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Sample records for bullfrogs rana catesbeiana

  1. Body size affects the predatory interactions between introduced American Bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) and native anurans in China: An experimental study

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    Wang, Y.; Guo, Z.; Pearl, C.A.; Li, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Introduced American Bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) have established breeding populations in several provinces in China since their introduction in 1959. Although Bullfrogs are viewed as a potentially important predator of Chinese native anurans, their impacts in the field are difficult to quantify. We used two experiments to examine factors likely to mediate Bullfrog predation on native anurans. First, we examined effects of Bullfrog size and sex on daily consumption of a common Chinese native (Rana limnocharis). Second, we examined whether Bullfrogs consumed similar proportions of four Chinese natives: Black-Spotted Pond Frog (Rana nigromaculata), Green Pond Frog (Rana plancyi plancyi), Rice Frog (R. limnocharis), and Zhoushan Toad (Bufo bufo gargarizans). We found that larger Rana catesbeiana consumed more R. limnocharis per day than did smaller R. catesbeiana, and that daily consumption of R. limnocharis was positively related to R. catesbeiana body size. When provided with adults of four anurans that differed significantly in body size, R. catesbeiana consumed more individuals of the smallest species (R. limnocharis). However, when provided with similarly sized juveniles of the same four species, R. catesbeiana did not consume any species more than expected by chance. Our results suggest that body size plays an important role in the predatory interactions between R. catesbeiana and Chinese native anurans and that, other things being equal, smaller species and individuals are at greater risk of predation by R. catesbeiana. Copyright 2007 Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles.

  2. Diet of introduced bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana): Predation on and diet overlap with native frogs on Daishan Island, China

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    Wu, Zhengjun; Li, Y.; Wang, Y.; Adams, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    We examined diet of introduced Bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) and three native frog species (Rana limnocharis, Rana nigromaculata, and Bufo bufo gargarizans) co-occurring at a group of ponds on Daishan Island, east of China, to gain insight into the nature of potential interactions between Bullfrogs and native frog species. For postmetamorphic Bullfrogs, aquatic prey items dominated volumetrically. Prey size, diet volume and volumetric percentage of native frogs in diet increased with Bullfrog body size. The number and volumetric percentage of native frogs in the diet were not different for female and male Bullfrogs, and both were higher for adults than for juveniles. Diet overlap between males and juveniles was higher than that between males and females and between females and juveniles. Diet overlap with each native frog species of male Bullfrogs was lower than that of female Bullfrogs and juvenile Bullfrogs. We did not exam effects of Bullfrogs on native frogs but our results suggest that the primary threat posed by juvenile Bullfrogs to native frogs on Daishan Island is competition for food, whereas the primary threat posed by male Bullfrogs is direct predation. Female Bullfrogs may threaten native frogs by both competition and predation. These differences among Bullfrog groups may be attributed to differences in body size and microhabitat use.

  3. Non-specific immune response of bullfrog Rana catesbeiana to intraperitoneal injection of bacterium Aeromonas hydrophila

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Non-specific immune response of bullfrog Rana catesbeiana to pathogenic Aeromonas hydrophila was studied to 60 individuals in two groups. Each bullfrog in bacterium-injected group was injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with 0.2 ml bacterial suspension at a density of 5.2 × 106 CFU/ml, while each one in control group injected i.p. with 0.2 ml sterile saline solution (0.85%, w/v). Three bullfrogs in both groups were sampled at 0, 1, 3, 7, 11, 15 and 20 days post-injection (dpi) for the evaluation of non-specific immune parameters. It was observed that intraperitoneal injection of A. hydrophila significantly increased the number of leucocytes and that of NBT-positive cells in peripheral blood. Significant increases in serum bactericidal activity and serum acid phosphatase activity were also observed in the bacterium-injected frogs when compared with those in the control group. However, a significant reduction was detected in vitro in phagocytosis activity of peripheral blood phagocytes. No significant difference in changes in the number of peripheral erythrocytes, serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and lysozyme activity was detected between the two groups. It is suggested that bullfrogs may produce a series of non-specific immune reactions in response to the A. hydrophila infection.

  4. Malnutrition in farm-cultured bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana fed on bovine milled lung in Argentina

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    J A Coppo, N B Mussart

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The true nutritional requirements of bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana, Anura: Ranidae are still controversial. In Argentine hatcheries, bullfrogs are fed on commercial balanced diets elaborated for fish; high price of balanced food decreases the relationship cost / benefit. This study had the objective to verify the nutritious effectiveness of bovine lung, by means of liveweight gains and metabolic and nutritional biochemical indicators controls. Eighty frogs were randomly divided into experimental (E and control (C groups of 40 animals each. Controls consumed a fish commercial balanced diet (23% protein in dry matter, DM, while those in group E were fed on bovine milled lung (16% protein, DM. Food was administered at a rate of 5% of liveweight/day (DM for both groups. The weighings and collection of samples were made on days 0 and 120. One frog of group C and 8 frogs of group E died during the study. Control animals did not register physical abnormalities. On the other hand, emaciation, adynamia, weakness, anorexy, and skin abnormal coloration were verified in some amphibians of group E. At the end of the study, liveweight and albumin, creatinine, urea, cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, phosphorous and magnesium serum values, were significantly lower in group E than in group C (p < 0.05. This changes are attributed to metabolic imbalances related to malnutrition and reveal that bovine lung is not an appropriate food for captive bullfrog.

  5. Occurrence of heavy metals and antibiotic resistance in bacteria from internal organs of american bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) raised in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Lee SW; M. Najiah; W Wendy; M Nadirah; SH Faizah

    2009-01-01

    A total of 40 bacteria have been successfully isolated from internal organs of the American bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) raised in Malaysia, namely, eight isolates of Aeromonas spp., 21 of Edwardsiella spp., six of Flavobacterium spp. and five of Vibrio spp. In terms of antibiotic susceptibility testing, each isolate was tested against 21 antibiotics, resulting in 482 (57.3%) cases of sensitivity and 61 (7.3%) cases of partial sensitivity. Meanwhile, 297 (35.4%) bacterial isolates were registe...

  6. Identification of Elizabethkingia meningoseptica from American bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) farmed in Sabah, Malaysia using PCR method and future management of outbreak

    OpenAIRE

    Zainuri, N.; Ransangan, J.; Lal, T. M.; Jintoni, B.; Chung, V. S.

    2013-01-01

    Aims: High demand for frog meat in Malaysia especially the American bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) has promoted intensive farming of the animal. However, the farming of American bullfrog is restricted by the occurrence of diseases. This study reports the first isolation of Elizabethkingia meningoseptica from specimens of American bullfrog that suffer from cataract and ‘red-leg’ syndrome.Methodology and Result: The pathogen was isolated from eyes and internal organs (liver, kidney and spleen) of ...

  7. Cathelicidins from the bullfrog Rana catesbeiana provides novel template for peptide antibiotic design.

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    Guiying Ling

    Full Text Available Cathelicidins, a class of gene-encoded effector molecules of vertebrate innate immunity, provide a first line of defense against microbial invasions. Although cathelicidins from mammals, birds, reptiles and fishes have been extensively studied, little is known about cathelicidins from amphibians. Here we report the identification and characterization of two cathelicidins (cathelicidin-RC1 and cathelicidin-RC2 from the bullfrog Rana catesbeiana. The cDNA sequences (677 and 700 bp, respectively encoding the two peptides were successfully cloned from the constructed lung cDNA library of R. catesbeiana. And the deduced mature peptides are composed of 28 and 33 residues, respectively. Structural analysis indicated that cathelicidin-RC1 mainly assumes an amphipathic alpha-helical conformation, while cathelicidin-RC2 could not form stable amphipathic structure. Antimicrobial and bacterial killing kinetic analysis indicated that the synthetic cathelicidin-RC1 possesses potent, broad-spectrum and rapid antimicrobial potency, while cathelicidin-RC2 exhibited very weak antimicrobial activity. Besides, the antimicrobial activity of cathelicidin-RC1 is salt-independent and highly stable. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM analysis indicated that cathelicidin-RC1 kills microorganisms through the disruption of microbial membrane. Moreover, cathelicidin-RC1 exhibited low cytotoxic activity against mammalian normal or tumor cell lines, and low hemolytic activity against human erythrocytes. The potent, broad-spectrum and rapid antimicrobial activity combined with the salt-independence, high stability, low cytotoxic and hemolytic activities make cathelicidin-RC1 an ideal template for the development of novel peptide antibiotics.

  8. Stomach contents from invasive American bullfrogs Rana catesbeiana (= Lithobates catesbeianus on southern Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada

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    Kevin Jancowski

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Invasive alien American bullfrog populations are commonly identified as a pernicious influence on the survival of native species due to their adaptability, proliferation and consequent ecological impacts through competition and predation. However, it has been difficult to determine conclusively their destructive influence due to the fragmentary and geographically dispersed nature of the historical database. An expanding meta-population of invasive American bullfrogs, Rana catesbeiana (= Lithobates catesbeianus, became established on southern Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada in the mid- to late 1980s. An on-going bullfrog control program begun in 2006 offered a unique opportunity to examine the stomach contents removed from 5,075 adult and juvenile bullfrogs collected from 60 sites throughout the active season (April to October. Of 15 classes of organisms identified in the diet, insects were numerically dominant, particularly social wasps and odonates (damselflies and dragonflies. Seasonality and site-specific habitat characteristics influenced prey occurrence and abundance. Native vertebrates in the diet included fish, frogs, salamanders, snakes, lizards, turtles, birds, and mammals, including some of conservation concern. Certain predators of bullfrog tadpoles and juveniles are commonly preyed upon by adult bullfrogs, thereby suppressing their effectiveness as biological checks to bullfrog population growth. Prey species with anti-predator defences, such as wasps and sticklebacks, were sometimes eaten in abundance. Many prey species have some type of anti-predator defence, such as wasp stingers or stickleback spines, but there was no indication of conditioned avoidance to any of these. Results from this study reinforce the conclusion that, as an invasive alien, the American bullfrog is an opportunistic and seemingly unspecialized predator that has a uniquely large and complex ecological footprint both above and below the water surface.

  9. Occurrence of heavy metals and antibiotic resistance in bacteria from internal organs of american bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana raised in Malaysia

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    SW Lee

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 40 bacteria have been successfully isolated from internal organs of the American bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana raised in Malaysia, namely, eight isolates of Aeromonas spp., 21 of Edwardsiella spp., six of Flavobacterium spp. and five of Vibrio spp. In terms of antibiotic susceptibility testing, each isolate was tested against 21 antibiotics, resulting in 482 (57.3% cases of sensitivity and 61 (7.3% cases of partial sensitivity. Meanwhile, 297 (35.4% bacterial isolates were registered as resistant. The multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR index of each bacterial species indicated that bacteria from raised bullfrogs have been exposed to tested antibiotics with results ranging from 0.27 to 0.39. Additionally, high percentages of heavy metal resistance among these isolates were observed, with values ranging from 85.0 to 100.0%. The current results provided us information on bacterial levels of locally farmed bullfrogs exposed to copper, cadmium, chromium as well as 21 types of antibiotics.

  10. Antibiotic Resistance and Heavy Metals Tolerance in Gram-Negative Bacteria from Diseased American Bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) Cultured in Malaysia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M Na-jian; S W Lee; W Wendy; L W Tee; M Nadirah; S H Faizah

    2009-01-01

    A total of 140 bacterial isolates have been successfully isolated from various organs of diseased American bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) cultured in Malaysia. The most frequently isolated bacteria was Edwardsiella spp. (46 isolates) followed by Aeromonas spp. (33 isolates), Flavobacterium spp. (31 isolates), and Vibrio spp. (30 isolates). Majority of the bacterial isolates were found sensitive to furazolidone (85.0%), chloramphenicol (85.0%), oxolinic acid (90.0%), florfenicol (95.0%), and flumequine (97.5%). On the other hand, most of the bacterial isolates were resistant to oleandomycin (77.5%) and lincomycin (87.5%). Nitrofurantoin and flumequine can be inhibited the growth of all of Vibrio spp. whereas all isolates of Edwardsiella spp. were found sensitive to florfenicol and flumequine. Multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) index were in range of 0.30-0.40, indicating that bacterial isolates from cultured bullfrogs may have received high risk exposure to the tested antibiotics. In addition, 90-100% of the isolates were resistant to copper, cadmium, and chromium. These results provided insight information on tolerance level of bacterial isolates from cultured bullfrogs to 21 antibiotics as well as heavy metals.

  11. Effects of testosterone on contractile properties of sexually dimorphic forelimb muscles in male bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana, Shaw 1802

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    Aaron R. Kampe

    2013-07-01

    This study examined the effects of testosterone (T on the contractile properties of two sexually dimorphic forelimb muscles and one non-dimorphic muscle in male bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana, Shaw 1802. The dimorphic muscles in castrated males with testosterone replacement (T+ achieved higher forces and lower fatigability than did castrated males without replaced testosterone (T0 males, but the magnitude of the differences was low and many of the pair-wise comparisons of each muscle property were not statistically significant. However, when taken as a whole, the means of seven contractile properties varied in the directions expected of masculine values in T+ animals in the sexually dimorphic muscles. Moreover, these data, compared with previous data on male and female bullfrogs, show that values for T+ males are similar to normal males and are significantly different from females. The T0 males tended to be intermediate in character between T+ males and females, generally retaining masculine values. This suggests that the exposure of young males to T in their first breeding season produces a masculinizing effect on the sexually dimorphic muscles that is not reversed between breeding seasons when T levels are low. The relatively minor differences in contractile properties between T+ and T0 males may indicate that as circulating T levels rise during breeding season in normal males, contractile properties can be enhanced rapidly to maximal functional levels for breeding success.

  12. Distribution and innervation of putative arterial chemoreceptors in the bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana).

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    Reyes, Catalina; Fong, Angelina Y; Brink, Dee L; Milsom, William K

    2014-11-01

    Peripheral arterial chemoreceptors have been located previously in the carotid labyrinth, the aortic arch, and the pulmocutaneous artery of frogs. In the present study we used cholera toxin B neuronal tract tracing and immunohistochemical markers for cholinergic cells (vesicular acetylcholine transporter [VAChT]), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), and serotonin (5HT) to identify putative O2-sensing cells in Rana catesbeiana. We found potential O2-sensing cells in all three vascular areas innervated by branches of the vagus nerve, whereas only cells in the carotid labyrinth were innervated by the glossopharyngeal nerve. Cells containing either 5HT or TH were found in all three sites, whereas cells containing both neurotransmitters were found only in the carotid labyrinth. Cell bodies containing VAChT were not found at any site. The morphology and innervation of putative O2-sensing cells were similar to those of glomus cells found in other vertebrates. The presence of 5HT- and TH-immunoreactive cells in the aorta, pulmocutaneous artery, and carotid labyrinth appears to reflect a phylogenetic transition between the major neurotransmitter seen in the putative O2-sensing cells of fish (5HT) and those found in the glomus cells of mammals (acetylcholine, adenosine, and catecholamines).

  13. Motor planning modulates sensory-motor control of collision avoidance behavior in the bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana

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    Hideki Nakagawa

    2012-08-01

    In this study, we examined the collision avoidance behavior of the frog, Rana catesbeiana to an approaching object in the upper visual field. The angular velocity of the frog's escape turn showed a significant positive correlation with the turn angle (r2 = 0.5741, P0.05. Thus, the frog was not able to control the velocity of the large escape turns accurately and did not complete the behavior within a constant time. In the latter case, there was a small but significant positive correlation between the threshold angular size and the angular velocity (r2 = 0.1459, P<0.05. This suggests that the threshold is controlled to compensate for the insufficient escape velocity achieved during large turn angles, and could explain a significant negative correlation between the turn angle and the threshold angular size (r2 = 0.1145, P<0.05. Thus, it is likely that the threshold angular size is also controlled by the turn angle and is modulated by motor planning.

  14. Diet composition of post-metamorphic bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) in the Zhoushan archipelago,Zhejiang Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Bullfrogs (Runa catesbeiana) are listed as one of the 100 worst invasive alien species in the world.They are generalist predators and thus may affect native species through predation.In previous studies,the food contents of bullfrogs were mostly examined at a single site.In the present study,the diet composition of post-metamorphic bullfrogs on eight islands (Daishan,Liuheng,Xiushan,Fodu,Taohua,Xiashi,Cezi,and Putuoshan) in the Zhoushan Archipelago,Zhejiang Province of China,were examined by using the stomach flushing method from June 30 to August 11 in 2005.A total 0f391 individual frogs were measured,including 113 adults and 278 juveniles.The analysis of the stomach contents shows that,for adult bullfrogs,the most important prey (by diet volume) overall were Decapoda,Coleoptera,Odonata,Mesogastropoda,Raniformes,and Cypriniformes.For juvenile bullfrogs,these were Decapoda,Coleoptera,Cypriniformes,Odonata,Orthoptera,Hymenoptera,Lepidoptera larvae,Mesogastropoda,and Raniformes.Moreover,the prey size and diet volume increased with the body size of both adult and juvenile bullfrogs.The diet composition of primary preys of bullfrogs was significantly different among the islands.The results indicate that bullfrogs exert different predatory influences on native fauna at different sites and that bullfrogs are generalist predators with extensive ecological impacts on native fauna.

  15. Bullfrog tadpole (Rana catesbeiana) and red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) predation on early life stages of endangered razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus)

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    Mueller, G.A.; Carpenter, J.; Thornbrugh, D.

    2006-01-01

    Bullfrog tadpoles (Rana catesbeiana) and red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) are widespread introduced taxa that are problematic throughout the western United States. Their impact on native amphibians and crustaceans is well documented, but less is known regarding their influence on native fishes. Predator-prey tank tests showed both species consumed eggs and larvae of the endangered razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus) in a laboratory setting. Tadpoles consumed 2.2 razorback sucker eggs/d and 1.4 razorback sucker larvae/d, while crayfish ate 6.0 eggs/d and 3.5 larvae/d. Relatively high densities of bullfrog tadpoles and crayfish in razorback sucker spawning areas suggest that these nonnative taxa might pose a threat to the recruitment success of this and other imperiled native fish.

  16. Ovine thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) heterologously stimulates production of thyroid hormones from Chinese soft-shell turtle (Pelodiscus sinensis) and bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana and Rana rugulosa) thyroids in vitro.

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    Huang, Wei-Tung; Chien, Jung-Tsun; Weng, Ching-Feng; Jeng, Yung-Yue; Lu, Li-Chia; Yu, John Yuh-Lin

    2009-06-01

    Thyroid hormones are important for regulating a variety of developmental processes in vertebrates, including growth, differentiation, metamorphosis, and oxidative metabolism. In particular, this study focused on the in vitro production of thyroxine (T(4)) and triiodothyronine (T(3)) from thyroids in American bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana), Chinese bullfrogs (Rana rugulosa Wiegmann), and Chinese soft-shell turtles (Pelodiscus sinensis) treated with ovine thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) at different culture intervals (2, 4, 8, and 12 h) and dosages (1, 10, 50 or 100 ng). The levels of T(4) and T(3) in the tested animals were elevated upon stimulation in a time- and dose-dependent manner, indicating de novo synthesis of T(4) and T(3). Significantly higher hormone levels were observed in the Chinese bullfrog compared to the other two species, for both the time-course and dose-response experiments. Although the bullfrog secreted significantly higher levels of T(4) and T(3), a higher T(4)-conversion capacity was found in the Chinese soft-shell turtle. The highest ratios of T(3) to T(4) were observed in the American bullfrog and Chinese soft-shell turtle for the time-course and dose-response experiments, respectively. These findings suggest that the Chinese soft-shell turtle and bullfrog thyroids can accept ovine TSH for T(4)- and T(3)-formation in a time- and dose-dependent manner, supporting the hypothesis that the binding interactions between TSHs and thyroidal receptors are conserved in vertebrates. PMID:19535032

  17. Vehicle effects on in vitro transdermal absorption of sevoflurane in the bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana.

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    Ardente, Amanda J; Barlow, Beth M; Burns, Patrick; Goldman, Rebecca; Baynes, Ronald E

    2008-05-01

    The experimental objectives were to identify a vehicle which produces a homogenous formulation when combined with the anesthetic solution sevoflurane and understand the dermal absorption of sevoflurane in silastic membranes and amphibian skin in vitro utilizing a flow-through diffusion system. Seven vehicles were evaluated in varying ratios with 5 formulations resulting in the desired homogenous consistency for practical application. Sevoflurane diffusion across silastic membranes was influenced by pluronic/lecithin organogel (PLO), pluronic F 127 20% gel, and sterile lube. Flux and permeability across silastic membranes were significantly greater in sterile lube than in the other formulations. While no significant vehicle effects were observed in bullfrog skin, the flux-time profiles suggest that sevoflurane diffusion in bullfrog skin may be positively influenced by PLO. Future in vivo studies are required to assess sevoflurane retention after removal of these formulations to more accurately control the plane of anesthesia in amphibians.

  18. Call recognition in the bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana: Generalization along the duration continuuma)

    OpenAIRE

    Simmons, Andrea Megela

    2004-01-01

    Male bullfrogs emit multicroak, quasiharmonic advertisement calls that function in mate attraction and neighbor recognition. The degree of variability of acoustic features in these calls can influence perceptual decisions by conspecific receivers. Analysis of duration of individual croaks in spontaneous advertisement calls of a sample of males shows considerable intraindividual variability in this feature, even within short chorusing bouts. The influence of this intraindividual variability on...

  19. Identification of Elizabethkingia meningoseptica from American bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana farmed in Sabah, Malaysia using PCR method and future management of outbreak

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    Zainuri, N.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: High demand for frog meat in Malaysia especially the American bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana has promoted intensive farming of the animal. However, the farming of American bullfrog is restricted by the occurrence of diseases. This study reports the first isolation of Elizabethkingia meningoseptica from specimens of American bullfrog that suffer from cataract and ‘red-leg’ syndrome.Methodology and Result: The pathogen was isolated from eyes and internal organs (liver, kidney and spleen of thediseased bullfrog specimens. All the bacterial isolates were subjected to phenotypic characterization and antibiotic susceptibility assay, and further identified by using the 16S rDNA sequencing analysis. We designed two pair of specific PCR primers (22-25 mers which are complimentary to the β-lactamase gene in the reference strain ofE. meningoseptica ATCC49470. The result showed all the bacterial isolates shared similar phenotypic characters and antibiotic susceptibility. BLAST analysis of the 16S rDNA sequences indicated that the bacterial isolates had very high sequence homology (100% with E. meningospetica ATCC49470 and E. meningoseptica isolates from mosquito. The two PCR primers were very specific to E. meningoseptica isolates of this study. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: This is the first isolation and characterization of bacterial pathogen, E. meningoseptica in cultured American bullfrog (Rana catesbeina that suffered from eye cataract and ‘red-leg’syndrome in Sabah, Malaysia. It is suspected that one of the possible transmission routes of the bacterial pathogen could be via mosquito bites. The findings suggest that there is urgent requirement for standard guideline of good farming practice to be adopted in frog farms throughout the country. Such a guideline can help in minimizing economic losses, preventing transmission of the zoonotic bacterial pathogen to farm workers, and sustaining the industry in Malaysia andupgrading

  20. Call recognition in the bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana: Generalization along the duration continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Andrea Megela

    2004-03-01

    Male bullfrogs emit multicroak, quasiharmonic advertisement calls that function in mate attraction and neighbor recognition. The degree of variability of acoustic features in these calls can influence perceptual decisions by conspecific receivers. Analysis of duration of individual croaks in spontaneous advertisement calls of a sample of males shows considerable intraindividual variability in this feature, even within short chorusing bouts. The influence of this intraindividual variability on behavior was examined in a series of evoked calling experiments. When presented with synthetic calls whose croak durations varied over the range of the natural variability in this feature, males responded similarly to intermediate and long duration croaks, but significantly less to short duration croaks. When presented with playbacks of calls with croak durations outside the natural range of variability, males again responded significantly less to shorter durations. The response gradient for duration is thus asymmetrical, with stimuli at the shorter end of the continuum evoking fewer responses than stimuli at the longer end. This asymmetry may be related to the biological demands of rejecting perception of heterospecific advertisement calls, and of mediating appropriate responses to conspecific aggressive calls. The shape of the response gradient for duration may reflect a process of stimulus generalization.

  1. Exposure to lead induces hypoxia-like responses in bullfrog larvae (Rana catesbeiana)

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    Rice, T.M.; Blackstone, B.J.; Nixdorf, W.L.; Taylor, D.H.

    1999-10-01

    Amphibians collected around mining sites, areas with extensive automobile traffic, and shooting ranges have been documented to contain high levels of lead. Lead-exposed amphibians might respond as if in hypoxic conditions because exposure is known to decrease hemoglobin levels, damage erythrocytes, and alter respiratory surfaces. Therefore, the authors exposed bullfrog larvae to either 0 or 780 {micro}g/L Pb and either 3.50 or 7.85 mg/L oxygen for 7 d and monitored activity, trips to the surface, and buccal ventilation rates. Activity was significantly decreased in larvae exposed to low oxygen, Pb, or both compared to activity of larvae in high oxygen with no Pb. Larvae exposed to both Pb and low oxygen displayed higher buccal ventilation rates than larvae exposed to either treatment separately. Lead-exposed larvae surfaced significantly more often than unexposed larvae even under high-oxygen conditions. Lead-exposed larvae decreased in mass during the exposure period, whereas unexposed larvae increased in mass. Lead exposure could decrease survival of larvae in the field not only because of physiological problems due to decreased oxygen uptake but also because of greater predation pressure due to increased presence at the surface and reduced growth rates.

  2. Molecular cloning and expression of prohormone convertases PC1 and PC2 in the pituitary gland of the bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana.

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    Yaoi, Yuichi; Suzuki, Masakazu; Tomura, Hideaki; Kikuyama, Sakae; Tanaka, Shigeyasu

    2003-09-01

    We cloned cDNAs encoding PC1 and PC2 from a cDNA library constructed for the anterior pituitary gland of the bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) and sequenced them. The bullfrog PC1 cDNA consisted of 2972 base pairs (bp) with an open reading frame of 2208 bp and encoded a protein of 736 amino acids, including a putative signal peptide of 26 amino acids. The protein showed a high homology to R. ridibunda PC1 (95.1%) and mammalian PC1 (72.6%). The bullfrog PC2 cDNA consisted of 2242 bp with an open reading frame of 1914 bp and encoded a protein of 638 amino acids, including a putative signal peptide of 23 amino acids. This protein showed a high homology to R. ridibunda PC2 (95.5%) and mammalian PC2 (84.8%). The catalytic triad of serine proteinases of the subtilisin family was found at Asp-168, His-209, and Ser-383 in the PC1 protein and at Asp-167, His-208, and Ser-384 in the PC2 protein. In situ hybridization staining revealed that PC2 mRNA was detected in corticotrope cells of the tadpoles, but not in those of the adults. In the adult, only PC1 mRNA was detected in the pars distalis but both PC1 and PC2 mRNAs were detected in the pars intermedia. The data also showed that PC1 mRNA was expressed in gonadotrope cells. PMID:14578575

  3. Effect of bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana oil administered by gavage on the fatty acid composition and oxidative stress of mouse liver

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    L.P. Silva

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of daily intragastric administration of bullfrog oil (oleic, linoleic and palmitoleic acid-rich oil, corresponding to 0.4% of body weight for four weeks, on fatty acid composition and oxidative stress (lipid peroxidation and catalase activity in mouse liver. The activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT, biomarkers of tissue injury, were determined in liver homogenates and serum. The proportions of 18:2n-6, 20:4n-6, 20:5n-3, and 22:6n-3 (polyunsaturated fatty acids, from 37 to 60% in the total fatty acid content were increased in the liver of the bullfrog oil-treated group (P < 0.05 compared to control. At the same time, a significant decrease in the relative abundance of 14:0, 16:0, and 18:0 (saturated fatty acids, from 49 to 25% was observed. The hepatic content of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS was increased from 2.3 ± 0.2 to 12.3 ± 0.3 nmol TBA-MDA/mg protein and catalase activity was increased from 840 ± 32 to 1110 ± 45 µmol reduced H2O2 min-1 mg protein-1 in the treated group. Bullfrog oil administration increased AST and ALP activities in the liver (from 234.10 ± 0.12 to 342.84 ± 0.13 and 9.38 ± 0.60 to 20.06 ± 0.27 U/g, respectively and in serum (from 95.41 ± 6.13 to 120.32 ± 3.15 and 234.75 ± 11.5 to 254.41 ± 2.73 U/l, respectively, suggesting that this treatment induced tissue damage. ALT activity was increased from 287.28 ± 0.29 to 315.98 ± 0.34 U/g in the liver but remained unchanged in serum, whereas the GGT activity was not affected by bullfrog oil treatment. Therefore, despite the interesting modulation of fatty acids by bullfrog oil, a possible therapeutic use requires care since some adverse effects were observed in liver.

  4. Comportamento alimentar e qualidade da água em tanques de criação de girinos de rã-touro Rana catesbeiana - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v30i1.3619 Feeding behavior and water quality in tanks conataining bullfrog tadpoles Rana catesbeiana - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v30i1.3619

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joceli Cristina Leite de Morais

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o comportamento alimentar e a qualidade da água em tanques de criação de girinos de rã-touro Rana catesbeiana durante 56 dias, a partir do estágio 25 da Tabela de Gosner (1960, criados em tanques de alvenaria com capacidade de 1000 L. Os girinos que receberam ração (R e alga + plâncton + ração (APR apresentaram o melhor peso e sobrevivência, diferindo significativamente (p s = 0,39; p The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of food treatments and water quality on the development of bullfrog tadpoles. The analysis, carried out in 1000 L tanks, was undertaken by weight and survival rates, during 56 days, as from stage 25 (Gosner, 1960. Treatments with ration (R and algae + plankton + ration (APR had the best results in weight and survival rates, which were significantly different (p s = 0.39; p < 0.05. From the 14th day of age, bullfrog tadpoles changed their feeding behavior, or rather, a search for food items other than plankton occurred. The utilization of combined natural and artificial (ration diets to feed bullfrog tadpoles was feasible and yielded a satisfactory development in the animals.

  5. Relação de variáveis ambientais em baias cobertas com polietileno e desempenho da rã-touro (Rana catesbeiana Relationship between environmental variables in sheds covered with a polyethylene structure and the performance of bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia M. Teodoro

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho visou a relacionar variáveis ambientais em instalação para criação de rãs, com cobertura de polietileno e baias construídas usando material alternativo, com o desempenho de rãs-touro (Rana catesbeiana. No interior das baias, foram medidas as temperaturas do piso, do ar ambiente (bulbo seco, de bulbo úmido, globo negro e da água do reservatório. Foram utilizados 60 animais por baia e três baias por galpão. As variáveis de desempenho estudadas foram peso vivo, ganho de peso e conversão alimentar. Nas condições experimentais, quando a temperatura do ar atingiu valores abaixo de 10 ºC ou superiores a 40 ºC, houve diminuição no consumo de ração pelos animais. Concluiu-se que o estresse predominante, neste tipo de estrutura, para as condições climáticas do período experimental, foi devido, principalmente, às baixas temperaturas. Concluiu-se, ainda, que o uso do Índice de Temperatura e Umidade (THI, na estimativa de variáveis de desempenho, melhorou a precisão da estimativa em relação ao uso exclusivo da temperatura do ar, embora valores desse índice, considerados estressantes para animais superiores, não o tenham sido para as rãs.The objective of this project was to find correlations between environmental variables of an installation used for raising frogs and the performance of the Bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana. Each installation included a shed built with alternative materials covered by a polyethylene structure. Floor, air (dry bulb, wet bulb, black globe and swimming water temperatures were measured inside the sheds. Sixty bullfrogs were raised in each shed with three sheds in each structure. The performance variables studied, included live weight, weight gain and food conversion. A decrease in food consumption was observed each time air temperatures fell below 10 ºC or went above 40 ºC. It was concluded that the main stress factor in this kind of structure and these climatic conditions during the

  6. Immunocytochemical localization of secretory phospholipase A(2)-like protein in the pituitary gland and surrounding tissue of the bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaoi, Y; Kikuyama, S; Hayashi, H; Hanaoka, Y; Sakai, M; Tanaka, S

    2001-05-01

    Previously, we obtained a protein that has considerable amino acid sequence homology with secretory phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) from a bullfrog pituitary fraction obtained during the purification of thyrotropin (TSH). Subsequently, partial amino acid sequence (N-terminal 45 amino acid residues) analysis revealed this protein to be identical to the N-terminal amino acid sequence of otoconin-22, the major protein of aragonitic otoconia in the Xenopus saccule. In this study we developed an antibody against the N-terminal peptide of the bullfrog protein and applied it for immunocytochemical study of the pituitary and its surrounding tissue. Western blotting analysis showed that this antibody recognizes a 20.4-kD protein that has a molecular mass close to that of otoconin-22. Immunohistochemical reaction with the antibody was not found in any anterior pituitary cells but was intense in the monolayer epithelial cells of the endolymphatic sac surrounding the pituitary gland, which is a major storage site of calcium carbonate in amphibians. An electron microscopic study revealed that the cuboidal cells in the endolymphatic sac contained large, polymorphic secretory granules in their apical cytoplasm. Immunogold particles indicating the presence of a PLA(2)-like protein were observed predominately in these secretory granules. These findings support the view that this PLA(2)-like protein obtained during purification of TSH was derived from the endolymphatic sac adhering to the pituitary and that this protein is a bullfrog otoconin. (J Histochem Cytochem 49:631-637, 2001) PMID:11304801

  7. 饲料中添加胆汁酸对牛蛙生长性能、体组成和营养物质表观消化率的影响%EFFECTS OF DIETARY BILE ACID SUPPLEMENTATION ON THE GROWTH, WHOLE-BODY COMPOSITION AND APPARENT NUTRIENT DIGESTIBILITY OF BULLFROG (RANA CATESBEIANA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡田恩; 王玲; 张春晓; 宋凯; 李金宝

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effects of dietary bile acids (BAs) on growth performance, body composition and apparent di-gestibility of dry matter, protein and lipid in diets for bullfrog,Rana catesbeiana,one hundred and forty-four bullfrogs were randomized to the same diet supplemented with four different levels of BAs (0, 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg). Compared with the control group, percent weight gain (PWG), specific growth rate (SGR), feed efficiency (FE), protein efficiency ratio (PER) and nitrogen retention rate (NRR) of bullfrog were significantly higher at 200 mg/kg BAs-supplemented diet (P0.05). BAs did not significantly affect the contents of moisture, crude protein, crude ash in muscle and body of bullfrog, but it significantly decreased body lipid content without interfering muscle lipid content. No significant differences were found on the levels of triglycerides (TG), cholesterol (CHO), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) in serum cross groups (P>0.05). BAs diminished decreased blood urea nitrogen (BUN) concentration, and 300 mg/kg BAs-supplemented diet has the most dramatic effect. Serum glucose (GLU) concentration lowered significantly with decreasing dietary BAs from 0 mg/kg to 100 mg/kg, and then increased significantly (P0.05). Dietary BAs levels had no influence on the intestinal amylase activities. The highest dietary nutrient apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) was observed in 200 mg/kg BAs-supplemented diet, and the lowestADC value was in the control group (P0.05)。200 mg/kg胆汁酸添加组牛蛙的增重率、特定生长率、饲料效率、蛋白质效率和氮保留率显著高于对照组(P0.05)。各处理组间血清总胆固醇、甘油三酯、高密度脂蛋白胆固醇和低密度脂蛋白胆固醇浓度均无显著变化(P>0.05),血清尿素氮含量随着饲料中胆汁酸添加量的增加而降低,添加300 mg/kg胆汁酸组牛蛙血清尿素氮含量显著低于对照组(P0

  8. Histologia do rim, fígado e intestino de girinos de rã-touro (Rana catesbeiana alimentados com dietas contendo própolis Histology of kidney, liver and intestine of bullfrog tadpoles (Rana catesbeiana fed with diets containing propolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Ricardo Romero Arauco

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo verificar a ocorrência de possíveis alterações no fígado, rim e intestino de girinos de rã-touro no estágio 42, alimentados com dietas contendo diferentes concentrações (0,0; 0,2; 0,5; 1,0; e 1,5% de extrato hidroalcoólico de própolis. O experimento foi conduzido no laboratório de Nutrição de Organismos Aquáticos do Centro de Aqüicultura da UNESP, onde foram utilizados 1.400 girinos no estágio 26, distribuídos em vinte tanques experimentais. No final do experimento (60 dias, foram sacrificados três girinos de cada repetição e retiradas amostras de rim, fígado e intestino para processamento de lâminas histológicas no Laboratório de Histologia do Departamento de Morfologia e Fisiologia Animal da FCAV - UNESP. As amostras foram fixadas, desidratadas, coradas com HE, analisadas, fotomicrografadas e medida a espessura do epitélio intestinal. Não foram observadas alterações histológicas no intestino, rins e fígado dos girinos. A espessura do epitélio do intestino dos mesmos não foi influenciada (P>0,05 pelas concentrações de própolis.This research was aimed at verifying the occurrence of possible alterations in liver, kidney and intestine of bullfrog tadpoles in stage 42 fed with diets containing different concentrations (0.0; 0.2; 0.5; 1.0 and 1.5% of propolis hydroalcoholic extract. The experiment was carried out in laboratory of Aquatic Organisms Nutrition from Aquaculture Center of UNESP, where 1,400 tadpoles in stage 26 were used and distributed in twenty experimental aquariums. In the end of experiment (60 days three tadpoles from each repetition were sacrificed and kidney, liver and intestine samples were collected to processing of histological slices in Histology´s Laboratory pertaining to Department of Morphology and Physiology from FCAV - UNESP. Samples were fixed, dehydrated, stained in HE, analysed, photomicrographed and thickness of intestinal epithelium was measured

  9. De novo Transcriptome Assemblies of Rana (Lithobates catesbeiana and Xenopus laevis Tadpole Livers for Comparative Genomics without Reference Genomes.

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    Inanc Birol

    Full Text Available In this work we studied the liver transcriptomes of two frog species, the American bullfrog (Rana (Lithobates catesbeiana and the African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis. We used high throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq data to assemble and annotate these transcriptomes, and compared how their baseline expression profiles change when tadpoles of the two species are exposed to thyroid hormone. We generated more than 1.5 billion RNA-seq reads in total for the two species under two conditions as treatment/control pairs. We de novo assembled these reads using Trans-ABySS to reconstruct reference transcriptomes, obtaining over 350,000 and 130,000 putative transcripts for R. catesbeiana and X. laevis, respectively. Using available genomics resources for X. laevis, we annotated over 97% of our X. laevis transcriptome contigs, demonstrating the utility and efficacy of our methodology. Leveraging this validated analysis pipeline, we also annotated the assembled R. catesbeiana transcriptome. We used the expression profiles of the annotated genes of the two species to examine the similarities and differences between the tadpole liver transcriptomes. We also compared the gene ontology terms of expressed genes to measure how the animals react to a challenge by thyroid hormone. Our study reports three main conclusions. First, de novo assembly of RNA-seq data is a powerful method for annotating and establishing transcriptomes of non-model organisms. Second, the liver transcriptomes of the two frog species, R. catesbeiana and X. laevis, show many common features, and the distribution of their gene ontology profiles are statistically indistinguishable. Third, although they broadly respond the same way to the presence of thyroid hormone in their environment, their receptor/signal transduction pathways display marked differences.

  10. Efeito da temperatura e do fotoperíodo sobre o desenvolvimento do aparelho reprodutor de rã-touro (Rana catesbeiana Shaw, 1802 Effect of the temperature and the photoperiod on the development of bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana Shaw, 1802 reproduction apparel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Roberto Chim Figueiredo

    2001-06-01

    combination of the temperatures of 26.0 and 29.0°C with photoperiods of 8/16, 12/12 and 16/8 h L/D, until they reach the gonadal maturity. Temperature interacted with photoperiod in its effects on the development of the reproductive organs of bullfrog. Temperature affected the diameter of the abdomen/distance relation between the eyes, with higher values calculated for 26°C. It was considered that the highest ovocites diameters are obtained under a temperature of 26.0°C, with photoperiod of 12.6/11.4 h L/D.

  11. Acid-base regulation in tadpoles of Rana catesbeiana exposed to environmental hypercapnia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busk, Morten; Larsen, Erik Hviid; Jensen, Frank B.

    1997-01-01

    Tadpoles of Rana catesbeiana were exposed to different levels of environmental hypercapnia. The acid-base regulatory response differed from that in adult amphibians in showing a high degree of pH compensation in the extracellular fluid (65-85%) and complete compensation in the intracellular fluid...

  12. WIENER KERNEL ANALYSIS OF INNER-EAR FUNCTION IN THE AMERICAN BULLFROG

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDIJK, P; WIT, HP; SEGENHOUT, JM; TUBIS, A

    1994-01-01

    The response of 17 primary auditory nerve fibers in the American bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) to acoustic noise stimulation of the tympanic membrane was recorded. For each fiber, the first- and second-order Wiener kernels, k(1)(tau(1)) and k(2)(tau(1),tau(2)), were computed by cross correlation of th

  13. Influence of temperature on thyroid hormone signaling and endocrine disruptor action in Rana (Lithobates) catesbeiana tadpoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, S Austin; Veldhoen, Nik; Helbing, Caren C

    2015-08-01

    Thyroid hormones (THs) are essential for normal growth, development, and metabolic control in vertebrates. Their absolute requirement during amphibian metamorphosis provides a powerful means to detect and assess the impact of environmental contaminants on TH signaling in the field and laboratory. As poikilotherms, frogs can experience considerable temperature fluctuations. Previous work demonstrated that low temperature prevents precocious TH-dependent induction of metamorphosis. However, a shift to a permissive higher temperature allows resumption of the induced metamorphic program regardless of whether or not TH remains. We investigated the impact of temperature on the TH-induced gene expression programs of premetamorphic Rana (Lithobates) catesbeiana tadpoles following a single injection of 10pmol/g body wet weight 3,3',5-triiodothyronine (T3). Abundance profiles of several T3-responsive mRNAs in liver, brain, lung, back skin, and tail fin were characterized under permissive (24°C), nonpermissive (5°C), or temperature shift (5-24°C) conditions. While responsiveness to T3 was retained to varying degrees at nonpermissive temperature, T3 modulation of thibz occurred in all tissues at 5°C suggesting an important role for this transcription factor in initiation of T3-dependent gene expression programs. Low temperature immersion of tadpoles in water containing 10nM T3 and the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, ibuprofen, or the antimicrobial agent, triclosan, perturbed some aspects of the gene expression programs of tail fin and back skin that was only evident upon temperature shift. Such temporal uncoupling of chemical exposure and resultant biological effects in developing frogs necessitates a careful evaluation of environmental temperature influence in environmental monitoring programs. PMID:25583582

  14. Identification of organ-autonomous constituents of the molecular memory conferred by thyroid hormone exposure in cold temperature-arrested metamorphosing Rana (Lithobates) catesbeiana tadpoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin Hammond, S; Jackman, Kevin W; Partovi, Shireen H; Veldhoen, Nik; Helbing, Caren C

    2016-03-01

    Environmental temperature modulates thyroid hormone (TH)-dependent metamorphosis in some amphibian species. The North American bullfrog--Rana (Lithobates) catesbeiana - tadpole is naturally adapted to a wide range of temperatures over multiple seasons. Cold temperatures delay while warmer temperatures accelerate metamorphosis. Exogenous TH exposure of premetamorphic tadpoles results in a rapid precocious induction of metamorphosis at warm temperatures (20-25 °C). The same exposure at cold temperatures (4-5 °C) does not elicit an overt metamorphic response. However, a molecular memory of TH exposure is established such that cold, TH-exposed tadpoles returned to permissive warm temperatures will rapidly execute TH-induced genetic programs. Previous mRNA profiling has identified TH-regulated transcription factors encoded by thra, thrb, thibz, klf9, and cebp1 as components of the molecular memory after one week post-exposure. However, a further hierarchy may exist within the initiation phase since many gene transcripts demonstrated tissue-specific patterns. Whether the molecular memory is organ autonomous or requires additional modulating factors is unknown. Herein we examine tail fin and back skin and determine that thibz is the only transcript that is TH-responsive after 2 days post-exposure at low temperature in both tissues in the intact animal. In back skin, cebp1 is also TH-responsive under these conditions. Serum-free tail fin organ culture (C-Fin) reveals that the thibz response is organ autonomous whereas cultured back skin (C-Skin) results suggest that thibz and cebp1 require an additional factor for induction from elsewhere within the intact animal. Subsequent investigations are now possible to identify endogenous factors that modulate the molecular memory in intact animals.

  15. Respiratory activity in the facial nucleus in an in vitro brainstem of tadpole, Rana catesbeiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao G-S; Kubin, L; Galante, R J; Fishman, A P; Pack, A I

    1996-04-15

    1. In studies of the central neural control of breathing, little advantage has been taken of comparative approaches. We have developed an in vitro brainstem preparation using larval Rana catesbeiana which generates two rhythmic neural activities characteristic of lung and gill ventilation. Based on the pattern of the facial (VII) nerve activity both lung and gill rhythm-related respiratory cycles were divided into three distinct phases. The purpose of this study was to characterize and classify membrane potential trajectories of respiratory motoneurons in the VII nucleus at intermediate stages (XII-XVII) of development. 2. Seventy-five respiratory-modulated neurons were recorded intracellularly within the facial motor nucleus region. Their resting membrane potential was between -40 and -80 mV. Sixty of them were identified as VII motoneurons and fifteen were non-antidromically activated. Membrane potentials of fifty-six of the seventy-five neurons were modulated with both lung (5-27 mV) and gill rhythms (3-15 mV) and the remaining nineteen neurons had only a modulation with lung rhythmicity (6-23 mV). No cells with gill modulation alone were observed. 3. All of the cells modulated with lung rhythmicity had only phase-bound depolarizing or hyperpolarizing membrane potential swings which could be categorized into four distinct patterns. In contrast, of the fifty-six cells modulated with gill rhythmicity, thirty-two were phasically depolarized during distinct phases of the gill cycle (four patterns were distinguished), whereas the remaining twenty-four were phase spanning with two distinct patterns. The magnitudes of lung and gill modulations were proportionally related to each other in the cells modulated with both rhythms. 4. In all sixteen neurons studied, a reduction or a reversal of phasic inhibitory inputs during a portion of the lung or gill respiratory cycle was observed following a negative current or chloride ion (Cl-) injection. The phasic membrane

  16. Enzymatic activity of lipase in post-metamorphic phase bullfrogs Atividade enzimática da lipase em rã-touro na fase pós-metamórfica

    OpenAIRE

    Luís Gustavo Tavares Braga; Maria Goreti de Almeida Oliveira; William Cardoso Lima; Ricardo Frederico Euclydes

    2006-01-01

    The knowledge of the digestive system of bullfrogs is an important step for the determination of their nutritional requirements throughout growth phases. With the objective of evaluating the enzymatic activity of lipase in the intestinal content of bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana Shaw, 1802), 100 animals with median weight of 3.6 g were distributed in stalls under controlled temperature and photoperiod. The frogs, selected at the post-metamorphic phase, received commercial extruded diet ad libitu...

  17. cDNA clone and sequence analysis of antibacterial peptides in skin of Rana catesbeiana%牛蛙(Rana catesbeiana)皮肤抗菌肽的cDNA克隆及序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵瑞利; 韩俊友; 韩文瑜; 雷连成; 江丽娜; 张俊敏; 欧阳萍

    2011-01-01

    To analyze the diversity and construction features of the skin antibacterial peptides of Rana catesbeiana,the degenerate primers were designed based on the signal peptide of Rana antibacterial peptides and subjected to RT-PCR amplification of corresponding cDNAs from Rana catesbeiana mRNA.cDNAs were cloned and sequenced.Properties of matured peptides were predicted by using informatics software tools.48 complete cDNAs were found to encode 19 antimicrobial peptides precursor including the signal peptide,prodomain peptide and mature peptide.The predicted results indicated that the precursor antibacterial peptides of Rana catesbeiana were high homology(more than 80 percent) with the other Rana antibacterial peptides reported previously,but hypervariable mature peptides possessed the species specificity.In which 6 show little amino acid sequence similarity to previously reported antimicrobial peptides,which could be a new family of Rana antibacterial peptide.The mature antibacterial peptides of Rana catesbeiana are all hydrophobic short peptides and the secondary structure is mainly α-helix and beta structure.All the above information will contribute to the further investigation of the physiology and biochemistry character,medical activity and the genetic expression of antibacterial peptides of Rana catesbeiana.%为了解牛蛙皮肤抗菌肽的多样性及结构特点,根据GenBank数据库中蛙属抗菌肽基因信号肽序列设计简并引物,以RT-PCR技术扩增牛蛙皮肤抗菌肽基因,克隆得到cDNA全长序列并进行测序和序列分析。用生物信息学软件分析其cDNA序列特点,预测成熟肽的理化性质。结果得到48个完整的cDNA序列,分别编码24种抗菌肽前体,它们均由信号肽、前导肽和成熟肽3部分组成。对序列测定结果的预测分析表明,牛蛙皮肤抗菌肽前体核苷酸序列与已报道的其他蛙类抗菌肽具有较高的同源性,同源性达到80%以上,但成熟肽的序列变异很

  18. Suppressing bullfrog larvae with carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Jackson A.; Ray, Andrew; Sepulveda, Adam J.; Watten, Barnaby J.; Densmore, Christine L.; Layhee, Megan J.; Mark Abbey-Lambert,; ,

    2014-01-01

    Current management strategies for the control and suppression of the American Bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus = Rana catesbeiana Shaw) and other invasive amphibians have had minimal effect on their abundance and distribution. This study evaluates the effects of carbon dioxide (CO2) on pre- and prometamorphic Bullfrog larvae. Bullfrogs are a model organism for evaluating potential suppression agents because they are a successful invader worldwide. From experimental trials we estimated that the 24-h 50% and 99% lethal concentration (LC50 and LC99) values for Bullfrog larvae were 371 and 549 mg CO2/L, respectively. Overall, larvae that succumbed to experimental conditions had a lower body condition index than those that survived. We also documented sublethal changes in blood chemistry during prolonged exposure to elevated CO2. Specifically, blood pH decreased by more than 0.5 pH units after 9 h of exposure and both blood partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) and blood glucose increased. These findings suggest that CO2 treatments can be lethal to Bullfrog larvae under controlled laboratory conditions. We believe this work represents the necessary foundation for further consideration of CO2 as a potential suppression agent for one of the most harmful invaders to freshwater ecosystems.

  19. First evidence of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in China: discovery of chytridiomycosis in introduced American bullfrogs and native amphibians in the Yunnan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Changming; Garner, Trenton W J; Li, Yiming

    2010-08-01

    Although the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), the etiological agent of amphibian chytridiomycosis, has been implicated in mass mortality and population declines on several continents around the world, there have been no reports on the presence of Bd infections in amphibians in China. We employed quantitative PCR and histological techniques to investigate the presence of Bd in introduced North American bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) (referred to hereafter as bullfrog) and native amphibians in bullfrog-invaded areas of the Yunnan Province, China. A total of 259 samples at five wild sites were collected between June and September in 2007 and 2008, including bullfrogs and four native amphibian species (Rana pleuraden, Rana chaochiaoensis, Odorrana andersonii, and Bombina maxima). In addition, 37 samples of adult bullfrogs were obtained from a food market. Bd infections were discovered in bullfrogs and three native amphibian species from all of the surveyed sites. Of the 39 Bd-positive samples, 35 were from wild-caught bullfrog tadpoles, postmetamorphic bullfrogs, R. pleuraden, R. chaochiaoensis, and O. andersonii, and four were from adult bullfrogs from the market. Our results provide the first evidence of the presence of Bd in Chinese amphibians, suggesting that native amphibian diversity in China is at risk from Bd. There is an urgent need to monitor the distribution of Bd in amphibians in China and understand the susceptibility of native amphibian species to chytridiomycosis. Strict regulations on the transportation of bullfrogs and the breeding of bullfrogs in markets and farms should be drafted in order to stop the spread of Bd by bullfrogs.

  20. 黑斑蛙、虎纹蛙和牛蛙皮肤的比较组织学%Comparative Histology of the Skin of Rana Nigromaculata,Rana Rugulosa and Rana Catesbeiana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李洋; 金磊; 李昌春; 唐宝将; 张盛周

    2009-01-01

    应用H.E和V.G胶原染色法对黑斑蛙(Rana nigromaculata)、虎纹蛙(Rana rugulosa)和牛蛙(Rana catesbeiana)皮肤进行了组织学观察和参数测量与比较.结果表明:三种蛙皮肤组织结构相似,但皮肤厚度、各组织层相对厚度及腺体密度存在较明显的种间差异和部位差异.虎纹蛙的皮肤最厚(0.44-0.68mm),牛蛙其次(0.28-0.60mm),黑斑蛙最薄(0.19-0.38mm);在三种蛙中,黑斑蛙躯体多数部位表皮相对厚度为15.1%-22.6%,较虎纹蛙(10.9%-17.7%)和牛蛙(9.9%-21.8%)厚.虎纹蛙和牛蛙皮肤胶原纤维层相对厚度分别为59.9%-68.7%和51.6%-75.3%,较黑斑蛙(44.4%-69.0%)厚;黑斑蛙和虎纹蛙躯体多数部位的颗粒腺密度(4.5-23.1个/mm2;8.9-25.3个/mm2)和粘液腺(54.1-152.2个/mm2;68.6-127.5个/mm2)较牛蛙(1.4-10.8个/mm2;16.8-39.3个/mm2)高.研究结果可供蛙类皮肤的合理开发利用参考.

  1. Evaluation of the effects of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on cultured Rana catesbeiana tailfin tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Austin eHammond

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticles (NPs, materials that have one dimension less than 100 nm, are used in manufacturing, health and food products, and consumer products including cosmetics, clothing and household appliances. Their utility to industry is derived from their high surface-area-to-volume ratios and physico-chemical properties distinct from their bulk counterparts, but the near-certainty that NPs will be released into the environment raises the possibility that they could present health risks to humans and wildlife. The thyroid hormones (THs, thyroxine and 3,3’,5-triiodothyronine (T3, are involved in development and metabolism in vertebrates including humans and frogs. Many of the processes of anuran metamorphosis are analogous to human post-embryonic development and disruption of TH action can have drastic effects. These shared features make the metamorphosis of anurans an excellent model for screening for endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs. We used the cultured tailfin (C-fin assay to examine the exposure effects of 0.1-10 nM (~8-800 ng/L of three types of ~20 nm TiO2 NPs (P25, M212, M262 and micron-sized TiO2 (μTiO2 ±10 nM T3. The actual Ti levels were 40.9 – 64.7% of the nominal value. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR was used to measure the relative amounts of mRNA transcripts encoding TH-responsive thyroid hormone receptors (thra and thrb and Rana larval keratin type I (rlk1, as well as the cellular stress-responsive heat shock protein 30 kDa (hsp30, superoxide dismutase (sod, and catalase (cat. The levels of the TH-responsive transcripts were largely unaffected by any form of TiO2. Some significant effects on stress-related transcripts were observed upon exposure to micron-sized TiO2, P25 and M212 while no effect was observed with M262 exposure. Therefore the risk of adversely affecting amphibian tissue by disrupting TH-signalling or inducing cellular stress is low for these compounds relative to other previously

  2. A new record for American Bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus in San Juan, Argentina Nuevo registro de rana toro americana (Lithobates catesbeianus en San Juan, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Sanabria

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We report a new record of Lithobates catesbeianus (American bullfrog from Argentina. L. catesbeianus was first introduced to San Juan Province 11 years ago in Calingasta Department, where the habitat is pre-cordilleran. The new record is for Zonda Department, San Juan Province, in the Monte desert region. Here, L. catesbeianus uses artificial ponds for reproduction and tadpole development. These ponds receive water from an irrigation system that connects the whole agriculture land in the region. The tadpoles use the irrigation canals to move among ponds. We suggest that legislation should be established to prevent future invasions and to achieve sustainable management of the wild American bullfrog populations in San Juan. Prevention of future invasion and management of established populations of this species requires the cooperation of numerous stake holders.Se presenta un nuevo registro de Lithobates catesbeianus (rana toro americana en Argentina. L. catesbeianus fue introducida por primera vez a la provincia de San Juan hace 11 años en el Departamento Calingasta, donde el hábitat es pre-cordillerano. El nuevo registro es para el Departamento Zonda en la provincia de San Juan, en el desierto del Monte. En este sitio, L. catesbeianus usa estanques artificiales para la reproducción y desarrollo del renacuajo. Los estanques reciben agua de un sistema de riego que conecta todas las tierras de la agricultura en la región. Los renacuajos utilizan los canales de riego para moverse entre los estanques. Sugerimos que se establezcan leyes para prevenir invasiones futuras y para lograr un manejo integrado de las poblaciones silvestres de rana toro que se encuentran en San Juan. La prevención de futuras invasiones y el manejo de las poblaciones establecidas de esta especie requieren la cooperación de numerosas entidades tanto gubernamentales como privadas.

  3. 实验温度对牛蛙神经冲动产生和传导的影响%Effects of Experimental Temperature on Nerve Impulse Generation and Conduction in Bull Frog (Rana catesbeiana )

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗来高; 许雪峰; 吴义莲; 殷培峰

    2012-01-01

    We recorded the action potential range and conductive velocity of the nerve trunk of bull frog (Rana catesbeiana) at seven (5, 15, 25, 30, 33, 35 and 39℃) temperatures, respectively. The results showed that testing temperature significantly affected the nerve impulse generation and conduction. The variations of the action potential range and conductive velocity with experimental temperature were asynchronous. The action potential range increased as temperature from 5 to 30℃ and decreased dramatically at higher temperatures. However, the nerve impulse conductive velocity was apparently faster at 25, 30 and 33℃ than that at lower than 25℃ or higher than 33℃.%测定了牛蛙(Rana catesbeiana)离体坐骨神经干在5、15、25、30、33、35、39℃七个温度条件下的动作电位波幅和传导速度.结果表明:温度显著影响牛蛙神经干的动作电位幅度和传导速度,牛蛙神经干动作电位幅度和传导速度不随温度的改变而呈同步的变化.在5 - 30℃温度范围内,牛蛙神经干的动作电位幅度随温度升高而增大,30℃后显著下降,39℃时最低;25、30、33℃动作电位的传导速度相对较快,温度低于25℃或高于33℃,牛蛙神经干的传导速度均呈显著的下降趋势.

  4. The effects of low temperature on nerve impulse generation and conduction of bull frog (Rana catesbeiana)%牛蛙神经冲动产生和传导的低温效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴义莲; 许雪峰; 罗来高; 殷培峰

    2012-01-01

    The action potential range and the conductive velocity of the nerve trunk of bull frog ( Rana catesbeiana) were measured at nine time (0, 24, 48, 96, 120, 144, 168, 192 and 216 h) under two (5℃ and 15℃ ) temperatures. Results showed that there was no significant difference of the action potential range at 0 and 24 h under the two temperatures. The conductive velocity at 0 h under the relative high temperature (15℃ ) was greater than that under the lower temperature (5℃) , however, there was no difference of the conductive velocity between two temperatures at 24 h. The action potential range and the conductive velocity of the nerve trunk could not be examined at 48 h under 15℃ , whereas, they could maintain at a relative high level for one week under 5℃.%在5℃和15℃温度条件下,用牛蛙(Rana catesbeiana)离体坐骨神经标本测定0、24、48、96、120、144、168、192、216 h 9个时段的动作电位波幅和传导速度.结果表明:两个温度下离体坐骨神经的动作电位幅度在0 h和24 h差异均不显著,0 h时相对高温(15℃)下动作电位传导速度大于相对低温(5℃),24 h时两个温度下动作电位的传导速度差异不显著,相对高温下48 h时坐骨神经的兴奋性为零.相对低温条件下,坐骨神经兴奋性能维持7 d时间.

  5. Multiple stressors in amphibian communities: Effects of chemical contamination, bullfrogs, and fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, M.D.; Semlitsch, R.D.; Little, E.E.; Doyle, M.C.

    2007-01-01

    A leading hypothesis of amphibian population declines is that combinations of multiple stressors contribute to declines. We examined the role that chemical contamination, competition, and predation play singly and in combination in aquatic amphibian communities. We exposed larvae of American toads (Bufo americanus), southern leopard frogs (Rana sphenocephala), and spotted salamanders (Ambystoma maculatum) to overwintered bullfrog tadpoles (R. catesbeiana), bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus), the insecticide carbaryl, and ammonium nitrate fertilizer in 1000-L mesocosms. Most significantly, our study demonstrated that the presence of multiple factors reduced survival of B. americanus and A. maculatum and lengthened larval periods of R. sphenocephala. The presence of bluegill had the largest impact on the community; it eliminated B. americanus and A. maculatum and reduced the abundance of R. sphenocephala. Chemical contaminants had the second strongest effect on the community with the insecticide, reducing A. maculatum abundance by 50% and increasing the mass of anurans (frogs and toads) at metamorphosis; the fertilizer positively influenced time and mass at metamorphosis for both anurans and A. maculatum. Presence of overwintered bullfrogs reduced mass and increased time to metamorphosis of anurans. While both bluegill and overwintered bullfrog tadpoles had negative effects on the amphibian community, they performed better in the presence of one another and in contaminated habitats. Our results indicate that predicting deleterious combinations from single-factor effects may not be straightforward. Our research supports the hypothesis that combinations of factors can negatively impact some amphibian species and could contribute to population declines. ?? 2007 by the Ecological Society of America.

  6. Molecular cloning of otoconin-22 complementary deoxyribonucleic acid in the bullfrog endolymphatic sac: effect of calcitonin on otoconin-22 messenger ribonucleic acid levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaoi, Yuichi; Suzuki, Masakazu; Tomura, Hideaki; Sasayama, Yuichi; Kikuyama, Sakae; Tanaka, Shigeyasu

    2003-08-01

    Anuran amphibians have a special organ called the endolymphatic sac (ELS), containing many calcium carbonate crystals, which is believed to have a calcium storage function. The major protein of aragonitic otoconia, otoconin-22, which is considered to be involved in the formation of calcium carbonate crystals, has been purified from the saccule of the Xenopus inner ear. In this study, we cloned a cDNA encoding otoconin-22 from the cDNA library constructed for the paravertebral lime sac (PVLS) of the bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana, and sequenced it. The bullfrog otoconin-22 encoded a protein consisting of 147 amino acids, including a signal peptide of 20 amino acids. The protein had cysteine residues identical in a number and position to those conserved among the secretory phospholipase A(2) family. The mRNA of bullfrog otoconin-22 was expressed in the ELS, including the PVLS and inner ear. This study also revealed the presence of calcitonin receptor-like protein in the ELS, with the putative seven-transmembrane domains of the G protein-coupled receptors. The ultimobranchialectomy induced a prominent decrease in the otoconin-22 mRNA levels of the bullfrog PVLS. Supplementation of the ultimobranchialectomized bullfrogs with synthetic salmon calcitonin elicited a significant increase in the mRNA levels of the sac. These findings suggest that calcitonin secreted from the ultimobranchial gland, regulates expression of bullfrog otoconin-22 mRNA via calcitonin receptor-like protein on the ELS, thereby stimulating the formation of calcium carbonate crystals in the lumen of the ELS. PMID:12865304

  7. Rana catesbeiana, pólvora e modulação supramolecular cicatrização intestinal e prognóstico no câncer de cólon: uma mesma origem biológica para o insucesso? Rana catesbeiana, Gunpowder and Supramolecular Modulation Intestinal Healing and Prognosis in Colon Cancer: The Same Biological Origin of the Failure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna Delabio-Ferraz

    2010-06-01

    studying tadpole resorption of the American bullfrog. Metalloproteinases activity in cancer research, has taken a special place. Currently, evidences points to the cancer cell ability to interfere with enzymatic activity modulation - an co-factor which affects local invasiveness and metastatic dissemination. Both MMPs-2 and -7 have been frequently observed in colon cancer. Moreover, MMP-12 seems to counteract MMP-7 effect therefore considered as a protector and associated with better prognosis, in contrast to MMP-3, which may be responsible for a worse outcome. Association between high activity of MMPs, the prognosis of cancer and increased risk of intestinal anastomotic leakage has been highlighted, suggesting a consistent trilogy. Pharmacological therapy using MMPs inhibitors has been extensively studied, especially targeted for cancer control. The article discusses the most relevant information and updated information on the subject.

  8. Within-individual variation in bullfrog vocalizations: Implications for a vocally mediated social recognition system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bee, Mark A.

    2004-12-01

    Acoustic signals provide a basis for social recognition in a wide range of animals. Few studies, however, have attempted to relate the patterns of individual variation in signals to behavioral discrimination thresholds used by receivers to discriminate among individuals. North American bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) discriminate among familiar and unfamiliar individuals based on individual variation in advertisement calls. The sources, patterns, and magnitudes of variation in eight acoustic properties of multiple-note advertisement calls were examined to understand how patterns of within-individual variation might either constrain, or provide additional cues for, vocal recognition. Six of eight acoustic properties exhibited significant note-to-note variation within multiple-note calls. Despite this source of within-individual variation, all call properties varied significantly among individuals, and multivariate analyses indicated that call notes were individually distinct. Fine-temporal and spectral call properties exhibited less within-individual variation compared to gross-temporal properties and contributed most toward statistically distinguishing among individuals. Among-individual differences in the patterns of within-individual variation in some properties suggest that within-individual variation could also function as a recognition cue. The distributions of among-individual and within-individual differences were used to generate hypotheses about the expected behavioral discrimination thresholds of receivers. .

  9. Developmental expression of otoconin-22 in the bullfrog endolymphatic sac and inner ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaoi, Yuichi; Onda, Tomoaki; Hidaka, Yoshie; Yajima, Shinya; Suzuki, Masakazu; Tanaka, Shigeyasu

    2004-05-01

    In amphibians, calcium carbonate crystals are present in the endolymphatic sac and the inner ear. The formation of these crystals is considered to be facilitated by a protein called otoconin-22. We examined the spatial and temporal expression of otoconin-22 during the development of the bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) using RT-PCR, in situ hybridization (ISH), and immunofluorescence techniques. By RT-PCR, otoconin-22 mRNA was first detected in embryos at Shumway stage 20, and this expression pattern continues in late stages. The first otoconin-22 mRNA-positive reaction was detected in stage 22 embryos in the placode of the endolymphatic sac. Otoconin-22 protein was observed in the epithelial cells of the endolymphatic sac at stage 24. On the other hand, a whole-mount ISH technique showed the first expression of otoconin-22 mRNA in the inner ear, in addition to the endolymphatic sac, at the mid-phase of Shumway stage 25. We discuss the role of otoconin-22 in the formation of calcium carbonate crystals in the endolymphatic sac and inner ear. PMID:15100243

  10. Cotransport of H+, lactate and H2O by membrane proteins in retinal pigment epithelium of bullfrog

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeuthen, T; Hamann, S; la Cour, M;

    1996-01-01

    1. The interaction between H+, lactate and H2O fluxes in the retinal membrane of the pigment epithelium from bullfrog Rana catesbiana was studied by means of ion-selective micro-electrodes. 2. Changes in intracellular pH and cell volume were recorded in response to abrupt changes in retinal...

  11. Curative effect of novel Rana catesbeiana antimicrobial peptide Temporin-La on Staphylococcus aureus infection in mouse model%新型牛蛙抗菌肽Temporin-La对金黄色葡萄球菌感染模型小鼠的治疗效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵瑞利; 韩文瑜; 韩俊友; 金天明; 冯新; 雷连成; 孙长江; 王选

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨新型牛蛙抗菌肽Temporin-La对金黄色葡萄球菌感染模型小鼠的治疗效果.方法 采用二倍稀释法检测抗菌肽Temporine-La对临床主要致病菌的最小抑菌浓度(minimum inhibitory concentration,MIC);透射电镜观察Temporine-La对金黄色葡萄球菌的作用效果;复制金黄色葡萄球菌表皮感染小鼠模型,分别用4 U/ml青霉素和10μg/ml Temporin-La进行治疗,另设生理盐水对照组和空白对照组,感染后第4天,对各组小鼠进行白细胞计数、细菌计数、血管内皮生长因子(vascular endothelial growth factor,VEGF)表达水平检测及病理组织切片观察.结果 Temporin-La对革兰阳性菌的抑菌活性高于革兰阴性菌,其中对金黄色葡萄球菌的抑制作用最强;透射电镜观察显示,经100 μg/ml Temporin-La处理的金黄色葡萄球菌出现了质壁分离的现象,细胞壁缺失或发生裂解,金黄色葡萄球菌发生裂解而死亡;感染后第4天,青霉素组和Temporin-La组白细胞数及创面下肌肉组织细菌数均明显低于生理盐水对照组(P<0.05或P<0.01),Temporin-La组小鼠血清VEGF的表达水平明显高于青霉素组和空白对照组(P<0.05),青霉素组和Temporin-La组小鼠的创口修复情况明显优于生理盐水对照组.结论 Temporin-La具有抗小鼠金黄色葡萄球菌感染的效果,为其临床应用提供了实验依据,也为抗感染治疗提供了新的思路.%Objective To investigate the curative effect of a novel Rana catesbeiana antimicrobial peptide Temporin-La on Staphylococcus aureus infection in mouse model.Methods The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Temporine-La to major pathogens in clinic was determined by 2-fold dilution.The inhibitory effect of Temporine-La on S.aureus was observed by transmission electron microscopy.Mouse model of epidermal S.aureus infection was copied,and treated with 4 U/ml penicillin and 10 μg/ml Temporin-La respectively,using physiological

  12. Comparative transduction mechanisms of hair cells in the bullfrog utriculus. II. Sensitivity and response dynamics to hair bundle displacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, R. A.

    1994-01-01

    1. Hair cells in whole-mount in vitro preparations of the utricular macula of the bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) were selected according to their macular location and hair bundle morphology. The sensitivity and response dynamics of selected hair cells to natural stimulation were examined by recording their voltage responses to step and sinusoidal hair bundle displacements applied to their longest stereocilia. 2. The voltage responses of 31 hair cells to sinusoidal hair bundle displacements were characterized by their gains and phases, taken with respect to peak hair bundle displacement. The gains of Type B and Type C cells at both 0.5 and 5.0 Hz were markedly lower than those of Type F and Type E cells. Phases, with the exception of Type C cells, lagged hair bundle displacement at 0.5 Hz. Type C cells had phase leads of 25-40 degrees. At 5.0 Hz, response phases in all cells were phase lagged with respect to those at 0.5 Hz. Type C cells had larger gains and smaller phase leads at 5.0 Hz than at 0.5 Hz, suggesting the presence of low-frequency adaptation. 3. Displacement-response curves, derived from the voltage responses to 5.0-Hz sinusoids, were sigmoidal in shape and asymmetrical, with the depolarizing response having a greater magnitude and saturating less abruptly than the hyperpolarizing response. When normalized to their largest displacement the linear ranges of these curves varied from hair bundle to linear range and sensitivity were predicted from realistic models of utricular hair bundles created using morphological data obtained from light and electron microscopy. Three factors, including 1) the inverse ratio of the lengths of the kinocilium and longest stereocilia, representing the lever arm between kinociliary and stereociliary displacement; 2) tip link extension/linear displacement, largely a function of stereociliary height and separation; and 3) stereociliary number, an estimate of the number of transduction channels, were considered in this analysis

  13. Alterações histopatológicas em girinos de rã-touro alimentados com rações comerciais de diferentes níveis protéicos Histopathological alterations in bullfrog tadpoles fed commercial diets with three levels of crude protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Teixeira de Seixas Filho

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Realizaram-se necropsia e exame histopatológico de girinos de rã-touro (Rana catesbeiana alimentados com rações comerciais formuladas com 32, 36, 45 ou 55% de proteína bruta (PB visando estabelecer a relação entre o nível de proteína bruta da ração e a sanidade do animal. Na necropsia, os girinos não apresentaram externamente nenhuma alteração aparente, no entanto, o fígado dos animais, em todos os níveis de proteína bruta, apresentou-se de cor palha e manchado. Na análise histopatológica, observaram-se fígados com rarefação e degeneração celular protéica, intestinos com colite e achatamento das microvilosidades; baço com hiperplasia linfocitária; coração sem nenhuma alteração; rins com glomerulonefrite e áreas de tubulonefroses; gastrite mononuclear e hiperplasia e hipertrofia dos linfonodos regionais. Em todos os órgãos, verificou-se depósito de hemossiderina. Essas lesões sugerem quadro degenerativo nutricional, com desenvolvimento de processos inflamatórios, se difundindo para todos os órgãos. Os resultados sugerem que os animais foram alimentados com rações com proteínas de baixo valor biológico, portanto, de má qualidade, o que comprometeu a sanidade e o desempenho dos animais. Estudos complementares são necessários para compreensão do comportamento bioquímico de rãs-touro na fase de girino visando à nutrição adequada desses animais.Necropsy and histological examination were made on bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana tadpoles fed commercial rations with 32, 36, 45 or 55% crude protein (CP to establish the relationship between dietary crude protein and health of the animal. In the necropsy, the tadpoles did not show externally any changes, however, the liver of animals at all crude protein levels, presented a straw color and stained. Histological analysis showed livers with rarefaction and degeneration of cell protein, intestines, with colitis and flattening of microvilli, spleen with lymphocyte

  14. Avaliação histológica do intestino médio, do fígado e do pâncreas de girinos de rã-touro alimentados com rações comerciais formuladas com três níveis de proteína bruta Histological evaluation of midgut, liver and pancreas of bullfrog tadpoles fed commercial diets with three levels of crude protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Teixeira de Seixas Filho

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o desenvolvimento do intestino médio, do fígado e do pâncreas de girinos de rã-touro (Rana catesbeiana alimentados com ração comercial com 22, 24 ou 28% de proteína bruta (PB. Utilizaram-se 360 girinos com 15 dias de vida, provenientes de mesma desova, distribuídos em caixas com 30 L de água, em densidade de 1 girino/L, mantidas a 25°C (±1ºC, constituindo um delineamento experimental completamente casualizado, com quatro repetições. A partir do 9º dia e até o 48º dia de alimentação, os órgãos (intestino médio, fígado e pâncreas de três girinos de cada grupo foram fixados em solução histológica de Bouin para coloração por hematoxilina e eosina. A presença de tecido conjuntivo extremamente frouxo nas alças intestinais dos girinos sugeriu situação provisória para a mudança da arquitetura intestinal após a metamorfose. Nesse período, observou-se aumento no número de células caliciformes e de microvilosidades e, no 25º dia, verificou-se a presença de células hepáticas, com arranjo glandular mais compacto, o que sugere funcionalidade e confirma os melhores resultados de desempenho obtidos a partir desse período nos girinos alimentados com as rações com maior nível protéico. No 35º dia, observou-se a estrutura do fígado bilobado, com sinais de desorganização, o que indica rarefação celular protéica, decorrente de mau aproveitamento da proteína da ração. Novos estudos são necessários para continuidade aos esclarecimentos sobre as características fisiológicas de rãs-touro na fase de girino.The development of midgut, liver and pancreas bullfrog tadpoles (Rana catesbeiana fed commercial diets with 22, 24 or 28% of crude protein (CP was evaluated. A total of 360 tadpoles, 15 days old, from the same spawning, was allotted to 30 L-boxes, using a density of 1 tadpole/L, kept at 25 °C (±1°C. A completely randomized experimental design with four replications was used. Three tadpoles of

  15. BULLFROG HEMOGRAM UNDER MANAGEMENT STRESS

    OpenAIRE

    Patrícia Coelho Teixeira; Irene Bastos Franceschini Vicentini; Claudia Maris Ferreira; Fernanda Menezes França; Isabela Cristina Antunes da Costa Bordon; Maria José Tavares Ranzani-Paiva

    2015-01-01

    Stress is one of the major obstacles in frog culture and can be caused by factors such as inappropriate farming systems; inadequate management among other situations. The objective of the present study was to assess the hemogram, erythrogram and leukogram of bullfrogs (L. catesbeianus) when exposed to stress caused by different types of management: density and handling (manipulation), developed in the laboratory and repeated in the field for the appropriate comparisons in a experimental perio...

  16. Conboy Lake - Bullfrog and Bullhead Control

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This proposal is to support two AmeriCorps interns for 24 weeks to work on removal of American bullfrogs and brown bullhead to benefit Oregon spotted frogs, a...

  17. Rana dijagnoza reumatoidnog artritisa

    OpenAIRE

    Babić-Naglić, Đurđica; Žagar, Iva

    2006-01-01

    Reumatoidni artritis (RA) kronična je multisistemska bolest s najtežim posljedicama na sustavu za kretanje. Danas je pravilo dobre kliničke prakse postaviti dijagnozu RA u preerozivnoj fazi i rano primijeniti diferentne lijekove. Rana dijagnoza RA postavlja se na temelju ciljane kliničke, serološke, imunogenske i radiološke obrade. Na temelju definiranih parametara, klinički je potrebno precizno odrediti aktivnost bolesti. Reumatoidni faktor i anticitrulinska protutijela (anti-CCP) su vrlo...

  18. 虎纹蛙消化道肥大细胞类胰蛋白酶免疫组化研究%STUDY ON TRYPTASE IN THE MAST CELL IN THE DIGESTIVE TRACT OF INDIAN BULLFROG (RANA TIGRINA RUGULOSA) BY AN IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林旋; 王寿昆; 陈梅芳; 林树根; 黄玉章

    2010-01-01

    研究采用小鼠抗人肥大细胞类胰蛋白酶单克隆抗体AA1,应用Elivision~(TM)plus免疫组化染色法对虎纹蛙(Rana tigrina rugulosa)消化道组织中类胰蛋白酶阳性肥大细胞存在的可能性进行研究.研究发现单克隆抗体AA1可与中性缓冲福马林液同定的虎纹蛙组织的肥大细胞获得良好的交叉反应,类胰蛋白酶阳性细胞胞浆染成棕黄色.证实虎纹蛙肥大细胞胞浆颗粒中也存在类胰蛋白酶.虎纹蛙组织中AA1免疫染色阳性细胞的分布,与AB/SO和改良甲苯胺兰染色阳性细胞的分布存在较大的差异:虎纹蛙类胰蛋白酶阳性细胞数量很少,且阳性反应比人胃癌间质肥大细胞弱,主要见于黏膜型肥大细胞(MMC)分布区域,如消化道黏膜上皮下方和同有层,少量分布于肠绒毛基底部及食管腺和胃腺周围.而在结缔组织型肥大细胞(CTMC)分布区域.如消化道黏膜下层结缔组织中却未见类胰蛋白酶阳性细胞.AB/SO和改良甲苯胺兰染色阳性细胞数量多.广泛分布于消化道黏膜固有层、黏膜下层、腺体之间、肌间及外膜结缔组织,说明并不是所有的虎纹蛙肥大细胞都含有类胰蛋白酶.很有可能是虎纹蛙 MMC 中含有类胰蛋白酶.而CTMC中不含类胰蛋白酶.虎纹蛙类胰蛋白酶阳性细胞数量很少.且阳性反应比人胃癌间质肥大细胞弱,说明虎纹蛙肥大细胞胞浆颗粒类胰蛋白酶含量较少,虎纹蛙属于低等脊椎动物,可能与生物进化水平较低有关,有待进一步研究.

  19. BULLFROG HEMOGRAM UNDER MANAGEMENT STRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Coelho Teixeira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Stress is one of the major obstacles in frog culture and can be caused by factors such as inappropriate farming systems; inadequate management among other situations. The objective of the present study was to assess the hemogram, erythrogram and leukogram of bullfrogs (L. catesbeianus when exposed to stress caused by different types of management: density and handling (manipulation, developed in the laboratory and repeated in the field for the appropriate comparisons in a experimental period of 30 days. The density experiment was conducted with four treatments: 70 animals m-2 (D70; 100 animals m-2 (D100, Control; 150 animals m-2 (D150 and 200 animals m-2 (D200, with 10, 14, 21 and 28 animals/box in the laboratory, respectively. Each treatment was performed with three simultaneous replicates. The handling experiment was conducted with three treatments: Treatment Without Handling (WH; Treatment with Partial Handling (PH every 15 days and Treatment with Total Handling (TH every 15 days. Each treatment was performed with four simultaneous replications. The methodology of the blood analysis followed international recommendations. In the present study we could observe that the animals of the field experiment did not reflect the same stress response observed in the laboratory in both experiment, which demonstrated the plasticity of these animals.

  20. Patterns of Cranial Development in Larval Rana macrocnemis: Chondrocranial Size and Shape Relationship With Pelophylax bedriagae (Anura: Ranidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Elıf; Kaya, Uğur

    2016-06-01

    Notwithstanding the abundance of amphibians, there are few descriptions about ranid cranial development. Herein, larval chondrocranial development of Uludağ frog, Rana macrocnemis (Boulenger, 1885), is described on cleared and double-stained specimens. Descriptions are related with the ontogeny of the chondrocranium and osteogenesis of the cranial skeleton. The larval chondrocranial development of R. macrocnemis is compared to those of Rana and Pelophylax larvae (Pelophylax bedriagae, Rana pipiens, R. palustris, R. sphenocephala, R. catesbeiana, R. clamitans and R. sylvatica). In R. macrocnemis, the first bones to ossify are the parasphenoid and exoccipital (Stage 33), followed by the frontoparietal and prootic (stages 35 and 40, respectively). The major reconstruction of the chondrocranium begins at Stage 41. The ossification sequence of R. macrocnemis is distinguished from other ranids. Adult cranial osteology of R. macrocnemis is compared to that of P. bedriagae. Osteologically, R. macrocnemis is different from P. bedriagae by the shape and size of the vomer and number of teeth. Additionally, geometric morphometric methods are used to analyze chondrocranial size and shape changes of ranid larva of R. macrocnemis and P. bedriagae. Anat Rec, 299:711-721, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26950267

  1. Frog community responses to recent American bullfrog invasions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yiming LI; Zhunwei KE; Yihua WANG; Tim M. BLACKBURN

    2011-01-01

    Native species may decline quickly when confronted with an exotic species to which they are not adapted. The extent of decline may depend on the abundance of an invader and the length of time since it first arrived in the community (residence time), and the interaction between these two variables. We tested these effects using data on the effects of American bullfrog Lithobates catesbeianus invasion on native frog communities in 65 permanent lentic waters on islands in the Zhoushan Archipelago, China. We examined variation in native frog abundance and species richness in relation to features of the American bullfrog invasion, habitat disturbance, characteristics of the water body and fish communities and the presence of red swamp crayfish.Bullfrog invaded sites had lower native frog density and species richness, higher submerged vegetation cover and greater frequency of repairs to the water body than did non-invaded sites. The minimum adequate general linear mixed models showed that both native frog density and species richness were negatively related to post-metamorphosis bullfrog density, and that native frog species richness was also positively related to the vegetation cover. There was no effect on either native frog density or species richness of residence time or its interaction with bullfrog density, or of the abundance of bullfrog tadpoles. The results suggested that post-metamorphosis bullfrogs had impacts on native frog communities in the islands, and that the extents of these impacts are proportional to post-metamorphosis bullfrog density.

  2. A New Kind of Biomaterials-Bullfrog Skin Collagen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He LI; Bai Ling LIU; Hua Lin CHEN; Li Zhen GAO

    2003-01-01

    Pepsin-soluble collagen was prepared from bullfrog skin and partially characterized. This study revealed interesting differences, such as molecular weight, amino acid composition, denaturation temperature (Td), in the frog skin collagen when compared to the known vertebrate collagens. This study gives hints that bullfrog skin can be a potential, safe alternative source of collagen from cattle for use in various fields.

  3. DIFERENCIJALNA DIJAGNOZA KRONIČNIH RANA

    OpenAIRE

    Šitum, Mirna; KOLIĆ, MAJA

    2014-01-01

    Rana je prekid anatomskog i funkcionalnog kontinuiteta tkiva, a s obzirom na tijek cijeljenja rane dijelimo na akutne i kronične. kronična rana je rana koja unatoč standardnom medicinskom postupku ne cijeli očekivanom dinamikom, odnosno u užem smislu rana koja ne cijeli unutar 6 tjedana. kronične rane mogu biti tipične i atipične. u tipične rane ubrajaju se ishemijske, neurotrofičke i hipostatske rane te dva posebna entiteta: dekubitus i dijabetičko stopalo. kronične rane na potkoljenicama su...

  4. Pesticide Distributions and Population Declines of California Alpine Frogs, Rana Muscosa and Rana Sierrae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmospherically deposited pesticides from the intensively cultivated Central Valley of California have been implicated as a cause for population declines of several amphibian species, with the strongest evidence for the frogs Rana muscosa and Rana sierrae at high elevation in th...

  5. Ionic currents in single isolated bullfrog atrial cells

    OpenAIRE

    1983-01-01

    Enzymatic dispersion has been used to yield single cells from segments of bullfrog atrium. Previous data (Hume and Giles, 1981) have shown that these individual cells are quiescent and have normal resting potentials and action potentials. The minimum DC space constant is approximately 920 microns. The major goals of the present study were: (a) to develop and refine techniques for making quantitative measurements of the transmembrane ionic currents, and (b) to identify the individual component...

  6. Antibiogram and heavy metal tolerance of bullfrog bacteria in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Najiah

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial isolates from 30 farmed bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus weighing 500-600 g at Johore, Malaysia with external clinical signs of ulcer, red leg and torticollis were tested for their antibiograms and heavy metal tolerance patterns. A total of 17 bacterial species with 77 strains were successfully isolated and assigned to 21 antibiotics and 4 types of heavy metal (Hg2+, Cr6+, Cd2+, Cu2+. Results revealed that bacteria were resistant against lincomycin (92%, oleandomycin (72.7% and furazolidone (71.4% while being susceptible to chloramphenicol and florfenicol at 97.4%. The multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR index for C. freundii, E. coli and M. morganii was high with the value up to 0.71. Bacterial strains were found to exhibit 100 % resistance to chromium and mercury. High correlation of resistance against both antibiotics and heavy metals was found (71.4 to 100% between bullfrog bacteria isolates, except bacteria that were resistant to kanamycin showed only 25% resistance against Cu2+. Based on the results in this study, bacterial pathogens of bullfrog culture in Johore, Malaysia, were highly resistant to both antibiotics and heavy metals.

  7. Comparative transduction mechanisms of hair cells in the bullfrog utriculus. 1: Responses to intracellular current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Richard A.

    1994-01-01

    Hair cells in the bullfrog sacculus are specifically adapted to sense small-amplitude, high-frequency linear accelerations. These hair cells display many properties that are undesirable or inappropriate for hair cells that must provide static gravity sensitivity. This study resulted in part due to an interest in seeing how the transduction mechanisms of hair cells in a gravity-sensing otolith endorgan would differ from those in the bullfrog sacculus. The bullfrog utriculus is an appropriate model for these studies, because its structure is representative of higher vertebrates in general and its function as a sensor of static gravity and dynamic linear acceleration is well known. Hair cells in the bullfrog utriculus, classifiable as Type 2 by cell body and synapse morphology, differ markedly in hair bundle morphology from those in the bullfrog sacculus. Moreover, the hair bundle morphologies of utricular hair cells, unlike those in the sacculus, differ in different membrane regions.

  8. Histological Study on Reproductive Organ of Rana Temporaria Chensinesis David

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG He; TIAN Yaguang; NING Fangyong; BAI Xiujuan; ZHANG Guixue

    2006-01-01

    The experiment was designed to study the histology of reproductive organ of Rana temporaria chensinesis David in reproductive season and dereproductive season, The results displayed that the sexual gland weight and oviduct weight of the Rana temporaria chensinesis David were significantly different between reproductive season and dereproductive season.

  9. DEFINICIJA I PODJELA ATIPIČNIH RANA

    OpenAIRE

    Šitum, Mirna; KOLIĆ, MAJA

    2013-01-01

    Prema definiciji rana je prekid anatomskog i funkcionalnog kontinuiteta tkiva, a s obzirom na tijek cijeljenja rane mogu biti akutne i kronične. Kronične rane su one koje ne zarastaju unutar predviđenog razdoblja u korelaciji s etiologijom i lokalizacijom rane, a u najkraćem razdoblju od 6 tjedana. Kronične rane mogu biti tipične i atipične. u tipične rane ubrajaju se ishemijske rane, neuropatski ulkus, venski ulkus te dva posebna entiteta: dekubitus i dijabetičko stopalo. Kronične rane na po...

  10. Stretch-activated cation channel from larval bullfrog skin

    OpenAIRE

    Hillyard, Stanley D.; Willumsen, Niels J.; Marrero, Mario B.

    2010-01-01

    Cell-attached patches from isolated epithelial cells from larval bullfrog skin revealed a cation channel that was activated by applying suction (−1 kPa to −4.5 kPa) to the pipette. Activation was characterized by an initial large current spike that rapidly attenuated to a stable value and showed a variable pattern of opening and closing with continuing suction. Current–voltage plots demonstrated linear or inward rectification and single channel conductances of 44–56 pS with NaCl or KCl Ringer...

  11. Distribution of the amphibian pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in the Pacific Northwestern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, Christopher A.; Bull, E.L.; Green, D.E.; Bowerman, Jay; Adams, Michael J.; Hyatt, A.; Wente, W.

    2007-01-01

    Chytridiomycosis (infection by the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) has been associated with amphibian declines in at least four continents. We report results of disease screens from 210 pond-breeding amphibians from 37 field sites in Oregon and Washington. We detected B. dendrobatidis on 28% of sampled amphibians, and we found a?Y 1 detection of B. dendrobatidis from 43% of sites. Four of seven species tested positive for B. dendrobatidis, including the Northern Red-Legged Frog (Rana aurora), Columbia Spotted Frog (Rana luteiventris), and Oregon Spotted Frog (Rana pretiosa). We also detected B. dendrobatidis in nonnative American Bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) from six sites in western and central Oregon. Our study and other recently published findings suggest that B. dendrobatidis has few geographic and host taxa limitations among North American anurans. Further research on virulence, transmissibility, persistence, and interactions with other stressors is needed to assess the potential impact of B. dendrobatidis on Pacific Northwestern amphibians.

  12. Final Critical Habitat for Oregon Spotted Frog (Rana pretiosa)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These data identify, in general, the areas of FINAL critical habitat for Rana pretiosa (Oregon Spotted Frog). Maps published in the Federal Register 2016.

  13. Status of bullfrogs and northern leopard frogs at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge, Juab County, Utah

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document describes aspects of the ecology and natural history of bullfrogs introduced to Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. The purpose of this study was...

  14. Trophic ecology and microhabitat utilization by the Bufo gargarizans, Rana guentheri, and Rana limnocharis in southwestern China

    OpenAIRE

    Tonglei Yu; Yanshu Guo

    2012-01-01

    We studied the trophic ecology and microhabitat use of the Asiatic toad, Bufo gargarizans Cantor, 1842; Guentheri frog, Rana guentheri (Boulenger, 1882); and the Ricefield frog, Rana limnocharis (Boie, 1834). These three species are common around Nanchong City, in southwestern China, where they live in the same habitat before hibernation. The main objective of this study was to analyze the diets and patterns of coexistence relative to the microhabitat of each species. In the Asiatic toad, bas...

  15. Bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus farming system: water quality and environmental changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cacilda Thais Janson Mercante

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Frog farming, if not well managed, may cause environmental damages. The use of antibiotics, the organic discharge and the introduction of exotic species can disseminate risks such as eutrophication, changes in the water quality and organic pollution, factors that affect the human consumption. AIM: Evaluating the water quality of a bullfrog farming system, discussing their relations to production and the environment based on the current legislation. METHODS: Sampling was performed on a monthly basis from November 2006 to March 2007 during growth and fattening phases of bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus. Sample sites were distributed according to the water flow: upstream from the mixing zone, affluent (supply water, bay, effluent, mixing zone and downstream from the mixing zone. In the field, pH, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen, temperature and turbidity were measured. In laboratory, nitrogen, phosphorus and chlorophyll a concentrations were analyzed. RESULTS: The concentration of nutrients was determiner for water quality in the bay and its effluent. According to the current legislation, the effluent exceeded the limits for total phosphorus (> 0.030 mg L-1 and total nitrogen (> 1.27 mg L-1. Other variables presented acceptable values in light of the current laws. CONCLUSION: The high values of nutrients and other factors such as conductivity and turbidity are proportional to the animal growth due to the inadequate management practices evidenced by feed conversion rate. The following management options are proposed: maintaining the flow and decreased density of animals; maintaining the flow and density storage with adequate control of the food supply.

  16. Optimization of Extraction Conditions on the Yield of Rana Chensinensis Egg Oil by Statistical Experimental Designs

    OpenAIRE

    Wenxuan Zhao; Fuguang Zhao; Guang Chen

    2015-01-01

    Rana chensinensis egg oil is extracted from Rana chensinensis. The important variables (extraction temperature, extraction time and the ratio of oviductus ranae egg oil and extraction solvent) were optimized by Box-Behnken central composite design under response surface methodology. The statistical analysis showed that the optimum extraction conditions (extraction temperature 60.62C, extraction time 3.16 h and the ratio of oviductus ranae egg oil and extraction solvent 8.91.) led to a maximu...

  17. Immunostimulatory Activity of Protein Hydrolysate from Oviductus Ranae on Macrophage In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Oviductus Ranae is the dry oviduct of Rana chensinensis, which is also called R. chensinensis oil. Oviductus Ranae is a valuable Chinese crude drug and is recorded in the Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China. The aim of this study was to investigate the immunostimulatory activity of protein hydrolysate of Oviductus Ranae (ORPH) and to assess its possible mechanism. Immunomodulatory activity of ORPH was examined in murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells. The effect of ORPH on the phagocy...

  18. Suplementação com vitamina C e E sobre o desenvolvimento e sobrevivência de girinos de rã-touro (Rana catesbeiana Shaw, 1802)

    OpenAIRE

    Stéfani Marta Verardino De; Marcantonio Adriana Sacioto; Martins Maurício Laterça

    2001-01-01

    O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos da suplementação de vitamina C e E sobre o desenvolvimento e sobrevivência de girinos de rã-touro. Os animais receberam 50, 250 e 500mg de vitamina C ou E/kg de ração, distribuídos segundo delineamento inteiramente casualizado com 3 repetições cada. Na dieta controle, não foram adicionadas vitaminas. Os girinos suplementados com vitamina C ou E não apresentaram diferença significativa no crescimento, comparados ao controle. Não obstant...

  19. Reproductive phenology of the American Bullfrog in subtropical Brazil: photoperiod as a main determinant of seasonal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Camila I; Both, Camila; Kaefer, Igor L; Cechin, Sonia Z

    2016-07-11

    The North American bullfrog Lithobates catesbeianus continues to invade ecosystems worldwide, potentially causing population declines and even extinctions. Within its native distribution, bullfrogs show prolonged reproductive seasons and high fertility. However, data on breeding biology of bullfrogs ex-situ in invaded localities mainly comes from anecdotal reports. Understanding how invasive species are adjusting their life histories to new colonized environments is important for conservation purposes. Here we describe temporal and spatial abundance, calling activity, spawning and tadpole distribution of bullfrogs in southern Brazil. Eighteen samplings occurred during one year. The abundance of individuals was positively related to longer photoperiods and higher temperatures. Reproductive activity was also positively associated with longer photoperiods. Calling sites, spawning and tadpoles were associated with microhabitats presenting hydrophytes, which may provide shelter and thermal stability to bullfrogs. The reproductive seasonal activity of bullfrogs can be highly variable across its growing geographical range, but in subtropical Brazil it is associated with photoperiod, a highly predictable abiotic determinant. In our study area, bullfrogs presented a breeding season twice as long as that observed in some native localities. We suggest that management strategies directed to bullfrog populations must consider the habitat structures and seasonal regimes determined by each invaded environment. PMID:27411069

  20. Climate change and American Bullfrog invasion: what could we expect in South America?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Nori

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Biological invasion and climate change pose challenges to biodiversity conservation in the 21(st century. Invasive species modify ecosystem structure and functioning and climatic changes are likely to produce invasive species' range shifts pushing some populations into protected areas. The American Bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus is one of the hundred worst invasive species in the world. Native from the southeast of USA, it has colonized more than 75% of South America where it has been reported as a highly effective predator, competitor and vector of amphibian diseases. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We modeled the potential distribution of the bullfrog in its native range based on different climate models and green-house gases emission scenarios, and projected the results onto South America for the years of 2050 and 2080. We also overlaid projected models onto the South American network of protected areas. Our results indicate a slight decrease in potential suitable area for bullfrog invasion, although protected areas will become more climatically suitable. Therefore, invasion of these sites is forecasted. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: We provide new evidence supporting the vulnerability of the Atlantic Forest Biodiversity Hotspot to bullfrog invasion and call attention to optimal future climatic conditions of the Andean-Patagonian forest, eastern Paraguay, and northwestern Bolivia, where invasive populations have not been found yet. We recommend several management and policy strategies to control bullfrog invasion and argue that these would be possible if based on appropriate articulation among government agencies, NGOs, research institutions and civil society.

  1. Diet and Prey Selection of the Invasive American Bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus) in Southwestern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuan LIU; Yu LUO; Jiaxin CHEN; Yisong GUO; Changming BAI; Yiming LI

    2015-01-01

    Invasive predators have been widely regarded as one of the principle drivers of the global decline of amphibians, which are among the most threatened vertebrate taxon on Earth. The American bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus) is identiifed as one of the most successful vertebrate invaders and has caused the decline or extinction of some native amphibians in many regions and countries including China. Based on ifeld surveys and stomach content analyses, we examined the diet composition of the invasive bullfrog for the ifrst time in two invaded populations in Yunnan Province, southwestern China, a region of global conservation priority, during the breeding season from 2008 to 2014. Additionally, we conducted the first quantitative study on the prey selection of this global invader among their invaded ranges after controlling for the local anuran assemblage and other aquatic preys in the environment. Our results showed that the range of food items in the stomachs of bullfrogs spanned more than 30 species belonging to ten taxonomic classes. Both of post-metamorphosis individuals and juveniles preyed upon native frogs, independent of the bullfrog’s body size and mouth width. Importantly, Jacobs’ selection index showed a bullfrog preference for the Yunnan pond frog (Babina pleuraden), one native endemic anuran with population decline, in terms of both food volume and occurrence. We therefore provided direct evidence on the predation impact of the invasive bullfrog on an endemic anuran and urged further efforts to prevent the dispersal of this invader into more fragile habitats to reduce their negative impacts on native amphibians.

  2. Agro-climatic Division of Rana chensinensis in Fushun

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Based on data collected by 3 basic weather stations in Fushun City and 47 automatic weather stations in the whole region,we selected indexes suitable for agro-climatic division of Rana chensinensis,and carried out a study on agro-climatic division of Rana chensinensis in this region.Annual active accumulated temperature ≥10 ℃ and precipitation during April and September are used as basic calculation factors,and we use climatic aridity to make climatic division of Rana chensinensis in Fushun City.According to relevant indexes,we divide Fushun City into 3 regions,namely most appropriate,appropriate and general regions.Finally,countermeasures and suggestions are put forward for providing reference for agricultural production.

  3. L'introduction d'espèces allochtones de grenouilles vertes en France, deux problèmes différents : celui de R. Catesbeiana et celui des taxons non présents du complexe Esculenta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NEVEU A.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Depuis quelques années, la grenouille taureau (Rana catesbeiana est signalée en France dans une zone limitée de gravières près de Bordeaux. Elle est aussi présente depuis peu aux Pays-Bas et, dans les deux cas, la reproduction est effective. Cette espèce existe déjà en Europe depuis les années 30, à la suite d'introductions volontaires en Italie, sans pour cela avoir été signalée dans la partie ouest. La grenouille taureau est la plus grande des espèces nord-américaines et est considérée comme un prédateur éclectique. De ce fait, elle peut présenter un danger pour d'autres animaux, en particulier les grenouilles autochtones. Mais aucune donnée ne permet d'estimer cet éventuel impact en France et les données de la littérature ont souvent surestimé ce dernier. Par précaution, des mesures pourraient être prises pour réduire les populations actuelles présentes dans une aire pour le moment limitée. Les importations de grenouilles vivantes pour la consommation humaine, surtout à partir des pays du sud de l'Europe, sont l'occasion d'introductions de nouveaux taxons. Mais ces grenouilles font partie du même complexe et sont proches sur le plan morphologique, biologique et écologique. Les risques potentiels pour les populations locales sont les introductions de gènes, mais en ce qui concerne un éventuel avantage compétitif aucune donnée ne permet de conclure.

  4. Control of lung ventilation following overwintering conditions in bullfrogs, Lithobates catesbeianus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santin, Joseph M; Hartzler, Lynn K

    2016-07-01

    Ranid frogs in northern latitudes survive winter at cold temperatures in aquatic habitats often completely covered by ice. Cold-submerged frogs survive aerobically for several months relying exclusively on cutaneous gas exchange while maintaining temperature-specific acid-base balance. Depending on the overwintering hibernaculum, frogs in northern latitudes could spend several months without access to air, the need to breathe or the chemosensory drive to use neuromuscular processes that regulate and enable pulmonary ventilation. Therefore, we performed experiments to determine whether aspects of the respiratory control system of bullfrogs, Lithobates catesbeianus, are maintained or suppressed following minimal use of air breathing in overwintering environments. Based on the necessity for control of lung ventilation in early spring, we hypothesized that critical components of the respiratory control system of bullfrogs would be functional following simulated overwintering. We found that bullfrogs recently removed from simulated overwintering environments exhibited similar resting ventilation when assessed at 24°C compared with warm-acclimated control bullfrogs. Additionally, ventilation met resting metabolic and, presumably, acid-base regulation requirements, indicating preservation of basal respiratory function despite prolonged disuse in the cold. Recently emerged bullfrogs underwent similar increases in ventilation during acute oxygen lack (aerial hypoxia) compared with warm-acclimated frogs; however, CO2-related hyperventilation was significantly blunted following overwintering. Overcoming challenges to gas exchange during overwintering have garnered attention in ectothermic vertebrates, but this study uncovers robust and labile aspects of the respiratory control system at a time point correlating with early spring following minimal to no use of lung breathing in cold-aquatic overwintering habitats. PMID:27091862

  5. Helminth communities of two green frogs (Rana perezi and Rana saharica from both shores of the Alboran Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navarro P.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The helminth communities of two populations of green frogs from both shores of the Alborán Sea (Western Mediterranean were studied. Of the 79 frogs examined for helminths, 39 individuals of the species Rana saharica were collected from Bab-Taza (Morocco, and 40 of the species Rana perezi were collected from the Natural Park of the Sierra de Grazalema (Spain. Although the species richness of helminths was identical in the two sampled areas, the differences observed in the structure of the helminth infracommunities were quite important. Statistically, significant differences were found between the species richness and the diversity of the infracommunities of R. perezi female population and the other three studied statistical populations. The helminth component communities of these two green frogs can be considered as depauperate, although their infracommunities present interactive features.

  6. A microsatellite-based method for genotyping diploid and triploid water frogs of the Rana esculenta hybrid complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ditte Guldager

    2005-01-01

    Rana esculenta is a hybrid between Rana lessonae (LL) and Rana ridibunda (RR), and hybrids may be diploid (LR) or triploid (LLR or LRR). Genotypes can be roughly determined from erythrocyte size and morphometry in adult frogs, but accurate genotyping requires more labourious methods. Here I...

  7. Genetic reconstruction of a bullfrog invasion to elucidate vectors of introduction and secondary spread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamath, Pauline L.; Sepulveda, Adam; Layhee, Megan J.

    2016-01-01

    Reconstructing historical colonization pathways of an invasive species is critical for uncovering factors that determine invasion success and for designing management strategies. The American bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus) is endemic to eastern North America, but now has a global distribution and is considered to be one of the worst invaders in the world. In Montana, several introduced populations have been reported, but little is known of their sources and vectors of introduction and secondary spread. We evaluated the genetic composition of introduced populations at local (Yellowstone River floodplain) and regional (Montana and Wyoming) scales in contrast to native range populations. Our objectives were to (1) estimate the number of introductions, (2) identify probable native sources, (3) evaluate genetic variation relative to sources, and (4) characterize properties of local- and regional-scale spread. We sequenced 937 bp of the mitochondrial cytochrome b locus in 395 tadpoles collected along 100 km of the Yellowstone River, from three additional sites in MT and a proximate site in WY. Pairwise ΦST revealed high divergence among nonnative populations, suggesting at least four independent introductions into MT from diverse sources. Three cyt b haplotypes were identical to native haplotypes distributed across the Midwest and Great Lakes regions, and AMOVA confirmed the western native region as a likely source. While haplotype (Hd = 0.69) and nucleotide diversity (π = 0.005) were low in introduced bullfrogs, the levels of diversity did not differ significantly from source populations. In the Yellowstone, two identified haplotypes implied few introduction vectors and a significant relationship between genetic and river distance was found. Evidence for multiple invasions and lack of subsequent regional spread emphasizes the importance of enforcing legislation prohibiting bullfrog importation and the need for continuing public education to prevent

  8. Solitary Hair Cells Are Distributed Throughout the Extramacular Epithelium in the Bullfrog's Saccule

    OpenAIRE

    Gale, Jonathan E.; Meyers, Jason R.; Corwin, Jeffrey T.

    2000-01-01

    The frog inner ear contains eight sensory organs that provide sensitivities to auditory, vestibular, and ground-borne vibrational stimuli. The saccule in bullfrogs is responsible for detecting ground- and air-borne vibrations and is used for studies of hair cell physiology, development, and regeneration. Based on hair bundle morphology, a number of hair cell types have been defined in this organ. Using immunocytochemistry, vital labeling, and electron microscopy, we have characterized a new h...

  9. Morphometric growth characteristics and body composition of bullfrog tadpoles in captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleber Menegasso Mansano

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Feed management needs to be improved in frog farming to reduce the indirect effects of inadequate feeding and, consequently, to increase growth rates and nutrient deposition, obtaining better quality animals. The objective of this study was to establish morphometric growth curves for bullfrog tadpoles (Lithobates catesbeianus and to determine nutrient deposition in the carcass. A total of 6,480 bullfrogs (Gosner stage 25 received an experimental diet (26.23% digestible protein and 32.68% crude protein and a commercial diet (37.92% crude protein ad libitum. A Gompertz model was used to describe the growth curve. Tadpoles fed the experimental diet presented higher final protein deposition. In addition, the sigmoidal curve was much more homogenous, indicating a more constant daily protein deposition rate. The Gompertz model provided an excellent fit of the data to describe the morphometric growth curve and carcass nutrient deposition of bullfrog tadpoles, showing that animals fed the experimental diet presented a better growth rate and nutrient deposition.

  10. 一株牛蛙源虹彩病毒的分离及鉴定%CHARACTERIZATION OF AN IRIDOVIRUS ISOLATE FROM RANA CATESBIANA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓东; 杨金先; 龚晖; 朱春华; 林天龙

    2012-01-01

    An iridovims strain F J049 was isolated on epithelioma papillosum cyprinid (EPC) cell line from a moribund American bullfrogRana catesbiana) on a farm in Fujian Province. The infected EPC cells developed cytopathogenic effects (CPE), such as rounding, granulation and detachment. The monoclonal antibody against iridovirus showed positive reaction in the FJ049-infected EPC cells in indirect immunofluorescence assay and specific fluorescence appeared in the cytoplasm of infected cells. A specific 53 lbp fragment was amplified in PCR from the conserved regions of major capsid protein (MCP) gene. The phylogenetic analysis ofMCP gene showed that the FJ049 strain shared 99.8% identity with the RGV9808 strain isolated from Rana grylio stejneger, classified in genus Ranavirus, family Iridoviridae.%用鲤鱼表皮瘤细胞系(epithelioma papulosum cyprini cell line,EPC)从福建省某美洲牛蛙养殖场分离到一株病毒FJ049。感染病毒的EPC呈现细胞圆缩、颗粒增多、脱落等特征性病变。间接免疫荧光检测结果表明,感染FJ049的EPC细胞与虹彩病毒单克隆抗体反应并出现特异性的胞浆荧光。采用PCR对虹彩病毒主衣壳蛋白(major capsid protein,MCP)基因保守区域进行扩增,扩增出531bp的特异性基因片段。MCP基因同源性和遗传进化分析结果表明分离株FJ049与沼泽绿牛蛙虹彩病毒RGV9808的核苷酸同源性最高,为99.8%,属于虹彩病毒科蛙病毒属。

  11. El regimen alimentario de la rana verde de África del norte, Rana saharica - The food mode of north African green frog, Rana saharica - Le regime alimentaire de la grenouille verte d’afrique du nord, rana saharica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meher BELLAKHAL

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available ResumenPara la determinación del régimen alimentario de la rana verde de Áfricadel norte Rana (Pelophylax saharica, se recogieron 360 especímenes apartir de 2 lagos de la región Septentrional de Túnez desde el mes de abrilhasta el mes de septiembre. Constatamos que las presas pertenecenprincipalmente a los artrópodos, en particular los coleópteros (38.29% ylos dípteros (23.47%. Más de vez en cuando, algunos renacuajos yjuveniles de la misma especie así como otras presas acuáticas, se hantambién descubierto en el contenido estomacal. El número de presa máselevado (231 se observó en el mes de junio, mientras que la diversidadmás importante de las presas (3,1, se registró en el mes de mayo.SummaryFor the food mode determination of the North African green frog Rana(Pelophylax saharica, 360 specimens were collected from 2 lakes in theNorthern area of Tunisia since April until September. We noted that thepreys belong mainly to the Arthropods, particularly Coleopters (38.29%and Dipterous (23.47%. More occasionally, some tadpoles and youngfrogs belonging to the same species as well as other aquatic preys werealso discovered in the stomach contents. The highest number of prey(231 was observed in June, whereas the most important prey diversity(3,1 was recorded in May.

  12. Effects of predatory fish on survival and behavior of larval gopher frogs (Rana capito) and Southern Leopard Frogs (Rana sphenocephala)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregoire, D.R.; Gunzburger, M.S.

    2008-01-01

    Southern Leopard Frogs, Rana sphenocephala, are habitat generalists occurring in virtually all freshwater habitats within their geographic range, whereas Gopher Frogs, Rana capito, typically breed in ponds that do not normally contain fish. To evaluate the potential for predation by fish to influence the distribution of these species, we conducted a randomized factorial experiment. We examined the survival rate and behavior of tadpoles when exposed to Warmouth Sunfish, Lepomis gulosus, Banded Sunfish, Enneacanthus obesus, and Eastern Mosquitofish, Gambusia holbrooki. We also conducted a choice experiment to examine the survival rate of the two species of tadpoles when a predator is given a choice of both species simultaneously. Lepomis gulosus consumed the most tadpoles and ate significantly more tadpoles of R. capito than R. sphenocephala. Gambusia holbrooki injured the most tadpoles, especially R. capito. Enneacanthus obesus did not have an effect on behavior or survival of either anuran species. Tadpoles of both anurans increased hiding when in the presence of L. gulosus and G. holbrooki, but a greater proportion of R. capito hid than did R. sphenocephala. Our results suggest that R. capito are more vulnerable to predation by fish than are R. sphenocephala. The introduction of fish may play a role in population declines of certain anurans breeding in normally fish-free wetlands, and even small fish, such as mosquitofish, may have significant negative effects on the tadpoles of R. capito. Copyright 2008 Society for the Study or Amphibians and Reptiles.

  13. New Replacement Name for Rana paradoxa Mocquard, 1890 with Designations of Lectotypes for Rana paradoxa and Rana conspicil-lata Günther, 1872:Both Synonymized with Limnonectes kuhlii (Tschudi, 1838) (Dicroglossidae:Dicroglossinae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masafumi MATSUI; Alain DUBOIS; Annemarie OHLER

    2013-01-01

    Fanged frogs, now called Limnonectes kuhlii, from Borneo are remotely related to true Javanese L. kuhlii. For future taxonomy of Bornean fanged frogs, we ifx the nomenclatural status of two existing names, Rana conspicillata Günther, 1872 and Rana paradoxa Mocquard, 1890. Morphological comparison of the type-series revealed heterospeciifc relationships of the two species. For R. conspicillata, we designate BMNH 1947.2.29.20 as the lectotype, and for R. para-doxa, we also designate MNHN 1889.222 as the lectotype and propose a replacement name Limnonectes mocquardi, in order to stabilize their nomenclature.

  14. Western spotted frog (Rana pretiosa) distribution in the Bonneville Basin of western Utah: Research in progress

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report provides information on the western spotted frog Rana pretiosa which occurs in Tule Valley, Utah. The following topics are discussed; general...

  15. The Developmental Effects Of A Municipal Wastewater Effluent On The Northern Leopard Frog, Rana pipiens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wastewater effluents are complex mixtures containing a variety of anthropogenic compounds, many of which are known endocrine disruptors. In order to characterize the development and behavorial effects of such a complex mixture, northern leopard frogs, Rana pipiens, were e...

  16. Modelling the firing pattern of bullfrog vestibular neurons responding to naturalistic stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulin, M. G.; Hoffman, L. F.

    1999-01-01

    We have developed a neural system identification method for fitting models to stimulus-response data, where the response is a spike train. The method involves using a general nonlinear optimisation procedure to fit models in the time domain. We have applied the method to model bullfrog semicircular canal afferent neuron responses during naturalistic, broad-band head rotations. These neurons respond in diverse ways, but a simple four parameter class of models elegantly accounts for the various types of responses observed. c1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A study in motion sickness - Saccular hair cells in the adult bullfrog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, G. M.; Reschke, M.; Homick, J.

    1982-01-01

    The bullfrog's saccule were examined using light and scanning electron microscopy. No evidence of a striola was found. Type A hair cells were not only distributed peripherally, but also throughout the central macula, though far less frequently than the dominant type D. Two primary hair cell types were distinguished, which corresponded to the ciliary patterns: type A cilia are associated with short, conical hair cells, and type D cilia are associated with long, cylindrical hair cells. Each displays at least one subtype, which may represent developmental precursors. The otolithic membrane is crisscrossed with tunnels and topped with statoconia.

  18. Nephrotoxic effects of lead nitrate in Rana ridibunda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loumbourdis, N.S. [Department of Zoology, University of Thessaloniki, 54124, Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2003-09-01

    The impact of lead (Pb) on kidney histopathology of the frog Rana ridibunda was investigated. Female frogs were exposed for 4, 10 and 30 days to 14 ppm lead (as lead nitrate). All the lead concentrations and many histological changes were time dependent. Light microscopy of kidney revealed morphological changes mainly in the proximal convoluted tubule (PCT) cells. The most severe changes such as vacuolation, Perl's stained material, infiltration, brush border destruction and proximal tubule damage were detected in the animals exposed for 10 and 30 days. Karyomegaly was highest at 10-days exposure, probably as a result of intense stress caused by the lead. Some PCT in the 30-days-exposed animals were von Kossa's method positive, suggesting the presence of calcium. The possibility is discussed that some of these changes, such as karyomegaly and intranuclear inclusions, might be preneoplastic if lead was supplied at high concentrations and for long time. (orig.)

  19. Nephrotoxic effects of lead nitrate in Rana ridibunda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loumbourdis, N S

    2003-09-01

    The impact of lead (Pb) on kidney histopathology of the frog Rana ridibunda was investigated. Female frogs were exposed for 4, 10 and 30 days to 14 ppm lead (as lead nitrate). All the lead concentrations and many histological changes were time dependent. Light microscopy of kidney revealed morphological changes mainly in the proximal convoluted tubule (PCT) cells. The most severe changes such as vacuolation, Perl's stained material, infiltration, brush border destruction and proximal tubule damage were detected in the animals exposed for 10 and 30 days. Karyomegaly was highest at 10-days exposure, probably as a result of intense stress caused by the lead. Some PCT in the 30-days-exposed animals were von Kossa's method positive, suggesting the presence of calcium. The possibility is discussed that some of these changes, such as karyomegaly and intranuclear inclusions, might be preneoplastic if lead was supplied at high concentrations and for long time.

  20. Extraction and antioxidant activity of polysaccharides from Rana chensinensis skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhanyong; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Su, Tingting

    2015-01-22

    The extraction process of polysaccharides from Rana chensinensis skin was optimized by using a Box-Behnken design. The optimum extraction conditions were as follows: extraction time, 4.96h; extraction temperature, 100°C; ratio of water to raw material, 60; and extraction frequency, 1. Under these conditions, the experimental polysaccharide yield was 2.03±0.14%, which agreed with the predicted yield. The purified polysaccharide RCSP II was successfully obtained by diethylaminoethanol-Sepharose and Sepharose CL-6B column chromatography. In vitro experiments showed that RCSP II exhibited a strong scavenging activity against superoxide anion and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals but a weak scavenging activity against hydroxyl radicals. RCSP II also showed a strong reducing capacity. Thus, this polysaccharide can be used as a natural antioxidant in functional foods or medicines.

  1. Alimentación de las ranas pardas, Rana gr. temporaria, en el circo de Piedrafita, (Pirineos, España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez Vieites, D.

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Feeding of high Pyrenean mountain brown frogs were studied in the pre-wintering period. The main prey is beetles (44'97o, two-winged flies (12'9% and bees, wasps, ants, etc (11'4%. For the whole of the frogs, the most frequent prey size is the small (smaller than 10 mm. Big frogs tend to consume bigger prey in not ,o. many quantity, while small frogs consume more quantity of preys but smaller in size. From prey way of life, frogs eat mainly terrestrial and aerial preys, although capture of aquatic prey was observed (11'5% and these preys were eaten inside the water.

    Se ha estudiado la dieta de las ranas pardas en alta montaña pirenaica durante el periodo pre-invernal. Las ranas consumen principalmente coleópteros (44'9%, dípteros (12'9% e himenópteros (11'4%. Para el conjunto de todas las ranas estudiadas, las presas más consumidas son las de pequeño tamaño (menores de 10 mm. Las ranas de mayor talla tienden a consumir presas más grandes y en poca cantidad, mientras que las ranas pequeñas consumen más presas aunque de pequeño tamaño. En cuanto a forma de vida las presas más consumidas son terrestres y aéreas, aunque también se ha comprobado la captura de presas acuáticas (11'5% que son consumidas por las ranas dentro del agua.

  2. LOS FANTASMAS EN RANAS DE ARISTÓFANES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya Planchas Gallarte

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available THE GHOSTS IN ARISTOPHANES’ FROGS. The aim of the following paper is to present and analyze the passages of the comedies of Aristophanes related to ghostly apparitions. By offering an overview of this issue, so recurrent among classical authors, we will be able to sketch, on the one hand, how the Athenian comic playwright configures this topic in one of his works. On the other, by contextualizing Aristophanes’ treatment of ghosts in his genre, we will have the opportunity of focusing on the similarities, and possible innovations introduced by the poet among ancient Greek authors. Keywords: Aristophanes, ghost, Frogs, apparition, comedy. // LOS FANTASMAS EN RANAS DE ARISTÓFANES. Resumen: La finalidad de nuestra investigación consiste principalmente en presentar y analizar aquellos pasajes de las comedias aristofánicas relacionados con el tópico de las apariciones fantasmales. Comenzaremos ofreciendo una visión general de este motivo, tan recurrente entre los autores clásicos, para, a continuación, detenernos exclusivamente en el tratamiento que hizo el comediógrafo ateniense. Creemos que una detenida observación de las similitudes e innovaciones de estas cuestiones nos llevará, en primer lugar, a delimitar una visión concreta del tópico dentro del género cómico y, en segundo lugar, a insertar una pieza clave en el puzle de la concepción de los fantasmas a lo largo de la literatura grecolatina. Palabras clave: Aristófanes, Ranas, fantasmas, apariciones, comedia.

  3. Phylogenetic relationships of leopard frogs (Rana pipiens complex) from an isolated coastal mountain range in southern Sonora, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiler, E; Markow, T A

    2008-10-01

    Mitochondrial DNA sequence data from the control region and 12S rRNA in leopard frogs from the Sierra El Aguaje of southern Sonora, Mexico, together with GenBank sequences, were used to infer taxonomic identity and provide phylogenetic hypotheses for relationships with other members of the Rana pipiens complex. We show that frogs from the Sierra El Aguaje belong to the Rana berlandieri subgroup, or Scurrilirana clade, of the R. pipiens group, and are most closely related to Rana magnaocularis from Nayarit, Mexico. We also provide further evidence that Rana magnaocularis and R. yavapaiensis are close relatives.

  4. Phylogenetic relationships of leopard frogs (Rana pipiens complex) from an isolated coastal mountain range in southern Sonora, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiler, E; Markow, T A

    2008-10-01

    Mitochondrial DNA sequence data from the control region and 12S rRNA in leopard frogs from the Sierra El Aguaje of southern Sonora, Mexico, together with GenBank sequences, were used to infer taxonomic identity and provide phylogenetic hypotheses for relationships with other members of the Rana pipiens complex. We show that frogs from the Sierra El Aguaje belong to the Rana berlandieri subgroup, or Scurrilirana clade, of the R. pipiens group, and are most closely related to Rana magnaocularis from Nayarit, Mexico. We also provide further evidence that Rana magnaocularis and R. yavapaiensis are close relatives. PMID:18625327

  5. Can an Invasive Prey Species Induce Morphological and Behavioral Changes in an Endemic Predator? Evidence from a South Korean Snake (Oocatochus rufodorsatus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-Haeng HEO; Heon-Joo LEE; Il-Hun KIM; Jonathan J FONG; Ja-Kyeong KIM; Sumin JEONG; Daesik PARK

    2014-01-01

    Introduction of an invasive prey species into an ecosystem may affect an endemic predator’s fitness by altering the prey-predator system. Successful adaptation may allow the endemic predator to eat and control the invasive species, while unsuccessful adaptation may result in extinction of the predator. We examine the possible effects of the invasive North American bullfrog (Rana [Lithobates] catesbeiana) on the endemic Red-backed rat snake (Oocatochus rufodorsatus) in South Korea. We do so by comparing the morphology and behavior of adult and hatchling snakes from bullfrog-exposed (Taean) and bullfrog-unexposed (Hongcheon) populations. Among the seven morphological characteristics investigated, relative tail length (tail length/snout-vent length) of both adults and hatchlings from Taean was significantly greater than that of adults and hatchlings from Hongcheon. Also, adult snakes from Taean had a signiifcantly shorter latency of ifrst tongue lfick in response to prey compared to adults from Hongcheon. This difference was not observed in hatchlings. In other snake species, a longer relative tail length and shorter latency of ifrst tongue lfick are known to improve foraging efifciency, and these characters may be adaptations ofO. rufodorsatus to prey on bullfrogs. This study provides preliminary evidence that the presence of an invasive prey species may cause morphological and behavioral changes in an endemic predator.

  6. Sound duration as a perceptual cue influencing vocal behavior of male bullfrogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Andrea M.

    2002-05-01

    Female frogs of several species use the temporal cue of sound duration to aid in mate choice. Little is known, however, about the sensitivity of male frogs to this cue. Male bullfrogs emit a complex advertisement call to attract females for mating, and to announce territory occupation to other males. In two experiments, the sensitivity of vocalizing male bullfrogs to field playbacks of advertisement calls differing in duration was examined. The number and latency of evoked vocal responses to the stimuli was used as a measure of perception. Males responded with fewer calls, at longer latencies, to stimuli shorter in duration than the standard signal (with a duration at the mean value for the species). Males preferred stimuli longer in duration than the standard signal, responding with more calls at shorter latencies. They did not, however, significantly lengthen their own calls in response to playbacks of long duration signals. This preference for ``supernormal'' stimuli may be an important factor mediating the evolution of communication signals. [Work supported by NIH.

  7. Na/sup +/-dependent transport of /sup 14/C-L-lysine across bullfrog alveolar epithelium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K.J.; Crandall, E.D.

    1986-03-01

    Transepithelial transport of the basic amino acid L-lysine has been studied utilizing the isolated intact bullfrog lung mounted in the Ussing chamber. Lungs were excised from doubly pithed bullfrogs and sandwiched between two hemichambers. /sup 14/C-(U)-L-lysine was added to the upstream reservoir of amphibian Ringer solution, while the tissue was short-circuited. Two lungs from the same animal were used simultaneously to determine the two opposite unidirectional fluxes. Downstream and upstream radioactivities were assayed and used to estimate the apparent permeability (P) of the labeled lysine. Results indicate that the apparent P of /sup 14/C-L-lysine measured in the alveolar (M) to the pleural (S) direction is 19.06 (+- 2.84) x 10/sup -7/ cm/s and P in the S to M direction is 3.29 (+- 0.02) x 10/sup -7/ cm/s. When the 100 mM NaCl in the bath was replaced by 110 mM choline chloride, the flux of /sup 14/C-L-lysine from the alveolar to the pleural side decreased to the same value as that in the opposite direction. The flux from the pleural to the alveolar direction in the absence of Na/sup +/ did not change. These results suggest that the alveolar epithelium exhibits Na/sup +/-dependent amino acid (L-lysine) transport in the M->S, but not in the S->M, direction.

  8. Efferent control of the electrical and mechanical properties of hair cells in the bullfrog's sacculus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Castellano-Muñoz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hair cells in the auditory, vestibular, and lateral-line systems respond to mechanical stimulation and transmit information to afferent nerve fibers. The sensitivity of mechanoelectrical transduction is modulated by the efferent pathway, whose activity usually reduces the responsiveness of hair cells. The basis of this effect remains unknown. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We employed immunocytological, electrophysiological, and micromechanical approaches to characterize the anatomy of efferent innervation and the effect of efferent activity on the electrical and mechanical properties of hair cells in the bullfrog's sacculus. We found that efferent fibers form extensive synaptic terminals on all macular and extramacular hair cells. Macular hair cells expressing the Ca(2+-buffering protein calretinin contain half as many synaptic ribbons and are innervated by twice as many efferent terminals as calretinin-negative hair cells. Efferent activity elicits inhibitory postsynaptic potentials in hair cells and thus inhibits their electrical resonance. In hair cells that exhibit spiking activity, efferent stimulation suppresses the generation of action potentials. Finally, efferent activity triggers a displacement of the hair bundle's resting position. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: The hair cells of the bullfrog's sacculus receive a rich efferent innervation with the heaviest projection to calretinin-containing cells. Stimulation of efferent axons desensitizes the hair cells and suppresses their spiking activity. Although efferent activation influences mechanoelectrical transduction, the mechanical effects on hair bundles are inconsistent.

  9. THE MOCHE BOTANICAL FROG (La rana botánica mochica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna McClelland †

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Plants and animals with features which identify them as supernaturals characterize the art of the Precolumbian Moche culture of northern Peru. Among these animals is a frog with feline attributes and a consistent association with manioc tubers, stalks, and plants, the Botanical Frog. The Botanical Frog appears to have been patterned on Leptodactylus pentadactylus. It is shown copulating with felines. Fine line painted vessels and ones with low relief decoration show the Botanical Frog performing as part of a ritual involving other animals and cultivated crops, suggesting that the Botanical Frog was associated with agriculture. ESPAÑOL: El arte de la cultura mochica de la costa norte del Perú presenta plantas y animales mostrando rasgos sobrenaturales. Uno de los animales es una rana con elementos felinos y asociada con tubérculos, ramas y plantas de yuca. La Rana Botánica probablemente tiene su origen en Leptodactylus pentadactylus, una rana carnívora de la selva amazónica. La Rana Botánica copula con felinos y, en vasijas pintadas con líneas finas o con escenarios representados en bajorrelieve, toma parte en ceremonias involucrando a otros animales y cosechas domésticas. Parece ser que la Rana Botánica era un ser sobrenatural asociado con la agricultura.

  10. Ontogeny and localization of gamma-crystallins in Rana temporaria, Ambystoma mexicanum and Pleurodeles waltlii normal lens development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brahma, S.K.; McDevitt, David S.

    1974-01-01

    Rana pipiens lens γ-crystallin antibodies were used in the indirect immunofluorescence staining method to investigate the role of γ-crystallins in the normal lens development of the amphibians Rana temporaria, Ambystoma mexicanum and Pleurodeles waltlii Michah. In each case, the fluorescence was fir

  11. Chemical Characterization and Antimicrobial Activity Evaluation of Natural Oil Nanostructured Emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alencar, Everton N; Xavier-Júnior, Francisco H; Morais, Andreza R V; Dantas, Teresa R F; Dantas-Santos, Nednaldo; Verissimo, Lourena M; Rehder, Vera L G; Chaves, Guilherme M; Oliveira, Anselmo G; Egitol, E Sócrates T

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the antimicrobial activity of nanostructured emulsions based on copaiba (Copaifera langsdorffii) resin-oil, copaiba essential oil, and bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana Shaw) oil against fungi and bacteria related to skin diseases. Firstly, the essential oil was extracted from copaiba resin-oil and these oils, along with bullfrog oil, were characterized by gas chromatography combined with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Secondly, nanostructured emulsion systems were produced and characterized. The antimicrobial susceptibility assay was performed, followed by the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) determination, the bioautography assay, and the antibiofilm determination. Strains of the genera Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas, and Candida were used. The CG-MS analysis was able to identify the components of copaiba resin-oil, copaiba essential oil, and bullfrog oil. The MIC assay in association with the bioautography revealed that some esters of palmitic and oleic acids, a-curcumene, a-himachalene, isothujol, and α-fenchene--probably inhibited some strains. The nanostructured emulsions based on copaiba resin-oil and essential oil improved the antimicrobial activity of the pure oils, especially against Staphylococcus and Candida, resistant to azoles. The bullfrog oil nanostructured emulsion showed a lower antimicrobial effect when compared to the copaiba samples. However, bullfrog oil-based nanostructured emulsion showed a significant antibiofilm activity (p antibiofilm activities of the evaluated oils, it may be concluded that nanostructured emulsions based on copaiba and bullfrog oils are promising candidates for the treatment of infections and also may be used to incorporate other antimicrobial drugs. PMID:26328453

  12. Octylphenol induced gene expression in testes of Frog, Rana chensinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinyi; Liu, Jia; Zhang, Yuhui

    2016-06-01

    Octylphenol (OP) is an endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC), which can disrupt the reproductive system. To understand the effect of OP, a subtractive cDNA library was constructed using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) to identify alterations of gene transcription in the testes of the frog Rana chensinensis after OP exposure. Two hundred positive clones were selected and 134 sequences of gene fragments were produced from the subtractive library randomly. These genes were identified to be involved in metabolic process, cellular process, biological regulation, stimulus, immune system and female pregnancy process. In order to verify the efficiency of the subtractive cDNA library, PSG9 and PAPP-A were analyzed further as two representatives of differentially expressed transcription genes using semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Our result was the first successful construction of the subtractive cDNA library in frog testes after OP treatment. Based on this cDNA library, OP was shown to affect multiple physiological processes including inducing immune response, disrupting the steroid hormone synthesis and influencing spermatogenesis in the testis by up-regulation of specific genes. PMID:26896894

  13. Heavy Metal Accumulation in Leaves of Hydrocharis Morsus-Ranae L. and Biomonitoring Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polechońska Ludmiła

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In present study the concentrations of Hg, Mn, Zn, Fe and Cu in water, bottom sediments and leaves of Hydrocharis morsus-ranae from 11 oxbow lakes of the Odra River were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Trace metal concentration in water and bottom sediments were below the geochemical background, indicating no anthropogenic impact in the studied area. On average, the concentrations of metals in leaves of H. morsus ranae exceeded natural thresholds. A high bioaccumulation factors for metals were recorded. The significant positive correlations found between the content Zn, Fe and Hg of in water and in the H. morsus ranae indicate the potential use of the species in the biomonitoring of environmental contamination with these metals.

  14. Heavy Metal Accumulation in Leaves of Hydrocharis Morsus-Ranae L. and Biomonitoring Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polechońska, Ludmiła; Dambiec, Małgorzata

    2014-06-01

    In present study the concentrations of Hg, Mn, Zn, Fe and Cu in water, bottom sediments and leaves of Hydrocharis morsus-ranae from 11 oxbow lakes of the Odra River were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Trace metal concentration in water and bottom sediments were below the geochemical background, indicating no anthropogenic impact in the studied area. On average, the concentrations of metals in leaves of H. morsus ranae exceeded natural thresholds. A high bioaccumulation factors for metals were recorded. The significant positive correlations found between the content Zn, Fe and Hg of in water and in the H. morsus ranae indicate the potential use of the species in the biomonitoring of environmental contamination with these metals.

  15. Occurrence of the amphibian pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, C.A.; Bull, E.L.; Green, D.E.; Bowerman, J.; Adams, M.J.; Hyatt, A.; Wente, W.H.

    2007-01-01

    Chytridiomycosis (infection by the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) has been associated with amphibian declines in at least four continents. We report results of disease screens from 210 pond-breeding amphibians from 37 field sites in Oregon and Washington. We detected B. dendrobatidis on 28% of sampled amphibians, and we found ??? 1 detection of B. dendrobatidis from 43% of sites. Four of seven species tested positive for B. dendrobatidis, including the Northern Red-Legged Frog (Rana aurora), Columbia Spotted Frog (Rana luteiventris), and Oregon Spotted Frog (Rana pretiosa). We also detected B. dendrobatidis in nonnative American Bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) from six sites in western and central Oregon. Our study and other recently published findings suggest that B. dendrobatidis has few geographic and host taxa limitations among North American anurans. Further research on virulence, transmissibility, persistence, and interactions with other stressors is needed to assess the potential impact of B. dendrobatidis on Pacific Northwestern amphibians. Copyright 2007 Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles.

  16. Identification and functional characterization of a dual GABA/taurine transporter in the bullfrog retinal pigment epithelium

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    Intracellular microelectrodes, fluorescence imaging, and radiotracer flux techniques were used to investigate the physiological response of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) to the major retinal inhibitory neurotransmitter, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). GABA is released tonically in the dark by amphibian horizontal cells, but is not taken up by the nearby Muller cells. Addition of GABA to the apical bath produced voltage responses in the bullfrog RPE that were not blocked nor mimicked by...

  17. Behavioural consistency and life history of Rana dalmatina tadpoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urszán, Tamás János; Török, János; Hettyey, Attila; Garamszegi, László Zsolt; Herczeg, Gábor

    2015-05-01

    The focus of evolutionary behavioural ecologists has recently turned towards understanding the causes and consequences of behavioural consistency, manifesting either as animal personality (consistency in a single behaviour) or behavioural syndrome (consistency across more behaviours). Behavioural type (mean individual behaviour) has been linked to life-history strategies, leading to the emergence of the integrated pace-of-life syndrome (POLS) theory. Using Rana dalmatina tadpoles as models, we tested if behavioural consistency and POLS could be detected during the early ontogenesis of this amphibian. We targeted two ontogenetic stages and measured activity, exploration and risk-taking in a common garden experiment, assessing both individual behavioural type and intra-individual behavioural variation. We observed that activity was consistent in all tadpoles, exploration only became consistent with advancing age and risk-taking only became consistent in tadpoles that had been tested, and thus disturbed, earlier. Only previously tested tadpoles showed trends indicative of behavioural syndromes. We found an activity-age at metamorphosis POLS in the previously untested tadpoles irrespective of age. Relative growth rate correlated positively with the intra-individual variation of activity of the previously untested older tadpoles. In previously tested older tadpoles, intra-individual variation of exploration correlated negatively and intra-individual variation of risk-taking correlated positively with relative growth rate. We provide evidence for behavioural consistency and POLS in predator- and conspecific-naive tadpoles. Intra-individual behavioural variation was also correlated to life history, suggesting its relevance for the POLS theory. The strong effect of moderate disturbance related to standard behavioural testing on later behaviour draws attention to the pitfalls embedded in repeated testing.

  18. Sensitivity of frogs (Rana arvalis) which live in radionuclide contaminated territories to additional colchicine treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frogs (Rana arvalis) were caught in villages Babichi (> 2.0 kBq/kg) and Ratomka (< 0.1 kBq/kg). Bone marrow and spleen have been tested to leucocyte with apoptosis indication. After injection of colchicines (10 mg/kg) it was discovered increasing number of cells with pycnosis symptom. The result depends on type of analysed tissue and season

  19. Radioimmunoassay of plasma corticotropin in the edible Frog Rana esculenta L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the green Frog (Rana esculenta) the plasma contains a polypeptide immunologically related to human and porcine corticotropins. A radioimmunoassay capable of detecting 4.10-12 g hog ACTH has been used for a direct plasma ACTH assay in the Frog. Using this method the ACTH rate was determined both in untreated frogs and in animals under various experimental conditions

  20. Sound and vibration sensitivity of VIIIth nerve fibers in the grassfrog, Rana temporaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, J; Jørgensen, M B

    1996-01-01

    We have studied the sound and vibration sensitivity of 164 amphibian papilla fibers in the VIIIth nerve of the grassfrog, Rana temporaria. The VIIIth nerve was exposed using a dorsal approach. The frogs were placed in a natural sitting posture and stimulated by free-field sound. Furthermore...

  1. Delayed metamorphosis and recurrence of bacterial infection in irradiated Rana clamitans tadpoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray doses of 5 and 10 Gy (1 Gy/min) given to premetamorphic Green Frog (Rana clamitans) tadpoles delayed their metamorphosis relative to unirradiated controls. Previous pathogenic bacterial infections recurred in irradiated animals prior to metamorphic climax. Limited mortality occurred during metamorphic climax, 80-105 days after irradiation

  2. Pattern formation in artificially activated ectoderm (Rana pipiens and Ambystoma punctatum)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwkoop, P.D.

    1963-01-01

    Presumptive ectoneuroderm of late blastulae or early gastrulae of Rana pipiens was partially activated by short-lasting disaggregation in Ca-free Holtfreter or Niu-Twitty solutions and subsequent reaggregation in normal solutions. The explants usually became dumbbell shaped and consisted respectivel

  3. Microscopic morphology and testis morphometry of captivity-bred Adult bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus Shaw, 1802

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Carlos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the testicular morphometry of captivity-bred adult bullfrogs. Fifteen young adult male were studied, in the rainy season and a lengthy photoperiod. The GSI was established at 0.15%. The nuclear diameter of germinative and Leydig cells, the nucleolus diameter of Sertoli cells and the area of cysts and tubules were determined and the mean number of ISPC, IISPC and SPT per cyst and the mean number of cysts per tubule was estimated. The nucleoplasmatic proportion of the nucleus of the Leydig cell was 76.22%, indicating less cytoplasmic activity. Eight generations of spermatogonia were found. The spermatogenesis efficiency in meiosis and in mitosis was 63 and 49%, respectively. The spermatogenesis of bullfrog fited in the pattern of other captivity Anurans, with differences as the morphology of Sertoli and Leydig cells nuclei.A morfometria é uma importante ferramenta para a biologia estrutural, permitindo estudos estereológicos e análises quantitativas. Existem muitos pontos a serem esclarecidos sobre a morfometria testicular desta espécie, que objetivamos desvendar neste trabalho. Quinze machos adultos foram estudados, em período chuvoso e de fotoperíodo longo (dezembro, 2000. O IGS encontrado foi de 0.15%. O diâmetro nuclear das células germinativas e da célula de Leydig, o diâmetro nucleolar das células de Sertoli e a área dos cistos e túbulos foram determinados. O número médio de ISPC, IISPC e SPT por cisto e o número médio de cisto por túbulo foi estimado. A proporção nucleoplasmática do núcleo da célula de Leydig foi de 76.22%, indicando pouca atividade citoplasmática. Oito gerações de espermatogônia foram estimadas. A eficiência da espermatogênese na meiose e mitose foi de 63% e49%, respectivamente. A espermatogênese de rãtouro segue os padrões dos demais Anuros de cativeiro, apresentando diferenças nos núcleos das c��lulas de Sertoli e Leydig.

  4. Peripheral innervation patterns of vestibular nerve afferents in the bullfrog utriculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Richard A.; Schuff, N. R.

    1994-01-01

    Vestibular nerve afferents innervating the bullfrog utriculus differ in their response dynamics and sensitivity to natural stimulation. They also supply hair cells that differ markedly in hair bundle morphology. To examine the peripheral innervation patterns of individual utricular afferents more closely, afferent fibers were labeled by the extracellular injection of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) into the vestibular nerve after sectioning the vestibular nerve medial to Scarpa's ganglion to allow the degeneration of sympathetic and efferent fibers. The peripheral arborizations of individual afferents were then correlated with the diameters of their parent axons, the regions of the macula they innervate, and the number and type of hair cells they supply. The utriculus is divided by the striola, a narrow zone of distinctive morphology, into media and lateral parts. Utiricular afferents were classified as striolar or extrastriolar according to the epithelial entrance of their parent axons and the location of their terminal fields. In general, striolar afferents had thicker parent axons, fewer subepithelial bifurcations, larger terminal fields, and more synaptic endings than afferents in extrstriolar regions. Afferents in a juxtastriolar zone, immediately adjacent to the medial striola, had innervation patterns transitional between those in the striola and more peripheral parts of the medial extrastriola. moast afferents innervated only a single macular zone. The terminal fields of striolar afferents, with the notable exception of a few afferents with thin parent axons, were generally confined to one side of the striola. Hair cells in the bullfrog utriculus have perviously been classified into four types based on hair bundle morphology. Afferents in the extrastriolar and juxtastriolar zones largely or exclusively innervated Type B hair cells, the predominant hair cell type in the utricular macula. Striolar afferents supplied a mixture of four hair cell types, but largely

  5. Biophotons Contribute to Retinal Dark Noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zehua; Dai, Jiapei

    2016-06-01

    The discovery of dark noise in retinal photoreceptors resulted in a long-lasting controversy over its origin and the underlying mechanisms. Here, we used a novel ultra-weak biophoton imaging system (UBIS) to detect biophotonic activity (emission) under dark conditions in rat and bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) retinas in vitro. We found a significant temperature-dependent increase in biophotonic activity that was completely blocked either by removing intracellular and extracellular Ca(2+) together or inhibiting phosphodiesterase 6. These findings suggest that the photon-like component of discrete dark noise may not be caused by a direct contribution of the thermal activation of rhodopsin, but rather by an indirect thermal induction of biophotonic activity, which then activates the retinal chromophore of rhodopsin. Therefore, this study suggests a possible solution regarding the thermal activation energy barrier for discrete dark noise, which has been debated for almost half a century. PMID:27059222

  6. Elevage commercial de grenouilles en Malaisie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardouin, J.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Commercial Frog Production in Malaysia. Commercial frog farms exist in several countries. It seems hopeless believing that frog leg consumption can be prohibited, and the solution is probably a very strict control of the origin of the legs sold and imported. Uncontrolled hunting-poaching of frogs should be replaced by sustainable and rational breeding of frogs for sale. A large frog farm located near Singapore is described with the infrastructure and the management of the production. The two species bred are the American and the Asian bull-frogs Rana catesbeiana and R. tigerina. It is also mentioned that appropriate slaughtering techniques exist for frogs based on same guidelines as for conventional farm animals.

  7. SEPTICEMIA EM GIRINOS DE CRIAÇÃO NA FASE PRÉ-METAMÓRFICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando Alfredo Mazzoni

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Herein we describe septicemic outbreaks affecting pre-metamorphic bullfrog tadpoles (Rana [Lithobates] catesbeiana Shaw, 1802. The survey was performed in three commercial frog farms located in Goiás State. Clinical assessment and tadpole sampling for necropsy, histopathology, microbiology, parasitology, transmission electronic microscopy and molecular studies were performed. Septicemic outbreaks were characterized by edema, ascites and nervous signs. Main etiological agents identified were Gram-positive cocci. Lesions were more prevalent in liver and kidney, but they were also found in other internal organs. Typical lesions were degeneration and necroses associated to mononuclear lympohcytes and granuloma formation. The disease may be considered as a “secondary streptococcal septicemia”. It was not possible to determine the primary cause preceding tissue colonization by streptococci, but the intensive husbandry practices might have an important role.

  8. The Current and Historical Distribution of Special Status Amphibians at the Livermore Site and Site 300

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattem, M V; Paterson, L; Woollett, J

    2008-08-20

    65 surveys were completed in 2002 to assess the current distribution of special status amphibians at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Livermore Site and Site 300. Combined with historical information from previous years, the information presented herein illustrates the dynamic and probable risk that amphibian populations face at both sites. The Livermore Site is developed and in stark contrast to the mostly undeveloped Site 300. Yet both sites have significant issues threatening the long-term sustainability of their respective amphibian populations. Livermore Site amphibians are presented with a suite of challenges inherent of urban interfaces, most predictably the bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana), while Site 300's erosion issues and periodic feral pig (Sus scrofa) infestations reduce and threaten populations. The long-term sustainability of LLNL's special status amphibians will require active management and resource commitment to maintain and restore amphibian habitat at both sites.

  9. Morfologfa conchffera, crecimiento, reproducción y letargo de los caracoles gigantes africanos : observaciones en laboratorio sobre Archachatina marginata suturalis, Achatina achatina y Achatina fulica'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stiévenart, C.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available hell Shape, Growth, Reproduction and Estivation in Giant African Landsnails : Observations in Laboratory on"Archachatina marginata suturalis, Achatina achatina and Achatina fulica". Commercial frog farms exist in several countries. It seems hopeless believing that frog leg consumption can be prohibited, and the solution is probably a very strict control of the origin of the legs sold and imported. Uncontrolled hunting-poaching of frogs should be replaced by sustainable and rational breeding of frogs for sale. A large frog farm located near Singapore is described with the infrastructure and the management of the production. The two species bred are the American and the Asian bull-frogs Rana catesbeiana and R. tigerina. It is also mentioned that appropriate slaughtering techniques exist for frogs based on same guidelines as for conventional farm animals.

  10. Exploitation des larves de sardine Limnothrissa miodon au lac Kivu (R.D.C. : danger potentiel ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaningini, M.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Larva's Catch of Sardine Limnothrissa miodon in Lake Kivu (RD Congo : Potential Danger ?. Commercial frog farms exist in several countries. It seems hopeless believing that frog leg consumption can be prohibited, and the solution is probably a very strict control of the origin of the legs sold and imported. Uncontrolled hunting-poaching of frogs should be replaced by sustainable and rational breeding of frogs for sale. A large frog farm located near Singapore is described with the infrastructure and the management of the production. The two species bred are the American and the Asian bull-frogs Rana catesbeiana and R. tigerina. It is also mentioned that appropriate slaughtering techniques exist for frogs based on same guidelines as for conventional farm animals.

  11. Geologic map of the Northeast quarter of the Bullfrog 15-minute quadrangle, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study of the northeast quarter of the Bullfrog 15-minute quadrangle was undertaken to determine the stratigraphy and structural setting as part of a regional study in cooperation with the US Department of Energy. Geology was mapped on aerial photographs at a scale of 1:24,000. Alluvial deposits were mapped on photographs and field checked in some cases. Outcrops of Cambrian and Proterozoic rocks in the southeast corner of the map area were taken from mapping by Monsen (1983). Thickness of units are approximate due to varying degrees of internal deformation. Identification of units is queried on the map where it is uncertain. Field terms guided by some petrographic work are used for lava flows and dikes; therefore, latite-type rocks are termed ''latitic,'' dacite-type rocks are ''dacitic,'' and so forth. Crystal content and amount are approximate for units younger than Tbt6. Age determinations for the rock units have been corrected for new K-Ar constants (Dalrymple, 1979). A detachment fault (Maldonado, 1985, 1988) is defined for this study as ''hor-ellipsis a low-angle normal fault that formed at a low angle, has significant displacement, and is of subregional extent'' (Reynolds and Spencer, 1985). The area was previously mapped by Ransome and others (1910) and by Cornwall and Kleinhampl (1961, 1964). A detailed discussion of the structural setting of the area is presented in a paper by Maldonado. 17 refs

  12. Toxicity of atrazine, glyphosate, and quinclorac in bullfrog tadpoles exposed to concentrations below legal limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornelles, M F; Oliveira, G T

    2016-01-01

    This work sought to ascertain survival and possible changes in levels of glycogen, triglycerides, total lipids, cholesterol, protein, and lipid peroxidation in gills, liver, and muscle of bullfrog tadpoles (Lithobates catesbeianus) exposed to low concentrations of atrazine (2.5 μg L(-1)), glyphosate (18 μg L(-1)), and quinclorac (0.025 μg L(-1)) at laboratorial conditions. Tadpoles showed a reduction of glycogen and triglyceride in all organs and an increase in lipid peroxidation (LPO) compared with control animals. Total lipid in gills and muscle increased in exposure to atrazine, and gills alone in exposure to glyphosate, but decreased in gills, liver, and muscle after quinclorac. Cholesterol increased in gills and liver after atrazine, in gills and muscle after glyphosate, and decreased in liver after quinclorac. Total protein in gills decreased after exposure to all herbicides, increased in muscle after atrazine, and in liver and muscle after quinclorac. These findings show that at concentrations of these herbicides tested can lead to an increase in energy expenditure to maintain homeostasis and survival of these animals despite the increase in lipid peroxidation levels in all organs analyzed. Responses observed can be one of the factors responsible for the decline in the number of amphibians around the world.

  13. Hair cell tufts and afferent innervation of the bullfrog crista ampullaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Steven F.; Lewis, Edwin R.

    1990-01-01

    Within the bullfrog semicircular canal crista, hair cell tuft types were defined and mapped with the aid of scanning electron microscopy. Dye-filled planar afferent axons had mean distal axonal diameters of 1.6-4.9 microns, highly branched arbors, and contacted 11-24 hair cells. Dye-filled isthmus afferent axons had mean distal axonal diameters of 1.8-7.9 microns, with either small or large field arbors contacting 4-9 or 25-31 hair cells. The estimated mean number of contacts per innervated hair cell was 2.2 for planar and 1.3 for isthmus afferent neurons. Data on evoked afferent responses were available only for isthmus units that were observed to respond to our microrotational stimuli. Of 21 such afferent neurons, eight were successfully dye-filled. Within this sample, high-gain units had large field arbors and lower-gain units had small field arbors. The sensitivity of each afferent neuron was analyzed in terms of noise equivalent input (NEI), the stimulus amplitude for which the afferent response amplitude is just equivalent to the rms deviation of the instantaneous spike rate. NEI for isthmus units varied from 0.63 to 8.2 deg/s; the mean was 3.2 deg/s.

  14. Reaction of Bullfrog tuff with J-13 well water at 900C and 1500C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of experiments was conducted on crushed tuff at 900C and 1500C and on core wafer samples at 1500C. The results show the following: increasing the ratio of rock to water increases the rate of approach to steady-state concentrations in solution. Surface outcrop samples of Bullfrog tuff contain a minor component of highly soluble material believed to be a residue from the evaporation of surface runoff water in the pores of the rock. This material can be removed by shaking the crushed rock with water at room temperature and subjecting it briefly to heat with fresh water. Solution analyses for unfiltered samples that have reacted for short periods show higher concentrations of Al and Fe than do analyses for filtered samples; results for other elements are independent of filtration. This difference probably exists because of particulate matter in the solutions that dissolves when the samples are acidified prior to analysis. Agitation of samples during reaction produces sub-0.1 μ particles in the solutions. These particles dissolve when samples are acidified, resulting in abnormally high concentration values for some elements, such as Al and Fe. Comparison of the results for crushed rock with those for core wafers shows that the method of sample preparation does not have a large effect on the results of rock-water interaction studies

  15. Hair cell recovery in mitotically blocked cultures of the bullfrog saccule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, R. A.; Burton, M. D.; Fashena, D. S.; Naeger, R. A.

    2000-01-01

    Hair cells in many nonmammalian vertebrates are regenerated by the mitotic division of supporting cell progenitors and the differentiation of the resulting progeny into new hair cells and supporting cells. Recent studies have shown that nonmitotic hair cell recovery after aminoglycoside-induced damage can also occur in the vestibular organs. Using hair cell and supporting cell immunocytochemical markers, we have used confocal and electron microscopy to examine the fate of damaged hair cells and the origin of immature hair cells after gentamicin treatment in mitotically blocked cultures of the bullfrog saccule. Extruding and fragmenting hair cells, which undergo apoptotic cell death, are replaced by scar formations. After losing their bundles, sublethally damaged hair cells remain in the sensory epithelium for prolonged periods, acquiring supporting cell-like morphology and immunoreactivity. These modes of damage appear to be mutually exclusive, implying that sublethally damaged hair cells repair their bundles. Transitional cells, coexpressing hair cell and supporting cell markers, are seen near scar formations created by the expansion of neighboring supporting cells. Most of these cells have morphology and immunoreactivity similar to that of sublethally damaged hair cells. Ultrastructural analysis also reveals that most immature hair cells had autophagic vacuoles, implying that they originated from damaged hair cells rather than supporting cells. Some transitional cells are supporting cells participating in scar formations. Supporting cells also decrease in number during hair cell recovery, supporting the conclusion that some supporting cells undergo phenotypic conversion into hair cells without an intervening mitotic event.

  16. Spatiotemporal Diversification of the True Frogs (Genus Rana): A Historical Framework for a Widely Studied Group of Model Organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zhi-Yong; Zhou, Wei-Wei; Chen, Xin; Poyarkov, Nikolay A; Chen, Hong-Man; Jang-Liaw, Nian-Hong; Chou, Wen-Hao; Matzke, Nicholas J; Iizuka, Koji; Min, Mi-Sook; Kuzmin, Sergius L; Zhang, Ya-Ping; Cannatella, David C; Hillis, David M; Che, Jing

    2016-09-01

    True frogs of the genus Rana are widely used as model organisms in studies of development, genetics, physiology, ecology, behavior, and evolution. Comparative studies among the more than 100 species of Rana rely on an understanding of the evolutionary history and patterns of diversification of the group. We estimate a well-resolved, time-calibrated phylogeny from sequences of six nuclear and three mitochondrial loci sampled from most species of Rana, and use that phylogeny to clarify the group's diversification and global biogeography. Our analyses consistently support an "Out of Asia" pattern with two independent dispersals of Rana from East Asia to North America via Beringian land bridges. The more species-rich lineage of New World Rana appears to have experienced a rapid radiation following its colonization of the New World, especially with its expansion into montane and tropical areas of Mexico, Central America, and South America. In contrast, Old World Rana exhibit different trajectories of diversification; diversification in the Old World began very slowly and later underwent a distinct increase in speciation rate around 29-18 Ma. Net diversification is associated with environmental changes and especially intensive tectonic movements along the Asian margin from the Oligocene to early Miocene. Our phylogeny further suggests that previous classifications were misled by morphological homoplasy and plesiomorphic color patterns, as well as a reliance primarily on mitochondrial genes. We provide a phylogenetic taxonomy based on analyses of multiple nuclear and mitochondrial gene loci. [Amphibians; biogeography; diversification rate; Holarctic; transcontinental dispersal.

  17. discussion on validity of rana maoershanensis based on partial sequence of 16s rrna gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    rana maoershanensis found in mt.maoershan in guangxi,china was reported as a new species in 2007,but there was no molecular data for this frog.the partial sequences (543 bp) of 16s rrna gene from 12 specimens of 3 brown frog species (rana hanluica,r.maoershanensis and r.chensinensis) were analyzed with 17 specimens of 9 species from genbank.the nucleotide sequence divergence between r.maoershanensis and the other brown frog species were 4.5%-6.5%,with 22-30 nucleotide substitutions at this locus.the phylogenetic relationships based on mp,ml,and bayesian inference indicate that the brown frogs from southern china were diverged into three groups (clades a,b and c).r.maoershanensis was clustered together a well-supported subclade (b-l).it is suggested that r.maoershanensis is a valid species.

  18. Data on the isolation of immunoglobulin from the serum of the green frog: Rana esculenta

    OpenAIRE

    Stošić Svetlana; Divjak Isidora; Ješić Snežana; Nešić V.; Račić A.; Popović Nada

    2006-01-01

    Even though the green frog (Rana esculenta) is often used as an experimental model for further studies of physiological laws, little is still known about its serum proteins and their role in immunity. Its serum proteins have been studied quite extensively, as when they are taken up into the organism of another animal they represent antigens themselves. In this work, an attempt was made to isolate some frog serum proteins and to investigate the electrophoretic qualities of the isolated compone...

  19. Food Composition of the Marsh Frog, Rana ridibunda Pallas, 1771, in Thrace

    OpenAIRE

    Kerim ÇİÇEK; Ahmet MERMER

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the feeding habits of the marsh frog, Rana ridibunda, populations inhabiting Turkish Thrace. Analysis of the stomach contents of 53 (19 males, 34 females) adult individuals was performed. The frog diet consisted of a wide variety of arthropods; Diptera (42.62%) and Coleoptera (21.84%) were especially prominent. Aquatic forms did not contribute much to the frog diet. The prey items identified indicate that individuals of this species, like oth...

  20. Data regarding the trophic spectrum of a population of Rana esculenta Complex from Bacau County

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel GHIURCA; Lacramioara ZAHARIA

    2006-01-01

    We analyzed the trophic spectrum of one population of Rana esculenta complex collected, placed close to the lake accumulation Bacău II. The most abundant prey taxons in the food of edible frog are species from Coleoptera order, followed by Hymenoptera and Diptera among insects and Aranee among spiders. We identified a great number of gregarious small species (Formicidae) showing an opportunistic predator behavior of this frogs, using the sit and wait foraging behavior. The terrestrial preys p...

  1. Assessing Historical and Current Threats to Common Frog (Rana Temporaria) Populations in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Reid, Neil; Dingerkus, Karina; Stone, Richard; Buckley, John; Beebee, Trevor; Marnell, Ferdia; Wilkinson, John

    2013-01-01

    Ponds are an ephemeral feature of the landscape but their large-scale loss can have profound implications for biodiversity and the persistence of amphibian populations. We quantified rates of pond loss throughout Ireland over a period of approximately 125 yr. Environmental parameters and perceived risk factors associated with the current occurrence and density of the Common Frog, Rana temporaria, were also analyzed. The numbers of farmland ponds declined by 54% between 1887–1913 and 2005–11, ...

  2. Chromosome Aberrations of East Asian Bullfrog (Hoplobatrachus rugulosus around a Gold Mine Area with Arsenic Contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atidtaya Suttichaiya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study are to investigate the chromosome aberrations of the East Asian Bullfrog (Hoplobatrachus rugulosus in the gold mine area compared to an unaffected area. Three H. rugulosus were collected, and chromosome aberrations were studied using bone marrow. The level of arsenic was measured in water, sediment and H. rugulosus samples. The average concentrations of arsenic in the water and sediment samples from the gold mine and unaffected areas were 0.03 ± 0.003 mg/l and not detected in water as well as 351.59 ± 5.73 and 1.37 ± 1.07 mg/kg in sediment, respectively. The gold mine values were higher than the permissible limit of the water and soil quality standards, but the arsenic concentrations in the samples from the unaffected area were within prescribed limit. The average concentrations of arsenic in H. rugulosus samples from the gold mine and unaffected areas were 0.39 ± 0.30 and 0.07 ± 0.01 mg/kg, respectively, which were both lower than the standard of arsenic contamination in food. The diploid chromosome number of H. rugulosus in both areas was 2n=26, and the percentage of chromosome breakages of H. rugulosus in the gold mine area were higher than the unaffected area. There were eight types of chromosome aberrations, including a single chromatid gap, isochromatid gap, single chromatid break, isochromatid break, centric fragmentation, deletion, fragmentation and translocation. The most common chromosome aberration in the samples from the affected area was deletion. The difference in the percentage of chromosome breakages in H. rugulosus from both areas was statistically significant (p<0.05.

  3. Effects of ghrelin and motilin on smooth muscle contractility of the isolated gastrointestinal tract from the bullfrog and Japanese fire belly newt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitazawa, Takio; Shimazaki, Misato; Kikuta, Ayumi; Yaosaka, Noriko; Teraoka, Hiroki; Kaiya, Hiroyuki

    2016-06-01

    Ghrelin has been identified in some amphibians and is known to stimulate growth hormone release and food intake as seen in mammals. Ghrelin regulates gastrointestinal motility in mammals and birds. The aim of this study was to determine whether ghrelin affects gastrointestinal smooth muscle contractility in bullfrogs (anuran) and Japanese fire belly newts (urodelian) in vitro. Neither bullfrog ghrelin nor rat ghrelin affected longitudinal smooth muscle contractility of gastrointestinal strips from the bullfrog. Expression of growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHS-R1a) mRNA was confirmed in the bullfrog gastrointestinal tract, and the expression level in the gastric mucosa was lower than that in the intestinal mucosa. In contrast, some gastrointestinal peptides, including substance P, neurotensin and motilin, and the muscarinic receptor agonist carbachol showed marked contraction, indicating normality of the smooth muscle preparations. Similar results were obtained in another amphibian, the Japanese fire belly newt. Newt ghrelin and rat ghrelin did not cause any contraction in gastrointestinal longitudinal muscle, whereas substance P and carbachol were effective causing contraction. In conclusion, ghrelin does not affect contractility of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle in anuran and urodelian amphibians, similar to results for rainbow trout and goldfish (fish) but different from results for rats and chickens. The results suggest diversity of ghrelin actions on the gastrointestinal tract across animals. This study also showed for the first time that motilin induces gastrointestinal contraction in amphibians. PMID:26704852

  4. Expression and localization of prohormone convertase PC1 in the calcitonin-producing cells of the bullfrog ultimobranchial gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaoi, Yuichi; Suzuki, Masakazu; Tomura, Hideaki; Kurabuchi, Shingo; Sasayama, Yuichi; Tanaka, Shigeyasu

    2003-11-01

    We examined the expression and localization of the prohormone convertases, PC1 and PC2, in the ultimobranchial gland of the adult bullfrog using immunohistochemical (IHC) and in situ hybridization (ISH) techniques. In the ultimobranchial gland, PC1-immunoreactive cells were columnar, and were present in the follicular epithelium. When serial sections were immunostained with anti-calcitonin, anti-CGRP, anti-PC1, and anti-PC2 sera, PC1 was found only in the calcitonin/CGRP-producing cells. No PC2-immunopositive cells were detected. In the ISH, PC1 mRNA-positive cells were detected in the follicle cells in the ultimobranchial gland. No PC2 mRNA-positive cells were detected. RT-PCR revealed expression of the mRNAs of PC1 and the PC2 in the ultimobranchial gland. However, very little of the PC2 mRNA is probably translated because no PC2 protein was detected either by IHC staining or by Western blotting analysis. We conclude that the main prohormone convertase that is involved in the proteolytic cleavage of procalcitonin in the bullfrog is PC1. PMID:14566018

  5. Attention to Invasive Risk of American Bullfrog for Hainan Island%警惕北美牛蛙入侵海南的风险

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李闯; 王力军; 史海涛; 汪继超; 刘丹; 马凯

    2013-01-01

    Key words: The invasion of bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus) has become one of the main factors leading to native amphibian population decline and extinction. Bullfrog has distributed widely in China, but no any record in Hainan. In the duration of February to April in 2011, eight adult bullfrogs (including 1 pregnancy) were captured in three locations around Shazhou Island at Wanquan River, Hainan. The habitat bullfrogs were captured had the following characteristics; ① soil was mud or sand, ② distance from water about 0. 5 - 1. 5 m, ③ overall slope as 6° -25°, ④ vegetation coverage between 75% and 90% , and ⑤ native amphibian species were abundant around location. The bullfrog has been sold at local market and about 120 individuals were traded each day. Bullfrog found in Wanquan River may come from breeding escape or wildlife released by Buddhist. More survey is required to identify whether the breeding population has been built in the study area.%牛蛙(Lithobates catesbeianus)的入侵已成为本地两栖动物种群下降的主要因素之一,该物种在中国广泛分布,但在海南尚无分布记录.2011年2~4月,在海南省万泉河沙洲岛附近3个点捕捉到8只成体,其中1只个体已有卵.捕捉点的土壤基质为沙质或泥质,距水边距离0.5~1.5 m,整体坡度为6°~ 25°,植被盖度75% ~ 90%,生境附近本地两栖动物种类较为丰富.调查结果显示,市场上有牛蛙销售,销量约120只/d;琼海市有饲养牛蛙的记录,且存在粗放式(放养于田间)养殖情况,不排除养殖逃逸的可能;捕捉点附近有佛教组织定期放生,也存在个人放生行为.综合以上结果,万泉河发现牛蛙可能是养殖逃逸或放生所致,是否形成可繁殖的种群尚需进一步调查和研究.

  6. Community Structure and Function of Amphibian Skin Microbes: An Experiment with Bullfrogs Exposed to a Chytrid Fungus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenifer B Walke

    Full Text Available The vertebrate microbiome contributes to disease resistance, but few experiments have examined the link between microbiome community structure and disease resistance functions. Chytridiomycosis, a major cause of amphibian population declines, is a skin disease caused by the fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd. In a factorial experiment, bullfrog skin microbiota was reduced with antibiotics, augmented with an anti-Bd bacterial isolate (Janthinobacterium lividum, or unmanipulated, and individuals were then either exposed or not exposed to Bd. We found that the microbial community structure of individual frogs prior to Bd exposure influenced Bd infection intensity one week following exposure, which, in turn, was negatively correlated with proportional growth during the experiment. Microbial community structure and function differed among unmanipulated, antibiotic-treated, and augmented frogs only when frogs were exposed to Bd. Bd is a selective force on microbial community structure and function, and beneficial states of microbial community structure may serve to limit the impacts of infection.

  7. Purification and in vitro Activity of an Antimicrobial Peptide from Skin of Rana Temporaria Chensinensis, David

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Jie; MENG Qing-fan; XU Xue-song; TIAN Xiao-le; JIANG Fu-jia; LI Qing-shan; TENG Li-rong

    2007-01-01

    In this study, an antimicrobial component (RTCI) was purified from the skin of Rana temporaria chensinensis,David. Antimicrobial activities of RTCI against clinical multi-drug resistant bacterial strains, including Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureaus, Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecalis, and Proteus mirabilis were measured in vitro by means of minimal inhibitory concentration and time-kill studies.The results indicate that RTCI could inhibit the growth of these bacteria at a proper concentration and suggest that RTCI shows a better antimicrobial activity to Gram-negative bacterial strains than to Gram-positive bacterial strains.

  8. Data regarding the trophic spectrum of a population of Rana esculenta Complex from Bacau County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel GHIURCA

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the trophic spectrum of one population of Rana esculenta complex collected, placed close to the lake accumulation Bacău II. The most abundant prey taxons in the food of edible frog are species from Coleoptera order, followed by Hymenoptera and Diptera among insects and Aranee among spiders. We identified a great number of gregarious small species (Formicidae showing an opportunistic predator behavior of this frogs, using the sit and wait foraging behavior. The terrestrial preys prevail in comparison with aquatic organisms.

  9. Reproduction and hybrid load in all-hybrid populations of Rana esculenta water frogs in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ditte Guldager; Fog, Kåre; Pedersen, Bo Vest;

    2005-01-01

    All-hybrid populations of the water frog, Rana esculenta, are exceptional in consisting of independently and to some extent sexually reproducing interspecific hybrids. In most of its range R. esculenta reproduces hemiclonally with one of the parental species, R. lessonae or R. ridibunda, but viable...... triploid adults have two R. lessonae genomes. This pattern was surprising for the one population in which triploid adults had two R. ridibunda genomes, because here it leads to a deficiency of gametes with an R. lessonae genome and should compromise the stability of this population. We conclude that faulty...

  10. Effects of Inactivated Streptococcus Aglactiae Vaccineon Immunity in Bullfrog%牛蛙源无乳链球菌全菌疫苗免疫效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周冬仁; 陈莎莎; 杭小英; 施伟达; 罗毅志; 叶雪平

    2012-01-01

    将分离鉴定的无乳链球菌用0.4%的甲醛灭活,加弗氏完全佐剂制成灭活全菌苗,对牛蛙进行注射免疫.通过测定受免牛蛙血清中凝集抗体效价,总蛋白、免疫球蛋白的测定及免疫保护率的测定,探讨疫苗的免疫应答状况.研究结果表明,无乳链球菌全菌疫苗能够提高牛蛙的血清抗体水平及总蛋白、免疫球蛋白含量.此外,无乳链球菌全菌苗对牛蛙抗人工感染也具有较好的免疫保护作用,其免疫保护率为67%.因此,将无乳链球菌全菌苗用于牛蛙链球菌病的防治具有广阔的发展前景.%The isolated and identified Streptococcus agalactiae inactivated with 0.4% formaldehyde, made inactivated whole bacteria vaccine with CFA, immunity Bullfrog by injections. By measuring serum agglutinate titer, total protein, the determination of immunoglobulin and immune protection rate, determinate of status of the vaccine immune response. The results showed that all bacteria vaccine can improve the bullfrog serum antibody levels and total protein, immunoglobulin content. In addition, all bacteria vaccine infected bullfrog also has good resistance to the immune protective effects on the immune protection rate. Therefore, there is a potential to apply whole bacteria Streptococcus agalactiae to prevention and cure of Bullfrog suffering with Streptococcus agalactiae.

  11. Pond and landscape determinants of Rana dalmatina population sizes in a Romanian rural landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartel, Tibor; Nemes, Szilárd; Cogălniceanu, Dan; Öllerer, Kinga; Moga, Cosmin Ioan; Lesbarrères, David; Demeter, László

    2009-01-01

    Amphibians are good indicators of human impact, declining steadily worldwide. We explored the relationships between the ponds and nearby landscape parameters and population size of the Agile Frog ( Rana dalmatina), estimated from the number of egg masses, in a cultural landscape within the central section of Târnava Mare Basin, Romania. Forty-three permanent ponds were surveyed in a 2600 km 2 area. The average number of egg masses per pond was 211.13 (SD = 426.41). The egg mass number was significantly and positively related to the emergent aquatic macrophyte cover (its effect peaks at around 50%) and the green connecting corridors between the ponds and forests, and negatively related to the extent of nearby urban areas. The proximity of the forest (positive effect) and the presence of high traffic roads (negative effect) were highly correlated with green corridors and further eliminated from the model due to multicollinearity. Both these variables had significant effects when incorporated in univariate models and multivariate models without green corridors. Since a large part of our study area was currently declared as Natura 2000 site, there is an increased need for management proposals and conservation applications for biodiversity, including amphibians. Rana dalmatina is an important species for monitoring because it is common in the studied area and is suited for short surveys.

  12. Complex patterns of geographic variation in heat tolerance and Hsp70 expression levels in the common frog Rana temporaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Givskov; Pekkonen, Minna; Lindgren, Beatrice;

    2009-01-01

    1. We tested for geographical variation in heat tolerance and Hsp70 expression levels of Rana temporaria tadpoles along a 1500 km long latitudinal gradient in Sweden.   2. Temperature tolerance of the hatchling tadpoles did not differ among populations, but they tolerated stressful hot temperatur...

  13. Effects of environmental and natural estrogens on vitellogenin production in hepatocytes of the brown frog (Rana temporaria)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rouhani Rankouhi, T.; Sanderson, J.T.; Holsteijn, van I.; Kooten, van P.; Bosveld, A.T.C.; Berg, van den M.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the ability of the natural estrogens and synthetic estrogens as well as the estrogen mimics to induce estrogen-receptor mediated vitellogenesis in primary hepatocytes of the brown frog (Rana temporaria). Based on EC50 values the following order was dete

  14. Effects of habitat fragmentation and road density on the distribution pattern of the moor frog Rana arvalis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, C.C.; Chardon, P.

    1998-01-01

    1. The effects of habitat fragmentation on the distribution pattern of the moor frog Rana arvalis were investigated. Also, the possible isolation effects of the road network were taken into account. 2. Indications were found that habitat fragmentation partly explains the distribution pattern of the

  15. Response characteristics of vibration-sensitive neurons in the midbrain of the grassfrog, Rana temporaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, J; Jørgensen, M B

    1989-01-01

    European grassfrogs (Rana temporaria) were stimulated with pulsed sinusoidal, vertical vibrations (10-300 Hz) and the responses of 46 single midbrain neurons were recorded in awake, immobilized animals. Most units (40) had simple V-shaped excitatory vibrational tuning curves. The distribution of ...

  16. A comparative study of 2',3'-cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase in vertebrates: cDNA cloning and amino acid sequences for chicken and bullfrog enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasama-Yoshida, H; Tohyama, Y; Kurihara, T; Sakuma, M; Kojima, H; Tamai, Y

    1997-10-01

    In mammalian brain, two 2',3'-cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (EC 3.1.4.37) isoforms, CNP1 and CNP2, are translated, respectively, from the two mRNAs, which have been transcribed and processed by alternative use of the two transcription start points and by differential splicing. In the present study, the cDNAs encoding chicken CNP2 and bullfrog CNP1, respectively, were isolated, and the amino acid sequences of chicken CNP2 and bullfrog CNP1 were deduced. Western blot analysis showed that chicken brain contains a major CNP2-type protein together with a minor unidentified isoform, and bullfrog brain contains only a CNP1-type protein. All available amino acid sequences of vertebrate 2',3'-cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterases were aligned and compared. Three conserved motif sequences were noted: (a) an ATP-binding site near the amino terminus, (b) an isoprenylation site at the carboxyl terminus, and (c) a probable catalytic site resembling the active site of beta-ketoacyl synthase (EC 2.3.1.41). The second and the third motifs are conserved also in goldfish RICH (regeneration-induced 2',3'-cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase homologue), which has been shown recently to have 2',3'-cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase activity. The third motif (probably catalytic site) was assigned for the first time in the present report. PMID:9326261

  17. Amphibian skin may select for rare environmental microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walke, Jenifer B; Becker, Matthew H; Loftus, Stephen C; House, Leanna L; Cormier, Guy; Jensen, Roderick V; Belden, Lisa K

    2014-11-01

    Host-microbe symbioses rely on the successful transmission or acquisition of symbionts in each new generation. Amphibians host a diverse cutaneous microbiota, and many of these symbionts appear to be mutualistic and may limit infection by the chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, which has caused global amphibian population declines and extinctions in recent decades. Using bar-coded 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, we addressed the question of symbiont transmission by examining variation in amphibian skin microbiota across species and sites and in direct relation to environmental microbes. Although acquisition of environmental microbes occurs in some host-symbiont systems, this has not been extensively examined in free-living vertebrate-microbe symbioses. Juvenile bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana), adult red-spotted newts (Notophthalmus viridescens), pond water and pond substrate were sampled at a single pond to examine host-specificity and potential environmental transmission of microbiota. To assess population level variation in skin microbiota, adult newts from two additional sites were also sampled. Cohabiting bullfrogs and newts had distinct microbial communities, as did newts across the three sites. The microbial communities of amphibians and the environment were distinct; there was very little overlap in the amphibians' core microbes and the most abundant environmental microbes, and the relative abundances of OTUs that were shared by amphibians and the environment were inversely related. These results suggest that, in a host species-specific manner, amphibian skin may select for microbes that are generally in low abundance in the environment.

  18. Characteristics of Columbia spotted frog (Rana luteiventris) oviposition sites in northeastern Oregon, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, C.A.; Adams, M.J.; Wente, W.H.

    2007-01-01

    Several western ranid frogs possess a unique strategy of breeding communally over a short temporal window and reusing oviposition sites between years. However, little is published on the characteristics of oviposition sites selected by these explosive breeders. The Columbia spotted frog (Rana luteiventris) is native to northwestern North America and is of conservation concern in the southern portions of its range. As part of a study examining relationships between livestock grazing and R. luteiventris habitat, we assessed characteristics of the species' oviposition sites in 25 fishless ponds in northeastern Oregon. Oviposition sites were generally in shallow water (<25 cm) close to shore and tended to be in the northeastern portion of ponds. Oviposition sites were found more frequently over heavily vegetated substrates and in areas of less substrate slope and shade than random points in littoral zones. We did not quantify temperature differences within ponds, but the patterns we documented are consistent with preferential use of warmer microhabitats for oviposition.

  19. Bone marrow reconstitution of immune responses following irradiation in the leopard frog, Rana pipiens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bone marrow of Rana is an important source of cells capable of maintaining individual viability, responding to Concanavalin A (Con A) and producing PFC against sheep erythrocyte (SRBC) antigens. Frog marrow is more effective than the spleen in maintaining life. Radiation destroys the ability of frogs to respond to SRBC immunization (lack of bone marrow and spleen PFC, serum antibody) and bone marrow/spleen cells to respond to Con A, i.e., bone marrow and spleen contain radiation-sensitive cells. Shielding one hind leg during irradiation leads to reconstitution of bone marrow/spleen PFC responses, antibody synthesis and individual viability. Our results suggest that bone marrow is: a) the source of stem cells, and b) the source of mature T- and B- lymphocytes that can recirculate within the immune system

  20. Columbia spotted frog (Rana luteiventris) in southeastern Oregon: A survey of historical localities, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, Chistopher A.; Galvan, Stephanie K.; Adams, Michael J.; McCreary, Brome

    2010-01-01

    The Columbia spotted frog (Rana luteiventris) occupies a large range in western North America and is comprised of at least three genetic units. Concern exists regarding the status of the Great Basin populations in Oregon, Idaho, and Nevada. We surveyed target and nearby alternate sites on public lands in southeastern Oregon where there was evidence that Columbia spotted frogs were historically present. We found the species at 59.5 percent (25 of 42) of target or nearby alternate sites. They were in 15 of 23 permanent streams and 8 of 13 intermittent streams. Our surveys do not provide evidence of widespread population losses in our sites. Interpretation of status of Columbia spotted frogs in this study is limited by a lack of precision in some of the historical locations and by our inability to determine if locations where only adults were indicated in the historical record once had breeding populations. Our results support the need for continued investigation of these populations.

  1. Pathophysiology in mountain yellow-legged frogs (Rana muscosa during a chytridiomycosis outbreak.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie Voyles

    Full Text Available The disease chytridiomycosis is responsible for declines and extirpations of amphibians worldwide. Chytridiomycosis is caused by a fungal pathogen (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis that infects amphibian skin. Although we have a basic understanding of the pathophysiology from laboratory experiments, many mechanistic details remain unresolved and it is unknown if disease development is similar in wild amphibian populations. To gain a better understanding of chytridiomycosis pathophysiology in wild amphibian populations, we collected blood biochemistry measurements during an outbreak in mountain yellow-legged frogs (Rana muscosa in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California. We found that pathogen load is associated with disruptions in fluid and electrolyte balance, yet is not associated with fluctuations acid-base balance. These findings enhance our knowledge of the pathophysiology of this disease and indicate that disease development is consistent across multiple species and in both laboratory and natural conditions. We recommend integrating an understanding of chytridiomycosis pathophysiology with mitigation practices to improve amphibian conservation.

  2. Effects of a uranium mine effluent in the early-life stages of Rana perezi Seoane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amphibians have been reported as sensitive organisms whose survival has been impaired by several environmental factors. Nevertheless, sometimes amphibians are found inhabiting extreme environments. Thus, in order to perceive how Iberian green frogs (Rana perezi Seoane) are able to survive in the ponds of a uranium mine (Central Portugal) this study aimed to assess the ecotoxicological effects promoted by the mine effluent in the early-life stages of this species. To attain this objective, eggs (collected in a nearby reference river) and laboratory hatching larvae were exposed during 96 h to different dilutions of the effluent. All the effects on the hatch success were recorded. The highest concentration of the effluent produced a significant decrease in body length of larvae, as well as a decrease in stimulus reactions and an increase in pigmentation along with tail deformities. A recovery assay showed an increased bioaccumulation of metals, uranium included, resulting from increased effluent exposure

  3. Changes in activity of the organon vasculosum laminae terminalis in the annual cycle in Rana temporaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk, S; Dziubek, K; Lach, H

    1978-01-01

    In 70 sexually mature male and femal Rana temporaria frogs captured in natural habitat, mean nuclear volumes for the cells of the pars ependymalis and pars parenchymalis of the organon vasculosum laminae terminalis (OVLT) were determined in seven characteristic stages in life. The mean nuclear volume for the cells of the pars ependymalis and pars parenchymalis of the OVLT showed distinct annual fluctuation. Maximum nuclear volume of the cells in both investigated parts of the OVLT were observed during the breeding period (Ist decade of April), and minimum volume of the nuclei of the pars ependymalis at the beginning of hibernation (IIIrd decade of October), and in the pars parenchymalis near the end of active life (Ist decade of September).

  4. Comparative microhabitat characteristics at oviposition sites of the California red-legged frog (Rana draytonii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Jeff A.; Cook, David G.; Yee, Julie L.; van Hattem, Michael G.; Fong, Darren R.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2013-01-01

    We studied the microhabitat characteristics of 747 egg masses of the federally-threatened Rana draytonii (California red-legged frog) at eight sites in California. our study showed that a broad range of aquatic habitats are utilized by ovipositing R. draytonii, including sites with perennial and ephemeral water sources, natural and constructed wetlands, lentic and lotic hydrology, and sites surrounded by protected lands and nested within modified urban areas. We recorded 45 different egg mass attachment types, although the use of only a few types was common at each site. These attachment types ranged from branches and roots of riparian trees, emergent and submergent wetland vegetation, flooded upland grassland/ruderal vegetation, and debris. eggs were deposited in relatively shallow water (mean 39.7 cm) when compared to maximum site depths. We found that most frogs in artificial pond, natural creek, and artificial channel habitats deposited egg masses within one meter of the shore, while egg masses in a seasonal marsh averaged 27.3 m from the shore due to extensive emergent vegetation. Rana draytonii appeared to delay breeding in lotic habitats and in more inland sites compared to lentic habitats and coastal sites. eggs occurred as early as mid-december at a coastal artificial pond and as late as mid-April in an inland natural creek. We speculate that this delay in breeding may represent a method of avoiding high-flow events and/or freezing temperatures. Understanding the factors related to the reproductive needs of this species can contribute to creating, managing, or preserving appropriate habitat, and promoting species recovery.

  5. Aeromonas hydrophila subsp. ranae subsp. nov., isolated from septicaemic farmed frogs in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huys, Geert; Pearson, Marianne; Kämpfer, Peter; Denys, Rik; Cnockaert, Margo; Inglis, Valerie; Swings, Jean

    2003-05-01

    A group of seven sucrose-negative Aeromonas strains (referred to as group Au) isolated from the internal organs of septicaemic farmed frogs (Rana rugulosa) in Thailand was subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study including fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism (FAFLP) and ERIC-PCR fingerprinting, 16S rDNA sequencing, microplate DNA-DNA hybridizations and extensive phenotypic characterization. Comparison of FAFLP and ERIC-PCR fingerprints indicated that the group Au isolates belonged to the species Aeromonas hydrophila DNA hybridization group (HG) 1 in which they represent a genotypic subgroup closely affiliated to A. hydrophila subsp. hydrophila and subsp. dhakensis. One representative of the Au group exhibited > or = 99.0% 16S rDNA sequence similarity with the type strains of the two A. hydrophila subspecies. DNA-DNA hybridization with type and reference strains of all known Aeromonas taxa revealed that the Au group represented a homogeneous taxon that exhibited the highest relatedness with members of the two A. hydrophila subspecies, ranging from 75 to 93%. Phenotypic characterization on the basis of 152 features further revealed that the Au group isolates differed from A. hydrophila subsp. hydrophila or subsp. dhakensis in a total of 13 biochemical properties. Of these, assimilation of L-glycine and isobutyrate as sole carbon source, acid production from salicin and D-sucrose, and aesculin hydrolysis were of diagnostic value. From the results of this study, it can be concluded that the Aeromonas frog isolates of the Au group represent a new subspecies of A. hydrophila, for which the name Aeromonas hydrophila subsp. ranae subsp. nov. is proposed. Its type strain is Au-1D12(T) (=LMG 19707(T) = CCUG 46211(T)). PMID:12807217

  6. A skeletochronological study of growth, longevity, and age at sexual maturity in a population of Rana latastei (Amphibia, Anura)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fabio M Guarino; Silvia Lunardi; Michela Carlomagno; Stefano Mazzotti

    2003-12-01

    Longevity and age at sexual maturity in an Italian population of Rana latastei were studied by skeletochronology performed on the phalanges. Frogs collected in 1998 and 1999 by drift fences and pitfall traps were marked by toe-clipping. After marking, individuals were released and the cut phalanges were processed for skeletochronological analysis. The maximum age so far recorded was 3 years in males and 4 years in females. The smallest male and female that were sexually mature on the basis of histological analysis of the gonads were 36 and 35 mm snout vent length (SVL), respectively. In both sexes, most individuals were estimated to breed shortly after emergence from their first overwintering. Among the European Brown Frogs, Rana latastei appears to be one of the shortest-lived and one of the first to reach sexual maturity.

  7. Biospectroscopy reveals the effect of varying water quality on tadpole tissues of the common frog (Rana temporaria)

    OpenAIRE

    Strong, Becky; Halsall, Crispin James; Ferenčík, Martin; Jones, Kevin Christopher; Shore, Richard Francis; Martin, Francis Luke

    2016-01-01

    Amphibians are undergoing large population declines in many regions around the world. As environmental pollution from both agricultural and urban sources has been implicated in such declines, there is a need for a biomonitoring approach to study potential impacts on this vulnerable class of organism. This study assessed the use of infrared (IR) spectroscopy as a tool to detect changes in several tissues (liver, muscle, kidney, heart and skin) of late-stage common frog (Rana temporaria) tadpol...

  8. Prevalence of the pathogenic chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, in an endangered population of northern leopard frogs, Rana pipiens

    OpenAIRE

    Govindarajulu Purnima; Houston Barb; Adama Doug; Voordouw Maarten J; Robinson John

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Emerging infectious diseases threaten naïve host populations with extinction. Chytridiomycosis, an emerging infectious disease of amphibians, is caused by the pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) and has been linked to global declines in amphibians. Results We monitored the prevalence of Bd for four years in the Northern leopard frog, Rana pipiens, which is critically imperiled in British Columbia (BC), Canada. The prevalence of Bd initially increased and ...

  9. Infestación por esparganos en ranas del genero Pristimantis (Anura, Strabomantidae del Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A. Gomez-Puerta

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available En el presente estudio, reportamos el parasitismo por esparganos del cestode Spirometra sp. en los anfibios: Pristimantis nephophilus y Pristimantis rhodostichus, provenientes del departamento de San Martin, Perú. Tres estructuras filiformes localizadas a nivel subcutáneo, fueron colectadas e identificadas como esparganos. El hallazgo de este metacestode constituye el primer registro en anfibios del Perú y demuestra que las ranas P. nephophilus y P. rhodostichus son nuevos hospederos intermediarios para Spirometra sp.

  10. Bioaccumulation of macro- and trace elements by European frogbit (Hydrocharis morsus-ranae L.) in relation to environmental pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polechońska, Ludmiła; Samecka-Cymerman, Aleksandra

    2016-02-01

    The aim of present study was to investigate the level of trace metals and macroelements in Hydrocharis morsus-ranae collected from regions differing in the degree and type of pollution. Concentrations of 17 macro- and microelements were determined in roots and shoots of European frogbit as well as in water and bottom sediments from 30 study sites. Plants differed in concentrations of elements and bioaccumulation capacity depending on the characteristics of dominant anthropogenic activities in the vicinity of the sampling site. Shoots of H. morsus-ranae growing in the vicinity of organic chemistry plants and automotive industry contained particularly high levels of Cd, Co, and S. Plants from area close to heat and power plant, former ferrochrome industry and new highway, were distinguished by the highest concentrations of Cr, Cu, and Pb. European frogbit from both these regions contained more Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, and Zn than plants from agricultural and recreational areas. The concentrations of alkali metals and Co, Fe, and N in H. morsus-ranae were elevated in relation to the natural content in macrophytes irrespectively to their content in the environment. Based on the values of Bioaccumulation and Translocation Factors, European frogbit is an accumulator for Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn and a good candidate for phytoremediation of water polluted with Co, Cu, Hg, K, Mn, and Ni. The amount of Co and Mn removed from water and accumulated in the plant biomass during the vegetation season was considerably high. PMID:26490926

  11. Effects of two endocrine disruptors Prochloraz and Ethinylestradiol on development of Rana Temporaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brande-Lavridsen, Nanna; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Korsgaard, Bodil

    2009-01-01

      Effects of Prochloraz and Ethinylestradiol on development in Rana temporaria   The ontogeny of most amphibians is characterized by a large degree of sexual plasticity and sex steroids play an important role in the final differentiation of the gonads. One consequence of this plasticity is that e......  Effects of Prochloraz and Ethinylestradiol on development in Rana temporaria   The ontogeny of most amphibians is characterized by a large degree of sexual plasticity and sex steroids play an important role in the final differentiation of the gonads. One consequence of this plasticity...... on the effect of endocrine disruptors on the sexsteroid axis and reproductive function. However, another hormone system, the thyroid hormone axis may equally well be affected by xenobiotics. Thyroid hormones are essential in stimulating all aspects of amphibian metamorphosis and thyroid hormone disruptors may...... therefore severely affect this most critical process in amphibian life history. We found that exposure of tadpole Rana temporaria to the synthetic estrogen ethinylestradiol and the fungicide prochloraz caused delay of metamorphosis accompanied by changes in thyroid gland morphology....

  12. Radiocesium accumulation in the anuran frog, Rana tagoi tagoi, in forest ecosystems after the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amphibians are key components in forest food webs. When examining radioactive contamination in anurans, it is important to understand how radiocesium transfer occurs from lower to higher trophic levels in forest ecosystems. We investigated the activity concentration of radiocesium (134Cs and 137Cs) in Tago's brown frog (Rana tagoi tagoi) captured on the forest floor approximately 2.5 years after the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) accident. We collected 66 R. tagoi tagoi at different distances from the FNPP. Radiocesium accumulation showed positive correlations with the air radiation dose rate and litter contamination but not with distance from the FNPP. Whole-body radioactivity showed no correlation with body mass or length. Our results suggest that differences in the available food items result in large variability in individual contamination. Contamination level monitoring in terrestrial and aquatic amphibian is necessary for clarifying the processes and mechanisms of radiocesium transfer through forest food webs. - Highlights: • Radiocesium level in Rana tagoi tagoi from forests near Fukushima was assessed. • Radiocesium accumulation was related to air dose rate and litter contamination. • Differences in dietary intake might lead to variability in individual contamination. • Transfer of radiocesium among trophic levels can occur via anurans. - Rana tagoi tagoi accumulates radiocesium in forest floor habitats near Fukushima

  13. Bioaccumulation of macro- and trace elements by European frogbit (Hydrocharis morsus-ranae L.) in relation to environmental pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polechońska, Ludmiła; Samecka-Cymerman, Aleksandra

    2016-02-01

    The aim of present study was to investigate the level of trace metals and macroelements in Hydrocharis morsus-ranae collected from regions differing in the degree and type of pollution. Concentrations of 17 macro- and microelements were determined in roots and shoots of European frogbit as well as in water and bottom sediments from 30 study sites. Plants differed in concentrations of elements and bioaccumulation capacity depending on the characteristics of dominant anthropogenic activities in the vicinity of the sampling site. Shoots of H. morsus-ranae growing in the vicinity of organic chemistry plants and automotive industry contained particularly high levels of Cd, Co, and S. Plants from area close to heat and power plant, former ferrochrome industry and new highway, were distinguished by the highest concentrations of Cr, Cu, and Pb. European frogbit from both these regions contained more Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, and Zn than plants from agricultural and recreational areas. The concentrations of alkali metals and Co, Fe, and N in H. morsus-ranae were elevated in relation to the natural content in macrophytes irrespectively to their content in the environment. Based on the values of Bioaccumulation and Translocation Factors, European frogbit is an accumulator for Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn and a good candidate for phytoremediation of water polluted with Co, Cu, Hg, K, Mn, and Ni. The amount of Co and Mn removed from water and accumulated in the plant biomass during the vegetation season was considerably high.

  14. Phylogeography of the arid-adapted Malagasy bullfrog, Laliostoma labrosum, influenced by past connectivity and habitat stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabijan, Maciej; Brown, Jason L; Chan, Lauren M; Rakotondravony, Hery A; Raselimanana, Achille P; Yoder, Anne D; Glaw, Frank; Vences, Miguel

    2015-11-01

    The rainforest biome of eastern Madagascar is renowned for its extraordinary biodiversity and restricted distribution ranges of many species, whereas the arid western region of the island is relatively species poor. We provide insight into the biogeography of western Madagascar by analyzing a multilocus phylogeographic dataset assembled for an amphibian, the widespread Malagasy bullfrog, Laliostoma labrosum. We find no cryptic species in L. labrosum (maximum 1.1% pairwise genetic distance between individuals in the 16S rRNA gene) attributable to considerable gene flow at the regional level as shown by genetic admixture in both mtDNA and three nuclear loci, especially in central Madagascar. Low breeding site fidelity, viewed as an adaptation to the unreliability of standing pools of freshwater in dry and seasonal environments, and a ubiquitous distribution within its range may underlie overall low genetic differentiation. Moreover, reductions in population size associated with periods of high aridity in western Madagascar may have purged DNA variation in this species. The mtDNA gene tree revealed seven major phylogroups within this species, five of which show mostly non-overlapping distributions. The nested positions of the northern and central mtDNA phylogroups imply a southwestern origin for all extant mtDNA lineages in L. labrosum. The current phylogeography of this species and paleo-distributions of major mtDNA lineages suggest five potential refugia in northern, western and southwestern Madagascar, likely the result of Pleistocene range fragmentation during drier and cooler climates. Lineage sorting in mtDNA and nuclear loci highlighted a main phylogeographic break between populations north and south of the Sambirano region, suggesting a role of the coastal Sambirano rainforest as a barrier to gene flow. Paleo-species distribution models and dispersal networks suggest that the persistence of some refugial populations was mainly determined by high population

  15. Comparative transduction mechanisms of hair cells in the bullfrog uticulus. 2: Sensitivity and response dynamics to hair bundle displacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Richard A.

    1994-01-01

    The present study was motivated by an interest in seeing whether hair cell types in the bullfrog utriculus might differ in their voltage responses to hair bundle displacement. Particular interest was in assessing the contributions of two factors to the responses of utricular hair cells. First, interest in examining the effect of hair bundle morphology on the sensitivity of hair cells to natural stimulation was motivated by the observation that vestibular hair cells, unlike many auditory hair cells, are not free-standing but rather linked to an accessory cupular or otolithic membrane via the tip of their kinocilium. Interest also laid in examining the contribution, if any, of adaptation to the response properties of utricular hair cells. Hair cells in auditory and vibratory inner ear endorgans adapt to maintained displacements of their hair bundles, sharply limiting their low frequency sensitivity. This adaptation is mediated by a shift in the displacement-response curve (DRC) of the hair cell along the displacement axis. Observations suggest that the adaptation process occurs within the hair bundle and precedes mechanoelectric transduction. Recent observations of time-dependent changes in hair bundle stiffness are consistent with this conclusion. Adaptation would be expected to be most useful in inner ear endorgans in which hair cells are subject to large static displacements that could potentially saturate their instantaneous response and compromise their sensitivity to high frequency stimulation. The adaptation process also permits hair cells to maintain their sensory hair bundle in the most sensitive portion of their DRC. In vestibular otolith organs in which static sensitivity is desirable, any adaptation process in the hair cells may be undesirable. The rate and extent of the decline of the voltage responses was measured of utricular hair cells to step and sinusoidal hair bundle displacements. Then for similar resting potentials and response amplitudes, the

  16. Hepatic effects of the clomazone herbicide in both its free form and associated with chitosan-alginate nanoparticles in bullfrog tadpoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Cristiane Ronchi; Fraceto, Leonardo Fernandes; Rizzi, Gisele Miglioranza; Salla, Raquel Fernanda; Abdalla, Fábio Camargo; Costa, Monica Jones; Silva-Zacarin, Elaine Cristina Mathias

    2016-04-01

    The use of agrochemicals in agriculture is intense and most of them could be carried out to aquatic environment. Nevertheless, there are only few studies that assess the effects of these xenobiotics on amphibians. Clomazone is an herbicide widely used in rice fields, where amphibian species live. Thus, those species may be threatened by non-target exposure. However, nanoparticles are being developed to be used as a carrier system for the agrochemicals. Such nanoparticles release the herbicide in a modified way, and are considered to be more efficient and less harmful to the environment. The aim of this study was to comparatively evaluate the effect of clomazone in its free form and associated with nanoparticles, in the liver of bullfrog tadpoles (Lithobates catesbeianus) when submitted to acute exposure for 96 h. According to semi-quantitative analysis, there was an increase in the frequency of melanomacrophage centres, in the accumulation of eosinophils and in lipidosis in the liver of experimental groups exposed to clomazone - in its free form and associated with nanoparticles - in comparison with the control group, and the nanotoxicity of chitosan-alginate nanoparticles. The increase of melanomacrophage centres in all exposed groups was significant (P herbicide and nanoparticles triggered hepatic responses. Moreover, these results provided important data about the effect of the clomazone herbicide and organic nanoparticles, which act as carriers of agrochemicals, on the bullfrog tadpole liver. PMID:26874058

  17. Hepatic effects of the clomazone herbicide in both its free form and associated with chitosan-alginate nanoparticles in bullfrog tadpoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Cristiane Ronchi; Fraceto, Leonardo Fernandes; Rizzi, Gisele Miglioranza; Salla, Raquel Fernanda; Abdalla, Fábio Camargo; Costa, Monica Jones; Silva-Zacarin, Elaine Cristina Mathias

    2016-04-01

    The use of agrochemicals in agriculture is intense and most of them could be carried out to aquatic environment. Nevertheless, there are only few studies that assess the effects of these xenobiotics on amphibians. Clomazone is an herbicide widely used in rice fields, where amphibian species live. Thus, those species may be threatened by non-target exposure. However, nanoparticles are being developed to be used as a carrier system for the agrochemicals. Such nanoparticles release the herbicide in a modified way, and are considered to be more efficient and less harmful to the environment. The aim of this study was to comparatively evaluate the effect of clomazone in its free form and associated with nanoparticles, in the liver of bullfrog tadpoles (Lithobates catesbeianus) when submitted to acute exposure for 96 h. According to semi-quantitative analysis, there was an increase in the frequency of melanomacrophage centres, in the accumulation of eosinophils and in lipidosis in the liver of experimental groups exposed to clomazone - in its free form and associated with nanoparticles - in comparison with the control group, and the nanotoxicity of chitosan-alginate nanoparticles. The increase of melanomacrophage centres in all exposed groups was significant (P clomazone herbicide and organic nanoparticles, which act as carriers of agrochemicals, on the bullfrog tadpole liver.

  18. Mercury pollution in Rana Chensinensis in Weisha River reach, in the upstream region of Songhua River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ning; ZHU Yanming; SHENG Lianxi; MENG Dan

    2005-01-01

    Twice a year continuous samples of Rana Chensinensis and sediments have been collected near gold mine in the upstream region of Songhua River from 2000 to 2002, for analyzing the total mercury (THg), methylmercury (MeHg) concentration and correlation in sediments, muscles, livers of the frog. The study indicates that THg and MeHg concentrations in polluted samples near the gold mine are higher than those in unpolluted ones. THg and MeHg concentrations are higher in autumn, in female, and in livers than those in spring, in male, in muscles respectively. The order of concentration degree in the frog organizations is as follows: liver>muscle>ovum>Fallopian tube. MeHg is the main form of mercury (Hg) existing in autumn, while inorganic Hg is in spring. There is no distinct difference of CMeHg/CTHg between male and female, livers and muscles. The correlation between MeHg concentrations in the river sediments and in the frog's livers and muscles are significant, which is related to disorderly discharge of Hg.

  19. Prehibernation Energy Storage in Heilongjiang Brown Frogs (Rana amurensis) from Five Populations in North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei CHEN; Tianpei GUAN; Lina REN; Dujuan HE; Ying WANG; Xin LU

    2015-01-01

    Energy storage is an important component in the life history of species that directly inlfuences survival and reproduction. The energetic demands of amphibian reproduction can differ between the sexes, with environmental conditions, reproductive pattern or process of the species, and depending upon the timing of breeding, and the reproductive season for a species. Surprisingly, comparative studies of pre-hibernation energy storage for anuran populations from different latitudes are relatively few in Asia, especially in China. Here we investigated the patterns of pre-hibernation energy storage of Heilongjiang brown frogsRana amurensis, based on ifve populations along a ifnely latitudinal gradient in north China (40.7–43.7°N). We found that pre-hibernation energy storage of the frogs did not show a clear latitudinal cline, but differed strongly between the sexes, with males depositing more energy reserves into the muscle and liver, whereas females accumulate more energy in the gonads. The sexual differences in energy storage may result from differential timing of energy allocation for reproduction.

  20. California red-legged frog (Rana draytonii) movement and habitat use: Implications for conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellers, G.M.; Kleeman, P.M.

    2007-01-01

    Nonbreeding habitats are critically important for Rana draytonii, especially for individuals that breed in temporary bodies of water. We radiotracked 123 frogs to evaluate seasonal habitat use. Individual frogs were continuously tracked for up to 16 months. Some individuals remained at breeding ponds all year, but 66% of female and 25% of male frogs moved to nonbreeding areas, even when the breeding site retained water. Frogs at our main study site moved 150 m (median), roughly the distance to the nearest suitable nonbreeding area. The greatest straight-line distance traveled was 1.4 km, although the presumed distance traveled was 2.8 km. Females were more likely than males to move from permanent ponds (38% of females, 16% of males), but among dispersing frogs, males and females did not differ in distance moved. Some frogs left breeding sites shortly after oviposition (median = 12 days for females, 42.5 days for males), but many individuals remained until the site was nearly dry. Fog provided moisture for dispersal or migration throughout the summer. Our data demonstrate that maintaining populations of pond-breeding amphibians requires that all essential habitat components be protected; these include (1) breeding habitat, (2) nonbreeding habitat, and (3) migration corridors. In addition, a buffer is needed around all three areas to ensure that outside activities do not degrade any of the three habitat components. Copyright 2007 Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles.

  1. BIOMETRIC STUDY TO RANA RIDIBUNDA FROG SPECIES NEARNESS TO TIMISOARA LOCALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. BURA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Speciality literature provides little informations regarding Rana ridibunda frogbiometry. For supply this gap we studied the size and weight of 54 frogs sampled fromnearby Timişoara area ponds.The mean body lenght was 8,08 ± 0,54 cm for the females and respectively 6,17 ± 0,45cm for the males. Before evisceration on a par females weighted 62,28 ± 12,87 g andthe males 22,46 ± 5,3 g whereas after this action the carcase weighted 43,89 ± 8,91 gin the case of females and respectively 18,45 ± 4,42 g in the case of male lake frog. Themean leg lenght measured 12,59 ± 0,68 cm for female frogs and 9,78 ± 0,66 cm in thecase of male frogs. The hind stylopodium was estimated on a par as 13,23 ± 2,57 g forfemales and 5,33 ± 1,26 g for the males.

  2. Molecular cloning and expression patterns of the Vasa gene from Rana nigromaculata (Amphibia: Anura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Jia

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The Vasa protein is a member of the DEAD (Asp-Glu-Alu-Asp box family of ATP-dependent RNA helicases. The Vasa gene is specifically expressed in germ-line cells of many metazoans and is known to play a critical role in gametogenesis and reproductive regulation. In this paper, we isolate the full length cDNA sequence of the Vasa gene from the frog Rana nigromaculata Hallowell, 1861. The open reading frame (ORF encoding 398 amino acid residues has nine conserved motifs. According to the similarities at the amino acid sequenceythe phylogenetic analysis of Vasa gene was consistent with the evolution relationships from chordates to mammals. Furthermore, the expression pattern analysis of RnVasa mRNA, using the technique of Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR, showed a high level of transcripts in testis, ovary and kidney, whereas little to no signal was detected in other tissues, which suggests that it may play a role during gametogenesis.

  3. Characterization of gene expression endpoints during postembryonic development of the northern green frog (Rana clamitans melanota).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, S Austin; Veldhoen, Nik; Kobylarz, Marek; Webber, Nicholas R; Jordan, Jameson; Rehaume, Vicki; Boone, Michelle D; Helbing, Caren C

    2013-05-01

    Postembryonic development of a larval tadpole into a juvenile frog involves the coordinated action of thyroid hormone (TH) across a diversity of tissues. Changes in the frog transcriptome represent a highly sensitive endpoint in the detection of developmental progression, and for the identification of environmental chemical contaminants that possess endocrine disruptive properties. Unfortunately, in contrast with their vital role as sentinels of environmental change, few gene expression tools currently exist for the majority of native North American frog species. We have isolated seven expressed gene sequences from the Northern green frog (Rana clamitans melanota) that encode proteins associated with TH-mediated postembryonic development and global stress response, and established a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay. We also obtained three additional species-specific gene sequences that functioned in the normalization of the expression data. Alterations in mRNA abundance profiles were identified in up to eight tissues during R. clamitans postembryonic development, and following exogenous administration of TH to premetamorphic tadpoles. Our results characterize tissue distribution and sensitivity to TH of select mRNA of a common North American frog species and support the potential use of this qPCR assay in identification of the presence of chemical agents in aquatic environments that modulate TH action. PMID:23647014

  4. Neuronal intermediate filaments in the developing tongue of the frog Rana esculenta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Zuwala

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The expression of several neuronal intermediate filament (NIF proteins was investigated in the tongue of metamorphosing tadpoles (stage 38-45 of Gosner and in adult individuals of the frog, Rana esculenta by means of immunohistochemistry. Results showed that nerve fibres at early stages of tongue development expressed peripherin (a NIF protein usually found in differentiating neurones as well as the light- and medium molecular weight NIF polypeptide subunits (NF-L and NF-M, respectively; in the adult frog, peripherin was still found in nerve fibres reaching the fungiform papilla together with NF-M, but NF-L immunoreactivity was absent therein. Clusters of epithelial cells expressing peripherin were found in the early developing tongue before differentiation of taste organs, and NF-L and NF-H immunoreactivities were present in basal (Merkel cells of the adult frog taste disc. Results indicate that neurones innervating the adult frog’s taste disc maintain a certain plasticity in their cytoskeleton and that neuronal-like cells are present in the undifferentiated and differentiated tongue epithelium possibly playing a role in the developing and mature taste organ.

  5. Characterization and antioxidant activity in vitro and in vivo of polysaccharide purified from Rana chensinensis skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhanyong; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Su, Tingting; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Fei

    2015-08-01

    Preliminary characterization and antioxidant activity in vitro and in vivo investigation of the polysaccharide fraction named as RCSP II, which was extracted from Rana chensinensis skin, were performed. Results indicated that RCSP II comprised glucose, galactose, and mannose in a molar ratio of 87.82:2.77:1.54 with a molecular weight of 12.8 kDa. Antioxidant activity assay in vitro showed that RCSP II exhibited 75.2% scavenging activity against 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenz-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radicals at the concentration of 2500 mg/L and 85.1% against chelated ferrous ion at 4000 mg/L. Antioxidant activity assay in vivo further showed that RCSP II increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes, decreased the levels of malondialodehyde, and enhanced total antioxidant capabilities in livers and sera of d-galactose induced mice. These results suggested that RCSP II could have potential antioxidant applications as medicine or functional food.

  6. First isolation and identification of Elizabethkingia meningoseptica from cultured tiger frog, Rana tigerina rugulosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhen-Yu; Zhou, Yong-Can; Wang, Shi-Feng; Mei, Bing; Xu, Xian-Dong; Wen, Wan-Yao; Feng, Yong-Qin

    2009-07-01

    Elizabethkingia meningoseptica has been recognised as an occasional but serious opportunistic bacterial pathogen to human beings. Recently, it was frequently isolated from tiger frog, Rana tigerina rugulosa, with cataract disease, which is the most common disease of unknown aetiology of frogs in Hainan, China. The purpose of this study was to identify and characterise the bacterial strains isolated from the recent outbreaks of cataract disease in farmed tiger frog in Hainan, China, and to evaluate their pathogenicity to the frog and their sensitivity to 20 chemotherapeutic agents. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of strains W0701 (1478bp), W0702 (1477bp) and W0703 (1478bp) showed 98.6-98.7% similarity with the sequence of E. meningoseptica type strain (ATCC 13253) and 99.9-100% similarity with that of E. meningoseptica NTU 870424-IL. Six strains (W0701-W0706) were selected to represent 24 isolates retrieved from six moribund frogs. The morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics of the six representative isolates were consistent with those of E. meningoseptica strains. The organisms were only susceptible to vancomycin and moderately susceptible to cefoperazone among the 20 investigated chemotherapeutic agents. Virulence test with strain W0702 was conducted and pathogenicity (by intramuscular injection) was demonstrated in the tiger frog. In conclusion, 24 isolates obtained from frogs with cataract disease were the E. meningoseptica strains highly pathogenic to tiger frog, and this is the first report of E. meningoseptica as a pathogen for tiger frog. PMID:19327918

  7. genotoxicity of the pesticide dichlorvos and herbicide butachlor on rana zhenhaiensis tadpoles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    genotoxicity of dichlorvos and butachlor on erythrocytes of rana zhenhaiensis tadpoles was investigated by the alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis assay or comet assay.tadpoles were treated for 24 h in the laboratory with different concentrations of the testing agents,2.256,4.512,6.768,9.024,11.280 mg/l for dichlorvos and 0.292,0.584,0.876,1.168,1.460 mg/l for butachlor,to use the comet assay to test for the significance of dosage responsiveness to an increase in dna damage,as measured by the mean dna tail length-to-width ratio.the concentrations of 4.512 mg/l dichlorvos and 0.876 mg/l butachlor resulted in highly significant increases in dna damage of the tadpoles.there were linear correlations between the mean dna tail length-to-width ratio and the concentrations of the two test substances.our results showed that the two commonly used agricultural chemicals caused dose dependent dna damage of amphibians,and that comet assay might be a useful tool for measuring dna damage of tadpoles exposed in the field.

  8. Receptor-mediated endocytosis of lysozyme in renal proximal tubules of the frog Rana temporaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.V. Seliverstova

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism of protein reabsorption in the kidney of lower vertebrates remains insufficiently investigated in spite of raising interest to the amphibian and fish kidneys as a useful model for physiological and pathophysiological examinations. In the present study, we examined the renal tubular uptake and the internalization rote of lysozyme after its intravenous injection in the wintering frog Rana temporaria using immunohisto- and immunocytochemistry and specific markers for some endocytic compartments. The distinct expression of megalin and cubilin in the proximal tubule cells of lysozyme-injected frogs was revealed whereas kidney tissue of control animals showed no positive immunoreactivity. Lysozyme was detected in the apical endocytic compartment of the tubular cells and colocalized with clathrin 10 min after injection. After 20 min, lysozyme was located in the subapical compartment negative to clathrin (endosomes, and intracellular trafficking of lysozyme was coincided with the distribution of megalin and cubilin. However, internalized protein was retained in the endosomes and did not reach lysosomes within 30 min after treatment that may indicate the inhibition of intracellular trafficking in hibernating frogs. For the first time, we provided the evidence that lysozyme is filtered through the glomeruli and absorbed by receptor-mediated clathrin-dependent endocytosis in the frog proximal tubule cells. Thus, the protein uptake in the amphibian mesonephros is mediated by megalin and cubilin that confirms a critical role of endocytic receptors in the renal reabsorption of proteins in amphibians as in mammals.

  9. Hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic effects of cadmium in the frog Rana ridibunda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loumbourdis, Nikolaos S

    2005-08-01

    Histological and histochemical alterations in the liver and kidneys of the frog Rana ridibunda, which was exposed to 200 ppm aqueous solutions of cadmium for 4, 10 and 30 days, respectively were investigated. In both the liver and kidneys, essential changes appeared after 10 days' exposure, the maximum changes being apparent after 30 days of exposure. In the liver, what was very characteristic was an increase in the area occupied by Kupffer cells, with the area in the animals exposed to cadmium for 30 days being the largest observed. What was also apparent was karyomegaly, polyploidy and infiltration. In addition with regard the kidneys, Hyaline Globules (HG) and apoptotic bodies occurred at a higher rate. At 30 days' exposure, most of the above changes were enhanced. In comparison with 10 days' exposure, fibrosis around the blood vessels and between hepatocytes, as well as Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) reactivity and apoptotic bodies increased lightly in the liver. In the kidneys, the most pronounced changes were the increase in numbers of apoptotic bodies, PCNA reactivity and hyaline globules. It was concluded that the variability in positive reactions for various proteins in the hyaline globules may be an indication that these (and possibly other) proteins are synthesized by tumor cells, but, most probably, that they may represent liver damage, progressive nephropathy, or progressive glomerulonephropathy.

  10. Hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic effects of Cadmium in the frog Rana ridibunda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loumbourdis, Nikolaos S. [University of Thessaloniki (GR). Department of Zoology (Greece)

    2005-08-01

    Histological and histochemical alterations in the liver and kidneys of the frog Rana ridibunda, which was exposed to 200 ppm aqueous solutions of cadmium for 4, 10 and 30 days, respectively were investigated. In both the liver and kidneys, essential changes appeared after 10 days' exposure, the maximum changes being apparent after 30 days of exposure. In the liver, what was very characteristic was an increase in the area occupied by Kupffer cells, with the area in the animals exposed to cadmium for 30 days being the largest observed. What was also apparent was karyomegaly, polyploidy and infiltration. In addition with regard the kidneys, Hyaline Globules (HG) and apoptotic bodies occurred at a higher rate. At 30 days' exposure, most of the above changes were enhanced. In comparison with 10 days' exposure, fibrosis around the blood vessels and between hepatocytes, as well as Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) reactivity and apoptotic bodies increased lightly in the liver. In the kidneys, the most pronounced changes were the increase in numbers of apoptotic bodies, PCNA reactivity and hyaline globules. It was concluded that the variability in positive reactions for various proteins in the hyaline globules may be an indication that these (and possibly other) proteins are synthesized by tumor cells, but, most probably, that they may represent liver damage, progressive nephropathy, or progressive glomerulonephropathy. (orig.)

  11. Effects of agricultural pesticides on the immune system of Xenopus laevis and Rana pipiens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christin, M.S.; Menard, L.; Gendron, A.D.; Ruby, S.; Cyr, D.; Marcogliese, D.J.; Rollins-Smith, L.; Fournier, M

    2004-03-30

    Over the last 30 years, there have been mass declines in diverse geographic locations among amphibian populations. Multiple causes have been suggested to explain this decline. Among these, environmental pollution is gaining attention. Indeed, some chemicals of environmental concern are known to alter the immune system. Given that amphibians are frequently exposed to agricultural pesticides, it is possible that these pollutants alter their immune system and render them more susceptible to different pathogens. In this study, we exposed two frog species, Xenopus laevis and Rana pipiens, for a short period of time to a mixture of pesticides (atrazine, metribuzine, endosulfan, lindane, aldicarb and dieldrin) representative in terms of composition and concentrations to what it is found in the environment of the southwest region of the province of Quebec. The pesticides were known to be present in surface water of many tributaries of the St. Lawrence River (Quebec, Canada). Our results demonstrate that the mixture of pesticides could alter the cellularity and phagocytic activity of X. laevis and the lymphocyte proliferation of R. pipiens. Taken together, these results indicate that agricultural pesticides can alter some aspects of the immune response in frogs and could contribute to their global decline by rendering them more susceptible to certain infections.

  12. Spontaneous otoacoustic emissions in the European edible frog (Rana esculenta): spectral details and temperature dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, P; Wit, H P; Segenhout, J M

    1989-11-01

    Spontaneous otoacoustic emissions were recorded in 41 ears of 29 European edible frogs (Rana esculenta). Emission frequencies ranged from 450 to 1350 Hz. The distribution of frequencies shows two distinct populations: one above and one below 1 kHz. With one exception, a maximum number of two emissions were recorded per ear, each in a different population. An amplitude distribution of a frog emission was sampled, from which it was concluded that the emission is generated by an active oscillator. The spectral width of an emission ranged from 1 to 200 Hz (average 38 Hz). There was negative correlation between sound pressure level of an emission and spectral width. In 4 frogs the dependence of emission power and frequency on temperature was investigated. An emission could be 'switched on and off' within a few degrees centigrade. At temperatures below the switching interval no emission was recorded; for higher temperatures emission power showed no dependence on temperature. Frequency increased with temperature (Q10 = 1.1 to 1.3). This yields a mismatch with temperature dependence of best frequencies of auditory fibers. The consequences of this mismatch are discussed. PMID:2691473

  13. Comparative toxicity of chlorpyrifos, diazinon, malathion and their oxon derivatives to larval Rana boylii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparling, D.W. [Cooperative Wildlife Research Laboratory, Department of Zoology and Center for Ecology, Southern Illinois University, LS II, MS6504, Carbondale, IL 62901 (United States)]. E-mail: dsparl@siu.edu; Fellers, G. [Western Ecology Research Center, U.S. Geological Survey, Point Reyes National Seashore, Point Reyes, CA 94956 (United States)

    2007-06-15

    Organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) are ubiquitous in the environment and are highly toxic to amphibians. They deactivate cholinesterase, resulting in neurological dysfunction. Most chemicals in this group require oxidative desulfuration to achieve their greatest cholinesterase-inhibiting potencies. Oxon derivatives are formed within liver cells but also by bacterial decay of parental pesticides. This study examines the toxicity of chlorpyrifos, malathion and diazinon and their oxons on the foothill yellow-legged frog (Rana boylii). R. boylii is exposed to agricultural pesticides in the California Central Valley. Median lethal concentrations of the parental forms during a 96 h exposure were 3.00 mg/L (24 h) for chlorpyrifos, 2.14 mg/L for malathion and 7.49 mg/L for diazinon. Corresponding oxons were 10 to 100 times more toxic than their parental forms. We conclude that environmental concentrations of these pesticides can be harmful to R. boylii populations. - Laboratory tests on the toxicity of OP insecticides and their oxons suggest that they may be acutely lethal to amphibians at ecologically relevant concentrations.

  14. Effects of prochloraz and ethinylestradiol on sexual development in Rana temporaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brande-Lavridsen, Nanna; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Korsgaard, Bodil

    2008-08-01

    A wide range of environmental xenobiotics that mimic hormones (endocrine-disrupting chemicals) may cause alterations in sexual development or reproductive function in aquatic organisms such as amphibians when exposed during early sensitive stages. We exposed tadpoles of the Common frog, Rana temporaria, from hatch to metamorphosis, to two different endocrine disruptors, the synthetic estrogen 17 alpha-ethinylestradiol and the fungicide prochloraz. The object of the study was to assess the effects of these two compounds on the sexual development of the tadpoles by investigating sex ratio, gonadal development, sex steroid concentrations and vitellogenin induction. Histology revealed that a large percentage of all groups were juvenile hermaphrodites at metamorphosis. Tadpoles exposed to 115 and 251 microg/L prochloraz showed a significant increased proportion of males. However, the testosterone concentrations were depressed in those groups. Ethinylestradiol in concentrations of 77 and 159 ng/L EE(2) increased whole-body calcium levels in a dose-dependent manner indicating induction of the egg yolk protein vitellogenin, verified also by gel electrophoresis. The study shows that ethinylestradiol may induce vitellogenesis and prochloraz may affect the sexual development in Common frogs.

  15. Proximate causes of adaptive growth rates: growth efficiency variation among latitudinal populations of Rana temporaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, B; Laurila, A

    2005-07-01

    In ectothermic organisms, declining season length and lower temperature towards higher latitudes often select for latitudinal variation in growth and development. However, the energetic mechanisms underlying this adaptive variation are largely unknown. We investigated growth, food intake and growth efficiency of Rana temporaria tadpoles from eight populations along a 1500 km latitudinal gradient across Sweden. To gain an insight into the mechanisms of adaptation at organ level, we also examined variation in tadpole gut length. The tadpoles were raised at two temperatures (16 and 20 degrees C) in a laboratory common garden experiment. We found increased growth rate towards higher latitudes, regardless of temperature treatment. This increase in growth was not because of a higher food intake rate, but populations from higher latitudes had higher growth efficiency, i.e. they were more efficient at converting ingested food into body mass. Low temperature reduced growth efficiency most strongly in southern populations. Relative gut length increased with latitude, and tadpoles at low temperature tended to have longer guts. However, variation in gut length was not the sole adaptive explanation for increased growth efficiency as latitude and body length still explained significant amounts of variation in growth efficiency. Hence, additional energetic adaptations are probably involved in growth efficiency variation along the latitudinal gradient.

  16. Acute Toxicity of a Heavy Metal Cadmium to an Anuran, the Indian Skipper Frog Rana cyanophlyctis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajai Kumar Srivastav

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: There has been increasing awareness throughout the world regarding the remarkable decrease in amphibian population. For such amphibian population decline several causes have been given. Cadmium, a heavy metal is released both from natural sources (leaching of cadmium rich soils and anthropogenic activities to the aquatic and terrestrial environments. This study evaluated the toxicity of heavy metal cadmium to Indian skipper frog Rana cyanophlyctis. Methods: For the determination of LC50 values for cadmium, four-day static renewal acute toxicity test was used. Five replicates each containing ten frogs were subjected to each concentration of cadmium chloride (15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45 and 50 mg/L. At different exposure periods (24, 48, 72 and 96 h, the mortality of the frog was subjected to Probit analysis with the POLO-PC software (LeOra Software to calculate the LC50 and 95% confidence level. Results: The LC50 values of cadmium chloride for the frog R. cyanophlyctis at 24, 48, 72, and 96 h are 32.586, 29.994, 27.219 and 23.048 mg/L, respectively. The results have been discussed with the toxicity reported for other aquatic vertebrate --fish. Conclusion: Cadmium caused mortality to the frog and this could be one of the reasons for population decline of frogs which inhabit water contaminated with heavy metals.

  17. Differentiations of 5-HT and GAS cells in the digestive canals of Rana chensinensis tadpoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    LI, Xin-Yi; LI, Qian; ZHANG, Yu-Hui

    2014-01-01

    In the current study, 5-nydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and gastrin (GAS) cells in the digestive canals of Rana chensinensis tadpoles at different developmental stages were investigated by immunohistochemistry. Results showed that the 5-HT cells were only detected in the duodenum before metamorphosis began, and were extensively distributed in the stomach, duodenum, small intestine, and rectum thereafter, with the highest counts found in the duodenum and rectum when metamorphosis was completed. The GAS cells were only distributed in the stomach and duodenum, and only rarely detected in the duodenum before metamorphosis began, but increased in the stomach during metamorphosis and showed zonal distribution in the gastric mucosa when metamorphosis was completed. Metamorphosis is a critical period for amphibians, during which structural and functional physiological adaptations are required to transition from aquatic to terrestrial environments. During metamorphosis, the differentiations of 5-HT cells in the gastrointestinal canals of tadpoles could facilitate mucus secretion regulation, improve digestive canal lubrication, and help watershortage food digestion in terrestrial environments. Conversely, GAS cell differentiations during metamorphosis might contribute to the digestive and absorptive function transition from herbivore to omnivore. PMID:25017753

  18. Isolation of ice-nucleating active bacteria from the freeze-tolerant frog, Rana sylvatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M R; Lee, R E; Strong-Gunderson, J M; Minges, S R

    1995-08-01

    Ice-nucleating active (INA) bacteria were isolated from the gut of field-collected freeze-tolerant wood frogs (Rana sylvatica) collected in winter. Thirteen strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens, four strains of Pseudomonas putida, and two strains of Enterobacter agglomerans had ice-nucleating activity. Each of the INA pseudomonad strains was psychrophilic. P. putida strains were differentiated from P. fluorescens strains by gelatinase, lecithinase, and lipase production. The maximum nucleation temperatures (Tmax) of aqueous suspensions (10(9) bacteria/ml) of the four INA P. putida strains ranged from -1.6 to -3.0 degrees C, which places this INA species among the most potent known biological nucleators. Ingestion of INA P. putida isolated from R. sylvatica by another freeze-tolerant frog. Pseudacris crucifer, decreased the capacity of this frog to supercool and remain unfrozen at -2 degrees C. This is the first report of INA bacteria isolated from a vertebrate, and suggests that, as part of the gut flora in some posthibernation freeze-tolerant wood frogs, these bacteria may play a role in enhancing winter survival by promoting ice nucleation at high subzero temperatures (ca. -2 degrees C). PMID:7656570

  19. Hematological, Biochemical and Histopathological Studies on Marsh Frog, Rana ridibunda, Naturally Infected with Waltonella duboisi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Al-Attar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to evaluate the impact of Waltonella duboisi naturally infection in the marsh frog, Rana ridibunda. Healthy and infected frogs of both sexes were collected from Al-Qatif and Al-Hassa farms, Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia. The hematological, biochemical and histopathological changes were estimated in infected male and female frogs compared with healthy frogs. The values of red blood cell count, hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit, mean cell volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration and white blood cell count were statistically decreased in infected frogs. Infection with Waltonella duboisi induced significant reduction in the levels of serum glucose and total proteins, while the values of triglycerides cholesterol, creatinine, glutamic pyruvic acid transaminase and glutamic oxaloacetic acid transaminase were significantly elevated. Histopathological examination of stomach, small intestine, liver showed the larval developmental stages of Waltonella duboisi. A partially abnormal of testis and ovary structures with pronounced disturbance in quantity and quality of spermatogenesis and oogenesis processes were noted in infected of both sexes of frogs. From the present study, it is obviously that Waltonella duboisi caused many severe physiological and histopathological alterations in both sexes of the marsh frogs. Thus, more sincere ecological and scientific efforts are required to rescue the marsh frog population from parasitic infection, pathogenic factors and increases of mortality rate.

  20. Seasonal Variation in the Hepatoproteome of the Dehydration- and Freeze-Tolerant Wood Frog, Rana sylvatica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon P. Costanzo

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Winter’s advent invokes physiological adjustments that permit temperate ectotherms to cope with stresses such as food shortage, water deprivation, hypoxia, and hypothermia. We used liquid chromatography (LC in combination with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS quantitative isobaric (iTRAQ™ peptide mapping to assess variation in the abundance of hepatic proteins in summer- and winter-acclimatized wood frogs (Rana sylvatica, a northerly-distributed species that tolerates extreme dehydration and tissue freezing during hibernation. Thirty-three unique proteins exhibited strong seasonal lability. Livers of winter frogs had relatively high levels of proteins involved in cytoprotection, including heat-shock proteins and an antioxidant, and a reduced abundance of proteins involved in cell proliferation, protein synthesis, and mitochondrial function. They also exhibited altered levels of certain metabolic enzymes that participate in the biochemical reorganization associated with aphagia and reliance on energy reserves, as well as the freezing mobilization and post-thaw recovery of glucose, an important cryoprotective solute in freezing adaptation.

  1. Extraction and Characterization of Undenatured Type Ⅰ Collagen from the Bullfrog Skin%牛蛙皮中未变性Ⅰ型胶原蛋白的提取及性能表征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨波; 李国英

    2012-01-01

    Distribution pattern of collagen in the bullfrog skin was observed in this study. Acid - soluble collagen (ASC) and pepsin - soluble collagen ( PSG) were extracted from the bullfrog skin by acetic acid and acetic acid - pepsin f respectively. Results of the studies on the physicochemical properties of ASC and PSC indicated that the collagen gained was undenatured type I collagen. Ultraviolet absorption spectra showed that the absorption peak of bullfrog collagen was 233 nm. The denaturation temperature of ASC (32.60 ℃.) was higher than that of PSC (32.22 ℃,) , whereas the isoelectric point of ASC(6.79) was lower than that of PSC(7. 15). The imino acid content of collagen from bullfrog skin was lower than that from calf skin and higher than that from fish skin. Moreover, cysteine, which was not existed in calf skin collagen, was observed in bullfrog skin collagen.%观察了胶原蛋白在牛蛙皮肤组织中的分布形态.分别采用酸法和酸酶法提取得到酸溶胶原(ASC)和酶溶胶原(PSC).理化性质分析结果表明:所提取得到的胶原为未变性Ⅰ型胶原;紫外吸收峰在233nm处;ASC的变性温度(32.60℃)高于PSC的变性温度(32.22℃),而ASC的等电点(6.79)低于PSC的等电点(7.15);牛蛙皮胶原的氨基酸组分中,亚氨基酸的含量较牛皮的低,较鱼皮的高,同时,牛蛙皮胶原中含有牛皮胶原中没有的半胱氨酸.

  2. Effect of rana galamensis–based diet on the activities of some enzymes and histopathology of selected tissues of albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basiru Olaitan Ajiboye

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of Rana galamensis-based diet on the activities of some enzymes and histopathology of selected tissues of albino rats was investigated for eight weeks. A total of sixteen albino rats weighing between 29.15 and 26.01g (21 days old were divided into two groups. The first group contains animals fed on casein-based diet (control; the second group was fed on Rana galamensis-based diet. The animals were fed with their appropriate diet on daily basis and on the eight weeks of the experiment the animals were sacrificed using diethyl ether as anesthesia, blood was collected by cardiac puncture and organs of interest were harvested. Thereafter, organ to body weight ratio, some biochemical parameters and histopathology examination were carried out. There was no significant difference (p >0.05 in the organ to body weight ratio of the animals fed on control and Rana galamensis-based diets. Also, there was no significant different (p >0.05 in the activities of all the enzymes (ALP [alkaline phosphatase], AST [asparate transaminase], ALT [alanine transaminase], and γGT [gamma glutamyl transferase] investigated in the selected tissues and serum of rats fed on Rana galamensis- based diet when compared with the control. In addition, histological examinations of hepatocyte's rats fed on Rana galamensis- based diet show normal architecture structure when compared with the control. The insignificant different in the activities of all the enzymes studies (ALP, AST, ALT and γGT indicated no organ damage, supported by the normal histology studies. The obtained results may imply that Rana galamensis is safe for consumption.  Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE

  3. Hexadactyly case at a Rana kl. esculenta sample from the north-western part of Romania (Short Notes)

    OpenAIRE

    Istvan SAS; Eva-Hajnalka KOVACS

    2006-01-01

    At 17 June 2006, in a habitat close to Gherta Mica locality (47°56'0'' N, 23°14'0'' E, Satu-Mare County, Romania) we had found a sample of Rana kl. esculenta which presented hexadactyly at both of its posterior feet. The captured sample of edible frog had fully formed extra (sixth) toes, with phalanges (bones). The hexadactyly was perfectly symmetrical at both of the posterior feet. At this individual we did not discovered any other malformations, the biometrical characters situating in the v...

  4. Hexadactyly case at a Rana kl. esculenta sample from the north-western part of Romania (Short Notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Istvan SAS

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available At 17 June 2006, in a habitat close to Gherta Mica locality (47°56'0'' N, 23°14'0'' E, Satu-Mare County, Romania we had found a sample of Rana kl. esculenta which presented hexadactyly at both of its posterior feet. The captured sample of edible frog had fully formed extra (sixth toes, with phalanges (bones. The hexadactyly was perfectly symmetrical at both of the posterior feet. At this individual we did not discovered any other malformations, the biometrical characters situating in the variations limits of the other green frogs from the studied habitat. A symmetric hexadacytly can be a result of atavism.

  5. Rana Dorada: un caminante hacia la extinción (artículo de opinión)

    OpenAIRE

    Nury Natalia Garzón-Aguiar

    2015-01-01

    La extinción animal es un asunto muy amplio que a muchos interesa, algunos ignoran y otros desconocen, este es el tema a tratar en el presente artículo, tomando como ejemplo la rana dardo dorada (Phyllobates terribilis), un hermoso anfibio endémico de Colombia, denominado como el animal más venenoso y como una de las siete maravillas del mundo entre las especies amenazadas de extinción. Perteneciente al Reino ANIMALIA, al fillum de los Cordados, orden Anura y familia Dendrobatidae. En el Géne...

  6. Nueva especie de rana del género Pristimantis del grupo lacrimosus (Amphibia: Craugastoridae) del Parque Nacional Sangay, Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Diego Batallas R.; Jorge Brito M.

    2014-01-01

    Describimos una nueva especie de rana terrestre del genero Pristimantis de tamaño mediano (LRC en machos desde 22.18 a 25.13 mm) descubierta en los bosques nublados de las estribaciones orientales del Parque Nacional Sangay, al centro oriente de Ecuador, a elevaciones de 2750 m. Asignamos a Pristimantis latericius sp. nov., al grupo Pristimantis lacrimosus, el cual se diferencia del resto de miembros de este grupo por presentar tubérculos prominentes en el parpado superior y una coloración ro...

  7. Dmrt1 polymorphism covaries with sex-determination patterns in Rana temporaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wen-Juan; Rodrigues, Nicolas; Sermier, Roberto; Brelsford, Alan; Perrin, Nicolas

    2016-08-01

    Patterns of sex-chromosome differentiation and gonadal development have been shown to vary among populations of Rana temporaria along a latitudinal transect in Sweden. Frogs from the northern-boreal population of Ammarnäs displayed well-differentiated X and Y haplotypes, early gonadal differentiation, and a perfect match between phenotypic and genotypic sex. In contrast, no differentiated Y haplotypes could be detected in the southern population of Tvedöra, where juveniles furthermore showed delayed gonadal differentiation. Here, we show that Dmrt1, a gene that plays a key role in sex determination and sexual development across all metazoans, displays significant sex differentiation in Tvedöra, with a Y-specific haplotype distinct from Ammarnäs. The differential segment is not only much shorter in Tvedöra than in Ammarnäs, it is also less differentiated and associates with both delayed gonadal differentiation and imperfect match between phenotypic and genotypic sex. Whereas Tvedöra juveniles with a local Y haplotype tend to ultimately develop as males, those without it may nevertheless become functional XX males, but with strongly female-biased progeny. Our findings suggest that the variance in patterns of sex determination documented in common frogs might result from a genetic polymorphism within a small genomic region that contains Dmrt1. They also substantiate the view that recurrent convergences of sex determination toward a limited set of chromosome pairs may result from the co-option of small genomic regions that harbor key genes from the sex-determination pathway. PMID:27551369

  8. Cadmium-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in the testes of frog Rana limnocharis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Cd can cause vacuoles and deformity of the spermatogenic cells in the frog testes. ► Cd can result in oxidative stress in the frog testes. ► Cd can induce significantly increase of ROS contents triggered DNA damages in the frog testes. ► Cd can cause apoptosis in the testes of male R. limnocharis. ► Apoptosis by Cd in the frog testes is related to Caspase-3, Bax and Bcl-2 genes. - Abstract: This study explored the genetic damage induced by cadmium exposure in the testes of Rana limnocharis. Healthy adult frogs were exposed to 2.5, 5, 7.5, or 10 mg/L of cadmium solution for 14 days. The results showed that exposure to these concentrations increased the levels of reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde content in the testes, clearly indicating a dose–effect relationship. Moreover, the same dosages of Cd2+ solution increased glutathione (reduced) content, with the values being significantly different from those observed in the control group (P < 0.01). The comet assay results demonstrated that the DNA damage rate, tail length, and tail moment of samples obtained from frogs exposed to 2.5–7.5 mg/L of cadmium solution significantly increased compared with those of samples obtained from the control group (P < 0.01). These findings suggest that cadmium can induce free radical generation, followed by lipid peroxidation and DNA damage. Ultrastructural observation revealed vacuoles in the spermatogenic cells, cell dispersion, incomplete cell structures, and deformed nucleoli. Moreover, cadmium exposure induced significant down-regulation of Bcl-2 expression and up-regulation of Bax and caspase-3 expressions. Taken together, these data indicate that cadmium can induce testicular cell apoptosis in R. limnocharis. Exploring the effects of cadmium on the mechanism of reproductive toxicity in amphibians will help provide a scientific basis accounting for the global population decline in amphibian species.

  9. Gonadal differentiation in frogs, Rana japonica and R. brevipoda, raised from UV irradiated eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gonadal differentiation of anurans, Rana japonica and R. brevipoda, was examined in animals raised from eggs which had been irradiated at the vegetal hemisphere with UV (9300 erg/mm2) at the 2-cell stage. In R. japonica about 70% of the larvae at stage I from the pressed and UV-irradiated eggs were germ cell free, but at a stage immediately after metamorphosis all animals had at least some germ cells, although their gonads often were extremely small and poorly differentiated. When male animals matured sexually, many of them had abnormal gonads. However, all of them were shown by artificial means to be capable of fertilization. In the nonpressed and irradiated group, no larvae were germ cell free and the animals immediately after metamorphosis showed nearly normal gonadal differentiation except for the presence of a few degenerate oocytes in the ovaries. The results in R. brevipoda were basically similar to those in R. japonica. In both species, sex ratios were determined at two stages, the first immediately after metamorphosis and the other when the animals matured, as based on gonad morphology and histology and on external sexually dimorphic characters as well. Sex ratios at these two stages in frogs from the pressed and irradiated eggs differed markedly in R. brevipoda. The ratio was normal at metamorphosis but high M/F ratios occurred when animals became mature. That sex reversal took place in this species as well as in R. japonica (in which sex-ratio deviation was not statistically significant) was supported by the sex ratios of the progenies of these supernumerary males

  10. Female choice for males with greater fertilization success in the Swedish Moor frog, Rana arvalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig D H Sherman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies of mate choice in anuran amphibians have shown female preference for a wide range of male traits despite females gaining no direct resources from males (i.e. non-resource based mating system. Nevertheless, theoretical and empirical studies have shown that females may still gain indirect genetic benefits from choosing males of higher genetic quality and thereby increase their reproductive success. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated two components of sexual selection in the Moor frog (Rana arvalis, pre-copulatory female choice between two males of different size ('large' vs. 'small', and their fertilization success in sperm competition and in isolation. Females' showed no significant preference for male size (13 small and six large male preferences but associated preferentially with the male that subsequently was the most successful at fertilizing her eggs in isolation. Siring success of males in competitive fertilizations was unrelated to genetic similarity with the female and we detected no effect of sperm viability on fertilization success. There was, however, a strong positive association between a male's innate fertilization ability with a female and his siring success in sperm competition. We also detected a strong negative effect of a male's thumb length on his competitive siring success. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results show that females show no preference for male size but are still able to choose males which have greater fertilization success. Genetic similarity and differences in the proportion of viable sperm within a males ejaculate do not appear to affect siring success. These results could be explained through pre- and/or postcopulatory choice for genetic benefits and suggest that females are able to perceive the genetic quality of males, possibly basing their choice on multiple phenotypic male traits.

  11. Dmrt1 polymorphism covaries with sex-determination patterns in Rana temporaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wen-Juan; Rodrigues, Nicolas; Sermier, Roberto; Brelsford, Alan; Perrin, Nicolas

    2016-08-01

    Patterns of sex-chromosome differentiation and gonadal development have been shown to vary among populations of Rana temporaria along a latitudinal transect in Sweden. Frogs from the northern-boreal population of Ammarnäs displayed well-differentiated X and Y haplotypes, early gonadal differentiation, and a perfect match between phenotypic and genotypic sex. In contrast, no differentiated Y haplotypes could be detected in the southern population of Tvedöra, where juveniles furthermore showed delayed gonadal differentiation. Here, we show that Dmrt1, a gene that plays a key role in sex determination and sexual development across all metazoans, displays significant sex differentiation in Tvedöra, with a Y-specific haplotype distinct from Ammarnäs. The differential segment is not only much shorter in Tvedöra than in Ammarnäs, it is also less differentiated and associates with both delayed gonadal differentiation and imperfect match between phenotypic and genotypic sex. Whereas Tvedöra juveniles with a local Y haplotype tend to ultimately develop as males, those without it may nevertheless become functional XX males, but with strongly female-biased progeny. Our findings suggest that the variance in patterns of sex determination documented in common frogs might result from a genetic polymorphism within a small genomic region that contains Dmrt1. They also substantiate the view that recurrent convergences of sex determination toward a limited set of chromosome pairs may result from the co-option of small genomic regions that harbor key genes from the sex-determination pathway.

  12. Radically different phylogeographies and patterns of genetic variation in two European brown frogs, genus Rana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vences, Miguel; Hauswaldt, J Susanne; Steinfartz, Sebastian; Rupp, Oliver; Goesmann, Alexander; Künzel, Sven; Orozco-terWengel, Pablo; Vieites, David R; Nieto-Roman, Sandra; Haas, Sabrina; Laugsch, Clara; Gehara, Marcelo; Bruchmann, Sebastian; Pabijan, Maciej; Ludewig, Ann-Kathrin; Rudert, Dirk; Angelini, Claudio; Borkin, Leo J; Crochet, Pierre-André; Crottini, Angelica; Dubois, Alain; Ficetola, Gentile Francesco; Galán, Pedro; Geniez, Philippe; Hachtel, Monika; Jovanovic, Olga; Litvinchuk, Spartak N; Lymberakis, Petros; Ohler, Annemarie; Smirnov, Nazar A

    2013-09-01

    We reconstruct range-wide phylogeographies of two widespread and largely co-occurring Western Palearctic frogs, Rana temporaria and R. dalmatina. Based on tissue or saliva samples of over 1000 individuals, we compare a variety of genetic marker systems, including mitochondrial DNA, single-copy protein-coding nuclear genes, microsatellite loci, and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of transcriptomes of both species. The two focal species differ radically in their phylogeographic structure, with R. temporaria being strongly variable among and within populations, and R. dalmatina homogeneous across Europe with a single strongly differentiated population in southern Italy. These differences were observed across the various markers studied, including microsatellites and SNP density, but especially in protein-coding nuclear genes where R. dalmatina had extremely low heterozygosity values across its range, including potential refugial areas. On the contrary, R. temporaria had comparably high range-wide values, including many areas of probable postglacial colonization. A phylogeny of R. temporaria based on various concatenated mtDNA genes revealed that two haplotype clades endemic to Iberia form a paraphyletic group at the base of the cladogram, and all other haplotypes form a monophyletic group, in agreement with an Iberian origin of the species. Demographic analysis suggests that R. temporaria and R. dalmatina have genealogies of roughly the same time to coalescence (TMRCA ~3.5 mya for both species), but R. temporaria might have been characterized by larger ancestral and current effective population sizes than R. dalmatina. The high genetic variation in R. temporaria can therefore be explained by its early range expansion out of Iberia, with subsequent cycles of differentiation in cryptic glacial refugial areas followed by admixture, while the range expansion of R. dalmatina into central Europe is a probably more recent event.

  13. Behavioral Responses of Northern Leopard Frogs (Rana pipiens to Roads and Traffic: Implications for Population Persistence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenore Fahrig

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A key goal in road ecology is to determine which species are most vulnerable to the negative effects of roads on population persistence. Theory suggests that species that avoid roads are less likely to be negatively affected by roads than those that do not avoid roads. The goal of this study was to take a step toward testing this prediction by evaluating the behavioral response to roads and traffic of a species whose populations are known to be negatively affected by roads and traffic, the northern leopard frog (Rana pipiens. We studied the movement patterns of northern leopard frogs during their spring migration from overwintering sites in a river to various breeding ponds that were disconnected from the river by roads. We performed short-distance translocations of migrating frogs, followed them visually, and documented their movement coordinates following each hop, both near the roads and in non-roaded areas. We found that frogs took longer to move near roads with more traffic and that their movement was quickest in areas without roads nearby. Frogs tended to deviate more from a straight-line course when they were released near roads than compared with control areas, but this response was independent of traffic volume. All frogs released near roads attempted to cross the road. On very low traffic roads (10.86 mean vehicles per hour, 94% of frogs crossed the road successfully, whereas at higher traffic roads (58.29 mean vehicles per hour 72% were successful. Our results suggest that frog's inability to avoid going onto roads and their slow movement combine to make them particularly vulnerable to road mortality, which likely explains the strong negative effects of roads on frog population abundance. Conservation efforts should focus on preventing frogs from accessing the road surface through the use of drift fencing and culverts.

  14. Toxic Effects of Three Heavy Metallic Ions on Rana zhenhaiensis Tadpoles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li WEI; Guohua DING; Sainan GUO; Meiling TONG; Wenjun CHEN; Jon FLANDERS; Weiwei SHAO; Zhihua LIN

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metal pollution is widespread in some areas of China and results in contamination of land, water, and air with which all living organisms interact. In this study, we used three heavy metallic ions (Cu2+, Pb2+ and Zn2+) to assess their toxicity effects on mortality, blood biomarker and growth traits (body length and body mass) of Rana zhenhaiensis tadpoles. The results showed that the toxicity levels of the three metallic ions were different when conducted with different experiment designs. For acute toxicity tests, Cu2+ was the most toxic with the highest tadpole mortality. The mortalities of tadpoles showed significant differences among the treatments at the same exposure time endpoints (24, 48, 72 and 96h). Results from repeated measures ANOVA indicated that metallic ion concentration, exposure time and their interactions significantly affected the mortalities of R. zhenhaiensis tadpoles. Also, the toxicity effects of all binary combinations of the three metallic ion treatments showed synergism. The half lethal concentrations (LC50) decreased with increasing exposure time during the experimental period, and the safe concentration (SC)values of Cu2+, Pb2+ and Zn2+ were different from each other. Combined and compared LC50 values with previous data reported, it is suggestes that the toxicity levels of metal pollution to anuran tadpoles should be species-and age-related. For blood biomarker tests, Zn2+ was the most toxic with the highest total frequencies of abnormal erythrocytic nucleus. All three metallic ions caused higher abnormal erythrocytic nucleus compared with control groups. In a chronic toxicity test, Pb2+ was the most toxic with lowest growth traits. Survival rate (except for 18 days), total body length and body mass showed significant differences among the treatments. These findings indicated that tadpoles of R. zhenhaiensis should be as a bioindicator of heavy metals pollution.

  15. Effects of wetland vs. landscape variables on parasite communities of Rana pipiens: links to anthropogenic factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schotthoefer, Anna M.; Rohr, Jason R.; Cole, Rebecca A.; Koehler, Anson V.; Johnson, Catherine M.; Johnson, Lucinda B.; Beasley, Val R.

    2011-01-01

    The emergence of several diseases affecting amphibian populations worldwide has prompted investigations into determinants of the occurrence and abundance of parasites in frogs. To understand the spatial scales and identify specific environmental factors that determine risks of parasitism in frogs, helminth communities in metamorphic frogs of the northern leopard frog (Rana pipiens) were examined in relation to wetland and landscape factors at local (1 km) and regional (10 km) spatial extents in an agricultural region of Minnesota (USA) using regression analyses, ordination, and variance partitioning techniques. Greater amounts of forested and woody wetland habitats, shorter distances between woody wetlands, and smaller-sized open water patches in surrounding landscapes were the most consistently positive correlates with the abundances, richness, and diversity of helminths found in the frogs. Wetland and local landscape variables were suggested as most important for larval trematode abundances, whereas local and regional landscape variables appeared most important for adult helminths. As previously reported, the sum concentration of atrazine and its metabolite desethylatrazine, was the strongest predictor of larval trematode communities. In this report, we highlight the additional influences of landscape factors. In particular, our data suggest that anthropogenic activities that have resulted in the loss of the availability and connectivity of suitable habitats in the surrounding landscapes of wetlands are associated with declines in helminth richness and abundance, but that alteration of wetland water quality through eutrophication or pesticide contamination may facilitate the transmission of certain parasite taxa when they are present at wetlands. Although additional research is needed to quantify the negative effects of parasitism on frog populations, efforts to reduce inputs of agrochemicals into wetlands to limit larval trematode infections may be warranted

  16. A new gorgoderid species of the urinary bladder of Rana zweifeli from Michoacán, Mexico Una nueva especie de gorgodérido de la vejiga urinaria de Rana zweifeli de Michoacán, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Mata-López

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Gorgoderina tarascae n. sp. is described from the urinary bladder of Rana zweifeli, from Cutzaróndiro, Michoacán, Mexico. Gorgoderina tarascae differs from the other species of the genus by possessing the following combination of characters: follicular vitelline glands, arranged in two clusters of 4-7 follicles dorsal to the ovary, compact and smooth reproductive organs situated far from each other and from the acetabulum, suckers close to each other, and a slender, spindle shaped body with a flexed position due to the situation of the acetabulum.Gorgoderina tarascae n. sp. se describe como parásita de la vejiga urinaria de Rana zweifeli de Cutzaróndiro, Michoacán, México. Gorgoderina tarascae difiere del resto de las especies del género por la siguiente combinación de características: posee glándulas vitelógenas arregladas en dos racimos de 4-7 folículos situados dorsalmente al ovario, órganos reproductivos compactos y de bordes lisos, muy separados entre si y con respecto del acetábulo, ventosas cercanas una de la otra y cuerpo delgado, en forma de huso y flexionado debido a la posición del acetábulo.

  17. Breeding ecology and oviposition site selection of black-spotted pond frogs (Rana nigromaculata) in Ningbo, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanping WANG; Zhengjun WU; Ping LU; Fang ZHANG; Yiming LI

    2008-01-01

    The black-spotted pond frog (Rana nigromacu-lata) is one of the most widely distributed species in China. However, there have been only a few qualitative descrip-tions of their breeding ecology and oviposition site selec-tion. From 2004 to 2006, we investigated the breeding ecology and oviposition site selection of K nigromaculata in Ningbo, China, quantitatively. Analyses of breeding ecology show that: (1) mean frog density in the breeding season was 0.0903 ± 0.0029 individuals per meter (n = 11) (mean ± SE); (2) R. nigromaculata was a sexually dimorphic species, with females significantly larger than males in both body weight and snout-vent length; (3) the clutch size averaged 4643.04± 235.96 eggs (range 1546-7897, n = 50); and (4) the egg size ranged from 1.50 to 1.74 mm in diameter, with an average egg size of 1.6050 ± 0.0046 mm (n = 226). Oviposition sites differed significantly from random sites in percentages of water, bare ground and vegetation cover, water depth (cm), water temperature (°C) and water turbidity. Rana nigro-maculata preferred microhabitats with higher percentages of water and vegetation cover, while it avoided microha-bitats with deeper water. The results suggest that micro-habitats with higher percentages of water and vegetation cover, but not deeper water, should be priorities for pro-tection and conservation of the breeding habitats of R. nigromaculata.

  18. Expression of P450arom and Estrogen Receptor Alpha in the Oviduct of Chinese Brown Frog (Rana dybowskii during Prehibernation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Weng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One specific physiological phenomenon of Chinese brown frog (Rana dybowskii is that its oviduct expands prior to hibernation instead of expanding during the breeding period. In this study, we investigated the expression of P450arom and estrogen receptors α and β (ERα and ERβ in the oviduct of Rana dybowskii during the breeding period and prehibernation. The results of the present study showed that there were significant differences in both oviductal weight and size with values markedly higher in prehibernation than in the breeding period. P450arom was observed in stromal tissue in both the breeding period and prehibernation. ERα was expressed in stromal tissue and epithelial cells in both periods, whereas ERβ could not be detected. The mean protein and mRNA levels of P450arom and ERα were significantly higher in prehibernation as compared to the breeding period. Besides, oviductal content of 17β-estradiol was also higher in prehibernation than in the breeding period. These results suggested that estrogen may play autocrine/paracrine roles mediated by ERα in regulating the oviductal hypertrophy during prehibernation.

  19. Effects of glyphosate and the glyphosate based herbicides Roundup Original(®) and Roundup Transorb(®) on respiratory morphophysiology of bullfrog tadpoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissoli, Rafael Zanelli; Abdalla, Fabio Camargo; Costa, Monica Jones; Rantin, Francisco Tadeu; McKenzie, David John; Kalinin, Ana Lucia

    2016-08-01

    Glyphosate-based herbicides are widely used in agriculture and are commonly found in water bodies. Roundup Original(®) (RO) contains an isopropylamine glyphosate (GLY) salt containing the surfactant POEA, while Roundup Transorb R(®) (RTR) contains a potassium salt of GLY with unknown surfactants. Both contain different compositions of so-called "inert" ingredients, more toxic than glyphosate. Amphibian tadpoles often experience variations in O2 availability in their aquatic habitats; an ability to tolerate hypoxia can condition their survival and fitness. We evaluated the impacts of sublethal concentrations of GLY (1 mg L(-1)), RO (1 mg L(-1) GLY a.e) and RTR (1 mg L(-1) GLY a.e) on metabolic rate (V·O2 - mLO2 Kg1 h(-1)) of bullfrog tadpoles during normoxia and graded hypoxia, and related this to morphology of their skin, their major site of gas exchange. In control (CT) V·O2 remained unaltered from normoxia until 40 mmHg, indicating a critical O2 tension between 40 and 20 mmHg. GLY significantly reduced V·O2, possibly due to epidermal hypertrophy, which increased O2 diffusion distance to O2 uptake. In contrast, RTR increased V·O2 during hypoxia, indicating an influence of "inert" compounds and surfactants. V·O2 of RO did not differ from CT, suggesting that any increase in V·O2 caused by exposure was antagonized by epidermal hypertrophy. Indeed, all herbicides caused marked alterations in skin morphology, with cell and epithelium wall presenting hyperplasia or hypertrophy and chromatid rupture. In summary, GLY, RO and RTR exert different effects in bullfrog tadpoles, in particular the surfactants and inert compounds appear to influence oxygen uptake.

  20. Effects of glyphosate and the glyphosate based herbicides Roundup Original(®) and Roundup Transorb(®) on respiratory morphophysiology of bullfrog tadpoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissoli, Rafael Zanelli; Abdalla, Fabio Camargo; Costa, Monica Jones; Rantin, Francisco Tadeu; McKenzie, David John; Kalinin, Ana Lucia

    2016-08-01

    Glyphosate-based herbicides are widely used in agriculture and are commonly found in water bodies. Roundup Original(®) (RO) contains an isopropylamine glyphosate (GLY) salt containing the surfactant POEA, while Roundup Transorb R(®) (RTR) contains a potassium salt of GLY with unknown surfactants. Both contain different compositions of so-called "inert" ingredients, more toxic than glyphosate. Amphibian tadpoles often experience variations in O2 availability in their aquatic habitats; an ability to tolerate hypoxia can condition their survival and fitness. We evaluated the impacts of sublethal concentrations of GLY (1 mg L(-1)), RO (1 mg L(-1) GLY a.e) and RTR (1 mg L(-1) GLY a.e) on metabolic rate (V·O2 - mLO2 Kg1 h(-1)) of bullfrog tadpoles during normoxia and graded hypoxia, and related this to morphology of their skin, their major site of gas exchange. In control (CT) V·O2 remained unaltered from normoxia until 40 mmHg, indicating a critical O2 tension between 40 and 20 mmHg. GLY significantly reduced V·O2, possibly due to epidermal hypertrophy, which increased O2 diffusion distance to O2 uptake. In contrast, RTR increased V·O2 during hypoxia, indicating an influence of "inert" compounds and surfactants. V·O2 of RO did not differ from CT, suggesting that any increase in V·O2 caused by exposure was antagonized by epidermal hypertrophy. Indeed, all herbicides caused marked alterations in skin morphology, with cell and epithelium wall presenting hyperplasia or hypertrophy and chromatid rupture. In summary, GLY, RO and RTR exert different effects in bullfrog tadpoles, in particular the surfactants and inert compounds appear to influence oxygen uptake. PMID:27160633

  1. 林蛙油蛋白水解营养液的研究%Research on Oviductus Ranae Proteolysis Nutrient Fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马艳梅; 陈晓平

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究林蛙油蛋白水解营养液的工艺条件.方法 采用胰蛋白酶和木瓜蛋白酶分步水解林蛙油,酶解液中添加β-环状糊精、柠檬酸、蜂蜜调配.然后均质、装罐、杀菌.结果 林蛙油蛋白水解营养液配方为β-环状糊精添加量2.0%,柠檬酸添加量0.15%,蜂蜜添加量8%.杀菌条件105℃,20 min.结论 林蛙油蛋白水解营养液营养丰富,口感、风味均佳.%Objective To study the technology condition of Oviductus Ranae proteolysis nutrient fluid. Methods Oviductus Ranae was hydrolyzed by trypsinase and papain. Β-Cyclodextrin, citric acid and honey were added into the hydrolysate, followed by homogenization, canned and sterilization. Results The formula of Oviductus Ranae proteolysis nutrient fluid was as follows: 2.0 % β-cyclodextrin, 0.15 % citric acid, 8 % honey. The sterilization was performed at 105 ℃ for 20 min. Conclusion Oviductus Ranae proteolysis nutrient fluid is rich in nutrition and its taste and flavor are good.

  2. Morphometric discrimination of wild from farmed Dybowski's frog (Rana dybowskii) based on hindlimb length

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Rui; HUANG Xiao-ming; YANG Shu-hui; XU Yan-chun; Ying Lu; Thomas D.Dahmer

    2011-01-01

    Commercial farming of anuran species that arc declining in the wild raises a need to discriminate wild from farmed frogs. We hypothesized wild frogs might have extended hindlimbs due to greater frequency or intensity of jumping relative to farmed frogs, highlighting a morphometric approach to discrimination of wild from farmed frogs using hindiimb length. In the present study, Dybowski's frog (Rana dybowskii) was used to test this hypothesis. We measured body mass (Mb)and hindlimb length (Lh) of 2-year old farmed frogs and wild frogs aged 2 to 5 years. Dybowski's frog demonstrated significant dimorphism in Mb and Lh. Mb was significantly greater among farmed 2-year old frogs in both sexes (p=0.000), while only among females w as Lh significantly greater for wild frogs (p=0.000). Lh/Mb was used as an index for origin discrimination to eliminate the influence of Mb due to variation of husbandry conditions among farms. Mean Lh/Mb for fanned frogs was significantly lower than for wild frogs (p=0.000) in the 2-year old age class.Discrimination correctly classified 84.4% of fanned and 96.3% of wild male frogs. Among females, 92.9% of farmed frogs and 90.1% wild frogs were correctly classified. The ovcrall correctness of classification was 92.1% and 90.8% for males and females, respectively. However, Lh/Mb revealed variation with age, resulting in reduced discriminative power for frogs ≥3 years old. We introduced a coefficient Ce to adjust the Lh/Mb of frogs ≥3 years to the level equivalent to 2-year frogs. Thc adjustment achieved 89.5% for overall correctness of origin for wild males and 92.4% for wild females ≥3 years old. These results show that Lh/Mb is an effective index to discriminate wild from fanned Dybowski's frog. Since the physical demands ofjumping are common among anurans, this index is also potentially applicable to other anuran species.

  3. cytogenetic effects in populations of amphibians Rana arvalis living on the radio-contaminated area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yushkova, E.; Bodnar, I.; Zainullin, V. [Institute of Biology of Komi Scientific Centre of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    The study of the features reactions of the animals a differing complicated individual development (metamorphosis) and living in conditions of radioactive contamination is an important trend in the modern radio-ecology. This information is of interest not only from the point of view of detection the mechanisms of radiobiological effects (hyper-radiosensitivity, hormesis, radio-adaptation, etc.) but also viewpoint of predicting delayed radiation effects that is necessary at account the normalization of technogeneous loading on natural ecosystems. An assessment of the level of cytogenetic damages (single-strand and double-strand DNA breaks) in the blood cells of tadpoles of Rana arvalis living in areas contaminated of wastes radium production (Russia, Komi Republic, Ukhta district) was conducted. Using this biological matter as a bioindicator due to the fact that development amphibian is carried out by metamorphosis and includes larval stage. At this stage post-embryonic development of an individual are the most sensitive to anthropogenic impact. To exclude the effects of other factors (temperature, age-specific peculiarities, overpopulation, etc.) on the formation of DNA damages from the studied reservoirs were taken laying eggs of amphibians (12-15 egg laying from the area) which afterwards are contain in strictly controlled laboratory conditions using water, belt silt, plants of native pond. The reaction of amphibians on the contamination was assessed by the level of DNA damage by method Comet assay was determined. With each egg laying were selected for 7 even-aged individuals. Total for cytogenetic analysis was used 189 individuals. It is shown that in animals that develop on the radio-contaminated area the level of single-strand DNA (alkaline pH version of the Comet assay) was higher than in the control area. According an estimate to the level of double-strand DNA (neutral pH version of the Comet assay) significant differences not was found. The high variability

  4. Cadmium-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in the testes of frog Rana limnocharis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Hangjun; Cai Chenchen; Shi Cailei; Cao Hui; Han Ziliu [Department of Environmental Sciences, Hangzhou Normal University, Xuelin Road 16, Xiasha Gaojiao Dongqu, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, 310036 (China); Jia Xiuying, E-mail: hznujiaxiuying@126.com [Department of Environmental Sciences, Hangzhou Normal University, Xuelin Road 16, Xiasha Gaojiao Dongqu, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, 310036 (China)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cd can cause vacuoles and deformity of the spermatogenic cells in the frog testes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cd can result in oxidative stress in the frog testes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cd can induce significantly increase of ROS contents triggered DNA damages in the frog testes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cd can cause apoptosis in the testes of male R. limnocharis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Apoptosis by Cd in the frog testes is related to Caspase-3, Bax and Bcl-2 genes. - Abstract: This study explored the genetic damage induced by cadmium exposure in the testes of Rana limnocharis. Healthy adult frogs were exposed to 2.5, 5, 7.5, or 10 mg/L of cadmium solution for 14 days. The results showed that exposure to these concentrations increased the levels of reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde content in the testes, clearly indicating a dose-effect relationship. Moreover, the same dosages of Cd{sup 2+} solution increased glutathione (reduced) content, with the values being significantly different from those observed in the control group (P < 0.01). The comet assay results demonstrated that the DNA damage rate, tail length, and tail moment of samples obtained from frogs exposed to 2.5-7.5 mg/L of cadmium solution significantly increased compared with those of samples obtained from the control group (P < 0.01). These findings suggest that cadmium can induce free radical generation, followed by lipid peroxidation and DNA damage. Ultrastructural observation revealed vacuoles in the spermatogenic cells, cell dispersion, incomplete cell structures, and deformed nucleoli. Moreover, cadmium exposure induced significant down-regulation of Bcl-2 expression and up-regulation of Bax and caspase-3 expressions. Taken together, these data indicate that cadmium can induce testicular cell apoptosis in R. limnocharis. Exploring the effects of cadmium on the mechanism of reproductive toxicity in amphibians will help provide a

  5. cytogenetic effects in populations of amphibians Rana arvalis living on the radio-contaminated area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of the features reactions of the animals a differing complicated individual development (metamorphosis) and living in conditions of radioactive contamination is an important trend in the modern radio-ecology. This information is of interest not only from the point of view of detection the mechanisms of radiobiological effects (hyper-radiosensitivity, hormesis, radio-adaptation, etc.) but also viewpoint of predicting delayed radiation effects that is necessary at account the normalization of technogeneous loading on natural ecosystems. An assessment of the level of cytogenetic damages (single-strand and double-strand DNA breaks) in the blood cells of tadpoles of Rana arvalis living in areas contaminated of wastes radium production (Russia, Komi Republic, Ukhta district) was conducted. Using this biological matter as a bioindicator due to the fact that development amphibian is carried out by metamorphosis and includes larval stage. At this stage post-embryonic development of an individual are the most sensitive to anthropogenic impact. To exclude the effects of other factors (temperature, age-specific peculiarities, overpopulation, etc.) on the formation of DNA damages from the studied reservoirs were taken laying eggs of amphibians (12-15 egg laying from the area) which afterwards are contain in strictly controlled laboratory conditions using water, belt silt, plants of native pond. The reaction of amphibians on the contamination was assessed by the level of DNA damage by method Comet assay was determined. With each egg laying were selected for 7 even-aged individuals. Total for cytogenetic analysis was used 189 individuals. It is shown that in animals that develop on the radio-contaminated area the level of single-strand DNA (alkaline pH version of the Comet assay) was higher than in the control area. According an estimate to the level of double-strand DNA (neutral pH version of the Comet assay) significant differences not was found. The high variability

  6. A simultaneous multiple species acute toxicity test comparing relative sensitivities of six aquatic organisms to HgCl{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCrary, J.E.; Heagler, M.G. [McNeese State Univ., Lake Charles, LA (United States). Dept. of Biological and Environmental Science

    1995-12-31

    In the last few years there has been concern in the scientific community about observed declines in some amphibian species. These population declines could be reflecting a global phenomenon due to a general class sensitivity or may be part of a natural cycle. The suggestion of an overall greater sensitivity of amphibians is not supported. Studies show that amphibians, as a class, are neither more or less susceptible than fish to environmental conditions. Mercury has been found to be one of the most toxic of the heavy metals introduced into amphibian breeding waters. Six aquatic species were simultaneously exposed in a comparative acute toxicity test with mercury chloride: three amphibians, Rana catesbeiana (bullfrog), R. clamitans (green frog), and R. sphenocephala (southern leopard frog, formally classified as R. utricularia); two fish, Gambusia affinis (mosquitofish) and Notemigonus crysoleucas (golden shiner); one aquatic aligochaete, Lumbriculus variegatus (aquatic earthworm). The five test concentrations used were 1.4, 3.9, 12.0, 110.0, and 487.0 {micro}g Hg/L respectively. Ten organisms per species were randomly placed into the six test tanks (control and five concentrations), each species in a separate chamber. The resultant LC50-96hr values produced the following rank order: R. sphenocephala, 6.59 {micro}g Hg/L; R. clamitans, 14.7 {micro}g Hg/L; N. crysoleucas, 16.75 {micro}g Hg/L; L. variegatus, 43.72,ug Hg/L; G. affinis, 52.62 {micro}g Hg/L; R. catesbeiana, 63.36 {micro}g Hg/L. No general organism class sensitivity trend, for amphibians, was developed from this data, contrary to the implicit suggestions of some researchers.

  7. Prevalence of the pathogenic chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, in an endangered population of northern leopard frogs, Rana pipiens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govindarajulu Purnima

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Emerging infectious diseases threaten naïve host populations with extinction. Chytridiomycosis, an emerging infectious disease of amphibians, is caused by the pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd and has been linked to global declines in amphibians. Results We monitored the prevalence of Bd for four years in the Northern leopard frog, Rana pipiens, which is critically imperiled in British Columbia (BC, Canada. The prevalence of Bd initially increased and then remained constant over the last three years of the study. Young of the year emerging from breeding ponds in summer were rarely infected with Bd. Some individuals cleared their Bd infections and the return rate between infected and uninfected individuals was not significantly different. Conclusions The BC population of R. pipiens appears to have evolved a level of resistance that allows it to co-exist with Bd. However, this small population of R. pipiens remains vulnerable to extinction.

  8. Study on Manual Ova Hatching of Rana chinensis%中国林蛙卵人工孵化试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于立忠; 孔祥文; 周永斌; 殷有

    2001-01-01

    his paper deals with the manual ova hatching of Rana chinensis.It is eviden that there are three different periods in the ova eclosion. The first period is at 75~80℃of effective water cumulative temperature. The peak period is at 100~120℃. The end is at 120~140℃. The most suitabale temperature of ova eclosion is 11~13℃. In this case, the eclosion speed is 1.6~2.2, and incubation period is 9~12 days,with the rate of eclosion over 80%. Manual hatching can increase the eclosion speed of ova. It is 10%~60% higher than CK, and also 25%~100% higher than the outdoor.

  9. Size-sex variation in survival rates and abundance of pig frogs, Rana grylio, in northern Florida wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, K.V.; Nichols, J.D.; Percival, H.F.; Hines, J.E.

    1998-01-01

    During 1991-1993, we conducted capture-recapture studies on pig frogs, Rana grylio, in seven study locations in northcentral Florida. Resulting data were used to test hypotheses about variation in survival probability over different size-sex classes of pig frogs. We developed multistate capture-recapture models for the resulting data and used them to estimate survival rates and frog abundance. Tests provided strong evidence of survival differences among size-sex classes, with adult females showing the highest survival probabilities. Adult males and juvenile frogs had lower survival rates that were similar to each other. Adult females were more abundant than adult males in most locations at most sampling occasions. We recommended probabilistic capture-recapture models in general, and multistate models in particular, for robust estimation of demographic parameters in amphibian populations.

  10. Low detection of ranavirus DNA in wild postmetamorphic green frogs, Rana (Lithobates) clamitans, despite previous or concurrent tadpole mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forzán, María J; Wood, John

    2013-10-01

    Ranavirus (Iridoviridae) infection is a significant cause of mortality in amphibians. Detection of infected individuals, particularly carriers, is necessary to prevent and control outbreaks. Recently, the use of toe clips to detect ranavirus infection through PCR was proposed as an alternative to the more frequently used lethal liver sampling in green frogs (Rana [Lithobates] clamitans). We attempted reevaluate the use of toe clips, evaluate the potential use of blood onto filter paper and hepatic fine needle aspirates (FNAs) as further alternatives, and explore the adequacy of using green frogs as a target-sampling species when searching for ranavirus infection in the wild. Samples were obtained from 190 postmetamorphic (≥1-yr-old) green frogs from five ponds on Prince Edward Island (PEI), Canada. Three of the ponds had contemporary or recent tadpole mortalities due to Frog Virus 3 (FV3) ranavirus. PCR testing for ranavirus DNA was performed on 190 toe clips, 188 blood samples, 72 hepatic FNAs, and 72 liver tissue samples. Only two frogs were ranavirus-positive: liver and toe clip were positive in one, liver only was positive in the other; all blood and FNAs, including those from the two positive frogs, were negative. Results did not yield a definitive answer on the efficacy of testing each type of sample, but resemble what is found in salamanders infected with Ambystoma tigrinum (rana)virus. Findings indicate a low prevalence of FV3 in postmetamorphic green frogs on PEI (≤2.78%) and suggest that green frogs are poor reservoirs (carriers) for the virus. PMID:24502715

  11. Time-resolved x-ray diffraction from frog skeletal muscle during shortening against an inertial load and a quick release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A group of Japanese researchers conducted, for the first time in this field, experiments on time-resolved x-ray diffraction of frog (bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana) skeletal muscle in conditions where both the force and the muscle length change with time. During an isotonic twitch under a load of about 0.3 P0, the intensity ratio started falling on stimulation and reached a minimum value of 0.5 - 0.6 at the early shortening phase, which was maintained until the beginning of relaxation. Except that the minimum value was not retained until the start of relaxation, the same was observed during a twitch against an inertial load whereby the peak force exerted by the muscle was about 0.4 P0. The results may be taken to indicate that the change in the intensity ratio reflects not the time course of shortening but that of force generation. When a quick release (3 - 4% of muscle length) was applied during the rising phase of an isometric twitch, the intensity ratio showed no distinct change. Judging from tentative calculation results, however, the foregoing result is subject to further experiments with a much improved time resolution of the measurements. (Kitajima, A.)

  12. Post-evaluation of the neurophaties treatment post-trauma with therapeutic laser. Model in sciatic nerve of frog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the compound nerve action potential amplitude and latency measured to determine the degree of myelination and the number of fibers stimulated in a model of stimulated frog sciatic nerve laser at 810 nm as perioperative treatment after injury. It used 30 bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) to obtain 60 sciatic nerves forming four groups, groups 1 and 2 worked with nerves in vitro, were dissected in humid chambers for placing isolated organ, was recorded on compound nerve action potential, the second group laser was applied at 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 hours and at the same time were placed in 10% formalin. Groups 3 and 4 are worked in vivo localizing the nerve and causing damage through compression, occurred over the compound nerve action potential to assess the degree of myelination and the number of fibers stimulated, the group 4 was applied to 810 nm laser (500 Hz, 10 J, 200 mW) after injury, after 48 hours, three frogs were sacrificed by introducing the nerves in 10% formalin. The latency recorded by stimulating the sciatic nerve of frog to 0.5 mA and 100 ms in groups 1 and 2 show significant differences (p000), as to the extent, if any statistically significant difference. (p<0.001 and p<0.000). The laser produces a favorable response in the treatment of paresthesia (post-traumatic neuropathy).

  13. New species of Haematoloechus (Digenea: Plagiorchidae in the lung of the foothill yellow-legged frog Rana boylii (Anura, from Humboldt County, California, USA Especie nueva de Haematoloechus (Digenea: Plagiorchidae del pulmón de la rana de patas amarillas Rana boylii (Anura, de Humboldt County, California, Estados Unidos de América

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Zamparo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Haematoloechus is described from the lungs of Rana boylii from Humboldt County, California. The new species is similar to Haematoloechus buttensis, Haematoloechus kernensis, and Haematoloechus complexus in general course of the uterus and gonad shape. It is similar to H. buttensis by having a cirrus sac terminating midway between the posterior margin of the pharynx and the anterior margin of the ovary, and having a smaller oral/ventral sucker ratio; to H. complexus by having the genital pore ventral to the pharynx, and it is similar to H. kernensis by having a larger oral sucker to pharynx width ratio. The new species is unique by lacking an extra-cecal longitudinal uterine loop from the hind-body. Molecularly, the new species differs 1.04-1.15% in partial 28S sequence with respect to H. complexus, and a monophyletic grouping of these specimens in a phylogenetic analysis of all available sequence data consistent with the species-specific status proposed herein. Evidence is also presented to suggest that specimens identified as H. buttensis in Rana pretiosa from British Columbia, Canada represents a new, but still undescribed species. The importance of conducting biological inventories of helminths, along with continued monitoring of populations, and collections based taxonomy are related.Una especie nueva de Haematoloechus es descrita de los pulmones de Rana boylii de Humboldt County, California. La especie nueva guarda semejanza con Haematoloechus buttensis, Haematoloechus kernensis, y Haematoloechus complexus en la disposición general del útero y en la forma de las gónadas. Es similar a H. buttensis en que la bolsa del cirro finaliza entre el margen posterior de la faringe y el margen anterior del ovario, y en presentar una relación menor entre la ventosa oral y el acetábulo; a H. complexus por tener el poro genital ventral a la faringe, y a H. kernensis por tener una relación mayor del ancho de la ventosa oral contra la

  14. Auditory nerve representation of a complex communication sound in background noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, A M; Schwartz, J J; Ferragamo, M

    1992-05-01

    A population study of auditory nerve responses in the bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana, analyzed the relative contributions of spectral and temporal coding in representing a complex, species-specific communication signal at different stimulus intensities and in the presence of background noise. At stimulus levels of 70 and 80 dB SPL, levels which approximate that received during communication in the natural environment, average rate profiles plotted over fiber characteristic frequency do not reflect the detailed spectral fine structure of the synthetic call. Rate profiles do not change significantly in the presence of background noise. In ambient (no noise) and low noise conditions, both amphibian papilla and basilar papilla fibers phase lock strongly to the waveform periodicity (fundamental frequency) of the synthetic advertisement call. The higher harmonic spectral fine structure of the synthetic call is not accurately reflected in the timing of fiber firing, because firing is "captured" by the fundamental frequency. Only a small number of fibers synchronize preferentially to any harmonic in the call other than the first, and none synchronize to any higher than the third, even when fiber characteristic frequency is close to one of these higher harmonics. Background noise affects fiber temporal responses in two ways: It can reduce synchronization to the fundamental frequency, until fiber responses are masked; or it can shift synchronization from the fundamental to the second or third harmonic of the call. This second effect results in a preservation of temporal coding at high noise levels. These data suggest that bullfrog eighth nerve fibers extract the waveform periodicity of multiple-harmonic stimuli primarily by a temporal code.

  15. Research on suppression function of compound prescription powder made from rana japonica oil on hydroxy free radical in serum of big mice exposed to X ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The models of Wistar big mice under X ray irradiation were copied and intervened by the compound prescription powder made from rana japonica oil, for the purpose to examines the ability of suppression on the hydroxy free radicals in the serum taken from each group of big mice which was being examined. Results show that the ability of prevention group of suppression hydroxy free radical is obviously higher than blank control group and tailored radiation group (p<0.05). Ability of treatment group suppress hydroxy free radically is obviously higher than tailored radiation group (p<0.05). There is not the remarkable difference between blank control group and tailored radiation group. The above results demonstrates that compound prescription powder mainly made from the rana japonica oil might assist to strengthen the suppression of serum taken from the big mice under X ray irradiation on the hydroxy free radical. (authors)

  16. 广西两栖类一新记录--镇海林蛙%A new record of amphibian species in Guangxi --Rana zhenhaiensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周放; 蒋爱伍; 陆舟

    2005-01-01

    2001年在广西元宝山自然保护区进行动物资源考察时,采到一号蛙类标本,经鉴定为镇海林蛙(Rana zhenhaiensis),是广西两栖类无尾目新记录.标本现保存于广西大学动物科学技术学院标本室.

  17. Prevalence of the pathogenic chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, in an endangered population of northern leopard frogs, Rana pipiens

    OpenAIRE

    Voordouw, Maarten J.; Adama, Doug; Houston, Barb; Govindarajulu, Purnima; Robinson, John

    2011-01-01

    Background Emerging infectious diseases threaten naïve host populations with extinction. Chytridiomycosis, an emerging infectious disease of amphibians, is caused by the pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) and has been linked to global declines in amphibians. Results We monitored the prevalence of Bd for four years in the Northern leopard frog, Rana pipiens, which is critically imperiled in British Columbia (BC), Canada. The prevalence of Bd initially increased and then r...

  18. Response of the Italian agile frog (Rana latastei) to a Ranavirus, frog virus 3: a model for viral emergence in naïve populations.

    OpenAIRE

    Pearman, P. B.; Garner, T. W. J.; Straub, M.; Greber, U F

    2004-01-01

    Ranavirus (family Iridoviridae) is a genus of pathogens of poikilotherms, and some ranaviruses may play a role in widespread mortality of amphibians. Ecology of viral transmission in amphibians is poorly known but can be addressed through experimentation in the laboratory. In this study, we use the Ranavirus frog virus 3 (FV3) as an experimental model for pathogen emergence in naive populations of tadpoles. We simulated emerging disease by exposing tadpoles of the Italian agile frog (Rana lat...

  19. Evidence of a progesterone receptor in the liver of the green frog Rana esculenta and its down-regulation by 17 beta estradiol and progesterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolucci, M; Guerriero, G; Ciarcia, G

    1999-12-01

    Progesterone is a versatile hormone showing an ample variety of effects. One of the numerous functions attributed to progesterone is the modulation of vitellogenesis in oviparous vertebrates. As a prerequisite for the possible involvement of progesterone in vitellogenesis modulation, we investigated the presence of a progesterone receptor (PR) in the liver of the female green frog Rana esculenta. 3H-Progesterone (3H-P) binding activity was found in both cytosol and nuclear extract of the liver of Rana esculenta. The progesterone-binding moiety showed the typical characteristics of a true receptor, such as high affinity, low capacity, and specificity for progesterone. It also bound to DNA-cellulose and was eluted with a linear salt gradient at a concentration of 0.05 M of NaCl. The progesterone-binding moiety was down regulated by steroid hormones, in that ovariectomy resulted in a significant increase, in both cytosol and nuclear extract, of 3H-P binding activity with respect to intact females. On the contrary, 3H-P binding activity was almost undetectable after estradiol and/or progesterone treatment. The progesterone binding moiety of Rana esculenta was analyzed by Western blotting with the aid of a monoclonal antibody raised against the subunits A and B of the chicken PR. An immunoreactive band of about 67 kDa was observed in the liver of both intact and treated females. The 67 kDa band showed an increased intensity in ovariectomized animals, while it was faint following treatment with estradiol and/or progesterone. This is the first report on the presence of a progesterone receptor (PR) in the liver of an amphibian. PR of Rana esculenta is down regulated by estradiol and/or progesterone and shows peculiar immunological and biochemical characteristics, which make it rather different from the PR of other vertebrates. PMID:10589507

  20. The role of bicarbonate ions and of adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP) in chloride transport by epithelial cells of bullfrog small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, W M; Youmans, S J

    1980-01-01

    In an HCO3-free medium, isolated segments of bullfrog small intestine, stripped of their external muscle layers, displayed a small, serosal positive PD that did not, on the average, differ significantly from zero. Similarly, in this medium, the mean values of Isc and of net Na+ and Cl- absorption under short-circuit conditions did not differ significantly from zero. External HCO3- (25 mM) induced a highly significant serosal negative PD and Isc and a large net absorption of Cl-. Net Cl- absorption exceeded Isc, i.e., there was a significant net flux, JR, which was consistent with a net secretion of HCO3-. The ratio of the internal Cl-activity of the absorptive cells (alpha Cli) to its equilibrium value was larger in the presence than in the absence of HCO3-. In the presence of HCO3-, cAMP, added to the serosal medium, reversed the serosal negative PD and Isc, and inhibited, though it did not completely abolish, net Cl- absorption. JR was unchanged; tissue Cl- and alpha Cli were reduced, and tissue Na+ decreased and tissue K+ increased. When HCO3- and Cl- were removed from the bathing medium, the electrical response of the tissue to cAMP, though greatly attenuated, was not completely abolished. Under these conditions, cAMP induced a significant net Na+ absorption. A model for ion transport in the absorptive cells of the small intestine is proposed that is consistent with these findings. PMID:6249145

  1. Reproduction of the exotic bullfrog Lithobates catesbeianus (Shaw, 1802 (Anura, Ranidae in creeks of the Atlantic Rainforest of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Gomes Afonso

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Reproduction of the exotic bullfrog Lithobates catesbeianus was studied every two months from January 2005 to December 2006, analyzing tadpoles, juveniles, and adult vocalizations at three creeks located in the largest Brazilian center of ornamental fish breeding. Absolute and relative tadpole frequencies were measured bimonthly in three development stages: G1 (no limbs, G2 (hind limbs present, G3 (fore and hind limbs and I (metamorphs. Results show that, during warmest months, a greater proportion of tadpoles in G1, G2, and G3 phases were found in Santo Antônio and Chato creeks, while G1, G3, and I phases were more common in Gavião creek. Tadpoles in G1 and G2 phases predominated in coldest months at all locations. Male calls and highest average water temperatures and rainfall were recorded at 3 streams during the hottest months. Management measures should be adopted, such as the extermination of larval and adult stages, and initiatives should be taken to prevent new re-introductions, such as: (1 installation of fences around tanks where adults are located, (2 placement of protective screens on the pipes that release waste water from tanks directly into streams, (3 capacity building and educational measures on the problems of biological invasions for staff working on ornamental fish farms.

  2. Cliff swallows Petrochelidon pyrrhonota as bioindicators of environmental mercury, Cache Creek Watershed, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hothem, R.L.; Trejo, B.S.; Bauer, M.L.; Crayon, J.J.

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate mercury (Hg) and other element exposure in cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota), eggs were collected from 16 sites within the mining-impacted Cache Creek watershed, Colusa, Lake, and Yolo counties, California, USA, in 1997-1998. Nestlings were collected from seven sites in 1998. Geometric mean total Hg (THg) concentrations ranged from 0.013 to 0.208 ??g/g wet weight (ww) in cliff swallow eggs and from 0.047 to 0.347 ??g/g ww in nestlings. Mercury detected in eggs generally followed the spatial distribution of Hg in the watershed based on proximity to both anthropogenic and natural sources. Mean Hg concentrations in samples of eggs and nestlings collected from sites near Hg sources were up to five and seven times higher, respectively, than in samples from reference sites within the watershed. Concentrations of other detected elements, including aluminum, beryllium, boron, calcium, manganese, strontium, and vanadium, were more frequently elevated at sites near Hg sources. Overall, Hg concentrations in eggs from Cache Creek were lower than those reported in eggs of tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) from highly contaminated locations in North America. Total Hg concentrations were lower in all Cache Creek egg samples than adverse effects levels established for other species. Total Hg concentrations in bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) and foothill yellow-legged frogs (Rana boylii) collected from 10 of the study sites were both positively correlated with THg concentrations in cliff swallow eggs. Our data suggest that cliff swallows are reliable bioindicators of environmental Hg. ?? Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007.

  3. Amphibian occurrence and aquatic invaders in a changing landscape: Implications for wetland mitigation in the Willamette Valley, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, Christopher A.; Adams, Michael J.; Leuthold, N.; Bury, R. Bruce

    2005-01-01

    Despite concern about the conservation status of amphibians in western North America, few field studies have documented occurrence patterns of amphibians relative to potential stressors. We surveyed wetland fauna in Oregon's Willamette Valley and used an information theoretic approach (AIC) to rank the associations between native amphibian breeding occurrence and wetland characteristics, non-native aquatic predators, and landscape characteristics in a mixed urban-agricultural landscape. Best predictors varied among the five native amphibians and were generally consistent with life history differences. Pacific tree frog (Pseudacris regilla) and long-toed salamander (Ambystoma macrodactylum) occurrence was best predicted by the absence of non-native fish. Northern red-legged frog (Rana a. aurora) and northwestern salamander (Ambystoma gracile) were most strongly related to wetland vegetative characteristics. The occurrence of rough-skinned newts (Taricha granulosa), a migratory species that makes extensive use of terrestrial habitats, was best predicted by greater forest cover within 1 km. The absence of non-native fish was a strong predictor of occurrence for four of the five native species. In contrast, amphibians were not strongly related to native fish presence. We found little evidence supporting negative effects of the presence of breeding populations of bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) on any native species. Only the two Ambystoma salamanders were associated with wetland permanence. Northwestern salamanders (which usually have a multi-year larval stage) were associated with permanent waters, while long-toed salamanders were associated with temporary wetlands. Although all the species make some use of upland habitats, only one (rough-skinned newt) was strongly associated with surrounding landscape conditions. Instead, our analysis suggests that within-wetland characteristics best predict amphibian occurrence in this region. We recommend that wetland preservation and

  4. Evaluation of canoe surveys for anurans along the Rio Grande in Big Bend National Park, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, R.E.; Bonine, K.E.; Rosenshield, M.L.; de la Reza, A.; Raimondo, S.; Droege, S.

    2002-01-01

    Surveys for amphibians along large rivers pose monitoring and sampling problems. We used canoes at night to spotlight and listen for anurans along four stretches of the Rio Grande in Big Bend National Park, Texas, in 1998 and 1999. We explored temporal and spatial variation in amphibian counts and species richness and assessed relationships between amphibian counts and environmental variables, as well as amphibian-habitat associations along the banks of the Rio Grande. We documented seven anuran species, but Rio Grande leopard frogs (Rana berlandieri) accounted for 96% of the visual counts. Chorus surveys along the river detected similar or fewer numbers of species, but orders of magnitude fewer individuals compared to visual surveys. The number of species varied on average by 37% across monthly and nightly surveys. We found similar average coefficients of variation in counts of Rio Grande leopard frogs on monthly and nightly bases (CVs = 42-44%), suggesting that canoe surveys are a fairly precise technique for counts of this species. Numbers of Rio Grande leopard frogs observed were influenced by river gage levels and air and water temperatures, suggesting that surveys should be conducted under certain environmental conditions to maximize counts and maintain consistency. We found significant differences in species richness and bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) counts among the four river stretches. Four rare anuran species were found along certain stretches but not others, which could represent either sampling error or unmeasured environmental or habitat differences among the river stretches. We found a greater association of Rio Grande leopard frogs with mud banks compared to rock or cliff (canyon) areas and with seepwillow and open areas compared to giant reed and other vegetation types. Canoe surveys appear to be a useful survey technique for anurans along the Rio Grande and may work for other large river systems as well.

  5. Comportamento alimentar e qualidade da água em tanques de criação de girinos de rã-touro Lithobates catesbeianus = Feeding behavior and water quality in tanks containing bullfrog tadpoles Lithobates catesbeianus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Helena Sipaúba-Tavares

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o comportamento alimentar e a qualidade da água em tanques de criação de girinos de rã-touro Lithobates catesbeianus durante 56 dias, a partir do estágio 25 da Tabela de Gosner (1960, criados em tanques de alvenaria comcapacidade de 1000 L. Os girinos que receberam ração (R e alga + plâncton + ração (APR apresentaram o melhor peso e sobrevivência, diferindo significativamente (p The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of food treatments and water quality on the development of bullfrog tadpoles. The analysis, carried out in 1000 L tanks, was undertaken by weight and survival rates, during 56 days, as from stage 25 (Gosner, 1960. Treatments with ration (R and algae + plankton + ration (APR had the best results in weight and survival rates, which were significantly different (p < 0.05 from the other treatments, comprised of algae only or algae + plankton. Physical and chemical variables of water differed significantly (p < 0.05 during the experimental period and among treatments. There was a correlation between the concentration of species present in the food and in the tadpole digestive tract (rs = 0.39; p < 0.05. From the 14th dayof age, bullfrog tadpoles changed their feeding behavior, or rather, a search for food items other than plankton occurred. The utilization of combined natural and artificial (ration diets to feed bullfrog tadpoles was feasible and yielded a satisfactory development in theanimals.

  6. Odorous and non-fatal skin secretion of adult wrinkled frog (Rana rugosa is effective in avoiding predation by snakes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Yoshimura

    Full Text Available The roles played by nonfatal secretions of adult anurans in the avoidance of predation remain unknown. The adult Wrinkled frog (Rana rugosa has warty skin with the odorous mucus secretion that is not fatal to the snake Elaphe quadrivirgata. We fed R. rugosa or Fejervarya limnocharis, which resembles R. rugosa in appearance and has mucus secretion, to snakes and compared the snakes' responses to the frogs. Compared to F. limnocharis, R. rugosa was less frequently bitten or swallowed by snakes. The snakes that bit R. rugosa spat out the frogs and showed mouth opening (gaping behavior, while the snakes that bit F. limnocharis did not show gaping behavior. We also compared the responses of the snakes to R. rugosa and F. limnocharis secretions. We coated palatable R. japonica with secretions from R. rugosa or F. limnocharis. The frogs coated by R. rugosa secretion were less frequently bitten or swallowed than those coated by F. limnocharis secretion. We concluded that compared to different frog species of similar sizes, the adult R. rugosa was less frequently preyed upon by, and that its skin secretion was effective in avoiding predation by snakes.

  7. Odorous and non-fatal skin secretion of adult wrinkled frog (Rana rugosa) is effective in avoiding predation by snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Yuri; Kasuya, Eiiti

    2013-01-01

    The roles played by nonfatal secretions of adult anurans in the avoidance of predation remain unknown. The adult Wrinkled frog (Rana rugosa) has warty skin with the odorous mucus secretion that is not fatal to the snake Elaphe quadrivirgata. We fed R. rugosa or Fejervarya limnocharis, which resembles R. rugosa in appearance and has mucus secretion, to snakes and compared the snakes' responses to the frogs. Compared to F. limnocharis, R. rugosa was less frequently bitten or swallowed by snakes. The snakes that bit R. rugosa spat out the frogs and showed mouth opening (gaping) behavior, while the snakes that bit F. limnocharis did not show gaping behavior. We also compared the responses of the snakes to R. rugosa and F. limnocharis secretions. We coated palatable R. japonica with secretions from R. rugosa or F. limnocharis. The frogs coated by R. rugosa secretion were less frequently bitten or swallowed than those coated by F. limnocharis secretion. We concluded that compared to different frog species of similar sizes, the adult R. rugosa was less frequently preyed upon by, and that its skin secretion was effective in avoiding predation by snakes.

  8. 虎纹蛙的人工养殖技术%Artificial Culture Technique for Rana tigrina rugulosa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄志平

    2006-01-01

    虎纹蛙(Rana tigrina rugulosa Wiegmann)属两栖纲、无尾目、蛙科、虎纹蛙属,又称水鸡、田鸡等,为国家二级保护野生动物。虎纹蛙在我国分布很广,遍布长江以南各省区,由于其营养丰富、肉质鲜美,历来是人们喜受的美味佳肴,在市场上很受欢迎。多年来,由于捕捉过度,加上种植水稻、蔬菜时使用农药,导致野生虎纹蛙数量锐减。为保护虎纹蛙的自然资源,满足市场需求,开展其人工养殖具有重要的现实意义。福建省光泽县于1999年开始研究虎纹蛙的人工养殖技术,现已取得试验成功并投人规模化生产,并将此项技术推广到全县及周边地区。

  9. Histology of Visual Organ in Rana rugulosa%虎纹蛙视觉器官组织学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江剑平; 黄键; 陈文列; 黄浩; 林玮

    2001-01-01

    用光镜和电镜观察了虎纹蛙(Rana rugulosa)眼球的组织结构,同时测量了其眼球的一些视参数.虎纹蛙眼球呈圆球形.角膜内未见前界膜;虹膜内可见少量括约肌,但未见扩瞳肌纤维;虹膜的内侧面有许多突起;巩膜有完整的半球形软骨;晶状体环垫薄,因而视觉调节能力很弱.视网膜中视细胞由视杆细胞、视锥细胞组成,其中视杆细胞占多数.视细胞与神经节细胞数量之比为3.68∶1.以上表明虎纹蛙的眼球组织结构与其弱光视觉和捕食习性相适应.

  10. Biospectroscopy reveals the effect of varying water quality on tadpole tissues of the common frog (Rana temporaria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Rebecca J; Halsall, Crispin J; Ferenčík, Martin; Jones, Kevin C; Shore, Richard F; Martin, Francis L

    2016-06-01

    Amphibians are undergoing large population declines in many regions around the world. As environmental pollution from both agricultural and urban sources has been implicated in such declines, there is a need for a biomonitoring approach to study potential impacts on this vulnerable class of organism. This study assessed the use of infrared (IR) spectroscopy as a tool to detect changes in several tissues (liver, muscle, kidney, heart and skin) of late-stage common frog (Rana temporaria) tadpoles collected from ponds with differing water quality. Small differences in spectral signatures were revealed between a rural agricultural pond and an urban pond receiving wastewater and landfill run-off; these were limited to the liver and heart, although large differences in body size were apparent, surprisingly with tadpoles from the urban site larger than those from the rural site. Large differences in liver spectra were found between tadpoles from the pesticide and nutrient impacted pond compared to the rural agricultural pond, particularly in regions associated with lipids. Liver mass and hepatosomatic indices were found to be significantly increased in tadpoles from the site impacted by pesticides and trace organic chemicals, suggestive of exposure to environmental contamination. Significant alterations were also found in muscle tissue between tadpoles from these two ponds in regions associated with glycogen, potentially indicative of a stress response. This study highlights the use of IR spectroscopy, a low-cost, rapid and reagent-free technique in the biomonitoring of a class of organisms susceptible to environmental degradation. PMID:26925755

  11. Geographical variation and sexual differences of body length and age composition in Rana temporaria: the ontogenetic development and phenotypic trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyapkov Sergey

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of literature data on the mean values of age and body length of adult individuals of widespread species Rana temporaria from about 70 spatially separated populations, including our published data, was conducted. The evident trend in population mean age increase with the decrease of the of activity season length was revealed as well as the absence of that trend in the mean body length, with the maximal mean value in body length being near central part of the range. Our explanation of non-linear trend in the mean values of body length does not contradict other models of geographic variability explaining the correspondence and discrepance with the Bergman rule. In addition our explanation corresponds to the revealed features of interpopulation variation in growth rate. The revealed trend of variation in the mean body length is resulted from both growth rate decrease and mean age increase with the decrease in the length of activity season. The relatively low mean values of body length in populations from south and southern-west borders of the range are explained not only by low mean age but by lower growth rate despite high length of activity season. The interpopulation variation in body length is determined not only by body length but by age composition differences both between and within population. Therefore, the direction and intensity of sexual differences have not distinct trends, and the correspondence to Rensch rule (in contrast to Bergman rule is rarely observed.

  12. Flavor improvement of Rana spinosa enzymatic hydrolysate%石蛙的酶解液化及风味改良

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑞君

    2012-01-01

    Rana spinosa meat was hydrolyzed by papain and neutral protease. Lactic acid bacteria and rice wine yeasts were used to improve the flavor of the hydrolysate. Results indicate that neutral protease is superior to papain. The amount of amino nitrogen included in fermentation broth fermented by lactic acid bacteria is higher. The fermenting liquor from lactic acid bacteria flavor is better than that from rice wine yeast.%在酶适宜的环境条件下,利用木瓜蛋白酶与中性蛋白酶酶解石蛙肉及利用乳酸菌、黄酒酵母对酶解液进行风味改良。结果表明,中性蛋白酶对石蛙的水解效果较好,乳酸菌发酵液中氨态氮含量较高,乳酸菌发酵液风味改良效果优于黄酒酵母。

  13. Predator mediated selection and the impact of developmental stage on viability in wood frog tadpoles (Rana sylvatica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calsbeek Ryan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complex life histories require adaptation of a single organism for multiple ecological niches. Transitions between life stages, however, may expose individuals to an increased risk of mortality, as the process of metamorphosis typically includes developmental stages that function relatively poorly in both the pre- and post-metamorphic habitat. We studied predator-mediated selection on tadpoles of the wood frog, Rana sylvatica, to identify this hypothesized period of differential predation risk and estimate its ontogenetic onset. We reared tadpoles in replicated mesocosms in the presence of the larval odonate Anax junius, a known tadpole predator. Results The probability of tadpole survival increased with increasing age and size, but declined steeply at the point in development where hind limbs began to erupt from the body wall. Selection gradient analyses indicate that natural selection favored tadpoles with short, deep tail fins. Tadpoles resorb their tails as they progress toward metamorphosis, which may have led to the observed decrease in survivorship. Path models revealed that selection acted directly on tail morphology, rather than through its indirect influence on swimming performance. Conclusions This is consistent with the hypothesis that tail morphology influences predation rates by reducing the probability a predator strikes the head or body.

  14. Evolutionary dynamics of a rapidly receding southern range boundary in the threatened California red-legged frog (Rana draytonii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Jonathan Q.; Barr, Kelly R.; Backlin, Adam R.; Vandergast, Amy G.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2013-01-01

    Populations forming the edge of a species range are often imperiled by isolation and low genetic diversity, with proximity to human population centers being a major determinant of edge stability in modern landscapes. Since the 1960s, the California red-legged frog (Rana draytonii) has undergone extensive declines in heavily urbanized southern California, where the range edge has rapidly contracted northward while shifting its cardinal orientation to an east-west trending axis. We studied the genetic structure and diversity of these frontline populations, tested for signatures of contemporary disturbance, specifically fire, and attempted to disentangle these signals from demographic events extending deeper into the past. Consistent with the genetic expectations of the ‘abundant-center’ model, we found that diversity, admixture, and opportunity for random mating increases in populations sampled successively further away from the range boundary. Demographic simulations indicate that bottlenecks in peripheral isolates are associated with processes extending tens to a few hundred generations in the past, despite the demographic collapse of some due to recent fire-flood events. While the effects of recent disturbance have left little genetic imprint on these populations, they likely contribute to an extinction debt that will lead to continued range contraction unless management intervenes to stall or reverse the process.

  15. Calcium paradox induces apoptosis in the isolated perfused Rana ridibunda heart: involvement of p38-MAPK and calpain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggeli, Ioanna-Katerina; Zacharias, Triantafyllos; Papapavlou, Georgia; Gaitanaki, Catherine; Beis, Isidoros

    2013-12-01

    "Calcium paradox" as a term describes the deleterious effects conferred to a heart perfused with a calcium-free solution followed by repletion, including loss of mechanical activity and sarcomere disruption. Given that the signaling mechanisms triggered by calcium paradox remain elusive, in the present study, we tried to investigate them in the isolated perfused heart from Rana ridibunda. Calcium paradox was found to markedly activate members of the MAPKs (p43-ERK, JNKs, p38-MAPK). In addition to lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release in the perfusate (indicative of necrosis), we also confirmed the occurrence of apoptosis by using the TUNEL assay and identifying poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) fragmentation and upregulated Bax expression. Furthermore, using MDL28170 (a selective calpain inhibitor), a role for this protease was revealed. In addition, various divalent cations were shown to exert a protective effect against the calcium paradox. Interestingly, SB203580, a p38-MAPK inhibitor, alleviated calcium-paradox-conferred apoptosis. This result indicates that p38-MAPK plays a pro-apoptotic role, contributing to the resulting myocardial dysfunction and cell death. To our knowledge, this is the first time that the calcium paradox has been shown to induce apoptosis in amphibians, with p38-MAPK and calpain playing significant roles.

  16. Electrospun poly(l-lactide)/zein nanofiber mats loaded with Rana chensinensis skin peptides for wound dressing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mei; Li, Xueqi; Li, Siming; Liu, Yongjia; Hao, Linlin

    2016-09-01

    Electrospun nanofiber mats can display impressive performance as an ideal wound dressing. In this study, poly(l-lactide)(PLLA)/zein nanofiber mats loaded with Rana chensinensis skin peptides (RCSPs) were successfully produced by two different electrospinning techniques, blend and coaxial, with the goal of developing a wound dressing material. The nanofiber mats were investigated by environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), water contact angle, mechanical tests and cell viability. The resulting nanofiber mats exhibited smooth surfaces, tiny diameters and different cross-sectional shapes from pure PLLA and zein nanofibers. The FTIR result showed that PLLA, zein and RCSPs were well dispersed, without chemical interactions. Compared with coaxial nanofiber mats, blending zein-RCSPs with PLLA enhanced hydrophilicity but decreased mechanical properties. Adding RCSPs into the electrospun nanofibers significantly improved the mechanical properties of the mats. Cell viability studies with human foreskin fibroblasts demonstrated that cell growth on PLLA/zein-RCSPs nanofiber mats was significantly higher than that on PLLA/zein nanofiber mats. The results indicate that nanofiber mats containing RCSPs are potential candidates for wound dressing. PMID:27432415

  17. Conservation genetics of evolutionary lineages of the endangered mountain yellow-legged frog, Rana muscosa (Amphibia: Ranidae), in southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoville, Sean D.; Tustall, Tate S.; Vredenburg, Vance T.; Backlin, Adam R.; Gallegos, Elizabeth; Wood, Dustin A.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2011-01-01

    Severe population declines led to the listing of southern California Rana muscosa (Ranidae) as endangered in 2002. Nine small populations inhabit watersheds in three isolated mountain ranges, the San Gabriel, San Bernardino and San Jacinto. One population from the Dark Canyon tributary in the San Jacinto Mountains has been used to establish a captive breeding population at the San Diego Zoo Institute for Conservation Research. Because these populations may still be declining, it is critical to gather information on how genetic variation is structured in these populations and what historical inter-population connectivity existed between populations. Additionally, it is not clear whether these populations are rapidly losing genetic diversity due to population bottlenecks. Using mitochondrial and microsatellite data, we examine patterns of genetic variation in southern California and one of the last remaining populations of R. muscosa in the southern Sierra Nevada. We find low levels of genetic variation within each population and evidence of genetic bottlenecks. Additionally, substantial population structure is evident, suggesting a high degree of historical isolation within and between mountain ranges. Based on estimates from a multi-population isolation with migration analysis, these populations diversified during glacial episodes of the Pleistocene, with little gene flow during population divergence. Our data demonstrate that unique evolutionary lineages of R. muscosa occupy each mountain range in southern California and should be managed separately. The captive breeding program at Dark Canyon is promising, although mitigating the loss of neutral genetic diversity relative to the natural population might require additional breeding frogs.

  18. Nueva especie de rana del género Pristimantis del grupo lacrimosus (Amphibia: Craugastoridae del Parque Nacional Sangay, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Batallas R.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Describimos una nueva especie de rana terrestre del genero Pristimantis de tamaño mediano (LRC en machos desde 22.18 a 25.13 mm descubierta en los bosques nublados de las estribaciones orientales del Parque Nacional Sangay, al centro oriente de Ecuador, a elevaciones de 2750 m. Asignamos a Pristimantis latericius sp. nov., al grupo Pristimantis lacrimosus, el cual se diferencia del resto de miembros de este grupo por presentar tubérculos prominentes en el parpado superior y una coloración rojo anaranjado en el dorso. Las llamadas son cortas, conformadas por una sola nota y dos bandas armónicas. Importantes levantamientos de información faunística se han venido generando en los últimos años en el Parque Nacional Sangay, sin embargo es necesario incrementar estudios que ayuden a documentar la ecología e historia natural de los anfibios, ya que sin lugar a dudas ayudaran a comprender procesos ecológicos. El descubrimiento de esta y otras nuevas especies en este sector, demuestra su importancia biológica confortando al desarrollo de planes de conservación en este importante Patrimonio Natural de la Humanidad.

  19. 虎纹蛙(RANA RUGULOSA)视网膜结构与环境适应性的研究%STUDIES ON RETINAL STRUCTURE OF RANA RUGULOSA AND ITS E NVIRONMENTAL ADAPTATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江剑平; 陈文列; 余望; 黄键; 钟秀容

    2001-01-01

    在光镜和电镜下观察了虎纹蛙(Rana rugulosa)视网膜的 组织结构,着重探讨了色素细胞和视细胞的形态结构.视网膜中三个核层及两个网状层分布 均匀,无中央凹.色素细胞内含有大量的脂滴、色素颗粒、髓样体和形状各异的溶酶体等.视 细胞由视杆细胞和视锥细胞组成,视杆细胞占多数.在视网膜中央区,视杆细胞数与视锥细 胞数之比为1:1;在周缘区,两者数量之比为3:1.视杆细胞外段呈高柱状,体积远远大于 视锥细胞外段,肌样体内有大量的微管.视锥细胞外段呈矮锥形,椭圆体内有一球状小体.视 细胞与节细胞数量之比为3.68:1.结果表明,虎纹蛙视网膜结构特征与其生活于田间、山涧 等弱光环境和捕食习性是相适应的. 图版1(图1~图10) 表2 参14%The retinal structure in Rana rugulosa was studied using light an d electron microscope, and the structure of pigment cells and visual cells was a lso studied. The three nuclear layers and the two plexiform layers are evenly di spersed in the retina. No forea centralis is founded. There are many lipoids, ly sosomes, myeloids and granular melanins in the pigment epithelial cells. There a re rods and cones in the retina, and the rods are predominant. The ratio of rods to cones is about 1:1 in the center, and about 3:1 in the periphery. Outer segm ent of rods is high cylinder, and its volume is bigger than that of cone. There are many microtubes around the myoid of rods. Outer segment of cones is low cone , a globule is localized in each ellipsoid of the cones. Th e ratio of the visual cells to the ganglion cells is about 3.68:1.This study sho wed that the histological structure of retina in R. rugulosa is principally adapted to low intensity of light and hunting for food. Plate 1 (Fig 1 ~10), Tab 2, Ref 14

  20. 虎纹蛙肢体超常再生和畸变二例%Limb's Extra Regeneration and Malformation of Two Rana tigrina rugulosa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林植华; 张春牛; 雷焕宗; 郎法勇

    2002-01-01

    对二例虎纹蛙(Rana tigrina rugulosa)肢体超常再生和畸变进行报道和研究.虎纹蛙肢体超常再生和畸变现象的原因可能是变态发育过程中外界创伤的刺激导致组织增生和超常肢体的出现,也可能因农药的使用和"三废"导致环境污染引起变异的发生和超常肢体的出现.

  1. Comparación de la respuesta auditiva del tallo cerebral entre Rana catesbiana (Anura: Ranidae) y Sceloporus torcuatus (Sauria: Phrynosomatida)

    OpenAIRE

    José De Jesús Morales Martínez; Hugo Solís Ortíz

    1999-01-01

    En general se conoce muy poco sobre el sentido de la audición de los anfibios y de los reptiles. El órgano auditivo ha sufrido cambios evolutivos que se relacionan con la transición del medio acuático al terrestre. Por esta razón, los reptiles terrestres muestran aparentemente un sistema auditivo eficiente en comparación con los anfibios. El presente estudio se llevó a cabo con el fin de comparar las respuestas auditivas entre Rana catesbiana y Sceloporus torquatus. Se utilizó la técnica de l...

  2. Una nueva especie de rana terrestre del género Pristimantis (Amphibia: Craugastoridae), de la Cordillera de Kutukú, Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Brito M.; Glenda Pozo-Zamora

    2013-01-01

    Describimos una especie nueva de mediano tamaño (LRC en la hembra 38.7 mm; en machos de 23.8 a 26.4 mm) de rana terrestre del género Pristimantis de los bosques sub-tropicales de la Cordillera de Kutukú, del sureste de Ecuador, a elevaciones de 1581-1820 m. Asignamos a Pristimantis almendariz sp. nov., al subgénero Hypodictyon, serie de especies ridens. La nueva especie difiere de otros miembros de la serie ridens por su patrón distintivo con manchas dorsales, membrana timpánica ausente, pres...

  3. Nueva especie de rana terrestre del género Pristimantis (Amphibia: Craugastoridae), meseta de la Dordillera del Cóndor

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Brito M.; Diego Batallas R.; David Velalcázar

    2014-01-01

    Describimos una especie nueva, de mediano tamaño (LRC en la hembra 21.7-24.9 mm; en machos 15.2-17.8 mm), de rana terrestre del género Pristimantis proveniente de la meseta de arenisca de la Cordillera del Cóndor, del sureste de Ecuador, con una elevacion de 2300 m. La nueva especie difiere de sus congéneres presentes en Ecuador por su patrón distintivo de coloración, superficie dorsal pardo ocráceo con numerosas manchas amarillentas, membrana timpánica presente, dedos pediales y manuales cor...

  4. Endocrine-disrupting effects and reproductive toxicity of low dose MCLR on male frogs (Rana nigromaculata) in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Low-dose MCLR (1 μg/L) elicits a potential ecological effect on amphibian populations. • MCLR can induce abnormal sperm morphologies and activities on male frogs. • MCLR can induce a decrease in serum testosterone and an increase in serum estradiol of male frogs. • MCLR can increase SF-1 protein levels and decrease P450 aromatase levels in the gonads of frogs. - Abstract: Toxic cyanobacterial blooms are potential global threats to aquatic ecosystems and human health. The World Health Organization has set a provisional guideline limit of 1 μg/L microcystin-LR (MCLR) in freshwater. However, MCLR concentrations in several water bodies have exceeded this level. Despite this recommended human safety standard, MCLR-induced endocrine-disrupting effects and reproductive toxicity on male frog (Rana nigromaculata) were demonstrated in this study. Results showed that sperm motility and sperm count were significantly and negatively correlated with exposure time and concentration. By contrast, abnormal sperm rate was positively correlated with both parameters. Ultrastructural observation results revealed abnormal sperm morphologies, vacuoles in spermatogenic cells, cell dispersion, incomplete cell structures, and deformed nucleoli. These results indicated that MCLR could induce toxic effects on the reproductive system of frogs, significantly decrease testosterone content, and rapidly increase estradiol content. Prolonged exposure and increased concentration enhanced the relative expression levels of P450 aromatase and steroidogenic factor 1; thus, endocrine function in frogs was disrupted. This study is the first to demonstrate in vivo MCLR toxicity in the reproductive system of male R. nigromaculata. This study provided a scientific basis of the global decline in amphibian populations

  5. Mechanistic basis of adaptive maternal effects: egg jelly water balance mediates embryonic adaptation to acidity in Rana arvalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Longfei; Suter, Marc J-F; Laurila, Anssi; Räsänen, Katja

    2015-11-01

    Environmental stress, such as acidification, can challenge persistence of natural populations and act as a powerful evolutionary force at ecological time scales. The ecological and evolutionary responses of natural populations to environmental stress at early life-stages are often mediated via maternal effects. During early life-stages, maternal effects commonly arise from egg coats (the extracellular structures surrounding the embryo), but the role of egg coats has rarely been studied in the context of adaptation to environmental stress. Previous studies on the moor frog Rana arvalis found that the egg coat mediated adaptive divergence along an acidification gradient in embryonic acid stress tolerance. However, the exact mechanisms underlying these adaptive maternal effects remain unknown. Here, we investigated the role of water balance and charge state (zeta potential) of egg jelly coats in embryonic adaptation to acid stress in three populations of R. arvalis. We found that acidic pH causes severe water loss in the egg jelly coat, but that jelly coats from an acid-adapted population retained more water than jelly coats from populations not adapted to acidity. Moreover, embryonic acid tolerance (survival at pH 4.0) correlated with both water loss and charge state of the jelly, indicating that negatively charged glycans influence jelly water balance and contribute to embryonic adaptation to acidity. These results indicate that egg coats can harbor extensive intra-specific variation, probably facilitated in part via strong selection on water balance and glycosylation status of egg jelly coats. These findings shed light on the molecular mechanisms of environmental stress tolerance and adaptive maternal effects.

  6. Stress-induced activation of the AMP-activated protein kinase in the freeze-tolerant frog Rana sylvatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rider, Mark H; Hussain, Nusrat; Horman, Sandrine; Dilworth, Stephen M; Storey, Kenneth B

    2006-12-01

    Survival in the frozen state depends on biochemical adaptations that deal with multiple stresses on cells including long-term ischaemia and tissue dehydration. We investigated whether the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) could play a regulatory role in the metabolic re-sculpting that occurs during freezing. AMPK activity and the phosphorylation state of translation factors were measured in liver and skeletal muscle of wood frogs (Rana sylvatica) subjected to anoxia, dehydration, freezing, and thawing after freezing. AMPK activity was increased 2-fold in livers of frozen frogs compared with the controls whereas in skeletal muscle, AMPK activity increased 2.5-, 4.5- and 3-fold in dehydrated, frozen and frozen/thawed animals, respectively. Immunoblotting with phospho-specific antibodies revealed an increase in the phosphorylation state of eukaryotic elongation factor-2 at the inactivating Thr56 site in livers from frozen frogs and in skeletal muscles of anoxic frogs. No change in phosphorylation state of eukaryotic initiation factor-2alpha at the inactivating Ser51 site was seen in the tissues under any of the stress conditions. Surprisingly, ribosomal protein S6 phosphorylation was increased 2-fold in livers from frozen frogs and 10-fold in skeletal muscle from frozen/thawed animals. However, no change in translation capacity was detected in cell-free translation assays with skeletal muscle extracts under any of the experimental conditions. The changes in phosphorylation state of translation factors are discussed in relation to the control of protein synthesis and stress-induced AMPK activation. PMID:16973146

  7. Histopathological changes and erythrocytic nuclear abnormalities in Iberian green frogs (Rana perezi Seoane) from a uranium mine pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In spite of their sensitivity to anthropogenic stressors, adults of Rana perezi Seoane were found inhabiting effluent ponds from a uranium mine. Due to the presence of such organisms in this environment, it becomes of paramount importance to assess the damages induced by local contamination on these aquatic vertebrates, in order to integrate this information on a site-specific risk assessment that is being carried out in the area. To attain this purpose an ethically and statistically acceptable number of green frogs were captured in the mine pond (M) and in a pristine river (VR), a few kilometres from the mine. Bioaccumulation of metals and histopathological alterations were evaluated in the liver, kidneys, spleen, lungs and testes of the animals. Simultaneously, blood samples were collected for the evaluation of genotoxic damage on erythrocytes. Animals captured in the M pond showed significantly increased levels of Be, Al, Mn, Fe and U in the liver, as well as Pb and U in the kidney. The liver was the main target organ for the bioaccumulation of Be, Al, Fe and U. However, renal histopathologies were more severe than those of liver. The main tissue alterations recorded in animals from the mine were: a slight increase in melanomacrophagic centers (MMC) in liver, lung and kidneys; dilatation of the renal tubules lumen associated with tubular necrosis. A significantly higher number of erythrocytic abnormalities (lobed, notched and kidney shaped nuclei and micronuclei) were recorded in frogs from M than in frogs from VR, along with a significantly lower frequency of immature erythrocytes. Both observations suggested that the removal of abnormal blood cells might be compromised

  8. Endocrine-disrupting effects and reproductive toxicity of low dose MCLR on male frogs (Rana nigromaculata) in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Xiuying; Cai, Chenchen; Wang, Jia; Gao, Nana; Zhang, Hangjun, E-mail: zhanghangjun@gmail.com

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Low-dose MCLR (1 μg/L) elicits a potential ecological effect on amphibian populations. • MCLR can induce abnormal sperm morphologies and activities on male frogs. • MCLR can induce a decrease in serum testosterone and an increase in serum estradiol of male frogs. • MCLR can increase SF-1 protein levels and decrease P450 aromatase levels in the gonads of frogs. - Abstract: Toxic cyanobacterial blooms are potential global threats to aquatic ecosystems and human health. The World Health Organization has set a provisional guideline limit of 1 μg/L microcystin-LR (MCLR) in freshwater. However, MCLR concentrations in several water bodies have exceeded this level. Despite this recommended human safety standard, MCLR-induced endocrine-disrupting effects and reproductive toxicity on male frog (Rana nigromaculata) were demonstrated in this study. Results showed that sperm motility and sperm count were significantly and negatively correlated with exposure time and concentration. By contrast, abnormal sperm rate was positively correlated with both parameters. Ultrastructural observation results revealed abnormal sperm morphologies, vacuoles in spermatogenic cells, cell dispersion, incomplete cell structures, and deformed nucleoli. These results indicated that MCLR could induce toxic effects on the reproductive system of frogs, significantly decrease testosterone content, and rapidly increase estradiol content. Prolonged exposure and increased concentration enhanced the relative expression levels of P450 aromatase and steroidogenic factor 1; thus, endocrine function in frogs was disrupted. This study is the first to demonstrate in vivo MCLR toxicity in the reproductive system of male R. nigromaculata. This study provided a scientific basis of the global decline in amphibian populations.

  9. Chemopreventive Effect of Cinnamon Extract on Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Physiological Changes in the Frog, Rana ridibunda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Attar, Atef M.

    The present study examined the preventive influences of an aqueous extract of cinnamon on carbon tetrachloride-induced some physiological alterations in the frog, Rana ridibunda. The experimental animals were divided into five batches. The first batch was untreated and served as control. The other batches were treated for 6 weeks with carbon tetrachloride, cinnamon extract plus carbon tetrachloride, cinnamon and corn oil, respectively. Haematological, biochemical and hepatosomatic index indices were chosen as physiological indicators. These parameters were evaluated at 2, 4 and 6 weeks. In comparison with control and cinnamon plus CCl4 batches, significant decreases of red blood cell count, haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration and increases of glutamic pyruvic acid transaminase values were noted in CCl4-exposed batch at all experimental periods. Also, glutamic oxaloacetic acid transaminase and hepatosomatic index levels were significantly elevated, while mean corpuscular haemoglobin values were decreased at second and last periods. Mean cell volume values were only increased at the first period. In comparison with control batch, significant decreases of red blood cell count, haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit, and increases of glutamic oxaloacetic acid transaminase, glutamic pyruvic acid transaminase and hepatosomatic index values were observed in frogs treated with cinnamon plus CCl4 at 2 and 6 weeks. Mean cell volume and mean corpuscular haemoglobin values were statistically elevated at second period. Mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration values were declined at last period. Moreover, the percentage changes of these parameters in cinnamon plus CCl4 batch tended to be lower than CCl4 treated the experimental animals. In addition, it is conceivable therefore, that the cinnamon aqueous extract exhibits a protective influence against carbon tetrachloride-induced some physiological changes, probably mediated

  10. Chilled frogs are hot: hibernation and reproduction of the Endangered mountain yellow-legged frog Rana muscosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Frank E.; Swaisgood, Ronald R.; Lemm, Jeffrey M.; Fisher, Robert N.; Clark, Rulon W.

    2015-01-01

    In the face of the sixth great extinction crisis, it is imperative to establish effective breeding protocols for amphibian conservation breeding programs. Captive efforts should not proceed by trial and error, nor should they jump prematurely to assisted reproduction techniques, which can be invasive, difficult, costly, and, at times, counterproductive. Instead, conservation practitioners should first look to nature for guidance, and replicate key conditions found in nature in the captive environment, according to the ecological and behavioral requirements of the species. We tested the effect of a natural hibernation regime on reproductive behaviors and body condition in the Endangered mountain yellow-legged frog Rana muscosa. Hibernation had a clear positive effect on reproductive behavior, manifesting in vocal advertisement signaling, female receptivity, amplexus, and oviposition. These behaviors are critical components of courtship that lead to successful reproduction. Our main finding was that captive R. muscosa require a hibernation period for successful reproduction, as only hibernated females produced eggs and only hibernated males successfully fertilized eggs. Although hibernation also resulted in a reduced body condition, the reduction appeared to be minimal with no associated mortality. The importance of hibernation for reproduction is not surprising, since it is a major component of the conditions that R. muscosa experiences in the wild. Other amphibian conservation breeding programs can also benefit from a scientific approach that tests the effect of natural ecological conditions on reproduction. This will ensure that captive colonies maximize their role in providing genetic reservoirs for assurance and reintroduction efforts.

  11. Exposure to heptachlor: evaluation of the effects on the larval and adult epidermis of Rana kl. esculenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenoglio, Carla; Grosso, Amelia; Boncompagni, Eleonora; Gandini, Carlo; Milanesi, Gloria; Barni, Sergio

    2009-01-31

    Widely used in the past against termites and soil insects, the chlorinated insecticide heptachlor (H) is a toxic contaminant which represents a risk for both terrestrial and aquatic organisms. Like many organochlorine pesticides, heptachlor and heptachlor epoxide (HE), with oxidation products synthesized by many plant and animal species, degrade slowly since many of the derived compounds are persistent. This increases the status of heptachlor as a hazardous pollutant. In the present experimental study we exposed specimens of Rana kl. esculenta, from the tadpole stage through to their complete metamorphosis, to three different concentrations of heptachlor (4, 40 and 400 ppb). Mortality and HE bioaccumulation were evaluated on all the experimental groups. Since amphibian integument directly interacts with the environmental constituents (water, air and soil), we investigated the toxic effects on the ventral epidermis of both tadpole and adult samples by employing such histo-cytopathological biomarkers as ultrastructural morphology, certain enzyme activities (acid and alkaline phosphatases, AcPase, and AlkPase; succinic dehydrogenase, SDH; alpha-naphtyl butyrate esterase, ANBE; nitric oxide synthase/NADPH diaphorase, NOS/NADPHd). Also, the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the different conditions were evaluated. The results obtained were of ecological relevance, in particular as regards the effects of this environmental toxicant on the samples of tadpole epidermis. Severe morphological alterations were observed in the larval epidermal cells (apical and skein cells), whereas the cell epidermis (keratinocytes and mitochondria-rich cells) of the adult survivors showed changes in enzyme activities, particularly those involved in the protective response to xenobiotic injury. In general, morpho-histochemical studies, analysis of HE bioaccumulation and mortality showed a relation to the H doses employed.

  12. Histopathological changes and erythrocytic nuclear abnormalities in Iberian green frogs (Rana perezi Seoane) from a uranium mine pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, S.M. [Departamento de Biologia/Centro de Estudos do Ambiente e do Mar (CESAM), Campus de Santiago, Universidade de Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)], E-mail: s.reis.marques@gmail.com; Antunes, S.C. [Departamento de Biologia/Centro de Estudos do Ambiente e do Mar (CESAM), Campus de Santiago, Universidade de Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Pissarra, H. [Laboratorio de Anatomia Patologica, Centro de Investigacao Interdisciplinar em Sanidade Animal (CIISA), Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria, U.T.L., Lisboa (Portugal); Pereira, M.L. [Departamento de Biologia/Centro de Investigacao em Materiais Ceramicos e Compositos (CICECO), Campus de Santiago, Universidade de Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Goncalves, F.; Pereira, R. [Departamento de Biologia/Centro de Estudos do Ambiente e do Mar (CESAM), Campus de Santiago, Universidade de Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2009-01-31

    In spite of their sensitivity to anthropogenic stressors, adults of Rana perezi Seoane were found inhabiting effluent ponds from a uranium mine. Due to the presence of such organisms in this environment, it becomes of paramount importance to assess the damages induced by local contamination on these aquatic vertebrates, in order to integrate this information on a site-specific risk assessment that is being carried out in the area. To attain this purpose an ethically and statistically acceptable number of green frogs were captured in the mine pond (M) and in a pristine river (VR), a few kilometres from the mine. Bioaccumulation of metals and histopathological alterations were evaluated in the liver, kidneys, spleen, lungs and testes of the animals. Simultaneously, blood samples were collected for the evaluation of genotoxic damage on erythrocytes. Animals captured in the M pond showed significantly increased levels of Be, Al, Mn, Fe and U in the liver, as well as Pb and U in the kidney. The liver was the main target organ for the bioaccumulation of Be, Al, Fe and U. However, renal histopathologies were more severe than those of liver. The main tissue alterations recorded in animals from the mine were: a slight increase in melanomacrophagic centers (MMC) in liver, lung and kidneys; dilatation of the renal tubules lumen associated with tubular necrosis. A significantly higher number of erythrocytic abnormalities (lobed, notched and kidney shaped nuclei and micronuclei) were recorded in frogs from M than in frogs from VR, along with a significantly lower frequency of immature erythrocytes. Both observations suggested that the removal of abnormal blood cells might be compromised.

  13. Rana Dorada: un caminante hacia la extinción (artículo de opinión

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nury Natalia Garzón-Aguiar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available La extinción animal es un asunto muy amplio que a muchos interesa, algunos ignoran y otros desconocen, este es el tema a tratar en el presente artículo, tomando como ejemplo la rana dardo dorada (Phyllobates terribilis, un hermoso anfibio endémico de Colombia, denominado como el animal más venenoso y como una de las siete maravillas del mundo entre las especies amenazadas de extinción. Perteneciente al Reino ANIMALIA, al fillum de los Cordados, orden Anura y familia Dendrobatidae. En el Género Phyllobates se encuentra la especie P. terribilis, la cual, puede alcanzar un tamaño de hasta 47 mm en edad adulta y presentar distintas tonalidades de coloración. En Colombia, D. terribilis habita en la Costa Caribe así como en selvas húmedas, lugares con altos índices de explotación de los recursos naturales mediante la tala y la extracción minera, motivo por el cual está en vía de extinción. En este orden de ideas, el propósito principal es dar a conocer la importancia de atesorar los bosques y contribuir así a la conservación de las diversas especies, principalmente de la clase AMPHIBIA, y dentro de esta, el género Phyllobates, que puede representar una solución natural al control de plagas, así como probable remedio a un problema médico actual tan complejo como el dolor.

  14. Periodicity extraction in the anuran auditory nerve. II: Phase and temporal fine structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, A M; Reese, G; Ferragamo, M

    1993-06-01

    Discharge patterns of single eighth nerve fibers in the bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana, were analyzed in response to signals consisting of multiple harmonics of a common, low-amplitude fundamental frequency. The signals were chosen to reflect the frequency and amplitude spectrum of the bullfrog's species-specific advertisement call. The phase spectrum of the signals was manipulated to produce envelopes that varied in their shapes from impulselike (sharp) to noiselike (flattened). Peripheral responses to these signals were analyzed by computing the autocorrelation functions of the spike trains and their power spectra, as well as by constructing period histograms over the time intervals of the low-frequency harmonics. In response to a phase aligned signal with an impulsive envelope, most fibers, regardless of their characteristic frequencies or place of origin within the inner ear, synchronize to the fundamental frequency of the signal. The temporal patterns of fiber discharge to these stimuli are not typically captured by that stimulus harmonic closet to the fiber characteristic frequency, as would be expected from a spectral coding mechanism for periodicity extraction, but instead directly reflect the periodicity of the stimulus envelope. Changing the phase relations between the individual harmonics constituting the signal produces changes in temporal discharge patterns of some fibers by shifting predominant synchronization away from the fundamental frequency to the low-frequency spectral peak in the complex stimuli. The proportion of fibers whose firing is captured by the fundamental frequency decreases as the waveform envelope becomes less impulselike. Fiber characteristic frequency is not highly correlated with the harmonic number to which synchronization is strongest. The higher-harmonic spectral fine structure of the signals is not reflected in fiber temporal response, regardless of the shape of the stimulus envelope, even for those harmonics within the range of

  15. Predation by Asian bullfrog tadpoles, Hoplobatrachus tigerinus, against the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti, in an aquatic environment treated with mosquitocidal nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugan, Kadarkarai; Priyanka, Vishwanathan; Dinesh, Devakumar; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Suresh, Udaiyan; Chandramohan, Balamurugan; Roni, Mathath; Nicoletti, Marcello; Alarfaj, Abdullah A; Higuchi, Akon; Munusamy, Murugan A; Khater, Hanem F; Messing, Russell H; Benelli, Giovanni

    2015-10-01

    Aedes aegypti is a primary vector of dengue and chikungunya. The use of synthetic insecticides to control Aedes populations often leads to high operational costs and adverse non-target effects. Botanical extracts have been proposed for rapid extracellular synthesis of mosquitocidal nanoparticles, but their impact against predators of mosquito larvae has not been well studied. We propose a single-step method for the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) using the extract of Artemisia vulgaris leaves as a reducing and stabilizing agent. AgNP were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). SEM and XRD showed that AgNP were polydispersed, crystalline, irregularly shaped, with a mean size of 30-70 nm. EDX confirmed the presence of elemental silver. FTIR highlighted that the functional groups from plant metabolites capped AgNP, stabilizing them over time. We investigated the mosquitocidal properties of A. vulgaris leaf extract and green-synthesized AgNP against larvae and pupae of Ae. aegypti. We also evaluated the predatory efficiency of Asian bullfrog tadpoles, Hoplobatrachus tigerinus, against larvae of Ae. aegypti, under laboratory conditions and in an aquatic environment treated with ultra-low doses of AgNP. AgNP were highly toxic to Ae. aegypti larval instars (I-IV) and pupae, with LC50 ranging from 4.4 (I) to 13.1 ppm (pupae). In the lab, the mean number of prey consumed per tadpole per day was 29.0 (I), 26.0 (II), 21.4 (III), and 16.7 (IV). After treatment with AgNP, the mean number of mosquito prey per tadpole per day increased to 34.2 (I), 32.4 (II), 27.4 (III), and 22.6 (IV). Overall, this study highlights the importance of a synergistic approach based on biocontrol agents and botanical nano-insecticides for mosquito control.

  16. Preparation of collagen from the skin of Rana chensinensis%中国林蛙皮中胶原蛋白的提取研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琳琳; 鲍成伟; 杨翔华; 王战勇

    2012-01-01

    采用酶解法从中国林蛙皮中提取胶原蛋白。考查了提取次数、液料比、酶解时间、酶解温度以及酶用量对胶原蛋白提取率的影响。单因素考察结合正交试验设计得到胶原蛋白的优化提取条件为:提取次数为2次,液料比为60,提取时间为72 h,提取温度为37℃,酶用量为1.5%。此条件下中国林蛙皮胶原蛋白的产率可达26.2%。%The skins of Rana chensinensis were used to preparation of collagen. The experiment examines ratio of liquids to raw material, reaction time, reaction temperature and enzyme dosage on the extraction rate of collagen. Combining single factor study and orthogonal test, the optimal extraction conditions were chosen as follows: extraction number is 2, extraction time is 72 h, extraction temperature is 37 ℃ enzyme dosage is 1.5%, ratio of liquids to raw material is 60. Under these conditions, the yield of Rana chensinensis skin collagen is 26.2%.

  17. Foraging behaviour in tadpoles of the bronze frog Rana temporalis: Experimental evidence for the ideal free distribution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dheeraj K Veeranagoudar; Bhagyashri A Shanbhag; Srinivas K Saidapur

    2004-06-01

    The ability of bronze frog Rana temporalis tadpoles (pure or mixed parental lines) to assess the profitability of food habitats and distribute themselves accordingly was tested experimentally using a rectangular choice tank with a non-continuous input design. Food (boiled spinach) was placed at two opposite ends of the choice tank in a desired ratio (1 : 1, 1 : 2 or 1 : 4) to create habitat A and B. The tadpoles in Gosner stage 28–33, pre-starved for 24 h, were introduced in an open ended mesh cylinder placed in the center of the choice tank, held for 4 min (for acclimation) and then released to allow free movement and habitat selection. The number of tadpoles foraging at each habitat was recorded at 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 min time intervals. The actual suitability, (the food available in a habitat after colonization of tadpoles) of each habitat was obtained from the equation = - () where is basic suitability (amount of food provided at each habitat before release of tadpoles), is the rate of depletion of food (lowering effect) with introduction of each tadpole, and is the density of tadpoles in habitat . The expected number of tadpoles at each habitat was derived from the actual suitability. With no food in the choice tank, movement of the tadpoles in the test arena was random indicating no bias towards any end of the choice tank or the procedure. In tests with a 1 : 1 food ratio, the observed ratio of tadpoles (11.71 : 12.28) was comparable with the expected 12 : 12 ratio. The observed number of tadpoles in the habitats with a 1 : 2 food ratio was 8.71 : 15.29 and 7.87 : 16.13 for pure and mixed parental lines respectively. In both cases, the observed ratios were close to the expected values (7 : 17). Likewise, in experiments with a 1 : 4 food ratio, the observed number of tadpoles in the two habitats (10.78 : 37.22) did not differ significantly from the expected ratio of 7 : 41. In all tests, the number of R. temporalis tadpoles matched ideally with

  18. Alteration of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in estrogen- and androgen-treated adult male leopard frog, Rana pipiens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Jeremy T

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gonadal steroids, in particular 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT and 17 beta-estradiol (E2, have been shown to feed back on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG axis of the ranid frog. However, questions still remain on how DHT and E2 impact two of the less-studied components of the ranid HPG axis, the hypothalamus and the gonad, and if the feedback effects are consistently negative. Thus, the goal of the study was to examine the effects of DHT and E2 upon the HPG axis of the gonadally-intact, sexually mature male leopard frogs, Rana pipiens. Methods R. pipiens were implanted with silastic capsules containing either cholesterol (Ch, a control, DHT, or E2 for 10 or 30 days. At each time point, steroid-induced changes in hypothalamic GnRH and pituitary LH concentrations, circulating luteinizing hormone (LH, and testicular histology were examined. Results Frogs implanted with DHT or E2 for 10 days did not show significant alterations in the HPG axis. In contrast, frogs implanted with hormones for 30 days had significantly lower circulating LH (for both DHT and E2, decreased pituitary LH concentration (for E2 only, and disrupted spermatogenesis (for both DHT and E2. The disruption of spermatogenesis was qualitatively similar between DHT and E2, although the effects of E2 were consistently more potent. In both DHT and E2-treated animals, a marked loss of all pre-meiotic germ cells was observed, although the loss of secondary spermatogonia appeared to be the primary cause of disrupted spermatogenesis. Unexpectedly, the presence of post-meiotic germ cells was either unaffected or enhanced by DHT or E2 treatment. Conclusions Overall, these results showed that both DHT and E2 inhibited circulating LH and disrupted spermatogenesis progressively in a time-dependent manner, with the longer duration of treatment producing the more pronounced effects. Further, the feedback effects exerted by both steroid hormones upon the HPG axis were

  19. Una nueva especie de rana terrestre del género Pristimantis (Amphibia: Craugastoridae, de la Cordillera de Kutukú, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Brito M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Describimos una especie nueva de mediano tamaño (LRC en la hembra 38.7 mm; en machos de 23.8 a 26.4 mm de rana terrestre del género Pristimantis de los bosques sub-tropicales de la Cordillera de Kutukú, del sureste de Ecuador, a elevaciones de 1581-1820 m. Asignamos a Pristimantis almendariz sp. nov., al subgénero Hypodictyon, serie de especies ridens. La nueva especie difiere de otros miembros de la serie ridens por su patrón distintivo con manchas dorsales, membrana timpánica ausente, presencia de tubérculos cónicos agrandados en el párpado, tubérculo inter-orbital prominente, e iris plateado con reticulaciones negras.

  20. A de novo Assembly of the Common Frog (Rana temporaria Transcriptome and Comparison of Transcription Following Exposure to Ranavirus and Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J Price

    Full Text Available Amphibians are experiencing global declines and extinctions, with infectious diseases representing a major factor. In this study we examined the transcriptional response of metamorphic hosts (common frog, Rana temporaria to the two most important amphibian pathogens: Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd and Ranavirus. We found strong up-regulation of a gene involved in the adaptive immune response (AP4S1 at four days post-exposure to both pathogens. We detected a significant transcriptional response to Bd, covering the immune response (innate and adaptive immunity, complement activation, and general inflammatory responses, but relatively little transcriptional response to Ranavirus. This may reflect the higher mortality rates found in wild common frogs infected with Ranavirus as opposed to Bd. These data provide a valuable genomic resource for the amphibians, contribute insight into gene expression changes after pathogen exposure, and suggest potential candidate genes for future host-pathogen research.

  1. Response of the Italian agile frog (Rana latastei) to a Ranavirus, frog virus 3: a model for viral emergence in naïve populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearman, Peter B; Garner, Trenton W J; Straub, Monika; Greber, Urs F

    2004-10-01

    Ranavirus (family Iridoviridae) is a genus of pathogens of poikilotherms, and some ranaviruses may play a role in widespread mortality of amphibians. Ecology of viral transmission in amphibians is poorly known but can be addressed through experimentation in the laboratory. In this study, we use the Ranavirus frog virus 3 (FV3) as an experimental model for pathogen emergence in naive populations of tadpoles. We simulated emerging disease by exposing tadpoles of the Italian agile frog (Rana latastei), to the North American Ranavirus FV3. We demonstrated that mortality occurred due to viral exposure, exposure of tadpoles to decreasing concentrations of FV3 in the laboratory produced dose-dependent survival rates, and cannibalism of virus-carrying carcasses increased mortality due to FV3. These experiments suggest the potential for ecological mechanisms to affect the level of exposure of tadpoles to Ranavirus and to impact transmission of viral pathogens in aquatic systems. PMID:15650083

  2. Extraction of Rana Chensinensis Skin Collagen by Papain and its Antioxidant Activity%林蛙皮胶原蛋白的提取及抗氧化性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕玲玲; 金香淑; 施溯筠

    2013-01-01

      Extraction of Rana Chensinensis skin collagen by papain and its antioxidant activity were studied in this paper. The results of the single factor experiment and orthogonal test were as follows: the hydrolysis temperature of room temperature, reaction time of 36 h, pH of 5.5, enzyme concentration of 1%and the ratio of solid to liquid 1∶20 (g/mL). Its recovery yield was 24.71%and the degree of puirty was 72.03%. Collagen of Rana Chensinensis Skin had strong reducing capacity and antioxidant activity on scavenging hydroxyl free radical effects .%  用木瓜蛋白酶提取林蛙皮胶原蛋白,采用单因素试验和正交试验设计优选最佳提取工艺,并对林蛙皮胶原蛋白的抗氧化性进行研究。结果表明:林蛙皮胶原蛋白的最佳提取工艺是加酶量为1%,料液比为1∶20(g/mL),pH为5.5于室温反应36 h,此条件下胶原蛋白提取率为24.71%,纯度为72.03%。林蛙皮胶原蛋白具有一定的还原能力,对羟自由基具有一定的清除能力,并且随着浓度的增加抗氧化活性逐渐增强。

  3. 林蛙皮胶原蛋白的提取及抗氧化性%Extraction of Rana Chensinensis Skin Collagen by Papain and its Antioxidant Activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕玲玲; 金香淑; 施溯筠

    2013-01-01

      用木瓜蛋白酶提取林蛙皮胶原蛋白,采用单因素试验和正交试验设计优选最佳提取工艺,并对林蛙皮胶原蛋白的抗氧化性进行研究。结果表明:林蛙皮胶原蛋白的最佳提取工艺是加酶量为1%,料液比为1∶20(g/mL),pH为5.5于室温反应36 h,此条件下胶原蛋白提取率为24.71%,纯度为72.03%。林蛙皮胶原蛋白具有一定的还原能力,对羟自由基具有一定的清除能力,并且随着浓度的增加抗氧化活性逐渐增强。%  Extraction of Rana Chensinensis skin collagen by papain and its antioxidant activity were studied in this paper. The results of the single factor experiment and orthogonal test were as follows: the hydrolysis temperature of room temperature, reaction time of 36 h, pH of 5.5, enzyme concentration of 1%and the ratio of solid to liquid 1∶20 (g/mL). Its recovery yield was 24.71%and the degree of puirty was 72.03%. Collagen of Rana Chensinensis Skin had strong reducing capacity and antioxidant activity on scavenging hydroxyl free radical effects .

  4. 林蛙皮胶原蛋白肽的制备工艺%Preparation process for rana skin collagen peptide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王长周; 邱芳萍; 房天琪; 季晓峰

    2012-01-01

    以长白山林蛙皮为原料,选用碱性蛋白酶,对酶解温度、酶解时间、加酶量、pH、料液比五个因素来研究,经实验确定最佳酶解条件为:酶解温度50℃,加酶量0.5%,酶解时间3h,pH9.0,料液比1∶3(g/mL),脱色脱腥处理后,喷雾干燥制得微黄色粉末状林蛙皮胶原蛋白肽。结果表明,羟脯氨酸含量为20.69μg/mL,分子量分布在3.5ku以下。%The rana skin was used as a raw material.Alkali protease were chosen and the influences of the five process parameters which were enzyme solution temperature,enzymatic hydrolysis time,plus enzyme quantity,pH and liquid materials were studied.According to the experiment,the optimal media conditions were 50℃ temperature zymolysing,adding enzyme quantity 0.5%,zymolysing time 3h,pH9.0,1∶3 liquid to material rate(g/mL).After decoloring and deodorization processing,yellowish powder rana skin collagen peptide was got through spray drying.The results showed that hydroxyproline content was 20.69μg/mL and molecular weight was under 3.5ku.

  5. 哈蟆油发酵乳中蛋白质及氨基酸含量分析%Analysis of protein and amino acid content of Oviductus Ranae in fermented milk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘同帅; 邱智东; 翁丽丽; 郝洁; 翁砚

    2016-01-01

    Objective To establish a method for analysis of protein and amino acidcontent of Ranae Oviductus fermented milk. Methods Using Coomassie bright blue for determination of Ranae Oviductus fermented milk protein content,determination of the content of amino acids by automatic amino acid analyzer. Results The three batch of Ranae Oviductus fermented milk protein content were 8. 050 1,8. 093 0,7. 758 2 mg/mL. The average total amino acid content was 15. 320 5 mg/mL. Conclusion Ranae Oviductus in fermented milk containing synthetic human body needs protein rich amino acids.%目的:建立哈蟆油发酵乳中蛋白质及氨基酸含量分析方法。方法运用考马斯亮蓝法测定哈蟆油发酵乳中蛋白质含量,运用氨基酸自动分析仪测定哈蟆油发酵乳中氨基酸的含量。结果3批哈蟆油发酵乳蛋白含量分别为8.0501、8.0930、7.7582 mg/mL。平均总氨基酸的含量为15.3205 mg/mL。结论哈蟆油发酵乳中含有合成人体所需蛋白质及丰富的氨基酸。

  6. Integrating Individual-Based Indices of Contaminant Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher L. Rowe

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Habitat contamination can alter numerous biological processes in individual organisms. Examining multiple individual-level responses in an integrative fashion is necessary to understand how individual health or fitness reflects environmental contamination. Here we provide an example of such an integrated perspective based upon recent studies of an amphibian (the bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana that experiences several, disparate changes when larval development occurs in a trace element�contaminated habitat. First, we present an overview of studies focused on specific responses of individuals collected from, or transplanted into, a habitat contaminated by coal combustion residues (CCR. These studies have reported morphological, behavioral, and physiological modifications to individuals chronically interacting with sediments in the CCR-contaminated site. Morphological abnormalities in the oral and tail regions in contaminant-exposed individuals influenced other properties such as grazing, growth, and swimming performance. Behavioral changes in swimming activities and responses to stimuli appear to influence predation risk in the contaminant-exposed population. Significant changes in bioenergetics in the contaminated habitat, evident as abnormally high energetic expenditures for survival (maintenance costs, may ultimately influence production pathways (growth, energy storage in individuals. We then present a conceptual model to examine how interactions among the affected systems (morphological, behavioral, physiological may ultimately bring about more severe effects than would be predicted if the responses were considered in isolation. A complex interplay among simultaneously occurring biological changes emerges in which multiple, sublethal effects ultimately can translate into reductions in larval or juvenile survival, and thus reduced recruitment of juveniles into the population. In systems where individuals are exposed to low concentrations of

  7. Landscape associations of frog and toad species in Iowa and Wisconsin, U.S.A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, M.G.; Sauer, J.R.; Olsen, D.A.; Mossman, M.J.; Hemesath, L.M.; Lannoo, M.J.; Kaiser, Hinrich; Casper, Gary S.; Bernstein, Neil P.

    2000-01-01

    Landscape habitat associations of frogs and toads in Iowa and Wisconsin were tested to determine whether they support or refute previous general habitat classifications. We examined which Midwestern species shared similar habitats to see if these associations were consistent across large geographic areas (states). Rana sylvatica (wood frog), Hyla versicolor (eastern gray treefrog), Pseudacris crucifer (spring peeper), and Acris crepitans (cricket frog) were identified as forest species, P. triseriata (chorus frog), H. chrysoscelis (Cope's gray treefrog), R. pipiens (leopard frog), and Bufo americanus (American toad) as grassland species, and R. catesbeiana (bullfrog), R. clamitans (green frog), R. palustris (pickerel frog), and R. septentrionalis (mink frog) as lake or stream species. The best candidates to serve as bioindicators of habitat quality were the forest species R. sylvatica, H. versicolor, and P. crucifer, the grassland species R. pipiens and P. triseriata, and a cold water wetland species, R. palustris. Declines of P. crucifer, R. pipiens, and R. palustris populations in one or both states may reflect changes in habitat quality. Habitat and community associations of some species differed between states, indicating that these relationships may change across the range of a species. Acris crepitans may have shifted its habitat affinities from open habitats, recorded historically, to the more forested habitat associations we recorded. We suggest contaminants deserve more investigation regarding the abrupt and widespread declines of this species. Interspersion of different habitat types was positively associated with several species. A larger number of wetland patches may increase breeding opportunities and increase the probability of at least one site being suitable. We noted consistently negative associations between anuran species and urban development. Given the current trend of urban growth and increasing density of the human population, declines of

  8. Larval Environment Alters Amphibian Immune Defenses Differentially across Life Stages and Populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine L Krynak

    Full Text Available Recent global declines, extirpations and extinctions of wildlife caused by newly emergent diseases highlight the need to improve our knowledge of common environmental factors that affect the strength of immune defense traits. To achieve this goal, we examined the influence of acidification and shading of the larval environment on amphibian skin-associated innate immune defense traits, pre and post-metamorphosis, across two populations of American Bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana, a species known for its wide-ranging environmental tolerance and introduced global distribution. We assessed treatment effects on 1 skin-associated microbial communities and 2 post-metamorphic antimicrobial peptide (AMP production and 3 AMP bioactivity against the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd. While habitat acidification did not affect survival, time to metamorphosis or juvenile mass, we found that a change in average pH from 7 to 6 caused a significant shift in the larval skin microbial community, an effect which disappeared after metamorphosis. Additionally, we found shifts in skin-associated microbial communities across life stages suggesting they are affected by the physiological or ecological changes associated with amphibian metamorphosis. Moreover, we found that post-metamorphic AMP production and bioactivity were significantly affected by the interactions between pH and shade treatments and interactive effects differed across populations. In contrast, there were no significant interactions between treatments on post-metamorphic microbial community structure suggesting that variation in AMPs did not affect microbial community structure within our study. Our findings indicate that commonly encountered variation in the larval environment (i.e. pond pH and degree of shading can have both immediate and long-term effects on the amphibian innate immune defense traits. Our work suggests that the susceptibility of amphibians to emerging diseases could be

  9. Slow dynamics of the amphibian tympanic membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergevin, Christopher; Meenderink, Sebastiaan W. F.; van der Heijden, Marcel; Narins, Peter M.

    2015-12-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that delays associated with evoked otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) largely originate from filter delays of resonant elements in the inner ear. However, one vertebrate group is an exception: Anuran (frogs and toads) amphibian OAEs exhibit relatively long delays (several milliseconds), yet relatively broad tuning. These delays, also apparent in auditory nerve fiber (ANF) responses, have been partially attributed to the middle ear (ME), with a total forward delay of ˜0.7 ms (˜30 times longer than in gerbil). However, ME forward delays only partially account for the longer delays of OAEs and ANF responses. We used scanning laser Doppler vibrometery to map surface velocity over the tympanic membrane (TyM) of anesthetized bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana). Our main finding is a circularly-symmetric wave on the TyM surface, starting at the outer edges of the TyM and propagating inward towards the center (the site of the ossicular attachment). This wave exists for frequencies ˜0.75-3 kHz, overlapping the range of bullfrog hearing (˜0.05-1.7 kHz). Group delays associated with this wave varied from 0.4 to 1.2 ms and correlated with with TyM diameter, which ranged from ˜6-16 mm. These delays correspond well to those from previous ME measurements. Presumably the TyM waves stem from biomechanical constraints of semi-aquatic species with a relatively large tympanum. We investigated some of these constraints by measuring the pressure ratio across the TyM (˜10-30 dB drop, delay of ˜0.35 ms), the effects of ossicular interruption, the changes due to physiological state of TyM (`dry-out'), and by calculating the middle-ear input impedance. In summary, we found a slow, inward-traveling wave on the TyM surface that accounts for a substantial fraction of the relatively long otoacoustic and neurophysiological delays previously observed in the anuran inner ear.

  10. Heavy metal accumulation and metallothionein concentration in the frog Rana ridibunda after exposure to chromium or a mixture of chromium and cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accumulation of two heavy metals (chromium (Cr) and cadmium (Cd)) in the liver, kidney and gut of Rana ridibunda exposed to Cr or to a mixture of Cr and Cd was investigated. The concentration of metallothioneins (MTs) in the same tissues was also studied. Both metals accumulated mainly in the kidney. Cr accumulation in the liver and gut was not affected by the presence of Cd. Furthermore, Cr concentration in the kidney was doubled when Cd was present. MT concentration did not increase after Cr treatment but it increased two- to six-fold over control values in mixture-exposed frogs, the highest value being observed in the gut. MTs in the gut could act as a barrier preventing ingested heavy metals from entering the blood stream. MT concentration correlated positively with Cd concentrations in both the liver and the gut of mixture-exposed animals. - Exposure to Cr and a mixture of Cd and Cr resulted in increased concentrations of MTs only in mixture-exposed frogs

  11. Stereological analysis of mitochondria in embryos of Rana temporaria and Bufo bufo during cleavage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Krzysztofowicz

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Total numbers of mitochondria and their morphology have been quantitatively determined in mature oocytes and in cleaving embryos of two anuran species Rana temporaria and Bufo bufo using stereological methods. Surface densities of inner mitochondrial membranes for both studied species during cleavage ranged from 5.43 m2/cm3 to 7.53 m2/cm3, whereas volume densities of mitochondria did not exceed 1.65%. Since values of these parameters were low, thus embryos during cleavage may be considered as metabolically "silent". Transition of ultrastructural morphology of mitochondria towards that characterising actively respiring organelles occurs at stage 9 for R. temporaria and at stage 8 for B. bufo, correlated with blastula-gastrula and mid-blastula transition, respectively. The total numbers of mitochondria N(c in mature oocytes are as high as 114.8 and 107.2 millions for R. temporaria and B. bufo, respectively, and during cleavage at late blastula stages they increase to 300 millions for both species under study. We suggest that an undefined mechanism might eliminate during cleavage those amphibian embryos which contain small number of mitochondria and low levels of nutrient substances.

  12. Density-dependent growth and metamorphosis in the larval bronze frog Rana temporalis is influenced by genetic relatedness of the cohort

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Girish; S K Saidapur

    2003-06-01

    Effects of density and kinship on growth and metamorphosis in tadpoles of Rana temporalis were studied in a 2 × 4 factorial experiment. Fifteen egg masses were collected from streams in the Western Ghat region of south India. The tadpoles were raised as siblings or in groups of non-siblings at increasing density levels, viz. 15, 30, 60 and 120/5 l water. With an increase in density level from 15 to 120 tadpoles/5 l water, duration of the larval stage increased and fewer individuals metamorphosed irrespective of whether they belonged to sibling or non-sibling groups by day 100 when the experiments were terminated. The size of individuals at metamorphosis declined significantly with increase in the density of rearing. However, at higher densities (60 and 120 tadpoles/5 l water) sibling group tadpoles performed better compared to mixed groups and took significantly less time to metamorphose. Also, more individuals of sibling groups metamorphosed compared to non-sibling groups at a given density. Mixed rearing retarded growth rates, prolonged larval duration resulting in a wider spectrum of size classes, and lowered the number of individuals recruited to terrestrial life. The study shows that interference competition occurred more strongly in cohorts of mixed relatedness than in sibling groups.

  13. Immunoreactivities of IL-1β and IL-1R in oviduct of Chinese brown frog (Rana dybowskii) during pre-hibernation and the breeding period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ruiqi; Liu, Yuning; Deng, Yu; Ma, Sihui; Sheng, Xia; Weng, Qiang; Xu, Meiyu

    2016-03-01

    The Chinese brown frog (Rana dybowskii) has one special physiological phenomenon, which is that its oviduct goes through expansion prior to hibernation instead of during the breeding period. In this study, we investigated the localization and expression level of interleukin-1 (IL-1β) and its functional membrane receptor type I (IL1R1) proteins in the oviduct of R. dybowskii during pre-hibernation and the breeding period. There were significant differences in both oviductal weight and pipe diameter, with values markedly higher in pre-hibernation than in the breeding period. Histologically, epithelium cells, glandular cells and tubule lumen were identified in the oviduct during pre-hibernation and the breeding period, while sizes of both cell types are larger in the pre-hibernation than those of the breeding period. IL-1β was immunolocalized in the cytoplasm of epithelial and glandular cells in both periods, whereas IL-1R1 was observed in the membrane of epithelial and glandular cells in the breeding period, whereas only in epithelial cells during pre-hibernation. Consistently, the protein levels of IL-1β and IL-1R1 were higher in pre-hibernation as compared to the breeding period. These results suggested that IL-1β may play an important autocrine or paracrine role in oviductal cell proliferation and differentiation of R. dybowskii.

  14. Functional studies of a glucagon receptor isolated from frog Rana tigrina rugulosa: implications on the molecular evolution of glucagon receptors in vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngan, E S; Chow, L S; Tse, D L; Du, X; Wei, Y; Mojsov, S; Chow, B K

    1999-09-01

    In this report, the first amphibian glucagon receptor (GluR) cDNA was characterized from the liver of the frog Rana tigrina rugulosa. Functional expression of the frog GluR in CHO and COS-7 cells showed a high specificity of the receptor towards human glucagon with an EC(50) value of 0.8+/-0.5 nM. The binding of radioiodinated human glucagon to GluR was displaced in a dose-dependent manner only with human glucagon and its antagonist (des-His(1)-[Nle(9)-Ala(11)-Ala(16)]) with IC(50) values of 12.0+/-3. 0 and 7.8+/-1.0 nM, respectively. The frog GluR did not display any affinity towards fish and human GLP-1s, and towards glucagon peptides derived from two species of teleost fishes (goldfish, zebrafish). These fish glucagons contain substitutions in several key residues that were previously shown to be critical for the binding of human glucagon to its receptor. By RT-PCR, mRNA transcripts of frog GluR were located in the liver, brain, small intestine and colon. These results demonstrate a conservation of the functional characteristics of the GluRs in frog and mammalian species and provide a framework for a better understanding of the molecular evolution of the GluR and its physiological function in vertebrates. PMID:10471837

  15. Purification and Enzyme Analysis of A Virus from Frog ( Rana tigrina rugulosa)%一种蛙病毒的纯化和酶切分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕玲; 何建国; 何华虹; 邓敏; 王晓红; 翁少萍

    2001-01-01

    从患病虎纹蛙(%Rana tigrina rugulosa)%蝌蚪中分离得到一种蛙病毒,感染鱼的FHM 、CO、EPC细胞,获得大量的病毒原料,分离纯化得到高纯度的病毒粒子,电镜下可见病毒粒子为二十面体,具囊膜,直径平均为125 nm.抽提病毒核酸,对其基因组DNA进行酶切分析,病毒基因组为双链DNA分子,表现脊椎动物虹彩病毒基因组的特点即其胞嘧啶5′端高度甲基化.以限制性内切酶%XbaⅠ、Bam%H%Ⅰ、Hin%d%Ⅲ、KpnⅠ和PstⅠ酶切病毒基因组%DNA,经电泳分离后,分别得到13、25、6、14、22条清晰的酶切片段,并根据酶切片段算得基因组的大小超过100 kb.用PCR方法,得到这个病毒的主衣壳蛋白(MCP)基因保守序列,与FV3相比,同源性达98%.

  16. Identification of a proglucagon cDNA from Rana tigrina rugulosa that encodes two GLP-1s and that is alternatively spliced in a tissue-specific manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, C M; Chow, B K

    2001-11-01

    Glucagon plays a pivotal role in the regulation of metabolism. A glucagon receptor has been previously characterized in the frog, Rana tigrina rugulosa, and the frog and human glucagon receptors have been shown to possess similar binding affinities toward human glucagon. To study the structural evolution of glucagon peptide and its receptor in vertebrates, in the current study, a proglucagon cDNA from the same frog species was cloned. Interestingly, in contrast to the mammalian proglucagons that contain only one GLP-1 peptide, the frog proglucagon cDNA encodes two GLP-1 peptides (GLP-1A and GLP-1B) in addition to a glucagon peptide and a glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2). By reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR) analysis, the proglucagon gene expression was widely detected in the brain, colon, small intestine, liver, lung, and pancreas, suggesting that the proglucagon-derived peptides have diverse functions in frogs. Moreover, tissue-specific alternative mRNA splicing was observed in the brain, colon, and pancreas. In these tissues, proglucagon transcripts with a 135 bp in frame deletion encoding GLP-1A were found. This splicing event in R. tigrina rugulosa is novel because it deletes a GLP-1 encoding sequence instead of the GLP-2 observed in other vertebrates. These findings should enhance understanding of the proglucagon evolution, structure, and expression in vertebrates. PMID:11703080

  17. Characterization of the Rana grylio virus 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and its novel role in suppressing virus-induced cytopathic effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) isoenzymes play a key role in cellular steroid hormone synthesis. Here, a 3β-HSD gene homolog was cloned from Rana grylio virus (RGV), a member of family Iridoviridae. RGV 3β-HSD gene has 1068 bp, encoding a 355 aa predicted protein. Transcription analyses showed that RGV 3β-HSD gene was transcribed immediate-early during infection from an initiation site 19 nucleotides upstream of the translation start site. Confocal microscopy revealed that the 3β-HSD-EGFP fusion protein was exclusively colocalized with the mitochondria marker (pDsRed2-Mito) in EPC cells. Upon morphological observation and MTT assay, it was revealed that overexpression of RGV 3β-HSD in EPC cells could apparently suppress RGV-induced cytopathic effect (CPE). The present studies indicate that the RGV immediate-early 3β-HSD gene encodes a mitochondria-localized protein, which has a novel role in suppressing virus-induced CPE. All these suggest that RGV 3β-HSD might be a protein involved in host-virus interaction

  18. Comparison of diet, reproductive biology, and growth of the pig frog (Rana grylio) from harvested and protected areas of the Florida Everglades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugarte, C.A.; Rice, K.G.; Donnelly, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    Distinct differences in body size exist among three Rana grylio populations in areas of the Florida Everglades that differ in frog harvest pressure and hydroperiod. Frogs from two populations are harvested regularly throughout the year, while those in the third are protected from harvest. We compared seasonal and sex differences in diet, reproduction, and growth across these populations to examine life-history patterns. By volume, crayfish and anurans were the most abundant prey items for all adults across sites. Frogs from drier sites consumed more crayfish than frogs from the wettest site. Anurans were abundant in the diet during the wet season, while crayfish and fish were abundant during the dry season. More frogs with empty stomachs were captured during the wet season than the dry season. Feeding, growth, and fat deposition were greatest during the dry season across all sites. Although females were found in all reproductive stages throughout the year, the highest percentage of females had mature ova during the late dry season and spent ovaries during the early wet season. Individual patterns of growth were similar across all sites and matched historical growth data from the 1950s. Differences in body size among sites were most likely attributable to differential mortality (i.e., harvest pressure, predation) rather than to differences in food access or growth. ?? 2007 by the American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists.

  19. Nueva especie de rana terrestre del género Pristimantis (Amphibia: Craugastoridae, meseta de la Dordillera del Cóndor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Brito M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Describimos una especie nueva, de mediano tamaño (LRC en la hembra 21.7-24.9 mm; en machos 15.2-17.8 mm, de rana terrestre del género Pristimantis proveniente de la meseta de arenisca de la Cordillera del Cóndor, del sureste de Ecuador, con una elevacion de 2300 m. La nueva especie difiere de sus congéneres presentes en Ecuador por su patrón distintivo de coloración, superficie dorsal pardo ocráceo con numerosas manchas amarillentas, membrana timpánica presente, dedos pediales y manuales cortos y microhábitat exclusivo en bromelias terrestres. Las llamadas son largas, de frecuencia modulada, conformada por 6-8 notas y un armónico. La descripción de Pristimantis paquishae sp. nov., es el resultado de un levantamiento de información de la herpetofauna, en una de las mesetas de arenisca remotas y menos conocidas, en la Cordillera del Cóndor.

  20. The advancement of biological research in amphibian culture in China%中国养殖的两栖动物生物学研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘焕亮

    2004-01-01

    综合论述了中国养殖的6种主要两栖动物:虎纹蛙Rana tigrina rugulosa Wiegmann、棘胸蛙Rana spinosa David、中国林蛙Rana temporaria chensinensis David、牛蛙Rana catesbeiana Shaw、猪蛙Rana grylio和中国大鲵Megalobatrachus davidianus Blanchara的生物学研究成果,包括养殖种类与地理分布,栖息习性,对盐度、温度、湿度、溶解氧、pH值的适应,摄食方式与食物组成,生长与繁殖生物学;展望了其生物学研究前景.

  1. Response Surface Method to Optimize the Process Parameters of Acid-enzyme Combination Extraction Bullfrog Skin Collagen%响应面法优化酸酶结合提取牛蛙皮胶原蛋白工艺参数

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丹鹤; 刘学军

    2012-01-01

    In order to make full use of bullfrog skin resources, in this experiment through determination of hydrgxyproline content determines the bullfrog skin collagen in a total of 42.58%, drawing the standard curve obtained collagen hydroxyproline, which content is 28.32%, the bullfrog skin aiker pretreatment with acetic acid and pepsin extraction, combination, and the use of response surface method to the extraction conditions for process optimization, the results show that: the optimum extraction conditions for l0 DEG C, at the concentration of 2.5 per 1000pepsin, in 1:40ratio of material to liquid, extraction of 24h. The optimum conditions of collagen extraction, and by the salting out, freezing and drying to obtain powdered collagen products. Its measured rate is 27.98%. The extracted bullfrog skin collagen by ultraviolet analysis and detection of amino acids, the results show that the extraction of high purity collagen products.%为了充分利用牛蛙皮资源,本试验通过测定羟脯氨酸含量确定了牛蛙皮中胶原蛋白总量为42.58%,绘制羟脯氨酸标准曲线,得出其中胶原蛋白含量为28.32%,牛蛙皮经过预处理后,采用乙酸和胃蛋白酶结合提取,并利用响应面法对提取条件进行工艺优化,结果表明:最佳提取条件为10℃下,以浓度为2.5‰的胃蛋白酶,在1:40料液比中,提取24h。以最佳条件提取胶原蛋白,并经盐析、冷冻干燥得到粉末状胶原蛋白产品。测得其得率为27.98%。对所提取的牛蛙皮胶原蛋白进行紫外分析和氨基酸检测,结果表明所提取的胶原蛋白产品纯度较高。

  2. Comparison of Morphological and Karyotypical Characters Between Rana tigrian rugulosa from Shiping and Yuanjiang of Yunnan%云南石屏和元江虎纹蛙外部形态与核型比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨丽萍; 周伟; 杨红燕; 李明会

    2011-01-01

    对采自云南石屏和元江的虎纹蛙进行外部形态特征和染色体核型分析.结果表明:元江虎纹蛙体形、体质量均明显大于石屏,其中,后肢全长、胫长、鼓膜宽、头宽等指标差异显著;两地虎纹蛙核型均为2n=26(5L+8M+0s),NF=52;石屏虎纹蛙的第3号为亚中部着丝点染色体(SM),其余为中部着丝点染色体(M),次缢痕位于6 p;元江虎纹蛙第3、6和8号为SM染色体,其余为M染色体,在3 p和6 p上具有不明显的次缢痕;显示不同地区虎纹蛙形态和核型均存在差异,推测石屏和元江产虎纹蛙可能是同种中的不同地理居群.%The morphological characters and karyotype of Rana tigrian rugulosa were analyzed using samples from Shiping and Yuanjiang of Yunnan. The results demonstrate that Rana tigrian rugulosa from Yuanjiang was big ger and got more weight than Shiping ones. Morphological characters such as length of hind limb, length of tibia, eardrum width and head width were significantly different between Yuanjiang and Shiping ones. Samples from dif ferent locations enjoyed the same karyotype : 2n = 26(5L +8M +0s) , NF =52. The chromosome No. 3 of Rana ti grian rugulosa from Shiping was SM , while the rest chromosomes were M , and the secondary constriction located on 6p. The chromosome No.3, 6 and 8 from Yunjiang were SM, the rest were M, and the unobvious secondary con striction located on 3p and 6p. It was significant different at morphological characters and karyotype between Yuan jiang and Shiping samples. Yuanjiang and Shiping samples might be speculated as the geographical groups of Rana tigrian rugulosa.

  3. 林蛙油对游泳训练小鼠腓肠肌保护作用研究%The Protective Effect of Rana Oil on Swimming Trained Mice Gastrocnemius

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张平; 张岚; 鲍九枝; 李松哲

    2013-01-01

      探讨林蛙油对运动训练小鼠腓肠肌自由基代谢和超微结构的影响,为林蛙油的应用和开发提供实验依据。以ICR小鼠为研究对象,通过建立灌服林蛙油小鼠递增游泳训练和游泳力竭模型,测定小鼠力竭游泳时间、腓肠肌SOD活性、MDA含量和小鼠腓肠肌超微结构的变化。林蛙油能延长小鼠力竭游泳时间,与运动组相比,林蛙油中、高剂量组有显著差异(p<0.01)。运动组SOD活性显著降低,与安静组比较,有显著差异(p<0.01);与林蛙油各剂量组比较,中、高剂量组有显著差异(p<0.05)。运动组MDA的含量最高,与安静组比较,有显著异(p<0.01)与林蛙油各剂量组比较,均有显著异(p<0.01)。小鼠腓肠肌组织超微结构的观察表明,运动组肌原纤维上肌节结构可辨,但呈致密状,线粒体嵴断裂,呈空化状,林蛙油组损伤程度小于运动组。林蛙油可显著提高小鼠腓肠肌组织抗自由基氧化的功能,对运动造成的腓肠肌组织超微结构的损伤有明显的保护作用,对小鼠运动能力的提高有很好的作用。%To explore the impact of Rana oil on trained mice Gastrocnemius free radical metabolism and ultrastructure, provided the experimental basis for the application and development of Rana oil. The research aimed to establish the oil Rana mice fed the incremental swimming training and exhaustive swimming model. Changes of mice swimming exhausted time, gastrocnemius muscle SOD activity, MDA content and gastrocnemius muscle ultrastructure was measured. The Rana oil can extend the swimming exhausted time of mice, compared with the trained group, Rana oil of high and medium dose group had a significant difference (p<0.01). SOD activity in the trained group significantly reduced, compared with the quiet group, had a significant difference (p<0.01);comparison with Rana oil each dose group, the high and medium dose

  4. 哈蟆油非水溶性成分抗疲劳保健功能研究%Study on Anti-fatigue Function of Non-Water-Soluble Components of OVIDUCTUS RANAE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王涵; 赵雨; 张梅; 幺宝金; 张鑫

    2011-01-01

    [目的]研究哈蟆油(OVIDVCTUS RANAE)非水溶性成分的抗疲劳作用.[方法]以低、中、高(0.25、0.5、1.0g/kg)3个剂量的哈蟆油非水溶性成分连续灌胃小鼠30 d,空白对照组给予等量的蒸馏水,测定小鼠负重游泳时间、血清尿素、肝糖原和血乳酸含量.[结果]哈蟆油非水溶性成分中剂量组小鼠的游泳时间明显长于对照组(P<0.05);各剂量组小鼠肝糖原含量均明显高于对照组(P<0.05);中、高剂量组小鼠运动后的血乳酸曲线下面积均小于对照组(P<0.05);各剂量组小鼠运动后血清尿素氮含量无明显改变.[结论]哈蟆油非水溶性成分具有抗疲劳作用.%[Objective] The aim was to study the anti-fatigue effect of the non-water-soluble components of OVIDUCTUS RANAE. [ Methods] The mice were divided into the low,medium and high dose groups and negative control group at random. Weight loaded swimming time,urea nitrogen ,hepatic glycogen content,blood lactate were determined after giving test substances by intragastrical gavage for 30 days. [ Results] The non-water-soluble components of OVIDUCTUS RANAE in medium dose groups obviously prolonged small mice swimming time (P <0. 05). Each group can made hepatic glycogen obviously improved and compared with blank observe group,it had obvious differences (P<0. 05). Middle and high dose groups after exercise, blood lactic area under the curve was less than the control group (P<0.05). [ Conclusion] The non-water-soluble components of OVIDUCTUS RANAE had the function of anti-fatigue.

  5. Rações comerciais e o rendimento de carcaça e subprodutos de rã-touro Commercial food and the carcass yield and by-products of bullfrog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Poeta Casali

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito do sexo e do uso de quatro rações comerciais extrusadas (R1, R2, R3 e R4 e uma ração peletizada (R5 sobre o rendimento de carcaça e aproveitamento de subprodutos da ranicultura, após 56 dias de experimentação. As rações comerciais eram recomendadas para diferentes espécies e fases de desenvolvimento animal, a saber: R1 = para rãs (na fase inicial, imagos; R2 = para peixes onívoros (em fase inicial; R3 = para trutas (peixe carnívoro na fase de crescimento; e R4 = para trutas (na fase inicial. Foram analisados os teores (% de matéria seca (MS, proteína bruta (PB, extrato etéreo (EE, fibra bruta (FB e matéria mineral (MM das rações. Foram utilizadas 80 rãs-touro com peso médio inicial de 51,57g distribuídas em um delineamento em blocos casualizados em esquema fatorial (cinco rações X dois sexos com oito repetições de uma rã por unidade experimental. Não houve significância na interação entre os fatores para todas as variáveis analisadas. Os menores valores de rendimento de carcaça foram observados nos animais que receberam a ração R3, sendo as demais iguais. No aproveitamento de subprodutos, destacou-se a ração R1, que proporcionou maior peso de fígado e descartes, e a ração R4, com maior peso de fígado e corpo gorduroso. O sexo dos animais apenas influenciou no aproveitamento de descartes, sendo que os machos proporcionaram maiores médias.The objective was to evaluate the effect of the sex and the use of four commercial extruded foods (R1, R2, R3, and R4 and a pelleted food (R5 on the carcass yield and the by-product utilization of the bullfrog culture, after 56 days of experimentation. The commercial foods were recommended to different species or phases of growth: R1 = for frogs in the initial phase; R2 = for omnivorous fish in the initial phase; R3 = for trout (carnivorous fish in phase of growth; and R4 = for trout in initial phase. The chemical composition (DM, CP, EE, CF

  6. Effects of Evans Blue and amiloride on anti-diuretic hormone (ADH)-induced sodium transport across frog (Rana hexadactyla) skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jared, Silviya Rajakumari; Rao, Jonakuty Prakasa

    2013-05-01

    The epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) has four subunits, namely α (alpha), β (beta), γ (gamma) and δ (delta). The functional ENaC is formed by the combination of either αβγ or δβγ subunits. The aim of the present study is to determine the combination of ENaC subunits predominant on the apical side of the frog skin, and the effect of ADH on sodium transport though these two ENaCs subunit combinations. The ventral abdominal skin of the frog, Rana hexadactyla was mounted in an Ussing-type chamber. The voltage-clamp method was performed to measure the ionic transport across the frog skin with normal Ringer solution (NR) on both sides. Evans blue (300 µM) and amiloride (100 µM) were added to the NR on the apical side and ADH (40 nM) was added on the serosal side. Statistical significance was analyzed by Student's paired t-test and repeated-measures ANOVA, P < 0.05 was considered significant. This study suggests that the ENaC of the frog skin consist of both αβγ and δβγ subunit combinations on the apical side. Though both types of subunit combination are present, the αβγ type was found to be more common than δβγ. ADH increases the sodium transport across the frog skin. The effect of ADH on sodium transport is achieved through the combination of δ-subunits, not through the combination of a-subunits in the skin of Pana hexadactyla.

  7. Don't get the blues: conspicuous nuptial colouration of male moor frogs (Rana arvalis) supports visual mate recognition during scramble competition in large breeding aggregations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sztatecsny, Marc; Preininger, Doris; Freudmann, Anita; Loretto, Matthias-Claudio; Maier, Franziska; Hödl, Walter

    2012-12-01

    Conspicuous male colouration is expected to have evolved primarily through selection by female choice. In what way conspicuous colours could be advantageous to males scrambling for mates remains largely unknown. The moor frog (Rana arvalis) belongs to the so-called explosive breeders in which spawning period is short; intrasexual competition is strong, and males actively search and scramble for females. During breeding, male body colouration changes from a dull brown (similar to females) to a conspicuous blue, and we wanted to test if male blueness influences mating success or facilitates male mate recognition. To do so, we first measured the colour of mated and non-mated males using a spectrophotometer. In an experiment, we then analysed interactions of actual male moor frogs in natural spawning aggregations with a brown (resembling a female or a non-breeding male) and a blue model frog. Mated and non-mated males did not differ in colouration, suggesting that female choice based on colour traits was unlikely. In our behavioural experiment, male moor frogs spent significantly more time in contact and in amplexus with the brown model than with the blue model. Our results suggest that the nuptial colouration in moor frogs can act as a new type of visual signal in anurans evolved to promote instantaneous mate recognition allowing males to quickly move between rivals while scrambling for females. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00265-012-1412-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

  8. Vitellogenin of the northern leopard frog (Rana pipiens): development of an ELISA assay and evaluation of induction after immersion in xenobiotic estrogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selcer, Kyle W; Verbanic, Jodi D

    2014-10-01

    An immunoassay for leopard frog (Rana pipiens) vitellogenin was developed for studying endocrine disruption. Male frogs were injected with estradiol-17β to stimulate vitellogenin for purification. SDS-PAGE revealed high amounts of a 170-180 kDa protein, which was confirmed to be vitellogenin by Western blotting. Vitellogenin was purified by DEAE chromatography and used to generate a polyclonal antibody. A competitive ELISA was developed for leopard frog vitellogenin with a detection limit of 6.0 ng mL(-1) and a working range of 20-1000 ng mL(-1). The intra-assay coefficient of variation averaged 5.47% for control sera and 9.71% for estrogen-treated sera. The inter-assay coefficient of variation averaged 8.21% for control sera and 9.93% for estrogen-treated sera. Recovery of purified vitellogenin averaged 95.2%. Vitellogenin was measured in male frogs immersed in the estrogenic compound diethylstilbestrol (DES) for various times and doses. Serum vitellogenin was detected within five days after immersion in 1.0 mg L(-1) DES and levels continued to increase through 20 d. In a 20-day dose-response experiment, serum vitellogenin was detected in frogs immersed in 0.01 mg L(-1) DES and vitellogenin concentration increased with dose. Immersion of frogs in one of several xenobiotic estrogens (nonylphenol, octylphenol, bisphenol-A) for 20 d did not increase vitellogenin for any treatment, suggesting that this frog may be less sensitive than fish to endocrine disruptors. Vitellogenin induction in R.pipiens may be a useful amphibian model system for field studies of endocrine disruption, due to its broad geographic range. PMID:25048926

  9. Spatial Amphibian Impact Assessment – a management tool for assessment of road effects on regional populations of Moor frogs (Rana arvalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maj-Britt Pontoppidan

    2013-11-01

    a case study dedicated to the Moor frog (Rana arvalis.

  10. Una especie nueva de rana arbórea del género Hyloscirtus (Amphibia: Anura: Hylidae de la Cordillera del Cóndor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Almendáriz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Las ranas ecuatorianas del género Hyloscirtus incluyen 16 especies descritas, de las cuales 11 pertenecen al grupo H. larinopygion. Su distribución se limita a los flancos de la Cordillera de los Andes, tanto al oriente como al occidente. Una evaluación de la herpetofauna en el sector meridional de la Cordillera del Cóndor (bosques montanos sobre mesetas de arenisca en la provincia de Zamora Chinchipe, Ecuador, condujo al descubrimiento de una especie nueva del grupo que describimos aquí como Hyloscirtus condor sp. nov.; se analizan los renacuajos, las llamadas de anuncio y se estima las relaciones filogenéticas de la especie nueva y de las especies relacionadas en base a nuevas secuencias de los genes mitocondriales 12S, tRNA Val y 16S, con un total de hasta 2508 bp. Los resultados muestran que el grupo H. larinopygion está conformado por dos clados, uno distribuido en los Andes norte y centro de Ecuador y el otro al sur. La nueva especie pertenece al clado sur y es hermana de H. tapichalaca y de una especie aparentemente no descrita de la Provincia Morona Santiago. La especie nueva difiere de sus congéneres por su patrón de coloración dorsal, que consiste de puntos amarillo obscuro en un fondo canela. Es la especie más grande del grupo H. larinopygion y comparte con H. tapichalaca la presencia de una espina prepólica grande y curvada y brazos hipertrofiados. La especie nueva habita un área remota y bien conservada de la Cordillera del Cóndor. El descubrimiento de ésta y otras especies nuevas del mismo lugar denota la importancia biológica del área y motivan al desarrollo de planes de conservación.

  11. 中国林蛙两性异形及其与繁殖的适应%Sexual dimorphism adapted to reproduction in Rana chensinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋涛; 王宏元; 张育辉

    2012-01-01

    Based on measuring 11 morphological characteristics of 60 female and 60 male adult frogs which were collected from the Qinling Mountains, China, the mechanism of sexual dimorphism of Rana chensinensis was studied. The results showed that the snout-vent length (SVL) (t=3.94, df=118, P(0. 001) and body mass of females(t=5.61, df=118, P〈0. 001) are larger than that of males. The ANCOVA analysis indicated that the head length, head width, internasal length, interocular length, eye diameter, tympanum diameter, fore-limb length and hind-limb length of males are significantly lager than that of females. The snout length(F1,118 = 2.76, P=0.84) for males is not differ between males and females. It is indicated by regression analysis that head length, head width, tympanum diameter and other characters of frogs positively correlate with SVL. A principal component analysis generated three components (with eigenvalue E≥1) from ten size-free morphological variables, accounting for 74. 308 % of variation in the original data. The first component (51. 539% variance explained) has high positive loading for size free values of head length, head width, internasal length, interocular length, fore-limb length and hind-limb length, the second component (14. 045%) for size free value of body mass, and the third component (8. 723%) for size free values of eye diameter, tympanum diameter. The results indicated that partial sexual dimorphism exists in Rana chensinenis, female clutch size and fecundity, and therefore reproductive success, typically increased with female body size. The other distinct morphological characteristics in males are relative to sexual selection.%通过对中国林蛙(Rana chensinensis)成体雌雄各60例样本的11项形态指标的测量,分析该物种的两性异形特征,探讨产生两性异形的机制.结果表明,雌性的体长(t=3.94,df=118,P〈0.001)和体重(t=5.61,df=118,P〈0.001)显著大于雄性;

  12. Study on the anti-fatigue function of water-miscible total proteins from Oviductus Ranae%哈蟆油水溶性总蛋白抗疲劳活性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张梅; 赵雨; 李芸彤; 幺宝金; 曲晓波

    2011-01-01

    研究了哈蟆油水溶性总蛋白的抗疲劳药理活性。采用中性缓冲液浸提,硫酸铵沉淀法制备哈蟆油水溶性总蛋白。设立哈蟆油水溶性总蛋白低、中、高三个剂量组(0.075、0.15、0.30g/kg),同时设立空白对照组,小鼠灌胃给药30d。观察小鼠体重、负重游泳时间、尿素氮含量、肝糖原含量、血乳酸含量等指标的变化。实验结果表明,哈蟆油水溶性总蛋白可延长小鼠负重游泳时间,降低血清尿素氮含量,显著增加肝糖原含量,显著降低血乳酸含量,对小鼠的体重无明显影响。证明了哈蟆油水溶性总蛋白具有一定的抗疲劳作用。%The pharmacological activity of water-miscible total proteins from Oviduetus Ranae was studied.Prepared water-miscible total proteins by neutral buffer extraction and ammonium sulfate precipitation.Low,medium,high(0.075,0.15,0.30g/kg)dose of water-miscible total proteins and a blank dose had been applied to mice for 30d continuously.The change of body weight of mice,swimming time,urea nitrogen,hepatic glycogen,and blood lactic acid content were observed.The results showed that the water-miscible total proteins of Oviductus Ranae could extend the swimming time of mice,significantly increase liver glycogen contents,significantly lower blood lactate levels,and had no significant effect on body weight of mice.The results proved the water-miscible total proteins of Oviductus Ranae had anti-fatigue effect.

  13. Experimental Investigation of Bioactive Peptides from the Skin of Rana chensinensis on Immune Function in Mice%林蛙皮活性肽对小鼠免疫功能影响的试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巢警殳; 杜鹃; 刘雅娟

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] To observe the effects of bioactive peptide from the Skin of Rana chensinensis on immune function in normal mice. [Method] Mice were randomly divided into five groups, including negative group, positive group, low-dose group, rniddle-dose group and high-dose group, each group of ten. The mice were administrated for 28 days. Cellular immunity was detected by T-cell-proliferation MTT assay , humoral immunity was assessed by plaque forming ceil assay (PFC) and number of antibody-producing cells. [ Result] Bioactive peptide from the skin of Rana cheminen&is could obviously promote lymphocyte proliferation induced by ConA, increased antibody production in ceil number, and enhanced serum hemolyain antibody titer. [ Conclusion] Bioactive peptide from the skin of Rana ckensinensis could enhance cellular immunity and humoral immunity of mice.%[目的]探讨林蛙皮生物活性肽对正常小鼠免疫功能的影响.[方法]将小鼠随机分为阴性对照组、阳性对照组、林蛙皮活性肽低、中、高剂量组,每组10只,连续灌胃给药28d后,采用ConA诱导的小鼠脾淋巴细胞转化试验,检测T淋巴细胞增值,并通过溶血空斑试验和血清溶血素试验检测林蛙皮活性肽对小鼠体液免疫功能的影响.[结果]林蛙皮生物活性肽可明显促进ConA诱导的淋巴细胞增值,增加抗体生成细胞数量,增强血清溶血素抗体效价水平.[结论]林蛙蛙皮生物活性肽对小鼠的细胞免疫和体液免疫功能均具有增强作用.

  14. 虎纹蛙病毒体外培养及其理化特性%In vitro culture and physico-chemical properties of a virus isolated from diseased Rana tigrina rugulosa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓红; 翁少萍; 何建国

    2002-01-01

    从发病濒死的虎纹蛙(Rana tigrina rugulosa)蝌蚪中分离到一种病毒.在25℃条件下,该病毒能在鲤鱼表皮瘤细胞系(EPC),胖头鱥肌肉细胞系(FHM)和草鱼性腺细胞系(CO)三种鱼类细胞上产生空斑状的细胞病理变化(CPE).该病毒对氯仿,热(56℃,30min)和酸(pH3)敏感.其体外培养的适合增殖温度范围为20~30℃.电镜下观察,病毒为对称的二十面体,切面正六边形,对角直径125nm左右.

  15. pH值和温度对虎纹蛙消化系统蛋白酶活力的影响%EFFECTS OF pH AND TEMPERATURE ON THE PROTEASE ACTIVITY IN THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF RANA RUGULOSA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张盛周; 朱升学; 佟媛; 张荣; 樊爱绪

    2005-01-01

    采用福林-酚试剂法,就pH值和温度对虎纹蛙(Rana rugulosa)消化系统蛋白酶活力的影响进行了研究.结果表明,虎纹蛙食道、胃、前肠、后肠、直肠和胰脏蛋白酶的最适pH值分别为1.5、1.5、7.4、7.4、7.4和9.6,最适温度则均为50℃.文中对蛙类的人工养殖提出了几点建议.

  16. 二种除草剂对虎纹蛙蝌蚪的毒性研究%A Study on The Toxicity of Two Kinds of Herbicides to Tadpole of Rana rugulosa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施时迪; 邵晨

    2006-01-01

    研究了二种常用除草剂施田补和百草枯对虎纹蛙Rana rugulosa蝌蚪的毒性.结果表明:随着除草剂浓度的增大,虎纹蛙蝌蚪的死亡率随之提高;百草枯对虎纹蛙蝌蚪的毒性大于施田补,施田补和百草枯对虎纹蛙蝌蚪72 h的半致死浓度(IC50)分别为1.23×10-6L和1.02×10-6L.本研究结果对于合理使用除草剂以有效保护虎纹蛙资源有积极意义.

  17. Primer registro de una población asilvestrada de rana toro (Lithobates catesbeianus en la Provincia de Córdoba, Argentina: Notas sobre la biología de la especie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akmentins, Mauricio S.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available En Argentina se ha constatado la presencia de poblaciones asilvestradas de Lithobates catesbeianus en las provincias de San Juan (Sanabria et al., 2005 y de Misiones (Pereyra et al., 2006. Las ranas toro pueden eliminar a los anfibios nativos directamente a través de predación o competencia por interferencia, o indirectamente por competencia por explotación, modificación del comportamiento, alteración del hábitat o introducción de enfermedades o parásitos (Boone et al., 2004. El presente trabajo se realizó en la localidad de Agua de las Piedras (30º48' 46,2"S; 64º12'57,9"O; 760 msnm, la cual se encuentra a 65 km al norte de la ciudad de Córdoba, provincia de Córdoba, Argentina.

  18. Sodium flux ratio through the amiloride-sensitive entry pathway in frog skin

    OpenAIRE

    1983-01-01

    The sodium flux ratio of the amiloride-sensitive Na+ channel in the apical membrane of in vitro Rana catesbeiana skin has been evaluated at different sodium concentrations and membrane potentials in sulfate Ringer solution. Amiloride-sensitive unidirectional influxes and effluxes were determined as the difference between bidirectional 22Na and 24Na fluxes simultaneously measured in the absence and presence of 10(-4) M amiloride in the external bathing solution. Amiloride- sensitive Na+ efflux...

  19. 黑斑蛙变态过程中甲状腺发育及甲状腺激素分泌%THE DEVELOPMENT AND HORMONE LEVELS OF THYROID GLAND DURING RANA NIGROMACULATA METAMORPHOSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛雅楠; 李圆圆; 张银凤; 楼钦钦; 赵亚娴; 秦占芬

    2014-01-01

    The metamorphosis of amphibians is considered as a good model to study thyroid hormone (TH) disruption. In the present study, we used Rana nigromaculata, a domestic species, to investigate thyroid development and the changes in TH levels during metamorphosis.We first described the morphological change during the tadpole develop-ment (stage 26-46) that the hind limbs appeared and finally formed five toes from stage 26 to 40. At the climax of metamorphosis, the dramatic changes include the protruded forelimbs and start-to-resorb tail. Tail resorption completed at stage 46, indicating the completion of metamorphosis. Corresponding to the morphological changes, histological fea-tures of thyroid gland changed significantly. From stage 26 to 37, the thyroid gland was small and developed slowly. At stage 38, the thyroid gland enlarged dramatically. The climax of thyroid gland development happened at the climax of metamorphosis. The thyroid gland began to shrink at the completion of metamorphosis. The thyroid hormone (T3) levels were associated with thyroid gland development. T3 content in per lower jaw was very low before metamorphosis, while increased dramatically during metamorphosis; it reached the peak level at the climax of metamorphosis and then de-creased. During Rana nigromaculata metamorphosis, thyroid hormone levels were correlated with thyroid gland histo-logical features. The current study creates the foundation for the research of thyroid hormone disruption.%系统研究了我国本土两栖动物种黑斑蛙(Rana nigromaculata)变态发育过程中甲状腺组织学和甲状腺激素水平的变化,为甲状腺生物学和甲状腺干扰研究提供基础数据。黑斑蛙蝌蚪发育的形态变化:第26-40阶段,后腿芽生长并逐渐分化出五趾结构;42阶段,开始进入变态高峰期,前肢展开,尾吸收,蝌蚪身体发生巨大形变;46阶段,蝌蚪完全变态成小蛙。随着形态学的变化,甲状腺的组织结

  20. 林蛙抗菌肽的制备及抑菌活性研究%Study on preparation and in vitro antibacteral activity of polypeptide from the epidermis of Rana chensinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李兰洲; 张爽; 王娟; 滕利荣; 曹尚; 王迪

    2015-01-01

    目的:超声波方法提取林蛙表皮多肽,对其氨基酸组成和抑菌活性进行分析。方法以pH 4.5醋酸-醋酸钠缓冲液为提取溶剂,超声波方法提取林蛙表皮多肽,超高效液相色谱(UPLC)方法分析其氨基酸组成,同时采用活菌计数和滤纸片方法测定其抑菌活性。结果超声波方法提取林蛙多肽,提取率为19.81%,多肽分子量在3000~5000 Da,该活性多肽作用2 min对大肠杆菌、金黄色葡萄球菌、白色念珠菌、铜绿假单胞菌抑菌率均可达85%以上,作用5 min抑菌率可达100%;其对4株菌抑菌圈直径均可达10 mm以上。结论采用超声波方法可以从中国林蛙皮中提取抗菌肽物质,该抗菌肽为碱性多肽,对革兰氏阳性菌、革兰氏阴性菌均具有很强的抑菌活性。%Objective Active peptides from the epidermis of Rana chensinensis were extracted by ultrasonic wave, amino acid and antibacterial activity were researched. Methods With ultrasonic wave and pH 4.5 acetic acid-sodium acetate buffer as extraction solvent, skin peptides from the frog were extracted, the amino acid composition and antibacterial activity of polypeptides were analyzed by ultra performance liquid chromatography, colony counting and filtering paper. Results Under ultrasonic wave conditions, extraction rate and molecular weight of polypeptides was 19.81% and 3000~5000 Da. The antimicrobial rate of polypeptides to Escherichia coli, Staphyloccocus aureus, Candida albicans and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were more than 85%when acting 2 min, and 100%when 5 min., the predictive best diameter of the inhibitory zone for the antimicrobial peptides was 1812 mm. Conclusion Ultrasound method can be used to extracted antibacterial peptide from Rana chensinensis skin material. The antibacterial peptides were alkaline polypeptides, and had a better inhibition for both gram-positive bacteria and gram-negative bacteria .

  1. Efecto de ocho Protocolos de Inducción Hormonal sobre la Reproducción de Ranas Venenosas Dendrobates truncatus (Cope, 1861 en el Parque Recreativo y Zoológico Piscilago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Alexander Franco

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available La difícil reproducción en cautiverio de ranas del género Dendrobates y su importanciapara la investigación médica y la industria de mascotas, han llevando a través del trafico al declive a sus poblaciones naturales, generando la necesidad de investigar el potencial zootécnico y la conservación de estas especies. Este estudio evaluó el efecto de ocho protocolos de inducción hormonal sobre la reproducción de ranas Dendrobates truncatus, se realizó en el Parque recreativo y zoológico Piscilago con 16 individuos de su colección, estos fueron pesados, sexados, medidos y fotografiados, se distribuyeron de a parejas en cajas plásticas de 30x40x20cm adecuadas como terrarios y se alimentaron a diario con insectos (tenebrios y termitas registrando temperatura y humedad tres veces al día, además se utilizo un período de acostumbramiento de 10 días. Los protocolos se basaron en la combinación de Chorulon® (gonadotropina coriónica humana, HCG y Merional® (gonadotropina menopaúsica humana, HMG a diferentes cantidades, número e intervalos entre aplicaciones, aplicando dos protocolos cada 10 días con 4 parejas por protocolo, para la manipulación se utilizaron guantes de látex sin talco y la inyección se realizó en el saco dorsal linfático con jeringas de 0,5mL y agujas de 12mm calibre 30G. Para los factores ambientales los resultados de temperatura y humedad fueron en promedio de 27,2°C y 77,8% respectivamente, en cuanto a los protocolos, ninguno logró inducir la reproducción, incluyendo llamados de cortejo, amplexos, ovulaciones y/o espermiaciones. Sin embargo, los protocolos hormonales no generaron ningún efecto negativo evidente sobre la salud de los animales. Los protocolos de inducción hormonal se utilizan para la conservación y zootecnia de algunos anfibios y aunque en este caso no funcionaron, se obtuvieron algunas experiencias de interés. Es necesario  llevar a cabo más estudios con diferentes protocolos u

  2. 中国林蛙性腺的发育及温度对其性别分化的影响%Development of Sexual Gland and Influence of Temperature on Sexual Differentiation in Rana chensinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李新红; 赵文阁; 郭玉民; 薛建华

    2001-01-01

    为探讨幼蛙性别分化与温度的关系,在恒温和变温条件下培养中国林蛙(Rana chensinensis)受精卵至变态完成.结果表明:①胚胎发育到24期时生殖嵴开始出现,25期个别原始生殖细胞(PGCs)已迁移到生殖嵴中,生殖细胞与生殖嵴共同发育成生殖腺;②胚胎发育到31期生殖腺出现性别分化,卵巢分化初期较易识别,而精巢分化不明显;③卵巢分化完成于37期,精巢分化完成于变态之后,两侧生殖腺等大;④胚胎发育从30 期开始,性别分化对温度较为敏感,低温利于雌性化,高温利于雄性化;⑤15~25℃为变温培养时性比发生变化的敏感温度区,缓慢升温雄性比例显著增加,缓慢降温雌性比例显著增加.

  3. Comparison of Genetic Diversity between Frog Rana tigrina rugulosa and Frog R. tigrina cantor%中国虎纹蛙与泰国虎纹蛙的遗传多样性比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽; 刘楚吾; 林东; 梁伟峰

    2005-01-01

    本文应用RAPD技术,研究了中国虎纹蛙(Rana tigrina rugulosa)和泰国虎纹蛙(R. tigrina cantor)的种内种间遗传多样性及种质特异性分子标记,结果表明:中国虎纹蛙和泰国虎纹蛙多态位点比例(P)分别为53.77%和70.79% ;遗传多样性指数(H)分别为0.1345和0.1780;种间的遗传相似系数(S)为0.4238,遗传距离(D)为0.6613.两种虎纹蛙遗传多样性都较丰富,但中国虎纹蛙的遗传变异程度较泰国虎纹蛙低.在OPA、OPF、OPP、OPZ几个系列随机引物的扩增中得到了可用于鉴别两种蛙的12条特异性谱带.

  4. 鲫鱼、黑斑蛙和家兔视网膜结构的比较组织学研究%Study on the Comparative Histology of Retina for Carassius auratus,Rana nigromaculata and Oryctolagus cuniculus domestica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佘秋生; 谢朝晖; 陈恩祥; 田勋; 陈兰英

    2011-01-01

    为探讨鲫鱼Carassius auratus、黑斑蛙Rana nigromaculata和家兔Oryclagus cuniculus domestica视网膜组织结构与其生活环境的适应关系,测量了3种动物视网膜各层厚度、3个核层的胞核层数及胞核直径,并对数据进行了统计分析.结果表明:鲫鱼、黑斑蛙和家兔视网膜均由4层细胞构成,在光镜下分为10层.鲫鱼视网膜平均厚度为196.57μm,黑斑蛙为186.96 μm,家兔为200.90μm.黑斑蛙和家兔的视网膜内核层的细胞数目比外核层多,鲫鱼的外核层细胞数目大于内核层细胞数目.鲫鱼、黑斑蛙和家兔3种动物视网膜结构的差异,与其从水生到两栖再到陆牛的牛境迁移和捕食方式的变化相适应.

  5. 林蛙肠道内容物中乳酸菌的分离与鉴定%Isolation and Identification of Lactobacilli from the Contents in Intestinal Tract of Rana cheinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯磊; 李洋; 袁敦良; 王立杰; 马程远

    2012-01-01

    [Objective]The research aimed to discuss the suitable lactobacilli for tadpole. [ Method]Lactobacilli were isolated from the content of intestinal tract in different species of Rana chinensis and identified by biochemical test. [Result]Three strains of bacteria were successfully isolated from the content of intestinal tract of R. chinensis. Through Gram staining and biochemical identification, the three strains of bacteria were confirmed as the same species of Streptococcus lactis. [ Conclusion] The research could provide good bacteria for preparing probiotics preparations and oral vaccines.%[目的]探索适用于蝌蚪的乳酸菌.[方法]从不同林蛙肠道内容物中分离乳酸菌,并对其进行生化鉴定.[结果]成功从林蛙肠道内容物中分离出3株细菌.通过革兰氏染色和生化鉴定,可确定这3株细菌为同一种乳酸链球菌.[结论]该研究可为益生素类制剂和口服疫苗的制备提供优良的菌种.

  6. Sexual Dimorphism and Morphological Correlates of Mating Individuals in the Frog Rana dybowskii%东北林蛙的两性异形和抱对个体的形态相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘鹏; 刘恒; 张德成; 赵文阁

    2013-01-01

    2012年4月,在吉林省长白山地区,对正在抱对的30对东北林蛙(Rana dybowskii)成体的体长、头长、头宽、前肢长和后肢长进行测量,使用统计学的方法分析抱对个体形态特征的两性异形及配偶间形态特征的相关性.结果表明,两性的所有局部形态特征均与其体长呈显著正相关,其中,前肢长和后肢长随体长的增长速率在两性间无显著差异,而头长和头宽随体长的增长速率存在显著差异.雌性成体显著大于雄性成体;特定体长下雄性的前肢显著大于雌性,其他局部特征没有显著的两性差异;雌性个体与抱对的雄性个体的后肢长呈显著正相关,其余形态特征两性间无相关性.因此,在东北林蛙的配偶选择中,雌性对雄性形态特征的选择与两性异形的形成无显著的相关性.%Thirty pairs of mating Rana dybowskii were collected from Changbaishan Mount of Jilin Province in April, 2012 to study sexual dimorphism and morphological correlates of mate choice. Measurements taken for each individual included snout-urostyle length (SUL), head length (HL), head width (HW) , fore-limb length (FLL) and hind-limb length (HLL). All morphological variables measured were positively correlated with SUL in both sexes. The rates at which FLL and HLL increased with SUL did not differ between the sexes, whereas the rates at which HL and HW increased with SUL differed between the sexes. The mean SUL was greater in females than in males, FLL was greater in males than in females after accounting for variation in SUL, and other morphological traits did not differ between the sexes. Our data also showed that there were no significant correlation in most examined morphological traits of paired female and male except HLL. Therefore, the formation of sexual dimorphism in R. dybowskii were not significantly correlates with morphological traits of mate choice.

  7. Prokaryotic Soluble Expression of a Novel Ribonuclease Gene Rdrlec from Rana dybowskii%中国林蛙核糖核酸酶Rdrlec新基因的原核可溶表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶凤云; 尹雪薇; 李丹; 蒋丹; 赵伟

    2013-01-01

    Much attention has been paid to ribonucleases from amphibian Rana species for their significant anti-tumor activity. Rdrlec is a novel RNase gene form Rana dybowskii and its biological function has not been identified. Getting a great deal of high purity wild type recombinant protein is the basis for its function study. Rdrlec gene was adjusted according to Escherichia coli codon bias without changing its amino acids. The synthetic gene was inserted to the pET-32a ( + ) expression vector through the EcoR I and Hind III site, and the resulting recombination expression plasmid was named pET32-Rdrlec and transferred into Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) strains. After induced with 0.4 mmol/L IPTG at 30℃ for 6 h, the fusion protein was found expressed mainly in soluble form. The cell lysate was loading to Ni-NTA affinity chromatography and Sephadex G75 chromatography, and the fusion protein showed a single band on SDS-PAGE. The wild type recombinant Rdrlec protein was released and purified after enterokinase digesting, and it showed enzymatic activity to degrade RNA into nucleotides, which shows that this molecule has formed the correct spatial structure. The successful expression of wild type recombinant Rdrlec protein has providing the raw material for the subsequent structure, function and application study.%来源于蛙属的核糖核酸酶由于具有显著的抗肿瘤活性而备受关注,Rdrlec是从中国林蛙基因组中克隆得到的核糖核酸酶新基因.获得大量高纯度野生型重组蛋白是研究其功能的基础.按照大肠杆菌偏好的密码子人工合成Rdrlec基因,通过EcoR Ⅰ和Hind Ⅲ位点插入到表达载体pET-32a(+)中构建pET32-Rdrlec重组表达质粒,转化到Escherichia coli BL21(DE3)中,0.4 mmol/L IPTG 30℃诱导6h后,融合蛋白主要以可溶形式表达,经过Ni-NTA亲和纯化和Sephadex G75层析纯化,得到电泳纯融合蛋白.肠激酶切割后得到Rdrlec野生型重组蛋白,具有降解RNA的酶活性,证明

  8. Distribution of five types of gastrointestinal hormone immunoreactive cells in the skin of rana rugulosa%5种胃肠激素免疫阳性细胞在虎纹蛙皮肤中的分布

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李洋; 李昌春; 金磊; 戴光云; 张盛周

    2010-01-01

    目的:对虎纹蛙(rana rugulosa)皮肤中5种胃肠激素免疫阳性细胞进行鉴别与定位.方法:应用过氧化物酶标记的链霉卵白素(S-P)免疫细胞化学方法.结果:在虎纹蛙皮肤中检测出了5-羟色胺(5-HT)、胃泌素(GAS)、胰高血糖素(GLU)、胰多肽(PP)和生长抑素(SS)等5种胃肠激素免疫阳性细胞.阳性细胞主要分布于皮肤的表皮层和黏液腺中,颗粒腺中未见分布.GAS和GLU免疫阳性细胞在背部皮肤中的分布密度大于腹部,背部皮肤中免疫阳性反应亦强于腹部;5-HT、PP和SS免疫阳性细胞则在腹部皮肤中的分布密度大于背部,腹部皮肤中免疫阳性反应亦强于背部.结论:虎纹蛙皮肤细胞可表达多种胃肠激素免疫阳性物质,其在背腹部皮肤中含量不同.

  9. Influence of supplying bullfrog tadpoles with feed containing 28% crude protein on performance and enzymatic activities Influência do fornecimento de uma ração comercial com 28% de proteína bruta sobre o desempenho e a atividade de enzimas digestivas de girinos de rã-touro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Teixeira de Seixas Filho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was evaluate the influence of feeding bullfrog tadpoles on commercial feed containing 28% crude protein (CP, on their digestive enzyme performance and activities. The experiment lasted 60 days, at the density of one tadpole/L in boxes containing 30 L water. A hundred and twenty tadpoles at the 25 Gosner stage averaging weight and length was 0.046 g and 6.22 mm, respectively, were used. Survival rate, length, final weight, weight gain, feed consumption, apparent food conversion, specific growth rate and activities of chime, amylase, lipase and trypisin were the parameters evaluated, biweekly, in five biometries. Quadratic effect was observed for the length and the weight. There was larger growth of the tadpoles from the 15th to the 45th day (19.82 mm. On the 15th day, the tadpoles presented the largest specific growth rate (16.93%/day, and the largest weight gain (5.460 g, feed intake (14.099 g and the best apparent food conversion (2.46 was from the 45th to the 60th day. The specific activity of amylase was 205 times greater at 60 days when compared to the beginning of the experiment. The results demonstrated that, for the three enzymes studied, the action capacity over the tadpole chime increased significantly after the 30th experimental day. Moreover, they suggested a greater capacity of tadpoles to digest carbohydrates in detriment to proteins, and this fact was accentuated in the initial phase of the exogenous feeding of this amphibian. The commercial feed with 28% CP provide good performance in the bullfrog tadpoles, indicating the juvenile formation within commercial bullfrog farming standards.Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a influência da alimentação de girinos de rã-touro com ração comercial contendo 28% de proteína bruta (PB no desempenho e nas atividades de enzimas digestivas desses animais. Utilizaram-se 120 girinos no estágio 25 de Gosner com 0,046 g e 6,22 mm, respectivamente, mantidos em

  10. Construction of Eukaryotic Expression Vector with Rana Antimicrobial Peptides Gene Temporin-lCEa%中国林蛙抗菌肽Temporin-1CEa基因的真核表达载体构建。

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志崇; 王春生; 张秋婷; 朴善花; 苗向阳; 安铁洙

    2012-01-01

    In order to establish a method to get a large number of antimicrobial peptides from Rana chensinensis,a series of experiments were conducted as follows.According to Chinese frog skin antimicrobial peptides Temporin-1CEa gene mRNA sequence(EU624139) in GenBank,a pair of specific primers were designed and cDNA was obtained from Chinese forest frog skin RNA by reverse transcription.Temporin-1CEa gene coding sequence was amplified using the cDNA,and linked with pEASY-T3 cloning vector.The GFP gene was inserted into the recombinant plasmid Tem-T3 by molecular methods.The Tem-GFP fragment was linked with eukaryotic expression vector pcDNA3.1,and Tem-GFP-pcDNA3.1 recombinant plasmid was achieved finally.Using of lipid infection method,the plasmids were transfected into sheep fibroblast cells,the green fluorescence was observed under a fluorescence microscope after 48 h.qPCR data showed that Tem-GFP fusion protein expression level of transfected Tem-GFP-pcDNA3.1 sheep fibroblasts increased about 300 folds than that of the control group.This study supplied the technical basis for developing mammary gland bioreactor of expressing Temporin-1CEa gene.%为了建立大量获取中国林蛙抗菌肽的方法,根据GenBank中的中国林蛙皮肤抗菌肽Temporin-1CEa基因的mRNA序列(EU624139)设计一对特异性引物,以提取的中国林蛙皮肤总RNA反转录出的cDNA为模板,将扩增的编码序列与pEASY-T3克隆载体连接获得Tem-T3;利用酶切、连接等分子生物学手段,将GFP基因连入Tem-T3克隆载体,再经酶切获得Tem-GFP片段,并插入真核表达载体pcDNA3.1,最终得到Tem-GFP-pcD-NA3.1重组质粒;利用脂质体转染法将该质粒转入绵羊成纤维细胞,48 h后可在荧光倒置显微镜下观察到GFP的绿色荧光表达;qPCR数据分析显示,与对照组相比,转染Tem-GFP-pcDNA3.1的绵羊成纤维细胞中融合蛋白Tem-GFP的表达量可提高约300倍。本研究为构建Temporin-1CEa基因山羊乳腺特异表达载体提供依据。

  11. Distribución y abundancia de Craugastor vulcani: una especie de rana en riesgo de Los Tuxtlas, Veracruz, México Distribution and abundance of Craugastor vulcani: an endangered frog species from Los Tuxtlas, Veracruz, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Pineda

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available En México, más de la mitad de las especies de anfibios están amenazadas y de la mayoría no se genera información que permita conocer el estatus en el que se encuentran sus poblaciones. En este trabajo se evaluó la distribución y abundancia de Craugastor vulcani, una rana endémica de la sierra de Los Tuxtlas Veracruz que se encuentra en riesgo de extinción, en función de la transformación de la selva. Para este trabajo, se consultaron bases de datos de registros históricos y se muestrearon 12 sitios que representan ambientes comunes de la región. Se registró un total de 524 individuos, de los cuales el 77% se encontraron en fragmentos de selva, el 20% en remanentes riparios y sólo el 3% en potreros. La mayor abundancia (62% se registró durante la época seca del año. La distribución conocida de C. vulcani está sesgada hacia el norte de la sierra, existe poca información sobre su presencia en la porción sur. La permanencia de la especie en la zona parece depender de los pocos fragmentos de bosque existentes. El aumento en el número, área y conectividad de tales remanentes son algunas de las medidas necesarias para conservar ésta y otras especies amenazadas en la región.More than a half of all amphibian species occurring in Mexico are threatened, and for most of them there is no current information to assess the status of their populations. Craugastor vulcani is an endemic frog from the Los Tuxtlas mountains, Veracruz, and it is classified as an endangered species. We examine the distribution and abundance of C. vulcani as a function of rainforest transformation in Los Tuxtlas. We consulted historical records in databases and sampled 12 sites representing common habitats of the region. We recorded a total of 524 individuals of which 77% were found in rainforest fragments, 20% were collected in riparian remnants and just 3% in cattle pastures. Most individuals (62% were recorded during the dry season. The known distribution

  12. A QSAR Study on the Toxicity of Substituted Aromatic Hydrocarbons to the Tadpoles (Rana japonica)%取代芳烃对蝌蚪毒性的定量构效关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾云兰

    2012-01-01

    对24种取代芳烃化合物进行DFT-B3LYP/6-311G**水平全优化计算,据所得量子化学参数建立取代芳烃对蝌蚪12h暴露急性半致死毒性(lg1/LC50,mol·L-1)的定量构效关系(QSAR)模型.对训练集样本经逐步多元回归分析后,所建QSAR模型的相关系数R及去一法(LOO)交互检验复相关系数R2cv分别为0.950和0.875,用预测集样本进行了外部预测,所得外部预测样本复相关系数R2ext和外部预测集交互检验Q2ext分别为0.880和0.856,表明所建立的QSAR方程具有较好的稳定性和预测能力.模型结果表明:分子的体积愈大,化合物毒性愈强;最负的原子净电荷愈负,毒性愈弱.对模型应用域(AD)进行了表征,所建模型可以应用于应用域内化合物的毒性预测,具有潜在应用价值.%DFT-B3LYP method,with the basis set 6-311G**,was employed to calculate the molecular geometric and electronic structures of substituted aromatic hydrocarbons.The toxicity of these compounds to the tadpoles (rana japonica) along with the above descriptors was used to establish the quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR).The variables were reduced using stepwise multiple regression method, and the statistical results indicated that the correlation coefficient in the multiple linear regression and cross validation using leave-one-out were 0.950 and 0.875,respectively. To validate the predictive power of resulting model, external validation were performed with R I, and Q I, values of 0.880,0.856, respectively .These showed that the QSAR model had good stability and predictability. The study indicated that the toxicities were increased with the increase of the volume (V) and the decrease of the most negative atomic net charge of molecule (q-).Moreover,the applicability domain of the developed model was assessed and visualized by the Williams plot. The developed QSAR model can be used to predict the toxicities of substituted aromatic hydrocarbons within the

  13. Potential for Loss of Breeding Habitat for Imperiled Mountain Yellow-legged Frog ( Rana muscosa) in High Sierra Nevada Mountain Water Bodies due to Reduced Snowpack: Interaction of Climate Change and an Introduced Predator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacan, I.; Matthews, K. R.

    2005-12-01

    Year to year variation in snowpack (20-200% average) and summer rain create large fluctuations in the volume of water in ponds and small lakes of the higher elevation (> 3000 m) Sierra Nevada. These water bodies are critical habitat for the imperiled mountain yellow-legged frog, Rana muscosa, which has decreased in abundance by 90% during the past century, due in part to the loss of suitable habitat and introduction of a fish predator (trout, Oncorhynchus spp.). Climate change is predicted to reduce the amount of snowpack, potentially impacting amphibian habitats throughout the Sierra Nevada by further reducing the lake and pond water levels and resulting in drying of small lakes during the summer. Mountain yellow-legged frogs are closely tied to water during all life stages, and are unique in having a three- to four-year tadpole phase. Thus, tadpole survival and future recruitment of adult frogs requires adequate water in lakes and ponds throughout the year, but larger lakes are populated with fish that prey on frogs and tadpoles. Thus, most successful frog breeding occurs in warm, shallow, fishless ponds that undergo wide fluctuations in volume. These water bodies would be most susceptible to the potential climate change effects of reduced snowpack, possibly resulting in lower tadpole survival. This study explores the link between the changes in water availability -- including complete pond drying -- and the abundance and recruitment of mountain yellow-legged frog in Dusy Basin, Kings Canyon National Park, California, USA. We propose using the low-snowpack years (1999, 2002, 2004) as comparative case studies to predict future effects of climate change on aquatic habitat availability and amphibian abundance and survival. To quantify the year to year variation and changes in water volume available to amphibians, we initiated GPS lake mapping in 2002 to quantify water volumes, water surface area, and shoreline length. We tracked these changes by repeated mapping of

  14. IN VITRO STUDIES ON GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE SECRETION IN RANA RUGULOSA%虎纹蛙促性腺激素释放激素分泌调节的离体研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李远友; 林浩然

    2002-01-01

    利用离体静态孵育系统和放射免疫测定法,研究了性成熟的虎纹蛙雌蛙离体的视前-下丘脑-正中隆起(P-H-ME)片段促性腺激素释放激素(GnRH)的分泌调节.结果表明:γ-氨基丁酸(GABA)对成熟前期蛙离体P-H-ME片段的哺乳类GnRH(mGnRH)的释放有显著的刺激作用;随着GABA作用浓度的增加,刺激作用逐渐增强.100 μmol/L的多巴胺(DA)及1 μmol/L 和10 μmol/L的雌二醇(E2)则显著抑制鸡Ⅱ GnRH (cGnRH-Ⅱ)的释放.10 μmol/L 和100 μmol/L的睾酮(T)以及10 μmol/L的E2显著刺激冬眠期蛙P-H-ME片段mGnRH的释放.这些结果说明,GABA、DA及E2和T对虎纹蛙GnRH的释放有直接的调节作用.%In vitro release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) from the slices of the brain preoptic-hypothalamus-median eminence (P-H-ME) region of adult Rana rugulosa females was studied by using a static incubation system and raidoimmunoassay (RIA). γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) at 0.1~10 μmol/L (significantly) stimulated the release of mammalian GnRH (mGnRH) from the slices of P-H-ME of sexually pre-mature frog, the stimulatory action was enhanced with the increasing concentrations of GABA, and was significant at 1 μmol/L or 10 μmol/L; 100 μmol/L dopamine (DA) and 1 μmol/L or 10 μmol/L estradiol (E2) markedly inhibited the release of chicken-Ⅱ GnRH (cGnRH-Ⅱ). Both 10 μmol/L or 100 μmol/L testosterone (T) and 100 μmol/L E2 significantly stimulated the release of mGnRH from the slices of P-H-ME of hibernating frog. These results demonstrate that GABA, DA, E2 and T may have direct regulatory action on GnRH release from the brain of R.rugulosa.

  15. 多巴胺、雌二醇及睾酮对虎纹蛙离体脑垂体促性腺激素分泌的影响%EFFECTS OF DOPAMINE,ESTRADIOL AND TESTOSTERONE ON GONADOTROPIN RELEASE FROM THE PITUITARY FRAGMENTS OF Rana rugulosa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李远友; 林浩然

    2000-01-01

    To understand the regulatory mechanisms of gonadotropin secretion in Rana rugulosa, this study investigated the effects of dopamina (DA), estradiol (E2) and testosterone (T) on the in vitro release of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulation hormone (FSH) from the pituitary fragments of female Rana rugulosa using a static incubation system and radio-immunoassay (RIA). The results indicated that DA at the concentration from 0.1 μmol/L to 10μmol/L inhibited the release of LH and FSH from the pituitary fragments of sexually pre-mature or hibernation individuals, and the inhibitory effects enhanced with increasing concentrations of DA. E2at 1 μmol/L and 10μmol/L significantly stim-ulated the release of LH of sexually pre-mature individuals, but inhibited their FSH release at 0.1μmol/L to 10 μmol/L; T had no obvious effects on their FSH release, but significantly inhibited their LH release at 10 μmol/L. Neither E2 nor T, at the concentration from 0.1 μmol/L to 100 μmol/L, had obvious effects on the release of LH and FSH of hibernation individuals. The data suggest that DA and sexual steroids may have direct regulatory actions on LH and FSH release at the pituitary level in Rana rugulosa, and the action of sexual sterlids may relate to the gonadal development stages (sea-sons).%为了解虎纹蛙促性腺激素分泌的调节机理,用离体静态培育系统和放射免疫测定法,研究了多巴胺(DA)、雌二醇(E2)和睾酮(T)对雌性虎纹蛙离体脑垂体薄片促黄体激素(LH)和促卵泡激素(FSH)分泌活动的影响.结果表明:0.1~10μmol/L的DA对成熟前期和冬眠期虎纹蛙离体脑垂体薄片的LH及FSH的释放都有抑制作用,并且随着DA浓度的增加,抑制作用逐渐增强.1和10μmol/L的E2显著刺激成熟前期蛙LH的释放,而0.1~10μmol/L的E2显著抑制其FSH的释放;T对其FSH的释放无显著影响,但10μmol/L的T显著抑制其LH释放.0.1~100μmol/L的E2或T对冬眠期蛙LH和FSH的释放均

  16. Isolation, identification and drug sensitivity tests of Proteus mirabilis from rotten-skin disease of Rana spinosa%棘胸蛙烂皮病奇异变形杆菌的分离、鉴定及对药物敏感性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑞君; 熊筱娟

    2012-01-01

    从患烂皮病的棘胸蛙(Rana spinosa)中分离到一株致病菌,通过形态学、生理生化试验等方法鉴定该致病菌株为奇异变形杆菌(Proteus mirabilis).同时,通过抑菌圈法研究了该菌株对11种抗生素、11种中草药、4种消毒剂的敏感性.结果显示:该菌株对头孢曲松、阿莫西林、链霉素、诺氟沙星、庆大霉素、卡那霉素、氯霉素等抗生素敏感,对四环素、红霉素不敏感;未观察到黄芪、茵陈对该菌的抑制作用,忍冬藤抑菌效果最好,其次依次为紫花地丁、金银花与甘草、鱼腥草、大青叶与柴胡、陈皮、黄连;致病菌株对消毒剂的敏感性依次为:高锰酸钾>三氯异氰脲酸>硫酸铜>氧化钙.%Pathogenic strain originated from the rotten-skin disease of Rana spinosa was isolated. The isolated strain was I-dentified as Proteus mirabilis by its morphological and biochemical properties. At the same time, the susceptibility of isolated strain to antibiotics, Chinese herbal medicine and disinfectant was studied by zone of inhibition testing. Results showed: it was sensitive to ceftriaxone sodium, amoxicillin, streptomyclin, norfloxacin, gentamycin sulfate, kanamycin and chloroamphenicol; it was not sensitive to tetracycline and erythromyclin. Astragalus membranaceus and Artemisiac apil-laris Thunb had less inhibition to this strain. The bigger inhibition zone is Lonicera japonica, Viola philippica Car, Honeysuckle and Radix glycyrrhiza, Houttuynia cordata Thunb, halts indigotica Fortune and Radix Bupleuri, Pericarpium citri, Coptis chinensis Franch sorted by size. Inhibitory effect of these disinfectors.was: Potassium permanganate >Trichloro iso-cyanuric acid > Copper sulfate > Calcium oxide.

  17. 14C-丁草胺、14C-毒死蜱和14C-DDT在日本林蛙中的生物学行为%BEHAVIORS OF 14C-BUTACHLOR,14C-CHLORPYRIFOS AND 14C-DDT IN Rana japonica japonica Guenther

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张奕强; 张海清; 钟创光; 赵小奎; 陈舜华

    2002-01-01

    用同位素示踪技术研究了14C-丁草胺、14C-毒死蜱和14C-DDT在日本林蛙(Rana japonica japonica Guenther)中的生物学行为.结果发现,14C-丁草胺、14C-毒死蜱和14C-DDT在24h后分布到青蛙的各个器官组织,并分别以胆囊、小肠、小肠为它们的特异性浓集器官.与胆囊或小肠的14C放射性活度比较,其它器官组织中的要小得多.14C-DDT在日本林蛙中较难降解,24h后DDT母体在肝和脂肪组织中占DDT代谢物的54.6%和88.4%.青蛙中的14C-丁草胺、14C-毒死蜱和14C-DDT可被丙酮提取,但三者之间以及在青蛙的器官之间有差异.%The research on the behaviors of 14C-butachlor, 14C-chlorpyrifos and 14C-DDT in the frog Rana japonica japonica Guenther was carried out. After administrated per os to the frogs in doses of 380,347,363 Bq/g, 14C-butachlor, 14C-chlorpyrifos and 14C-DDT, were distributed respectively to various organs within 24 h with specific accumulating organs as gallbladder, intestine and intestine, relevantly to the pesticides described. Compared to that in gallbladder and intestine, the radioactivity of many organs was extremely low, and this might due to the characters of the pesticides. Analysis of the metabolites of 14C-DDT in frog at 24th hr demonstrated that DDT was difficult to be degraded. Most 14C-butachlor, 14C-chlorpyrifos 14C-DDT in liver and fat or ovary of frog was extractable with acetone. However, there were some differences between the pesticides, and the organs as well. And 14C-butachlor, 14C-chlorpyrifos or 14C-DDT were better bound in liver than in fat.

  18. Stretch-activated cation channel from larval bullfrog skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillyard, Stanley D; Willumsen, Niels J; Marrero, Mario B

    2010-01-01

    a variable pattern of opening and closing with continuing suction. Current-voltage plots demonstrated linear or inward rectification and single channel conductances of 44-56 pS with NaCl or KCl Ringer's solution as the pipette solution, and a reversal potential (-V(p)) of 20-40 mV. The conductance...

  19. BIOCONCENTRATION AND METABOLISM OF ALL-TRANS RETINOIC ACID BY RANA SYLVATICA AND RANA CLAMITANS TADPOLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retinoids, which are Vitamin A derivatives, are important signaling molecules that regulate processes critical for development in all vertebrates. The objective of our study was to examine uptake and metabolism of all-trans retinoic acid...

  20. Mathematical Modeling for the Optimum Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Rana Skin Collagen Peptide and Its Antioxidant Research%林蛙皮胶原蛋白肽酶解工艺数学建模及抗氧化作用的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱芳萍; 王长周; 季晓枫

    2013-01-01

    The influencing factors in the enzyme solution process of Rana skin collagen peptide (LWT) were optimized by using the mathematical statistics and data fitting analysis method. And the relationship between the influencing factors and hydrolyzing degree in the enzyme solution process of LWT was established. And the best value hydrolysis degree (peak) was forecasted. Used polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis method to determine the molecular weight of LWT which was under 3 500. High performance liquid chromatogram showed that the purity was in the high level. In the antioxidant effect of LWT on liver damage of bromobenzene mice were studied. The results showed that LWT have the remarkable effect on reducing MDA content and the obvious effect on rising SOD vitality in mice liver tissue and have antioxidant effect.%采用数理统计和数据拟合分析方法对林蛙皮胶原蛋白肽(LWT)酶解过程中的影响因素进行优化,建立了LWT酶解过程中影响因素与水解度关系的数学模型,验证了水解度的最佳值(峰值).采用聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳方法证明LWT的相对分子质量在3 500以下,HPLC表明其纯度较高.研究了LWT对溴代苯小鼠肝损伤的抗氧化作用,结果表明:LWT具有显著降低小鼠肝组织中MDA质量分数和显著升高小鼠肝组织中SOD活力的作用,具有抗氧化作用.

  1. Dynamics of Skin Secretion and Antimicrobial Peptides of the Frog Rana dybowskii after Electronic Stimulation%电刺激后东北林蛙皮肤分泌物及其抗微生物肽组分的动态恢复

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖向红; 马建章; 苗慧敏; 申屠德君; 张晶钰; 柴龙会

    2012-01-01

    To illustrate dynamics of secretion and the peptides patterns of Rana dybowskii, the crude skin secretions were collected at different time when their secretions were released with a mild electrical stimulation. The results showed that the restoring amount of skin secretions increased in a characteristic sigmoid curve during 0-21 days after an electrical stimulation. The HPLC showed that the skin secretions collected at different time had the identical components, however the components restored asynchronously. Two quickly-restored components peaks were tested for their antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli ATCC25922 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC25923 and showed strong antibacterial activity. The two components were identified by ESI-MS/MS and their amino acid sequences were determined. The results indicated that the recovery rates of skin secretion components in R. dybowskii were asynchronous and the antimicrobial peptides had precedence over other peptides. The immune defense strategy would ensure the survival of frogs in a complex environment.%东北林蛙皮肤分泌物排空后,在不同时间点收集其皮肤分泌物,分析皮肤分泌物及其中抗菌肽谱的动态恢复规律.结果表明:电刺激排空后的第0 ~21天时间范围内东北林蛙皮肤分泌物总量的恢复呈递增趋势;高效液相色谱显示不同时间收集的皮肤分泌物的组分差异不显著(P >0.05,n=5),但各组分恢复的时间并不同步;用大肠杆菌和金黄色葡萄球菌对恢复较快的2个组分峰成分进行抑菌试验,发现2组分均有较强的抑菌活性.用ESI-MS/MS对2组份进行质谱鉴定,确定其氨基酸序列.东北林蛙皮肤分泌物中抗微生物肽的恢复表达优先于其他多肽,该免疫防御策略可为东北林蛙在复杂环境中的生存提供保证.

  2. A comparative study on the secretory activity of the subcommissural organ in the European green frogs: Rana esculenta, rana lessonae and Rana ridibunda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diederen, J.H.B.; Vullings, H.G.B.

    1980-01-01

    1. 1. The subcommissural organ (SCO), present in all vertebrates, is situated in the roof of the third brain ventricle, and secretes into this ventricle a glycoproteinaceous, fibre-like structure, the liquor fibe (LF). 2. 2. The three forms of European green frogs diner from each other in the three

  3. Comparative ultrastructural analysis of two tortoise bladders, Testudo graeca and Geochelone carbonaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strum, J M; Danon, D

    1976-01-01

    Urinary bladders from the desert tortoises, Testudo graeca and Geochelone carbonaria were removed at specific times during the year and species in all bladders examined: (1) granular cells, (2) mitochondria-rich cells, and (3) basal cells. Cells analogous to these three types have also been observed in amphibian bladders (from toad Bufo marinus and bullfrog, Rana catesbiana) and reptilian bladders (from Pseudemys scripta and Clemmys caspica). Both tortoises have an incomplete layer of basal cells so that the granular and mitochondria-rich cells extend from the lumen to the basement membrane: something was not observed in bladders from bullfrog or turtles. A flask-shaped light cell was observed in the Geochelone carbonaria bladder obtained in April. No counterpart of this cell was seen in the same species sacrificed in January, or in any of the Testudo graeca bladders, although a similar cell has been described in the turtle, Pseudemys scripta (Rosen, Expt. Molec. Path., 12: 286-296, '70). This study was undertaken to characterize the cell types present in tortoise bladder and to compare them with cell types in the bladder of the turtle, bullfrog and toad. PMID:1252017

  4. Antipredator Behavioral Responses of Native and Exotic Tadpoles to Novel Predator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang ZHANG; Juan ZHAO; Yujie ZHANG; Kevin MESSENGER; Yong WANG

    2015-01-01

    Factors related to the invasion process, such as high abundance of invaders, residence time, and functional distinctiveness, are well documented, but less attention has been given to the effects of antipredator strategy of invasive species during colonization. In this study, we explored the antipredator strategy of an introduced species by comparing the predator avoidance behaviors of two native anuran species and one introduced (“exotic”) species in the presence of different predators. The two native anuran species used in the study were Black-spotted Pond FrogRana nigromaculata and Terrestrial Frog Rana limnocharis. The introduced (invasive) species used was American bullfrogLithobates catesbeianus. Chinese pond turtleChinemys reevesii, Red-backed rat snakeElaphe rufodorsata, and Big-headed turtle Platysternon megacephalum were used as predator species. Chinese pond turtles and Red-backed rat snakes are native predators of Black-spotted Pond Frogs and Terrestrial Frogs, while Big-headed turtles are novel (“unfamiliar”) to the two frogs. All three predator species are novel (“unfamiliar”) to the American bullfrog. The results show that tadpoles of the two native species displayed behaviors of recognizing the two native predators, but did not display the capability of identifying the novel predator. Results from our study also suggest that American bullfrog tadpoles exhibited strong antipredator behavioral responses by displaying the capability of identifying “unfamiliar” predators without cohabitation history and prior exposure to them. Such antipredator behavioral responses could have resulted in more favorable outcomes for an invading species during the invasive introductory process.

  5. Real-time PCR Detection and Phylogenetic Analysis for Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in Rana limnocharises from Samples of a Museum%馆藏泽蛙标本壶菌病原实时PCR检测与系统发育分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾朝辉; 白世卓; 朱蕴绮; 王晓龙

    2012-01-01

    In order to research and prove the chytridiomycosis of amphibians in our country in the history, review the origin of the Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis from the aspects of time and systematic evolution, 39 Rana limnocharises which were collected from Guangdong province and held in museum in 1982 were screened by Taqman-MGB fluorescence probe quantitative polymerase chain reaction to detect the pathogens; and the products of QPCR were cloned and sequenced to identify the origin of the pathogens by sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis. Finally we got the standard curve: Y = - 3.1 X + 32.65 and the related coefficient: R2 = 0.999 8. There were 12 positive samples were gotten to report the detection rate as 30.8 %. Meanwhile the phylogenetic analysis indicated that a certain extent differentia- tion of the Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in our country existed. One type of the fungi had altitudinal genetic relationship with the strains from the North America, South America and Europe. Another one was obviously different from the strains in the other areas of the world with special characteristics. The research boosted the earliest record of the Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in China to 1980s.%为研究、验证我国两栖类壶菌病的历史疫情,从时间和系统进化角度追溯壶菌的来源,该研究选取北京自然博物馆馆藏1982年采集于广东的泽蛙标本39只,利用Taqman-MGB荧光探针定量PCR技术进行壶菌检测,并对定量PCR产物克隆、测序,通过序列比对和系统发育分析判定其来源。最终得到定量PCR标准曲线:Y=-3.1X+32.65;相关系数R2=0.999 8;检测结果为阳性样本12只,检出率30.8%;同时系统发育分析表明,我国的壶菌存在一定程度的分化,一类与北美洲、南美洲、欧洲菌株呈现高度的亲缘关系;另一类则表现出与世界其他地区分布的壶菌有明显的不同,显示为独特类型。该研究把我国壶菌感染的最早记录推进到了20

  6. Trends in anuran occupancy from northeastern states of the North American Monitoring Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Linda; Fiske, Ian J.; Royle, J. Andrew

    2009-01-01

    We present the first multi-year occupancy trends from North American Amphibian Monitoring Program (NAAMP) data in 10 northeastern states using seven years of data (2001-2007). NAAMP uses a calling survey technique where observers listen for anuran vocalizations along assigned random roadside routes. We were able to assess occupancy trends in 10 northeastern states for 16 species and one species complex, for 94 species/state combinations. We found no significant trends for 64 species/state combinations. For the remaining 30 species/state combinations with significant trends, these split between declining and increasing trends. On a species-by-species basis, two species had declining trends, with significant trends in six states for Pseudacris crucifer and four states for Bufo americanus. The trends of Rana catesbeiana significantly increased in four states, but had no trend in the remaining states.

  7. Radioimmunoassay for plasma corticotropin in frogs (Rana esculenta L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radioimmunoassay technique has been developed for measuring frog plasma corticotropin (ACTH) without prior extraction. Using synthetic porcine ACTH as a reference standard, 131I-labeled synthetic human ACTH (sp act greater than 500 mCi/mg) as tracer and rabbit anti-porcine ACTH serum, the lower measurable value was estimated at about 4 pg ACTH. Only human and porcine ACTH, ACTH, and frog pituitary ACTH reacted with the rabbit anti-porcine ACTH serum. No cross-reactivity has been found with synthetic ACTH, αMSH, and bovine βMSH. Appearance of damaged 131I-h ACTH components after storage in plasma solutions was followed for 7 days. The conditions making it possible to reduce ACTH damage have been ascertained. The average plasma corticotropin level (+- CI) was found to be 38.8 +- 7.8 pg/ml without any significant difference between males and females. These results suggest that frog ACTH secretion has much in common with mammalian secretions

  8. Osmotic pressure of the cutaneous surface fluid of Rana esculenta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid Larsen, Erik; Ramløv, Hans

    2012-01-01

    The osmotic pressure of the cutaneous surface fluid (CSF) in vivo was measured for investigating whether evaporative water loss (EWL) derives from water diffusing through the skin or fluid secreted by exocrine subepidermal mucous glands. EWL was stimulated by subjecting R. esculenta to 30–34 °C....... A solute-free paper disc was placed on the skin for sampling of the clear CSF uniformly covering the body surface. The osmolality measured in a Wescor Vapro Vapor Osmometer was, 173 ± 9 mosmol/Kg, mean ± se, n = 21 samples. The osmolality of CSF of isoproterenol injected frogs at 20 °C was, 149 ± 5 mosmol...

  9. El declive de una población costera cantábrica de Rana bermeja (Rana temporaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GOSA, A.

    1998-01-01

    Algunas de las características reproductoras de la población son de notable alargamiento de su periodo de puesta, que comienza a primeros de noviembre y puede extenderse hasta febrero y primeros de marzo ; la baja fecundidad de las hembras (media de 1006 huevos por puesta y la permanencia de los machos en los charcos donde se reproducen(algunos pasan en ellos hasta dos meses y medio.El pico reproductor medio para el periodo de estudio se produce en la segunda decena de diciembre, fecha en la que ya se ha hecho el 60% de la puesta total.

  10. Development of a water recirculating system for bullfrog production: technological innovation for small farmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Conceição Reis Pereira Mello

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Despite the technological progress in frog farming, issues related to the environment, biosafety, and the use of technologies that minimise environmental impacts are frequently neglected by farmers. With the goal of developing a low-cost technology for reuse and preservation of water quality, an anaerobic filtering system combined with an aerobic filtering system was implemented in the grow-out sector in the Frog Culture Research Unit at Fundação Instituto de Pesca do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (FIPERJ. The filtering system received the effluent from six pens of frogs that were populated with 362 frogs in different development phases. The efficiency of the filtering system was evaluated by an analysis of the water before and after passing through the filters. In addition to the standards of water quality, the animals' performance was also observed through monitoring rates of survival, weight gain and feed conversion ratio. The results showed the effectiveness of the filtering system by removing organic matter, on average 87%. The values of total ammonia and non-ionisable reached 1.04 and 0.004 mg/L, respectively. Also, frogs subjected to the system presented satisfactory rates of weight gain and a high survival rate (97%.

  11. Basolateral Cl- channels in the larval bullfrog skin epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillyard, Stanley D.; Rios, K.; Larsen, Erik Hviid

    2002-01-01

    , respectively. The Lorentzian plateau was minimal at the lowest ISC and increased as the ISC became greater in the positive or negative direction. Current-voltage plots with identical Ringer's on either side of the tissue showed a pattern of outward rectification. Cell attached patches of cells isolated from...... the skin with collagenase-trypsin treatment showed spontaneous channel activity with a conductance of 20.9 pS at a pipette potential, -Vp=20 mV. Current-voltage plots of single channels showed a similar pattern of rectification to that of the intact skin, and partial replacement of Cl- by gluconate...

  12. Hair cell recovery in mitotically blocked cultures of the bullfrog saccule

    OpenAIRE

    Baird, Richard A.; Burton, Miriam D.; Fashena, David S.; Naeger, Rebecca A.

    2000-01-01

    Hair cells in many nonmammalian vertebrates are regenerated by the mitotic division of supporting cell progenitors and the differentiation of the resulting progeny into new hair cells and supporting cells. Recent studies have shown that nonmitotic hair cell recovery after aminoglycoside-induced damage can also occur in the vestibular organs. Using hair cell and supporting cell immunocytochemical markers, we have used confocal and electron microscopy to examine the fate...

  13. Prevalence of malformed frogs in Kaoping and Tungkang river basins of southern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Da-Ji; Chiu, Yuh-Wen; Chen, Chien-Min; Huang, Kai-Hsiang; Wang, Shu-Yin

    2010-05-01

    In this study we found many amphibians with bizarre appearances, known as malformations in Pingtung County southern Taiwan. For this investigation we collected frogs inhabiting the Kaoping and Tungkang river watersheds between February 2006 and June 2007. Among the total number of 10,909 normal frogs (i.e., anurans) collected during the investigation period, the Indian rice frogs (Rana limnocharis) account for the greatest number next is the Chinese bullfrog (Rana rugulosa). Of all the 244 captured malformed frogs, the Indian rice frog account for the greatest proportion. These malformed frogs have their main distribution in upstream areas of these two rivers. Our result indicates that the appearance rate of malformed frogs is 1.8% in the upstream reaches of the Kaoping River and 2.6%, and 0.8%, respectively in the upstream and midstream reaches of the Tungkang river. The most-commonly-found malformation is the lack of palms, followed by the lack of appendages, exostosis, and a malformed appendicular. It is, therefore, reasonable to speculate that the causes for the malformation may be related to the increased organic pollutants and agricultural chemicals used in the upstream reaches of these two rivers. PMID:21047008

  14. Морфофизиологические особенности строения тимуса озерной лягушки (Rana Ridibunda) и прыткой ящерицы (Lacerta agilis)

    OpenAIRE

    Грушко, М.

    2009-01-01

    В статье приведены результаты изучения центрального органа кроветворения тимуса озерной лягушки (Rana Ridibunda) и прыткой ящерицы (Lacerta agilis). Определены основные морфофизиологические особенности этого органа у представителей разных классов животных. Дана подробная характеристика качественного и количественного состава образующихся клеток крови в этом органе у лягушек и ящериц....

  15. Absence of invasive Chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in native Fijian ground frog (Platymantis vitiana populations on Viwa-Tailevu, Fiji Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Narayan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We report on the first survey of chytridiomycosis (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis- Bd in the endangered Fijian ground frog (Platymantis vitiana population on Viwa-Tailevu, Fiji Islands. This fungal pathogen has been implicated as the primary cause of amphibian declines worldwide. Few cases have been reported from tropical Asia however it was recently documented in 4 species of frogs in Indonesia. Two hundred individual frogs were swabbed from 5 different sites on Viwa Island. Swabs were tested to quantify the number of Bd zoospore equivalents using real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR technique. We found zero (% prevalence of Bd in ground frogs. The lack of Bd may be due to 1 hot weather all year round inhibiting the spread of Bd, 2 Bd may be absent from Viwa Island due to a lack of amphibian introductions (not introduced or importation of exotic frogs such as Rana catesbeia-na, or Xenopus spp or pet trade spp or 3 the lack of introduction by human vectors due to the geographic isolation, and low visitation of non-local people into the island. While it is difficult to test these hypotheses, a precautionary approach would suggest an effective quarantine is required to protect Fiji’s endemic frogs from future disease outbreak. Conservation effort and research is needed at international level to assist the Fiji government in monitoring and protecting their unique endemic amphibians from outbreaks of B. dendrobatidis.

  16. Profile of cortisol, glycaemia, and blood parameters of American Bullfrog tadpoles Lithobates catesbeianus exposed to density and hypoxia stressors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia C. Teixeira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate alterations to the physiological profile (cortisol, glycaemia, and blood parameters of Lithobates catesbeianus caused by the stressors density and hypoxia. The organisms were in the prometamorphosis stage and exposed to different tadpole densities: 1 tadpole/L (T1, 5 tadpoles/L (T2, and 10 tadpoles/L (T3 for 12 days. The blood was collected through the rupture of the caudal blood vessel and collected under normoxia (immediate collection and hypoxia (after 15 minutes of air exposure conditions. Cortisol levels rose on the fourth and eighth days of treatment and returned to basal levels by the end of the experiment. The stressor mechanisms tested did not affect glycaemia. White blood cells (total number of lymphocytes, neutrophils, and eosinophils showed a significant difference at the twelfth day of the experiment when compared with the start of the experiment. We concluded that, under controlled conditions, a density of up to 10 tadpoles/L and air exposure for 15 minutes did not cause harmful physiological alterations during the experimental period. The answer to these stressors maybe was in another hormonal level (corticosterone.

  17. 203Hg binding in the liver and kidney of the frog, Rana tigrina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following a single i.p. dose of the radioisotope, 203Hg was found to accumulate in both the high and low molecular weight (MW) fractions of the kidney and liver of the frog. The course of 203Hg appearance in the 2 fractions varied in the liver; 203Hg was exclusively associated with the higher MW fractions at 2 days whereas the radiotracer appeared in both low and high MW fractions at 4 and 7 days after administration. In the kidneys, however, 203Hg was associated with high and low MW fractions at all the intervals studied. Low MW 203Hg binding fraction appeared to be a metallothionein-like substance. (Auth.)

  18. Effects of X-irradiation on some aspects of protein metabolism in the frog, Rana hexadactyla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changes in the level of total proteins and protease in brain, muscle and liver tissues of normal and X-irradiated frogs were determined. Low doses of radiation produced an increment in protein level while high doses produced decrement. However, protease activity at all doses exhibited an elevatory trend. Exposure of frogs to lethal doses resulted in increased protease activity and decreased protein content during post-irradiation periods. The results are discussed on the basis of protein destruction and lysosomal damage. (auth.)

  19. Effects of X-irradiation on acetyl cholinesterase activity in the frog Rana hexadactyla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changes in acetylchloinesterase (AChE) activity in brain, muscle and liver tissues of normal and X-irradiated frogs were studied. Low doses of radiation produced an increase in enzyme activity while high doses produced decrement. Post-irradiation studies with sublethal dose showed an early increase followed by reversible decrement in enzyme activity while lethal dose exhibited an early increase followed by irreversible inhibition of enzyme activity. (author)

  20. Effects of oil sands waste water on the wood frog (rana sylvatica)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sustainability of various reclamation strategies can be determined by the growth and health of indigenous amphibians (Wood Frogs). This paper referred to the large quantities of tailings water that are generated by oil sand extraction activities. It presented the results of a study that was conducted in the spring and summer of 2006 and 2007 on reclaimed formation wetlands comprising tailings water. The objective was to understand the impact of these wetlands on native amphibians. Frogs were exposed to wetlands containing oil sands process affected water (OSPW) and reference water (no OSPW). Six experimental trenches were made at one site in the first year. Each trench had 3 enclosures with 50 tadpoles. In the second year, there were 13 sites, including 6 reference and 7 OSPW affected sites, which were classified as old (more than 8 yrs) or young (less than 7 yrs). Four enclosures, with 50 tadpoles each, were placed in each wetland. The study involved the evaluation of growth rate, survival, time to metamorphosis, thyroid hormone concentrations, liver EROD activity, and tissue retinol concentrations. In addition, stable isotopes were used to track carbon flow from primary production plants, through the food chain, to tadpoles and frogs which represent intermediate and higher trophic levels in reclaimed wetlands

  1. Effects of road de-icing salt (NaCl) on larval wood frogs (Rana sylvatica)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vast networks of roads cover the earth and have numerous environmental effects including pollution. A major component of road runoff in northern countries is salt (mostly NaCl) used as a winter de-icing agent, but few studies of effects of road salts on aquatic organisms exist. Amphibians require aquatic habitats and chemical pollution is implicated as a major factor in global population declines. We exposed wood frog tadpoles to NaCl. Tests revealed 96-h LC50 values of 2636 and 5109 mg/l and tadpoles experienced reduced activity, weight, and displayed physical abnormalities. A 90 d chronic experiment revealed significantly lower survivorship, decreased time to metamorphosis, reduced weight and activity, and increased physical abnormalities with increasing salt concentration (0.00, 0.39, 77.50, 1030.00 mg/l). Road salts had toxic effects on larvae at environmentally realistic concentrations with potentially far-ranging ecological impacts. More studies on the effects of road salts are warranted. - Road salts have toxic effects on amphibians at environmentally realistic concentrations

  2. Virulence properties of motile aeromonads isolated from farmed frogs Rana tigerina and R. rugulosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, M D; Hirono, I; Aoki, T; Miranda, R; Inglis, V

    2000-04-20

    Virulence factors were compared in Aeromonas species isolated from clinically normal and septicaemic farmed frogs from Thailand. Haemolysin activities against frog erythrocytes were significantly different within the collection of aeromonads. Groups of high haemolytic activity (unspeciated Aeromonas, Au), moderate haemolytic activity (A. hydrophila), and low haemolytic activity (A. veronii biovar sobria, A. veronii biovar veronii, A. caviae, A. schubertii) were noted. DNA colony hybridisation studies revealed that Au isolates possessed a haemolysin gene (ASH1) which was not present in any of the other Thai aeromonads or type strains tested. Elastinolytic activity was demonstrated in 90% of the Au isolates, 60% of the A. hydrophila isolates and in none of the other motile aeromonads. The cytotoxic activity of the Aeromonas isolates varied according to the source of cells used in the assays. Cells from rainbow trout were extremely sensitive to Au toxins but less so to toxins produced by other species. In contrast mammalian cells showed very little sensitivity to Au toxins but were more sensitive to toxins produced by A. hydrophila. Selection of suitable assay substrates is therefore important. PMID:10843556

  3. Recovery plan for the California Red-legged frog (Rana aurora draytonii)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objective of this plan is to reduce threats and improve the population status of the California red-legged frog sufficiently to warrant delisting. Actions...

  4. Modelling the impact of roads on regional population of Moor frogs (Rana arvalis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Maj-Britt

    , called SAIA (Spatial Amphibian Impact Assessment), considers a landscape mosaic of breeding habitat, summer habitat and uninhabitable land. As input I use a GIS-map of the landscape with information on land cover. In addition, data on observed frog populations in the survey area are needed. The dispersal...

  5. Ranas y sapos del fondo de tu casa : Anfibios de agroecosistemas de La Plata y alrededores

    OpenAIRE

    Agostini, María Gabriela

    2012-01-01

    La palabra anfibio hace referencia a cualquier objeto que pueda usarse tanto en un medio terrestre como en uno acuático. Por ejemplo, existen autos a los cuales se los llama anfibios. Pero esta palabra también se utiliza para referirse a un grupo de animales vertebrados que tienen la característica de pasar parte de su vida como renacuajos acuáticos y que, en su edad adulta, ocupan generalmente ambientes terrestres (aunque siempre permanecen relacionados a sitios con humedad). Esta caracterís...

  6. Effects of oil sands waste water on the wood frog (rana sylvatica)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hersikorn, B.; Smits, J.E. [Saskatchewan Univ., Regina, SK (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    The sustainability of various reclamation strategies can be determined by the growth and health of indigenous amphibians (Wood Frogs). This paper referred to the large quantities of tailings water that are generated by oil sand extraction activities. It presented the results of a study that was conducted in the spring and summer of 2006 and 2007 on reclaimed formation wetlands comprising tailings water. The objective was to understand the impact of these wetlands on native amphibians. Frogs were exposed to wetlands containing oil sands process affected water (OSPW) and reference water (no OSPW). Six experimental trenches were made at one site in the first year. Each trench had 3 enclosures with 50 tadpoles. In the second year, there were 13 sites, including 6 reference and 7 OSPW affected sites, which were classified as old (more than 8 yrs) or young (less than 7 yrs). Four enclosures, with 50 tadpoles each, were placed in each wetland. The study involved the evaluation of growth rate, survival, time to metamorphosis, thyroid hormone concentrations, liver EROD activity, and tissue retinol concentrations. In addition, stable isotopes were used to track carbon flow from primary production plants, through the food chain, to tadpoles and frogs which represent intermediate and higher trophic levels in reclaimed wetlands.

  7. Basic response characteristics of auditory nerve fibers in the grassfrog (Rana temporaria)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, J; Jørgensen, M B; Kanneworff, M

    1998-01-01

    phasic cells giving one spike per stimulation. Therefore, the mechanism underlying PS is probably different from that underlying adaptation. The sharpening of the neural encoding of temporal parameters and the strong encoding of sound offset as well as onset caused by PS very likely is biologically...

  8. Spatio-temporal Dynamics of Pond Use and Recruitment in Florida Gopher Frogs (Rana Capito aesopus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenberg, C.H.

    2000-05-16

    We examined spatio-temporal dynamics of the Florida Gopher frog breeding and juvenile recruitment. Ponds were situated in a hardwood or pine-savanna matrix of upland forest. Movement was monitored from 1994-1999. Adult pond use was low but relatively constant. Juvenile recruitment was higher in the upland savanna matrix. Body size was negatively correlated with the number of juveniles exiting the pond in only one year suggesting intraspecific competition is one of many factors. Most immigration occurred in May through August and was unrelated to rainfall.

  9. Extinction of montane populations of the northern leopard frog (Rana pippins) in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn, Paul Stephen; Fogleman, James C.

    1984-01-01

    Between 1973 and 1982 nine populations of the northern leopard frog in the Red Feather Lakes region of Larimer County, Colorado, failed in reproduce. These failures all resulted in extinction of the populations. One area formerly supporting a population was recolonized in 1980, but no frogs were observed at any of the nine sites in 1981 or 1982. Six of the populations went extinct because the breeding ponds dried up. The remaining populations were small enough to be susceptible to random events, but the nature of these events is unknown.

  10. Laser scanning fluorescence microscopic measurement of the movement of cleaving egg surface of Rana Amurensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUGUOYAN; ChengtangXu; 等

    1995-01-01

    By laser scanning fluorescence microscopy for quantitative measurement of fluorescence intensity changes on egg surface stained with fluorescein isothiocyanate during cleavage furrow extending forward,it was found that in area of presumptive cleavage furrow the scanning curve became ∨ shape,indicating dark stripe appeared in that place.Then the fluorescence intensity increased at the place where the bottom of ∨ shape had located,and the scanning curve turned to ∧ shape,indicating single stripe was formed.While enhanced fluorescence appeared on the borders of ∧ shape,an M shape curve was found,showing double stripe occurred.During the distance between two borders of M shape incresing from 50μm to 100μm,a fluorescence peak came to sight in the middle of the M shape,which being the cleavge furrow bottom.The two lateral sides of furrow bottom with decreasing fluorescence were nascent membrane.At that time the curve became W shape.By the sides of cleavage furrow the the stress folds became conspicous after double stripe stage,showing the stretching of the egg surface being increased.With our[31,33]and others[32] reports that polylysine could induce the appearance of nascent membrane and phytohemagglutinins could decrease or prevent the appearance of nascent membrane,we believed the idea of Schroeder[25] that increasing mechanical stress could initiate nascent membrane formation and thought that the stresslay to the outsides of cleavage furrow.

  11. Nueva especie de rana (atelopus) de los farallones de cali, cordillera occidental de colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Kattan, Gustavo

    2012-01-01

    Durante la realización de colecciones herpetológicas en el Departamento del Valle del Cauca, fue encontrada una especie no descrita de Atelopus (Anura: Bufonidae) en los farallones de Cali, a 2600 m de altura. Esta es la primera especie en este género que se encuentra a elevaciones superiores a 2000 m en la Cordillera Occidental. Se conocen varias especies de Atelopus en las Cordilleras Central y Oriental de Colombia y en los Andes ecuatorianos (COCHRAN y GOIN 1970; PETERS 1973; RIVERO 1963) ...

  12. Trichobothrial mediation of an aquatic escape response: Directional jumps by the fishing spider, Dolomedes triton, foil frog attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert B. Suter

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Fishing spiders (Pisauridae frequent the surfaces of ponds and streams and thereby expose themselves to predation by a variety of aquatic and semi-aquatic vertebrates. To assess the possibility that the impressive jumps of fishing spiders from the water surface function in evading attacks by frogs, attacks by bullfrogs (Rana catesbiana and green frogs (R. clamitans on Dolomedes triton were studied. Both the attack dynamics of the frogs and the evasive behaviors of the spiders were recorded at 250 frames per second. A freeze-dried bullfrog, propelled toward spiders with acceleration, posture, and position that approximated the natural attack posture and dynamics, was used to assess the spiders' behavior. Qualitatively, the spiders responded to these mock-attacks just as they had to attacks by live frogs: jumping (N=29 jumps, 56.9% of instances, rearing the legs nearest the attacking frog (N=15, 29.4%, or showing no visible response (N=7, 13.7%. Spiders that jumped always did so away (in the vertical plane from the attack (mean =137° vs. vertical at 90° or horizontally toward the frog at 0°. The involvement of the trichobothria (leg hairs sensitive to air movements, and the eyes as sensory mediators of the evasion response was assessed. Spiders with deactivated trichobothria were significantly impaired relative to intact and sham-deactivated spiders, and relative to spiders in total darkness. Thus, functional trichobothria, unlike the eyes, are both necessary and sufficient mediators of the evasion response. Measurements of air flow during frog attacks suggest that an exponential rise in flow velocity is the airborne signature of an attack.

  13. First survey for the amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in Connecticut (USA) finds widespread prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards-Hrdlicka, Kathryn L; Richardson, Jonathan L; Mohabir, Leon

    2013-02-28

    The amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is an emerging infectious fungal pathogen of amphibians and is linked to global population declines. Until now, there has only been 1 survey for the fungus in the northeastern USA, which focused primarily on northern New England. We tested for Bd in a large number of samples (916 individuals from 116 sites) collected throughout the state of Connecticut, representing 18 native amphibian species. In addition, 239 preserved wood frog Lithobates sylvaticus tadpoles from throughout the state were screened for the fungus. Bd presence was assessed in both the fresh field swabs and the preserved samples using a sensitive quantitative PCR assay. Our contemporary survey found widespread Bd prevalence throughout Connecticut, occurring in 14 species and in 28% of all sampled animals. No preserved L. sylvaticus specimens tested positive for the fungus. Two common species, bullfrogs R. catesbeiana and green frogs R. clamitans had particularly high infection rates (0.21-0.39 and 0.33-0.42, respectively), and given their wide distribution throughout the state, we suggest they may serve as sentinels for Bd occurrence in this region. Further analyses found that several other factors increase the likelihood of infection, including life stage, host sex, and host family. Within sites, ponds with ranids, especially green frogs, increased the likelihood of Bd prevalence. By studying Bd in populations not facing mass declines, the results from this study are an important contribution to our understanding of how some amphibian species and populations remain infected yet exhibit no signs of chytridiomycosis even when Bd is widely distributed. PMID:23446966

  14. First survey for the amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in Connecticut (USA) finds widespread prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards-Hrdlicka, Kathryn L; Richardson, Jonathan L; Mohabir, Leon

    2013-02-28

    The amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is an emerging infectious fungal pathogen of amphibians and is linked to global population declines. Until now, there has only been 1 survey for the fungus in the northeastern USA, which focused primarily on northern New England. We tested for Bd in a large number of samples (916 individuals from 116 sites) collected throughout the state of Connecticut, representing 18 native amphibian species. In addition, 239 preserved wood frog Lithobates sylvaticus tadpoles from throughout the state were screened for the fungus. Bd presence was assessed in both the fresh field swabs and the preserved samples using a sensitive quantitative PCR assay. Our contemporary survey found widespread Bd prevalence throughout Connecticut, occurring in 14 species and in 28% of all sampled animals. No preserved L. sylvaticus specimens tested positive for the fungus. Two common species, bullfrogs R. catesbeiana and green frogs R. clamitans had particularly high infection rates (0.21-0.39 and 0.33-0.42, respectively), and given their wide distribution throughout the state, we suggest they may serve as sentinels for Bd occurrence in this region. Further analyses found that several other factors increase the likelihood of infection, including life stage, host sex, and host family. Within sites, ponds with ranids, especially green frogs, increased the likelihood of Bd prevalence. By studying Bd in populations not facing mass declines, the results from this study are an important contribution to our understanding of how some amphibian species and populations remain infected yet exhibit no signs of chytridiomycosis even when Bd is widely distributed.

  15. Diets of three species of anurans from the cache creek watershed, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hothem, R.L.; Meckstroth, A.M.; Wegner, K.E.; Jennings, M.R.; Crayon, J.J.

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the diets of three sympatric anuran species, the native Northern Pacific Treefrog, Pseudacris regilla, and Foothill Yellow-Legged Frog, Rana boylii, and the introduced American Bullfrog, Lithobates catesbeianus, based on stomach contents of frogs collected at 36 sites in 1997 and 1998. This investigation was part of a study of mercury bioaccumulation in the biota of the Cache Creek Watershed in north-central California, an area affected by mercury contamination from natural sources and abandoned mercury mines. We collected R. boylii at 22 sites, L. catesbeianus at 21 sites, and P. regilla at 13 sites. We collected both L. catesbeianus and R. boylii at nine sites and all three species at five sites. Pseudacris regilla had the least aquatic diet (100% of the samples had terrestrial prey vs. 5% with aquatic prey), followed by R. boylii (98% terrestrial, 28% aquatic), and L. catesbeianus, which had similar percentages of terrestrial (81%) and aquatic prey (74%). Observed predation by L. catesbeianus on R. boylii may indicate that interaction between these two species is significant. Based on their widespread abundance and their preference for aquatic foods, we suggest that, where present, L. catesbeianus should be the species of choice for all lethal biomonitoring of mercury in amphibians. Copyright ?? 2009 Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles.

  16. Phylogeny, ecological fitting and lung flukes: helping solve the problem of emerging infectious diseases Filogenia, flexibilidad ecológica y digéneos de pulmones: ayudando a resolver la crisis de las enfermedaes infecciosas emergentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel R. Brooks

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditional wisdom, based on assumptions of species-specific coevolutionary interactions between hosts and parasites, suggests that pathogens with multi-host life cycles are unlikely to move with their definitive hosts because their transmission requirements are so specialized. Ecological fitting provides a theory of diffuse coevolution, which allows introduced pathogens with complex life cycles to become established and spread rapidly into native hosts if the resource required at each stage of the life cycle is both phylogenetically conservative (distributed among numerous species and geographically widespread. The external appearance of life cycle complexity does not, therefore, on its own, predict the potential for an organism to become an emerging infectious disease. We apply this concept to explain a potential enigma, the presence of a lung fluke, Haematoloechus floedae, endemic to North American bullfrogs, in Costa Rican leopard frogs, even though there are no bullfrogs extant in the country today, and none ever occurred where the parasite has been discovered. We then discuss how the integration of ecological and life history information within a phylogenetic framework can help biologists move from attempts to manage emerging infectious disease outbreaks to the ability to predict and thus circumvent the outbreak in the first place.Con base en el supuesto de coevolución a nivel de especies de parásitos y hospederos, tradicionalmente se asume como poco probable que aquellos patógenos con ciclos de vida que involucran varios hospederos acompañen a su hospedero definitivo a un nuevo ambiente, por lo especializado de sus requerimientos de transmisión. El fenómeno de flexibilidad ecológica aporta una teoría de coevolución difusa, que permite a los patógenos con ciclos de vida complejos, que han sido introducidos, establecerse y dispersarse de una manera rápida en hospederos nativos, si el recurso requerido en cada etapa del ciclo de

  17. Relationship between Anatomical Structure of Skeletal Muscle of Different Vertebrates and Degree of Vertebrates Evolution%不同脊椎动物骨骼肌的解剖结构与动物进化程度的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周欢群; 卢光琇; 陆长富

    2012-01-01

    目的:依据发育重演律的理论,比较进化程度不同的脊椎动物骨骼肌是否存在结构层次的差异.方法:选取进化程度不同的脊椎动物,如哺乳动物、鸟类、两栖动物及鱼类,选择各类有代表性并容易取材的动物,通过苏木精伊红染色(HE染色)的方法对健康的昆明白小鼠、家兔、家鸽、牛蛙、鲫鱼背部及腿部肌肉横切面进行观察.结果:昆明白小鼠、家兔、家鸽、牛蛙、鲫鱼的骨骼肌都有相类似的层次结构,即每块骨骼肌由数个肌束构成,骨骼肌外被肌外膜,肌束由肌束膜包绕,每个肌束又由众多肌纤维构成,肌纤维由肌内膜包绕.骨骼肌的层次结构与动物的进化程度和实验取材部位无关.结论:表明进化程度不同的脊椎动物骨骼肌的进化程度相近.表明骨骼肌的3层结构并非在脊椎动物阶段进化完成的.%Objective: To Compare the difference of anatomical structure of skeletal muscles from different evolutional vertebrates according to the ontogenic law which was raised by Professor LU in 2008. The ontogenic law is a law of individual development, which is suggested on the base of developmental biology and knowledge of stem cell. The law considers that the development of individual is a process of blastocyst-like structure to form and evolve. Methods: Choose different degree of evolutional vertebrates, such as mammals, birds, amphibians and fishes. Especially choose the vertebrates which are representative and easy to get. Observe the cross sections of different vertebrates such as Kunming white mouse, rabbit, Columba livia domestica, rana catesbeiana and crucian through hematoxylin and eosin staining (HE staining). Results: The results show that skeletal muscles of Kunming white mouse, rabbit, Columba livia domestica, rana catesbeiana and crucian have similar anatomical structures. In other words, groups of muscle fibers are formed into fascicles, which are encasement by endomysium

  18. Comparison of the Early Embryonic Development Between Rana tigrina cantor and Rana tigrina rugulosa%泰国虎纹蛙与中国虎纹蛙早期胚胎发育比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽; 刘楚吾; 罗隆胜

    2008-01-01

    比较了泰国虎纹蛙与中国虎纹蛙在控温条件下的胚胎发育过程.结果表明:两亚种蛙在右鳃封闭期与鳃盖完成期之间有明显的"角质颌出现"的特征,因而在传统分期的基础上增加了一个"角质颌出现期",从而将两者自受精卵开始到鳃盖完成期为止划分为26个时期;两亚种蛙大部分发育时期外形特征基本相同,但八细胞期细胞的排列方式,两亚种蛙神经褶期的神经沟形状、纤毛出现期的神经褶棱高度等均不同;泰国虎纹蛙的发育速度较快,自受精卵期到鳃盖完成期共耗时70.4 h,中国虎纹蛙在相同的条件下则需92.5 h,但在四细胞期、八细胞期、神经管期和尾芽期,泰国虎纹蛙的发育速度却较中国虎纹蛙慢.

  19. 棘胸蛙、虎纹蛙、黑斑蛙血细胞的比较%Comparison of Blood Cells of Paa spinosa, Rana rugulosa and Rana nigromaculata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡知渊; 来雅萍; 陈文静

    2005-01-01

    应用Giemsa染色法对棘胸蛙、虎纹蛙和黑斑蛙的血细胞进行显微观察和各形态参数测定,并对各类细胞作了图示和描述.结果表明,红细胞和白细胞的形态和数量比例有一定属和种的特征,并与其生长环境和进化地位有一定联系.

  20. Enabling comparative gene expression studies of thyroid hormone action through the development of a flexible real-time quantitative PCR assay for use across multiple anuran indicator and sentinel species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldhoen, Nik; Propper, Catherine R; Helbing, Caren C

    2014-03-01

    Studies performed across diverse frog species have made substantial contributions to our understanding of basic vertebrate development and the natural or anthropogenic environmental factors impacting sensitive life stages. Because, anurans are developmental models, provide ecosystems services, and act as sentinels for the identification of environmental chemical contaminants that interfere with thyroid hormone (TH) action during postembryonic development, there is demand for flexible assessment techniques that can be applied to multiple species. As part of the "thyroid assays across indicator and sentinel species" (TAXISS) initiative, we have designed and validated a series of cross-species real time quantitative PCR (qPCR) primer sets that provide information on transcriptome components in evolutionarily distant anurans. Validation for fifteen gene transcripts involved a rigorous three-tiered quality control within tissue/development-specific contexts. Assay performance was confirmed on multiple tissues (tail fin, liver, brain, and intestine) of Rana catesbeiana and Xenopus laevis tadpoles enabling comparisons between tissues and generation of response profiles to exogenous TH. This revealed notable differences in TH-responsive gene transcripts including thra, thrb, thibz, klf9, col1a2, fn1, plp1, mmp2, timm50, otc, and dio2, suggesting differential regulation and susceptibility to contaminant effects. Evidence for the applicability of the TAXISS anuran qPCR assay across seven other species is also provided with five frog families represented and its utility in defining genome structure was demonstrated. This novel validated approach will enable meaningful comparative studies between frog species and aid in extending knowledge of developmental regulatory pathways and the impact of environmental factors on TH signaling in frog species for which little or no genetic information is currently available. PMID:24503578

  1. Novel vasotocin-regulated aquaporins expressed in the ventral skin of semiaquatic anuran amphibians: evolution of cutaneous water-absorbing mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitoh, Yasunori; Ogushi, Yuji; Shibata, Yuki; Okada, Reiko; Tanaka, Shigeyasu; Suzuki, Masakazu

    2014-06-01

    Until now, it was believed that only one form of arginine vasotocin (AVT)-regulated aquaporin (AQP) existed to control water absorption from the ventral skin of semiaquatic anuran amphibians, eg, AQP-rj3(a) in Rana japonica. In the present study, we have identified a novel form of ventral skin-type AQP, AQP-rj3b, in R. japonica by cDNA cloning. The oocyte swelling assay confirmed that AQP-rj3b can facilitate water permeability. Both AQP-rj3a and AQP-rj3b were expressed abundantly in the ventral hindlimb skin and weakly in the ventral pelvic skin. For the hindlimb skin, water permeability was increased in response to AVT, although the hydroosmotic response was not statistically significant in the pelvic skin. Isoproterenol augmented water permeability of the hindlimb skin, and the response was inhibited by propranolol. These events were well correlated with the intracellular trafficking of the AQPs. Immunohistochemistry showed that both AQP-rj3 proteins were translocated from the cytoplasmic pool to the apical membrane of principal cells in the first-reacting cell layer of the hindlimb skin after stimulation with AVT and/or isoproterenol. The type-b AQP was also found in R. (Lithobates) catesbeiana and R. (Pelophylax) nigromaculata. Molecular phylogenetic analysis indicated that the type-a is closely related to ventral skin-type AQPs from aquatic Xenopus, whereas the type-b is closer to the AQPs from terrestrial Bufo and Hyla, suggesting that the AQPs from terrestrial species are not the orthologue of the AQPs from aquatic species. Based on these results, we propose a model for the evolution of cutaneous water-absorbing mechanisms in association with AQPs.

  2. Light-dependent magnetic compass in Iberian green frog tadpoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diego-Rasilla, Francisco Javier; Luengo, Rosa Milagros; Phillips, John B.

    2010-12-01

    Here, we provide evidence for a wavelength-dependent effect of light on magnetic compass orientation in Pelophylax perezi (order Anura), similar to that observed in Rana catesbeiana (order Anura) and Notophthalmus viridescens (order Urodela), and confirm for the first time in an anuran amphibian that a 90° shift in the direction of magnetic compass orientation under long-wavelength light (≥500 nm) is due to a direct effect of light on the underlying magnetoreception mechanism. Although magnetic compass orientation in other animals (e.g., birds and some insects) has been shown to be influenced by the wavelength and/or intensity of light, these two amphibian orders are the only taxa for which there is direct evidence that the magnetic compass is light-dependent. The remarkable similarities in the light-dependent magnetic compasses of anurans and urodeles, which have evolved as separate clades for at least 250 million years, suggest that the light-dependent magnetoreception mechanism is likely to have evolved in the common ancestor of the Lissamphibia (Early Permian, ~294 million years) and, possibly, much earlier. Also, we discuss a number of similarities between the functional properties of the light-dependent magnetic compass in amphibians and blue light-dependent responses to magnetic stimuli in Drosophila melanogaster, which suggest that the wavelength-dependent 90° shift in amphibians may be due to light activation of different redox forms of a cryptochrome photopigment. Finally, we relate these findings to earlier studies showing that the pineal organ of newts is the site of the light-dependent magnetic compass and recent neurophysiological evidence showing magnetic field sensitivity in the frog frontal organ (an outgrowth of the pineal).

  3. Quantification of 11 thyroid hormones and associated metabolites in blood using isotope-dilution liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Martin; Luong, Xuan; Sedlak, David L; Helbing, Caren C; Hayes, Tyrone

    2016-08-01

    This paper describes a novel analytical methodology for the simultaneous determination of absolute and total concentrations of 11 native thyroid hormones and associated metabolites, viz. thyroxine (T4), 3,3', 5-triiodothyronine (T3), 3,3', 5'-triiodothyronine (rT3), 3,5-diiodothyronine (3,5-T2), 3,3'- diiodothyronine (3,3'-T2), 3-iodothyronine (T1), thyronine (T0), 3-iodothyronamine (T1AM), tetraiodothyroacetic acid (Tetrac), triiodothyroacetic acid (Triac), and diiodothyroacetic acid (Diac), in 50-μL of plasma or serum. The method was optimized using four isotopic labeled surrogate and internal standards in combination with solid-phase extraction and LC-MS/MS. The methodology was further evaluated using amphibian plasma and serum with matrix-matched calibration applied for quantification. Method detection limits are 3.5 pg T4, 1.5 pg T3, 2.9 pg rT3, 1.7 pg 3,3'-T2, 2.3 pg 3,5-T2, and between 0.3 and 7.5 pg for the remaining six metabolites in 50 μL aliquots of blood sera or plasma. Accuracies and repeatabilities for all analytes were between 88 and 103 % and 1.31 and 17.2 %, respectively. Finally, we applied the method on adult frog (Xenopus laevis) plasma and tadpole (Rana (Lithobates) catesbeiana) serum. We observed up to seven different thyroid hormones and associated metabolites in tadpole serum. This method will enable researchers to improve the assessment of thyroid homeostasis and endocrine disruption in animals and humans. Graphical Abstract Quantification of 11 thyroid hormones and metabolites from 50 μL plasma or serum using protein denaturation in combination with solid-phase extraction followed by LC-MS/MS. PMID:27215639

  4. FREE RADICALS AND THEIR ACTION IN THE MIDDLE INTESTINE STRUCTURES DURING THE METAMORPHOSIS OF RANA TEMPORARIA TEMPORARIA (LINNAEUS, 1758)

    OpenAIRE

    Vasile Sarbu; Luminta Jerca; Anica Iacobovici

    2007-01-01

    The action of free radicals in the middle intestine structures during the metamorphosis of anura amphibians represents a hint to some profound structural and ultrastructural reshuffling. By following the values of the free radicals one can observe that between the XX and XXII stages there is an explosion at the level of free radicals, whichcorresponds to the destruction of the larval epithelium at structural level. The oxidative explosion takes place with the contribution of macrophages, whos...

  5. Characterization of kappa 1 and kappa 2 opioid binding sites in frog (Rana esculenta) brain membrane preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution and properties of frog brain kappa-opioid receptor subtypes differ not only from those of the guinea pig brain, but also from that of the rat brain. In guinea pig cerebellum the kappa 1 is the dominant receptor subtype, frog brain contains mainly the kappa 2 subtype, and the distribution of the rat brain subtypes is intermediate between the two others. In competition experiments it has been established that ethylketocyclazocine and N-cyclopropylmethyl-norazidomorphine, which are nonselective kappa-ligands, have relatively high affinities to frog brain membranes. The kappa 2 ligands (Met5)enkephalin-Arg6-Phe7 and etorphine also show high affinities to the frog brain. Kappa 1 binding sites measured in the presence of 5 microM/D-Ala2-Leu5/enkephalin represent 25-30% of [3H]ethylketocyclazocine binding in frog brain membranes. The kappa 2 subtype in frog brain resembles more to the mu subtype than the delta subtype of opioid receptors, but it differs from the mu subtype in displaying low affinity toward beta-endorphin and /D-Ala2-(Me)Phe4-Gly5-ol/enkephalin (DAGO). From our data it is evident that the opioid receptor subtypes are already present in the amphibian brain but the differences among them are less pronounced than in mammalian brain

  6. PARTIAL LIFE-CYCLE TOXICITY AND BIOCONCENTRATION MODELLING OF PERFLUOROOCTANE SULFONATE (PFOS) IN THE NORTHERN LEOPARD FROG (RANA PIPIENS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A number of recent monitoring studies have demonstrated elevated concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in humans and wildlife throughout the world. Although no longer manufactured in the U.S., the global distribution and relative persistence of PFOS indicates a need ...

  7. Premitotic DNA synthesis in the brain of the adult frog (Rana esculenta L.): An autoradiographic 3H-thymidine study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Replicative synthesis of DNA in the brain of the adult frog was studied by light microscope autoradiography. Animals collected during the active period (May-June) and in hibernation (January) were used. In active frogs, 3H-thymidine labelling occurred mainly in the ependymal cells which line the ventricles. The mean labelling index (LI%) was higher in the ependyma of the lateral and fourth ventricles than in the ependyma of the lateral diencephalon and tectal parts of the mesencephalon. In the recessus infundibularis and preopticus the number of labelled cells (LCs) was several times greater than in the lateral parts of the third ventricle. LCs were seen subependymally only occasionally. The incidence of LCs in the parenchyma of the brain was much lower in most regions than in the ventricular ependyma; LCs were mainly small and, from their nuclear morphology, they were glial cells. The LI% reached the highest value in the septum hippocampi and in the nucleus entopeduncularis. In these locations, LCs were larger and closer in size to the nerve cells of these regions. From comparison with data obtained earlier in the brain of mammals, it is evident that the distribution of proliferating cells in the olfactory and limbic system is phylogenetically conservative. The occurrence of pyknotic cells in the same areas which contain LCs, suggests that cell division reflects in part the process of cell renewal observed in mammals. However, proliferating cells could also be linked to the continuous growth observed in non-mammalian vertebrates. In hibernating frogs, LCs and pyknoses were not seen or were found occasionally, which further indicates the functional significance of both processes

  8. Correlation between chloride flux via the mitochondria-rich cells and transepithelial water movement in isolated frog skin (Rana esculenta)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Robert

    1995-01-01

    Antidiuretic hormone; chloride transport; electroosmosis; Frog skin; Intercalated cells; Local osmosis; Mitochondria-rich cells.......Antidiuretic hormone; chloride transport; electroosmosis; Frog skin; Intercalated cells; Local osmosis; Mitochondria-rich cells....

  9. Immunohistochemical localization of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide in the central nervous system of the frog Rana esculenta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lazar, G.; Calle, M.; Roubos, E.W.; Kozicz, L.T.

    2004-01-01

    ddThe distribution of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide (CARTp)-like immunoreactivity was studied only in the rat central nervous system (CNS). In mammals, CART peptides occur among others in brain areas that control feeding behavior. We mapped CARTp-immunoreactive structures in

  10. 田鸡即食营养汤料的研制%The technology for instant Rana rugulosa soup

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王平; 王秀娟

    2007-01-01

    以长白山野生资源--田鸡为原料,生产即食粉状营养保健汤料.通过正交实验和反复检测,确定了生产工艺流程 和操作要点,筛选出鲜味剂、原辅料的最佳配比,制定了产品质量标准和检测方法.

  11. Correlation between chloride flux via the mitochondria-rich cells and transepithelial water movement in isolated frog skin (Rana esculenta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, R

    1995-12-01

    The coupling between net transepithelial Cl- influx and net water flow was investigated. Experiments were performed on isolated frog skin bathed in isotonic Cl- Ringer's solution in the presence of the Na+ channel blocking agent amiloride in the mucosal solution. The skins were voltage-clamped at -80 or -100 mV (with the serosal solution as reference). Under these conditions the current across the skin is carried by an influx of Cl-. In the absence of antidiuretic hormone the correlation between current and net water flow was low, but in the presence of the antidiuretic hormone, arginine vasotocin, there was a highly significant correlation between current and net water flow. The data presented here indicate that under steady state conditions about 70 molecules of water follow each Cl- ion across the skin. If the water influx is driven by electroosmosis one would expect that a change in current should result in an immediate change in the water flow. There was, however, a considerable time delay between the change in current and water flow. This indicates that the observed coupling between Cl- flux and water flow is caused by current-induced local osmosis and not electroosmosis. PMID:8719255

  12. COMPARISION OF POTENCY OF DIFFERENT TYPES NEURO-MUSCULAR JUNCTION (NMJ BLOCKERS ON ISOLATED RECTUS ABDOMINIS MUSCLE OF RANA TIGRINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanghishetty Vijay Prasad

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The most important use of neuromuscular blockers is as adjuvant to general anaesthesia whereadequate muscle relaxation can be achieved at lighter plane. They also reduce reflex muscle contraction in the regionundergoing surgery and assist maintenance of controlled ventilation during anaesthesia. They are particularly helpfulin abdominal and thoracic surgery, intubations and endoscopies, orthopedic manipulation, etc. Thus, the risk ofrespiratory and cardiovascular depression is minimized, and post anesthetic recovery is shortened. The potency ratioof two commonly used neuromuscular agents depolarizing succinylcholine and non depolarizing pancuronium.Double pith a frog and fasten it to a frog board with ventral side up. The sternum was cut through just above thexiphisternum at its base and a pair of muscle attached to it were dissected out and transferred to a dish containingfrog Ringer solution at room temperature. All the drug containing solutions were freshly prepared before theexperiments Succinyl choline, Pancuronium (1,10,100μg/ml and 1mg/dl respectively Acetyl choline (10,100μg/mland 1mg/dl. Acetylcholine solution in various strength were prepared starting from 0.1% to 0.0001%.NMJblockerPancuroniumwas added to the biophase in addition to selected dose (128μgor 256μgand the contraction ofmuscle till the 70-80% of inhibition is produced and the difference from sub maximal contractions. The medianED50was interpolated from the figure taking 50%of inhibition from Height of contractionin mm. The ‘t’ test wasperformed to compare the ED50value were interpolated from the regression line to find out the ED50of the drug. Themedian doses (ED50 of both of them were calculated graphically and compared. The mean ED50 value ofsuccinylcholine was found to be 1.59 ± 0.08μg (95% confidential limit was from 1.53 to 1.66μg. The ED50ofpancuronium was found to be 0.52 ± 0.10μg with 95% confidence limit being from 0.44 to 0.60μg. The ED50valueof the two drugs was very significantly different (P < 0.001. The potency ratio of pancuronium to succinylcholinewas 0.32

  13. Respiration and hemoglobin function in the giant African bullfrog Pyxicephalus adspersus Tschudi (Anura: Pyxicephalidae) during rest, exercise and dormancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Aardt, W.J; Weber, Roy E.

    2010-01-01

    =33.0 mm Hg (pH: 7.63) and 44.9 mm Hg (pH 7.76), respectively, at 25 °C], which predictably favours pulmonary oxygen loading during dormancy in hypoxic substrata. Although hibernation resulted in sharp decreases in blood ATP concentration and the ATP: tetrameric Hb molar ratio that would increase blood...... oxygen affinity, the affinity of 'stripped' (cofactor-free) Pyxicephalus Hb shows low sensitivity to this effector. Hb-oxygen affinity is moreover insensitive to Cl- ions (that depress O2 affinity of most vertebrate haemoglobins) but oxygen affinity is strongly increased by urea and metHb formation...

  14. 5种水产动物血红细胞形态显微观察比较及进化分析%Comparison of erythrocytes of five aquatic animals and their evolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪青; 包永波; 林志华; 刘浩明

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on the morphological characteristics and microstructure of erythrocytes of five aquatic animals, in order to study the morphological diversity and evolution of erythrocytes. The blood smears of five aquatic animals, bloody clam (Tegillarca granosa, Scapharca subcrenata), Carassius auratus, Rana catesbeiana and Pelodiscus sinensis, were stained by Hemacolor stain. The surface structure and morphological characteristics of erythrocytes were examined by light microscope (LM) and scanning electronic microscope (SEM). The erythrocytes of bloody clams (Tegillarca granosa & Scapharca subcrenata) had basophil granular or/and eosinophilic granular, but none was found in vertebrates erythrocytes. The size of erythrocytes increased from the two bloody clams to Bull frog (Rana catesbeiana); while the size decreased afterwards; the variation of aspect ratio and nucleocytoplasmic ratio of erythrocytes follow this trend in a similar way. The undulate fold and depression on the erythrocytes of the two bloody clams were observed apparently, and the depression was deep and wide. The surface depression was also obvious in the erythrocytes of vertebrates, although the depression faded away gradually, and no distinct surface fold was examined. These results indicated that the changes of animal erythrocytes resulted from the evolution of animals, activities and habitats, in order to obtain the biggest gas exchange efficiency and the stability of the cells.%采用Hemacolor染料对泥蚶(Tegillarca granosa)、毛蚶(Scapharca subcrenata)、鲫鱼(Carassiusauranus)、牛蛙(Rana catesbeiana)、中华鳖(Pelodiscus sinensis)等5种水产动物血细胞涂片进行染色,利用光镜和扫描电镜两种方法对5种动物的血红细胞的表面结构和形态特征进行观察。结果发现:泥蚶、毛蚶两种蚶科贝类血红细胞具有嗜酸性或嗜碱性颗粒,而鲫鱼、牛蛙、中华鳖3种水产脊椎动物

  15. Persistence at distributional edges: Columbia spotted frog habitat in the arid Great Basin, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkle, Robert S; Pilliod, David S

    2015-09-01

    A common challenge in the conservation of broadly distributed, yet imperiled species is understanding which factors facilitate persistence at distributional edges, locations where populations are often vulnerable to extirpation due to changes in climate, land use, or distributions of other species. For Columbia spotted frogs (Rana luteiventris) in the Great Basin (USA), a genetically distinct population segment of conservation concern, we approached this problem by examining (1) landscape-scale habitat availability and distribution, (2) water body-scale habitat associations, and (3) resource management-identified threats to persistence. We found that areas with perennial aquatic habitat and suitable climate are extremely limited in the southern portion of the species' range. Within these suitable areas, native and non-native predators (trout and American bullfrogs [Lithobates catesbeianus]) are widespread and may further limit habitat availability in upper- and lower-elevation areas, respectively. At the water body scale, spotted frog occupancy was associated with deeper sites containing abundant emergent vegetation and nontrout fish species. Streams with American beaver (Castor canadensis) frequently had these structural characteristics and were significantly more likely to be occupied than ponds, lakes, streams without beaver, or streams with inactive beaver ponds, highlighting the importance of active manipulation of stream environments by beaver. Native and non-native trout reduced the likelihood of spotted frog occupancy, especially where emergent vegetation cover was sparse. Intensive livestock grazing, low aquatic connectivity, and ephemeral hydroperiods were also negatively associated with spotted frog occupancy. We conclude that persistence of this species at the arid end of its range has been largely facilitated by habitat stability (i.e., permanent hydroperiod), connectivity, predator-free refugia, and a commensalistic interaction with an ecosystem

  16. Bilan des introductions récentes d'amphibiens et de reptiles dans les milieux aquatiques continentaux de France métropolitaine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAFFNER P.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available En France métropolitaine, on dénombre actuellement 36 amphibiens et 33 reptiles se reproduisant régulièrement. A deux exceptions près, les amphibiens de la faune française sont aquatiques. En revanche, seules quatre espèces de reptiles (2 tortues et 2 serpents fréquentent très régulièrement ou exclusivement les milieux aquatiques. Les introductions en milieux aquatiques effectuées depuis le début du siècle ne concernent qu'une vingtaine d'espèces d'amphibiens ou de reptiles. Le discoglosse peint (Discoglossus pictus et la grenouille taureau (Rana catesbeiana sont les deux seules espèces étrangères dont l'introduction a conduit à une naturalisation. La tortue de «Floride» (Trachemys scripta elegans pourrait bien suivre prochainement la même voie. Certaines espèces françaises ont, par contre, été introduites avec succès en métropole, hors de leurs aires d'indigénat. Les causes connues de ces introductions sont liées à des opérations à but économique (commerce, à caractère socioculturel (loisirs ou à fondement scientifique (expériences. Ces opérations n'ont cependant généralement pas pour but l'introduction volontaire d'une espèce dans le milieu naturel, celle-ci résultant plutôt de négligences. Certaines introductions involontaires ont pu aussi avoir pour origine un transport passif (par exemple, par voie maritime. Des conséquences négatives de ces introductions sont suspectées, mais ne sont généralement pas démontrées. Elles peuvent s'inscrire dans les catégories suivantes : compétition avec une espèce autochtone, prédation excessive sur une ou plusieurs espèces autochtones, pollution génétique, introduction de maladies ou de parasites.

  17. In vitro and in vivo responses of saccular and caudal nucleus neurons in the grassfrog (Rana temporaria)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, J; Walkowiak, W

    1999-01-01

    ; (4) late responders with very long latencies; (5) integrator cells showing facilitated responses, and (6) inhibitory cells inhibited by saccular nerve stimulation.The cells have comparable sensitivity and frequency characteristics to the primary fibres (BF 10-80 Hz, thresholds from 0.01 cm/s2...

  18. Surmanuhtlus kõrgeima võimaliku karistusmäärana : [bakalaureusetöö] / Katrin Roosmaa ; Tartu Ülikool, õigusteaduskond ; juhendaja: Silvia Kaugia

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Roosmaa, Katrin, 1984-

    2007-01-01

    Surmanuhtluse olemus ja selle karistusliigiga sanktsioneeritud teod Eestis lähiminevikus, surmanuhtluse määramine ja täideviimine kuni 1998. a.-ni, surmanuhtluse kaotamise direktiiv ning seda toetavad ja mittetoetavad riigid, levinumad poolt- ja vastuargumendid, Eesti elanikkonna suhtumine

  19. ULTRASTRUCTURE OF PERIPHERAL BLOOD CELLS OF RANA RUGULOSA%虎纹蛙外周血细胞的超微结构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘鸿春

    2001-01-01

    目的:观察虎纹蛙外周血细胞的超微结构.方法:运用透射电镜技术.结果:在外周血细胞中可区分出红细胞,单核细胞,淋巴细胞,中性粒细胞,嗜酸性粒细胞,嗜碱性粒细胞和血小板细胞.与哺乳纲动物不同,虎纹蛙白细胞表面均有伪足.结论:脊椎动物白细胞形态结构的分化程度可能与动物的分类地位有关.#

  20. PCR Amplification and SSCP Analysis of Sox Gene of Rana Rugulosa Wiegmann%虎纹蛙Sox基因的PCR扩增及SSCP分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张小爱; 张海军; 聂刘旺; 阚显照

    2001-01-01

    本文采用PCR技术,以特异扩增人SRY基因HMG-box保守区的一对引物,扩增了虎纹蛙Sox基因(SRY-box gene).并对扩增产物进行了SSCP分析.结果雌雄虎纹蛙个体均扩增出一条带,大小为221 bp,表明虎纹蛙Sox基因在雌雄个性间无性别特异性.SSCP分析结果显示虎纹蛙Sox基因雌雄个体片段的单链迁移率无差异,而与人的有较大差异.本文为探讨虎纹蛙的性别决定机制及Sox基因的进行提供了分子资料.

  1. Structural and functional identification of the pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide receptor VPAC2 from the frog Rana tigrina rugulosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoo, R L; Alexandre, D; Chan, S M; Anouar, Y; Pang, R T; Vaudry, H; Chow, B K

    2001-10-01

    Recently, a frog pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP)/vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) receptor (fPVR) has been characterized, and interestingly, this receptor exhibits characteristics of both mammalian PACAP type II receptors VPAC(1)R and VPAC(2)R. In order to investigate the receptors responsible for mediating the actions of VIP and PACAP in amphibians, in this report, a frog VPAC(2) receptor (fVPAC(2)R) cDNA was isolated. fVPAC(2)R shares 47.7, 46.9 and 62.5% amino acid sequence identity with fPVR, human VPAC(1)R and human VPAC(2)R respectively. Functionally, fVPAC(2)R, when expressed in CHO cells, was responsive to both frog peptides including VIP, PACAP38 and PACAP27 where the EC(50) values of these peptides in intracellular cAMP production were 0.15, 0.18 and 0.16 microM respectively. The pharmacological profiles of human peptides (VIP, PACAP38 and peptide histidine methionine) to stimulate frog and human VPAC(2)Rs were compared, and it was found that these peptides could only activate the frog receptor at micromolar concentrations. fVPAC(2)R was found to be widely distributed in various peripheral tissues as well as several regions of the brain. The presence of the receptor transcripts suggests the functional roles of the receptor in mediating the actions of PACAP and/or VIP in these tissues. As VIP and particularly PACAP27 are highly conserved peptides in vertebrate evolution, comparative studies of these peptides and their receptors in non-mammalian vertebrates should provide clues to better understand the physiology of these important peptides in human and other vertebrates. PMID:11564605

  2. Sound and vibration sensitivity of VIIIth nerve fibers in the frogs Leptodactylus albilabris and Rana pipiens pipiens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, J; Narins, P M

    1993-01-01

    and 25 fibers in Leptodactylus albilabris. The fibers were classified as amphibian papilla (AP), basilar papilla (BP), saccular or vestibular fibers based on their location in the nerve. Only AP and saccular fibers responded to vibrations. The AP-fibers responded to vibrations from 0.01 cm/s2.......0 to 2.2 kHz (matching the energy peak of L. albilabris' mating call). 4. The finding that the low-frequency amphibian papilla fibers are extremely sensitive to vibrations raises questions regarding their function in the behaving animal. They may be substrate vibration receptors, respond to sound...

  3. Spatial Amphibian Impact Assessment – a management tool for assessment of road effects on regional populations of Moor frogs (Rana arvalis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Maj-Britt; Nachman, Gøsta Støger

    2013-01-01

    it is essential to find agreement between nature conservation and land use. However, sustainable road planning requires adequate tools for assessment, prevention and mitigation of the impacts of infrastructure. In this study, we present a spatially explicit model, SAIA (Spatial Amphibian Impact Assessment......), to be used as a standardized and quantitative tool for assessing the impact of roads on pond-breeding amphibians. The model considers a landscape mosaic of breeding habitat, summer habitat and uninhabitable land. As input, we use a GIS-map of the landscape with information on land cover as well as data...

  4. Morphological correlates of aquatic and terrestrial locomotion in a semi-aquatic frog, Rana esculenta : no evidence for a design conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauwelaerts, Sandra; Ramsay, Jason; Aerts, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Semi-aquatic frogs are faced with an unusual locomotory challenge. They have to swim and jump using the same apparatus, i.e. the hind limbs. Optimization of two tasks that require mutually incompatible morphologies or physiologies cannot occur simultaneously. In such cases, natural selection will re

  5. JOINT- TOXICITY OF CLOMAZONE AND CADMIUM ON RANA LIMNOCHARIS%异恶草酮与镉对蝌蚪的联合毒性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭正元; 何文; 贺仲兵

    2005-01-01

    研究了异恶草酮与镉共存时对蝌蚪的联合毒性.在常温20℃下,异恶草酮对蝌蚪的24h、48h、72h、96h LC50分别为15.62mg/L、14.27mg/L、13.35 mg/L、13.30 mg/L;镉对蝌蚪的24h、48h、72h、96h LC50分别为5.63mg/L、3.54 mg/L、2.61 mg/L、2.06mg/L;异恶草酮与镉共存对蝌蚪联合毒性的24h、48h、72h、96h的相加指数AI分别为0.25、0.21、0.19、0.14,均大于0,表现为协同作用.另随着处理温度的升高,异恶草酮对蝌蚪的毒性减弱,而镉对蝌蚪的毒性增强,两者的联合毒性仍表现为协同作用.

  6. Una especie nueva de rana venenosa de altura del género Excidobates (Dendrobatoidea: Dendrobatidae de la Cordillera del Cóndor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Almendáriz C

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El género Excidobates está conformado por dos especies, E. captivus y E. mysteriosus, distribuidas en la cuenca del Río Marañón en Perú. Evaluaciones de la herpetofauna del bosque montano oriental de los Andes de la provincia de Zamora Chinchipe en Ecuador, resultaron en el descubrimiento de una nueva especie del género, la misma que describimos como Excidobates condor sp. nov. Proveemos información sobre su hábitat, distribución y describimos sus renacuajos. La especie se conoce de tres localidades separadas por 18 km en línea recta y genera un polígono de 7 km². Un análisis filogenético basado en los genes mitocondriales 12S y 16S rRNA sugiere que la especie nueva está cercanamente relacionada con Excidobates mysteriosus y E. captivus, de las cuales se diferencia por su patrón de coloración y la textura de la piel del dorso. Con la inclusión de la nueva especie en Excidobates ninguno de los caracteres morfológicos diagnósticos del género resulta sinapomórfico. Por lo tanto, Excidobates queda soportado solamente por caracteres genéticos. Adicionalmente se analiza las afinidades morfológicas entre los adultos y larvas de Andinobates abditus con los miembros del género Excidobates.

  7. 牛蛙mtDNA的一种提取方法及初步酶切分析%An Abstract Method of Bullfrog's mtDNA and its Initial Enzymatic Analyses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李焰焰; 聂传朋

    2001-01-01

    本文中使用牛蛙作为材料提取mtDNA进行RFLP分析.探讨提取牛蛙mtDNA的方法及酶切图谱.结果表明,按本实验操作方法能够提取足量牛蛙的mtDNA,用以酶切分析.采取KpnI.Xho.SacI.PstI.HindⅢ等五种限制性内切酶酶切牛蛙mtDNA,能够粗略求出它的分子量大约在20kb左右.

  8. Fate, behavior, and bioavailability of metal and metal oxide nanomaterials in terrestrial ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertsch, P. M.; Unrine, J. M.; Judy, J.; Tsyusko, O.

    2012-12-01

    as referenced to the free metal ion concentration, and gene and protein expression associated with nanoparticle exposure. The results demonstrate the importance and challenges of characterization of nanoparticles under varying chemical conditions associated with exposure media. We have also demonstrated that metal and metal oxide nanoparticles are bioavailable and can be toxic to microorganisms, plants, nematodes, and earthworms. The results also suggest a different spatial distribution in tissues as well as unique toxicity mechanisms compared to the free metal ion concentration. Ongoing studies are evaluating the propensity for nanoparticles to be transferred from one trophic level to the next by feeding pre-exposed microorganisms (B. vietnamensis) to the nematode, C. elegans, pre-exposed earthworms (E. fetida) to bullfrogs (R. catesbeiana) and pre-exposed tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv Xanthi) to the caterpillar, tobacco horn worm (Manduca sexta), to test the hypothesis that surface modification of nanoparticles by peptides or other biomolecules facilitate the transmembrane transport of nanoparticles, thus enhancing the bioavailability to higher trophic levels.

  9. Rediscovery of Pelobates fuscus insubricus in the Asti Province, north-western Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Vincenzo Mercurio; Fabrizio Li Vigni

    2007-01-01

    The amphibians of the pond complex “Stagni di Belangero” in the Po Plain, Asti Province, have been studied. The species living in the pond are Bufo bufo, Bufo viridis, Hyla intermedia, Pelobates fuscus, Rana dalmatina, Rana synklepton esculenta, Rana cf. kurtmuelleri, Triturus carnifex and Triturus vulgaris. Species composition, migration period of P. fuscus, and biometric data are provided. Relevant importance has been given to P. fuscus, since we reconfirm its presence in one...

  10. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15223-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available |pid:none) Amazona ochrocephala belizensis is... 47 2e-04 AM749727_1( AM749727 |pid:none) Rana lessonae mito... AM749726_1( AM749726 |pid:none) Rana lessonae mitochondrial ND2 ge... 45 0.001 E... USP/LGEMA 3850... 44 0.002 AM749719_1( AM749719 |pid:none) Rana lessonae mitocho

  11. Helminthen einheimischer Froschlurche

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas, Katharina

    2010-01-01

    176 frogs of the species Rana kl. esculenta (n = 137), Rana ridibunda (n = 7), Rana temporaria (n = 19), Rana arvalis (n = 18) and Bufo bufo (n = 1) taken from 11 different habitats in the Brandenburg state and the state of Saxonia-Anhalt were dissected and helminthologically examined. One aim of this study was to show the role of indigenous frogs in the epidemiology of trematode infections of carnivorous mammals and birds more closely, and also to attain details the incidence of frogs wi...

  12. Bits and Pieces ehk kolumna / DJ Pickney Tiger

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    DJ Pickney Tiger, pseud., 1970-

    2009-01-01

    Tutvustused: XXI Sajandi Orkester. Kaheksa. Tallinn : XXI Sajandi Orkester, 2006 ; XXI Sajandi Orkester. Üheksa. Tallinn : XXI Sajandi Orkester, 2008 ; Silent Bass. Crosshatched. Germany : Laika, 2008 ; Bullfrog Brown with Steve Lury. 2009

  13. Plaadid / Tiit Kusnets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kusnets, Tiit

    2004-01-01

    Uutest plaatidest Luavrik Luavrik "Passioon & Fuuga", Arve Henriksen "Chiaroscuro", Bullfrog Brown "Mudhole Stories", "Scoonby-Doo 2", Bela fleck & Edgar Mayer "Music For Two", Christiana Milian "It's About Time"

  14. Kuula ka neid / Joosep Sang

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sang, Joosep

    2009-01-01

    Heliplaaditutvustused: Bullfrog Brown with Steve Lury. KWAQ Records, 2009; Grupa Janke Randalu. Live. [Saksamaa] : Jazz'n'Arts, 2008; Paha Polly. Ei jäägi üle muud... [Tartu] : Forward, 2008. Uutest heliplaatidest

  15. Popmuusika / Valner Valme

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Valme, Valner, 1970-

    2006-01-01

    Uutest heliplaatidest Nits "Les Nuits", Bullfrog Brown "Snakes & Devils", "Motown remixed", "The Dukes Of Hazzard", Critical "Chapter One ehk Teine Maitse", The Dandy Warhols "Odditorium Or Warlords Of Mars", Solveig Slettahjell Slow motion Quintet "Pixiedust"

  16. Variación interpoblacional y ontogenética en la dieta de la rana llorona Physalaemus albonotatus (Anura: Leiuperidae Interpopulation and ontogenetic variation in the diet of the menwig frog Physalaemus albonotatus (Anura: Leiuperidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Alejandro Falico

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó y comparó el espectro trófico de 2 poblaciones de Physalaemus albonotatus que habitan en ecosistemas diferentes: a un terreno baldío urbano y b un área protegida del valle aluvial del río Paraná Medio. La dieta de Physalaemus albonotatus está compuesta fundamentalmente de hormigas, coleópteros, colémbolos e isópodos, pero con numerosas presas secundarias. Al comparar 3 grupos etarios de los individuos en cada población (adultos, subadultos y jóvenes se encontró una variación ontogenética relacionada con el volumen, cantidad y tipo de presa ingerida. Los anfibios adultos consumieron mayor cantidad de presas y más voluminosas, pero el nicho trófico de los jóvenes fue más amplio. Entre los adultos, la similitud de la dieta entre sexos fue muy elevada, aunque las hembras consumieron más hormigas que los machos. Si bien el solapamiento trófico entre las poblaciones fue elevado, la amplitud trófica resultó mayor en la población del humedal fluvial. Las diferencias en la alimentación encontradas entre las 2 poblaciones y lo registrado en otros trabajos realizados en diferentes ambientes reflejan la plasticidad trófica de este anuro, característica que le permite prosperar en hábitats diversos, incluso en los muy antropizados.We analyzed and compared the feeding of 2 populations of Physalaemus albonotatus inhabiting different ecosystems: a an urban vacant lot, and b a protected area of Middle Paraná River floodplain. The diet of Physalaemus albonotatus is mainly composed by ants, beetles, springtails and woodlouses, but also included several secondary preys. While comparing adults, subadults and juveniles diet on each population, we found an ontogenetic diet variation related to changes in prey type and volume as well as in number of prey items per gut. Bigger frogs consumed a greater amount of prey and more voluminous arthropods, while juveniles had a larger trophic niche breadth. Despite the great similarity in diet between sexes, adult females consumed a larger amount of ants than males did. Although trophic niche overlap between both populations was high, trophic niche breadth was wider for Paraná River floodplain population. Feeding differences found between studied populations and populations inhabiting other environments as described on literature reflects the trophic plasticity of this species and its capacity to thrive at different habitats, including markedly anthropogenically impacted environments.

  17. 亚急性镉暴露对雄性黑斑蛙生殖毒性的研究%Study on the reproductive toxicity of subacute cadmium exposure in male Rana nigromaculata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾秀英; 汪美贞

    2007-01-01

    在实验条件下,将健康性成熟雄性黑斑蛙暴露于2.5、5.0、7.5和10.0mg·L-1浓度的镉溶液中14d,观察和分析黑斑蛙的精子数量、精子畸形率,测定精巢组织中酸性磷酸酶(ACP)、乳酸脱氢酶(LDH)、丙二醛(MDA)、谷胱甘肽(GSH)、超氧化歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)和谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶(GSH-Px)的水平和活力,以探讨镉对黑斑蛙的雄性生殖毒性及作用机理.结果表明:①镉可引起黑斑蛙精子数量减少和精子畸形率增加,且呈剂量-效应关系;②镉可引起精巢ACP、LDH酶活性的降低,且随染毒剂量的增加而降低;③镉可引起精巢组织MDA、GSH含量的升高,引起抗氧化酶SOD、GSH-Px活性的降低.由此推论,亚急性镉暴露对黑斑蛙精巢有明显的毒性作用,其机制与镉致黑斑蛙精巢组织标志酶活力的降低和精巢脂质过氧化作用有关.

  18. Histochemical localization of six types of enzymes in the digestive mucosa of Rana rugulosa%虎纹蛙消化道黏膜6种酶的组织化学定位

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕大成; 祝小琴; 张敏; 潘慧敏; 诸晓月; 张盛周

    2015-01-01

    目的 研究虎纹蛙消化道不同部位酸性磷酸酶(ACP)、碱性磷酸酶(ALP)、过氧化物酶(POX)、非特异性酯酶(NSE)、腺苷三磷酸酶(ATPase)、琥珀酸脱氢酶(SDH)等6种酶的活力分布.方法 消化道分8个部位取材,应用冰冻切片、石蜡切片、酶组织化学技术及光密度定量分析.结果 ACP在十二指肠活力最高,食管、贲门和直肠其次,其余各部位酶活力显著较低(P<0.05).ALP主要分布于空肠和十二指肠,胃体和幽门中几乎检测不出酶活力.POX在食管和胃体活力显著较高(P<0.05),在空肠和回肠酶活力显著较低(P<0.05).NES在消化道各部位均有较多分布,其中以胃体、幽门和十二指肠酶活力显著较高(P<0.05),食管和直肠酶活力显著较低(P<0.05).ATPase在贲门活力最高,在回肠和直肠酶活力显著较低(P<0.05).SDH在食管、胃体和直肠活力较高,在幽门酶活力显著较低(P<0.05).结论 虎纹蛙消化道黏膜各种酶的活力分布与其他动物有一定的相似性,但其与脂类消化吸收相关酶的分布显示了明显的物种特异性.

  19. Inumunohistochemical localization of two kinds of endocrine cells in digestive tract of rana rugulosa%虎纹蛙消化道两种内分泌细胞的免疫组织化学定位

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张盛周; 吴孝兵; 陈壁辉

    2002-01-01

    目的:研究虎纹蛙消化道5-羟色胺和生长抑素免疫阳性细胞的形态与分布.方法:免疫组织化学技术.结果:5-羟色胺免疫阳性细胞在消化道各段均有分布.十二脂肠密度最高,直肠其次,食道最低.生长抑素免疫阳性细胞主要分布于胃幽门部和胃体,小肠各段亦有少数分布,直肠和食道中没有.结论:虎纹蛙消化道5-HT和SS免疫阳性细胞的分布和形态特点与多种动物相似.

  20. A Study on the Activities of Amylase and Lipase in Digestive Tract of Rana rugulosa%虎纹蛙消化道淀粉酶和脂肪酶活力研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李庆; 张雪; 余昌萍; 汪娟; 余晶晶; 张盛周

    2014-01-01

    以酶学分析方法研究了虎纹蛙消化道淀粉酶和脂肪酶的分布以及pH和温度对这两种消化酶活力的影响.结果表明:在各自生理pH值条件下,虎纹蛙消化道不同部位淀粉酶活力大小顺序依次为前肠>中肠>后肠>食道>胃,胃和肠淀粉酶最适pH值分别为8.6和7.0,最适温度分别为35℃和40℃.脂肪酶活力大小顺序依次为中肠>后肠>前肠>胃>食道,各部位之间差异显著(P<0.05),胃和肠脂肪酶的最适pH值均为9.0,最适温度分别为50℃和55℃.

  1. Differences in mGnRH and cGnRH-II contents in pituitaries and discrete brain areas of Rana rugulosa W. according to age and stage of maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuanyou, L; Haoran, L

    2000-02-01

    (1) In tadpoles, chicken-II gonadotropin-releasing hormone (cGnRH-II) could be measured in the brains before metamorphosis, but mammalian gonadotropin-releasing hormone (mGnRH) did not appear until the stage of metamorphosis, i.e. cGnRH-II appeared earlier than mGnRH during ontogenesis. (2) During the metamorphic climax, mGnRH content increased more rapidly than cGnRH-II; the content of mGnRH was about two times of that of cGnRH-II. (3) In juveniles and adults, the content of mGnRH and cGnRH-II, and the distribution pattern of mGnRH (but not cGnRH-II) in the brains and pituitaries changed with age and stages of gonadal development. mGnRH mainly distributed in the rostral brain areas, whereas cGnRH-II had a widespread distribution in the brain. (4) Both mGnRH and cGnRH-II were present in the pituitaries at each stage of maturity. The gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) content at sexually maturity was significantly higher than that at other stages of gonadal development, and the content of mGnRH was about 15-18 times of that of cGnRH-II. (5) These results suggest that both mGnRH and cGnRH-II are potentially involved in the direct regulation of pituitary gonadotropes, and mGnRH may be the major active form, cGnRH-II may also serve as a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator in the brain. PMID:11790340

  2. Isolation and identification of pathogen of the cataract disease and its immunological control in Rana tigrina rugulosa%虎纹蛙白内障病病原的分离鉴定及其免疫防治

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周永灿; 朱传华; 陈国华; 苏文强; 唐泽锋

    2001-01-01

    本文报道了海南养殖虎纹蛙白内障病的病原及其免疫学防治方法.对该典型患病个体进行病原分离并鉴定表明,被分离出的病原为脑膜炎败血黄杆菌.在所实验的20种抗菌药物中,该菌只对万古霉素敏感,对头孢哌酮中度敏感,而对其他18种药物均不敏感.通过筛选该病原强毒株制备甲醛灭活疫苗,对健康虎纹蛙进行免疫接种后,可明显提高其对该病的抵抗能力,表明在生产上用免疫学方法防治该病是可行的.

  3. 环境因素对虎纹蛙胚胎发育的影响%The Influence of the Environmental Factors on the Embryonic Development of Rana tigrina rugulosa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘楚吾; 徐贺伦; 冯超源; 刘丽

    2001-01-01

    就温度、盐度、pH值及水中溶氧四个环境因素对虎纹蛙胚胎发育的影响进行了系统研究.结果表明:其适宜的孵化水温为20~30℃,在此温度范围内,随着温度的升高,胚胎发育速度加快,水温在(30±1)℃时,胚胎发育到鳃盖完成期需58.8 h,孵化率为84.2%;水温(20±0.5)℃时,需203.9 h,孵化率为89.0%;水温(25±1)℃时,需时84.0 h,孵化率最高,达94.5%.盐度对虎纹蛙胚胎发育影响很大,盐度越高,胚胎畸形率越高,且发育经历时间越长,孵化水体的盐度应在1.9以下,最适宜用淡水孵化.pH过高或过低都对胚胎发育不利,孵化水体的pH值以6.5~8.5为宜.虎纹蛙胚胎发育的不同阶段对水中溶氧量要求不同,在肌肉效应期、鳃血循环期和鳃盖完成期,水中溶氧的半致死浓度分别为0.57 mg/L、1.13 mg/L和0.40 mg/L.

  4. Cloning and Sequence Analysis of Sox Gene in Rana Rugulosa Wie gmann%虎纹蛙四个Sox基因的克隆及序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张小爱; 聂刘旺; 张海军

    2001-01-01

    参照人SRY基因HMG-box保守区的序列,设计一对兼并引物, 扩增了虎纹蛙的Sox基因,并对扩增产物进行了克隆和测序.结果在雌雄个体中共筛选出四个不同的Sox基因,其序列与人相应SOX基因的相似性分别为92%、94%、98%和98%.本研究为探索虎纹蛙的性别决定机制提供了分子资料.

  5. Studies on the Mast Cells in the Tongue of Frog (Rana tigrina rugulosa) by Histochemical and Immunohistochemical Method%虎纹蛙舌肥大细胞组化及免疫组化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林旋; 王寿昆; 林树根; 陈梅芳; 李玲玲

    2014-01-01

    应用改良甲苯胺蓝(MTB)、阿尔新蓝-藏红O(AB/SO)、甲基绿-派洛宁(MG-P)、天青Ⅱ-伊红-瑞氏混合液等4种组化染色技术进行染色,并用小鼠抗人肥大细胞类胰蛋白酶单克隆抗体AAl通过ElivisionTM免疫组化染色方法,对虎纹蛙舌头肥大细胞进行染色.结果表明:虎纹蛙舌头中的肥大细胞,大小形态不一.虎纹蛙舌组织中分布有大量肥大细胞,主要分布于固有层的结缔组织中和舌头腺体之间,肌层也可见到大量的肥大细胞,并且有沿血管分布的特点.在用ElivisionTM免疫组化染色方法中,单克隆抗体AAl与虎纹蛙舌头组织中肥大细胞中的类胰蛋白酶有良好的交叉反应.类胰蛋白酶阳性细胞数量很少,分布于舌组织固有层和腺体之间.而人胃癌间质中可见多量类胰蛋白酶阳性细胞.

  6. Effects of Dopaminergic Drugs on the Secretion of Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone and Luteinizing Hormone in Rana rugulosa%多巴胺能药物对虎纹蛙GnRH和LH分泌活动的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李远友; 林浩然

    2002-01-01

    利用在体注射实验和放射免疫测定法,研究了多巴胺能药物对性腺处于再发育期虎纹蛙的促性腺激素释放激素(GnRH)及促黄体激素(LH)分泌活动的影响.结果是:多巴胺(DA)及其激动剂阿扑吗啡(APO)可显著降低血浆LH水平;而多巴胺的拮抗剂--地欧酮(DOM)可显著增加垂体LH含量.DA对脑中cGnRH-Ⅱ的合成有抑制作用,而DOM对其mGnRH的释放有一定的刺激作用.结果表明:DA可在脑及垂体水平分别抑制虎纹蛙GnRH和LH的释放,DA对LH释放的抑制作用很可能是通过D2受体实现的.

  7. An investigation on infection of Sparganum in Rana rugulosa and observation of animal model establishment on different host%虎纹蛙感染裂头蚴的调查与动物宿主感染观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王贵燕; 王敏; 刘冠琪; 高现灵; 关小燕; 邰闪闪; 李美玉; 陈剑煌; 黄锦桃

    2014-01-01

    目的 调查虎纹蛙自然感染裂头蚴的情况,取裂头蚴感染实验鼠和家犬,为实验教学提供依据.方法 解剖虎纹蛙收集裂头蚴,将裂头蚴感染昆明鼠和BALB/c小鼠(6条/只)和SD大鼠(10条/只),对照组灌注生理盐水;60d后解剖实验动物,收集小鼠体内裂头蚴,并取裂头蚴寄生部位组织包埋切片.将虎纹蛙和鼠体内收集的裂头蚴分别感染家犬6条/只,在感染46 d后取粪便检查,感染60d后解剖家犬.结果 野生虎纹蛙自然感染率为40.63%(403/992);解剖实验组昆明鼠、BALB/c小鼠和SD大鼠肉眼可见皮下肌肉组织有弥漫性瘀血斑点和包块形成,镜下观察见裂头蚴周围有囊壁包绕,纤维组织增生;家犬粪检查到曼氏迭宫绦虫卵,解剖家犬收集到曼氏迭宫绦虫成虫.结论 广州市花都区野生虎纹蛙裂头蚴的感染率较高;昆明鼠、BALB/c小鼠和SD大鼠均可作为曼氏迭宫绦虫的转续宿主;家犬是该虫适宜的终末宿主.

  8. Influence of Erythrocyte (RBC) and Hemoglobin (Hb) in Tiger Frog Rana tigerina rugulosa Wiegmann Under of Acid Stress%酸胁迫对虎纹蛙红细胞及血红蛋白的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵晨; 施时迪; 谢建芳

    2005-01-01

    采用室内水族箱培养方法,研究了不同酸梯度对虎纹蛙(Ranatigerina rugulosaWiegmann)红细胞和血红蛋白的影响.结果表明,在pH3.5~pH5.0之间,酸胁迫对虎纹蛙的红细胞数量及血红蛋白含量具有较明显的剂量效应,其中pH3.5条件下对虎纹蛙红细胞和血红蛋白产生了较强的毒害作用,并且随着时间的推移对红细胞及血红蛋白的影响呈现逐渐加重的趋势.随着pH值的上升,其红细胞数量和血红蛋白含量也逐渐增大.pH值≥pH5.5可能是虎纹蛙较为适宜的水体环境.试验表明,酸胁迫可对虎纹蛙造成较为严重的危害,可将虎纹蛙红细胞数量和血红蛋白含量的变化作为检测水体酸污染的指标和手段.

  9. An Improved TRIzol Method to Extract Total RNA from Skin Tissue of Rana dybowskii%改良TRIzol法高效提取东北林蛙皮肤总RNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丹丹; 肖向红; 吴立舒; 柴龙会; 张晶钰; 张建平

    2012-01-01

    Our objective was to develop a method for extracting high quality total RNA from amphibian skin tissue.We extracted total RNA from the skin of Dybowski's frog using a modified traditional TRIzol method.We assayed the purity and yield of the RNA by UV spectrophotometer.We examined the integrity of the extracted RNA by 1.1%agarose gel electrophoresis.The A260/A280 ratios of RNA extracted by our modified method ranged from 1.8 to 2.1,and the A260/A230 ratios were greater than 2.Agarose gel electrophoresis showed clear 28s rRNA and 18s rRNA bands,and the brightness of 28s rRNA bands was approximately twice the 18s rRNA.We conclude that the purity and integrity of total RNA extracted by our improved TRIzol method were higher than that extracted by the traditional TRIzol method:the total RNA had fewer impurities and the yields were larger.The modified method was easier to implement and can be used in relevant molecular biology tests.%目的:建立一种从两栖动物皮肤组织中提取高质量总RNA的方法。方法:改良传统TRIzol法,提取皮肤总RNA,紫外分光光度计测定RNA纯度和得率,1.1%琼脂糖凝胶电泳检测其完整性。结果:改良方法提取的总RNA,其A260/A280值在1.8~2.1之间,A260/A230大于2;琼脂糖凝胶电泳显示清晰的28s rRNA和18s rRNA条带,且28s rRNA条带亮度约为18s rRNA的2倍。结论:改良TRIzol法提取的总RNA纯度高、完整性好、杂质少、得率大,易于操作掌握,可以用于相应的分子生物学试验。

  10. Comparative studies on microstructure of retina for Rana nigromaculata and Oryctolagus cuniculus domestica%家兔与黑斑蛙视网膜结构观察比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜珊; 郝冬海; 武珊珊; 李博

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨哺乳动物与两栖动物中家兔和黑斑蛙视网膜结构与生存环境之间关系.方法 采用常规HE 染色法及图像分析技术观察比较家兔与黑斑蛙的视网膜结构差异.结果 光镜下观察H E 染色切片,家兔与黑斑蛙视网膜自外向内均分为10 层,家兔视网膜结构与黑斑蛙比较,色素上皮层的色素颗粒明显丰富,外核层细胞较小,密度较高,内核层层数较多.结论 家兔与黑斑蛙视网膜具有与其生存环境相适应的形态结构和生理功能.

  11. AcEST: DK953904 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available attus norvegicus GN=... 365 e-101 sp|Q5JAK2|ACTG_RANLE Actin, cytoplasmic 2 OS=Rana lesson...QS8_PAGMA Beta cytoplasmic actin OS=Pagrus major PE... 365 e-99 tr|Q5JAK3|Q5JAK3_RANLE Cytoplasmic actin type 4 OS=Rana lesson

  12. Versuch, über Grenzen zu sprechen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Ein Briefwechsel zwischen Rana und liana Der folgende Briefwechsel ist auf Anregung einer Lehrerin entstanden. Rana aus dem palāstinensischen Bethlehem schrieb diesen Brief an eine imaginǎre israelische Adressatin. Der Brief gelangte durch Vermittlung der Lehrerin an die israelische Studentin liana, die in Jerusalem wohnt und sofort darauf antwortete.

  13. UTJECAJ BIOFILMA NA CIJELJENJE RANE I POSTUPAK ZA IDENTIFIKACIJU BIOFILMA U RANI

    OpenAIRE

    Škrlin, Jasenka

    2016-01-01

    Mikroorganizmi mogu postojati kako u planktonskom, tako i u stanju biofi lma. Svaki fenotip ima ulogu u zakašnjelom zacjeljivanju te uzrokuje infekcije akutnih i kroničnih rana. Međutim, virulentni biofi lm je osnovni razlog da do zacjeljivanja rana ne dolazi pravodobno. Zbog hipoteze da mikroorganizmi mogu adherirati za svaku površinu, biofilm se može naći u svim kroničnim ranama. Međutim, sam po sebi biofi lm nije najveća prepreka zacjeljivanju kroničnih rana, već njegova virulentnost i pat...

  14. Tectonic and neotectonic framwork of the Yucca Mountain region, Task 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweickert, R.A.

    1993-09-30

    Research continued on the tectonic and neotectonics of the Yucca Mountain region. Highlights from projects include: structural studies in Grapevine Mountains, Funeral Mountains, Bullfrog Hills, and Bare Mountain; development of structural models for pre-Middle Miocene normal and strike-slip faulting at Bare Mountain; Paleomagnetic analysis of Paleozoic and Cenozoic units at Bare Mountain; sampling of pegmatites in Bullfrog Hills and Funeral Mountains for U-Pb isotopic analysis; and review and analysis of Mesozoic structure between eastern sierra and Nevada test Site.

  15. Un élevage de grenouilles-taureaux aux Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardouin, J.

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Breeding of bull-frogs (Pana castebeiana in the Philippines. The importations of frogs in the European Economic Community are worth 20-40 millions ECU yearly ; Asia is the most important area of supply. Frog breeding is difficult and nearly all the trade is based on gathering in the wild. The article gives some information on a commercial frog farm near Manila in the Philippines, where the bull-frog initially imported from U.S.A. is bred. The whole production cycle is controlled. This enterprise could serve as a model for edible African species, which are much doser to our green European frogs.

  16. A natriferic principle other than arginine-vasotocin in the frog neuro hypophysis (1961)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the neurohypophysis of Rana esculenta there exists, in addition to vasotocin, an unknown active principle which accounts for approximately half of the total natriferic activity of the gland. This principle is not found in chickens. (authors)

  17. Exploratory evaluation of nutrient enrichment and frog response at Conboy Lake National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — We sampled nutrient and water quality parameters and surveyed Oregon spotted frogs (Rana pretiosa) life stages (eggs, larvae and recently metamorphosed juveniles)...

  18. Report on Oregon Spotted Frog Egg Mass Surveys 2013-2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Oregon spotted frogs (Rana pretiosa) were once common across wetlands throughout western Washington and Oregon and were found in northern California and southern...

  19. Permanent Genetic Resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 April 2010 - 31 May 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andree, K; Axtner, Jan; Bagley, M J; Barlow, E J; Beebee, T J C; Bennetzen, Jeffrey L; Bermingham, Eldredge; Boisselier-Dubayle, M C; Bozarth, Christine A; Brooks, Christopher P; Brown, R P; Catanese, Gaetano; Cavers, S; Ceron-Souza, Ivania; Chak, Solomon T C; Chan, M N; Charles-Dominique, P; Chen, C Y; Chen, J D; Chinchilla, Leah; DA Silva, D; Dafreville, S; Daunt, F; Delatte, H; Dorge, T; Duncan, N; Durand, J D; Duvernell, D; Estep, Matt; Fan, Sigang; Fattahi, R; Villela, Oscar Flores; Fong, Yokking; Fréville, H; Funes, Victoria; Gallardo-Escarate, C; Ganeshaiah, K N; Ghaffari, M R; Girod, C; Gomez-Moliner, B J; Gonzalez-Porter, Gracia P; Gosa, A; Govers, F; Guérin, F; Guindo, Diarah; Hailer, Frank; Haye, P A; Hoelmer, Kim A; Hofmann, S; Hong, Yan; Hu, Chaoqun; Huang, S W; Humeau, L; Infante, Carlos; Jackson, S A; Jacobsen, E; Jowkar, A; Kafi, M; Kermani, M J; Kim, Hyojoong; Kim, Kyung Seok; Kim, Min-Young; Knibb, W; Koita, Ousmane A; Korpelainen, H; Lambourdiere, J; Lasso, Eloisa; Leblois, R; Lee, Hang; Lee, Seunghwan; Leung, F C C; Leung, Kenneth M Y; Li, Chunhong; Li, Y; Lieckfeldt, Dietmar; Lizana, M; Loughry, W J; Luo, Peng; Madeira, M J; Mahmoodi, P; Maldonado, Jesús E; Mardi, M; Mendes, O; Miehe, G; Muth, Peter; Nacci, D; Naveen Kumar, L; Ng, Wai-Chuen; Pailler, T; Parzies, Heiko K; Perez, Laura; Pfunder, M; Pietiläinen, M; Pirseyedi, S M; Porta, D; Porta, J; Porta, J M; Quilici, S; Rakotoarivelo, F P; Ramesha, B T; Ravikanth, G; Riéra, B; Risterucci, A M; Roberts, D A; Samadi, S; Sarasola-Puente, V; Sarrazin, E; Sarthou, C; Schmidt, Anke; Segovia, N I; Shen, K N; Simiand, C; Sman, Muhammad Hidayat Bin; Solhoy, T; Sommer, Simone; Sumangala, R C; Taubert, Ramona; Tejangkura, T; Telford, A; Testa, A; Tollon-Cordet, C; Tzeng, W N; Uma Shaanker, R; Van Der Lee, T A J; VAN Mourik, Thomas A; Vasudeva, R; Wai, T C; Wang, R L; Welch, Mark E; Weltzien, Eva; Whitehead, A; Woodard, Anastasia; Xia, Jianjun; Zeinolabedini, M; Zhang, Lvping

    2010-11-01

    This article documents the addition of 396 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Anthocidaris crassispina, Aphis glycines, Argyrosomus regius, Astrocaryum sciophilum, Dasypus novemcinctus, Delomys sublineatus, Dermatemys mawii, Fundulus heteroclitus, Homalaspis plana, Jumellea rossii, Khaya senegalensis, Mugil cephalus, Neoceratitis cyanescens, Phalacrocorax aristotelis, Phytophthora infestans, Piper cordulatum, Pterocarpus indicus, Rana dalmatina, Rosa pulverulenta, Saxifraga oppositifolia, Scomber colias, Semecarpus kathalekanensis, Stichopus monotuberculatus, Striga hermonthica, Tarentola boettgeri and Thermophis baileyi. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Aphis gossypii, Sooretamys angouya, Euryoryzomys russatus, Fundulus notatus, Fundulus olivaceus, Fundulus catenatus, Fundulus majalis, Jumellea fragrans, Jumellea triquetra Jumellea recta, Jumellea stenophylla, Liza richardsonii, Piper marginatum, Piper aequale, Piper darienensis, Piper dilatatum, Rana temporaria, Rana iberica, Rana pyrenaica, Semecarpus anacardium, Semecarpus auriculata, Semecarpus travancorica, Spondias acuminata, Holigarna grahamii, Holigarna beddomii, Mangifera indica, Anacardium occidentale, Tarentola delalandii, Tarentola caboverdianus and Thermophis zhaoermii. PMID:21565124

  20. Resurrecting an Extinct Species: Archival DNA, Taxonomy, and Conservation of the Vegas Valley Leopard Frog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suggestions that the extinct Vegas Valley leopard frog (Rana fisheri = Lithobates fisheri) may have been synonymous with one of several declining species has complicated recovery planning for imperiled leopard frogs in southwestern North America. To address this concern, we recon...

  1. Соntent of the heavy metal in the organism of brown frogs of the city zone of Kiev

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Mozhanovskyi

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The content and distribution of heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu, Cr in organs and tissues of Rana temporaria and R. arvalis from biotopes near some reservoirs in the city zone of Kyiv are studied.

  2. 78 FR 60309 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Restoration of Native Species in High Elevation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    ... ecological function; (2) to prevent the extinction of two species of mountain yellow-legged frogs (Rana... native animals, plants and processes found in SEKI's aquatic ecosystems; (4) because large...

  3. Juvenile frogs compensate for small metamorph size with terrestrial growth: Overcoming the effects of larval density and insecticide exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, M.D.

    2005-01-01

    I reared four species of anurans (Rana sphenocephala [Southern Leopard Frog], Rana blairi [Plains Leopard Frog], Rana clamitans [Green Frog], and Bufo woodhousii [Woodhouse's Toad]) for seven to 12 months in small, outdoor terrestrial enclosures (1 x 2 m) to examine the consequences of larval competition (via density) and contaminant exposure (via the insecticide carbaryl). I added six Rana clamitans, eight Rana sphenocephala, eight Rana blairi, and 10 Bufo woodhousii to terrestrial enclosures shortly after metamorphosis and recaptured them during the following spring. All anurans from low-density ponds were significantly larger than those from high-density ponds, but these size differences did not significantly affect survival to or size at spring emergence. However, R. sphenocephala, R. blairi, and R. clamitans that survived to spring had been larger at metamorphosis on average than those that did not survive; in contrast, B. woodhousii that survived the winter were smaller at metamorphosis on average than those that did not survive. Carbaryl exposure affected mass at metamorphosis of R. clamitans and B. woodhousii that were added to enclosures, but this difference disappeared or did not increase by spring emergence. Overall, exposure to carbaryl during the larval period did not have any apparent effects on survival or growth during the terrestrial phase. In my study, anurans were able to offset small size at metamorphosis with terrestrial growth, although there was a trend of reduced overwinter survival for ranid species that metamorphosed at a smaller size. Copyright 2005 Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles.

  4. Folkloor bluusi sünnimaalt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    9. veebruaril tutvustavad USA folkloristid Anna Lomax Wood ja Todd Dunham Harvey Eesti Kirjandusmuuseumi saalis Tartus John A. Lomaxi (1867-1948) ja Alan Lomaxi (1915-2002) kogutud afroameerika folkloori, näidatakse dokumentaalfilmi "Land Where the Blues Began" ja esineb Emajõe deltabluesi ansambel Bullfrog Brown

  5. Prevalence of the amphibian chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) at Buenos Aires National Wildlife Refuge, Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigafus, Brent H.; Hossack, Blake R.; Muths, Erin L.; Schwalbe, Cecil R.

    2014-01-01

    Information on disease presence can be of use to natural resource managers, especially in areas supporting threatened and endangered species that occur coincidentally with species that are suspected vectors for disease. Ad hoc reports may be of limited utility (Muths et al. 2009), but a general sense of pathogen presence (or absence) can inform management directed at T&E species, especially in regions where disease is suspected to have caused population declines (Bradley et al. 2002). The Chiricahua Leopard Frog (Lithobates chiricahuensis), a species susceptible to infection by the amphibian chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, Bd) (Bradley et al. 2002), and the non-native, invasive American Bullfrog (L. catesbeianus), a suspected vector for chytridiomycosis (Schloegel et al. 2012, Gervasi et al. 2013), both occur at Buenos Aires National Wildlife Refuge (BANWR) and surrounding lands in southern Arizona. Efforts to eradicate the bullfrog from BANWR began in 1997 (Suhre, 2010). Eradication from the southern portion of BANWR was successful by 2008 but the bullfrog remains present at the Arivaca Cienega and in areas immediately adjacent to the refuge (Fig. 1). Curtailing the re-invasion of the bullfrog into BANWR will require vigilance as to ensure the health of Chiricahua Leopard Frog populations.

  6. 36 CFR 7.70 - Glen Canyon National Recreation Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Bullfrog, latitude 37°33′00″ N., longitude 110°42′45″ W. (3) Halls Crossing, latitude 37°28′10″ N... use after taking into consideration public health and safety, natural and cultural resource...

  7. 虎纹蛙蝌蚪与幼蛙肌肉蛋白质的双向电泳图谱对比分析%Comparison and Analysis of the Two-dimensional Electrophoresis Patterns Between Rana Rugulosa Tadpole and Larval Froggy Sarcous Protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    虞鹏程; 廖东江; 简少卿

    2005-01-01

    双向电泳技术是蛋白质组研究的核心技术之一,通过对虎纹蛙蝌蚪与幼蛙的肌肉进行双向电泳并对其图谱对比分析,为其今后进行蛋白质组学的研究打下基础.

  8. 虎纹蛙和大树蛙肾细胞超微结构及其与环境适应性的关系%ULTRASTRUCTURES OF THE RENAL CELLS OF RANA RUGULOSA AND POLYPEDATES DENNYSI AND THE RELATION TO THEIR HABITATS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘鸿春; 吴孝兵

    2002-01-01

    用透射电镜比较了大树蛙和虎纹蛙肾细胞的超微结构.大树蛙近曲小管上皮细胞具发达的质膜内褶迷路,虎纹蛙近曲小管上皮细胞无此结构;大树蛙远曲小管上皮细胞含丰富的质膜内褶,虎纹蛙远曲小管上皮细胞的质膜内褶较少;两种蛙的集合管上皮细胞都有质膜内褶迷路.结果表明,虎纹蛙和大树蛙之间肾细胞超微结构特征的差异是与它们不同的栖息环境和生态习性相适应的.图版1参13

  9. Uso del microhábitat por hembras grávidas de la rana de hojarasca Craugastor loki en la selva alta perennifolia de Los Tuxtlas, Veracruz, México Microhabitat use by the leaf litter frog Craugastor loki gravid females in the tropical rainforest at Los Tuxtlas, Veracruz, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Nicolás Urbina-Cardona

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Craugastor loki es la especie de anfibio más abundante en la selva alta perennifolia de Los Tuxtlas, registrándose 1 251 individuos (58% adultos durante un año de muestreo a lo largo de gran variedad de microhábitats en 6 fragmentos de selva. A pesar de que C. loki se considera una especie tolerante a la modificación del hábitat, el 71% de las hembras grávidas se encontraron en las áreas mejor conservadas. Hubo un mayor registro de hembras grávidas en el fragmento de selva continuo (473 ha, prefiriendo hábitats con una distancia mayor a 50 m del borde y suelos con cobertura y espesor de hojarasca altas, cobertura herbácea alta, humedad relativa alta, pero independientes de la distancia a los cuerpos de agua. En el presente estudio se demuestra que las hembras grávidas, un eslabón crítico para el mantenimiento de la especie, son vulnerables a la perdida de hábitat y efectos de borde. Un cambio en las zonas conservadas pudiera afectar la abundancia y estructura poblacional de C. loki, generando a futuro una peligrosa disrupción en la cadena trófica y en la estructura de las comunidades de la selva.Craugastor loki is the dominant amphibian in the Los Tuxtlas tropical rainforest. We recorded 1 251 individuals (58% adults in a sampling year within a great variety of microhabitats in 6 forest fragments. Although C. loki is considered tolerant to habitat disturbance, 71% of all gravid females were found in most highly conserved sites. Gravid females were mostly found in the largest forest fragment with continuous rainforest (473 ha, preferring habitats with distances to the edge over 50 m, soils with high leaf litter cover and depth, high understory density, high relative humidity but independent of the distance to water bodies. Gravid females, a critical element to maintain the species, are very vulnerable to habitat loss and edge effects. A change in conserved habitats may affect C. loki abundance and population structure, potentially seriously disrupting the trophic chains and community structure of the rainforest.

  10. Nuevas localidades y descripción del hábitat de la rana Lithobates johni, especie endémica en peligro de extinción New records and description of the habitat for the endangered endemic frog Lithobates johni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ismael Campos-Rodríguez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Se dan a conocer 2 localidades nuevas para Lithobates johni en el estado de Puebla, ubicadas dentro de la porción alta de la cuenca del río Tecolutla. Adicionalmente se describen las características de calidad del agua y microhábitat de las nuevas localidades de la especie.In this paper we provide 2 new records of the endemic frog Lithobates johni from the Mexican State of Puebla. These records are within the Upper Basin of Rio Tecolutla. Additionally, we describe the water quality and microhabitat of the new localities for this species.

  11. Final report on effects of environmental radiation of Kori nuclear power plant on human population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to clarify and protect the effects of environmental radiation according to the operation of Kori nuclear power plant on the human population, the base line survey for the human monitoring, human life habits, expected individual exposure dose, frequencies of chromosomal aberration, gene frequencies and karyotypes in amphibia, fauna, and radiation sensitivities in microorganisms which have been living around the power plant site were carried out. Kilchonri population which took for the human monitoring lie within a 2 km distance from the power plant site. Human monitoring, house and food characteristics, individual experience of x-ray exposures, human chromosome analysis and fauna were surveyed and expressed in numerical tables. Chromosome number obtained from the amphibia which were collected around the power plant area was as follows: Kaloula borealis 2N=30, Rana amurensis 2N=26, Rana dybouskii 2N=24, Rana rugosa 2N=26, Rana nigromaculata 2N=26, Rana plancyi 2N=26, Bombina orientalis 2N=24, Hyla arborea 2N=24, Bufo stejnegeri 2N=22, Bufo bufo 2N=22. (author)

  12. Nomenclatural notes on living and fossil amphibians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín, C.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A review of extinct and living amphibians known from fossils (Allocaudata, Anura and Caudata has revealed several cases that require nomenclatural changes in order to stabilize the taxonomy of the group. Nomenclatural changes include homonym replacements, corrections of spelling variants and authorships, name availabilities, and in particular, the proposal of new combinations. These changes will allow the incorporation of some palaeontological taxa to the current evolutionary models of relationship of modern forms based on molecular phylogenies. Rana cadurcorum for Rana plicata Filhol, 1877, Rana auscitana for Rana pygmaea Lartet, 1851, and Rana sendoa for Rana robusta Brunner, 1956. Anchylorana Taylor, 1942 is considered a new synonym of Lithobates Fitzinger, 1843. New combinations proposed are: Anaxyrus defensor for Bufo defensor Meylan, 2005; Anaxyrus hibbardi for Bufo hibbardi Taylor, 1937; Anaxyrus pliocompactilis for Bufo pliocompactilis Wilson, 1968; Anaxyrus repentinus for Bufo repentinus Tihen, 1962; Anaxyrus rexroadensis for Bufo rexroadensis Tihen, 1962; Anaxyrus spongifrons for Bufo spongifrons Tihen, 1962; Anaxyrus suspectus for Bufo suspectus Tihen, 1962; Anaxyrus tiheni for Bufo tiheni Auffenberg, 1957; Anaxyrus valentinensis for Bufo valentinensis Estes et Tihen, 1964; Ichthyosaura wintershofi for Triturus wintershofi Lunau, 1950; Incilius praevius for Bufo praevius Tihen, 1951; Lithobates bucella for Rana bucella Holman, 1965; Lithobates dubitus for Anchylorana dubita Taylor, 1942; Lithobates fayeae for Rana fayeae Taylor, 1942; Lithobates miocenicus for Rana miocenica Holman, 1965; Lithobates moorei for Anchylorana moorei Taylor, 1942; Lithobates parvissimus for Rana parvissima

  13. Rediscovery of Pelobates fuscus insubricus in the Asti Province, north-western Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Mercurio

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The amphibians of the pond complex “Stagni di Belangero” in the Po Plain, Asti Province, have been studied. The species living in the pond are Bufo bufo, Bufo viridis, Hyla intermedia, Pelobates fuscus, Rana dalmatina, Rana synklepton esculenta, Rana cf. kurtmuelleri, Triturus carnifex and Triturus vulgaris. Species composition, migration period of P. fuscus, and biometric data are provided. Relevant importance has been given to P. fuscus, since we reconfirm its presence in one of the ponds 13 years after its first finding in the area. This toad is also one of the most threatened species of amphibians in Europe and needs particular attention in order to be protected adequately.

  14. Salida de campo a Cabezón de Pisuerga (Valladolid) el 10 de junio de 1953

    OpenAIRE

    Valverde Gómez, José Antonio, 1926-2003

    2008-01-01

    Salida de campo a Cabezón de Pisuerga (Valladolid) el 10 de junio de 1953, de la que se anotaron observaciones sobre insectos: el miriápodo Julus, grillos y saltamontes (sin identificar las especies), el anfibio Pelophylax esculentus (Rana verde europea, llamada Rana sculenta o R.esculenta ridibunda por el autor), los siguientes mamíferos: Lirón (pudiendo ser Eliomys quercinus o Glis glis) y Oryctolagus cuniculus (Conejo), y las siguientes especies: Alectoris sp. (Perdiz), Anthus campestris (...

  15. Salida de campo a Laguna de Duero (Valladolid) el 19 de mayo de 1952

    OpenAIRE

    Valverde Gómez, José Antonio, 1926-2003

    2008-01-01

    Salida de campo a Laguna de Duero, en Valladolid, el 19 de mayo de 1952, de la que se anotaron observaciones sobre anidamiento, cría y alimentación de Ciconia ciconia (Cigüeña blanca). Se analizaron los contenidos estomacales de tres pollos, en los que aparecieron, entre insectos y otros elementos, los siguientes herpetos: Natrix maura (Culebra viperina, llamada Tropidonotus viperinus por el autor), Pelophylax esculentus (Rana verde europea, llamada Rana sculenta o R.esculenta ridibunda por e...

  16. Salida de campo a Ribera del Cubo (o Torre Duero, en Torrecilla de Abadesa, Valladolid) el 21 y 22 de junio de 1953

    OpenAIRE

    Valverde Gómez, José Antonio, 1926-2003

    2008-01-01

    Salida de campo a Ribera del Cubo (seguramente, sinónimo de Torre Duero, que se halla en la localidad de Torrecilla de Abadesa, Valladolid) los días 21 y 22 de junio de 1953, de la que se anotaron observaciones sobre insectos de la familia Acrididae (orden Orthoptera), los siguientes peces: Barbus sp. (Barbo) y Carassius auratus (Pez rojo), el anfibio Pelophylax esculentus (Rana verde europea, llamada Rana sculenta o R.esculenta ridibunda por el autor), los siguientes reptiles: Lagartos y lag...

  17. Electrophoretic pattern of blood serum proteins of some of the vertebrates of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electrophoretic pattern of blood serum proteins of some of the common fishes e.g. Catla catla, Cirrhina mrigala, Channa punctatus, Channa marulius, Wallago attu, Heterop-neustes fossilis; amphibia e.g., Rana tigrina, Rana cyanophlyctis, Bufo melanostictus; reptiles e.g. Varanus bengalensis, Uromastix hardwickii; birds e.g. Columba livia, Gallus domesticus, Passer domestica, Anas platyrhynchos; and mammals e.g. Homo sapiens, Mus musculus, Lepus cuniculus have been described. The mobility of proteins of blood sera has been studied over cellulose acetate paper and then a comparative pattern analysed

  18. Species Diversity and Distribution of Amphibians and Reptiles in Nature Park "Sinite Kamani" in Stara Planina Mt. (Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanimira R. Deleva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study presents briefly the species composition and distribution of the amphibians and reptiles in the Nature Park "Sinite Kamani" in Stara Planina Mnt. Bulgaria, based on a 2×2 km UTM grid. Between 2012 and 2014, we identified total 20 species (7 amphibians and 13 reptiles. We documented three new amphibian species for the region (Hyla arborea, Rana dalmatina and Rana graeca, which is discovered for the area for the first time and three species of reptiles (Testudo hermanni, Ablepharus kitaibelii and Lacerta trilienata. The contemporary conservation status for each species is presented and conservation threats and problems, specific for the park are discussed.

  19. Salida de campo a Santo Domingo de Silos, en Burgos, el 13 de septiembre de 1953

    OpenAIRE

    Valverde Gómez, José Antonio, 1926-2003

    2008-01-01

    Salida de campo a Santo Domingo de Silos, en Burgos, el 13 de septiembre de 1953, de la que se anotaron observaciones sobre los siguientes anfibios: Alytes sp. (Sapo partero), Bufo bufo (Sapo común, llamado B.vulgaris por el autor), Hyla sp. (Ranita), Lissotriton vulgaris, Rana sp. (Rana), Salamandra salamandra (Salamandra común, también llamada S.maculosa por el autor) y Triturus cristatus (Tritón crestado), los siguientes reptiles: Acanthodactylus erythrurus (Lagartija colirroja, llamada A....

  20. Salida de campo a Montejo de la Sierra (Madrid) a mediados de septiembre de 1953

    OpenAIRE

    Valverde Gómez, José Antonio, 1926-2003

    2008-01-01

    Salida de campo a Montejo de la Sierra, en Madrid, a mediados de septiembre de 1953, de la que se anotaron observaciones sobre los siguientes anfibios: Bufo bufo (Sapo común, llamado B.vulgaris por el autor) y Rana sp. (Rana), los siguientes reptiles: Natrix maura (Culebra viperina, llamada Tropidonotus viperinus por el autor) y Psammodromus sp. (Lagartija), los siguientes mamíferos: Arvicola sapidus (Rata de agua, también llamado Ratón aguadero), Martes foina (Garduña), Plecotus sp. (Orejudo...

  1. Biomimetic agent based modelling using male Frog calling behaviour as a case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Søren V.; Demazeau, Yves; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob;

    2014-01-01

    by individuals to generate their observed population behaviour. A number of existing agent-modelling frameworks are considered, but none have the ability to handle large numbers of time-dependent event-generating agents; hence the construction of a new tool, RANA. The calling behaviour of the Puerto Rican Tree...... Frog, E. coqui, is implemented as a case study for the presentation and discussion of the tool, and results from this model are presented. RANA, in its present stage of development, is shown to be able to handle the problem of modelling calling frogs, and several fruitful extensions are proposed...

  2. Tectonic and neotectonic framework of the Yucca Mountain Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweickert, R.A.

    1992-09-30

    Highlights of major research accomplishments concerned with the tectonics and neotectonics of the Yucca Mountain Region include: structural studies in Grapevine Mountains, Bullfrog Hills, and Bare Mountain; recognition of significance of pre-Middle Miocene normal and strike-slip faulting at Bare Mountain; compilation of map of quaternary faulting in Southern Amargosa Valley; and preliminary paleomagnetic analysis of Paleozoic and Cenozoic units at Bare Mountain.

  3. Developmental and Regional Patterns of GAP-43 Immunoreactivity in a Metamorphosing Brain

    OpenAIRE

    Simmons, Andrea Megela; Tanyu, Leslie H.; Horowitz, Seth S.; Chapman, Judith A.; Brown, Rebecca A.

    2008-01-01

    Growth-associated protein-43 is typically expressed at high levels in the nervous system during development. In adult animals, its expression is lower, but still observable in brain areas showing structural or functional plasticity. We examined patterns of GAP-43 immunoreactivity in the brain of the bullfrog, an animal whose nervous system undergoes considerable reorganization across metamorphic development and retains a strong capacity for plasticity in adulthood. Immunolabeling was mostly d...

  4. Damping Properties of the Hair Bundle

    OpenAIRE

    Baumgart, Johannes; Kozlov, Andrei S.; Risler, Thomas; Hudspeth, A. James

    2015-01-01

    The viscous liquid surrounding a hair bundle dissipates energy and dampens oscillations, which poses a fundamental physical challenge to the high sensitivity and sharp frequency selectivity of hearing. To identify the mechanical forces at play, we constructed a detailed finite-element model of the hair bundle. Based on data from the hair bundle of the bullfrog's sacculus, this model treats the interaction of stereocilia both with the surrounding liquid and with the liquid in the narrow gaps b...

  5. Chemical defense of the eastern newt (Notophthalmus viridescens: variation in efficiency against different consumers and in different habitats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary H Marion

    Full Text Available Amphibian secondary metabolites are well known chemically, but their ecological functions are poorly understood--even for well-studied species. For example, the eastern newt (Notophthalmus viridescens is a well known secretor of tetrodotoxin (TTX, with this compound hypothesized to facilitate this salamander's coexistence with a variety of aquatic consumers across the eastern United States. However, this assumption of chemical defense is primarily based on observational data with low replication against only a few predator types. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that N. viridescens is chemically defended against co-occurring fishes, invertebrates, and amphibian generalist predators and that this defense confers high survivorship when newts are transplanted into both fish-containing and fishless habitats. We found that adult eastern newts were unpalatable to predatory fishes (Micropterus salmoides, Lepomis macrochirus and a crayfish (Procambarus clarkii, but were readily consumed by bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus. The eggs and neonate larvae were also unpalatable to fish (L. macrochirus. Bioassay-guided fractionation confirmed that deterrence is chemical and that ecologically relevant concentrations of TTX would deter feeding. Despite predatory fishes rejecting eastern newts in laboratory assays, field experiments demonstrated that tethered newts suffered high rates of predation in fish-containing ponds. We suggest that this may be due to predation by amphibians (frogs and reptiles (turtles that co-occur with fishes rather than from fishes directly. Fishes suppress invertebrate consumers that prey on bullfrog larvae, leading to higher bullfrog densities in fish containing ponds and thus considerable consumption of newts due to bullfrog tolerance of newt chemical defenses. Amphibian chemical defenses, and consumer responses to them, may be more complex and indirect than previously appreciated.

  6. Ovid MEDLINE Instruction can be Evaluated Using a Validated Search Assessment Tool. A Review of: Rana, G. K., Bradley, D. R., Hamstra, S. J., Ross, P. T., Schumacher, R. E., Frohna, J. G., & Lypson, M. L. (2011. A validated search assessment tool: Assessing practice-based learning and improvement in a residency program. Journal of the Medical Library Association, 99(1, 77-81. doi:10.3163/1536-5050.99.1.013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Badia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To determine the construct validity of a search assessment instrument that is used to evaluate search strategies in Ovid MEDLINE. Design – Cross-sectional, cohort study. Setting – The Academic Medical Center of the University of Michigan. Subjects – All 22 first-year residents in the Department of Pediatrics in 2004 (cohort 1; 10 senior pediatric residents in 2005 (cohort 2; and 9 faculty members who taught evidence based medicine (EBM and published on EBM topics. Methods – Two methods were employed to determine whether the University of Michigan MEDLINE Search Assessment Instrument (UMMSA could show differences between searchers’ construction of a MEDLINE search strategy.The first method tested the search skills of all 22 incoming pediatrics residents (cohort 1 after they received MEDLINE training in 2004, and again upon graduation in 2007. Only 15 of these residents were tested upon graduation; seven were either no longer in the residency program, or had quickly left the institution after graduation. The search test asked study participants to read a clinical scenario, identify the search question in the scenario, and perform an Ovid MEDLINE search. Two librarians scored the blinded search strategies.The second method compared the scores of the 22 residents with the scores of ten senior residents (cohort 2 and nine faculty volunteers. Unlike the first cohort, the ten senior residents had not received any MEDLINE training. The faculty members’ search strategies were used as the gold standard comparison for scoring the search skills of the two cohorts.Main Results – The search strategy scores of the 22 first-year residents, who received training, improved from 2004 to 2007 (mean improvement: 51.7 to 78.7; t(14=5.43, PConclusion – According to the authors, “the results of this study provide evidence for the validity of an instrument to evaluate MEDLINE search strategies” (p. 81, since the instrument under investigation was able to measure improvements and differences in the search performances of the study’s participants. A validated search assessment instrument can effectively measure improvements in residents’ search skills to demonstrate training effectiveness, as well as satisfy practice-based learning competency requirements from the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education.

  7. Improved biolistic transfection of hair cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Zhao

    Full Text Available Transient transfection of hair cells has proven challenging. Here we describe modifications to the Bio-Rad Helios Gene Gun that, along with an optimized protocol, improve transfection of bullfrog, chick, and mouse hair cells. The increased penetrating power afforded by our method allowed us to transfect mouse hair cells from the basal side, through the basilar membrane; this configuration protects hair bundles from damage during the procedure. We characterized the efficiency of transfection of mouse hair cells with fluorescently-tagged actin fusion protein using both the optimized procedure and a published procedure; while the efficiency of the two methods was similar, the morphology of transfected hair cells was improved with the new procedure. In addition, using the improved method, we were able to transfect hair cells in the bullfrog sacculus and chick cochlea for the first time. We used fluorescent-protein fusions of harmonin b (USH1C and PMCA2 (ATP2B2; plasma-membrane Ca(2+-ATPase isoform 2 to examine protein distribution in hair cells. While PMCA2-EGFP localization was similar to endogenous PMCA2 detected with antibodies, high levels of harmonin-EGFP were found at stereocilia tapers in bullfrog and chick, but not mouse; by contrast, harmonin-EGFP was concentrated in stereocilia tips in mouse hair cells.

  8. Regional differences in lectin binding patterns of vestibular hair cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Richard A.; Schuff, N. R.; Bancroft, J.

    1994-01-01

    Surface glycoconjugates of hair cells and supporting cells in the vestibular endorgans of the bullfrog were identified using biotinylated lectins with different carbohydrate specificities. Lectin binding in hair cells was consistent with the presence of glucose and mannose (CON A), galactose (RCA-I), N-acetylgalactosamine (VVA), but not fucose (UEA-I) residues. Hair cells in the bullfrog sacculus, unlike those in the utriculus and semicircular canals, did not stain for N-acetylglucosamine (WGA) or N-acetylgalactosamine (VVA). By contrast, WGA and, to a lesser extent, VVA, differentially stained utricular and semicircular canal hair cells, labeling hair cells located in peripheral, but not central, regions. In mammals, WGA uniformly labeled Type 1 hair cells while labeling, as in the bullfrog, Type 2 hair cells only in peripheral regions. These regional variations were retained after enzymatic digestion. We conclude that vestibular hair cells differ in their surface glycoconjugates and that differences in lectin binding patterns can be used to identify hair cell types and to infer the epithelial origin of isolated vestibular hair cells.

  9. Wiener kernel analysis of a noise-evoked otoacoustic emission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, P; Maat, A; Wit, H P

    1997-01-01

    In one specimen of the frog species, Rana esculenta, the following were measured: (1) a spontaneous otoacoustic emission; (2) a click-evoked otoacoustic emissions; and (3) a noise evoked otoacoustic emission. From the noise evoked emission response, a first-and a second-order Wiener kernel and the f

  10. One step forward or more window-dressing? A legal analysis of the recent CSR Initiatives in the Garment Industry in Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. ter Haar; M. Keune

    2014-01-01

    The Bangladesh ready-made garment industry has recently been affected by a number of terrible accidents, with the collapse of the Rana Plaza on 24 April 2013 as the deadliest garment-factory accident ever known. Under the pressure of renewed attention to the role and responsibilities of multinationa

  11. On the parasitic fauna of two species of anurans collected from Sungai Pinang, Penang Island, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahab, A R; Andy Tan, W A; Intan, S

    2008-08-01

    A total of fifty anurans, comprising of Rana limnocharis and Bufo melanostictus were collected from Sungai Pinang, Balik Pulau, Penang. The prevalence, mean intensity and distribution of parasite species along the digestive tract were reported. Seven species of parasites were recorded. Blood parasites recovered were trypansomes and microfilariae.

  12. TEMPORAL AND SPATIAL PATTERNS OF AIRBORNE PESTICIDES IN THE ALPINE ENVIRONMENT OF A DECLINING CALIFORNIA AMPHIBIAN, THE MOUNTAIN YELLOW-LEGGED FROG

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mountain yellow-legged frog (Rana muscosa) has disappeared from most of its historic localities in the Sierra Nevada of California, and airborne pesticides from the Central Valley have been implicated as a causal agent. To determine the distribution and temporal variation of...

  13. 76 FR 45602 - Proposed Safe Harbor Agreement for California Red-Legged Frog, at Swallow Creek Ranch, San Luis...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-29

    ... Service's Safe Harbor Policy published in the Federal Register on June 17, 1999 (64 FR 32717), the Service... Fish and Wildlife Service Proposed Safe Harbor Agreement for California Red-Legged Frog, at Swallow... the Federally threatened California red-legged frog (Rana draytonii), under the Endangered Species...

  14. Spatial Patterns of Airborne Pesticides in the Alpine Habitat of a Declining California Amphibian, The Mountain Yellow-Legged Frog

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mountain yellow-legged frog complex (Rana muscosa complex) has disappeared from most of its historic localities in the Sierra Nevada of California, and airborne pesticides from the Central Valley have been implicated as a causal agent. To determine the distributions and conce...

  15. 75 FR 8733 - Least Chub and Columbia Spotted Frog Candidate Conservation Agreement With Assurances; Receipt of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-25

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Least Chub and Columbia Spotted Frog Candidate Conservation Agreement With... (CCAA) for the least chub (Iotichthys phlegethontis) and Columbia spotted frog (Rana lutreiventris..., least chub and Columbia spotted frog inhabited a variety of aquatic habitat types throughout...

  16. Spatial Patterns of Airborne Pesticides in the Alpine Habitat of a Declining Calfornia Amphibian, The Mountain Yellow-Legged Frog

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mountain yellow-legged frog complex (Rana muscosa complex) has disappeared from most of its historic localities in the Sierra Nevada of California, and airborne pesticides from the Central Valley have been implicated as a causal agent. To determine the distributions and conce...

  17. AIRBORNE PESTICIDES AND POPULATION DECLINES OF A CALIFORNIA ALPINE FROG

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mountain yellow-legged frog (Rana muscosa) has disappeared from most of its historic localities in the Sierra Nevada of California, and airborne pesticides from the Central Valley have been implicated as a causal agent. To determine the distribution and temporal variation of ...

  18. Moving beyond Boycotts: Strategies for Shared Responsibility in the Collegiate Apparel Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Scott P.

    2014-01-01

    The 2013 factory collapse at Rana Plaza in Bangladesh is a painful reminder that labor issues in the apparel industry are abundant and troubling. Catholic colleges and universities (CCUs) are confronted with the reality that many apparel manufacturers can operate in stark contrast to the vision of economic justice found in Catholic social thought…

  19. Winners and losers in the complex web of global supply chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glendon, Lee

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses how supply chain, risk and business continuity professionals can collaboratively address the consequences of increasing supply chain complexity in order to deliver both resilient and sustainable supply chains. The paper identifies the key drivers of complexity supported by recent case examples, including the equine DNA scandal and the Rana Plaza tragedy in Bangladesh. PMID:23835425

  20. Changes in dynamics processes of the muscles’ traction under influence of stress-factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Nozdrenko

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Change of fibers’ dynamic parameters of the frog Rana temporaria skeletal muscle m. tibialis traction under influence of modulated stimulation and aluminium chloride solutions was studied. At 10-4,5·10-4 and 10‑3 M·l-1 concentrations of aluminium chloride the nonlinear decrease of the muscle fibers’ traction parameters was observed.

  1. First report of freshwater leech Helobdella stagnalis (Rhyncobdellida: Glossiphoniidae as a parasite of an anuran amphibian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocco Tiberti

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors describe the first case of parasitism on anuran amphibian, Rana temporaria, by the freshwater leech Helobdella stagnalis, in a mountainous area of northwestern Italy. The presence of skin abrasions and haemorrhages attributable to leech attack discards the hypothesis of a simple phoretic relationship between leech and frog.

  2. One-tone suppression in the frog auditory nerve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, J; Jørgensen, M B

    1996-01-01

    Sixty-seven fibers of a sample of 401 in the auditory nerve of grassfrogs (Rana temporaria) showed one-tone suppression, i.e., their spontaneous activity was suppressed by tones. All fibers were afferents from the amphibian papilla with best frequencies between 100 and 400 Hz. Best suppression...

  3. Proton pump activity is required for active uptake of chloride in isolated amphibian skin exposed to freshwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Jørn; Willumsen, Niels J.; Larsen, Erik Hviid

    2002-01-01

    Net proton secretion and unidirectional chloride fluxes were measured in isolated skin of toads (Bufo bufo) and frogs (Rana esculenta) mounted in an Ussing chamber and exposed to a Ringer's solution on the serosal side and a freshwater-like solution (1-3 mM Cl-) on the external side. Active proto...

  4. Amphibians in Western Asturia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenstra, Geert

    1982-01-01

    In the spring of 1980, from the end of March till in July, I visited the eastern part of the Spanish province of Oviedo and the adjacent part of the province of Leon. The main subject of investigation during this period was the species Rana temporaria (Veenstra 1981). I tried to find out where this

  5. Constructed Wetlands for freshwater and saline aquaculture wastewater treatment: a microcosm experience

    OpenAIRE

    Jesus, J. M.; Borges, M. T.; Calheiros, Cristina S. C.; Castro, Paula M. L.

    2012-01-01

    Poster presentation published at page 185 The aquaculture industry discharges large volumes of nutrient rich wastewater, contributing to eutrophication events. Recent culture intensification methodologies such as recirculation (RAS) and shallow raceway (SRS) systems discharge wastewater with even higher nutrient concentrations, though at lower volumes (Rana et al., 2005). Hence, efluent treatment options are of vital importance. Constructed wetlands (CWs) are a possible but ...

  6. Pesticides and Population Declines of California Alpine Frogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airborne pesticides from the Central Valley of California have been implicated as a cause for population declines of several amphibian species, with the strongest evidence for the mountain yellow-legged frog complex (Rana muscosa and R. sierrae) in the Sierra Nevada. We measured ...

  7. Airborne Pesticides as an Unlikely Cause for Population Declines of Alpine Frogs in the Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airborne pesticides from the Central Valley of California have been implicated as a cause for population declines of several amphibian species, with the strongest evidence for the mountain yellow-legged frog complex (Rana muscosa and R. sierrae) in the Sierra Nevada. We measured...

  8. Dissecting the frog inner ear with Gaussian noise .1. Application of high-order Wiener-kernel analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanDijk, P; Wit, HP; Segenhout, JM

    1997-01-01

    Wiener kernel analysis was used to characterize the auditory pathway from tympanic membrane to single primary auditory nerve fibers in the European edible frog, Rana esculenta. Nerve fiber signals were recorded in response to white Gaussian noise. By cross-correlating the noise stimulus and the nerv

  9. Dissecting the frog inner ear with Gaussian noise .2. Temperature dependence of inner ear function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanDijk, P; Wit, HP; Segenhout, JM

    1997-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the response of single primary auditory nerve fibers (n = 31) was investigated in the European edible frog, Rana esculenta (seven ears). Nerve fiber responses were analyzed with Wiener kernel analysis and polynomial correlation. The responses were described with a casca

  10. Effects of an Awareness Raising Campaign on Intention and Behavioural Determinants for Handwashing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seimetz, E.; Kumar, S.; Mosler, H.-J.

    2016-01-01

    This article assesses the effectiveness of The Great WASH Yatra handwashing awareness raising campaign in India on changing visitors' intention to wash hands with soap after using the toilet and the underlying behavioural determinants. Interviews based on the RANAS (Risk, Attitudes, Norms, Abilities, Self-regulation) model of behaviour change were…

  11. Strategies for local level planned development in Nepal: An evaluation of the decentralization act 1982 from the local perspective.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paudyal, D.P.

    1994-01-01

    The difficult mountain terrain combined with a poor communication network posed serious problems in planing and monitoring rural development activities when development programmes were started by the newly created and Kathmandu based Ministries and Departments, after the over-throw of the Rana Oliga

  12. Mitochondria in biology and medicine--2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Claus Desler; Rasmussen, Lene Juel

    2014-01-01

    as biomarkers for the diseases and most important, it opens the possibility of a treatment or a cure for a disease. "Mitochondria in Biology and Medicine" was the title of the second annual conference of Society of Mitochondrial Research and Medicine-India. The conference was organized by Rana P. Singh, Keshav...

  13. Contractual Control in the Supply Chain. On Corporate Social Responsibility, Codes of Conduct, Contracts and (Avoiding) Liability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vytopil, A.L.

    2015-01-01

    This research addresses a number of questions that have been raised in the wake of the Rana Plaza factory collapse. It focuses on the extent of the legal responsibility and liability for CSR violations in the supply chains of MNCs in the Netherlands, England and California (United States). Many MNCs

  14. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U00933-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Y272628 |pid:none) Rana lessonae cytoplasmic actin ty... 51 1e-05 BC072097_1( BC0...eta... 51 1e-05 AY222742_1( AY222742 |pid:none) Danio rerio actin mRNA, complete c... 51 1e-05 AY272628_1( A

  15. Winners and losers in the complex web of global supply chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glendon, Lee

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses how supply chain, risk and business continuity professionals can collaboratively address the consequences of increasing supply chain complexity in order to deliver both resilient and sustainable supply chains. The paper identifies the key drivers of complexity supported by recent case examples, including the equine DNA scandal and the Rana Plaza tragedy in Bangladesh.

  16. New Host and Distribution Records of the Leech Placobdella sophieaeOceguera-Figueroa et al., 2010 (Hirudinida: Glossiphoniidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, William E.; Bowerman, Jay; Hovingh, Peter; Pearl, Christopher A.; Oceguera-Figueroa, Alajandro

    2014-01-01

    Placobdella sophieae Oceguera-Figueroa et al., 2010 (Hirudinida: Glossiphoniidae) is reported from Oregon, California, and British Columbia for the first time. New hosts reported for P. sophieae include Taricha granulosa (rough-skinned newt), Rana pretiosa (Oregon spotted frog), and Anaxyrus boreas (western toad). Placobdella sophieae exhibits relatively low host specificity and all amphibians occurring in the Pacific Northwest are potential hosts.

  17. First report of freshwater leech Helobdella stagnalis (Rhyncobdellida: Glossiphoniidae) as a parasite of an anuran amphibian

    OpenAIRE

    Rocco Tiberti; Augusto Gentilli

    2010-01-01

    The authors describe the first case of parasitism on anuran amphibian, Rana temporaria, by the freshwater leech Helobdella stagnalis, in a mountainous area of northwestern Italy. The presence of skin abrasions and haemorrhages attributable to leech attack discards the hypothesis of a simple phoretic relationship between leech and frog.

  18. Characterization of pars intermedia connections in amphibians by biocytin tract tracing and immunofluorescence aided by confocal microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, K; Fabro, C; Artero, C; Feuilloley, M; Vaudry, H; Fasolo, A; Franzoni, MF

    1997-01-01

    Biocytin, recently introduced in neuroanatomical studies, was used as a retrograde tract tracer in combination with immunofluorescence in order to analyse the neurochemical characters of some central neuronal projections to the pars intermedia in two amphibian species, the anuran Rana esculenta and

  19. Compte rendu de la Commission Mixte Tuniso-Belge Septembre 1991, secteur agricole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pétry, M.

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Report of the Tunisian-Belgian Joint Commission. September 1991. The importations of frogs in the European Economic Community are worth 20-40 millions ECU yearly ; Asia is the most important area of supply. Frog breeding is difficult and nearly all the trade is based on gathering in the wild. The article gives some information on a commercial frog farm near Manila in the Philippines, where the bull-frog initially imported from U.S.A. is bred. The whole production cycle is controlled. This enterprise could serve as a model for edible African species, which are much doser to our green European frogs.

  20. Ghrelin receptor in Japanese fire belly newt, Cynops pyrrhogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiya, Hiroyuki; Kangawa, Kenji; Miyazato, Mikiya

    2015-11-01

    We identified cDNA encoding a functional ghrelin receptor (growth hormone secretagogue-receptor 1a (GHS-R1a)) in a urodele amphibian, the Japanese fire belly newt (Cynops pyrrhogaster). Two functional receptor proteins, composed of 378- and 362-amino acids, were deduced from the identified cDNA because two candidate initiation methionine sites were found. The long-chain receptor protein shared 80%, 69%, and 59% identities with the bullfrog GHS-R1a, human GHS-R1a and tilapia GHS-R1a-like receptor, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that the newt receptor is grouped to the clade of the tetrapod homologs, and very closed to anuran amphibians. In functional analyses, homologous newt ghrelin, heterologous bullfrog and rat ghrelin, and a GHS-R1a agonist, GHRP-6 increased intracellular Ca(2+) concentration in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells stably expressed newt GHS-R1a. The responsiveness was much greater in the short-chain receptor than in the long-chain receptor. Both receptors preferred to bind Ser(3)-ghrelin including newt and rat ghrelin than Thr(3)-ghrelin with bullfrog ghrelin. GHRP-6 has a similar affinity to bullfrog ghrelin. GHS-R1a mRNA was expressed in the brain, pituitary, intestine, pancreas, testis and fat body with high level, and eyes, heart, stomach, liver, gall bladder, kidney and dorsal skin with low level. In a fasting experiment, gene expression of GHS-R1a in the brain and pituitary increased 4days after fasting, and the increased level decreased to the initial level 2weeks after fasting. These changes are consistent with the change in ghrelin mRNA. In contrast, expression of ghrelin and GHS-R1a mRNA in the stomach decreased on day 4 after fasting, and increased 2weeks after fasting. These results indicate that ghrelin and its receptor system are present and altered by energy states in this newt. PMID:26172570