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Sample records for bullous keratopathy corneas

  1. Extracellular matrix alterations in human corneas with bullous keratopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljubimov, A V; Burgeson, R E; Butkowski, R J

    1996-01-01

    PURPOSE. To uncover abnormalities of extracellular matrix (ECM) distribution in human corneas with pseudophakic and aphakic bullous keratopathy (PBK/ABK). METHODS. Indirect immunofluorescence with antibodies to 27 ECM components was used on frozen sections of 14 normal and 20 PBK/ABK corneas...... in some cases, correlated with decreased visual acuity. In normal central corneas, tenascin was never found. Other major ECM abnormalities in PBK/ABK corneas compared to normals included: discontinuous epithelial BM straining for laminin-1 (alpha 1 beta 1 gamma 1), entactin/nidogen and fibronectin......; accumulation of fibronectin and alpha 1-alpha 2 type IV collagen on the endothelial face of the Descemet's membrane; and abnormal deposition of stromal ECM (tenascin, fibronectin, decorin, types I, III, V, VI, VIII, XII, XIV collagen) and BM components (type IV, collagen, perlecan, bamacan, laminin-1, entactin...

  2. Dry eye and meibomian gland dysfunction in pseudophakic bullous keratopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palamar, Melis; Kiyat, Pelin; Yagci, Ayse

    2018-02-01

    To evaluate dry eye tests and meibography of patients with pseudophakic bullous keratopathy (PBK). Thirty-seven patients with PBK were included. The eyes with PBK were compared with the normal pseudophakic fellow eyes. All patients had undergone a detailed ophthalmic examination including corneal and conjunctival fluorescein staining and Oxford scoring, tear film breakup time, Schirmer 1 test, Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) score assessment, lid margin abnormalities, upper and lower eyelid Meibomian gland evaluation using infrared captures of a biomicroscope. Partial or complete loss of the Meibomian glands (Meibomian dropout) was scored for each eyelid from grade 0 (no loss) through grade 3 (lost area was > 2/3 of the total meibomian gland area). The mean age of the patients was 73.2 ± 8.9 (range, 50-93). Mean tear film breakup time value was statistically lower in PBK eyes (P ≤ 0.001). OSDI, Oxford, lid margin abnormalities, inferior meibography, total meibography score were significantly higher in PBK eyes (P ≤ 0.001). The comparison of Schirmer 1 and superior meibography scores of the groups was insignificant (P = 0.143, P = 0.793, respectively). The Meibomian gland morphology of the PBK eyes demonstrates significant differences when compared with normal fellow eyes and might be related to evaporative dry eye. For this reason, patients with PBK should be monitored for Meibomian gland dysfunction and when needed start prompt treatment in order to prevent further disturbance of the ocular surface.

  3. Human corneal endothelial cell transplantation using nanocomposite gel sheet in bullous keratopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikumar, Periasamy; Haraguchi, Kazutoshi; Senthilkumar, Rajappa; Abraham, Samuel Jk

    2018-01-01

    Transplantation of in vitro expanded human corneal endothelial precursors (HCEP) cells using a nanocomposite (D25-NC) gel sheet as supporting material in bovine's cornea has been earlier reported. Herein we report the transplantation of HCEP cells derived from a cadaver donor cornea to three patients using the NC gel sheet. In three patients with bullous keratopathy, one after cataract surgery, one after trauma and another in the corneal graft, earlier performed for congenital corneal dystrophy, not amenable to medical management HCEP cells isolated from a human cadaver donor cornea in vitro expanded using a thermoreversible gelation polymer (TGP) for 26 days were divided into three equal portions and 1.6 × 10 5 HCEP cells were injected on to the endothelium of the affected eye in each patient using the D25-NC gel sheet as a supporting material. The sheets were removed after three days. The bullae in the cornea disappeared by the 3 rd -11 th post-operative day in all the three patients. Visual acuity improved from Perception of light (PL)+/Projection of rays (PR)+ to Hand movements (HM)+ in one of the patients by post-operative day 3 which was maintained at 18 months follow-up. At 18 months follow-up, in another patient the visual acuity had improved from HM+ to 6/60 while in the third patient, visual acuity remained HM+ as it was prior to HCEP transplantation. There were no adverse effects during the follow-up in any of the patients.

  4. Non-Descemet’s stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty for bullous keratopathy secondary to iridoschisis

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    Minezaki T

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Teruumi Minezaki, Takaaki Hattori, Hayate Nakagawa, Shigeto Kumakura, Hiroshi GotoDepartment of Ophthalmology, Tokyo Medical University, Shinjukuku, Tokyo, JapanPurpose: To report a case of bullous keratopathy secondary to iridoschisis treated by non-Descemet's stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (nDSAEK.Case report: A 79-year-old woman was referred to our hospital with loss of vision in the left eye. Slit lamp examination of her left eye showed a shallow anterior chamber with cataract and schisis in the inferior quadrant of iris stroma. Bullous keratopathy secondary to iridoschisis was diagnosed. Cataract surgery with iridectomy succeeded to deepen the anterior chamber and remove the floating iris leaf, although corneal edema remained. Four days later, nDSAEK was performed, which resolved corneal edema and restored visual acuity.Conclusion: The two-step surgery of cataract surgery plus iridectomy followed by nDSAEK may be an effective strategy for treating bullous keratopathy secondary to iridoschisis.Keywords: iridoschisis, bullous keratopathy, non-Descemet's stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty

  5. Ceratopatia bolhosa: etiopatogênese e tratamento Bullous keratopathy: etiopathogenesis and treatment

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    Eliana Domingues Gonçalves

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A ceratopatia bolhosa caracteriza-se pelo edema corneano estromal acompanhado de bolhas epiteliais e subepiteliais devido à perda de células e/ou alterações da junção endotelial. Nos casos mais avançados, ocorre espessamento do estroma e presença de fibrose subepitelial e vascularização corneana. Apresenta baixa de acuidade visual devido à diminuição da transparência da córnea e pode estar acompanhada de sensação de corpo estranho, lacrimejamento e dor devido as alterações epiteliais como a presença de bolhas íntegras ou rotas. Ceratite bolhosa é uma das principais causas de transplante de córnea em diferentes regiões e países. A principal etiologia é a perda de células endoteliais, principalmente após cirurgia de catarata e na distrofia endotelial de Fuchs. Sabe-se que atualmente há cerca de 20 milhões de pessoas com catarata no mundo, e esta complicação pode afetar 1 a 2% das cirurgias de catarata. Este texto faz uma revisão sobre a etiopatogênese da ceratopatia bolhosa e sobre os tratamentos clínicos e cirúrgicos disponíveis para a doença.Bullous keratopathy is characterized by corneal stromal edema with epithelial or subepithelial bullae due to cell loss and endothelial decompensation. In more advanced cases, subepithelial fibrosis, formation of a posterior collagenous layer or retrocorneal fibrous membrane, and corneal vascularization can occur. Decreased vision is present because the loss of corneal transparency with symptoms like tearing and pain caused by epithelial bullae that can rupture. Currently, bullous keratopathy is the most common indication for penetrating keratoplasty and regraft. The main etiology is the endothelial cell loss after ophthalmic surgeries as cataract surgery. Cataract affects approximately 20 million people worldwide, and this complication can occur in 1 to 2% of cataract surgeries. This study revised bullous keratopathy etiopathogenesis, clinical and surgical treatment

  6. Recurrent rates and risk factors associated with recurrent painful bullous keratopathy after primary phototherapeutic keratectomy

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    Kasetsuwan N

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Ngamjit Kasetsuwan, Kanokorn Sakpisuttivanit, Usanee Reinprayoon, Vilavun Puangsricharern Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University and King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand Objective: To assess the recurrent rate, mean survival time, and risk factors associated with recurrent painful bullous keratopathy (BK after primary treatment with phototherapeutic keratectomy.Methods: Medical records from 72 patients (72 eyes who had phototherapeutic keratectomy for painful BK were evaluated. Data for sex, age, duration of BK, associated ocular and systemic diseases (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, ischemic heart disease, asthma, dyslipidemia, and rheumatoid arthritis, frequency and degree of pain (grade 1–3, visual acuity, corneal thickness, intraocular pressure, and laser setting were extracted and analyzed.Results: The mean age of the patients was 64.2±11.4 years. The mean preoperative duration of BK was 15.0±11.0 months. Most patients had pseudophakic BK (69.40%. Majority of the cases had grade 3 degree of pain (48.60%. Glaucoma and hypertension were markedly found among these patients (51.40% and 19.40%, respectively. Preoperative mean intraocular pressure and corneal thickness were 13.70±4.95 mmHg and 734.1±83.80 µm, respectively. The mean laser diameter and depth were 8.36±1.22 mm and 38.89±8.81 µm, respectively. Systemic disease was significantly associated with the risk for developing recurrent painful BK (P=0.022, hazard ratio [HR] 1.673, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.08–2.58. The overall recurrent rate was 51%. The average duration time of recurrent painful BK was 17.3±12.9 months (range 1–50 months. The median survival time before recurrence was 29.0±6.6 months.Conclusion: Systemic disease was found to be the only risk factor significantly associated with the development of recurrent painful BK. Low recurrent rate and long mean survival time showed that phototherapeutic

  7. [Personalized cell therapy for early postoperative bullous keratopathy (experimental proof and clinical results)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasparov, A A; Kasparova, Evg A; Fadeeva, L L; Subbot, A M; Borodina, N V; Kasparova, E A; Kobzova, M V; Musaeva, G M; Pavliuk, A S

    2013-01-01

    The article presents the results of a long-term research on development and clinical application of personalized cell therapy (PCT) for treatment of early postoperative (manifesting within the first 3 months after surgery) bullous keratopathy (BK). The method of intracameral PCT implies in vitro incubation of the patient's blood sample with poly(A:U) stimulator, separation of the serum with activated leukocytes, and injection of the final cell preparation into the anterior chamber. The fundamental part of the research was aimed at a detailed description of the cell preparation and investigation of its possible mechanisms of action. Cytokine and growth factor level in the cell preparation suggested that its high clinical efficacy might be due to its ability to improve regeneration of damaged corneal endothelium. The clinical study was conducted on a group of 52 patients with early BK. A significant effect (smoothing of the Descement's membrane folds, complete resorption of corneal edema, improvement of corneal transparency, reduction of corneal thickness and increase of visual acuity by 0.49 +/- 0.27) was achieved in 44.2% of patients, while partial effect was seen in 21.1% of patients. There was no clinical effect in 34.6% of patients. In those patients who developed significant or partial clinical effect after the PCT, many endotheliocytes appeared to have multiple nuclei (2 and more). In some patients polyploid nuclei persisted for 3-5 years after the treatment. Polyploidy results from incomplete mitosis which might be due to regenerative processes in the endothelium stimulated by the PCT. Obviously, high efficacy and relative simplicity of the method should promote its further clinical introduction.

  8. Young donor-graft assisted endothelial keratoplasty (PDEK/DMEK) with epithelial debridement for chronic pseudophakic bullous keratopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Amar; Narang, Priya; Kumar, Dhivya A; Agarwal, Ashvin

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the applicability and report visual outcomes for the treatment of subepithelial fibrosis and anterior stromal scarring in cases of chronic pseudophakic bullous keratopathy (PBK) with epithelial debridement and endothelial keratoplasty (EK) (pre-Descemet endothelial keratoplasty [PDEK]; Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty [(DMEK]) using young donor tissue. Prospective, single-centre, interventional study. 6 cases with chronic PBK (> 1 year duration). Case 1 underwent PDEK with glued intraocular lens (IOL) as a single-stage procedure, whereas cases 2 and 3 underwent glued IOL followed by DMEK and PDEK, respectively, as a second-stage procedure. Cases 4 and 6 underwent PDEK, whereas case 5 underwent DMEK. Epithelial debridement was performed in all cases at the time of EK, and young donor grafts were used. The main outcome measures were best spectacle-corrected visual acuity, clearance of corneal scar and haze, central corneal thickness (CCT), specular microscopy, and endothelial cell count (ECC). Postoperatively, all cases demonstrated significant improvement in visual acuity. The mean value of depth of subepithelial haze was 121±71.7 µm and 25.3 ± 19.8 µm in the preoperative and postoperative periods, respectively (p = 0.028). At the 1-month follow-up, the mean preoperative CCT of 676 ± 92.7 µm was reduced to 534.6 ± 21.1µm. At the 6-month follow-up, the mean ECC loss resulting from the procedure was 36.5 ± 10.4%. EK with epithelial debridement performed for the treatment of chronic PBK resulted in significantly improved visual acuity to a functional level, with the clearance of subepithelial fibrosis and anterior stromal scar, in most patients. Copyright © 2017 Canadian Ophthalmological Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Electrocauterización de la membrana de Bowman para el tratamiento de la queratopatía bullosa dolorosa Electrocauterization of Bowman's membrane for the treatment of painful bullous keratopathy

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    Elizabeth Escalona Leyva

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available El propósito en este trabajo es evaluar la electrocauterización de la membrana de Bowman como alternativa quirúrgica en el tratamiento de la queratopatía bullosa dolorosa. Se estudiaron 30 ojos de 30 pacientes con diagnóstico de queratopatía bullosa dolorosa que no habían logrado mejoría con los tratamientos habituales. Se tomaron como variables fundamentales la edad, el sexo, la etiología, el tiempo de evolución, la epitelización, las complicaciones y el alivio sintomático, los datos se tabularon de forma manual teniendo en cuenta el universo de pacientes. Predominó la queratopatía bullosa posquirúrgica (afáquicas y pseudofáquicas en el 83,3 % de los pacientes. Las edades más afectadas fueron los mayores de 60 años (63,3 %; no se encontraron diferencias significativas en cuanto al sexo. El tiempo de epitelización fue de 7 a 14 días en el 93,3 % de los pacientes y solo se encontraron complicaciones en el 14 % que no fueron de gravedad. El alivio de los síntomas se produjo en el 66,6 % en la primera semana del posoperatorio. La electrocauterización de la membrana de Bowman constituye un método eficaz, sencillo y con resultados satisfactorios en el tratamiento de la queratopatía bullosa dolorosaThe purpose of this paper is to evaluate the electrocauterization of Bowman's membrane as a surgical alternative in the treatment of painful bullous keratopathy. 30 eyes from 30 patients who were diagnosed painful bullous keratopathy and had not improved with the habitual treatments were studied. Age, sex, ethiology, time of evolution, epithelialization, complications and the symptomatic relief were taken as fundamental variables. Data were manually tabulated, taking into account the number of patients. The psotsurgical bullous keratopathy (aphakic y pseudophakic prevailed in 83.3 % of the patients. The most affected were those over 60 (63.3 %. No significant differences were found in relation to sex. The time of epithelialization

  10. [Evaluation of Iris Morphology Viewed through Stromal Edematous Corneas by Infrared Camera].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Masaaki; Morishige, Naoyuki; Morita, Yukiko; Yamada, Naoyuki; Kobayashi, Motomi; Sonoda, Koh-Hei

    2016-02-01

    We reported that the application of infrared camera enables us to observe iris morphology in Peters' anomaly through edematous corneas. To observe the iris morphology in bullous keratopathy or failure grafts with an infrared camera. Eleven bullous keratopathy or failure grafts subjects (6 men and 5 women, mean age ± SD; 72.7 ± 13.0 years old) were enrolled in this study. The iris morphology was observed by applying visible light mode and near infrared light mode of infrared camera (MeibomPen). The detectability of pupil shapes, iris patterns and presence of iridectomy was evaluated. Infrared mode observation enabled us to detect the pupil shapes in 11 out of 11 cases, iris patterns in 3 out of 11 cases, and presence of iridetomy in 9 out of 11 cases although visible light mode observation could not detect any iris morphological changes. Applying infrared optics was valuable for observation of the iris morphology through stromal edematous corneas.

  11. Quantitative & qualitative analysis of endothelial cells of donor cornea before & after penetrating keratoplasty in different pathological conditions

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    Aruna K.R. Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Endothelial cells of the donor cornea are known to be affected quantitatively and qualitatively in different pathological conditions after penetrating keratoplasty (PK and this has direct effect on the clarity of vision obtained after PK. This study was undertaken to analyze the qualitative and quantitative changes in donor endothelial cells before and after PK in different pathological conditions. Methods: A prospective investigational analysis of 100 consecutive donor corneas used for penetrating keratoplasty between June 2006 and June 2008, was conducted. The patients were evaluated on the first day, at the end of first week, first month, third and six months and one year. Results: A decrease was observed in endothelial cell count in all pathological conditions. After one year of follow up the loss was 33.1 per cent in corneal opacity, 45.9 per cent in acute infective keratitis (AIK, 58.5 per cent in regrafts, 28.5 per cent in pseudophakic bullous keratopathy (PBK, 37 per cent in descemetocele, 27 per cent in keratoconus and 35.5 per cent in aphakic bullous keratopathy (ABK cases. Interpretation & conclusions: The endothelial cell loss was highest in regraft cases which was significant (P<0.05, while the least endothelial cell loss was seen in keratoconus cases. The cell loss was associated with increase in coefficient of variation (CV, i.e. polymegathism and pleomorphism. Inspite of this polymegathism and pleomorphism, the clarity of the graft was maintained.

  12. Anterior stromal puncture in the treatment of bullous keratopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, José Alvaro Pereira; Haraguchi, Daniel Keizo de Medeiros; Zambrano, Delbis Uzcátegui; Villavicencio, Luis Izquierdo; Cunha, Marcelo C.; Freitas, Denise de

    2000-01-01

    Objetivo: Avaliar o efeito terapêutico das punções do estroma anterior corneal em pacientes com ceratopatia bolhosa (CB). Métodos:Vinte e cinco pacientes com CB sintomáticos, com baixa visão, com e sem indicação de transplante de córnea, foram avaliados antes, uma, 4 e 12 semanas após punções estromais anteriores realizadas com agulha #25 à lâmpada de fenda. Em cada visita, os pacientes foram questionados sobre intensidade da dor, fotofobia, sensação de corpo estranho, além de serem submetido...

  13. Perfil do paciente com ceratopatia bolhosa pós-facectomia atendidos em hospital público Profile of patient with aphakic/pseudopfakic bullous keratopaty attended at public hospital

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    Marcony Rodrigues de Santhiago

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Identificar e analisar criticamente o perfil dos pacientes com ceratopatia bolhosa atendidos em um hospital municipal. Métodos: Foi realizada análise retrospectiva de 35 olhos de 35 pacientes em acompanhamento no setor de córnea e doenças externas do Hospital da Piedade, que apresentavam ceratopatia bolhosa pós-facectomia. Foram excluídos aqueles onde não se conseguiu determinar características pré e per-operatórias fundamentais em nossa pesquisa. Esta seleção de pacientes foi realizada durante o período de janeiro de 2007 a junho de 2007. Resultados: Como principais resultadosobservou-se que a ceratopatia bolhosa ocorreu em 22.86 % (8 olhos dos casos pós-facectomia extracapsular (FEC e 74.28 % (26 olhos pós- facoemulsificação. Em 25.71 % (9 olhos foi documentado rotura de cápsula posterior (RCP com perda vítrea. Em 94.29 % (33 olhos a lente intraocular se localizava na câmara posterior, e dois pacientes estavam afácicos. A acuidade visual de todos os pacientes era pior que 20/200. O tempo médio de evolução entre a facectomia e o diagnostico de ceratopatia bolhosa foi 11,93 meses (1 - 44 meses. Conclusão: A análise adequada do endotélio corneano é condição essencial para o sucesso da cirurgia de catarata com transparência corneal, e que a ceratopatia bolhosa parece estar mais associada à facoemulsificação. Esta informação deve ser interpretada com cautela, já que esta relação pode vir do maior numero de facoemulsificações realizadas no Hospital onde foi realizado o estudo e muitas destas por cirurgiões em treinamento.Objective: Analyze and identify critically the profile of patients with aphakic/pseudophakic bullous keratopathy attended at a public hospital. Methods: Retrospective analysis of 35 eyes of 35 patients with diagnosis of bullous keratopathy, which has been followed in the department of cornea and external diseases of Hospital da Piedade. The one whose pre and per operative data we

  14. Dendritiform Keratopathy Associated with Exposure to Polyquarternium-1, a Common Ophthalmic Preservative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matoba, Alice Y; Peterson, Jeff R; Wilhelmus, Kirk R

    2016-03-01

    To describe dendritiform keratopathy associated with exposure to polyquaternium-1, a common preservative found in contact lens solutions and tear replacement products. Case series. Sixteen patients who demonstrated dendritiform keratopathy during topical ophthalmic exposure to polyquaternium-1. Records were reviewed of all patients diagnosed with dendritiform keratopathy between 1999 and 2014 who had documented exposure to contact lens care disinfecting solutions or artificial tear solutions containing polyquaternium-1. Patients were excluded who had coexisting potential causes for dendritiform keratopathy, such as prior herpes simplex keratitis, varicella-zoster viral keratitis, the linear form of Thygeson's superficial keratitis, epithelial regeneration line, Acanthamoeba keratitis, mucus plaque keratopathy, medication-related keratopathy, or limbal stem cell deficiency characterized by conjunctivalization of the corneal epithelium. Effect of discontinuation of exposure to polyquaternium-1 on the dendritiform keratopathy. Sixteen patients demonstrated dendritiform keratopathy after exposure to the preservative polyquaternium-1. Thirteen patients had a history of recent exposure to contact lens disinfecting solutions (Opti-Free, Equate) containing polyquaternium-1. Three patients used a tear replacement product (Systane) containing a polyquaternium-1 preservative. Four patients were treated with antiviral medications for presumed herpes simplex keratitis; 4 patients underwent diagnostic testing for Acanthamoeba keratitis. Two additional patients were diagnosed sequentially with herpes simplex keratitis, then Acanthamoeba keratitis before referral. All dendritiform lesions resolved within 2 to 6 weeks after elimination of exposure to polyquaternium-1. Ophthalmic products containing polyquaternium-1 may cause dendritiform keratopathy that may be confused with infections of the superficial cornea, such as herpes simplex virus keratitis or Acanthamoeba keratitis

  15. Bullous Wells’ syndrome

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    Bengu Cevirgen Cemil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wells’ syndrome (WS is an uncommon inflammatory skin disease which typically presents single or multiple erythematous and edematous urticarial plaques similar to cellulitis. The lesions may evolve into blue-grey morphea-like lesions and may persist for weeks or months. They ultimately heal without scar. Other clinical presentations reported in literature include papular and nodular and, rarely, bullous eruptions. Previously, bullous Wells’ syndrome was rarely reported in the literature. Herein, we describe a case of a female patient with bullous Wells’ syndrome localized to the upper limbs without any associated disorders.

  16. Atypical Presentation of Iridocorneal Endothelial Syndrome With Band Keratopathy but No Corneal Edema Managed With Descemet Membrane Endothelial Keratoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zygoura, Vasiliki; Lavy, Itay; Verdijk, Robert M; Santander-García, Diana; Baydoun, Lamis; Dapena, Isabel; Melles, Gerrit R J

    2018-04-17

    To report an unusual presentation of iridocorneal endothelial (ICE) syndrome associated with band keratopathy and its management with ethylenediamine-tetraacetic acid (EDTA) chelation and Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK). A 57-year-old female patient presented with unilateral progressive painless visual impairment, corneal band keratopathy, and morphological corneal endothelial changes without corneal edema or any previous ophthalmic, medical, or family history. Routine specular and confocal microscopy imaging, as well as biomicroscopy, best-corrected visual acuity, and pachymetry measurements were performed before and after the surgical procedures. Histopathologic and immunohistochemical evaluations of the surgically excised diseased DM-endothelium were performed. Superficial epithelial keratectomy with EDTA chelation was performed. After an initial period of a few months of corneal clearance, the patient presented with recurrence of visually significant band keratopathy. After 1 year, she underwent retreatment with superficial epithelial keratectomy and EDTA chelation, followed by DMEK. Histopathologic and immunohistochemical analysis showed ICE syndrome. Two years after DMEK surgery, the cornea was still clear and band keratopathy had not recurred. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case in the literature that reports the association of ICE syndrome with band keratopathy. As band keratopathy recurred shortly after EDTA chelation, endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK) may be indicated to successfully treat such cases.

  17. Anesthetic keratopathy presenting as bilateral Mooren-like ulcers

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    Khakshoor H

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Hamid Khakshoor,1 Majid Moshirfar,2 Rachel G Simpson,3 Hamid Gharaee,1 Amir H Vejdani,1 Steven M Christiansen,2 Jason N Edmonds,2 Nicholas L Behunin21Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Department of Ophthalmology, Mashad, Iran; 2John A Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, 3The University of Arizona College of Medicine, Phoenix, AZ, USAAbstract: This observational case report describes the development of bilateral Mooren-like ulcers in a patient with anesthetic keratopathy. A 42-year-old man with a recent history of minor eye trauma and pain self-treated with tetracaine eye drops presented with complaints of acutely worsening vision and severe pain bilaterally. His visual acuity at presentation was limited to hand motion. Slit-lamp examination revealed bilateral epithelial defects at the center of the cornea, and an area of stromal infiltration and thinning with an undermining leading edge resembling a Mooren's ulcer in both eyes. Corneal haze and hypopyon were visible. Anesthetic use was halted immediately and the patient was started on prednisolone and mycophenolate mofetil (Cellcept®, after which visual acuity gradually improved and pain decreased. Despite improvement of symptoms, residual epithelial defects remained, and the patient was ultimately treated with keratoplasty for recovery of vision. We suggest that anesthetic keratopathy should be included in the differential diagnosis for any patient presenting with ring-shaped stromal infiltrates or nonhealing epithelial defects.Keywords: anesthetic abuse, corneal damage, corneal ulceration

  18. Differential diagnostics of bullous dermatoses

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    A. A. Kubanov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bullous dermatoses are the diseases characterized by vesication and erosion of skin and/or mucos coats, production of autoantibodies against the structural components of epidermis and/or derma. The most frequent diseases of these disorders are pemphigus, bullous pemphigoid, dermatitis herpetiformis, beningn familial chronic pemphigus (Gougerot Hailey-Hailey disease.Diagnostics of bullous dermatoses is based on assessement of clinical signs, results of cytological and histological studies and immunological tests. However none of the current diagnostic methods allows to reveal bullous dermatosis severally and with absolute certainty. Consequently it is necessary to perform wide range of clinical and laboratory tests for early diagnosis and treatment order.

  19. Bullous dermatitis artefacta.

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    Sokumbi, Olayemi; Comfere, Nneka I; McEvoy, Marian T; Peters, Margot S

    2013-02-01

    Bullous artefactual dermatoses are rare and may be induced by various techniques, including chemicals, heat, or electrical current. Proving a factitial etiology and identifying the mechanism of injury may be difficult. We describe the clinical features and histopathology of 2 patients with bullous disease induced by electrical current or heat. Physical examination in both patients demonstrated geometrically shaped tense bullae. Skin biopsies revealed epidermal necrosis overlying a pauci-inflammatory subepidermal cleft, with homogenization of underlying superficial dermal collagen. In 1 of the 2 patients, there was prominent vertical elongation of keratinocyte nuclei and also of cytoplasmic processes. Direct immunofluorescence study of skin plus testing of serum by indirect immunofluorescence and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for BP180 and BP230 antibodies revealed no evidence for immunobullous disease in either patient. Vertical elongation of keratinocyte nuclei, often attributed to a polarization effect of electrical current, is characteristic of electrical burn but also may be induced by thermal injury. These 2 patients highlight the importance of histopathology in confirming a diagnosis of bullous dermatitis artefacta.

  20. Infectious crystalline keratopathy caused by Cladosporium sp. after penetrating keratoplasty: a case report

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    Stock RA

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Ricardo Alexandre Stock,1 Elcio Luiz Bonamigo,2 Emeline Cadore,3 Rafael Allan Oechsler4 1Corneal Transplant Section, Santa Terezinha University Hospital, 2Department of Ophthalmology and Bioethics, 3University of Western Santa Catarina, Joaçaba, 4Cornea Department, Oftalmo Center Blumenau, Blumenau, Santa Catarina, Brazil Background: Infectious crystalline keratopathy is a rare, progressive infection characterized by the insidious progression of branches and crystalline corneal opacities with minimal or no inflammation. This case report describes the evolution of an infectious crystalline keratopathy caused by Cladosporium sp., which developed after tectonic keratoplasty in a patient with a history of ocular trauma.Case presentation: A 40-year-old Brazilian male was the victim of firework-induced trauma to the left eye, which resulted in a corneal laceration that could not be sutured as well as a severe traumatic cataract. The patient underwent penetrating keratoplasty and phacoemulsification. During postoperative follow-up, another therapeutic keratoplasty was required because unresponsive infectious keratitis was observed. The infiltrate’s characteristics were suggestive of infectious crystalline keratopathy; in particular, the infiltrate was insidious and progressive, and grayish-white branches appeared in the anterior corneal stroma. As different therapies were administered, inflammatory reactions ranging from mild to severe were observed. The infection was unresponsive to typical antifungal drugs. This lack of response most likely occurred due to steroid treatment and the diffuse corneal spread of an atypical microorganism, which was subsequently identified in culture as Cladosporium sp. After the second therapeutic keratoplasty, the patient’s eye integrity was successfully reestablished.Conclusion: This study likely provides the first report describing a case of infectious crystalline keratopathy caused by Cladosporium sp. This case

  1. Bullous lichen planus - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liakopoulou, Angeliki; Rallis, Efstathios

    2017-03-31

    Bullous lichen planus is a rare variant of lichen planus. It is characterized by vesicles or bullae, which usually develop in the context of pre-existing LP lesions. It is often misdiagnosed and should be differentiated from other subepidermal bullous diseases especially lichen planus pemphigoides. The diagnosis is based on clinical suspicion and is confirmed by histopathology and immunofluoresence. The clinical features of bullous lichen planus include typical lichen planus lesions, accompanied by the formation of bullae on the affected or perilesional skin. This is evident on histology, with alteration of the dermo-epidermal junction and intrabasal bullae as a consequence of extensive inflammation. The histologic features in conjunction with the negative immunofluoresence indicate that bullous lichen planus is a form of "hyper-reactive lichen planus" rather than a distinct entity. There is no standard treatment of bullous lichen planus. Topical and systemic corticosteroids, dapsone and acitretin have been described as effective choices.

  2. Enucleaton of the right eye due to large choroidal melanoma with simultaneous penetrating cornea transplantation from OD to OS (Case report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Korchuganova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There is presentation case report of 75‑year old woman with choroidal melanoma (T3N0M0 on the right eye and failed graft on the left pseudophakic eye with far advanced glaucoma and ARMD. No treatment was given to the leading eye with VA 0,2. VA of OS = 1 / ∞ pr.l.certa; PKP OS in 2008 for pseudophakic bullous keratopathy on the eye with far advanced glaucoma. IOP was normal after previous filtering surgery. After PKP VA = 0,04; clear graft during 2 years; then gradually opacification and vascularization occurred. VA dropped to light perception. Echography OD — tumor h 8,29 mm, d 21,77 mm. No ingrowth of tumor into anterior segment of the eye; VA OD = 0 (no light perception. Concerning the need to enucleate the right eye with large choroidal melanoma, the advantage of using corneal autograft from OD to OS, location of tumor in the posterior pole with no ingrowth in anterior segment, the decision was made to perform the following operation — to enucleate the right eye and transplant simultaneously corneal graft from OD on OS. Patient was discharged from the Ophthalmology Hospital with VA OS = 0,01, during next week VA improved to 0,02. 8,0 mm graft isclear, fixed with 8 interruptured and continious suture 10 / 0‑nylon. Anterior chamber — normal depth, atrophic iris, stable position of PC IOL. Optic nerve head is pale with subtotal deep glaucomatous excavation. Conclusion: presented case report demonstrates the rarepossibility to use cornea after enucleation the eye with large malignant tumor (located in the posterior pole for grafting in the only eye with failed vascularised graft. It was the only possibility for this patient to restore some vision.

  3. Enucleaton of the right eye due to large choroidal melanoma with simultaneous penetrating cornea transplantation from OD to OS (Case report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Korchuganova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available There is presentation case report of 75‑year old woman with choroidal melanoma (T3N0M0 on the right eye and failed graft on the left pseudophakic eye with far advanced glaucoma and ARMD. No treatment was given to the leading eye with VA 0,2. VA of OS = 1 / ∞ pr.l.certa; PKP OS in 2008 for pseudophakic bullous keratopathy on the eye with far advanced glaucoma. IOP was normal after previous filtering surgery. After PKP VA = 0,04; clear graft during 2 years; then gradually opacification and vascularization occurred. VA dropped to light perception. Echography OD — tumor h 8,29 mm, d 21,77 mm. No ingrowth of tumor into anterior segment of the eye; VA OD = 0 (no light perception. Concerning the need to enucleate the right eye with large choroidal melanoma, the advantage of using corneal autograft from OD to OS, location of tumor in the posterior pole with no ingrowth in anterior segment, the decision was made to perform the following operation — to enucleate the right eye and transplant simultaneously corneal graft from OD on OS. Patient was discharged from the Ophthalmology Hospital with VA OS = 0,01, during next week VA improved to 0,02. 8,0 mm graft isclear, fixed with 8 interruptured and continious suture 10 / 0‑nylon. Anterior chamber — normal depth, atrophic iris, stable position of PC IOL. Optic nerve head is pale with subtotal deep glaucomatous excavation. Conclusion: presented case report demonstrates the rarepossibility to use cornea after enucleation the eye with large malignant tumor (located in the posterior pole for grafting in the only eye with failed vascularised graft. It was the only possibility for this patient to restore some vision.

  4. Linear IgA Bullous Dermatosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lings, Kristina; Bygum, Anette

    2015-01-01

    Linear IgA bullous dermatosis (LAD) is an autoimmune, chronic bullous disease affecting primarily young children and adults. Studies on LAD are relatively sparse and from Scandinavia we could only find a few case reports. Therefore we decided to conduct a retrospective investigation of patients...

  5. Toxic keratopathy due to abuse of topical anesthetic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeniad, Baris; Canturk, Serife; Esin Ozdemir, Fatma; Alparslan, Nilufer; Akarcay, Koray

    2010-06-01

    To describe 8 cases of toxic keratopathy due to abuse of topical anesthetic drugs. Clinical findings from patients with toxic keratopathy were investigated retrospectively. Two patients had toxic keratopathy bilaterally. Five of 8 patients had an ocular history of a corneal foreign body, 1 had basal membrane dystrophy, 1 had ultraviolet radiation, and 1 had chemical burn. All patients had undergone psychiatric consultation. Four patients had anxiety disorder and 1 had bipolar disease. Clinical signs were improved in all patients with discontinuation of topical anesthetic drug use along with adjunctive psychiatric treatment. Penetrating keratoplasty was performed in 2 patients. Toxic keratopathy due to topical anesthetic abuse is a curable disease. Early diagnosis and prevention of topical anesthetic drug use are the most important steps in the treatment of this condition. As these patients commonly exhibit psychiatric disorders, adjunctive psychiatric treatment may help to break the chemical addiction.

  6. Geographic variations in epidemiology of two autoimmune bullous diseases: pemphigus and bullous pemphigoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpsoy, Erkan; Akman-Karakas, Ayse; Uzun, Soner

    2015-05-01

    Autoimmune bullous diseases are rare, organ-specific, a group of blistering disease of skin and mucous membranes. Recent studies suggest that the frequency of the autoimmune bullous diseases has been increasing. Pemphigus vulgaris and bullous pemphigoid are the most frequently reported autoimmune bullous diseases. High incidence of autoimmune bullous diseases in some ethnic groups such as pemphigus in Ashkenazi Jewish, or in some regions such as pemphigus foliaceus in Brazil has been shown to be related to genetic and environmental factors, respectively. Pemphigus has been reported more frequently in the female gender. Although it is most frequently diagnosed between the ages 50 and 60 in European countries, in the remaining countries in the world, it is seen between the ages of 30 and 50. Bullous pemphigoid is generally seen above 70 years of age. Although overall incidence is slightly higher in females, after the age of 80 years it is more frequent in males. Both pemphigus vulgaris and bullous pemphigoid has a chronic course with recurrences. Mortality risk of the patients with bullous pemphigoid was found at least 2 times higher and the mortality risk of the patients with pemphigus was found approximately 3 times higher than that of the general population. In this review, the results obtained from the epidemiological studies were analyzed according to geographic regions, and especially epidemiologic features of two prevalent autoimmune bullous diseases, pemphigus and bullous pemphigoid have been discussed.

  7. Molecular biological aspects of acquired bullous diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabelsteen, Erik

    1998-01-01

    Bullous diseases of the oral mucosa and skin were originally classified on the basis of clinical and histological criteria. The discovery of autoantibodies in some of these patients and the introduction of molecular biology have resulted in a new understanding of the pathological mechanisms of many...... of the bullous lesions. In this article, updated topics of the immune-mediated bullous lesions which involve oral mucosa and skin are reviewed. Pemphigus antigens, which are desmosomal-associated proteins and belong to the cadherin superfamily of cell adhesion proteins, have been isolated, and their genes have...

  8. One cornea for two patients: case report Uma córnea para dois pacientes: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubisa Nikolic

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Case reporting the use of one donor cornea for two transplantation procedures: deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK in a case of an imminent corneal perforation caused by herpetic stromal necrosis, and Descemet stripping with endothelial keratoplasty (DSEK in an eye with pseudophakic bullous keratopathy (PBK. Descemet's membrane (DM, denuded by stromal necrosis, served as the starting point for dissection plane and creation of the recipient bed for DALK. The next steps were excision of the diseased stroma along the edge of trephination, and transplantation of a 400-450 µm thick, manually dissected lamellar graft. The remaining posterior layers of the donor cornea, 100-150 µm thick, were used as a graft in the DSEK procedure for PBK. The integrity of the globe was saved, and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA of 20/40 was reached after DALK in the eye with an imminent corneal perforation. A subnormal central corneal thickness (CCT of 430 µm did not interfere with corneal shape (43.50 x 45.50 D and function. The graft remained attached and clear after DSEK in the eye with PBK, with BCVA of 20/30 and a CCT of 653 µm. One donor cornea can be used for two lamellar keratoplasties, DALK and DSEK. Although the described obstacles may prevent this approach from becoming widely used, it may prove useful when one is confronted with a need for an urgent anterior lamellar keratoplasty, a long list of cases for DSEK, and a shortage of donor corneas.Relato de caso descrevendo o uso de uma córnea doadora para dois procedimentos de transplante: ceratoplastia anterior lamelar profunda (DALK no caso de uma perfuração corneal iminente causada por necrose estromal por herpes vírus, e ceratoplastia com transplante de endotélio (DSEK no olho com ceratopatia bolhosa em pseudofacia (PBK. A membrana de Descemet (DM, previamente desnudada pela necrose estromal, serviu como ponto de partida para o plano de dissecção e da criação do leito estromal para

  9. Surgical intervention in central toxic keratopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Kyaw L; Aslanides, Ioannis M

    2012-05-03

    Purpose. To report management and outcome of 3 cases of bilateral central toxic keratopathy (CTK). Methods. A retrospective chart review on 3 laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis patients who developed CTK within a short time of one another. Results. Patient A had flap lifts and irrigation (FL+I) twice in the right eye (OD) on postoperative day 1 at diffuse lamellar keratitis (DLK) stage 3 and once each on days 1 (at DLK stage 3) and 5 (at CTK) for the left eye (OS). She attained 20/20 unaided visual acuity (UVA) OD at 1 month. Her UVA OS remained at 20/32 but best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) gradually improved to 20/25 at 8 months. Patient B had right FL+I on day 3 and left FL+I on day 5 (both for CTK). His OS achieved full visual potential (20/25 UVA) by 1 month but UVA OD was reduced to 20/25 (preoperative BCVA 20/20) at 8 months. Patient C had medical management only. Her preoperative BCVA OD of 20/33 fell to 20/50 postoperative UCVA/BCVA; OS regained full visual potential of 20/40 between 2 and 8 months. Patient A's OD did not develop a full-blown CTK; instead an arrested CTK resulted. All except that one eye had initial hyperopic/astigmatic errors that gradually lessened. Artemis II imaging confirmed early stromal loss posterior to the flap with stroma regaining some thickness over the following months. Conclusions. Surgical intervention in cases of CTK may improve clinical outcomes.

  10. 'An eye, for eyes - mission' - From dream to reality

    OpenAIRE

    Parikumar P; Haraguchi K; Senthilkumar R; Abraham S

    2013-01-01

    Corneal transplantation has been in routine practice to treat corneal endothelial diseases like Bullous Keratopathy, in which either the whole cornea or the partial cornea (the endothelium alone) is transplanted from the cadaver donor to the recipient with the endothelial disease [1]. In whole corneal or partial corneal transplant one cadaver donor's cornea can be used to treat one recipient cornea only, which leads to a huge global shortage of donor corneas [2]. At this juncture Yokoo et al ...

  11. Childhood-onset bullous systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, D M R; Gomes, R Cunha; Aikawa, N E; Campos, L M A; Romiti, R; Silva, C A

    2014-11-01

    Bullous systemic lupus erythematosus has rarely been described in pediatric lupus population and the real prevalence of childhood-onset bullous systemic lupus erythematosus has not been reported. From January 1983 to November 2013, 303 childhood-onset SLE (c-SLE) patients were followed at the Pediatric Rheumatology Unit of the Childreńs Institute of Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina Universidade da Universidade de São Paulo, three of them (1%) diagnosed as childhood-onset bullous systemic lupus erythematosus. All three cases presented tense vesiculobullous lesions unassociated with lupus erythematosus lesions, with the median duration of 60 days (30-60). All patients fulfilled bullous systemic lupus erythematosus criteria. Two had nephritis and serositis and presented specific autoantibodies. The histological pattern demonstrated subepidermal blisters with neutrophils-predominant infiltrates within the upper dermis. Direct immunofluorescence (DIF) showed deposits of IgG and complement along the epidermal basement membrane, in the presence or absence of IgA and/or IgM. A positive indirect immunofluorescence on salt-split skin demonstrating dermal binding was observed in two cases. All of them had moderate/severe disease activity at diagnosis with median Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index 2000 (SLEDAI-2K) of 18 (14-24). Two patients received dapsone and one with severe nephritis received immunosuppressive drugs. In conclusion, in the last 30 years the prevalence of bullous lupus in childhood-onset lupus population was low (1%) in our tertiary University Hospital. A diagnosis of SLE should always be considered in children with recurrent tense vesiculobullous lesions with or without systemic manifestations. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  12. Enucleaton of the right eye due to large choroidal melanoma with simultaneous penetrating cornea transplantation from OD to OS (Case report).

    OpenAIRE

    E. A. Korchuganova; A. Yu. Slonimskiy,; O. Yu. Yatsenko; M. Yu. Lerner

    2013-01-01

    There is presentation case report of 75‑year old woman with choroidal melanoma (T3N0M0) on the right eye and failed graft on the left pseudophakic eye with far advanced glaucoma and ARMD. No treatment was given to the leading eye with VA 0,2. VA of OS = 1 / ∞ pr.l.certa; PKP OS in 2008 for pseudophakic bullous keratopathy on the eye with far advanced glaucoma. IOP was normal after previous filtering surgery. After PKP VA = 0,04; clear graft during 2 years; then gradually opacification and vas...

  13. Modes of Action of Intravenous Immunoglobulin in Bullous Pemphigoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Culton, Donna; Diaz, Luis A; Liu, Zhi

    2018-06-01

    Bullous pemphigoid is an autoantibody-mediated skin blistering disease. Previous studies revealed that intravenous Ig is therapeutic in animal models of bullous pemphigoid by saturating the IgG-protective receptor FcRn, thereby accelerating degradation of pathogenic IgG. Sasaoka et al. demonstrate that the inhibitory effects of intravenous Ig on bullous pemphigoid are also associated with negative modulation of cytokine production by keratinocytes. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. CORNEA AND ANTERIOR SEGMENT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yet, fewer than 150,000 corneal transplant surgeries are performed annually worldwide. Corneal blindness arises from a wide variety of causes, from mechanical, chemical, and radiation injury to microbial infections and corneal degenerative diseases. The use of human cadaver donor corneas has been limited by its often.

  15. Bullous Lichen Planus in an Indian female | Puri | Sudanese Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bullous lichen planus is a rare entity. We describe bullous lichen planus in an. Indian female who had itchy erythematous papular lesions with vesicles and bullae predominantly over the dorsa of both legs. The patient was subjected to histopathological examination after which the diagnosis was confirmed. The patient was ...

  16. Staphylococcal bullous impetigo in a neonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggal, Shalini Dewan; Bharara, Tanisha; Jena, Pragnya Paramita; Kumar, Avinash; Sharma, Abha; Gur, Renu; Chaudhary, Sanjay

    2016-07-16

    An otherwise healthy, full-term neonate presented at day 15 of life to the pediatric emergency with generalized papulo-pustular rash for 2 d. This was finally diagnosed as bullous impetigo caused by Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). The skin lesions decreased significantly after starting antibiotic therapy and drainage of blister fluid. There was no recurrence of the lesions on follow-up. This case of generalized pustular eruption due to S. aureus in a neonate is reported, as it poses a diagnostic dilemma and can have serious consequences if left untreated.

  17. Corneal Neovascularization with Associated Lipid Keratopathy in a Patient with Obstructive Sleep Apnea-Hypopnea Syndrome Using a Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Oikonomakis

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To report a case of corneal neovascularization with secondary lipid keratopathy in a patient treated with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP for obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS. Case Report: A 49-year-old male had been diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome 10 years ago and has been treated with the application of a CPAP machine during night sleep ever since. For the past year, the patient had been complaining for ocular irritation and excessive tearing of the left eye on awakening. Slit-lamp biomicroscopy revealed the presence of neovascularization and lipid exudation in the inferior third of the cornea of the left eye. Ocular patching during night sleep resulted in recession of the reported symptoms and shrinkage of the neovascularization, while the area of lipid exudation ceased to enlarge. Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of corneal neovascularization in a patient using a CPAP machine for OSAHS.

  18. Corneal Neovascularization with Associated Lipid Keratopathy in a Patient with Obstructive Sleep Apnea-Hypopnea Syndrome Using a Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikonomakis, Konstantinos; Petrelli, Myrsini; Andreanos, Konstantinos; Mouchtouris, Andreas; Petrou, Petros; Georgalas, Ilias; Papaconstantinou, Dimitrios; Kymionis, George

    2017-01-01

    To report a case of corneal neovascularization with secondary lipid keratopathy in a patient treated with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) for obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS). A 49-year-old male had been diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome 10 years ago and has been treated with the application of a CPAP machine during night sleep ever since. For the past year, the patient had been complaining for ocular irritation and excessive tearing of the left eye on awakening. Slit-lamp biomicroscopy revealed the presence of neovascularization and lipid exudation in the inferior third of the cornea of the left eye. Ocular patching during night sleep resulted in recession of the reported symptoms and shrinkage of the neovascularization, while the area of lipid exudation ceased to enlarge. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of corneal neovascularization in a patient using a CPAP machine for OSAHS.

  19. [Management of corneal endothelial decompensation with Descemet's membrane endothelial keratoplasty in a patient with Ahmed glaucoma valve implant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röck, T; Bartz-Schmidt, K-U; Röck, D; Yoeruek, E

    2014-05-01

    Currently, the main causes for developing bullous keratopathy are from problems related to intraocular surgery, trauma, infection, Fuchs' endothelial dystrophy and chronically elevated intraocular pressure. In the 1990s penetrating keratoplasty was once considered the therapy of choice for treatment of bullous keratopathy but in recent years it has been replaced by posterior lamellar keratoplasty. The Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK) procedure represents the final development of posterior lamellar keratoplasty. The question now arises whether DMEK can be used in patients with bullous keratopathy and Ahmed glaucoma valve implant. A 72-year-old man was referred to our hospital for further evaluation with the diagnosis of bullous keratopathy and pseudoexfoliative glaucoma. The bullous keratopathy was caused by a variety of previous operations as well as decompensation of intraocular pressure. This article describes the therapy of bullous keratopathy by DMEK with existing Ahmed glaucoma valve implant. After surgery the cornea became clear and the best-corrected visual acuity improved from hand movement to 0.2. The intraocular pressure remained normal (10-14 mmHg) without antiglaucoma medication and the endothelial cell count decreased only slightly over a follow-up of 13 months. No complications were encountered. The DMEK surgical procedure seems to be possible in patients with Ahmed glaucoma valve implant and endothelial decompensation. However, further studies with a larger number of patients should follow to validate the replacement of penetrating keratoplasty and other posterior lamellar procedures by DMEK.

  20. IgA LINEAR BULLOUS DERMATOSIS IN CHILDHOOD.

    OpenAIRE

    Ivelina Yordanova; Valentin Valtchev; Dimitar Gospodinov; Snejina Vassileva

    2015-01-01

    IgA linear bullous dermatosis, also known as chronic bullous dermatosis of childhood, is an autoimmune disease which may be idiopathic or drug-induced. The disease affects children and adults. We present a 4 years old girl with itchy polymorphic eruptions. The skin rash was presented by bullous-erosive rosette-like lesions with reddish-brown crust in the center, distributed on the skin of the face, trunk and extremities. The vesicles were filled with serous and hemorrhagic content. Laboratory...

  1. The Hematologic Definition of Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance in Relation to Paraproteinemic Keratopathy (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisch, Walter; Wasielica-Poslednik, Joanna; Kivelä, Tero; Schlötzer-Schrehardt, Ursula; Rohrbach, Jens M; Sekundo, Walter; Pleyer, Uwe; Lisch, Christina; Desuki, Alexander; Rossmann, Heidi; Weiss, Jayne S

    2016-08-01

    To determine if paraproteinemic keratopathy (PPK) in the setting of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) causes distinct patterns of corneal opacification that can be distinguished from hereditary, immunologic, or inflammatory causes. A retrospective, interventional study of patients showed distinct bilateral opacity patterns of the cornea at the eye clinics of Hanau, Mainz, Helsinki, Marburg, and Berlin between 1993 and 2015. Data on patient characteristics and clinical features on ophthalmic examination were collected, and serum protein profiles were evaluated. A literature review and analysis of all published studies of MGUS with PPK is also presented. The largest group of patients diagnosed with MGUS-induced PPK is analyzed in this study. We studied 22 eyes of 11 patients (6 male, aged 43 to 65, mean age 54; 5 female, aged 49 to 76, mean age 61) with distinct corneal opacities and visual impairment who were first suspected of having hereditary, inflammatory, or immunologic corneal entities. Subsequently, serum protein electrophoresis revealed MGUS to be the cause of the PPK. Literature review revealed 72 patients with bilateral PPK (34 male, mean age 57; 38 female, mean age 58) in 51 studies of MGUS published from 1934 to 2015 and disclosed six additional corneal opacity patterns. This thesis shows that MGUS is not always an asymptomatic disorder, in contrast to the hematologic definition, which has no hint of PPK. The MGUS-induced PPK can mimic many other diseases of the anterior layer of the eye. A new clinical classification for PPK in MGUS is proposed.

  2. Bullous pilomatricoma: A stage in transition to secondary anetoderma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Premanshu Bhushan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pilomatricoma is an uncommon hamartomatous tumor of the hair matrix. Bullous and anetodermic changes over pilomatricoma are rare. We report an 18-year-old male with an asymptomatic nodule with overlying cystic changes on the left arm of 6-month duration with clinical and histological features of both bullous and anetodermic modifications. We also reviewed the associated literature to conclude that there is sufficient overlap in these two entities. Both variants show a bullous or pseudobullous appearance clinically and loss of elastin, sparse collagen bundles separated by intense edema, and dilated lymphatics/blood vessels in the dermis overlying the tumor mass histologically. We therefore propose that bullous, pseudoampullary, anetodermic, and lymphangiectatic forms should be considered as synonymous or transitional to the ultimate scar-like anetodermic appearance.

  3. Linear IgA bullous dermatosis in a neonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruza, L L; Mallory, S B; Fitzgibbons, J; Mallory, G B

    1993-06-01

    A newborn black boy had two facial blisters at birth that progressed to bullous lesions over the trunk, genitals, extremities, and oral and tracheal mucosa. A biopsy specimen demonstrated a subepidermal bulla with mixed eosinophilic and neutrophilic, inflammatory infiltrate. Direct immunofluorescence showed linear IgA, IgG, and C3 depositions along the basement membrane zone, consistent with a diagnosis of childhood linear IgA bullous dermatosis (chronic bullous dermatosis of childhood). The skin disease was controlled with combined prednisone and dapsone. This is the youngest reported patient with the disease. Linear IgA bullous dermatosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of blistering diseases of the newborn, and immunofluorescence should be performed on a skin biopsy specimen.

  4. Bullous Henoch–Schonlein purpura with involvement of face

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devdeep Mukherjee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Henoch–Schonlein purpura (HSP with facial involvement with bullous rashes are extremely rare. A 12-year-old boy presented with abdominal pain and features of arthritis. He also had multiple purpuric rashes over his lower limbs. Gradually, he developed bullous rashes which were seen on his legs and hands and progressed to involve the face. He was confirmed to be suffering from HSP from clinical presentation and skin biopsy. The child responded well to oral steroids. Bullous lesions may be seen in HSP. However, there is neither prognostic significance of this nor does it alter the management. Other causes of bullous lesions should be ruled out. As facial involvement is associated with renal and gastrointestinal involvement, these children should be monitored for sequelae.

  5. Bullous pemphigoid induced by vildagliptin: a report of three cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béné, Johana; Jacobsoone, Aurélie; Coupe, Patrick; Auffret, Marine; Babai, Samy; Hillaire-Buys, Dominique; Jean-Pastor, Marie-Josèphe; Vonarx, Marlène; Vermersch, Annie; Tronquoy, Anne-Fleur; Gautier, Sophie

    2015-02-01

    To report three cases of bullous pemphigoid in patients treated with vildagliptin. Case 1: An 86-year-old woman presented with bullous pemphigoid after 1 month of treatment with vildagliptin and metformin. After introduction of clobetasol, the symptoms resolved although vildagliptin was continued. However, the skin lesions reappeared 3 months later. Sustained remission was achieved only after definitive withdrawal of vildagliptin. Case 2: A 79-year-old man presented with bullous pemphigoid after 37-month treatment with gliclazide, vildagliptin and metformin. The disease at first responded to clobetasol but 3 months later the lesions reappeared. They finally regressed when the gliptin was discontinued. Case 3: A 77-year-old woman, treated with gliclazide and vildagliptin for 26 months, presented with bullous pemphigoid, which responded well to discontinuation of the gliptin and topical clobetasol. Gliptins are new molecules for treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, which have been suspected of implication in bullous pemphigoid. Such cases have been described in the literature (seven with vildagliptin and three with sitagliptin). In nine of these cases, the gliptin was associated with metformin, but the latter had never been considered responsible. The mechanism implicated in the development of bullous pemphigoid has not yet been clearly identified, but may involve a modified immune response or alteration of the antigenic properties of the epidermal basement membrane. These reports support the risk of bullous pemphigoid in patients exposed to gliptins. © 2014 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  6. A case of multiple myeloma presenting as a bullous dermatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gul Ulker

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple myeloma is a malignant plasma cell proliferative disorder that produces a monoclonal immunoglobulin protein. The skin involvement and the development of bullous disease are rarely seen features in multiple myeloma. We present a 55-year-old man with a longstanding, large, tense bullous eruption and hypertrophic scars over his body accompanied recently with weight loss and fatique. He had no response to the previous treatments, which included oral glucocorticoids and dapsone. Histologic examination of the lesions revealed subepidermal bullae, while no immunoflourescence staining was observed. In a further detailed labarotory examination, multiple myeloma was detected. After the treatment of multiple myeloma with chemotherapy, the lesions regressed. Patients with longstanding, recurrent, unusual bullous eruption should be investigated for the development of multiple myeloma.

  7. IgA LINEAR BULLOUS DERMATOSIS IN CHILDHOOD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivelina Yordanova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available IgA linear bullous dermatosis, also known as chronic bullous dermatosis of childhood, is an autoimmune disease which may be idiopathic or drug-induced. The disease affects children and adults. We present a 4 years old girl with itchy polymorphic eruptions. The skin rash was presented by bullous-erosive rosette-like lesions with reddish-brown crust in the center, distributed on the skin of the face, trunk and extremities. The vesicles were filled with serous and hemorrhagic content. Laboratory examinations were within normal values according the age. Histopathological examination of the lesional skin revealed sub epidermal blister. Direct immunofluorescence of perilesional skin demonstrated linear deposition of IgA in the basement membrane. Systemic treatment with Methylprednisolon and Claritromycin was applied with satisfactory effect. The patient is under observation.

  8. Bullous reactions to bed bug bites reflect cutaneous vasculitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study evaluates bullous cutaneous reactions and sequential histopathology in an individual sensitized to bed bug bites in an effort to better understand the allergic response and histology associated with these bites. There was a progression of the inflammatory response across time ranging from...

  9. Bullous impetigo associated with Abiotrophia defectiva in an immunocompetent adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Heather M; Miller, Cathy; Kemp, Earl; Huntington, Mark K

    2012-07-01

    Infection of humans by Abiotrophia defectiva, a nutritionally variant streptococcus, most commonly takes the form of endocarditis, though a variety of other manifestations ranging from central nervous system abscesses to orthopaedic infections have been seen. We report here what we believe is the first case of bullous impetigo associated with this organism.

  10. Facts about the Cornea and Corneal Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... most used keratoprosthesis. It is made of clear plastic and consists of three parts, with donor cornea ... that, if successful, will lead to a significant reduction in the transmission of HSV to the cornea. ...

  11. Presumed atypical HDR syndrome associated with Band Keratopathy and pigmentary retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Cinoo; Cheong, Hae Il; Kim, Jeong Hun; Yu, Young Suk; Kwon, Ji Won

    2011-01-01

    This report describes presumed atypical hypoparathyroidism, deafness, and renal dysplasia (HDR) syndrome associated with unexpected ocular findings. The patient had exotropia, bilateral band keratopathy, and pigmentary retinopathy, including attenuated retinal vessels and atrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium. Even though the calcific plaques were successfully removed, visual acuity in both eyes gradually decreased and electroretinography was extinguished. Copyright 2009, SLACK Incorporated.

  12. Coexisting Morphea and Bullous Lichen Sclerosus Et Atrophicus: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Nurcan Metin; Mahizer Yaldız; Teoman Erdem; Şahin Erdem

    2015-01-01

    Morphea and lichen skleroatrofikans (LSA)are localized fibrosing diseases characterized by well-defined fibrotic plaques. Blisters rarely occur on morphea plaque, and these blisters are mostly considered as bullous morphea which is a rare type of morphea. The cases of bullous LSA growing on plaque morphea are rarer. In this case report, we presented a patient has bullous lesions compatible with of lichen skleroatrofikans clinically and histopathologically on morphea lesions, to draw attention...

  13. Intertriginous bullous morphea: A clue for the pathogenesis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavala Mukaddes

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Bullae occurring in lesions of morphea are uncommon. The cause of bullae formation in morphea is multifactorial, although lymphatic obstruction from the sclerodermatous process is considered the likeliest cause. Bullous morphea may be confused clinically with lichen sclerosus et atrophicus since both diseases may cause bullae in sclerodermatous plaques. A 69-year-old woman presented with a history of generalized morphea diagnosed 9 years earlier; and a 1-month history of pruritic bullae on her inframammary folds, axillary regions, lower abdomen, upper extremities and inguinal folds. Physical examination revealed multiple erythematous erosions, hemorrhagic vesicles and eroded bullae with slight scale or crusts overlying hypopigmented, indurated, shiny plaques. Skin biopsy revealed prominent edema in the papillary dermis, resulting in bulla formation and thickening of collagen fibers within the dermis. Direct immunofluorescence was negative. According to histologic and clinical features, the diagnosis of bullous morphea was established.

  14. A case of bullous pemphigoid ınduced by vildagliptin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keseroglu, Havva Ozge; Taş-Aygar, Gamze; Gönül, Müzeyyen; Gököz, Ozay; Ersoy-Evans, Sibel

    2017-06-01

    Bullous pemfigoid (BP), an autoimmune disorder, can also be induced by some medications. Vildagliptin is a new drug used to treat diabetes mellitus (DM). Recently, a few cases of vildagliptin-induced BP have been described in the literature. We report a patient with BP in which vildagliptin was thought to be as a possible causative agent. The awareness of BP development risk during gliptin therapy can prevent unnecessary usage of systemic drugs with serious side effects.

  15. Successful treatment of bullous lichen planus with acitretin monotherapy. Review of treatment options for bullous lichen planus and case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rallis, Efstathios; Liakopoulou, Angeliki; Christodoulopoulos, Constantinos; Katoulis, Alexandros

    2016-12-31

    Bullous lichen planus (BLP) is a rare variant of lichen planus, characterized by the development of vesicular and bullous lesions, of skin, nails, hair and/or mucosa. We present a case of 63-year-old woman with BLP, unresponsive to previous therapies with topical corticosteroids, topical calcipotriol, antihistamines and oral cyclosporine (4 mg/kg/day for 4 months). She was already receiving treatment for arterial hypertension, hyperlipidemia, atrial fibrillation and uncontrolled diabetes mellitus. Acitretin was administered for 5 months with complete remission of BLP lesions and no major side effects. This is probably the first reported case of BLP treated with acitretin monotherapy. In this case acitretin was an efficacious and well-tolerated therapeutic option for BLP.

  16. Development of a quality-of-life instrument for autoimmune bullous disease: the Autoimmune Bullous Disease Quality of Life questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebaratnam, Deshan F; Hanna, Anna Marie; Chee, Shien-ning; Frew, John W; Venugopal, Supriya S; Daniel, Benjamin S; Martin, Linda K; Rhodes, Lesley M; Tan, Jeremy Choon Kai; Wang, Charles Qian; Welsh, Belinda; Nijsten, Tamar; Murrell, Dédée F

    2013-10-01

    Quality-of-life (QOL) evaluation is an increasingly important outcome measure in dermatology, with disease-specific QOL instruments being the most sensitive to changes in disease status. To develop a QOL instrument specific to autoimmune bullous disease (AIBD). A comprehensive item generation process was used to build a 45-item pilot Autoimmune Bullous Disease Quality of Life (ABQOL) questionnaire, distributed to 70 patients with AIBD. Experts in bullous disease refined the pilot ABQOL before factor analysis was performed to yield the final ABQOL questionnaire of 17 questions. We evaluated validity and reliability across a range of indices. Australian dermatology outpatient clinics and private dermatology practices. PATIENTS AND EXPOSURE: Patients with a histological diagnosis of AIBD. The development of an AIBD-specific QOL instrument. Face and content validity were established through the comprehensive patient interview process and expert review. In terms of convergent validity, the ABQOL was found to have a moderate correlation with scores on the Dermatology Life Quality Index (R = 0.63) and the General Health subscale of the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (R = 0.69; P = .009) and low correlation with the Pemphigus Disease Area Index (R = 0.42) and Autoimmune Bullous Disease Skin Disorder Intensity Score (R = 0.48). In terms of discriminant validity, the ABQOL was found to be more sensitive than the Dermatology Life Quality Index (P = .02). The ABQOL was also found to be a reliable instrument evaluated by internal consistency (Cronbach α coefficient, 0.84) and test-retest reliability (mean percentage variation, 0.92). The ABQOL has been shown to be a valid and reliable instrument that may serve as an end point in clinical trials. Future work should include incorporating patient weighting on questions to further increase content validity and translation of the measure to other languages. anzctr.org.au Identifier: ACTRN12612000750886.

  17. Keratopathy and pachymetric changes after photorefractive keratectomy and vitrectomy with silicone oil injection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, H; Vesti Nielsen, N

    2000-01-01

    We present a man who, after bilateral excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) for high myopia in the right eye, had repeated retinal detachment surgery with lensectomy and injection of silicone oil. Visual acuity fluctuated in accordance with significant central corneal thickness diurnal...... variation. The case illustrates the possibility of PRK as a predisposing factor for keratopathy after retinal detachment surgery with silicone injection in an aphakic eye....

  18. Linear IgA bullous dermatosis in a patient with renal cell carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Waal, RIF; Van de Scheur, MR; Pas, HH; Jonkman, MF; Van Groeningen, CJ; Nieboer, C; Starink, TM

    Linear IgA bullous dermatosis (LABD) is an autoimmune subepidermal bullous disease with heterogeneous clinical manifestations, characterized by linear deposition of IgA along the epidermal basement membrane zone. We report a patient with a metastasized renal cell carcinoma who developed an extensive

  19. Case Report of Bullous Pemphigoid following Fundus Fluorescein Angiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goktug Demirci

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report a first case of bullous pemphigoid (BP following intravenous fluorescein for fundus angiography. Clinical Features: A 70-year-old male patient was admitted to the intensive care unit with BP and sepsis. He reported a history of fundus fluorescein angiography with a pre-diagnosis of senile macular degeneration 2 months prior to presentation. At that time, fluorescein extravasated at the antecubital region. Following the procedure, pruritus and erythema began at the wrists bilaterally, and quickly spread to the entire body. The patient also reported a history of allergy to human albumin solution (Plamasteril®; Abbott 15 years before, during bypass surgery. On dermatologic examination, erythematous patches were present on the scalp, chest and anogenital region. Vesicles and bullous lesions were present on upper and lower extremities. On day 2 of hospitalization, tense bullae appeared on the upper and lower extremities. The patient was treated with oral methylprednisolone 48 mg (Prednol®; Mustafa Nevzat, topical clobetasol dipropionate 0.05% cream (Dermovate®; Glaxo SmithKline, and topical 4% urea lotion (Excipial Lipo®; Orva for presumptive bullous pemphigoid. Skin punch biopsy provided tissue for histopathology, direct immunofluorescence examination, and salt extraction, which were all consistent with BP. After 1 month, the patient was transferred to the intensive care unit with sepsis secondary to urinary tract infection; he died 2 weeks later from sepsis and cardiac failure. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of BP following fundus fluorescein angiography in a patient with known human albumin solution allergy. Consideration should be made to avoid fluorescein angiography, change administration route, or premedicate with antihistamines in patients with known human albumin solution allergy. The association between fundus fluorescein angiography and BP should be further investigated.

  20. Airway management in a patient with bullous pemphigoid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasir, M.; Khan, F.A.

    2013-01-01

    Airway management in patients with pemphigoid lesions has anaesthetic implications. We report a case of a 23 years old female with bullous pemphigoid who presented with laryngeal stenosis and critical airway narrowing. The airway was initially managed with jet ventilation. Anaesthesia was maintained with propofol infusion and ventilation was performed by introducing a size 10 French gauge suction catheter through the stenotic laryngeal orifice. Thirty minutes into anaesthesia, she developed subcutaneous emphysema and decreased air entry on right side of the chest but remained hemodynamically stable. The airway was further managed by tracheostomy. This case report highlights complications that can occur during the anaesthetic management of such cases. (author)

  1. Bullous lesions, sweat gland necrosis and rhabdomyolysis in alcoholic coma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelakandhan Asokan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 42-year-old male developed hemorrhagic bullae and erosions while in alcohol induced coma. The lesions were limited to areas of the body in prolonged contact with the ground in the comatose state. He developed rhabdomyolysis, progressing to acute renal failure (ARF. Histopathological examination of the skin showed spongiosis, intraepidermal vesicles, and necrosis of eccrine sweat glands with denudation of secretory epithelial lining cells. With supportive treatment and hemodialysis, the patient recovered in 3 weeks time. This is the first reported case of bullous lesions and sweat gland necrosis occurring in alcohol-induced coma complicated by rhabdomyolysis and ARF.

  2. Association of bullous pemphigoid with malignancy: A myth or reality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joycelin Fernandes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bullous pemphigoid (BP is an autoimmune sub-epidermal blistering disorder of the skin. The association of BP with internal malignancy has always been a matter of debate with no consensus reached despite many published case reports and clinical trials. However, we report a hitherto unreported association of BP with squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue, wherein the patient had a recalcitrant downhill course despite adequate treatment measures with control of skin lesions being achieved only following excision of the tumor, and relapse coinciding with detection of metastasis. Hence, given the clinical behavior, it is reasonable to speculate that the association of malignancy was more than co-incidental.

  3. Cornea procurement, preservation and transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson Silva

    1999-01-01

    Our experience on this subject is 40 years and we have seen the developments everywhere during this total period. Cornea procurement has been an unsurmountable problem in a large number of countries, mostly due to social and cultural reasons. The requirements for a simple eye bank to manage the supply for a local hospital are minimal. What is the most important is the donor base. In Sri Lanka nurtured in the traditions of Theravada Buddhism the donor base was easy to prepare. We had no difficulties with Christians and Hindus. For Muslims there are Fatwas in favour of donating eyes. But we always found them to be a reluctant group. But in predominantly Muslim countries, it is imperative that social workers should take up this issue, so those thousands may be helped. In all areas where attempts are made to procure comeas, it is important to have a day-and-night service available at short notice to collect any eyes offered. A trained technician with sterilised instruments to obtain eyes and blood sample must be available at a convenient location preferably in a large hospital. Even in places where the supply is infrequent, it is essential to have the readily-sterilised instruments to proceed to a donor site at short notice. To get eyes, general publicity in mass media alone is not sufficient. Such publicity makes people aware of the need for donor eyes and where a technician/doctor is available. What is more important is to canvass personally after a person has died For this purpose trained social workers may be employed, or the technician can do the motivation, as we do in Sri Lanka. Once eyes are removed, it is essential to pay careful attention to the appearance of the cadaver. It should not (and need not) cause any deformity as such event has a profound negative effect on the campaign. Many different preservation methods have been used over the years. Mc Carey-Kaufmann (MK) medium has been the standard for many years, and gives a life span of 4-5 days. The formula

  4. Nursing diagnoses in patients with immune-bullous dermatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euzeli da Silva Brandão

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: identify nursing diagnoses in patients with immune-bullous dermatosis. Method: a quantitative and descriptive research, carried out in three institutions located in Rio de Janeiro and Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, using the Client Assessment Protocol in Dermatology during a nursing consultation. Simple descriptive statistics was used for data analysis. Results: 14 subjects participated in the study, nine with a diagnosis of pemphigus vulgaris, pemphigus two and three of bullous pemphigoid. The age ranged between 27 and 82 years, predominantly females (11. 14 nursing diagnoses were discussed and identified from a clinical rationale in all study participants, representing the most common human responses in this sample. The application of the Assessment Protocol in Dermatology facilitated the comprehensive assessment, in addition to providing the identification of diagnostics according to the North American Nursing Diagnosis Association International. Conclusion: the nursing diagnoses presented confirm the necessity of interdisciplinary work during the care for this clientele. For better description of the phenomena related to the client in question, it is suggested the inclusion of two risk factors related in three diagnoses of this taxonomy. It is worth noting the contribution of the findings for the care, education and research in nursing in dermatology.

  5. Erythema gyratum repense like eruption in bullous pemphigoid: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojat Eftekhari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Bullous pemphigoid (BP is an autoimmune disease characterized by presence of bullous eruption on the trunk and extremities especially flexural aspects of the limbs. This disease usually occurs in the elderly. The initial presentation of BP is variable. An urticarial or erythematous rash may precede the appearance of the blister formation and can be associated with itch or pruritus. We presented 87 year old bedridden man diagnosed with BP who initially presented with erythema gyratum repens like eruption before blister formation. This case report discusses the presentation of figurate erythema in non-bullous phase of BP for clinicians.

  6. Anatomy and physiology of the cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DelMonte, Derek W; Kim, Terry

    2011-03-01

    The importance of the cornea to the ocular structure and visual system is often overlooked because of the cornea's unassuming transparent nature. The cornea lacks the neurobiological sophistication of the retina and the dynamic movement of the lens; yet, without its clarity, the eye would not be able to perform its necessary functions. The complexity of structure and function necessary to maintain such elegant simplicity is the wonder that draws us to one of the most important components of our visual system. Copyright © 2011 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A case of bullous pemphigoid exacerbated by irradiation after breast conservative radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isohashi, Fumiaki; Konishi, Koji; Umegaki, Noriko; Tanei, Tomonori; Koizumi, Masahiko; Yoshioka, Yasuo

    2011-01-01

    We present a case, considered to be a form of the Koebner phenomenon, of bullous pemphigoid that was exacerbated mainly within the irradiated field after breast conservative radiotherapy. In May 2009, a 60-year-old woman was diagnosed with bullous pemphigoid, which was treated with steroid therapy. The following month, she was diagnosed with breast cancer (invasive ductal carcinoma, pT1cN0M0). After breast conservative surgery in December 2009, conservative radiotherapy to the right breast was performed (50 Gy in 25 fractions). Portal skin showed no serious change (up to grade 1 skin erythema) and no bullous neogenesis during conservative radiotherapy. However, 2 months after conservative radiotherapy, new blisters became exacerbated mainly within the irradiated field but also in the area outside the irradiated field. Increasing the dosage of oral steroid and minocycline resulted in relief of bullous pemphigoid, although patchy skin pigmentation remained especially in the irradiated skin. (author)

  8. Linear IgA Bullous Dermatosis:A Retrospective Study of 23 Patients in Denmark

    OpenAIRE

    Lings, Kristina; Bygum, Anette

    2015-01-01

    Linear IgA bullous dermatosis (LAD) is an autoimmune, chronic bullous disease affecting primarily young children and adults. Studies on LAD are relatively sparse and from Scandinavia we could only find a few case reports. Therefore we decided to conduct a retrospective investigation of patients seen at our department since 1972. The objective is to give a description of the different subgroups of patients with LAD with regard to precipitating factors, demographics, treatments, course of disea...

  9. Neurological diseases and bullous pemphigoid: A case-control study in Iranian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneshpazhooh, Maryam; Khorassani, Javad; Balighi, Kamran; Ghandi, Narges; Mahmoudi, Hamidreza; Tohidinik, Hamidreza; Hamzelou, Shahin; Chams-Davatchi, Cheyda

    2017-01-01

    Neurological diseases are important co-morbidities found in association with bullous pemphigoid. Various neurological conditions (stroke, Parkinson's disease, dementia, epilepsy and multiple sclerosis) have been reported as associations of this bullous disease; whether these are significant has not been definitely proved. However, the presence of neurological conditions is a predictor of poorer prognosis. Our aim was to examine the association of bullous pemphigoid and neurological diseases in Iranian bullous pemphigoid patients. The medical records of one hundred and sixty consecutive bullous pemphigoid patients who presented to the Autoimmune Bullous Diseases Research Center, Tehran, Iran, from 2006 to 2011 were examined for evidence of any neurological disease. The control group comprised of 317 age- and sex-matched subjects. Neurological diseases were seen in 42 (26.4%) patients with bullous pemphigoid and in 29 (9.1%) controls (odds ratio: 3.53 (2.1-5.9), P< 0.001). Comparing cases to controls, stroke was seen in 17.5% versus 4.1%, odds ratio 4.96 (2.49-9.88); dementia in 5.6% versus 1.9%, odds ratio 3.09 (1.08-8.84); Parkinson's disease in 2.5% versus 2.2%, odds ratio 1.14 (0.33-3.94); epilepsy in 2.5% versus 0.6%, odds ratio 4.04 (0.73-22.3); and multiple sclerosis in 0 versus 0.3% odds ratio 1.00 (0.98-1.01). The main limitations of our study were referral bias, retrospective design and a rather low sample size. Neurological diseases in general, and stroke and dementia in particular, were significantly associated with bullous pemphigoid in our study.

  10. Bleb Point: Mimicker of Pneumothorax in Bullous Lung Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelabert, Christopher

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In patients presenting with severe dyspnea, several diagnostic challenges arise in distinguishing the diagnosis of pneumothorax versus several other pulmonary etiologies like bullous lung disease, pneumonia, interstitial lung disease, and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Distinguishing between large pulmonary bullae and pneumothorax is of the utmost importance, as the acute management is very different. While multiple imaging modalities are available, plain radiographs may be inadequate to make the diagnosis and other advanced imaging may be difficult to obtain. Ultrasound has a very high specificity for pneumothorax. We present a case where a large pulmonary bleb mimics the lung point and therefore inaccurately suggests pneumothorax. [West J Emerg Med. 2015;16(3:447–449.

  11. Dermatoses bolhosas auto-imunes Autoimmune bullous dermatoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo R. Cunha

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Dermatoses bolhosas autoimunes são doenças cuja manifestação cutânea primária e fundamental consiste em vesículas e bolhas. Classificam-se conforme a localização da bolha, em intraepidérmica e subepidérmica. Os pacientes produzem autoanticorpos contra estruturas específicas da pele detectáveis por técnicas de imunofluorescência, immunobloting e Elisa. Os recentes avanços da biologia molecular e celular têm permitido conhecer esses autoantígenos, contra os quais os pacientes se sensibilizam e que estão localizados na epiderme ou na junção dermoepidérmica. São doenças de baixa incidência, porém de elevada morbidade e por vezes letais. O objetivo deste trabalho é revisar e descrever os progressos nos conhecimentos de quatro doenças vésico-bolhosas autoimunes: pênfigo foliáceo endêmico (fogo selvagem, pênfigo vulgar, penfigóide bolhoso e dermatite herpetiforme.Autoimmune bullous dermatoses are diseases in which blisters and vesicles are the primary and fundamental types of skin lesion. Their classification is based on the location of the blister: intraepidermal and subepidermal. Patients produce autoantibodies against self-specific structures of the skin detectable by immunofluorescence techniques, immunoblotting and ELISA. Recent advances in molecular and cellular biology have brought to knowledge these self-antigens, against which patients are sensitized, and which are found in epidermis or in the dermo-epidermal junction. These are low incidence, but high morbidity diseases that may be fatal. The aim of this article is to review and describe the progress of four autoimmune vesiculobullous disorders: endemic pemphigus foliaceous (wild fire, pemphigus vulgaris, bullous pemphigoid and dermatitis herpetiformis.

  12. Spherical aberrations of human astigmatic corneas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Huawei; Dai, Guang-Ming; Chen, Li; Weeber, Henk A; Piers, Patricia A

    2011-11-01

    To evaluate whether the average spherical aberration of human astigmatic corneas is statistically equivalent to human nonastigmatic corneas. Spherical aberrations of 445 astigmatic corneas prior to laser vision correction were retrospectively investigated to determine Zernike coefficients for central corneal areas 6 mm in diameter using CTView (Sarver and Associates). Data were divided into groups according to cylinder power (0.01 to 0.25 diopters [D], 0.26 to 0.75 D, 0.76 to 1.06 D, 1.07 to 1.53 D, 1.54 to 2.00 D, and >2.00 D) and according to age by decade. Spherical aberrations were correlated with age and astigmatic power among groups and the entire population. Statistical analyses were conducted, and P.05 for all tested groups). Mean spherical aberration of astigmatic corneas was not correlated significantly with cylinder power or age (P>.05). Spherical aberrations are similar to those of nonastigmatic corneas, permitting the use of these additional data in the design of aspheric toric intra-ocular lenses. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  13. Nummular keratopathy in a patient with Hyper-IgD Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Culican Susan M

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose To report a case of recurrent nummular keratitis in a pediatric patient with Hyperimmunoglobulinemia D syndrome. Methods A retrospective chart review. Results A 14-year-old boy with Hyperimmunoglobulinemia D syndrome (HIDS presented with photophobia and ocular irritation concomitant with disease exacerbation. He was found on exam to have significant nummular keratitis, which responded to a short course of topical steroids. Despite acute response to local immunosuppression, the patient had several recurrent attacks and eventually developed a large corneal scar and decreased vision. After initiation of infliximab therapy his ocular sequelae improved dramatically and his vision returned to 20/20. Conclusion One possible form of end-organ damage associated with HIDS is vision threatening nummular keratopathy.

  14. Comparison of endothelial cell density of organ cultured corneas with cornea donor study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campolmi, Nelly; He, Zhiguo; Acquart, Sophie; Trone, Marie-Caroline; Bernard, Aurélien; Gauthier, Anne-Sophie; Garraud, Olivier; Forest, Fabien; Péocʼh, Michel; Gain, Philippe; Thuret, Gilles

    2014-06-01

    Determination of the endothelial cell density (ECD) by eye banks is paramount in donor cornea qualification. Unbiased measurement avoids wastage and grafts with an increased risk of premature failure. Internal calibration of the counting method is essential, but external validation would add an extra stage in the assessment of reliability. In this respect, data published by the multicenter Cornea Donor Study (CDS) in 2005 is a reference. The aim of the study was to compare ECD determined within a single eye bank, which uses calibrated image analysis software designed for transmitted light microscopy images of organ cultured corneas, with the CDS data determined on specular microscopy images of corneas stored at 4°C. ECD of consecutive corneas retrieved between 2005 and 2013 was determined after exposure to 0.9% NaCl. More than 300 ECs were counted on 3 fields of the central 8 mm. Endothelial cell boundaries were automatically drawn and verified by a skilled technician who performed all necessary corrections. Three thousand fifty-two corneas were analyzed, of which 48.5% donors were >75 years (CDS upper age limit). Between 10 and 75 years, the ECD varied according to donor age exactly in the same manner as in the CDS, but were consistently higher of 100 ± 25 cells per square millimeter (P Atlantic Ocean could be due to (1) differences in counting principles and/or (2) higher shrinkage of the cornea caused by stromal edema in organ culture.

  15. The benefit of preventing exposure keratopathy in icu patient: a case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ocular surface is protected by the tear film, the blinking of eyelids and the lid closure. The tear film provides lubrication of the cornea and also contains antimicrobial substances. Use of muscle relaxants and sedation in patients on ventilator contributes to inadequate lid closure by decreasing the tonic contraction of ...

  16. Bullous impetigo and pregnancy: Case report and review of blistering conditions in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Philip R

    2016-04-18

     Bullous impetigo results from Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) release of exfoliative toxins type A and type B thatresults in flaccid, easily ruptured, bullae in the upper layers of the epidermis.  Physiologic, gestation-associated, and incidental skin changes can occur in pregnancy.  Blisters in pregnant women can occur secondary to either common skin disorders orspecific dermatoses of pregnancy.  To describe a pregnant woman with bullous impetigo and review bullous conditions in pregnant women.  PubMed was used to search the following terms, separately and in combination:  blister, blistering, bullous, gestationis, herpes, herpetiformis, impetigo, pemphigoid, pregnancy, pregnant, psoriasis, pustular, virus. All papers were reviewed and relevant manuscripts, along with their reference citations, were evaluated.  Flaccid, easily rupturing, pustules, which developed into superficial annular erosions with peripheral scale and central healing appeared in a woman of 7-weeks gestation and allergy to penicillin on her lower abdomen, suprapubic region, perineum, buttocks, and proximal legs.  A bacterial culture subsequently isolated methicillin-susceptible S. aureus.  All of the lesions resolved after treatment with clindamycin.  Bullous impetigo should be considered in the differential diagnosis of common skin diseases presenting as blistersin pregnant women.

  17. Concurrent pyogenic granuloma and bullous impetigo of a pregnant woman's finger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Rosie; Cohen, Philip R

    2017-03-15

    Bullous impetigo is a superficial skininfection caused by Staphylococcus aureus (S.aureus). Pyogenic granuloma is a common benigntumor frequently associated with prior trauma.Bullous impetigo and pyogenic granuloma may occurin pregnant women. The features of a pregnant womanwith pyogenic granuloma and bullous impetigoconcurrently present in a lesion on her finger aredescribed. PubMed was used to search the followingterms: bullous impetigo, pregnancy, and pyogenicgranuloma. All papers were reviewed; relevantarticles, along with their references, were evaluatedResults: A red ulcerated nodule with a collaretteof epithelium around the tumor and surroundingbullae appeared on the fifth digit of the left hand of a31-year-old woman who was at 36 weeks gestation. Abacterial culture grew methicillin sensitive S. aureus.An excisional biopsy was performed. Histologicfindings revealed not only a benign vascular tumorwith an infiltrate of mixed inflammatory cells, butalso an intraepidermal blister. She received oralantibiotics and there was complete resolution of thefinger lesion and infection with preservation of digitfunction. Albeit uncommon, pyogenic granulomaand bullous impetigo may concurrently occur in thesame lesion. Therapeutic intervention should focuson treating both the benign skin tumor and theinfection.

  18. Flame figures in linear IgA bullous dermatosis: a novel histopathologic finding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, E; Jan, F; Zimarowski, M J

    2017-11-15

    Linear IgA bullous dermatosis (LABD) is an autoimmune subepidermal blistering disease usually with a neutrophil rich inflammatory infiltrate, and characterized by linear IgA deposition at the basement membrane zone (BMZ), and neutrophil predominant dermal inflammation. We report a case of LABD with numerous eosinophils and flame figure formation, a unique histopathologic finding not previously reported. A 69-year-old woman presented with a rapidly progressive, intensely pruritic rash over forearms, breasts, axillae, hips, and thighs. Thelesions were comprised of annular vesicles and bullae with hemorrhagic crusts and erosions. The clinical differential diagnosis included bullous pemphigoid(BP), LABD, and epidermolysis bullosa aquisita (EBA). A biopsy from a bullous plaque on the wrist revealed a subepidermal blister with neutrophils and numerous eosinophils with flame figure formation.Direct immunofluorescent (DIF) microscopy revealed linear deposition of IgA at the BMZ. Although unusual, the combined findings supported a diagnosis of LABD. Increased eosinophils may be associated with drug-induced LABD and may explain the numerous eosinophils in our case. It is important to be aware of this finding as the pathology may easily be misdiagnosed as BP, or possibly bullousWells syndrome. This case emphasizes that combined clinical, pathologic, and DIF findings are essential in the diagnosis of bullous dermatoses.

  19. GENDER AND AGE RELATED VARIATION IN CORNEA POWER

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-05-01

    May 1, 2014 ... population and how it varies with gender and age. Design: A .... horizontal in orientation. For the purpose of .... race as cornea curvature have been noted to exhibit ... Grosevenor, T. Role of Cornea in Emmetropia and. Myopia.

  20. Mediators of Mast Cells in Bullous Pemphigoid and Dermatitis Herpetiformis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Zebrowska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bullous pemphigoid (BP and dermatitis herpetiformis (DH are skin diseases associated with inflammation. However, few findings exist concerning the role of mast cells in autoimmune blistering disease. Skin biopsies were taken from 27 BP and 14 DH patients, as well as 20 healthy individuals. Immunohistochemistry was used to identify the localization and mast cell expression of TNFα and MMP9 in skin lesions and perilesional skin. The serum concentrations of TNFα, MMP9, chymase, tryptase, PAF, and IL-4 were measured by immunoassay. TNFα and MMP9 expression in the epidermis and in inflammatory influxed cells in the dermis was detected in skin biopsies from patients. Although these mediators were found to be expressed in the perilesional skin of all patients, the level was much lower than that in lesional skin. Increased serum PAF levels were observed in BP patients. Mast cells may play an essential role in activating inflammation, which ultimately contributes to the tissue damage observed in BP and DH. Our findings suggest that differences in the pattern of cytokine expression directly contribute to variations in cellular infiltration in DH and BP.

  1. A rare case of concomitant sicca keratopathy and ipsilateral central facial palsy in Wallenberg’s dorsolateral medullary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Bruyn, Deborah

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe a patient with a right-sided supranuclear facial palsy and concomitant sicca keratopathy of the right eye following right-sided dorsolateral medullary infarction. Methods: Our patient underwent a complete ophthalmologic and neurologic examination including biomicroscopy, fundus examination, cranial nerve examination, Shirmer I test, and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain.Results: A 61-year-old woman presented in emergency with a central facial nerve palsy on the right side and truncal ataxia. Neurologic assessment revealed a concurrent dysphagia, dysarthria, hypoesthesia of the right face, and weakness of the right upper limb. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed an old left-sided cerebellar infarction, but a recent ischemic infarction at the level of the right dorsolateral medulla oblongata was the cause of our patient’s current problems. One month after diagnosis of the right-sided dorsolateral medullary syndrome, there were complaints of ocular irritation and a diminished visual acuity in the right eye. Biomicroscopy showed a sicca keratopathy with nearly complete absence of tear secretion on the Shirmer I test, but with normal eye closure and preserved corneal reflexes and sensitivity.Conclusion: A dorsolateral medullary syndrome can have a variable expression in symptomatology. Our case is special because of the combination of an ipsilateral supranuclear facial palsy with normal upper facial muscle function together with an ipsilateral sicca keratopathy as a result of a nearly absent tear secretion. We hypothesized that the mechanism underlying the patient’s sicca keratopathy ipsilateral to the supranuclear facial palsy involved the superior salivatory nucleus, which is situated in the caudal pons inferiorly of the motor facial nucleus and is most probably affected by a superior extension of the infarcted area in the right medulla oblongata.

  2. "Off-the-Shelf" K2-EDTA for Calcific Band Keratopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Marco E; Ouano, Dean P; Shapiro, Brett; Fong, Andrew; Coroneo, Minas T

    2018-07-01

    To explore the effectiveness of "off-the-shelf" dipotassium-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (K2-EDTA) as an alternative to sodium EDTA as chelation therapy in removal of calcific band keratopathy (CBK). This study was a retrospective case series involving 4 patients with CBK who underwent superficial keratectomy and subsequent chelation therapy with K2-EDTA in a single center (Coastal Eye Clinic) by the same surgeon. Visual acuity and symptomatic relief were the main outcomes measured in our study. All 4 participants in this study were female with an average age of 80.3 years. Three of the patients with reasonable baseline visual acuity experienced improved visual acuity at 1 month. The other patient with multiple ocular comorbidities and severely reduced visual potential reported symptomatic pain relief at 1-month follow-up after the intervention. K2-EDTA seems to be an effective alternative to disodium EDTA in its ability to clear calcific plaques and restore visual function. Because of the logistical difficulties associated with acquiring disodium EDTA, and the relative abundance of K2-EDTA in health-care facilities, we believe that our findings warrant further investigation into its use as a more accessible and cost-effective chelating agent in CBK.

  3. Characteristics of, prevalence of, and risk factors for corneal pigmentation (pigmentary keratopathy) in Pugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labelle, Amber L; Dresser, Christine B; Hamor, Ralph E; Allender, Matthew C; Disney, Julia L

    2013-09-01

    To determine the characteristics of, prevalence of, and risk factors for corneal pigmentation (CP) in Pugs. Prospective cross-sectional study. 295 Pugs > 16 weeks old. Ophthalmic examination of the anterior segment of each eye was performed, including determination of tear film characteristics (Schirmer tear test and tear film breakup time) and corneal sensitivity. Digital photographs of the head and each eye were obtained. Corneal pigmentation of eyes was graded as absent, very mild, mild, moderate, or severe. Signalment and medical history information and American Kennel Club registration status were recorded. Results-CP was detected in at least 1 eye of 243 of the 295 (82.4%) Pugs; CP was typically very mild or mild. Detection of CP was not significantly associated with coat color, age, eyelid conformation, or tear film characteristics but was significantly associated with sex of dogs. The severity of CP was not significantly associated with American Kennel Club registration status or age, but was significantly associated with sex, tear film characteristics, and coat color. Iris hypoplasia was detected in 72.1% of the Pugs. Iris-to-iris persistent pupillary membranes were detected in 85.3% of the Pugs. Prevalence of CP in Pugs in this study was high. Unexpectedly high prevalences of iris hypoplasia and persistent pupillary membranes were also identified. The condition identified in these Pugs was a pigmentary keratopathy, rather than pigmentary keratitis or corneal melanosis. This condition may have a genetic basis, and further studies are warranted to determine etiology.

  4. Bullous pemphigoid associated with chronic hepatitis C virus infection in a hepatitis B virus endemic area: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hyunil; Jin, Young-Joo; Yoon, Chang Hwi; Kim, Cheol-Woo; Kim, Lucia

    2018-04-01

    Bullous pemphigoid is a type of acute or chronic autoimmune disease that involves subepidermal skin lesions with bulla formation. Although viral infections, such as, human herpes virus (HHV), human immunodeficiency virus, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, HHV-6, hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV), are known factors of bullous pemphigoid, HCV infection has only been rarely associated factor, especially in HBV endemic area. A 78-year-old man was admitted to our hospital due to erythematous bulla of onset 3 months before presentation affecting his entire body. Pathologic findings, that is, subepidermal bullae containing eosinophils and neutrophils with superficial perivascular lymphocytic and eosinophilic infiltration, were consistent with bullous pemphigoid. Anti-HCV was positive and HCV quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was 1.25 x 10 IU/mL. HCV genotype was 2a. After a diagnosis of bullous pemphigoid associated with chronic HCV infection was reached, he was treated with oral methylprednisolone for bullous pemphigoid, and his skin lesions improved. Oral direct-acting antiviral agents (sofosbuvir plus ribavirin) were prescribed for chronic hepatitis C, and sustained viral response was achieved. The authors report a rare case of bullous pemphigoid associated with chronic HCV infection in a HBV endemic area and advise that HCV should be considered in the differential diagnosis of factors precipitating bullous pemphigoid, even in HBV endemic areas.

  5. A 12-year retrospective review of bullous systemic lupus erythematosus in cutaneous and systemic lupus erythematosus patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanprapaph, K; Sawatwarakul, S; Vachiramon, V

    2017-10-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical features, laboratory findings, systemic manifestations, treatment and outcome of patients with bullous systemic lupus erythematosus in a tertiary care center in Thailand. Methods We performed a retrospective review from 2002 to 2014 of all patients who fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for bullous systemic lupus erythematosus to evaluate for the clinical characteristics, extracutaneous involvement, histopathologic features, immunofluorescence pattern, serological abnormalities, internal organ involvement, treatments and outcome. Results Among 5149 patients with cutaneous lupus erythematosus and/or systemic lupus erythematosus, 15 developed vesiculobullous lesions. Ten patients had validation of the diagnosis of bullous systemic lupus erythematosus, accounting for 0.19%. Bullous systemic lupus erythematosus occurred after the diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus in six patients with a median onset of 2.5 months (0-89). Four out of 10 patients developed bullous systemic lupus erythematosus simultaneously with systemic lupus erythematosus. Hematologic abnormalities and renal involvement were found in 100% and 90%, respectively. Polyarthritis (40%) and serositis (40%) were less frequently seen. Systemic corticosteroids, immunosuppressants, antimalarials and dapsone offered resolution of cutaneous lesions. Conclusion Bullous systemic lupus erythematosus is an uncommon presentation of systemic lupus erythematosus. Blistering can occur following or simultaneously with established systemic lupus erythematosus. We propose that clinicians should carefully search for systemic involvement, especially hematologic and renal impairment, in patients presenting with bullous systemic lupus erythematosus.

  6. Lectin receptors in the human cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, M J; Mannis, M J; Lund, J; Jacobs, L

    Five different biotin labeled lectins, Concanavalin-A (Con A), wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), Ricinus communis agglutinin I (RCA1), Ulex europaeus agglutinin (UEA1), and soybean agglutinin (SBA) were used to study lectin receptors on formalin-fixed paraffin embedded human corneas. Con A stained the cytoplasm, cell, and nuclear membranes of the epithelial cells and stained the stroma diffusely. WGA stained the superficial epithelial cells, the epithelial cell membranes, and the keratocytes of the stroma. SBA did not react with any of the corneal layers. RCA1 heavily stained the keratocytes but did not stain the epithelium. UEA1 lightly stained the epithelial cell cytoplasm and interstitial stroma. All staining reactions could be abolished by omission of the lectin or by the use of the appropriate inhibitory sugar. The lectin binding patterns reported here provide a means for further investigation of carbohydrate structures in the human cornea in both normal and disease states.

  7. Diffusion of protein through the human cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charalel, Resmi A; Engberg, Kristin; Noolandi, Jaan; Cochran, Jennifer R; Frank, Curtis; Ta, Christopher N

    2012-01-01

    To determine the rate of diffusion of myoglobin and bovine serum albumin (BSA) through the human cornea. These small proteins have hydrodynamic diameters of approximately 4.4 and 7.2 nm, and molecular weights of 16.7 and 66 kDa, for myoglobin and BSA, respectively. Diffusion coefficients were measured using a diffusion chamber where the protein of interest and balanced salt solution were in different chambers separated by an ex vivo human cornea. Protein concentrations in the balanced salt solution chamber were measured over time. Diffusion coefficients were calculated using equations derived from Fick's law and conservation of mass in a closed system. Our experiments demonstrate that the diffusion coefficient of myoglobin is 5.5 ± 0.9 × 10(-8) cm(2)/s (n = 8; SD = 1.3 × 10(-8) cm(2)/s; 95% CI: 4.6 × 10(-8) to 6.4 × 10(-8) cm(2)/s) and the diffusion coefficient of BSA is 3.1 ± 1.0 × 10(-8) cm(2)/s (n = 8; SD = 1.4 × 10(-8) cm(2)/s; 95% CI: 2.1 × 10(-8) to 4.1 × 10(-8) cm(2)/s). Our study suggests that molecules as large as 7.2 nm may be able to passively diffuse through the human cornea. With applications in pharmacotherapy and the development of an artificial cornea, further experiments are warranted to fully understand the limits of human corneal diffusion and its clinical relevance. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Association between bullous pemphigoid and neurologic diseases: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas-de-la-Asunción, E; Ruano-Ruiz, J; Rodríguez-Martín, A M; Vélez García-Nieto, A; Moreno-Giménez, J C

    2014-11-01

    In the past 10 years, bullous pemphigoid has been associated with other comorbidities and neurologic and psychiatric conditions in particular. Case series, small case-control studies, and large population-based studies in different Asian populations, mainland Europe, and the United Kingdom have confirmed this association. However, no data are available for the Spanish population. This was an observational, retrospective, case-control study with 1:2 matching. Fifty-four patients with bullous pemphigoid were selected. We compared the percentage of patients in each group with concurrent neurologic conditions, ischemic heart disease, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and solid tumors using univariate logistic regression. An association model was constructed with conditional multiple logistic regression. The case group had a significantly higher percentage of patients with cerebrovascular accident and/or transient ischemic attack (odds ratio [OR], 3.06; 95% CI, 1.19-7.87], dementia (OR, 5.52; 95% CI, 2.19-13.93), and Parkinson disease (OR, 5; 95% CI, 1.57-15.94). A significantly higher percentage of cases had neurologic conditions (OR, 6.34; 95% CI, 2.89-13.91). Dementia and Parkinson disease were independently associated with bullous pemphigoid in the multivariate analysis. Patients with bullous pemphigoid have a higher frequency of neurologic conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  9. Whole body application of a potent topical corticosteroid for bullous pemphigoid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terra, J. B.; Potze, W. J. B.; Jonkman, M. F.

    BackgroundCurrent standard of treatment of bullous pemphigoid (BP) is systemic oral corticosteroids (CS). However, significant iatrogenic morbidity and mortality is reported. Studies have shown that topical potent CS is safer than oral prednisolone in BP. ObjectivesTo examine the local and systemic

  10. Nursing diagnoses in patients with immune-bullous dermatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, Euzeli da Silva; Santos, Iraci Dos; Lanzillotti, Regina Serrão; Ferreira, Adriano Menis; Gamba, Mônica Antar; Azulay-Abulafia, Luna

    2016-08-15

    identify nursing diagnoses in patients with immune-bullous dermatosis. a quantitative and descriptive research, carried out in three institutions located in Rio de Janeiro and Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, using the Client Assessment Protocol in Dermatology during a nursing consultation. Simple descriptive statistics was used for data analysis. 14 subjects participated in the study, nine with a diagnosis of pemphigus vulgaris, pemphigus two and three of bullous pemphigoid. The age ranged between 27 and 82 years, predominantly females (11). 14 nursing diagnoses were discussed and identified from a clinical rationale in all study participants, representing the most common human responses in this sample. The application of the Assessment Protocol in Dermatology facilitated the comprehensive assessment, in addition to providing the identification of diagnostics according to the North American Nursing Diagnosis Association International. the nursing diagnoses presented confirm the necessity of interdisciplinary work during the care for this clientele. For better description of the phenomena related to the client in question, it is suggested the inclusion of two risk factors related in three diagnoses of this taxonomy. It is worth noting the contribution of the findings for the care, education and research in nursing in dermatology. identificar diagnósticos de enfermagem em clientes com dermatoses imunobolhosas. pesquisa quantitativa e descritiva, realizada em três instituições localizadas no Rio de Janeiro e no Mato Grosso do Sul-Brasil, aplicando o Protocolo de Avaliação do Cliente em Dermatologia, durante consulta de enfermagem. Utilizou-se a estatística descritiva simples para análise dos dados. participaram do estudo 14 sujeitos, nove com diagnóstico médico de pênfigo vulgar, dois de foliáceo e três de penfigoide bolhoso. A idade variou entre 27 e 82 anos, predominando 11 pessoas do sexo feminino. Foram discutidos 14 diagnósticos de enfermagem

  11. Dynamic Sensing of Cornea Deformation during an Air Puff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Kenji; Yamasaki, Naoyuki; Gosho, Takumi; Kiuchi, Yoshiaki; Takenaka, Jouji; Higashimori, Mitsuru; Kaneko, Makoto

    In early diagnosis of glancoma, intraocular pressure measurement is one of an important method. Non-contact method has measured eye pressure through the deformation of cornea during the increase of the force due to air puff. The deformation is influenced by the cornea stiffness as well as the eye internal pressure. Since the cornea stiffness is unknown in general, it is difficult to evaluate the ture eye pressure. The dynamic behavior of cornea under air puff may provide us with a good hint for evaluating the cornea stiffness appropriately. For this purpose, we develop the sensing system composed of a high speed camera, a mirror for producing a virtual camera, a non-contact tonometer and a slit light source. This system enables us to measure the cornea deformation under concave shape. We show the experimental data for human eyes as well as an artificial eye made by transparent material.

  12. Early cystic bleb needling revision after glaucoma filtering surgery with toxic keratopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yu. Petrov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical case of high thin-wall cystic limited filtering bleb needling revision in the early post-op period after trabeculectomy with sinusotomy accompanied by toxic keratopathy is presented. Optical coherence tomography (OCT demonstrated that filtering bleb height was 2700 μm and bleb wall thickness was 70 μm. Bleb needling revision with its lateralwall dissection and subconjunctival injection of dexamethasone, fluorouracil, and ranibizumab near to the bleb site was performed. In 1.5 hours after the procedure, bleb height decreased to 550 μm (by 5 times while bleb wall thickness increased up to 100 μm. Topical antibacterial, steroid, and non-steroid anti-inflammatory therapy was recommended. The next day IOP level reduced from 11 mm Hg to 4.5 mm Hg. It was accompanied by choroidal effusion that was managed conservatively with cycloplegic agents (drops and injections for 3 days. On day 6, central corneal edema affecting all layers, Descemet’s membrane folds, and ocular hypertension were revealed. Metabolic therapy resolved corneal edema within 3 days. Re-needling bleb revision decreased IOP level to 6.2 mm Hg. This resulted in transient Descemet’s membrane folds. This paper describes filtering bleb needling revision with its lateral wall dissection and anti-inflammatory, cytostatic, and anti-VEGF agents use to prolong glaucoma filtering surgery effect in excessive scarring. The procedure was accompanied by toxic corneal endothelium decompensation with corneal edema and Descemet’s membrane folds treated with active metabolic therapy.

  13. Genetic background and climatic droplet keratopathy incidence in a Mapuche population from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurr, Theodore G; Dulik, Matthew C; Cafaro, Thamara A; Suarez, María F; Urrets-Zavalia, Julio A; Serra, Horacio M

    2013-01-01

    To determine whether the incidence of and susceptibility to climatic droplet keratopathy (CDK), an acquired, often bilateral degenerative corneal disease, is influenced by the genetic background of the individuals who exhibit the disorder. To determine whether the disease expression was influenced by the genetic ancestry of CDK cases in native Mapuche of the northwest area of Patagonia in Argentina, we examined mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosome variation in 53 unrelated individuals. Twenty-nine of them were part of the CDK (patient) population, while 24 were part of the control group. The analysis revealed the maternal and paternal lineages that were present in the two study groups. This analysis demonstrated that nearly all persons had a Native American mtDNA background, whereas 50% of the CDK group and 37% of the control group had Native American paternal ancestry, respectively. There was no significant difference in the frequencies of mtDNA haplogroups between the CDK patient and control groups. Although the Y-chromosome data revealed differences in specific haplogroup frequencies between these two groups, there was no statistically significant relationship between individual paternal genetic backgrounds and the incidence or stage of disease. These results indicate a lack of correlation between genetic ancestry as represented by haploid genetic systems and the incidence of CDK in Mapuche populations. In addition, the mtDNA appears to play less of a role in CDK expression than for other complex diseases linked to bioenergetic processes. However, further analysis of the mtDNA genome sequence and other genes involved in corneal function may reveal the more precise role that mitochondria play in the expression of CDK.

  14. Excimer laser ablation of the cornea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettit, George H.; Ediger, Marwood N.; Weiblinger, Richard P.

    1995-03-01

    Pulsed ultraviolet laser ablation is being extensively investigated clinically to reshape the optical surface of the eye and correct vision defects. Current knowledge of the laser/tissue interaction and the present state of the clinical evaluation are reviewed. In addition, the principal findings of internal Food and Drug Administration research are described in some detail, including a risk assessment of the laser-induced-fluorescence and measurement of the nonlinear optical properties of cornea during the intense UV irradiation. Finally, a survey is presented of the alternative laser technologies being explored for this ophthalmic application.

  15. Advanced Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Cornea in a Child with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lids, conjunctiva, and cornea are affected by the disease process.[3] A case of XP ... In the left eye, almost the entire cornea was involved with a grayish-white, irregular, and ... referring to its characteristic dry pigmented skin. It was also named ...

  16. Remission Time after Rituximab Treatment for Autoimmune Bullous Disease: A Proposed Update Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iranzo, Pilar; Pigem, Ramon; Giavedoni, Priscila; Alsina-Gibert, Mercè

    2015-01-01

    A therapeutic endpoint is a very important tool to evaluate response in clinical trials. In 2005, a consensus statement identified two late endpoints of disease activity in pemphigus: complete remission off therapy and complete remission on therapy, both definitions applying to patients without lesions for at least 2 months. The same period of time was considered for partial remission off/on therapy. These definitions were later applied to bullous pemphigoid and are considered in most studies on autoimmune bullous disease. These endpoints were established for different adjuvant agents, but at that moment, rituximab was not considered. Rituximab is known for the long duration of its effect, and in most studies relapses have been reported later than 6 months after treatment. In our opinion, time to remission after rituximab treatment should be redefined. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Linear immunoglobulin A/G bullous dermatosis associated with ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onoe, Asuka; Matsuura, Daisuke; Terui, Tadashi; Ishii, Norito; Hashimoto, Takashi; Ochiai, Toyoko

    2017-11-01

    Linear immunoglobulin (Ig)A/G bullous dermatosis (LAGBD) is an autoimmune bullous disease characterized by formation of subepidermal blisters and linear deposition of IgA and IgG antibodies along the basement membrane zone (BMZ). The association between linear IgA bullous dermatosis and ulcerative colitis (UC) is well recognized, but reports of UC-associated LAGBD are lacking. We have reported a 24-year-old man suffering from LAGBD associated with UC, which occurred before exacerbations of skin rash. A skin biopsy indicated a subepidermal blister with an infiltration of primarily neutrophils and eosinophils in the dermis. Direct immunofluorescence (IF) studies showed a linear deposition of IgA, IgG and C3c. Indirect IF of human skin revealed IgA and IgG anti-BMZ autoantibodies. Indirect IF of 1 M NaCl-split human skin demonstrated reactivity of IgA and IgG antibodies at the epidermal side. Immunoblotting showed that IgG antibodies reacted to the BP180 NC16a domain and 120-kDa linear IgA dermatosis-1, and enzyme-linked immunoassay detected IgG anti-BP230 antibodies. Administration of prednisolone and diaminodiphenyl sulfone (DDS) via the p.o. route improved skin lesions and bowel conditions. These results suggest that the bowel inflammation observed in UC may have a causative effect of initiation of the immune response to the skin and development of the bullous skin lesions in LAGBD. A combination of DDS and corticosteroid could be a recommended therapeutic option for patients with LAGBD with UC. © 2017 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  18. Autoimmune Subepidermal Bullous Diseases of the Skin and Mucosae: Clinical Features, Diagnosis, and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amber, Kyle T; Murrell, Dedee F; Schmidt, Enno; Joly, Pascal; Borradori, Luca

    2018-02-01

    Autoimmune subepidermal blistering diseases of the skin and mucosae constitute a large group of sometimes devastating diseases, encompassing bullous pemphigoid, gestational pemphigoid, mucous membrane pemphigoid, epidermolysis bullosa acquisita, and anti-p200 pemphigoid. Their clinical presentation is polymorphic. These autoimmune blistering diseases are associated with autoantibodies that target distinct components of the basement membrane zone of stratified epithelia. These autoantigens represent structural proteins important for maintenance of dermo-epidermal integrity. Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is the most common subepidermal autoimmune blistering disease of the skin and mucosae. Although the disease typically presents with a generalized blistering eruption associated with itch, atypical variants with either localized bullous lesions or "non-bullous" presentations are observed in approximately 20% of patients. A peculiar form of BP typically associated with pregnancy is pemphigoid gestationis. In anti-p200 pemphigoid, patients present with tense blisters on erythematosus or normal skin resembling BP, with a predilection for acral surfaces. These patients have antibodies targeting the 200-kDa basement membrane protein. Epidermolysis bullosa is a rare autoimmune blistering disease associated with autoantibodies against type VII collagen that can have several phenotypes including a classical form mimicking dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa, an inflammatory presentation mimicking BP, or mucous membrane pemphigoid-like lesions. Mucous membrane pemphigoid (MMP) is the term agreed upon by international consensus for an autoimmune blistering disorder, which affects one or more mucous membrane and may involve the skin. The condition involves a number of different autoantigens in the basement membrane zone. It may result in severe complications from scarring, such as blindness and strictures. Diagnosis of these diseases relies on direct immunofluorescence microscopy studies

  19. Finite element modelling of cornea mechanics: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talisa Mohammad Nejad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The cornea is a transparent tissue in front of the eye that refracts light and facilitates vision. A slight change in the geometry of the cornea remarkably affects the optical power. Because of this sensitivity, biomechanical study of the cornea can reveal much about its performance and function. In vivo and in vitro studies have been conducted to investigate the mechanics of the cornea and determine its characteristics. Numerical techniques such as the finite element method (FEM have been extensively implemented as effective and noninvasive methods for analyzing corneal mechanics and possible disorders. This article reviews the use of FEM for assessing the mechanical behavior of the cornea. Different applications of FEM in corneal disease studies, surgical predictions, impact simulations, and clinical applications have been reviewed. Some suggestions for the future of this type of modeling in the area of corneal mechanics are also discussed.

  20. [The 2009 performance report of the German cornea banks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrage, N; Reinhard, T; Seitz, B; Hermel, M; Böhringer, D; Reinshagen, H

    2011-03-01

    In Germany, human tissue for corneal and amniotic transplantation is supplied by 27 cornea banks. The Section for Tissue Transplantation and Biotechnology of the German Ophthalmological Society records the cornea banks' activities by means of an annual questionnaire. In 2009, a total of 4,818 corneal grafts were processed by 21 responding cornea banks, and 57% were deemed suitable for transplantation. This ratio is slightly higher than the European average. In addition, German cornea banks released 1,257 amniotic grafts in 2009. German cornea banks are currently facing new regulatory issues due to updated legislation regarding tissue transplantation. Recent updates in European law have limited the cutoff time for postmortem blood sampling to 24 h, and this regulation may lead to a significant reduction in potential donors.

  1. Rudolf Virchow's medical school dissertation on rheumatism and the cornea: overlooked tribute to the cornea in biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margo, Curtis E; Harman, Lynn E

    2015-02-01

    To critique Rudolf Virchow's medical school dissertation on rheumatism and the cornea and to determine whether it might have anticipated his remarkable career in medicine. Review of the English translation of Rudolf Virchow's de Rheumate Praesertim Corneae written in 1843. The dissertation was more than 7000 words long. Virchow considered rheumatism as an irritant disorder not induced by acid as traditionally thought but by albumin. He concluded that inflammation was secondary to a primary irritant and that the "seat" of rheumatism was "gelatinous" (connective) tissues, which included the cornea. He divided kerato-rheumatism into different varieties. The prognosis of keratitis was variable, and would eventually lapse into "scrofulosis, syphilis, or arthritis of the cornea." Virchow's dissertation characterizes rheumatism in terms of chemical and tissue interactions that make little sense in the context of today's knowledge of rheumatic disease and keratitis. Ironically, many of these concepts were made obsolete by the cellular model of disease that Virchow championed. Virchow decided to pursue the study of rheumatism through the cornea because he thought that the cornea was an ideal tissue to study disease. This discernment was passed on to his students whose seminal contributions to general pathology were based on research with the cornea. It is debatable whether Virchow's insight into the importance of the cornea in biomedical research at such an early stage of his career could have predicted his monumental contributions to medicine.

  2. Effects produced by different types of laser in cornea of Guinea pigs: Identification of a laser capable of producing superficial lesions without leaving scars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, A C; Suárez, M F; Crim, N; Monti, R; Urrets-Zavalía, J A; Serra, H M

    2015-10-01

    Climatic droplets keratopathy (CDK) is closely associated with superficial corneal erosions and lack of protective mechanisms against the harmful effects of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) during a prolonged period of time. One of the difficulties in studying the pathogenic mechanisms involved in this human disease is the lack of an experimental animal model. In this paper, a study is conducted on the effects of 4 types of lasers at various powers and time conditions on the normal guinea pig corneas in order to select only one laser condition that reversibly injures the epithelium and superficial stroma, without leaving scarring. Damage was induced in the cornea of Guinea pigs using different powers and exposure times of 4 types of laser: argon, CO2, diode and Nd-Yag, and any injuries were evaluated by biomicroscopy (BM) and optical microscopy. Corneas from other normal animals were exposed to argon laser (350 mW, 0.3s, 50 μm of diameter), and the induced alterations were studied at different times using BM, optical coherence tomography (OCT) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Only argon laser at 350 mW, 0.3s, 50 μm of diameter produced epithelium and superficial stroma lesions. Some leukomas were observed by BM, and they disappeared by day 15. Corneal thickness measured by OCT decreased in the eyes treated with argon laser during the first week. Using TEM, different ultra structural alterations in corneal epithelium and stroma were observed during the early days, which disappeared by day 15. It was possible to develop reproducible corneal epithelium and anterior stroma injuries using Argon laser at 350 mW, 0.3s, 50 μm of diameter. In vivo and in vitro studies showed that injured corneas with these laser conditions did not leave irreversible microscopic or ultra structural alterations. This protocol of corneal erosion combined with exposure to UVR and partial deficiency of ascorbate in the diets of the animals for an extended period of time has been used in

  3. Customized Finite Element Modelling of the Human Cornea.

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    Irene Simonini

    Full Text Available To construct patient-specific solid models of human cornea from ocular topographer data, to increase the accuracy of the biomechanical and optical estimate of the changes in refractive power and stress caused by photorefractive keratectomy (PRK.Corneal elevation maps of five human eyes were taken with a rotating Scheimpflug camera combined with a Placido disk before and after refractive surgery. Patient-specific solid models were created and discretized in finite elements to estimate the corneal strain and stress fields in preoperative and postoperative configurations and derive the refractive parameters of the cornea.Patient-specific geometrical models of the cornea allow for the creation of personalized refractive maps at different levels of IOP. Thinned postoperative corneas show a higher stress gradient across the thickness and higher sensitivity of all geometrical and refractive parameters to the fluctuation of the IOP.Patient-specific numerical models of the cornea can provide accurate quantitative information on the refractive properties of the cornea under different levels of IOP and describe the change of the stress state of the cornea due to refractive surgery (PRK. Patient-specific models can be used as indicators of feasibility before performing the surgery.

  4. Crystalline-Like Keratopathy after Intravenous Immunoglobulin Therapy with Incomplete Kawasaki Disease: Case Report and Literature Review

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    Elif Erdem

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 7-year-old girl had presented with high body temperature and joint pain which continued for 3 days. Because of the prolonged history of unexplained fever, rash, bilateral nonpurulent conjunctival injection, oropharyngeal erythema, strawberry tongue, and extreme of age, incomplete Kawasaki disease was considered and started on an intravenous immunoglobulin infusion. Six days after this treatment, patient was referred to eye clinic with decreased vision and photophobia. Visual acuity was reduced to 20/40 in both eyes. Slit-lamp examination revealed bilateral diffuse corneal punctate epitheliopathy and anterior stromal haze. Corneal epitheliopathy seemed like crystal deposits. One day after presentation, mild anterior uveitis was added to clinical picture. All ocular findings disappeared in one week with topical steroid and unpreserved artificial tear drops. We present a case who was diagnosed as incomplete Kawasaki disease along with bilateral diffuse crystalline-like keratopathy. We supposed that unusual ocular presentation may be associated with intravenous immunoglobulin treatment.

  5. The impact of normal saline on the incidence of exposure keratopathy in patients hospitalized in intensive care units

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    Zohreh Davoodabady

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients in the intensive care unit (ICU have impaired ocular protective mechanisms that lead to an increased risk of ocular surface diseases including exposure keratopathy (EK. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of normal saline (NS on the incidence and severity of EK in critically ill patients. Materials and Methods: This single-blind randomized controlled trial was conducted on 50 patients admitted to ICUs. The participants were selected through purposive sampling. One eye of each patient, randomly was allocated to intervention group (standard care with NS and the other eye to control group (standard care. In each patient, one eye (control group randomly received standard care and the other eye (intervention group received NS every 6 h in addition to standard care. The presence and severity of keratopathy was assessed daily until day 7 of hospitalization using fluorescein and an ophthalmoscope with cobalt blue filter. Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis in SPSS software. Results: Before the study ( first day there were no statistically significant differences in the incidence and severity of EK between groups. Although, the incidence and severity of EK after the study (7th day was higher in the intervention group compared to the control group, their differences were not statistically significant. Although, the incidence and severity of EK, from the 1st day until the 7th, increased within both groups, this increase was statistically significant only in the intervention (NS group. Conclusions: The use of NS as eye care in patients hospitalized in ICUs can increase the incidence and severity of EK and is not recommended.

  6. Penfigoide bolhoso no adulto mais jovem: relato de três casos Bullous pemphigoid in younger adults: three case reports

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    Roberta Richter Zanella

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available O penfigoide bolhoso é uma dermatose bolhosa autoimune subepidérmica, mais comumente observada na população idosa (acima dos 70 anos. Autoanticorpos são formados contra antígenos específicos da zona de membrana basal: BP180 e BP230 (proteínas do hemidesmossomo. Apresentamos três casos de penfigoide bolhoso, em adultos com menos de 50 anos de idade, destacan do as peculiaridades clínicas na faixa etária mais jovem.Bullous pemphigoid is an autoimmune subepidermal bullous dermatosis more commonly observed in the elderly (over 70 years old. Autoantibodies are produced for specific antigens of the epidermal basement membrane zone: BP 180 and BP 230 (hemidesmosome proteins. We report three cases of bullous pemphigoid in adults younger than 50 years old, discussing the clinical characteristics of the disease in younger patients.

  7. ANALYSIS OF DONOR CORNEA RETRIEVAL DATA- HOSPITAL AND RESIDENCES

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    Rekha Gyanchand

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The voluntary eye donation is still the most popular methods of eye donation in our country. Since last three decades, the voluntary eye donation is promoted by a number of NGOs and Government of India. The meaning of voluntary eye donation is that an individual has prior knowledge about eye donation and also has the contact number of the eye bank. When they come across any death in their community, they will contact the eye bank for eye donation. As per Eye Bank Association of India, the incidence of total blindness is 8.9 million and 1% of this is corneal blindness. Each year, 25,000 to 30,000/new corneal blind patients are added. The voluntary eye donation is not sufficient in providing transplantable corneas to the corneal blind. As our concentration is mainly on voluntary eye collections, this is one of the main reasons that we are unable reach our target of sight restoration in the management of corneal blindness. In this study, we have analysed the voluntary eye donations procured from residence and hospital. The aim of the study is to compare corneas procured by hospital eye donations and residence eye donations to look into all factors that contribute to a transplantable cornea. MATERIALS AND METHODS The donor corneas retrieved from the year 2005-2010 were analysed. The hospital eye donations and residential eye donations were divided into two study groups. The factors analysed were number of corneas collected, donor age and gender, serology test result, death to preservation time (DPT, optical grade cornea, utilisation of corneas for transplantation and role of pledging in eye donation. Study Type- Retrospective study. Study Done- At Lions International Eye Bank, Bangalore. RESULTS The total number of donor eyes collected from the year 2005-2010 were 7362 of which residence collections was 50.73% and hospital collections was 49.26%. The 5-year period between from 2005 to 2010 in spite of not conducting a Hospital Cornea

  8. Thermal lens measurements in the cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, S; Guthrie, S; Cruickshank, F R; Bailey, R T; Foulds, W S; Lee, W R

    1985-02-01

    Q-switched pulses from a neodymium/YAG (yttrium-aluminium-garnet) laser were passed through corneal discs taken from the enucleated eyes of three baboons and four rabbits. The time course of heat dissipation following absorption of laser energy by the tissue was studied with the use of a second continuous wave laser beam acting as a probe. It was found that the absorption of each neodymium/YAG pulse created a transient divergent lens within the cornea as theoretical considerations predicted. The relaxation time that characterised the decay of this thermal lens for a 1/e laser beam diameter of 2.0 mm was found to be 2.3 +/- 0.1 s (mean +/- standard error for 12 separate groups of measurements). Our results show that Q-switched laser pulses passing through apparently unaffected transparent tissues can induce thermal lens effects which persist for several seconds. The optical transfer of each pulse in a stream will be identical only if enough time is left between pulses for the tissues to return to their initial state. Therefore, when such laser pulses sharply focused to perform high precision intraocular surgery are used, thermal lensing in the transparent ocular media must limit the rate at which pulses can be usefully delivered.

  9. Femtosecond lasers for microsurgery of cornea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vartapetov, Sergei K; Khudyakov, D V; Lapshin, Konstantin E; Obidin, Aleksei Z; Shcherbakov, Ivan A

    2012-01-01

    The review of femtosecond laser installations for medical applications is given and a new femtosecond ophthalmologic system for creation of a flap of corneal tissue during the LASIK operation is described. An all-fibre femtosecond laser emitting ∼400-fs pulses at 1067 nm is used. The pulse repetition rate can vary from 200 kHz up to 1 MHz. The output energy of the femtosecond system does not exceed 1 μJ. A specially developed objective with small spherical and chromatic aberrations is applied to focus laser radiation to an area of an eye cornea. The size of the focusing spot does not exceed 3 μm. To process the required area, scanning by a laser beam is applied with a speed no less than 5 m s -1 . At a stage of preliminary tests of the system, the Κ8 glass, organic PMMA glass and specially prepared agarose gels are used as a phantom of an eye. The femtosecond system is successfully clinically tested on a plenty of eyes of a pig and on several human eyes. The duration of the procedure of creation of a corneal flap does not exceed 20 s.

  10. Femtosecond lasers for microsurgery of cornea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vartapetov, Sergei K; Khudyakov, D V; Lapshin, Konstantin E; Obidin, Aleksei Z; Shcherbakov, Ivan A

    2012-03-31

    The review of femtosecond laser installations for medical applications is given and a new femtosecond ophthalmologic system for creation of a flap of corneal tissue during the LASIK operation is described. An all-fibre femtosecond laser emitting {approx}400-fs pulses at 1067 nm is used. The pulse repetition rate can vary from 200 kHz up to 1 MHz. The output energy of the femtosecond system does not exceed 1 {mu}J. A specially developed objective with small spherical and chromatic aberrations is applied to focus laser radiation to an area of an eye cornea. The size of the focusing spot does not exceed 3 {mu}m. To process the required area, scanning by a laser beam is applied with a speed no less than 5 m s{sup -1}. At a stage of preliminary tests of the system, the {Kappa}8 glass, organic PMMA glass and specially prepared agarose gels are used as a phantom of an eye. The femtosecond system is successfully clinically tested on a plenty of eyes of a pig and on several human eyes. The duration of the procedure of creation of a corneal flap does not exceed 20 s.

  11. Collagen cross-linking in thin corneas

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    Prema Padmanabhan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Collagen cross-linking (CXL has become the standard of care for progressive keratoconus, after numerous clinical studies have established its efficacy and safety in suitably selected eyes. The standard protocol is applicable in eyes which have a minimum corneal thickness of 400 μm after epithelial debridement. This prerequisite was stipulated to protect the corneal endothelium and intraocular tissues from the deleterious effect of ultraviolet-A (UVA radiation. However, patients with keratoconus often present with corneal thickness of less than 400 μm and could have otherwise benefited from this procedure. A few modifications of the standard procedure have been suggested to benefit these patients without a compromise in safety. Transepithelial cross-linking, pachymetry-guided epithelial debridement before cross-linking, and the use of hypoosmolar riboflavin are some of the techniques that have been attempted. Although clinical data is limited at the present time, these techniques are worth considering in patients with thin corneas. Further studies are needed to scientifically establish their efficacy and safety.

  12. Factors influencing the virological testing of cornea donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röck, Tobias; Beck, Robert; Jürgens, Stefan; Bartz-Schmidt, Karl Ulrich; Bramkamp, Matthias; Thaler, Sebastian; Röck, Daniel

    2017-11-01

    To assess the influence of donor, environment, and logistical factors on the results of virological testing of blood samples from cornea donors.Data from 670 consecutive cornea donors were analyzed retrospectively. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the influence of different factors on the results of virological testing of blood samples from cornea donors.The mean annual rate of donors with serology-reactive or not evaluable result was 14.8% (99 of 670) (range 11.9%-16.9%). The cause of donor death by cancer increased the risk of serology-reactive or not evaluable result (P = .0300). Prolonged time between death and post mortem blood removal was associated with a higher rate of serology-reactive or not evaluable result (P donors, sex, and donor age had no significant impact on the results of virological testing of blood samples from cornea donors.The cause of donor death by cancer and a prolonged time between death and post mortem blood removal seem to be mainly responsible for serology-reactive or not evaluable result of blood samples from cornea donors. The percentage of discarded corneas caused by serology-reactive or not evaluable result may be reduced by shortening the period of time between death and post mortem blood removal. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The value of Tzanck smear test in diagnosis of erosive, vesicular, bullous, and pustular skin lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durdu, Murat; Baba, Mete; Seçkin, Deniz

    2008-12-01

    Tzanck smear is generally used for the diagnosis of the pemphigus group of autoimmune bullous diseases and mucocutaneous herpesvirus infections. There are only a few studies in the literature investigating its diagnostic value. We aimed to investigate Tzanck smear findings and to determine the diagnostic value of this test in moist (erosive, vesicular, bullous, and pustular) skin lesions. We also aimed to develop an algorithmic approach for the diagnosis of these types of skin lesions according to the Tzanck smear findings. Samples were stained with May-Grünwald-Giemsa and evaluated by the same dermatologist. In some patients, methylene blue and Gram staining or direct immunofluorescence examinations were additionally performed. In all of the study cases, after the evaluation of clinical and laboratory findings (including, when appropriate, potassium hydroxide examination; viral serology; bacterial and fungal cultures; histopathology; direct and indirect immunofluorescence; patch testing), the definite diagnosis was established. We also determined the sensitivity and the specificity of certain Tzanck smear findings. Tzanck smear was performed in a total of 400 patients with moist skin lesions. The sensitivities of multinucleated giant cells and acantholytic cells in herpetic infections, dyskeratotic acantholytic cells and cocci in bullous impetigo, pseudohyphae in candidiasis, acantholytic cells in pemphigus and more than 10 tadpole cells (magnification x100) in spongiotic dermatitis were 84.7%, 92%, 100%, 100%, and 81.5%, respectively. Because Tzanck smears were evaluated by the same dermatologist, no comment could be made regarding the interobserver reliability of this test and how the level of experience with this technique might affect the results. Also, the sensitivity and the specificity of Tzanck smear test findings for certain diseases could not be calculated because of an insufficient number of patients. The Tzanck smear test is an inexpensive, useful

  14. Bullous Variant of Sweet’s Syndrome after Herpes Zoster Virus Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Yuichiro Endo; Miki Tanioka; Hideaki Tanizaki; Minako Mori; Hiroshi Kawabata; Yoshiki Miyachi

    2011-01-01

    Aim: Cutaneous manifestations of Sweet’s syndrome (SS) are typically painful plaque-forming erythematous papules, while bullae are quite uncommon. We present a case of bullous variant of SS in acute myeloid leukaemia. In this case, herpes infection of the left mandible had preceded the development of SS. Case Report: A 75-year-old male with myelodysplastic syndrome first presented with herpes zoster virus infection-like bullae and erosive plaques on the left side of the face and neck. Treatme...

  15. Squamous cell carcinoma of penis with bullous pemphigoid masquerading as lymphogranuloma venereum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopal, V.; Gnanaraj, Pushpa; Fernandes, S. D.; Narasimhan, Murali; Karthikeyan, Subashini; Rahul, Shwetha

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of a 60-year old unmarried male who presented with multiple ulcers and foul smelling discharge from the groin since 4 months and multiple tense bullae over the trunk of 1 month duration. Groove sign was present. Investigations for lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) and other sexually transmitted diseases were negative. Histopathology from the ulcer in the groin and growth in the penis revealed squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Skin biopsy of bulla was diagnostic of bullous pemphigoid (BP). We report a rare case of SCC masquerading as LGV with BP occurring as a paraneoplastic phenomenon. PMID:23919055

  16. Serologic Evaluation of Cornea Donors and Microbiologic Evaluation of Cornea Storage Media in an Eye Bank from Izmir, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palamar, Melis; Degirmenci, Cumali; Sertoz, Ruchan; Aydemir, Sohret; Egrilmez, Sait; Yagci, Ayse

    2017-12-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the serologic positivity of cornea donors and microbiologic positivity of cornea storage media at the Ege University Tissue and Cornea Bank, Izmir, Turkey. We retrospectively investigated the serologic blood sample and microbiological culture media analysis results of all cornea donors at Ege University Tissue and Cornea Bank between 2007 and 2015 with reference to age, sex, and cause of death of each donor. Mean age of the 955 deceased donors was 43.19 ± 15.89 years (range, 2-65 y). The mean postmortem time to blood sample removal and excision of the cornea tissue was 8.4 hours (range, 4-12 h). Serologic analyses showed that 855 donors (89.5%) were seronegative. The remaining donors were seropositive for hepatitis B (54 donors; 5.7%), human immunodeficiency (27 donors; 2.8%), hepatitis C (14 donors; 1.5%), and syphilis (5 donors; 0.5%) virus infections. Microbiologic analyses of the storage media were negative, with no microorganisms shown in 855 samples (89.5%). Candida species (32 donors; 3.4%), Escherichia coli (14 donors; 1.5%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (11 donors; 1.2%), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (11 donors; 1.2%), Enterobacter species (11 donors; 1.2%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (7 donors; 0.7%), Acinetobacter baumannii (6 donors; 0.6%), Proteus species (5 donors; 0.5%), and Corynebacterium species (3 donors; 0.3%) were the detected microorganisms in the infected storage media. False-positive serologic results among cornea donors were high. The incidence of false-positive results might be decreased by earlier blood removal from deceased donors and testing of all potential donors in intensive care units. Although rare, endophthalmitis after keratoplasty might be a devastating problem. In addition to serologic testing, microbiologic analyses of cornea storage media before transplant may be an effective way to prevent postoperative infectious complications.

  17. Identification of the target areas to be resected in patients with non-bullous emphysema by using gas and perfusion SPECT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugi, Kazuro; Ueda, Kazuhiro; Fujita, Nobuhiro; Nawata, Kouichi; Kaneda, Yoshikazu; Nawata, Sumihiko; Esato, Kensuke

    1997-01-01

    Significant improvement of pulmonary function after the volume reduction surgery has been reported in patients with bullous emphysema. However, there has been no successful report in patients with non-bullous emphysema. The reason of failure in patients with non-bullous emphysema should lie mainly on the difficulty to identify the target areas to be resected. We describe how to identify the target areas in the patients with non-bullous emphysema by using gas and perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Twelve patients with non-bullous emphysema were studied by 133 Xe gas and 99m Tc MAA SPECT, which revealed that abnormal retention and low perfusion areas were located in the apex of the upper lobe and the basal segment of the lower lobe. The resections were performed thoracoscopically focused on the target areas by hockey-stick shape resection in the upper lobe and spiral shape resection in the lower lobe without deformity formation of the residual lung. Slight but significant improvement in the pulmonary functions was observed after the surgery in patients with non-bullous emphysema. The Xe gas and Tc MAA SPECT were useful procedures to identify the target areas to be resected in patients with non-bullous emphysema. (author)

  18. A Rare Case of Vancomycin-Induced Linear Immunoglobulin A Bullous Dermatosis

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    Pinky Jha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Linear IgA bullous dermatosis (LABD is an autoimmune vesiculobullous disease, which is typically idiopathic but can also rarely be caused by medications or infections. Vancomycin is the most common drug associated with LABD. Lesions typically appear 24 hours to 15 days after the first dose of vancomycin. It is best characterized pathologically by subepidermal bulla (blister formation with linear IgA deposition at the dermoepidermal junction. Here we report an 86-year-old male with a history of left knee osteoarthritis who underwent a left knee arthroplasty and subsequently developed a prosthetic joint infection. This infection was treated with intravenous vancomycin as well as placement of a vancomycin impregnated joint spacer. Five days following initiation of antibiotic therapy, he presented with a vesiculobullous eruption on an erythematous base over his trunk, extremities, and oral mucosa. The eruption resolved completely when intravenous vancomycin was discontinued and colchicine treatment was begun. Curiously, complete resolution occurred despite the presence of the vancomycin containing joint spacer. The diagnosis of vancomycin-induced linear IgA bullous dermatosis was made based on characteristic clinical and histopathologic presentations.

  19. Aberrant expression and secretion of heat shock protein 90 in patients with bullous pemphigoid.

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    Stefan Tukaj

    Full Text Available The cell stress chaperone heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90 has been implicated in inflammatory responses and its inhibition has proven successful in different mouse models of autoimmune diseases, including epidermolysis bullosa acquisita. Here, we investigated expression levels and secretory responses of Hsp90 in patients with bullous pemphigoid (BP, the most common subepidermal autoimmune blistering skin disease. In comparison to healthy controls, the following observations were made: (i Hsp90 was highly expressed in the skin of BP patients, whereas its serum levels were decreased and inversely associated with IgG autoantibody levels against the NC16A immunodominant region of the BP180 autoantigen, (ii in contrast, neither aberrant levels of circulating Hsp90 nor any correlation of this protein with serum autoantibodies was found in a control cohort of autoimmune bullous disease patients with pemphigus vulgaris, (iii Hsp90 was highly expressed in and restrictedly released from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of BP patients, and (iv Hsp90 was potently induced in and restrictedly secreted from human keratinocyte (HaCaT cells by BP serum and isolated anti-BP180 NC16A IgG autoantibodies, respectively. Our results reveal an upregulated Hsp90 expression at the site of inflammation and an autoantibody-mediated dysregulation of the intracellular and extracellular distribution of this chaperone in BP patients. These findings suggest that Hsp90 may play a pathophysiological role and represent a novel potential treatment target in BP.

  20. Association of Autoantibodies to BP180 with Disease Activity in Greek Patients with Bullous Pemphigoid

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    Aikaterini Patsatsi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available 39 bullous pemphigoid (BP patients were studied to assess the clinical significance of anti-BP180 and anti-BP230 circulating autoantibodies of BP and correlate their titers with the clinical scores of the BP Disease Area Index (BPDAI and the Autoimmune Bullous Skin Disorder Intensity Score (ABSIS as well as with the intensity of pruritus measured by the BPDAI pruritus component. All parameters were evaluated by the time of diagnosis (baseline, month 3, and month 6. Titers of anti-BP180 autoantibodies were strongly correlated with BPDAI (, and ABSIS (, values, as well as with BPDAI component for the intensity of pruritus (, at baseline. At month 3, titers of anti-BP180 autoantibodies were strongly correlated with BPDAI (, and ABSIS (, values, as well as with the BPDAI component for the intensity of pruritus (, . At month 6, titers of anti-BP180 autoantibodies were strongly correlated with BPDAI (, and ABSIS (, values, as well as with the BPDAI component for the intensity of pruritus (, . There was no statistically significant correlation between titers of anti-BP230 autoantibodies and the BPDAI, ABSIS, and BPDAI component for the intensity of pruritus at the same time points.

  1. Matrix metalloproteinase expression in excimer laser wounded rabbit corneas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Taewon; Chamon, Wallace; Akova, Yonja; Stark, Walter J.; Stetler-Stevenson, William G.; Azar, Dimitri T.

    1994-06-01

    This study was performed to obtain information about matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression in excimer-wounded corneas and to determine whether MMPs expression correlates with the depth of the ablation. 6-mm excimer keratectomy (60 or 180 micrometers ) was performed using the 193-mm ArF excimer laser on 12 NZW rabbits. Corneas treated with mechanical epithelial debridement and untreated corneas served as controls. Rabbits were killed at 20 and 30 hr after laser ablation. Zymography after SDS extraction was performed on regenerated central epithelium and the central stroma to determine MMPs expression. We observed enzymatic activity of a 92 KDa band in the epithelium of excimer-ablated corneas but not in that following debridement wounds and untreated controls. The expression of the 92 KDa MMP was most pronounced with the deeper excimer ablation. A 72 KDa band of enzymatic activity present in the stroma of all treated and control eyes was also seen in the epithelium of excimer-ablated corneas. These proteolytic enzymes may play an important role in wound healing and remodelling after excimer keratectomy.

  2. Analysis of Riboflavin Compounds in the Rabbit Cornea In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Arthur; Rudaz, Serge; Guinchard, Sylvie; Kling, Sabine; Richoz, Olivier; Hafezi, Farhad

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the composition and concentration of individual riboflavin compounds in the corneal stroma in vivo after soaking with various commercially available riboflavin formulations. Experiments were performed in 26 rabbit corneas in vivo: 24 corneas were soaked with riboflavin formulations for 30 minutes or with 0.9% NaCl for control (n = 2). After treatment, corneas were excised and prepared for ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC) analysis. Additionally, computational chemical analysis of riboflavin compounds and keratan sulfate were performed. The amount of riboflavin and riboflavin phosphate isomers in cornea decreased by a factor of 10 to 100, when compared to the amount in riboflavin formulations. In particular, we found an inverse relationship in the ratio of riboflavin to riboflavin phosphate isomer concentration between formulations and cornea. The electronegativity and ionization potential of riboflavin and phosphate isomers are different. The inverse relationship observed might be explained by a stronger electronegativity of the phosphate isomers, leading to a stronger repulsion by corneal proteoglycans. Indicating the individual concentration of riboflavin compounds in formulations is more representative than the total riboflavin concentration. Riboflavin formulations and CXL protocols might be improved considering the differences in diffusion and ionization potentials of the different riboflavin compounds.

  3. In vitro confocal imaging of the rabbit cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, B R; Paddock, S

    1990-05-01

    We were able to observe in vitro the fine structure of the rabbit cornea using a laser scanning confocal microscope, especially in the regions between Descemet's membrane and the epithelial basal lamina. We observed submicrometre filaments throughout the stroma with high concentrations adjacent to Descemet's membrane, and found extensive interconnecting processes between stromal keratocytes. There are numerous regions containing nerve plexuses in the stroma. We found a deeply convoluted basal lamina adjacent to the epithelium, and observed regions containing junctions between endothelial cells in fluorescent images of rabbit corneas stained with the actin-specific compound fluorescein phalloidin.

  4. Herpes Simplex Virus Infection Mimicking Bullous Disease in an Immunocompromised Patient

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    Anne L.Y. Lecluse

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Immunodeficient patients are at risk of developing extended or atypical herpes simplex virus infections, which can be easily misdiagnosed. We present the case of a 79-year-old, treatment-induced (oral corticosteroid, immunocompromised female with an extensive atypical herpes simplex virus infection. This patient presented with multiple erosions and vesicles on the trunk with a subacute onset. The clinical differential diagnosis was herpes simplex infection, herpes zoster infection, pemphigus vulgaris or bullous pemphigoid. Due to the atypical clinical presentation and negative Tzanck test, suspicion of viral infection was low. High-dose steroid treatment was initiated. Subsequent histopathology, however, showed a herpes simplex virus infection. After discontinuing steroid treatment and initiating antiviral treatment, the patient recovered within a week. Emphasis must be placed on the importance of clinical awareness of extended and clinically atypical herpes simplex infections in immunocompromised patients. A negative Tzanck test does not rule out the possibility of a herpes infection.

  5. Cutaneous Mucormycosis Following a Bullous Pemphigoid Flare in a Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Patient on Ibrutinib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Matthew K; Karri, Saradasri; Reynolds, Jackson; Owsley, Jeff; Wise, Austin; Martin, Mike G; Zare, Fereshteh

    2018-04-01

    While the recent development of novel therapeutics in oncology, such as small molecule kinase inhibitors (SMKIs), has enabled our ability to target disease-specific molecular pathways, the prolonged impact of these agents on the immune system and infectious risk remains to be seen. We present a 68-year-old male with refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) on ibrutinib monotherapy for 3 years who developed extensive cutaneous mucormycosis following a severe bullous pemphigoid (BP) flare. He received amphotericin B for 4 weeks and was continued on posaconazole with resolution of his mucormycosis infection. Consistent with a growing evidence of literature identifying opportunistic fungal infections in patients on ibrutinib therapy, providers should be cognizant of medical comorbidities that may predispose to such infections and explore methods of prevention before starting ibrutinib and other SMKIs.

  6. Our clinical experience with the use of omalizumab in the treatment of bullous pemphigoid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pınar İncel Uysal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: In the era of biological therapies, omalizumab (OMZ, a monoclonal antibody which inhibits IgE, has been postulated to be effective in the treatment of bullous pemphigoid (BP. We report our clinical experience with the use of OMZ in the treatment of BP. Materials and Methods: Retrospective data analyses of eleven patients were performed. Results: Seven patients receiving OMZ treatment demonstrated clinical improvements. Three patients terminated treatment because of intermittent co-morbidities. None of the patients had any significant adverse events. Conclusion: OMZ may be a promising corticosteroid-sparing treatment option for moderate to severe BP patients. Future randomized controlled trials are indicated to evaluate the efficacy of OMZ in the treatment of BP.

  7. [Humoral immune diseases: Cutaneous vasculitis and auto-immune bullous dermatoses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wechsler, Janine

    2018-02-01

    Humoral immunity is the cause of multiple diseases related to antibodies (IgA, IgG, IgM) produced by the patient. Two groups of diseases are identified. The first group is related to circulating antigen-antibody complexes. The antigens are various. They are often unknown. These immune complexes cause a vascular inflammation due to the complement fixation. Consequently, this group is dominated by inflammatory vasculitis. In the second group, the pathology is due to the fixation in situ of antibodies to a target antigen of the skin that is no more recognized by the patient. This group is represented by the auto-immune bullous dermatoses. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  8. Loss of Work Productivity and Quality of Life in Patients With Autoimmune Bullous Dermatoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heelan, K; Hitzig, S L; Knowles, S; Drucker, A M; Mittmann, N; Walsh, S; Shear, N H

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about quality of life and work productivity in autoimmune bullous dermatoses (AIBDs). To determine the impact of AIBDs on quality of life and work productivity. An observational cross-sectional study took place between February and May 2013 at an AIBD tertiary referral centre. Ninety-four patients were included. All participants completed the Dermatology Life Quality Index and the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment-Specific Health Problem questionnaires. Responders to treatment had less impairment (Pwork missed. Those with a higher Dermatology Life Quality Index score had greater work impairment and overall activity impairment (P=.041, P=.024). Nonresponders had increased impairment while working (Pwork impairment (PWork Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire domains. AIBD has the potential to be a large burden on ability to work and quality of life. Larger studies are needed to clarify how these domains change over time and whether or not they improve with treatment. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Evidence for a role of eosinophils in blister formation in bullous pemphigoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graauw, E; Sitaru, C; Horn, M; Borradori, L; Yousefi, S; Simon, H-U; Simon, D

    2017-07-01

    Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is an autoimmune bullous disease of the skin characterized by subepidermal blister formation due to tissue-bound and circulating autoantibodies to the hemidesmosomal antigens BP180 and BP230. Although eosinophils and their toxic mediators are found abundantly in BP lesions, their role in blister formation has remained unclear. To investigate the role of eosinophils in the pathogenesis of BP with a specific focus on blister formation and to define conditions inducing dermal-epidermal separation (DES). In an ex vivo human model of BP, normal human skin cryosections were incubated with purified human peripheral blood eosinophils with or without activation in the presence or absence of BP autoantibodies, brefeldin A, diphenyleneiodonium, DNase or blocking F(ab') 2 fragments to CD16, CD18, CD32 and CD64. Dermal-epidermal separation was assessed by light microscopy studies and quantified using Fiji software. Following activation with IL-5 and in the presence of BP autoantibodies, eosinophils induced separation along the dermal-epidermal junction of ex vivo skin. Dermal-epidermal separation was significantly reduced by blocking any of the following: Fcγ receptor binding (P = 0.048), eosinophil adhesion (P = 0.046), reactive oxygen species (ROS) production (P = 0.002), degranulation (P eosinophil extracellular trap (EET) formation (P = 0.048). Our results provide evidence that IL-5-activated eosinophils directly contribute to BP blister formation in the presence of BP autoantibodies. Dermal-epidermal separation by IL-5-activated eosinophils depends on adhesion and Fcγ receptor activation, requires elevated ROS production and degranulation and involves EET formation. Thus, targeting eosinophils may be a promising therapeutic approach for BP. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. File list: ALL.Oth.50.AllAg.Cornea [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  11. File list: ALL.Oth.05.AllAg.Cornea [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  12. File list: ALL.Oth.20.AllAg.Cornea [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  13. File list: ALL.Oth.10.AllAg.Cornea [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  14. Thick keratoconic cornea associated with posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaarour, K; Slim, E; Antoun, J; Waked, N

    2017-03-01

    We herein report a case of bilateral unusually thick non-edematous keratoconic corneas with associated endothelial features of posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy (PPCD). We report the case of a 27-year-old myopic woman who presented for refractive surgery. Slit lamp exam showed bilateral corneal protrusion with diffuse deep stromal and endothelial vesicular opacities and small paracentral bands. Topography showed generalized advanced corneal steepening in both eyes with increased anterior and posterior central corneal elevations in comparison to the best fit sphere. Ultrasound pachymetry showed central corneal thickness of 605μm (RE) and 612μm (LE). On specular biomicroscopy, cell density of 2503 cells/mm 2 RE and 1526 cells/mm 2 LE with significant cellular pleomorphism and polymegathism were noted. Clinical and paraclinical findings together suggest the presence of simultaneous keratoconus and PPCD. The literature has suggested an association between PPCD and steep cornea. Moreover, many reports have also described cases of associated PPCD and keratoconus with characteristic thinning and ectasia, in comparison to the unusual thick corneas noted in our patient, despite the absence of edema. Identification of genetics factors is further needed to clarify this association. This case describes a patient whose corneas present features of both keratoconus and PPCD and is unique due to the presence of increased corneal thickness despite the absence of edema. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Mesothelial proteins are expressed in the human cornea

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirsová, K.; Neuwirth, Aleš; Kalašová, S.; Veselá, V.; Merjava, S.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 91, č. 5 (2010), s. 623-629 ISSN 0014-4835 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : cornea * HBME-1 (Hector Battifora mesothelial cell-1) protein * calbindin 2 Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.817, year: 2010

  16. Correlation between epithelial thickness in normal corneas, untreated ectatic corneas, and ectatic corneas previously treated with CXL; is overall epithelial thickness a very early ectasia prognostic factor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanellopoulos AJ

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Anastasios John Kanellopoulos,1,2 Ioannis M Aslanides,3 George Asimellis11Laservision Eye Institute, Athens, 2Emmetropia Mediterranean Eye Clinic, Crete, Greece, 3New York University School of Medicine, NY, USAPurpose: To determine and correlate epithelial corneal thickness (pachymetric measurements taken with a digital arc scanning very high frequency ultrasound biomicroscopy (HF UBM imaging system (Artemis-II, and compare mean and central epithelial thickness among normal eyes, untreated keratoconic eyes, and keratoconic eyes previously treated with collagen crosslinking (CXL.Methods: Epithelial pachymetry measurements (topographic mapping were conducted on 100 subjects via HF UBM. Three groups of patients were included: patients with normal eyes (controls, patients with untreated keratoconic eyes, and patients with keratoconic eyes treated with CXL. Central, mean, and peripheral corneal epithelial thickness was examined for each group, and a statistical study was conducted.Results: Mean, central, and peripheral corneal epithelial thickness was compared between the three groups of patients. Epithelium thickness varied substantially in the keratoconic group, and in some cases there was a difference of up to 20 µm between various points of the same eye, and often a thinner epithelium coincided with a thinner cornea. However, on average, data from the keratoconic group suggested an overall thickening of the epithelium, particularly over the pupil center of the order of +3 µm, while the mean epithelium thickness was on average +1.1 µm, compared to the control population (P = 0.005. This overall thickening was more pronounced in younger patients in the keratoconic group. Keratoconic eyes previously treated with CXL showed, on average, virtually the same average epithelium thickness (mean –0.7 µm, –0.2 µm over the pupil center, –0.9 µm over the peripheral zone as the control group. This finding further reinforces our novel theory of the

  17. Measuring of quality of life in autoimmune blistering disorders in Poland. Validation of disease - specific Autoimmune Bullous Disease Quality of Life (ABQOL) and the Treatment Autoimmune Bullous Disease Quality of Life (TABQOL) questionnaires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinska-Bienias, Agnieszka; Jakubowska, Beata; Kowalewski, Cezary; Murrell, Dedee F; Wozniak, Katarzyna

    2017-03-01

    Autoimmune bullous dermatoses (AIBD) are rare, severe diseases resulting from some antibodies activity against the different adhesion structures within the skin and/or mucosa. Few studies investigated quality of life (QOL) in AIBD by generic and dermatology-specific instruments, all reporting strong impact on QOL. Recently, disease-specific measurement tools have been developed: Autoimmune Bullous Disease Quality of Life (ABQOL) and Treatment of Autoimmune Bullous Disease Quality of Life (TABQOL) questionnaires. The aim of this study was to test the reliability and validity of ABQOL and TABQOL by developing the first foreign language versions and to evaluate ABQOL and TABQOL in Polish patients. The study enrolled 80 patients from the tertiary referral center for AIBD at the outpatient clinic or on admission to the hospital. Sixty six patients completed the 17-item questionnaires of each ABQOL and TABQOL at day 0 and after 5-7 days. Both questionnaires were translated into Polish according to protocol. The internal consistency and test-retest reliability were high (Cronbach α=0.95 for ABQOL, α=0.87 for TABQOL), (R=0.98 for ABQOL, R=0.86 for TABQOL). In convergent validity, the correlation of ABQOL and TABQOL was strong (R=0.81), but low with objective disease activity scales. The strongest impact of AIBD on QOL has been observed in flares and in patients with the onset below 70 years of age. The patients with bullous pemphigoid had the highest QOL compared to other AIBD patients. The ABQOL and TABQOL are reliable and valid instruments for the assessment of QOL in AIBD. Copyright © 2016 Medical University of Bialystok. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A Mouse Model of the Cornea Pocket Assay for Angiogenesis Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhongshu; Zhang, Fan; Li, Yang; Arjunan, Pachiappan; Kumar, Anil; Lee, Chunsik; Li, Xuri

    2011-01-01

    A normal cornea is clear of vascular tissues. However, blood vessels can be induced to grow and survive in the cornea when potent angiogenic factors are administered 1. This uniqueness has made the cornea pocket assay one of the most used models for angiogenesis studies. The cornea composes multiple layers of cells. It is therefore possible to embed a pellet containing the angiogenic factor of interest in the cornea to investigate its angiogenic effect 2,3. Here, we provide a step by step demonstration of how to (I) produce the angiogenic factor-containing pellet (II) embed the pellet into the cornea (III) analyze the angiogenesis induced by the angiogenic factor of interest. Since the basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) is known as one of the most potent angiogenic factors 4, it is used here to induce angiogenesis in the cornea. PMID:21876523

  19. B-cell activating factor detected on both naïve and memory B cells in bullous pemphigoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Hua; Kusuhara, Masahiro; Li, Xiaoguang; Tsuruta, Daisuke; Tsuchisaka, Atsunari; Ishii, Norito; Koga, Hiroshi; Hayakawa, Taihei; Ohara, Koji; Karashima, Tadashi; Ohyama, Bungo; Ohata, Chika; Furumura, Minao; Hashimoto, Takashi

    2014-08-01

    B-cell activating factor (BAFF), an important immune regulatory cytokine, is involved in development of autoimmune diseases. Although BAFF is expressed in various cells, including dendritic cells (DCs) and monocytes, BAFF expression on B cells has not been well documented. In the present study, BAFF molecules on DCs and naïve and memory B cells in autoimmune bullous diseases, including pemphigus vulgaris, pemphigus foliaceus and bullous pemphigoid (BP), were analysed by flow cytometry. Compared with healthy controls (HC), BAFF expression on naïve and memory B cells increased significantly in BP. No difference in BAFF receptor expression in naïve and memory B cells was shown among all study groups. Furthermore, BAFF expression in both naïve and memory B cells of BP, but not HC, was detected by confocal microscopic analysis. These results implied that BAFF expressed by B cells may play a pathogenic role in autoimmune bullous diseases, particularly BP. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Correlation between epithelial thickness in normal corneas, untreated ectatic corneas, and ectatic corneas previously treated with CXL; is overall epithelial thickness a very early ectasia prognostic factor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanellopoulos, Anastasios John; Aslanides, Ioannis M; Asimellis, George

    2012-01-01

    To determine and correlate epithelial corneal thickness (pachymetric) measurements taken with a digital arc scanning very high frequency ultrasound biomicroscopy (HF UBM) imaging system (Artemis-II), and compare mean and central epithelial thickness among normal eyes, untreated keratoconic eyes, and keratoconic eyes previously treated with collagen crosslinking (CXL). Epithelial pachymetry measurements (topographic mapping) were conducted on 100 subjects via HF UBM. Three groups of patients were included: patients with normal eyes (controls), patients with untreated keratoconic eyes, and patients with keratoconic eyes treated with CXL. Central, mean, and peripheral corneal epithelial thickness was examined for each group, and a statistical study was conducted. Mean, central, and peripheral corneal epithelial thickness was compared between the three groups of patients. Epithelium thickness varied substantially in the keratoconic group, and in some cases there was a difference of up to 20 μm between various points of the same eye, and often a thinner epithelium coincided with a thinner cornea. However, on average, data from the keratoconic group suggested an overall thickening of the epithelium, particularly over the pupil center of the order of +3 μm, while the mean epithelium thickness was on average +1.1 μm, compared to the control population (P = 0.005). This overall thickening was more pronounced in younger patients in the keratoconic group. Keratoconic eyes previously treated with CXL showed, on average, virtually the same average epithelium thickness (mean -0.7 μm, -0.2 μm over the pupil center, -0.9 μm over the peripheral zone) as the control group. This finding further reinforces our novel theory of the "reactive" component of epithelial thickening in corneas that are biomechanically unstable, becoming stable when biomechanical rigidity is accomplished despite persistence of cornea topographic irregularity. A highly irregular epithelium may be

  1. Why Does the Healthy Cornea Resist Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, David J.; Fleiszig, Suzanne M. J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To provide our perspective on why the cornea is resistant to infection based on our research results with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Perspective We focus on our current understanding of the interplay between bacteria, tear fluid and the corneal epithelium that determine health as the usual outcome, and propose a theoretical model for how contact lens wear might change those interactions to enable susceptibility to P. aeruginosa infection. Methods Use of “null-infection” in vivo models, cultured human corneal epithelial cells, contact lens-wearing animal models, and bacterial genetics help to elucidate mechanisms by which P. aeruginosa survive at the ocular surface, adheres, and traverses multilayered corneal epithelia. These models also help elucidate the molecular mechanisms of corneal epithelial innate defense. Results and Discussion Tear fluid and the corneal epithelium combine to make a formidable defense against P. aeruginosa infection of the cornea. Part of that defense involves the expression of antimicrobials such as β-defensins, the cathelicidin LL-37, cytokeratin-derived antimicrobial peptides, and RNase7. Immunomodulators such as SP-D and ST2 also contribute. Innate defenses of the cornea depend in part on MyD88, a key adaptor protein of TLR and IL-1R signaling, but the basal lamina represents the final barrier to bacterial penetration. Overcoming these defenses involves P. aeruginosa adaptation, expression of the type three secretion system, proteases, and P. aeruginosa biofilm formation on contact lenses. Conclusion After more than two decades of research focused on understanding how contact lens wear predisposes to P. aeruginosa infection, our working hypothesis places blame for microbial keratitis on bacterial adaptation to ocular surface defenses, combined with changes to the biochemistry of the corneal surface caused by trapping bacteria and tear fluid against the cornea under the lens. PMID:23601656

  2. In vivo confocal Raman spectroscopy of the human cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, N J; Hendrikse, F; March, W F

    1999-07-01

    To investigate the feasibility of a confocal Raman spectroscopic technique for the noninvasive assessment of corneal hydration in vivo in two legally blind subjects. A laser beam (632.8 nm; 15 mJ) was maintained on the cornea by using a microscope objective lens (x25 magnification, NA = 0.5, f = 10 mm) both for focusing the incident light as well as collecting the Raman backscattered light, in a 180 degrees backscatter configuration. An optical fiber, acting as the confocal pinhole for elimination of light from out-of-focus places, was coupled to a spectrometer that dispersed the collected light onto a sensitive array detector for rapid spectral data acquisition over a range from 2,890 to 3,590/cm(-1). Raman spectra were recorded from the anterior 100-150 microm of the cornea over a period before and after topical application of a mild dehydrating solution. The ratio between the amplitudes of the signals at 3,400/cm(-1) (OH-vibrational mode of water) and 2,940/cm(-1) (CH-vibrational mode of proteins) was used as a measure for corneal hydration. High signal-to-noise ratio (SNR = 25) Raman spectra were obtained from the human corneas by using 15 mJ of laser light energy. Qualitative changes in the hydration of the anteriormost part of the corneas could be observed as a result of the dehydrating agent. With adequate improvements in system safety, confocal Raman spectroscopy could potentially be applied clinically as a noninvasive tool for the assessment of corneal hydration in vivo.

  3. Effects of genipin corneal crosslinking in rabbit corneas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, Marcel Y; Narvaez, Mauricio; Castañeda, Juan P

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the effect of genipin, a natural crosslinking agent, in rabbit eyes. Department of Ophthalmology, Universidad Nacional de Colombia Centro de Tecnologia Oftalmica, Bogotá, Colombia. Experimental study. Ex vivo rabbit eyes (16; 8 rabbits) were treated with genipin 1.00%, 0.50%, and 0.25% for 5 minutes with a vacuum device to increase corneal permeability. Penetration was evaluated using Scheimpflug pachymetry (Pentacam). In the in vivo model (20 rabbits; 1 eye treated, 1 eye with vehicle), corneas were crosslinked with genipin as described. Corneal curvature, corneal pachymetry, and intraocular pressure (IOP) assessments as well as slitlamp examinations were performed 0, 7, 30, and 60 days after treatment. In the ex vivo model, Scheimpflug pachymetry showed deep penetration in the rabbit corneas with an increase in corneal density and a dose-dependent relationship. Corneal flattening was observed in treated eyes (mean 4.4 diopters ± 0.5 [SD]) compared with the control eyes. Pachymetry and IOP were stable in all evaluations. No eye showed toxicity in the anterior chamber or in the lens. Corneal crosslinking induced by genipin produced significant flattening of the cornea with no toxicity in rabbit eyes. This crosslinking could be useful in the treatment of corneal ectasia and in the modification of corneal curvature. None of the authors has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2016 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Computational modeling of drug transport across the in vitro cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, Joseph; Chen, Z J; Sun, Kay; Przekwas, Andrzej; Walenga, Ross; Fan, Jianghong

    2018-01-01

    A novel quasi-3D (Q3D) modeling approach was developed to model networks of one dimensional structures like tubes and vessels common in human anatomy such as vascular and lymphatic systems, neural networks, and respiratory airways. Instead of a branching network of the same tissue type, this approach was extended to model an interconnected stack of different corneal tissue layers with membrane junction conditions assigned between the tissues. The multi-laminate structure of the cornea presents a unique barrier design and opportunity for investigation using Q3D modeling. A Q3D model of an in vitro rabbit cornea was created to simulate the drug transport across the cornea, accounting for transcellular and paracellular pathways of passive and convective drug transport as well as physicochemistry of lipophilic partitioning and protein binding. Lipophilic Rhodamine B and hydrophilic fluorescein were used as drug analogs. The model predictions for both hydrophilic and lipophilic tracers were able to match the experimental measurements along with the sharp discontinuities at the epithelium-stroma and stroma-endothelium interfaces. This new modeling approach was successfully applied towards pharmacokinetic modeling for use in topical ophthalmic drug design. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Treatment of Intraepidermal Autoimmune Bullous Diseases Sürekli Eğitim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamer İrfan Kaya

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Pemfigus is an autoimmune bullous skin disease, characterized by intraepidermal blisters. It is a severe and potentially life-threatening chronic disease with blisters and erosions on the mucosae and the skin. Treatment options do not differ for two most common types of pemphigus, pemphigus vulgaris and pemphigus foliaceus, except that the latter is usually less resistant to treatment and corticosteroids can often be started at lower doses. Systemic corticosteroids are still the most widely used drugs in the treatment of pemphigus and continue to be the mainstay of therapy for this disease. Adjuvant drugs are commonly used in combination with the aims of increasing efficacy and of having a steroid-sparing action, thereby allowing reduced corticosteroid side-effects. Mortality and complete remission rates have improved since the introduction of adjuvant drugs to pemphigus. Adjuvant drugs include immunoadsorbtion, corticosteroid pulse therapy, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG, immunosuppressive agents such as azathioprine, cyclophosphamide, mycophenolate mofetil and and anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody (rituximab. The lack of consensus in the published literature about the treatment of this disorder is responsible for different treatment strategies. Treatments need to be chosen after careful consideration of the potential benefits and side effects according to the patients’ medical condition. Here, both conventional therapies and novel treatment regimens for pemphigus are discussed. (Turkderm 2011; 45 Suppl 1: 44-53

  6. Clinical and epidemiological aspects of cornea transplant patients of a reference hospital 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Giovanna Karinny Pereira; de Azevedo, Isabelle Campos; Carvalho, Diana Paula de Souza Rego Pinto; Vitor, Allyne Fortes; Santos, Viviane Euzébia Pereira; Ferreira, Marcos Antonio

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: clinically characterizing cornea transplant patients and their distribution according to indicated and post-operative conditions of cornea transplantation, as well as estimating the average waiting time. Method: a cross-sectional, descriptive and analytical study performed for all cornea transplants performed at a reference service (n=258). Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, version 20.0. Results: the main indicator for cornea transplant was keratoconus. The mean waiting time for the transplant was approximately 5 months and 3 weeks for elective transplants and 9 days for urgent cases. An association between the type of corneal disorder with gender, age, previous surgery, eye classification, glaucoma and anterior graft failure were found. Conclusion: keratoconus was the main indicator for cornea transplant. Factors such as age, previous corneal graft failure (retransplantation), glaucoma, cases of surgeries prior to cornea transplant (especially cataract surgery) may be related to the onset corneal endothelium disorders. PMID:28614429

  7. A case report of central toxic keratopathy in a patient post TransPRK (followed by corneal collagen cross-linking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davey N

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Nicholas Davey, Ioannis M Aslanides, Vasilis Selimis Emmetropia Mediterranean Eye Institute, Heraklion, Crete, Greece Purpose: The purpose of this article is to report a case of central toxic keratopathy in a patient post transepithelial photorefractive keratectomy (TransPRK, followed immediately by corneal collagen cross-linking.Methods: This article describes the case of a 26-year-old male after bilateral aberration-free, TransPRK laser (Schwind Amaris 750S. The procedure was performed for compound myopic astigmatism in November 2015, followed immediately by accelerated corneal collagen cross-linking for early keratoconus.Results: From day 3 post-op, tear film debris underneath both contact lenses with corneal haze and early, progressive central anterior stromal opacity formation only in the left eye were noted. At 2 weeks post-op, the left eye was noted to have a significant hyperopic shift with central corneal thinning in the anterior stroma. A central anterior stromal dense opacity had formed in the left eye with the surrounding superficial stromal haze. As of month 2, the opacity gradually started to improve in size and density. The hyperopic shift peaked at 2 months and continued to improve, largely due to epithelial compensation with a gradual recovery of stromal thickness.Conclusion: The question remains as to what provokes the typical central corneal necrosis/thinning in central toxic keratopathy. We hypothesize that the space between the contact lens and the corneal surface post TransPRK is prone to a “pseudo-interface pathology” that could mimic diffuse lamellar keratitis-like pathology. Suboptimal lid hygiene, resulting in tear film combinations of bacteria, inflammatory cells, matrix metalloproteinases and other proteolytic enzymes, contributes to the degradation of vulnerable, exposed collagen stromal tissue post TransPRK or any surface corneal ablation. Refractive surgeons should maintain a healthy lid margin and tear

  8. Cytogenetic damage and postradiation restoration of eye cornea epithelium of Rodentia characterizing by different radiosensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popova, M.F.; Bulyakova, N.V.

    1983-01-01

    Intensity of beam damage and reparation of eye cornea epithelium of animals inhabiting under different conditions and differing by radiosensitivity has been studied. Mice differing by high radiosensitivity have the hardest cytogenetic damage. Cornea epithelium of bank voles is more radiostable than that of mice. The most negligible damages of cornea epithelium is observed in Mongolian sandwort despite the fact that their total radiation stability is lower than that of bank voles. High protective-restoring properties of eye cornea epithelium of Mongolian sandwort are explained by the structure of epithelium cells diffe-- ring by a large number of cytoplasm

  9. Experimental corneal calcification, hydration and /sup 45/Ca uptake in rabbit corneas incubated in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obenberger, J [Ceskoslovenska Akademie Ved, Prague. Oftalmologicka Laborator; Dobiasova, M; Babicky, A [Ceskoslovenska Akademie Ved, Prague. Isotopova Laborator Biologickych Ustavu

    1974-07-01

    Experimental corneal calcification could easily be produced by a combination of corneal injury (perfusion of the anterior chamber of the eye with a solution of potassium permanganate) amd dihydrotachysterol (DHT) treatment. Rabbit corneas with induced calcification as well as corneas of three additional groups of rabbits, i.e. those treated with permanganate or DHT only and control animals were incubated for two hours in a medium containing /sup 45/Ca. An increased uptake of /sup 45/Ca into the cornea was found in the group of rabbits receiving DHT only. Potassium cyanide added to the incubation medium did not affect corneal hydration nor the final activity of the incubated corneas. (auth)

  10. IgG4 autoantibodies are inhibitory in the autoimmune disease bullous pemphigoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Yagang; Evangelista, Flor; Culton, Donna; Guilabert, Antonio; Lin, Lin; Li, Ning; Diaz, Luis; Liu, Zhi

    2016-09-01

    The IgG4 subclass of antibodies exhibits unique characteristics that suggest it may function in an immunoregulatory capacity. The inhibitory function of IgG4 has been well documented in allergic disease by the demonstration of IgG4 blocking antibodies, but similar functions have not been explored in autoimmune disease. Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is a subepidermal autoimmune blistering disease characterized by autoantibodies directed against BP180 and an inflammatory infiltrate including eosinophils and neutrophils. Animal models have revealed that the NC16A region within BP180 harbors the critical epitopes necessary for autoantibody mediated disease induction. BP180 NC16A-specific IgG belong to the IgG1, IgG3, and IgG4 subclasses. The purpose of this study was to determine effector functions of different IgG subclasses of NC16A-specific autoantibodies in BP. We find that IgG4 anti-NC16A autoantibodies inhibit the binding of IgG1 and IgG3 autoantibodies to the NC16A region. Moreover, IgG4 anti-NC16A blocks IgG1 and IgG3 induced complement fixation, neutrophil infiltration, and blister formation clinically and histologically in a dose-dependent manner following passive transfer to humanized BP180-NC16A mice. These findings highlight the inhibitory role of IgG4 in autoimmune disease and have important implications for the treatment of BP as well as other antibody mediated inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A case report of central toxic keratopathy in a patient post TransPRK (followed by corneal collagen cross-linking).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Nicholas; Aslanides, Ioannis M; Selimis, Vasilis

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to report a case of central toxic keratopathy in a patient post transepithelial photorefractive keratectomy (TransPRK), followed immediately by corneal collagen cross-linking. This article describes the case of a 26-year-old male after bilateral aberration-free, TransPRK laser (Schwind Amaris 750S). The procedure was performed for compound myopic astigmatism in November 2015, followed immediately by accelerated corneal collagen cross-linking for early keratoconus. From day 3 post-op, tear film debris underneath both contact lenses with corneal haze and early, progressive central anterior stromal opacity formation only in the left eye were noted. At 2 weeks post-op, the left eye was noted to have a significant hyperopic shift with central corneal thinning in the anterior stroma. A central anterior stromal dense opacity had formed in the left eye with the surrounding superficial stromal haze. As of month 2, the opacity gradually started to improve in size and density. The hyperopic shift peaked at 2 months and continued to improve, largely due to epithelial compensation with a gradual recovery of stromal thickness. The question remains as to what provokes the typical central corneal necrosis/thinning in central toxic keratopathy. We hypothesize that the space between the contact lens and the corneal surface post TransPRK is prone to a "pseudo-interface pathology" that could mimic diffuse lamellar keratitis-like pathology. Suboptimal lid hygiene, resulting in tear film combinations of bacteria, inflammatory cells, matrix metalloproteinases and other proteolytic enzymes, contributes to the degradation of vulnerable, exposed collagen stromal tissue post TransPRK or any surface corneal ablation. Refractive surgeons should maintain a healthy lid margin and tear film, especially in contact lens wearers, to prevent potential complications in refractive surgery procedures.

  12. Corneal decompensation following filtering surgery with the Ex-PRESS® mini glaucoma shunt device

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    Tojo N

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Naoki Tojo, Atsushi Hayashi, Akio Miyakoshi Department of Ophthalmology, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, Toyama, Japan Purpose: To report a case of corneal decompensation due to the Ex-PRESS® mini glaucoma shunt device (Ex-PRESS.Patient and methods: A 75-year-old man had pseudoexfoliation glaucoma in his right eye. He underwent filtration surgery with Ex-PRESS. His intraocular pressure was 7 mmHg after 9 months.Results: We observed partial decompensation of the corneal endothelium adjacent to the filtering bleb. Specular microscopy revealed a marked decrease in the endothelial cell density at the center of the cornea.Conclusion: Anterior segment optical coherence tomography is very useful for evaluating corneal edema and the position of Ex-PRESS. It is important to follow up with an examination of the corneal endothelial cells. Keywords: Ex-PRESS, bullous keratopathy, trabeculectomy, complication, cornea 

  13. A review of scoring systems for ocular involvement in chronic cutaneous bullous diseases.

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    Lee, Brendon W H; Tan, Jeremy C K; Radjenovic, Melissa; Coroneo, Minas T; Murrell, Dedee F

    2018-05-22

    Epidermolysis bullosa (EB) and autoimmune blistering diseases (AIBD) describe a group of rare chronic dermatoses characterized by cutaneous fragility and blistering. Although uncommon, significant ocular surface disease (OSD) may occur in both and require ophthalmological assessment. Disease scoring systems have a critical role in providing objective and accurate assessment of disease severity. The objectives of this report were, firstly, to document the prevalence and severity of ocular involvement in EB/AIBD. Secondly, to review and evaluate existing ocular and systemic scoring systems for EB/AIBD. Finally, to identify areas where further development of ocular specific tools in EB/AIBD could be pursued. A literature search was performed in October 2017 utilising Medline, Embase, and Scopus databases. The results were restricted by date of publication, between 01.01.1950 and 31.10.2017. The reference lists of these articles were then reviewed for additional relevant publications. Articles of all languages were included if an English translation was available. Articles were excluded if they were duplicates, had no reference to ocular involvement in EB/AIBD or described ocular involvement in other diseases. Descriptions of ocular involvement in EB/AIBD were identified in 88 peer-reviewed journal articles. Findings reported include but are not limited to: cicatrising conjunctivitis, meibomian gland dysfunction, dry eye disease, trichiasis, symblepharon, fornix fibrosis, keratopathy, ectropion/entropion, ankyloblepharon, corneal ulceration, visual impairment and blindness. Although scoring systems exist for assessment of OSD in mucous membrane pemphigoid, no such tools exist for the other AIBD subtypes or for EB. Several systemic scoring systems exist in the dermatological literature that are efficacious in grading overall EB/AIBD severity, but have limited inclusion of ocular features. To the best of our knowledge, there is no recognised or validated scoring systems

  14. Second harmonic generation microscopy of the living human cornea

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    Artal, Pablo; Ávila, Francisco; Bueno, Juan

    2018-02-01

    Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) microscopy provides high-resolution structural imaging of the corneal stroma without the need of labelling techniques. This powerful tool has never been applied to living human eyes so far. Here, we present a new compact SHG microscope specifically developed to image the structural organization of the corneal lamellae in living healthy human volunteers. The research prototype incorporates a long-working distance dry objective that allows non-contact three-dimensional SHG imaging of the cornea. Safety assessment and effectiveness of the system were firstly tested in ex-vivo fresh eyes. The maximum average power of the used illumination laser was 20 mW, more than 10 times below the maximum permissible exposure (according to ANSI Z136.1-2000). The instrument was successfully employed to obtain non-contact and non-invasive SHG of the living human eye within well-established light safety limits. This represents the first recording of in vivo SHG images of the human cornea using a compact multiphoton microscope. This might become an important tool in Ophthalmology for early diagnosis and tracking ocular pathologies.

  15. Visual acuity outcomes in eyes with flat corneas after PRK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varssano, David; Waisbourd, Michael; Minkev, Liza; Sela, Tzahi; Neudorfer, Meira; Binder, Perry S

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate the impact of corneal curvatures less than 35 diopters (D) after photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) on visual acuity outcomes. Visual acuity outcomes of 5,410 eyes that underwent PRK from January 2006 to November 2010 were retrospectively analyzed for the impact of postoperative corneal curvatures on visual outcomes. All procedures were performed on a single platform (Allegretto 200Hz excimer laser; Alcon Laboratories, Inc., Irvine, CA). Main outcome measures were postoperative corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) and loss of CDVA. Corneas with a measured or a calculated postoperative flat meridian less than 35 D and those with a measured postoperative steep meridian less than 35 D had worse postoperative CDVA than corneas with meridians of either 35 D or more (P ≤ .021). However, the preoperative CDVA was worse in the flatter curvatures in all comparisons performed (P ≤ .024). Consequently, the measured or calculated meridian curvature had no effect on CDVA loss (P ≥ .074). Postoperative corneal keratometry values (flat and steep meridians) less than 35 D did not have a predictive effect on the risk of losing visual acuity following myopic PRK performed on the Allegretto 200Hz excimer laser. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  16. Use of Fourier-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography to Evaluate Anterior Stromal Opacities in Donor Corneas

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    Matthew R. Bald

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT as an adjunct to traditional slit lamp examination of donor corneas with suspected Anterior Stromal Opacities. Methods. Seven corneas suspected of having anterior stromal opacities by slit lamp examination were evaluated with FD-OCT. Each cornea was evaluated to confirm the presence of opacity and, if present, the depth of opacity was measured. Results. The opacity depth ranged from 82 μm to 624 μm. The initial slit lamp impressions of five of the seven corneas were confirmed by OCT. In two corneas, the OCT findings were different from the initial slit lamp impressions. Slit lamp examination of the first cornea gave the impression of anterior stromal scarring, but OCT showed that the opacity was limited to the epithelium. Slit lamp examination of the second cornea suggested opacity limited to the epithelium, but OCT identified significant sub-Bowman's scarring. In all cases, the Eye Bank Technicians reported that the location and depth of corneal opacity were more sharply defined by OCT than by slit lamp. Conclusion. The high resolution of OCT makes it easier to determine the location of corneal opacities compared to slit lamp examinations. This enhanced visualization can improve decisions regarding transplant suitability of donor corneas.

  17. Xanthelasmata, arcus corneae, and ischaemic vascular disease and death in general population: prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mette; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; Schnohr, Peter

    2011-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that xanthelasmata and arcus corneae, individually and combined, predict risk of ischaemic vascular disease and death in the general population.......To test the hypothesis that xanthelasmata and arcus corneae, individually and combined, predict risk of ischaemic vascular disease and death in the general population....

  18. Comparison of confocal microscopy and two-photon microscopy in mouse cornea in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun Ho; Lee, Seunghun; Gho, Yong Song; Song, In Seok; Tchah, Hungwon; Kim, Myoung Joon; Kim, Ki Hean

    2015-03-01

    High-resolution imaging of the cornea is important for studying corneal diseases at cellular levels. Confocal microscopy (CM) has been widely used in the clinic, and two-photon microscopy (TPM) has recently been introduced in various pre-clinical studies. We compared the performance of CM and TPM in normal mouse corneas and neovascularized mouse corneas induced by suturing. Balb/C mice and C57BL/6 mice expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) were used to compare modalities based on intrinsic contrast and extrinsic fluorescence contrast. CM based on reflection (CMR), CM based on fluorescence (CMF), and TPM based on intrinsic/extrinsic fluorescence and second harmonic generation (SHG) were compared by imaging the same sections of mouse corneas sequentially in vivo. In normal mouse corneas, CMR visualized corneal cell morphologies with some background noise, and CMF visualized GFP expressing corneal cells clearly. TPM visualized corneal cells and collagen in the stroma based on fluorescence and SHG, respectively. However, in neovascularized mouse corneas, CMR could not resolve cells deep inside the cornea due to high background noise from the effects of increased structural irregularity induced by suturing. CMF and TPM visualized cells and induced vasculature better than CMR because both collect signals from fluorescent cells only. Both CMF and TPM had signal decays with depth due to the structural irregularity, with CMF having faster signal decay than TPM. CMR, CMF, and TPM showed different degrees of image degradation in neovascularized mouse corneas. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Successful Treatment of a Bullous Pemphigoid Patient with Rituximab Who Was Refractory to Corticosteroid and Omalizumab Treatments

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    Aslı Bilgiç Temel

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Omalizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody which is an FDA-approved treatment of severe allergic asthma and inhibits IgE binding to FcεRI. According to increasing evidence of IgE inhibition, omalizumab was suggested as a therapeutic approach for bullous pemphigoid (BP. Rituximab has been reported to be effective in various autoimmune diseases, including autoimmune bullous dermatoses. A specific protocol for the use of rituximab to treat BP patients is not yet available. There are only small case series and case reports about the efficacy and safety of rituximab in BP. Here we present a young BP patient who responded well to rituximab therapy and was refractory to conventional and omalizumab therapies although he had elevated IgE levels and eosinophilia. Our case supports the knowledge about the effectiveness and safety of rituximab not only in pemphigus but also in BP. On the other hand, although it did not work in our case, omalizumab may be a potentially effective agent in some carefully selected patients with certain subtypes of BP.

  20. Tissue Engineering the Cornea: The Evolution of RAFT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levis, Hannah J.; Kureshi, Alvena K.; Massie, Isobel; Morgan, Louise; Vernon, Amanda J.; Daniels, Julie T.

    2015-01-01

    Corneal blindness affects over 10 million people worldwide and current treatment strategies often involve replacement of the defective layer with healthy tissue. Due to a worldwide donor cornea shortage and the absence of suitable biological scaffolds, recent research has focused on the development of tissue engineering techniques to create alternative therapies. This review will detail how we have refined the simple engineering technique of plastic compression of collagen to a process we now call Real Architecture for 3D Tissues (RAFT). The RAFT production process has been standardised, and steps have been taken to consider Good Manufacturing Practice compliance. The evolution of this process has allowed us to create biomimetic epithelial and endothelial tissue equivalents suitable for transplantation and ideal for studying cell-cell interactions in vitro. PMID:25809689

  1. The effects of oral and topical corticosteroid in rabbit corneas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki-Sasaki, Kaoru; Katsuta, Osamu; Mano, Hidetoshi; Nagano, Takashi; Nakamura, Masatsugu

    2016-09-05

    To determine the most effective route of administration of corticosteroids in the treatment of ocular surface disease, by characterizing the difference between oral prednisolone and topical dexamethasone administration using an animal model. Pharmacokinetic analyses determined the corticosteroid concentrations in the normal ocular tissues of rabbits after oral or topical administration of corticosteroids using LC-MS/MS. In wound healing analyses, the area of the epithelial defect created by keratectomy using a 6-mm trephine was calculated with an image analyzer using an orally or topically steroid-administrated animal model. The average size of basal epithelial cells, the frequency of mitotic basal epithelial cells, the number of squamous cells, and the number of hypertrophic stromal fibroblasts were determined in the enucleated corneal tissues after wound closure. By slit lamp examination, no remarkable differences were observed between orally and topically administered groups. Pharmacokinetic analyses showed that the distribution of dexamethasone after topical administration was superior to that after oral administration in the cornea. In contrast, both concentrations of corticosteroid applied topically and orally were similar with regards to AUCs (area under the concentration-time curve) in the conjunctiva. Although the healing rate was slower in the topical group, all corneas were almost healed within 96 h in the wound healing analysis. According to the histological analyses of epithelial cells, the average basal cell size was larger, the frequency of mitotic basal cells was greater, and the number of squamous epithelial cell layers was lower in the topically administered group although all of these differences were with no statistical significance. However, the number of hypertrophic stromal fibroblasts in the topically administered group was significantly lower than that in the orally administered group. There are different distributions and effects between

  2. Xanthelasma palpebrarum with arcus cornea: A clinical and biochemical study

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    Pragya Ashok Nair

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Xanthelasma palpebrarum (XP is characterized by sharply demarcated yellowish flat plaques on upper and lower eyelids. It is commonly seen in women with a peak incidence at 30–50 years. It is also considered as the cutaneous marker of underlying atherosclerosis along with the disturbed lipid metabolism. XP and corneal arcus are associated with increased levels of serum cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol. Aims and Objectives: To study the clinical pattern of XP, its relationship with lipid profile and association with arcus cornea. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted at Department of Dermatology and Opthalmology, between August 2013 and January 2015. Patients with clinical diagnosis of XP who visited skin outpatient department and willing to undergo lipid profile test and eye examination were included in the study. Data regarding demographics, clinical findings, family history, and past history were noted along with the lipid profile details. Data of age-matched healthy controls were taken for comparison. The clinical profile of the participants was presented using frequency and proportions. Gender wise analysis comparing the lipid profile in cases with XP and without XP was done using independent sample t-test. Results: Total 49 patients of XP, 81.6% were females. Maximum, 35% patients were among 50–60 years of age and 69.4% were homemakers by occupation. The average lipid values were-cholesterol 210.57 mg%, triglyceride 123.06 mg%. LDL 142.79 mg% and VLDL 30.95 mg% among patients of XP. Arcus cornea was found in 20% cases of XP. Conclusions: Patients of XP requires proper investigation at the onset and regular follow-up thereafter for any altered lipid profile and early diagnosis of coronary artery disease.

  3. Xanthelasma Palpebrarum with Arcus Cornea: A Clinical and Biochemical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Pragya Ashok; Patel, Chaitali R; Ganjiwale, Jaishree D; Diwan, Nilofar Gulamsha; Jivani, Nidhi Bhimjibhai

    2016-01-01

    Xanthelasma palpebrarum (XP) is characterized by sharply demarcated yellowish flat plaques on upper and lower eyelids. It is commonly seen in women with a peak incidence at 30-50 years. It is also considered as the cutaneous marker of underlying atherosclerosis along with the disturbed lipid metabolism. XP and corneal arcus are associated with increased levels of serum cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. To study the clinical pattern of XP, its relationship with lipid profile and association with arcus cornea. This study was conducted at Department of Dermatology and Opthalmology, between August 2013 and January 2015. Patients with clinical diagnosis of XP who visited skin outpatient department and willing to undergo lipid profile test and eye examination were included in the study. Data regarding demographics, clinical findings, family history, and past history were noted along with the lipid profile details. Data of age-matched healthy controls were taken for comparison. The clinical profile of the participants was presented using frequency and proportions. Gender wise analysis comparing the lipid profile in cases with XP and without XP was done using independent sample t-test. Total 49 patients of XP, 81.6% were females. Maximum, 35% patients were among 50-60 years of age and 69.4% were homemakers by occupation. The average lipid values were-cholesterol 210.57 mg%, triglyceride 123.06 mg%. LDL 142.79 mg% and VLDL 30.95 mg% among patients of XP. Arcus cornea was found in 20% cases of XP. Patients of XP requires proper investigation at the onset and regular follow-up thereafter for any altered lipid profile and early diagnosis of coronary artery disease.

  4. Comparison of the characteristics in hen and quail corneas as experimental models of refractive surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, G C; Pérez-Merino, P; Martínez-García, M C; Barcía, A; Merayo-Loves, J

    2016-07-01

    To compare the histological, morphological and the biophysical measurements between hen and quail corneas, in order to determine which of them were better suited for use as an animal model for research into corneal refractive surgery. A study was performed using the biophysical measurements of the cornea (curvature, thickness, refraction, and axial length) of 20 animals (10 hens and 10 quails). The corneas were then prepared for histological analysis under microscopy light. The analysis showed that both groups have the same number of corneal layers as the human cornea and with an evident Bowman's layer. The thickness of the hen cornea and axial length of the eye, 225.3±18.4μm and 12.8±0.25mm, respectively, were larger than that of the quail (Phen central cornea, 3.65±0.08mm, was greater than that for the quail (Ppower of each cornea was similar. The proportion of total corneal thickness of the hen stroma, 82.6%, was more similar to that of the human than was the quail stroma, 72.5%. Within the hen stroma, the density of keratocytes, 8.57±1.49 per 5,000μm(2), was about half that in the quail stroma (Phen cornea, the stromal thickness and proportional similarity of the corneal layers with human cornea, the hen maybe better than the quail as an alternative species suitable for use in studies of corneal refractive surgery. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Melatonin Entrains PER2::LUC Bioluminescence Circadian Rhythm in the Mouse Cornea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Kenkichi; Davidson, Alec J.; Tosini, Gianluca

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Previous studies have reported the presence of a circadian rhythm in PERIOD2::LUCIFERASE (PER2::LUC) bioluminescence in mouse photoreceptors, retina, RPE, and cornea. Melatonin (MLT) modulates many physiological functions in the eye and it is believed to be one of the key circadian signals within the eye. The aim of the present study was to investigate the regulation of the PER2::LUC circadian rhythm in mouse cornea and to determine the role played by MLT. Methods Corneas were obtained from PER2::LUC mice and cultured to measure bioluminescence rhythmicity in isolated tissue using a Lumicycle or CCD camera. To determine the time-dependent resetting of the corneal circadian clocks in response to MLT or IIK7 (a melatonin type 2 receptor, MT2, agonist) was added to the cultured corneas at different times of the day. We also defined the location of the MT2 receptor within different corneal layers using immunohistochemistry. Results A long-lasting bioluminescence rhythm was recorded from cultured PER2::LUC cornea and PER2::LUC signal was localized to the corneal epithelium and endothelium. MLT administration in the early night delayed the cornea rhythm, whereas administration of MLT at late night to early morning advanced the cornea rhythm. Treatment with IIK7 mimicked the MLT phase-shifting effect. Consistent with these results, MT2 immunoreactivity was localized to the corneal epithelium and endothelium. Conclusions Our work demonstrates that MLT entrains the PER2::LUC bioluminescence rhythm in the cornea. Our data indicate that the cornea may represent a model to study the molecular mechanisms by which MLT affects the circadian clock. PMID:26207312

  6. Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Triggers Onset of Bullous Pemphigoid in a Patient with Advanced Melanoma Treated with Nivolumab

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    Kayo Tanita

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the efficacy of ipilimumab on nivolumab-resistant advanced melanoma is extremely low, additional supportive therapy for anti-PD-1 antibody therapy-resistant advanced melanoma is needed. Although several supportive therapies that enhance the antitumor immune response of anti-PD-1 antibodies have already been reported, unexpected immune-related adverse events were detected at the same time. In this report, we describe a patient with advanced melanoma treated with nivolumab followed by intensity-modulated radiotherapy, which might have triggered bullous pemphigoid (BP. Although several cases of BP developing in anti-PD-1 antibody-treated patients have already been reported, in this report, we shed light on the possible pathogenesis of BP developing in a patient treated with nivolumab through M2 macrophages.

  7. Association of linear IgA bullous disease with ulcerative colitis: a case of successful treatment with infliximab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, S; Makino, T; Jinnin, M; Sakai, K; Fukushima, S; Inoue, Y; Ihn, H

    2013-01-01

    Linear IgA bullous disease (LABD) has been reported in association with inflammatory bowel disease, in particular ulcerative colitis (UC). We reporting a 34-year-old female who developed LABD during a flare-up of UC. We administered infliximab, which has been approved for the treatment of UC; infliximab dramatically improved the cutaneous lesions and bowel symptoms. This is the first report showing a marked effect of infliximab on LABD. First, we hypothesize that infliximab works for UC and then calms down excessive production of inflammatory cytokines and autoantibodies, and so stricter control of UC by infliximab is beneficial against the skin condition of LABD. Second, we suggest that TNF-α production in the lesion of LABD is increased, so TNF-α plays an important role in developing cutaneous lesions. This case suggests that infliximab, a monoclonal antibody against TNF-α, is efficacious in the cutaneous symptoms of LABD.

  8. Nontargeted Effect after Radiotherapy in a Patient with Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer and Bullous Pemphigoid

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    Carsten Nieder

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To describe tumor shrinkage of nonirradiated lung metastases in a patient with non-small cell lung cancer. Case Report. The patient had a concurrent autoimmune condition, bullous pemphigoid, which was clinically exacerbated during radiotherapy of mediastinal and axillary lymph node metastases. He also developed a series of infections during and after irradiation, and we hypothesize that the immunological events during this phase might have influenced the size of the nonirradiated metastases. Conclusion. Ionizing radiation generates inflammatory signals and, in principle, could provide both tumor-specific antigens from dying cells and maturation stimuli that are necessary for dendritic cells’ activation of tumor-specific T cells. Even if the detailed mechanisms causing nontargeted immune modulatory effects in individual patients are poorly understood, clinical development of radioimmunotherapy is underway.

  9. Idiopathic linear IgA bullous dermatosis: prognostic factors based on a case series of 72 adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, J; Ingen-Housz-Oro, S; Alexandre, M; Grootenboer-Mignot, S; Aucouturier, F; Sbidian, E; Tancrede, E; Schneider, P; Regnier, E; Picard-Dahan, C; Begon, E; Pauwels, C; Cury, K; Hüe, S; Bernardeschi, C; Ortonne, N; Caux, F; Wolkenstein, P; Chosidow, O; Prost-Squarcioni, C

    2017-07-01

    Linear IgA bullous dermatosis (LABD) is a clinically and immunologically heterogeneous, subepidermal, autoimmune bullous disease (AIBD), for which the long-term evolution is poorly described. To investigate the clinical and immunological characteristics, follow-up and prognostic factors of adult idiopathic LABD. This retrospective study, conducted in our AIBD referral centre, included adults, diagnosed between 1995 and 2012, with idiopathic LABD, defined as pure or predominant IgA deposits by direct immunofluorescence. Clinical, histological and immunological findings were collected from charts. Standard histology was systematically reviewed, and indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) on salt-split skin (SSS) and immunoblots (IBs) on amniotic membrane extracts using anti-IgA secondary antibodies were performed, when biopsies and sera obtained at diagnosis were available. Prognostic factors for complete remission (CR) were identified using univariate and multivariate analyses. Of the 72 patients included (median age 54 years), 60% had mucous membrane (MM) involvement. IgA IIF on SSS was positive for 21 of 35 patients tested; 15 had epidermal and dermal labellings. Immunoelectron microscopy performed on the biopsies of 31 patients labelled lamina lucida (LL) (26%), lamina densa (23%), anchoring-fibril zone (AFz) (19%) and LL+AFz (23%). Of the 34 IgA IBs, 22 were positive, mostly for LAD-1/LABD97 (44%) and full-length BP180 (33%). The median follow-up was 39 months. Overall, 24 patients (36%) achieved sustained CR, 19 (29%) relapsed and 35% had chronic disease. CR was significantly associated with age > 70 years or no MM involvement. No prognostic immunological factor was identified. Patients with LABD who are < 70 years old and have MM involvement are at risk for chronic evolution. © 2017 British Association of Dermatologists.

  10. A role for smoothened during murine lens and cornea development.

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    Janet J Y Choi

    Full Text Available Various studies suggest that Hedgehog (Hh signalling plays roles in human and zebrafish ocular development. Recent studies (Kerr et al., Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012; 53, 3316-30 showed that conditionally activating Hh signals promotes murine lens epithelial cell proliferation and disrupts fibre differentiation. In this study we examined the expression of the Hh pathway and the requirement for the Smoothened gene in murine lens development. Expression of Hh pathway components in developing lens was examined by RT-PCR, immunofluorescence and in situ hybridisation. The requirement of Smo in lens development was determined by conditional loss-of-function mutations, using LeCre and MLR10 Cre transgenic mice. The phenotype of mutant mice was examined by immunofluorescence for various markers of cell cycle, lens and cornea differentiation. Hh pathway components (Ptch1, Smo, Gli2, Gli3 were detected in lens epithelium from E12.5. Gli2 was particularly localised to mitotic nuclei and, at E13.5, Gli3 exhibited a shift from cytosol to nucleus, suggesting distinct roles for these transcription factors. Conditional deletion of Smo, from ∼E12.5 (MLR10 Cre did not affect ocular development, whereas deletion from ∼E9.5 (LeCre resulted in lens and corneal defects from E14.5. Mutant lenses were smaller and showed normal expression of p57Kip2, c-Maf, E-cadherin and Pax6, reduced expression of FoxE3 and Ptch1 and decreased nuclear Hes1. There was normal G1-S phase but decreased G2-M phase transition at E16.5 and epithelial cell death from E14.5-E16.5. Mutant corneas were thicker due to aberrant migration of Nrp2+ cells from the extraocular mesenchyme, resulting in delayed corneal endothelial but normal epithelial differentiation. These results indicate the Hh pathway is required during a discrete period (E9.5-E12.5 in lens development to regulate lens epithelial cell proliferation, survival and FoxE3 expression. Defective corneal development occurs

  11. Climatic Droplet Keratopathy in Argentina: Involvement of Environmental Agents in Its Genesis Which Would Open the Prospect for New Therapeutic Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, María Fernanda; Correa, Leandro; Crim, Nicolás; Espósito, Evangelina; Monti, Rodolfo; Urrets-Zavalía, Julio Alberto; Serra, Horacio Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    Climatic droplet keratopathy (CDK) is a degenerative corneal disease of unknown etiology. We described CDK for the first time in Latin America in the Argentinean Patagonia (El Cuy). A deeper knowledge of CDK pathogenic mechanisms will provide new therapeutic strategies. For that reason we investigated the prevalence of CDK in El Cuy and its existence in other 3 provinces with similar climate. Patients eyes were examined, habits throughout lives were inquired about, and serum ascorbate (sAA) was determined. All individuals work outdoors for most of the day. All regions had normal O3 levels. Individuals from regions 1, 2, and 3 had very low consumption of vegetables/fruits and low sAA levels. Conversely, region 4 individuals had balanced diet and higher sAA concentrations. CDK was only found in region 3 where individuals had partial deficiency of sAA and did not use eye protection. No CDK was found in regions 1 and 2 where individuals had similar work activities and dietary habits to those in region 3 but wear eye protection. No disease was found in region 4 where individuals work outdoors, have balanced diet, and use eye protection. To summarize, the CDK existence was related not only to climate but also to the dietary habits and lack of protection from sunlight.

  12. Climatic Droplet Keratopathy in Argentina: Involvement of Environmental Agents in Its Genesis Which Would Open the Prospect for New Therapeutic Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Fernanda Suárez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Climatic droplet keratopathy (CDK is a degenerative corneal disease of unknown etiology. We described CDK for the first time in Latin America in the Argentinean Patagonia (El Cuy. A deeper knowledge of CDK pathogenic mechanisms will provide new therapeutic strategies. For that reason we investigated the prevalence of CDK in El Cuy and its existence in other 3 provinces with similar climate. Patients eyes were examined, habits throughout lives were inquired about, and serum ascorbate (sAA was determined. All individuals work outdoors for most of the day. All regions had normal O3 levels. Individuals from regions 1, 2, and 3 had very low consumption of vegetables/fruits and low sAA levels. Conversely, region 4 individuals had balanced diet and higher sAA concentrations. CDK was only found in region 3 where individuals had partial deficiency of sAA and did not use eye protection. No CDK was found in regions 1 and 2 where individuals had similar work activities and dietary habits to those in region 3 but wear eye protection. No disease was found in region 4 where individuals work outdoors, have balanced diet, and use eye protection. To summarize, the CDK existence was related not only to climate but also to the dietary habits and lack of protection from sunlight.

  13. The filtering, clear-cornea diathermal keratostomy: a minor Danish multicenter study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, S.V.; Nissen, O.I.; Thygesen, J.

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: Is the new micropenetrating, clear-cornea procedure, intrastromal diathermal keratostomy (IDK), an alternative to the intricate "modern trabeculectomy"? METHODS: Prospective multicenter study. Four surgeons from 4 Danish eye departments attended an IDK course and subsequently decided whe...

  14. Accelerating repaired basement membrane after bevacizumab treatment on alkali-burned mouse cornea

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    Koon-Ja Lee

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available To understand the corneal regeneration induced by bevacizumab,we investigated the structure changes of stroma andbasement membrane regeneration. A Stick soaked in 0.5 NNaOH onto the mouse cornea and 2.5 mg/ml of bevacizumabwas delivered into an alkali-burned cornea (2 μl by subconjunctivalinjections at 1 hour and 4 days after injury. At 7 daysafter injury, basement membrane regeneration was observedby transmission electron microscope. Uneven and thin epithelialbasement membrane, light density of hemidesmosomes,and edematous collagen fibril bundles are shown in thealkali-burned cornea. Injured epithelial basement membraneand hemidesmosomes and edematous collagen fibril bundlesresulting from alkali-burned mouse cornea was repaired bybevacizumab treatment. This study demonstrates that bevacizumabcan play an important role in wound healing in thecornea by accelerating the reestablishment of basementmembrane integrity that leads to barriers for scar formation.[BMB Reports 2013; 46(4: 195-200

  15. Damage Threshold of In Vivo Rabbit Cornea by 2 micron Laser Irradiation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Bo; Oliver, Jeffery; Dutta, Soumak; Rylander, III, Grady H; Thomsen, Sharon L; Welch, Ashley J

    2007-01-01

    To support refinement of the Maximum Permissible Exposure (MPE) safety limits, a series of experiments were conducted in vivo on Dutch Belted rabbit corneas to determine corneal minimum visible lesion thresholds...

  16. Successful treatment of Fusarium keratitis with cornea transplantation and topical and systemic voriconazole.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klont, R.R.; Eggink, C.A.; Rijs, A.J.M.M.; Wesseling, P.; Verweij, P.E.

    2005-01-01

    A case of invasive Fusarium keratitis in a previously healthy male patient was treated successfully with cornea transplantation and systemic and topical voriconazole after treatment failure with topical amphotericin B and systemic itraconazole. Topical voriconazole was well tolerated, and, in

  17. Inflammation Modulatory Protein TSG-6 for Chemical Injuries to the Cornea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0495 TITLE: Inflammation Modulatory Protein TSG-6 for Chemical Injuries to the Cornea PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Inflammation Modulatory Protein TSG-6 for Chemical Injuries to the Cornea Infla I Inflammation Modulatory Protein TSG-6...anti-inflammatory protein , TSG-6, which has a novel mechanism of action. Chemical injuries of the eye are difficult to treat, and may lead to

  18. Morphology of endothelial cells from different regions of the equine cornea

    OpenAIRE

    Faganello, Cláudia Skilhan; Silva, Vanessa Ruiz Moura da; Andrade, Maria Cristina Caldart de; Carissimi, André Silva; Pigatto, João Antonio Tadeu

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate the morphology of different regions of the equine cornea using optical microscopy. Both healthy eyes of eight horses, male or female, of different ages were evaluated. Corneas were stained with alizarin red vital dye and subsequently examined and photographed using optical microscopy. Corneal endothelial morphology of central, superior, inferior, temporal and nasal areas was assessed. One hundred endothelial cells from each corneal area we...

  19. [The value of methods for morphofunctional analysis of cornea in cataract surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borodina, N B; Kobzova, M V; Musaeva, G M

    2011-01-01

    The characteristics of morphofunctional status of cornea after extracapsular cataract extraction and phakoemulsification with IOL implantation (30 and 58 operations respectively) were analyzed in detail using up-to-date diagnostic techniques. The results of examination using developed algorithm including study of light transmission, refraction and protective function of cornea show advantage of microinvasive ultrasound technique of cataract surgery in terms of minimal impact on corneal structure, optical and biomechanical characteristics.

  20. Taurine effect on cytogenetic lesions in the cornea of mice exposed to 9 Gev proton irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorozhtsova, S.V.; Yartsev, E.I.

    1989-01-01

    Possibilities of preventive measures and treatment of cytogenetic injuries in the mice cornea, subjected to proton irradiation at 9 Gev were studied. Taurine containing solution (TCS) was used as a radiomodifying agent. It is shown that TCS application enables to decrease aberrant mitoses level in cornea epithelium cells of mice. Antiactinic effect of the above agent is determined by its considerable action on mitotic delay

  1. Tear dysfunction and the cornea: LXVIII Edward Jackson Memorial Lecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pflugfelder, Stephen C

    2011-12-01

    To describe the cause and consequence of tear dysfunction-related corneal disease. Perspective on effects of tear dysfunction on the cornea. Evidence is presented on the effects of tear dysfunction on corneal morphology, function, and health, as well as efficacy of therapies for tear dysfunction-related corneal disease. Tear dysfunction is a prevalent eye disease and the most frequent cause for superficial corneal epithelial disease that results in corneal barrier disruption, an irregular optical surface, light scattering, optical aberrations, and exposure and sensitization of pain-sensing nerve endings (nociceptors). Tear dysfunction-related corneal disease causes irritation and visual symptoms such as photophobia and blurred and fluctuating vision that may decrease quality of life. Dysfunction of 1 or more components of the lacrimal functional unit results in changes in tear composition, including elevated osmolarity and increased concentrations of matrix metalloproteinases, inflammatory cytokines, and chemokines. These tear compositional changes promote disruption of tight junctions, alter differentiation, and accelerate death of corneal epithelial cells. Corneal epithelial disease resulting from tear dysfunction causes eye irritation and decreases visual function. Clinical and basic research has improved understanding of the pathogenesis of tear dysfunction-related corneal epithelial disease, as well as treatment outcomes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Biomechanical behaviour - Anisotropy of eye cornea through experimental strip tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsalan Khan, Mohammad; Elsheikh, Ahmed; Khan, Iqtedar Ahmad

    2018-02-01

    With the advent of research it was identified that material properties are responsible for errors in tonometry pressure (referred to as Goldmann IOP or IOPG) with the stiffening of a composite structure of corneal tissue in particular. Strip tensile tests are conducted to determine their stress-strain relationship for the purpose to study the behaviour of material properties of cornea. Specimens are taken from the superior-inferior (vertical) and temporal- nasal (horizontal) directions. Testing is performed on an Instron machine, under different rate of loading conditions. First set of experiment, with single strain rate, is executed on eyes having random population. While the second set of experiment is executed on eyes of the same animal in both directions, and different strain rates are applied each specimen. Relatively, the first set of experiment is found to be slightly different and less accurate. In general, it is found that the vertical specimen is 34% on an average stiffer than the horizontal specimen compared to Kampmeier et al. of 20% (studied in 2000) and Defu Wang of 15% (studied in 2007). Curve fitting coefficients are also evaluated for 4-degree polynomial. The anisotropy is evident by plotting the ratio of E-tangent value of vertical Ev and horizontal Eh against stresses with individual strain rates. The value of Ev/Eh increases with slightly slow rate with stresses as compared to achieved through slow strain rates.

  3. Cross-linking da cornea: protocolo padrão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcony R. Santhiago

    Full Text Available RESUMO O objetivo desta revisão é de determinar as indicações e eficácia da cirurgia que promove novas ligações covalentes entre as fibras de colágeno da córnea, conhecida como Cross-Linking (CXL, assim como esclarecer seus objetivos. O ceratocone é uma doença ectasica da córnea, bilateral, assimétrica, que, principalmente, cursa com encurvamento e afinamentos progressivo, e se inicia em geral na segunda década de vida. O uso primário do CXL tem sido na interrupção da progressão do Ceratocone. Apesar do conhecido encurvamento no estroma da córnea ocorrer nesses pacientes, a fisiopatologia por trás do ceratocone ainda é desconhecida e parece ser multifatorial. Pela evidencia literária disponível até o momento, o CXL da córnea esta, portanto indicado nos pacientes com doença em progressão. Concluímos que existe evidencia suficiente para afirmar que o CXL da córnea é eficaz na estabilização da doença ectásica da cornea.

  4. Polymicrobial Infection of the Cornea Due to Contact Lens Wear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selçuk Sızmaz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A 38-year-old male presented with pain and redness in his left eye. He had a history of wearing contact lenses. His ophthalmic examination revealed a large corneal ulcer with surrounding infiltrate. Cultures were isolated from the contact lenses, lens solutions, storage cases, and conjunctivae of both eyes and also corneal scrapings of the left eye. Fortified vancomycin and amikacin drops were started hourly. Culture results of conjunctivae of each eye and left cornea were positive for Pseudomonas aeruginosa; cultures from the contact lenses, lens solution and storage case of both eyes revealed Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Alcaligenes xylosoxidans. Polymerase chain reaction of the corneal scraping was positive for Acanthameoba. The topical antibiotics were changed with ones that both bacteria were sensitive to and anti-amoebic therapy was added. The patient had two recurrences following initial presentation despite intensive therapy. Keratitis occurred due to multiple pathogens; the relapsing course despite adequate therapy is potentially associated with this polymicrobial etiology.

  5. Wound-Healing Studies in Cornea and Skin: Parallels, Differences and Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowiecki, Anne; Hos, Deniz; Cursiefen, Claus; Eming, Sabine A

    2017-06-12

    The cornea and the skin are both organs that provide the outer barrier of the body. Both tissues have developed intrinsic mechanisms that protect the organism from a wide range of external threats, but at the same time also enable rapid restoration of tissue integrity and organ-specific function. The easy accessibility makes the skin an attractive model system to study tissue damage and repair. Findings from skin research have contributed to unravelling novel fundamental principles in regenerative biology and the repair of other epithelial-mesenchymal tissues, such as the cornea. Following barrier disruption, the influx of inflammatory cells, myofibroblast differentiation, extracellular matrix synthesis and scar formation present parallel repair mechanisms in cornea and skin wound healing. Yet, capillary sprouting, while pivotal in proper skin wound healing, is a process that is rather associated with pathological repair of the cornea. Understanding the parallels and differences of the cellular and molecular networks that coordinate the wound healing response in skin and cornea are likely of mutual importance for both organs with regard to the development of regenerative therapies and understanding of the disease pathologies that affect epithelial-mesenchymal interactions. Here, we review the principal events in corneal wound healing and the mechanisms to restore corneal transparency and barrier function. We also refer to skin repair mechanisms and their potential implications for regenerative processes in the cornea.

  6. Dendritic cells in the cornea during Herpes simplex viral infection and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Min S; Carnt, Nicole A; Truong, Naomi R; Pattamatta, Ushasree; White, Andrew J; Samarawickrama, Chameen; Cunningham, Anthony L

    2017-11-10

    Herpes simplex keratitis is commonly caused by Herpes simplex virus type 1, which primarily infects eyelids, corneas, or conjunctiva. Herpes simplex virus type 1-through sophisticated interactions with dendritic cells (DCs), a type of antigen-presenting cell)-initiates proinflammatory responses in the cornea. Corneas were once thought to be an immune-privileged region; however, with the recent discovery of DCs that reside in the cornea, this long-held conjecture has been overturned. Therefore, evaluating the clinical, preclinical, and cell-based studies that investigate the roles of DCs in corneas infected with Herpes simplex virus is critical. With in vivo confocal microscopy, animal models, and cell culture experiments, we may further the understanding of the sophisticated interactions of Herpes simplex virus with DCs in the cornea and the molecular mechanism associated with it. It has been shown that specific differentiation of DCs using immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry, and polymerase chain reaction analysis in both human and mice tissues and viral tissue infections are integral to increasing understanding. As for in vivo confocal microscopy, it holds promise as it is the least invasive and a real-time investigation. These tools will facilitate the discovery of various targets to develop new treatments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Intrastromal Injection of China Painting Ink in Corneas of Male Rabbits: Clinical and Histological Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsmman Hassan, Alahmady Hamad; Abd Elhaliem Soliman, Nesreen Gamal-Eldeen

    2016-01-01

    Background. Many patients with corneal opacity or complicated cataract in blind eye ask for cosmoses. In this study we tried to investigate the staining of corneas of male rabbits by Rotring China painting ink and to study the histological changes. Method. 10 eyes of 10 male Baladi Egyptian rabbits were injected (0.1 mL) intrastromally in the cornea by the use of China painting ink (Rotring Tinta China) through insulin syringe (27-gauge needle) by single injection; clinical follow-up is for 6 months and lastly the rabbits were scarified and the stained eyes were enucleated for histological analysis. Results. Clinically the stain was stable in color and distribution in corneas with no major complications. Histological results of the stained rabbit corneas showed blackish pigmentation in the corneal stroma without any inflammatory cellular infiltration. Some fibroblast cells had pigment granules in their cytoplasm in the adjacent layers. Conclusion. Corneal staining by China painting ink is effective and safe in staining of male rabbits cornea; however further study in human corneas with longer follow-up period is advisable.

  8. The structural response of the cornea to changes in stromal hydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Sally; White, Tomas; Boote, Craig; Kamma-Lorger, Christina S; Bell, James; Sorenson, Thomas; Terrill, Nick; Shebanova, Olga; Meek, Keith M

    2017-06-01

    The primary aim of this study was to quantify the relationship between corneal structure and hydration in humans and pigs. X-ray scattering data were collected from human and porcine corneas equilibrated with polyethylene glycol (PEG) to varying levels of hydration, to obtain measurements of collagen fibril diameter, interfibrillar spacing (IFS) and intermolecular spacing. Both species showed a strong positive linear correlation between hydration and IFS 2 and a nonlinear, bi-phasic relationship between hydration and fibril diameter, whereby fibril diameter increased up to approximately physiological hydration, H = 3.0, with little change thereafter. Above H = 3.0, porcine corneas exhibited a larger fibril diameter than human corneas ( p < 0.001). Intermolecular spacing also varied with hydration in a bi-phasic manner but reached a maximum value at a lower hydration ( H = 1.5) than fibril diameter. Human corneas displayed a higher intermolecular spacing than porcine corneas at all hydrations ( p < 0.0001). Human and porcine corneas required a similar PEG concentration to reach physiological hydration, suggesting that the total fixed charge that gives rise to the swelling pressure is the same. The difference in their structural responses to hydration can be explained by variations in molecular cross-linking and intra/interfibrillar water partitioning. © 2017 The Authors.

  9. Intrastromal Injection of China Painting Ink in Corneas of Male Rabbits: Clinical and Histological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alahmady Hamad Alsmman Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Many patients with corneal opacity or complicated cataract in blind eye ask for cosmoses. In this study we tried to investigate the staining of corneas of male rabbits by Rotring China painting ink and to study the histological changes. Method. 10 eyes of 10 male Baladi Egyptian rabbits were injected (0.1 mL intrastromally in the cornea by the use of China painting ink (Rotring Tinta China through insulin syringe (27-gauge needle by single injection; clinical follow-up is for 6 months and lastly the rabbits were scarified and the stained eyes were enucleated for histological analysis. Results. Clinically the stain was stable in color and distribution in corneas with no major complications. Histological results of the stained rabbit corneas showed blackish pigmentation in the corneal stroma without any inflammatory cellular infiltration. Some fibroblast cells had pigment granules in their cytoplasm in the adjacent layers. Conclusion. Corneal staining by China painting ink is effective and safe in staining of male rabbits cornea; however further study in human corneas with longer follow-up period is advisable.

  10. Vanishing Lung Syndrome: Compound Effect of Tobacco and Marijuana Use on the Development of Bullous Lung Disease – A Joint Effort

    OpenAIRE

    Wiesel, Shimshon; Siddiqui, Faraz; Khan, Tahir; Hossri, Sami; El-Sayegh, Dany

    2017-01-01

    Marijuana use has been increasing across the United States due to its legalization as both a medicinal and recreational product. A small number of case reports have described a pathological entity called vanishing lung syndrome (VLS), which is a rare bullous lung disease usually caused by tobacco smoking. Recent case reports have implicated marijuana in the development of VLS. We present a case of a 47-year-old man, who presented to our hospital with shortness of breath, fevers and a producti...

  11. Use of glycerol-preserved corneas for corneal transplants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeti Gupta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study was carried out to see the results of glycerol-preserved cornea (GPC in emergency situation when fresh corneal tissue was not available. The aim was to study the outcome of corneal transplantation using GPC. Methods: This was a retrospective study. The medical records of all the patients were reviewed, who underwent keratoplasty using “GPC” during the period from October 2011 to December 2015. The indication of keratoplasty, duration of preservation of the GPC, and its outcome were analyzed. Descriptive statistics were applied. Results: Out of the 222 penetrating keratoplasty (PKP performed over the study period, the GPC was used in 34 patients (males = 31, 91.2% aged 15–74 years. Therapeutic keratoplasty was performed in all cases in this cohort except one in which tectonic keratoplasty was done. The primary indication of PKP (91.2% was infectious keratitis. Of these, 20 (64.5% patients presented with perforated corneal ulcers. Post-PKP, ocular anatomy was preserved in 91.2%, and visual acuity of perception of light positive and accurate projection of rays in all the quadrants was obtained in 76.5% cases. Complications included glaucoma (n = 12, 35.1%, phthisis bulbi (n = 2, 5.9%, and graft reinfection and endophthalmitis after PKP (n = 1, 2.9%. The secondary procedure post-GPC and PKP were trabeculectomy with mitomycin C (n = 7, 58.3% in patients not controlled on topical antiglaucoma medication. Optical keratoplasty was performed in (n = 3 8.8% patients and triple procedure in (n = 2 5.8% patients with good visual acuity postprocedure. Conclusions: Acellular GPCs are useful in emergency keratoplasty to avoid loss of vision and can save the eye.

  12. Optical coherent tomography measurements of the diffusion rate of water and drugs in an isolated and whole cornea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larin, Kirill V; Ghosn, M G

    2006-01-01

    The passive diffusion of drugs through the epithelial surfaces of an eye (the most widespread method for medical treatment of various diseases) is considered. The permeability of water and drugs through rabbit cornea was measured in the isolated cornea (separate from an eye) and in the whole cornea. The permeability coefficients of water and dexamethasone were estimated by the method of optical coherence tomography (OCT). Because multiple photon scattering introduces noise and distortions to the OCT signal, measurements were performed at depths up to 500 μm where most likely single scattering of light occurs in cornea. It is shown that the permeability coefficients in the isolated and whole cornea strongly differ from each other. For example, the water permeability in the isolated and whole cornea is (7.09±0.12)x10 -5 and (1.71±0.51)x10 -5 cm s -1 , respectively. (special issue devoted to multiple radiation scattering in random media)

  13. 'An eye, for eyes - mission' - From dream to reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parikumar P

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Corneal transplantation has been in routine practice to treat corneal endothelial diseases like Bullous Keratopathy, in which either the whole cornea or the partial cornea (the endothelium alone is transplanted from the cadaver donor to the recipient with the endothelial disease [1]. In whole corneal or partial corneal transplant one cadaver donor's cornea can be used to treat one recipient cornea only, which leads to a huge global shortage of donor corneas [2]. At this juncture Yokoo et al isolated and expanded corneal endothelial precursors using the sphere forming assay in vitro [3] and demonstrated the in vivo transplantation of these corneal endothelial precursors in a rabbit model of bullous keratopathy [4]. Following this, we studied the transportation of cadaver donor derived corneal endothelial tissue (CET from human cadaver donors in a thermoreversible gelation polymer (TGP (4 based transportation cocktail without cool preservation and demonstrated the viability of human corneal endothelial precursor (HCEP cells isolated from these CETs even after 72 hours of transportation without cool preservation [5]. This was done to suit the conditions existing in developing nations like India where hospitals might be located far from eye banks and maintaining cold chain preservation is relatively difficult. Further, these HCEPs were expanded in vitro using a polymer based expansion protocol [5]. This was the first step in the realisation of the dream of 'Eye for eyes' in a manner suitable for Indian conditions. Corneal transplantation has been in routine practice to treat corneal endothelial diseases like Bullous Keratopathy, in which either the whole cornea or the partial cornea (the endothelium alone is transplanted from the cadaver donor to the recipient with the endothelial disease [1]. In whole corneal or partial corneal transplant one cadaver donor's cornea can be used to treat one recipient cornea only, which leads to a huge global

  14. Therapeutic effect of para aminobenzoic acid (PABA) on the rat cornea administered in different ways after x-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panova, I.G.; Mel'nikova, I.I.; Stroeva, O.G.

    1997-01-01

    Comparative analysis of cytological state of nuclear apparatus in the mice cornea basal layer is carried out by two various method of introducing the para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) after x-ray irradiation: 1) subcutaneous injections and 2) application of the solution on the cornea. The fact that PABA produced medicinal effect on the cornea of the irradiated mice by subcutaneous injections, shows that this action proceeds on the whole-body level

  15. Tissue Destruction in Bullous Pemphigoid Can Be Complement Independent and May Be Mitigated by C5aR2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian M. Karsten

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Bullous pemphigoid (BP, the most frequent autoimmune bullous disorder, is a paradigmatic autoantibody-mediated disease associated with autoantibodies against BP180 (type XVII collagen, Col17. Several animal models have been developed that reflect important clinical and immunological features of human BP. Complement activation has been described as a prerequisite for blister formation, however, the recent finding that skin lesions can be induced by anti-Col17 F(ab′2 fragments indicates complement-independent mechanisms to contribute to blister formation in BP. Here, C5−/− mice injected with anti-Col17 IgG showed a reduction of skin lesions by about 50% associated with significantly less skin-infiltrating neutrophils compared to wild-type mice. Reduction of skin lesions and neutrophil infiltration was seen independently of the employed anti-Col17 IgG dose. Further, C5ar1−/− mice were protected from disease development, whereas the extent of skin lesions was increased in C5ar2−/− animals. Pharmacological inhibition of C5a receptor 1 (C5aR1 by PMX53 led to reduced disease activity when applied in a prophylactic setting. In contrast, PMX-53 treatment had no effect when first skin lesions had already developed. While C5aR1 was critically involved in neutrophil migration in vitro, its role for Col17-anti-Col17 IgG immune complex-mediated release of reactive oxygen species from neutrophils was less pronounced. Our data demonstrate that complement-dependent and -independent mechanisms coexist in anti-Col17-autoantibody-mediated tissue destruction. C5aR1 and C5aR2 seem to play opposing roles in this process with C5aR1 exerting its primary effect in recruiting inflammatory cells to the skin during the early phase of the disease. Further studies are required to fully understand the role of C5aR2 in autoantibody-mediated skin inflammation.

  16. Homozygous ALOXE3 Nonsense Variant Identified in a Patient with Non-Bullous Congenital Ichthyosiform Erythroderma Complicated by Superimposed Bullous Majocchi’s Granuloma: The Consequences of Skin Barrier Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Wang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Non-bullous congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma (NBCIE is a hereditary disorder of keratinization caused by pathogenic variants in genes encoding enzymes important to lipid processing and terminal keratinocyte differentiation. Impaired function of these enzymes can cause pathologic epidermal scaling, significantly reduced skin barrier function. In this study, we have performed a focused, genetic analysis of a probrand affected by NBCIE and extended this to his consanguineous parents. Targeted capture and next-generation sequencing was performed on NBCIE associated genes in the proband and his unaffected consanguineous parents. We identified a homozygous nonsense variant c.814C>T (p.Arg272* in ALOXE3 (NM_001165960.1 in the proband and discovered that his parents are both heterozygous carriers of the variant. The clinical manifestations of the proband’s skin were consistent with NBCIE, and detailed histopathological assessment revealed epidermal bulla formation and Majocchi’s granuloma. Infection with Trichophyton rubrum was confirmed by culture. The patient responded to oral terbinafine antifungal treatment. Decreased skin barrier function, such as that caused by hereditary disorders of keratinization, can increase the risk of severe cutaneous fungal infections and the formation of Majocchi’s granuloma and associated alopecia. Patients with NBCIE should be alerted to the possible predisposition for developing dermatophytoses and warrant close clinical follow-up.

  17. Cholesterol biosynthesis by the cornea. Comparison of rates of sterol synthesis with accumulation during early development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cenedella, R.J.; Fleschner, C.R.

    1989-01-01

    The origin of the cholesterol needed by the cornea for growth and cell turnover was addressed by comparing absolute rates of sterol synthesis with rates of sterol accumulation during early development of the rabbit. Linearity of incorporation of 3 H 2 O and [ 14 C]mevalonate into digitonin-precipitable sterols with time of incubation in vitro and a lack of accumulation of 14 C in intermediates of sterol biosynthesis indicated that tritiated water can validly be used to measure rates of sterol synthesis by the cornea. The rate of sterol synthesis per unit weight of rabbit cornea was constant between 14 and 60 days of age at an average 1.03 nmol of 3 H of 3 H 2 O incorporated/mg dry cornea per 8 h. Essentially all of the synthesized cholesterol and most of the cholesterol mass was present in corneal epithelium. The cumulative sterol synthesized over the 46-day period studied exceeded the observed rate of cholesterol accumulation by sixfold. Cholesterol synthesized in excess of the growth requirement was likely used to support turnover of the epithelium which was estimated at 9 days. Removal of cholesterol from the cornea by excretion into tear fluid and clearance by high density lipoproteins are also considered

  18. Pharmacokinetics of chlorhexidine gluconate 0.02% in the rabbit cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuguang, Sun; Yanchuang, Liang; Feng, Zhang; Shiyun, Luo; Xiaotang, Yin

    2006-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetic parameters of chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) in the rabbit cornea. Each eye of 16 New Zealand white rabbits were topically instilled with 50 microL of CHG 0.02% eye drops twice with a 5-min interval. Four (4) corneas of 2 rabbits were harvested at each time point. The concentration of CHG in the cornea was determined with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and 387 software to simulate the pharmacokinetic parameters. The concentration of CHG in the cornea displayed an open two-compartment model. Tmax was 13.75 min, Cmax 0.713 microg.g1, clearance rate 1.64 microg.g-1.min-1, and t1/2alpha, t1/2beta, and t1/2ka was 2.65, 48.72, and 2.67 min, respectively. The concentration of CHG in the rabbit cornea could be determined by means of HPLC. The maximum concentration of CHG in the corneal tissue was much higher than the trophozoite minimum amoebicidal concentration (TMAC) in vitro.

  19. Cornea nerve fiber quantification and construction of phenotypes in patients with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudejans, Linda; He, Xuan; Niesters, Marieke; Dahan, Albert; Brines, Michael; van Velzen, Monique

    2016-03-23

    Cornea confocal microscopy (CCM) is a novel non-invasive method to detect small nerve fiber pathology. CCM generally correlates with outcomes of skin biopsies in patients with small fiber pathology. The aim of this study was to quantify the morphology of small nerve fibers of the cornea of patients with fibromyalgia in terms of density, length and branching and further phenotype these patients using standardized quantitative sensory testing (QST). Small fiber pathology was detected in the cornea of 51% of patients: nerve fiber length was significantly decreased in 44% of patients compared to age- and sex-matched reference values; nerve fiber density and branching were significantly decreased in 10% and 28% of patients. The combination of the CCM parameters and sensory tests for central sensitization, (cold pain threshold, mechanical pain threshold, mechanical pain sensitivity, allodynia and/or windup), yielded four phenotypes of fibromyalgia patients in a subgroup analysis: one group with normal cornea morphology without and with signs of central sensitization, and a group with abnormal cornea morphology parameters without and with signs of central sensitization. In conclusion, half of the tested fibromyalgia population demonstrates signs of small fiber pathology as measured by CCM. The four distinct phenotypes suggest possible differences in disease mechanisms and may require different treatment approaches.

  20. Raman Microscopy: A Noninvasive Method to Visualize the Localizations of Biomolecules in the Cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaji, Yuichi; Akiyama, Toshihiro; Segawa, Hiroki; Oshika, Tetsuro; Kano, Hideaki

    2017-11-01

    In vivo and in situ visualization of biomolecules without pretreatment will be important for diagnosis and treatment of ocular disorders in the future. Recently, multiphoton microscopy, based on the nonlinear interactions between molecules and photons, has been applied to reveal the localizations of various molecules in tissues. We aimed to use multimodal multiphoton microscopy to visualize the localizations of specific biomolecules in rat corneas. Multiphoton images of the corneas were obtained from nonlinear signals of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering, third-order sum frequency generation, and second-harmonic generation. The localizations of the adhesion complex-containing basement membrane and Bowman layer were clearly visible in the third-order sum frequency generation images. The fine structure of type I collagen was observed in the corneal stroma in the second-harmonic generation images. The localizations of lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids (DNA/RNA) was obtained in the coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering images. Imaging technologies have progressed significantly and been applied in medical fields. Optical coherence tomography and confocal microscopy are widely used but do not provide information on the molecular structure of the cornea. By contrast, multiphoton microscopy provides information on the molecular structure of living tissues. Using this technique, we successfully visualized the localizations of various biomolecules including lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids in the cornea. We speculate that multiphoton microscopy will provide essential information on the physiological and pathological conditions of the cornea, as well as molecular localizations in tissues without pretreatment.

  1. Sorption of sodium hydroxide by type I collagen and bovine corneas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whikehart, D R; Edwards, W C; Pfister, R R

    1991-01-01

    There are no quantitative studies on the uptake of alkali into corneal tissues. To study this phenomenon, both type I collagen and bovine corneas were incubated in sodium hydroxide (NaOH) under varying conditions for periods up to 27.5 h. The sorption (absorption or adsorption) of the alkali to protein and tissue was measured as the quantity of NaOH no longer available for titration to neutrality with hydrochloric acid. Sorption was found to be dependent on the concentration of NaOH (0.01-1 N) but independent of the incubation temperature (4-35 degrees C). In whole cornea, sorption of 1 N NaOH began immediately and increased with time up to 6 h. After 6 h, sorption decreased, together with the observed degradation and solubilization of the tissue. Stripping of the corneal endothelium alone or of the endothelium and epithelium increased sorption in a similar manner when compared to whole corneas for periods up to 4 h. These observations are compatible with ionic and nonionic bonding of hydroxide ions to collagen (including that of the cornea) and the subsequent release of hydroxide ions during hydrolysis of the protein itself. Indirect evidence also suggests the inclusion of quantities of unbound hydroxide ions in hydrated gels of glycosaminoglycans. It is proposed that in a chemical burn of the cornea, alkali is both stored in the tissue (by sorption) and reacted with it (by hydrolysis), without any net consumption of alkali taking place.

  2. Accelerating repaired basement membrane after bevacizumab treatment on alkali-burned mouse cornea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Koon-Ja; Lee, Ji-Young; Lee, Sung Ho; Choi, Tae Hoon

    2013-01-01

    To understand the corneal regeneration induced by bevacizumab, we investigated the structure changes of stroma and basement membrane regeneration. A Stick soaked in 0.5 N NaOH onto the mouse cornea and 2.5 mg/ml of bevacizumab was delivered into an alkali-burned cornea (2 μl) by subconjunctival injections at 1 hour and 4 days after injury. At 7 days after injury, basement membrane regeneration was observed by transmission electron microscope. Uneven and thin epithelial basement membrane, light density of hemidesmosomes, and edematous collagen fibril bundles are shown in the alkali-burned cornea. Injured epithelial basement membrane and hemidesmosomes and edematous collagen fibril bundles resulting from alkali-burned mouse cornea was repaired by bevacizumab treatment. This study demonstrates that bevacizumab can play an important role in wound healing in the cornea by accelerating the reestablishment of basement membrane integrity that leads to barriers for scar formation. [BMB Reports 2013; 46(4): 195-200] PMID:23615260

  3. Factors affecting the serological testing of cadaveric donor cornea

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    Anuradha Raj

    2018-01-01

    will be done in < 10 hours(h after death which can improve the safety and utility of the donor cornea.

  4. Factors affecting the serological testing of cadaveric donor cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Anuradha; Mittal, Garima; Bahadur, Harsh

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the serological profile of the eye donors and to study the influence of various factors on serological test results. A cross-sectional, observational study was conducted, and data of 509 donors were reviewed from the records of eye bank from December 2012 to June 2017. Various details of donors analyzed included the age, sex of the donor, cause of death, source of tissue, time since blood collection after death, macroscopic appearance of blood sample, and details of discarded tissues. Serological examination of blood was performed for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus (HCV), venereal disease research laboratory (VDRL), and serology reports reactive or nonreactive were analyzed. Among the 509 donors, 295 (58%) were male, and 420 (82.50%) belonged to age group ≥60 years. Most donors (354, 69.5%) died due to cardiac arrest. Macroscopically, sera were normal in the majority of 488 (95.9%) cases. Among 509 donors, 475 (93.3%) were nonreactive, 12 (2.4%) donors were found to be reactive to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), and 1 (0.2%) was reactive to HCV, but no donor serology was reactive to HIV or VDRL. Twenty-one (4.12%) donors' sera were not fit for serological testing. Among all donors, 475 (93.32%) donors were accepted and 34 (6.67%) were rejected or discarded on the basis of serological testing. Cause of death and macroscopic aspect of sera influenced the serological results in a highly significant manner (P = 0.00). Acceptance or rejection of the donor was significantly influenced by the serological results of the donor (P = 0.00). The seroprevalence among eye donor for HBsAg and HCV was 12 (2.4%) and 1 (0.2%), respectively. Factors such as cause of death and macroscopic aspect of sera influence the serological results. Time since blood collection or sampling will not show any impact on viral serological results if postmortem sampling will be done in donor cornea.

  5. Systematic assessment of microneedle injection into the mouse cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthaei, Mario; Meng, Huan; Bhutto, Imran; Xu, Qingguo; Boelke, Edwin; Hanes, Justin; Jun, Albert S

    2012-06-20

    Corneal intrastromal injection is an important mode of gene-vector application to subepithelial layers. In a mouse model, this procedure is substantially complicated by the reduced corneal dimensions. Furthermore, it may be difficult to estimate the corneal area reached by the volume of a single injection. This study aimed to investigate intrastromal injections into the mouse cornea using different microneedles and to quantify the effect of injecting varying volumes. A reproducible injection technique is described. Forty eyes of 20 129 Sv/J mice were tested. India ink was intrastromally injected using 30° beveled 33 G needles, tri-surface 25° beveled 35 G needles, or hand-pulled and 25° beveled glass needles. Each eye received a single injection of a volume of 1 or 2 μL. Corneoscleral buttons were fixed and flat mounted for computer-assisted quantification of the affected corneal area. Histological assessment was performed to investigate the intrastromal location of the injected dye. A mean corneal area of 5.0 ± 1.4 mm(2) (mean ± SD) and 7.7 ± 1.4 mm(2) was covered by intrastromal injections of 1 and 2 μL, respectively. The mean percentage of total corneal area reached ranged from 39% to 53% for 1 μL injections, and from 65% to 81% for 2 μL injections. Injections using the 33 G needles tended to provide the highest distribution area. Perforation rates were 8% for 30° beveled 33 G needles and 44% for tri-surface beveled 35 G needles. No perforation was observed with glass needle; however, intrastromal breakage of needle tips was noted in 25% of these cases. Intracorneal injection using a 30° beveled 33 G needle was safe and effective. The use of tri-surface beveled 35 G needles substantially increased the number of corneal perforations. Glass needles may break inside the corneal stroma. Injections of 1 μL and 2 μL resulted in an overall mean of 49% and 73% respectively of total corneal area involved.

  6. Systematic assessment of microneedle injection into the mouse cornea

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    Matthaei Mario

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Corneal intrastromal injection is an important mode of gene-vector application to subepithelial layers. In a mouse model, this procedure is substantially complicated by the reduced corneal dimensions. Furthermore, it may be difficult to estimate the corneal area reached by the volume of a single injection. This study aimed to investigate intrastromal injections into the mouse cornea using different microneedles and to quantify the effect of injecting varying volumes. A reproducible injection technique is described. Methods Forty eyes of 20 129 Sv/J mice were tested. India ink was intrastromally injected using 30° beveled 33 G needles, tri-surface 25° beveled 35 G needles, or hand-pulled and 25° beveled glass needles. Each eye received a single injection of a volume of 1 or 2 μL. Corneoscleral buttons were fixed and flat mounted for computer-assisted quantification of the affected corneal area. Histological assessment was performed to investigate the intrastromal location of the injected dye. Results A mean corneal area of 5.0 ±1.4 mm2 (mean ± SD and 7.7 ±1.4 mm2 was covered by intrastromal injections of 1 and 2 μL, respectively. The mean percentage of total corneal area reached ranged from 39% to 53% for 1 μL injections, and from 65% to 81% for 2 μL injections. Injections using the 33 G needles tended to provide the highest distribution area. Perforation rates were 8% for 30° beveled 33 G needles and 44% for tri-surface beveled 35 G needles. No perforation was observed with glass needle; however, intrastromal breakage of needle tips was noted in 25% of these cases. Conclusions Intracorneal injection using a 30° beveled 33 G needle was safe and effective. The use of tri-surface beveled 35 G needles substantially increased the number of corneal perforations. Glass needles may break inside the corneal stroma. Injections of 1 μL and 2 μL resulted in an overall mean of 49% and 73% respectively

  7. A CONTROVERSIAL ON THE DIAGNOSIS OF CHRONIC BULLOUS TYPE MUCOCUTANEOUS DISEASE INVOLVING ORAL MUCOSA (A CASE REPORT

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    Isadora Gracia

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available A case of chronic bullous type mucocutaneous disease involving oral mucosa was reported from a 56 years old man with never healing oral ulcers and wound on the perianal skin for three years. There were also red and black spots on the limb and back skin and a lesion on nail. Painful oral lesion consisted of mucous erosion, desquamative gingivitis, and sloughing area on palate and tongue. The patient is diabetic. The first perianal skin diagnosis was granulomatous candidasis with differential diagnosis pemphigus vegetates and acuminarum condiloma. However the histopathologic examination did not support these diagnosis. After several histopathologic examinations, the latest perianal skin diagnosis was lichen planus with differential diagnosis granulomatous vasculitis, bowenoid papulosis and pyodema gangrenosum. Other skin diagnosis was erythema multiforme. Oral diagnosis was mucous membrane pemphigoid with differential diagnosis lichen planus, Behçet's syndrome and erythema multiforme. Oral histopathologic examinations showed a sub-epithelial blister, which supported mucous membrane pemphigoid. A lip balm, prednisone 5 mg oral rinse and multivitamins were given but oral improvement started after blood sugar level was controlled. Conclusion: It is not yet known whether skin and oral mucous lesions are from the same disease or not.

  8. A case of linear IgA bullous dermatosis with IgA anti-type VII collagen autoantibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, T; Ishiko, A; Shimizu, H; Tanaka, T; Dodd, H J; Bhogal, B S; Black, M M; Nishikawa, T

    1996-02-01

    In this study we present a patient with the sublamina densa type of linear IgA bullous dermatosis (LABD), with IgA autoantibodies reactive with the 290-kDa type VII collagen (the epidermolysis bullosa acquisita (EBA) antigen) and with immunoblotting of normal human dermal extracts. The clinical and histological features of the present case were compatible with those of LABD but quite different from those of EBA. Although EBA sera reacted with the bacterial fusion protein of the N-terminal globular (NC1) domain of type VII collagen, this patient's serum did not show reactivity. Furthermore, ultrastructural localization of target epitopes on the anchoring fibrils in this patient was considerably different from EBA. These results indicate that, whereas EBA antibodies react with the NC1 domain of type VII collagen, the epitope in this case is different from that of EBA (and is most likely on the central triple helical domain). This difference may be responsible for the clinical presentation in this patient being distinct from that of EBA.

  9. Bullous Impetigo Rapid Diagnostic and Therapeutic Quiz: A Model for Assessing Basic Dermatology Knowledge of Primary Care Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simkin, Daren J; Grossberg, Anna L; Cohen, Bernard A

    2016-11-01

    Bullous impetigo (BI) is a common dermatologic condition, particularly in children, yet confusion regarding its diagnosis and treatment persists. This study measured pediatricians' ability to diagnose and appropriately treat BI and explored factors that might influence pediatricians' accuracy in managing BI. We administered an expert-validated survey to 64 pediatrics house staff and faculty at three Johns Hopkins Medicine facilities. The survey requested demographic information, diagnoses for five "unknown" cases, and preferred treatments for localized and widespread BI. Overall, BI was diagnosed correctly 31.9% of the time. There was little difference between house staff and faculty performance, although faculty 50 years of age and older demonstrated better diagnostic acumen. Regarding treatment of localized BI, 92% of faculty members and 84.6% of house staff listed mupirocin as first- or second-line treatment. The second most common medication listed for localized BI was bacitracin. Regarding treatment of widespread BI, faculty listed cephalexin or clindamycin as first- or second-line treatment 56.0% of the time and house staff listed one of these two medications 51.3% of the time. Results for faculty 50 years of age and older were comparable. Improved pediatrician proficiency in the diagnosis and treatment of BI is needed for safe, cost-effective management. Physician age and experience appear to have a limited effect on the accuracy of BI diagnosis and management. Future educational efforts must be directed at trainees and their instructors. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. The use of typing methods and infection prevention measures to control a bullous impetigo outbreak on a neonatal ward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koningstein, Maike; Groen, Leon; Geraats-Peters, Kathelijn; Lutgens, Suzanne; Rietveld, Ariene; Jira, Petr; Kluytmans, Jan; de Greeff, Sabine C; Hermans, Mirjam; Schneeberger, Peter M

    2012-11-20

    We describe an outbreak of Bullous Impetigo (BI), caused by a (methicillin susceptible, fusidic acid resistant) Staphylococcus aureus (SA) strain, spa-type t408, at the neonatal and gynaecology ward of the Jeroen Bosch hospital in the Netherlands, from March-November 2011. We performed an outbreak investigation with revision of the hygienic protocols, MSSA colonization surveillance and environmental sampling for MSSA including detailed typing of SA isolates. Spa typing was performed to discriminate between the SA isolates. In addition, Raman-typing was performed on all t408 isolates. Nineteen cases of BI were confirmed by SA positive cultures. A cluster of nine neonates and three health care workers (HCW) with SA t408 was detected. These strains were MecA-, PVL-, Exfoliative Toxin (ET)A-, ETB+, ETAD-, fusidic acid-resistant and methicillin susceptible. Eight out of nine neonates and two out of three HCW t408 strains yielded a similar Raman type. Positive t408 HCW were treated and infection control procedures were reinforced. These measures stopped the outbreak. We conclude that treatment of patients and HCW carrying a predominant SA t408, and re-implementing and emphasising hygienic measures were effective to control the outbreak of SA t408 among neonates.

  11. The use of typing methods and infection prevention measures to control a bullous impetigo outbreak on a neonatal ward

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    Koningstein Maike

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We describe an outbreak of Bullous Impetigo (BI, caused by a (methicillin susceptible, fusidic acid resistant Staphylococcus aureus (SA strain, spa-type t408, at the neonatal and gynaecology ward of the Jeroen Bosch hospital in the Netherlands, from March-November 2011. Methods We performed an outbreak investigation with revision of the hygienic protocols, MSSA colonization surveillance and environmental sampling for MSSA including detailed typing of SA isolates. Spa typing was performed to discriminate between the SA isolates. In addition, Raman-typing was performed on all t408 isolates. Results Nineteen cases of BI were confirmed by SA positive cultures. A cluster of nine neonates and three health care workers (HCW with SA t408 was detected. These strains were MecA-, PVL-, Exfoliative Toxin (ETA-, ETB+, ETAD-, fusidic acid-resistant and methicillin susceptible. Eight out of nine neonates and two out of three HCW t408 strains yielded a similar Raman type. Positive t408 HCW were treated and infection control procedures were reinforced. These measures stopped the outbreak. Conclusions We conclude that treatment of patients and HCW carrying a predominant SA t408, and re-implementing and emphasising hygienic measures were effective to control the outbreak of SA t408 among neonates.

  12. A new diagnosis of Williams-Beuren syndrome in a 49-year-old man with severe bullous emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcik, Monica H; Carmichael, Nikkola; Bieber, Frederick R; Wiener, Daniel C; Madan, Rachna; Pober, Barbara R; Raby, Benjamin A

    2017-08-01

    Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS) is a chromosomal microdeletion syndrome typically presenting with intellectual disability, a unique personality, a characteristic facial appearance, and cardiovascular disease. Several clinical features of WBS are thought to be due to haploinsufficiency of elastin (ELN), as the ELN locus is included within the WBS critical region at 7q11.23. Emphysema, a disease attributed to destruction of pulmonary elastic fibers, has been reported in patients without WBS who have pathogenic variants in ELN but only once (in one patient) in WBS. Here we report a second adult WBS patient with emphysema where the diagnosis of WBS was established subsequent to the discovery of severe bullous emphysema. Haploinsufficiency of ELN likely contributed to this pulmonary manifestation of WBS. This case emphasizes the contribution of rare genetic variation in cases of severe emphysema and provides further evidence that emphysema should be considered in patients with WBS who have respiratory symptoms, as it may be under-recognized in this patient population. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Increased Activity and Apoptosis of Eosinophils in Blister Fluids, Skin and Peripheral Blood of Patients with Bullous Pemphigoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engmann, Judith; Rüdrich, Urda; Behrens, Georg; Papakonstantinou, Eleni; Gehring, Manuela; Kapp, Alexander; Raap, Ulrike

    2017-04-06

    Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is an autoimmune blistering skin disease that is more common in elderly individuals. The aim of this study was to determine the functional activity of eosinophils in patients with BP compared with healthy donors. Blood, skin and blister-derived eosinophils were strongly activated in patients with BP, seen by increased surface expression of CD69 compared with controls. CD11b was also increased in BP blood eosinophils, which may explain the striking accumulation of eosinophils in BP (1×106 per ml blister fluid). Furthermore, CCL26 was expressed by activated eosinophils in BP skin and in blister fluid. BP eosinophils also released IL-6, IL-8 and IL-1α in BP blister fluids. Apoptosis in cultivated BP eosinophils was increased and accompanied by enhanced surface externalization of CD95. Caspase 3 positive eosinophils in lesional BP skin and blister fluid also showed the initiation of apoptosis. These results reveal novel pathophysiological aspects of BP, with a strong activation pattern and increased apoptosis of eosinophils in the peripheral blood, skin and blister fluids.

  14. Second Harmonic Generation Imaging Analysis of Collagen Arrangement in Human Cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Choul Yong; Lee, Jimmy K; Chuck, Roy S

    2015-08-01

    To describe the horizontal arrangement of human corneal collagen bundles by using second harmonic generation (SHG) imaging. Human corneas were imaged with an inverted two photon excitation fluorescence microscope. The excitation laser (Ti:Sapphire) was tuned to 850 nm. Backscatter signals of SHG were collected through a 425/30-nm bandpass emission filter. Multiple, consecutive, and overlapping image stacks (z-stacks) were acquired to generate three dimensional data sets. ImageJ software was used to analyze the arrangement pattern (irregularity) of collagen bundles at each image plane. Collagen bundles in the corneal lamellae demonstrated a complex layout merging and splitting within a single lamellar plane. The patterns were significantly different in the superficial and limbal cornea when compared with deep and central regions. Collagen bundles were smaller in the superficial layer and larger in deep lamellae. By using SHG imaging, the horizontal arrangement of corneal collagen bundles was elucidated at different depths and focal regions of the human cornea.

  15. Air-pulse OCE for assessment of age-related changes in mouse cornea in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jiasong; Wang, Shang; Singh, M; Larin, K V; Aglyamov, S; Emelianov, S; Twa, M D

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate the use of phase-stabilized swept source optical coherence elastography (PhS-SSOCE) to assess the relaxation rate of deformation created by a focused air-pulse in tissue-mimicking gelatin phantoms of various concentrations and mouse corneas of different ages in vivo. The results show that the relaxation rate can be quantified and is different for gels with varying concentrations of gelatin and mouse corneas of different ages. The results indicate that gel phantoms with higher concentrations of gelatin as well as older mouse corneas have faster relaxation rates indicating stiffer material. This non-contact and non-invasive measurement technique utilizes low surface displacement amplitude (in µm scale) for tissue excitation and, therefore, can be potentially used to study the biomechanical properties of ocular and other sensitive tissues. (letter)

  16. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography for evaluation of cornea and ocular surface

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    Mittanamalli S Sridhar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Current corneal assessment technologies make the process of corneal evaluation extremely fast and simple. Several devices and technologies allow to explore and manage patients better. Optical coherence tomography (OCT technology has evolved over the years, and hence a detailed evaluation of anterior segment (AS structures such as cornea, conjunctiva, tear meniscus, anterior chamber, iris, and crystalline lens has been possible in a noncontact and safe procedure. The purpose of this special issue is to present and update in the evaluation of cornea and ocular surface, and this paper reviews a description of the AS-OCT, presenting the technology and common clinical uses of OCT in the management of diseases involving cornea and ocular surface to provide an updated information of the clinical recommendations of this technique in eye care practice.

  17. Intra-Ocular Pressure Measurement in a Patient with a Thin, Thick or Abnormal Cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Colin I; Parker, Douglas G A; Goldberg, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Accurate measurement of intra-ocular pressure is a fundamental component of the ocular examination. The most common method of measuring IOP is by Goldmann applanation tonometry, the accuracy of which is influenced by the thickness and biomechanical properties of the cornea. Algorithms devised to correct for corneal thickness to estimate IOP oversimplify the effects of corneal biomechanics. The viscous and elastic properties of the cornea influence IOP measurements in unpredictable ways, a finding borne out in studies of patients with inherently abnormal and surgically altered corneal biomechanics. Dynamic contour tonometry, rebound tonometry and the ocular response analyzer provide useful alternatives to GAT in patients with abnormal corneas, such as those who have undergone laser vision correction or keratoplasty. This article reviews the various methods of intra-ocular pressure measurement available to the clinician and the ways in which their utility is influenced by variations in corneal thickness and biomechanics.

  18. Elastic microfibril distribution in the cornea: Differences between normal and keratoconic stroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Tomas L; Lewis, Philip N; Young, Robert D; Kitazawa, Koji; Inatomi, Tsutomu; Kinoshita, Shigeru; Meek, Keith M

    2017-06-01

    The optical and biomechanical properties of the cornea are largely governed by the collagen-rich stroma, a layer that represents approximately 90% of the total thickness. Within the stroma, the specific arrangement of superimposed lamellae provides the tissue with tensile strength, whilst the spatial arrangement of individual collagen fibrils within the lamellae confers transparency. In keratoconus, this precise stromal arrangement is lost, resulting in ectasia and visual impairment. In the normal cornea, we previously characterised the three-dimensional arrangement of an elastic fiber network spanning the posterior stroma from limbus-to-limbus. In the peripheral cornea/limbus there are elastin-containing sheets or broad fibers, most of which become microfibril bundles (MBs) with little or no elastin component when reaching the central cornea. The purpose of the current study was to compare this network with the elastic fiber distribution in post-surgical keratoconic corneal buttons, using serial block face scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. We have demonstrated that the MB distribution is very different in keratoconus. MBs are absent from a region of stroma anterior to Descemet's membrane, an area that is densely populated in normal cornea, whilst being concentrated below the epithelium, an area in which they are absent in normal cornea. We contend that these latter microfibrils are produced as a biomechanical response to provide additional strength to the anterior stroma in order to prevent tissue rupture at the apex of the cone. A lack of MBs anterior to Descemet's membrane in keratoconus would alter the biomechanical properties of the tissue, potentially contributing to the pathogenesis of the disease. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Differentially expressed wound healing-related microRNAs in the human diabetic cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funari, Vincent A; Winkler, Michael; Brown, Jordan; Dimitrijevich, Slobodan D; Ljubimov, Alexander V; Saghizadeh, Mehrnoosh

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs are powerful gene expression regulators, but their corneal repertoire and potential changes in corneal diseases remain unknown. Our purpose was to identify miRNAs altered in the human diabetic cornea by microarray analysis, and to examine their effects on wound healing in cultured telomerase-immortalized human corneal epithelial cells (HCEC) in vitro. Total RNA was extracted from age-matched human autopsy normal (n=6) and diabetic (n=6) central corneas, Flash Tag end-labeled, and hybridized to Affymetrix® GeneChip® miRNA Arrays. Select miRNAs associated with diabetic cornea were validated by quantitative RT-PCR (Q-PCR) and by in situ hybridization (ISH) in independent samples. HCEC were transfected with human pre-miR™miRNA precursors (h-miR) or their inhibitors (antagomirs) using Lipofectamine 2000. Confluent transfected cultures were scratch-wounded with P200 pipette tip. Wound closure was monitored by digital photography. Expression of signaling proteins was detected by immunostaining and Western blot. Using microarrays, 29 miRNAs were identified as differentially expressed in diabetic samples. Two miRNA candidates showing the highest fold increased in expression in the diabetic cornea were confirmed by Q-PCR and further characterized. HCEC transfection with h-miR-146a or h-miR-424 significantly retarded wound closure, but their respective antagomirs significantly enhanced wound healing vs. controls. Cells treated with h-miR-146a or h-miR-424 had decreased p-p38 and p-EGFR staining, but these increased over control levels close to the wound edge upon antagomir treatment. In conclusion, several miRNAs with increased expression in human diabetic central corneas were found. Two such miRNAs inhibited cultured corneal epithelial cell wound healing. Dysregulation of miRNA expression in human diabetic cornea may be an important mediator of abnormal wound healing.

  20. Differentially expressed wound healing-related microRNAs in the human diabetic cornea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent A Funari

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs are powerful gene expression regulators, but their corneal repertoire and potential changes in corneal diseases remain unknown. Our purpose was to identify miRNAs altered in the human diabetic cornea by microarray analysis, and to examine their effects on wound healing in cultured telomerase-immortalized human corneal epithelial cells (HCEC in vitro. Total RNA was extracted from age-matched human autopsy normal (n=6 and diabetic (n=6 central corneas, Flash Tag end-labeled, and hybridized to Affymetrix® GeneChip® miRNA Arrays. Select miRNAs associated with diabetic cornea were validated by quantitative RT-PCR (Q-PCR and by in situ hybridization (ISH in independent samples. HCEC were transfected with human pre-miR™miRNA precursors (h-miR or their inhibitors (antagomirs using Lipofectamine 2000. Confluent transfected cultures were scratch-wounded with P200 pipette tip. Wound closure was monitored by digital photography. Expression of signaling proteins was detected by immunostaining and Western blot. Using microarrays, 29 miRNAs were identified as differentially expressed in diabetic samples. Two miRNA candidates showing the highest fold increased in expression in the diabetic cornea were confirmed by Q-PCR and further characterized. HCEC transfection with h-miR-146a or h-miR-424 significantly retarded wound closure, but their respective antagomirs significantly enhanced wound healing vs. controls. Cells treated with h-miR-146a or h-miR-424 had decreased p-p38 and p-EGFR staining, but these increased over control levels close to the wound edge upon antagomir treatment. In conclusion, several miRNAs with increased expression in human diabetic central corneas were found. Two such miRNAs inhibited cultured corneal epithelial cell wound healing. Dysregulation of miRNA expression in human diabetic cornea may be an important mediator of abnormal wound healing.

  1. Effect of glaucoma tube shunt parameters on cornea endothelial cells in patients with Ahmed valve implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Euna B; Hou, Jing; Han, Ying; Keenan, Jeremy D; Stamper, Robert L; Jeng, Bennie H

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of various tube parameters on corneal endothelial cell density (ECD) after insertion of Ahmed valves. Thirty-nine eyes of 33 patients with previous superotemporal (ST) Ahmed valve implantation and 20 eyes of 13 participants with previous uncomplicated phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation but no history of glaucoma surgery were evaluated. Various tube parameters were measured with anterior segment optical coherence tomography. ST, central, and inferonasal (IN) ECD and pachymetry were measured. Endothelial cell loss and corneal thickness in the ST cornea was compared with those in the IN cornea. The mean age of the operated patients was 58 ± 22 years, and the mean time since glaucoma surgery was 2.5 ± 2.6 years. Thirty-two of the 39 study eyes were pseudophakic. The ECD was significantly lower in the ST endothelium than in the IN endothelium in eyes with glaucoma tube surgery (P < 0.001), although this relative reduction in ST ECD was not greater than that seen in pseudophakic control eyes (P = 0.16). In univariate analysis, tube angle relative to the cornea and distance from the tip of the tube to the cornea were significant risk factors for decreased ST endothelial cell loss when assessed relative to the IN ECD (P = 0.01 and P = 0.02, respectively). In multivariate analysis, only the distance of the tube tip to the cornea remained significantly associated with ST endothelial cell loss. Although this was a retrospective study with inherent limitations, tubes that are closer to the cornea seem to lead to increased loss of adjacent endothelial cells.

  2. [Cornea bank of Lyon: from quality diagnosis to ISO 9001 certification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascal, P; Chalochet, A; Damour, O

    2001-12-01

    The tissue and cell bank of the HCL (Hospices Civils de Lyon) has, since 10 June 1999, consisted of two sections with related activities: cell culture for the Skin Substitutes Laboratory (Laboratoire des Substituts Cutanés, LSC) and preservation of corneas at 31 degrees C for the Cornea Bank. As the LSC had been ISO 9001 certified since March 1997 our aim, since merger, was to raise the Cornea Bank to the same level of quality as the LSC, so as to coincide with the renewal of the LSC certificate in February 2000. The methods we used (project, quality control, analysis and process optimization) led us to receive official certification only nine months after the merger. The procedure started with a program of quality control at the Cornea Bank from February 1999 onwards, in order to list the work and equipment required, evaluate its documentation system and what was needed to incorporate this new activity into the existing system of quality assurance at the LSC. On the 7th March 2000, the Tissue and Cell Bank of the HCL obtained an ISO 9001 certificate for its combined functions. As well as achieving our objectives and the strong points highlighted by the auditor during the renewal process, this quality assessment revealed many advantages: improvements in the conservation of corneas, economies in staff replacement and reductions in both the cost of maintaining quality, the cost of the corneas themselves, etc. The decree 'Banque' no. 99-741 of 30th August 1999, which put in place the system of authorization of tissue banks in France, demands quality control. Our application for certification which started in early 1999 had anticipated this regulation. This helped us enormously when compiling the dossier accompanying the official request and was an essential element in obtaining the favourable response of the ASSAPS on 21 June 2000.

  3. Multiparameter thermo-mechanical OCT-based characterization of laser-induced cornea reshaping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitsev, Vladimir Yu.; Matveyev, Alexandr L.; Matveev, Lev A.; Gelikonov, Grigory V.; Vitkin, Alex; Omelchenko, Alexander I.; Baum, Olga I.; Shabanov, Dmitry V.; Sovetsky, Alexander A.; Sobol, Emil N.

    2017-02-01

    Phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography (OCT) is used for visualizing dynamic and cumulative strains and corneashape changes during laser-produced tissue heating. Such non-destructive (non-ablative) cornea reshaping can be used as a basis of emerging technologies of laser vision correction. In experiments with cartilaginous samples, polyacrilamide phantoms and excised rabbit eyes we demonstrate ability of the developed OCT system to simultaneously characterize transient and cumulated strain distributions, surface displacements, scattering tissue properties and possibility of temperature estimation via thermal-expansion measurements. The proposed approach can be implemented in perspective real-time OCT systems for ensuring safety of new methods of laser reshaping of cornea.

  4. Surveillance of Vittaforma corneae in hot springs by a small-volume procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jung-Sheng; Hsu, Tsui-Kang; Hsu, Bing-Mu; Huang, Tung-Yi; Huang, Yu-Li; Shaio, Men-Fang; Ji, Dar-Der

    2017-07-01

    Vittaforma corneae is an obligate intracellular fungus and can cause human ocular microsporidiosis. Although accumulating reports of V. corneae causing keratoconjunctivitis in both healthy and immunocompromised persons have been published, little is known about the organism's occurrence in aquatic environments. Limitations in detection sensitivity have meant a large sampling volume is required to detect the pathogen up to now, which is problematic. A recent study in Taiwan has shown that some individuals suffering from microsporidial keratitis (MK) were infected after exposure to the pathogen at a hot spring. As a consequence of this, a survey and analysis of environmental V. corneae present in hot springs became an urgent need. In this study, sixty water samples from six hot spring recreation areas around Taiwan were analyzed. One liter of water from each sample site was filtered to harvest the fungi. The positive samples were detected using a modified nested PCR approach followed by sequencing using specific SSU rRNA gene primer pairs for V. corneae. In total fifteen V. corneae-like isolates were identified (25.0% of sites). Among them, six isolates, which were collected from recreational areas B, C and D, were highly similar to known V. corneae keratitis strains from Taiwan and other countries. Furthermore, five isolates, which were collected from recreation areas A, C, E and F, were very similar to Vittaforma-like diarrhea strains isolated in Portugal. Cold spring water tubs and public foot bath pools had the highest detection rate (50%), suggesting that hot springs might be contaminated via untreated water sources. Comparing the detection rate across different regions of Taiwan, Taitung, which is in the east of the island, gave the highest positive rate (37.5%). Statistical analysis showed that outdoor/soil exposure and a high heterotrophic plate count (HPC) were risk factors for the occurrence of V. corneae. Our findings provide empirical evidence

  5. Experience of Comamonas acidovorans keratitis with delayed onset and treatment response in immunocompromised cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Mok; Kim, Mee Kum; Lee, Jae Lim; Wee, Won Ryang; Lee, Jin Hak

    2008-03-01

    To report 2 cases of Comamonas acidovorans keratitis in immunocompromised cornea. A complete review of the medical records of the two cases of Comamonas acidovorans keratitis. We found some similarities in clinical courses of two cases. Both of them showed development of keratitis during the management with corticosteroids, delayed onset, slow response to antibiotics, and relatively less affected corneal epithelium. Comamonas acidovorans is known as a less virulent organism. However it can cause an indolent infection that responds slowly even to adequate antibiotics therapy in immunocompromised corneas.

  6. Computer driven optical keratometer and method of evaluating the shape of the cornea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroth, Edmund C. (Inventor); Mouneimme, Samih A. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus and method for measuring the shape of the cornea utilize only one reticle to generate a pattern of rings projected onto the surface of a subject's eye. The reflected pattern is focused onto an imaging device such as a video camera and a computer compares the reflected pattern with a reference pattern stored in the computer's memory. The differences between the reflected and stored patterns are used to calculate the deformation of the cornea which may be useful for pre-and post-operative evaluation of the eye by surgeons.

  7. Optical properties of an anterior lamellar human cornea model based on fibrin-agarose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionescu, Ana M.; Cardona, Juan de la Cruz; Ghinea, Razvan; Garzón, Ingrid; González-Andrades, Miguel; Alaminos, Miguel; Pérez, Maria del Mar

    2017-08-01

    The optical evaluation carried out using the Inverse Adding-Doubling (IAD) method to determine the scattering and the absorption coefficients of the bioengineered human corneal stromas showed that this type of artificial biomaterials shared many similarities with native control cornea after four weeks of development in culture. Their absorption and reduced scattering coefficients values were higher than the ones of the control cornea, but their spectral behaviors of both coefficients were similar. Time of development in culture was an influencing factor on the results.

  8. Removal of a barbed fish hook from the cornea of an 8-year-old boy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Pavlina S; Shah, Ankoor S; Elliott, Alexandra T; Wan, Michael J

    2017-10-01

    This video article shows the surgical removal of a three-pronged barbed fish hook from the cornea and anterior chamber of an 8-year-old boy. The advance-and-cut method is shown: the embedded barbed point of the fish hook was advanced through the cornea, its point was cut off, and the shank of the hook was withdrawn. This method was chosen due to the three-pronged configuration of the fish hook to minimize additional trauma to the eye. Other methods of fish hook removal are briefly reviewed. Copyright © 2017 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Optics of the human cornea influence the accuracy of stereo eye-tracking methods: a simulation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barsingerhorn, A.D.; Boonstra, F.N.; Goossens, H.H.L.M.

    2017-01-01

    Current stereo eye-tracking methods model the cornea as a sphere with one refractive surface. However, the human cornea is slightly aspheric and has two refractive surfaces. Here we used ray-tracing and the Navarro eye-model to study how these optical properties affect the accuracy of different

  10. Autoimmune responses in patients with linear IgA bullous dermatosis: both autoantibodies and T lymphocytes recognize the NC16A domain of the BP180 molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Mong-Shang; Fu, Chang-Ling; Olague-Marchan, Monica; Hacker, Mary K; Zillikens, Detlef; Giudice, George J; Fairley, Janet A

    2002-03-01

    Linear IgA bullous disease (LABD) is an autoimmune skin disease characterized by subepidermal blisters and IgA autoantibodies directed against the epidermal basement membrane zone (BMZ) of the skin. Various antigens have been identified as targets of IgA autoantibodies including BP180, a type II glycoprotein that spans the BMZ and lamina lucida. Previously, we have identified a subset of LABD patients whose sera contained IgA antibodies against the 16th noncollagenous (NC16A) domain of BP180. NC16A was previously shown to harbor epitopes that are recognized by both autoantibodies and T cells from patients with bullous pemphigoid and herpes gestationis and is thought to be associated with the development of these immunobullous diseases. The aim of this study was to determine whether T lymphocytes from LABD patients with anti-NC16A IgA autoantibodies respond to epitopes in the same region of the BP180 protein. Indeed, of the four LABD patients in our study, all had T cells that specifically proliferated in response to NC16A. Moreover, two subfragments of NC16A were identified as the predominant targets of LABD T cells. Further analysis of T cell lines and clones derived from these patients revealed that these cells express a CD4 memory T cell phenotype and secrete a Th1/Th2 mixed-cytokine profile, characteristics similar to those of T cells in bullous pemphigoid patients. Our data suggest that the BP180 protein, typically the NC16A region, is the common target of both cellular and humoral immune responses in some LABD patients. This information helps to further elucidate the autoimmune mechanisms in this disease.

  11. The use of human cornea organotypic cultures to study herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1)-induced inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drevets, Peter; Chucair-Elliott, Ana; Shrestha, Priyadarsini; Jinkins, Jeremy; Karamichos, Dimitrios; Carr, Daniel J J

    2015-10-01

    To determine the utility of human organotypic cornea cultures as a model to study herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1)-induced inflammation and neovascularization. Human organotypic cornea cultures were established from corneas with an intact limbus that were retrieved from donated whole globes. One cornea culture was infected with HSV-1 (10(4) plaque-forming units), while the other cornea from the same donor was mock-infected. Supernatants were collected at intervals post-culture with and without infection to determine viral titer (by plaque assay) and pro-angiogenic and proinflammatory cytokine concentration by suspension array analysis. In some experiments, the cultured corneas were collected and evaluated for HSV-1 antigens by immunohistochemical means. Another set of experiments measured susceptibility of human three-dimensional cornea fibroblast constructs, in the presence and absence of TGF-β1, to HSV-1 infection in terms of viral replication and the inflammatory response to infection as a comparison to the organotypic cornea cultures. Organotypic cornea cultures and three-dimensional fibroblast constructs exhibited varying degrees of susceptibility to HSV-1. Fibroblast constructs were more susceptible to infection in terms of infectious virus recovered in a shorter period of time. There were changes in the levels of select pro-angiogenic or proinflammatory cytokines that were dictated as much by the cultures producing them as by whether they were infected with HSV-1 or treated with TGF-β1. Organotypic cornea and three-dimensional fibroblast cultures are likely useful for the identification and short-term study of novel antiviral compounds and virus replication, but are limited in the study of the local immune response to infection.

  12. Intracellular Position of Centrioles and the Direction of Homeostatic Epithelial Cell Movements in the Mouse Cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Erika; Zhao, Jin; Merriam, John C; Nagasaki, Takayuki

    2017-02-01

    Corneal epithelial cells exhibit continuous centripetal movements at a rate of about 30 µm per day, but neither the driving force nor the mechanism that determines the direction of movements is known. To facilitate the investigation of homeostatic cell movement, we examined if the intracellular position of a centriole can be used as a directional marker of epithelial cell movements in the mouse cornea. A direction of cell movements was estimated in fixed specimens from a pattern of underlying subepithelial nerve fibers. Intracellular position of centrioles was determined by gamma-tubulin immunohistology and plotted in a narrow strip along the entire diameter of a cornea from limbus to limbus. When we determined the position of centrioles in the peripheral cornea where cell movements proceed generally along a radial path, about 55% of basal epithelial cells contained a centriole in the front half of a cell. However, in the central cornea where cells exhibit a spiral pattern of movements, centrioles were distributed randomly. These results suggest that centrioles tend to be positioned toward the direction of movement in corneal basal epithelial cells when they are moving centripetally at a steady rate.

  13. Crosslinked collagen-gelatin-hyaluronic acid biomimetic film for cornea tissue engineering applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yang; Ren, Li, E-mail: psliren@scut.edu.cn; Wang, Yingjun, E-mail: imwangyj@163.com

    2013-01-01

    Cornea disease may lead to blindness and keratoplasty is considered as an effective treatment method. However, there is a severe shortage of donor corneas worldwide. This paper presents the crosslinked collagen (Col)-gelatin (Gel)-hyaluronic acid (HA) films developed by making use of 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl aminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) as the crosslinker. The test results on the physical and biological properties indicate that the CGH631 film (the mass ratio of Col:Gel:HA = 6:3:1) has appropriate optical performance, hydrophilicity and mechanical properties. The diffusion properties of the CGH631 film to NaCl and tryptophan are also satisfactory and the measured data are 2.43 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} cm{sup 2}/s and 7.97 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} cm{sup 2}/s, respectively. In addition, cell viability studies demonstrate that the CGH631 film has good biocompatibility, on which human corneal epithelial cells attached and proliferated well. This biocompatible film may have potential use in cornea tissue engineering. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Crosslinked collagen-gelatin-hyaluronic acid films were fabricated in this study. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The film had appropriate physical properties. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Diffusion coefficient of the film was comparable with the human cornea. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HCEC viability studies confirmed the biocompatibility of the film.

  14. Pathways and Mechanisms Underlying the Photophysics and Photochemistry of Riboflavin induced cornea crosslinking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breitenbach, Thomas; Ogilby, Peter Remsen

    In this talk, we will describe general pathways involved in the photophysics of a photosensitized process, which can lead to crosslinking due to light excitation of Riboflavin in the cornea. Furthermore, we will elucidate different aspects of reactions that can produce crosslinks, with respect...

  15. High-resolution, label-free two-photon imaging of diseased human corneas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Ana; Breunig, Hans Georg; König, Aisada; Schindele, Andreas; Hager, Tobias; Seitz, Berthold; König, Karsten

    2018-03-01

    The diagnosis of corneal diseases may be improved by monitoring the metabolism of cells and the structural organization of the stroma using two-photon imaging (TPI). We used TPI to assess the differences between nonpathological (NP) human corneas and corneas diagnosed with either keratoconus, Acanthamoeba keratitis, or stromal corneal scars. Images were acquired using a custom-built five-dimensional laser-scanning microscope with a broadband sub-15 femtosecond near-infrared pulsed excitation laser and a 16-channel photomultiplier tube detector in combination with a time-correlated single photon counting module. Morphological alterations of epithelial cells were observed for all pathologies. Moreover, diseased corneas showed alterations to the cells' metabolism that were revealed using the NAD(P)H free to protein-bound ratios. The mean autofluorescence lifetime of the stroma and the organization of the collagen fibers were also significantly altered due to the pathologies. We demonstrate that TPI can be used to distinguish between NP and diseased human corneas, based not only on alterations of the cells' morphology, which can also be evaluated using current clinical devices, but on additional morphological and functional features such as the organization of the stroma and the cells' metabolism. Therefore, TPI could become an efficient tool for diagnosing corneal diseases and better understanding the biological processes of the diseases.

  16. [Current approaches to evaluating the anatomic and functional status of the cornea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avetisov, S E; Borodina, N V; Kobzova, M V; Musaeva, G M

    2010-01-01

    The review provides data on current methods for evaluating the anatomic and functional status of the cornea (light refraction, light transmission, and biomechanical properties, in particular). It analyzes the main advantages and disadvantages of basic (biomicroscopy, endothelial microscopy, ophthalmometry, topography, and pachymetry) and special (confocal microscopy, optical coherence tomography, ultrasound biomicroscopy, aberrometry, bidirectional corneal applanation, and keratoesthesiometry) studies.

  17. Wavelength-dependent ultraviolet induction of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers in the human cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallet, Justin D; Rochette, Patrick J

    2013-08-01

    Exposition to ultraviolet (UV) light is involved in the initiation and the progression of skin cancer. The genotoxicity of UV light is mainly attributed to the induction of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs), the most abundant DNA damage generated by all UV types (UVA, B and C). The human cornea is also exposed to the harmful UV radiations, but no UV-related neoplasm has been reported in this ocular structure. The probability that a specific DNA damage leads to a mutation and eventually to cellular transformation is influenced by its formation frequency. To shed light on the genotoxic effect of sunlight in the human eye, we have analyzed CPD induction in the cornea and the iris following irradiation of ex vivo human eyes with UVA, B or C. The extent of CPD induction was used to establish the penetrance of the different UV types in the human cornea. We show that UVB- and UVC-induced CPDs are concentrated in the corneal epithelium and do not penetrate deeply beyond this corneal layer. On the other hand, UVA wavelengths penetrate deeper and induce CPDs in the entire cornea and in the first layers of the iris. Taken together, our results are undoubtedly an important step towards better understanding the consequences of UV exposure to the human eye.

  18. Crosslinked collagen–gelatin–hyaluronic acid biomimetic film for cornea tissue engineering applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yang; Ren, Li; Wang, Yingjun

    2013-01-01

    Cornea disease may lead to blindness and keratoplasty is considered as an effective treatment method. However, there is a severe shortage of donor corneas worldwide. This paper presents the crosslinked collagen (Col)–gelatin (Gel)–hyaluronic acid (HA) films developed by making use of 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl aminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) as the crosslinker. The test results on the physical and biological properties indicate that the CGH631 film (the mass ratio of Col:Gel:HA = 6:3:1) has appropriate optical performance, hydrophilicity and mechanical properties. The diffusion properties of the CGH631 film to NaCl and tryptophan are also satisfactory and the measured data are 2.43 × 10 −6 cm 2 /s and 7.97 × 10 −7 cm 2 /s, respectively. In addition, cell viability studies demonstrate that the CGH631 film has good biocompatibility, on which human corneal epithelial cells attached and proliferated well. This biocompatible film may have potential use in cornea tissue engineering. - Highlights: ► Crosslinked collagen–gelatin–hyaluronic acid films were fabricated in this study. ► The film had appropriate physical properties. ► Diffusion coefficient of the film was comparable with the human cornea. ► HCEC viability studies confirmed the biocompatibility of the film.

  19. Eye evolution: lens and cornea as an upgrade of animal visual system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jonášová, Kristýna; Kozmik, Zbyněk

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 2 (2008), s. 71-81 ISSN 1084-9521 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA500520604; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0520 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : eye * lens * cornea Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.528, year: 2008

  20. Effect of irradiation and cystamine on the secondary induction of cornea in anura larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, D.V.; Starodubov, S.M.

    1977-01-01

    Secondary induction of cornea in the transplanted skin has been studied in amphibian larvae after the effect of irradiation and cystamine on the recipients and donors. Comparison of the results obtained with those reported earlier has demonstrated that the irradiated tissue is more responsive to inductive effects than the intact one

  1. Ex vivo rabbit cornea diffusion studies with a soluble insert of moxifloxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastián-Morelló, María; Calatayud-Pascual, María Aracely; Rodilla, Vicent; Balaguer-Fernández, Cristina; López-Castellano, Alicia

    2018-02-01

    The objective of this research was to develop and evaluate an ocular insert for the controlled drug delivery of moxifloxacin which could perhaps be used in the treatment of corneal keratitis or even bacterial endophthalmitis. We have evaluated the ex vivo ocular diffusion of moxifloxacin through rabbit cornea, both fresh and preserved under different conditions. Histological studies were also carried out. Subsequently, drug matrix inserts were prepared using bioadhesive polymers. The inserts were evaluated for their physicochemical parameters. Ophthalmic ex vivo permeation of moxifloxacin was carried out with the most promising insert. The formulate insert was thin and provided higher ocular diffusion than commercial formulations. Ocular diffusion studies revealed significant differences between fresh and frozen corneas. Histological examinations also showed differences in the thickness of stroma between fresh and frozen corneas. The ophthalmic insert we have developed allows a larger quantity of moxifloxacin to permeate through the cornea than existing commercial formulations of the drug. Ocular delivery of moxifloxacin with this insert could be a new approach for the treatment of eye diseases.

  2. Failure of initial disease control in bullous pemphigoid: a retrospective study of hospitalized patients in a single tertiary center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Noa; Zeeli, Tal; Sprecher, Eli; Geller, Shamir

    2017-10-01

    Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is the most prevalent autoimmune blistering skin disease in Western countries and in Israel. Initial disease control is achieved in 60-90% of BP patients within 1-4 weeks of corticosteroid therapy. In the remainder of patients, recalcitrant disease is controlled with additional immunosuppressive treatment. We aimed to evaluate the rate of BP patients who needed adjuvant therapy to achieve initial disease control and to identify potential predictors for recalcitrant disease. We conducted a retrospective study of newly diagnosed BP patients who were hospitalized at the Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center between the years 2008-2014. We performed statistical analyses to assess the association between clinical factors and failure of initial disease control. Among 114 hospitalized patients with newly diagnosed BP, 1.8% presented with oral mucosa involvement. Seven patients (6.1%) required systemic agents in addition to corticosteroids to achieve disease control. Hypertension (P = 0.048), involvement of the head region (P = 0.042), and metformin treatment (P = 0.02) were significantly more prevalent among patients with recalcitrant disease. The low frequency of recalcitrant BP (6.1%) and the rarity of involvement of the oral mucosa (1.8%) in this study suggest that Israeli BP patients present a milder phenotype compared to similar patients from other geographic areas. Hypertension, head involvement, and metformin therapy were found to be significantly associated with the need for adjuvant therapy to achieve initial control, suggesting that these parameters may serve as predictors of treatment response in BP. © 2017 The International Society of Dermatology.

  3. Oxygen transport through soft contact lens and cornea: Lens characterization and metabolic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, Mahendra

    The human cornea requires oxygen to sustain metabolic processes critical for its normal functioning. Any restriction to corneal oxygen supply from the external environment (e.g., by wearing a low oxygen-permeability contact lens) can lead to hypoxia, which may cause corneal edema (swelling), limbal hyperemia, neovascularization, and corneal acidosis. The need for adequate oxygen to the cornea is a major driving force for research and development of hypertransmissible soft contact lenses (SCLs). Currently, there is no standard technique for measuring oxygen permeability (Dk) of hypertransmissible silicone-hydrogel SCLs. In this work, an electrochemistry-based polarographic apparatus was designed, built, and operated to measure oxygen permeability in hypertransmissible SCLs. Unlike conventional methods where a range of lens thickness is needed for determining oxygen permeabilities of SCLs, this apparatus requires only a single lens thickness. The single-lens permeameter provides a reliable, efficient, and economic tool for measuring oxygen permeabilities of commercial hypertransmissible SCLs. The single-lens permeameter measures not only the product Dk, but, following modification, it measures separately diffusivity, D, and solubility, k, of oxygen in hypertransmissible SCLs. These properties are critical for designing better lens materials that ensure sufficient oxygen supply to the cornea. Metabolism of oxygen in the cornea is influenced by contact-lens-induced hypoxia, diseases such as diabetes, surgery, and drug treatment, Thus, estimation of the in-vivo corneal oxygen consumption rate is essential for gauging adequate oxygen supply to the cornea. Therefore, we have developed an unsteady-state reactive-diffusion model for the cornea-contact-lens system to determine in-vivo human corneal oxygen-consumption rate. Finally, a metabolic model was developed to determine the relation between contact-lens oxygen transmissibility (Dk/L) and corneal oxygen deficiency. A

  4. Lens regeneration from the cornea requires suppression of Wnt/β-catenin signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Paul W; Sun, Yu; Henry, Jonathan J

    2016-04-01

    The frog, Xenopus laevis, possesses a high capacity to regenerate various larval tissues, including the lens, which is capable of complete regeneration from the cornea epithelium. However, the molecular signaling mechanisms of cornea-lens regeneration are not fully understood. Previous work has implicated the involvement of the Wnt signaling pathway, but molecular studies have been very limited. Iris-derived lens regeneration in the newt (Wolffian lens regeneration) has shown a necessity for active Wnt signaling in order to regenerate a new lens. Here we provide evidence that the Wnt signaling pathway plays a different role in the context of cornea-lens regeneration in Xenopus. We examined the expression of frizzled receptors and wnt ligands in the frog cornea epithelium. Numerous frizzled receptors (fzd1, fzd2, fzd3, fzd4, fzd6, fzd7, fzd8, and fzd10) and wnt ligands (wnt2b.a, wnt3a, wnt4, wnt5a, wnt5b, wnt6, wnt7b, wnt10a, wnt11, and wnt11b) are expressed in the cornea epithelium, demonstrating that this tissue is transcribing many of the ligands and receptors of the Wnt signaling pathway. When compared to flank epithelium, which is lens regeneration incompetent, only wnt11 and wnt11b are different (present only in the cornea epithelium), identifying them as potential regulators of cornea-lens regeneration. To detect changes in canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling occurring within the cornea epithelium, axin2 expression was measured over the course of regeneration. axin2 is a well-established reporter of active Wnt/β-catenin signaling, and its expression shows a significant decrease at 24 h post-lentectomy. This decrease recovers to normal endogenous levels by 48 h. To test whether this signaling decrease was necessary for lens regeneration to occur, regenerating eyes were treated with either 6-bromoindirubin-3'-oxime (BIO) or 1-azakenpaullone - both activators of Wnt signaling - resulting in a significant reduction in the percentage of cases with successful

  5. Factors influencing the contamination rate of human organ-cultured corneas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röck, Daniel; Wude, Johanna; Bartz-Schmidt, Karl U; Yoeruek, Efdal; Thaler, Sebastian; Röck, Tobias

    2017-12-01

    To assess the influence of donor, environment and storage factors on the contamination rate of organ-cultured corneas, to consider the microbiological species causing corneal contamination and to investigate the corresponding sensitivities. Data from 1340 consecutive donor corneas were analysed retrospectively. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the influence of different factors on the contamination rate of organ-cultured corneas for transplantation. The mean annual contamination rate was 1.8 ± 0.4% (range: 1.3-2.1%); 50% contaminations were of fungal origin with exclusively Candida species, and 50% contaminations were of bacterial origin with Staphylococcus species being predominant. The cause of donor death including infection and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome increased the risk of bacterial or fungal contamination during organ culture (p = 0.007 and p = 0.014, respectively). Differentiating between septic and aseptic donors showed an increased risk of contamination for septic donors (p = 0.0020). Mean monthly temperature including warmer months increased the risk of contamination significantly (p = 0.0031). Sex, donor age, death to enucleation, death to corneoscleral disc excision and storage time did not increase the risk of contamination significantly. The genesis of microbial contamination in organ-cultured donor corneas seems to be multifactorial. The main source of fungal or bacterial contamination could be resident species from the skin flora. The rate of microbial contamination in organ-cultured donor corneas seems to be dependent on the cause of donor death and mean monthly temperature. © 2017 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Infrared irradiation alters the expression of matrix metalloproteinases and glycosaminoglycans in the cornea and crystalline lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadoukis, Panagiotis; Klagas, Ioannis; Komnenou, Anastasia; Karakiulakis, George; Karoutis, Athanasios; Karampatakis, Vassilios; Papakonstantinou, Eleni

    2013-08-01

    Prolonged exposure to infrared (IR) radiation is associated with different types of damage to cornea and lens. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of acute and chronic exposure to IR radiation on the activity of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9 and on the expression of glycosaminoglycans (GAG) in the rabbit cornea and crystalline lens. New Zealand rabbits were subjected to IR radiation for 4 months (chronic exposure to IR) or to normal light (control group). In experiments regarding acute exposure, animals were subjected to IR radiation or normal light for 12 h, in the presence of 0.1% diclofenac sodium (eye drops instilled in the right eye of animals) or saline (instilled in the left eye of animals). The cornea and lens were dissected away and homogenized. The activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 was assayed by gelatine zymography. Total GAG were isolated from tissue specimens after lipid extraction and extensive digestion with pronase and DNase and characterized by treatment with GAG-degrading enzymes, followed by electrophoresis on cellulose acetate membranes. Acute or chronic exposure to IR radiation induced the activity of MMP-2 in cornea and lens, whereas only acute IR radiation increased the content of heparan sulphate in crystalline lens. Local administration of diclofenac sodium did not prevent the above effects of acute IR radiation. The detrimental effects of excessive or prolonged exposure of the eyes to IR radiation are associated with induced activity of MMP-2 in cornea and lens and alterations in the content of heparan sulphate in lens. Thus, MMP and GAG may offer alternative targets for pharmacological intervention to confront ocular damages associated with IR radiation.

  7. Thermodynamic measurement after cooling the cornea with intact epithelium and lid manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ortueta, Diego; Magnago, Thomas; Arba-Mosquera, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    To characterize the rate of change of ocular surface temperature (OST) under lid manipulation after cooling the intact cornea with balanced salt solution (BSS). In a patient for refractive surgery, prior to the ablation, the temperature of the cornea was continuously recorded with a high speed infrared (350Hz) camera. Two millilitre of chilled BSS with a temperature of 8.6°Celsius (°C) was instilled for about 3s. Using exponential functions, the three contributions have been determined, subjacent corneal layers, environment, and chilled BSS. The mean temperature of the cornea preoperatively was 34.5°C. After applying the chilled BSS the temperature decreased about 14°C down to an OST of 20°C and the time needed afterwards to get the normal (OST) temperature of about 30°C was 40s. Due to the inserted speculum and missing blink, OST did not reach the original OST of 34.5°C and faded at about 32.5°C. According to our best fitted model, absolute value of each contributing component was 31.4°C (subjacent corneal layers), 26.8°C (environment) and 8.6°C (BSS). Applying chilled BSS to the cornea quickly reduces the temperature of the cornea with a thermal relaxation time of 3s and a amplitude decrease of 8.6°C. This together with a relaxation time of 7s for subjacent corneal layers, and 184s for environment after instillation of BSS combined with a well-controlled environment provides a period of 40s of corneal temperature below baseline, which may be of clinical benefit when applying chilled BSS immediately before or immediately after ablation. Copyright © 2014 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. Hydration and transparency of the rabbit cornea irradiated with UVB-doses of 0.25 J/cm(2) and 0.5 J/cm(2) compared with equivalent UVB radiation exposure reaching the human cornea from sunlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cejka, Cestmír; Ardan, Taras; Sirc, Jakub; Michálek, Jiří; Beneš, Jiří; Brůnová, Blanka; Rosina, Jozef

    2011-07-01

    Exposure of the cornea to UV radiation from sunlight evokes intraocular inflammation, photokeratitis. Photokeratitis is caused by UVB radiation. It is accompanied by changes of corneal hydration and light absorption. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of two UVB doses on corneal optics in rabbits and to compare these UVB doses with the equivalent exposure of UVB radiation reaching the human cornea from sunlight. Rabbit corneas were irradiated with a daily UVB dose of 0.25 J/cm(2) or 0.5 J/cm(2) for 4 days. One day after finishing the irradiations the rabbits were sacrificed and corneal light absorption measured using our spectrophotometrical method. Corneal hydration was examined using an ultrasonic Pachymeter every experimental day before the irradiation procedure and the last day before sacrificing the animals. Changes in corneal optics appeared after the repeated exposure of the cornea to a UVB dose of 0.25 J/ cm(2) and massively increased after the repeated exposure of the cornea to a UVB dose of 0.5 J/cm(2). The first significant changes in corneal hydration appeared after a single exposure of the cornea to a UVB dose of 0.25 J/cm(2). Changes in corneal hydration appeared after the exposure of the rabbit cornea to a single UVB dose equivalent to 2.6 hours of solar UVB radiation reaching the human cornea, as measured by UVB sensors embedded in the eyes of mannequin heads facing the sun on a beach at noon in July. Repeated exposure of the rabbit cornea to the same UVB dose evoked profound changes in corneal optics. Although comparison of experimental and outdoor conditions are only approximate, the results in rabbits point to the danger for the human eye from UVB radiation when short stays in sunlight are repeated for several consecutive days without UV protection.

  9. Low-dose radiation effects on the evolution of chronic dystrophical processes in cornea and clouding of crystalline lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gajdaj, Yu.V.; Gajdaj, V.M.

    1993-01-01

    Low-dose radiation effects on the course of chronic dystrophical processes in cornea and the dynamics of crystalline lens clouding of involution age genesis are investigated in the patients participated in Chernobyl accident response. Examples of the concrete pathological cases are considered. It was stated that the above dose effects led to exacerbation of the chronic slack dystrophical processes in cornea and intensification of the development of cornea primary dystrophy. In a number of cases the intensification of development of crystalline lens clouding takes place resulted in the cataract for 2-3 years

  10. Differential expression and processing of transforming growth factor beta induced protein (TGFBIp) in the normal human cornea during postnatal development and aging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karring, Henrik; Runager, Kasper; Valnickova, Zuzana

    2010-01-01

    Transforming growth factor beta induced protein (TGFBIp, also named keratoepithelin) is an extracellular matrix protein abundant in the cornea. The purpose of this study was to determine the expression and processing of TGFBIp in the normal human cornea during postnatal development and aging...... trimming events from the N-terminus of mature TGFBIp generate TGFBIp isoforms which form a similar "zig-zag" pattern when separated by 2-D polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). This study shows that in humans TGFBIp is more abundant in mature corneas than in the developing cornea...... and that the processing of TGFBIp changes during postnatal development of the cornea. In addition, TGFBIp appears to be degraded in a highly orchestrated manner in the normal human cornea with the resulting C-terminal fragments being retained in the cornea. The age-related changes in the expression and processing...

  11. Efficacious and safe tissue-selective controlled gene therapy approaches for the cornea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv R Mohan

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Untargeted and uncontrolled gene delivery is a major cause of gene therapy failure. This study aimed to define efficient and safe tissue-selective targeted gene therapy approaches for delivering genes into keratocytes of the cornea in vivo using a normal or diseased rabbit model. New Zealand White rabbits, adeno-associated virus serotype 5 (AAV5, and a minimally invasive hair-dryer based vector-delivery technique were used. Fifty microliters of AAV5 titer (6.5×10(12 vg/ml expressing green fluorescent protein gene (GFP was topically applied onto normal or diseased (fibrotic or neovascularized rabbit corneas for 2-minutes with a custom vector-delivery technique. Corneal fibrosis and neovascularization in rabbit eyes were induced with photorefractive keratectomy using excimer laser and VEGF (630 ng using micropocket assay, respectively. Slit-lamp biomicroscopy and immunocytochemistry were used to confirm fibrosis and neovascularization in rabbit corneas. The levels, location and duration of delivered-GFP gene expression in the rabbit stroma were measured with immunocytochemistry and/or western blotting. Slot-blot measured delivered-GFP gene copy number. Confocal microscopy performed in whole-mounts of cornea and thick corneal sections determined geometric and spatial localization of delivered-GFP in three-dimensional arrangement. AAV5 toxicity and safety were evaluated with clinical eye exam, stereomicroscopy, slit-lamp biomicroscopy, and H&E staining. A single 2-minute AAV5 topical application via custom delivery-technique efficiently and selectively transduced keratocytes in the anterior stroma of normal and diseased rabbit corneas as evident from immunocytochemistry and confocal microscopy. Transgene expression was first detected at day 3, peaked at day 7, and was maintained up to 16 weeks (longest tested time point. Clinical and slit-lamp eye examination in live rabbits and H&E staining did not reveal any significant changes between AAV5

  12. Exploration of alternative test methods to evaluate phototoxicity of ophthalmic agents by using Statens Seruminstitut Rabbit Cornea cell lines and 3D human reconstituted cornea models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soyoung Kim

    Full Text Available Many chemicals have been reported to induce phototoxicity. The absorbance of light energy within the sunlight range is a common characteristic of phototoxicity. The 3T3 NRU phototoxicity test (PT in 3T3 mouse skin fibroblasts has been used to identify the phototoxic potential induced by excited chemicals after exposure to ultra violet (UV. However, as phototoxicity may occur in ocular cells, it is necessary to develop a more suitable test for cornea-derived cells. In this study, we attempted to establish a new in vitro PT method in rabbit corneal cell lines (SIRC. We evaluated five ophthalmic agents, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, lomefloxacin, norfloxacin, and tetracycline, for their cytotoxic potential and in vitro phototoxicity. The results obtained using 3D human corneal models revealed that the UV-induced eye tissue toxicity by the test substances showed good correlation with those obtained using the in vitro phototoxicity test. However, the results from the 3D PT for ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, and tetracycline in the 3D human cornea model were only partially comparable. Therefore, we suggest the SIRC cell line as a new phototoxicity test model; however, a sequential testing strategy, such as 3D PT, was also proposed to obtain relevant information for topical eye agents.

  13. Entertainment-education and recruitment of cornea donors: the role of emotion and issue involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Hyuhn-Suhck

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the role of emotional responses and viewer's level of issue involvement to an entertainment-education show about cornea donation in order to predict intention to register as cornea donors. Results confirmed that sympathy and empathy responses operated as a catalyst for issue involvement, which emerged as an important intermediary in the persuasion process. Issue involvement also was found to be a common causal antecedent of attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control, the last two of which predict intentions unlike attitude, which does not. The revised path model confirmed that involvement directly influences intention. The findings of this study suggest that adding emotion and involvement in the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) enhances the explanatory power of the theory in predicting intentions, which indicates the possibility of combining the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) and the TPB in the prediction of human behaviors.

  14. Brittle Cornea Syndrome Associated with a Missense Mutation in the Zinc-Finger 469 Gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anne Elisabeth; Knappskog, Per Morten; Midtbø, Marit

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the diverse clinical manifestations, identify the causative mutation and explain the association with red hair in a family with brittle cornea syndrome (BCS). Methods: Eight family members in three generations underwent ophthalmic, dental, and general medical examination...... mapping with SNP markers, DNA sequencing, and MC1R genotyping. Results: At 42 and 48 years of age, respectively, both affected individuals were blind due to retinal detachment and secondary glaucoma. They had extremely thin and bulging corneas, velvety skin, chestnut colored hair, scoliosis, reduced BMD......, dental anomalies, hearing loss and minor cardiac defects. The morphologies of the skin biopsies were normal except that in some areas slightly thinner collagen fibrils were seen in one of the affected individuals. Molecular genetic analysis revealed a novel missense mutation of ZNF469, c.10016G...

  15. [Biological availability of ophthalmic drugs. 1. Increasing drug permeability in the cornea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masteiková, R; Chalupová, Z; Savickiene, N

    2004-03-01

    Most eye diseases are treated by topical administration of ophthalmic preparations. Low ophthalmic bioavailability is due to a number of physiological and physicochemical factors. The main obstacle to the penetration of active ingredients to the eye is the layered character of the cornea. Formulation of ophthalmic preparations enabling easier penetration of this biological barrier thus ranks among the most effective ways of improving bioavailability. Penetrability of the cornea can be increased by the following methods: a) adjustment of the actual acidity in such a way that pH of the preparation makes it possible to produce the optimal portion of non-ionized particles; b) incorporation of absorption enhancers (non-ionic tensides, salts of bile acids, some antimicrobial substances, EDTA, cyclodextrins, etc.) into the composition of the preparation, and c) production of prodrugs or ionic pairs.

  16. Expression profiles of aquaporins in rat conjunctiva, cornea, lacrimal gland and Meibomian gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dongfang; Thelin, William R; Randell, Scott H; Boucher, Richard C

    2012-10-01

    The aim of the study was to elucidate aquaporin (AQP) family member mRNA expression and protein expression/localization in the rat lacrimal functional unit. The mRNA expression of all rat AQPs (AQP0-9, 11-12) in palpebral, fornical, and bulbar conjunctiva, cornea, lacrimal gland, and Meibomian gland was measured by Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) and real time RT-PCR. Antibodies against AQP1, 3, 4, 5, 9, and 11 were used in Western blotting and immunohistochemistry to determine protein expression and distribution. Our study demonstrated characteristic AQP expression profiles in rat ocular tissues. AQP1, 3, 4, 5, 8, 9, 11, and 12 mRNA were detected in conjunctiva. AQP0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 11, and 12 mRNA were expressed in cornea. AQP0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, and 11 mRNA were detected in lacrimal gland. AQP1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 11, and 12 mRNA were identified in Meibomian gland. By Western blot, AQP1, 3, 5, and 11 were detected in conjunctiva; AQP1, 3, 5, and 11 were identified in cornea; AQP1, 3, 4, 5, and 11 were detected in lacrimal gland; and AQP1, 3, 4, 5, 9, and 11 were present in Meibomian gland. Immunohistochemistry localized AQPs to distinct sites in the various tissues. This study rigorously analyzed AQPs expression and localization in rat conjunctiva, cornea, lacrimal gland, and Meibomian gland tissues. Our findings provide a comprehensive platform for further investigation into the physiological or pathophysiological relevance of AQPs in ocular surface. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Finite element analysis of blunt foreign body impact on the cornea after PRK and LASIK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, Seyed Jamaleddin; Nassiri, Nariman; Masoumi, Nafiseh; Nassiri, Nader; Majdi-N, Mercede; Farzaneh, Solmaz; Djalilian, Ali R; Peyman, Gholam A

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the effect of blunt foreign body impact on a human cornea after photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) and LASIK using a simulation model. Computational simulations were performed using a finite element analysis program (LS-Dyna, Livermore Software Technology Corp). The blunt foreign body was set to impact at the center of the corneal surface models (after PRK and LASIK) with thicknesses of 500, 450, 400, 350, and 300 μm. Corneal rupture was assumed to occur at a peak stress of 9.45 MPa and at a strain of 18%. The foreign body projectile was blunt in shape, made from aluminum, contained plastic-kinematic properties, and had a density of 2700 kg/m(3). The projectile was launched at the center of the cornea with velocities ranging from 20 to 60 m/s. The threshold of impact velocities creating rupture in corneal thicknesses of 500, 450, 400, 350, and 300 μm were 33, 32.8, 30.7, 27.9, and 22.8 m/s, respectively, in the PRK model. In the LASIK model, the thresholds creating rupture in the stromal bed of the corneas with thicknesses of 500, 450, 400, 350, and 300 μm were 40, 38.1, 35.6, 31.5, and 26.7 m/s, respectively. The 110-μm corneal flap in the LASIK model ruptured at all velocities. Ruptures occurred at lower velocities in the PRK cornea model than in the corneal stromal bed of the LASIK model following blunt foreign body impact. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  18. Clinical characteristics of keratoconus patients in Malaysia: a review from a cornea specialist centre

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd-Ali, Bariah; Abdu, Mustafa; Yaw, Choong Yean; Mohidin, Norhani

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the demographic profile, refraction, visual acuity (VA), corneal curvature (K) and severity of keratoconus (KC) patients from a cornea specialist centre in Malaysia. This may improve the management of KC patients in this country. Methods: Records of 13,000 patients were reviewed. The patients were categorized into 4 age groups: (Gp 1: 42 years). Refraction and VA were determined using subjective refraction and Snellen chart. Corneal curvature was measured using Orbscan...

  19. Tracing the fate of limbal epithelial progenitor cells in the murine cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Girolamo, N; Bobba, S; Raviraj, V; Delic, N C; Slapetova, I; Nicovich, P R; Halliday, G M; Wakefield, D; Whan, R; Lyons, J G

    2015-01-01

    Stem cell (SC) division, deployment, and differentiation are processes that contribute to corneal epithelial renewal. Until now studying the destiny of these cells in a living mammal has not been possible. However, the advent of inducible multicolor genetic tagging and powerful imaging technologies has rendered this achievable in the translucent and readily accessible murine cornea. K14CreER(T2)-Confetti mice that harbor two copies of the Brainbow 2.1 cassette, yielding up to 10 colors from the stochastic recombination of fluorescent proteins, were used to monitor K-14(+) progenitor cell dynamics within the corneal epithelium in live animals. Multicolored columns of cells emerged from the basal limbal epithelium as they expanded and migrated linearly at a rate of 10.8 µm/day toward the central cornea. Moreover, the permanent expression of fluorophores, passed on from progenitor to progeny, assisted in discriminating individual clones as spectrally distinct streaks containing more than 1,000 cells within the illuminated area. The centripetal clonal expansion is suggestive that a single progenitor cell is responsible for maintaining a narrow corridor of corneal epithelial cells. Our data are in agreement with the limbus as the repository for SC as opposed to SC being distributed throughout the central cornea. This is the first report describing stem/progenitor cell fate determination in the murine cornea using multicolor genetic tracing. This model represents a powerful new resource to monitor SC kinetics and fate choice under homeostatic conditions, and may assist in assessing clonal evolution during corneal development, aging, wound-healing, disease, and following transplantation. © 2014 AlphaMed Press.

  20. Experience of Comamonas Acidovorans Keratitis with Delayed Onset and Treatment Response in Immunocompromised Cornea

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sang Mok; Kim, Mee Kum; Lee, Jae Lim; Wee, Won Ryang; Lee, Jin Hak

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To report 2 cases of Comamonas Acidovorans keratitis in immunocompromised cornea. Methods A complete review of the medical records of the two cases of Comamonas acidovorans keratitis. Results We found some similarities in clinical courses of two cases. Both of them showed development of keratitis during the management with corticosteroids, delayed onset, slow response to antibiotics, and relatively less affected corneal epithelium. Conclusions Comamonas Acidovorans is known as a less ...

  1. Atmospheric-Pressure Cold Plasma Induces Transcriptional Changes in Ex Vivo Human Corneas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umberto Rosani

    Full Text Available Atmospheric pressure cold plasma (APCP might be considered a novel tool for tissue disinfection in medicine since the active chemical species produced by low plasma doses, generated by ionizing helium gas in air, induces reactive oxygen species (ROS that kill microorganisms without substantially affecting human cells.In this study, we evaluated morphological and functional changes in human corneas exposed for 2 minutes (min to APCP and tested if the antioxidant n-acetyl l-cysteine (NAC was able to inhibit or prevent damage and cell death.Immunohistochemistry and western blotting analyses of corneal tissues collected at 6 hours (h post-APCP treatment demonstrated no morphological tissue changes, but a transient increased expression of OGG1 glycosylase that returned to control levels in 24 h. Transcriptome sequencing and quantitative real time PCR performed on different corneas revealed in the treated corneas many differentially expressed genes: namely, 256 and 304 genes showing expression changes greater than ± 2 folds in the absence and presence of NAC, respectively. At 6 h post-treatment, the most over-expressed gene categories suggested an active or enhanced cell functioning, with only a minority of genes specifically concerning oxidative DNA damage and repair showing slight over-expression values (<2 folds. Moreover, time-related expression analysis of eight genes up-regulated in the APCP-treated corneas overall demonstrated the return to control expression levels after 24 h.These findings of transient oxidative stress accompanied by wide-range transcriptome adjustments support the further development of APCP as an ocular disinfectant.

  2. Pathogenic strains of Acanthamoeba are recognized by TLR4 and initiated inflammatory responses in the cornea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Alizadeh

    Full Text Available Free-living amoebae of the Acanthamoeba species are the causative agent of Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK, a sight-threatening corneal infection that causes severe pain and a characteristic ring-shaped corneal infiltrate. Innate immune responses play an important role in resistance against AK. The aim of this study is to determine if Toll-like receptors (TLRs on corneal epithelial cells are activated by Acanthamoeba, leading to initiation of inflammatory responses in the cornea. Human corneal epithelial (HCE cells constitutively expressed TLR1, TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, and TLR9 mRNA, and A. castellanii upregulated TLR4 transcription. Expression of TLR1, TLR2, TLR3, and TLR9 was unchanged when HCE cells were exposed to A. castellanii. IL-8 mRNA expression was upregulated in HCE cells exposed to A. castellanii. A. castellanii and lipopolysaccharide (LPS induced significant IL-8 production by HCE cells as measured by ELISA. The percentage of total cells positive for TLR4 was higher in A. castellanii stimulated HCE cells compared to unstimulated HCE cells. A. castellanii induced upregulation of IL-8 in TLR4 expressing human embryonic kidney (HEK-293 cells, but not TLR3 expressing HEK-293 cells. TLR4 neutralizing antibody inhibited A. castellanii-induced IL-8 by HCE and HEK-293 cells. Clinical strains but not soil strains of Acanthamoeba activated TLR4 expression in Chinese hamster corneas in vivo and in vitro. Clinical isolates but not soil isolates of Acanthamoeba induced significant (P< 0.05 CXCL2 production in Chinese hamster corneas 3 and 7 days after infection, which coincided with increased inflammatory cells in the corneas. Results suggest that pathogenic species of Acanthamoeba activate TLR4 and induce production of CXCL2 in the Chinese hamster model of AK. TLR4 may be a potential target in the development of novel treatment strategies in Acanthamoeba and other microbial infections that activate TLR4 in corneal cells.

  3. Public Health Implications of the 1540 nm Laser on the Cornea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-30

    of Public Health Degree 30 May 2007 - Thomas J01vfson, Ph.D. Department of Preventive Medicine & Biometrics Committee Member Christine Kasper, ’,D...Xu and Alfano 2005) This absorption characteristic is useful in refractive surgery of the eye because the cornea is approximately 80% water...retina. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 35: 3032-44; 1994. Xu M, Alfano RR. Fractal mechanisms of light scattering in biological tissue and cells. Opt

  4. Molecular Hydrogen Effectively Heals Alkali-Injured Cornea via Suppression of Oxidative Stress

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čejka, Čestmír; Kössl, Jan; Heřmánková, Barbora; Holáň, Vladimír; Čejková, Jitka

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 2017, č. 2017 (2017), s. 8906027 ISSN 1942-0900 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-12580S; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1508; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1309 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : 4-coumaric acid * rabbit cornea * nitric-oxide Subject RIV: FF - HEENT, Dentistry OBOR OECD: Ophthalmology Impact factor: 4.593, year: 2016

  5. Dexamethasone Drug Eluting Nanowafers Control Inflammation in Alkali-Burned Corneas Associated With Dry Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Fang; Shin, Crystal S.; Wang, Changjun; Pflugfelder, Stephen C.; Acharya, Ghanashyam; De Paiva, Cintia S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the efficacy of a controlled release dexamethasone delivery system for suppressing inflammation in an ocular burn + desiccating stress (OB+DS) model. Methods Nanowafers (NW) loaded with Dexamethasone (Dex, 10 μg) or vehicles (2.5% Methylcellulose; MC) were fabricated using hydrogel template strategy. C57BL/6 mice were subjected to unilateral alkali ocular burn with concomitant desiccating stress for 2 or 5 days and topically treated either with 2 μL of 0.1% Dex or vehicle four times per day and compared with mice that had MC-NW or Dex-NW placed on their corneas. Clinical parameters were evaluated daily. Mice were euthanized after 2 or 5 days. Quantitative PCR evaluated the expression of inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-6 and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) in whole cornea lysates. Myeloperoxidase activity (MPO) was measured using a commercial kit in cornea lysates. Results Both Dex drop and Dex-NW groups had significantly lower corneal opacity scores compared with their vehicles. Both Dex drops and Dex-NW significantly decreased expression of IL-1β, IL-6, and MMP-9 RNA transcripts compared with vehicle drops or wafers 2 and 5 days after the initial lesion. A significant lower number of neutrophils was found in both Dex treatment groups and this was accompanied by decreased MPO activity compared with vehicle controls. Conclusions Dex-NW has efficacy equal to Dex drops in preserving corneal clarity and decreasing expression of MMPs and inflammatory cytokines of the corneas of mice subjected to an OB+DS model. PMID:27327581

  6. In vivo 3D measurement of moxifloxacin and gatifloxacin distributions in the mouse cornea using multiphoton microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Seunghun; Lee, Jun Ho; Park, Jin Hyoung; Yoon, Yeoreum; Chung, Wan Kyun; Tchah, Hungwon; Kim, Myoung Joon; Kim, Ki Hean

    2016-01-01

    Moxifloxacin and gatifloxacin are fourth-generation fluoroquinolone antibiotics used in the clinic to prevent or treat ocular infections. Their pharmacokinetics in the cornea is usually measured from extracted ocular fluids or tissues, and in vivo direct measurement is difficult. In this study multiphoton microscopy (MPM), which is a 3D optical microscopic technique based on multiphoton fluorescence, was applied to the measurement of moxifloxacin and gatifloxacin distribution in the cornea. I...

  7. Study of the protective properties of paraaminobenzoic acid for cornea of adult rats under X-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroeva, O.G.; Panova, I.G.; Mel'nikova, I.I.

    1997-01-01

    To test the efficiency of para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) as a radioprotector for mammal tissues the protective properties of PABA for cornea of adult rats-males exposed to single whole-body irradiation were studied. X-irradiation was performed using RUM-17 facility at the dose of 5 Gy (dose rate is of 0.886 Gy/min). Results obtained prove reliably radioprotective and therapeutic effect of PABA on the cornea cells [ru

  8. Autologous conjunctiva transplantation with stem cells on edge of cornea for recurrent pterygium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Wang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To observe the clinical effectiveness and practicality the autologous conjunctiva transplantation with stem cells on edge of cornea for recurrent pterygium.METHODS: Of the 53 recurrent pterygium patients(57 eyes, after all pathological tissues were removed, underwent the autologous conjunctiva transplantation with stem cells on edge of cornea which were locked above conjunctival transplantation of the operated eye.RESULTS: Postopretive follow-up was 1-12 months for all 57 eyes, of which 3 eyes(5%relapsed. The corneoscleral autolysis was occurred in one eye and surgery treatment was conducted. Corneal wounds were healing and transplantations survived well for the remaining 53 patients without obvious surgical marks. Cure rate was 93%.CONCLUSION: Autologous conjunctiva transplantation with stem cells on edge of cornea for recurrent pterygium can meet the aesthetic requirements of the some patients, with the advantages of obtaining material easily, faster wound healing, lower postoperative recurrence rate, meeting the aesthetic needs of some patients and improving postoperative results. Thus, it is an ideal surgery and is worthy of applying on primary hospital.

  9. The Effect of Systemic Amantadine Sulfate on Malondialdehyde and Total Thiol Levels in Rat Corneas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Züleyha Yalniz-Akkaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the malondialdehyde (MDA and total thiol (sulfhydryl, SH levels in rat corneas after intraperitoneal injection of amantadine sulfate. Methods: A total of 12 Wistar albino rats were divided into two groups: control group (n = 6 and amantadine group (n = 6. Balanced salt solution (1 mL, 0.9% NaCl, twice/day was injected into rats in control group. Amantadine sulfate (2 mg/1 mL, twice/day was injected into rats in amantadine group. In each group, two rats were injected for 1 week, two received injections for 1 month, and two rats received injections for 3 months. The corneas were homogenized and MDA and SH levels were measured spectroflourometrically. Results: In control group, median MDA and SH levels were 2.37 (range, 0.92-3.60 and 25.35 (range, 6.30-54.0 nmol/mg, respectively. In amantadine group, median MDA and SH levels were 3.57 (range, 1.25-5.92 and 32.65 (range, 3.30-48.3 nmol/mg, respectively. The difference between this two groups regarding MDA (P = 0.14 and SH (P = 1.0 levels was statistically insignificant. Conclusion: Systemically administered amantadine sulfate seems not to cause MDA and SH imbalance in rat corneas.

  10. Measurement and modeling of diffusion kinetics of a lipophilic molecule across rabbit cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Chhavi; Chauhan, Anuj; Mutharasan, Raj; Srinivas, Sangly P

    2010-04-01

    To develop a kinetic model for representing the diffusion and partitioning of Rhodamine B (RhB), a fluorescent lipophilic molecule, across the cornea for gaining insights into pharmacokinetics of topical drugs to the eye. Rabbit corneas mounted underneath a custom-built scanning microfluorometer were perfused with Ringers on both sides of the tissue. After a step change in RhB on the tear side, transients of trans-corneal fluorescence of RhB were measured at a depth resolution approximately 8 microm. RhB distribution exhibited discontinuities at the interface between epithelium and stroma, and between stroma and endothelium. In each of the layers, fluorescence was non-uniform. Fluorescence was elevated in the epithelium and endothelium relative to the stroma. Modeling of RhB transport by diffusion in each layer and stipulation of partitioning of RhB at the cellular interfaces were required to account for trans-corneal penetration kinetics of RhB. The model parameters, estimated using the unsteady state trans-corneal RhB profiles, were found to be sensitive, and the model predicted the experimental profiles accurately. Conventional pharmacokinetic models that depict cornea as a single compartment do not predict the depth-dependent kinetics of RhB penetration. The proposed model incorporates realistic transport mechanisms and thereby highlights the influence of physicochemical properties of drugs on trans-corneal kinetics.

  11. Adjunctive cryotherapy for pigmentary keratitis in dogs: a study of 16 corneas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azoulay, Thierry

    2014-07-01

    To assess whether soft cryotherapy (dimethylether, isobutene, and propane) can remove pigmentation of the cornea that has accumulated under different conditions when conventional therapy has been unsuccessful. Nine dogs with unilateral or bilateral corneal pigmentation (16 eyes) were included based on progressive corneal pigmentation that was unresponsive to long-term etiological treatment. The dogs had keratoconjunctivitis sicca or chronic superficial keratitis. A cryogen of 95% dimethylether, 3% isobutane, and 2% propane was applied to the pigmented areas of each cornea under anesthesia. Initial corneal pigmentation and changes were documented over the entire study period using a grading scheme and clinical photographs. Most of the pigment deposits were gone by 5-15 days after cryosurgery. Postoperatively, the dogs showed some corneal edema and corneo-conjunctival inflammation, and three dogs had superficial corneal ulcers; these symptoms had resolved by 1 month after the procedure. Follow-up for more than 90 days was available in five dogs (nine corneas), and we observed total or partial repigmentation when the underlying disease was not controlled. A new cryotherapy procedure was successfully performed in two of these dogs. Given the sensitivity to cold of melanocytes, cryotherapy is a viable adjunctive treatment for refractory severe corneal pigmentation. Etiological treatment remains necessary to prevent pigmentation from rapidly reappearing. Only a few dogs were followed for more than 90 days; further study is necessary to evaluate the long-term safety and efficacy of soft cryotherapy. © 2013 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  12. Femtosecond laser cutting of human corneas for the subbasal nerve plexus evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowtharapu, B S; Marfurt, C; Hovakimyan, M; Will, F; Richter, H; Wree, A; Stachs, O; Guthoff, R F

    2017-01-01

    Assessment of various morphological parameters of the corneal subbasal nerve plexus is a valuable method of documenting the structural and presumably functional integrity of the corneal innervation in health and disease. The aim of this work is to establish a rapid, reliable and reproducible method for visualization of the human corneal SBP using femtosecond laser cut corneal tissue sections. Trephined healthy corneal buttons were fixed and processed using TissueSurgeon-a femtosecond laser based microtome, to obtain thick tissue sections of the corneal epithelium and anterior stroma cut parallel to the ocular surface within approximately 15 min. A near infrared femtosecond laser was focused on to the cornea approximately 70-90 μm from the anterior surface to induce material separation using TissueSurgeon. The obtained corneal sections were stained following standard immunohistochemical procedures with anti-neuronal β-III tubulin antibody for visualization of the corneal nerves. Sections that contained the epithelium and approximately 20-30 μm of anterior stroma yielded excellent visualisation of the SBP with minimal optical interference from underlying stromal nerves. In conclusion, the results of this study have demonstrated that femtosecond laser cutting of the human cornea offers greater speed, ease and reliability than standard tissue preparation methods for obtaining high quality thick sections of the anterior cornea cut parallel to the ocular surface. © 2016 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2016 Royal Microscopical Society.

  13. Desiccating Stress-Induced MMP Production and Activity Worsens Wound Healing in Alkali-Burned Corneas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Fang; Pelegrino, Flavia S. A.; Pflugfelder, Stephen C.; Volpe, Eugene A.; Li, De-Quan; de Paiva, Cintia S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the effects of dry eye on ocular surface protease activity and sight threatening corneal complications following ocular surface chemical injury. Methods C57BL/6 mice were subjected to unilateral alkali burn (AB) with or without concomitant dry eye for 2 or 5 days. Mice were observed daily for appearance of corneal perforation. Whole corneas were harvested and lysed for RNA extraction. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed to measure expression of inflammation cytokines, matrix metalloproteinases (MMP). Matrix metalloproteinase–9 activity, gelatinase activity, and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were evaluated in corneal lysates. Presence of infiltrating neutrophils was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry. Results Eyes subjected to the combined model of AB and dry eye (CM) had 20% sterile corneal perforation rate as soon as 1 day after the initial injury, which increased to 35% by 5 days, delayed wound closure and increased corneal opacity. Increased levels of IL-1β, -6, and MMPs-1, -3, -8, -9, and -13, and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (CSCL1) transcripts were found after 2 days in CM compared with AB corneas. Increased MMP-1, -3, -9, and -13 immunoreactivity and gelatinolytic activity were seen in CM corneas compared with AB. Increased neutrophil infiltration and MPO activity was noted in the CM group compared with AB 2 days post injury. Conclusions Desiccating stress worsens outcome of ocular AB, creating a cytokine and protease storm with greater neutrophil infiltration, increasing the risk of corneal perforation. PMID:26225631

  14. Property-based design: optimization and characterization of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) hydrogel and PVA-matrix composite for artificial cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hong; Zuo, Yi; Zhang, Li; Li, Jidong; Zhang, Aiming; Li, Yubao; Yang, Xiaochao

    2014-03-01

    Each approach for artificial cornea design is toward the same goal: to develop a material that best mimics the important properties of natural cornea. Accordingly, the selection and optimization of corneal substitute should be based on their physicochemical properties. In this study, three types of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) hydrogels with different polymerization degree (PVA1799, PVA2499 and PVA2699) were prepared by freeze-thawing techniques. After characterization in terms of transparency, water content, water contact angle, mechanical property, root-mean-square roughness and protein adsorption behavior, the optimized PVA2499 hydrogel with similar properties of natural cornea was selected as a matrix material for artificial cornea. Based on this, a biomimetic artificial cornea was fabricated with core-and-skirt structure: a transparent PVA hydrogel core, surrounding by a ringed PVA-matrix composite skirt that composed of graphite, Fe-doped nano hydroxyapatite (n-Fe-HA) and PVA hydrogel. Different ratio of graphite/n-Fe-HA can tune the skirt color from dark brown to light brown, which well simulates the iris color of Oriental eyes. Moreover, morphologic and mechanical examination showed that an integrated core-and-skirt artificial cornea was formed from an interpenetrating polymer network, no phase separation appeared on the interface between the core and the skirt.

  15. [Riboflavin photoprotection with cross-linking effect in photorefractive ablation of the cornea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornilovskiy, I M; Sultanova, A I; Burtsev, A A

    2016-01-01

    Photorefractive ablation is inevitably accompanied by oxidative stress of the cornea and weakening of its biomechanical and photoprotective properties. To validate the expediency of riboflavin use in photorefractive ablation for photoprotection of the cornea and cross-linking. The effects of riboflavin use in photorefractive ablation was first studied in a series of in vitro and in vivo experiments performed on 56 eyes of 28 rabbits, and then on 232 eyes of 142 patients with different degrees of myopia. Biomechanical testing of corneal samples was performed with Zwick/RoellВZ 2.5/TN1S tensile-testing machine. Transepithelial photorefractive keratectomy (TransPRK) and femtosecond laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (Femto-LASIK) were performed on Wavelight-Allegretto200, MEL-80, and WaveLight-EX500 excimer laser systems and also VisuMax and WaveLight-FS200 femtosecond lasers. For preliminary examinations, an appropriate set of diagnostic tools was used. In vivo experiments have proved that, in the absence of conservative therapy, riboflavin is able to produce both photoprotective and cross-linking effects to the cornea. Corneal syndrome was thus reduced and re-epithelialization after TransPRK accelerated. Biomechanical testing of corneal samples revealed an increase in tolerated load from 12.9±1.4 N to 18.3±1.2 N (p=0.0002) and tensile strength from 8.6±1.7 MPa to 12.4±1.7 MPa (p=0.007). Clinical studies conducted in a group of patients with mild to moderate myopia have also confirmed the photoprotective effect of riboflavin at months 1-12 after TransPRK. There were no significant differences in uncorrected visual acuity (ranged from 0.80±0.16 to 0.85±0.15) and corrected visual acuity at baseline (0.83±0.14). Evaluation of the optical and refractive effect achieved after Femto-LASIK with riboflavin photoprotection in the fellow eye has shown that this technique is not inferior to the traditional one as to its refractive accuracy, but provides better

  16. The effect of single and repeated UVB radiation on rabbit cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fris, Miroslav; Tessem, May-Britt; Cejková, Jitka; Midelfart, Anna

    2006-12-01

    Cumulative effect of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is an important aspect of UV corneal damage. The purpose of this study was to apply high resolution magic angle spinning proton nuclear magnetic resonance (HR-MAS 1H NMR) spectroscopy to evaluate the effect of single and repeated UV radiation exposure of the same overall dose on the rabbit cornea. Corneal surfaces of 24 normal rabbit eyes were examined for the effects of UVB exposure (312 nm). In the first group (UVB1), animals were irradiated with a single dose (3.12 J/cm2; 21 min) of UVB radiation. The animals in the second group (UVB2) were irradiated three times for 7 min every other day (dose of 1.04 J/cm2; days 1, 3, 5) to give the same overall dose (3.12 J/cm2). The third group served as an untreated control group. One day after the last irradiation, the animals were sacrificed, and the corneas were removed and frozen. HR-MAS 1H NMR spectra from intact corneas were obtained. Special grouping patterns among the tissue samples and the relative percentage changes in particular metabolite concentrations were evaluated using modern statistical methods (multivariate analysis, one-way ANOVA). The metabolic profile of both groups of UVB-irradiated samples was significantly different from the control corneas. Substantial decreases in taurine, hypo-taurine and choline-derivatives concentrations and substantial elevation in glucose and betaine levels were observed following the UVR exposure. There was no significant difference between the effect of a single and repeated UVB irradiation of the same overall dose. For the first time, the effects of single and repeated UVR doses on the metabolic profile of the rabbit cornea were analysed and compared. The combination of HR-MAS 1H NMR spectroscopy and modern statistical methods (multivariate analysis, one-way ANOVA) proved suitable to assess the overall view of the metabolic alterations in the rabbit corneal tissue following UVB radiation exposure.

  17. Accuracy of molecular diagnostics in pemphigus and bullous pemphigoid: comparison of commercial and modified mosaic indirect immunofluorescence tests as well as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gornowicz-Porowska, Justyna; Seraszek-Jaros, Agnieszka; Bowszyc-Dmochowska, Monika; Kaczmarek, Elżbieta; Pietkiewicz, Paweł; Bartkiewicz, Paweł; Dmochowski, Marian

    2017-02-01

    Pemphigus and bullous pemphigoid (BP) are identified by autoantibodies (abs) against desmoglein 1, 3 (DSG1/3) and BP180/BP230, respectively. A novel mosaic to indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) using purified BP180 recombinant proteins spotted on slide and transfected cells expressing BP230, DSG1, DSG3 is available. The commercial (IgG detection) and modified (IgG4 detection) mosaic for indirect immunofluorescence (IIFc - IIF commercial, IIFm - IIF modified) and IgG ELISAs were evaluated in pemphigus and bullous pemphigoid (BP) molecular diagnostics. To compare diagnostic accuracy of commercial (IgG detection) and modified (IgG4 detection) mosaic IIF assay and to examine the diagnostic value of ELISAs in relation to mosaic IIF in routine laboratory diagnostics of pemphigus and BP. Sera from 37 BP and 19 pemphigus patients were studied. Associations between tests were assessed using Fisher's exact test. There are associations between the positive/negative samples detected by IIFc with desmoglein1 (DSG1)/desmoglein3 (DSG3)/BP230 transfected cells and ELISAs and no association between anti-BP180 IgG detection by IIFc and ELISA. IIFm with DSG1 and DSG3 showed both 100% sensitivity and 100% and 78% specificity, respectively, and 100% and 83% positive predictive value in relation to IIFc. IIFm with BP230 had 87% specificity, 55% sensitivity, whereas IIFm with BP180 had a 100% sensitivity and 13% specificity in relation to IIFc. The IIFc with DSG1/DSG3/BP230 transfected cells, excluding BP180 spots, is an alternative method to ELISA in pemphigus/BP diagnostics. IgG4 antibodies, both pathogenically and diagnostically important, are inconsistently detectable with IIFm.

  18. Accuracy of molecular diagnostics in pemphigus and bullous pemphigoid: comparison of commercial and modified mosaic indirect immunofluorescence tests as well as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Gornowicz-Porowska

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Pemphigus and bullous pemphigoid (BP are identified by autoantibodies (abs against desmoglein 1, 3 (DSG1/3 and BP180/BP230, respectively. A novel mosaic to indirect immunofluorescence (IIF using purified BP180 recombinant proteins spotted on slide and transfected cells expressing BP230, DSG1, DSG3 is available. The commercial (IgG detection and modified (IgG4 detection mosaic for indirect immunofluorescence (IIFc – IIF commercial, IIFm – IIF modified and IgG ELISAs were evaluated in pemphigus and bullous pemphigoid (BP molecular diagnostics. Aim : To compare diagnostic accuracy of commercial (IgG detection and modified (IgG4 detection mosaic IIF assay and to examine the diagnostic value of ELISAs in relation to mosaic IIF in routine laboratory diagnostics of pemphigus and BP. Material and methods : Sera from 37 BP and 19 pemphigus patients were studied. Associations between tests were assessed using Fisher’s exact test. Results: There are associations between the positive/negative samples detected by IIFc with desmoglein1 (DSG1/desmoglein3 (DSG3/BP230 transfected cells and ELISAs and no association between anti-BP180 IgG detection by IIFc and ELISA. IIFm with DSG1 and DSG3 showed both 100% sensitivity and 100% and 78% specificity, respectively, and 100% and 83% positive predictive value in relation to IIFc. IIFm with BP230 had 87% specificity, 55% sensitivity, whereas IIFm with BP180 had a 100% sensitivity and 13% specificity in relation to IIFc. Conclusions : The IIFc with DSG1/DSG3/BP230 transfected cells, excluding BP180 spots, is an alternative method to ELISA in pemphigus/BP diagnostics. IgG4 antibodies, both pathogenically and diagnostically important, are inconsistently detectable with IIFm.

  19. Proteomic Analyses of the Acute Tissue Response for Explant Rabbit Corneas and Engineered Corneal Tissue Models Following In Vitro Exposure to 1540 nm Laser Light

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eurell, T. E; Johnson, T. E; Roach, W. P

    2005-01-01

    Two-dimensional electrophoresis and histomorphometry were used to determine if equivalent protein changes occurred within native rabbit corneas and engineered corneal tissue models following in vitro...

  20. Expression of multidrug resistance associated protein 5 (MRP5) on cornea and its role in drug efflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karla, Pradeep K; Quinn, Tim L; Herndon, Betty L; Thomas, Priscilla; Pal, Dhananjay; Mitra, Ashim

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this manuscript is to investigate the presence of nucleoside/nucleotide efflux transporter in cornea and to evaluate the role in ocular drug efflux. RT-PCR, immunoprecipitation followed by Western blot analysis and immunostaining were employed to establish molecular presence of multidrug resistance associated protein 5 (MRP5) on cornea. Corneal efflux by MRP5 was studied with bis(POM)-PMEA and acyclovir using rabbit and human corneal epithelial cells along with MRP5 over expressing cells (MDCKII-MRP5). Ex vivo studies using excised rabbit cornea and in vivo ocular microdialysis in male New Zealand white rabbits were used to further evaluate the role of MRP5 in conferring ocular drug resistance. RT-PCR confirms the expression of MRP5 in both rabbit and human corneal epithelial cells along with MDCKII-MRP5 cells. Immunoprecipitation followed by Western blot analysis using a rat (M511-54) monoclonal antibody that reacts with human epitope confirms the expression of MRP5 protein in human corneal epithelial cells and MDCKII-MRP5 cells. Immunostaining performed on human cornea indicates the localization of this efflux pump on both epithelium and endothelium. Efflux studies reveal that depletion of ATP decreased PMEA efflux significantly. MRP5 inhibitors also diminished PMEA and acyclovir efflux. However, depletion of glutathione did not alter efflux. MDR1 and MRP2 did not contribute to PMEA efflux. However, MRP2 is involved in acyclovir efflux while MDR1 do not participate in this process. TLC/autoradiography suggested the conversion of bis(POM)-PMEA to PMEA in rabbit and human corneal epithelial cells. Two well known antiglaucoma drugs, bimatoprost and latanoprost were rapidly effluxed by MRP5. Ex vivo study on intact rabbit corneas demonstrated accumulation of PMEA in cornea in the presence of ATP-depleting medium. In vivo ocular pharmacokinetics also revealed a significant increase in maximum aqueous humor concentration (C(max)) and area under the

  1. Corneal Collagen Cross-Linking with Hypoosmolar Riboflavin Solution in Keratoconic Corneas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaofeng Gu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To report the 12-month outcomes of corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL with a hypoosmolar riboflavin and ultraviolet-A (UVA irradiation in thin corneas. Methods. Eight eyes underwent CXL using a hypoosmolar riboflavin solution after epithelial removal. The corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA, manifest refraction, the mean thinnest corneal thickness (MTCT, and the endothelial cell density (ECD were evaluated before and 6 and 12 months after CXL. Results. The MTCT was 413.9 ± 12.4 μm before treatment and reduced to 381.1 ± 7.3 μm after the removal of the epithelium. After CXL, the thickness decreased to 410.3 ± 14.5 μm at the last follow-up. Before treatment, the mean K-value of the apex of the keratoconus corneas was 58.7 ± 3.5 diopters and slightly decreased (57.7 ± 4.9 diopters at 12 months. The mean CDVA was 0.54 ± 0.23 logarithm of the minimal angle of resolution before treatment and increased to 0.51 ± 0.21 logarithm at the last follow-up. The ECD was 2731.4 ± 191.8 cells/mm2 before treatment and was 2733.4 ± 222.6 cells/mm2 at 12 months after treatment. Conclusions. CXL with a hypoosmolar riboflavin in thin corneas seems to be a promising method for keratoconic eyes with the mean thinnest corneal thickness less than 400 μm without epithelium.

  2. [Results of an internet-based survey amongst members of the German Ophthalmological Society concerning postmortem cornea donation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlig, C E; Promesberger, J; Hirschfeld, G; Koch, R; Reinhard, T; Seitz, B

    2012-12-01

    Analysis of willingness for postmortem cornea donation by professionals in ophthalmology and their motives in favor of or against donation. 3887 members of the German Ophthalmological Society received an anonymous questionnaire concerning sociodemographic background, physical health, experiences with organ explantation and their former engagement and motives concerning organ and cornea donation. 722 of the questionnaires were partially and 533 completely answered with an average willingness for cornea donation of 79.4%. Significant parameters for cornea donation were gender, former experience with organ explantation, ophthalmological health and fear of false diagnosis of brain death, worse medical treatment or organ commercialization. Of the participants 53.9% suggested the internet as a favorite source of information in this matter. The factors which had a significant impact on cornea donation in this survey seem to be mainly a result of insufficient information. Detailed information regarding this topic should preferentially be presented on internet pages of professional societies and could probably increase donation approval of DOG members.

  3. In vivo 3D measurement of moxifloxacin and gatifloxacin distributions in the mouse cornea using multiphoton microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seunghun; Lee, Jun Ho; Park, Jin Hyoung; Yoon, Yeoreum; Chung, Wan Kyun; Tchah, Hungwon; Kim, Myoung Joon; Kim, Ki Hean

    2016-05-01

    Moxifloxacin and gatifloxacin are fourth-generation fluoroquinolone antibiotics used in the clinic to prevent or treat ocular infections. Their pharmacokinetics in the cornea is usually measured from extracted ocular fluids or tissues, and in vivo direct measurement is difficult. In this study multiphoton microscopy (MPM), which is a 3D optical microscopic technique based on multiphoton fluorescence, was applied to the measurement of moxifloxacin and gatifloxacin distribution in the cornea. Intrinsic multiphoton fluorescence properties of moxifloxacin and gatifloxacin were characterized, and their distributions in mouse cornea in vivo were measured by 3D MPM imaging. Both moxifloxacin and gatifloxacin had similar multiphoton spectra, while moxifloxacin had stronger fluorescence than gatifloxacin. MPM imaging of mouse cornea in vivo showed (1) moxifloxacin had good penetration through the superficial corneal epithelium, while gatifloxacin had relatively poor penetration, (2) both ophthalmic solutions had high intracellular distribution. In vivo MPM results were consistent with previous studies. This study demonstrates the feasibility of MPM as a method for in vivo direct measurement of moxifloxacin and gatifloxacin in the cornea.

  4. Effects of acetylcholine (ACh) and norepinephrine (NE) on phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) turnover in rabbit cornea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, R.A.; Abdel-Latif, A.A.

    1986-01-01

    Muscarinic cholinergic and α 1 -adrenergic agonists provoke hydrolysis of PIP 2 into diacylglycerol (DG) and inositol trisphosphate (IP 3 ) in a wide variety of tissue. Recently, IP 3 has been shown to mobilize Ca 2+ from ER in several permeabilized tissue preparations. Although rabbit cornea is enriched in ACh and NE, the physiological function of these neurotransmitters is unclear. The present studies were initiated to determine the effects of cholinergic and adrenergic agonists on PIP 2 turnover in the cornea. Addition of ACh or NE (50 μM each) to the 32 P-labeled corneas for 10 min decreased the radioactivity in PIP 2 by 33 and 36%, and increased the radioactivity in phosphatidic acid by 72 and 52%, respectively. When the corneas were labeled with myo-[ 3 H]inositol, ACh and NE increased the accumulation of IP 3 by 92 and 48%, respectively. The effects of ACh and NE on phospholipid labeling and IP 3 accumulation were specifically inhibited by atropine (10 μM) and prazosin (10 μM), respectively. The data suggest the presence of muscarinic cholinergic and α 1 -adrenergic receptors in the rabbit cornea. Furthermore, activation of these receptors leads to cleavage of PIP 2 into DG and IP 3 which may function as second messengers in this tissue

  5. Embryonic chicken cornea and cartilage synthesize type IX collagen molecules with different amino-terminal domains.

    OpenAIRE

    Svoboda, K K; Nishimura, I; Sugrue, S P; Ninomiya, Y; Olsen, B R

    1988-01-01

    We have analyzed embryonic chicken cornea for the presence of type IX collagen mRNA and protein. Using RNA transfer blot analysis, we demonstrate that alpha 1(IX) and alpha 2(IX) mRNAs are expressed by corneal epithelial cells at the time that the primary stromal components are synthesized. The levels of the mRNAs decrease with increasing developmental age and are barely detectable at day 11 of development. In contrast, type IX collagen protein is detectable by immunofluorescence at days 5 an...

  6. Proliferative activity of endotheliocytes of growing capillaries of the rabbit cornea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurina, O.Yu.; Mamontov, S.G.; Banin, V.V.

    1987-01-01

    The authors studied the intensity of DNA synthesis by cells of newly formed capillaries, growing in the rabbit cornea, after infliction of a silver nitrate burn and local application of colchicine. The intensity of capillary growth was investigated during stimulation and a combination of the burn with colchicine. Changes in activity of DNA synthesis by the endotheliocytes of newly formed capillaries during exposure throughout growth were also investigated. The intensity of cell proliferation was studied by measuring the incorporation of tritium-labelled thymidine into the endotheoiocyte nuclei

  7. Comparison of Scheimpflug imaging parameters between steep and keratoconic corneas of Caucasian eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseynova T

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Tukezban Huseynova,1 Farah Abdulaliyeva,2 Michele Lanza3 1Briz-L Eye Clinic, 2National Ophthalmology Center, Baku, Azerbaijan; 3Second University of Naples, Caserta, Campania, Italy Purpose: To compare the keratometric and pachymetric parameters of healthy eyes with those affected by steep cornea and keratoconus (KC using Scheimpflug camera.Setting: Briz-L Eye Clinic, Baku, Azerbaijan.Design: A cross-sectional study.Methods: In this study, 49 KC (Amsler–Krumeich stage 1 eyes and 36 healthy eyes were enrolled. A complete ophthalmic evaluation and a Scheimpflug camera scan were performed in every eye included in the study. Tomographic parameters such as parameters from the front and back cornea, maximum keratometry reading (Kmax, corneal volume (CV, anterior chamber volume (ChV, anterior chamber depth (ACD, anterior chamber angle (AC angle, keratometric power deviation (KPD, maximum front elevation (Max FE, and maximum back elevation (Max BE, as well as pachymetric progression indices (PPI, Ambrosio relational thickness (ART, index of surface variance (ISV, index of vertical asymmetry (IVA, center keratoconus index (CKI, index of height asymmetry (IHA, index of height decentration (IHD, and radius minimum (RM were collected and statistically compared between the two groups.Results: PPI, ART, ISV, IVA, CKI, IHA, IHD, and RM parameter values were significantly different (P<0.05 between the KC and healthy eyes. There were no significant differences in K mean and Q values of the frontal corneal parameters, as well as in Kmax, AC angle, RM, back, and front astigmatism, between stage 1 keratoconic and normal Caucasian eyes with steep cornea. All other parameters such as K mean and Q values of the back corneal parameters, Max FE, Max BE, ACD, ChV, and CV showed significant differences between the groups (P<0.05 for all. Conclusion: Scheimpflug imaging is able to detect corneal morphological differences between stage 1 KC eyes and healthy eyes with

  8. A necessidade da imunofluorescência direta no diagnóstico da dermatose bolhosa por IgA The need for direct immunofluorescence in the diagnosis of IgA bullous dermatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Chang

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A dermatose bolhosa por imunoglobulina da classe A linear (DbIgA do adulto é uma doença autoimune rara caracterizada por formação de bolhas subepidérmicas e depósito linear de imunoglobulina da classe A (IgA na zona da membrana basal (ZMB. Por possuir aspectos clínicos e histológicos semelhantes a outras dermatoses bolhosas, principalmente a dermatite herpetiforme e o penfigoide bolhoso, faz-se necessária a realização de imunofluorescência direta para confirmação diagnóstica. Apresenta-se então, neste artigo, relato de caso ilustrando essa necessidade.Linear immunoglobulin A bullous dermatosis (DbIgA of adults is a rare autoimmune disease characterized by subepidermal blistering and linear deposits of immunoglobulin A (IgA in the basement membrane zone (BMZ. Owing to the fact it presents clinical and histological aspects similar to other bullous dermatosis, mainly dermatitis herpetiformis and bullous pemphigoid, direct immunofluorescence is required to confirm diagnosis. In this article, we describe a case that illustrates this need.

  9. Influence of the He-Ne laser in different irradiation regimes on the cornea cells after ionizing irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulyakova, N.V.

    1984-01-01

    A study was made on epithelium cells of the eye cornea in mices entering the first postradiation mitosis. The influence of laser rays acting in the course of each exposure during one and the same period of time, or continuously, or by pulses was compared. The effect of laser radiation was evaluated from the frequency of occurrence of cells with chromosomal aberrations, mitotic index, coefficient of mitosis phases. It has been established that pulse radiation of a helium-neon laser in a certain operation regime produces a sanitating effect on cells of eye cornea epithelium in white mice damaged by ionizing radiation. Cells being killed in the interphase were not revealed in epithelium of the eye cornea. It enables to conclude that the amount of aberrant mitoses decreases as a result of postradiation repair of cells damaged by ionizing radiation, but not as a result of their elimination

  10. Optics of the human cornea influence the accuracy of stereo eye-tracking methods: a simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsingerhorn, A D; Boonstra, F N; Goossens, H H L M

    2017-02-01

    Current stereo eye-tracking methods model the cornea as a sphere with one refractive surface. However, the human cornea is slightly aspheric and has two refractive surfaces. Here we used ray-tracing and the Navarro eye-model to study how these optical properties affect the accuracy of different stereo eye-tracking methods. We found that pupil size, gaze direction and head position all influence the reconstruction of gaze. Resulting errors range between ± 1.0 degrees at best. This shows that stereo eye-tracking may be an option if reliable calibration is not possible, but the applied eye-model should account for the actual optics of the cornea.

  11. Topical timolol with and without benzalkonium chloride: epithelial permeability and autofluorescence of the cornea in glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, C; Stolwijk, T; Kuppens, E; de Keizer, R; van Best, J

    1994-04-01

    Epithelial permeability and autofluorescence of the cornea were determined by fluorophotometry in 21 patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension using timolol medication with the preservative benzalkonium chloride (BAC) and 2 weeks after changing to timolol medication without BAC. The investigation was performed to determine whether removal of BAC would reduce toxic effects on the cornea and complaints of sensations of burning or dry eye. Corneal epithelial permeability decreased significantly after changing medication (mean decrease per patient 27%, P = 0.025). Corneal autofluorescence increased significantly after changing medication suggesting an alteration in corneal metabolism (mean increase per patient 6%, P = 0.003). Timolol without BAC was found to be as effective as timolol with BAC in reducing intraocular pressure (P = 0.4). Removal of BAC from timolol resulted in an improvement of corneal epithelial barrier function and in a reduction of complaints. The improvement was found to be proportional to the duration of the preceding BAC-containing therapy.

  12. Experimental study on the healing process following laser welding of the cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Francesca; Pini, Roberto; Menabuoni, Luca; Mencucci, Rita; Menchini, Ugo; Ambrosini, Stefano; Vannelli, Gabriella

    2005-01-01

    An experimental study evaluating the application of laser welding of the cornea and the subsequent healing process is presented. The welding of corneal wounds is achieved after staining the cut walls with a solution of the chromophore indocyanine green, and irradiating them with a diode laser (810 nm) operating at low power (60 to 90 mW). The result is a localized heating of the cut, inducing controlled welding of the stromal collagen. In order to optimize this technique and to study the healing process, experimental tests, simulating cataract surgery and penetrating keratoplasty, were performed on rabbits: conventional and laser-induced suturing of corneal wounds were thus compared. A follow-up study 7 to 90 days after surgery was carried out by means of objective and histological examinations, in order to optimize the welding technique and to investigate the subsequent healing process. The analyses of the laser-welded corneas evidenced a faster and more effective restoration of the architecture of the stroma. No thermal damage of the welded stroma was detected, nor were there foreign body reactions or other inflammatory processes. Copyright 2005 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers.

  13. The ultrastructural alterations in rat corneas with experimentally-induced diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Take, G.; Karabay, G.; Erdogan, D.; Duyar, I.

    2006-01-01

    To examine the ultrastructural changes of rat corneas in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetes mellitus and the and the follow-up insulin treatment. Sprague-Dawley type rats were used for experimental procedures during the period from January to April 2003 at Baskent University, Ankara, Turkey. Rats were studied in four groups: group 1: controls, group 2 sham controls (single dose IV sodium citrate); group 3 STZ-induced diabetes mellitus (Single dose 45mg/kg STZ intravenously), group 4: diabetes mellitus + insulin treatment (8U/day). We observed degenerative changes in the epithelial layer, stromal keratocytes and endothelial cells in diabetic group. In contrast, the corneal layers have revealed positive alterations in the insulin-treated group. The statistical analysis, showed significant narrowing in the epithelial layer in the diabetic group (p0.02), whereas thickening was observed in the epithelial basement membrane and Descemet's membrane (p=0.002). It was determined that that diabetes mellitus causes degenerative changes in cornea, which are positively influenced by short-term insulin treatment. (author)

  14. Biofunctionalized Lysophosphatidic Acid/Silk Fibroin Film for Cornea Endothelial Cell Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Hayan; Oliveira, Joaquim Miguel; Reis, Rui Luis; Khang, Gilson

    2018-01-01

    Cornea endothelial cells (CEnCs) tissue engineering is a great challenge to repair diseased or damaged CEnCs and require an appropriate biomaterial to support cell proliferation and differentiation. Biomaterials for CEnCs tissue engineering require biocompatibility, tunable biodegradability, transparency, and suitable mechanical properties. Silk fibroin-based film (SF) is known to meet these factors, but construction of functionalized graft for bioengineering of cornea is still a challenge. Herein, lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is used to maintain and increase the specific function of CEnCs. The LPA and SF composite film (LPA/SF) was fabricated in this study. Mechanical properties and in vitro studies were performed using a rabbit model to demonstrate the characters of LPA/SF. ATR-FTIR was characterized to identify chemical composition of the films. The morphological and physical properties were performed by SEM, AFM, transparency, and contact angle. Initial cell density and MTT were performed for adhesion and cell viability in the SF and LPA/SF film. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCR) and immunofluorescence were performed to examine gene and protein expression. The results showed that films were designed appropriately for CEnCs delivery. Compared to pristine SF, LPA/SF showed higher biocompatibility, cell viability, and expression of CEnCs specific genes and proteins. These indicate that LPA/SF, a new biomaterial, offers potential benefits for CEnCs tissue engineering for regeneration. PMID:29710848

  15. Control of Scar Tissue Formation in the Cornea: Strategies in Clinical and Corneal Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha L. Wilson

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Corneal structure is highly organized and unified in architecture with structural and functional integration which mediates transparency and vision. Disease and injury are the second most common cause of blindness affecting over 10 million people worldwide. Ninety percent of blindness is permanent due to scarring and vascularization. Scarring caused via fibrotic cellular responses, heals the tissue, but fails to restore transparency. Controlling keratocyte activation and differentiation are key for the inhibition and prevention of fibrosis. Ophthalmic surgery techniques are continually developing to preserve and restore vision but corneal regression and scarring are often detrimental side effects and long term continuous follow up studies are lacking or discouraging. Appropriate corneal models may lead to a reduced need for corneal transplantation as presently there are insufficient numbers or suitable tissue to meet demand. Synthetic optical materials are under development for keratoprothesis although clinical use is limited due to implantation complications and high rejection rates. Tissue engineered corneas offer an alternative which more closely mimic the morphological, physiological and biomechanical properties of native corneas. However, replication of the native collagen fiber organization and retaining the phenotype of stromal cells which prevent scar-like tissue formation remains a challenge. Careful manipulation of culture environments are under investigation to determine a suitable environment that simulates native ECM organization and stimulates keratocyte migration and generation.

  16. Effect of biometric characteristics on biomechanical properties of the cornea in cataract patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xue-Fei; Langenbucher, Achim; Gatzioufas, Zisis; Seitz, Berthold; El-Husseiny, Moatasem

    2016-01-01

    To determine the impact of biometric characteristics on the biomechanical properties of the human cornea using the ocular response analyzer (ORA) and standard comprehensive ophthalmic examinations before and after standard phacoemulsification. This study comprised 54 eyes with cataract with significant lens opacification in stages I or II that underwent phacoemulsification (2.8 mm incision). Corneal hysteresis (CH), corneal resistance factor (CRF), Goldmann-correlated intraocular pressure (IOPg), and corneal-compensated intraocular pressure (IOPcc) were measured by ORA preoperatively and at 1mo postoperatively. Biometric characteristics were derived from corneal topography [TMS-5, anterior equivalent (EQTMS) and cylindric (CYLTMS) power], corneal tomography [Casia, anterior and posterior equivalent (EQaCASIC, EQpCASIA) and cylindric (CYLaCASIA, CYLpCASIA) power], keratometry [IOLMaster, anterior equivalent (EQIOL) and cylindric (CYLIOL) power] and autorefractor [anterior equivalent (EQAR)]. Results from ORA were analyzed and correlated with those from all other examinations taken at the same time point. Preoperatively, CH correlated with EQpCASIA and CYLpCASIA only (P=0.001, P=0.002). Postoperatively, IOPg and IOPcc correlated with all equivalent powers (EQTMS, EQIOL, EQAR, EQaCASIA and EQpCASIA) (P=0.001, P=0.007, P=0.001, P=0.015, P=0.03 for IOPg and PBiometric characteristics may significantly affect biomechanical properties of the cornea in terms of CH, IOPcc and IOPg before, but even more after cataract surgery.

  17. The comparative safety of genipin versus UVA-riboflavin crosslinking of rabbit corneas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wenjing; Tang, Yun; Qiao, Jing; Li, Haili; Rong, Bei; Yang, Songlin; Wu, Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To investigate, after 24 h, the safety of genipin or ultraviolet A (UVA)-riboflavin crosslinking of keratocytes and endothelial cells. Methods Fifteen New Zealand white rabbits were selected and divided into a PBS group (five rabbits), a 0.2% genipin crosslinking (GP-CXL) group (five rabbits), and a UVA-riboflavin crosslinking (UVA-CXL) group (five rabbits). In the GP-CXL and PBS groups, 0.2% genipin or PBS was applied to the corneal surface of the right eyes. In the UVA-CXL group, a clinical crosslinking procedure was used. Before and after surgery, the operated eyes of each group were characterized with confocal microscopy, and the corneal buttons were excised for endothelium staining and electron microscopy. Results The corneal endothelial cell density of the GP-CXL, UVA-CLX, and PBS groups changed. There was a statistically significant difference in thickness and changes in corneal endothelial cell density between the UVA-CXL group and the PBS group (pUVA-CXL group and the GP-CXL group (pUVA-CXL group. In the GP-CXL group, only active keratocytes were found and minimal endothelial cell damage. Conclusions Treatment of rabbit corneas with 0.2% genipin showed minimal toxicity toward keratocytes and endothelial cells. Genipin is safer than UVA-CXL for crosslinking of thin corneas. PMID:28761323

  18. Colocalization of Galectin-3 With CD147 Is Associated With Increased Gelatinolytic Activity in Ulcerating Human Corneas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruzat, Andrea; Gonzalez-Andrades, Miguel; Mauris, Jérôme; AbuSamra, Dina B; Chidambaram, Preethi; Kenyon, Kenneth R; Chodosh, James; Dohlman, Claes H; Argüeso, Pablo

    2018-01-01

    Galectin-3 is a carbohydrate-binding protein known to promote expression of matrix metalloproteinases, a hallmark of ulceration, through interaction with the extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer CD147. The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of galectin-3 in corneas of patients with ulcerative keratitis and to determine its relationship to CD147 and the presence of gelatinolytic activity. This was an observational case series involving donor tissue from 13 patients with active corneal ulceration and 6 control corneas. Fixed-frozen sections of the corneas were processed to localize galectin-3 and CD147 by immunofluorescence microscopy. Gelatinolytic activity was detected by in situ zymography. Tissue from patients with active corneal ulceration showed a greater galectin-3 immunoreactivity in basal epithelia and stroma compared with controls. Immunofluorescence grading scores revealed increased colocalization of galectin-3 and CD147 in corneal ulcers at the epithelial-stromal junction and within fibroblasts. Quantitative analysis using the Manders' colocalization coefficient demonstrated significant overlap in corneas from patients with ulcerative keratitis (M1 = 0.29; M2 = 0.22) as opposed to control corneas (M1 = 0.01, P < 0.01; M2 = 0.02, P < 0.05). In these experiments, there was a significant positive correlation between the degree of galectin-3 and CD147 colocalization and the presence of gelatinolytic activity. Our results indicate that concomitant stimulation and colocalization of galectin-3 with CD147 are associated with increased gelatinolytic activity in the actively ulcerating human cornea and suggest a mechanism by which galectin-3 may contribute to the degradation of extracellular matrix proteins during ulceration.

  19. The effect of radiation and cystamine on the ability of the eye to induce the cornea in the intact skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, D.V.; Starodubov, S.M.

    1975-01-01

    Common frog tadpoles (with and without cystamine protection) were subjected to whole-body irradiation (700 R) and skin transplanted from the back of donors to the site of the outer cornea of the right eye of the recipients. Secondary cornea induction in non-irradiated skin transplanted to the eye was then studied. It was found that a dose of 700 R completely suppresses the induction capacity of the eye, while cystamine protects it to 47.8%. It was also shown that the irradiation of tadpoles with X-rays slows down their general development, but that, with cystamine protection, their development rate remains normal. (V.A.P.)

  20. Quantifying the effects of UV-A/riboflavin crosslinking on the elastic anisotropy and hysteresis of the porcine cornea by noncontact optical coherence elastography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Manmohan; Li, Jiasong; Raghunathan, Raksha; Han, Zhaolong; Nair, Achuth; Liu, Chih-Hao; Aglyamov, Salavat R.; Twa, Michael D.; Larin, Kirill V.

    2017-02-01

    The collagen fibril orientation of the cornea can provide critical information about cornea tissue health because diseases such as keratoconus and therapeutic interventions such as UV-A/riboflavin corneal collagen crosslinking (CXL) can alter the ultrastructural arrangement of collagen fibrils. Here, we quantify the elastic anisotropy and hysteresis of in situ porcine corneas as a function of intraocular pressure (IOP) with noncontact optical coherence elastography. Moreover, the effects of UV-A riboflavin corneal collagen crosslinking on the elastic anisotropy and hysteresis were evaluated. The propagation of an air-pulse induced elastic wave was imaged at stepped meridional angles by a home built phasestabilized swept source OCE system. The stiffness of the cornea was translated from the velocity of the wave, and the elastic anisotropy was quantified by modifying the planar anisotropy coefficient. As the IOP increased, the stiffness of the corneas increased from 18 kPa at 15 mmHg IOP to 120 kPa at 30 mmHg IOP. While there was a measureable hysteresis, it was not significant. After CXL, the Young's modulus of the corneas significantly increased from 18 kPa to 44 kPa at 15 mmHg IOP. The mechanical anisotropy also increased significantly from 10 a.u. in the untreated corneas to 23 a.u. in the CXL treated corneas, 15 mmHg IOP. However, CXL did not change the elastic anisotropic orientation, and the mechanical anisotropic hysteresis was not significant after CXL.

  1. An active artificial cornea with the function of inducing new corneal tissue generation in vivo-a new approach to corneal tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Yaoxiong; Li Qinhua

    2007-01-01

    An active artificial cornea which can perform the function of inducing new cornea generation in vivo but does not need culture cells in vitro and which has similar optical and mechanical properties to those of the human cornea was constructed. An animal keratoplasty experiment using the artificial cornea as the implant showed that the animals' corneas could keep smooth surface and clear stroma postoperatively, and that the repopulation of the host's keratocytes, the degradation of the implant and new corneal tissue generation were completed at 5-6 months after surgery. Such an artificial cornea has several advantages over other corneal equivalents constructed in the typical way of tissue engineering: in having similar mechanical and optical properties to those of the human cornea and with no exogenetic cells, it can be used universally in different implantation surgeries without immunoreaction; it is easy to prepare and process into different shapes and sizes on a large scale, and suitable for long-distance transportation and long-term storage. All these characteristics make it a new approach to cornea tissue engineering having potential in many clinical applications

  2. Partial Denervation of Subbasal Axons Persists Following Debridement Wounds to the Mouse Cornea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajoohesh-Ganji, Ahdeah; Pal-Ghosh, Sonali; Tadvalkar, Gauri; Kyne, Briana M.; Saban, Daniel R.; Stepp, Mary Ann

    2015-01-01

    Although sensory reinnervation occurs after injury in the PNS, poor reinnervation in the elderly and those with diabetes often leads to pathology. Here we quantify subbasal axon density in the central and peripheral mouse cornea over time after three different types of injury. The mouse cornea is highly innervated with a dense array of subbasal nerves that form a spiral called the vortex at the corneal center or apex; these nerves are readily detected within flat mounted corneas. After anesthesia, corneal epithelial cells were removed using either a dulled blade or a rotating burr within an area demarcated centrally with a 1.5 mm trephine. A third wound type, superficial trephination, involved demarcating the area with the 1.5 mm trephine but not removing cells. By 7d after superficial trephination, subbasal axon density returns to control levels; by 28d the vortex reforms. Although axon density is similar to control 14d after dulled blade and rotating burr wounding, defects in axon morphology at the corneal apex remain. After 14d, axons retract from the center leaving the subbasal axon density reduced by 37.2% and 36.8% at 28d after dulled blade and rotating burr wounding, respectively, compared to control. Assessment of inflammation using flow cytometry shows that persistent inflammation is not a factor in the incomplete reinnervation. Expression of mRNAs encoding 22 regeneration associated genes (RAGs) involved in axon targeting assessed by QPCR reveals that netrin-1 and ephrin signaling are altered after wounding. Subpopulations of corneal epithelial basal cells at the corneal apex stop expressing ki67 as early as 7d after injury and by 14d and 28d after wounding, many of these basal cells undergo apoptosis and die. While subbasal axons are restored to their normal density and morphology after superficial trephination, subbasal axon recovery is partial after debridement wounds. The increase in corneal epithelial basal cell apoptosis at the apex observed at 14d

  3. Partial denervation of sub-basal axons persists following debridement wounds to the mouse cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajoohesh-Ganji, Ahdeah; Pal-Ghosh, Sonali; Tadvalkar, Gauri; Kyne, Briana M; Saban, Daniel R; Stepp, Mary Ann

    2015-11-01

    Although sensory reinnervation occurs after injury in the peripheral nervous system, poor reinnervation in the elderly and those with diabetes often leads to pathology. Here we quantify sub-basal axon density in the central and peripheral mouse cornea over time after three different types of injury. The mouse cornea is highly innervated with a dense array of sub-basal nerves that form a spiral called the vortex at the corneal center or apex; these nerves are readily detected within flat mounted corneas. After anesthesia, corneal epithelial cells were removed using either a dulled blade or a rotating burr within an area demarcated centrally with a 1.5 mm trephine. A third wound type, superficial trephination, involved demarcating the area with the 1.5 mm trephine but not removing cells. By 7 days after superficial trephination, sub-basal axon density returns to control levels; by 28 days the vortex reforms. Although axon density is similar to control 14 days after dulled blade and rotating burr wounding, defects in axon morphology at the corneal apex remain. After 14 days, axons retract from the center leaving the sub-basal axon density reduced by 37.2 and 36.8% at 28 days after dulled blade and rotating burr wounding, respectively, compared with control. Assessment of inflammation using flow cytometry shows that persistent inflammation is not a factor in the incomplete reinnervation. Expression of mRNAs encoding 22 regeneration-associated genes involved in axon targeting assessed by QPCR reveals that netrin-1 and ephrin signaling are altered after wounding. Subpopulations of corneal epithelial basal cells at the corneal apex stop expressing ki67 as early as 7 days after injury and by 14 and 28 days after wounding, many of these basal cells undergo apoptosis and die. Although sub-basal axons are restored to their normal density and morphology after superficial trephination, sub-basal axon recovery is partial after debridement wounds. The increase in corneal

  4. Photorefractive Keratectomy (PRK) is Safe and Effective for Patients with Myopia and Thin Corneas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderi, Mostafa; Ghadamgahi, Saeed; Jadidi, Khosrow

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term safety and efficacy of photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) for patients with myopia and thin corneas. In this retrospective case series, we included 74 eyes of 38 patients with myopia and central corneal thickness (CCT) PRK and had a mean postoperative follow-up period of four years. The following factors were evaluated: CCT, refraction, uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), ablation depth, safety and efficacy indices (i.e., the ratio of the mean postoperative BCVA to the mean preoperative BCVA, and the ratio of the mean postoperative UCVA to mean preoperative the BCVA, respectively), and evidence of corneal ectasia (based on Orbscan topography images).The patients were aged 20 - 46 years (mean ±SD age, 28.18± 6.82 years). The mean ± SD pre- and postoperative CCTwas485.92 ± 9.27 µm and 434.84 ± 20.48 µm, respectively. The mean ± SD pre- and postoperative myopia was -2.77 D ± 1.51 and -0.24 ± 0.39 D, respectively, and the mean ± SD pre- and postoperative astigmatism was -0.82 D ± 0.99 and -0.37 ± 0.37 D, respectively. The mean pre- and postoperative BCVA and postoperative UCVA was 0.011 ± 0.03 Logarithm of the Minimum Angle of Resolution (log MAR), 0.003 ± 0.01 log MAR, and 0.054 ± 0.09 log MAR, respectively. The mean ± SD ablation depth, safety index and efficacy index was 54.34 ± 16.28 µm, 0.02 ± 0.12, and 0.11 ± 0.50, respectively. Regarding the postoperative corneal clarity, 72 eyes (97.3%) had a clear cornea (grade 0) and the remaining two eyes of one patient (2.70%) had a trace haze (grade 1). There was no evidence of corneal ectasia on any of the Orbscan topography images. Thus, among patients with myopia and thin corneas (PRK seems to be acceptable in terms of both safety and efficacy 4 years after surgery, based on the stability of postoperative refraction, visual acuity, and topographic outcomes, and outcomes based on the safety and efficacy indexes.

  5. Fibre optic spectrophotometry for the in vitro evaluation of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) spectral transmittance of rabbit corneas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, J E; Fleming, D P; Bergmanson, J P G; Koehler, L V; Doughty, M J; Harmey, J H

    2008-01-01

    A fibre optic spectrophotometer front-end system for measuring corneas to overcome shortcomings associated with existing instruments was tested. The system allowed prompt measurement postmortem, minimizing beam pathlength to reduce the effects of scatter and unwanted refraction and eliminated optical interfaces and cuvette media. Rabbit corneas were excised immediately postmortem and placed on a detecting fibre optic coupled to an Ocean Optics spectrophotometer and illuminated by a deuterium–halogen source. The compact instrument with its small beam size allowed tissue profiling at test points across the corneal surface and efficient interchange for comparison of different tissues. This simplified system operation allowed rapid tissue altering to study induced changes on transmittance. The corneal transmittance data showed a consistent sharp cut-off at 320 nm in the ultraviolet radiation (UVR) spectrum, which decayed rapidly from postmortem swelling. Inter- and intra-corneal consistency was demonstrated by comparing data from different regions of the same cornea and those from opposite eyes. Changes to the spectra, particularly in the UVB below 300 nm, were evident when the corneal epithelium was removed, indicating that this layer is not the only corneal UVR filter. The new system reduced much of the variability associated with previous methods, as it rapidly measured corneal transmittance postmortem. Data are in broad agreement with published transmittance curves. The removal of the corneal epithelium revealed a substantial stromal contribution to the overall corneal UVR absorption, suggesting that corneas with pathologically or iatrogenically thinned stromas are less effective UVR blockers

  6. The tissue-engineered human cornea as a model to study expression of matrix metalloproteinases during corneal wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couture, Camille; Zaniolo, Karine; Carrier, Patrick; Lake, Jennifer; Patenaude, Julien; Germain, Lucie; Guérin, Sylvain L

    2016-02-01

    Corneal injuries remain a major cause of consultation in the ophthalmology clinics worldwide. Repair of corneal wounds is a complex mechanism that involves cell death, migration, proliferation, differentiation, and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling. In the present study, we used a tissue-engineered, two-layers (epithelium and stroma) human cornea as a biomaterial to study both the cellular and molecular mechanisms of wound healing. Gene profiling on microarrays revealed important alterations in the pattern of genes expressed by tissue-engineered corneas in response to wound healing. Expression of many MMPs-encoding genes was shown by microarray and qPCR analyses to increase in the migrating epithelium of wounded corneas. Many of these enzymes were converted into their enzymatically active form as wound closure proceeded. In addition, expression of MMPs by human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs) was affected both by the stromal fibroblasts and the collagen-enriched ECM they produce. Most of all, results from mass spectrometry analyses provided evidence that a fully stratified epithelium is required for proper synthesis and organization of the ECM on which the epithelial cells adhere. In conclusion, and because of the many characteristics it shares with the native cornea, this human two layers corneal substitute may prove particularly useful to decipher the mechanistic details of corneal wound healing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. 3D refraction correction and extraction of clinical parameters from spectral domain optical coherence tomography of the cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Mingtao; Kuo, Anthony N; Izatt, Joseph A

    2010-04-26

    Capable of three-dimensional imaging of the cornea with micrometer-scale resolution, spectral domain-optical coherence tomography (SDOCT) offers potential advantages over Placido ring and Scheimpflug photography based systems for accurate extraction of quantitative keratometric parameters. In this work, an SDOCT scanning protocol and motion correction algorithm were implemented to minimize the effects of patient motion during data acquisition. Procedures are described for correction of image data artifacts resulting from 3D refraction of SDOCT light in the cornea and from non-idealities of the scanning system geometry performed as a pre-requisite for accurate parameter extraction. Zernike polynomial 3D reconstruction and a recursive half searching algorithm (RHSA) were implemented to extract clinical keratometric parameters including anterior and posterior radii of curvature, central cornea optical power, central corneal thickness, and thickness maps of the cornea. Accuracy and repeatability of the extracted parameters obtained using a commercial 859nm SDOCT retinal imaging system with a corneal adapter were assessed using a rigid gas permeable (RGP) contact lens as a phantom target. Extraction of these parameters was performed in vivo in 3 patients and compared to commercial Placido topography and Scheimpflug photography systems. The repeatability of SDOCT central corneal power measured in vivo was 0.18 Diopters, and the difference observed between the systems averaged 0.1 Diopters between SDOCT and Scheimpflug photography, and 0.6 Diopters between SDOCT and Placido topography.

  8. In vivo imaging through the entire thickness of human cornea by full-field optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazlin, Viacheslav; Xiao, Peng; Dalimier, Eugénie; Grieve, Kate; Irsch, Kristina; Sahel, José; Fink, Mathias; Boccara, Claude

    2018-02-01

    Despite obvious improvements in visualization of the in vivo cornea through the faster imaging speeds and higher axial resolutions, cellular imaging stays unresolvable task for OCT, as en face viewing with a high lateral resolution is required. The latter is possible with FFOCT, a method that relies on a camera, moderate numerical aperture (NA) objectives and an incoherent light source to provide en face images with a micrometer-level resolution. Recently, we for the first time demonstrated the ability of FFOCT to capture images from the in vivo human cornea1. In the current paper we present an extensive study of appearance of healthy in vivo human corneas under FFOCT examination. En face corneal images with a micrometer-level resolution were obtained from the three healthy subjects. For each subject it was possible to acquire images through the entire corneal depth and visualize the epithelium structures, Bowman's layer, sub-basal nerve plexus (SNP) fibers, anterior, middle and posterior stroma, endothelial cells with nuclei. Dimensions and densities of the structures visible with FFOCT, are in agreement with those seen by other cornea imaging methods. Cellular-level details in the images obtained together with the relatively large field-of-view (FOV) and contactless way of imaging make this device a promising candidate for becoming a new tool in ophthalmological diagnostics.

  9. A human hemi-cornea model for eye irritation testing: quality control of production, reliability and predictive capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelke, M; Zorn-Kruppa, M; Gabel, D; Reisinger, K; Rusche, B; Mewes, K R

    2013-02-01

    We have developed a 3-dimensional human hemi-cornea which comprises an immortalized epithelial cell line and keratocytes embedded in a collagen stroma. In the present study, we have used MTT reduction of the whole tissue to clarify whether the production of this complex 3-D-model is transferable into other laboratories and whether these tissues can be constructed reproducibly. Our results demonstrate the reproducible production of the hemi-cornea model according to standard operation procedures using 15 independent batches of reconstructed hemi-cornea models in two independent laboratories each. Furthermore, the hemi-cornea tissues have been treated with 20 chemicals of different eye-irritating potential under blind conditions to assess the performance and limitations of our test system comparing three different prediction models. The most suitable prediction model revealed an overall in vitro-in vivo concordance of 80% and 70% in the participating laboratories, respectively, and an inter-laboratory concordance of 80%. Sensitivity of the test was 77% and specificity was between 57% and 86% to discriminate classified from non-classified chemicals. We conclude that additional physiologically relevant endpoints in both epithelium and stroma have to be developed for the reliable prediction of all GHS classes of eye irritation in one stand alone test system. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Case report: a novel KERA mutation associated with cornea plana and its predicted effect on protein function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roos, Laura; Bertelsen, Birgitte; Harris, Pernille

    2015-01-01

    of the keratocan gene (KERA) on chromosome 12q22. To date, only nine different disease-associated KERA mutations, including four missense mutations, have been described. Case presentation: In this report, we present clinical data from a Turkish family with autosomal recessive cornea plana. In some of the affected...

  11. Outbreak of bullous impetigo caused by Staphylococcus aureus strains of phage type 3C/71 in a maternity ward linked to nasal carriage of a healthcare worker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piechowicz, Lidia; Garbacz, Katarzyna; Budzyńska, Anna; Dąbrowska-Szponar, Maria

    2012-01-01

    We describe an outbreak of bullous impetigo (BI) that occurred in a maternity unit and show phenotypic and genotypic properties and relatedness of isolated Staphylococcus aureus strains. Clinical material was obtained from 11 affected neonates. Additionally, nasal swabs from 67 healthy care workers (HCWs) as well as 107 environmental swabs were investigated. All isolates were screened for exfoliative toxin genes (eta, etb), antibiotic susceptibility and phage typed. Chromosomal DNA was genotyped by MLVF method and PCR/RFLP of coagulase gene were tested. Affected neonates were infected by two clusters of eta-positive S. aureus of phage type 3C/71: (1) MLVF type A isolates resistant only to penicillin, and (2) MLVF type B isolates resistant to penicillin and erythromycin/clindamycin. All isolates were susceptible to methicillin. We found 19 of 67 HCWs to be S. aureus nasal carriers. Two nasal isolates from HCWs were related to the outbreak on the basis of phage typing, PCR detection of eta/etb genes, antibiotyping and genotyping. Additionally, environmental swabs from the maternity unit revealed a 3C/71 S. aureus in the mattress of a baby bed. This is the first documented case of an outbreak of BI caused by phage type 3C/71 eta-positive strain of S. aureus.

  12. Relationship between theoretical molecular weight and blister fluid/serum ratio of cytokines and five other molecules evaluated in patients with bullous pemphigoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Auria, L; Pimpinelli, F; Ferraro, C; D'Ambrogio, G; Giacalone, B; Bellocci, M; Ameglio, F

    1998-01-01

    Bullous pemphigoid (BP) blisters contain several molecules, some of which spread into the blisters from the interstitial fluid, while others are produced locally and migrate into the circulation. The calculation of the ratios between blister/serum concentrations may help to distinguish between these two types of molecules. The rules regulating the diffusion of the molecules have been described only in suction blisters, where the theoretical molecular weight (MW) represents one of the principal influencing factors. The aim of the present study was to analyse the relationship between theoretical MWs and the ratios of concentrations of several molecules evaluated both in sera and in blister fluids. Eight cytokines (interleukin-2, interleukin-3, interleukin-4, interleukin-5, interleukin-10, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, oncostatin-M and vascular endothelial growth factor), two acute phase reactants (alpha-1 acid glycoprotein, haptoglobin), albumin, one soluble membrane molecule with adhesion functions (sICAM-1) and the eosinophil cathionic protein (ECP) were measured in samples from 15 patients affected with BP by means of commercially available tests. The data suggest that the MW may influence the rate of diffusion throughout the blister, both in input and output directions, despite the discontinuity observed at the basement membrane level on the BP blister floor.

  13. Specific demographic factors could predict deceased potential cornea donors: A retrospective study from Beijing Tongren Hospital Eye Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Zhang, Yingnan; Zhang, Jing; Yu, Jin; Liang, Qingfeng; Pan, Zhiqiang

    2017-12-01

    Compared with evident cornea donors (ECDs), deceased potential cornea donors (DPCDs) have no obvious donor identifications to reference, which causes many eligible cornea tissues to be wasted. The demographic characteristics of DPCDs might be different from those of ECDs owing to the following different features: donation consent provided by relatives and willingness to donate before death. Thus, the aim of this study is to reveal the demographic characteristics of DPCDs by comparing DPCDs and ECDs.The demographic factors of 138 donors (both DPCDs and ECDs) were collected from the Beijing Tongren Hospital Eye Bank database and analyzed. To differentiate DPCDs from ECDs using the above-mentioned features, we interviewed the relatives of the donors by telephone. The relatives' attitudes toward cornea donation and their suggestions for our donation service were also acquired during the interview. Two logistic regressions were performed to reveal the demographic factors influencing the 2 features and indicate DPCDs.The donors had certain demographic characteristics (elderly, secondary, or tertiary education level, central district resident), and the most frequent cause of death for the donors was a malignant tumor (n = 56, 43.1%). All the relatives had positive attitudes toward cornea donations, and they hoped to increase publicity efforts to encourage more people to donate and establish more convenient and efficient access for cornea donation. In univariate regressions, age (P = .004, >50 years: odds ratio [OR] = 6.89, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.82-26.05), marital status (P = .043, divorced: OR = 9.00,95% CI: 1.33-60.80) significantly influenced relative consent, whereas age (P = .001, >50 years: OR = 15.00, 95% CI: 3.00-74.98), and family address (P = .001, central district: OR = 1) were significant factors influencing the willingness to donate before death. In multivariate regression, age (P = .021, >50 years: OR = 8

  14. Optical coherence elastography assesses tissue modifications in laser reshaping of cornea and cartilages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitsev, V. Y.; Matveyev, A. L.; Matveev, L. A.; Gelikonov, G. V.; Omelchenko, A. I.; Shabanov, D. V.; Sovetsky, A. A.; Baum, O. I.; Vitkin, A.; Sobol, E. N.

    2018-02-01

    Non-surgical thermo-mechanical reshaping of avascular collagenous tissues (cartilages and cornea) using moderate heating by IR-laser irradiation is an emerging technology that can find important applications in visioncorrection problems and preparation of cartilaginous implants in otolaryngology. To estimate both transient interframe strains and cumulative resultant strains produced by the laser irradiation of the tissue we use and improved version of strain mapping developed in our previous work related to compressional phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography. To reveal microstructural changes in the tissue regions where irradiation-produced strains do not disappear after temperature equilibration, we apply compressional optical coherence elastography in order to visualize the resultant variations in the tissue stiffness. The so-found regions of the stiffness reduction are attributed to formation of microscopic pores, existence of which agree with independent data obtained using methods of high-resolution microscopy.

  15. Sphere-forming cells from peripheral cornea demonstrate a wound-healing response to injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Stephanie U; Yoon, Jinny J; Ismail, Salim; McGhee, Jennifer J; Sherwin, Trevor

    2015-11-01

    The cornea is the initial refractive interface of the eye. Its transparency is critical for clear vision and is maintained by stem cells which also act to repair injury inflicted by external insults, such as chemical and thermal burns. Damage to the epithelium compromises its clarity and can reduce or eliminate the stem cell population, diminishing the ability for self-repair. This condition has been termed "limbal stem cell deficiency"; severe cases can lead to corneal blindness. Sphere-forming cells isolated from peripheral cornea are a potential source of stem and progenitor cells for corneal repair. When provided with appropriate substrate, these spheres have the ability to adhere and for cells to migrate outwards akin to that of their natural environment. Direct compression injury and remote scratch injury experiments were conducted on the sphere cells to gauge their wound healing capacity. Measures of proliferation, differentiation, and migration were assessed by immunohistochemical detection of EdU incorporation, α-smooth muscle actin expression and confocal image analysis, respectively. Both modes of injury were observed to draw responses from the spheres indicating wound healing processes. Direct wounding induced a rapid, but transient increase in expression of α-SMA, a marker of corneal myofibroblasts, followed by a proliferative and increasing migratory response. The spheres were observed to respond to remote injury as entire units, with no directional response seen for targeted repair over the scratch injury area. These results give strength to the future use of these peripheral corneal spheres as transplantable units for the regeneration of corneal tissue. © 2015 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  16. Coupled biomechanical response of the cornea assessed by non-contact tonometry. A simulation study.

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    Miguel Á Ariza-Gracia

    Full Text Available The mechanical response of the cornea subjected to a non-contact air-jet tonometry diagnostic test represents an interplay between its geometry, the corneal material behavior and the loading. The objective is to study this interplay to better understand and interpret the results obtained with a non-contact tonometry test. A patient-specific finite element model of a healthy eye, accounting for the load free configuration, was used. The corneal tissue was modeled as an anisotropic hyperelastic material with two preferential directions. Three different sets of parameters within the human experimental range obtained from inflation tests were considered. The influence of the IOP was studied by considering four pressure levels (10-28 mmHg whereas the influence of corneal thickness was studied by inducing a uniform variation (300-600 microns. A Computer Fluid Dynamics (CFD air-jet simulation determined pressure loading exerted on the anterior corneal surface. The maximum apex displacement showed a linear variation with IOP for all materials examined. On the contrary, the maximum apex displacement followed a cubic relation with corneal thickness. In addition, a significant sensitivity of the apical displacement to the corneal stiffness was also obtained. Explanation to this behavior was found in the fact that the cornea experiences bending when subjected to an air-puff loading, causing the anterior surface to work in compression whereas the posterior surface works in tension. Hence, collagen fibers located at the anterior surface do not contribute to load bearing. Non-contact tonometry devices give useful information that could be misleading since the corneal deformation is the result of the interaction between the mechanical properties, IOP, and geometry. Therefore, a non-contact tonometry test is not sufficient to evaluate their individual contribution and a complete in-vivo characterization would require more than one test to independently determine

  17. Repeatability of pachymetric mapping using fourier domain optical coherence tomography in corneas with opacities.

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    Samy El Gendy, Nehal M; Li, Yan; Zhang, Xinbo; Huang, David

    2012-04-01

    To evaluate the repeatability of Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) pachymetric mapping in patients with corneal opacities and to assess the reliability of Fourier domain OCT with 830 nm wavelength as a pachymetric measurement tool in opaque corneas. A Fourier domain OCT system was used to map the corneal thickness of patients with corneal scars or dystrophy. A retrospective study of a consecutive series was conducted. The repeatability was measured using pooled standard deviation of repeated measurements. A slit-scanning tomography device provided pachymetric mapping for comparison. Seventeen eyes of 12 patients with corneal scars (7 trauma and 3 post infection) or dystrophy (2 Reis-Bucklers and 5 granular dystrophy) were included. The posterior corneal boundary was detectable in all cases. The average corneal thickness measured by OCT was 536 ± 89 μm in central 2 mm area, 553 ± 76 μm in pericentral 2- to 5-mm area, and 508 ± 93 μm for the minimum corneal thickness. The slit-scanning tomography central corneal thickness, 433 ± 111 μm, was significantly lower than OCT readings (mean difference -91.1 ± 33.3 μm, P = 0.002). Repeatability of the OCT measurements was 2.1 μm centrally and 1.2 μm pericentrally. Pachymetric mapping with Fourier domain OCT was highly repeatable. Fourier domain OCT is a reliable pachymetric tool in opaque corneas. In comparison, corneal thickness measured by the slit-scanning tomography is significantly thinner than those measured by the Fourier domain OCT in the presence of corneal opacities.

  18. Biomechanical responses of healthy and keratoconic corneas measured using a noncontact scheimpflug-based tonometer.

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    Ali, Noor Q; Patel, Dipika V; McGhee, Charles N J

    2014-05-15

    To examine the repeatability of measurements obtained using a noncontact Scheimpflug-based tonometer (Corvis ST) and investigate potential differences in these parameters between healthy and keratoconic (KC) corneas. Forty-five keratoconic eyes and 103 healthy eyes were examined using biomicroscopy, corneal tomography and the Corvis ST (CST). Intraocular pressure and central corneal thickness (CCT) were highly repeatable (intraclass correlation [ICC] > 0.70, coefficient of variation [CV] 0.60, CV < 0.20). There was no association between DA and age, sex, or ethnicity in healthy eyes. There was a greater mean DA in the KC group compared with 46 age-matched healthy eyes (KC 1.37 ± 0.21 mm, healthy 1.05 ± 0.11 mm, P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed DA in KC was predicted by IOP, CCT, and the steepest simulated keratometry value (P = 0.03, P = 0.03, P = 0.001 respectively, R(2) = 0.75). A subgroup analysis of healthy and KC eyes with comparable mean CCT and IOP highlighted a statistically significant difference in mean DA (KC 1.25 ± 0.08 mm, thin healthy 1.13 ± 0.09 mm, P = 0.006). Receiver-operating characteristic analysis showed an area under the curve of 0.77 (95% CI 0.61-0.93, P = 0.006) but no ideal cutoff value for DA. Key parameters assessed by the CST are repeatable. Keratoconus is associated with greater DA than in healthy eyes, even when controlled for CCT and IOP. Deformation amplitude may be a useful adjunct in keratoconus assessment and monitoring, but cannot solely discriminate between healthy and keratoconic corneas. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  19. In vivo laser confocal microscopy findings of a cornea with osteogenesis imperfecta

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    Kobayashi A

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Akira Kobayashi, Tomomi Higashide, Hideaki Yokogawa, Natsuko Yamazaki, Toshinori Masaki, Kazuhisa Sugiyama Department of Ophthalmology, Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa, Japan Objective: To report the in vivo laser confocal microscopy findings of a cornea with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI with special attention to the abnormality of Bowman's layer and sub-Bowman's fibrous structures (K-structures. Patients and methods: Two patients (67-year-old male and his 26-year-old son with OI type I were included in this study. Slit lamp biomicroscopic and in vivo laser confocal microscopic examinations were performed for both patients. Central corneal thickness and central endothelial cell density were also measured. Results: Although the corneas looked clear with normal endothelial density for both eyes in both patients, they were quite thin (386 µm oculus dexter (OD (the right eye and 384 µm oculus sinister (OS (the left eye in the father and 430 µm OD and 425 µm OS in the son. In both patients, slit lamp biomicroscopic and in vivo laser confocal microscopic examination showed similar results. Anterior corneal mosaics produced by rubbing the eyelid under fluorescein were completely absent in both eyes. In vivo laser confocal microscopy revealed an absent or atrophic Bowman's layer; a trace of a presumed Bowman's layer and/or basement membrane was barely visible with high intensity. Additionally, K-structures were completely absent in both eyes. Conclusion: The absence of K-structures and fluorescein anterior corneal mosaics strongly suggested an abnormality of Bowman's layer in these OI patients. Keywords: osteogenesis imperfecta, K-structure, confocal microscopy, Bowman's layer

  20. Sustained Subconjunctival Delivery of Infliximab Protects the Cornea and Retina Following Alkali Burn to the Eye.

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    Zhou, Chengxin; Robert, Marie-Claude; Kapoulea, Vassiliki; Lei, Fengyang; Stagner, Anna M; Jakobiec, Frederick A; Dohlman, Claes H; Paschalis, Eleftherios I

    2017-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α is upregulated in eyes following corneal alkali injury and contributes to corneal and also retinal damage. Prompt TNF-α inhibition by systemic infliximab ameliorates retinal damage and improves corneal wound healing. However, systemic administration of TNF-α inhibitors carries risk of significant complications, whereas topical eye-drop delivery is hindered by poor ocular bioavailability and the need for patient adherence. This study investigates the efficacy of subconjunctival delivery of TNF-α antibodies using a polymer-based drug delivery system (DDS). The drug delivery system was prepared using porous polydimethylsiloxane/polyvinyl alcohol composite fabrication and loaded with 85 μg of infliximab. Six Dutch-belted pigmented rabbits received ocular alkali burn with NaOH. Immediately after the burn, subconjunctival implantation of anti-TNF-α DDS was performed in three rabbits while another three received sham DDS (without antibody). Rabbits were followed with photography for 3 months. After 3 months, the device was found to be well tolerated by the host and the eyes exhibited less corneal damage as compared to eyes implanted with a sham DDS without drug. The low dose treatment suppressed CD45 and TNF-α expression in the burned cornea and inhibited retinal ganglion cell apoptosis and optic nerve degeneration, as compared to the sham DDS treated eyes. Immunolocalization revealed drug penetration in the conjunctiva, cornea, iris, and choroid, with residual infliximab in the DDS 3 months after implantation. This reduced-risk biologic DDS improves corneal wound healing and provides retinal neuroprotection, and may be applicable not only to alkali burns but also to other inflammatory surgical procedures such as penetrating keratoplasty and keratoprosthesis implantation.

  1. Effect of biometric characteristics on biomechanical properties of the cornea in cataract patient

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    Xue-Fei Song

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To determine the impact of biometric characteristics on the biomechanical properties of the human cornea using the ocular response analyzer (ORA and standard comprehensive ophthalmic examinations before and after standard phacoemulsification. METHODS: This study comprised 54 eyes with cataract with significant lens opacification in stages I or II that underwent phacoemulsification (2.8 mm incision. Corneal hysteresis (CH, corneal resistance factor (CRF, Goldmann-correlated intraocular pressure (IOPg, and corneal-compensated intraocular pressure (IOPcc were measured by ORA preoperatively and at 1mo postoperatively. Biometric characteristics were derived from corneal topography [TMS-5, anterior equivalent (EQTMS and cylindric (CYLTMS power], corneal tomography [Casia, anterior and posterior equivalent (EQaCASIC, EQpCASIA and cylindric (CYLaCASIA, CYLpCASIA power], keratometry [IOLMaster, anterior equivalent (EQIOL and cylindric (CYLIOL power] and autorefractor [anterior equivalent (EQAR]. Results from ORA were analyzed and correlated with those from all other examinations taken at the same time point. RESULTS: Preoperatively, CH correlated with EQpCASIA and CYLpCASIA only (P=0.001, P=0.002. Postoperatively, IOPg and IOPcc correlated with all equivalent powers (EQTMS, EQIOL, EQAR, EQaCASIA and EQpCASIA (P=0.001, P=0.007, P=0.001, P=0.015, P=0.03 for IOPg and P<0.001, P=0.003, P<0.001, P=0.009, P=0.014 for IOPcc. CH correlated postoperatively with EQaCASIA and EQpCASIC only (P=0.021, P=0.022. CONCLUSION: Biometric characteristics may significantly affect biomechanical properties of the cornea in terms of CH, IOPcc and IOPg before, but even more after cataract surgery.

  2. Biocompatibility of a fish scale-derived artificial cornea: Cytotoxicity, cellular adhesion and phenotype, and in vivo immunogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Essen, T H; van Zijl, L; Possemiers, T; Mulder, A A; Zwart, S J; Chou, C-H; Lin, C C; Lai, H J; Luyten, G P M; Tassignon, M J; Zakaria, N; El Ghalbzouri, A; Jager, M J

    2016-03-01

    To determine whether a fish scale-derived collagen matrix (FSCM) meets the basic criteria to serve as an artificial cornea, as determined with in vitro and in vivo tests. Primary corneal epithelial and stromal cells were obtained from human donor corneas and used to examine the (in)direct cytotoxicity effects of the scaffold. Cytotoxicity was assessed by an MTT assay, while cellular proliferation, corneal cell phenotype and adhesion markers were assessed using an EdU-assay and immunofluorescence. For in vivo-testing, FSCMs were implanted subcutaneously in rats. Ologen(®) Collagen Matrices were used as controls. A second implant was implanted as an immunological challenge. The FSCM was implanted in a corneal pocket of seven New Zealand White rabbits, and compared to sham surgery. The FSCM was used as a scaffold to grow corneal epithelial and stromal cells, and displayed no cytotoxicity to these cells. Corneal epithelial cells displayed their normal phenotypical markers (CK3/12 and E-cadherin), as well as cell-matrix adhesion molecules: integrin-α6 and β4, laminin 332, and hemi-desmosomes. Corneal stromal cells similarly expressed adhesion molecules (integrin-α6 and β1). A subcutaneous implant of the FSCM in rats did not induce inflammation or sensitization; the response was comparable to the response against the Ologen(®) Collagen Matrix. Implantation of the FSCM in a corneal stromal pocket in rabbits led to a transparent cornea, healthy epithelium, and, on histology, hardly any infiltrating immune cells. The FSCM allows excellent cell growth, is not immunogenic and is well-tolerated in the cornea, and thus meets the basic criteria to serve as a scaffold to reconstitute the cornea. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Analysis of the Viscoelastic Properties of the Human Cornea Using Scheimpflug Imaging in Inflation Experiment of Eye Globes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Giuseppe; Serrao, Sebastiano; Rosati, Marianna; Lombardo, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To demonstrate a Scheimpflug-based imaging procedure for investigating the depth- and time-dependent strain response of the human cornea to inflation testing of whole eye globes. Methods Six specimens, three of which with intact corneal epithelium, were mounted in a customized apparatus within a humidity and temperature-monitored wet chamber. Each specimen was subjected to two mechanical tests in order to measure corneal strain resulting from application of cyclic (cyclic regimen) and constant (creep regimen) stress by changing the intra-ocular pressure (IOP) within physiological ranges (18–42 mmHg). Corneal shape changes were analyzed as a function of IOP and both corneal stress-strain curves and creep curves were generated. Results The procedure was highly accurate and repeatable. Upon cyclic stress application, a biomechanical corneal elasticity gradient was found in the front-back direction. The average Young's modulus of the anterior cornea ranged between 2.28±0.87 MPa and 3.30±0.90 MPa in specimens with and without intact epithelium (P = 0.05) respectively. The Young's modulus of the posterior cornea was on average 0.21±0.09 MPa and 0.17±0.06 MPa (P>0.05) respectively. The time-dependent strain response of the cornea to creep testing was quantified by fitting data to a modified Zener model for extracting both the relaxation time and compliance function. Conclusion Cyclic and creep mechanical tests are valuable for investigating the strain response of the intact human cornea within physiological IOP ranges, providing meaningful results that can be translated to clinic. The presence of epithelium influences the results of anterior corneal shape changes when monitoring deformation via Scheimpflug imaging in inflation experiments of whole eye globes. PMID:25397674

  4. Clinical and epidemiological aspects of cornea transplant patients of a reference hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Giovanna Karinny Pereira; Azevedo, Isabelle Campos de; Carvalho, Diana Paula de Souza Rego Pinto; Vitor, Allyne Fortes; Santos, Viviane Euzébia Pereira; Ferreira, Marcos Antonio

    2017-06-08

    clinically characterizing cornea transplant patients and their distribution according to indicated and post-operative conditions of cornea transplantation, as well as estimating the average waiting time. a cross-sectional, descriptive and analytical study performed for all cornea transplants performed at a reference service (n=258). Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, version 20.0. the main indicator for cornea transplant was keratoconus. The mean waiting time for the transplant was approximately 5 months and 3 weeks for elective transplants and 9 days for urgent cases. An association between the type of corneal disorder with gender, age, previous surgery, eye classification, glaucoma and anterior graft failure were found. keratoconus was the main indicator for cornea transplant. Factors such as age, previous corneal graft failure (retransplantation), glaucoma, cases of surgeries prior to cornea transplant (especially cataract surgery) may be related to the onset corneal endothelium disorders. caracterizar clínicamente los pacientes trasplantados y su distribución, con descripción de las condiciones indicadoras y posoperatorias de los trasplantes de córneas, así como estimar el tiempo promedio en la fila de espera. estudio epidemiológico, transversal, descriptivo y analítico, realizado con todos los trasplantes de córnea realizados en un servicio de referencia (n=258). Los datos fueron analizados con el software Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, versión 20.0. la principal condición indicadora para el trasplante de córnea fue el queratocono. El tiempo promedio en fila de espera para realización del trasplante fue de aproximadamente 5 meses y tres semanas, para trasplantes electivos y de 9 días para los casos de urgencia. Existió asociación entre el tipo de disturbio de la córnea con: sexo, intervalo etario, cirugía previa, clasificación del ojo, glaucoma y rechazo del injerto anterior. el queratocono fue

  5. Collagen organization in the chicken cornea and structural alterations in the retinopathy, globe enlarged (rge) phenotype--an X-ray diffraction study.

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    Boote, Craig; Hayes, Sally; Jones, Simon; Quantock, Andrew J; Hocking, Paul M; Inglehearn, Chris F; Ali, Manir; Meek, Keith M

    2008-01-01

    An investigation into the collagenous structure of the mature avian cornea is presented. Wide-angle X-ray diffraction is employed to assess collagen organization in 9-month-old chicken corneas. The central 2-4mm corneal region features a preponderance of fibrils directed along the superior-inferior and nasal-temporal orthogonal meridians. More peripherally the orientation of fibrils alters in favor of a predominantly tangential arrangement. The chicken cornea appears to be circumscribed by an annulus of fibrils that extends into the limbus. The natural arrangement of collagen in the chicken cornea is discussed in relation to corneal shape and the mechanical requirements of avian corneal accommodation. Equivalent data are also presented from age-matched blind chickens affected with the retinopathy, globe enlarged (rge) mutation, characterized by an abnormally thick and flat cornea. The data indicate considerable realignment and redistribution of collagen lamellae in the peripheral rge cornea. In contrast to normal chickens, no obvious tangential collagen alignment was evident in the periphery of rge corneas. In mammals, the presence of a limbal fibril annulus is believed to be important in corneal shape preservation. We postulate that corneal flattening in rge chickens may be related to biomechanical changes brought about by an alteration in collagen arrangement at the corneal periphery.

  6. The Naïve Murine Cornea as a Model System to Identify Novel Endogenous Regulators of Lymphangiogenesis: TRAIL and rtPA.

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    Regenfuß, Birgit; Dreisow, Marie-Luise; Hos, Deniz; Masli, Sharmila; Bock, Felix; Cursiefen, Claus

    2015-06-01

    In the murine cornea, which is an established model for analyzing pathologic lymphatic vessel growth, phenotypic heterogeneity of the endogenous lymphatic vessels in the limbus of the cornea was previously described. In this study, the cornea of BALB/c, C57BL/6, and FVB mice with different limbal lymphangiogenic phenotypes was analyzed to identify novel candidates potentially influencing lymphatic vessel growth. Pathway specific expression analysis of the cornea was performed to identify novel candidate genes. Corneal protein expression of the respective candidates was analyzed by fluorescent immunohistochemistry. The effect of the candidates on proliferation of human dermal lymphatic endothelial cells (HDLECs) was analyzed by BrdU proliferation ELISA. Thirteen genes were differentially regulated in corneas of mouse strains with more endogenous limbal lymphatic vessels (high-lymphangiogenic) (C57BL/6) compared to mouse strains with less endogenous limbal lymphatic vessels (low-lymphangiogenic) (BALB/c, FVB). Two candidates, Tumor necrosis factor (ligand) superfamily member 10 (Tnfsf10/Trail) and Plasminogen activator, tissue (Plat/tPA) were expressed in the cornea of BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice on the protein level. In vitro, Trail and recombinant tPA inhibited the proliferation of human dermal lymphatic endothelial cells. Molecular analysis of the naive cornea in mouse strains with different limbal lymphatic phenotypes is a valuable model to identify novel endogenous regulators of lymphangiogenesis.

  7. A comparison study of Riboflavin/UV-A and Rose-Bengal/Green light cross-linking of the rabbit corneas using optical coherence elastography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiasong; Singh, Manmohan; Han, Zhaolong; Vantipalli, Srilatha; Liu, Chih-Hao; Wu, Chen; Raghunathan, Raksha; Kazemi, Tina; Twa, Michael D.; Larin, Kirill V.

    2016-03-01

    The biomechanical properties of the cornea are critical factors which determine its health and subsequent visual acuity. Keratoconus is a structural degeneration of the cornea which can diminish vision quality. Riboflavin/UV-A corneal collagen cross-linking (UV-CXL) is an emerging treatment that increases the stiffness of the cornea and improves its ability to resist further degeneration. While UV-CXL has shown great promise for effective therapy of the keratoconus, there are concerns associated with the UV irradiation, such as keratocyte cytotoxicity. Rose-bengal/green light corneal collagen cross-linking (RGX) has been proposed as an alternative to UV-CXL. Because of the high absorbance of the rose-bengal dye at green wavelengths, the treatment time is significantly shorter than with UV-CXL. Moreover, because green light is used in lieu of UV irradiation, there are no cytotoxic side-effects. In this study, noncontact optical coherence elastography (OCE) was used to compare the outcomes of UV-CXL and RGX treatment in rabbit cornea. Low-amplitude (micrometer scale) elastic waves were induced by a focused air-pulse loading system. The elastic wave propagation was then imaged by a phase-stabilized swept source OCE (PhS-SSOCE) system. The changes in the viscoelasticity of the corneas were quantified by a previously developed modified Rayleigh Lamb frequency model. The depth-resolved micro-scale phase-velocity distribution in the cornea was used to reveal the depth-wise heterogeneity before and after both cross-linking techniques. Our results show that UV-CXL and RGX increased the stiffness of the corneas by ~54% and ~5% while reducing the viscosity by ~42% and ~17%, respectively. The depth-wise phase velocities showed that UV-CXL affected the anterior ~1/3 of the corneas, while RGX only affected the anterior ~1/7 of the corneas.

  8. Intraocular lens opacification after Descemet's stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty

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    Meng-Sheng Lee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Compared with conventional penetrating keratoplasty, Descemet's stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK more effectively maintain global integrity and rapid vision rehabilitation with less ocular surface disorders in patients with endothelial dysfunction. Here, we report a case of a 76-year-old woman who experienced opacification of a hydrophilic intraocular lens (IOL approximately 10 months after DSAEK. The patient with no history of systemic disease developed pseudophakic bullous keratopathy in the right eye 2 years after undergoing cataract surgery. The best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA of the right eye was Snellen 0.01 when presented to our hospital. DSAEK was arranged and performed smoothly. However, the graft detached over the upper part of the cornea on postoperative day 1. Thus, rebubbling was performed immediately. After the procedure, the graft was well attached, and the cornea became clear gradually. The BCVA returned to Snellen 0.6. However, progressive opacification over the anterior surface of the IOL was observed 10 months postoperatively. Vision deteriorated to 0.5 with various refractive errors during 2-year follow-up. IOL exchange may be considered if the vision is getting worse. IOL opacification may result from a direct contact between the IOL surface and exogenous air, particularly in a hydrophilic IOL, and can be a rare but significant complication after DSAEK. Clinicians planning to perform DSAEK should consider the composition of the IOL, the amount of intracameral air, duration of air filling, and high intraocular pressure.

  9. Novel micelle carriers for cyclosporin A topical ocular delivery: in vivo cornea penetration, ocular distribution and efficacy studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Tommaso, Claudia; Bourges, Jean-Louis; Valamanesh, Fatemeh; Trubitsyn, Gregory; Torriglia, Alicia; Jeanny, Jean-Claude; Behar-Cohen, Francine; Gurny, Robert; Möller, Michael

    2012-06-01

    Cornea transplantation is one of the most performed graft procedures worldwide with an impressive success rate of 90%. However, for "high-risk" patients with particular ocular diseases in addition to the required surgery, the success rate is drastically reduced to 50%. In these cases, cyclosporin A (CsA) is frequently used to prevent the cornea rejection by a systemic treatment with possible systemic side effects for the patients. To overcome these problems, it is a challenge to prepare well-tolerated topical CsA formulations. Normally high amounts of oils or surfactants are needed for the solubilization of the very hydrophobic CsA. Furthermore, it is in general difficult to obtain ocular therapeutic drug levels with topical instillations due to the corneal barriers that efficiently protect the intraocular structures from foreign substances thus also from drugs. The aim of this study was to investigate in vivo the effects of a novel CsA topical aqueous formulation. This formulation was based on nanosized polymeric micelles as drug carriers. An established rat model for the prevention of cornea graft rejection after a keratoplasty procedure was used. After instillation of the novel formulation with fluorescent labeled micelles, confocal analysis of flat-mounted corneas clearly showed that the nanosized carriers were able to penetrate into all corneal layers. The efficacy of a 0.5% CsA micelle formulation was tested and compared to a physiological saline solution and to a systemic administration of CsA. In our studies, the topical CsA treatment was carried out for 14 days, and the three parameters (a) cornea transparency, (b) edema, and (c) neovascularization were evaluated by clinical observation and scoring. Compared to the control group, the treated group showed a significant higher cornea transparency and significant lower edema after 7 and 13 days of the surgery. At the end point of the study, the neovascularization was reduced by 50% in the CsA-micelle treated

  10. Eritema multiforme ampollar extenso asociado a infección por virus herpes simplex Extended Bullous Erythema Multiforme Associated To Herpes Simplex Virus Infection

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    A Elgueta-Noy

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El Eritema Multiforme (EM es una reacción cutánea aguda generalmente benigna y autolimitada, asociada a la infección por Virus Herpes Simplex (HSV. Se caracteriza por lesiones polimorfas y tipo diana en extremidades y mucosas. Presentamos un paciente de 22 años con pápulas, vesículas y ampollas, que evoluciona con un 90% de la superficie corporal comprometida en tres semanas. Se realizó una reacción de polimerasa en cadena para HSV, resultando positiva en una costra. La biopsia de piel y la tinción de inmunohistoquímica positiva para linfocitos T CD4, fueron compatibles con EM ampollar asociado a HSV. Destacamos la importancia de la correlación clínico patológica, apoyada por el estudio virológico, en el diagnóstico de este caso de presentación atípica. Los hallazgos de laboratorio confirmaron lo descrito en la literatura respecto de la patogenia del EM asociado a HSV.Erythema Multiforme (EM is a generally benign and self-limited acute cutaneous reaction, associated with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV infection. It is characterized by polymorphic "target" lesions in extremities and mucosal tissues. We report a 22-year old patient with papules, vesicles and blisters, which evolved to cover 90% of the body in three weeks. We performed a PCR study for HSV, which was positive in a crust. A skin biopsy and positive immunohistochemical stain for LT CD4+ were compatible with bullous EM associated with HSV. We underline the importance of pathological clinical correlation, reinforced by a virological study, in the diagnosis of this case with atypical symptoms. The laboratory findings confirmed literature descriptions with respect to the pathogenicity of EM associated with HSV.

  11. Social influence of a religious hero: the late Cardinal Stephen Kim Sou-hwan's effect on cornea donation and volunteerism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Hyuhn-Suhck; Brown, William J; Kang, Seok

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the mediated influence of a celebrated religious hero in South Korea, Cardinal Stephen Kim, through two forms of involvement--parasocial interaction and identification--on intention toward cornea donation and volunteerism, and it investigated how the news media diffused of his death. A structural equation modeling analysis with a Web-based voluntary survey of more than 1,200 people in South Korea revealed a multistep social influence process, beginning with parasocial interaction with Cardinal Kim, leading to identification with him, which predicted intention toward cornea donation and volunteerism. Additional investigations found that news of Cardinal Kim's death diffused rapidly through media and interpersonal communication. Results of this study demonstrate that religious leaders who achieve a celebrity hero status can prompt public discussion of important issues rather quickly through extensive media coverage, enabling them to promote prosocial behavior and positively affect public health.

  12. Oxidative Stress to the Cornea, Changes in Corneal Optical Properties, and Advances in Treatment of Corneal Oxidative Injuries

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    Cestmir Cejka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is involved in many ocular diseases and injuries. The imbalance between oxidants and antioxidants in favour of oxidants (oxidative stress leads to the damage and may be highly involved in ocular aging processes. The anterior eye segment and mainly the cornea are directly exposed to noxae of external environment, such as air pollution, radiation, cigarette smoke, vapors or gases from household cleaning products, chemical burns from splashes of industrial chemicals, and danger from potential oxidative damage evoked by them. Oxidative stress may initiate or develop ocular injury resulting in decreased visual acuity or even vision loss. The role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of ocular diseases with particular attention to oxidative stress in the cornea and changes in corneal optical properties are discussed. Advances in the treatment of corneal oxidative injuries or diseases are shown.

  13. Moorfields technique of donor cornea mounting for femtosecond-assisted keratoplasty: use of viscoelastic in the artificial anterior chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iovieno, Alfonso; Chowdhury, Vivek; Stevens, Julian D; Maurino, Vincenzo

    2012-07-01

    Appropriate mounting and cutting of the donor sclero-corneal cap is often cumbersome during femtosecond laser-assisted keratoplasty. The authors describe a technique for donor cornea femtosecond laser cutting using ophthalmic viscoelastic devices. The donor sclero-corneal cap is mounted on the artificial anterior chamber using a dispersive ophthalmic viscoelastic device instead of saline solution. The chances of artificial anterior chamber pressure loss, inadequate applanation, and fluid leaks are consistently reduced with the use of dispersive ophthalmic viscoelastic devices. The speed of donor femtosecond laser cutting is increased. The viscosity and elasticity of dispersive ophthalmic viscoelastic devices greatly assist the procedure with regard to ease of applanation, corneal endothelium protection, and decreased distortion of the applanated cornea. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  14. Oxidative Stress to the Cornea, Changes in Corneal Optical Properties, and Advances in Treatment of Corneal Oxidative Injuries

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čejka, Čestmír; Čejková, Jitka

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 2015, Mar 11 (2015), s. 591530 ISSN 1942-0900 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-12580S Keywords : experimental autoimmune uveitis * eye sjogrens-syndrome * rabbit cornea * aldehyde dehydrogenase * uvb rays * glutathione-peroxidase * superoxide-dismutase * refractive-index * reactive oxygen * alkali-burn Subject RIV: FF - HEENT, Dentistry Impact factor: 4.492, year: 2015

  15. Cornea and anterior eye assessment with placido-disc keratoscopy, slit scanning evaluation topography and scheimpflug imaging tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Raul

    2018-03-01

    Current corneal assessment technologies make the process of corneal evaluation extremely fast and simple and several devices and technologies allow to explore and to manage patients. The purpose of this special issue is to present and also to update in the evaluation of cornea and ocular surface and this second part, reviews a description of the corneal topography and tomography techniques, providing updated information of the clinical recommendations of these techniques in eye care practice. Placido-based topographers started an exciting anterior corneal surface analysis that allows the development of current corneal tomographers that provide a full three-dimensional reconstruction of the cornea including elevation, curvature, and pachymetry data of anterior and posterior corneal surfaces. Although, there is not an accepted reference standard technology for corneal topography description and it is not possible to determine which device produces the most accurate topographic measurements, placido-based topographers are a valuable technology to be used in primary eye care and corneal tomograhers expanding the possibilities to explore cornea and anterior eye facilitating diagnosis and follow-up in several situations, raising patient follow-up, and improving the knowledge regarding to the corneal anatomy. Main disadvantages of placido-based topographers include the absence of information about the posterior corneal surface and limited corneal surface coverage without data from the para-central and/or peripheral corneal surface. However, corneal tomographers show repeatable anterior and posterior corneal surfaces measurements, providing full corneal thickness data improving cornea, and anterior surface assessment. However, differences between devices suggest that they are not interchangeable in clinical practice.

  16. Collection, processing and testing of bone, corneas, umbilical cord blood and haematopoietic stem cells by European Blood Alliance members

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Närhi, M; Natri, O; Desbois, I

    2013-01-01

    A questionnaire study was carried out in collaboration with the European Blood Alliance (EBA) Tissues and Cells (T&C) working group. The aim was to assess the level of involvement and commonality of processes on the procurement, testing and storage of bone, corneas, umbilical cord blood (UCB......) and haematopoietic stem cells (HSC) in order to identify different practices and to explore whether recommendations can be made for harmonization....

  17. Effect of In Vitro Transcorneal Approach of Aceclofenac Eye Drops through Excised Goat, Sheep, and Buffalo Corneas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Dave

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study involves the evaluation of factors that influence the transcorneal permeation of aqueous drops of aceclofenac ophthalmic formulation through freshly excised goat, sheep, and buffalo corneas. Aceclofenac formulation with different concentrations 0.1–0.5% (w/v and with different pH and different preservatives, was taken into account. The amount of drug permeated from different formulations was estimated using an Franz diffusion cell. A linear increase in drug permeation was observed with increase in pH (5.5 to 7.4. The apparent permeability coefficient was found to be maximum 15.01±0.45 on goat cornea and maximum transport of aceclofenac was observed at physiological pH of tears (i.e., 7. The results advocate that aceclofenac 0.5% (w/v ophthalmic solution (pH 7.0 containing BAK (0.01% provides maximum in vitro ocular permeability through goat, sheep, and buffalo corneas.

  18. Donor cornea procurement: six-year review of the role of the eye bank in South Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, K A; White, M A; Badenoch, P R; Wedding, T R; Alfrich, S J; Sawyer, M A; Noack, L M; Johnstone, E W; Zilm, G; Coster, D J

    1990-02-01

    The Lions Eye Bank of South Australia was established six years ago and has collected corneas from 790 donors. The consent rate is currently 82% of requests made. Two-thirds of donors have been male, with mean donor age/year varying from 54 to 64 years (range two to 93 years). Cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, trauma and haemorrhage account for 80% of all donor deaths. Mean death to enucleation time is five hours. Corneas assessed as being of excellent or very good quality are released preferentially from the bank; those with central endothelial cell counts of less than 1500 cells/mm2 are discarded. Fewer than 1% of donors have returned a positive result for HIV or hepatitis B. Of the 1580 corneas collected by the bank, 863 (55%) have been used for transplantation with a primary non-function rate of 0.46%. The evolving policies, logistics of operation and methodologies employed by the bank are described in detail.

  19. Novel method to avoid the open-sky condition in penetrating keratoplasty: covered cornea technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Osman S; Unal, Mustafa; Arici, Ceyhun; Cicik, Erdoğan; Mangan, Serhat; Atalay, Eray

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to present a novel technique to avoid the open-sky condition in pediatric and adult penetrating keratoplasty (PK). Seventy-two eyes of 65 infants and children and 44 eyes of 44 adult patients were operated on using this technique. After trephining the recipient cornea up to a depth of 50% to 70%, the anterior chamber was entered at 1 point. Then, only a 2 clock hour segment of the recipient button was incised, and this segment was sutured to the recipient rim with a single tight suture. The procedure was repeated until the entire recipient button was excised and resutured. The donor corneal button was sutured to the recipient corneal rim. The sutures between the recipient button and the rim were then cut off, and the recipient button was drawn out. None of the patients operated on with this technique developed complications related to the open-sky condition. Visual acuities, graft failure rates, and endothelial cell loss were comparable with the findings of studies performed for conventional PK. The technique described avoids the open-sky condition during the entire PK procedure. Endothelial cell loss rates are acceptable.

  20. Isolation and characterization of soluble sulfated polysaccharide from the red seaweed Glucaric cornea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melo, Marcia R.S.; Freitas, Ana L.P.; Feitosa, Judith P.A.; Paula, Regina C.M. de

    2001-01-01

    The composition, structure and rheological properties of soluble sulphated polysaccharide Glucaric cornea from Brazilian red seaweeds were investigated. The main components of polysaccharide were 3,6-anhydrogalactose (24.7%) and galactose (64.6%). In addition, minor components as 6-O-methyl-galactose (8.5%), glucose (1.5%), xylose (0.7%) and sulfated groups (4.8%) were detected. Comparison between sulphates content determined by Ft-IR spectroscopy and micro elemental analysis was made. Data from 13 C NMR and FT-IR provided evidence of sulphation in C-4 and C-6 of galactose. No gelation with 1.5, 2.0 and 3.0 % (w/v) aqueous solution was observed, even cooled up to 4 deg C. GPC indicated two majors polysaccharide fractions of M pk 7.4 x 10 4 and 1.8 x 10 4 g/mol and a minor fraction of M pk 2.1 x 10 6 g/mol. (author)

  1. Experimental investigations of the late effects of ionizing radiation on the cornea, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oinaka, Matsuyoshi

    1980-01-01

    Late effects of 60 Co gamma-irradiation (3,000 - 750 rad, single exposure, dose rate 45 rad/min.) on the rabbits cornea were investigated histopathologically. In 3,000 rad exposed series, superficial keratitis was seen at 5 weeks and stromal clouding, consisting of slight cell infiltration and edema, appeared at 7 weeks after irradiation. Light microscopically, loosening and flattening of the epithelial cells at 5 weeks, and only one layer of the epithelial cells remained at 7 weeks. Electron microscopically, degeneration of the corneal epithelium was seen at 5 weeks. These changes are probably due to irreversible mitosis inhibition. In 2,500 rad exposed series, superficial keratitis appeared at 5 weeks, but stromal clouding was not seen during the whole course. By light and electron microscopic examination, loosening and enlargement of the basal cells were observed, and modification of the superficial cells to non-polygonal shape was seen at 7 weeks. Degenerative findings of the epithelium were not seen. These changes are probably due to transient mitosis inhibition. The corneal endothelium was intact during the whole course in this series. Transient swelling and disordered arrangement of the basal cells in 1,500 rad exposed series and slight swelling of the basal cells in 750 rad exposed ones were seen at 5 weeks. Swelling and disordered arrangement of the corneal epithelium in less than 3,000 rad exposed groups were reversible. (author)

  2. Frozen cultured sheets of epidermal keratinocytes in reepithelialization and repair of the cornea after photorefractive keratectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Muñozledo, Federico; Ozorno-Zarate, Jorge; Naranjo-Tackman, Ramon; Kuri-Harcuch, Walid

    2002-09-01

    To determine whether frozen cultured sheets of human allogeneic epidermal keratinocytes (CEAK) improved wound repair after experimental corneal ablation by photorefractive keratectomy (PRK). Hospital "Luis Sanchez Bulnes" de la Asociación para Evitar la Ceguera en Mexico, I.A.P, and Department of Cell Biology, CINVESTAV-IPN, Mexico City, Mexico. Transepithelial PRK was performed in the right eye of male albino rabbits to obtain a 112 microm deep and 6.0 mm diameter ablation zone. In 17 eyes, the ablations were covered with frozen CEAK; in 11 eyes, the ablations were covered with a disposable contact lens without the cultured sheets; and in the control group (13 eyes), the ablations were not covered. Subepithelial fibrosis and reepithelialization of the ablated zone were evaluated in serial paraffin-embedded tissue sections from all wounds. Treatment with CEAK reduced fibroblast proliferation and the inflammatory response beneath the ablated zone and produced better organization of the newly formed epithelium by eliminating significant hyperplasia or discontinuities in the periodic acid Shiff-stained basement membrane. It also led to accelerated reepithelialization. The use of frozen CEAK as a biologically active wound dressing improved tissue repair at 1 month in corneas ablated by transepithelial PRK in the male albino rabbit model. Treatment with CEAK could improve the outcome of PRK in humans.

  3. Precut cornea for Descemet's stripping endothelial keratoplasty: experience at a single eye bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Ashik; Chaurasia, Sunita; Chandragiri, Venkataswamy; Kandhibanda, Srinivas; Gunnam, Srinivas; Garg, Prashant

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the study is to describe the experience with precut facility for endothelial keratoplasty at a single eye bank affiliated to a tertiary eye care center in India. Data on precut tissues from Nov 2012 to Dec 2014 were retrospectively reviewed from the electronic database of the eye bank of a tertiary eye care center in South India. Donor characteristic data including donor age, precut and postcut endothelial cell density (ECD), recipient age, and thickness of graft were collected. The number of precuts increased from 42 in 2012 (Nov and Dec) and 422 in 2013 to 584 in 2014. Of the total of 1048 precuts, seven (0.67 %) were miscut and could not be utilized for transplants. The donor age ranged from 2 to 89 years. A mean change of 43.6 ± 325.2 cells/mm 2 in ECD was noted after cut, proportional increase in mean being 1.9 %. The change in ECD after cut was negatively correlated with ECD before cut. The recipient age ranged from 1 to 89 years. The median thickness of donor lenticule after cut was 148 µm (interquartile range 131-166 µm). Analysis of precut donor corneas from a single eye bank shows that the ECD of the processed tissues was excellent for transplantation. The tissue wastage in the hands of eye bank personal was minimal.

  4. INTACS before or after laser in situ keratomileusis: correction of thin corneas with moderately high myopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Mitsutoshi; Arai, Hiroyuki; Fukumoto, Teruki; Toda, Ikuko; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2004-01-01

    Intrastromal corneal ring segments (INTACS Micro-Thin Prescription Inserts by Addition Technologies, Fremont, Calif) were inserted as a combined surgery with laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) in six eyes with thin corneas to correct moderately high myopia. INTACS were implanted before LASIK (INTACS-LASIK) in three eyes and after LASIK (LASIK-INTACS) in three eyes. Mean preoperative manifest spherical equivalent refraction was -7.88 diopters. Mean follow-up was 306 days. No intraoperative complications occurred. The LASIK-INTACS eyes were slightly more overcorrected than the INTACS-LASIK eyes because of the enhanced performance of INTACS in the thinned corneal tissue. Induced astigmatism by INTACS per se was less in the LASIK-INTACS eyes than in the INTACS-LASIK eyes. At last examination, uncorrected visual acuity was better than 20/25 in all eyes. Best spectacle-corrected visual acuity was within 1 line of the preoperative value in all eyes. Both methods resulted in significant improvement in visual acuity and refraction. Based on our limited experience, however, LASIK followed by INTACS is preferred for reasons of safety, convenience, and lower induced cylinder.

  5. Development of a microfabricated artificial limbus with micropockets for cell delivery to the cornea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortega, Ílida; Deshpande, Pallavi; Gill, Andrew A; MacNeil, Sheila; Claeyssens, Frederik

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a synthetic alternative to the human corneal limbus for use initially as an ex vivo model in which to study corneal stem cell function within a niche environment and ultimately to develop an implantable limbus for future clinical use. Microstereolithography was used for the fabrication of polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA) based rings on a macroscopic (1.2 cm) scale containing unique microfeatures (pockets) which were then modified with fibronectin to promote cell adhesion. These rings were designed to mimic the limbal area of the eye containing structures of the approximate size and shape of the stem cell microenvironments found in the palisades of Vogt. The attachment of rabbit limbal fibroblasts and rabbit limbal epithelial cells to the PEGDA rings was increased by pretreating the microfabricated structures with biotinylated fibronectin. Cell outgrowth from fibronectin coated microfabricated structures was 50% greater than from rings without structures or fibronectin coating. The cell loaded rings were then placed on an ex vivo wounded cornea model and the outgrowth of cells to form a multilayered epithelium was observed. We suggest this is a new approach to investigating limbal stem cells niches and the first steps towards a new approach for corneal regeneration. (paper)

  6. Descemet's stripping-automated endothelial keratoplasty for symptomatic thioridazine deposits in the cornea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Mohebbi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to use Descemet's Stripping-automated Endothelial Keratoplasty (DSAEK as a novel treatment to remove thioridazine corneal deposits. A 53-year-old female presented with a 3-month history of visual loss and glare. She had been taking thioridazine (100 mg/day for 1 year for a psychiatric disorder. Dense yellowish-brown deposits had developed in the posterior stroma. Thioridazine was discontinued, and she was switched to fluoxetine. One year after discontinuation of thioridazine, her symptoms and signs did not resolve. Standard DSAEK was performed on her left eye. Two weeks after DSAEK, an anterior subcapsular cataract was detected in the same eye. Phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation were performed after 3 months. The left cornea became completely clear after DSAEK, and the patient's best-corrected visual acuity improved from 20/40 to 20/20 at 1 month after cataract surgery. All-visual symptoms such as glare and halos improved postoperatively. We suggest that DSAEK can be used as a novel treatment to reduce vision problems caused by thioridazine-induced corneal deposits.

  7. Preparation of pre-cut corneas from fresh donated whole globes for Descemet's stripping automated keratoplasty: 3-year results at the Central Eye Bank of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanavi, Mozhgan Rezaei; Javadi, Mohammad Ali; Javadi, Fatemeh; Chamani, Tahereh

    2014-09-01

    To describe the technique and the results of the preparation of pre-cut corneas for Descemet's stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) during a 3-year period at the Central Eye Bank of Iran (CEBI). The method of preparation of pre-cut corneas from donated whole globes at the CEBI is described and the frequency and percentage of pre-cut corneas prepared for DSAEK, between April 2009 and March 2012, are specified. Moreover, post-operative reports are reviewed for any complaints about using pre-cut tissues for DSAEK. Out of the 1,518 donated whole globes appropriate for DSAEK, 1,478 (97.4 %) pre-cut corneas were successfully prepared. The method of preparation failed in 40 (2.6 %) cases. Based on the eye bank post-operative reports, thickness of pre-cut tissues for DSAEK was deemed unacceptable in only 6 (0.4 %) cases prior to surgery; five of these were too thick and one was too thin. Preparation of pre-cut corneas, for DSAEK from donated whole globes, in the CEBI is a safe and easy method, with very good preservation of endothelial cells after the preparation of the pre-cut corneas and reduced risks from corneal manipulation.

  8. A short-term study of corneal collagen cross-linking with hypo-osmolar riboflavin solution in keratoconic corneas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-Feng Gu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To report the 3mo outcomes of collagen cross-linking (CXL with a hypo-osmolar riboflavin in thin corneas with the thinnest thickness less than 400 μm without epithelium. METHODS: Eight eyes in 6 patients with age 26.2±4.8y were included in the study. All patients underwent CXL using a hypo-osmolar riboflavin solution after its de-epithelization. Best corrected visual acuity, manifest refraction, the thinnest corneal thickness, and endothelial cell density were evaluated before and 3mo after the procedure. RESULTS: The mean thinnest thickness of the cornea was 408.5±29.0 μm before treatment and reduced to 369.8±24.8 μm after the removal of epithelium. With the application of the hypo-osmolar riboflavin solution, the thickness increased to 445.0±26.5 μm before CXL and recover to 412.5±22.7 μm at 3mo after treatment, P=0.659. Before surgery, the mean K-value of the apex of the keratoconus corneas was 57.6±4.0 diopters, and slightly decreased (54.7±4.9 diopters after surgery (P=0.085. Mean best-corrected visual acuity was 0.55±0.23 logarithm of the minimal angle of resolution, and increased to 0.53±0.26 logarithm after surgery (P=0.879. The endothelial cell density was 2706.4±201.6 cells/mm2 before treatment, and slightly decreased (2641.2±218.2 cells/mm2 at last fellow up (P=0.002. CONCLUSION: Corneal collagen cross-linking with a hypo-osmolar riboflavin in thin corneas seems to be a promising treatment. Further study should be done to evaluate the safety and efficiency of CXL in thin corneas for the long-term.

  9. Effects of androgen replacement therapy on cornea and tear function in men with idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokce, Gokcen; Hurmeric, Volkan; Mumcuoglu, Tarkan; Ozge, Gokhan; Basaran, Yalcin; Unal, Hilmi Umut; Bolu, Erol; Mutlu, Fatih Mehmet

    2015-05-01

    Idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH) is an endocrine disorder defined with the presence of typical clinical signs and symptoms plus laboratory confirmation of serum testosterone (T) levels lower than 300 ng/dl. Androgen replacement therapy (ART) is the first-step treatment of male IHH. To date, no clinical trial, which investigates the changes on corneal structure and tear function, of systemic ART in men have been published. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of ART on cornea and tear function in patients with IHH. This prospective, interventional study was conducted at the Gulhane Military Medical Academy, Ankara, Turkey, a tertiary referral military hospital. Thirty-four eyes of 17 men with IHH patients were evaluated with Schirmer I test, ultrasound pachymeter, applanation tonometer and confocal microscopy. A Testosterone compound (Sustanon® 250 mg) was administered by intramuscular injection in the course of a 3-week period to induce puberty, and human chorionic gonadotropin (Pregnyl® 5000 IU) was administered twice weekly for 3 months to induce fertility. The patients were re-evaluated at the third month of the treatment. Main Outcome Measures were Schirmer score, central corneal thickness (CCT), intraocular pressure (IOP), endothelial cell density, coefficient of variation and cell shape. Schirmer scores showed similar results after the treatment compared to pre-treatment levels (p = 0.14). There was no statistically significant difference in CCT and IOP compared to baseline data (p = 0.96, p = 0.73, respectively), and no significant differences were found in corneal endothelial cell density, percentage of cell size variability or hexagonality (p = 0.83, p = 0.58, p = 0.64, respectively). This is the first study that investigates the effects of ART on corneal structure and tear function in men. ART seems to have no short-term effects on corneal structure and tear function. Further publications of larger, long-term and

  10. T-style keratoprosthesis based on surface-modified poly (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) hydrogel for cornea repairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang, Jun; Sun, Jianguo; Hong, Jiaxu; Wang, Wentao; Wei, Anji; Le, Qihua; Xu, Jianjiang

    2015-01-01

    Corneal disease is a common cause of blindness, and keratoplasty is considered as an effective treatment method. However, there is a severe shortage of donor corneas worldwide. This paper presents a novel T-style design of a keratoprosthesis and its preparation methods, in which a mechanically and structurally effective artificial cornea is made based on a poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) hydrogel. The porous skirt was modified with hyaluronic acid and cationized gelatin, and the bottom of the optical column was coated with poly(ethylene glycol). The physical properties of the T-style Kpro were analyzed using ultraviolet and visible spectrophotometry and electron scanning microscopy. The surface chemical properties were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The surface modification in the spongy skirt promoted cell adhesion and produced a firm bond between the corneal tissue and the implant device, while the surface modification in the optic column resisted cell adhesion and prevented retroprosthetic membrane formation. Through improved surgical techniques, the novel T-style keratoprosthesis provides enough mechanical stability to facilitate long-term biointegration with the host environment. In vivo implantation experiments showed that the T-style keratoprosthesis is a promising cornea alternative for patients with severe limbal stem cell deficiency and corneal opacity. - Highlights: • T-style keratoprosthesis was designed and prepared based on a PHEMA hydrogel. • Selective surface modifications effectively regulated cells' selective adhesion. • T-style keratoprosthesis provides enough mechanical stability to facilitate long-term biointegration with host tissues

  11. T-style keratoprosthesis based on surface-modified poly (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) hydrogel for cornea repairs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiang, Jun [Department of Ophthalmology, Eye & ENT Hospital, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University (China); Key Laboratory of Myopia, Ministry of Health, Fudan University (China); Shanghai Key Laboratory of Visual Impairment and Restoration, Fudan University (China); Sun, Jianguo [Research Center, Eye & ENT Hospital, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University (China); Key Laboratory of Myopia, Ministry of Health, Fudan University (China); Shanghai Key Laboratory of Visual Impairment and Restoration, Fudan University (China); State Key Laboratory of Molecular Engineering of Polymers, Fudan University (China); Hong, Jiaxu [Department of Ophthalmology, Eye & ENT Hospital, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University (China); Key Laboratory of Myopia, Ministry of Health, Fudan University (China); Shanghai Key Laboratory of Visual Impairment and Restoration, Fudan University (China); Wang, Wentao [Research Center, Eye & ENT Hospital, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University (China); Key Laboratory of Myopia, Ministry of Health, Fudan University (China); Shanghai Key Laboratory of Visual Impairment and Restoration, Fudan University (China); Wei, Anji [Department of Ophthalmology, Eye & ENT Hospital, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University (China); Key Laboratory of Myopia, Ministry of Health, Fudan University (China); Shanghai Key Laboratory of Visual Impairment and Restoration, Fudan University (China); Le, Qihua [Research Center, Eye & ENT Hospital, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University (China); Key Laboratory of Myopia, Ministry of Health, Fudan University (China); Shanghai Key Laboratory of Visual Impairment and Restoration, Fudan University (China); Xu, Jianjiang, E-mail: jianjiang-xu@163.com [Department of Ophthalmology, Eye & ENT Hospital, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University (China); Key Laboratory of Myopia, Ministry of Health, Fudan University (China); Shanghai Key Laboratory of Visual Impairment and Restoration, Fudan University (China)

    2015-05-01

    Corneal disease is a common cause of blindness, and keratoplasty is considered as an effective treatment method. However, there is a severe shortage of donor corneas worldwide. This paper presents a novel T-style design of a keratoprosthesis and its preparation methods, in which a mechanically and structurally effective artificial cornea is made based on a poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) hydrogel. The porous skirt was modified with hyaluronic acid and cationized gelatin, and the bottom of the optical column was coated with poly(ethylene glycol). The physical properties of the T-style Kpro were analyzed using ultraviolet and visible spectrophotometry and electron scanning microscopy. The surface chemical properties were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The surface modification in the spongy skirt promoted cell adhesion and produced a firm bond between the corneal tissue and the implant device, while the surface modification in the optic column resisted cell adhesion and prevented retroprosthetic membrane formation. Through improved surgical techniques, the novel T-style keratoprosthesis provides enough mechanical stability to facilitate long-term biointegration with the host environment. In vivo implantation experiments showed that the T-style keratoprosthesis is a promising cornea alternative for patients with severe limbal stem cell deficiency and corneal opacity. - Highlights: • T-style keratoprosthesis was designed and prepared based on a PHEMA hydrogel. • Selective surface modifications effectively regulated cells' selective adhesion. • T-style keratoprosthesis provides enough mechanical stability to facilitate long-term biointegration with host tissues.

  12. Microscopia confocal de la córnea en facoemulsificación Confocal microscopy of the cornea on phacoemulsification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Raúl Hernández Silva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar los cambios estructurales de la córnea en la cirugía de catarata por facoemulsificación sin complicaciones. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio prospectivo de pacientes operados de catarata por facoemulsificación coaxial por la técnica de pre chop sin complicaciones. A estos se les realizó microscopia confocal de la córnea con el CONFOSCAN 4 (Nidek Technologies con el objetivo de 40x y adaptador Z-Ring. Se realizó el estudio en el preoperatorio y en el posoperatorio (a las 24 horas, después de una semana, de un mes y a los tres meses. Resultados: Se demostraron cambios estructurales en la córnea como células epiteliales con núcleos hiperreflectivos alargadas en ocasiones y áreas de hiperreflectividad anómala a las 24 horas del posoperatorio. Persistieron queratocitos activados y la disminución de la hiperreflectividad de la matriz extracelular que desapareció al mes. Conclusiones: Aunque por biomicroscopia no se observen alteraciones corneales en el posoperatorio de la cirugía de catarata por facoemulsificación, sí se pueden demostrar por microscopia confocal de la córnea. Estas variaciones no influyen en la recuperación visual óptima de los pacientes.Objective: To determine the structural changes in the cornea in the cataract surgery using phacoemulsification without complications. Methods: A prospective study of patients operated on from cataract using the coaxial phacoemulsification (Pre Chop technique without complications was carried out. These patients also underwent confocal microscopy of the cornea with Confoscan4 (Nidek Technologies with 40x target and Z - Ring adapter. The study was performed in the preoperative period and postoperative period for 24 hours, one week, one month and three months after surgery. Results: Structural changes were observed in the cornea such as epithelial cells with hypereflectivity nucleus, occasionally elongated, , areas of anomalous hypereflectivity 24 hours after

  13. Role of Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Cornea Wound Healing Induced by Acute Alkali Burn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lin; Li, Zhan-rong; Su, Wen-ru; Li, Yong-ping; Lin, Miao-li; Zhang, Wen-xin; Liu, Yi; Wan, Qian; Liang, Dan

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of subconjunctivally administered mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on corneal wound healing in the acute stage of an alkali burn. A corneal alkali burn model was generated by placing a piece of 3-mm diameter filter paper soaked in NaOH on the right eye of 48 Sprague-Dawley female rats. 24 rats were administered a subconjunctival injection of a suspension of 2×106 MSCs in 0.1 ml phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) on day 0 and day 3 after the corneal alkali burn. The other 24 rats were administered a subconjunctival injection of an equal amount of PBS as a control. Deficiencies of the corneal epithelium and the area of corneal neovascularization (CNV) were evaluated on days 3 and 7 after the corneal alkali burn. Infiltrated CD68+ cells were detected by immunofluorescence staining. The mRNA expression levels of macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha (MIP-1α), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were analyzed using real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR). In addition, VEGF protein levels were analyzed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). MSCs significantly enhanced the recovery of the corneal epithelium and decreased the CNV area compared with the control group. On day 7, the quantity of infiltrated CD68+ cells was significantly lower in the MSC group and the mRNA levels of MIP-1α, TNF-α, and VEGF and the protein levels of VEGF were also down-regulated. However, the expression of MCP-1 was not different between the two groups. Our results suggest that subconjunctival injection of MSCs significantly accelerates corneal wound healing, attenuates inflammation and reduces CNV in alkaline-burned corneas; these effects were found to be related to a reduction of infiltrated CD68+ cells and the down-regulation of MIP-1α, TNF-α and VEGF. PMID:22363499

  14. The effect of hypergravity on the lens, cornea and tail regeneration in Urodela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoryan, E. N.; Dvorochkin, N.; Poplinskaya, V. A.; Yousuf, R.; Radugina, E. A.; Almeida, E. A.

    2017-09-01

    In previous experiments onboard Russian Bion/Foton satellites it was found that exposure to microgravity causes changes in eye lens regeneration of Urodela. The changes included higher rate of regeneration, increased cell proliferation in lens anlage, and synchronization of lens restoration. Similar changes were observed regarding tail regeneration. Recently, investigations were performed to find out whether exposure to hypergravity could also alter lens, cornea and tail regeneration in the newt P. waltl. Nine days prior to exposure the left lens was surgically removed through corneal incision and distal 1/3 of the tail was amputated, thus initiating regeneration. The experimental animals were allowed to recover for 9 days at 1 g and then exposed to 2 g for 12 days in an 8 ft diameter centrifuge at NASA Ames Research Center. The experimental animals were divided into 1 g controls, 2 g centrifugation animals, basal controls, and aquarium controls. Lens and corneal regeneration appeared to be inhibited in 2 g group compared to 1 g animals. In all 1 g controls, lens regeneration reached stages VII-IX in a synchronous fashion and corneal regeneration was nearly complete. In the 2 g newts, neural retinal detachment from the pigmented epithelium was seen in most operated eyes. It was also observed in the non-operated (right) eyes of the animals exposed to 2 g. The level of retinal detachment varied and could have been caused by hypergravity-induced high intraocular pressure. Regeneration (when it could be assessed) proceeded asynchronously, reaching stages from II to IX. Corneal restoration was also noticeably delayed and corneal morphology changed. Cell proliferation was measured using BrdU; the results were not comparable to the 1 g data because of retinal detachment. Previous investigations demonstrated that lens regeneration was controlled by the neural retina; therefore, lower regeneration rate at 2 g was, at least in part, associated with retinal detachment. FGF2

  15. The healing of alkali-injured cornea is stimulated by a novel matrix regenerating agent (RGTA, CACICOL20): a biopolymer mimicking heparan sulfates reducing proteolytic, oxidative and nitrosative damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cejkova, Jitka; Olmiere, Celine; Cejka, Cestmir; Trosan, Peter; Holan, Vladimir

    2014-04-01

    The efficacy of a chemically modified dextran - heparan sulfate mimicking regenerating agent (RGTA) on the healing of the rabbit cornea injured with alkali was examined. The eyes were injured with 0.15 N NaOH applied on the cornea or with 1.0 N NaOH using a 8 mm diameter filter paper disk. Then RGTA or placebo was applied on the cornea. In the last group of rabbits, corneas injured with the high alkali concentration were left without any treatment for four weeks; subsequently, the corneas were treated with RGTA or placebo. The central corneal thickness was measured using a pachymeter. The corneas were examined morphologically, immunohistochemically and for real time-PCR. Compared to control (unaffected) corneas, following the application of low alkali concentration the expression of urokinase-type plasminogen activator, metalloproteinase 9, nitric oxide synthase and xanthine oxidase was increased in the injured corneal epithelium of placebo-treated eyes, whereas the expression of antioxidant enzymes was reduced. Nitrotyrosine and malondialdehyde stainings appeared in the corneal epithelium. RGTA application suppressed the antioxidant/prooxidant imbalance and reduced the expression of the above-mentioned immunohistochemical markers. The corneal thickness increased after alkali injury, decreased during corneal healing after RGTA treatment faster than after placebo application. Following the injury with the high alkali concentration, corneal inflammation and neovascularization were highly pronounced in placebo-treated corneas, whereas in RGTA-treated corneas they were significantly supressed. When RGTA or placebo application was started later after alkali injury and corneas were ulcerated, subsequent RGTA treatment healed the majority of them. In conclusion, RGTA facilitates the healing of injured corneas via a reduction of proteolytic, oxidative and nitrosative damage.

  16. Penetration of 45Ca in rabbit cornea following the introduction of air in the anterior chamber and its paracenthesis and following experimental intraocular hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Votockova, J.; Obenberger, J.; Babicky, A.

    1977-01-01

    In one group of Chinchilla rabbits the aqueous humor was withdrawn and the anterior chamber was refilled with air; in a second group only simple paracenthesis and withdrawal were performed; in a third group of animals experimental intraocular hypertension was produced by means of a subconjunctival injection of hypertonic sodium chloride. Immediately after these operations, a solution of 45 CaCl 2 was intravenously injected, and the rabbits were sacrificed after an interval of 30 min or 120 min. The corneas were excised and the radioactivity in central parts (trephined discs of 8 mm in diameter) and in remaining peripheral parts was determined. In all groups the corneal radioactivity in operated eyes exceeded the values found in the contralateral corneas of not operated eyes, radioactivity in these eyes being equal to the radioactivity found in the corneas of not operated rabbits in the control group. Various possible explanations of the increase of corneal radioactivity in operated eyes are briefly discussed. (author)

  17. Beneficial effect of daidzin in dry eye rat model through the suppression of inflammation and oxidative stress in the cornea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Xiao

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Present investigation evaluates the effect of daidzin in dry eye rat model through the suppression of inflammation and oxidative stress in the cornea. Briefly, electron spine resonance was used for the estimation of radical scavenging activity of daidzin and COX Fluorescent Activity Assay Kit was used for the estimation of PGS activity. Dry eye rat model was developed by removing the lacrimal gland and effect of daidzin was evaluated in dry eye rat model by estimating the fluorescein score, tear volume and expressions of heme oxigenase (HO-1, TNF α, Interlukin 6 (IL-6, matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9 and PGS-2. Result of the present study suggested that daidzin possess tyrosyl radical scavenging activity and thereby decreases the oxidative stress. Activity of PGS significantly increases in dry eye which was inhibited by daidzin treatment due to competitive inhibition of PGS. It also recovers the tear volume in dry eye rat model in which lacrimal gland was removed. Thus corneal erosion was improved by daidzin in dry eye rat model. Thus present study concludes that treatment with daidzin protects the cornea in dry eye rat model by suppression inflammation and oxidative stress. Keywords: Daidzin, Dry eye, Radical scavenging activity, Inflammation

  18. Beneficial effect of daidzin in dry eye rat model through the suppression of inflammation and oxidative stress in the cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Fan; Cui, Hua; Zhong, Xiao

    2018-05-01

    Present investigation evaluates the effect of daidzin in dry eye rat model through the suppression of inflammation and oxidative stress in the cornea. Briefly, electron spine resonance was used for the estimation of radical scavenging activity of daidzin and COX Fluorescent Activity Assay Kit was used for the estimation of PGS activity. Dry eye rat model was developed by removing the lacrimal gland and effect of daidzin was evaluated in dry eye rat model by estimating the fluorescein score, tear volume and expressions of heme oxigenase (HO-1), TNF α, Interlukin 6 (IL-6), matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9) and PGS-2. Result of the present study suggested that daidzin possess tyrosyl radical scavenging activity and thereby decreases the oxidative stress. Activity of PGS significantly increases in dry eye which was inhibited by daidzin treatment due to competitive inhibition of PGS. It also recovers the tear volume in dry eye rat model in which lacrimal gland was removed. Thus corneal erosion was improved by daidzin in dry eye rat model. Thus present study concludes that treatment with daidzin protects the cornea in dry eye rat model by suppression inflammation and oxidative stress.

  19. Visual outcomes after deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty using donor corneas without removal of Descemet membrane and endothelium

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    Tatiana Moura Bastos Prazeres

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: The optical quality of the interface after deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK using the big-bubble technique has been shown to be excellent, leading to results comparable to penetrating keratoplasty. However, there is little in the literature with respect to the controversy surrounding the preparation of the donor cornea. The purpose of this study was to evaluate visual acuity (VA in patients with keratoconus who underwent DALK without removal of the donor graft endothelium. Methods: The records of 90 patients who underwent DALK without the removal of the Descemet membrane (DM and endothelium were retrospectively reviewed. Data collected included uncorrected VA (UCVA and spectacle-corrected VA (SCVA at 7, 30, 180 days, and 1 year postoperatively. Contact lens-corrected visual acuity (CLVA was evaluated after 1 year of the procedure. Results: UCVA was significantly better than preoperative values at 7 days (p<0.001, 30 days (p<0.001, 180 days (p<0.001, and 1 year (p<0.001 after surgery. The 1-year postoperative mean SCVA and CLVA also improved when compared with preoperative SCVA (p<0.001 for both. Conclusions: DALK utilizing donor corneas with attached Descemet membrane and endothelium results in satisfactory VA in patients with keratoconus.

  20. Behaviour of glutathione in the cornea epithelium of cattle and rabbits under the influence of infrared radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scharsich, G.

    1978-01-01

    After creating a keratitis photoelectrica by means of a mercury/quartz analysis lamp, the concentration of GSH (glutathion, reduced) and GSSG (glutathion, oxidised) in the cornea epithelium of cattle and of rabbits at different times after irradiation was determined. The question of whether ultraviolet radiation considerably influences the GSH/GSSG quotient before the keratitis photoelectrica is fully formed morphologically, could be answered as follows: There is no considerable change in the GSH/GSSG quotient during the first 7-10 hours after the irradiation. Then, when there is, also morphologically, a keratitis photoelectrica, the GSH/GSSG quotient is doubled. The linkage of the GSH/GSSG system and hexosephosphatshunt via the NADP/NADPH system leads us to the conclusion that irradiation does not cause any direct changes in the GSH/GSSG system. Only when the cornea epithelium visably disintegrates an increased reduction of the glutathion occurs, like in several other damaging influences. Thus the found increase of the GSH/GSSG quotient 7-10 hours after ultraviolet irradiation might be unspecific. (orig./AJ) [de

  1. Analysis of two precipitation methods on the yield, structural features and activity of sulfated polysaccharides from Gracilaria cornea (Rhodophyta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Basto Souza

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The global demand for natural products from seaweeds has increased worldwide; however, no description of the use of isoamly alcohol (IAA for obtaining of sulfated polysaccharides (SPs has been reported. We investigated the efficiency of two precipitation methods (M in obtaining SPs from the red seaweed Gracilaria cornea. SPs enzymatically isolated were concentrated with cetylpyridinium chloride (M I or IAA (M II and extracts were examined with regard to their yield, structural features and in vitro effects on the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT using normal human plasma and standard heparin (193 IU mg-1. Yield difference reached 12.99%. Quantitative determination of sulfate was similar between the two methods (̴ 26%, but extracts revealed different pattern on charge density by agarose gel electrophoresis. Whereas both extracts revealed as agarocolloids, alternative M II was also efficient for lipids, proteins and nucleic acids according to the infrared analysis. Extracts had virtually no effect on APPT (1.95 and 2 IU mg-1 for M I and M II, respectively. The results revealed IAA as an alternative solvent for obtaining SPs from the red seaweed G. cornea, depending on the industry’ usage criterion.

  2. Nucleation and growth of apatite on NaOH-treated PEEK, HDPE and UHMWPE for artificial cornea materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pino, M; Stingelin, N; Tanner, K E

    2008-11-01

    The skirt of an artificial cornea must integrate the implant to the host sclera, a major failure of present devices. Thus, it is highly desirable to encourage the metabolic activity of the cornea by using more bioactive, flexible skirt materials. Here we describe attempts to increase the bioactivity of polyether ether ketone (PEEK), high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) films. The effectiveness of different strength NaOH pre-treatments to initiate apatite deposition on PEEK, HDPE and UHMWPE is investigated. We find that exposure of PEEK, HDPE and UHMWPE films to NaOH solutions induces the formation of potential nuclei for apatite (calcium phosphate), from which the growth of an apatite coating is stimulated when subsequently immersing the polymer films in 1.5 strength Simulated Body Fluid (SBF). As immersion time in SBF increases, further nucleation and growth produces a thicker and more compact apatite coating that can be expected to be highly bioactive. Interestingly, the apatite growth is found to also be dependent on both the concentration of NaOH solution and the structure of the polymer surface.

  3. Common genetic variants near the Brittle Cornea Syndrome locus ZNF469 influence the blinding disease risk factor central corneal thickness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Lu

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Central corneal thickness (CCT, one of the most highly heritable human traits (h(2 typically>0.9, is important for the diagnosis of glaucoma and a potential risk factor for glaucoma susceptibility. We conducted genome-wide association studies in five cohorts from Australia and the United Kingdom (total N = 5058. Three cohorts were based on individually genotyped twin collections, with the remaining two cohorts genotyped on pooled samples from singletons with extreme trait values. The pooled sample findings were validated by individual genotyping the pooled samples together with additional samples also within extreme quantiles. We describe methods for efficient combined analysis of the results from these different study designs. We have identified and replicated quantitative trait loci on chromosomes 13 and 16 for association with CCT. The locus on chromosome 13 (nearest gene FOXO1 had an overall meta-analysis p-value for all the individually genotyped samples of 4.6x10(-10. The locus on chromosome 16 was associated with CCT with p = 8.95x10(-11. The nearest gene to the associated chromosome 16 SNPs was ZNF469, a locus recently implicated in Brittle Cornea Syndrome (BCS, a very rare disorder characterized by abnormal thin corneas. Our findings suggest that in addition to rare variants in ZNF469 underlying CCT variation in BCS patients, more common variants near this gene may contribute to CCT variation in the general population.

  4. Prevalence of spheroidal degeneration of cornea and its association with other eye diseases in tribes of Western Rajasthan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Mohan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine the prevalence of spheroidal degeneration of cornea (SDC and its association with other eye diseases in the tribes of South-West Rajasthan. Methods: A total of 5012 patients were examined on slit lamp for the diagnosis of SDC. Diagnosis of SDC was made based on presence of amber granules in the superficial stroma of peripheral interpalpebral cornea with increasing opacification, coalescence and central spread or nodular and hazy surrounding stroma and divided in three stages. Results: The prevalence of SDC was 10.7%. Around 55% of the total of 535 cases examined were found to have Stage I followed by Stage II (32% and Stage III (13%. The prevalence is greatest in both men and women over 70 years of age. The severity of SDC is greater in men. SDC was significantly associated with pterygium and pseudocapsular exfoliation. Conclusion: Extreme temperature, low humidity, dust, high wind, and microtrauma caused by sand particles are the probable etiologies for higher prevalence of this kind of degeneration in this region.

  5. Mast Cell Activation Protects Cornea by Promoting Neutrophil Infiltration via Stimulating ICAM-1 and Vascular Dilation in Fungal Keratitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yanting; Zhang, Hongmin; Liu, Susu; Chen, Guoming; He, Siyu; Li, Zhijie; Wang, Liya

    2018-05-30

    The role of mast cells (MCs) in fungal infection is largely unknown. This study was to explore a protective role and mechanism of MCs in fungal keratitis. Experimental fungal keratitis (FK) mouse model was developed. Mice untreated (UT) or receiving corneal wound without fungal infection (Mock) were used as controls. Large number of connective tissue MCs was found in normal mice. MC activation with degranulation was largely observed, and the percentage of degranulated/total cells was high in FK. Dilated limbal vasculature with increased permeability, as well as largely infiltrated neutrophils with stimulated ICAM-1 protein levels were observed in corneas of FK mice, when compared with Mock and UT mice. Interestingly, pretreatment with cromolyn sodium (Block) significantly blocked MC degranulation, dramatically suppressed vascular dilation and permeability, and markedly reduced neutrophil infiltration with lower ICAM-1 levels in FK mice at 6-24 hours. Furthermore, the Block mice manifested prolonged disease course, increased pathological damage, and vigorous fungus growth, with much higher corneal perforation rate than FK mice at 72 h. These findings reveal a novel phenomenon that MCs play a vital role in protecting cornea against fungal infection through degranulation that promotes neutrophil infiltration via stimulating ICAM-1 production and limbal vascular dilation and permeability.

  6. Rocking media over ex vivo corneas improves this model and allows the study of the effect of proinflammatory cytokines on wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Pallavi; Ortega, Ílida; Sefat, Farshid; Sangwan, Virender S; Green, Nicola; Claeyssens, Frederik; MacNeil, Sheila

    2015-02-05

    The aim of this work was to develop an in vitro cornea model to study the effect of proinflammatory cytokines on wound healing. Initial studies investigated how to maintain the ex vivo models for up to 4 weeks without loss of epithelium. To study the effect of cytokines, corneas were cultured with the interleukins IL-17A, IL-22, or a combination of IL-17A and IL-22, or lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The effect of IL-17A on wound healing was then examined. With static culture conditions, organ cultures deteriorated within 2 weeks. With gentle rocking of media over the corneas and carbon dioxide perfusion, the ex vivo models survived for up to 4 weeks without loss of epithelium. The cytokine that caused the most damage to the cornea was IL-17A. Under static conditions, wound healing of the central corneal epithelium occurred within 9 days, but only a single-layered epithelium formed whether the cornea was exposed to IL-17A or not. With rocking of media gently over the corneas, a multilayered epithelium was achieved 9 days after wounding. In the presence of IL-17A, however, there was no wound healing evident. Characterization of the cells showed that wherever epithelium was present, both differentiated cells and highly proliferative cells were present. We propose that introducing rocking to extend the effective working life of this model and the introduction of IL-17A to this model to induce aspects of inflammation extend its usefulness to study the effects of agents that influence corneal regeneration under normal and inflamed conditions. Copyright 2015 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  7. VRP09 Reduction of Corneal Scarring Following Blast and Burn Injuries to Cornea Using siRNAs Targeting TGFb and CTGF

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    aSMA ) synthesis. Second, we proposed to develop an advanced ex vivo organ culture system using viable explants of rabbit corneas, and assess the...effect of the most effective triple siRNA combination for reduction of target genes, collagen and alpha smooth muscle actin ( aSMA ) in rabbit corneas...targeting three key genes (TGFb, TGFbRII, and CTGF) that synergistically reduces the level of mRNAs for type I collagen gene and aSMA by >95% without

  8. Outcomes in bullous retinal detachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah P. Read

    2017-06-01

    Conclusions and importance: GRTs are an uncommon cause of retinal detachment. While pars plana vitrectomy with tamponade is standard in GRT management, there is variability in the use of scleral buckling and PFO in these cases. This is in contrast to retinal dialysis where scleral buckle alone can yield favorable results. Though a baseball ocular trauma is common, retinal involvement is rare compared to other sports injuries such as those occurring with tennis, soccer and golf. Sports trauma remains an important cause of retinal injury and patients should be counseled on the need for eye protection.

  9. Short-term visual result after simultaneous photorefractive keratectomy and small-aperture cornea inlay implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moshirfar M

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Majid Moshirfar,1,2 Ryan T Wallace,3 David F Skanchy,4 Jordan D Desautels,5 Steven H Linn,1 Phillip C Hoopes Jr,1 Daniel S Durrie1,6 1Hoopes, Durrie, Rivera, Research Center, Hoopes Vision, Draper, UT, 2Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, John A. Moran Eye Center, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT, 3Brigham Young University, Provo, UT, 4McGovern Medical School, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX, 5Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, 6Durrie Vision, Overland Park, KS, USA Purpose: To report the short-term results of simultaneous photorefractive keratectomy (PRK and small-aperture cornea inlay implantation (KAMRA surgery in treating presbyopia. Methods: Simultaneous PRK and KAMRA inlay surgery was performed on 21 patients from July 2015 to March 2016. Follow-up exams were conducted at 1, 3, and 6 months postoperatively. Our patients were also divided preoperatively into three categories: myopic, hyperopic, and emmetropic. Over the 6-month period, the main outcome measures were uncorrected near visual acuity (UNVA, changes in best-corrected distance visual acuity, and mean spherical equivalent refraction. Results: At 6-month follow-up, 83% (10/12 of patients had a monocular UNVA of 20/40 or better, and 75% had a binocular UNVA of 20/40 (J5 or better. At 6 months, the overall mean refractive spherical equivalent (MRSE was -0.60 D (±0.42 standard deviation [SD], range: -1.38 to -0.13 with a mean change of -0.43 D (±1.19 SD, range: -1.5 to 2.63 compared to preoperative data. Overall, 91% (10/11 of patients were within a ±0.5 D range of our target -0.75 D for KAMRA use. One-hundred percent (5/5 of the hyperopes, 50% (1/2 of emmetropes, and 100% (4/4 of myopes met the targeted range. At 6 months, the MRSE for the hyperopic subgroup (n=5 was 0.33 D (±0.20 SD, the MRSE for the emmetropic subgroup (n=2 was -1.19 D (±0.19 SD, and the MRSE for the myopic

  10. Comparison of seropositivity of human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and syphilis among Hospital Cornea Retrieval Programme-Donors versus voluntary cornea donors at a large eye bank in Eastern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basak, Soham; Basak, Samar K; Biswas, Bani

    2017-11-01

    To compare the serology profile of donors from Hospital Cornea Retrieval Programme-donors (HCRP-D) and voluntary cornea donors (VC-D) from a large eye bank in Eastern India. This is a retrospective analysis of donor details from January 2011 to December 2016. Donor demographics, cause of death, and serology reports were compiled. Postmortem blood was tested for human immunodeficiency virus 1 and 2 (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and syphilis using government-approved kits as per the National Programme for Control of Blindness Standards of Eye Banking. Donors for whom serology was not possible were excluded. A total of 4300 of 4353 donors were included of which 74.3% were hospital donors and 25.7% were voluntary donors. A total of 93 (2.2%) donors with 94 seropositive reports were noted: 79 (84.9%) from HCRP-D and 14 (15.1%) from VC-D which was statistically significantly higher (P = 0.02). Among seropositive reports, HIV, HBV, HCV, and syphilis accounted for 12 (12.8%), 38 (40.4%), 36 (38.3%), and eight (8.5%), respectively. There was no correlation between the cause of death and seropositivity. A statistically significant decreasing trend in seroprevalence among hospital donors was observed over the years (5.3% in 2011 to 1.4% in 2016; P = 0.004). Two (0.47%) of 421 hospital donors with prior negative serology were found to be seropositive. Seropositive rates are significantly higher among hospital donors in spite of medical prescreening compared to nonscreened voluntary donors. Serology should be repeated even when prior reports are available.

  11. Comparison of seropositivity of human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and syphilis among Hospital Cornea Retrieval Programme-Donors versus voluntary cornea donors at a large eye bank in Eastern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soham Basak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To compare the serology profile of donors from Hospital Cornea Retrieval Programme-donors (HCRP-D and voluntary cornea donors (VC-D from a large eye bank in Eastern India. Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of donor details from January 2011 to December 2016. Donor demographics, cause of death, and serology reports were compiled. Postmortem blood was tested for human immunodeficiency virus 1 and 2 (HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV, hepatitis C virus (HCV, and syphilis using government-approved kits as per the National Programme for Control of Blindness Standards of Eye Banking. Donors for whom serology was not possible were excluded. Results: A total of 4300 of 4353 donors were included of which 74.3% were hospital donors and 25.7% were voluntary donors. A total of 93 (2.2% donors with 94 seropositive reports were noted: 79 (84.9% from HCRP-D and 14 (15.1% from VC-D which was statistically significantly higher (P = 0.02. Among seropositive reports, HIV, HBV, HCV, and syphilis accounted for 12 (12.8%, 38 (40.4%, 36 (38.3%, and eight (8.5%, respectively. There was no correlation between the cause of death and seropositivity. A statistically significant decreasing trend in seroprevalence among hospital donors was observed over the years (5.3% in 2011 to 1.4% in 2016; P = 0.004. Two (0.47% of 421 hospital donors with prior negative serology were found to be seropositive. Conclusion: Seropositive rates are significantly higher among hospital donors in spite of medical prescreening compared to nonscreened voluntary donors. Serology should be repeated even when prior reports are available.

  12. Uncertain Diagnosis of Fabry Disease in Patients with Neuropathic Pain, Angiokeratoma or Cornea Verticillata: Consensus on the Approach to Diagnosis and Follow-Up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Tol, L.; Cassiman, David; Houge, Gunnar; Janssen, Mirian C.; Lachmann, Robin H.; Linthorst, Gabor E.; Ramaswami, Uma; Sommer, Claudia; Tøndel, Camilla; West, Michael L.; Weidemann, Frank; Wijburg, Frits A.; Svarstad, Einar; Hollak, Carla E. M.; Biegstraaten, Marieke

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Individuals with neuropathic pain, angiokeratoma (AK) and/or cornea verticillata (CV) may be tested for Fabry disease (FD). Classical FD is characterised by a specific pattern of these features. When a patient presents with a non-specific pattern, the pathogenicity of a variant in the

  13. Uncertain diagnosis of fabry disease in patients with neuropathic pain, angiokeratoma or cornea verticillata: consensus on the approach to diagnosis and follow-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, L. van der; Cassiman, D.; Houge, G.; Janssen, M.C.; Lachmann, R.H.; Linthorst, G.E.; Ramaswami, U.; Sommer, C.; Tondel, C.; West, M.L.; Weidemann, F.; Wijburg, F.A.; Svarstad, E.; Hollak, C.E.M.; Biegstraaten, M.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Individuals with neuropathic pain, angiokeratoma (AK) and/or cornea verticillata (CV) may be tested for Fabry disease (FD). Classical FD is characterised by a specific pattern of these features. When a patient presents with a non-specific pattern, the pathogenicity of a variant in the

  14. Establishment of a new in vitro test method for evaluation of eye irritancy using a reconstructed human corneal epithelial model, LabCyte CORNEA-MODEL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, Masakazu; Hamajima, Fumiyasu; Ogasawara, Takahiro; Hata, Ken-ichiro

    2013-12-01

    Finding in vitro eye irritation testing alternatives to animal testing such as the Draize eye test, which uses rabbits, is essential from the standpoint of animal welfare. It has been developed a reconstructed human corneal epithelial model, the LabCyte CORNEA-MODEL, which has a representative corneal epithelium-like structure. Protocol optimization (pre-validation study) was examined in order to establish a new alternative method for eye irritancy evaluation with this model. From the results of the optimization experiments, the application periods for chemicals were set at 1min for liquid chemicals or 24h for solid chemicals, and the post-exposure incubation periods were set at 24h for liquids or zero for solids. If the viability was less than 50%, the chemical was judged to be an eye irritant. Sixty-one chemicals were applied in the optimized protocol using the LabCyte CORNEA-MODEL and these results were evaluated in correlation with in vivo results. The predictions of the optimized LabCyte CORNEA-MODEL eye irritation test methods were highly correlated with in vivo eye irritation (sensitivity 100%, specificity 80.0%, and accuracy 91.8%). These results suggest that the LabCyte CORNEA-MODEL eye irritation test could be useful as an alternative method to the Draize eye test. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Age-related changes in superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase and xanthine oxidoreductase/xanthine oxidase activities in the rabbit cornea

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čejková, Jitka; Vejražka, M.; Pláteník, J.; Štípek, S.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 39, - (2004), s. 1537-1543 ISSN 0531-5565 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA304/03/0419 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5039906; CEZ:AV0Z5008914 Keywords : aging * cornea Subject RIV: FF - HEENT, Dentistry Impact factor: 2.880, year: 2004

  16. Irradiation of the rabbit cornea with UVB rays stimulates the expression of nitric oxide synthases-generated nitric oxide and the formation of cytotoxic nitrogen-related oxidants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čejková, Jitka; Ardan, Taras; Andonova, Janetta; Zídek, Zdeněk

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 20, - (2005), s. 467-473 ISSN 0213-3911 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA304/03/0419 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5008914 Keywords : UVB rays * Reactive nitrogen species * Cornea Subject RIV: FF - HEENT, Dentistry Impact factor: 2.023, year: 2005

  17. A Raman scattering and FT-IR spectroscopic study on the effect of the solar radiation in Antarctica on bovine cornea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Tatsuyuki; Murakami, Naoki; Yoshikiyo, Keisuke; Takahashi, Tetsuya; Yamamoto, Naoyuki

    2010-01-01

    The Raman scattering and FT-IR spectra of the corneas, transported to the Syowa station in Antarctica and exposed to the solar radiation of the mid-summer for four weeks, were studied to reveal that type IV collagen involved in corneas were fragmented. The amide I and III Raman bands were observed at 1660 and 1245 cm -1, respectively, and the amide I and II infrared bands were observed at 1655 and 1545 cm -1, respectively, for original corneas before exposure. The background of Raman signals prominently increased and the ratio of amide II infrared band versus amide I decreased by the solar radiation in Antarctica. The control experiment using an artificial UV lamp was also performed in laboratory. The decline rate of the amide II/amide I was utilized for estimating the degree of fragmentation of collagen, to reveal that the addition of vitamin C suppressed the reaction while the addition of sugars promoted it. The effect of the solar radiation in Antarctica on the corneas was estimated as the same as the artificial UV lamp of four weeks (Raman) or one week (FT-IR) exposure.

  18. Atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy analyses of low-temperature laser welding of the cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matteini, Paolo; Sbrana, Francesca; Tiribilli, Bruno; Pini, Roberto

    2009-07-01

    Low-temperature laser welding of the cornea is a technique used to facilitate the closure of corneal cuts. The procedure consists of staining the wound with a chromophore (indocyanine green), followed by continuous wave irradiation with an 810 nm diode laser operated at low power densities (12-16 W/cm(2)), which induces local heating in the 55-65 degrees C range. In this study, we aimed to investigate the ultrastructural modifications in the extracellular matrix following laser welding of corneal wounds by means of atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The results evidenced marked disorganization of the normal fibrillar assembly, although collagen appeared not to be denatured under the operating conditions we employed. The mechanism of low-temperature laser welding may be related to some structural modifications of the nonfibrillar extracellular components of the corneal stroma.

  19. Case report: a novel KERA mutation associated with cornea plana and its predicted effect on protein function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roos, Laura; Bertelsen, Birgitte; Harris, Pernille

    2015-01-01

    individuals, hypotrichosis was found. KERA was screened for mutations using Sanger sequencing. We detected a novel KERA variant, p.(Ile225Thr), that segregates with the disease in the homozygous form. The three-dimensional structure of keratocan protein was modelled, and we showed that this missense variation...... of the keratocan gene (KERA) on chromosome 12q22. To date, only nine different disease-associated KERA mutations, including four missense mutations, have been described. Case presentation: In this report, we present clinical data from a Turkish family with autosomal recessive cornea plana. In some of the affected...... are predicted to result in destabilization of the protein. Conclusion: We present the 10th pathogenic KERA mutation identified so far. Protein modelling is a useful tool in predicting the effect of missense mutations. This case underline the importance of the leucin rich repeat domain for the protein function...

  20. A comparative study of trabeculectomy and the new clear-cornea filtering procedure, intrastromal diathermal keratostomy (IDK)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach-Holm, Daniella; Storr-Paulsen, Allan; Norregaard, Jens Christian

    2012-01-01

    Hg in the IDK group. The number of medications pre- and postoperatively in the trabeculectomy group was 3.1 and 0.5 versus 3.2 and 1.3 in the IDK group. Forty-four (59%) of the eyes in the trabeculectomy group met the complete success criteria compared with 5 (20%) in the IDK group (p......Purpose: For the first time to compare the 1-year success rates of trabeculectomy and the new clear-cornea filtering procedure, intrastromal diathermal keratostomy (IDK). Methods: Prospective clinical observational study including 99 consecutively operated eyes (69 patients) with well......-established primary open-angle glaucoma referred for filtering operation. We compared the change in intraocular pressure (IOP), number of anti-glaucomatous medication, complications and reoperations after 1 year. Seventy-four eyes were operated with trabeculectomy, and 25 with IDK. Complete success was defined as IOP...

  1. Collagen immobilized PVA hydrogel-hydroxyapatite composites prepared by kneading methods as a material for peripheral cuff of artificial cornea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Hisatoshi; Kato, Masabumi; Taguchi, Tetsushi; Ikoma, Toshiyuki; Miyashita, Hideyuki; Shimmura, Shigeto; Tsubota, Kazuo; Tanaka, Junzo

    2004-01-01

    In order to achieve the firm fixation of the artificial cornea to host tissues, composites of collagen-immobilized poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogel with hydroxyapatite were synthesized by a hydroxyapatite particles kneading method. The preparation method, characterization, and the results of corneal cell adhesion and proliferation on the composite material were studied. PVA-COL-HAp composites were successfully synthesized. A micro-porous structure of the PVA-COL-HAp could be introduced by hydrochloric acid treatment and the porosity could be controlled by the pH of the hydrochloric acid solution, the treatment time, and the crystallinity of the HAp particles. Chick embryonic keratocyto-like cells were well attached and proliferated on the PVA-COL-HAp composites. This material showed potential for keratoprosthesis application. Further study such as a long-term animal study is now required

  2. Scattered radiation dose to radiologist's cornea, thyroid and gonads while performing some x-ray fluoroscopic investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chougle, Arun

    1993-01-01

    The mankind has been immensely benefited from discovery of X-ray and it has found wide spread application in diagnosis and treatment. Radiation is harmful and can produce somatic and genetic effects in the exposed person. International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP) has recommended a system of dose limitation based on principle of ALARA. All the efforts should be made to keep the radiation dose to the radiation worker as low as possible. Fluoroscopy gives maximum dose to the patient and staff and hence we have attempted to quantify the scattered radiation dose to the cornea, thyroid and gonads of the radiologist performing fluoroscopic examinations such as barium meal, barium swallow, barium enema, myelography, histerosalpingography and fracture reduction. Thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) method using CaSO 4 :Dy TLD disc was employed for these measurements. Use of lead apron has reduced the dose to radiologist's gonad. (author). 3 refs., 4 tabs

  3. A role for repressive complexes and H3K9 di-methylation in PRDM5-associated brittle cornea syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porter, Louise F; Galli, Giorgio G; Williamson, Sally

    2015-01-01

    skin fibroblasts and retinal tissue from BCS2 patients, to elucidate the epigenetic role of PRDM5 and mechanisms of its dysregulation in disease.First we report abnormal retinal vascular morphology in the eyes of two cousins with BCS2 (PRDM5 Δ exons 9-14) using immunohistochemistry, and mine data from......, and dysregulated H3K9 di-methylation in skin fibroblasts of three patients (p.Arg590*, p.Glu134* and Δ exons 9-14) by western blotting. These findings suggest that defective interaction of PRDM5 with repressive complexes, and dysregulation of H3K9 di-methylation, play a role in PRDM5-associated disease.......Type 2 brittle cornea syndrome (BCS2) is an inherited connective tissue disease with a devastating ocular phenotype caused by mutations in the transcription factor PRDM5 hypothesised to exert epigenetic effects through histone and DNA methylation. Here we investigate clinical samples, including...

  4. Quantification of small fiber pathology in patients with sarcoidosis and chronic pain using cornea confocal microscopy and skin biopsies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oudejans LCJ

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Linda CJ Oudejans,1 Marieke Niesters,1 Michael Brines,2 Albert Dahan,1 Monique van Velzen1 1Department of Anesthesiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands; 2Araim Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Tarrytown, NY, USA Abstract: Small fiber pathology with concomitant chronic neuropathic pain is a common complication of sarcoidosis. The gold standard of diagnosis of small fiber neuropathy (SFN is the quantification of small nerve fibers in skin biopsies in combination with patient history and psychophysical tests; a new technique is the quantification of small nerve fibers in the cornea using cornea confocal microscopy (CCM. Here, we studied small fiber morphology in sarcoidosis patients with neuropathic pain using skin biopsies, CCM, and quantitative sensory testing (QST. Our aim was to construct specific phenotypes of neuropathic pain in sarcoidosis. Fifty-eight patients with a confirmed diagnosis of sarcoidosis and with moderate-to-severe neuropathic pain were tested. Decreased intraepidermal nerve fiber density (IENFD from skin biopsies was found in 28% of patients, and CCM abnormalities were observed in 45% of patients. There was no correlation between CCM and IENFD abnormalities. Eighty-three percent of patients had abnormal thermal detection thresholds, a sign of small fiber dysfunction. Based on the presence or absence of abnormalities in IENFD and CCM, four distinct phenotypes were identified with a distinct homogeneous pattern of somatosensory symptoms. We argue that these distinct phenotypes have a similar mechanistic construct with specific phenotype-specific treatment options. Additionally, our data suggest the presence of patients with length- and nonlength-dependent SFN within this population of sarcoidosis patients. Keywords: chronic pain, sarcoidosis, small fiber neuropathy

  5. The improvement of dry eye after cataract surgery by intraoperative using ophthalmic viscosurgical devices on the surface of cornea

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yuan; Li, Jia; Zhu, Jingfen; Jie, Ying; Wang, Ningli; Wang, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Backgroud: This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of intraoperative used hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC 2%) on the ocular surface after cataract surgery. Methods: A total of 149 eyes (149 patients) diagnosed with age-related cataract, age 69.19 ± 9.74 years, were enrolled in this prospective, parallel-design, continuous, randomised controlled study. Patients were randomly assigned to receive HPMC 2% (study group) or balanced salt solution (control group) during the surgery to moisturize the cornea surface. The Ocular Surface Disease Index, Schirmer test without topical anesthetics, tear break-up time, and corneal fluorescein staining were assessed preoperatively, 1 day, 1 week, and 1 month after the surgery, respectively. Results: The Schirmer test value of male patients in the study group at 1 week postoperation was higher than that of male patients in the control group (P = .019). For patients diagnosed with dry eye before the surgery, Schirmer test value in the male patients in the study group at 1 month after surgery was higher than that in the male patients in the control group (P = .037). Furthermore, for the cluster of preoperative dry eye patients whose surgical time was longer than median, corneal fluorescein staining of the patients in the study group was superior to that of the patients in the control group (P = .032). Conclusion: Intraoperative use of HPMC 2% on the cornea surface could improve clinical outcomes of tear film and ocular surface health to some degree, especially in the patients diagnosed with dry eye before the surgery, male patients, and patients whose surgical time was relatively longer. PMID:29390284

  6. New intraocular pressure measurement method using reflected pneumatic pressure from cornea deformed by air puff of ring-type nozzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyung Jin; Seo, Yeong Ho; Kim, Byeong Hee

    2017-01-01

    In this study, a non-contact type intraocular pressure (IOP) measuring system using reflected pneumatic pressure is proposed to overcome the disadvantages of existing measurement systems. A ring-type nozzle, a key component in the proposed system, is designed via computational fluid analysis. It predicts the reflected pneumatic pressure based on the nozzle exit angle and inner and outer diameters of the nozzle, which are 30°, 7 mm, and 9 mm, respectively. Performance evaluation is conducted using artificial eyes fabricated using polydimethylsiloxane with the specifications of human eyes. The IOP of the fabricated artificial eyes is adjusted to 10, 30, and 50 mm Hg, and the reflected pneumatic pressure is measured as a function of the distance between the ring-type nozzle and artificial eye. The measured reflected pneumatic pressure is high when the measurement distance is short and eye pressure is low. The cornea of an artificial eye is significantly deformed at a low IOP, and the applied pneumatic pressure is more concentrated in front of the ring-type nozzle because of the deformed cornea. Thus, the reflected pneumatic pressure at a low IOP has more inflows into the pressure sensor inserted inside the nozzle. The sensitivity of the output based on the IOP at measurement distances between 3-5 mm is -0.0027, -0.0022, -0.0018, -0.0015, and -0.0012. Sensitivity decreases as the measurement distance increases. In addition, the reflected pneumatic pressure owing to the misalignment at the measurement distances of 3-5 mm is not affected within a range of 0.5 mm. Therefore, the measurement range is acceptable up to a 1 mm diameter from the center of an artificial eye. However, the accuracy gradually decreases as the reflected pneumatic pressure from a misalignment of 1 mm or more decreases by 26% or more.

  7. Changes in mechanical, chemical, and thermal sensitivity of the cornea after topical application of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, M Carmen; Berenguer-Ruiz, Leticia; García-Gálvez, Alberto; Perea-Tortosa, David; Gallar, Juana; Belmonte, Carlos

    2005-01-01

    In addition to their well-known anti-inflammatory actions, some of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) appear to have an analgesic effect. In human subjects, the changes in threshold and intensity of sensations evoked by mechanical, chemical, and thermal stimulation of the cornea induced by topical administration of two commercial NSAIDs, diclofenac sodium (Voltaren; Novartis, Basel, Switzerland) and flurbiprofen (Ocuflur; Allergan, Irvine, CA), were studied. Corneal sensitivity was measured in 10 young, healthy subjects with a gas esthesiometer. Chemical (10%-70% CO2 in air), mechanical (0-264 mL/min), and thermal (corneal temperature changes between -4.5 degrees C and +3 degrees C around the normal value) stimuli were applied to the center of the cornea. The intensity and perceived magnitude of the psychophysical attributes of the evoked sensation were scored at the end of the pulse in a 10-cm, continuous visual analog scale (VAS). The threshold was expressed as the stimulus intensity that evoked a VAS score >0.5. Sensitivity was measured in both eyes of each subject on two separate days, one without treatment and the other 30 minutes after topical application of 0.03% flurbiprofen (seven subjects) or 0.1% diclofenac sodium (six subjects). Diclofenac attenuated significantly all the sensation parameters evoked by high-intensity mechanical, chemical, and thermal stimuli. Flurbiprofen produced a slight reduction of the sensations evoked by mechanical and chemical stimulation that became significant only for the irritation caused by chemical stimuli of maximum intensity (70% CO2). None of the drugs modified significantly the detection threshold of the different stimuli. Flurbiprofen had a very limited effect on sensations evoked by corneal stimulation, whereas diclofenac reduced the intensity of sensations evoked by stimuli of different modality, suggesting a mild local anesthetic effect of this drug on all types of corneal sensory fibers. Such

  8. Surgical peripheral iridectomy via a clear-cornea phacoemulsification incision for pupillary block following cataract surgery in acute angle closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Aiwu; Wang, Peijuan; He, Rui; Qu, Jia

    2018-05-18

    To describe a technique of surgical peripheral iridectomy via a clear-cornea tunnel incision to prevent or treat pupillary block following phacoemulsification. Description of technique and retrospective description results in 20 eyes of 20 patients with acute angle closure with coexisting visually significant cataract undergoing phacoemulsification considered at risk of postoperative papillary block as well as two pseudo-phakic eyes with acute postoperative pupillary-block. Following phacoemulsification and insertion of an intraocular lens, a needle with a bent tip was inserted behind the iris through the corneal tunnel incision. A blunt iris repositor was introduced through the paracentesis and placed above the iris to exert posterior pressure and create a puncture. The size of the puncture was enlarged using scissors. For postoperative pupillary block the same technique was carried out through the existing incisions created for phacoemulsification. Peripheral iridectomy was successfully created in all 22 eyes. At a mean follow-up of 18.77 ± 9.72 months, none of the iridectomies closed or required enlargement. Two eyes had mild intraoperative bleeding and one eye a small Descemet's detachment that did not require intervention. No clinically significant complications were observed. Visual acuity and IOP improved or was maintained in all patients. The incidence of pupillary block in our hospital was 0.09% overall, 0.6% in diabetics and 3.5% in those with diabetic retinopathy. This technique of peripheral iridectomy via the cornea tunnel incision can be safely used during phacoemulsification in eyes at high risk of pupillary block or in the treatment of acute postoperative pupillary-block after cataract surgery. The technique is likely to be especially useful in brown iris, or if a laser is not available.

  9. Determination of natamycin in rabbit cornea by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with protective soaking extraction technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tianyang, Zhou; Ling, Zhu; Huiyun, Xia; Jijun, He; Junjie, Zhang

    2014-10-15

    A new selective and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method was developed for the quantification of natamycin (NAT) in rabbit corneas with amphotericin B as the internal standard (IS). The cornea samples were processed by a simple and protective methanol soaking extraction technology. The NAT could be extracted completely from rabbit cornea after 24h of soaking with methanol under a mild condition. Chromatographic separation was performed on a C18 column (2.1mm×50mm, 3.5μm) using mobile phase with ammonium acetate buffer (pH 4.5; 4.0mM):acetonitrile (40:60, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.25ml/min. Quantification was performed using the transitions 666.2→503.2 m/z for NAT and 924.5→906.6 m/z for IS by positive ion electrospray ionization in multiple reaction monitoring mode. The assay was validated over a concentration range of 8.64ng/ml to 843ng/ml with lower limit of detection of 4.32ng/ml. The method was validated with respect to linearity, accuracy, precision, recovery, stability and extracting efficiency. The extraction recovery of NAT from cornea samples was approximately 100% with the new methanol soaking extraction procedure. The method has been successfully applied to the ocular pharmacokinetic studies of NAT eye drops in the cornea of Japanese white rabbit. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Biophysico-functional compatibility of Seoul National University (SNU) miniature pig cornea as xenocorneal graft for the use of human clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Hyun; Kim, Jaeyoung; Jeong, Hyun Jeong; Lee, Hyun Ju; Kim, Mee Kum; Wee, Won Ryang

    2016-05-01

    Xenocorneal transplantation is one of the solutions for shortage of donor cornea, and remarkable advances have been made in pig-to-rhesus studies from the immunological perspective. Most successful preclinical trials have been carried out with corneas of the Seoul National University (SNU) miniature pig (SNU pig, genetically unmodified) as donor tissues; however, there has been no biophysico-functional evaluation of the SNU pig cornea as a substitute for human cornea. The purpose of this study was to investigate the biophysical and functional compatibility of SNU pig cornea for use in human clinical trials. Ninety-three eyeballs obtained from 51 SNU pigs were used to evaluate the physical properties and changes in porcine corneal endothelial cells (PCECs) depending on preservation time and storage condition before surgery, proliferative and functional characteristics of PCECs, and the microbiologic safety of porcine cornea. Corneal diameters and curvatures, axial length, anterior chamber depth, and central corneal thickness were measured and compared with previously reported human data. Corneal endothelial cell density (ECD) was serially measured with a confocal microscope during 7 days of preservation in the same storage solution used for human corneas. Corneal endothelial cell proliferation and immunofluorescence staining of Na- and K-dependent ATPase in PCECs were evaluated after 7 days of preservation. The corneoscleral rims of SNU pigs were cultured for gram-positive bacteria, gram-negative bacteria, and fungi to evaluate their microbiological safety. Corneal diameter and thickness in SNU pigs was larger than human and corneal curvature was flatter; however, they were within surgically operable ranges. Mean ECD (day 0) and ECD loss after 7 days of preservation were 2625 ± 81 cells/mm(2) and 7.60 ± 1.53%, respectively, which is comparable to human ECD and ECD loss in the same conditions. The ECD of SNU pigs was inversely decreased with aging (R(2) = 0.4034, P

  11. The role of corneal endothelial morphology in graft assessment and prediction of endothelial cell loss during organ culture of human donor corneas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermel, Martin; Salla, Sabine; Fuest, Matthias; Walter, Peter

    2017-03-01

    Endothelial assessment is crucial in the release of corneas for grafting. We retrospectively analysed the role of endothelial morphology parameters in predicting endothelial cell loss during organ culture. Human donor corneas were cultured in minimal essential medium with 2% fetal calf serum and antibiotics. Initial endothelial morphology was assessed microscopically using score parameters polymegethism (POL), pleomorphism (PLE), granulation (GRA), vacuolization (VAC), segmentation of cell membranes (SEG), Descemet's folds (DF), trypan blue-positive cells (TBPC) and endothelial cell-free areas (ECFA). Some corneas were primarily rejected based on endothelial assessment. Endothelial cell density (ECD) was assessed at the beginning (I-ECD) and end of culture. Corneas were then placed in dehydration medium (as above + 5% dextran 500). In a subgroup, ECD was reassessed after dehydration. Endothelial cell loss during culture (ECL@Culture) and culture+dehydration (ECL-Culture&Dehydration) were calculated. Data were given as mean ± SD and analysed using multiple linear and logistic regression. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. I-ECD was 2812 ± 360/mm 2 (n = 2356). The decision to reject a cornea due to endothelial assessment was associated negatively with I-ECD (OR = 0.77/100 cells, CI 0.7-0.82) and positively with ECFA (OR = 2.7, CI 1.69-4.35), SEG (OR =1.3, CI 1.01-1.68) and donor age (OR = 1.26/decade, CI 1.33-1.41). ECL@Culture was 153 ± 201/mm 2 (n = 1277), ECL@Culture&Dehydration was 169 ± 183/mm 2 (n = 918). ECL@Culture was associated positively with donor age, I-ECD, GRA and TBPC, and negatively with PLE, and DF. ECL@Culture&Dehydration was associated positively with age, sex, initial ECD, POL, PLE, VAC and TBPC. Morphological parameters displayed associations with the exclusion of corneas from culture and with endothelial cell loss. Appropriate parameter selection for screening purposes may help improve

  12. Estudo comparativo entre duas plataformas para realização de Lasik personalizado para correção de miopia e astigmatismo: Alcon CustomCornea® versus Bausch & Lomb Zyoptix® Wavefront-Guided Lasik for low to moderate myopia: CustomCornea® versus Zyoptix®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telma Pereira Barreiro

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar os resultados obtidos após o Lasik personalizado utilizando duas plataformas diferentes. MÉTODOS: Estudo prospectivo, randomizado com 50 pacientes míopes submetidos a cirurgia refrativa em ambos os olhos. Foram selecionados para o estudo, pacientes com equivalente esférico semelhante entre os olhos. Todos foram submetidos a Lasik bilateral e simultâneo, sendo que um olho foi operado pela plataforma CustomCornea® e o outro pela Zyoptix®. Acuidade visual sem e com correção, refração dinâmica e estática, medida das aberrações oculares, teste de sensibilidade ao contraste foram realizados no período pré-operatório e pós-operatório de 1, 3 e 6 meses. RESULTADOS: No período pré-operatório a média do equivalente esférico era de -3,29 ± 1,56 D no grupo CustomCornea® e de -3,22 ± 1,50 D no Zyoptix® (p=0,267. No sexto mês de pós-operatório, a média do equivalente esférico no grupo CustomCornea® era de -0,077 ± 0,23 D e -0,282 ± 0,30 D no Zyoptix® (p 20/20 foi alcançada em 86% dos olhos no grupo CustomCornea® e 70% no grupo Zyoptix® (p=0,094. Nenhum paciente perdeu duas ou mais linhas da melhor acuidade visual corrigida. Cem por cento dos olhos CustomCornea® e 88% dos Zyoptix® ficaram entre ± 0,50 D da emetropia (p=0,014*. Melhora da sensibilidade ao contraste em todas as frequências espaciais testadas foi observada em ambos os grupos. A aberração esférica apresentou aumento em ambos os grupos, porém este foi estatisticamente maior na plataforma Zyoptix® (pPURPOSE: To compare the visual and clinical outcomes of Wavefront-guided laser in situ keratomileusis (Lasik with Alcon CustomCornea® and Zyoptix® systems. METHODS: A prospective, randomized, masked and bilateral study was conducted. Fifty patients with preoperative spherical equivalent ranging from -1.00 to -6.50 D were enrolled for customized ablation in both eyes. All of them were submitted to Lasik CustomCornea® treatment in one

  13. Outcome of corneal transplantation in a private institution in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar N

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nazri Omar,1,2 Charbel T Bou Chacra,1 Khalid F Tabbara1,3,4 1The Eye Center and The Eye Foundation for Research in Ophthalmology, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia; 3Department of Ophthalmology, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 4The Wilmer Ophthalmological Institute of Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA Background: The aim of this work was to describe the indications, complications, and outcomes of penetrating keratoplasty (PKP in Saudi Arabia. Methods: In a retrospective, noncomparative interventional case series, the medical records of patients who underwent PKP from January 2000 to December 2008 and had a minimum follow-up of 6 months were reviewed. All corneas were obtained from eye banks in the US. Indications, complications, and outcomes of surgery were recorded. This study was approved by the institutional review board. Results: Eighty-five consecutive eyes were included in this study. There were 52 (61.2% males and 33 (38.8% females. The median age was 35.0 years (range 3–85 years, and the median follow-up period was 24 months (range 6–108 months. The indications for PKP were keratoconus, bullous keratopathy, corneal scars, corneal dystrophy, and corneal regraft. The overall graft survival time was 88.9 months ± 4.9 months (mean ± standard error of mean, 95% confidence interval [CI] 79.4 months -98.4 months while the 3-year and 5-year cumulative survival rates were 90.7% and 84.3%, respectively. Surgical indication (P = 0.038, immune rejection (P < 0.001, preoperative corneal vascularization (P = 0.022, and perioperative high intraocular pressure (P = 0.032 were associated significantly with corneal graft failure in univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis reduced these significant associations to rejection (P < 0.001 and vascularization (P = 0.009. Relative risk for failure in rejected cornea was 16.22 (95% CI 4.99–52.69 and

  14. Coloured cornea replacements with anti-infective properties: expanding the safe use of silver nanoparticles in regenerative medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcon, E. I.; Vulesevic, B.; Argawal, A.; Ross, A.; Bejjani, P.; Podrebarac, J.; Ravichandran, R.; Phopase, J.; Suuronen, E. J.; Griffith, M.

    2016-03-01

    Despite the broad anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory properties of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), their use in bioengineered corneal replacements or bandage contact lenses has been hindered due to their intense yellow coloration. In this communication, we report the development of a new strategy to pre-stabilize and incorporate AgNPs with different colours into collagen matrices for fabrication of corneal implants and lenses, and assessed their in vitro and in vivo activity.Despite the broad anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory properties of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), their use in bioengineered corneal replacements or bandage contact lenses has been hindered due to their intense yellow coloration. In this communication, we report the development of a new strategy to pre-stabilize and incorporate AgNPs with different colours into collagen matrices for fabrication of corneal implants and lenses, and assessed their in vitro and in vivo activity. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Collagen hydrogel, moulded as a cornea, prepared containing collagen protected AgNPs and representative images for collagen hydrogels, moulded as corneas, containing Blue AgNPs either unprotected or protected with LL37-SH; representative TEM images for Green-1 AgNPs prepared in this work; changes on surface plasmon band after synthesis for Green-2 AgNPs without LL37-SH; representative picture of the powder obtained for Green-1 AgNPs capped with LL37-SH after 72 h lyophilization, see main text; representative TEM images for Blue and Green-1 AgNPs prepared in this work; absorption spectra for the supernatants for collagen hydrogels containing Blue AgNPs; absorbance at 600 nm of PAO1 cultures prepared in 25% LB media incubated for 14 h at 37 °C in the presence of different concentrations of AgNPs, Green-1 or Blue, or silver nitrate; HECC cell density (cells per cm2) measured on gels with and without silver nitrate after 1 day of cell incubation; total silver concentration

  15. Evaluation of the Adhesive Properties of the Cornea by Means of Optical Coherence Tomography in Patients with Meibomian Gland Dysfunction and Lacrimal Tear Deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Napoli, Pietro Emanuele; Coronella, Franco; Satta, Giovanni Maria; Galantuomo, Maria Silvana; Fossarello, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim was to determine the influence of meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) and aqueous tear deficiency dry eye (ADDE) on the adhesive properties of the central cornea by means of optical coherence tomography (OCT), and to investigate the relationship between corneal adhesiveness and classical tear tests, as well as the reliability of results, in these lacrimal functional unit disorders. Design Prospective, case-control study. Methods Twenty-eight patients with MGD and 27 patients w...

  16. The use of Wavelight® Contoura to create a uniform cornea: the LYRA protocol. Part 3: the results of 50 treated eyes

    OpenAIRE

    Motwani M

    2017-01-01

    Manoj Motwani Motwani LASIK Institute, San Diego, CA, USA Purpose: To demonstrate how using the Wavelight Contoura measured astigmatism and axis eliminates corneal astigmatism and creates uniformly shaped corneas. Patients and methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted of the first 50 eyes to have bilateral full WaveLight® Contoura LASIK correction of measured astigmatism and axis (vs conventional manifest refraction), using the Layer Yolked Reduction of Astigmatism Protocol in...

  17. Corneal thickness changes during corneal collagen cross-linking with UV-A irradiation and hypo-osmolar riboflavin in thin corneas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belquiz Amaral Nassaralla

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the thinnest corneal thickness changes during and after corneal collagen cross-linking treatment with ultraviolet-A irradiation, using hypo-osmolar riboflavin solution in thin corneas. METHODS: Eighteen eyes of 18 patients were included in this study. After epithelium removal, iso-osmolar 0.1% riboflavin solution was instilled to the cornea every 3 minutes for 30 minutes. Hypo-osmolar 0.1% riboflavin solution was then applied every 20 seconds for 5 minutes or until the thinnest corneal thickness reached 400 µm. Ultraviolet-A irradiation was performed for 30 minutes. During irradiation, iso-osmolar 0.1% riboflavin drops were applied every 5 minutes. Ultrasound pachymetry was performed at approximately the thinnest point of the cornea preoperatively, after epithelial removal, after iso-osmolar riboflavin instillation, after hypo-osmolar riboflavin instillation, after ultraviolet-A irradiation, and at 1, 6 and 12 months after treatment. RESULTS: Mean preoperative thinnest corneal thickness was 380 ± 11 µm. After epithelial removal it decreased to 341 ± 11 µm, and after 30 minutes of iso-osmolar 0.1% riboflavin drops, to 330 ± 7.6 µm. After hypo-osmolar 0.1% riboflavin drops, mean thinnest corneal thickness increased to 418 ± 11 µm. After UVA irradiation, it was 384 ± 10 µm. At 1, 6 and 12 months after treatment, it was 372 ± 10 µm, 381 ± 12.7, and 379 ± 15 µm, respectively. No intraoperative, early postoperative, or late postoperative complications were noted. CONCLUSIONS: Hypo-osmolar 0.1% riboflavin solution seems to be effective for swelling thin corneas. The swelling effect is transient and short acting. Corneal thickness should be monitored throughout the procedure. Larger sample sizes and longer follow-up are required in order to make meaningful conclusions regarding safety.

  18. Confocal Cornea Microscopy Detects Involvement of Corneal Nerve Fibers in a Patient with Light-Chain Amyloid Neuropathy Caused by Multiple Myeloma: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietrich Sturm

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the subbasal corneal plexus detected by confocal cornea microscopy (CCM have been described for various types of neuropathy. An involvement of these nerves within light-chain (AL amyloid neuropathy (a rare cause of polyneuropathy has never been shown. Here, we report on a case of a patient suffering from neuropathy caused by AL amyloidosis and underlying multiple myeloma. Small-fiber damage was detected by CCM.

  19. Corneal NF-kappaB activity is necessary for the retention of transparency in the cornea of UV-B-exposed transgenic reporter mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, George; Carlsen, Harald; Blomhoff, Rune

    2006-04-01

    To determine the dynamics of Nuclear Factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) in murine corneal pathology and the role of NF-kappaB in maintaining corneal clarity after ultraviolet B radiation insult, transgenic mice containing NF-kappaB-luciferase reporter were exposed to LPS (bacterial lipopolysaccharide), TNF-alpha (Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha) or 4 kJ m(-2) UV-B radiation. NF-kappaB decoy oligonucleotides were also administered in some of the UV-B experiments. Following various exposure times, the mice were sacrificed and whole eyes or corneal tissues were obtained. Whole eyes were examined for scattering using a point-source optical imaging technique. Tissue homogenates were examined for luciferase activity using a luminometer. TNF-alpha and LPS-injected NF-kappaB-luciferase transgenic mice demonstrated 3-10-fold increases in cornea NF-kappaB with peak activities at 4 and 6 hr post-injection, respectively. Mice exposed to 4 kJ m(-2) UV-B exhibited a 3-fold increase in NF-kappaB activity 4 hr post-exposure. The administration of NF-kappaB-decoy oligonucleotides to mice had the effect of reducing UV-B-induced NF-kappaB activity in the cornea and significantly increasing the amount of light scattering in UV-B exposed corneas 7 days post-UV-B exposure when compared to sham injected mice. These results indicate that NF-kappaB is activated in cornea in pathologies that involves increased plasma levels of LPS and TNF-alpha, as well as direct UV-B exposure, and suggest that NF-kappaB activation play an essential part in the corneal healing process.

  20. Transfer of mesenchymal stem cells and cyclosporine A on alkali-injured rabbit cornea using nanofiber scaffolds strongly reduces corneal neovascularization and scar formation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čejka, Čestmír; Čejková, Jitka; Trošan, Peter; Zajícová, Alena; Syková, Eva; Holáň, Vladimír

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 9 (2016), s. 969-980 ISSN 0213-3911 R&D Projects: GA MZd NT14102; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-12580S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1309; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : alkali * cornea * CsA nanofibers * MSCs nanofibers * MSCs-CsA nanofibers Subject RIV: FF - HEENT, Dentistry Impact factor: 2.025, year: 2016

  1. First case of fungal keratitis caused by Pestalotiopsis clavispora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monden Y

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Yu Monden,1 Shohaku Yamamoto,1 Ryoji Yamakawa,1 Atsuko Sunada,2 Seishi Asari,3 Koichi Makimura,4 Yoshitsugu Inoue5 1Department of Ophthalmology, Kurume University School of Medicine, Fukuoka, 2Laboratory for Clinical Investigation, 3Department of Infection Control and Prevention, Osaka University Hospital, Osaka, 4Teikyo University Institute of Medical Mycology, Tokyo, 5Division of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Tottori University Faculty of Medicine, Tottori, Japan Purpose: To report the isolation of Pestalotiopsis clavispora from the cornea of a patient with recurrent keratitis. Case report: A 73-year-old male gardener presented with conjunctival injection and an oval infiltrate with feathery margins in the temporal half of the cornea in the right eye. His ocular history in the right eye included cataract surgery, five episodes of herpes simplex keratitis, three glaucoma surgeries, and bullous keratopathy. He had been treated with corticosteroids for years. Light microscopy of corneal scrapings revealed a filamentous fungus, and fungal keratitis was diagnosed. Treatment with topical voriconazole and pimaricin ointment was commenced. One month later, the infiltrate resolved. The antifungal agents were discontinued 7 months later, and keratitis relapsed 4 days after the discontinuation. The fungus was isolated and identified by molecular techniques as P. clavispora. Based on the results of antifungal susceptibility testing, treatment with topical and intravenous micafungin was initiated. The corneal infiltrate resolved 1 month after the relapse. Conclusion: Molecular identification of the pathogen, and antifungal susceptibility testing, are useful in treating patients with fungal keratitis caused by a rare human pathogen. Keywords: fungal keratitis, Pestalotiopsis clavispora, plant pathogen, molecular identification, antifungal susceptibility test

  2. The Resin-Embedded Cornea Prepared Via Rapid Processing Protocol : A Good Histomorphometric Target for Clinical Investigation in Ophthalmology and Optometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, Pike See; Mohidin, Norhani; Mohd Ali, Bariah; Maung, Myint; Latif, Azian Abdul

    2008-01-01

    This study illustrates and quantifies the changes on corneal tissue between the paraffin-embedded and resin-embedded blocks and thus, selects a better target in investigational ophthalmology and optometry via light microscopy. Corneas of two cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) were used in this study. The formalin-fixed cornea was prepared in paraffin block via the conventional tissue processing protocol (4-day protocol) and stained with haematoxylin and eosin. The glutaraldehyde-fixed cornea was prepared in resin block via the rapid and modified tissue processing procedure (1.2-day protocol) and stained with toluidine blue. The paraffin-embedded sample exhibits various undesired tissue damage and artifact such as thinner epithelium (due to the substantial volumic extraction from the tissue), thicker stroma layer (due to the separation of lamellae and the presence of voids) and the distorted endothelium. In contrast, the resin-embedded corneal tissue has demonstrated satisfactory corneal ultrastructural preservation. The rapid and modified tissue processing method for preparing the resin-embedded is particularly beneficial to accelerate the microscopic evaluation in ophthalmology and optometry. PMID:22570589

  3. Transcriptome Profiling of Neovascularized Corneas Reveals miR-204 as a Multi-target Biotherapy Deliverable by rAAVs

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    Yi Lu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Corneal neovascularization (NV is the major sight-threatening pathology caused by angiogenic stimuli. Current drugs that directly target pro-angiogenic factors to inhibit or reverse the disease require multiple rounds of administration and have limited efficacies. Here, we identify potential anti-angiogenic corneal microRNAs (miRNAs and demonstrate a framework that employs discovered miRNAs as biotherapies deliverable by recombinant adeno-associated viruses (rAAVs. By querying differentially expressed miRNAs in neovascularized mouse corneas induced by alkali burn, we have revealed 39 miRNAs that are predicted to target more than 5,500 differentially expressed corneal mRNAs. Among these, we selected miR-204 and assessed its efficacy and therapeutic benefit for treating injured corneas. Our results show that delivery of miR-204 by rAAV normalizes multiple novel target genes and biological pathways to attenuate vascularization of injured mouse cornea. Importantly, this gene therapy treatment alternative is efficacious and safe for mitigating corneal NV. Overall, our work demonstrates the discovery of potential therapeutic miRNAs in corneal disorders and their translation into viable treatment alternatives.

  4. Effect of a pulsed magnetic field on permeability of the cornea and sorption properties of the tissue structures and refractive media of the eye

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skrinnik, A.V.

    1986-01-01

    The author attempts to obtain direct proof of increased permeability of the cornea and enhanced sorption properties of the tissue structures and refractive media of the eye under the influence of a pulsed magnetic field (MF). In the course of the investigation, the method of radioactive indication of two substances ( 35 S-streptomycin and 75 Se-methionine), widely used in opthalmologic practice, was used. The radioactivity of the working solution of the preparations was 300,000 cpm in 0.1 ml. Changes in the permeability of the cornea were assessed on the basis of changes in radioactivity of the aqueous humor. The concentration of 35 S-streptomycin in aqueous humor of the animals immediately after exposure to MF was significantly higher than in the control. Analysis of permeability of the cornea for 75 Se-methionine also showed increased penetration of radioactivity into the aqueous. The results are evidence of the greater penetrating power of 75 Se-methionine

  5. Dr John Nottingham's 1854 Landmark Treatise on Conical Cornea Considered in the Context of the Current Knowledge of Keratoconus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokul, Akilesh; Patel, Dipika V; McGhee, Charles N J

    2016-05-01

    John Nottingham has been widely credited with the first accurate description of keratoconus in his treatise on conical cornea, published in 1854. Contained within the 270-page treatise are accounts and theories of keratoconus postulated by authors such as Scarpa, von Carion, von Ammon, and Mackenzie, synthesized by Nottingham in a treatise containing his own original observations. Nottingham's work delves deeply into keratoconus, with coverage reminiscent of a modern review, albeit in a far less succinct manner. He extensively describes the epidemiology, clinical presentation, underlying cause, and treatment of keratoconus. However, the concepts put forth are limited largely by the contemporary lack of understanding of the underlying anatomy and physiology of the eye, and the observations, by technological limitations. He postulates a similar treatment algorithm to that used today; optical devices being the management option of choice in the mild stages with surgery being a last resort. None of the surgical methods discussed are used in the modern era, but he does make reference to the possible efficacy of corneal transplantation. Nottingham's treatise was published over 160 years ago, yet his ideas and observations are surprisingly accurate. It is very possible that he was the first person to publish an accurate, comprehensive description of keratoconus.

  6. Collection, processing and testing of bone, corneas, umbilical cord blood and haematopoietic stem cells by European Blood Alliance members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Närhi, M; Natri, O; Desbois, I; Kinggaard Holm, D; Galea, G; Aranko, K; Korhonen, M; Nordstrom, K

    2013-11-01

    A questionnaire study was carried out in collaboration with the European Blood Alliance (EBA) Tissues and Cells (T&C) working group. The aim was to assess the level of involvement and commonality of processes on the procurement, testing and storage of bone, corneas, umbilical cord blood (UCB) and haematopoietic stem cells (HSC) in order to identify different practices and to explore whether recommendations can be made for harmonization. An online questionnaire was used for data collection in 2011, and 43 replies were received covering 71 product answers from 13 countries. Estimated percentages of tissue and cell banking covered by EBA member blood banks as a proportion of all collections of each individual country varied markedly. There were also major differences in the amounts of products collected and discarded and in proportions tissues provided for grafting. However, discarding of certain collections also reflects the practice of increasing the likelihood of the very best units being used for transplantation. Harmonization of possible practices should focus on matching supply with demand and on identifying the most efficient operators. This could allow for the development of practices for minimizing unnecessary collections. © 2013 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  7. Chronic Electromagnetic Exposure at Occupational Safety Level Does Not Affect the Metabolic Profile nor Cornea Healing after LASIK Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Crouzier

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available LASIK eye surgery has become a very common practice for myopic people, especially those in the military. Sometimes undertaken by people who need to keep a specific medical aptitude, this surgery could be performed in secret from the hierarchy and from the institute medical staff. However, even though the eyes have been previously described as one of the most sensitive organs to electromagnetic fields in the human body, no data exist on the potential deleterious effects of electromagnetic fields on the healing eye. The consequences of chronic long-lasting radar exposures at power density, in accordance with the occupational safety standards (9.71 GHz, 50 W/m2, were investigated on cornea healing. The metabolic and clinical statuses after experimental LASIK keratotomy were assessed on the different eye segments in a New Zealand rabbit model. The analysis methods were performed after 5 months of exposure (1 hour/day, 3 times/week. Neither clinical or histological examinations, nor experimental data, such as light scattering, 1H-NMR HRMAS metabolomics, 13C-NMR spectra of lipidic extracts, and antioxidant status, evidenced significant modifications. It was concluded that withdrawing the medical aptitude of people working in electromagnetic field environments (i.e., radar operators in the navy after eye surgery was not justified.

  8. A histological study of rabbit corneas after transepithelial corneal crosslinking using partial epithelial photoablation or ethanol treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozmen, Mehmet Cuneyt; Hondur, Ahmet; Yilmaz, Guldal; Bilgihan, Kamil; Hasanreisoglu, Berati

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the histological changes after transepithelial corneal crosslinking (CXL) using partial thickness excimer laser ablation or epithelial ethanol application in an experimental rabbit study. Right eyes of twenty-four rabbits were studied. Four eyes received total epithelial debridement (group I). Four eyes received partial thickness epithelial ablation with excimer laser (group II). Twelve eyes were treated with different durations (30s and 60s) and concentrations (18% to 48%) of ethanol (group III). Riboflavin was applied for 30min intervals along with topical proparacaine drops with benzalkonium chloride, and 370 nm irradiation was performed for 30min, while riboflavin was instilled every 3min. Four eyes (group IV) received 48% ethanol for 30s without riboflavin and irradiation. Eyes were collected after 24h and examined histologically. All eyes in group I showed keratocyte loss in the superficial 300 µ of corneal storma. In group II, 1-4 layers of epithelium were preserved and no keratocyte loss occurred. In group III, CXL after treatment with ethanol up to 24% concentration and up to 60s revealed no keratocyte loss. CXL after treatment with 48% and higher ethanol concentrations yielded keratocyte loss in the superficial 200 µ to 300 µ of cornea. Incomplete excimer laser ablation of the epithelium or treatment with ethanol up to 24% concentration and up to 60s duration yielded no stromal keratocyte loss. To get the same histological appearance seen in epithelial debridement group, partial thickness excimer laser epithelial ablation or ethanol application is not adequate for transepithelial CXL.

  9. Late Stage of Corneal Decompensation Caused by Progressive Keratoconus: Can We Treat It and Save the Cornea?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Knezović

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To report a case of 40-year-old male with progressive bilateral keratoconus who had undergone transepithelial phototherapeutic keratectomy (TE-PTK and corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL using hypoosmolar riboflavin solution in a same day procedure. Methods. Eye examination showed that UCDVA on both eyes was 0,01 according to Snellen charts, and slit lamp biomicroscopy showed paracentral diffuse intrastromal corneal haze. Anterior OCT marked stromal hyperreflective zones and localized paracentral thinning of the cornea. Scheimpflug tomography noted keratoconus stages III-IV on both eyes. After 40/35 microns TE-PTK, a CXL was performed for 30 minutes using hypoosmolar riboflavin solution. The left eye was treated first and the right eye 1 month after. Follow-up period was 10 months. Results. One month after the treatment both eyes showed improvement in corneal topography and the UCDVA was better. Eight months after the treatment BSCVA improved to 0,6 in both eyes using Rose K2 contact lenses and remained stable. Conclusion. TE-PTK and CXL using hypotonic riboflavin solution as a same day procedure have been shown to be a safe and promising method in this case of progressive keratoconus. It was necessary to consider certain parameters that could influence the safety and the final outcome of this combined protocol.

  10. Distribution of Young's modulus in porcine corneas after riboflavin/UVA-induced collagen cross-linking as measured by atomic force microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Seifert

    Full Text Available Riboflavin/UVA-induced corneal collagen cross-linking has become an effective clinical application to treat keratoconus and other ectatic disorders of the cornea. Its beneficial effects are attributed to a marked stiffening of the unphysiologically weak stroma. Previous studies located the stiffening effect predominantly within the anterior cornea. In this study, we present an atomic force microscopy-derived analysis of the depth-dependent distribution of the Young's modulus with a depth resolution of 5 µm in 8 cross-linked porcine corneas and 8 contralateral controls. Sagittal cryosections were fabricated from every specimen and subjected to force mapping. The mean stromal depth of the zone with effective cross-linking was found to be 219 ± 67 µm. Within this cross-linked zone, the mean Young's modulus declined from 49 ± 18 kPa at the corneal surface to 46 ± 17 kPa, 33 ± 11 kPa, 17 ± 5 kPa, 10 ± 4 kPa and 10 ± 4 kPa at stromal depth intervals of 0-50 µm, 50-100 µm, 100-150 µm, 150-200 µm and 200-250 µm, respectively. This corresponded to a stiffening by a factor of 8.1 (corneal surface, 7.6 (0-50 µm, 5.4 (50-100 µm, 3.0 (100-150 µm, 1.6 (150-200 µm, and 1.5 (200-250 µm, when compared to the Young's modulus of the posterior 100 µm. The mean Young's modulus within the cross-linked zone was 20 ± 8 kPa (2.9-fold stiffening, while it was 11 ± 4 kPa (1.7-fold stiffening for the entire stroma. Both values were significantly distinct from the mean Young's modulus obtained from the posterior 100 µm of the cross-linked corneas and from the contralateral controls. In conclusion, we were able to specify the depth-dependent distribution of the stiffening effect elicited by standard collagen cross-linking in porcine corneas. Apart from determining the depth of the zone with effective corneal cross-linking, we also developed a method that allows for atomic force microscopy-based measurements of gradients of Young's modulus in soft

  11. Corneal collagen crosslinking for keratoconus. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Bikbov

    2014-10-01

    C, and collagen fiber diameter increase by 12.2 % (anterior stroma and 4.6 % (posterior stroma. In mild bullous keratopathy, corneal crosslinking provides antimicrobial effect. In moderate and severe keratopathy, crosslinking reduces pain and corneal edema and improves visual acuity immediately after the procedure. A case of HSV keratitis exacerbation was described. Amongst the complications, infection, halos, and posterior segment damage should be mentioned. Poor refractive results can be improved by the implantation of intrastromal corneal ring segments.

  12. Microscopia confocal en córneas de cien ojos sanos Confocal microscopy results of one hundred healthy eye corneas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulema Gómez Castillo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Analizar las estructuras celulares por microscopia confocal, Confoscan 4, en córneas sanas en nuestro medio. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio prospectivo longitudinal a 100 ojos sanos de médicos que trabajan en nuestra institución, y pacientes que asistieron al servicio de córnea. Esta investigación fue desde mayo de 2007 a mayo 2008, en el Instituto Cubano de Oftalmología "Ramón Pando Ferrer", La Habana. En los médicos se examinaron ambos ojos y en los pacientes el ojo no afectado. Se recopilaron un total de 50 casos sin afección corneal. Resultados: De los 100 ojos estudiados, 64 tenían paquimetrías por encima del valor medio. Estuvieron presentes los tres tipos de células epiteliales en casi la totalidad de los pacientes; así como los queratocitos en las diferentes profundidades del estroma corneal. La mayoría de los ojos tenían un conteo celular endotelial por encima de 2 500, cifra comprendida dentro de los valores normales. Se encontraron fibras nerviosas en cada una de sus capas. Conclusiones: La microscopia confocal se presenta como una nueva herramienta que permite observar en vivo la histología corneal y complementar las observaciones de la biomicroscopia convencional. Esto constituye un reto para el mejor entendimiento de la histopatología corneal. De esta manera podemos actuar de forma profiláctica y terapéutica, en el seguimiento y evolución de patologías corneales.Objective: This paper is aimed at analyzing the corneal cellular structures through Confoscan S4-aided confocal microscopy in apparently healthy corneas. Methods: A prospective longitudinal study of 100 healthy eyes from practicing doctors, and from patients who had attended the corneal service at “Ramón Pando Ferrer” Cuban Institute of Ophthalmology in Havana since May 2007 was conducted. Both eyes of participating doctors were examined whereas the non-affected eye was examined in the patients. A total of 50 cases with no corneal

  13. Evaluation of the HB&L System for the Microbiological Screening of Storage Medium for Organ-Cultured Corneas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camposampiero, D; Grandesso, S; Zanetti, E; Mazzucato, S; Solinas, M; Parekh, M; Frigo, A C; Gion, M; Ponzin, D

    2013-01-01

    Aims. To compare HB&L and BACTEC systems for detecting the microorganisms contaminating the corneal storage liquid preserved at 31°C. Methods. Human donor corneas were stored at 4°C followed by preservation at 31°C. Samples of the storage medium were inoculated in BACTEC Peds Plus/F (aerobic microorganisms), BACTEC Plus Anaerobic/F (anaerobic microorganisms), and HB&L bottles. The tests were performed (a) after six days of storage, (b) end of storage, and (c) after 24 hours of preservation in deturgescent liquid sequentially. 10,655 storage and deturgescent media samples were subjected to microbiological control using BACTEC (6-day incubation) and HB&L (24-hour incubation) systems simultaneously. BACTEC positive/negative refers to both/either aerobic and anaerobic positives/negatives, whereas HB&L can only detect the aerobic microbes, and therefore the positives/negatives depend on the presence/absence of aerobic microorganisms. Results. 147 (1.38%) samples were identified positive with at least one of the two methods. 127 samples (134 identified microorganisms) were positive with both HB&L and BACTEC. 14 HB&L+/BACTEC- and 6 BACTEC+/HB&L- were identified. Sensitivity (95.5%), specificity (99.8%), and positive (90.1%) and negative predictive values (99.9%) were high with HB&L considering a 3.5% annual contamination rate. Conclusion. HB&L is a rapid system for detecting microorganisms in corneal storage medium in addition to the existing methods.

  14. Mathematical model to compare the relative tensile strength of the cornea after PRK, LASIK, and small incision lenticule extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinstein, Dan Z; Archer, Timothy J; Randleman, J Bradley

    2013-07-01

    To develop a mathematical model to estimate the relative differences in postoperative stromal tensile strength following photorefractive keratectomy (PRK), LASIK, and small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE). Using previously published data where in vitro corneal stromal tensile strength was determined as a function of depth, a mathematical model was built to calculate the relative remaining tensile strength by fitting the data with a fourth order polynomial function yielding a high correlation coefficient (R(2) = 0.930). Calculating the area under this function provided a measure of total stromal tensile strength (TTS), based only on the residual stromal layer for PRK or LASIK and the residual stromal layers above and below the lenticule interface for SMILE. Postoperative TTS was greatest after SMILE, followed by PRK, then LASIK; for example, in a 550-μm cornea after 100-μm tissue removal, postoperative TTS was 75% for SMILE (130-μm cap), 68% for PRK, and 54% for LASIK (110-μm flap). The postoperative TTS decreased for thinner corneal pachymetry for all treatment types. In LASIK, the postoperative TTS decreased with increasing flap thickness by 0.22%/μm, but increased by 0.08%/μm for greater cap thickness in SMILE. The model predicted that SMILE lenticule thickness could be approximately 100 μm greater than the LASIK ablation depth and still have equivalent corneal strength (equivalent to approximately 7.75 diopters). This mathematical model predicts that the postoperative TTS is considerably higher after SMILE than both PRK and LASIK, as expected given that the strongest anterior lamellae remain intact. Consequently, SMILE should be able to correct higher levels of myopia. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  15. A histological study of rabbit corneas after transepithelial corneal crosslinking using partial epithelial photoablation or ethanol treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Cuneyt Ozmen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the histological changes after transepithelial corneal crosslinking (CXL using partial thickness excimer laser ablation or epithelial ethanol application in an experimental rabbit study.METHODS: Right eyes of twenty-four rabbits were studied. Four eyes received total epithelial debridement (group I. Four eyes received partial thickness epithelial ablation with excimer laser (group II. Twelve eyes were treated with different durations (30s and 60s and concentrations (18% to 48% of ethanol (group III. Riboflavin was applied for 30min intervals along with topical proparacaine drops with benzalkonium chloride, and 370 nm irradiation was performed for 30min, while riboflavin was instilled every 3min. Four eyes (group IV received 48% ethanol for 30s without riboflavin and irradiation. Eyes were collected after 24h and examined histologically.RESULTS: All eyes in group I showed keratocyte loss in the superficial 300 µ of corneal storma. In group II, 1-4 layers of epithelium were preserved and no keratocyte loss occurred. In group III, CXL after treatment with ethanol up to 24% concentration and up to 60s revealed no keratocyte loss. CXL after treatment with 48% and higher ethanol concentrations yielded keratocyte loss in the superficial 200 µ to 300 µ of cornea.CONCLUSION: Incomplete excimer laser ablation of the epithelium or treatment with ethanol up to 24% concentration and up to 60s duration yielded no stromal keratocyte loss. To get the same histological appearance seen in epithelial debridement group, partial thickness excimer laser epithelial ablation or ethanol application is not adequate for transepithelial CXL.

  16. Prevention of bacterial colonization of contact lenses with covalently attached selenium and effects on the rabbit cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Steven M; Spallholz, Julian E; Grimson, Mark J; Dubielzig, Richard R; Gray, Tracy; Reid, Ted W

    2006-08-01

    Although silicone hydrogel materials have produced many corneal health benefits to patients wearing contact lenses, bacteria that cause acute red eye or corneal ulcers are still a concern. A coating that inhibits bacterial colonization while not adversely affecting the cornea should improve the safety of contact lens wear. A covalent selenium (Se) coating on contact lenses was evaluated for safety using rabbits and prevention of bacterial colonization of the contact lenses in vitro. Contact lenses coated with Se were worn on an extended-wear schedule for up to 2 months by 10 New Zealand White rabbits. Corneal health was evaluated with slit-lamp biomicroscopy, pachymetry, electron microscopy, and histology. Lenses worn by the rabbits were analyzed for protein and lipid deposits. In addition, the ability of Se to block bacterial colonization was tested in vitro by incubating lenses in a Pseudomonas aeruginosa broth followed by scanning electron microscopy of the contact lens surface. The covalent Se coating decreased bacterial colonization in vitro while not adversely affecting the corneal health of rabbits in vivo. The Se coating produced no noticeable negative effects as observed with slit-lamp biomicroscopy, pachymetry, electron microscopy, and histology. The Se coating did not affect protein or lipid deposition on the contact lenses. The data from this pilot study suggest that a Se coating on contact lenses might reduce acute red eye and bacterial ulceration because of an inhibition of bacterial colonization. In addition, our safety tests suggest that this positive effect can be produced without an adverse effect on corneal health.

  17. Intraocular pressure values obtained by ocular response analyzer, dynamic contour tonometry, and goldmann tonometry in keratokonic corneas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Atilla; Sahin, Afsun; Hürmeriç, Volkan; Ozge, Gökhan

    2010-01-01

    To determine the agreement between dynamic contour tonometer (DCT), Goldmann applanation tonometer (GAT), and Ocular Response Analyzer (ORA) in keratoconic corneas and to find out the effect of corneal biomechanics on intraocular pressure (IOP) measurements obtained by these devices. IOP was measured with the ORA, DCT, and GAT in random order in 120 eyes of 61 keratoconus patients. Central corneal thickness (CCT) and keratometry were measured after all IOP determinations had been made. The mean IOP measurement by the ORA and DCT was compared with the measurement by the GAT, using Student t test. Bland-Altman analysis was performed to assess the clinical agreement between these methods. The effect of corneal hysteresis (CH), corneal resistance factor (CRF), and CCT on measured IOP was explored by multiple backward stepwise linear regression analysis. The mean±SD patient age was 30.6±11.2 years. The mean±SD IOP measurement obtained with GAT, ORA Goldmann-correlated IOP (IOPg), ORA corneal-compensated IOP (IOPcc), and DCT was 10.96±2.8, 10.23±3.5, 14.65±2.8, and 15.42±2.7 mm Hg, respectively. The mean±SD CCT was 464.08±58.4 microns. The mean difference between IOPcc and GAT (P<0.0001), IOPcc and DCT (P<0.001), GAT and DCT (P<0.0001), IOPg and GAT (P<0.002), and IOPg and DCT (P<0.0001), was highly statistically significant. In multivariable regression analysis, DCT IOP and GAT IOP measurements were significantly associated with CH and CRF (P<0.0001 for both). DCT seemed to be affected by CH and CRF, and the IOP values tended to be higher when compared with GAT. ORA-measured IOPcc was found to be independent of CCT and suitable in comparison to the DCT in keratoconic eyes.

  18. Serum from plasma rich in growth factors regenerates rabbit corneas by promoting cell proliferation, migration, differentiation, adhesion and limbal stemness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etxebarria, Jaime; Sanz-Lázaro, Sara; Hernáez-Moya, Raquel; Freire, Vanesa; Durán, Juan A; Morales, María-Celia; Andollo, Noelia

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate the regenerating potential and the mechanisms through which the autologous serum derived from plasma rich in growth factors (s-PRGF) favours corneal wound healing in vitro and in vivo. We compared the effect of various concentrations of s-PRGF versus fetal bovine serum (FBS) and control treatment in rabbit primary corneal epithelial and stromal cells and wounded rabbit corneas. Cell proliferation was measured using an enzymatic colorimetric assay. In vitro and in vivo wound-healing progression was assessed by image-analysis software. Migration and invasion were evaluated using transfilter assays. Histological structure was analysed in stained sections. Protein expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. s-PRGF promoted the robust proliferation of epithelial cultures at any concentration, similar to FBS. Likewise, s-PRGF and FBS produced similar re-epithelialization rates in in vitro wound-healing assays. In vivo, s-PRGF treatment accelerated corneal wound healing in comparison with control treatment. This difference was significant only for 100% s-PRGF treatment in our healthy rabbit model. Histological analysis confirmed normal epithelialization in all cases. Immunohistochemistry showed a higher expression of cytokeratins 3/76 and 15, zonula occludens-1 and alpha-smooth muscle actin proteins as a function of s-PRGF concentration. Notably, keratocyte density in the anterior third of the stroma increased with increase in s-PRGF concentration, suggesting an in vivo chemotactic effect of s-PRGF on keratocytes that was further confirmed in vitro. s-PRGF promotes proliferation and migration and influences limbal stemness, adhesion and fibrosis during corneal healing. © 2017 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Comparison of 120- and 140-μm SMILE Cap Thickness Results in Eyes With Thick Corneas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Manli; Zhou, Yugui; Wu, Xianghua; Ye, Tiantian; Liu, Quan

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate clinical outcomes after small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) with different cap thicknesses in thick corneas. Forty patients with central corneal thickness of more than 560 μm were recruited in this prospective, randomized, masked, paired-eye study. Patients were randomized to receive SMILE with a 120-μm cap thickness in 1 eye and 140-μm cap thickness in the other. Uncorrected and corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), contrast sensitivity (CS), higher-order aberrations (HOAs), and morphologic modifications of corneal architecture were measured during the 3-month follow-up period. Postoperative refractive outcomes, visual outcomes, CS, and the changes in HOAs were similar between both groups. The persistence of brightly reflective particles in the corneal interface layer was 1388.6 ± 219.5/mm in eyes with 120-μm cap thickness and 54.7 ± 8.6/mm in eyes with 140-μm cap thickness (P line at the interface layer almost disappeared in all eyes with 140-μm cap thickness, and it still persisted in 43% of the fellow eyes at 3 months postoperatively. The anterior surfaces of lenticules in the 140-μm cap thickness group exhibited more smoothness than in the 120-μm cap thickness group. There was a lower level corneal wound-healing response after SMILE with a 140-μm cap thickness than with a 120-μm cap thickness, although the thickness of cap creation did not affect visual outcomes by 3 months postoperatively.

  20. Effect of Biometric Characteristics on the Change of Biomechanical Properties of the Human Cornea due to Cataract Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuefei Song

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine the impact of biometric characteristics on changes of biomechanical properties of the human cornea due to standard cataract surgery using biomechanical analysis. Patients and Methods. This prospective consecutive cross-sectional study comprised 54 eyes with cataract in stages I or II that underwent phacoemulsification and IOL implantation. CH, CRF, IOPg, and IOPcc intraocular pressure were measured by biomechanical analysis preoperatively and at 1 month postoperatively. Changes (Δ were calculated as preoperative value versus postoperative value. Biometrical data were extracted from TMS-5 (CSI and SAI, IOLMaster (AL, and EM-3000 (CCT and ECC preoperatively. Results. The average values of the changes were ΔCH=-0.45±1.27 mmHg, ΔCRF=-0.88±1.1 mmHg, ΔIOPg=-1.58±3.15 mmHg, and ΔIOPcc=-1.45±3.93 mmHg. The higher the CSI the smaller the decrease in CH (r=0.302, P=0.028. The higher the CCT the larger the decrease in CRF (r=-0.371, P=0.013. The higher the AL the smaller the decrease in IOPg (r=0.417, P=0.005. The higher the AL, SAI, and EEC the smaller the decrease in IOPcc (r=0.351, P=0.001; r=-0.478, P<0.001; r=0.339, P=0.013. Conclusions. Corneal biomechanical properties were affected by comprehensive factors after cataract surgery, including corneal endothelium properties, biometry, and geometrical characteristics.

  1. Calculation of cut-off values based on the Autoimmune Bullous Skin Disorder Intensity Score (ABSIS) and Pemphigus Disease Area Index (PDAI) pemphigus scoring systems for defining moderate, significant and extensive types of pemphigus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulard, C; Duvert Lehembre, S; Picard-Dahan, C; Kern, J S; Zambruno, G; Feliciani, C; Marinovic, B; Vabres, P; Borradori, L; Prost-Squarcioni, C; Labeille, B; Richard, M A; Ingen-Housz-Oro, S; Houivet, E; Werth, V P; Murrell, D F; Hertl, M; Benichou, J; Joly, P

    2016-07-01

    Two pemphigus severity scores, Autoimmune Bullous Skin Disorder Intensity Score (ABSIS) and Pemphigus Disease Area Index (PDAI), have been proposed to provide an objective measure of disease activity. However, the use of these scores in clinical practice is limited by the absence of cut-off values that allow differentiation between moderate, significant and extensive types of pemphigus. To calculate cut-off values defining moderate, significant and extensive pemphigus based on the ABSIS and PDAI scores. In 31 dermatology departments in six countries, consecutive patients with newly diagnosed pemphigus were assessed for pemphigus severity, using ABSIS, PDAI, Physician's Global Assessment (PGA) and Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) scores. Cut-off values defining moderate, significant and extensive subgroups were calculated based on the 25th and 75th percentiles of the ABSIS and PDAI scores. The median ABSIS, PDAI, PGA and DLQI scores of the three severity subgroups were compared in order to validate these subgroups. Ninety-six patients with pemphigus vulgaris (n = 77) or pemphigus foliaceus (n = 19) were included. The median PDAI activity and ABSIS total scores were 27·5 (range 3-84) and 34·8 points (range 0·5-90·5), respectively. The respective cut-off values corresponding to the first and third quartiles of the scores were 15 and 45 for the PDAI, and 17 and 53 for ABSIS. The moderate, significant and extensive subgroups were thus defined, and had distinguishing median ABSIS (P cut-off values of 15 and 45 for PDAI and 17 and 53 for ABSIS, to distinguish moderate, significant and extensive pemphigus forms. Identifying these pemphigus activity subgroups should help physicians to classify and manage patients with pemphigus. © 2016 British Association of Dermatologists.

  2. Microbiota bacteriana da conjuntiva de doadores de córnea Bacterial microbiota of the conjunctiva of donor corneas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Emília Xavier dos Santos Araújo

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Quantificar e qualificar a microbiota aeróbia da conjuntiva de doadores de córnea segundo a interferência do intervalo de tempo entre o óbito e a colheita do espécime conjuntival, a causa do óbito e a idade do doador e avaliar a atividade biocida de determinados antibióticos aos microrganismos isolados. MÉTODOS: Entre janeiro e março de 1994 foram colhidos espécimes da conjuntiva de 242 olhos de doadores de córnea. O material transportado em meio de Stuart foi semeado em ágares sangue, chocolate, sangue azida, MacConkey e caldo tioglicolato. Foi registrada a idade do doador, hora e causa do óbito. A atividade biocida dos antibióticos foi avaliada pela metodologia de Kirby e Bauer. A análise estatística utilizou os testes do qui-quadrado, exato de Fisher e Mann-Whitney. RESULTADOS: A freqüência de cultura positiva da conjuntiva de doadores de córnea foi de 91,7%. A mediana da idade dos doadores foi de 62 anos e do intervalo de tempo entre o óbito e a colheita do espécime foi de 4,2 horas. A causa mais freqüente de óbito foi doença cardiovascular (26,4%. Não houve diferença significante entre a cultura positiva e as variáveis estudadas. A vancomicina inibiu 100% das cepas de bactérias Gram-positivas e a sensibilidade dos bacilos Gram-negativos à gentamicina variou de 36,7% a 92,3%. CONCLUSÕES: O estudo revelou freqüência elevada de cultura positiva da conjuntiva de doadores de córneas. Staphylococcus coagulase negativo foi a espécie com maior número de isolamentos positivos. Não foi encontrada associação entre os fatores de risco avaliados e cultura positiva. Os antibióticos tiveram atividade biocida variável sobre os Gram-negativos e 100% dos Gram-positivos foram sensíveis à vancomicina.PURPOSE: To identify and qualify bacterial organisms in conjunctival tissue of donor corneas. To correlate the frequency of positive cultures with donor age, cause of death, and time from death to collection of

  3. University students' knowledge of corneal donation and willingness to donate corneas in the occupied Palestinian territory: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Labadi, Liana; Gammoh, Yazan; Shehada, Reham; Shahin, Reem; Jbarah, Walaa; Amro, Madleen; Athamny, Hanan

    2018-02-21

    Access to corneal transplantation is limited worldwide because of poor knowledge. Ethical, religious, and cultural barriers contribute to low rates of corneal donation. In the occupied Palestinian territory, limited information is available on factors affecting corneal donation. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and willingness towards corneal donation in Palestinian students. This cross-sectional study included university students selected through convenience sampling in Nablus in the summer of 2016. The sample size was determined using the sample formulae and a 15% non-response rate. All students registered in obligatory courses were included in the study after verbal consent. Each participant was given a self-administered questionnaire consisting of 14 questions to assess knowledge, awareness, and willingness toward corneal donation. Frequencies were used for descriptive analysis, and associations were determined using multivariate analysis and χ 2 test, with a p value of less than 0·05 considered significant. Of the 634 students completing the questionnaire, 411 (65%) were women, 614 (97%) were Muslims, and 155 (25%) were health or medical students. 592 (93%) respondents were unaware of eye bank availability, and 407 (69%; p=0.002) of these respondents did not show willingness towards corneal donation. 431 (67%) respondents were aware of a lack in corneal donation, but 274 (64%; p=0·01) of these respondents did not show willingness towards corneal donation. 429 (68%) respondents were not willing to donate their corneas, the most common reasons being disapproval by family members and poor awareness. We found no association between sociodemographic factors and willingness was determined. Palestinian students are aware of the lack of local cornea donation but are unwilling to donate their corneas. The study results are not representative of the entire population because of the homogeneous nature of the sample. Large efforts are needed locally to

  4. Analysis of the effect of the fluid-structure interface on elastic wave velocity in cornea-like structures by OCE and FEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Zhaolong; Li, Jiasong; Singh, Manmohan; Wu, Chen; Liu, Chih-hao; Raghunathan, Raksha; Larin, Kirill V; Vantipalli, Srilatha; Aglyamov, Salavat R; Twa, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    Air-pulse optical coherence elastography (OCE) is a promising technique for quantifying biomechanical properties of the cornea. This technique typically involves imaging and analysis of the propagation of the air-pulse induced elastic waves to reconstruct corneal biomechanical properties using an analytical model. However, the effect of the fluid-structure interface (FSI) at the corneal posterior surface on the elastic wave velocity is not accounted for in many models. In this study, we examined the effect of the FSI with OCE experiments on contact lenses with and without fluid in the posterior gap. Finite element models (FEM), also with and without the FSI, were constructed to simulate the elastic wave propagation based on the OCE measurements. The FEM and OCE results were in good agreement demonstrating the feasibility of the method. To further investigate the effect of the FSI, OCE experiments and subsequent FEM simulations were conducted on in situ rabbit corneas before and after rose bengal/green light corneal collagen cross-linking (RGX). Both the OCE experiments and the FE simulations demonstrated that the FSI significantly reduced the group velocity of the elastic wave, and thus, should be considered when determining corneal biomechanical properties from an appropriate mechanical model. By matching the FEM-calculated velocity to the OCE-measured velocity, the corneal elasticity was quantified. The Young’s modulus of the rabbit cornea before RGX was E  =  65  ±  10 kPa at a controlled intraocular pressure (IOP) of 15 mmHg. After RGX, the Young’s modulus increased to E  =  102  ±  7 kPa at the same IOP. (letter)

  5. The use of Wavelight® Contoura to create a uniform cornea: the LYRA protocol. Part 3: the results of 50 treated eyes

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    Motwani M

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Manoj Motwani Motwani LASIK Institute, San Diego, CA, USA Purpose: To demonstrate how using the Wavelight Contoura measured astigmatism and axis eliminates corneal astigmatism and creates uniformly shaped corneas. Patients and methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted of the first 50 eyes to have bilateral full WaveLight® Contoura LASIK correction of measured astigmatism and axis (vs conventional manifest refraction, using the Layer Yolked Reduction of Astigmatism Protocol in all cases. All patients had astigmatism corrected, and had at least 1 week of follow-up. Accuracy to desired refractive goal was assessed by postoperative refraction, aberration reduction via calculation of polynomials, and postoperative visions were analyzed as a secondary goal. Results: The average difference of astigmatic power from manifest to measured was 0.5462D (with a range of 0–1.69D, and the average difference of axis was 14.94° (with a range of 0°–89°. Forty-seven of 50 eyes had a goal of plano, 3 had a monovision goal. Astigmatism was fully eliminated from all but 2 eyes, and 1 eye had regression with astigmatism. Of the eyes with plano as the goal, 80.85% were 20/15 or better, and 100% were 20/20 or better. Polynomial analysis postoperatively showed that at 6.5 mm, the average C3 was reduced by 86.5% and the average C5 by 85.14%. Conclusions: Using WaveLight® Contoura measured astigmatism and axis removes higher order aberrations and allows for the creation of a more uniform cornea with accurate removal of astigmatism, and reduction of aberration polynomials. WaveLight® Contoura successfully links the refractive correction layer and aberration repair layer using the Layer Yolked Reduction of Astigmatism Protocol to demonstrate how aberration removal can affect refractive correction. Keywords: WaveLight Contoura, topographic guided ablation, LASIK, PRK, uniform cornea, Contoura with LYRA Protocol, measured astigmatism

  6. VIP and VIP gene silencing modulation of differentiation marker N-cadherin and cell shape of corneal endothelium in human corneas ex vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Shay-Whey M; Chandrasekara, Krish; Abbondandolo, Cara J; Coll, Timothy J; Rutzen, Allan R

    2008-08-01

    Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is expressed by corneal endothelial (CE) cells and is present in the aqueous humor, which bathes CE cells in vivo. This study demonstrated the role of CE cell VIP in maintaining the expression level of a CE differentiation marker, N-cadherin, and the hexagonal cell shape. To determine the most effective VIP concentration, bovine corneoscleral explants were treated with 0 (control) and 10(-12) to 10(-6) M VIP. Paired human corneas (nine donors) from an eye bank were used as control; the other corneas were treated with VIP. To silence endogenous VIP, paired fresh human donor corneas (from seven cadavers) were transduced with VIP shRNA or the control lentiviral particles and then bisected/quartered for quantitative analysis by semiquantitative RT-PCR (for mRNA) and Western blot analysis/immunocytochemistry (for protein), whereas alizarin red S staining revealed CE cell shape. VIP concentration dependently increased bovine CE cell N-cadherin mRNA levels, with the maximal effect observed between 10(-10) (1.47 +/- 0.06-fold; P = 0.002) and 10(-8) M VIP (1.48 +/- 0.18-fold; P = 0.012). VIP (10(-8) M) treatment increased N-cadherin protein levels in bovine and human CE cells to 1.98 +/- 0.28-fold (P = 0.005) and 1.17 +/- 0.10 (range, 0.91-1.87)-fold (P = 0.050) of their respective controls. VIP antagonist (SN)VIPhyb diminished the VIP effect. VIP silencing resulted in deterioration of the hexagonal cell shape and decreased levels of VIP protein and mRNA, N-cadherin (but not connexin-43) mRNA and protein, and the antiapoptotic Bcl-2 protein. Through its autocrine VIP, CE cells play an active role in maintaining the differentiated state and suppressing apoptosis in the corneal endothelium in situ.

  7. Expression of c-Fos and c-Jun in the cornea, lens, and retina after ultraviolet irradiation of the rat eye and effect of topical antisense oligodeoxynucleotides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillardon, F.; Zimmermann, M.

    1995-01-01

    Aims - Immunohistochemical techniques were used to investigate c-Fos and c-Jun proto-oncogene expression in the cornea, lens, and retina after ultraviolet irradiation of the rat eye. Methods -Eyes of anaesthetised rats were exposed to 1.5 J/cm 2 of ultraviolet radiation (280-380 nm). Animals were perfused 1, 6, or 24 hours after irradiation and tissue sections were incubated with specific antiserum to c-Fos and c-Jun, respectively. Non-irradiated contralateral eyes displayed no c-Fos and c-Jun immunoreactivity. One and 6 hours after ultraviolet exposure numerous c-Fos and c-Jun immunopositive nuclei were observed mainly in the epithelial cell layers of the cornea and the lens epithelium. Scattered labelled nuclei were detectable in the retinal ganglion cell layer and the inner nuclear layer. Twenty four hours after irradiation c-Fos and c-Jun protein expression returned to near control levels. Histological signs of ultraviolet damage (for example, chromatin condensation, nuclear fragmentation) were first recognisable in the corneal epithelium 6 hours after irradiation and became more apparent at later times. The rapid and sustained activation of c-Fos and c-Jun expression in the eye after single ultraviolet exposure may represent the molecular mechanism underlying ultraviolet induced photodamage and initiation of cell death. Furthermore, topical application of a c-fos antisense oligode-oxynucleotide to the ultraviolet exposed rat eye inhibited the increase in c-Fos expression in the cornea, suggesting therapeutic activity of antisense drugs in corneal malignant and infectious diseases. (author)

  8. Conhecimento de estudantes de medicina sobre o processo de doação de córneas The knowledge of medical students about cornea donation

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    Rodrigo França de Espíndola

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o conhecimento de estudantes de medicina sobre o processo de doação de córneas, comparando-o entre aqueles que já cursaram a disciplina de Oftalmologia com os demais. MÉTODOS: Foi aplicado um questionário a estudantes de medicina do interior de São Paulo, contendo dados como: idade, sexo, ano de graduação e 10 perguntas de múltipla escolha sobre o tema. As questões abordaram o limite de idade para doação, contra-indicações para o transplante, tempo para retirada das córneas, dentre outras. Foi comparado o conhecimento (% de acertos entre aqueles que haviam cursado a disciplina de Oftalmologia (Grupo A com os demais (Grupo B. RESULTADOS: Foram entrevistados 402 estudantes. Destes, 140 eram do grupo A e 262 do grupo B. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significante entre os dois grupos (p=0,8328. CONCLUSÃO: O conhecimento sobre o processo de doação de córneas mostrou-se insuficiente entre os alunos entrevistados, mesmo para aqueles que haviam cursado a disciplina de Oftalmologia, apontando a necessidade de aperfeiçoamento do conhecimento divulgado nas escolas médicas.PURPOSE: To compare knowledge of medical students about the cornea donation process among those who already studied Ophthalmology and the others. METHODOS: A questionnaire containing data as: age, sex, graduation year, and 10 multiple-choice questions about the subject was applied to medical students from the interior of São Paulo state, Brazil. The questions were: age for donation, contraindication for transplants, the time limit to remove the cornea, among others. The knowledge regarding cornea donation was compared between the two groups: students who already studied Ophthalmology (Group A and the others (Group B. RESULTS: The study group was composed of 402 students, of whom 140 were of group A and 262 of group B. Knowledge between the two groups was different, but not statistically significant (p=0.8328. CONCLUSION: Knowledge about

  9. CORNEA AND ANTERIOR SEGMENT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-11-04

    Nov 4, 2016 ... Surgery and Phacoemulsification in Eye Foundation Hospital. Lagos Nigeria ... eyes(92.4%) had best corrected vision of 6/18 and better at 1 month ..... utilizing donor tissue that fulfilled all requirements of the eye bank.

  10. Biofiltration of fishpond effluents and accumulation of N-compounds (phycobiliproteins and mycosporine-like amino acids) versus C-compounds (polysaccharides) in Hydropuntia cornea (Rhodophyta)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueroa, Félix L.; Korbee, Nathalie; Abdala, Roberto; Jerez, Celia G.; López-de la Torre, Mayra; Güenaga, Leire; Larrubia, María A.; Gómez-Pinchetti, Juan L.

    2012-01-01

    The biofiltration capacity, biomass-yield and accumulation of N- and C-compounds of Hydropuntia cornea were analyzed. Algae were grown in different conditions for 28 d: outdoor and indoor, with or without fishpond effluents. N-uptake efficiency of these effluents was higher than 95% after 7 d both outdoors and indoors. N-enriched conditions reduced the extent of photoinhibition and increased the maximal quantum yield in H. cornea. The biomass-yield was higher in outdoor grown-algae after 7 d and decreased independently of the treatment after 28 d. N, acid polysaccharide (AP) and mycosporine-like amino acid (MAA)-yields decreased throughout the experiment in all conditions. The highest MAA-yield was observed in fishpond effluent outdoor-grown algae, indicating a positive effect of increased radiation on MAA accumulation. However, APs were higher under N-depleted conditions. The use of MAAs as UV-screening and antioxidants, and the use of AP as immunostimulants are discussed.

  11. The grave necessity to make eye bank specular microscopy mandatory in all eye banks in the subcontinent to improve utilization of scarce donor corneas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadeja, Jagruti N; Patel, Bharati D; Shanbhag, Swapna S

    2013-12-01

    Donor tissue scarcity, Eye Bank Specular Microscopy as yet not made mandatory and tissue utilization often based on clinical judgment only. Prospectively analyze alteration in clinical grading of donor corneas and hence utilization, based on Eye Bank Specular Microscopy (EBSM) and to infer if EBSM should be mandatory in all eye banks. 200 consecutive otherwise 'suitable for surgery' donor eyes were graded clinically. On quantitative and qualitative analysis of endothelial cells by EBSM, final grading was adjusted. Impact on subsequent utilization for various surgeries was analyzed with regard to Age of Donor, Death to Enucleation Time, Death to Preservation Time and Lens Status of Donor Eye. 76 eyes (38%) (P 60 years showed CD >= 2500. From donor >=81 years, 2/13 (15.3%) eyes showed CD between 2501-3000 and 1 (7.6%) eye showed CD > 3000. Owing to better grading after EBSM, 13/14 (92.85%) tissues with DTET >6 hours and 5/5 (100%) tissues with DTPT > 16 hours were transplanted. Out of 45 (22.5%) pseudo-phakic tissues, 21 (46.67%) tissues were used for Therapeutic/Tectonic Penetrating Keratoplasty (PKP) while 24 (53.33%) tissues were used for Optical PKP. EBSM significantly alters final grading of tissues and its subsequent utilization. Acquiring huge importance in areas where adequate supply of corneas is lacking, EBSM becomes an indispensable tool for optimizing availability of qualified tissues for surgery. EBSM should be made a mandatory analysis.

  12. Assessment of the eye irritation potential of chemicals: A comparison study between two test methods based on human 3D hemi-cornea models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, R; Bartok, M; Zorn-Kruppa, M; Brandner, J M; Gabel, D; Engelke, M

    2015-12-25

    We have recently developed two hemi-cornea models (Bartok et al., Toxicol in Vitro 29, 72, 2015; Zorn-Kruppa et al. PLoS One 9, e114181, 2014), which allow the correct prediction of eye irritation potential of chemicals according to the United Nations globally harmonized system of classification and labeling of chemicals (UN GHS). Both models comprise a multilayered epithelium and a stroma with embedded keratocytes in a collagenous matrix. These two models were compared, using a set of fourteen test chemicals. Their effects after 10 and 60 minutes (min) exposure were assessed from the quantification of cell viability using the MTT reduction assay. The first approach separately quantifies the damage inflicted to the epithelium and the stroma. The second approach quantifies the depth of injury by recording cell death as a function of depth. The classification obtained by the two models was compared to the Draize rabbit eye test and an ex vivo model using rabbit cornea (Jester et al. Toxicol in Vitro. 24, 597-604, 2010). With a 60 min exposure, both of our models are able to clearly differentiate UN GHS Category 1 and UN GHS Category 2 test chemicals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Biofiltration of fishpond effluents and accumulation of N-compounds (phycobiliproteins and mycosporine-like amino acids) versus C-compounds (polysaccharides) in Hydropuntia cornea (Rhodophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Félix L; Korbee, Nathalie; Abdala, Roberto; Jerez, Celia G; López-de la Torre, Mayra; Güenaga, Leire; Larrubia, María A; Gómez-Pinchetti, Juan L

    2012-02-01

    The biofiltration capacity, biomass-yield and accumulation of N- and C-compounds of Hydropuntia cornea were analyzed. Algae were grown in different conditions for 28 d: outdoor and indoor, with or without fishpond effluents. N-uptake efficiency of these effluents was higher than 95% after 7 d both outdoors and indoors. N-enriched conditions reduced the extent of photoinhibition and increased the maximal quantum yield in H. cornea. The biomass-yield was higher in outdoor grown-algae after 7 d and decreased independently of the treatment after 28 d. N, acid polysaccharide (AP) and mycosporine-like amino acid (MAA)-yields decreased throughout the experiment in all conditions. The highest MAA-yield was observed in fishpond effluent outdoor-grown algae, indicating a positive effect of increased radiation on MAA accumulation. However, APs were higher under N-depleted conditions. The use of MAAs as UV-screening and antioxidants, and the use of AP as immunostimulants are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The management of cornea blindness from severe corneal scarring, with the Athens Protocol (transepithelial topography-guided PRK therapeutic remodeling, combined with same-day, collagen cross-linking).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanellopoulos, Anastasios John

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of combined transepithelial topography-guided photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) therapeutic remodeling, combined with same-day, collagen cross-linking (CXL). This protocol was used for the management of cornea blindness due to severe corneal scarring. A 57-year-old man had severe corneal blindness in both eyes. Both corneas had significant central scars attributed to a firework explosion 45 years ago, when the patient was 12 years old. Corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) was 20/100 both eyes (OU) with refraction: +4.00, -4.50 at 135° in the right eye and +3.50, -1.00 at 55° in the left. Respective keratometries were: 42.3, 60.4 at 17° and 35.8, 39.1 at 151.3°. Cornea transplantation was the recommendation by multiple cornea specialists as the treatment of choice. We decided prior to considering a transplant to employ the Athens Protocol (combined topography-guided partial PRK and CXL) in the right eye in February 2010 and in the left eye in September 2010. The treatment plan for both eyes was designed on the topography-guided wavelight excimer laser platform. Fifteen months after the right eye treatment, the right cornea had improved translucency and was topographically stable with uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA) 20/50 and CDVA 20/40 with refraction +0.50, -2.00 at 5°. We noted a similar outcome after similar treatment applied in the left eye with UDVA 20/50 and CDVA 20/40 with -0.50, -2.00 at 170° at the 8-month follow-up. In this case, the introduction of successful management of severe cornea abnormalities and scarring with the Athens Protocol may provide an effective alternative to other existing surgical or medical options.

  15. The management of cornea blindness from severe corneal scarring, with the Athens Protocol (transepithelial topography-guided PRK therapeutic remodeling, combined with same-day, collagen cross-linking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanellopoulos AJ

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Anastasios John KanellopoulosLaservision.gr Institute, Athens, Greece; Manhattan Eye, Ear and Throat Hospital, New York, NY, USA; New York University Medical School, New York, NY, USAPurpose: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of combined transepithelial topography-guided photorefractive keratectomy (PRK therapeutic remodeling, combined with same-day, collagen cross-linking (CXL. This protocol was used for the management of cornea blindness due to severe corneal scarring.Methods: A 57-year-old man had severe corneal blindness in both eyes. Both corneas had significant central scars attributed to a firework explosion 45 years ago, when the patient was 12 years old. Corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA was 20/100 both eyes (OU with refraction: +4.00, –4.50 at 135° in the right eye and +3.50, –1.00 at 55° in the left. Respective keratometries were: 42.3, 60.4 at 17° and 35.8, 39.1 at 151.3°. Cornea transplantation was the recommendation by multiple cornea specialists as the treatment of choice. We decided prior to considering a transplant to employ the Athens Protocol (combined topography-guided partial PRK and CXL in the right eye in February 2010 and in the left eye in September 2010. The treatment plan for both eyes was designed on the topography-guided wavelight excimer laser platform.Results: Fifteen months after the right eye treatment, the right cornea had improved translucency and was topographically stable with uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA 20/50 and CDVA 20/40 with refraction +0.50, –2.00 at 5°. We noted a similar outcome after similar treatment applied in the left eye with UDVA 20/50 and CDVA 20/40 with –0.50, –2.00 at 170° at the 8-month follow-up.Conclusion: In this case, the introduction of successful management of severe cornea abnormalities and scarring with the Athens Protocol may provide an effective alternative to other existing surgical or medical options.Keywords: Athens Protocol, collagen cross

  16. ANALYSIS OF THE RESULTS OF PRESBYOPIA CORRECTION WITH APPLICATION OF A BI-ASPHERIC MULTIFOCAL PROFILE ON THE CORNEA BY THE PRK FOR PATIENTS WITH MYOPIA AND HYPEROPIA

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    E. N. Eskina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To compare the efficacy, safety and predictability of presbyopia correction by the PRK with application of a bi-aspheric multifocal profile on the cornea with PresbyMax software for patients with hyperopia and myopia.Patients and methods: There were 2 patients group of 25 people each (50 eyes. They were operated with PRK method with application of a multifocal biaspheric profile for simultaneous correction of ametropia and presbyopia. Group I — patients with myopia and presbyopia. Group II — patients with hypermetropia and presbyopia.Results. In the group 1 year post operation binocular DUCVA was 0,93±0,19, NUCVA — 0,86±0,14, IUCVA — 0,67±0,11. Only two eyes (4 % lost DBCVA on the 1–2 lines. Target refraction of a dominant eye — emmetropia was 72 % of patients, 28 % observed myopia of –0,75 D. Target refraction of a nondominant eye was –0,75, 68 % had this result, 28 % had deviation –0,50 D of the target refraction, and 4 % — 1,00 D. In group 2 a year post operation binocular DUCVA was 0,96±0,16, NUCVA — 0,77±0,19, IUCVA — 0,64±0,15. Only two eyes (4 % lost DBCVA on the 1–2 lines. Target refraction of a dominant eye — emmetropia was 72 % of patients, 28 % observed myopia of –0,75 D. Target refraction of a nondominant eye was –0,75, 68 % had this result, 32 % had deviation to –0,75 D of the target refraction.Conclusions. PRK with application of a bi-aspheric multifocal profile on the cornea using PresbyMAX software and µ-monovision is effective for correction myopia and hypermetropia. Simultaneous correction of ametropia and presbyopia by the PRK method with the application of the multifocal biospheric profile to the cornea with the formation of a slight anisometropia (the concept of µ-monovision with the PresbyMax software is an effective, safe and predictable method of surgical intervention, both in myopia and hypermetropia.

  17. Evaluation of the adhesive properties of the cornea by means of optical coherence tomography in patients with meibomian gland dysfunction and lacrimal tear deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napoli, Pietro Emanuele; Coronella, Franco; Satta, Giovanni Maria; Galantuomo, Maria Silvana; Fossarello, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to determine the influence of meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) and aqueous tear deficiency dry eye (ADDE) on the adhesive properties of the central cornea by means of optical coherence tomography (OCT), and to investigate the relationship between corneal adhesiveness and classical tear tests, as well as the reliability of results, in these lacrimal functional unit disorders. Prospective, case-control study. Twenty-eight patients with MGD and 27 patients with ADDE were studied. A group of 32 healthy subjects of similar age and gender distribution served as a control group. The adhesive properties of the anterior corneal surface were measured by OCT, based on the retention time of adhesion marker above it, in all participants. An excellent (≥5 minutes), borderline (within 3-5 minutes), fair (within 1-3 minutes) and poor (<1 minute) values of corneal adhesiveness were found, respectively, in 0%, 7.1%, 64.3% and 28.6% of MGD, in 0%, 7.4%, 63% and 29.6% of ADDE, and in 31.3%, 65.6%, 3.1% and 0% of healthy patients. The differences in time of corneal adhesiveness between MGD and healthy patients, as well as between ADDE and healthy patients, were found to be statistically significant (p<0.001; p<0.001; respectively). Conversely, no statistical significant differences between MGD and ADDE were found (p = 0.952). Data analysis revealed a statistically significant correlation between corneal adhesiveness and clinical tests of dry eye, as well as an excellent degree of inter-rater reliability and reproducibility for OCT measurements (p<0.001). ADDE and MGD share similar abnormalities on OCT imaging. Decreased adhesive properties of the anterior cornea were identified as a common feature of MGD and ADDE. This simple OCT approach may provide new clues into the mechanism and evaluation of dry eye syndrome.

  18. Evaluation of the adhesive properties of the cornea by means of optical coherence tomography in patients with meibomian gland dysfunction and lacrimal tear deficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Emanuele Napoli

    Full Text Available The aim was to determine the influence of meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD and aqueous tear deficiency dry eye (ADDE on the adhesive properties of the central cornea by means of optical coherence tomography (OCT, and to investigate the relationship between corneal adhesiveness and classical tear tests, as well as the reliability of results, in these lacrimal functional unit disorders.Prospective, case-control study.Twenty-eight patients with MGD and 27 patients with ADDE were studied. A group of 32 healthy subjects of similar age and gender distribution served as a control group. The adhesive properties of the anterior corneal surface were measured by OCT, based on the retention time of adhesion marker above it, in all participants.An excellent (≥5 minutes, borderline (within 3-5 minutes, fair (within 1-3 minutes and poor (<1 minute values of corneal adhesiveness were found, respectively, in 0%, 7.1%, 64.3% and 28.6% of MGD, in 0%, 7.4%, 63% and 29.6% of ADDE, and in 31.3%, 65.6%, 3.1% and 0% of healthy patients. The differences in time of corneal adhesiveness between MGD and healthy patients, as well as between ADDE and healthy patients, were found to be statistically significant (p<0.001; p<0.001; respectively. Conversely, no statistical significant differences between MGD and ADDE were found (p = 0.952. Data analysis revealed a statistically significant correlation between corneal adhesiveness and clinical tests of dry eye, as well as an excellent degree of inter-rater reliability and reproducibility for OCT measurements (p<0.001.ADDE and MGD share similar abnormalities on OCT imaging. Decreased adhesive properties of the anterior cornea were identified as a common feature of MGD and ADDE. This simple OCT approach may provide new clues into the mechanism and evaluation of dry eye syndrome.

  19. The use of WaveLight® Contoura to create a uniform cornea: the LYRA Protocol. Part 3: the results of 50 treated eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motwani, Manoj

    2017-01-01

    To demonstrate how using the Wavelight Contoura measured astigmatism and axis eliminates corneal astigmatism and creates uniformly shaped corneas. A retrospective analysis was conducted of the first 50 eyes to have bilateral full WaveLight ® Contoura LASIK correction of measured astigmatism and axis (vs conventional manifest refraction), using the Layer Yolked Reduction of Astigmatism Protocol in all cases. All patients had astigmatism corrected, and had at least 1 week of follow-up. Accuracy to desired refractive goal was assessed by postoperative refraction, aberration reduction via calculation of polynomials, and postoperative visions were analyzed as a secondary goal. The average difference of astigmatic power from manifest to measured was 0.5462D (with a range of 0-1.69D), and the average difference of axis was 14.94° (with a range of 0°-89°). Forty-seven of 50 eyes had a goal of plano, 3 had a monovision goal. Astigmatism was fully eliminated from all but 2 eyes, and 1 eye had regression with astigmatism. Of the eyes with plano as the goal, 80.85% were 20/15 or better, and 100% were 20/20 or better. Polynomial analysis postoperatively showed that at 6.5 mm, the average C3 was reduced by 86.5% and the average C5 by 85.14%. Using WaveLight ® Contoura measured astigmatism and axis removes higher order aberrations and allows for the creation of a more uniform cornea with accurate removal of astigmatism, and reduction of aberration polynomials. WaveLight ® Contoura successfully links the refractive correction layer and aberration repair layer using the Layer Yolked Reduction of Astigmatism Protocol to demonstrate how aberration removal can affect refractive correction.

  20. First time identification of Acanthamoeba genotypes in the cornea samples of wild birds; Is Acanthamoeba keratitis making the predatory birds a target?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakavuk, Muhammet; Aykur, Mehmet; Şahar, Esra Atalay; Karakuş, Mehmet; Aldemir, Duygu; Döndüren, Ömer; Özdemir, Hüseyin Gökhan; Can, Hüseyin; Gürüz, Adnan Yüksel; Dağcı, Hande; Döşkaya, Mert

    2017-12-01

    Acanthamoeba is a free-living amoeba which can be isolated from environment and among others well known as an opportunist protozoan parasite causing infections in humans and animals. Eyes are extremely important for the wild birds and losing sight ability due to Acanthamoeba can be dangerous. The studies on Acanthamoeba infection in wild birds is very few in world and Turkey therefore we aimed to screen deceased wild birds found in İzmir and Manisa provinces located in western Turkey using PCR and non-nutrition agar (NNA) plate method. Cornea samples were obtained from 18 deceased wild birds. During the external examination, signs of keratitis were observed in two Eurasian sparrowhawks (Accipiter nisus). All of the corneal samples were analyzed by two PCR methods and NNA plate. According to results, the Acanthamoeba positivity in corneal samples was 16.6% and 5.5% by PCR and plate method, respectively. According to sequencing data, two of isolates belonged to genotype T5 and one was genotype T4. In conclusion, Acanthamoeba infection was detected in wild bird cornea samples with/without keratitis for the first time in the world. The result of this study also show that Acanthamoeba can be a cause of keratitis in wild birds of Turkey and thus these predator birds can be a target of other wild animals due to loss of sight ability. In terms of public health, these results show the importance of wild birds as a source of Acanthamoeba infection in nature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Ultraviolet A: Visible spectral absorbance of the human cornea after transepithelial soaking with dextran-enriched and dextran-free riboflavin 0.1% ophthalmic solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Marco; Micali, Norberto; Villari, Valentina; Serrao, Sebastiano; Pucci, Giuseppe; Barberi, Riccardo; Lombardo, Giuseppe

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the stromal concentration of 2 commercially available transepithelial riboflavin 0.1% solutions in human donor corneas with the use of spectrophotometry. University of Calabria, Rende, Italy. Experimental study. The absorbance spectra of 12 corneal tissues were measured in the 330 to 700 nm wavelength range using a purpose-designed spectrophotometry setup before and after transepithelial corneal soaking with a 15% dextran-enriched riboflavin 0.1% solution (n = 6) or a hypotonic dextran-free riboflavin 0.1% solution (n = 6). Both ophthalmic solutions contained ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and trometamol as enhancers. In addition, 4 deepithelialized corneal tissues underwent stromal soaking with a 20% dextran-enriched riboflavin 0.1% solution and were used as controls. All the riboflavin solutions were applied topically for 30 minutes. The stromal concentration of riboflavin was quantified by analysis of absorbance spectra of the cornea collected before and after application of each solution. The mean stromal riboflavin concentration was 0.012% ± 0.003% (SD), 0.0005% ± 0.0003% (P dextran-enriched, 15% dextran-enriched, and hypotonic dextran-free solutions, respectively. The difference of stromal riboflavin concentration between the 2 transepithelial solutions was statistically significant (P Dextran-enriched solutions required complete corneal deepithelialization to permit effective stromal soaking with riboflavin. Nevertheless, riboflavin in hypotonic dextran-free solution with enhancers permeates across stroma through an intact epithelium. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2015 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The grave necessity to make eye bank specular microscopy mandatory in all eye banks in the subcontinent to improve utilization of scarce donor corneas

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    Jagruti N Jadeja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Donor tissue scarcity, Eye Bank Specular Microscopy as yet not made mandatory and tissue utilization often based on clinical judgment only. Aims: Prospectively analyze alteration in clinical grading of donor corneas and hence utilization, based on Eye Bank Specular Microscopy (EBSM and to infer if EBSM should be mandatory in all eye banks. Materials and Methods: 200 consecutive otherwise ′suitable for surgery′ donor eyes were graded clinically. On quantitative and qualitative analysis of endothelial cells by EBSM, final grading was adjusted. Impact on subsequent utilization for various surgeries was analyzed with regard to Age of Donor, Death to Enucleation Time, Death to Preservation Time and Lens Status of Donor Eye. Results: 76 eyes (38% (P 60 years showed CD >= 2500. From donor >=81 years, 2/13 (15.3% eyes showed CD between 2501-3000 and 1 (7.6% eye showed CD > 3000. Owing to better grading after EBSM, 13/14 (92.85% tissues with DTET >6 hours and 5/5 (100% tissues with DTPT > 16 hours were transplanted. Out of 45 (22.5% pseudo-phakic tissues, 21 (46.67% tissues were used for Therapeutic/Tectonic Penetrating Keratoplasty (PKP while 24 (53.33% tissues were used for Optical PKP. Conclusions: EBSM significantly alters final grading of tissues and its subsequent utilization. Acquiring huge importance in areas where adequate supply of corneas is lacking, EBSM becomes an indispensable tool for optimizing availability of qualified tissues for surgery. EBSM should be made a mandatory analysis.

  3. Measurement of body temperature in 300 dogs with a novel noncontact infrared thermometer on the cornea in comparison to a standard rectal digital thermometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreissl, Hannah; Neiger, Reto

    2015-01-01

    To assess the accuracy of obtaining body temperatures in dogs with a noncontact infrared thermometer (NCIT) on the cornea compared with a rectal digital thermometer (RDT). Prospective single center study. University teaching hospital. Three hundred dogs presented with low, normal, or high body temperatures. Three body temperature readings were measured by an RDT and by an NCIT on the cornea of the left eye by 2 investigators (experienced and inexperienced). Results obtained by the 2 methods were compared. Median body temperature measured by the experienced investigator with the RDT and the NCIT were 38.3°C (range 35.5°C-41.1°C; 95% CI: 38.2-38.4°C) and 37.7°C (35.9°C-40.1°C; 95% CI: 37.7°C-37.9°C), respectively. Measurement of RDT as well as of NCIT correlated well between both investigators (rRDT = 0.94; rNCIT = 0.82; respectively, P temperature correlated poorly (r = 0.43; P temperature >39.0°C) showed an area under the curve of 0.76. Mean discomfort score was significantly lower using NCIT compared to RDT measurement (P temperatures obtained by RDT and NCIT. The corneal NCIT measurement tends to underrecognize hypothermic and hyperthermic conditions. Although the use of the NCIT yields faster results and is significantly more comfortable for the dog than the RDT measurement, it cannot be recommended in dogs at this time. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2015.

  4. Evaluation of Biomechanical Changes in Myopia Patients with Unsatisfactory Corneas After Femto Second-Laser In Situ Keratomileusis (FS-LASIK) Concurrent with Accelerated Corneal Collagen Cross-Linking Using Corvis-ST: Two-Year Follow-Up Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Weiwei; Tao, Ye; Wang, Liqiang; Huang, Yifei

    2017-07-27

    BACKGROUND Some myopia patients with unsatisfactory corneas consider corneal refractive surgery for different reasons. Accelerated corneal collagen crosslinking (ACXL) is an effective method to enhance the resistance of the cornea. The present investigation was designed to evaluate the changes of biomechanical properties in patients with myopia and thin corneas after femtosecond-laser in situ keratomileusis (FS-LASIK) concurrent with ACXL. MATERIAL AND METHODS A prospective study was designed. A total of 22 eyes of 11 myopia astigmatism patients with unsatisfactory corneas were enrolled. The patients were assigned to femtosecond-laser in situ keratomileusis concurrent with accelerated corneal collagen crosslinking (FS-LASIK-ACXL). The follow-up duration was 24 months. Manifest refraction, uncorrected (UDVA), and corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), ultra-high-speed camera (Corvis-ST), corneal topography, anterior segment OCT (AS-OCT), Pentacam, and endothelial cell density (ECD) were examined before and after the operation. The corneal biomechanical and refractive data was analyzed using SAS9.3. Data were analyzed through normal distribution test and variance of analysis. The difference was considered as statistically significant when pLASIK-ACXL operation. The values of first applanation length (A1L), the second applanation length (A2L), the first applanation velocity (A1V), the second applanation velocity (A2V), deformation amplitude (DA), highest concavity peak distance (PD), and radius of curvature at the time of highest concavity (HCR) did not show significant difference after the operation. CONCLUSIONS FS-LASIK-ACXL is an effective and safe surgery for improving visual acuity for myopic patients with thin corneas, and it does not increase the risk of iatrogenic keratectasia.

  5. Outcome of corneal transplantation in a private institution in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Nazri; Bou Chacra, Charbel T; Tabbara, Khalid F

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to describe the indications, complications, and outcomes of penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) in Saudi Arabia. In a retrospective, noncomparative interventional case series, the medical records of patients who underwent PKP from January 2000 to December 2008 and had a minimum follow-up of 6 months were reviewed. All corneas were obtained from eye banks in the US. Indications, complications, and outcomes of surgery were recorded. This study was approved by the institutional review board. Eighty-five consecutive eyes were included in this study. There were 52 (61.2%) males and 33 (38.8%) females. The median age was 35.0 years (range 3-85 years), and the median follow-up period was 24 months (range 6-108 months). The indications for PKP were keratoconus, bullous keratopathy, corneal scars, corneal dystrophy, and corneal regraft. The overall graft survival time was 88.9 months ± 4.9 months (mean ± standard error of mean, 95% confidence interval [CI] 79.4 months -98.4 months) while the 3-year and 5-year cumulative survival rates were 90.7% and 84.3%, respectively. Surgical indication (P = 0.038), immune rejection (P < 0.001), preoperative corneal vascularization (P = 0.022), and perioperative high intraocular pressure (P = 0.032) were associated significantly with corneal graft failure in univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis reduced these significant associations to rejection (P < 0.001) and vascularization (P = 0.009). Relative risk for failure in rejected cornea was 16.22 (95% CI 4.99-52.69) and in vascularized cornea was 3.89 (95% CI 1.36-11.09). At last visit following PKP, 34 (40%) eyes had best spectacle-corrected visual acuity of 20/40 or better, and 51 (60.0%) eyes had 20/80 or better. Best spectacle-corrected visual acuity was worse than 20/400 in 15 (17.6%) eyes. The overall corneal graft survival in a private setting in Saudi Arabia can be excellent. Thorough preoperative evaluation and comprehensive postoperative management are

  6. Confocal microscopy findings in deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty performed after Descemet's stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty

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    Pang A

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Audrey Pang,1,2 Karim Mohamed-Noriega,1 Anita S Chan,1,3–5 Jodbhir S Mehta1,3 1Singapore National Eye Centre, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, 3Singapore Eye Research Institute, 4Department of Histopathology, Pathology, Singapore General Hospital, 5Department of Ophthalmology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore Background: This study describes the in vivo confocal microscopy findings in two patients who had deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK following Descemet's stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK. Methods: The study reviewed the cases of two patients who first underwent DSAEK followed by DALK when their vision failed to improve due to residual stromal scarring. In the first case, a DSAEK was performed for a patient with pseudophakic bullous keratopathy. After surgery, the patient's vision failed to improve satisfactorily due to residual anterior stromal opacity and irregularity. Subsequently, the patient underwent a DALK. The same two consecutive operations were performed for a second patient with keratoconus whose previous penetrating keratoplasty had failed and had secondary graft ectasia. In vivo confocal microscopy was performed 2 months after the DALK surgery in both cases. Results: At 3 months after DALK, the best-corrected visual acuity was 6/30 in case 1 and 6/24 in case 2. In vivo confocal microscopy in both cases revealed the presence of quiescent keratocytes in the stroma layers of the DSAEK and DALK grafts, which was similar in the central and peripheral cornea. There was no activated keratocytes or haze noted in the interface between the grafts. Conclusion: Our short-term results show that performing a DALK after a DSAEK is an effective way of restoring cornea clarity in patients with residual anterior stromal opacity. In vivo confocal microscopy showed that there were no activated keratocytes seen in the interface of the grafts, which suggests

  7. Cardiomyopathy in Patients With Hereditary Bullous Epidermolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batalla, A; Vicente, A; Bartrons, J; Prada, F; Fortuny, C; González-Enseñat, M A

    In recent decades, an association has been reported between epidermolysis bullosa (EB) and dilated cardiomyopathy (DC). DC is typically in an advanced phase when detected, leading to a poorer prognosis. Our objective was to determine the prevalence of DC in patients with EB seen in Hospital San Joan de Déu in Barcelona, Spain, between May 1986 and April 2015. This was a descriptive, cross-sectional chart-review study in which we recorded the type and main subtypes of EB and the presence or absence of DC. Fifty-seven patients with EB were found, 19 with EB simplex, 10 with junctional EB, 27 with dystrophic EB (14 dominant dystrophic and 13 recessive dystrophic), and just 1 with Kindler syndrome. DC was detected in only 2 patients with recessive dystrophic EB. Twenty-three patients had presented factors that could have had a causal relationship with the potential onset of DC. DC is a possible complication of EB, particularly in recessive dystrophic EB. Periodic follow-up should be performed to make an early diagnosis and start treatment. Copyright © 2017 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Unusually delayed presentation of persistent Descemet’s membrane tear and detachment after cataract surgery

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    Morkin MI

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Melina I Morkin,1,2 Rehan M Hussain,2 Ryan C Young,2 Tracy Ravin,2 Sander R Dubovy,2 Eduardo C Alfonso2 1Department of Ophthalmology, Shiley Eye Center, University of California – San Diego, San Diego, CA, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA Abstract: A 51-year-old male who had undergone phacoemulsification in his left eye 11 months prior presented with complaint of sudden onset of blurred vision in the same eye. Review of his clinical course, slit-lamp exam, pachymetry, and specular endothelial microscopy led to the diagnosis of acute hydrops caused by Descemet’s membrane dehiscence at the site of the incision. He was initially managed with medical treatment and observation. In the subsequent months of follow-up, the corneal edema and the patient’s visual acuity did not improve. Intracameral gas injection was performed 7 months after presentation, but because of persistent corneal edema and nonattached Descemet’s membrane, penetrating keratoplasty was performed. Histopathologic examination confirmed the diagnosis. The patient has had a clear corneal graft since then. Although Descemet’s membrane detachment is a rather common complication after intraocular surgery, its unusually delayed presentation can also occur, and should not be confused with pseudophakic bullous keratopathy. Many mechanisms have been studied for the development of early tears and detachments after cataract surgery, but little is known about late presentations. The authors explore possible causes, and highlight the importance of instructing patients to avoid eye rubbing and any other type of trauma to the cornea after intraocular surgery. Keywords: Descemet’s membrane tear, detachment, cataract surgery, phacoemulsification

  9. Tarsorrafia: aplicações em um Serviço de Córnea Tarsorrhaphy: applications in a Cornea Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Frensel de Moraes Tzelikis

    2005-02-01

    were evaluated retrospectively. Reviewed data included patient's sex and age, indication for tarsorrhaphy, duration of signs and symptoms before tarsorrhaphy, time for epithelial healing after tarsorrhaphy, type of tarsorrhaphy, complications, follow-up time. RESULTS: Eighteen patients underwent tarsorrhaphy. The indications for a tarsorrhaphy were exposure keratopathy (27.8%, persistent epithelial defect associated with penetrating keratoplasty (38.8%, neurotrophic ulcer (11.1%, dry eye syndrome (5.6%, Stevens-Johnson syndrome (11.1%, and chemical burn (5.6%. The epithelial defect resolved completely in 15 patients (83.3%. Mean duration of signs and symptoms before tarsorrhaphy was 98.7±48.6 days, and time to heal after tarsorrhaphy was 53.2±22.8 days. Of the 18 procedures, two (11.1% were temporary and 16 (88.9% permanent. Complications after tarsorrhaphy were premature opening of the tarsorrhaphy, trichiasis and pyogenic granuloma. CONCLUSION: Tarsorrhaphy is a simple procedure, being also very safe and effective in the management of nonhealing epithelial defects, with a success rate of 83.3% and with minor complications.

  10. The generation of 4-hydroxynonenal, an electrophilic lipid peroxidation end product, in rabbit cornea organ cultures treated with UVB light and nitrogen mustard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Ruijin; Po, Iris; Mishin, Vladimir; Black, Adrienne T.; Heck, Diane E.; Laskin, Debra L.; Sinko, Patrick J.; Gerecke, Donald R.; Gordon, Marion K.; Laskin, Jeffrey D.

    2013-01-01

    The cornea is highly sensitive to oxidative stress, a process that can lead to lipid peroxidation. Ultraviolet light B (UVB) and nitrogen mustard (mechlorethamine) are corneal toxicants known to induce oxidative stress. Using a rabbit air-lifted corneal organ culture model, the oxidative stress responses to these toxicants in the corneal epithelium was characterized. Treatment of the cornea with UVB (0.5 J/cm 2 ) or nitrogen mustard (100 nmol) resulted in the generation of 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), a reactive lipid peroxidation end product. This was associated with increased expression of the antioxidant, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). In human corneal epithelial cells in culture, addition of 4-HNE or 9-nitrooleic acid, a reactive nitrolipid formed during nitrosative stress, caused a time-dependent induction of HO-1 mRNA and protein; maximal responses were evident after 10 h with 30 μM 4-HNE or 6 h with 10 μM 9-nitrooleic acid. 4-HNE and 9-nitrooleic acid were also found to activate Erk1/2, JNK and p38 MAP kinases, as well as phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3)/Akt. Inhibition of p38 blocked 4-HNE- and 9-nitrooleic acid-induced HO-1 expression. Inhibition of Erk1/2, and to a lesser extent, JNK and PI3K/Akt, suppressed only 4-HNE-induced HO-1, while inhibition of JNK and PI3K/Akt, but not Erk1/2, partly reduced 9-nitrooleic acid-induced HO-1. These data indicate that the actions of 4-HNE and 9-nitrooleic acid on corneal epithelial cells are distinct. The sensitivity of corneal epithelial cells to oxidative stress may be an important mechanism mediating tissue injury induced by UVB or nitrogen mustard. - Highlights: • UVB or nitrogen mustard causes rabbit corneal epithelial injury. • 4-Hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) was formed and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) was increased. • 4-HNE induced HO-1 mRNA and protein expression in human corneal epithelial cells. • The induction of HO-1 by 4-HNE was through MAP kinase activation

  11. Analysis of transcriptional isoforms of collagen types IX, II, and I in the developing avian cornea by competitive polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, J M; Gordon, M K; Gibney, E P; Linsenmayer, T F

    1995-01-01

    The genes for the alpha 1(IX), alpha 1(II), and alpha 2(I) collagen chains can give rise to different isoforms of mRNA, generated by alternative promotor usage [for alpha 1(IX) and alpha 2(I)] or alternative splicing [for alpha 1(II)]. In this study, we employed competitive reverse transcriptase PCR to quantitate the amounts of transcriptional isoforms for these genes in the embryonic avian cornea from its inception (about 3 1/2 days of development) to 11 days. In order to compare values at different time points, the results were normalized to those obtained for the "housekeeping" enzyme, glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH). These values were compared to those obtained from other tissues (anterior optic cup and cartilage) that synthesize different combinations of the collagen isoforms. We found that, in the cornea, transcripts from the upstream promotor of alpha 1(IX) collagen (termed "long IX") were predominant at stage 18-20 (about 3 1/2 days), but then fell rapidly, and remained at a low level. By 5 days (just before stromal swelling) the major mRNA isoform of alpha 1(IX) was from the downstream promoter (termed "short IX"). The relative amount of transcript for the short form of type IX collagen rose to a peak at about 6 days of development, and then declined. Throughout this period, the predominant transcriptional isoform of the collagen type II gene was IIA (i.e., containing the alternatively spliced exon 2). This indicates that the molecules of type II collagen that are assembled into heterotypic fibrils with type I collagen possess, at least transiently, an amino-terminal globular domain similar to that found in collagen types I, III, and V. For type I, the "bone/tendon" mRNA isoform of the alpha 2(I) collagen gene was predominant; transcripts from the downstream promotor were at basal levels. In other tissues expressing collagen types IX and II, long IX was expressed predominantly with the IIA form in the anterior optic cup at stage 22/23; in 14 1

  12. In vivo confocal laser microscopy of morphologic changes after small incision lenticule extraction with accelerated cross-linking (SMILE Xtra) in patients with thin corneas and high myopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yugui; Liu, Manli; Zhang, Ting; Zheng, Hua; Sun, Yuan; Yang, Xiaonan; Weng, Shengbei; Lin, Haiqin; Liu, Quan

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the microstructural modifications and safety of small incision lenticule extraction combined with accelerated cross-linking (SMILE Xtra) in high myopia and thin corneas by means of in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) and 3D-OCT after a 6-month follow-up. Forty-three eyes with high myopia and thin corneas were enrolled. All eyes underwent SMILE procedure. After the lenticule was extracted, 0.25% riboflavin was injected into the interface and allowed to diffuse for 60 s. The eye was irradiated with UVA radiation of 30 mW/cm 2 for 90 s through the cap. The total energy delivered was 2.7 J/cm 2 . Morphologic modifications of corneal architecture were evaluated prior to SMILE Xtra and 7 days, 1, 3, and 6 months after SMILE by in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) and 3D-OCT. The corneal epithelial cells showed slight damage until 3 months postoperatively. The subepithelial nerve plexus decreased but no absence within the treatment zone at the first week after treatment, recolonized at 3 months postoperatively, and had mostly recovered at the 6 months postoperative but remained less than its normal baseline state. Keratocytes were absent in the surgical interface area, and the presence of strong reflective particles and cicatricial reaction in the anterior stroma were observed during the entire 6-month examination period. Increased hyperreflectivity was observed from the cap side at a depth of 60 µm to stroma bed at a depth of 388 µm through 6 months. The depth of the demarcation line in 40 eyes (93.0%) was at a mean depth of 296.12 ± 47.86 μm (range, 211-388 μm). No particular change between preoperative and postoperative corneal endothelium was observed. Confocal microscopy showed increased hyperreflectivity in the SMILE Xtra eyes, and no changes in corneal endothelium. We confirmed the safety of the SMILE Xtra but recognize that larger and longer-term studies of SMILE Xtra are necessary.

  13. The generation of 4-hydroxynonenal, an electrophilic lipid peroxidation end product, in rabbit cornea organ cultures treated with UVB light and nitrogen mustard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Ruijin; Po, Iris; Mishin, Vladimir; Black, Adrienne T. [Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Heck, Diane E. [Environmental Science, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY (United States); Laskin, Debra L. [Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Sinko, Patrick J. [Pharmaceutics, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Gerecke, Donald R.; Gordon, Marion K. [Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Laskin, Jeffrey D., E-mail: jlaskin@eohsi.rutgers.edu [Environmental and Occupational Medicine, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ (United States)

    2013-10-15

    The cornea is highly sensitive to oxidative stress, a process that can lead to lipid peroxidation. Ultraviolet light B (UVB) and nitrogen mustard (mechlorethamine) are corneal toxicants known to induce oxidative stress. Using a rabbit air-lifted corneal organ culture model, the oxidative stress responses to these toxicants in the corneal epithelium was characterized. Treatment of the cornea with UVB (0.5 J/cm{sup 2}) or nitrogen mustard (100 nmol) resulted in the generation of 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), a reactive lipid peroxidation end product. This was associated with increased expression of the antioxidant, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). In human corneal epithelial cells in culture, addition of 4-HNE or 9-nitrooleic acid, a reactive nitrolipid formed during nitrosative stress, caused a time-dependent induction of HO-1 mRNA and protein; maximal responses were evident after 10 h with 30 μM 4-HNE or 6 h with 10 μM 9-nitrooleic acid. 4-HNE and 9-nitrooleic acid were also found to activate Erk1/2, JNK and p38 MAP kinases, as well as phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3)/Akt. Inhibition of p38 blocked 4-HNE- and 9-nitrooleic acid-induced HO-1 expression. Inhibition of Erk1/2, and to a lesser extent, JNK and PI3K/Akt, suppressed only 4-HNE-induced HO-1, while inhibition of JNK and PI3K/Akt, but not Erk1/2, partly reduced 9-nitrooleic acid-induced HO-1. These data indicate that the actions of 4-HNE and 9-nitrooleic acid on corneal epithelial cells are distinct. The sensitivity of corneal epithelial cells to oxidative stress may be an important mechanism mediating tissue injury induced by UVB or nitrogen mustard. - Highlights: • UVB or nitrogen mustard causes rabbit corneal epithelial injury. • 4-Hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) was formed and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) was increased. • 4-HNE induced HO-1 mRNA and protein expression in human corneal epithelial cells. • The induction of HO-1 by 4-HNE was through MAP kinase activation.

  14. Coenzyme Q10 instilled as eye drops on the cornea reaches the retina and protects retinal layers from apoptosis in a mouse model of kainate-induced retinal damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lulli, Matteo; Witort, Ewa; Papucci, Laura; Torre, Eugenio; Schipani, Christian; Bergamini, Christian; Dal Monte, Massimo; Capaccioli, Sergio

    2012-12-17

    To evaluate if coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) can protect retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) from apoptosis and, when instilled as eye drops on the cornea, if it can reach the retina and exert its antiapoptotic activity in this area in a mouse model of kainate (KA)-induced retinal damage. Rat primary or cultured RGCs were subjected to glutamate (50 μM) or chemical hypoxia (Antimycin A, 200 μM) or serum withdrawal (FBS, 0.5%) in the presence or absence of CoQ10 (10 μM). Cell viability was evaluated by light microscopy and fluorescence-activated cell sorting analyses. Apoptosis was evaluated by caspase 3/7 activity and mitochondrion depolarization tetramethylrhodamine ethyl ester analysis. CoQ10 transfer to the retina following its instillation as eye drops on the cornea was quantified by HPLC. Retinal protection by CoQ10 (10 μM) eye drops instilled on the cornea was then evaluated in a mouse model of KA-induced excitotoxic retinal cell apoptosis by cleaved caspase 3 immunohistofluorescence, caspase 3/7 activity assays, and quantification of inhibition of RGC loss. CoQ10 significantly increased viable cells by preventing RGC apoptosis. Furthermore, when topically applied as eye drops to the cornea, it reached the retina, thus substantially increasing local CoQ10 concentration and protecting retinal layers from apoptosis. The ability of CoQ10 eye drops to protect retinal cells from apoptosis in the mouse model of KA-induced retinal damage suggests that topical CoQ10 may be evaluated in designing therapies for treating apoptosis-driven retinopathies.

  15. 12(R)-hydroxyicosatetraenoic acid: a cytochrome P450-dependent arachidonate metabolite that inhibits Na+, K+-ATPase in the cornea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartzman, M.L.; Balazy, M.; Masferrer, J.; Abraham, N.G.; McGiff, J.C.; Murphy, R.C.

    1987-01-01

    When corneal microsomes were incubated with arachidonic acid in the presence of an NADPH-generating system, four polar metabolites (compounds A-D) were formed. Synthesis of these metabolites could be inhibited by carbon monoxide, SKF 525A, and anti-cytochrome c reductase antibodies. One of the metabolites, compound C, was found to inhibit partially purified Na + , K + -ATPase from the corneal epithelium in a dose-dependent manner. After compound C was purified by TLC and HPLC, it was found to have a UV absorption spectrum with a maximum absorbance at 236 nm suggesting the presence of a conjugated diene. Mass spectrometric analysis using positive- and negative-ionization modes was carried out on derivatized compound C. Abundant fragment ions were consistent with compound C being a monooxygenated derivative of arachidonic acid with a hydroxyl substituent at carbon-12 of the icosanoid backbone; all deuterium atoms from [ 2 H 8 ]arachidonate were retained in the structure. Compound C was characterized as a 12-hydroxyicosatetraenoic acid. However, only 12(R) isomer was found to be an inhibitor of the Na + , K + -ATPase from the corneal epithelium, suggesting that the biologically active compound C was 12(R)-hydroxyy-5,8,10,14-icosatetraenoic acid. Such an inhibitor of Na + , K + -ATPase synthesized in the cornea may have an important role in regulating ocular transparency and aqueous human secretion

  16. 12(R)-hydroxyicosatetraenoic acid: a cytochrome P450-dependent arachidonate metabolite that inhibits Na/sup +/, K/sup +/-ATPase in the cornea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartzman, M.L.; Balazy, M.; Masferrer, J.; Abraham, N.G.; McGiff, J.C.; Murphy, R.C.

    1987-11-01

    When corneal microsomes were incubated with arachidonic acid in the presence of an NADPH-generating system, four polar metabolites (compounds A-D) were formed. Synthesis of these metabolites could be inhibited by carbon monoxide, SKF 525A, and anti-cytochrome c reductase antibodies. One of the metabolites, compound C, was found to inhibit partially purified Na/sup +/, K/sup +/-ATPase from the corneal epithelium in a dose-dependent manner. After compound C was purified by TLC and HPLC, it was found to have a UV absorption spectrum with a maximum absorbance at 236 nm suggesting the presence of a conjugated diene. Mass spectrometric analysis using positive- and negative-ionization modes was carried out on derivatized compound C. Abundant fragment ions were consistent with compound C being a monooxygenated derivative of arachidonic acid with a hydroxyl substituent at carbon-12 of the icosanoid backbone; all deuterium atoms from (/sup 2/H/sub 8/)arachidonate were retained in the structure. Compound C was characterized as a 12-hydroxyicosatetraenoic acid. However, only 12(R) isomer was found to be an inhibitor of the Na/sup +/, K/sup +/-ATPase from the corneal epithelium, suggesting that the biologically active compound C was 12(R)-hydroxyy-5,8,10,14-icosatetraenoic acid. Such an inhibitor of Na/sup +/, K/sup +/-ATPase synthesized in the cornea may have an important role in regulating ocular transparency and aqueous human secretion.

  17. Efficacy of anti-inflammatory, antibiotic and pleiotropic agents in reversing nitrogen mustard-induced injury in ex vivo cultured rabbit cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Dinesh G; Kant, Rama; Tewari-Singh, Neera; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2018-09-01

    Vesicating agent, Sulfur mustard (SM), causes devastating eye injury; however, there are no effective antidotes available. Using nitrogen mustard (NM), a bi-functional analog of SM, we have earlier reported that NM-induced corneal injury in ex vivo rabbit cornea organ culture model parallels corneal injury reported with SM. Using this model, we have demonstrated the therapeutic efficacy of dexamethasone (DEX), doxycycline (DOX) and silibinin (SB) in reversing NM (2h exposure)-induced corneal injuries when added immediately after washing NM. In the present study, we further examined the efficacy of similar/higher doses of these agents when added immediately, 2, or 4h after washing NM following its 2h exposure. All three treatment agents caused a reversal in established NM-induced injury biomarkers when added immediately or 2h after washing NM following its 2h exposure; however, when treatments were carried out 4h after washing NM, there was no significant effect. Together, our results further show the beneficial effect of these agents in reversing NM-induced corneal injury and indicate the time window for effective treatment. This could be useful towards future development of targeted therapeutics against vesicant-induced ocular injury. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. All-Optical Method to Assess Stromal Concentration of Riboflavin in Conventional and Accelerated UV-A Irradiation of the Human Cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Giuseppe; Micali, Norberto Liborio; Villari, Valentina; Serrao, Sebastiano; Lombardo, Marco

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the concentration of riboflavin in human donor corneas during corneal cross-linking using two-photon optical microscopy and spectrophotometry. Eight corneal tissues were de-epithelialized and soaked with 20% dextran-enriched 0.1% riboflavin solution for 30 minutes. After stromal soaking, three tissues were irradiated using a 3 mW/cm2 UV-A device for 30 minutes and three tissues irradiated using a 10 mW/cm2 device for 9 minutes. Two additional tissues were used as positive controls. A Ti:sapphire laser at 810 nm was used to perform two-photon emission fluorescence (TPEF) and second harmonic generation axial scanning measurements in all specimens before and after stromal soaking and after UV-A irradiation. In addition, spectrophotometry was used to collect the absorbance spectra of each tissue at the same time intervals. Analysis of the absorbance spectra and TPEF signals provided measures of the concentration depth profile of riboflavin in corneal stroma. After stromal soaking, the average peak concentration of riboflavin (0.020% ± 0.001%) was found between a stromal depth of 100 and 250 μm; the concentration of riboflavin was almost constant up to 320 ± 53 μm depth, then decreased toward the endothelium, though riboflavin was still enriched in the posterior stroma (0.016%% ± 0.001%). After conventional and accelerated UV-A irradiation, the concentration of riboflavin decreased uniformly 87% ± 2% and 67% ± 3% (P riboflavin in corneal stroma. The method can assist with the assessment of novel riboflavin formulations and different UV-A irradiation protocols.

  19. Normal X-inactivation mosaicism in corneas of heterozygous FlnaDilp2/+ female mice--a model of human Filamin A (FLNA diseases

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    Douvaras Panagiotis

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some abnormalities of mouse corneal epithelial maintenance can be identified by the atypical mosaic patterns they produce in X-chromosome inactivation mosaics and chimeras. Human FLNA/+ females, heterozygous for X-linked, filamin A gene (FLNA mutations, display a range of disorders and X-inactivation mosaicism is sometimes quantitatively unbalanced. FlnaDilp2/+ mice, heterozygous for an X-linked filamin A (Flna nonsense mutation have variable eye, skeletal and other abnormalities, but X-inactivation mosaicism has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to determine whether X-inactivation mosaicism in the corneal epithelia of FlnaDilp2/+ mice was affected in any way that might predict abnormal corneal epithelial maintenance. Results X-chromosome inactivation mosaicism was studied in the corneal epithelium and a control tissue (liver of FlnaDilp2/+ and wild-type (WT female X-inactivation mosaics, hemizygous for the X-linked, LacZ reporter H253 transgene, using β-galactosidase histochemical staining. The corneal epithelia of FlnaDilp2/+ and WT X-inactivation mosaics showed similar radial, striped patterns, implying epithelial cell movement was not disrupted in FlnaDilp2/+ corneas. Corrected stripe numbers declined with age overall (but not significantly for either genotype individually, consistent with previous reports suggesting an age-related reduction in stem cell function. Corrected stripe numbers were not reduced in FlnaDilp2/+ compared with WT X-inactivation mosaics and mosaicism was not significantly more unbalanced in the corneal epithelia or livers of FlnaDilp2/+ than wild-type Flna+/+ X-inactivation mosaics. Conclusions Mosaic analysis identified no major effect of the mouse FlnaDilp2 mutation on corneal epithelial maintenance or the balance of X-inactivation mosaicism in the corneal epithelium or liver.

  20. Prevalidation trial for a novel in vitro eye irritation test using the reconstructed human cornea-like epithelial model, MCTT HCE™.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hyeri; Kim, Da-Eun; Jang, Won-Hee; An, Susun; Cho, Sun-A; Jung, Mi-Sook; Lee, Ji Eun; Yeo, Kyung-Wook; Koh, Sang Bum; Jeong, Tae-Cheon; Kang, Mi-Jeong; Chun, Young-Jin; Lee, Su-Hyon; Lim, Kyung-Min; Bae, SeungJin

    2017-03-01

    Here, we report the results of a prevalidation trial for an in vitro eye irritation test (EIT) using the reconstructed human cornea-like epithelium, MCTT HCE™. The optimal cutoff to determine irritation in the prediction model was established at 35% with the receiver operation characteristics(ROC) curve for 126 substances. Within-lab(WL) and between-lab(BL) reproducibility was tested for 20 reference substances by 3 participating laboratories. Viability data described by mean±SD or ±1/2 difference between duplicate wells, and scatter plots, demonstrated the WL/BL consistency. WL/BL concordance with the binary decision, whether non-irritant or irritant was estimated to be 85-95% and 95%, respectively. WL/BL reproducibility of viability data was further supported by a strong correlation(ICC, r>0.9). WL/BL agreement of binary decisions was also examined by Fleiss' Kappa statistics, which showed a strong level of agreement (>0.78), nevertheless weaker than the reproducibility of the viability. The EIT with MCTT HCE™ exhibited a sensitivity of 82.2% (60/73), a specificity of 81.1% (43/53), and an accuracy of 81.8% (103/126) for 126 reference substances (for liquids; a sensitivity of 100% (47/47), a specificity of 70.6% (24/34), and an accuracy of 87.7% (71/81), and for solids, a sensitivity of 50% (13/26), a specificity of 100% (19/19), and an accuracy of 71.1% (32/45), suggesting that the accuracy is satisfactory but the sensitivity needs improvement, which shall be addressed through correcting the poor sensitivity for solid substances in future full validation trials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Eye Irritation Test (EIT) for Hazard Identification of Eye Irritating Chemicals using Reconstructed Human Cornea-like Epithelial (RhCE) Tissue Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaluzhny, Yulia; Kandárová, Helena; d'Argembeau-Thornton, Laurence; Kearney, Paul; Klausner, Mitchell

    2015-08-23

    To comply with the Seventh Amendment to the EU Cosmetics Directive and EU REACH legislation, validated non-animal alternative methods for reliable and accurate assessment of ocular toxicity in man are needed. To address this need, we have developed an eye irritation test (EIT) which utilizes a three dimensional reconstructed human cornea-like epithelial (RhCE) tissue model that is based on normal human cells. The EIT is able to separate ocular irritants and corrosives (GHS Categories 1 and 2 combined) and those that do not require labeling (GHS No Category). The test utilizes two separate protocols, one designed for liquid chemicals and a second, similar protocol for solid test articles. The EIT prediction model uses a single exposure period (30 min for liquids, 6 hr for solids) and a single tissue viability cut-off (60.0% as determined by the MTT assay). Based on the results for 83 chemicals (44 liquids and 39 solids) EIT achieved 95.5/68.2/ and 81.8% sensitivity/specificity and accuracy (SS&A) for liquids, 100.0/68.4/ and 84.6% SS&A for solids, and 97.6/68.3/ and 83.1% for overall SS&A. The EIT will contribute significantly to classifying the ocular irritation potential of a wide range of liquid and solid chemicals without the use of animals to meet regulatory testing requirements. The EpiOcular EIT method was implemented in 2015 into the OECD Test Guidelines as TG 492.

  2. Motivos do descarte de córneas captadas pelo banco de olhos do Hospital São Paulo em dois anos Discarding causes of cornea collected by eye bank of São Paulo hospital in two years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Galluzzi dos Santos

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar os motivos do descarte ou não utilização de córneas doadas, cujos tecidos foram captados, preservados e avaliados pelo Banco de Olhos do Hospital São Paulo no período de outubro de 2002 a setembro de 2004. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo analisando os prontuários com as seguintes informações sobre as doações: história clínica e ocular do doador, idade, causa mortis, resultados de exames sorológicos, avaliação do corpo do doador, avaliação biomicroscópica da morfologia do globo ocular e da córnea e contagem celular endotelial. RESULTADOS: De 1.116 córneas doadas no período, 518 (46,41% foram descartadas antes de serem preservadas, sendo 288 (25,80% devido à causa mortis, 56 (5,01% pelo histórico clínico do doador e 174 (15,59% pela avaliação do tecido. Das 598 córneas preservadas, 317 (28,40% foram destinadas ao transplante óptico e 168 (15,05% indicadas para transplantes tectônicos. CONCLUSÃO: A análise do prontuário hospitalar e história clínica do doador foi um importante fator de descarte de córneas antes da preservação. Já a avaliação biomicroscópica realizada na lâmpada de fenda é uma etapa fundamental para qualificação e classificação do tecido adequando-o para o paciente e garantindo um bom resultado cirúrgico.PURPOSE: To analyze causes of discarded donor corneas which were collected and preserved by São Paulo Hospital Eye Bank in a period of two years. METHODS: Retrospective study based in the investigation of donor's medical records, for clinical and ocular factors, age, death cause, serology results, body conditions, slit lamp corneal examination and endothelial cells counting. RESULTS: 1,116 corneas were donated and included in the study, 518 (46.41% were discarded before preservation, 168 (15.05% were not transplanted for optical purpose, but used for tectonic indication. The main reason of cornea discard was the cause of death in 288 (25.80% corneas, second the slit

  3. Facoemulsificação por córnea clara no meridiano mais curvo Phacoemulsification using clear cornea incision in steepest meridian

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    Fernando Pistarini Gonçalves

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Avaliar o efeito da facoemulsificação com incisão em córnea clara no meridiano mais curvo sobre a magnitude do astigmatismo ceratométrico pré-operatório. Mapear a magnitude do astigmatismo cirurgicamente induzido por incisões nas posições nasal (N, temporal (T, temporal superior (TS e temporal inferior (TI. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado estudo ceratométrico prospectivo em 48 olhos de 48 pacientes, submetidos a facoemulsificação com incisão do meridiano mais curvo. As medidas ceratométricas foram realizadas no pré-operatório e um mês após a realização da cirurgia. O astigmatismo cirurgicamente induzido foi determinado pelo método das coordenadas retangulares em 10 passos, modificado. RESULTADOS: Foram operados 21 olhos direitos e 27 olhos esquerdos e, de acordo com a posição das incisões em córnea clara, foram divididos em: 16 olhos N, 4 olhos T, 22 olhos TS, 6 olhos TI. A média da ametropia cilíndrica pré-operatória foi de 1,06D ± 0,65 e a pós-operatória de 0,89D ± 0,80. Houve diminuição estatisticamente significativa no astigmatismo corneal preexistente (p=0,016. A média total de astigmatismo cirurgicamente induzido foi de 0,94D ± 0,56. Em relação aos grupos o astigmatismo cirurgicamente induzido foi de 1,06D ± 0,66 em N, 0,87D ± 0,20 em T, 0,95D ± 0,55 em TS e 0,61D ± 0,25 em TI. Não houve diferença estatística com relação ao astigmatismo cirurgicamente induzido nos grupos N, T, TS e TI (p=0,426. CONCLUSÃO: A técnica se mostrou efetiva na redução do astigmatismo ceratométrico pré-operatório. A média do astigmatismo cirurgicamente induzido foi de 1,06D ± 0,66 em N, 0,95D ± 0,55 em TS, 0,61D ± 0,25 em T e 0,87D ± 0,20 em TI.PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of phacoemulsification through clear cornea incision in the steepest meridian (ISM, on the magnitude of preoperative keratometric astigmatism. To map the magnitude of surgically induced astigmatism (SIA by clear cornea incision

  4. ESTUDO HISTOPATÓLOGICO NAS CÓRNEAS DOS CÃES TRATADOS COM 2-1 FOSFATO DISSÓDICO DE BETAMETASONA E FOSFATO DISSÓDICO/ACETATO DE DEXAMETASONA, QUE RECEBERAM TRASPLANTES COM CÓRNEAS DE SUÍNOS HISTOPHATOLOGICAL STUDY IN CORNEAS OF DOGS, TREATED WITH 2-1 DISSODIC FOSPHATE OF BETAMETHASONE AND DISSODIC FOSPHATED/ACETATE OF DEXAMETHASONE, THAT HAD RECEIVED IMPLANTATION OF SWINE CORNEAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antônio Franco da Silva

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Foram utilizados 10 cães, sem raça definida, com peso médio de 10kg, examinados e considerados sadios. Cada cão, a seu tempo, teve implantada no olho esquerdo córnea de suíno, conservada em câmara úmida pelo período máximo de seis horas. Cada animal antes da cirurgia recebeu 4 mg de fosfato dissódico/acetato de dexametasona, por via intramuscular, e uma gota de fosfato dissódico de betametasona/sulfato de gentamicina colírio. Conservou-se a medicação ocular 4 vezes/dia e a intramuscular semanalmente, até o sacrifício do cão. Cada qual foi sacrificado por processo indolor (thiopental sódico + cloreto de succinilcolina e teve o olho que recebeu implante com córnea de suíno enucleado. Foi injetado formol 10% na câmara do vítreo e a córnea foi removida com aba escleral, tratada e corada com hematoxilina-eosina. Foram analisadas as seguintes áreas: enxerto, áreas adjacentes receptoras e observadas as várias alterações.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Histopatologia; corticosteróides; xenotransplantes; córnea; canino; suíno.

    Ten dogs, with no definitive breed, average weight of 10 kg, were in this research. After being examined and considered healthy they received numbers, from 11 to 20 in their collars. Each dog received implantation, in the left eye, of swine cornea, obtained at Casa de Banha Caçula, a slaughterhouse, and maintained in wet chamber for six hours at most. Before surgery, each animal received 4 mg of dissodic phosphate/acetate dexamethasone IM and, once a week one drop of dissodic phosphate betamethasone and gentamicin sulphate, four times a day, until the 28th day. when the animals were sacrificed through painless process (Thiopental sodic

  5. CLINICAL OUTCOME OF PENETRATING KERATOPLASTY IN CORNEAL OPACITIES OF DIFFERENT AETIOLOGY- A CLINICAL STUDY

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    Dipak Bhuyan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Corneal transplantation or grafting is an operation in which abnormal corneal host tissue is replaced by healthy donor cornea. According to the World Health Organization (WHO, corneal diseases are among the major causes of vision loss and blindness in the world today after cataract and glaucoma. The aim of the study is to- 1. Evaluate the different aetiology of corneal opacity including active infective aetiology as indicated for penetrating keratoplasty. 2. Determine the clinical outcome of penetrating keratoplasty in relation to graft survival, graft rejection and peri-operative complications in different aetiology groups. 3. Determine the final visual outcome. MATERIALS AND METHODS Candidates for keratoplasty were selected from- 1. Eye Bank of Regional Institute of Ophthalmology (R.I.O. 2. R.I.O OPD. The study period was from September 2014 to August 2015. 30 cases were taken in the study. Descriptive statistics were applied to analyse the data wherever necessary. RESULTS 34.6±19.73 yrs. (mean±SD was the mean age at which transplants were done in the study. Out of total 30 cases, 13 (43.33% and 17 (56.66% were male and female, respectively. The different indications for penetrating keratoplasty are- Post ulcer corneal opacity in 14 cases (46.66%, posttraumatic corneal opacity 9 cases (30%, pseudophakic bullous keratopathy 4 cases (13.33%, corneal dystrophy in 2 cases (6.66% and non-healing corneal ulcer in 1 case (3.33%. 16 cases (53.33% showed clear graft till the last follow up while 11 (33.33% cases showed partially clear graft resulting in improved visual outcome while 3 cases (10.00% of the grafts were opaque due to graft failure. CONCLUSION The major indications for penetrating keratoplasty in this part of the world are post ulcer and posttraumatic corneal opacity and majority of them are illiterate agricultural workers who failed to get adequate treatment on time. Graft survival rate is high, which can be attributed to the

  6. Human Asymptomatic Epitope Peptide/CXCL10-Based Prime/Pull Vaccine Induces Herpes Simplex Virus-Specific Gamma Interferon-Positive CD107+ CD8+ T Cells That Infiltrate the Cornea and Trigeminal Ganglia of Humanized HLA Transgenic Rabbits and Protect against Ocular Herpes Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Arif A; Srivastava, Ruchi; Vahed, Hawa; Roy, Soumyabrata; Walia, Sager S; Kim, Grace J; Fouladi, Mona A; Yamada, Taikun; Ly, Vincent T; Lam, Cynthia; Lou, Anthony; Nguyen, Vivianna; Boldbaatar, Undariya; Geertsema, Roger; Fraser, Nigel W; BenMohamed, Lbachir

    2018-06-13

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is a prevalent human pathogen that infects the cornea causing potentially blinding herpetic disease. A clinical herpes vaccine is still lacking. In the present study, a novel prime/pull vaccine was tested in Human Leukocyte Antigen- (HLA-) transgenic rabbit model of ocular herpes (HLA Tg rabbit). Three asymptomatic (ASYMP) peptide epitopes were selected from the HSV-1 membrane glycoprotein C (UL44 400-408 ), the DNA replication binding helicase (UL9 196-204 ), and the tegument protein (UL25 572-580 ), all preferentially recognized by CD8 + T cells from "naturally protected" HSV-1-seropositive healthy ASYMP individuals (who never had recurrent corneal herpetic disease). HLA Tg rabbits were immunized with a mixture of these three ASYMP CD8 + T cell peptide epitopes (UL44 400-408 , UL9 196-204 and UL25 572-580 ), delivered subcutaneously with CpG 2007 adjuvant (prime). Fifteen days later, half of the rabbits received a topical ocular treatment with a recombinant neurotropic AAV8 vector, expressing the T cell-attracting CXCL10 chemokine (pull). The frequency, function of HSV-specific CD8 + T cells induced by the prime/pull vaccine were assessed in peripheral blood, cornea, and trigeminal ganglia (TG). Compared to peptides alone, the peptides/CXCL10 prime/pull vaccine generated frequent polyfunctional gamma interferon-positive (IFN-γ + ) CD107 + CD8 + T cells that infiltrated both the cornea and TG. CD8 + T cells mobilization into cornea and TG of prime/pull- vaccinated rabbits was associated with a significant reduction in corneal herpes infection and disease following an ocular HSV-1 challenge (McKrae). These findings draw attention to the novel prime/pull vaccine strategy to mobilize anti-viral CD8 + T cells into tissues protecting them against herpes infection and disease. IMPORTANCE There is an urgent need for a vaccine against widespread herpes simplex virus infections. The present study demonstrates that immunization of HLA

  7. Resultados e indicações de ceratoplastias penetrantes realizadas por médicos em treinamento, num país em desenvolvimento Indications and results of penetrating keratoplasty performed by training physicians in a developing country

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    Marta Ferrari Teixeira

    2001-11-01

    - "Hospital de Base", in terms of indication for penetrating keratoplasty and final visual acuity. The minimum follow-up to assess the final visual acuity was 6 months. The cases of penetrating keratoplasty were divided into 6 groups of preoperative diagnosis for better comparison and statistical analysis of the final visual acuity. Such groups were: keratoconus, pseudophakic bullous keratopathy, aphakic bullous keratopathy, Fuchs' endothelial distrophy, band keratopathy and leukomas. All surgeries were performed by residents under supervision. Results: Keratoconus was the group that reached the highest average increase of postoperative lines of visual acuity (7.55 ± 2.83 and band keratopathy the smallest one (0.33 ± 3.20. A significant difference was observed among the indications for penetrating keratoplasty when compared to developed countries, where keratoconus is the most predominant indication. Our analysis revealed that the most important indications for penetrating keratoplasty in decreasing order were: leukoma, pseudophakic bullous keratopathy, keratoconus, Fuchs' endothelial distrophy, aphakic bullous keratopathy and band keratopathy. Conclusion: Keratoconus showed significant difference of final visual acuity levels (p value < 0,05 when compared to the other 5 groups of penetrating keratoplasty indications.

  8. Córnea verticilata - marcador clínico da doença de Fabry: relato de caso Cornea verticillata - a clinical marker of Fabry disease: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Azeredo Cordeiro

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A doença de Fabry é erro inato do metabolismo dos glicoesfingolipídeos (GL, resultante da atividade deficiente da enzima alfa-galactosidase A (a-Gal, com herança ligada ao cromossomo X. O acúmulo progressivo de GL nos tecidos resulta nas manifestações clínicas da doença, mais evidentes em homens hemizigotos, e incluem angioqueratomas, acroparestesias, córnea verticilata, hipo-hidrose, envolvimento cardíaco, renal e manifestações cerebrovasculares. Foi realizada avaliação em família acometida pela doença, sendo dois pacientes do sexo feminino e três do sexo masculino. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos a anamnese, exame oftalmológico completo e dosagem da atividade da enzima a-Gal. O único achado clínico presente em todos foi a córnea verticilata. Isto demonstra o importante papel que o exame oftalmológico apresenta no diagnóstico da doença, já que as alterações oculares são tão características.Fabry's disease is a rare X-linked lisosomal storage disorder of glycosphingolipid (GL metabolism, caused by a deficiency of alpha-galactosidase A activity. The progressive accumulation of GL in tissues results in the clinical manifestations of the disease, that are more evident in hemizygous males, and include angiokeratomas, acroparesthesia, cornea verticillata, cardiac and kidney involvement, cerebrovascular manifestations. A family with Fabry's disease including 2 female patients and 3 male patients is reported. The patients were submitted to complete medical history, ophthalmological examination and alpha-galactosidase activity test. Cornea verticillata was a constant finding in all patients. This demonstrates the important role of the ophtalmological examination for the diagnosis of Fabry's disease since the eye findings are so characteristic of the disease.

  9. Implementation of Organ Culture storage of donor corneas: a 3 year study of its impact on the corneal transplant wait list at the Lions New South Wales Eye Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devasahayam, Raj; Georges, Pierre; Hodge, Christopher; Treloggen, Jane; Cooper, Simon; Petsoglou, Con; Sutton, Gerard; Zhu, Meidong

    2016-09-01

    Organ Culture corneal storage offers an extended storage time and increased donor pool and tissue assessment opportunities. In September 2011, the Lions New South Wales Eye Bank (LNSWEB) moved from hypothermic storage to Organ Culture corneal storage. This study evaluates the impact of implementation of Organ Culture on donor eye retrieval and the corneal transplant waiting list over a 3 year period in NSW, Australia. Retrospective review of the LNSWEB data from September 2011 to August 2014. Tissue collection, waiting list and tissue utilization data were recorded. The data from September 2008 to August 2011 for Optisol-GS storage was used for comparison. The annual donor and cornea collection rate increased 35 % and 44 % respectively with Organ Culture compared to Optisol-GS storage. The utilization rate of corneal tissue increased from 73.4 % with hypothermic storage to 77.2 % with Organ Culture storage. The transplant wait list decreased by 77.3 % from September 2011 to August 2014 and correlated with the increased rate of corneal transplantation (r = -0.9381, p banks. The practical benefits of the extended storage time and increased donor assessment opportunities have directly led to an increase in corneal utilization rate and a significant decrease in recipient wait list time.

  10. [Lung volume reduction surgery for emphysema and bullous pulmonary emphysema].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Pimpec-Barthes, F; Das Neves-Pereira, J-C; Cazes, A; Arame, A; Grima, R; Hubsch, J-P; Zukerman, C; Hernigou, A; Badia, A; Bagan, P; Delclaux, C; Dusser, D; Riquet, M

    2012-04-01

    The improvement of respiratory symptoms for emphysematous patients by surgery is a concept that has evolved over time. Initially used for giant bullae, this surgery was then applied to patients with diffuse microbullous emphysema. The physiological and pathological concepts underlying these surgical procedures are the same in both cases: improve respiratory performance by reducing the high intrapleural pressure. The functional benefit of lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) in the severe diffuse emphysema has been validated by the National Emphysema Treatment Trial (NETT) and the later studies which allowed to identify prognostic factors. The quality of the clinical, morphological and functional data made it possible to develop recommendations now widely used in current practice. Surgery for giant bullae occurring on little or moderately emphysematous lung is often a simpler approach but also requires specialised support to optimize its results. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Bullous pemphigoid antigen localization suggests an intracellular association with hemidesmosomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westgate, G E; Weaver, A C; Couchman, J R

    1985-01-01

    immunofluorescent staining for BPA is linear at the basement membrane zone (BMZ) of skin and many other epithelial tissues. At higher magnification however, we observed a punctate staining pattern for BPA which was regular in appearance and suggested localization of BPA to discrete structures at the BMZ. Subsequent...... intracellularly both in vivo and in vitro. We suggest that BPA is not normally a lamina lucida component, but that it may form part of a linkage between the cytoskeleton and the basement membrane....

  12. Pathophysiology of Autoimmune Bullous Diseases: Nature Versus Nurture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Forum; Wilken, Reason; Patel, Falin B; Sultani, Hawa; Bustos, Itzel; Duong, Christopher; Zone, John J; Raychaudhuri, Siba P; Maverakis, Emanual

    2017-01-01

    Pemphigus and pemphigoid are the prototypical immunobullous diseases. Although it has been well established that they are caused by deposition of autoreactive antibodies directed against adherence proteins within the skin, the specific genetic and environmental factors leading to development of these diseases continue to be an area of investigation. Herein, we discuss several of the potential environmental triggers that may induce patients to develop immunobullous diseases including medications, viral infections, UV exposure or other radiation injury and dietary factors. In addition, the potential genetic and immunologic mechanisms contributing to the pathogenesis of pemphigus and pemphigoid will be reviewed. The multifactorial nature of these diseases contributes to their complexity and highlights the importance of a detailed personal and family history when caring for these patients.

  13. Delayed diagnosis of bullous pyoderma gangrenosum with acute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-05-10

    May 10, 2016 ... Infectious Disease, School of Medicine, Inönü University, Malatya, Turkey. Access this article online .... because prompt administration of glucocorticoids or other immunosuppressive ... corneal keratolysis. Am J Clin Pathol ...

  14. Efeito do uso de lente escleral cosmética na sensibilidade tátil corneal em phthisis bulbi Effect of ocular prosthesis on cornea sensitivity in phthisis bulbi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Miriam Dumont Lucci

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Comparar a sensibilidade tátil corneal entre olhos normais e aqueles com phthisis bulbi e avaliar as alterações provocadas na sensibilidade tátil corneal pelo uso de lente escleral cosmética em phthisis bulbi. MÉTODOS: Estudo prospectivo de 23 pacientes com phthisis bulbi unilateral. Foram realizadas medidas da sensibilidade tátil corneal em ambos os olhos utilizando-se o estesiômetro de Cochet-Bonnet antes e após 3 meses do uso da lente escleral cosmética. RESULTADOS: Em todos os pacientes, a medida da sensibilidade tátil corneal no olho com phthisis bulbi foi menor do que no contralateral (controle. Em 96% houve diminuição da sensibilidade tátil corneal após a adaptação da lente escleral cosmética. CONCLUSÃO: Após a adaptação da lente escleral cosmética, ocorre diminuição da sensibilidade tátil corneal nos olhos. A fisiopatologia é semelhante à encontrada nos usuários de lentes de contato.PURPOSE: To compare corneal sensitivity between normal eyes and those whith phthisis bulbi and also to analyze the alterations of corneal sensitivity in phthisis bulbi induced by wearing ocular prosthesis. METHODS: Prospective study of 23 patients with unilateral phthisis bulbi. Bilateral cornea sensitivity was evaluated using the Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometer before and after 3 months of wearing ocular prosthesis. RESULTS: In all patients, corneal sensitivity of the eye with phthisis bulbi was lower than that of the normal eye (control. In 96% there was decrease of corneal sensitivity after adaptation of ocular prosthesis. CONCLUSION: After wearing ocular prosthesis, there is a reduction in corneal sensitivity in phthisis bulbi. The pathophysiology seems to be the same as that found in contact lens wearers.

  15. Healing of cornea following an electric burn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, Tanveer Anjum; Shaikh, Farheen; Ahmad, Khabir

    2012-08-01

    Electrical injuries have become a significant health problem in developing countries because of increase in access to electricity in the last few decades and lack of adequate safety measures. Electrical injuries of eyes are relatively uncommon. A case report of a rapid and complete corneal healing accompanied by satisfactory visual recovery after an electric burn event in a 20-year-old male is reported. The patient had accidental exposure to high voltage live wire while he was repairing it, resulting in severe ocular and superficial body burn. He was not wearing any protective equipment at the time of injury. On examination, the best-corrected visual acuity was counting fingers in the left eye with severe corneal epithelial loss and diffuse corneal oedema. The patient was treated medically, with a rapid corneal healing and resolution of oedema over the next few days. Visual acuity in the worse eye (left) improved to 20/25 from counting fingers.

  16. Sulfur Mustard Damage to Cornea: Preventive Studies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Varma, Shambhu

    2004-01-01

    Studies are in progress to determine the efficacy and mechanism of a formulation containing anti-alkylating, antioxidants and metabolic accelerators present in VM against mustard induced skin toxicity...

  17. Laser assisted robotic surgery in cornea transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Francesca; Micheletti, Filippo; Magni, Giada; Pini, Roberto; Menabuoni, Luca; Leoni, Fabio; Magnani, Bernardo

    2017-03-01

    Robotic surgery is a reality in several surgical fields, such as in gastrointestinal surgery. In ophthalmic surgery the required high spatial precision is limiting the application of robotic system, and even if several attempts have been designed in the last 10 years, only some application in retinal surgery were tested in animal models. The combination of photonics and robotics can really open new frontiers in minimally invasive surgery, improving the precision, reducing tremor, amplifying scale of motion, and automating the procedure. In this manuscript we present the preliminary results in developing a vision guided robotic platform for laser-assisted anterior eye surgery. The robotic console is composed by a robotic arm equipped with an "end effector" designed to deliver laser light to the anterior corneal surface. The main intended application is for laser welding of corneal tissue in laser assisted penetrating keratoplasty and endothelial keratoplasty. The console is equipped with an integrated vision system. The experiment originates from a clear medical demand in order to improve the efficacy of different surgical procedures: when the prototype will be optimized, other surgical areas will be included in its application, such as neurosurgery, urology and spinal surgery.

  18. EYE CLINICAL STUDY IN SWINE CORNEA IMPLANT DOGS TREATED WITH 2-1 BETAMETHASONE DISSODIC FOSPHATE AND DISSODIC FOSPHATED/ACETATE DEXAMETHASONE ESTUDO CLÍNICO NOS OLHOS DOS CÃES, TRATADOS COM 2-1 FOSFATO DISSÓDICO DE BETAMETASONA E FOSFATO DISSÓDICO/ACETATO DE DEXAMETASONA, QUE RECEBERAM IMPLANTES COM CÓRNEAS DE SUÍNOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilo Sérgio Troncoso Chaves

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Ten mixed breed dogs, with a 10 kg average weight, were selected at Centro de Zoonoses de Goiânia. After being examined and considered healthy the dogs were enumerated from 11 to 20 on their collars. Each animal had swine cornea implanted into the left eye. The swine cornea was obtained at Casa de Banha Caçula, a slaughterhouse, and conserved in humid chamber for a maximum 6 hour period. Before surgery, each animal received 4 mg dissodic fosphate/acetate dexamethasone IM and was instilled one drop of betamethasone dissodic fosphate and one drop of gentamicin sulphate, maintaining the ocular medication 4 times/day and the intramuscular medication once a week, until euthanasia. After xenografts being realized, each cornea was examined every 7 days using direct ophthalmoscope to analyse transparency, vessels new formation, episcleral and conjunctival vessels reaction, cornea thickness, depth and presence or absence of deposits into the anterior chamber. On day 7 clinical evaluation, all cornea xenotransplant eyes (100% had lost transparency (++,+++, there was episcleral vessels reaction (P, anterior chamber depth was preserved (N, there wasn’t edema, as well as deposits (A on anterior chamber. On day 14, with the loss of two corneas by “self-trauma”, the other dogs had their implanted corneas (80% completely opaque (+++, with important ciliary reaction (P, edema (A; however, the anterior chamber integrity was preserved (N, without presence of deposits (A. With three more dogs euthanized between days 14 and 21, due to corticosteroids side-effects, the remaining dogs (50% preserved their implants with the day 14 alterations until the end of this experience.

    Foram utilizados 10 cães, sem ra

  19. Avaliações clínica e morfométrica da capacidade angiogênica da membrana de quitosana em córneas de coelhos Clinical and morphometric evaluations of the angiogenic capacity of chitosan membrane in rabbit corneas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago André Carreo Costa

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudar a vascularização corneal (VC induzida pela membrana de quitosana (MQ implantada por enxertia interlamelar na córnea de coelhos. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 16 coelhos. No olho esquerdo procedeu-se enxertia interlamelar de um fragmento de 0,25 x 0,25 cm de MQ (olho tratado. No olho direito realizou-se apenas a microbolsa estromal (olho controle. Avaliaram-se clinicamente os animais aos 1, 3, 7, 15 e 30 dias de pós-operatório. Aos 30 dias mensurou-se a VC pelo Sistema Analisador de Imagens LEICA QWIN-550®. RESULTADOS: Aos sete dias observou-se VC a 1,5±0,93 mm do limbo em direção ao eixo visual. Aos 15 dias houve aumento da VC (4,75±3,20 mm, que se manteve aos 30 dias (4,25±4,10 mm. Os olhos controles não apresentaram quaisquer alterações oculares. Houve diferença estatística (pPURPOSE: To evaluate corneal vascularization (CV induced by interlamellar graft chitosan membrane (CM in rabbit cornea. METHODS: An interlamellar graft with a 0.25 x 0.25 cm CM fragment was performed in the left eye (treated eye. In the right eye, an estromal tunnel was done (control eye. The clinical evaluation was done at 1, 3, 7, 15 and 30 days postoperatively. CV analysis was after 30 days by the Images Analizator System LEICA QWIN-550®. RESULTS: After 7 days, CV at 1.5±0.92 mm from the limbus in direction of the cornea axial area was observed. After 15 days CV increased (4.75±3.19 mm, remaining until day 30 (4.25±4.06 mm. The control eyes did not present any changes. There was a statistical differences of the vascularizated corneal areas between control and treated eyes from the 15th to the 30th postoperative day. CONCLUSION: The chitosan membrane induced corneal angiogenesis when applied to rabbit cornea through an interlamellar graft, which was maintained at low levels until 30 days postoperatively. Although further studies are necessary, the results found here demonstrated the usefulness of chitosan membrane in keratoplasties.

  20. Modified osteo-odonto-keratoprosthesis for treatment of corneal blindness: long-term anatomical and functional outcomes in 181 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcinelli, Giancarlo; Falsini, Benedetto; Taloni, Maurizio; Colliardo, Paolo; Falcinelli, Giovanni

    2005-10-01

    To evaluate long-term anatomical and functional outcomes of a modified osteo-odonto-keratoprosthesis (OOKP) technique for treatment of corneal blindness from various etiologies. Two-hundred three patients (224 eyes) underwent modified OOKP surgery between 1973 and 1999. Of the original cohort, 181 patients (98 men and 83 women; mean [SD], age 54.3 [15] years) in whom a standardized 2-step surgical procedure was performed were included in the study. Preoperative diagnoses were dry eye (n = 70) due to ocular pemphigoid (n = 39), Sjögren syndrome (n = 11), trachoma (n = 8), Lyell syndrome (n = 6), Stevens-Johnson syndrome (n = 4), and graft-vs-host disease (n = 1) and congenital lid coloboma (n = 1), severe corneal burns (n = 68), bullous keratopathy (n = 13), keratitis sequelae (n = 15), and bullous keratopathy secondary to antiglaucoma surgery (n = 15). Several innovations were made to the original Strampelli technique. Median follow-up duration was 12 years (range, 1-25 years). Anatomical complications leading to OOKP loss were found in 11 (6.07%) of 181 patients. Survival analysis estimated that 18 years after surgery, the probability of retaining an intact OOKP was 85% (95% confidence interval, 79.3%-90.7%). Pooling patient groups, mean (SD) best postoperative visual acuity was 0.76 (0.34). Mean (SD) final acuity at the end of follow-up declined slightly (0.69 [0.39]) but significantly (P<.01). In individual diagnostic groups, mean acuity decline reached statistical significance (P<.05) only in the pemphigoid (1 line), trachoma (1 line), and bullous keratopathy secondary to antiglaucoma surgery (2 lines) groups. Survival analysis estimated that 18 years after surgery, the probability of retaining best postoperative visual acuity (within 2 lines) was mean (SD) 55.5% (12.9%). Modified OOKP surgery for corneal blindness of different etiologies may provide, in the long-term, anatomically stable corneal prosthesis as well as an effective, rehabilitating recovery in