber-bully/victim and cyber-neutral) and school bullying (victim, bully, bully/victim and neutral). Internalizing problems were investigated using the Athens Insomnia Scale, a Perceived Social Disintegration Scale and a Psychological Distress Scale. Externalizing problems were assessed using a General Aggressiveness Scale and an Antisocial Behavior Scale. Almost one student in four was involved in cyber-bullying (16.4% as cyber-victim, 4.9% as cyber-bully and 5.6% as cyber-bully/victim); 14% of our sample was engaged in school bullying as a victim, 7.2% as a bully and 2.8% as a bully/victim. The majority of adolescents involved in cyber-bullying were not involved in school bullying. With regard to the problems associated with school bullying, internalizing problems were more prevalent in victims and bully/victims, whereas externalizing problems were more common in bullies and bully/victims. A similar pattern was found in cyber-bullying where internalizing problems were characteristic of cyber-victims and cyber-bully/victims. Insomnia was elevated in the cyber-bully group which is specific to cyberbullying. General aggressiveness and antisocial behavior were more prevalent in cyber-bullies and cyber-bully/victims. Looking at the differences between types of bullying, victims of "school only" and "school and cyber
Bevilacqua, Leonardo; Shackleton, Nichola; Hale, Daniel; Allen, Elizabeth; Bond, Lyndal; Christie, Deborah; Elbourne, Diana; Fitzgerald-Yau, Natasha; Fletcher, Adam; Jones, Rebecca; Miners, Alec; Scott, Stephen; Wiggins, Meg; Bonell, Chris; Viner, Russell M
Bullying and cyberbullying are common phenomena in schools. These negative behaviours can have a significant impact on the health and particularly mental health of those involved in such behaviours, both as victims and as bullies. This UK study aims to investigate student-level and school-level characteristics of those who become involved in bullying and cyberbullying behaviours as victims or perpetrators. We used data from 6667 Year 7 students from the baseline survey of a cluster randomized trial in 40 English schools to investigate the associations between individual-level and school-level variables with bullying victimization, cyberbullying perpetration, and cyberbullying victimization. We ran multilevel models to examine associations of bullying outcomes with individual-level variables and school-level variables. In multilevel models, at the school level, school type and school quality measures were associated with bullying risk: students in voluntary-aided schools were less likely to report bullying victimization (0.6 (0.4, 0.9) p = 0.008), and those in community (3.9 (1.5, 10.5) p = 0.007) and foundation (4.0 (1.6, 9.9) p = 0.003) schools were more likely to report being perpetrators of cyberbullying than students in mainstream academies. A school quality rating of "Good" was associated with greater reported bullying victimization (1.3 (1.02, 1.5) p = 0.03) compared to ratings of "Outstanding." Bullying victimization and cyberbullying prevalence vary across school type and school quality, supporting the hypothesis that organisational/management factors within the school may have an impact on students' behaviour. These findings will inform future longitudinal research investigating which school factors and processes promote or prevent bullying and cyberbullying behaviours. Trial ID: ISRCTN10751359 Registered: 11/03/2014 (retrospectively registered).
Maunder, Rachel E.; Crafter, Sarah
School bullying is an important concern. Whilst there is growing knowledge about the nature, extent and effects of school bullying, areas of complexity in research findings remain. In this paper we develop our thinking on school bullying using a sociocultural theoretical framework. We review existing literature around three main themes: 1) The conceptualisation and interpretation of bullying; 2) The relational aspects of bullying 3) Bullying as part of someone's life trajectory. For each them...
Simon C. Hunter
Full Text Available This study evaluated whether adolescents who report having been bullied, being bullies, or report both being a bully and being bullied experience more sleep difficulties than children uninvolved in bullying. The study drew upon cognitive theories of insomnia, investigating whether the extent to which young people report worrying about bullying can moderate associations between victimization and sleep difficulties. Participants were 5420 adolescents who completed a self-report questionnaire. Pure Victims (OR = 1.72, 95% CI [1.07, 2.75], Pure Bullies (OR = 1.80, 95% CI [1.16, 2.81], and Bully-Victims (OR = 2.90, 95% CI [1.17, 4.92] were all more likely to experience sleep difficulties when compared to uninvolved young people. The extent to which young people reported worrying about being bullied did not moderate the links between victimization and sleep difficulties. In this way, bullying is clearly related to sleep difficulties among adolescents but the conceptual reach of the cognitive model of insomnia in this domain is questioned.
Sania, Shakoor; Jaffee, Sara R; Bowes, Lucy; Ouellet-Morin, Isabelle; Andreou, Penelope; Happé, Francesca; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Arseneault, Louise
Background Theory of mind allows the understanding and prediction of other people’s behaviours based on their mental states (e.g. beliefs). It is important for healthy social relationships and thus may contribute towards children’s involvement in bullying. The present study investigated whether children involved in bullying during early adolescence had poor theory of mind in childhood. Method Participants were members of the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, a nationally-representative sample of 2,232 children and their families. Families were visited by the authors when children were 5, 7, 10 and 12 years. Theory of mind was assessed when the children were 5 years using eight standardized tasks. Identification of those children who were involved in bullying as victims, bullies and bully-victims using mothers’, teachers’ and children’s reports was carried out when they were 12 years’ old. Results Poor theory of mind predicted becoming a victim (effect size, d=0.26), bully (d=0.25) or bully-victim (d=0.44) in early adolescence. These associations remained for victims and bully-victims when child-specific (e.g., IQ) and family factors (e.g., child maltreatment) were controlled for. Emotional and behavioural problems during middle childhood did not modify the association between poor theory of mind and adolescent bullying experiences. Conclusion Identifying and supporting children with poor theory of mind early in life could help reduce their vulnerability for involvement in bullying and thus limit its adverse effects on mental health. PMID:22081896
Anja van den Broeck
Research purpose: The purpose of the study was to test the work environment hypothesis by applying the Job Demands-Resources model to workplace bullying. We expected job demands and job resources to relate to both perpetrators’ and actors’ reports of workplace bullying. Motivation for the study: We aimed to extend the outcomes examined in the Job Demands- Resources model to a specific form of counterproductive interpersonal behaviour, namely workplace bullying. From the point of view of the literature on bullying, we aimed to substantiate the well-known work environment hypothesis with empirical data. Research design, approach and method: We applied structural equation modelling on questionnaire data of a large heterogeneous sample of Flemish employees (N = 749. Main findings: Job demands and job resources interacted in the prediction of perpetrators’ reports of bullying: job demands associated positively to perpetrators’ reports of bullying particularly under the condition of high job resources. Job demands related positively to targets’ reports of bullying, while job resources related negatively. These associations were (partially mediated by emotional exhaustion. Practical/managerial implications: These results suggest that workplace bullying may indeed be reduced by good job design, that is, by limiting the job demands and increasing job resources. Particular prevention plans may be developed for exhausted employees, as they are vulnerable to workplace bullying, in terms of both becoming perpetrators and victims. Contribution/value-add: This study attests to the predictive validity of the JD-R model for perpetrators’ and targets’ reports of workplace bullying. The findings also underline the complex and multi-causal nature of workplace bullying.
Thomas, Hannah J; Chan, Gary C K; Scott, James G; Connor, Jason P; Kelly, Adrian B; Williams, Joanne
The frequency and emotional response to bullying victimisation are known to be associated with adolescent mental ill health. A potentially important under-investigated factor is the form of bullying. Four common forms of bullying behaviours are name-calling, physical threats or harm, rumour spreading and social exclusion. To more comprehensively understand bullying victimisation in adolescence, we examined the association of all three factors (frequency, emotional response, form) to psychological distress and emotional wellbeing. A stratified, random sample of adolescents (n = 10, 273; mean age = 14.33 years, standard deviation = 1.68 years) completed validated measures of bullying victimisation (Gatehouse Bullying Questionnaire), psychological distress (K10) and emotional wellbeing (Mental Health Inventory) in classroom time. Associations between the form of bullying victimisation and mental health outcomes were examined. Adolescents reported a high prevalence of all four forms of bullying: teased or called names (30.6%), rumour spreading (17.9%), social exclusion (14.3%) and physical threats or harm (10.7%). Victimisation was independently associated with significantly higher levels of psychological distress and reduced levels of emotional wellbeing for all forms of bullying. In particular, social exclusion had a strong association with mental ill health. Adolescents who experienced frequent bullying that was upsetting reported higher psychological distress and reduced emotional wellbeing. Different forms of bullying victimisation were independently associated with psychological distress and reduced emotional wellbeing. In particular, frequent and upsetting social exclusion requires a targeted and measured response by school communities and health practitioners. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.
This podcast discusses what victims of bullying may experience and provides recommendations for coping with it. Created: 1/19/2012 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC). Date Released: 1/19/2012.
In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics talk about things you can do to deal with bullying. Created: 12/27/2011 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Division of Violence Prevention. Date Released: 12/27/2011.
Kukaswadia, Atif; Craig, Wendy; Janssen, Ian; Pickett, William
Obesity can have negative effects in terms of stigma and discriminatory behavior. Past cross-sectional analyses have shown that overweight and obese youths are more likely to be involved in bullying. Here, we examine such relationships in a longitudinal analysis. Study outcomes were self-reports of: i) physical bullying victimization and perpetration and ii) relational bullying victimization and perpetration. Participants were administered the Health Behaviour in School-Age Children Survey in 2006 and then again in 2007, and included 1,738 youths from 17 Ontario high schools. Relationships between adiposity and each of the four forms of bullying were evaluated using multi-level analyses. Excess adiposity was shown to precede bullying involvement in this study. Obese and overweight males reported 2-fold increases in both physical and relational victimization, while obese females reported 3-fold increases in perpetration of relational bullying. Among those free of bullying at baseline (2006), significant increases in perpetration of relational bullying were reported by obese females in 2007 relative to normal-weight females (14.8 vs. 3.8% among normal-weight girls; p = 0.02). Findings are congruent with previous cross-sectional studies and confirm that obese youths are at increased risk of social consequences attributable to their appearance. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini untuk menemukan hubungan antara mengalami bullying dengan depresi pada remaja. Hipotesis penelitian adalah ada korelasi positif antara mengalami bullying dengan depresi pada remaja. Subjek penelitian ini adalah 146 siswa SMA. Data dianalisis dengan korelasi product moment. Hasil analisis menemukan terdapat hubungan positif antara mengalami bullying dengan depresi pada remaja, dengan r = 0.218 (p 0,05. Hasil penelitian menemukan tidak terdapat perbedaan frekuensi bullying yang dialami subjek laki-laki dan perempuan dengan t=1,759 (p>0,05. Hasil menemukan perbedaan frekuensi bullying jenis fisik yang dialami oleh subjek laki-laki dan perempuan dengan t = 2,167 (p<0,05. Laki-laki lebih banyak mengalami bullying dibandingkan perempuan.
Ma, Shu-Ching; Wang, Hsiu-Hung; Chen, Jih-Yuan
Workplace bullying is a complicated and imprecise concept. Research findings have highlighted it as an important issue in the nursing environment worldwide. Workplace bullying arises due to malfunctions in workplace organizational and cultural related antecedents and manifests in various forms. Many studies have reported that nurses experiencing workplace bullying face increased levels of physical, psychological and social distress, may adopt suicidal thoughts and negativity towards the nursing profession, and may even abandon the nursing profession completely. Although a large number of papers have discussed the antecedents, forms and interventions related to workplace bullying, there has yet been no systematic concept analysis of workplace bullying. This paper applied Walker and Avant's concept analysis process to verify concept definitions, identify defining attributes, antecedents, and consequences, and provide examples of model, borderline, and contrary cases. Findings can help nursing administrators understand and clarify the meaning of workplace bullying in order to take appropriate measures to improve the working environment for nursing professionals.
Sarková, Mária; Sigmundová, Dagmar; Kalman, Michal
Bullying in school is a public health concern which continues to be a serious threat to physical and emotional health of children and adolescents. The purpose of this study is to examine trends in bullying behaviour among school-aged children in the Czech Republic. Data were obtained from cross-sectional self-report surveys in the years 1994-2014 as a part of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study (HBSC) from a representative sample of 11-, 13-, and 15-year olds. The highest proportion of children who bullied others (20-47%) occurred during the years 1994 and 1998. The logistic regression models showed significant decreasing trends in bullying others and also in being bullied, regardless of age and gender. The decreasing trend in bullying may be the consequence of a preventive policy in the Czech Republic, but also a change in the understanding of the concept of bullying in society. Copyright© by the National Institute of Public Health, Prague 2017
The study aimed to develop the Homophobic Bullying Scale and to investigate its psychometric properties. The items of the Homophobic Bullying Scale were created to measure high school students' bullying behaviors motivated by homophobia, including verbal bullying, relational bullying, physical bullying, property bullying, sexual harassment, and…
for a constructive partnership between parents and schools in cases of bullying. This research adds to the existing literature in the field by suggesting that the connections between schools, parents and their children’s social behaviour at school must be seen as complexly entangled and involving a range of forces......This article explores the subject of parents with respect to children’s bullying at school. The overarching claim is that parental agency and positions on children’s bullying at school are produced and made possible by an apparatus of multiple, concurrent forces that provide poor conditions...
This article explores the subject of parents with respect to children’s bullying at school. The overarching claim is that parental agency and positions on children’s bullying at school are produced and made possible by an apparatus of multiple, concurrent forces that provide poor conditions...... for a constructive partnership between parents and schools in cases of bullying. This research adds to the existing literature in the field by suggesting that the connections between schools, parents and their children’s social behaviour at school must be seen as complexly entangled and involving a range of forces...
Kosevaliska, Olga; Buzarovska - Lazetik, Gordana; Nanev, Lazar
The modest purpose of this paper is to elaborate the phenomenon of school bullying and to try to give an answer to questions that remain open over time because of the seriousness of this issue. A child is being bullied when he or she is exposed repeatedly over time to aggressive behavior that intentionally inflicts injury or discomfort through physical contact, verbal attacks, fighting or psychological manipulation. Besides finding the proper definition of bullying, we’ll give a comparative a...
Kapoor, Shrea; Ajinkya, Shaunak; Jadhav, Pradeep R
Bullying is a form of behaviour that can negatively impact a person. It can lead to several deleterious consequences like low self-confidence, drop in academic performance and depression. Studies have shown that bullying behaviour exists amongst medical students also. In the medical field, it is known to negatively impact dispensing of health care and attitudes of medical students towards becoming doctors. It is very difficult for medical students to cope with such a menace as they are already burdened with a vast curriculum and rigorous schedules. There exists paucity of studies regarding bullying amongst undergraduate medical students in Indian context. To study prevalence of peer-based bullying and victimization along with their associated factors in undergraduate medical students. Four hundred randomly chosen undergraduate medical students were included in the study. Socio-demographic and personal details including history of substance use were recorded in a self-designed case record form. Illinois Bullying Scale was used to assess bullying behaviours. Out of total 400 students, 383 completed the survey and this data was analysed. In this study, 98.69% participants self-reported to having indulged in bullying while 88.77% reported feeling victimized. Physical (pbullying was found to be of significantly greater severity in males as compared to females. Students of the third year of medical school indulged in significantly (p=0.034) greater severity of physical bullying than those of other years. Alcohol consumption (p=0.001) and cigarette smoking (pbullying. Peer-based bullying and victimization was found to be highly prevalent amongst undergraduate medical students. There is an urgent need for more detailed studies on bullying in medical students so that remedial measures can be initiated and steps to limit such behaviours can be looked at seriously.
Søndergaard, Dorte Marie
Bullying is a serious problem among children in schools and institutions. However, it is only relatively recently that bullying has emerged as a field of research, although the phenomenon itself has likely existed in various forms among children for as long as mankind has walked the earth. The ge....... The genealogy of bullying as a concept has taken the understanding of bullying in different directions with a varying emphasis on either the roles played by individuals (victims and perpetrators) or on social and relational aspects....
Corene de Wet
Full Text Available This article looks at educators' understanding of workplace bullying through the lens o a two-dimensional model of bullying. Educators, who were furthering their studies at the University of the Free State, were invited to take part in a study on different types of bullying. Deductive, directed content analysis was used to analyse 59 participants' descriptions of workplace bullying. The study found that the theoretical model provided a valuable framework for studying bullying in this context. The analysis of the educators' descriptions provided the following insights about the relational and organisational foundations of workplace bullying: (1 The relational powerless victims are subjected to public humiliation, disregard, isolation and discrimination. The bullying of educators results in escalating apathy and disempowerment, to the detriment of their professional and private wellbeing. (2 Bullying is likely to occur in schools where organisational chaos reigns. Such schools are characterised by incompetent, unprincipled, abusive leadership, lack of accountability, fairness and transparency. (3 There is interplay between relational powerlessness and organisational chaos, i.e. the absence of principled leadership, accountability and transparency gives rise to workplace bullying.
Bjereld, Y; Daneback, K; Löfstedt, P; Bjarnason, T; Tynjälä, J; Välimaa, R; Petzold, M
Friends are important in childhood and adolescence, especially to bullied children. Technology mediated communication (TMC) could be used both to develop and maintain friendship. The present study examined (1) trends in the use of TMC with friends between 2001 and 2010; (2) possible differences between bullied and not bullied children and (3) differences between children with few close friends and children with several close friends. Data were obtained from three waves of the serial cross-sectional Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children survey conducted in Denmark, Finland, Iceland and Sweden during 2001/2002, 2005/2006 and 2009/2010. The total sample consisted of 65 953 children aged 11, 13 and 15. Two trends were observed. The first trend showed an increased use of TMC in all countries. Children that were not bullied and/or had several close friends had increased their use of TMC with friends from 2001 to 2010. The second trend was applicable only for bullied children with few close friends; they had not as other children increased their use of TMC and thus remained at the same levels as in 2001/2002. Bullied children with few close friends were excluded from communication forums that usually allow children to maintain and develop friendships. This is a concern because friends are important during childhood and adolescence, especially for bullied children. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Ana Teresa Verdasca
This paper tries to shed light about the political dimension of workplace bullying through the quantitative analysis of work environment factors, like perceptions of organizational politics, work overload and internal competition, and the qualitative analysis of accounts of respondents to a questionnaire launched in the Portuguese banking sector. Our sample is made up of 561 valid responses containing 64 stories of bullying episodes and, in the qualitative data, political behaviours occur ass...
Cooper, Leigh A.; Nickerson, Amanda B.
In this study, parent history of bullying was examined in terms of general involvement with bullying, specific types of bullying experienced, level of hurtfulness associated with the experience, and when bullying occurred. Parent current views, levels of concern, and strategies used to cope with bullying were also evaluated. Finally, the…
McCarra, Janet F.; Forrester, Jeanne
Bullying continues to be a challenging issue for classroom teachers. The authors provide seven recommendations to prevent bullying and for intervention if bullying occurs: (a) know the forms of bullying and recognize the effects forms of bullying and recognize the effects, (b) promote a positive classroom environment, (c) teach a variety of…
Johnston, Pattie; Tankersley, Merrie; Joenson, Trevor; Hupp, Mikey; Buckley, Jennifer; Redmond-McGowan, Margaret; Zanzinger, Allison; Poirier, Alex; Walsh, Abigail
Cyber-bullying has become increasingly problematic in academic settings including universities and colleges. The bullying literature has been expanding investigation of the bully behaviors and has identified four bully types to include pure offender, pure victim, offender and victim, neither-offender-nor-victim. The majority of research has…
Goldsmid, Susan; Howie, Pauline
Lack of definitional consensus remains an important unresolved issue within bullying research. This study examined the ability of definitional variables to predict overall level of victimisation (distress, power inequity, and provocation as predictors) and bullying (intention to harm, power inequity, and provocation as predictors) in 246…
Horton, Paul; Kvist Lindholm, Sofia; Nguyen, Thu Hang
Drawing on ethnographic research conducted at three lower secondary schools in the northern Vietnamese cities of Hanoi and Haiphong, this article provides a contextually nuanced conceptualisation of Vietnamese school bullying. In doing so, the article not only addresses the lack of knowledge about Vietnamese school bullying, but also poses a…
Stubbs, Brendon; Soundy, Andy
To consider the prevalence and type of bullying behaviours experienced whilst on clinical placement in a cohort of final-year BSc undergraduate students. Cross-sectional survey. University in the West Midlands, UK. Fifty-two final-year undergraduate students. Prevalence of incivility and bullying behaviours. Twenty-five percent of students reported at least one incident of bullying behaviour. The perpetrator of the bullying behaviour was most often the clinical educator (8/13, 62%). Despite the negative effects caused, the majority of students (11/13, 84%) did not report this experience to the university. Bullying behaviour may take many forms and can have a negative effect on the well-being of students. It should be addressed by all stakeholders including universities, National Health Service trusts and researchers. Possible strategies to move forwards and better protect the future of the physiotherapy profession are briefly considered. Copyright © 2013 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Søndergaard, Dorte Marie
effects in school groups saturated with bullying practices. Ridicule appears to be widespread, very much feared, and not amenable to adult interventions. With this article I look into the many and frequently subtle ways humour intertwines itself in relational practices among children, with a particular...... view towards children in groups plagued by bullying and social tension. I focus on the entanglement of humour in the complex manoeuvrings that characterise children’s worlds, and the subtle mechanisms involved in the self-regulation of their communities in and outside schools. The analyses, concepts......, and theory that I develop are grounded in the qualitative data such as interviews with children and extensive observation in schools and in after school care....
Levine, Emily; Tamburrino, Melissa
Bullying is an increasing problem within childcare facilities, preschool programs, and public schools. As a result, many districts are instituting anti-bullying intervention programs. This article defines bullying and explains the direct and indirect forms it can take. First, it examines research on bullying during the beginning years of school.…
Thornberg, Robert; Halldin, Karolina; Bolmsjo, Natalie; Petersson, Annelie
The aim of this study was to investigate how individuals;who had been victims of school bullying; perceived their bullying experiences and how these had affected them; and to generate a grounded theory of being a victim of bullying at school. Twenty-one individuals, who all had prior experiences of being bullied in school for more than one year,…
Dixon, Roz; Smith, Peter K.
What would make anti-bullying initiatives more successful? This book offers a new approach to the problem of school bullying. The question of what constitutes a useful theory of bullying is considered and suggestions are made as to how priorities for future research might be identified. The integrated, systemic model of school bullying introduced…
Padgett, Sharon; Notar, Charles E.
Bullying is the dominance over another. Bullying occurs when there is an audience. Peer bystanders provide an audience 85% of instances of bullying. If you remove the audience bullying should stop. The article is a review of literature (2002-2013) on the role of bystanders; importance of bystanders; why bystanders behave as they do; resources to…
Schrooten, I.; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Didden, Robert
Students with disabilities and/or autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are particularly vulnerable to be involved in bullying compared to their peers without ASD. Studies have found that students with ASD are at higher risk to be involved in bullying as a bully (i.e., perpetrator of bullying), a victim
Sampasa-Kanyinga, Hugues; Roumeliotis, Paul; Xu, Hao
The negative effects of peer aggression on mental health are key issues for public health. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between cyberbullying and school bullying victimization with suicidal ideation, plans and attempts among middle and high school students, and to test whether these relationships were mediated by reports of depression. Data for this study are from the 2011 Eastern Ontario Youth Risk Behaviour Survey, which is a cross-sectional regional school-based survey that was conducted among students in selected Grade 7 to 12 classes (1658 girls, 1341 boys; mean ± SD age: 14.3 ± 1.8 years). Victims of cyberbullying and school bullying incurred a significantly higher risk of suicidal ideation (cyberbullying: crude odds ratio, 95% confidence interval = 3.31, 2.16-5.07; school bullying: 3.48, 2.48-4.89), plans (cyberbullying: 2.79, 1.63-4.77; school bullying: 2.76, 2.20-3.45) and attempts (cyberbullying: 1.73, 1.26-2.38; school bullying: 1.64, 1.18-2.27) compared to those who had not encountered such threats. Results were similar when adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, substance use, and sedentary activities. Mediation analyses indicated that depression fully mediated the relationship between cyberbullying victimization and each of the outcomes of suicidal ideation, plans and attempts. Depression also fully mediated the relationship between school bullying victimization and suicide attempts, but partially mediated the relationship between school bullying victimization and both suicidal ideation and plans. These findings support an association between both cyberbullying and school bullying victimization and risk of suicidal ideation, plans and attempts. The mediating role of depression on these links justifies the need for addressing depression among victims of both forms of bullying to prevent the risk of subsequent suicidal behaviours.
Full Text Available The negative effects of peer aggression on mental health are key issues for public health. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between cyberbullying and school bullying victimization with suicidal ideation, plans and attempts among middle and high school students, and to test whether these relationships were mediated by reports of depression.Data for this study are from the 2011 Eastern Ontario Youth Risk Behaviour Survey, which is a cross-sectional regional school-based survey that was conducted among students in selected Grade 7 to 12 classes (1658 girls, 1341 boys; mean ± SD age: 14.3 ± 1.8 years.Victims of cyberbullying and school bullying incurred a significantly higher risk of suicidal ideation (cyberbullying: crude odds ratio, 95% confidence interval = 3.31, 2.16-5.07; school bullying: 3.48, 2.48-4.89, plans (cyberbullying: 2.79, 1.63-4.77; school bullying: 2.76, 2.20-3.45 and attempts (cyberbullying: 1.73, 1.26-2.38; school bullying: 1.64, 1.18-2.27 compared to those who had not encountered such threats. Results were similar when adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, substance use, and sedentary activities. Mediation analyses indicated that depression fully mediated the relationship between cyberbullying victimization and each of the outcomes of suicidal ideation, plans and attempts. Depression also fully mediated the relationship between school bullying victimization and suicide attempts, but partially mediated the relationship between school bullying victimization and both suicidal ideation and plans.These findings support an association between both cyberbullying and school bullying victimization and risk of suicidal ideation, plans and attempts. The mediating role of depression on these links justifies the need for addressing depression among victims of both forms of bullying to prevent the risk of subsequent suicidal behaviours.
Bullying encompasses verbal aggression, physical aggression, and social exclusion. It involves "harm-doing" that is carried out repeatedly, over time, and within a relationship, involving a power imbalance between the bully and the bullied. Being bullied may have considerable adverse sequelae, including psychologic or psychiatric harm. Much bullying is appearance-related, and it would be surprising if some individuals with skin disease were not bullied given the high visibility of skin diseases. The limited evidence available does suggest that individuals with skin disease, particularly those with acne, psoriasis, and atopic dermatitis, are often bullied, which can adversely affect them psychologically. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fekkes, M.; Sande, M.C.E. van de; Gravesteijn, J.C.; Pannebakker, F.D.; Buijs, G.J.; Diekstra, R.F.W.; Kocken, P.L.
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effects of the Dutch “Skills for Life” programme on students’ health behaviours, bullying behaviour and suicidal ideation. Design/methodology/approach – The effectiveness of the “Skills for Life” programme on health behaviour outcomes was
Fekkes, M.; van de Sande, M. C. E.; Gravesteijn, J. C.; Pannebakker, F. D.; Buijs, G. J.; Diekstra, R. F. W.; Kocken, P. L.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effects of the Dutch "Skills for Life" programme on students' health behaviours, bullying behaviour and suicidal ideation. Design/methodology/approach: The effectiveness of the "Skills for Life" programme on health behaviour outcomes was evaluated at three points in time in…
Romero, Andrea J.; Wiggs, Christine Bracamonte; Valencia, Celina; Bauman, Sheri
Latina adolescents experience depression and suicidal ideations in a disproportionate manner compared to their non-Latina counterparts. We investigate suicide and depressive symptoms among a state-wide sample (N = 650) of adolescent Latina girls with a focus on bullying as a predictor. Bullying rates are higher than previous studies have found for…
Agatston, Patricia W; Kowalski, Robin; Limber, Susan
The aim of this study was to gain a better understanding of the impact of cyber bullying on students and the possible need for prevention messages targeting students, educators, and parents. A total of 148 middle and high school students were interviewed during focus groups held at two middle and two high schools in a public school district. The focus groups were approximately 45 minutes in length. Students were divided by gender and asked a series of scripted questions by a same-gender student assistance counselor. We found that students' comments during the focus groups suggest that students-particularly females-view cyber bullying as a problem, but one rarely discussed at school, and that students do not see the school district personnel as helpful resources when dealing with cyber bullying. Students are currently experiencing the majority of cyber bullying instances outside of the school day; however there is some impact at school. Students were able to suggest some basic strategies for dealing with cyber bullying, but were less likely to be aware of strategies to request the removal of objectionable websites, as well as how to respond as a helpful bystander when witnessing cruel online behavior. We conclude that school districts should address cyber bullying through a combination of policies and information that are shared with students and parents. Schools should include cyber bullying as part of their bullying prevention strategies and include classroom lessons that address reporting and bystander behavior.
This research investigates the emotional and physiological effects of cyber bullying on the university students. The primary objective of this investigation is to identify the victims of cyber bullying and critically analyze their emotional state and frame of mind in order to provide them with a workable and feasible intervention in fighting cyber…
Hymel, Shelley; Bonanno, Rina A.
Bullying is the most common form of interpersonal violence facing youth in schools, and recent school-based intervention efforts have shown only limited success in reducing such behavior. Accordingly, this article considers the utility of Albert Bandura's theory of moral disengagement in understanding bullying behavior among children and…
Polanin, Megan; Vera, Elizabeth
School bullying exists as a societal epidemic that affects millions of school-aged students (Espelage & Holt, 2012). Youths involved in bullying--whether perpetrating, witnessing, or being victimized--face inequitable access to school-based resources and opportunities aimed at academic growth and empowerment. This article conceptualizes school…
This is the first podcast of a series to discuss the severity of bullying and provide resources for prevention efforts. CDC shares the most recent statistics and trends, provides valuable tips to implement in communities, and teaches individuals how to take action against bullying.
Campanini, Paolo; Conway, Paul Maurice; Neri, Luca; Punzi, Silvia; Camerino, Donatella; Costa, Giovanni
To assess the relationship between workplace bullying and sickness absenteeism in a large sample of Italian workers. A cross-sectional study conducted by means of questionnaires. In all, 8,992 subjects filled in a questionnaire to detect workplace bullying, the presence of work stress factors and days of sickness absence in the last year. Workplace bullying and psychosocial stressor were measured by the means of the CDL 2.0 questionnaire. Days of sickness absence reported by the subjects. On average, days of sickness absence were 7.4, and 7.2% of the respondents were defined as bullied. Results from logistic regression analyses showed that a workplace bullying was associated with more days of sickness absence after controlling for gender, age, professional qualification, company sector and juridical nature and other psychosocial factors (men: OR =1.62; women: OR =2.15). The present study confirms that workers exposed to a workplace bullying reported higher sickness absenteeism as compared with non-exposed subjects, also when a potentially highly stressful work environment is considered. The results of the present study support that workplace bullying may be viewed as an extreme stressful condition. Interventions to avoid workplace bullying not only favoure workers' health, but also avoid the company costs associated with workers' sickness absenteeism.
... work on Tourette Syndrome Tourette Association information on bullying What it’s like to have Tourette – Mary tells her story What children wish people knew about Tourette Syndrome CDC Children’s Mental Health StopBullying.gov Features Media Sign up for Features ...
Cowie, Helen; Colliety, Pat
Children who bully have learned to use their power and aggression to control others, a mode that is not conducive to healthy relationships either in the present or in their future lives. Furthermore, there is evidence that children who bully are also likely to have mental health problems that persist into adult life. There are also wide social and…
Full Text Available Bullying and cyberbullying have severe psychological and legal consequences for those involved. However, it is unclear how or even if previous experience of bullying and cyberbullying is considered in mental health assessments. Furthermore, the relevance and effectiveness of current legal solutions has been debated extensively, resulting in a desire for a specific legislation. The purpose of this study is to investigate the psychological and legal components of bullying and cyberbullying. This is a qualitative research that includes interviews with five practitioner psychologists and four lawyers in the United Kingdom (UK. Thematic analysis revealed three main themes. One theme is related to the definition, characteristics, and impact of bullying and cyberbullying and the need for more discussion among the psychological and legal professions. Another theme is related to current professional procedures and the inclusion of questions about bullying and cyberbullying in psychological risk assessments. The third theme emphasised the importance of intervention through education. Two key messages were highlighted by the lawyers: ample yet problematic legislation exists, and knowledge will ensure legal success. The study recommends the necessity of performing revisions in the clinical psychological practices and assessments, and the legal policies regarding bullying and cyberbullying. In addition to improving legal success, this will reduce bullying prevalence rates, psychological distress, and psychopathology that can be comorbid or emerge as a result of this behaviour.
Samara, Muthanna; Burbidge, Vicky; El Asam, Aiman; Foody, Mairéad; Smith, Peter K; Morsi, Hisham
Bullying and cyberbullying have severe psychological and legal consequences for those involved. However, it is unclear how or even if previous experience of bullying and cyberbullying is considered in mental health assessments. Furthermore, the relevance and effectiveness of current legal solutions has been debated extensively, resulting in a desire for a specific legislation. The purpose of this study is to investigate the psychological and legal components of bullying and cyberbullying. This is a qualitative research that includes interviews with five practitioner psychologists and four lawyers in the United Kingdom (UK). Thematic analysis revealed three main themes. One theme is related to the definition, characteristics, and impact of bullying and cyberbullying and the need for more discussion among the psychological and legal professions. Another theme is related to current professional procedures and the inclusion of questions about bullying and cyberbullying in psychological risk assessments. The third theme emphasised the importance of intervention through education. Two key messages were highlighted by the lawyers: ample yet problematic legislation exists, and knowledge will ensure legal success. The study recommends the necessity of performing revisions in the clinical psychological practices and assessments, and the legal policies regarding bullying and cyberbullying. In addition to improving legal success, this will reduce bullying prevalence rates, psychological distress, and psychopathology that can be comorbid or emerge as a result of this behaviour.
Samara, Muthanna; Burbidge, Vicky; El Asam, Aiman; Foody, Mairéad; Smith, Peter K.; Morsi, Hisham
Bullying and cyberbullying have severe psychological and legal consequences for those involved. However, it is unclear how or even if previous experience of bullying and cyberbullying is considered in mental health assessments. Furthermore, the relevance and effectiveness of current legal solutions has been debated extensively, resulting in a desire for a specific legislation. The purpose of this study is to investigate the psychological and legal components of bullying and cyberbullying. This is a qualitative research that includes interviews with five practitioner psychologists and four lawyers in the United Kingdom (UK). Thematic analysis revealed three main themes. One theme is related to the definition, characteristics, and impact of bullying and cyberbullying and the need for more discussion among the psychological and legal professions. Another theme is related to current professional procedures and the inclusion of questions about bullying and cyberbullying in psychological risk assessments. The third theme emphasised the importance of intervention through education. Two key messages were highlighted by the lawyers: ample yet problematic legislation exists, and knowledge will ensure legal success. The study recommends the necessity of performing revisions in the clinical psychological practices and assessments, and the legal policies regarding bullying and cyberbullying. In addition to improving legal success, this will reduce bullying prevalence rates, psychological distress, and psychopathology that can be comorbid or emerge as a result of this behaviour. PMID:29186780
Soylu, Soydan; Sheehy-Skeffington, Jennifer
What does inequality mean for dysfunctional organizational behaviours, such as workplace bullying? This article argues that workplace bullying can be understood as a manifestation of intergroup dynamics originating beyond the organization. We introduce the construct of asymmetric intergroup bullying: the disproportionate mistreatment of members of low status groups, with the intended effect of enhancing the subordination of that group in society at large. Analysis of data from 38 interviews with public and private sector workers in Turkey depicts a pattern of asymmetric intergroup bullying, undertaken to achieve organizational and broader sociopolitical goals. Respondents reported bullying acts used to get rid of unwanted personnel, with the goal of avoiding severance pay, or of removing supporters of the former government from positions of political and economic influence. Bullying was also described as working towards the dominance of the sociocultural worldview of one political group over another. We discuss asymmetric intergroup bullying as one mechanism through which acute intergroup hierarchy in the broader society corrupts management practice and employee interactions, in turn exacerbating economic inequality along group lines.
Soylu, Soydan; Sheehy-Skeffington, Jennifer
What does inequality mean for dysfunctional organizational behaviours, such as workplace bullying? This article argues that workplace bullying can be understood as a manifestation of intergroup dynamics originating beyond the organization. We introduce the construct of asymmetric intergroup bullying: the disproportionate mistreatment of members of low status groups, with the intended effect of enhancing the subordination of that group in society at large. Analysis of data from 38 interviews with public and private sector workers in Turkey depicts a pattern of asymmetric intergroup bullying, undertaken to achieve organizational and broader sociopolitical goals. Respondents reported bullying acts used to get rid of unwanted personnel, with the goal of avoiding severance pay, or of removing supporters of the former government from positions of political and economic influence. Bullying was also described as working towards the dominance of the sociocultural worldview of one political group over another. We discuss asymmetric intergroup bullying as one mechanism through which acute intergroup hierarchy in the broader society corrupts management practice and employee interactions, in turn exacerbating economic inequality along group lines. PMID:26819482
Henriksen, P W; Rayce, S B; Melkevik, O; Due, P; Holstein, B E
More children from lower social backgrounds are physically inactive than those from higher ones. We studied whether bullying was a mediating factor between lower social background and physical inactivity. We also examined the combined effect of low social class and exposure to bullying on physical inactivity. The Danish sample of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study 2006 included 6269 schoolchildren in three age groups: 11-, 13-, and 15-year-olds from a random sample of 80 schools. The students answered the internationally standardized HBSC questionnaire. The applied definition leaves 4.0% in the category physically inactive. The sex and age-adjusted OR (95% CI) for physical inactivity was 2.10 (1.39-3.18) among students with low social class and unclassifiable 3.53 (2.26-5.53). Exposure to bullying was associated with physical inactivity, sex and age-adjusted OR = 2.39 (1.67-3.41). Exposure to bullying did not explain the association between social class and physical inactivity. The association between social class and physical inactivity was more pronounced among participants also exposed to bullying. In conclusion, there was a significantly increased odds ratio for physical inactivity among students from lower social classes and for students exposed to bullying. There was a combined effect of low social class and bullying on physical inactivity. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
García-Moya, Irene; Suominen, Sakari; Moreno, Carmen
The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of bullying victimization and its impact on physical and psychological complaints in a representative sample of adolescents and to explore the role of sense of coherence (SOC) in victimization prevalence and consequences. A representative sample of Spanish adolescents (N = 7580, mean age = 15.41) was selected as part of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study. Bullying victimization, physical and psychological symptoms, and SOC were measured, and comparisons were made between strong- and weak-SOC adolescents regarding their likelihood of being a victim of bullying and the negative effects of bullying victimization on their health. Weak-SOC adolescents were significantly more likely to suffer from bullying victimization regardless of type (nonphysical vs physical and nonphysical) or means (traditional vs cyberbullying). In addition, bullying victimization showed significant increasing effects on weak-SOC adolescents' physical and psychological symptoms whereas in strong-SOC adolescents it was not significantly associated with increases in physical complaints and its effects on psychological complaints seemed to be weaker. Weak-SOC adolescents seem to be at higher risk of becoming bullying victims and victimization experiences appear to have increased negative effects on them when compared to strong-SOC students. © 2014, American School Health Association.
Jamal, Farah; Bonell, Chris; Harden, Angela; Lorenc, Theo
This exploratory study adopts a socio-ecological approach to examine the context of school bullying. It asks: (1) what are students' accounts of bullying practices?; (2) how are these enabled and constrained by the school-environment?; (3) how is gender implicated? Qualitative data were collected from girls in two schools in London via focus groups (one in each school; students aged 12-15) and seven semi-structured interviews (in one school; students aged 16-18); and from school policy documents. Our interpretation of girls' accounts, informed by Giddens' structuration theory, suggests that bullying practices were spatially patterned in the schools and often characterised by the regulation of girls' sexuality and sexual-harassment. Repeated acts of aggression were fluid with regard to the bully and victim role, challenging the dominant view of bullying as characterised by consistent disparities in power between individuals. Schools structured bullying behaviour via policies and practices that ignored these forms of abuse and which focused on and may have been complicit in the making of stable 'bully' and 'victim' roles, thus indirectly contributing to the reproduction of unhealthy relationships between students. In terms of gender, traditional gendered and sexual discourses appear to structure the identities of the schools and girls in our study. © 2015 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.
Gillen, Patricia A; Sinclair, Marlene; Kernohan, W George; Begley, Cecily M; Luyben, Ans G
internal validity items from the Downs and Black quality assessment tool to evaluate included studies' risk of bias. Five studies met the inclusion criteria. They had altogether 4116 participants. They were underpinned by theory and measured behaviour change in relation to bullying and related absenteeism. The included studies measured the effectiveness of interventions on the number of cases of self-reported bullying either as perpetrator or victim or both. Some studies referred to bullying using common synonyms such as mobbing and incivility and antonyms such as civility. Organisational/employer level interventionsTwo studies with 2969 participants found that the Civility, Respect, and Engagement in the Workforce (CREW) intervention produced a small increase in civility that translates to a 5% increase from baseline to follow-up, measured at 6 to 12 months (mean difference (MD) 0.17; 95% CI 0.07 to 0.28).One of the two studies reported that the CREW intervention produced a small decrease in supervisor incivility victimisation (MD -0.17; 95% CI -0.33 to -0.01) but not in co-worker incivility victimisation (MD -0.08; 95% CI -0.22 to 0.08) or in self-reported incivility perpetration (MD -0.05 95% CI -0.15 to 0.05). The study did find a decrease in the number of days absent during the previous month (MD -0.63; 95% CI -0.92 to -0.34) at 6-month follow-up. Individual/job interface level interventionsOne controlled before-after study with 49 participants compared expressive writing with a control writing exercise at two weeks follow-up. Participants in the intervention arm scored significantly lower on bullying measured as incivility perpetration (MD -3.52; 95% CI -6.24 to -0.80). There was no difference in bullying measured as incivility victimisation (MD -3.30 95% CI -6.89 to 0.29).One controlled before-after study with 60 employees who had learning disabilities compared a cognitive-behavioural intervention with no intervention. There was no significant difference in bullying
Cozma, Ioana; Kukaswadia, Atif; Janssen, Ian; Craig, Wendy; Pickett, William
Bullying is a recognized social problem within child populations. Engagement in childhood bullying often occurs in settings that are away from adult supervision, such as en route to and from school. Bullying episodes may also have a negative impact on school childrens' decisions to engage in active transportation. Using a cross-sectional design, we analyzed reports from the 2009/10 cycle of the Canadian Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) study. Records from this general health survey were obtained for 3,997 urban students in grades 6-10 who lived in close proximity of their school and were hence ineligible for school bussing. Students who indicated walking or bicycling to school were classified as engaged in active transportation. Victims and perpetrators of bullying were defined using standard measures and a frequency cut-off of at least 2-3 times per month. Analyses focused on relations between bullying and active transportation, as well as barriers to active transportation as perceived by young people. 27% of young people indicated being victimized, and 12% indicated that they engaged in bullying. Girls were more likely to be victimized than boys, and younger students were more likely to be victimized than older students. Engagement in active transportation was reported by 63% of respondents, of these, 68% indicated that worrying about bullying on the way to school was an impediment to such transportation methods. Victimization by bullying (adjusted OR = 1.26, 95% CI: 1.00 - 1.59) was reported more frequently by children who used active transportation. Health promotion efforts to promote engagement in active transportation of students to school have obvious value. The potential for modest increases in exposure to bullying should be considered in the planning of such initiatives.
Reknes, I; Harris, A; Einarsen, S
Workplace bullying has consistently been found to predict mental health problems among those affected. However, less attention has been given to personal dispositions as possible moderators in this relationship. To investigate the moderating role of individual hardiness in the relationship between exposure to bullying behaviours and symptoms of anxiety and depression, respectively, assuming that high hardiness, being an individual stress resilience factor, acts as a buffer in these relationships. Survey data were gathered in 2016-17, among land-based employees in a Norwegian oil and gas company. Participants completed a questionnaire electronically via a link sent to their work e-mail. The PROCESS macro SPSS supplement was used to analyse the proposed relationships, with mean-centred variables. Altogether, 275 participated in the study (46% response rate). High hardiness acted as a buffer in the bullying-anxiety relationship, in that hardy individuals did not experience increased levels of anxiety when facing bullying behaviours. Low levels of hardiness, on the other hand, acted as an enhancement factor, in that the bullying-anxiety relationship was strengthened for this group. Contrary to expectations, hardiness did not act as a buffer in the bullying-depression relationship. Hardy individuals were less likely to report anxiety in response to bullying than non-hardy workers, a finding with important practical implications. Yet, regardless of who is affected, managers should focus on good strategies to intervene when bullying is detected, and stress resilience training should be considered as part of these strategies. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com
of the Free State, were invited to take part in a study on different types of bullying. Deductive, .... Although functionalism uses a diverse range of methods to investigate its research questions – qualitative and quantitative – the majority are.
What constitutes a good and sustainabledigital living?Social media literacyCan we talk about social media intelligence?Can we talk about digital intelligence?How bullying is complicated by special social media affordances?
Cross, Donna; Lester, Leanne; Barnes, Amy
Few longitudinal studies have investigated how cyberbullying interacts with traditional bullying among young people, who are increasingly using online environments to seek information, entertainment and to socialise. This study aimed to identify the associations between the relative contribution of cyberbullying victimisation and traditional bullying victimisation on social and emotional antecedents and outcomes among adolescents. Participants were a cohort of 1,504 adolescents from 16 Australian schools followed from age 13 to 15 years. Adolescents experiencing social and emotional difficulties were more likely to be cyberbullied and traditionally bullied, than traditionally bullied only. Those targeted in both ways experienced more harm and stayed away from school more often than those traditionally bullied only. These findings suggest a high coexistence of cyber and traditional bullying behaviours and their antecedents, and higher levels of harm from a combination of these behaviours for adolescents over time. Future research should engage students as co-researchers to enhance school and parent strategies to support adolescents experiencing difficulties, and to reduce the likelihood of both cyber and traditional bullying.
May, Amy; Tenzek, Kelly E.
Bullying within academia often focuses on peer bullying or the student victim. However, the student bully who targets professors is a neglected area of study yet just as destructive, demeaning, and intimidating. Using a narrative lens analysis, the researchers share how the story of bullying unfolds in the classroom. Distinct triggers, such as…
Fekkes, M; Pijpers, F I M; Verloove-Vanhorick, S P
Bullying victimization is associated with several health issues. Prevention of bullying is therefore an important goal for health and education professionals. In the present study, 2766 children from 32 Dutch elementary schools participated by completing a questionnaire on bullying behavior, and the involvement of teachers, parents and classmates in bullying incidents. The results of this study show that bullying is still prevalent in Dutch schools. More than 16% of the children aged 9-11 years reported being bullied on a regular basis and 5.5% reported regular active bullying during the current school term. Almost half of the bullied children did not tell their teacher that they were being bullied. When teachers knew about the bullying, they often tried to stop it, but in many cases the bullying stayed the same or even got worse. With regard to active bullying, neither the majority of the teachers nor parents talked to the bullies about their behavior. Our results stress the importance of regular communication between children, parents, teachers and health care professionals with regard to bullying incidents. In addition, teachers need to learn effective ways to deal with bullying incidents. Schools need to adopt a whole-school approach with their anti-bullying interventions.
Full Text Available Background: This study aims to explore how sufficient social support can act as a possible preventive factor against fighting and bullying in school-aged children in 9 European countries. Methods: Data for this study were collected during the 2013/2014 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC survey. The sample consisted of 9 European countries, involving 43,667 school children in total, aged 11, 13 and 15 years. The analysed data focus on social context (relations with family, peers, and school as well as risk behaviours such as smoking, drunkenness, fighting and bullying in adolescents. The relationships between social support and violent behaviour variables were estimated using multiple regression models and multivariate analyses. Results: Bullying, across 9 countries, was more prevalent than fighting, except for Armenia, Israel, and Poland. The prevalence among countries differed considerably, with fighting being most expressed in Armenia and bullying—in Latvia and Lithuania. The strongest risk factors for bullying and fighting were male gender (less expressed for bullying, smoking and alcohol consumption. In addition, for bullying the social support was similarly strong factor like above-mentioned factors, while for fighting—less significant, but still independent. All forms of social support were significantly relate with lower violent behaviour of school children, and family support was associated most strongly. Regardless the socioeconomic, historical, and cultural differences among selected countries, the enhancement and reinforcement of the social support from possible many different resources should be taken into consideration in prevention programs against school violence behaviours.
This is the first podcast of a series to discuss the severity of bullying and provide resources for prevention efforts. CDC shares the most recent statistics and trends, provides valuable tips to implement in communities, and teaches individuals how to take action against bullying. Created: 1/19/2012 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC). Date Released: 1/19/2012.
Pihl, Patricia; Albertsen, Karen; Hogh, Annie; Andersen, Lars Peter Sønderbo
Workplace bullying is a serious stressor with devastating short- and long-term consequences. The concept of organizational social capital may provide insights into the interactional and communicative dynamics of the bullying process and opportunities for prevention. This study aimed to explore the association between organizational social capital and being a target or observer of workplace bullying. Based on self-reported cross-sectional data from a large representative sample of the Danish working population (n = 10.037), logistic regression analyses were conducted to explore at the individual level the associations between vertical and horizontal organizational social capital with being a target or observer of workplace bullying. In the fully adjusted models, low organizational social capital (vertical and horizontal) was associated with significantly increased odds ratios of both self-labelled (vertical: OR = 3.25; CI = 2.34-4.51; horizontal: OR = 3.17; CI = 2.41-4.18) and observed workplace bullying (vertical: OR = 2.09; CI = 1.70-2.56; horizontal: OR = 1.60; CI = 1.35-1.89), when compared with high organizational social capital. This study supports that characteristics of the psychosocial work environment are of importance in the development of workplace bullying, and provides focus on the importance of self-reported organizational social capital.
Children who witness bullying often do not defend victims. Bystanders might be reticent to intervene because they are stuck in "social dilemmas." Social dilemmas are situations in which individuals make decisions based on self-interest due to their lack of confidence that others will join with them in decisions that benefit the collective. In this study, the social dilemmas concept, which comes from game theory and social psychology, was applied to bullying for the first time. A total of 292 middle school students at a private residential school in the United States completed surveys about their bullying-related experiences within their residences of 10 to 12 students of the same gender. Multilevel modeling was employed to assess if and how attitudes, group norms, and social dilemmas predict behavior in bullying situations. The findings suggested that both individual and group factors were associated with behavior in bullying situations and that attitudes, group norms, and social dilemmas each made a unique contribution to predicting behavior in bullying situations. Aggr. Behav. 42:97-108, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Thomas, Hannah J; Connor, Jason P; Lawrence, David M; Hafekost, Jennifer M; Zubrick, Stephen R; Scott, James G
Bullying prevalence studies are limited by varied measurement methods and a lack of representative samples. This study estimated the national prevalence of bullying victimisation, perpetration and combined victim-perpetration experiences in a representative population-based sample of Australian youth. The relationships between the three types of bullying involvement with a range of mental health symptoms and diagnoses were also examined. A randomly selected nationally representative sample aged 11-17 years ( N = 2967, M age = 14.6 years; 51.6% male) completed the youth component of the Second Australian Child and Adolescent Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing (Young Minds Matter). Parents or carers also completed a structured face-to-face interview that asked questions about a single randomly selected child in the household. The youth survey comprised self-reported bullying victimisation and perpetration (Olweus Bully-Victim Questionnaire-adapted), psychological distress (K10), emotional and behavioural problems (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire), as well as self-harm, suicide attempts and substance use. Modules from the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Version IV were administered to all youth and parents to assess for mental disorder diagnoses (major depressive disorder, any anxiety disorder and any externalising disorder [attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder]). The 12-month prevalence of bullying victimisation was 13.3%, perpetration 1.6% and victim-perpetration 1.9%. Logistic regression models showed all forms of involvement in bullying were associated with increased risk of psychological distress, emotional and behavioural problems, substance use, self-harm and attempted suicide. Victimisation and victim-perpetration were associated with youth-reported major depressive disorder. There were also significant associations between bullying involvement and parent-reported diagnoses of major
Hansen, Helle Rabøl
Contrasting views on bullying in schools Which views on bullying influence teachers intervention strategies? This question is discussed on the basis of the findings of my empirical study of that aspect of bullying that has to do with the position of the teacher (a quantitative survey...... of the teachers' staff room, observations, interviews and analysis of explicit ‘bullying-politics'). I found contradictions in teachers' definitions of the phenomenon of bullying, in how they describe causality and furthermore in how they would attempt to solve a specific and complicated bullying case....... The informants describe ‘bullying' in general terms that include group dynamic signs, when pressed for a causal explanation, or asked how they would handle a specific case. Most commonly, however, their focus is on the individual bully. In this, the teachers' positions seem to follow the commonplace conception...
Full Text Available Bullying is still a significant problem today. Bullying occurs starting from the primary level up to college. The impact of the bullying on victims can be a lonely, difficult to adjust, insecurity, low self-esteem, depression and the worst is suicide. The earlier effort to detect bullying experienced by children will be able to prevent long-term effects caused. This study was conducted on 258 students of class 4-5 primary school in Yogyakarta. Data was collected through open-ended questionnaires associated with feelings and experiences of bullying in schools both as perpetrators and victims. The result showed that students feel negative emotions associated with bullying at school and most children experience bullying at school with a variety of forms, ranging from physical, verbal and relational from peers at school. These findings have implications related to the effort to do the school to help students cope with the impact of bullying experienced.
Fang, Li; Huang, Su-Hui; Fang, Shu-Hui
This study was to investigate bullying among hospital nurses and its correlates. Chinese people were unlikely to express their opinions or pursue individual rights. Workplace bullying took place more easily among the educated people within Chinese culture. However, studies related to workplace bullying among hospital nurses in Taiwan were still limited. A cross-sectional design. Two hundred and eighty-five nurses who worked in the regional teaching hospital in south Taiwan were recruited. The significant predictors of workplace bullying were identified by using linear regression analysis. The mean of overall bullying was 1·47, showing that the frequency of the nurses having experienced workplace bullying was between 'never' and 'now and then'. The most frequent bullying item was 'being yelled at or being the target of anger', followed by 'being the objects of untruthful criticism' and 'having views ignored'. Hospital nurses working in the Emergency room would gain 10·888 points more in the overall bullying scale compared with those who worked in operation rooms or haemodialysis rooms. They were more likely to be bullied. Hospital nurses with one year increase in nursing experience were 0·207 points less likely to be bullied. Reducing workplace bullying among hospital nurses was an essential method to provide quality assurance to health care. Nurse managers should build up zero tolerance policy to decrease nurses' exposure to workplace bullying. Training programmes related to bullying prevention are suggested to avoid workplace bullying. The contents of the educational training programmes or workshops should incorporate the characteristics and consequences of the workplace bullying, and the strategies to deal with bullying. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Ross, Scott W.; Horner, R. H.
Bullying behaviors are a growing concern in U.S. schools. We present here a behavioral approach to bully prevention utilizing a schoolwide intervention. Bully prevention in positive behavior support (BP-PBS) teaches students to withhold the social rewards hypothesized to maintain bullying. A single-subject multiple baseline design across 6 students and three elementary schools was implemented in an empirical evaluation of the intervention's effectiveness. Results indicated that implementation...
Schott, Robin May; Søndergaard, Dorte Marie
This chapter offers an introduction to and discussion of the two main paradigms within bullying research: paradigm one with its focus on static personality traits and paradigm two woth an understanding of bullying in terms of the complex relational dynamics and negotiations that occur within social...... Groups and which include a variey of intra-acting forces. The chapter gives a 'road map' to the book's 16 chapters on bullying, situated within the second paradigm. A new definition of bullying concludes the chapter....
Henriksen, P W; Rayce, S B; Melkevik, O
leaves 4.0% in the category physically inactive. The sex and age-adjusted OR (95% CI) for physical inactivity was 2.10 (1.39-3.18) among students with low social class and unclassifiable 3.53 (2.26-5.53). Exposure to bullying was associated with physical inactivity, sex and age-adjusted OR = 2.39 (1...... inactivity. The Danish sample of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study 2006 included 6269 schoolchildren in three age groups: 11-, 13-, and 15-year-olds from a random sample of 80 schools. The students answered the internationally standardized HBSC questionnaire. The applied definition...
Mª Ángeles Hernández Prados
Full Text Available At the beginning of each new school year, the violence starts an unceasing way that is leaving alarming signs in pupils, teachers and others members of the educational community. As every year, it firmly proposed to found some solutions, but this problem is so pressing and the educational measures so globalizers, that once again it turns into a declaration of intentions. This paper, explores a new show of bullying or school harassment among pupils, that is emerging for the possibilities that ICT (Information and Communication Technologies offer to the aggressor pupils: the Cyberbullying. We analyze the concept of cyberbullying, its features, its effect and the different modes that it can take. Finally, it was reflect on the possibilities to consider the pedagogical proposal.
Puhl, Rebecca M; King, Kelly M
Despite significant attention to the medical impacts of obesity, often ignored are the negative outcomes that obese children and adults experience as a result of stigma, bias, and discrimination. Obese individuals are frequently stigmatized because of their weight in many domains of daily life. Research spanning several decades has documented consistent weight bias and stigmatization in employment, health care, schools, the media, and interpersonal relationships. For overweight and obese youth, weight stigmatization translates into pervasive victimization, teasing, and bullying. Multiple adverse outcomes are associated with exposure to weight stigmatization, including depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, suicidal ideation, poor academic performance, lower physical activity, maladaptive eating behaviors, and avoidance of health care. This review summarizes the nature and extent of weight stigmatization against overweight and obese individuals, as well as the resulting consequences that these experiences create for social, psychological, and physical health for children and adults who are targeted. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Saufler, Chuck; Gagne, Cyndi
Noting that bullying among primary school-age children has become recognized as an antecedent to more violent behavior in later grades, the 3-year Maine Project Against Bullying examined currently available research on bullying and evaluated books, curricula, media materials, and programs to identify resources and strategies which can be applied…
Full Text Available This paper identifies a lacuna in the existing paradigms of bullying: a gap caused by the frame of reference being largely limited to the highly industrialized societies of the 'west': Europe, North America and Oceania. The paper attempts to address this gap by presenting research developed in Japan. In Japan, sociological discourse on school bullying, i.e. the analysis of institutional factors relevant to understanding bullying was established relatively early, as was the epistemology now referred to as the second paradigm of bullying. The paper attempts to integrate the research strengths of Japan with this new trend in bullying research, with the view of incorporating 'non-western' research traditions into mainstream discourse on bullying. It introduces a typology of school bullying: Types I and II, and discusses 1 hierarchical relationships in schools, focusing on corporal punishment and teacher-student bullying, and 2 group dynamics surrounding bullying. The paper illustrates how bullying among students is entwined with various aspects of schools as social institutions. It argues that school bullying may represent a state of anomie in both formal and informal power structures in schools, which have become dysfunctional communities unable to deal with bullying, while at the same time it can be students' way of compensating their sense of alienation and disconnectedness from school.
Though they play the least active role, bystanders are a critical element in bullying. With peers looking on and providing at least tacit support, the bully is no longer acting alone. The bystanders have become allies to the point of magnifying the supposed negative attributes of the target. If the bullying cycle is to be broken, the role of the…
Rivers, Ian; Duncan, Neil; Besag, Valerie E.
"Bullying: A Handbook for Educators and Parents" offers a comprehensive exploration of the bullying within public schools, drawing upon research conducted in the United States, United Kingdom, Scandinavia, and Canada. It offers insights into the immediate and long-term impact bullying can have upon the lives of students, their families,…
Kolbert, Jered B.; Schultz, Danielle; Crothers, Laura M.
A recent meta-analysis of bullying prevention programs provides support for social-ecological theory, in which parent involvement addressing child bullying behaviors is seen as important in preventing school-based bullying. The purpose of this manuscript is to suggest how Epstein and colleagues' parent involvement model can be used as a…
Cillessen, A.H.N.; Hymel, S.; Swearer, S.; Gillette, P.
Bullying and victimization are problematic behaviors with negative consequences for everyone: the victims, the bullies, the other students in the classroom and school, the teachers, the parents of the bullies and the victims, and perhaps even the neighborhood in which the school is located. Thus,
Noting that bullying in school is a growing concern in Australian communities, this handbook draws upon a 10-year study of bullying in Australian schools and is designed to help educators find out what is happening in their school and develop sound anti-bullying policies. The handbook also provides guidance in working effectively with students to…
de Wet, Corene
I report on an investigation into a group of Free State educators' recognition of bullying, their reactions to incidences of bullying, and their perceptions of the effectiveness of a number of bullying prevention strategies. The research instrument was a synthesis of the Delaware Research Questionnaire and questions based on findings from previous…
Eriksen, Tine L. Mundbjerg; Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Simonsen, Marianne
Bullying is a widespread social phenomenon. We show that both children who are being bullied and children who bully suffer in terms of long-term outcomes. We rely on rich survey and register-based data for children born in a region of Denmark during 1990-1992, which allows us to carefully consider...
Roscigno, Vincent J.; Lopez, Steven H.; Hodson, Randy
Bullying has been increasingly identified as a significant social problem. Although much of this attention has centered on the context of schooling, researchers are now beginning to recognize that workplaces are also arenas rife with abusive, bullying behaviors. Personality attributes of bullies and victims have received attention, but much less…
Wade, Ann; Beran, Tanya
Bullying involves a powerful person intentionally harming a less powerful person repeatedly. With advances in technology, students are finding new methods of bullying, including sending harassing emails, instant messages, text messages, and personal pictures to others. Although school bullying has been studied since the 1970s, relatively little is…
Swearer, Susan M.; Wang, Cixin; Berry, Brandi; Myers, Zachary R.
Social cognitive theory (SCT) is an important heuristic for understanding the complexity of bullying behaviors and the social nature of involvement in bullying. Bullying has been heralded as a social relationship problem, and the interplay between the individual and his or her social environment supports this conceptualization. SCT has been used…
As reports of bullying continue to make headlines, the push to understand the processes behind bullying behaviors continues to rise. While a great deal of research has been conducted to better understand the processes behind and the outcomes of bullying, the majority of these studies are quantitative in nature and very few involve qualitative…
Parikh, Jay R; Harolds, Jay A; Bluth, Edward I
Workplace bullying is common in health care and has recently been reported in both radiology and radiation oncology. The purpose of this article is to increase awareness of bullying and its potential consequences in radiology and radiation oncology. Bullying behavior may involve abuse, humiliation, intimidation, or insults; is usually repetitive; and causes distress in victims. Workplace bullying is more common in health care than in other industries. Surveys of radiation therapists in the United States, student radiographers in England, and physicians-in-training showed that substantial proportions of respondents had been subjected to workplace bullying. No studies were found that addressed workplace bullying specifically in diagnostic radiology or radiation oncology residents. Potential consequences of workplace bullying in health care include anxiety, depression, and health problems in victims; harm to patients as a result of victims' reduced ability to concentrate; and reduced morale and high turnover in the workplace. The Joint Commission has established leadership standards addressing inappropriate behavior, including bullying, in the workplace. The ACR Commission on Human Resources recommends that organizations take steps to prevent bullying. Those steps include education, including education to ensure that the line between the Socratic method and bullying is not crossed, and the establishment of policies to facilitate reporting of bullying and support victims of bullying. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bullying in schools has escalated far beyond childhood teasing. In recent years, torture, murder, and suicide have been associated with bullying (van der Kolk, Weisaeth, & McFarlane, 2007). While bullying is unacceptable behavior in any school, it is particularly problematic in Catholic schools, which must embody Gospel values. Catholic…
Ertesvåg, Sigrun K.; Roland, Erling
Preventing and reducing bullying requires long-term and systematic school-wide actions. Researchers on bullying have given little attention to the school organization and its influence on the ability to implement the necessary actions to prevent and stop bullying. This study examines the relationship between aspects of a school's professional…
Casper, Deborah M.; Meter, Diana J.; Card, Noel A.
In this article, we address measurement issues related to select aspects of bullying involvement with the goal of moving psychometrically sound measurement practices toward applied bullying research. We first provide a nontechnical introduction to psychometric considerations in measuring bullying involvement, highlighting the importance of…
Bullying has been an ongoing problem for students, but the issue is becoming more critical with changes in the society and the school systems. A bully is no longer "a person who hurts, frightens, threatens, or tyrannizes over those who are smaller or weaker". According to Tracy Cross, the definition of a bully now is evolving to include any person…
Nielsen, Morten Birkeland; Magerøy, Nils; Gjerstad, Johannes; Einarsen, Ståle
Cross-sectional studies demonstrate that exposure to bullying in the workplace is positively correlated with self-reported health problems. However, these studies do not provide a basis to draw conclusions on the extent to which bullying leads to increased health problems or whether health problems increase the risk of being bullied. To provide better indications of a causal relationship, knowledge from prospective studies on the association between bullying in the workplace and health outcomes is therefore summarised. We conducted a systematic literature review of original articles from central literature databases on longitudinal associations between bullying in the workplace and health. Average associations between bullying and health outcomes are calculated using meta-analysis. A consistent finding across the studies is that exposure to bullying is significantly positively related to mental health problems (OR =1.68; 95% KI 1.35-2.09) and somatic symptoms (OR = 1.77; 95% KI 1.41-2.22) over time. Mental health problems are also associated with subsequent exposure to bullying (OR = 1.74; 95% KI 1.44-2.12). Bullying is positively related to mental health problems and somatic symptoms. The association between mental health problems and subsequent bullying indicates a self-reinforcing process between mental health and bullying. The methodological quality of the studies that were conducted is relatively sound. However, based on the existing knowledge base there are no grounds for conclusions regarding an unambiguous causal relationship between bullying and health.
Kousholt, Kristine; Fisker, Tine Basse
processes) to embrace the different understandings of bullying and to discuss these critically. The purpose is to present important knowledge to reduce bullying and to engage in a discussion of different perspectives on bullying. This article contributes to the existing knowledge of the field by discussing...
Whitney Van den Brande
Full Text Available Studies investigating both work- and individual-related antecedents of workplace bullying are scarce. In reply, this study investigated the interaction between workload, job insecurity, role conflict, and role ambiguity (i.e., work-related antecedents, and problem- and emotion-focused coping strategies (i.e., individual-related antecedents in association with exposure to workplace bullying. Problem-focused coping strategies were hypothesised to decrease (i.e., buffer the associations between workload, job insecurity, role conflict, and role ambiguity and exposure to bullying, while emotion-focused coping strategies were hypothesised to increase (i.e., amplify these associations. Results for a heterogeneous sample (N = 3,105 did not provide evidence for problem-focused coping strategies as moderators. As expected, some emotion-focused coping strategies amplified the associations between work-related antecedents and bullying: employees using “focus on and venting of emotions” or “behavioural disengagement” in dealing with job insecurity, role conflict, or role ambiguity were more likely to be exposed to bullying. Similarly, “seeking social support for emotional reasons” and “mental disengagement” amplified the associations of role ambiguity and the associations of both role conflict and role ambiguity, respectively. To prevent bullying, organisations may train employees in tempering emotion-focused coping strategies, especially when experiencing job insecurity, role conflict, or role ambiguity.
Jackson, Dylan B; Vaughn, Michael G; Salas-Wright, Christopher P
Research on the topic of bullying has revealed that a substantial number of youth are bullied each year. Even so, a complete understanding of the origins of bullying behaviors remains elusive. In the current study, we propose that poor nutrition may constitute an important modifiable risk factor for bullying behaviors during adolescence, and that behavioral sensitivity to nutrition may vary across deviant and non-deviant youth. We employ data from the US sample of youth (52% male) ages 10-17 from the 2009-2010 Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) study to examine our hypothesis (N = 8753). The results reveal that poor nutrition significantly increases the odds of persistent bullying among youth, and that this relationship is particularly pronounced for non-deviant youth. The findings suggest that efforts to improve the nutrition of non-deviant youth may have the added benefit of reducing their likelihood of engaging in persistent bullying behaviors. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Baillien, Elfi; Vander Elst, Tinne; De Witte, Hans; Van den Broeck, Anja
Studies investigating both work- and individual-related antecedents of workplace bullying are scarce. In reply, this study investigated the interaction between workload, job insecurity, role conflict, and role ambiguity (i.e., work-related antecedents), and problem- and emotion-focused coping strategies (i.e., individual-related antecedents) in association with exposure to workplace bullying. Problem-focused coping strategies were hypothesised to decrease (i.e., buffer) the associations between workload, job insecurity, role conflict, and role ambiguity and exposure to bullying, while emotion-focused coping strategies were hypothesised to increase (i.e., amplify) these associations. Results for a heterogeneous sample (N = 3,105) did not provide evidence for problem-focused coping strategies as moderators. As expected, some emotion-focused coping strategies amplified the associations between work-related antecedents and bullying: employees using “focus on and venting of emotions” or “behavioural disengagement” in dealing with job insecurity, role conflict, or role ambiguity were more likely to be exposed to bullying. Similarly, “seeking social support for emotional reasons” and “mental disengagement” amplified the associations of role ambiguity and the associations of both role conflict and role ambiguity, respectively. To prevent bullying, organisations may train employees in tempering emotion-focused coping strategies, especially when experiencing job insecurity, role conflict, or role ambiguity. PMID:29270424
Cheng, Ying-Yao; Chen, Li-Ming; Liu, Kun-Shia; Chen, Yi-Ling
The study aims to develop three school bullying scales--the Bully Scale, the Victim Scale, and the Witness Scale--to assess secondary school students' bullying behaviors, including physical bullying, verbal bullying, relational bullying, and cyber bullying. The items of the three scales were developed from viewpoints of bullies, victims, and…
Karatas, Hulya; Ozturk, Candan; Bektas, Murat
Many institutions have conducted research on the subject of bullying. The literature includes many studies of the effects of widespread bullying among primary and secondary school students. Bullying against hospital nurses and also bullying against university students are well-known and frequently discussed research topics. Yet, the exposure of nursing students to bullying has not been sufficiently explored, and few studies have focused on the issue of bullying against nursing students. The aim of this study is to examine bullying against nursing students, including the rate of bullying, types of bullying, and responses to the negative effects of bullying. This study was conducted on 202 nursing students (including sophomores, juniors, and seniors) during the 2013-2014 academic year. The participation rate was 88.5%. The Negative Attitudes Scale was used to collect data, and descriptive statistics were used in data analysis. Participants were evenly distributed between women (49.5%) and men (50.5%). The median age of participants was 21.58 ± 2.28 years; the frequency of bullying was 78.1%. The types of bullying were pejorative statements about the nursing profession (11.3%); low grades used as a form of punishment (9.9%); work, homework, and job rotation used as punishment in lieu of training (9.4%); impossible workloads (9.0%); and the spreading of rumors and gossip (7%). This study indicates that the participants were exposed to high levels of bullying. As exposure to bullying negatively affects the job attitudes of nursing students, further studies are necessary to develop strategies to prevent horizontal bullying.
Boden, J M; van Stockum, S; Horwood, L J; Fergusson, D M
There has been considerable recent interest in possible causal linkages between exposure to bullying victimization and later psychotic symptomatology. Prior research in this area has had several limitations which make it difficult to ascertain causality, and to determine the extent to which these effects extend beyond adolescence. Data were obtained from the Christchurch Health and Development Study, a 35-year study of a longitudinal birth cohort. This investigation used generalized estimating equation modelling to estimate the associations between bullying victimization (ages 13-16 years) and psychotic symptoms (ages 18-35 years), before and after controlling for possible confounding factors, including: gender; childhood socio-economic status; child intelligence quotient; exposure to sexual abuse in childhood; anxious/withdrawn behaviour and attention problems (ages 7-9 years); and adolescent psychotic symptoms and paranoid ideation (ages 15-16 years). There was a significant (p bullying victimization in adolescence and psychotic symptomatology in adulthood. Successive models controlling for covariation reduced this association to statistical non-significance. After controlling for covariates, those with the highest level of bullying victimization had rates of psychotic symptoms that were 1.21 (95% confidence interval 0.73-1.99) times higher than those who were not victimized. The association between bullying victimization in adolescence and psychotic symptomatology in adulthood could be largely explained by childhood behavioural problems, and exposure to sexual abuse in childhood. The results suggest that bullying victimization was unlikely to have been a cause of adult psychotic symptoms, but bullying victimization remained a risk marker for these symptoms.
Bardakçı, Ezgi; Günüşen, Neslihan Partlak
The study aims to determine the influence of bullying on nurses' psychological distress. A descriptive design was adopted. The study sample included 284 nurses of a university hospital in Izmir, Turkey. The Workplace Bullying Behavior Scale and the General Health Questionnaire were used. After the study was completed, it was determined that nurses with a master's degree were exposed to bullying more and that nurses exposed to bullying suffered higher levels of psychological distress and preferred to keep silent about it. Perpetrators of bullying were mainly head nurses. Bullying is a common workplace phenomenon, and in most cases, nurses bully each other. Bullied nurses suffer more psychological distress. Managers of health care institutions should always remember that nurses have a higher risk of exposure to bullying and that measures should be taken to support nurses. © The Author(s) 2014.
Campanini, P; Punzi, Silvia; Carissimi, Emanuela; Gilioli, R
Despite the attention that international Agencies give to the gender issue in situations of workplace bullying, few investigations have been performed on this topic. The aim of the study is describe the gender differences in victims of workplace bullying observed in an Italian survey. A total of 243 subjects (124 males and 119 females) were examined at the Centre for Occupational Stress and Harassment of the "Clinica del Lavoro Luigi Devoto" (University of Milan and IRCCS Foundation); they were selected among patients who met the criteria for being considered victims of negative actions at work leading to workplace bullying. Data regarding the person, workplace and the workplace bullying situation were collected by means of an ad hoc questionnaire. Analysis of the data, compared with those of IS-TAT 2002, showed a higher prevalence of females subjected to negative actions at work. In women, the risk of being subjected to negative actions leading to workplace bullying was shown to increase in the 34-44 age range and to decrease in higher age ranges; in men the risk remained elevated also after 55 years of age. In general, women were victims of negative actions regarding personal values related to emotional-relational factors, while men were attacked on their work performance. Sexual harassment, may mark the onset of other types of psychological harassment or can be one of its components.
Restorative justice has been an increasing feature in the discourses within adult and youth justice criminal justice systems in recent years. This article examines interpersonal conflicts arising from crime, bullying and antisocial behaviour in residential care, and the advantages and disadvantages of utilising such approaches in relation to these…
Full Text Available This paper presented an overview about bullying, multidimentional assessment, and social intervention. Bullying is an act of repeated aggressive behavior in order to intentionally hurt another person physically or mentally. Bullying is characterized by an individual behaving in a certain way to gain power over another person. Behaviors may include name calling, verbal or written abuse, exclusion from activities, exclusion from social situations, physical abuse, or coercion. Bullying in schools sometimes consists of a group of students taking advantage of, or isolating one student in particular and gaining the loyalty of bystanders who want to avoid becoming the next victim. To comprehensively understand about bullying, professional helpers (psychologist, counsellor, and social worker need to do a multidimentional assesment. Based on this issue, this paper suggested three intervention programs to prevent and combating the bullying behavior in the schools is Citizens’ Responsibility Program. Keywords: school, bullying, assessment, intervention
Veli Onur Celik
Full Text Available Bullying may lead to multiple consequences including academic, social and psychological problems. Bullying, like with in many other branches, has been a major problem in sports. Every form of bullying is described in sports. The competitive nature of sports might unconsciously support bullying. The studies showed that victimization caused by bullying may lead to psychological and physical medical problems as well as unplesant results such as drug abuse and predisposition to crime. In this review we explained the differences between the terms bullying and mobbing and then tried to draw attention to psychological consequences of being exposed to bullying among athletes. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2016; 25(2.000: 152-162
This study examined the use of moral disengagement among children indirectly involved in bullying (bystanders). A sample of Danish adolescents (N = 660, M age 12.6 years) were divided into four groups depending on their bystander status: (a) outsiders, who did not experience bullying among...... their peers; (b) defenders, who were likely to help the victims in bullying episodes; (c) guilty bystanders, who did nothing to help bullied peers but felt guilty about it; and (d) unconcerned bystanders, who witnessed peers being bullied, without feeling responsible. Results indicated that, besides from...... active personal involvement in bullying others, being an unconcerned bystander to bullying also associates with moral disengagement. Unconcerned bystanders had significantly higher moral disengagement than guilty bystanders and defenders. Outsiders also showed significant higher disengagement than...
Toksoy, Devlet; Bayramoğlu, Mahmut Muhammet
Today, many studies are conducted in order to determine bullying behaviors and to resolve conflicts with the purpose of increasing and maintaining organizational success in developed countries. According to these studies, bullying cases are more common in public institutions when compared to other sectors. In public institutions, bullying generally occurs when successful workers are discouraged and/or harassed by their managers, thus leaving them feeling distressed and dissatisfied with their jobs. The present study examines whether forest engineers working in the seven geographical regions of Turkey are exposed to bullying behaviors, the level of any bullying, and whether there are any regional differences (N = 835). Through statistical analysis, a significant relationship was determined between bullying and demographic characteristics. The results of the present study were evaluated along with the results of other studies, and some suggestions were made in order to prevent bullying behaviors in forestry organizations. PMID:23853543
Cosma, Alina; Whitehead, Ross; Neville, Fergus; Currie, Dorothy; Inchley, Jo
Bullying victimization among schoolchildren is a major public health concern. This paper aims to analyse the changing associations over two decades between bullying victimization and mental well-being in a representative Scottish schoolchildren sample. Data were collected in six rounds of the cross-sectional Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study in Scotland, with 42,312 adolescents (aged 11, 13 and 15 years). Logistic and linear regressions were used to examine changes in the association between bullying victimization and mental well-being. The prevalence of bullying victimization rates in Scotland increased between 1994 and 2014 for most age-gender groups, apart from 13-year-old boys and 15-year-old girls. Over time, female victims reported less confidence and happiness and more psychological complaints than their non-bullied counterparts. This worsening effect over time was not observed in boys. Overall, our evidence indicates that the associations between bullying victimization and poor mental well-being strengthened overtime for bullied girls. This finding might partly explain the observed deterioration in mental health indicators among Scottish adolescent girls.
Conway, Paul Maurice; Clausen, Thomas; Hansen, Åse Marie
Purpose: The aim of this study is to investigate exposure to workplace bullying as a potential risk factor for sickness presenteeism (SP), i.e., working while ill. Methods: This study is based on data collected through self-reported questionnaires in a 2-year prospective study on employees...... with missing values, the final samples were composed of 2,865 and 1,331participants in the cross-sectional and prospective analyses, respectively. Results: Modified poisson regression analyses showed that frequent (i.e., daily or weekly) exposure to workplace bullying was associated with reporting 8 or more...... indications of a significant relationship between exposure to frequent workplace bullying and SP, although causal connections could not be established. Methodological and theoretical considerations about study findings are provided, which could be of benefit to future studies examining the impact of being...
Essen, S Donovan; Esquivel, Cynthia; Jha, Pankaj
All companies, including dentists, rely on their staff to represent their firms in the most positive and effective manner. Today's managers face a multitude of issues, and as such, they must walk a fine line of fostering a productive, harmonious and safe working environment for their employees. Over the last several decades it is apparent that on the- job sexual harassment is no longer the leading issue of employee complaints. Rather, the organization issue which was investigated is workplace bullying, also commonly referred to as employee harassment. Risk management is no longer limited to avoiding malpractice issues but also preventing litigation created by poor organizational behavior. The primary purpose of this paper is to explore the background of workplace bullying and how it affects today's managers and their employees, customers and suppliers. In other words, the scope of this paper will feature research on past studies, results and conclusions. Since workplace bullying affects all levels of a corporation, it must be stated that the concern and focus of this paper is for today's manager to understand the background and history of workplace bullying, and what they can do to foster a safe working environment and prevent the bully from creating mental and physical harm to their employees. This paper details the history of workplace bullying and how management, employees and suppliers deal with and address the issue. Lastly, this treatise looks at risk management from a manger/dentist's perspective, the assessment/conclusion summarizes the implications for managers regarding how they must handle the issue or risk harm to the employee and/or serious legal ramifications.
Nikiforos, Stefanos; Tzanavaris, Spyros; Kermanidis, Katia Lida
Bullying through the internet has been investigated and analyzed mainly in the field of social media. In this paper, it is attempted to analyze bullying in the Virtual Learning Communities using Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques, mainly in the context of sociocultural learning theories. Therefore four case studies took place. We aim to apply NLP techniques to speech analysis on communication data of online communities. Emphasis is given on qualitative data, taking into account the subjectivity of the collaborative activity. Finally, this is the first time such type of analysis is attempted on Greek data.
Sampasa-Kanyinga, Hugues; Roumeliotis, Paul; Farrow, Claire V; Shi, Yuanfeng F
Breakfast skipping is a health concern that has well-known negative consequences physically and psychologically. It is therefore important to understand why children skip breakfast. The purpose of this study was to establish whether the experience of bullying and cyberbullying impacts upon breakfast skipping and to further evaluate whether the inability for youths to cope with bullying victimization affects their mental health (depression), and in turn predicts breakfast skipping. Data were obtained from the Eastern Ontario 2011 Youth Risk Behaviour Survey, a cross-sectional regional school-based survey of middle and high school students (11-20 years old) across the five counties of Eastern Ontario, Canada (N = 3035). Self-reported data about children's experiences of bullying victimization, breakfast eating habits, socio-economical status, depression, and other risk behaviours were analysed. Approximately half of the participants (50.4%) reported not eating breakfast on a regular basis: 26.3% and 24.1% reported often (usually eat breakfast three times or more per week) and frequent (usually eat breakfast twice a week or less) breakfast skipping behaviour, respectively. Victims of both cyberbullying and school bullying presented greater likelihood of often (adjusted relative risk ratio (RR) = 1.55; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.17-2.06) and frequent (RR = 1.97; 95% CI = 1.28-3.03) breakfast skipping. Mediation analysis further showed that depression fully mediated the relationship between school bullying victimization and frequent breakfast skipping. Moreover, depression partially mediated the associations between both cyberbullying and school bullying with frequent breakfast skipping. These findings highlight the potential interrelationships between cyberbullying, school bullying and depression in predicting unhealthy breakfast skipping behaviour in children. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hall, William J.
This article describes the development and preliminary validation of the Bullying, Harassment, and Aggression Receipt Measure (BullyHARM). The development of the BullyHARM involved a number of steps and methods, including a literature review, expert review, cognitive testing, readability testing, data collection from a large sample, reliability testing, and confirmatory factor analysis. A sample of 275 middle school students was used to examine the psychometric properties and factor structure of the BullyHARM, which consists of 22 items and 6 subscales: physical bullying, verbal bullying, social/relational bullying, cyber-bullying, property bullying, and sexual bullying. First-order and second-order factor models were evaluated. Results demonstrate that the first-order factor model had superior fit. Results of reliability testing indicate that the BullyHARM scale and subscales have very good internal consistency reliability. Findings indicate that the BullyHARM has good properties regarding content validation and respondent-related validation and is a promising instrument for measuring bullying victimization in school. PMID:28194041
... who are bullied are at increased risk for mental health problems, headaches, and problems adjusting to school. 2 Bullying also can cause long-term damage to self-esteem. 3 Children and adolescents who are bullies are at increased ...
... It's Not OK Bullies Beat Down Self Esteem Mental Health and Teens: Watch for Danger Signs Cyberbullying: Important Information for Parents Healthy Children Radio: Bullying (Audio) Healthy Children Radio: Coaches Who Bully (Audio) ...
Brighi, Antonella; Guarini, Annalisa; Melotti, Giannino; Galli, Silvia; Genta, Maria Luisa
Cyberbullying may sometimes be an extension of traditional bullying. However, some particular features of cyberbullying suggest that it may have a distinct causal pathway, due to the social context of a virtual environment within which peer social processes occur. Moreover, boys and girls may perceive and respond differentially to their social…
Objective:This study investigated the nature and extent of the relationship between bullying and trauma among male adolescent learners. Trauma was operationalised through the multiple constructs of post-traumatic stress, anxiety, depression, dissociation and anger. Method: In this quantitative study, two objective ...
Pheko, Mpho M
Work is undoubtedly fundamental to human life, social development and the economic development of individuals, organizations and nations. However, the experience of working is not always pleasant as there are many instances where relationships between workers could deteriorate, leading to practices and behaviours that could be characterized as workplace bullying and/or mobbing. The current study is an exploratory study which used autoethnography to investigate experiences of academic bullying and mobbing, and relates the practices to power structures in academic institutions. Specifically, the author shares personal experiences and explores the physical and emotional pain of being bullied and mobbed. The author also outlines how both autoethnography and meaning in life strategies were used to cope with the physical and emotional distresses associated with the negative experiences. By outlining the success of the meaning in life strategies, the author hopes to inspire other "victims" to move from victims to being survivors of bullying and mobbing.
Hellström, Lisa; Persson, Louise; Hagquist, Curt
The negative consequences of peer-victimization on children and adolescents are major public health concerns which have been subjected to extensive research. Given all efforts made to analyze and estimate the social and health consequences of peer-victimization, the adolescents' own experiences and understandings have had surprisingly little impact on the definition of bullying. Therefore, the aim of the current study is to explore adolescents' definitions of bullying. A questionnaire study (n = 128) and four focus group interviews (n = 21) were conducted among students aged 13 and 15. First, gender and age differences were analyzed with respect to what behaviors are considered bullying (questionnaire data). Second, analysis of what bullying is (focus group interviews) was conducted using qualitative content analysis. The adolescents own understanding and definition of bullying didn't just include the traditional criteria of repetition and power imbalance, but also a criterion based on the health consequences of bullying. The results showed that a single but hurtful or harmful incident also could be considered bullying irrespective of whether the traditional criteria were fulfilled or not. Further, girls and older students had a more inclusive view of bullying and reported more types of behaviors as bullying compared to boys and younger students. The results of the current study adds to the existing literature by showing that adolescents consider the victim's experience of hurt and harm as a criterion for defining bullying and not only as consequences of bullying. This may be of special relevance for the identification and classification of bullying incidents on the internet where devastating consequences have been reported from single incidents and the use of the traditional criteria of intent, repetition and power imbalance may not be as relevant as for traditional bullying. It implies that the traditional criteria included in most definitions of bullying
Wang, Mei-Ling; Hsieh, Yi-Hua
Workplace bullying has become an omnipresent problem in most organizations. Gender differences have recently received increasing attention in the workplace bullying domain. Integrating social dominance theory with gender role theory, this study explores whether male minority and supervisor gender are related to the incidence of workplace bullying. Data from 501 public servants employed in the tax administration institute of Taiwan was collected via a questionnaire and analyzed using hierarchical regression. Male minority reported more workplace bullying than did the female majority. Subordinates working with male supervisors had more exposure to bullying than those working with female supervisors. However, male supervisors did not exacerbate the relationship between male minority and workplace bullying, while females exposure to workplace bullying was attenuated when working with male supervisors. These findings confirm the important role of gender differences when predicting bullying at work and support the view that gender is not merely an individual antecedent of bullying, but rather acts as a social factor to influence the incidence of workplace bullying.
Ramirez, Marizen; Ten Eyck, Patrick; Peek-Asa, Corinne; Onwuachi-Willig, Angela; Cavanaugh, Joseph E
Bullying is the most common form of youth aggression. Although 49 of all 50 states in the U.S. have an anti-bullying law in place to prevent bullying, little is known about the effectiveness of these laws. Our objective was to measure the effectiveness of Iowa's anti-bullying law in preventing bullying and improving teacher response to bullying. Sixth, 8th, and 11th grade children who completed the 2005, 2008 and 2010 Iowa Youth Survey were included in this study (n = 253,000). Students were coded according to exposure to the law: pre-law for 2005 survey data, one year post-law for 2008 data, and three years post-law for 2010 data. The outcome variables were: 1) being bullied (relational, verbal, physical, and cyber) in the last month and 2) extent to which teachers/adults on campus intervened with bullying. Generalized linear mixed models were constructed with random effects. The odds of being bullied increased from pre-law to one year post-law periods, and then decreased from one year to three years post-law but not below 2005 pre-law levels. This pattern was consistent across all bullying types except cyberbullying. The odds of teacher intervention decreased 11 % (OR = 0.89, 95 % CL = 0.88, 0.90) from 2005 (pre-law) to 2010 (post-law). Bullying increased immediately after Iowa's anti-bullying law was passed, possibly due to improved reporting. Reductions in bullying occurred as the law matured. Teacher response did not improve after the passage of the law.
Bejerot, S; Mörtberg, E
Social phobia and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) share several similarities: both are categorized as anxiety disorders, avoidant personality disorder and depression are common in both, they have a similar age of onset and course, and both disorders respond to treatments with serotonin reuptake inhibitors and cognitive behavioural therapy. However, OCD and social phobia differ in respect to their relation to autism spectrum disorders (ASD; i.e. Asperger's syndrome, autism, pervasive disorder not otherwise specified). Findings that suggest a link between OCD and ASD have no parallel in social phobia. Moreover, obsessive-compulsive, paranoid and schizotypal personality disorders are prevalent in OCD and in ASD, but not in social phobia. Individuals with ASD are known to be frequent targets of bullying. We hypothesised that individuals with autistic traits would have been frequent targets for bullies during their childhood, as opposed to people without such traits. Adult patients with social phobia (n = 63) or OCD (n = 65) were assessed regarding autistic traits, and interviewed about being bullied at school. A reference group (n = 551) responded to questions about being bullied. There was a significant difference in the prevalence of being bullied between OCD (50%), social phobia patients (20%) and the reference group (27%). Autistic traits were more common in OCD than in social phobia. A history of being bullied was related to autistic traits among patients. Falling victim to bullying is not a random event. Autistic traits, i.e. low social skills, may be a predictor of being bullied in school. The high rate of bullying victims in persons who later develop OCD is suggested to be related to the overlap between OCD and ASD. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
... afraid to go to school. Bullying is a problem that affects millions of students, and it has everyone worried, not just the ... their peers are at risk for mental health problems, such as low self-esteem, stress, depression , or anxiety. They may also think about suicide ...
Bullying has been recognized as a significant social issue and research has shown that bullying behaviors tend to increase during the middle school years. Research trends indicate that current attention given to bullying has been influenced by public outcry against a growing number of tragic school and community-based events involving youth, many…
Jose, Paul E.; Kljakovic, Moja; Scheib, Emma; Notter, Olivia
The present study investigated the stabilities of and interrelationships among traditional (i.e., face-to-face) bullying, traditional victimhood, cyber bullying, and cyber victimhood among adolescents over time. About 1,700 adolescents aged 11-16 years at Time 1 self-reported levels of both bullying and victimization in four contexts (in school,…
Holt, Melissa K.; Kaufman Kantor, Glenda; Finkelhor, David
This study examined parent perspectives on bullying, parent/child concordance about bullying involvement, and family characteristics associated with bullying perpetration and peer victimization. Participants were 205 fifth-grade students and their parents. Students attended an urban, ethnically diverse school district in the Northeast. Youth…
Hall, William J.
This article describes the development and preliminary validation of the Bullying, Harassment, and Aggression Receipt Measure (BullyHARM). The development of the BullyHARM involved a number of steps and methods, including a literature review, expert review, cognitive testing, readability testing, data collection from a large sample, reliability…
Perren, Sonja; Gutzwiller-Helfenfinger, Eveline; Malti, Tina; Hymel, Shelley
This study investigated different facets of moral development in bullies, victims, and bully-victims among Swiss adolescents. Extending previous research, we focused on both bullying and victimization in relation to adolescents' morally disengaged and morally responsible reasoning as well as moral emotion attributions. A total of 516 adolescents…
Early, Jeremy Scott
Cyber-bullying led a Rutgers University student to commit suicide, which led the Federal government and institutions of higher education to take a closer look at bullying and cyber-bullying on college campuses. Congress introduced the "Tyler Clementi Higher Education Anti-Harassment Act" (Tyler Clementi Act) that would require…
Byrne, Hollie; Dooley, Barbara; Fitzgerald, Amanda; Dolphin, Louise
The aim of the present research was to examine adolescents' definitions of bullying in a nationally representative sample of adolescents in Ireland. Definitions of bullying were examined according to age, gender, and bullying experiences. A sample of 4358 adolescents aged 12-19 years (M = 14.99 years, SD = 1.63) provided their definitions of…
Fekkes, M.; Pijpers, F.I.M.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.
Bullying victimization is associated with several health issues. Prevention of bullying is therefore an important goal for health and education professionals. In the present study, 2766 children from 32 Dutch elementary schools participated by completing a questionnaire on bullying behavior, and the
Blake, Jamilia J.; Zhou, Qiong; Kwok, Oi-Man; Benz, Michael R.
The literature on bullying among students with disabilities is burgeoning. The purpose of this study was to examine risk factors for adolescents' involvement in bullying across the bullying continuum. Drawing from the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2), 2,870 adolescents with disabilities were sampled. Results from multinomial…
Wang, Cixin; Swearer, Susan M.; Lembeck, Paige; Collins, Adam; Berry, Brandi
This study investigated the influence of student-teacher relationships and attitudes toward bullying on middle school students' bullying behaviors. Gender and grade differences were also examined. Data were collected from 435 middle school students. Results indicated that students' attitudes toward bullying mediated the relationship between…
Olafsson, Ragnar; Johannsdottir, Hanna
A study of bullying, victimisation and the coping strategies employed to tackle it is presented in the first study of bullying in the workplace conducted in Iceland. Participants were 398 members of a union of store and office workers and members of a national organisation of bank-employees. A factor analysis of bullying items identified two…
Gower, Amy L.; Cousin, Molly; Borowsky, Iris W.
Background: Although nearly all states in the United States require school districts to adopt anti-bullying policies, little research examines the effect of these policies on student bullying and health. Using a statewide sample, we investigated associations between the quality of school district anti-bullying policies and student bullying…
Litwiller, Brett J.; Brausch, Amy M.
The impact of bullying in all forms on the mental health and safety of adolescents is of particular interest, especially in the wake of new methods of bullying that victimize youths through technology. The current study examined the relationship between victimization from both physical and cyber bullying and adolescent suicidal behavior. Violent…
Leah P. Hollis
Workplace bullying has a detrimental effect on employees, yet few studies have examined its impact on personnel in American higher education administration. Therefore, two central research questions guided this study: (a) What is the extent of workplace bullying in higher education administration? and (b) What is the cost of workplace bullying specifically to higher education administration? Participants from 175 four-...
Full Text Available The article concerns coping strategies of workers subjected to workplace bullying. Firstly, bullying process development is compared with various models of conflict escalation. Secondly, the review of literature on employees’ exposed to bullying at work responses to negative workplace activities is presented. Finally, the results of studies comparing targets’ and non-targets’ strategies on various stages of bullying development are described. The findings indicate that employees previously exposed to bullying at work at the very early stage of conflict respond in a way that may be interpreted as unconstructive while those who encounter single conflicts at work intensify their endeavors to make a good impression, and try to gain social support from their surrounding interpersonal relationships. Bullying targets seek support and use strategies based on co-operation when the conflict is severe and difficult to solve. The article ends with directions for future studies aiming at identifying strategies for prevention programs.
Sauer, Penny A; McCoy, Thomas P
Workplace bullying has been experienced by 27% to 80% of nurses who have participated in studies. Bullying behaviors negatively impact the health of nurses. This study examined whether nurses' resilience had an impact on the effects of bullying on the nurse's health. This cross-sectional descriptive study surveyed licensed registered nurses in one state. The sample ( N = 345) was predominately female (89%) and Caucasian (84%), with an average age of 46.6 years. In this sample, 40% of nurses were bullied. Higher incidence of bullying was associated with lower physical health scores ( p = .002) and lower mental health scores ( p = .036). Nurses who are bullied at work experience lower physical and mental health, which can decrease the nurses' quality of life and impede their ability to deliver safe, effective patient care.
Josephson, Wendy L; Pepler, Debra
Bullying is the use of power and aggression to control and distress another. In this paper, we review research to explore whether the lessons learned in bullying provide a stepping stone to aggressive behavior in dating relationships. We start by considering definitions and a relationship framework with which to understand both bullying and dating aggression. We consider bullying from a developmental-contextual perspective and consider risk factors associated with the typical developmental patterns for bullying and dating aggression, including developmental and sociodemographic, individual attributes, and family, peer group, community, and societal relationship contexts that might lead some children and youths to follow developmental pathways that lead to bullying and dating aggression. We conclude by discussing implications for intervention with a review of evidence-based interventions.
Nuclear accident sufferers should be now referred to as nuclear accident victims. The authors discuss why nuclear accident victims receive not only psychological bullying where no peculiar causes exist, but also corporal and physical bullying and mental suffering, based on the results of questionnaire survey conducted by the authors from January to February 2017, the 'survey on bullying problems related to evacuation from the nuclear accident.' The reasons why the nuclear power evacuation bullying has become a problem at present can be largely classified to the following three categories: (1) opinion that 'bullying' that originally existed just after the nuclear accident became surfaced recently, (2) opinion that latent problems exist as background, and (3) opinion that socially underlying issues are involved in the generation of bullying. Thus, various factors existing under nuclear power evacuation bullying were structurally clarified. In the background of children's nuclear evacuation bullying, adult nuclear power evacuation bullying exists, and there are 'lack of understanding, prejudice, and discrimination against nuclear power and Fukushima' under that. The author thought that 'structural violence' to create the disparity, discrimination, inequality, and injustice of society exists as the basis of such lack of understanding, prejudice, and discrimination, and discussed the 'structural violence' as the basis of bullying. As the upper structure of structural violence associated with nuclear accidents, there are two big phenomena: (1) setting of evacuation/return area not based on reasonable radiation dose standards and (2) fabricated safety and carefreeness myth. The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology's report on nuclear bullying could give an impression that 'nuclear power evacuation bullying' is 'not so big problem'. (A.O.)
This paper identifies a lacuna in the existing paradigms of bullying: a gap caused by the frame of reference being largely limited to the highly industrialized societies of the 'west': Europe, North America and Oceania. The paper attempts to address this gap by presenting research developed in Japan. In Japan, sociological discourse on school bullying, i.e. the analysis of institutional factors relevant to understanding bullying was established relatively early, as was the epistemology now re...
Full Text Available The main purpose of our study was to investigate how basic school pupils and teachers perceive and understand bullying. The participants in the study were 58 teachers and 396 pupils in basic school. The results indicate that both teachers and pupils perceive verbal bullying as the most frequent form of bullying compared to physical and relational bullying. Pupils report perceiving more bullying than teachers. Both pupils and teachers perceive physical and verbal bullying as more serious forms of bullying compared to relational bullying and report feeling more empathy toward victims of these two forms of bullying. In addition, teachers report that they are more willing to intervene in cases of physical and verbal bullying. There are significant differences between pupils’ and teachers’ reports of the likelihood of teachers’ interventions in cases of bullying; compared to pupils teachers report a higher likelihood of their intervention..
Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Flores, Javier E; Cavanaugh, Joseph E; Onwuachi-Willig, Angela; Ramirez, Marizen R
Recent research suggests that anti-bullying laws may be effective in reducing risk of bullying victimization among youth, but no research has determined whether these laws are also effective in reducing disparities in bullying. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the effectiveness of anti-bullying legislation in reducing disparities in sex- and weight-based bullying and cyberbullying victimization. Data on anti-bullying legislation were obtained from the U.S. Department of Education, which commissioned a systematic review of 16 key components of state laws in 2011. States were also categorized based on whether their legislation enumerated protected groups and, if so, which groups were enumerated. These policy variables from 28 states were linked to individual-level data on bullying and cyberbullying victimization from students in 9th through 12th grade participating in the 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System study (N=79,577). Analyses were conducted in 2016. There was an absence of any kind of moderating effect of anti-bullying legislation on weight-based disparities in bullying and cyberbullying victimization. Only state laws with high compliance to Department of Education enumeration guidelines were associated with lower sex-based disparities in bullying victimization. Anti-bullying policies were not associated with lower weight-based disparities in bullying and cyberbullying victimization among youth, and only one form of policies (high compliance to Department of Education enumeration guidelines) was associated with lower sex-based disparities in bullying victimization. Results therefore suggest that anti-bullying legislation requires further refinement to protect youth who are vulnerable to bullying victimization. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Omizo, Michael M.; Omizo, Sharon A.; Baxa, Gari-Vic C. O.; Miyose, Ross J.
This study presents the results of a phenomenological study with sixteen elementary school children identified as bullies or victims. Implications for school counselors and educators are also discussed.
Shavreni Oktadi Putri
Full Text Available Bullying behavior phenomenon that is conducted by students are getting apprehensive lately, that because education institutions are as the places to educate people turn into bullying behavior spot including university students. Bullying means as an attempt which is conducted to harm a group or a person. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to find out levels and kinds of bullying that happened among UMN Al Washliyah Students. Research subject were 102 students of UMN at education of early childhooddepartment that were taken from 4 classes by using cluster random sampling method. Data collection was conducted by using bullying scale from Colloroso. Data analysis method by using Pearson product moment and descriptive statistic. The results of study show that (1 the level of bullying behavior which is done by students is at the medium category with the percentage 74,5%. (2 kindof bullying behaviors which are done most by students is verbal bullying with the percentage73.5% and (3 bullying behaviorthat is done very often by students in 7th semester is 83,9%.
Bullying is still a significant problem today. Bullying occurs starting from the primary level up to college. The impact of the bullying on victims can be a lonely, difficult to adjust, insecurity, low self-esteem, depression and the worst is suicide. The earlier effort to detect bullying experienced by children will be able to prevent long-term effects caused. This study was conducted on 258 students of class 4-5 primary school in Yogyakarta. Data was collected through open-ended questionnai...
The issue of workplace bullying has become an area of research interest in the last 3 decades. Much of the extant literature is published in the business management journals. This is problematic as the targets of workplace bullying may need psychiatric treatment; as a discipline, therefore psychiatrists may benefit from a deeper understanding of the nature of workplace bullying and its sequelae. There is still no agreed upon definition, although most definitions include similar criteria. Managers and human resources personnel frequently have difficulty identifying and effectively managing workplace bullying. The consequences for the targets of bullying can be severe; they may need psychiatric treatment and it can have a lifelong impact. There is a paucity of research into effective prevention and intervention programs. Preventive measures that focus on the whole workplace culture or on targets alone have mixed results. Workplace policies and procedures may lessen the prevalence and incidence of bullying, but often competing interests of senior management, human resources personnel, supervisors and workers may mitigate any antibullying interventions. Although psychiatrists are likely to treat the targets of bullying, bullying has yet to attract much attention as a research topic in psychiatry. Although the consequences of bullying can be severe for both targets and workplaces, prevention strategies are hampered by competing interests.
Full Text Available Bullying is a severe problem, especially in schools, including the relatively new phenomenon of cyberbullying (via mobile phones and the internet. Research in Western countries suggests that over the last decade, cyberbullying accounts for about one-quarter to one-third of all bullying. Here we review research on cyberbullying, and bullying in general, in an eastern culture, Thailand. Eight relevant reports were found; however only three explicitly discussed cyberbullying. Reports were mainly quantitative, and did not consistently distinguish (cyber bullying from general aggression. Suggestions are made for future research in this area, in Thailand and other Southeast Asian countries.
Johnson, Susan L; Boutain, Doris M; Tsai, Jenny H-C; de Castro, Arnold B
To explore how workplace bullying is addressed by hospital nursing unit managers and organizational policies. Although workplace bullying is costly to organizations, nurses report that managers do not consistently address the issue. This study used discourse analysis to analyze interview data and policy documents. There were differences in the manner in which managers and the policy documents labeled bullying-type behaviors and discussed the roles and responsibilities of staff and managers. Policies did not clearly delineate how managers should respond to workplace bullying. These differences can allow management variation, not sanctioned by policy. Unclear policy language can also offer insufficient guidance to managers, resulting in differential enforcement of policies.
Modecki, Kathryn L; Minchin, Jeannie; Harbaugh, Allen G; Guerra, Nancy G; Runions, Kevin C
Bullying involvement in any form can have lasting physical and emotional consequences for adolescents. For programs and policies to best safeguard youth, it is important to understand prevalence of bullying across cyber and traditional contexts. We conducted a thorough review of the literature and identified 80 studies that reported corresponding prevalence rates for cyber and traditional bullying and/or aggression in adolescents. Weighted mean effect sizes were calculated, and measurement features were entered as moderators to explain variation in prevalence rates and in traditional-cyber correlations within the sample of studies. Prevalence rates for cyber bullying were lower than for traditional bullying, and cyber and traditional bullying were highly correlated. A number of measurement features moderated variability in bullying prevalence; whereas a focus on traditional relational aggression increased correlations between cyber and traditional aggressions. In our meta-analytic review, traditional bullying was twice as common as cyber bullying. Cyber and traditional bullying were also highly correlated, suggesting that polyaggression involvement should be a primary target for interventions and policy. Results of moderation analyses highlight the need for greater consensus in measurement approaches for both cyber and traditional bullying. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gower, Amy L; Cousin, Molly; Borowsky, Iris W
Although nearly all states in the United States require school districts to adopt anti-bullying policies, little research examines the effect of these policies on student bullying and health. Using a statewide sample, we investigated associations between the quality of school district anti-bullying policies and student bullying involvement and adjustment. School district anti-bullying policies (N = 208) were coded for their quality based on established criteria. District-level data were combined with student reports of bullying involvement, emotional distress, and school connectedness from a state surveillance survey of 6th, 9th, and 12th grade students (N = 93,437). Results indicated that policy quality was positively related to bullying victimization. Furthermore, students reporting frequent perpetration/victimization who also attended districts with high-quality policies reported more emotional distress and less school connectedness compared with students attending districts with low quality policies. Although statistically significant, the magnitude of these associations was small. Having a high-quality school district anti-bullying policy is not sufficient to reduce bullying and protect bullying-involved young people. Future studies examining policy implementation will inform best practices in bullying prevention. © 2017, American School Health Association.
The literature suggests that acts of bullying are a root cause of new nurses leaving their units or the profession entirely and have the potential to worsen the nursing shortage. As an effective way to address bullying in the perioperative setting, mentoring benefits the nursing profession. Mentoring can have a direct influence on nurses' longevity in a health care organization, thereby strengthening the nursing workforce. Magnet-designated hospitals support the importance of mentor-mentee relationships for positive employee retention and positive recruitment outcomes. One of the most important tasks that a mentor should undertake is that of a role model. Establishing a culture of mentoring requires authentic leadership, genuine caring and respect for employees, and open communication. The entire nursing profession benefits from a culture of mentoring, as do the patients and families who receive care. Copyright © 2014 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kowalski, Robin M.; Fedina, Cristin
Cyber bullying or electronic bullying refers to bullying that occurs through the Internet or cellular phones. With the rise of technology, researchers have shown a keen interest in the topic of cyber bullying. However, that interest has not extended to individuals with special needs. To address this gap in the literature, the current study…
Risinger, C. Frederick
Bullying and cyber bullying are important issues in schools, not only in the United States but in many other nations. In this article, the author recommends sites that he thinks would be helpful for teachers and schools combating bullying and cyber bullying. These recommended sites provide teacher lesson plans and other resources dealing with…
Full Text Available There are several students in Indonesia who have suffered from injury or even died because of bullying. As a consequence, school teachers in Indonesia need to be trained to handle and prevent bullying. This essay examines the importance of pre-service and in service teacher training in order to reduce and prevent bullying in school in Indonesia by examining the problem of bullying, discussing the effects of it and providing areas of training to help teachers to tackle bullying. There are several reasons why bullying becomes serious problem in school. First of all, bullying is a complex task for teachers because it is difficult to identify and, teachers find it difficult to differentiate between bullying and fighting or horseplay. Moreover, teachers lack the knowledge and skills to handle bullying. Bullying has negative effects not only on victims but also on bullies. Victims feel lonely, depressed, and often have low self-esteem, while bullies often exhibit sign of bad temper or depression. Areas of teachers pre- service and in- service training are1 assisting teachers to differentiate between bullying and fighting or horse playing 2 developing skills to communicate with bullies and to manage classrooms where bullying occurs. In conclusion, teacher training is a good solution to tackle bullying at school in Indonesia because teachers are in the front line to solve this problem. Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15408/tjems.v2i1.1786
Conners-Burrow, Nicola A.; Johnson, Danya L.; Whiteside-Mansell, Leanne; McKelvey, Lorraine; Gargus, Regina A.
This study examines the degree to which support from parents and teachers buffers the level of depression for four groups of children involved in bullying (victim, bully, bully-victims, or not involved children). Nine hundred and seventy-seven 5th-, 9th-, and 11th-grade students in the rural South completed questionnaires on bullying, social…
Thegg, Sherrich Monsher
Peer-to-peer bullying negatively impacts over 20% of school-aged children annually. While much literature exists on bullying on school premises, peer-to-peer bullying outside of the classroom is still relatively understudied. Despite states' implementation of antibullying legislation, peer-to-peer bullying has continued in schools and other areas…
Despite the growing body of research on bullying, several myths about it persist. Those myths are that bullies have low self-esteem and are rejected by their peers, getting bullied is a natural part of growing up, victims will always continue to be victims, boys are physical and girls are relational victims and bullies, zero tolerance policies…
Garner, Ian W.; Boulton, Michael J.
Antibullying interventions have been implemented in schools in an attempt to reduce bullying. However, school-based bullying is still prevalent in many schools across the United Kingdom. Therefore, antibullying interventions should aim to prevent bullying and also reduce the effects of bullying by educating victims about resilience against…
Bullying is a serious and escalating problem in public schools across America. Each day, thousands of students face taunts and humiliation stemming from bullies. Bullying victims experience emotional and psychological problems that may persist for a lifetime. Other victims commit suicide or retaliate against bullies out of fear for their own…
Prevention Researcher, 2012
Bullying impacts many of our nation's youth, either as victims, bullies, or bystanders. Over the past two decades, we have seen the research on bullying grow as researchers first defined bullying, and then explored how to effectively intervene and prevent it from happening. We know from listening to our readers and board members that there are…
Casebeer, Cindy M.
School bullying is a serious problem. It is associated with negative effects for bullies, targets, and bystanders. Bullying is related to school shootings, student suicides, and poor academic outcomes. Yet, this issue cannot be solved by way of simple, one-size-fits-all solutions. Instead, school bullying is a complex, systemic issue that requires…
Waters, Stewart; Mashburn, Natalie
The researchers in this study investigated rural middle school teachers' perspectives regarding bullying. The researchers gathered information about the teachers' definitions of bullying, where bullying occurs in their school, and how to prevent bullying. Peer-reviewed literature associated with this topic was studied in order to achieve a broader…
Englander, Elizabeth Kandel
"Bullying is a term that's being, well, bullied. It's been rendered essentially powerless by being constantly kicked around," writes nationally recognized bullying expert Elizabeth Kandel Englander. In this practical and insightful book, Englander dispels pervasive myths and misconceptions about peer cruelty, bullying, and cyberbullying.…
Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012
According to StopBullying.gov, an official U.S. government Web site managed by the Department of Health and Human Services in partnership with the Department of Education and Department of Justice, definitions of bullying vary, but "most agree that bullying involves: (1) Imbalance of Power: people who bully use their power to control or harm and…
Hansen, Åse Marie; Hogh, Annie; Persson, Roger
The present study aimed to elucidate the relationship between bullying at work and cortisol secretion. Of particular interest was to examine whether frequently and occasionally bullied persons differed from nonbullied persons.......The present study aimed to elucidate the relationship between bullying at work and cortisol secretion. Of particular interest was to examine whether frequently and occasionally bullied persons differed from nonbullied persons....
Studer, Jeannine R.; Mynatt, Blair S.
School bullying reaches across all ages and grades, and is associated with serious mental health issues such as suicide, homicide, and other acts of violence. There are several different types of bullying that are classified as physical, verbal, relational, and cyber bullying. Physical bullying may involve hitting, punching, threatening acts, and…
Albdour, Maha; Krouse, Helene J
Bullying among African American adolescents. This article reviews the current literature on bullying and victimization among African American adolescents. It highlights bullying and violence disparity among African American adolescents, associated risk and protective factors, and effects of bullying on adolescent health. Twenty-three English language peer-reviewed articles from CINAHL, Pubmed, and Psyc-INFO databases. African American adolescents have higher rates of bullying and victimization compared to other adolescent populations. This review found strong associations among bullying involvement, substance abuse, and family factors. Bullying also had a significant impact on adolescent health, particularly psychological symptoms and school performance. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Research indicates that bullying continues to plague schools, and school-based anti-bullying programs do little to take away the opportunities and power of the child who bullies. Research indicates methods to identify the child who bullies, and provides guidelines to change the bullying behaviors. Unfortunately, this information fails to result in changes in practice. Nomination of children who bully by their peers and the utilization of methods that remove the bully's power are promising interventions. Administrators, teachers, parents, nurses, and mental health providers need to be proactive in utilizing these interventions, and provide training for school staff.
Peguero, Anthony A.; Williams, Lisa M.
Bullying is a serious problem within the U.S. school system. Prior research suggests that victimization is stratified by race and ethnicity. However, few studies consider factors that may moderate this relationship. This article extends research on this topic by considering whether stereotypes moderate bullying among racial and ethnic youth. Youth…
The cover of a "Chicago Tribune Magazine" says it all about the most recent manifestation of an ancient phenomenon--bullying. The article represents two trends that present new challenges to counselors, teachers, and administrators -- especially in middle and junior high schools: Girls are bullying more than ever before and it's gone electronic.…
This paper reports on the first major survey of cyber-bullying undertaken in Ireland. While preliminary results have been published they were based on a smaller and incomplete sample of 12-16 year olds living in Ireland. The preliminary results addressed the incidence level of cyber-bullying and that of the different subcategories of…
National Professional Resources, Inc., 2010
This DVD contains the following: (1) Student Program (28 minutes); (2) Educator Program (17 minutes); (3) Parent Handout; and (4) Teaching Guide. What is cyberbullying and how is it different than regular bullying? What should students do if it happens to them, or someone they know? In the Student Program, viewers will learn why bullies do what…
Pigozi, Pamela Lamarca; Machado, Ana Lúcia
Bullying has been the subject of worldwide study for over four decades and is widely reported by social media. Despite this, the issue is a relatively new area of research in Brazil. This study analyzes academic literature addressing bullying produced in Brazil focusing on aspects that characterize this issue as a subtype of violence: gender differences, factors associated with bullying, consequences, and possible intervention and prevention approaches. The guiding question of this study was: what have Brazilian researchers produced regarding bullying among adolescents? The results show that over half of the studies used quantitative approaches, principally cross-sectional methods and questionnaires, and focused on determining the prevalence of and factors associated with bullying. The findings showed a high prevalence of bullying among Brazilian adolescents, an association between risk behavior and bullying, serious consequences for the mental health of young people, lack of awareness and understanding among adolescents about bullying and its consequences, and a lack of strategies to manage this type of aggression. There is a need for intervention studies, prevention and restorative practices that involve the community and can be applied to everyday life at school.
Georgiou, Stelios N.; Stavrinides, Panayiotis
The present study aimed at examining the relationship that may exist between specific parental practices at home and the child's bullying and victimization experiences at school. This study attempted to go beyond parental styles, a variable that most of the earlier studies have used and introduce three, relatively new parameters of bullying and…
Honig, Alice Sterling; Zdunowski-Sjoblom, Nicole
Family interviews were conducted with 28 7-12-year-old children who had experienced various forms of bullying and relational aggression by their peers, as well as with their parent and with an older sibling. Interviews explored possible supportive strategies of older siblings, parents, and teachers. All bullied children reported negative feelings…
Lamanna, John; Shillingford, M. Ann; Parrish, Mary-Frances; Sheffield, Rebecca
This article discusses the impact of bullying on K-12 students and the importance of collaborative partnerships between home and school in decreasing the dramatic effects of student bullying behaviors. The authors present a six-week, research-based, small group curriculum specifically developed for professional school counselors to support parents…
Bell, Karen J. S.; Willis, W. Grant
A series of 48 vignettes of bullying was constructed by crossing (a) four kinds of social contact (physical aggression, verbal aggression, relational aggression, and non-aggression) with (b) male and female bullies, (c) male and female and victims, and (d) reaction of the victim (aggressive, passive, and no reaction). Teachers rated vignettes for…
Rodríguez, Ana Carolina Reyes; Noriega, José Angel Vera; Cuervo, Angel Alberto Valdés
Research in recent years indicates that schools, and in particular teaching practices, play an essential role in preventing bullying. This study's aim is to investigate the direct and indirect relationships between permissive and direct intervention teacher practices, school support and bullying. In a non-probabilistic way, 386 (58.1%) boys and…
Saracho, Olivia N.
Bullying is a serious problem that affects the young children's well being. Early childhood educators find it difficult to manage bullying in the classroom. Preschool is the first environment outside of the home setting where children encounter difficulties when they socially interact with their peers. Based on the principles of protecting and…
Felipe Resende Oliveira
Full Text Available This article seeks to measure the effect of bullying in math scores of students in the 6th grade of public (Nansel et al., 2001. school in the city of Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil with the use of data from a survey by Joaquim Nabuco Foundation in 2013. The methodology applied is Propensity Score Matching (PSM in order to compare students who reported having suffered bullying with a control group, consisting of students who did not suffer bullying. Specifically, we aim to understand the role of social emotional skills and their potential influence on bullying. The results suggest that bullying has a negative impact on performance in mathematics and that social emotional skills can help students deal with bullying. Several econometric techniques were used to circumvent endogeneity problems. To identify personality traits, we use a factor model that also serves to correct for prediction error bias. The sensitivity analysis indicated potential problems of omitted variables. The results indicate that anti-bullying programs should take into account social emotional skills. JEL classification: I21, I28, J24, Keywords: Bullying, Propensity Score Matching, Impact evaluation, Personality traits, Mathematics
Coyne, Iain; Craig, Jane; Smith-Lee Chong, Penelope
This study examined the sociometric status of victims, perpetrators and bully-victims (those who self-reported being a victim and a perpetrator) in functional workplace teams and assessed the relationship between victimisation and bullying on team effectiveness. A sample of 288 fire-fighter personnel in 36 teams were asked to self-report and…
Lamberth, By Becky
As many as 53.5 million American workers have experienced workplace bullying, which can cost organizations an estimated $200 billion annually in lost productivity, increased sick d ays, increased med ical claims, legal costs, and staff turnover. Bullying can occur in any profession, but for many reasons it is most prevalent in healthcare. Bullying behavior in healthcare has been reported and documented in literature for over 35 years. Although physicians are often considered to be the primary culprit of bullying, healthcare bullies can be one any one of the professionals who work in the organization including nurses, radiology technologists, pharmacists, ancillary staff personnel, administrators, or other non-physician staff members. The first installment of the series focused on defining bullying and its impact on the organization. Part 2 discussed three legal protections for the bully to include at-will laws, unions, and bylaws related to physician privileging. The final installment in this series will evaluate specific bully types and implementing processes to address inappropriate behavior.
In recent years, many state departments of education and local school districts have taken steps to reduce bullying in schools. The U.S. Department of Education (Department) fully supports these efforts. Bullying fosters a climate of fear and disrespect that can seriously impair the physical and psychological health of its victims and create…
Wang, Jing; Iannotti, Ronald
Bullying has been identified as a worldwide problem and has attracted great attention from the media, researchers, educators, and parents in the past few decades. This introductory article describes the prevalence and demographic differences for both traditional bullying and cyberbullying among U.S. adolescents. Then it reviews risk and protective…
Johnson, Angela Beumer; Augustus, Linda; Agiro, Christa Preston
Bullying remains a wretched, pervasive problem in the society, especially for teenagers. Bullying is commonly defined as negative acts that occur repeatedly and involve an imbalance of power (Olweus 413); since this widely accepted definition excludes one-time acts of cruelty, the authors prefer to use the word "conflict" in their conversations…
This article provides a theoretical consideration of the ways in which school bullying relates to social and moral orders and the relations of power that are central to the upholding of such orders. Moving away from the focus on individual aggressive intentionality that has hitherto dominated school bullying research, the article argues that…
Szutenbach, Mary Pat
Bullying and incivility are sadly, far too common in today's healthcare workplaces. This article reviews early to current literature, identifies types of bullying, offers four root causes, and suggests responses to impact these causes using Gibbs' Reflective Cycle, biblical Scripture, and an allegory "How to Swim with Sharks."
Stuart-Cassel, Victoria; Bell, Ariana; Springer, J. Fred
Bullying in schools has become widely viewed as an urgent social, health, and education concern that has moved to the forefront of public debate on school legislation and policy. The Columbine High School shooting in 1999 was the first of many high-profile incidents of violent behavior that appeared to implicate bullying as an underlying cause…
Blaauw, E.; Winkel, F.W.; Kerkhof, A.J.F.M.
Relationships between bullying features and suicidal behavior of inmates were examined. The files of 95 suicide victims in jails and prisons in the Netherlands were examined for reports of bullying. In addition, 221 nonsuicidal jail inmates and 53 suicidal jail inmates were interviewed. The files of
Kopels, Sandra; Paceley, Megan S.
Bullying toward lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning (LGBTQ) youths is a pervasive problem in schools that has negative impacts on LGBTQ students' mental health and educational outcomes. School social workers need to understand the prevalence and dynamics of bullying toward LGBTQ students to respond appropriately to victims and…
Volk, Anthony A.; Veenstra, René; Espelage, Dorothy L.
Bullying is a serious problem that affects millions of individuals worldwide each year. In response to this, thousands of research articles have been published on bullying. Unfortunately, much of bullying research remains largely atheoretical in its approach to defining bullying as a unique form of
Full Text Available Each day, thousands of youth experience bullying and as many of 70% of all youth report having experienced bullying, either directly or indirectly (Cantor, 2005. For Gay, Lesbian, Bi-sexual, Transgender and Questioning (LGBTQ youth, the chances of experiencing bullying are much higher than for youth in the general population (Russell, Horn, Kosciw, & Saewyc, 2010. Although many youth serving organizations have begun to address the issue of bullying with bullying prevention programs, there is a deficit of information and a lack of inclusion of prevention efforts that specifically address LGBTQ youth. This article address the role of youth organizations in creating safe and inclusive environments for all youth, with specific attention paid to resources and strategies for inclusive environments for LGBTQ youth.
Bullying is a repetitive and a busive behavior in which the victim suffers from abuse, humiliation, or intimidation to such an extent that it interferes with job performance. Victims of bullying have three possible legal solutions: harassment, hostile work environment, and intentional/negligent infliction of emotional distress. However, the elements necessary to fulfill the legal definitions are subjective and difficult at best to satisfy. Hospitals are hesitant to terminate any employee, which would result in open staff positions that are difficult to fill. Replacing staff with specific skills, costly. This make recruitmen cost a significant factor in retaining staff members who demonstrate poor behavior. Part 1 will focus on terminology and concerns related to bullying. Part 2 will discuss the legal protection afforded the bully and possible organizational solutions. Part 3 will address managers who have been accused of bullying by disgruntled employees and what to do about it.
Slonje, Robert; Smith, Peter K
Cyberbullying has recently emerged as a new form of bullying and harassment. 360 adolescents (12-20 years), were surveyed to examine the nature and extent of cyberbullying in Swedish schools. Four categories of cyberbullying (by text message, email, phone call and picture/video clip) were examined in relation to age and gender, perceived impact, telling others, and perception of adults becoming aware of such bullying. There was a significant incidence of cyberbullying in lower secondary schools, less in sixth-form colleges. Gender differences were few. The impact of cyberbullying was perceived as highly negative for picture/video clip bullying. Cybervictims most often chose to either tell their friends or no one at all about the cyberbullying, so adults may not be aware of cyberbullying, and (apart from picture/video clip bullying) this is how it was perceived by pupils. Findings are discussed in relation to similarities and differences between cyberbullying and the more traditional forms of bullying.
Pepler, Debra; Jiang, Depeng; Craig, Wendy; Connolly, Jennifer
Trajectories in bullying through adolescence were studied along with individual, family, and peer relationship factors. At the outset, participants' ages ranged from 10 to 14; 74% identified as European Canadian with the remainder from diverse backgrounds. With 8 waves of data over 7 years, 871 students (466 girls and 405 boys) were studied to reveal 4 trajectories: 9.9% reported consistently high levels of bullying, 13.4% reported early moderate levels desisting to almost no bullying at the end of high school, 35.1% reported consistently moderate levels, and 41.6% almost never reported bullying. Students who bullied had elevated risks in individual, parent, and peer relationship domains. Risk profiles and trajectories provide direction for interventions to curtail the development of power and aggression in relationships.
Jansen, P.W.; Verlinden, Marina; Dommisse-van Berkel, Anke; Mieloo, Cathelijne; van der Ende, J; Veenstra, René; Verhulst, F.C.; Jansen, Wilma; Tiemeier, Henning
Background: Bullying and victimization are widespread phenomena in childhood and can have a serious impact on well-being. Children from families with a low socioeconomic background have an increased risk of this behaviour, but it is unknown whether socioeconomic status (SES) of school neighbourhoods
P.W. Jansen (Pauline); V.J.A. Verlinden (Vincent); A. Dommisse-Van Berkel (Anke); C.L. Mieloo (Cathelijne); J. van der Ende (Jan); R. Veenstra (René); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); W. Jansen (Wilma); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning)
textabstractBackground: Bullying and victimization are widespread phenomena in childhood and can have a serious impact on well-being. Children from families with a low socioeconomic background have an increased risk of this behaviour, but it is unknown whether socioeconomic status (SES) of school
Artemis Kimon Tsitsika
Full Text Available Bullying is a universal problem which continues to be a serious threat to physical and emotional health of children and adolescents. This article highlights the prevalence, the common characteristics of bullies and victims, as well as the short- and long-term impact of bullying involvement. Key areas highlighted include the efficacy of bullying prevention programs, which can help health care providers to assess and provide interventions to children and adolescents affected by bullying.
Durán, Lucas G; Scherñuk Schroh, Jordán C; Panizoni, Estefanía P; Jouglard, Ezequiel F; Serralunga, M Gabriela; Esandi, M Eugenia
Bullying at school is usually kept secret from adults, making them unaware of the situation. To describe caregivers' and children's perception and assess their agreement in terms of bullying situations. Cross-sectional study in children aged 8-12 years old attending public schools and their caregivers. The questionnaire on preconceptions of intimidation and bullying among peers (PRECONCIMEI) (child/caregiver version) was used. Studied outcome measures: Scale of bullying, causes of bullying, child involvement in bullying, communication in bullying situations. Univariate and bivariate analyses were done and agreement was estimated using the Kappa index. A total of 529 child/caregiver dyads participated. Among caregivers, 35% stated that bullying occurred in their children's schools. Among children, 133 (25%) admitted to being involved: 70 (13%) were victims of bullying, 40 (8%) were bullies, and 23 (4%) were bullied and perpetrated bullying. Among the 63 caregivers of children who admitted to be bullies, 78% did not consider their children capable of perpetrating bullying. Among children who were bullied or who both suffered bullying and bullied others, 69.9% (65/93) indicated that "if they were the victims of bullying, they would tell their family." However, 89.2% (83/93) of caregivers considered that their children would tell them if they were ever involved in these situations. Agreement was observed in terms of a positive communication (Kappa = -0.04) between 62.6% (57/91) of the child/caregiver dyads school bullying. Disagreement was observed between children and their caregivers in relation to the frequency and communication of bullying situations. Few caregivers whose children admitted to being involved in these situations believed it was a possibility. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría
Alavi, Nazanin; Roberts, Nasreen; Sutton, Chloe; Axas, Nicholas; Repetti, Leanne
To examine the prevalence of bullying victimization among adolescents referred for urgent psychiatric consultation, to study the association between bullying victimization and suicidality, and to examine the relation between different types of bullying and suicidality. A retrospective chart review was conducted for all adolescents referred to a hospital-based urgent consultation clinic. Our study sample consisted of adolescents with a history of bullying victimization. The Research Ethics Board of Queen's University provided approval. Data analysis was conducted using SPSS (IBM SPSS Inc, Armonk, NY). Chi-square tests were used for sex, suicidal ideation, history of physical and sexual abuse, and time and type of bullying, and an independent sample t test was used for age. The prevalence of bullying victimization was 48.5% (182 of 375). There was a significant association between being bullied and suicidal ideation (P = 0.01), and between sex and suicidal ideation (P ≤ 0.001). Victims of cyberbullying reported more suicidal ideation than those who experienced physical or verbal bullying (P = 0.04). Bullying victimization, especially cyberbullying, is associated with increased risk of suicidal ideation among adolescents referred for psychiatric risk assessment. The detailed history of the type and duration of bullying experienced by the victims should be considered when conducting a psychiatric risk assessment.
Full Text Available While adverse conditions in a child’s life do not excuse inappropriate behavior, they may cause emotional and behavioral problems that require treatment as a preventive measure to reduce the likelihood of bullying. We aimed to identify differences in the psychosocial profiles of adolescents who classified themselves as bullies, victims, or bully-victims. We performed a cross-sectional study in which data were collected between January 2009 and January 2010 from seven university-based clinics in a large metropolitan area with a predominantly Mexican-American population. We collected data on physical aggression among adolescents who self-categorized into the following groups: uninvolved, bullies, victims, and bully-victims. We determined the psychosocial profiles of the adolescents based on responses to the Youth Self Report (YSR and parent’s responses to the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL. A one-way analysis of variance and multivariate regression analyses were performed to compare the various components of the psychosocial profiles among the groups. Our analysis of the CBCL and the YSR assessments identified differences between the uninvolved group and one or more of the other groups. No significant differences were observed among the bully, victim, and bully-victim groups based on the CBCL. We did find significant differences among those groups based on the YSR, however. Our results suggest that emotional and behavioral problems exist among bullies, victims, and bully-victims. Therefore, treatment should not focus only on the victims of bullying; treatment is equally important for the other groups (bullies and bully-victims. Failure to adequately treat the underlying problems experienced by all three groups of individuals could allow the problems of bullying to continue.
Wang, Jing; Nansel, Tonja R; Iannotti, Ronald J
The study compared levels of depression among bullies, victims, and bully-victims of traditional (physical, verbal, and relational) and cyber bullying that is a relatively new form of bullying. The study also examined the association between depression and frequency of involvement in each form of bullying. A U.S. nationally representative sample of students in grades 6-10 (N = 7,313) completed the bullying and depression items in the Health Behavior in School-Aged Children 2005 Survey. Depression was associated with each of the four forms of bullying. Cyber victims reported higher depression than bullies or bully-victims, a result not observed in other forms of bullying. For physical, verbal, and relational bullies, the frequently-involved group of victims and bully victims reported a significantly higher level of depression than the corresponding occasionally involved group. For cyber bullying, differences were found only between the occasional and frequent victims. Results indicated the importance of further study of cyber bullying because its association with depression was distinct from traditional forms of bullying. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Dussault, Marc; Frenette, Éric
The study tests the relationship between supervisors' transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership and perceived bullying in the workplace. Transformational and transactional leaders can create conditions that make bullying at work less frequent but laissez-faire leadership may cause conflict that can result in bullying. The participants were 288 adults (122 women, 164 men; M age = 38.9 yr., SD = 11.7; M tenure = 7.2 yr.) employed across several organizations. Of the participants, 53.2% were contacted during an evening class in organizational behavior, and the others were workers from a waterproofing company. Scales measuring perceived leadership of a supervisor and perceived bullying at work were administered. Supervisor's transformational and transactional leadership were negatively related to work-related bullying, person-related bullying, and physically intimidating bullying. Transactional leadership was also negatively related to Work-related bullying, perceived Person-related bullying, and perceived Physically intimidating bullying. Supervisor's laissez-faire leadership was positively related to Work-related bullying, perceived Person-related bullying, and perceived Physically intimidating bullying. The use of Bass's model of transformational leadership in relation with the three-factor structure of the Negative Acts Questionnaire-Revised is unique in research on leadership and bullying. The relationship between laissez-faire leadership and leadership support results from previous studies: transactional or transformational leadership is likely to provide an environment that makes bullying more rare than under a negative or passive leadership.
Lambe, Laura J; Craig, Wendy M
Youth involved with school bullying are vulnerable to many negative outcomes, including substance use. Research has yet to examine how this vulnerability operates in the context of other individual and neighbourhood differences. The current study aimed to fill this gap by using multilevel modeling to investigate both the individual and neighbourhood risk factors associated with frequent drunkenness and frequent cannabis use among adolescents. Data from the 2010 Canadian Health Behaviours in School-Aged Children (HBSC) survey were analyzed. Participants consisted of 8971 students from 173 neighbourhoods across Canada. Multilevel modeling was used to examine both individual (age, gender, bullying, victimization, peer deviancy, negative affect) and neighbourhood (socioeconomic status, crime, physical neighbourhood disorder, residential instability) risk factors. We tested whether the links between bullying involvement and frequent substance use were mediated by other risk factors. Both individual and neighbourhood risk factors were associated with an increased likelihood of frequent substance use. Specifically, bullying served as a unique risk factor for frequent substance use over and above more traditional risk factors. A cross-level interaction was observed between residential instability and peer deviancy, such that the link between peer deviancy and frequent drunkenness was stronger in more residentially-unstable neighbourhoods. Peer deviancy partially mediated the link between bullying and both types of frequent substance use, whereas both peer deviancy and negative affect mediated the link between victimization and both types of frequent substance use. Youth who bully others are vulnerable to frequent substance use across peer and neighbourhood contexts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Wang, Jing; Iannotti, Ronald J.; Nansel, Tonja R.
Purpose Four forms of school bullying behaviors among US adolescents and their association with socio-demographic characteristics, parental support and friends were examined. Methods Data were obtained from the Health Behavior in School-Aged Children (HBSC) 2005 Survey, a nationally-representative sample of grades 6 to 10 (N = 7182). The Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire was used to measure physical, verbal and relational forms of bullying. Two items were added using the same format to measure cyber bullying. For each form, four categories were created: bully, victim, bully-victim, and not involved. Multinomial logistic regressions were applied, with socio-demographic variables, parental support and number of friends as predictors. Results Prevalence rates of having bullied others or having been bullied at school for at least once in the last 2 months were 20.8% physically, 53.6% verbally, 51.4% socially or 13.6% electronically. Boys were more involved in physical or verbal bullying, while girls were more involved in relational bullying. Boys were more likely to be cyber bullies, while girls were more likely to be cyber victims. African-American adolescents were involved in more bullying (physical, verbal or cyber) but less victimization (verbal or relational). Higher parental support was associated with less involvement across all forms and classifications of bullying. Having more friends was associated with more bullying and less victimization for physical, verbal and relational forms, but was not associated with cyber bullying. Conclusions Parental support may protect adolescents from all four forms of bullying. Friends associate differentially with traditional and cyber bullying. Results indicate that cyber bullying has a distinct nature from traditional bullying. PMID:19766941
Hall, William J.
This article describes the development and preliminary validation of the Bullying, Harassment, and Aggression Receipt Measure (BullyHARM). The development of the BullyHARM involved a number of steps and methods, including a literature review, expert review, cognitive testing, readability testing, data collection from a large sample, reliability testing, and confirmatory factor analysis. A sample of 275 middle school students was used to examine the psychometric properties and factor structure...
After sketching how my own interest and research into bullying problems began, I address a number of potentially controversial issues related to the definition and measurement of such problems. The importance of maintaining the distinctions between bullying victimization and general victimization and between bullying perpetration and general aggression is strongly emphasized. There are particular problems with the common method of peer nominations for purposes of prevalence estimation, comparisons of such estimates and mean levels across groups and time, and measurement of change. Two large-scale projects with time series data show that several recent claims about cyber bullying made in the media and by some researchers are greatly exaggerated and lack scientific support. Recent meta-analyses of the long-term outcomes for former bullies and victims provide convincing evidence that being involved in such problems is not just a harmless and passing school problem but something that has serious adjustment and public health consequences that also entail great costs to society. Another section presents my view of why the theme of bullying took quite some time to reach the peer relations research community in the United States and the role of a dominant research tradition focusing on "likeability" in this account. In a final section, I summarize some reasons why it may be considered important and interesting to focus both research and intervention on bully/victim problems.
Oxenstierna, Gabriel; Elofsson, Stig; Gjerde, Maria; Magnusson Hanson, Linda; Theorell, Töres
Improved work organisation could be of importance for decreased bullying in workplaces. Participants in the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH) responded to questions about work and workplace and whether they had been bullied during the past year in 2006. Those in worksites with at least five employees who did not report that they had been bullied in 2006 and without workplace change between 2006 and 2008 constituted the final sample (n=1,021 men and 1,182 women). Work characteristics and workplace factors in 2006 were used in multiple logistic regression as predictors of bullying in 2008. Separate analyses were performed for work characteristics and workplace factors respectively. Adjustments for demographic factors were made in all analyses. The question used for bullying was: "Are you exposed to personal persecution by means of vicious words or actions from your superiors or your workmates?" Such persecution any time during the past year was defined as bullying. For both genders organisational change and conflicting demands were identified as risk factors, and good decision authority as a protective factor. Dictatorial leadership, lack of procedural justice and attitude of expendability were male and lack of humanity a female risk factor for bullying.
Keuskamp, Dominic; Ziersch, Anna M; Baum, Fran E; Lamontagne, Anthony D
We tested the hypothesis that the risk of experiencing workplace bullying was greater for those employed on casual contracts compared to permanent or ongoing employees. A cross-sectional population-based telephone survey was conducted in South Australia in 2009. Employment arrangements were classified by self-report into four categories: permanent, casual, fixed-term and self-employed. Self-report of workplace bullying was modelled using multiple logistic regression in relation to employment arrangement, controlling for sex, age, working hours, years in job, occupational skill level, marital status and a proxy for socioeconomic status. Workplace bullying was reported by 174 respondents (15.2%). Risk of workplace bullying was higher for being in a professional occupation, having a university education and being separated, divorced or widowed, but did not vary significantly by sex, age or job tenure. In adjusted multivariate logistic regression models, casual workers were significantly less likely than workers on permanent or fixed-term contracts to report bullying. Those separated, divorced or widowed had higher odds of reporting bullying than married, de facto or never-married workers. Contrary to expectation, workplace bullying was more often reported by permanent than casual employees. It may represent an exposure pathway not previously linked with the more idealised permanent employment arrangement. A finer understanding of psycho-social hazards across all employment arrangements is needed, with equal attention to the hazards associated with permanent as well as casual employment. © 2012 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2012 Public Health Association of Australia.
Escartin, J; Ceja, L; Navarro, J; Zapf, D
Workplace bullying is defined as negative behaviors directed at organizational members or their work context that occur regularly and repeatedly over a period of time. Employees' perceptions of psychosocial safety climate, workplace bullying victimization, and workplace bullying perpetration were assessed within a sample of nearly 5,000 workers. Linear and nonlinear approaches were applied in order to model both continuous and sudden changes in workplace bullying. More specifically, the present study examines whether a nonlinear dynamical systems model (i.e., a cusp catastrophe model) is superior to the linear combination of variables for predicting the effect of psychosocial safety climate and workplace bullying victimization on workplace bullying perpetration. According to the AICc, and BIC indices, the linear regression model fits the data better than the cusp catastrophe model. The study concludes that some phenomena, especially unhealthy behaviors at work (like workplace bullying), may be better studied using linear approaches as opposed to nonlinear dynamical systems models. This can be explained through the healthy variability hypothesis, which argues that positive organizational behavior is likely to present nonlinear behavior, while a decrease in such variability may indicate the occurrence of negative behaviors at work.
Green, Jennifer Greif; Felix, Erika D; Sharkey, Jill D; Furlong, Michael J; Kras, Jennifer E
Schools frequently assess bullying and the Olweus Bully/Victimization Questionnaire (BVQ; Olweus, 1996) is the most widely adopted tool for this purpose. The BVQ is a self-report survey that uses a definitional measurement method--describing "bullying" as involving repeated, intentional aggression in a relationship where there is an imbalance of power and then asking respondents to indicate how frequently they experienced this type of victimization. Few studies have examined BVQ validity and whether this definitional method truly identifies the repetition and power differential that distinguish bullying from other forms of peer victimization. This study examined the concurrent validity of the BVQ definitional question among 435 students reporting peer victimization. BVQ definitional responses were compared with responses to a behavioral measure that did not use the term "bullying" but, instead, included items that asked about its defining characteristics (repetition, intentionality, power imbalance). Concordance between the two approaches was moderate, with an area under the receiver operating curve of .72. BVQ responses were more strongly associated with students indicating repeated victimization and multiple forms of victimization, than with power imbalance in their relationship with the bully. Findings indicate that the BVQ is a valid measure of repeated victimization and a broad range of victimization experiences but may not detect the more subtle and complex power imbalances that distinguish bullying from other forms of peer victimization. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Full Text Available We discuss the definition and phenomenology of direct and indirect bullying, describe the effects of bullying for all categories of participants. We discuss the most common teachers’ settings (normative, assertive, avoidant in relation to bullying, and the ways to respond arising from these settings. We discuss mismatch in understanding the phenomenon of bullying between psychologists and educators, as well as the need to develop consistent definitions for the design of prevention programs and preventive procedures in situations of bullying in particular institution. We reveal the basic myths developed in society and aggravating bullying normalization, aggressor support and the victim's humiliation. We discuss the principles of organization of prevention system and school bullying prevention. The teachers’ possibilities to reduce the number of school bullying situations are considered. We show the necessity of a more critical and informed teachers' attitude toward bullying situations and their own response strategies.
Shaheen, Abeer M; Hammad, Sawsan; Haourani, Eman M; Nassar, Omayyah S
The purpose of this study was to identify the Jordanian school adolescents' experience of being bullied, and to examine its association with selected socio-demographic variables. This cross sectional descriptive study used multi-stages cluster sampling technique to recruit a sample of in-school adolescents in Jordan (N=436). The Personal Experiences Checklist was used to measure the experience of bullying. Descriptive statistics and parametric tests were used in the analysis. Relational-verbal bullying was the most common form of bullying while cyber bullying was the least common type. Male adolescents experienced bullying more than females. In addition, adolescents belonging to low-income families experienced bullying more than those from moderate-income families. Finally, being bullied was negatively correlated with academic performance of students. This study indicated that risk factors for bullying are multifaceted which necessitate the development of prevention and intervention strategies to combat bullying taking into consideration these factors. Schools should introduce environmental changes to discourage bullying and establish a policy with specific guidelines of what constitutes bullying behavior and expected disciplinary procedures. Staff training on information about the definition of bullying, current trends, and the effects of bullying is also recommended. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hidajat, Monica; Adam, Angry Ronald; Danaparamita, Muhammad; Suhendrik, Suhendrik
The purpose of this research is to review two journals about social media effect for cyberbullying. First Journal is written by Eddie Fisher with the title From Cyber Bullying to Cyber Coping: The Misuse of Mobile Technology and Social Media and Their Effects on People’s Lives and the second journal is written by ReginaldH. Gonzales with the title Social Media as a Channel and its Implications on Cyber Bullying. First Journal focus on condition and cyber bullying state by interview respondent...
Valdés Cuervo, Ángel Alberto; Estévez Nenninger, Etty Haydeé; Manig Valenzuela, Agustín
Se analizaron las creencias de docentes de educación básica acerca del bullying, para lo cual se seleccionaron las tres escuelas secundarias públicas de Sonora donde se encontró la mayor frecuencia de reportes de bullying por los estudiantes en un estudio previo realizado por Valdés et al. (2013). Participaron 45 docentes de estas escuelas, 15 fueron entrevistados y el resto respondió una encuesta con preguntas abiertas. Los docentes definieron el bullying como violencia directa, que involucr...
Aramis A Lopes Neto
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Alertar os pediatras sobre a alta prevalência da prática de bullying entre estudantes, conscientizando-os da importância de sua atuação na prevenção, diagnóstico e tratamento dos possíveis danos à saúde e ao desenvolvimento de crianças e adolescentes, além da necessidade em orientar as famílias e a sociedade para o enfrentamento da forma mais freqüente de violência juvenil. FONTE DE DADOS: Foram acessados bancos de dados bibliográficos e páginas de relevância na Internet, identificando-se artigos e textos recentes sobre o tema. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: O comportamento agressivo entre estudantes é um problema universal, tradicionalmente admitido como natural e freqüentemente ignorado ou não valorizado pelos adultos. Estudos realizados nas 2 últimas décadas demonstraram que a sua prática pode ter conseqüências negativas imediatas e tardias para todas as crianças e adolescentes direta ou indiretamente envolvidos. A adoção de programas preventivos continuados em escolas de educação infantil e de ensino fundamental tem demonstrado ser uma das medidas mais efetivas na prevenção do consumo de álcool e drogas e na redução da violência social. CONCLUSÃO: A prevenção do bullying entre estudantes constitui-se em uma necessária medida de saúde pública, capaz de possibilitar o pleno desenvolvimento de crianças e adolescentes, habilitando-os a uma convivência social sadia e segura.OBJECTIVE: To warn pediatricians about the high prevalence of bullying among students, to raise their awareness about the importance of their action in the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of possible damage to children's health and development, and about the necessity to instruct families and society on how to face the most frequent form of youth violence. SOURCE OF DATA: Bibliographic databases and relevant Internet sites were searched for recent articles and texts about the theme. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: Aggressive behavior
Full Text Available Background: Bullying perpetration and victimization is associated with significant academic, psychosocial and health related problems among adolescents. There is a need to develop effective interventions to prevent bullying among adolescents, especially in low and middle income countries. This paper presents the study protocol to develop, and evaluate the effect of multi-component school based prevention program for bullying in India. Design: Quasi-experimental study. Methods: The study will be conducted among 846 students of grade 7th and 8th in the intervention and control schools in Chandigarh, Union Territory, North India. A government and a private school will be selected purposively in each of the intervention and control arm. The intervention is based on socio-ecological model, and will be administered at individual, relationship (parents and teachers and school level. The primary study outcome will be the proportion of students experiencing any kind of bullying (bullying, victimization, or both, in each study arm. The effectiveness of the intervention will be measured by performing difference in difference analysis and generalized estimating equations. Expected impact for public health: Bullying is an aggressive behaviour with significant morbidities, including psychological or physical trauma, affecting individuals not only in their adolescence, but also later in their adulthood. This quasi-experimental study is expected to provide evidence on whether multi-component bullying prevention intervention program, can reduce the burden of bullying perpetration and victimization among school adolescents in India. The results of the study will add in the exiting literature on bullying intervention program, especially, from the low middle-income countries, as there are limited studies available on this topic in these countries.
Nelson, Helen Jean; Kendall, Garth Edward; Burns, Sharyn; Schonert-Reichl, Kimberly
Introduction Covert bullying in schools is associated with a range of academic, social, emotional and physical health problems. Much research has focused on bullying, but there remains a gap in understanding about covert aggression and how to most accurately and reliably measure children's own reports of this behaviour. This paper reviews relevant literature and outlines a research project that aims to develop a self-report instrument that effectively measures covert aggression and bullying. It is anticipated that this research will result in a standardised instrument that is suitable for exploring preadolescent children's experiences of covert aggressive behaviour. The data collected by the instrument will enhance health and education professionals understanding of covert bullying behaviours and will inform the design and evaluation of interventions. Methods and analysis Relational developmental systems theory will guide the design of an online self-report instrument. The first phase of the project will include a critical review of the research literature, focus groups with children aged 8–12 years (grades 4–6) in Perth, Western Australia, and expert review. The instrument will be explored for content and face validity prior to the assessment of convergent and discriminant validity, internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Ethics and dissemination The study has been approved by the Curtin University of Human Research Ethics Committee (RDHS-38-15) and by the Executive Principal of the participating school. PMID:26553834
Sumner, Erin M; Scarduzio, Jennifer A; Daggett, Jena R
This study examines the portrayal and affective framing of workplace bullying behaviors on the popular American television show The Office. Quantitative and qualitative content analyses were conducted on 54 episodes spanning the show's nine seasons. Results revealed 331 instances of workplace bullying, for an average of 6.13 bullying behaviors per episode. Workplace bullying behavior on The Office was grouped into five categories: sexual jokes, public humiliation, practical jokes, belittlement, and misuse of authority. In general, instances of workplace bully were scripted as humorous and lacking significant consequences, which could further contribute to social discourses that perpetuate the problem of bullying in real-life workplaces.
Ramirez, Marizen; Ten Eyck, Patrick; Peek-Asa, Corinne; Onwuachi-Willig, Angela; Cavanaugh, Joseph E.
Background Bullying is the most common form of youth aggression. Although 49 of all 50 states in the U.S. have an anti-bullying law in place to prevent bullying, little is known about the effectiveness of these laws. Our objective was to measure the effectiveness of Iowa?s anti-bullying law in preventing bullying and improving teacher response to bullying. Methods Sixth, 8th, and 11th grade children who completed the 2005, 2008 and 2010 Iowa Youth Survey were included in this study (n?=?253,0...
Ariza-Montes, Antonio; Muniz, Noel M.; Montero-Simó, María José; Araque-Padilla, Rafael Angel
This paper aims to assess consistent predictors through the use of a sample that includes different actors from the healthcare work force to identify certain key elements in a set of job-related organizational contexts. The utilized data were obtained from the 5th European Working Conditions Survey, conducted in 2010 by the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions. In light of these objectives, we collected a subsample of 284 health professionals, some of them from the International Standard Classification of Occupations—subgroup 22—(ISCO-08). The results indicated that the chance of a healthcare worker referring to him/herself as bullied increases among those who work on a shift schedule, perform monotonous and rotating tasks, suffer from work stress, enjoy little satisfaction from their working conditions, and do not perceive opportunities for promotions in their organizations. The present work summarizes an array of outcomes and proposes within the usual course of events that workplace bullying could be reduced if job demands were limited and job resources were increased. The implications of these findings could assist human resource managers in facilitating, to some extent, good social relationships among healthcare workers. PMID:23887621
María José Montero-Simó
Full Text Available This paper aims to assess consistent predictors through the use of a sample that includes different actors from the healthcare work force to identify certain key elements in a set of job-related organizational contexts. The utilized data were obtained from the 5th European Working Conditions Survey, conducted in 2010 by the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions. In light of these objectives, we collected a subsample of 284 health professionals, some of them from the International Standard Classification of Occupations—subgroup 22—(ISCO-08. The results indicated that the chance of a healthcare worker referring to him/herself as bullied increases among those who work on a shift schedule, perform monotonous and rotating tasks, suffer from work stress, enjoy little satisfaction from their working conditions, and do not perceive opportunities for promotions in their organizations. The present work summarizes an array of outcomes and proposes within the usual course of events that workplace bullying could be reduced if job demands were limited and job resources were increased. The implications of these findings could assist human resource managers in facilitating, to some extent, good social relationships among healthcare workers.
Logan, Todd R; Michael Malone, D
The purpose of this study was to explore the association between nurses' perceptions and attitudes of teamwork and workplace bullying. A total of 128 nurses in two hospitals in the northeast USA completed three surveys: Attitudes about teamwork survey, Team characteristics survey, and Negative intention questionnaire. A majority of nurses believed that teamwork was an important vehicle for providing quality patient care. Two thirds of the nurses reported the presence of important variables such as leadership, trust and communication on their teams. Despite these positive perceptions, a third of the nurses reported being bullied and half observed others being bullied. A number of effective team skills were associated with fewer occurrences of workplace bullying. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to review two journals about social media effect for cyberbullying. First Journal is written by Eddie Fisher with the title From Cyber Bullying to Cyber Coping: The Misuse of Mobile Technology and Social Media and Their Effects on People’s Lives and the second journal is written by ReginaldH. Gonzales with the title Social Media as a Channel and its Implications on Cyber Bullying. First Journal focus on condition and cyber bullying state by interview respondents in law terms. Second journal focus on handling cyber bullying case at social media. Social medial cause few cases of cyberbullying increasing because of its characteristic that possible to spread information easily and fast. Socialization proper use of social media needs to be done to improve public awareness about the dangers of misuse of social media.
Søndergaard, Dorte Marie
In this article, I develop a new conceptual framework, a new thinking technology, for understanding the bullying that takes place between children in schools. In addition, I propose a new definition of bullying. This new thinking technology reflects a shift in focus from individual characteristics...... to the social processes that may lead to bullying. The social approach theorises bullying as one of many reactions to particular kinds of social insecurity. The concepts I develop include the necessity of belonging, social exclusion anxiety and the production of contempt and dignity by both children and adults....... I also draw on Judith Butler’s concept of abjection. In the last part of the article, I employ Karen Barad’s theory of agential realism, focusing specifically on her concept of intraacting enacting forces. The entry to the theoretical development is based on empirical data generated in Denmark...
Peter K. Smith
Full Text Available Following some background studies on the nature of school bullying, its prevalence, and the negative consequences it can have, this article reviews the history of anti-bullying interventions over the last 30 years. It considers several major programmes in detail, such as the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, KiVa, Steps to Respect, and Friendly Schools. The nature and evaluation of the interventions is discussed, followed by a review of meta-analyses of the programmes effectiveness. Issues considered are the effect at different ages; components of interventions; work with peers; disciplinary methods, non-punitive and restorative approaches; challenges regarding cyberbullying; the role of parents; the role of teachers and teacher training; set menu versus à la carte approaches; sustainability of interventions and societal context. Conclusions show that interventions have had some success, with traditional bullying. However, further progress is needed in strengthening theoretical underpinnings to interventions, and in tackling cyberbullying.
Full Text Available The heart wrenching and disturbing statistics regarding bullying in the schools is a reason for concern. Looking at a popular definition of bullying: aggressive intentional behavior involving an imbalance of power or strength (Stop Bullying.gov, one can see a lack of caring and compassion for others. The 4-H Study of Positive Youth Development (Lerner, et al., 2008 indicates the 4-H Youth Development Program is successfully guiding youth onto the best trajectory for positive youth development. As a result of the Lerner PYD study, one rural school in Oregon invited an Extension 4-H Educator to teach leadership skills to children in grades 4-8. The goal of the training was to increase caring and compassion through interactive, teambuilding activities thereby reducing bullying. Evaluation results indicated a significant impact by the program on youth defining their ability to positively work with others.
Full Text Available Peer bullying is a phenomenon present in all schools. The school as an institution has a major role in limiting peer bullying. The primary goal of the study was to determine how different groups of students perceived school climate in relation to peer bullying regarding their role in peer bullying (active participants: bullies, victims, bully-victims and non-active participants: observers. 414 students (from 18 primary and secondary schools responded to The School Climate Bullying Survey (SCBS; Cornell, 2012, which measures the incidence of various forms of peer bullying and three dimensions of school climate (prevalence of teasing and bullying, aggressive attitudes, and willingness to seek help. The results showed that the active participants in peer bullying report a frequent presence of verbal and social bullying (54% and 40%, respectively and a significantly lower frequency of physical and cyber bullying (14%. The largest differences between the groups of students were found in their perceptions of the prevalence of aggressive attitudes and willingness to seek help in a school context. In the perceptions of both of these dimensions we found a high degree of similarity between the groups of bullies and victim-bullies, and between the groups of victims and observers. The first two groups, when compared to the victims and observers, perceived to a greater extent that school allows aggression as a way of affirmation among peers and in school in general, and that neither teachers nor peers do not stop the bullying, which discourages the victims from seeking help from them. The results confirmed the existence of the association between students’ perceived school climate by bullying and their behavior (roles in peer bullying.
Rimmer, Ruth B; Foster, Kevin N; Bay, Curtis R; Floros, Jim; Rutter, Cindy; Bosch, Jim; Wadsworth, Michelle M; Caruso, Daniel M
There is a trend of increasing childhood aggression in America, which has been tied to bullying. Although there is growing research concerning bullying in the general pediatric population, there are limited data on bullying and its effects on children with disfigurements and physical limitations. This study was conducted to assess burned children's experience with bullying. A pretest was administered regarding experience with bullying and teasing. A curriculum regarding bullying, which incorporated the Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone movie, was presented. After reviewing bullying depicted in the film and participating in a class regarding bullying, children were invited to complete a survey regarding their experience with bullying. A total of 61% of these children reported being bullied at school; 25% reported experiencing headaches or stomachaches due to bullying, and 12% reported staying home from school. Nearly 25% reported bullying as a big problem. Of those with visible scars (55%), a full 68% reported bullying as a problem, versus 54% with hidden scars (P < .05). However, those with visible scars were no more likely to tell an adult (54%) than those without (56%). Children were much more willing to disclose personal bullying experiences after participating in the class (57%) than before (45%) (P < .01). This study revealed that bullying impacts many burn-injured children and has negative effects on their physical and mental well-being. Many children (with visible or hidden scars) did not seek adult intervention for the problem. Participation in a bullying course appears to give children a forum that increases their willingness to disclose personal bullying experiences and can provide them with prevention information and a safe place to seek help.
Full Text Available A person is being bullied when he or she is exposed repeatedly and over time to negative actions on the part of one or more persons. Incidents of bullying are frequent occurrences for many children at school. This study was intended to investigate the perceptions of the elementary students about the reasons for bullying in the school. For this purpose 688 students from 4-8th. Grades of an elementary school were given a questionnaire “Colorado School Climate Survey”. The data was analyzed in terms of frequencies and percentiles. The results revealed that the most frequently reported reason was being physically weak (for bullies 56.5%, bullyvictims 52.9%, victims 48.6%, being fat (for victims bully-victims 45.1%, victims 42.6% and being poor (for bully-victims 43.2%, victims 41.5%, neither bully nor victims 39.4%. Almost half of the girls reported that the reasons of bullying are being short, being poor and being fat. Boys reported these reasons physical weakness, being fat and being skinny. According to neither bullies nor victims the reasons of bullying are physical weakness, poorness, and bad wearing. Victims also reported that first reason is physical weakness. Bullies reported that children without friends, short and poor children mostly bullied. Bully/victims again talked about physical weakness
Postigo, Silvia; González, Remedios; Montoya, Inmaculada; Ordoñez, Ana
Four decades of research into peer bullying have produced an extensive body of knowledge. This work attempts to provide an integrative theoretical framework, which includes the specific theories and observations. The main aim is to organize the available knowledge in order to guide the development of effective interventions. To that end, several psychological theories are described that have been used and/or adapted with the aim of understanding peer bullying. All of them, at different ecolog...
Ortega, Adriana; Høgh, Annie; Pejtersen, Jan Hyld
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of bullying and to identify risk groups in a representative population sample. METHODS: The data for this study was taken from the second Danish Psychosocial Work Environment Study (DPWES). The sample consisted of 3,429 employees between 20 and 59-years......: These findings suggest that types of work and gender ratio are risk factors in the onset of workplace bullying. Future studies should take into account the type of work and the gender ratio of the organization....
Hellstr?m, Lisa; Persson, Louise; Hagquist, Curt
Background The negative consequences of peer-victimization on children and adolescents are major public health concerns which have been subjected to extensive research. Given all efforts made to analyze and estimate the social and health consequences of peer-victimization, the adolescents? own experiences and understandings have had surprisingly little impact on the definition of bullying. Therefore, the aim of the current study is to explore adolescents? definitions of bullying. Methods A qu...
Thomas, Hannah J; Scott, James G; Coates, Jason M; Connor, Jason P
Intervention on adolescent bullying is reliant on valid and reliable measurement of victimization and perpetration experiences across different behavioural expressions. This study developed and validated a survey tool that integrates measurement of both traditional and cyber bullying to test a theoretically driven multi-dimensional model. Adolescents from 10 mainstream secondary schools completed a baseline and follow-up survey (N = 1,217; M age = 14 years; 66.2% male). The Bullying and cyberbullying Scale for Adolescents (BCS-A) developed for this study comprised parallel victimization and perpetration subscales, each with 20 items. Additional measures of bullying (Olweus Global Bullying and the Forms of Bullying Scale [FBS]), as well as measures of internalizing and externalizing problems, school connectedness, social support, and personality, were used to further assess validity. Factor structure was determined, and then, the suitability of items was assessed according to the following criteria: (1) factor interpretability, (2) item correlations, (3) model parsimony, and (4) measurement equivalence across victimization and perpetration experiences. The final models comprised four factors: physical, verbal, relational, and cyber. The final scale was revised to two 13-item subscales. The BCS-A demonstrated acceptable concurrent and convergent validity (internalizing and externalizing problems, school connectedness, social support, and personality), as well as predictive validity over 6 months. The BCS-A has sound psychometric properties. This tool establishes measurement equivalence across types of involvement and behavioural forms common among adolescents. An improved measurement method could add greater rigour to the evaluation of intervention programmes and also enable interventions to be tailored to subscale profiles. © 2018 The British Psychological Society.
Sansone, Randy A; Sansone, Lori A
Workplace bullying is defined as the repetitive and systematic engagement of interpersonally abusive behaviors that negatively affect both the targeted individual and the work organization. According to the findings of 12 studies, being bullied in the workplace affects approximately 11 percent of workers. Victims are frequently blue-collar and unskilled workers. However, there also appear to be gender and milieu/management factors. Emotional/psychological consequences of workplace bullying may include increased mental distress, sleep disturbances, fatigue in women and lack of vigor in men, depression and anxiety, adjustment disorders, and even work-related suicide. Medical consequences of workplace bullying may include an increase in health complaints such as neck pain, musculoskeletal complaints, acute pain, fibromyalgia, and cardiovascular symptoms. Finally, socioeconomic consequences of workplace bullying may include absenteeism due to sick days and unemployment. Clinicians in both mental health and primary care settings need to be alert to the associations between bullying in the workplace and these potential negative consequences, as patients may not disclose workplace maltreatment due to embarrassment or fears of retribution.
Sansone, Lori A.
Workplace bullying is defined as the repetitive and systematic engagement of interpersonally abusive behaviors that negatively affect both the targeted individual and the work organization. According to the findings of 12 studies, being bullied in the workplace affects approximately 11 percent of workers. Victims are frequently blue-collar and unskilled workers. However, there also appear to be gender and milieu/management factors. Emotional/psychological consequences of workplace bullying may include increased mental distress, sleep disturbances, fatigue in women and lack of vigor in men, depression and anxiety, adjustment disorders, and even work-related suicide. Medical consequences of workplace bullying may include an increase in health complaints such as neck pain, musculoskeletal complaints, acute pain, fibromyalgia, and cardiovascular symptoms. Finally, socioeconomic consequences of workplace bullying may include absenteeism due to sick days and unemployment. Clinicians in both mental health and primary care settings need to be alert to the associations between bullying in the workplace and these potential negative consequences, as patients may not disclose workplace maltreatment due to embarrassment or fears of retribution. PMID:25852978
Tsai, Shian-Ting; Sung, Ya-Wen; Tzou, Li-Ping; Huang, Meng-Ting; Hwang, Miin-Rong; Chiou, Chii-Jun
High nurse turnover rates and the related rise in patient-to-nurse ratios correlate with the integrity and maturity of nursing organizations and patient safety issues. Previous studies indicate bullying among nurses to be significantly related to high turnover rates and to impact negatively on the physical and mental health of nurses. The situation has been severe enough to lead to nurse suicides (Yildirim & Yildirim, 2007). In light of such, the International Council of Nurses (ICN) reviewed the literature about nursing workplace bullying and proclaimed the importance of fostering a positive work environment in 2007. Most studies on nursing workplace bullying have focused on western societies. In order to clarify the state of nursing bullying in Taiwan, this paper worked to summarize observations in the literature regarding the causes of and management strategies for nursing workplace bullying in order to increase the attention of nursing managers and staff toward this issue. The authors hope that this article may help raise awareness and both prevent nursing workplace bullying and reduce currently high turnover rates.
Morrow, Allison; Downey, Christina A
Cyber-bullying (where victims are targeted via online social networking or other electronic means) has gained increased attention in research and the broadcast media, but previous research has not investigated attribution of blame in such cyber-bullying events. This experiment hypothesized that participants would assign higher ratings of blame to bullying perpetrators when the bullying situations were depicted as having highly foreseeable outcomes (vs. unforeseeable outcomes), and as occurring in school (vs. online). In addition, a significant interaction was predicted between outcome foreseeability and bullying situation, with highly foreseeable in-school events being rated as the most predictable and attributable to the bully's actions. One-hundred sixty-three participants completed surveys containing demographic items, items regarding their past experiences of victimization, and one of four randomly-assigned vignettes detailing a bullying situation (which participants rated). While hypotheses regarding outcome foreseeability were supported, no cyber-bullying vs. in-school main effects (or corresponding interaction effects) were detected. Implications for future research and practice, as well as study limitations, are discussed. © 2013 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.
Bonanno, Rina A.; Hymel, Shelley
Although recent research has demonstrated significant links between involvement in cyber bullying and various internalizing difficulties, there exists debate as to whether these links are independent of involvement in more traditional forms of bullying. The present study systematically examined the association between involvement in cyber…
Bonanno, Rina A; Hymel, Shelley
Although recent research has demonstrated significant links between involvement in cyber bullying and various internalizing difficulties, there exists debate as to whether these links are independent of involvement in more traditional forms of bullying. The present study systematically examined the association between involvement in cyber bullying, as either a victim or a bully, and both depressive symptomatology and suicidal ideation. Self-report data were collected from 399 (57% female) Canadian adolescents in grades 8-10 (mean age = 14.2 years, SD = .91 years). Results indicated that involvement in cyber bullying, as either a victim or a bully, uniquely contributed to the prediction of both depressive symptomatology and suicidal ideation, over and above the contribution of involvement in traditional forms of bullying (physical, verbal, relational). Given the ever increasing rate of accessibility to technology in both schools and homes, these finding underscore the importance of addressing cyber bullying, with respect to both research and intervention, as a unique phenomenon with equally unique challenges for students, parents, school administrators and researchers alike.
Slee, Phillip T.; Skrzypiec, Grace
Bullying in schools is an international problem impacting negatively on children's well-being. Children's drawings can provide an insight into their emotional states. There is little published literature that uses children's drawings to gain better understandings of the nature and impact of bullying. We report two studies using indicators of…
Haynie, Denise L.; Nasel, Tonja; Eitel, Patricia; Crump, Aria Davis; Saylor, Keith; Yu, Kai; Simons-Morton, Bruce
Surveyed middle school students on incidents of bullying and victimization. Found that psychosocial and behavioral predictors such as problem behaviors, attitudes toward deviance, peer influences, depressive symptoms, school-related functioning, and parenting linearly separated never bullied or victimized students from the victim group, from the…
Perren, Sonja; Gutzwiller-Helfenfinger, Eveline; Malti, Tina; Hymel, Shelley
This study investigated different facets of moral development in bullies, victims, and bully-victims among Swiss adolescents. Extending previous research, we focused on both bullying and victimization in relation to adolescents' morally disengaged and morally responsible reasoning as well as moral emotion attributions. A total of 516 adolescents aged 12-18 (57% females) reported the frequency of involvement in bullying and victimization. Participants were categorized as bullies (14.3%), bully-victims (3.9%), and victims (9.7%). Moral judgment, moral justifications, and emotion attributions to a hypothetical perpetrator of a moral transgression (relational aggression) were assessed. Bullies showed more morally disengaged reasoning than non-involved students. Bully-victims more frequently indicated that violating moral rules is right. Victims produced more victim-oriented justifications (i.e., more empathy) but fewer moral rules. Among victims, the frequency of morally responsible justifications decreased and the frequency of deviant rules increased with age. The findings are discussed from an integrative moral developmental perspective. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.
Fox, Suzy; Stallworth, Lamont E.
This study examined relations between the incidence of workplace bullying and the everyday experiences of members of ethnic and racial minorities in the American workplace. Particular attention was paid to expressions of bullying that overtly or specifically refer to race or ethnicity, in the form of more or less subtle acts of discrimination and…
The paper examines how young people describe experiences of bullying when participating in an Internet community dedicated to young people experiencing mental health problems. The micro-analytic focus demonstrates how young people construct their identities in relation to their telling about their experiences of being victims of bullying,…
Marlene Silva Sardinha Gurpilhares
Full Text Available O bullying é uma forma de violência presente nas escolas e o termo é utilizado para caracterizar todas as formas de agressões repetitivas psicológicas e físicas, direta ou indiretamente. Esta violência causa sofrimentos, intimidação e medo, sempre numa relação de poder entre pares. Esta pesquisa trata de um estudo do bullying escolar: o que é, como surgiu, como identificá-lo e sua caracterização, conseqüências, causas, o papel da escola, de professores e pais e uma proposta prática que pode ser adotada para sua prevenção e contenção. O objetivo é organizar materiais para leitura dos atores educacionais para uma possível reflexão, através de pesquisas bibliográficas. Esta violência é grave e deveria ser tratada como saúde pública, devido às conseqüências que traz, como queda na aprendizagem, na autoestima e em casos mais graves, até o suicido e outras tragédias. A escola necessita atentar para esse tipo de violência, revendo suas ações em todos os momentos, tendo um olhar integral e diferenciado em relação aos alunos. É fundamental que o bullying não seja tratado como brincadeira de criança e para ser identificado e combatido é necessária uma ação entre a família e todos da escola, que pode ser desenvolvida através de projetos que ajudem a apontar caminhos para a solução do problema. Tais ações devem ser pautadas por constantes debates e reflexões, nas quais o aluno se torne o protagonista. Não existem fórmulas prontas, pois a intervenção deve ser feita através da realidade de cada escola.
Tom D. Kennedy
Full Text Available The primary aim of this study was to explore the differences between teacher and administrator perceptions of bullying. Data were collected from 139 practicing educators and administrators who completed a survey regarding their perceptions of bullying in schools. Mann Whitney U tests were conducted to determine if perceptions of bullying varied with occupation and gender. Bonferroni adjustments were made for the multiple pairwise comparisons. There were statistically significant differences between the perceptions of teachers and administrators regarding their role in bullying prevention. Teachers felt more strongly that educators played an important role in bullying prevention; however, administrators felt more comfortable communicating with the parents of bullying victims. Interestingly, teachers were significantly more likely than administrators to perceive a need for increased bullying prevention training. Significant gender differences concerning the inclusion of bullying prevention in school curriculum were also found.
... Bullying Should You Worry About School Violence? Teens Talk About Bullying (Video) View more ... All information on KidsHealth® is for educational purposes only. For specific medical advice, diagnoses, and ...
Yuseon An, MS, RN
Conclusions: The results suggest that the types of nursing organizational culture are related to workplace bullying in Korean nurses. Further research is needed to develop interventions that can foster relation-oriented cultures to prevent workplace bullying in nurses.
Johnson, Susan L; Boutain, Doris M; Tsai, Jenny H-C; de Castro, Arnold B
Organizations use policies to set standards for employee behaviors. Although many organizations have policies that address workplace bullying, previous studies have found that these policies affect neither workplace bullying for targets who are seeking assistance in ending the behaviors nor managers who must address incidents of bullying. This article presents the findings of a study that used critical discourse analysis to examine the language used in policies written by health care organizations and regulatory agencies to regulate workplace bullying. The findings suggest that the discussion of workplace bullying overlaps with discussions of disruptive behaviors and harassment. This lack of conceptual clarity can create difficulty for managers in identifying, naming, and disciplining incidents of workplace bullying. The documents also primarily discussed workplace bullying as a patient safety concern. This language is in conflict with organizations attending to worker well-being with regard to workplace bullying. © 2015 The Author(s).
Ansary, Nadia S.; Elias, Maurice J.; Greene, Michael B.; Green, Stuart
The authors quantify and unpack the prevalence and effects of bullying on children and adolescents before prescribing provisos for schools to consider when planning preventive and responsive approaches to bullying.
Reijntjes, Albert; Vermande, Marjolein; Thomaes, Sander; Goossens, Frits; Olthof, Tjeert; Aleva, Liesbeth; van der Meulen, Matty
A few previous studies have shown that narcissistic traits in youth are positively associated with bullying. However, research examining the developmental relationship between narcissism and bullying is lacking. Moreover, it is unclear whether narcissists constitute a homogeneous group and whether
Stagg, Sharon J; Sheridan, Daniel J; Jones, Ruth A; Speroni, Karen Gabel
Workplace bullying can not only cost thousands of dollars to replace an affected nurse, but also have detrimental economic effects on health care organizations. Occupational health nurses can provide leadership in preventing or eliminating workplace bullying. This pilot study determined that attendance at a cognitive rehearsal program decreased workplace bullying. The study used an Internet-based survey administered 6 months after nurses completed the 2-hour cognitive rehearsal program. Half of the nurses reported witnessing bullying behaviors since attending the program; 70% of the nurses reported changing their own behaviors following the course; and 40% of the nurses reported a decrease in bullying behaviors during the past 6 months. Although 70% of the nurses believed they could intervene in bullying situations, only 16% reported they responded to bullying at the time of occurrence. This study illuminates the need to continue searching for other effective methods to prevent and manage workplace bullying. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.
Reijntjes, Albert; Vermande, Marjolijn; Thomaes, Sander; Goossens, Frits; Olthof, Tjeert; Aleva, Liesbeth; Van Der Meulen, Matty
A few previous studies have shown that narcissistic traits in youth are positively associated with bullying. However, research examining the developmental relationship between narcissism and bullying is lacking. Moreover, it is unclear whether narcissists constitute a homogeneous group and whether
Aug 21, 2015 ... Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) was further used to analyse and interpret ... posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD); principals, schools; teachers; ... Research on workplace bullying has further focused on specific ... personality disorder) among bullying education managers (Kirsten ... In an exploratory study.
This article presents a study of employees’ opinions on the definitional Issues with workplace bullying and examines employees’ viewpoints on how personal subjectivity should be weighed when reviewing workplace bullying complaints
O'Donnell, Sue M; MacIntosh, Judith A
Although men are targets of workplace bullying, there is limited research focused on their experiences. To address this gap, we used a qualitative grounded theory approach and interviewed a community sample of 20 Atlantic Canadian men to explore and explain their experiences of, and responses to, bullying. The main problem identified by men was a lack of workplace support to address and resolve the bullying, a challenge named abandonment. Men addressed this problem by surviving, a process that involved efforts to manage persistent bullying and the associated consequences. Men experienced physical, emotional, and social health consequences and, contrary to prevailing assumptions related to men's help-seeking behaviors, men want support and many sought help to address the problem and its consequences. Responses to abandonment and the associated consequences varied according to a number of factors including gender and highlight the need for research aimed at understanding the gendered nature of bullying. © The Author(s) 2015.
Perren, Sonja; Dooley, Julian; Shaw, Th?r?se; Cross, Donna
Abstract Background Cyber-bullying (i.e., bullying via electronic means) has emerged as a new form of bullying that presents unique challenges to those victimised. Recent studies have demonstrated that there is a significant conceptual and practical overlap between both types of bullying such that most young people who are cyber-bullied also tend to be bullied by more traditional methods. Despite the overlap between traditional and cyber forms of bullying, it remains unclear if being a victim...
Erdinc Ozturk; Gizem Akcan
Although there are several advantages of information and communication technologies, they cause some problems like cyber bullying and cyber victimization. Cyber bullying and cyber victimization have lots of negative effects on people. There are lots of different strategies to prevent cyber bullying and victimization. This study was conducted to provide information about the strategies that are used to prevent cyber bullying and cyber victimization. 120 (60 women, 60 men) university students w...
Preciosa Alnashava Janitra
Full Text Available Communication process occurs in every aspect of life, including family. When people interact to each other, sometimes it may lead to bullying. Bullying is not a new phenomenon, especially in family. Bullying means verbal and physical threat, force and violence which conduct repeatedly, for instance by the older children to their younger sister or brother. This is the uniqueness of this research. Family communication becomes main foundation to prevent bullying. Researcher see this phenomenon as a unique problem to be studied. Based on that phenomenon, researcher interested to study “Family Communication in Preventing Bullying Behavior for Children”. Result shows that family communication in preventing children’s bullying behavior covers: (1 In order to prevent bullying, an effective family communication process has to be strived, including respect, empathy, audible (2 Causative factor of bullying is inappropriate parenting in context of family communication. Proses komunikasi berlangsung dalam setiap aspek kehidupan, termasuk dalam lapisan masyarakat dan lapisan keluarga. Ketika manusia melakukan interaksi satu sama lainnya, kadang-kadang mengarah pada perilaku bullying. Bullying bukanlah fenomena yang baru lagi, khususnya dalam sebuah keluarga. Bullying artinya ancaman, pemaksaan, kekerasan fisik maupun verbal yang dilakukan berulang-ulang, misalnya kakak kepada adiknya. Disinilah letak keunikan penelitian ini. Komunikasi keluarga menjadi pondasi utama untuk mencegah terjadinya perilaku bullying bagi anak. Peneliti melihat fenomena ini merupakan masalah yang unik dan menarik untuk diteliti. Berdasarkan fenomena tersebut, peneliti tertarik untuk mengangkat “Komunikasi Keluarga dalam Pencegahan Perilaku Bullying bagi Anak”. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa komunikasi keluarga dalam pencegahan perilaku bullying bagi anak meliputi: (1 Untuk mencegah bullying harus diupayakan proses komunikasi keluarga yang efektif yaitu: respek
Beran, Tanya; Stanton, Lauren; Hetherington, Ross; Mishna, Faye; Shariff, Shaheen
Until recently, researchers have studied forms of bullying separately. For 40 years, research has looked at the traditional forms of bullying, including physical (eg, hitting), verbal (eg, threats), and social (eg, exclusion). Attention focused on cyberbullying in the early 2000s. Although accumulating research suggests that bullying has multiple negative effects for children who are targeted, these effects excluded cyberbullying from the definition of bullying. This paper responds to the need for a multidimensional measure of the impact of various forms of bullying. We used a comprehensive definition of bullying, which includes all of its forms, to identify children who had been targeted or who had participated in bullying. We then examined various ways in which they were impacted. We used an online method to administer 37 impact items to 377 (277 female, 100 male) children and youth, to develop and test the Bullying and Health Experience Scale. A principal components analysis of the bullying impact items with varimax rotation resulted in 8 factors with eigenvalues greater than one, explaining 68.0% of the variance. These scales include risk, relationships, anger, physical injury, drug use, anxiety, self-esteem, and eating problems, which represent many of the cognitive, psychological, and behavioral consequences of bullying. The Cronbach alpha coefficients for the 8 scales range from .73 to .90, indicating good inter-item consistency. Comparisons between the groups showed that children involved in bullying had significantly higher negative outcomes on all scales than children not involved in bullying. The high Cronbach alpha values indicate that the 8 impact scales provide reliable scores. In addition, comparisons between the groups indicate that the 8 scales provide accurate scores, with more negative outcomes reported by children involved in bullying compared to those who are not involved in bullying. This evidence of reliability and validity indicates that
The aim of this paper is to examine, from children’s perspectives, where bullying exists in their everyday experiences of school. This research uses a postmodernist perspective to problematise the concept of bullying and examine it from a broader perspective than most current definitions do, which distinguish the concept of bullying as a specific form of aggression, experienced by a minority of people. Rather, this paper examines bullying as spectrums of maltreatment that are experienced, to ...
Full Text Available Despite the importance of parenting in the development of empathy in children as well as their involvement in bullying behaviours, no study has ever examined the mediating role of empathy in the relationship between parental bonding and bullying and victimization. The present study aims in examining these relationships. Participants included 504 children (255 boys, 246 girls from different primary schools of Crete. The standard version of the Peer Experiences Questionnaire was used to assess experiences in bullying behaviours, the Parental Bonding Instrument was used to assess self-reported sense of care and overprotection from the mother and father separately, whereas empathy was assessed using the Greek version of Bryant’s Empathy Index. A series of multiple regression analyses were conducted. Results showed that boys scored significantly higher on average with respect to Victimisation of Others, and girls scored higher to specific sub-factors of empathy. It was also found that in the case of Care Mother, Sadness and Understanding of Feelings were significant mediators of Victimization of Others. Further, in the subsample of boys it was revealed that Sadness and Understanding of Feelings were significant mediators of the relationship between Care Mother and Victimization of Others. Implications for counselling interventions are also discussed.
... prescribes interventions for bullying prevention in schools. These include; provision of helping services for schools; sensitization and capacity building for stakeholders on bullying detection and prevention; implementation of bully buster programme; and improvement of students' level of compassion and empathy through ...
Menesini, Ersilia; Camodeca, Marina; Nocentini, Annalaura
This study aimed to investigate: (1) the influence of gender, sibling age, and sibling gender on sibling bullying and victimization; (2) the links between personality characteristics, quality of the sibling relationship, and sibling bullying/victimization; (3) the association between sibling and school bullying/victimization, and the direct and…
Holfeld, Brett; Grabe, Mark
This study explored the nature and extent of middle school students' (n = 665) experiences with cyber bullying. Approximately one in five students reported being cyber bullied in the past year, with 55% of those students being repeatedly victimized within the past 30 days. Female students were more likely to be involved in cyber bullying (victim,…
Nordahl, Jennifer; Beran, Tanya; Dittrick, Crystal J.
Cyber-bullying is a significant problem for children today. This study provides evidence of the psychological impact of cyber-bullying among victimized children ages 10 to 17 years (M = 12.48, SD = 1.79) from 23 urban schools in a western province of Canada (N = 239). Students who were cyber-bullied reported high levels of anxious,…
Mishna, Faye; Cook, Charlene; Gadalla, Tahany; Daciuk, Joanne; Solomon, Steven
Little research has been conducted that comprehensively examines cyber bullying with a large and diverse sample. The present study examines the prevalence, impact, and differential experience of cyber bullying among a large and diverse sample of middle and high school students (N = 2,186) from a large urban center. The survey examined technology use, cyber bullying behaviors, and the psychosocial impact of bullying and being bullied. About half (49.5%) of students indicated they had been bullied online and 33.7% indicated they had bullied others online. Most bullying was perpetrated by and to friends and participants generally did not tell anyone about the bullying. Participants reported feeling angry, sad, and depressed after being bullied online. Participants bullied others online because it made them feel as though they were funny, popular, and powerful, although many indicated feeling guilty afterward. Greater attention is required to understand and reduce cyber bullying within children's social worlds and with the support of educators and parents.
Estevez, Estefania; Murgui, Sergio; Musitu, Gonzalo
The present study examined psychosocial adjustment in the following four groups of students: victims, bullies, bully/victims and a control group of adolescents not involved in bullying or victimization problems. Psychosocial adjustment was measured considering as indicators: level of self-esteem, depressive symptomatology, perceived stress,…
Hughes, Janette; Laffier, Jennifer Lynn
In this article, the authors examine how bullying is portrayed in three recent young adult novels, focusing specifically on whether the information about bullying is accurate, biased, or represents old myths in comparison to current research. The authors conduct a systematic analysis of the following four themes: (1) What is bullying?; (2) Who are…
Messinger, Adam M.; Nieri, Tanya A.; Villar, Paula; Luengo, Maria Angeles
Few bullying studies focus on immigrant youths or acculturation stress as a risk factor for bullying and being bullied. Employing a sample of 1,157 foreign-born secondary students in Spain, we found that acculturation stress was widely experienced, although the average level of stress was moderate. Five percent of the sample reported being…
Glendinning, Peter M.
A literature review concluded that supervisor/supervisee relationships are critical to job satisfaction; workplace bullying in the form of a management style of aggressive and intimidating behaviors is widespread; certain types of organizations foster bullying; and bullying has high costs for the targeted employee and the organization. (Contains…
Peeters, M.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Scholte, R. H.
This study examined the heterogeneity of bullying among adolescents. It was hypothesized that bullying behavior serves different social functions and, depending on these functions, bullies will differ in their skills, status and social behavior. In a total sample of 806 8th graders, 120 adolescents
Peeters, M.; Cillessen, A.H.N.; Scholte, R.H.J.
This study examined the heterogeneity of bullying among adolescents. It was hypothesized that bullying behavior serves different social functions and, depending on these functions, bullies will differ in their skills, status and social behavior. In a total sample of 806 8th graders, 120 adolescents
This article looks at educators' understanding of workplace bullying through the lens of a twodimensional model of bullying. Educators, who were furthering their studies at the University of the Free State, were invited to take part in a study on different types of bullying. Deductive, directed content analysis was used to ...
Gibbone, Anne; Manson, Mara
Although not a new concept, bullying continues to be a problem in schools across the nation. Bullying involves the intention to hurt the feelings of the victim. Research demonstrates that victims of bullying often experience low self-esteem, depression, anxiety, insecurity, oversensitivity, introversion, and withdrawal from social activities. This…
Rocker, Carol F
Canadian frontline nursing managers are observing an increase in the reporting of workplace bullying as more nurses become aware of their employers' legal obligations to provide employees with a respectful workplace, per the Canada Human Rights Code, Canada Labor Code, and Canada Occupational Health and Safety Regulations. One problem with this reporting is that the victim's reports of bullying may become overshadowed by the bully's reports of victim incompetence, resulting in the victim experiencing further victimization. Bullies may report the victim (target) as inept, deficient in knowledge, or lacking ability. Fear of re-victimization plays a significant role in the victim's failure to report workplace bullying. It is important that managers focus on the bullying and not on the perceived character flaws described by the bully. The author begins by describing workplace bullying and reviewing the workplace bullying literature. She then presents and discusses a composite case study. To assist managers in discouraging bullying she shares supports for addressing bullying, specifically workplace policies, collective agreements, human resources departments, mediation, alternative dispute resolution, and arbitration, and concludes by reminding frontline managers of their important role in identifying bullying and understanding the victim's fears of further victimization.
This article critically considers the discourse on school bullying through the conceptual framework of lenses and argues that a macro lens has been utilised by school bullying researchers to bring into focus the characteristics of the individuals involved and the types of actions used. By considering earlier understandings of bullying, the article…
Lacey, Anna; Cornell, Dewey G.
Bully victimization is associated with lower academic performance for individual students; however, less is known about the impact of bullying on the academic performance of the school as a whole. This study examined how retrospective administrator reports of both the prevalence of teasing and bullying (PTB) and the use of evidence-based bullying…
Wang, Cixin; Berry, Brandi; Swearer, Susan M.
Research has shown a negative association between positive school climate and bullying behavior. This article reviews research on school climate and bullying behavior and proposes that an unhealthy and unsupportive school climate (e.g., negative relationship between teachers and students, positive attitudes towards bullying) provides a social…
This lack of bullying literature stemming from military environments ... Of parallel importance, which is not facilitated in any military bullying ... In their study involving Norwegian Army soldiers, Østvik and Rudmin20 .... post-traumatic stress.52 Moreover, the negative effects of workplace bullying also .... Devalue and critical of.
Chapin, John; Brayack, Michael
The current study sheds some light on the extent to which adolescents say they are experiencing bullying, what they think they would do when confronted with bullies, and what they have actually done in the past when witnessing bullying. Results from a survey of 1,742 adolescents indicates even young adolescents have already experienced verbal,…
Vera, Elizabeth M.; Kordesh, Kathy; Polanin, Megan; Adams, Kristen; Aydin, Fatma; Knoll, Mike; Oh, Jennifer; Wade, James; Roche, Meghan; Hughes, Kelly; Eisenberg, Corry; Camacho, Daniel; Jeremie-Brink, Gihane
Relationships among bully victimization, bully perpetration, ethnic identity, and subjective well-being (i.e., life satisfaction, positive affect, and negative affect) were examined in a group of urban, ethnically diverse early adolescents. Indices of subjective well-being correlated with participants' scores on bully victimization and…
Häufle, Jenny; Wolter, Daniel
Bullying and victimization are serious problems within prisons. Young Offender Institutions (YOIs), in particular, suffer from high rates of inmate-on-inmate violence. More recent theories about the development of bullying in closed custody institutions imply a relationship between the experience of victimization and the usage of bullying. In our study, we test this linkage using longitudinal survey data taken at two time-points from 473 inmates (aged 15-24) inside three YOIs in Germany. We first analyze the extent of bullying and victimization, and then used a longitudinal structural equation model to predict inmate bullying behavior at time 2 based on victimization that occurred at time 1. Age is used as a predictor variable to account for differences in the amount of victimization and bullying. Results suggest that bullying and victimization are high in the YOIs, which were subject to research. Most inmates reported being a bully and a victim at the same time. Younger inmates use more direct physical bullying but not psychological bullying. An increase in psychological bullying over time can significantly be explained by victimization at an earlier measurement time point. Our study therefore supports recent theoretical assumptions about the development of bullying behavior. Possible implications for prevention and intervention are discussed. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Bullying and school violence are critical issues facing 21st century educational leaders. U.S. public schools have been scrambling to develop and implement anti-bullying programs with varying degrees of success. Bullying leads to disruption of learning, and its lasting effects of anxiety, depression, anger, and actual brain damage follow victims…
This dissertation investigated the role of teachers and classmates in school bullying. The three main findings were: 1. Teachers may not be fully equipped to tackle bullying This dissertation suggests that teachers affect the prevalence of bullying, but that they may not be fully equipped to tackle
Jan, Afroz; Husain, Shafqat
Bullying is an everlasting problem in the lives of school kids. It is a problem that affects all students, the person who bully, those who are victims, and the persons who witnesses to interpersonal violence. Bullying may include verbal and physical assaults, threats, "jokes" or language, mockery and criticizing , insulting behavior and…
Shane, Patricia; Sasaki-Hill, Debra; Yoshizuka, Keith; Chan, Paul; Vo, Thuy
Objective. To determine whether bullying is a significant factor in the clinical training of pharmacy students. Methods. The literature as well as the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE) Standards and American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP) surveys were reviewed for mention and/or measurement of bullying behaviors in the clinical training of pharmacy students. The authors used a Delphi process to define bullying behavior. The consensus definition was used to analyze 2,087 in-house student evaluations of preceptors for evidence of bullying behaviors. The authors mapped strings of text from in-house student comments to different, established categories of bullying behaviors. Results. The ACPE Standards and AACP surveys contained no mention or measures of bullying. The 2013 AACP survey data reported overwhelmingly positive preceptor ratings. Of the 2,087 student evaluations of preceptors, 119 (5.7%) had at least 1 low rating. Within those 119 survey instruments, 34 comments were found describing bullying behaviors. Students’ responses to the AACP survey were similar to data from the national cohort. Conclusions. Given the evidence that bullying behaviors occur in pharmacy education and that bullying has long-term and short-term damaging effects, more attention should be focused on this problem. Efforts should include addressing bullying in ACPE Standards and AACP survey tools developing a consensus definition for bullying and conducting more research into bullying in the clinical training of pharmacy students. PMID:25147389
Jones, Siân Emily; Manstead, Antony S. R.; Livingstone, Andrew G.
Research on bullying has confirmed that social identity processes and group-based emotions are pertinent to children's responses to bullying. However, such research has been done largely with child participants, has been quantitative in nature, and has often relied on scenarios to portray bullying. The present paper departs from this methodology…
Stuart-Cassel, Victoria; Terzian, Mary; Bradshaw, Catherine
Bullying is considered one of the most prevalent and potentially damaging forms of school violence. Each year, more than a quarter of middle and high school students are subjected to some form of bullying in their school environments. Research has identified potentially harmful immediate and long-term consequences for bullying-involved youth and…
Topcu, Cigdem; Yildirim, Ali; Erdur-Baker, Ozgur
Cyber bullying is an emerging form of peer bullying, becoming prominent especially over the past decade. The aim of this study was to investigate through interviews the perceptions of Turkish high school students about cyber bullying. The sample consisted of six male and one female high school students all aged 15 years who identified as being…
Freedman, Shin; Vreven, Dawn
Recent media reports have increased awareness of workplace incivility and bullying. However, the literature regarding workplace incivility and bullying in academic libraries is under reported and under researched. This study examines the current state of librarians' perceptions on workplace incivility and bullying and evaluates the effects of…
Saracho, Olivia N.
Bullying in schools has been identified as a serious and complex worldwide problem associated with young children's victimization. Research studies indicate the frequency and effects of bullying among young children. The effects seem to be across-the-board for both bullies and victims, who are at risk of experiencing emotional, social, and…
Bear, George G.; Mantz, Lindsey S.; Glutting, Joseph J.; Yang, Chunyan; Boyer, Deborah E.
Prevalence rates for bullying victimization among children with disabilities have varied greatly in the research literature. Two reasons for such variability were the focus of this study: (a) rates vary as a function of disability type, and (b) rates vary based on the bullying measure and criteria used to classify students as bullying victims. The…
Campbell, Marilyn; Hwang, Yoon-Suk; Whiteford, Chrystal; Dillon-Wallace, Julie; Ashburner, Jill; Saggers, Beth; Carrington, Suzanne
All forms of bullying, physical, verbal, social, and cyber, are prevalent among youth worldwide. An especially vulnerable population for involvement in bullying is students with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Although there are some studies that have investigated bullying in these students, many of these are beset by methodological issues. We…
Taylor, Susan K.
This study examines workplace bullying in a university setting. Specifically it examines how faculty members' tenure status is related to having been targets and witnesses of bullying at work and their responses to dissatisfaction at work. The research literature reveals a correlation between being a target of workplace bullying and the target's…
Kowalski, Robin M.; Morgan, Chad A.; Limber, Susan P.
Although traditional bullying and cyberbullying share features in common, they differ in important ways. For example, cyberbullying is often characterized by perceived anonymity and can occur any time of the day or night. Conversely, perpetrators of traditional bullying are known to the victim, and most traditional bullying occurs at school. Yet,…
Good, Chris P.; McIntosh, Kent; Gietz, Carmen
Bullying is often defined as unprovoked aggressive behavior repeatedly carried out against victims who are unable to defend themselves. Children and youth who engage in bullying behavior may have a physical advantage, higher social status, or power in numbers, whereas those who are targeted by bullies are likely to be solitary, smaller in stature,…
Greif, Jennifer L.; Furlong, Michael J.
This article examines the conceptual basis for and methods used to assess school bullying, including the core bullying behavior elements of repetition, intentionality, and power differential and instruments needed to foster comparability across studies and to improve the precision of intervention capacity. Common bully self-report procedures…
Cappadocia, M. Catherine; Weiss, Jonathan A.; Pepler, Debra
Few studies have investigated bullying experiences among children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD); however, preliminary research suggests that children with ASD are at greater risk for being bullied than typically developing peers. The aim of the current study was to build an understanding of bullying experiences among children with…
Shin, Jin Y.; D'Antonio, Emily; Son, Haein; Kim, Seong-A.; Park, Yeddi
The bullying experiences of Korean-American adolescents (N = 295) were explored in relation to discrimination and mental health outcomes. Bullying experiences were assessed by the "Bully Survey" (Swearer, 2005), discrimination by the "Perceived Ethnic and Racial Discrimination Scale" (Way, 1997) and depression by the "Center for Epidemiological…
Tis’Ina, Nur Arofah; Suroso
. The purpose of this study is to examine the correlation betweenauthoritarian parentig and conformity with school bullying on MTs X Sidoarjostudents, using quantitative method. Subjects were 65 MTs students. Researchvariables were measured using school bullying scale, authoritarian parenting scaleand conformity scale. Data were analyzed using regression analysis. The resultsshowed that authoritarian parenting and conformity significantly associated withschool bullying. Separately, authoritar...
Bullying and risky behavior are two common problems among adolescents and can strongly affect a youth's overall functioning when both coexist. Some studies suggest that bullying in adolescence may promote risky behavior as a coping strategy to deal with victimization related stress. Other studies consider bullying as an outcome of high-risk behavior. Despite the association between the two is well-established, no study has examined the risk-taking patterns among bullying groups (i.e., bully, victim, and bully victim). This study attempted to elucidate the potential relationships between bullying and risk-taking by addressing the two models: a cognitive-focused model and an emotion-focused model of risk taking, and to clarify how adolescents' characteristics in risk taking associate with bullying outcomes. Method: 136 Chinese adolescents (Mean Age = 14.5, M = 65, F = 71) were recruited and grouped according to bullying identity: Bully ( n = 27), Victim ( n = 20), Bully victim ( n = 37) and Control ( n = 52). Cognitive Appraisal of Risky Events (CARE) questionnaire was used to measure participants' expectancies about the risks, benefits and involvement associated with risky activities. Cambridge Gambling Task (CGT) was administered to capture the emotion-laden process in risk taking. Results: Cognitively, Bully was associated with an overestimation of risk while Victim was associated with an underestimation of risk and overrated benefit. Bully victim exhibited a unique pattern with an overestimation of benefit and risk. All study groups projected higher involvement in risky behavior. Behaviorally, both Bully and Bully victim were associated with high risk modulation whereas Victim was associated with impulsive decision-making. Interestingly, compared with bully, bully victim had significantly higher bullying scores, suggesting a wider range and more frequent bullying activities. In conclusion, Bully maybe a group of adolescents that is vigilant in situational
Full Text Available Bullying and risky behavior are two common problems among adolescents and can strongly affect a youth’s overall functioning when both coexist. Some studies suggest that bullying in adolescence may promote risky behavior as a coping strategy to deal with victimization related stress. Other studies consider bullying as an outcome of high-risk behavior. Despite the association between the two is well-established, no study has examined the risk-taking patterns among bullying groups (i.e., bully, victim, and bully-victim. This study attempted to elucidate the potential relationships between bullying and risk-taking by addressing the two models: a cognitive-focused model and a emotion-focused model of risk taking, and to clarify how adolescents’ characteristics in risk taking associate with bullying outcomes. Method: 136 Chinese adolescents (Mean Age =14.5, M= 65, F =71 were recruited and grouped according to bullying identity: Bully (n =27, Victim (n =20, Bully-victim (n =37 and Control (n =52. Cognitive Appraisal of Risky Events (CARE questionnaire was used to measure participants’ expectancies about the risks, benefits and involvement associated with risky activities. Cambridge Gambling Task (CGT was administered to capture the emotion-laden process in risk taking. Results: Cognitively, Bully was associated with an overestimation of risk while Victim was associated with an underestimation of risk and overrated benefit. Bully-victim exhibited a unique pattern with an overestimation of benefit and risk. All study groups projected higher involvement in risky behavior. Behaviorally, both Bully and Bully-victim were associated with high risk modulation whereas Victim was associated with impulsive decision-making. Interestingly, compared with bully, bully-victim had significantly higher bullying scores, suggesting a wider range and more frequent bullying activities. In conclusion, Bully maybe a group of adolescents that is vigilant in situational
Full Text Available This research focused on the most important topics areas in parents` communication with the teachers and their assessments of the values prevailing in the classroom of second grade children using the programme “Free of Bullying”. The Free of Bullying methodology is fostering the development of children`s social skills, where family-teacher partnership plays essential role. The bullying prevention programme, initiated in the Kingdom of Denmark in 2007 and implemented in kindergartens in Estonia since 2010 and in schools since 2013. The main goal of the Free of Bullying methodology is to develop a behavioural culture that fosters respect toward oneself, fellow-pupils and adults, and works through mutual consideration. Creating a trusting relationship with parents and attaching importance to their role in creating a safe classroom atmosphere is essential for preventing the situation where parents are integrated in this process only when painful and negative problem situations occur. The current research sample consists of the parents of second grade children attending the “Free from bullying” pilot schools. The research revealed that from the bullying prevention point of view parents highly appreciate care, tolerance and respect. The most frequent topics of parent-teacher discussion are joint activities of the class and bullying between children. Thus it appears that parents who have been more actively involved through the measures of “Bullying-free school” project more frequently discuss aspects of the social structure of classroom climate with the teacher.
Llewellyn, Anthony; Karageorge, Aspasia; Nash, Louise; Li, Wenlong; Neuen, Dennis
Objective The aim of this study was to describe rates of exposure to bullying and sexual harassment in junior doctors in first- or second-year prevocational medical training (PGY1 or PGY2 respectively) positions in New South Wales (NSW) and the Australian Capital Territory (ACT), and to explore the types of actions taken in response. Methods A cross-sectional survey of junior doctors in PGY1 or PGY2 positions was undertaken in 2015 and 2016 (n=374 and 440 respectively). Thematic analysis was undertaken on free-text responses to describe the reporting process and outcomes in more depth. Results The estimated response rate was 17-20%. Results from both surveys followed almost identical trends. Most respondents in 2015 and 2016 reported being bullied (n=203 (54.3%) and 253 (57.5%) respectively), 16-19% reported sexual harassment (n=58 and 82 respectively) and 29% of females reported sexual harassment. Qualitative analysis elucidated reasons for not taking action in response to bullying and harassment, including workplace normalisation of these behaviours, fear of reprisal and lack of knowledge or confidence in the reporting process. For respondents who did take action, most reported ineffective or personally harmful outcomes when reporting to senior colleagues, including being dismissed or blamed, and an intention not to trust the process in the future. Conclusions The findings suggest that interventions targeted at the level of junior doctors to improve the culture of bullying and harassment in medicine are unlikely to be helpful. Different approaches that address the problem in a more systemic way are needed, as is further research about the effectiveness of such interventions. What is known about the topic? Bullying and sexual harassment are common workplace experiences in the medical profession. What does this paper add? Over half the junior doctors in the present study experienced bullying and nearly one-fifth experienced sexual harassment. Junior doctors are
Foshee, Vangie A.; Benefield, Thad S.; Reyes, Heath Luz McNaughton; Eastman, Meridith; Vivolo-Kantor, Alana M.; Basile, Kathleen C.; Ennett, Susan T.; Faris, Robert
This short-term longitudinal study examined whether the association between bullying perpetration and later physical dating violence perpetration and mediators of that association (via anger, depression, anxiety, and social status), varied depending on level of bullying victimization. Differences have been noted between those who bully but are not victims of bullying, and those who are both bullies and victims. These differences may influence dating violence risk and the explanations for why bullying leads to dating violence. Data were from dating adolescents in three rural counties who completed self-administered questionnaires in the fall semester of grades 8–10 and again in the spring semester. The sample (N =2,414) was 44.08% male and 61.31% white. Bullying perpetration in the fall semester predicted physical dating violence perpetration in the spring semester when there was no bullying victimization, but not when there was any bullying victimization. Bullying perpetration was positively associated with anger at all levels of bullying victimization and with social status when there was no or low amounts of victimization; it was negatively associated with social status at high levels of victimization. Bullying victimization was positively associated with anger, depression, and anxiety at all levels of bullying perpetration. Anger mediated the association between bullying perpetration and dating violence, regardless of level of victimization; depression, anxiety, and social status did not mediate the association at any level of bullying victimization. The findings have implications for dating violence prevention efforts and for future research on the link between bullying and dating violence. PMID:26299840
Foshee, Vangie A; Benefield, Thad S; McNaughton Reyes, Heath Luz; Eastman, Meridith; Vivolo-Kantor, Alana M; Basile, Kathleen C; Ennett, Susan T; Faris, Robert
This short-term longitudinal study examined whether the association between bullying perpetration and later physical dating violence perpetration and mediators of that association (via anger, depression, anxiety, and social status), varied depending on level of bullying victimization. Differences have been noted between those who bully but are not victims of bullying, and those who are both bullies and victims. These differences may influence dating violence risk and the explanations for why bullying leads to dating violence. Data were from dating adolescents in three rural counties who completed self-administered questionnaires in the fall semester of grades 8-10 and again in the spring semester. The sample (N = 2,414) was 44.08% male and 61.31% white. Bullying perpetration in the fall semester predicted physical dating violence perpetration in the spring semester when there was no bullying victimization, but not when there was any bullying victimization. Bullying perpetration was positively associated with anger at all levels of bullying victimization and with social status when there was no or low amounts of victimization; it was negatively associated with social status at high levels of victimization. Bullying victimization was positively associated with anger, depression, and anxiety at all levels of bullying perpetration. Anger mediated the association between bullying perpetration and dating violence, regardless of level of victimization; depression, anxiety, and social status did not mediate the association at any level of bullying victimization. The findings have implications for dating violence prevention efforts and for future research on the link between bullying and dating violence. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available Bullying is one of behaviors which occur in various forms at workplaces. These types of behaviors are associated with diverse range of behaviors and other variables. Considering the lack of instrument to assess supervisor's bullying in workplaces of Iran, this research was carried out to constructing and studying reliability and validity of supervisor's bullying questionnaire at workplace. Statistical population of this research was all of Isfahan oil refinery’s staff that 402 participants was chosen as participant by simple random sampling mehod. The tools included perceived organizational justice questionnaire, organizational citizenship behaviors questionnaire and deviant behaviors questionnaire which used for studying convergent and divergent validity of researcher-made questionnaire of supervisor's bullying. Data were analyzed by using confirmatory and exploratory factor analysis, canonical correlation coefficient (for studying convergent and divergent validity and reliability coefficient (Cronbach’s alpha and test- retest reliability. Results showed that supervisor's bullying questionnaire has five factor structures which named: supervisors’ threat, insult and scorn by supervisor, anger and revengefulness of supervisor, ignorance and unconventional work pressure of supervisor, supervisors’ boring and cheap. Cronbach’s alpha for the five factors was equal to 0.87, 0.84, 0.82, 0.81, 0.81, and test-retest reliability for those five factors was equal to 0.81, 0.59, 0.58, 0.83, and 0.77. The results of this study revealed that supervisor's bullying questionnaire has suitable validity and reliability for assessment the level of supervisor's bullying at workplaces.
Zanden, P.J.A.C. van der; Denessen, E.J.P.G.; Scholte, R.H.J.
Bullying is a problem in many schools around the world. It is seen as an unwanted phenomenon in education and in many contexts the reduction of bullying is a target of national and local education policy. In practice, the extent to which bullying occurs differs widely across classrooms. Part of
Veenstra, René; Lindenberg, Siegwart; Huitsing, Gijs; Sainio, Miia; Salmivalli, Christina
In order to battle bullying, it can be important for students to have teachers whom they see as taking an active stand against bullying in terms of propagating antibullying norms and having an efficacious approach to decreasing bullying. This expectation was tested with data from the control schools
Thornberg, Robert; Pozzoli, Tiziana; Gini, Gianluca; Hong, Jun Sung
Bullying is a moral transgression. Recognizing the importance of approaching bullying from a moral perspective, the present study examines whether children's judgments and reasoning to justify their judgments differ between bullying and repeated conventional transgressions. Our study also explores differences by gender and differences among…
Veenstra, R.; Lindenberg, S.M.; Huitsing, G.; Sainio, M.; Salmivalli, Christina
In order to battle bullying, it can be important for students to have teachers whom they see as taking an active stand against bullying in terms of propagating antibullying norms and having an efficacious approach to decreasing bullying. This expectation was tested with data from the control schools
van der Zanden, Petrie J. A. C.; Denessen, Eddie J. P. G.; Scholte, Ron H. J.
Bullying is a problem in many schools around the world. It is seen as an unwanted phenomenon in education and in many contexts the reduction of bullying is a target of national and local education policy. In practice, the extent to which bullying occurs differs widely across classrooms. Part of these differences may be explained by teachers'…
Veenstra, René; Lindenberg, Siegwart; Huitsing, Gijs; Sainio, Miia; Salmivalli, Christina
In order to battle bullying, it can be important for students to have teachers whom they see as taking an active stand against bullying in terms of propagating antibullying norms and having an efficacious approach to decreasing bullying. This expectation was tested with data from the control schools
Horrevorts, Esther M. B.; Monshouwer, Karin; Wigman, Johanna T. W.; Vollebergh, Wilma A. M.
This study aims to examine the association between the bully climate of school classes and the prevalence of subclinical psychotic experiences among students who are involved in bullying (either as bully or as victim). Data were derived from the Dutch health behavior in school-aged children survey
Horrevorts, Esther M B; Monshouwer, Karin; Wigman, Johanna T W; Vollebergh, Wilma A M
This study aims to examine the association between the bully climate of school classes and the prevalence of subclinical psychotic experiences among students who are involved in bullying (either as bully or as victim). Data were derived from the Dutch health behavior in school-aged children survey
Blake, Jamilia; Banks, Courtney S.; Patience, Brenda A.; Lund, Emily M.
A sample of 483 school-based mental health professionals completed a survey about the training they have received related to conducting bullying assessments in schools, competence in conducting an assessment of bullying, and the bullying assessment methods they used. Results indicate that school counselors were usually informed about incidents of…
Earnshaw, Valerie A; Reisner, Sari L; Juvonen, Jaana; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Perrotti, Jeff; Schuster, Mark A
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) youth experience significant bullying that undermines their mental and physical health. National health organizations have called for the development of innovative strategies to address LGBTQ bullying. Pediatricians and other clinicians, medical and public health students, interdisciplinary researchers, government officials, school leaders, community members, parents, and youth from around the country came together at a national symposium entitled "LGBTQ Bullying: Translating Research to Action to Improve the Health of All Youth" in May 2016 to generate strategies to prevent LGBTQ bullying and meet the needs of LGBTQ youth experiencing bullying. This article describes key scientific findings on bullying, LGBTQ stigma, and LGBTQ bullying interventions that were shared at the symposium and provides recommendations for pediatricians to address LGBTQ bullying via clinical care, research, interventions, and policy. Symposium participants recommended that pediatricians engage in efforts to foster inclusive and affirming health care environments wherein LGBTQ youth feel comfortable discussing their identities and experiences, identify youth experiencing LGBTQ bullying, and prevent the negative health consequences of bullying among youth. Moreover, pediatricians can attend to how multiple identities (eg, sexual orientation, gender identity, race and/or ethnicity, disability, and others) shape youth experiences of bullying and expand intervention efforts to address LGBTQ bullying in health care settings. Pediatricians can further advocate for evidence-based, antibullying policies prohibiting bullying on the basis of sexual orientation and gender identity. Collaboration between pediatricians and diverse stakeholders can contribute to the development and implementation of lasting change in all forms of bullying, including LGBTQ bullying. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Hansen, Åse Marie; Grynderup, Matias Brødsgaard; Bonde, Jens Peter
AIM: To examine if non-bullied employees at work units (WUs) with workplace bullying have more long-term sickness absence (LTSA) than employees in non-bullying WUs. METHODS: We included 7229 public health employees from 302 WUs and 3158 responders to a questionnaire on working conditions and health...... in 2007. WUs were classified into three categories of WUs; 1) no bullying (0% bullied); 2) moderate prevalence of bullying (bullied); and 3) high prevalence of bullying (≥10% bullied). LTSA (≥30 consecutive days of sickness absence) during the following two years was obtained by linkage to the Danish...... register of sickness absence compensation benefits and social transfer payments. RESULTS: Non-bullied co-workers in WUs, where bullying was reported had 15 to 22% more LTSA compared with non-bullying WUs. CONCLUSION: Workplace bullying may be associated with LTSA in the entire WU....
Vivolo-Kantor, Alana M; Martell, Brandi N; Holland, Kristin M; Westby, Ruth
Bullying has emerged as a behavior with deleterious effects on youth; however, prevalence estimates vary based on measurement strategies employed. We conducted a systematic review and content analysis of bullying measurement strategies to gain a better understanding of each strategy including behavioral content. Multiple online databases (i.e., PsychInfo, MedLine, ERIC) were searched to identify measurement strategies published between 1985 and 2012. Included measurement strategies assessed bullying behaviors, were administered to respondents with ages of 12 to 20, were administered in English, and included psychometric data. Each publication was coded independently by two study team members with a pre-set data extraction form, who subsequently met to discuss discrepancies. Forty-one measures were included in the review. A majority used differing terminology; student self-report as primary reporting method; and included verbal forms of bullying in item content. Eleven measures included a definition of bullying, and 13 used the term "bullying" in the measure. Very few definitions or measures captured components of bullying such as repetition, power imbalance, aggression, and intent to harm. Findings demonstrate general inconsistency in measurement strategies on a range of issues, thus, making comparing prevalence rates between measures difficult.
Eisenberg, Marla E; Gower, Amy L; McMorris, Barbara J
Research demonstrates that young people involved in bullying are at greater risk for poor emotional health outcomes, but this association may not be consistent for youth of different sexual orientations. Understanding the unique needs of lesbian, gay, bisexual and questioning (LGBQ) youth may suggest important opportunities for intervention and prevention. This study, therefore, examines whether involvement with bullying is differentially associated with emotional well-being across sexual orientation. Survey data were collected from a large statewide sample of 9th and 11th grade students in 2013 (N = 79,039, 49.8% female, 74.6% white). Logistic regression tested associations between sexual orientation, physical or relational bullying perpetration and five measures of emotional health. In the full sample, those reporting bullying perpetration had significantly elevated odds of emotional health problems. However, interaction terms and stratified models indicated that in nine out of ten physical bullying models and two out of ten relational bullying models, perpetration was not as strongly associated with poor emotional health among LGBQ adolescents as it was among heterosexual youth. Possible explanations for this finding include unhealthy coping strategies or masking one's own vulnerable status as LGBQ. Continued efforts to prevent bullying are needed for all youth.